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72.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №7 2012

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2012
Journal of Siberian Federal University
5 (7)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г.Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Irina S. Dobryaeva
The Language Situation in Modern Australia
– 907 –
Elena B. Grishaeva
Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and
Polycultural Society Studies
– 916 –
Diana T. Khaibullina
Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
– 923 –
Veronica A. Razumovskaya and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky
Modern Tendencies of Language Policy and Language Planning
in Russia and China: Comparative Study
– 927 –
Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya
The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph
as the Culture’s Cognitive Memory
– 935 –
Boris V. Tarev
Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects
– 944 –
Olga F. Neskryabina
Ethnic Consciousness:
Ethnoidentity
Personal
Sense
and
Signs
of
– 951 –
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
Sergey I. Shelonaev
Integrated Model of Media Space
– 958 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Sergey M. Geraschenko
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Khasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgeniya V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Vladimir I. Suprun
Liudmila V. Kulikova
Olga G. Smolyaninova
Nicolai N. Petro
Andrey B. Shalimov
Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute
– 970 –
Vladimir I. Kirko,
Galina I. Popodko and Roman D. Goloushkin
The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open
Innovation for the Involvement of Potential of a Closed City in
the Innovative Development of the Region
– 978 –
Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova,
Vladimir S. Luzan, Alexandra A. Semenova,
Ekaterina A. Sertakova and Natalia A. Bakhova
Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness of
Indigenous Peoples Under Conditions of External Civilization
Pressure (by an Example of the Yakut Ethnic Group)
– 988 –
Pavel V. Klachkov
Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of
Terrorists Groups
– 1005 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Olga V. Korobeynikova
The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday
Political Discourse
– 1015 –
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban
Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities for Civil Society
– 1022 –
Darima D. Amogolonova and Andrei V. Simonov
Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX
Centuries
– 1028 –
Dmitry O. Trufanov
Social Rationality: the Problem of Definitions
– 1036 –
Natalia M. Vostrikova
Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for
Upgrading University Lecture Course of Chemistry
– 1046 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 907-915
~~~
УДК 81’27 (94)
The Language Situation in Modern Australia
Irina S. Dobryaeva*
Siberian Federal University
82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 11.01.2012, accepted 16.02.2012
In the article the language situation in modern Australia is analyzed from the points of the components, functional distribution of socio-communicative functions between its systems and subsystems
and also the factors that formed this situation and are influencing it at present. The English language (Australian English) is found to dominate in the exoglossic aspect while its codified variety
(mAusE) is found to dominate in the endoglossic aspect of the language situation, the consequences
of this domination for Aboriginal and migrant languages and Australian English itself are studied.
The two aspects of the language situation in modern Australia: exoglossic and endoglossic – are
found to be isomorphic.
Keywords: language situation, exoglossic, endoglossic, language policy, non-balanced, multiculturalism, bilingualism, macro-mediator, micro-mediator, language habitat, migration, multiethnic
communities, LOTEs, Aboriginal languages, mAusE, AusE, exonormative, endonormative, supradialect koine, lingua franca, dialectisms, ethnolects, sociolects, polycentric, epicenter.
Introduction
There is no denying the fact that modern era
is the age of global communication, interaction
and mobility. It is also the age of global English –
Globish.
The societies and communities are
increasingly becoming multiethnic due to
migration. But does this mean they are becoming
multilingual and multicultural?
With the help of studying the language
situation in Australia, which is traditionally
viewed as a multilingual and multicultural
society, we are trying to analyze the
phenomenon of Australian multilinguisity and
multiculturalism through studying the modes
and types of interaction of migrant languages
*
1
and cultures with the English language in the
language habitat of Australia.
Definitions
The defi nitions of a language situation
given by different researches (A. D. Shveitser,
L.B. Nikolsky, Ch. Ferguson, G.P. Neshimenko
etc.) vary in the set of criteria employed
by the linguists. The defi nition given by
A. D. Shveitser combines most of these
criteria and in our research we rely on this
defi nition: “Language situation is a model
of social and functional distribution and
hierarchy of socio-communicative systems and
subsystems which coexist and interact within
a politico-administrative unit or cultural
Corresponding author E-mail address: irena_do@rambler.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia
habitat in a certain period of time, and also
social attitudes of members of these language
groups (communities) towards these systems and
subsystems.” (Shveitser, 1978: 85)
This definition, like most of the others,
distinguishes two aspects of a language situation:
the internal differentiation of one and the same
language (“the system of subsystems”) and the
interaction of different languages (“language
systems”) operating in one society. Depending
on the type of the society: monolingual or
multilingual, the former or the latter aspect comes
to prominence.
The language situation in a monolingual
society can be defined as a system of functionally
distributed forms of existence of one language
(“the system of subsystems”), correlating with
the continuum of language communication.
According to L. B. Nickolsky’s classification of
language situations, such language situations
are called endoglossic. (Nickolsky, 1976: 80-88,
cited from Shveitser)
The language situation in a multilingual
society is a similar system, in which different
languages
are
functionally
distributed.
Such language situations are classified by
L.B. Nickolsky as exoglossic. (ibid)
The word “hierarchy” in A. D. Shveitser’s
definition correlates with L. B. Nicolsky’s
classification, in which he defines language
situations with functionally equal systems as
balanced, and those with functionally unequal
systems as non-balanced.
In his theory of the language situations
G.V. Stepanov distinguishes a “language state”
and “language situation”. The “language
state” ” is a paradigm of different varieties of
the same language which form the functional
system of this language: dialects, a codified
language, national varieties. The elements of
this paradigm can either interact or function
independently. The language situation is defi ned
by G.V. Stepanov as interaction of different
parts of a language paradigm i.e. a syntagmatic
aspect of relationship of a language paradigm.
(Stepanov, 1976:30-31)
In A.D.Shveitser’s definition, as well as in
the definition of Ch.Ferguson and in some other
definitions, the language situation is connected
with a synchronous state, or a “certain period of
time”, and is sometimes treated as a static and
isolated phenomenon.
But this doesn’t mean that a language
situation is something isolated. In the words of
L. B. Nickolsky :” The interaction of functionally
different languages changes in the course of time
under the influence of the society and the language
policy. This process can be segmented into a
number of stages, each of which can be called ‘a
language situation’“(Nickolsky, 1976:126).
So, the language situation is the result of
some linguistic as well as extralinguistic factors
and is “determined by such factors as: linguistic,
historical, cultural, demographic, geographic,
economic, social and political (mostly language
policy) “(Guboglo, 1973:231)
Of all the factors mentioned above, we
consider language policy to be the key factor,
forming a language situation. M. Usseler defines
language policy as “the measures of state and
social institutions concerning the social status of
a language as a means of communication, which
include social evaluation of a language as a means
of communication and also steps to form national
languages”. (Usseler, 1987: 196)
Language policy in a multinational country
is particularly complicated because it should
consider such factors as a large number of
languages and nationalities present and the types
of relationships between them and also the role of
different languages and their speakers in social
life. We base our research on the detailed and
thorough analysis of language policy in Australia
by E.B. Grishaeva. (Grishaeva, 2005)
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Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia
The exoglossic aspect
of the language situation
in modern Australia
Australia is a multiethnic state and defines
itself as a nation of migrants and a multilingual
and multicultural country.
The modern language situation in Australia
is a result of historical development of Australia
and it stems from the early period of colonization
and formation of the Australian nation. The
English language was transported to Australia
at the end of 18th century when the first penal
colony was established in port Jackson (modern
Sydney).
Before the arrival of the British, Australia
was a multinational and multilingual society
which had around 250 different (and mutually
incomprehensible) tribal languages, whose
speakers could not understand each other. The
language habitat of early Australia was not
hierarchical; all its languages had equal status.
Therefore, it can be said that the language
situation in early Australia was exoglossic
balanced. All the languages had equal
demographic and communicative capacity.
The lack of a lingua franca, a language
of intertribal communication, resulted in the
inability of the separated indigenous (tribal)
languages to oppose the power of the invading
English language, which not only destroyed the
balance of the traditional language habitat, but
also forced most of the Aboriginal languages
out of this habitat. Nowadays there are only 120
Aboriginal languages left, which have limited
social functions of local or household languages.
But there are not only Aboriginal languages
and the English language in the language habitat
of Australia. There are also numerous migrant
languages there.
It should be noted, that Australia has
always been a migrant country (migration has
consistently been part of Australian history).
The first migrants were free settles from Britain.
Among the first non-English-speaking migrants
were Germans, who formed the largest nonEnglish speaking community in 19th century. The
second largest group of migrants was Italians,
who started to arrive to Australia at the end of
19th century. Asian migration was banned during
the policy of “White Australia”, but after the
abolition of this policy the country started to
accept considerable numbers of Asian migrants
as well. All in all, as a result of a constant influx
of migrants from non-English speaking countries,
the language ecology of Australia was enriched
by some 200 migrant languages. They are known
as LOTEs-Languages other than English.
So far we can witness more than 300
hundred languages present in Australia. Besides
the English language, 120 Aboriginal languages
and 200 LOTEs there are some early pidgins in
the language habitat of modern Australia, which
developed simultaneously with the Australian
English: Norfolk (or Pitkern) and Cape Barren
English. So, we can classify the language
situation as exoglossic. But in contrast to the early
Australian society, in modern Australia these
numerous languages do not have the equal status.
Having forced away the Aboriginal languages,
English came to dominance in Australia.
The migrants arriving to Australia were
strongly influenced by Australian surroundings
and were supposed and expected to become part of
the Australian society. The policy of assimilation
demanded that migrants should accept the values
of the host culture and study the English language
as the most important part of acculturation. The
knowledge of English was the necessary condition
of integration of an individual into the Australian
society.
The domination of English the modern
Australian society is reflected in its official
status – it dominates in government, political
administration, official papers and education.
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Besides that more than 90% of 22 mln population
of Australia speak English either as their first or
second language.
The domination of English is also
reflected in its socio-communicative role of a
language – macro-mediator: it is the language
of intergroup, intercommunity and international
communication, catering for all the groups of a
multilingual society.
The languages of migrant communities
(LOTEs), like Aboriginal languages, have the
functional status of local (household or “island”)
languages, or languages-micro-mediators. Such
languages are functionally limited; their role can
be compared to the role of dialects. The speakers of
such languages are, as a rule, bilingual, speaking
their native languages at home and switching to
a codified form of the national language in other
social situations. This type of bilingualism is
known as subordinate bilingualism.
According to J. Fishman, the transition from
compound bilingualism, i.e. the bilingualism,
where contacting languages are functionally
interdependent (the English language is
based on one’s native language) towards
coordinative bilingualism, where languages
function independently and again to compound
bilingualism, when English begins to dominate
in all spheres (and it is the native language that is
based on English) takes place within the process
of assimilation of 2-3 generations of migrants.
Compound bilingualism is a complicated
socio-communicative system in which some cells
of the functional matrix are filled with English,
the others with the native ethnic language.
(J. Fishman, 1972:115-116, cited from Shveitser,
1983:43)
So, the general tendency of the English
languages forcing out indigenous and ethnic
languages and gaining the dominant role is the
important aspect of the language situation in
modern Australia.
The domination of English is reflected in both
objective and subjective aspects of the language
situation in modern Australia. While the objective
aspects includes the parameters characterizing
language systems and the relationships between
these systems, the subjective one is connected
with the social prestige of the coexisting systems
and with social values of the speakers (“social
attitudes of members of these language groups
(communities) towards these systems and
subsystems.”)
The tendency of forcing out of minority
languages is accompanied by low language loyalty
combined with the low status of native languages
and high status of the English language in ethnic
communities. To characterize this situation
J. Fishman applies the term of Ch. Ferguson
“diglossia”, which the author initially used to
characterize endoglossic language situations,
in which “there is a socially justified and
culturally meaningful functional differentiation”
of the codes, used in the society, i.e. there is an
agreement that one variety has a “high” status, the
other – “low” status. As a rule in such situations
there is a functional division between these two
varieties: “high” is used for “public”, “formal”
situations and is often recognized as the official
language of the state. This variety has more
complex and conservative linguistic features,
than “low” variety. The “low” variety is, in
contrast, characterized by an “unofficial” status,
household usage, changeable and “simplified”
structure and is limited to oral communication.
(Bell, 1980:175)
At the same time J. Fishman notes the opposite
tendency – the prestige of native languages in
migrant communities is growing as the spheres of
its functional usage are being limited. J. Fishman
calls this phenomenon “the prestige halo”. It
should be noted that this increased prestige is not
backed by the increased usage of these languages.
So, it is a kind of inverse proportion between
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the intensity of the use of the native language
and the positive attitude towards it. This fact
proves that there is no direct connection between
the objective and the subjective aspects of the
language situation. (Fishman, 1972, cited from
Shveitser, 1983:46-47).
Despite the fact that Australia is a
multiethnic society, the idea of introduction of
the second official language was not supported
by the population fearing that an attempt to
proclaim one of the numerous LOTEs as the
second official language could lead to the split
of the society into ethnic and language groups.
(Grishaeva, 2005)
The modern language policy in Australia
is aimed at integration of migrants into the
Australian society. Among the main principles of
this policy are the following:
• supporting Aboriginal languages and
LOTEs
• providing the services in LOTEs
• providing the opportunities for studying
LOTEs
In accordance with these principles, local
governments in Australia pay a great attention
to the languages of the ethnic communities and
provide the services and information in different
languages. There exists the Buro of registration
for interpreters and translators and an extensive
infrastructure of telephone and court interpreting
and translation services for non-English speaking
population. The languages recommended for
studying at schools include: standard Chinese,
Indonesian, Arabic and Spanish. (ibid)
So, the language situation in modern
Australia can be characterized as exoglossic
non-balanced, because only one of more than
300 languages present, dominates – the English
language. Of all Australian languages, English has
the highest demographic and functional capacity
and it is the language – macro-mediator with the
highest social status. This domination of English
is leading to aboriginal and migrant languages
dwindling away from the social spheres despite
the support of the government.
The Endoglossic Aspect
of the Language Situation
in Modern Australia
Describing the exoglossic aspect of the
language situation in modern Australia, we
treated the English language as a homogeneous
phenomenon. But the English language in
Australia, catering for all the groups of its
multiethnic society, is not at all homogenous.
Therefore, the language situation in modern
Australia is not limited to the exoglossic aspect,
but it is characterized by the combination of
exoglossic and endoglossic relationships between
the language systems and subsystems forming
this language situation.
The History
of Australian English
The English language was transported to
Australia at the end of 18th century when the first
penal colony was established in port Jackson
(modern Sydney).
In the period of colonization of Australia
the formation of the national English language
had already been completed. The Standard
British English – the national variety of the
English language functioned as an supradialect
communication system in England and had a
high social prestige while local dialects got low
social status.
Being a transported language, at first,
English in Australia was exonormative – it had
an outside standard: the British English. The
influence of a Standard British English and its
codified norms was huge.
Australian English was called “corrupt
English” and had a low status due to the features
of south English and Irish dialects. These very
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dialectal aberrations formed the core of the
Australian variety of the English language.
The recognition of the equal status of the
Australian English did not come quickly. The
inferiority was sustained with the help of the
system of education which was rather conservative
and British norms-oriented.
The negative attitude lasted till S.Baker’s
publication of “The Australian language”
and G. Mitchell’s publication “The English in
Australia” in 1944. Both linguists claimed that the
codified variety of Australian English (or, in the
terms of G.Leitner – the mainstream Australian
English (mAusE) had the right to differ from
the British norm and needed description and
judgment from the inside, not the outside. And
yet as far as the 1970s Australian English was
still exonormative.
But the transition to the Australian norms
was imminent. As soon as the first edition of the
Macquarie dictionary (part of the Macquarie
project) was issued in 1981, it became an authority
not only in lexical and grammar usage of words,
but also in pronunciation. So, by the end of the
1980s mAusE became the official language of the
Australian society.
Modern Australian English is endonormative,
i.e. it has its own standard and norms, and it is an
epicenter of the English language in Asia-Pacific
region. (Leitner, 2004)
The Internal Structure
of Australian English
Codified Australian English (mAusE) is
the official national language and as such it has
dialects of its own. On the whole, Australian
English does not have the same degree of dialect
variety as British English. Moreover, Australia
was traditionally considered as lacking dialects
and regional varieties. This was accounted
for by the fact that in Australia people lived
in the conditions which demanded or, at least,
encouraged assimilation. Despite the fact that
early settlers were the speakers of English and
Irish dialects, the language situation in colonial
Australia did not encourage the preservation
of these dialect differences. On the contrary,
accepting various migrant waves, the country
was in need of an overdialect koine to help the
communication on the continent. The codified
variety of Australian English became such
overdialect koine.
There have traditionally been distinguished
three social accents in Australian English: Broad,
General and Cultivated. They were distinguished
by S. Baker in 1945 and A.G. Mitchell and
A. Delbridge in 1965. Nowadays, B. M. Horvarth
adds two more accents: Ethnic Broad and
Accented. Her statistic analysis shows that
according to the articulation of vowels there
is a core – Cultivated, General and Broad and
a periphery – Ethnic Broad and Accented. The
speakers of periphery accents are Greeks or
Italians: two thirds of Greeks speak with Accented
(sociolect 1) and two thirds of Italians with Ethnic
Broad (sociolect 2) (Leitner, 2004:230-231).
Grammar and stylistics are quite unified
throughout the country. As for the lexis, a survey
in regional usage in the lexicon of Australian
English, carried out by P. Bryant, found clearly
defined usage regions (or dialect zones) in
Australia, namely:
1. South-west (southern part of Western
Australia)
2. South-Centre (Southern Australia and
Eastern Victoria)
3. South-East (Victoria, Tasmania, Riverina,
south New Wales, part of Southern
Australia)
4. North-East (Queensland and New South
Wales)
According to her findings, dialectisms are
limited to several onomaseological domains, such
as: food, household utensils, countryside, birds
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and plants while there are much less dialectisms
in topography, business and weather. (Leitner,
2004: 254-255)
So, mAusE plays the role of the national
language, has some dialectal differences and it is
a codified variety of Australian English.
Varieties of Australian English
According to G. Leitner, besides mAusE,
there are other varieties of Australian English
which include: Aboriginal English, English as a
lingua franca and ethnical varieties of Australian
English. They form the paradigm of Australian
English (AusE).
Aboriginal English is also called a
dialect or ethnolect of AusE. Before the arrival
of the British, Australia was a multinational
and multilingual society with more than 250
different languages, which were mutually
incomprehensible to their speakers. Besides
that, there was no language of intertribal
communication, a lingua franca. Nowadays
Aboriginal English is the main means of
communication of Australian Aborigines
(indigenous population), and according to many
specialists, today it is the means of expressing
Aboriginal identity. (Kirkpatrick, 2004: 70).
English as a lingua franca is used for
communication in mixed ethnical communities.
Although Australia is a multilingual society,
Australians are mainly monolingual or at best
bilingual, speaking their native language and
English.
Ethnic variants of English are called
sociolects, e.g. Italian English or Greek English.
They have the features of phonetics, lexis and
even grammar structures of migrant languages
and have quite a low social status. They are
usually the variants of English spoken by the first
generations of migrants.
Therefore, AusE, being a primary national
variety of the polycentric English language,
is itself polycentric in the language habitat of
Australia.
As for the functional distribution of the
elements of the endoglossic paradigm, we can say
that mAusE as the language of the mainstream
society, the language of government, political
administration, official papers and education,
dominates over the other varieties of AusE,
which are limited to local and household usage. It
has high social prestige and has a more developed
structure.
Thus, the endoglossic aspect of the language
situation in modern Australia is isomorphic to its
exoglossic aspect. They are both polycomponent
non-balanced. The combination of sociofunctional distribution and the hierarchy of sociocommunicative subsystems in the endoglossic
aspect form the Australian national variety of the
English language.
Similarly to Australian language dominating
in exoglossic situation, mAusE dominates in the
endoglossic one.
mAuSe has the same relations with the
“substandard” subsystem which normally exist
between the standard language and dialects
within the national language. mAusE is also
multifunctional, performing all the social
functions typical of the national language (it is
the official language, the language of culture,
science and mass media) while its “substandard”
variants , its social and regional dialects are, as a
rule, monofunctional. They are used in a limited
range of social situations, household interaction
and some professional spheres.
Conclusion
Our research shows that the language situation
in modern Australia is a complex interaction of
the systems and subsystems of its exoglossic and
endoglossic aspects, which are isomorphic to each
other, both being polycomponent non-balanced.
English in Australia has the same dominating
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Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia
role it has all over the world. Australian English
dominates over more that 300 languages in the
language habitat of modern Australia, its codified
variant – mAusE – being recognized as the official
language of the country (and the only one).
Due to its role as the official language and
high social prestige, the English language is
willingly accepted as a means of international
communication (lingua franca) in multiethnic
communities thus blurring the language and
cultural distinctions and leading to levelling of
cultures and their unification, the vehicle for this
levelling being the English language – Australian
English.
Being the primary national variety of the
polycentric English language, Australian English
is polycentric in the language habitat of modern
Australia. This pluricentricity seems to be a
compensation for forcing Aboriginal and migrant
languages out of the language habitat of Australia.
It seems to provide the means for expressing
of ethnic identity for indigenous people and
migrants through ethnolects and sociolects of
Australian English.
References
B.M. Alpatov, 150 languages and politics (Moscow: Kraft: IV.RAN, 2000) (In Russian).
R.T. Bell, Sociolinguistics: aims, methods, problems (Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya
Publishers, 1980) (In Russian).
D. Crystal, English in a globalizing world (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
E.B. Grishaeva, Multiculturalism and language policy in Australia (Krasnoyarsk State University,
Krasnoyarsk, 2005) (In Russian).
M.N. Guboglo, Ethnolinguistic contacts and bilingualism: Social and national (Moscow: Nauka
Publishers, 1973) (In Russian).
A. Kirkpatrick, World Englishes (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Languages in a globalizing world (Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Language situation and the interaction of languages (Kiev: Naukova Dumka Publishers, 1989)
(In Russian).
Liguistic encyclopaedic dictionary. Ch. ed. Yartseva V.N. (Moscow: Nauka, Publishing house
“Big Russian Encyclopaedia”, 2003) (In Russian).
G. Leitner, Australia’s many voices: Australian English – The National Language (Mouton de
Gruyter, 2004).
G. Leitner, Global English: from Anglo-Saxon dialect to global lingua franca
(In German).
G.P. Neschimenko, Language situation in Slavic countries (Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 2003)
(In Russian).
L.B. Nickolsky, The study of the language situation as applied language discipline : Historicopholisophical studies (Мoscow: Nauka Publishers, 1967), p.125-127 (In Russian).
L.B. Nickolsky, Language in politics. (Мoscow: Nauka Publishers, 1986) (In Russian).
Social linguistics and social practice. (Kiev: Vischa shkola, 1978) (In Russian).
A.D. Shveitser, L.B. Nickolsky, Introduction into sociolinguistics (Moscow: Vysshaya shkola
Publishers, 1978) (In Russian).
A.D. Shveitser, Social differentiation of the English language in the USA (Moscow: Nauka
Publishers, 1983) (In Russian).
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Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia
G.V. Stepanov, The typology of language states and situations in the countries of Roman speech
(Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 1976) (In Russian).
M. Usseler, Sociolinguistics (Kiev: Vischa shkola, Kiev University Publishing House, 1987)
(In Russian).
N.B. Vakhtin, E.V. Golovko, Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language (St. Petersburg:
Academy of Humanities Publishers, 2004) (In Russian).
Языковая ситуация
в современной Австралии
И.С. Добряева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а
В статье анализируется языковая ситуация в современной Австралии с точки зрения
компонентов, функционального распределения социально-коммуникативных функций между
различными системами и подсистемами, a также факторов, сформировавших данную
языковую ситуацию и оказывающих влияние на ее формирование в настоящее время. Выявляется
доминирование английского языка (AusE) в экзоглоссном аспекте и его кодифицированного
варианта (mAusE) в эндоглоссном аспекте языковой ситуации в современной Австралии и
анализируются последствия этого доминирования для аборигенных и иммигрантских языков
и самого австралийского английского языка. Выявляется изоморфизм между экзоглоссным и
эндоглоссным аспектами данной языковой ситуации.
Ключевые слова: языковая ситуация, экзоглоссный, эндоглоссный, языковая политика,
несбалансированная, мультикультурализм, билингвизм, макропосредник, микропосредник,
языковой ареал, иммиграция, полиэтничные сообщества, языки иммигрантов, аборигенные
языки, ДАА, АА, экзонормативный, эндонормативный, наддиалектное койне, лингва франка,
диалектизмы, этнолекты, социолекты, плюрицентричный, эпицентр.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 916-922
~~~
УДК 81’27
Multiculturalism as a Central Concept
of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies
Elena B. Grishaeva*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 12.12.2011, received in revised form 13.01.2012, accepted 16.02.2012
The article examines the concept of multiculturalism as framings provided by theories of multicultural
and heterogeneous societies, languages and power and understandings of the broader social context in
which multiculturalism typically comes into play.
Keywords: multiculturalism, polylinguism, socio-cultural differences, unification, immigration, cultural diversity, linguistic assimilation, heterogeneous cultural groups, tolerance, religious discrimination,
linguistic rights, language policy.
Introduction
The concept of multiculturalism as a core
idea has been taken up across social sciences.
It has been used, applied and adapted by a wide
range of researches. It is currently one of the
most articulated concepts within social theories
and practice. The term “multiculturalism” as well
as its multiple derivatives such as “multicultural
society”, “policy of multiculturalism” came into
academic glossary in 1960-s in Canada.
According to O.V. Golovkina “Academic
circles have not yet agreed on the strict definition
of the term “multiculturalism”. Scholars failed
to assign a fixed meaning of this term and could
not prohibit the usage of it in various meanings”
(Головкина, 2005: 41; Малахов, 2002: 48-60).
The dictionary of Canadian political process
defined multiculturalism as “policy of the Liberal
government of Canada in 1970-s, continued later
by the Conservative government. The policy
*
1
aimed at encouraging the development of cultural
heritage of ethnic groups in Canada that did not
belong neither to the British nor to the French
ones (The language of Canadian Politics, 2001:
184-185).
Similarly, sociological resources more often
define multiculturalism as “a system of beliefs
and behaviors that recognizes and respects the
presence of all diverse groups in an organization
or society, acknowledges and values their
sociocultural differences, and encourages and
enables their continued contribution within an
inclusive cultural context which empowers all
within the organization or society” (Rosado,
1997). According to a particular meaning,
multiculturalism is presented as ideology;
discourse; sphere of policies and practices
(Cashmore, 1996: 144).
As a concept, multiculturalism assumes
special logics and emerges as an instrument of
Corresponding author E-mail address: e-grishaeva@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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inter-group cooperation aimed at maintaining
specific culture and providing individuals and
groups with capability to take equal part in all
spheres of social life: from politics to culture.
Within the ethnography of communication,
the term “multiculturalism” is used empirically
and descriptively by scholars who study cultural
heterogeneity of the society, its polyethnicity and
multinationalism as characteristic features, i.e.
societies “having a sophisticated ethnographic
profile” (Тишков, 2002). According to historical
origin, social dynamics and structural relationship
of ethnolinguistic and confessional groups
within the unified society, scholars, as a rule,
distinguish four types of multicultural societies,
namely: precontemporary empires, multinational
societies in Europe, post national polyethnicity
and colonial zone.
The modern meaning of “multiculturalism”
turned into existence by post national cultural
dynamics both in the frames of national states
and so called post national (immigrants) states.
It is worth supporting the point of view of the
vast circle of social scientists arguing that there
is a difference between multi-nationalism and
polyethnicity. These two terms refer to different
types of multiculturalism (Kimlicka, 1995; Miura,
2005: 75; Головкина, 2005: 46). They consider
multi-nationalism to be a historical result of
either oppressive or voluntary unification of the
former independent, self-governed, isolated from
the point of view of its territory cultures into one
state. What it comes to polyethnicity, it is a result
of the individual and group immigration. These
groups have got the state of their own. The state
is outside this political society. Moreover, postnational multicultural societies are characterized
by polyethnicity.
Point of View
Australia, Canada and Northern European
countries evidence that the major reason of
multiculturalism was multi-scaled immigration
process. A number of immigration waves caused
an immense influx of population and its ethnic,
linguistic and religious background.
As for the American continent, one should
say that an idea of the so called “melting pot”
was dominant. According to it, representatives
of various ethnic groups would definitely melt
into an unified identity of the citizen of the
USA. It should be pointed out that this idea
belonged to J. de Krevcker, a Franco-American
farmer, who featured diversity of rural life on the
American continent at the end of XVIII century.
Before the World War II this idea turned to be
a major tendency of social changes. The melting
pot concept resulted in closing newspapers
of immigrants and converting the former
immigrants’ associations into those ones that
switched in their practice from mother tongues of
its members into English.
The Canadian model of multiculturalism, in
contrast, respects diversity of all kinds. That is
why one of the crucial issues of the multicultural
policy in Canada at the end of the XX century was
integration of immigrants that did not necessarily
ended up by assimilation. It is worth mentioning
the fact that institualisation of multiculturalism in
its contemporary meaning was set up in Canada
in 1971. The government headed by P. Trudeau
declared multiculturalism an official policy and
ideology of Canada. Due to ethno-demographic
scales of contemporary migration process the
Canadian government encourages cultural
diversity. Migrant minority groups are nowadays
being numerically compared to local population
that was recently considered to be the majority
population.
Besides, cultural identity manifestations
received public expression: e.g. new
associations based on regional, ethnic or
linguistic characteristics came into existence;
primary education was delivered in native
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tongues; newspapers were published in native
tongues etc.
The point was: despite declared equality
migrants could not be equal members of society.
Due to internal and external obstacles on the way
to social integration migrants organize their own
ethnic communities within which languages and
cultural patterns and norms are being maintained.
These groups are characterized, as a rule, by
common socio-economic status that is, in fact,
their marker. Group members are identified as
merchants, taxi drivers, and laundry owners. It
is clear that migrants’ isolation turns to be their
cultural peculiarity.
Migration changed immensely cultural
history of Western Europe in 1960-s-1970-s.
Originally a language unification principle was
part and parcel of the European nations-states.
The brightest example of such a nation-state was
a concept of the French nation “une et indivisible”
(unified and indivisible).
Due to new immigration waves of
1960-s-1990-s such European countries as
Ireland, Greece and Italy having been for a long
time the major countries-exporters of emigrants
have turned into those ones that encapsulated
diverse communities of immigrants’ minorities.
In other words, nowadays Europe looks like
polyethnic New World.
Modern European multiculturalism is
noticeable in big cities – megapolices. According
to statistical data, one fifth of the population in
London was “non-white” population, a quarter
of the population in Frankfurt or Brussels were
foreigners (Головкина, 2005: 49). In 1990 10 %
of registered population in France was born
abroad.
There is a substantial difference between
the policy of multiculturalism in immigrant and
national states. These two types of states differ
in terms of their attitude to cultural diversity
generated by migration (Головкина, 2005: 63).
O.V. Golovkina argues that there are different
types of multiculturalism. The concept of
multiculturalism was elaborated in Canada in a
strict accordance with the social order to explain
the national problem. This concept was addressed
to Francophone population aiming at calming it
down because the French – speaking population
did not agree to be considered as the minority
group in Canada.
There is another model of polyethnic
and multicultural society management that
is called the republican model of tolerance
or the French model of the civil nation. This
model was originally formulated by Dominique
Schnapper. He declared a major thesis: citizens
are equal regardless of their ethnic and religious
background. The principle of equality is the most
powerful tool to struggle against segregation
(Miura, 2005: 75).
The republican model invented methodology
of cultural diversity management. It set a principle
of a strict division of a group and an individual. All
forms of cultural differences that are manifested
by the individual’s life should be respected. This
maxim in question is considered to be a key
principle of laicity that does not prioritize any
form of religion and guarantees freedom of faith.
The formula of the tolerant attitude has been
shaped up in a long struggle with the Catholic
Church.
The republican model ignores ethnocultural and religious background. The equality
principle encourages, according to H. Miura,
assimilation of foreigners into the French or the
Francophone society (Miura, 2005: 75). This
assimilative approach has got much in common
with Anglo-conformism or the American
theory of melting pot. The only difference is
that France dismantled slavery in its colonies
while in the USA, according to Du Bois, the
colour of skin stands behind the American
democracy (Ibid., 76).
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Moreover, the republican type of assimilation
assumes equal opportunities. Alternatively,
American multiculturalism assigns equality
to victimized and discriminated individuals
in regard to racial, gender or what so ever
characteristics. The model of multiculturalism
tolerates diversified communities to live
together not losing their identity. But what
is more, it contradicts the republican model
due to splitting up the society into numerous
constituent parts and not providing them with
further integration.
The republican model is considered to be
an universal principle of emancipation of an
individual. Multiculturalism, in contrast, is
seen to be a differentiating method aimed at,
on one hand, breaking down apartheid, and on
the other hand, sharing and supporting its racial
scheme. The republican model is being projected
to modernity, multiculturalism, in contrast, is
inspired by post-modern critics and post-colonial
ideology.
Some scholars subject the idea of
multiculturalism to criticism due to its
interpretation of being a simplified form of ethnic
group contraposition.
Nowadays massive mobility of population
creates preconditions for immerging cultural
combinations or cultural hybridization. Due to
cultural mixture that got the name of creolisation,
one can mention a so called “Antilles model
of a multiple and multiple embedded Creole
background” (Ibid: 75). N. Miura draws special
attention to the model of creolisation. He
considers creolisation breaks down the idea of
common ancestry and, therefore, culture can not
be viewed as a monolithic one.
The model in question values ethnic
unification and cultural mixing that leads to
multiple and mosaic identity that was also called
an unified rhizoma or rooted identity. This type of
identity does not refer to any particular territory.
Its characteristic feature is relationship within the
society.
There is no the same individual. The identical
individual exists only if he or she is in relation
with another, identical individual. Having been
born as a result of relationship, the individual
possesses distinctive features.
It is worth distinguishing two notions:
“acquiring the Creole characteristics” (creolized
features) and “creolisation”. The first concept
presumes a long historical process of cultural
mixture. The second one results a dynamic
development of mutual collisions and exchanges
that nobody can predict.
In addition, N. Miura argues that the world
is getting creolized. However, contemporary
Creole identity is characterized by residence
qualification and, consequently, by a new
territory acquisition. This fact is in opposition
to the original idea of the Creole identity
aimed at permanent regeneration fi rstly due
to nomadic life style, migration and change of
habitat. In conclusion, the scholar states: the
Creole model is far from implementation neither
in a particular ethno-cultural nor language
policy. That is why it is an ideal theoretically
equipped model, which would not have been
implemented into practice. In other words,
one should differentiate empirical studying of
social phenomenon from a normative model. At
the same time, N. Miura assumes that following
to this model would be the only means to stop
assimilation.
Theorists share the emphasis on the point
of view that the French republicanism and the
American multiculturalism are objectification of
both universality and diversification. Meanwhile,
creolisation is being perceived as synthesis of
the two models. All in all, it represents logics of
diversity.
Such dialectics, admittedly, is far from
virtue. Its weakness is explained by the logics of
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deterritorisation which is next to impossible to
link with national or state language. Otherwise
stated, the weakness, mentioned above, may be
used as a bargaining chip of creolisation leading
to revolutionary procedures in the sphere of
language policy.
In 1990-s social and political theories,
including the theory of language policy and
language planning focused multiculturalism
as an academic study issue. The theory of
language planning values the close connection
of multiculturalism with cultural issues such as:
pluralism/particularism; identity (otherness and
difference); linguistic rights within heterogeneous
cultures; globalization etc.
The concept of “multiculturalism” being
treated as a group of ideas and actions of
different social entities (statutory bodies, for
instance) aiming at equal development of diverse
cultures, bridging different groups of population
in many social spheres, equal opportunities for
being employed and provided with educational
options is connected with the concept of
“tolerance”. The definition of “tolerance” was
confirmed by the General UNESCO conference
in 1995. It was placed in the Declaration of the
Principles of Tolerance and was defined as
“respect, acknowledgement and understanding
of a rich cultural diversity of the world, forms
of self expression and identity manifestation”
(Головкина, 2005: 55).
Multiculturalism as a whole presumes that
individuals and groups are entirely incorporated
into a society without neither losing their national
or any other identity nor being restricted in
their rights. Multiculturalism is a conceptual
foundation of non-conflict coexistence of
multiple heterogeneous cultural groups in one
environment. As a result, a growing diversity
leads to outlining multicultural values, such as
an idea of mutual commitment and freedom of
choice.
Resume
There are several types of multicultural
models of ethno-linguistic management in the
polyethnic regions:
• Anglo-conformism or the American
theory of melting pot leads minority
cultures and languages to assimilation;
• Canadian multicultural model emphasizes
respect of diversity of all kinds including
a multilingual model in the sphere of the
international trade that is based on respect
of the linguistic rights of the consumers
and producers from different countries of
the American continent;
• Australian multicultural model values
respect for the freedom and dignity
of the individual, freedom of religion,
commitment to the spirit of egalitarianism
that embraces mutual respect, tolerance,
fair play and compassion for those in need
and pursuit of public good. Australian
society also values equality of opportunity
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•
•
•
•
•
for individuals, regardless of their race,
religion and ethnic background;
Republican model of tolerance or
integration ( the French model of civil
nation) leads to linguistic assimilation;
Antilles model of multiple Creole
background due to cultural mixing
(creolisation);
Educational model of the European Union
that maintains plurilinguism on the
individual level and creates conditions for
learning foreign and regional languages;
Model of functional coexistence
transfigures a model of polarization
between world languages and the minority
ones;
European model of multiculturalism
combines an “elitist” plurilinguism (active
functional plurilinguism) and a “consumer
English”. This combination assumes a
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Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies
good command in several languages and
a limited command in English, necessary
for consumer purposes;
• Model of optional multiculturalism
reflects transition in the world practice
onto a widely spread and understood
language, English, for example, and
its use as a language of corporate
and business communication under
globalization.
Meanwhile discussions are spreading
throughout Europe nowadays on vitality of
multiculturalism; another reason to recognize
and understand is that multilingualism, being
closely connected with multiculturalism, is
“mainstreamed” across multicultural policy
areas, including lifelong learning, employment,
social inclusion, competitiveness, culture, youth
and civil society, research and the media. As
it was emphasized, “Linguistic diversity is a
…rewarding challenge for Europe” and “the
harmonious co-existence of many languages in
Europe is a powerful symbol of the European
Union’s aspiration to be united in diversity, one of
the cornerstones of the European project” (COM
(2008) 566 final).
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Концепция «мультикультурализма»:
интегративные модели
управления полиэтническими
и поликультурными сообществами
Е.Б. Гришаева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья отражает общенаучные положения о всеобщей связи и взаимной обусловленности
развития языка и многоаспектных социальных проблем современности: этнической
идентификации, культурного разнообразия, образования, миграции, глобализации в условиях
поликультурного пространства. Понятие мультикультурализма рассматривается в
нескольких аспектах: как идеология, как дискурс, как политика и практика. На основе
типологических признаков выявляются наиболее типичные модели этноязыкового
обустройства, обеспечивающего жизнеспособность референтных языков и культур.
Ключевые слова: мультикультурализм, полилингвизм, социокультурные различия, унификация,
иммиграция, культурная диверсификация, лингвистическая ассимиляция, гетерогенные
культурные группы, толерантность, религиозная дискриминация, языковые права, языковая
политика.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 923-926
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УДК 81’272
Educational Language Policy
in Russia under Modernization
Diana T. Khaibullina*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 11.01.2012, accepted 16.02.2012
Due to great shift in the Russian economic-political situation, there are inevitable changes to face in
the national language policy. One of the key ways to adapt to the current international conditions is
to tailor the ameliorated system of language education. The Lifelong Learning conception is regulated
according to the Russian Federation strategy as a major trend.
Keywords: Lifelong Language Learning, integration, national identity, national language policy, the
Common Educational space, principle, recent socio-political changes, educational opportunities.
Introduction
The issues of national identity are frequently
debated in terms of recent socio-political changes
of the last decades. It is especially topical when
discussing the post-Soviet situation in the
Russian Federation in conditions of the world
consolidation and globalization. A nation faces
overwhelming problems determining its cultural
identity. Moreover, it is very questionable and
complex process (Rawi, 2001: 8). Thus, there
are not only economic and political problems,
but also problems of national and state language
determination as a device to create a new society
in present day conditions.
The Role of the Education Policy
One of the main long term measures to
disseminate and regulate the state language
policy is the state language education system. It is
considered to be very controversial and problematic
*
1
point at present, but still it is equipped to reflect the
social demand of a contemporary society.
Thus, the Russian Federation had inherited
the main theoretical aspects of the Soviet language
policy (Federal Low on the State Language in the
Russian Federation, 2005: 1), (Federal Law on
National Languages in the Russian Federation,
1991: 2), (Model Law “on Languages” N 24-6, 2004:
3). Nevertheless, it had to look for some new ways
to implement the policy. The contemporary system
of the language education adapted some new forms
due to new economic and political conditions,
such as the economic recession on the territory of
the Commonwealth of Independent States, new
international politico-economical relationships.
Most ex-Soviet countries are looking forward to
entering the league of European counterparts. So,
they are re-examining the list of strategic partners
not only among the ex-Soviet republics, but also
the world nations (Rawi, 2001: 8).
Corresponding author E-mail address: dkhaibullina@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Diana T. Khaibullina. Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization
Functioning in the sphere of foreign
language teaching reflects the common
intention to belong to “the European house”. It
can be fully illustrated in adapting dogmas of
Lifelong Language Learning. It is known that
this term was borrowed from various official
documentations, which support educational
and political processes. In November 2006 the
European parliament resolution №1720/2006/
ЕС was made in order to take new integrated
educational «Lifelong Learning Programme»
in the course of «Europass» project realization.
The programme has integrated all well-known
and used means and trends to create educational
opportunities for different-aged students. Thus,
«Lifelong Learning Programme» has become
the next phase of long term European policy
realization. This policy is aimed to reinforce the
process of European consolidation. Today, the
creation of the Common Educational Space is
considered to be a basis of economic and political
integration and cultural interaction (Telegin,
electronic resource: 6).
A number of important socio-economic
forces is pushing for the lifelong learning
approach. The increased pace of globalization
and technological change, the changing nature
of work and the transformation of labour market,
and the ageing of populations are among the
main forces emphasising the need for continuing
upgrading of work, everyday and professional
skills throughout person’s life. The demand is
for a rising threshold of skills as well as for more
frequent changes in the nature of the skills required.
Nancy Merz Nordstrom, M.Ed., lists the top 10
benefits of Lifelong Learning as such:
• Lifelong Learning helps fully develop
natural abilities;
• Lifelong Learning opens the mind;
• Lifelong Learning creates a curious,
hungry mind;
• Lifelong Learning increases our wisdom;
• Lifelong Learning makes the world a
better place;
• Lifelong Learning helps us to adapt to
change;
• Lifelong Learning helps us find meaning
in our lives;
• Lifelong Learning keeps us involved as
active contributors to society;
• Lifelong Learning helps us make
new friends and establish valuable
relationships;
• Lifelong Learning leads to an enriching
life of self-fulfilment (Nordstrom,
electronic resource: 7).
Principles of Lifelong Language Learning
are becoming more frequently mentioned while
discussing the ways to solve problems of Crosscultural communication not only in domestic, but
also in professional sphere. It is closely connected
with problems of Russian integration into the
European and world educational, cultural and
economic and political community. This policy
provides every person with an opportunity of
an individually tailored educational path to
get further professional, career and personal
development.
Besides great amount of benefits, there are
some disadvantages. Thus, the most obvious
one is an effect of commercialisation of the
education process. The brightest example of it
is foreign language learning exactly. Moreover,
as Olga Oleynikova, chief of the Professional
Educations Problems Centre, claims that the
term Lifelong Learning is very often substituted
or confused with the term Professional
retraining as a synonym. It is a point of
misunderstanding in the core. But what is more
important, it prevents accepting and tailoring
the Lifelong Learning conception in the Russian
Federation. The fact that there is no designed
Lifelong Learning conception at necessary
and acceptable level influences the forming of
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Diana T. Khaibullina. Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization
national educational strategy. It seems to cramp
the integration into contemporary process of
international development. As a consequence,
Russia is supposed to be at the same level of
economic and social development (“Lifelong
Learning – is it actual trend for Russia?”,
electronic resource: 10).
The efficiency of Lifelong Language
Learning realization depends on coordination,
understanding of common strategy, goals and
objectives sharing of professionals which are
to implement this policy (Akaeva, electronic
resource: 5). Nevertheless, despite the great
significance of continuation principle, exactly
this aspect is absent in a necessary amount to
realize the policy of Lifelong Learning.
There are problems to implement the
principle of continuation in Lifelong Language
Learning policy due to consequences of the
educational policy in the 1990s. Thus, the
learner-centered approach announced at that
period of time identifies the problem of time
scarcity. It is obvious that there is not enough
given time to study foreign language at any
educational unit. Not only the differentiated,
but also the individual approach to a student
can hardly be implemented as well as to create
a positive educational environment for study
if there are only two or three hours a week
(Rawi, 2001: 8).It also influences the process
to solve problem of professional orientation
and personal cultural identity that are crucial
nowadays.
As a consequence, today there are students to
come to universities that have different attainment
level of foreign language. A teacher should find
a special individual approach to students which
have some language problems. Such measures
are taken to provide an opportunity for further
education at university (Rawi, 2001: 8).
One of the ways to solve the given problem
is a fast-moving turning back to out-of-classroom
form of the teaching process implementation. It
could create an opportunity to solve the majority
of the mentioned problems.
Moreover, the huge impact as well as
the means in teaching and learning process
is supposed to be nowadays a high-tech
informational and educational environment.
There are great amount of various web
applications, social services, agents at present
to be not only a tool to form language, speech
and cross-cultural competences, but also a real
device to apply already achieved competences
naturally. It could help a person to experience
his or her own integration into contemporary
world processes at different levels: personally
and professionally.
Conclusion
On balance, the overall picture seems to
be that the educational policy in the course of
foreign language education is supposed to be
one of the main means to implement the state
language policy of the Russian Federation. The
prime target of the policy in its turn is not only
formation, correction and sustention of language
norms and juridical aspect of it, but also creating
conditions for cultural identity of a nation as a
member of the world community.
References
Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 1 июня 2005 г. N 53-ФЗ «О государственном
языке Российской Федерации». – опубл. 07.06.2005. – «РГ» Федеральный Выпуск №3789.
Закон о языках народов Российской Федерации от 25 октября 1991 г. N 1807-1. допл. от
24.07.1998 N 126-ФЗ, от 11.12.2002 N 165-ФЗ. – опубл. 12.12.1991. – Ведомости Съезда народных
депутатов и Верховного Совета Российской Федерации № 50.
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Diana T. Khaibullina. Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization
Модельный закон «О языках», постановление N 24-6 от 4 декабря 2004 г. – опубл.
2005г. – Информационный бюллетень. Межпарламентская Ассамблея государств-участников
Содружества Независимых Государств. № 35 (часть 1). С. 236 – 238.
Концепция Федеральной целевой программы развития образования на 2011 – 2015 годы
(утв. распоряжением Правительства РФ от 7 февраля 2011 г. № 163-р). [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа: URL: http://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/55070647/
Акаева Х.А. [Akaeva] Многоуровневая модель профессионально-ориентированного
обучения иностранным языкам в системе «лицей – технический вуз». [Электронный ресурс]. –
Режим доступа: URL: ftp://194.226.213.129/text/akayeva_115_210_214.pdf
Телегин Д.В. [Telegin] Лингвистическая политика в образовании: Россия и Европейское
сообщество. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL: /http://www.isras.ru/files/File/
Publication/Monografii/obraz/4_6_Lingvisticheskaya.pdf
N. Nordstrom, Top 10 Benefits of Lifelong Learning. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Top_10_Benefits_of_Lifelong_Learning.html
А. Rawi National Purpouse in the World Economy. Post-Soviet States in Comparative Perspective
/ Rawi Abdelal. – Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Некоторые актуальные проблемы обучения иностранному языку в контексте непрерывного
довузовского образовательного пространства. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL:
http://langetr.ucoz.ru/publ/1-1-0-22
«Lifelong Learning – актуален ли европейский тренд для России?». В России системой
профессиональной переподготовки пользуются лишь 5% работающего населения. [Электронный
ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.ubo.ru/news/public/?id=2614
Реализация языковой политики
в сфере образования в условиях модернизации
современной России
Д.Т. Хайбуллина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В условиях изменений, коснувшихся экономико-политической ситуации в Российской
Федерации, государство столкнулось с неизбежными изменениями в государственной
языковой политике, которые необходимо проводить в данный момент. Одним из основных
способов адаптации к современным мировым условиям является тщательно проработанная,
качественно измененная система языкового образования. Концепция непрерывного
образования ассимилируется согласно современной стратегии Российской Федерации.
Ключевые слова: непрерывное языковое образование, интеграция, национальное самоопределение,
национальная языковая политика, единое образовательное пространство, недавние
социополитические изменения, образовательные возможности.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 927-934
~~~
УДК 81’27
Modern Tendencies of Language Policy
and Language Planning in Russia and China:
Comparative Study
Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 16.01.2012, accepted 1.02.2012
The article deals with the comparative study of language policy and language planning in modern Russia and China. A special attention is paid to FLT and aboriginal and minorities languages teaching
in the two countries.
Keywords: language policy, language planning, foreign languages, aboriginal and minority languages,
FLT, Russia, China, comparative study.
Introduction
The language policy can be defined as
the total sum of the ideological principles and
practical measures directed to solve language
problems in the society and state frame. In
accordance with its goals the language policy may
have two main variants: perspective (language
planning or language building in other terms)
and retrospective (language and speech culture)
(Grishaeva, 1997). According to academician
R.A. Budagov the language planning can be
interpreted as the influence on the language by
the state acts, writers, scholars, linguists and all
language users as well (Budagov, 1971).
The scientific basis for the language planning
is the ethnolinguistics (F. Boas, E. Sapir, B.
Whorf) and the ethnographies of communication
(I. Gumperz, D. Hymes). The language planning
is realized via different educational institutions
*
1
(pre-schools, secondary schools, higher schools)
and mass media. The language planning and
language education are closely interdependent.
The language planning can be legally adopted by
different state acts or be the so called result of the
historic practice of some duration.
The present situations with the perspective
variant of the language policy ın Russian
Federation and People’s Republic of China are
closely connected with the language planning and
the language education. The language planning is
mostly based on ideological roots and economic
consequences. The world processes in the fields
of economy, science, culture and other human
areas are reflected in the language planning and
national educational tendencies.
The integration into European Community,
trade and industrial connections with the
countries of the Pacific territory and other
Corresponding author E-mail address: veronica_raz@hotmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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geographical areas of the world resulted into the
necessity of formation the so called multilingual
personality. The statesmen, men of science and
culture think that the modern specialist should
have a good command of two or more foreign
languages. But the characteristics of Russian and
Chinese multilingual personalities differ. That is
why the combination of foreign languages is set
due to the geographical position and economic
relations of the definite territory (the Krasnoyarsk
territory for example). The situation in Russia
and China greatly differs from the situation
in modern Europe (the united Europe) but the
idea of Language Portfolio is undoubtedly very
fruitful (European Language Portfolio, 2001;
General European Competences, 2003; European
Language Portfolio, 2003).
Any foreign language for the multilingual
personality is not only the means of oral and
written communication but also the dominant
means of access to foreign culture. This statement
causes several urgent language planning
problems: unification of the purposes of teaching
various foreign languages, foreign languages
combination, testing principles and procedures,
certification procedures. The language education
in general has the following directions: teaching
native language, teaching foreign languages,
teaching state language.
ELT in Russia and China
The foreign language acquisition was always
considered to be one of the cornerstones of the
education and the professional development in
any progressive country which joins the world
community. But one should take into consideration
that each country has got its own history and
experience in the FLT, its own synchronic and
diachronic periodicities and traditions. The
mentioned above aspects determine the teaching
methodology, the set of the most widely taught
foreign languages and the characteristics of
state standards in this important academic field.
The state policy towards the FLT in the West
(in comparison with Russia) was rather implicit
and was based on the traditional approach and
needs analysis (Protasova, 2004). The language
planning in the FLT mostly followed the main
trends of the academic, political and economic
interests of the society. In the countries of the
former “socialist camp” the language policy
had its own peculiarities determined mostly
by the politics (especially towards the Russian
language).
In the USSR the language policy towards
foreign languages had its variations with the
respect to the language situation of the USSR
national territories. In the former republics of the
USSR the foreign languages were taught alongside
with the Russian language as the state language
of the country, which was not the mother tongue
to the majority of the republics’ population.
For example in the Ukraine Soviet Socialist
republic the traditional combination of the taught
languages was: Ukraine (native), Russian (state),
English or other European language (foreign). It is
interesting to mention that the Russian language
officially got the status of the state language only
in 2005 (the Federal Law on the State Language
for Different Territories and Subjects of the
Russian Federation, №3, 1.06.2005).
In the Russian Federation (the biggest republic
of the former Soviet Union) the situation with the
FLT was not a homogeneous one. Although the
language planning was determined by the state
standard, the teaching environment and teaching
conditions differed greatly in different parts of
the vast territory of Russia. Some territories of
the Russian Federation (Tatarstan, Bashkirya,
Mordovia) were and are traditionally and naturally
bilingual or trilingual. The former situation still
influences the present situation in the language
policy. Another important factor is the universal
globalization tendency.
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Taking into consideration the situation with
the foreign language (in secondary and higher
school) we can notice that the traditional set of
the taught foreign languages has changed greatly
recently. So in the Krasnoyarsk territory the
traditional set was: English, French and German.
During the last two decades in the Far East and
Eastern Siberia the oriental languages began to
be taught (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Turkish).
Some of the oriental languages are already taught
at school; some of them are taught only at the
university level. The set of the foreign languages
reflect the traditional and new economic and
cultural relations of the Krasnoyarsk territory,
its unique geopolitical situation. The vivid leader
of the taught foreign languages is the English
language which reflects the globalization tendency.
This foreign language provides the access to the
world culture, scientific data to different ethnic
groups living on the Krasnoyarsk territory.
Some of them belong to the ethnic minorities
with the nearly extinct and seriously endangered
native language. The English language can
play extremely important role for the future
development of the Krasnoyarsk territory ethnic
minorities. Especially when they join virtual
educational institutions in the globalization
context. The English language is the so called
lingua franca for different virtual educational
institutions in the Circumpolar World. The most
vivid example is UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTIC
(UArctic) which provides a broad and diversified
network of individuals, organizations and
institutions committed to research and education
in the circumpolar region and to promoting
sustainable practices for the future. UArctic
make contributions that benefit the network as a
whole for the improvement of higher education in
the North: North2North undergraduate exchange
program; Arctic Learning Environment (ALE)
online learning; Circumpolar Mobility Program.
The English language is the “state language” of
UArctic. That is why the special “real” and online programs should be developed in the frame
of specially tailored educational programs for
ethnic minorities in the epoch of globalization.
The clear understanding of the importance of
the English language and the developed strategy
in this educational area made it possible to gain
extremely good results in ELT. One of the vivid
examples is the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
It is important to emphases that the role of the
English language in the context of globalization
has got positive and negative estimations. The
positive one is related to the unifying and educating
functions of the English language. The negative
one is connected with domination of the English
language and its frustrating influence on the title
languages that initiates total “globanglization”
(Kabakchi, 2009).
The language policy towards foreign
languages in China in retrospective aspect was
mostly determined by the ideas of unification and
standardization. Looking back over the centuries
we may notice that governors of China paid
much attention to the relationship between their
control over the nation and languages, which
representatives of the nation speak. A well known
fact is that more than 2000 years ago a famous
Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇, 259
BC – 210 BC) started a reform of the writing
system aimed at the unification of all various
existing scripts of Chinese characters (Clements,
2006: 102-103, 131-134). Those who refused to
obey the orders of the emperor were subjected to
strict punishments and even death. The impact if
this language reform is still felt at present.
Fortunately nowadays Chinese government
does not resort to such severe punishment
measures, but still it pursues quite a strict policy
in this area. The state language of the Peoples
Republic of China is Chinese and the official
form of writing is Simplified Chinese (Law of
the People’s Republic of China on the Standard
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Spoken and Written Chinese Language: electronic
resource). Results of the research, which was
accomplished by a group of scholars (Minglang
Zhou, Hongkai Sun, 2004), indicate that the main
features of the language policy in modern China
include the following:
1. simplification and standardization of the
sinographic script;
2. promotion of Putonghua (普通话) as the
national language;
3. the design and refinement of Pinyin (拼音)
(the Romanized spelling of Putonghua) and
its adoption for appropriate applications;
4. identification and mapping of languages,
dialects (方言) – both Sinitic and nonSinitic;
5. recognition and description of languages
meriting official “minority” (少数民族)
status;
6. creation of scripts for languages that lack
them and the streamlining of traditional
non-Sinitic writing systems;
7. translation of words, names, technical
terms from other languages;
8. pedagogical issues, including methods
for elementary instruction, uniform
testing at higher levels, and the teaching
of Mandarin to speakers of topolects and
non-Sinitic languages within China, as
well as to foreigners abroad;
9. bilingualism;
10. foreign language instructions and
applications within China.
More details on the language situation and
language policy in China can be found in a report
prepared by the UNESCO, which is a part of
the Community Based Literacy Programs for
Minority Language Contexts in Asia (Community
Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language
Contexts in Asia, 2005: 153-167). According to
the report, officially, China has 56 nationalities,
but more than 200 languages are spoken in the
country. This is explained by the fact that many
nationalities consist of several diverse language
groups that are sometimes as different as English
and French. More than 90 percent of the total
population belongs to the Han majority; these
people speak mutually unintelligible varieties of
Chinese.
We assume that it is evident that the
situation with FLT in China was quite different in
different times: a well known fact that during the
Cultural Revolution in China (1966-1976) there
was a political split between the USSR and the
PRC, which resulted in the slackening of interest
towards Russian as a foreign language within
China (which was not typical of China before
and which is not typical now). According to the
figures given above, more than 200 languages
spoken inside of China are considered to be
foreign languages. In addition to that in recent
years the successes of Chinese economy gave an
impetus for the development of FLT in modern
China. Surveys show that the most popular foreign
languages learnt in China are English, Japanese,
Korean, French, and German (Top Foreign
Languages Learnt in China 2011: electronic
resource). It is evident that this list lacks Russian:
dozens of schools and universities of the northeast of China study Russian as a foreign language.
Beijing, Shanghai and Harbin are considered to be
three major teaching centers, where teaching and
studying Russian is traditionally very popular.
As for the role of English within the
framework of FLT in China, here we may state
the following: “In order to function efficiently
in its economy with the global market, Chinese
needs to bring large numbers of people to a
higher level of proficiency in English for a wide
variety of functions” (Shaobin, 2002). Results of
the research show that “native English speakers
are regarded as linguistically privileged, but
such non-native English-speakers as the Chinese,
in order to overcome their disadvantage, are
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Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy…
launching campaigns to enable themselves to use
English more accurately and fluently” (Huimin,
2003). The particular interest to ELT in China
resulted in several theoretical and practical
issues dealing with “China English” (Chui, 2006;
Gargesh, 2006; He, Li, 2009).
Aboriginal Languages
in Russia and China
As for the native language teaching the
situation differs in different territories of the
former Soviet Union. The situation has aggravated
within the last twenty years. In the autonomous
territories we have got the stable bilingual
situation (Tatar plus Russian). In some territories
the native language teaching is obligatory, in
some – optional. In the Krasnoyarsk territory we
have got the native languages which belong to
different levels of endangerment: extinct, possibly
extinct, nearly extinct, seriously endangered,
endangered, potentially endangered, not
endangered. The book “UNESCO RED BOOK
ON ENDANGERED LANGUAGES: EUROPE”
(published 1999) and the book “The Languages of
the People of Russia. Red Book” (Languages of
the People of Russia, 2002). Among the languages
of ethnic minorities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
we can mention the Ket language, formerly known
as Yenisei Ostyak, a Siberian language, the sole
surviving language of a Yeniseian language
family which has been related to a wider Denecaucasian grouping also including Sino-Tibetian.
The language is threatened with extinction—the
number of ethnic Kets that are native speakers
of the language has dropped from 1,225 in 1926
to 537 in 1989 (Kabanova, 2008). The Even
language (also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben,
Orich, Ilqan) is a Tungusic language spoken
by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely
scattered communities of reindeer herders. The
Evenki language (also known as Ewenki, Ewenke,
Owenke, Solon, Suolun, and Tungus or Tunguz in
older works) is the largest member of the northern
group of Tungusic languages, a group which also
includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely
related) Oroqen language. The Evenki language
is spoken by Evenks in Russia. Mongolia and
China (Pre-Yenisenian Siberia, 2008; Ethnoses
of Siberia, 2008).
Describing the language situation with ethnic
minorities in China we may turn to the report we
have touched upon above – the report prepared by
the UNESCO, which is a part of the Community
Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language
Contexts in Asia (Community Based Literacy
Programs for Minority Language Contexts in
Asia 2005: 153-167).
Ethnic minorities are about 100 million people
and only eight percent of the Chinese population.
The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China
provides all nationalities of China the freedom to
use and develop their languages. A law relating to
ethnic minorities adds that conditions permitting,
ethnic minority languages should be the media
of instruction in schools where the majority of
students belong to minority groups. However, the
report maintains that in many places these laws
are not implemented, and there are no regulations
to guarantee that implementation actually takes
place, besides government support to mothertongue education applies only to the 55 designated
national minorities, leaving some 150 language
communities without validation of their need
for language development and mother-tongue
education. In addition, in Han areas, especially
the less developed rural areas where varieties of
Chinese other than Mandarin are spoken, many
students have difficulty in understanding teaching
unless teachers use a dialect of Chinese spoken
in the region. Many official minority languages
already have writing systems, yet more than 20
still lack them. However, a major problem in
language development is that many more than 55
writing systems are needed in China to provide
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mother-tongue education to all speakers of
minority languages.
According to the report, there is a lot
of variation in the use of local languages in
education, depending on the geographical area
and ethnolinguistic group. There are strong and
weak forms of bilingual education, and various
shades in between. In the strong forms, an ethnic
language, usually a regional LWC with a long
literate history, is used as the medium of instruction
from primary school through high school. In such
programmes, Mandarin is taught as a second
language starting from Grade 2 or 3. The balance
between the use of the local and national language
differs. Minorities benefiting from strong forms
of bilingual education include Kazakhs, Koreans,
Mongolians, Uygurs and Tibetans.
The report maintains that that learning
achievements of students in bilingual programs –
even some transitional ones – are better than in
Chinese-only education for ethnic minorities.
Common difficulties faced in the use of local
languages in China include: a lack of writing
systems; a lack of qualified minority language
teachers; a lack of texts and materials in minority
languages; translation of textbooks from
Chinese into minority languages without any
adaptation; rapid transition from local languages
to Mandarin; and negative attitudes towards
the importance and usefulness of minority
language education. Reasons for good progress in
bilingual education endeavours in China include:
positive and progressive approaches to bilingual
education by local authorities, strong support
of academics, and the major role of minority
communities in curriculum development and
materials production.
Conclusion
The comparative study of the language
policy in modern Russia and China reveals
vivid similarities and differences (invariant and
variant features) between the studied objects.
The language policy towards the state languages
(Russian and Chinese) has got quite different
history. The Chinese language usage has
being regulated by the state for more than two
thousands years via the legislative acts of the
emperors and government. The Russian language
has got the legal status of the state language less
than ten years ago. In the FLT area the dominant
role is played by the English language in the
both countries. But each country has got its own
methodological and didactic traditions varying
in different geographical areas and historical
periods. The acquisition of the English language
has got its national and political peculiarities in
the broad context of globalization tendency. The
language policy towards aboriginal and minority
languages is determined by quantitative and
qualitative factors and could be the object of a
special study. The results of the comparative study
of language policy and language planning can
sum up the national and international experience
in the theoretical areas and be effectively used in
practice.
References
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Гришаева Е.Б. Лингвосоциологические модели изучения проблем языкового планирования.
(Красноярск: Изд-во КрасГУ, 1997).
Европейский языковой портфель. (М. Изд-во МГЛУ, 2003).
Кабакчи В.В. «Язык мой, камо грядеши? Глобализация, «глобанглизация» и межкультурная
коммуникация». Язык в парадигмах гуманитарного знания: XXI век. (СПб.: СПбГУЭФ, 2009). –
С. 78-97.
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Кабанова Т.А. Категория состояния в кетском языке. (Омск.: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2008).
Общеевропейские компетенции владения иностранным языком; изучение, преподавание,
оценка. (М. Изд-во МГЛУ, 2003).
Приенисейская Сибирь в лингвистическом освещении: материалы международной
научной конференции «Русский язык и национальный вопрос в Сибири», 15-17 октября 2007.
(Красноярск: Изд-во КГПУ им. В. П. Астафьева, 2008).
Протасова Е.Ю. «Европейская языковая политика». Иностранные языки в школе. № 1.
(2004). – С. 8-14.
Этносы Сибири. Электронная энциклопедия. (Красноярск: Сибирский федеральный
университет, 2008).
Языки народов России. Красная книга. Энциклопедический словарь-справочник. (М.:
Academia, 2002).
European Language Portfolio: accredited model № 8. 2001, awarded to Center for Information
on language Teaching and Research. Council of Europe.
J. Clements. The First Emperor of China. (Sutton Publishing, 2006).
X. Cui. “An Understanding of “China English” and the Learning and Use of the English Language
in China”. English Today 88. Vol. 22. № 4 (October 2006).
First Language First: Community Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language Contexts in
Asia. (UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education , Bangkok, 2005).
R. Gargesh. “South Asian Englishes”. The Handbook of World Englishes. (Oxford, U.K., Carlton,
Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Bublishers, 2006).
He D., Li D.C.S. “Language Attitudes and Linguistic Features in the “China English” Debate”.
World Englishes. Vol. 28. № 1. (2009).
Zh. Huimin. “Globalization and new ELT challenges in China”. English Today (Cambridge
University Press, 2003). – P. 36-41.
Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language
(Order of the President No.37) http://www.gov.cn/english/laws/2005-09/19/content_64906.htm
Zh. Minglang, S. Hongkai. Language Policy in the People`s Republic of China: Theory and
Practice Since 1949. (Boston: Springer Science + Business Media Inc., 2004).
J. Shaobin. English as a Global Language in China, (http://www.eltnewsletter.com/back/
May2002/art992002.htm).
Top Foreign Languages Learnt in China (http://www.lexiophiles.com/english/top-foreignlanguages-learnt-in-china)
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Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy…
Современные тенденции языковой политики
и языкового планирования в России и Китае:
сопоставительное исследование
В.А. Разумовская, Я.В. Соколовский
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Настоящая статья посвящена сопоставительному исследованию языковой политики
и языкового планирования в современной России и Китае. Особое внимание уделяется
преподаванию иностранных языков и языков коренных и малочисленных народов двух стран.
Ключевые слова: языковая политика, языковое планирование, иностранные языки, языки
коренных и малочисленных народов, преподавание иностранных языков, Россия, Китай,
сопоставительный анализ.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 935-943
~~~
УДК 37.014.15
The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence:
Hieroglyph as the Culture’s Cognitive Memory
Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya*
Siberian Federal University
82а Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 30.12.2011, received in revised form 11.01.2012, accepted 20.02.2012
Chinese writing, ideographic and pictographic, is a part of the linguistic picture of the world and concepts conveyed in it on the grammatological level may participate in the formation of social competence
as one of the components of intercultural communicative competence. The implication of sociocultural
analysis of Chinese hieroglyphics on the basis of the grammatological approach not only will allow language learners to acquire knowledge about the Chinese hieroglyphic concept sphere, cultural identity,
cultural realia both in historical and contemporary perspective, but will also teach them to properly
use this cognitive basis in further independent language learning process; such an approach can be
viewed as an effective mechanism for memorizing which can promote to activate the mastering of hieroglyphic signs due to a relatively easy opportunity for reconstructing the image that is underlying the
sociocultural analysis, as well as a method to contribute to the formation of a sustainable motivational
component of learning.
Keywords: sociocultural competence, intercultural communicative competence, ideogram, phonetic
ideogram, grapheme, concept, cognitive approach, grammatological approach, Chinese hieroglyphic
picture of the world, concept sphere.
Introduction
Teaching foreign languages has recently
become of special national significance in our
country since a foreign language is not only a
means of communication, but also the possibility
for personal cultural enrichment of the students,
their professional self-actualization, furthermore
a successful intercultural communication and
communication between individual members
of society both contribute to the social and
economic development and political stability of
both individual states and interstate unions. An
example is the creation of the European Union
which was preceded by the tendency towards
*
1
studying foreign languages by the majority
of the population. The ability to speak two or
more foreign languages during the formation of
the European Union was not only “good form”,
but rather a good opportunity to quickly find a
prestigious well-paid job which explains the
fairly active migration of skilled workers in the
early years of EU formation.
Methodical science of teaching foreign
languages has also been given a new impetus
to development under existing conditions, there
has been an appeal towards the cross-cultural
paradigm in the study of teaching process and
the process of learning foreign languages and
Corresponding author E-mail address: sosnovskaya-yang@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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cultures, competence approach and learnercentered approach to teaching and learning
that have finally resulted in a large-scale
reconsideration of a conceptual and categorical
apparatus of the methodical science, the nature
of modern means, methods and techniques of
language teaching and the functional load of a
foreign-language teacher.
Intercultural Communicative
Competence in the Context
of Language Education
Defi ning intercultural communication
competence as the ultimate goal of linguists’
preparation has acquired axiomatic value
substantiated by a large number of investigators
by the moment (E. G. Tareva, G. V. Elizarova,
N. D. Galskova, B. P. Furmanov, N. Gez, I. L
Pluzhnik, S. G. Ter-Minasova), this phenomenon
is also widely studied by foreign scientists
(M. Byram, A. E Fantini, Y. Kim, J. Koester,
J. Stier, R. L. Wiseman). This competence was
established on the basis of foreign language
communicative competence proposed by Jan Ate
van Ek who in turn singled out in its structure
the following sub-components: linguistic,
sociolinguistic,
discoursal
competence,
strategic, socio-cultural and social. In the study
by G. V. Yelizarova the need for introducing
the term ‘intercultural competence’ is being
substantiated, intercultural aspect within each
sub-competence as a part of intercultural
competence is being educed thus modifying
the content of the latter and adding to them an
intercultural dimension (Yelizarova, 2005). On the
grounds of the studies mentioned above, in recent
years there has appeared and has been subjected
to intensive in-depth research the intercultural
communicative competence, represented as an
integration of the two competencies such as
foreign language communicative competence
and intercultural competence (T. Larin,
V. A. Bryleva, J. A. Pugacheva, A. N. Annenkov,
E. S. Dikova).
In modern studies of the formation of
intercultural communication competence there
has been established the definition of this concept
which is the ability and willingness of specialists
to recognize, understand and interpret the native
world picture and another picture of the world as
they interact with each other and then to build on
this basis foreign-language communication with
representatives of a given society (Annenkova,
2010). This ability is acquired by languagelearners in the process of assigning them a picture
of the world in its close interaction with the native
view on the surrounding world. As a result of this
interaction complex cross-cultural knowledge
is formed in the minds of language-learners
(specific cognitive structure) which is actualized
in the process of intercultural communication in
order to achieve mutual understanding. It is the
very competence that inheres in the ‘secondary
linguistic identity’ (I. I. Khaleeva), which is the
main focus of the learning process in a language
institute of higher education. In recent studies
in the structure of intercultural communicative
competence viewed herein as an integration of
foreign language communicative competence
and intercultural competence the following
competencies have been marked out:
linguistic – willingness and ability
to produce and interpret meaningful
utterances of the studied language with
regard to the knowledge about ways to
express value orientations in relation to
the mother tongue;
sociolinguistic – awareness of the
selection and use of linguistic resources,
taking into account the relevance of the
social context of communication in a
foreign language;
strategic – ability and willingness to
overcome linguistic and psychological
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difficulties with verbal and nonverbal
communication strategies in the process
of intercultural communication;
social – the ability and willingness to
interact with native language users of
a studied foreign language, to manage
social situations in order to achieve
common communicative goals;
discoursive – the ability to choose and
to use suitable strategies for making
and interpreting texts in the process of
intercultural communication;
sociocultural – knowledge about
universal and culture-specific values of
the target language culture, forms and
ways of translating them into verbal and
nonverbal picture of the world.
The
components
of
intercultural
communicative competence have a mutual
influence upon each other: discoursive competence
viewed as a competence responsible for building
up speech acts is inseparable from the linguistic,
social and other competencies that are all within
a relationship of mutual penetration. Intercultural
competence is also a component that operates on all
levels or units of the communicative competence.
Over time some linguistic phenomena can receive
additional cultural connotations. A bright example
may be the appearance of a car model known as
‘’ё-Mobile’’ on the automotive market in Russia
when the creators of the brands, apparently,
wanted to give an answer to the entire world
market by selecting one letter from the Russian
alphabet which is not found in other languages and
has quite a bright connotative meaning. However,
on Chinese news sites dedicated to the beginning
of ё-Mobile plant construction, the brand was
transferred by an interpreter as a “car model E”
(http://chinese.ruvr.ru/2011/06/09/51511807.html),
and it is worth mentioning that in this case the
sociocultural connotations of this concept have
been totally lost.
The ability to distinguish cultural values
by monitoring the bearers of other languages
and cultures and interacting with them without
referring to them with direct questions (as in
most cases they are simply unable to give an
adequate response due to the unconscious nature
of the commitment to the values of their native
culture) is also one part of language-learners’
social competence, the formation of which would
make it possible to avoid such an interference
(Yelizarova, 2005).
Relying on the analysis of different
interpretations of the sociocultural competence
(SCC), the following of its components may be
evolved:
knowledge of the system of universal
cultural values;
knowledge of the value system of a native
culture, forms and methods of their display
in public institutions, linguistic picture
of the world, models of human behavior,
verbal and nonverbal communication
etc.;
knowledge of the principles of interaction
between cultural beliefs, norms and
stereotypes in different manifestations of
culture clash;
knowledge of the cultural values of a
studied language, forms and methods
of their display in public institutions,
linguistic picture of the world, models of
human behavior, verbal and non-verbal
communication etc.;
recognition of the fact that different
cultural models have a right to exist;
ability to emphatically perceive the
manifestation of other cultural patterns;
ability to isolate the general and specific
informational issues in the cultural
identity of different models;
willingness to constructively defend
their own position without demeaning
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others and not getting into direct
dependence
upon
other
people’s
priorities (E. N. Solovov, L. G. Kuzmina,
T. N. Yarmina, E. Kompantseva, J. E. Risk,
L. A. Milovanova, G. V. Yelizarova etc.).
Chinese Hieroglyphics
as a Tool for Forming Sociocultural
Competence
The last decade modern science has been
actively suggesting new methods aimed at
creating sociocultural competence. There is a
number of theses in which researchers propose
that the formation of SCC should go through
culturally-labeled
computer
technologies
(G. A. Vorob’ev, E. D. Koshelyaeva), studying
food culture (E. A. Saveliev), training linguistic
country study reading using mass media sources
(L. E. Kahn), authentic texts (T. M. Ezhkina),
videos (L. A. Voronin), humorous literature
(T. N. Yarmina), poetic texts (I. E. Riskey) and so
on. The basis for the formation of sociocultural
competence in these works is mainly the discourse
defined as “an essential component of social and
cultural interaction” (Van Dyke), lexical units
and the national-cultural semantics, socially and
culturally conditioned communication scenario,
adopted in some linguistic cultures as well as
grammatical phenomena that reflect linguistic
features of the world picture.
Sociocultural component of Chinese
hieroglyphics is recorded on the “level of visually
expressed meaning, synthetically united in the
very form of hieroglyphic writing, the sign”
(Sofronov, 2007). Chinese hieroglyphics is a
complex code formation allowing the individual
notionally and beyond the communicative
situation to analyze cognizable objects and
express their characteristics, properties and
relations while not only categorizing them, but
also determining their significance within the
space-time continuum. The language reflects
a system of cultural values and vice versa,
and all the manifestations of cultural products
are reflected in the cognitive structures of the
individual and transferred by means of signs
and symbols. Language mastering involves the
conceptualization of the world as reflected in the
language (Bayramova, 2005). Chinese writing
that appeared more than four thousand years
ago managed to illustrate some of the “hidden”
mechanisms of mental structures verbalization
in the process of the world cognition, thus has
created the Chinese hieroglyphic conceptual
picture of the world consideration of which
is possible through the prism of the cognitive
approach based on the study of the surrounding
background and human nature, the language
awareness and communicative behavior of
individuals. In this context it is also quite
reasonable to introduce the term ‘concept’ defined
herein as “mental formation, which is presented
by important pieces of conscious experience
stored in memory” (Karasik, 2004). The concept
is a multi-dimensional formation where the value
component is of particular cultural significance,
after which follows the metaphorical image and
various means of language fixing.
In philological tradition there has been
settled the structural division of Chinese
characters into the pictographic, ideographic and
phonetic characters. The basis for the pictographic
characters is a pictogram – a symbolic picture
of a real object. This type of hieroglyphs is the
most ancient and the pictograms that it’s made
up of were the basis of the next type which is
the ideographic characters – as their parts, or
keys. As for the phonetic hieroglyphs one of
their characters played the role of phonetics
which means it was a determinant of phonetic
sounds. Linguistic tradition has long considered
that there is no semantic connection between
the signs of phonetic characters, however, a
recent study by V. F. Rezanenko, O. M. Gotlib,
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A. A. Prutskih, N. P. Martynenko, S. I. Bayramova,
A. F. Kondrashevsky has proved the opposite
standpoint. Therefore we will assume the phonetic
characters are a type of ideographic characters
and will turn directly to the ideographic structure
of characters. As is has already been mentioned,
the Chinese character is composed of several
symbols-graphemes, each of which, taken by
itself, has little to do with the meaning expressed
by an ideogram. However, “a set of symbols that
make up a particular ideogram, the meaning of
each symbol interacts with the rest, in which the
semantic field of each character is specified in
one or another aspect and complementary to all
the other creates the particular characteristic that
is by its quality aimed at the meaning attributed
to this particular hieroglyph in relation to which
it serves as a subsumption sign” (Rezanenko,
1985) .
Among the methods of teaching Chinese
characters there is a settled approach implying
that on the initial stage of learning one should
memorize the simplest graphic elements that
have a semantic meaning. Originally graphemes
were picturesque images of separate items or
combinations of items. During the development
of Chinese ethnic groups these ethnicities were
undergoing changes which also affected the
system of writing by simplifying and unifying
it. As a result the form of some graphemes has
changed and thus today it is sometimes difficult to
determine the image of an object a particular sign
goes back to. In order to memorize graphemes
Chinese methodologists suggest turning to their
etymology.
Determination and description of internal
sign relations of a hieroglyphic sign will help
to understand the culture of the Chinese, their
“peculiar” outlook on the surrounding world
as well as their paradigm of values which was
conceived more than four thousand years ago. The
Chinese written characters “are the basic units of
designative ethnic perception of the Chinese, they
form a so-called “shell” which largely determines
the entire typological specifics of the Chinese
language and ideology” (Gotlib, 2005).
The most archaic Chinese characters ascend
to the images of animals, the pictograms were a
straightforward and vivid depiction of the main
distinguishing characteristics of animals and
these nominative units encounter the following
meanings: cow (bull), sheep (goat, ram), horse,
pig, elephant, dog, deer, tiger, mouse, worm, fish,
bird etc. It seems amazing how ancient people’s
outlook was similar to the perception of the world
by a child, the perception made in a clear and
acute way: a long-nosed elephant, a deer with
branched antlers, a pig with a fat belly and short
legs, a mouse with sharp teeth, long tail, and so
on. All these characteristics were reflected in the
ancient Chinese pictograms.
Hieroglyph ‘sheep (goat, ram)’ also
originates from the pictogram found on
divination bones with six thousand years’ history
that depicted the ram’s head with steep downturned horns. In the style of the pictogram one
can discern a kind of abstract thinking found
in a simplified sign-symbol, unlike the other
pictograms depicting the whole animal, such as
horse, fish, tiger pictograms and so on: 羊 (yang)
is a grapheme which is represented in a series of
ideograms, such as: 样, 养, 详, 鲜, 祥, 翔, 姜, 羌,
洋, 恙, 善, 美 etc.. In Chinese culture the ram is
an animal having a peaceful good character that
eats grass and does not cause people any harm.
Benefits of ram or sheep breeding are great as the
meat can be consumed as food, the skin is used
to make clothes thus this animal can both provide
us with nourishment and warmth. Thanks to its
exclusive utilitarian value to the ancient Chinese,
the ram became the symbol of happiness. Two
characters (吉 羊 “ram of happiness”) are quite
often portrayed on ancient vessels. These two
characters are the basis for ideogram 祥 which
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appeared later and consisted of the graphems
“ram” and “altar of the ancestors” and had a
semantic meaning “good omen”, “good luck”.
The meaning of this ideogram has its roots in
the ancestors’ worship. The ancient Chinese
used to bring the sacrificial lamb on the altar
and to pray on their luck and prosperity, and in
the minds of the ancient Chinese this action was
associated with hope for a favorable outcome.
Symbolic meaning as a savior ram is presented in
the historical annals “ Zuo Zhuan” (左 傳, IV-III
centuries BC). The State of Chu won the Zheng
war and Prince Zheng came out to meet the army
of the winners topless and leading the ram. Naked
torso of the Prince testified that he was ready to
take on the Prince Chu’s beatings and insults, and
the ram represented the sacrificial animal that
brings good omen, thus Prince Cheng expressed
his hope for the grant of pardon of his people by
Prince Chu.
The taste of mutton and lamb meat in the
Chinese tradition was the criterion of evaluation of
the food taste. Ideogram 鲜 xian (delicious, fresh)
consists of graphemes 羊 “ram” and 鱼 “fish.”
According to the Chinese’ beliefs, taste of lamb
meat and fish is most pronounced in comparison
with other food types accessible to a wide range
of consumers, their ability to excite the strongest
sense of taste and availability were the factors
that have made lamb meat and fish favorite food
types in China for several millenniums.
Another ideogram 美 mei (beauty, beautiful)
consists of graphemes 羊 “ram” and 大 “big”.
Grapheme 大 originally represented the human
figure-a man who stood up to his full height
spreading his arms, this grapheme is interpreted
in Chinese sources as the physical beauty of a
large, healthy animal, the source of wealth for an
ancient man.
The ideogram 美 presented four concepts of
the ancient Chinese associated with this animal:
judging by appearance the ram is an animal with
a noble bearing, while for sensory system of a
human taste lamb meat is fragrant, tasty and fatty,
for the organs of touch clothing made of sheep’s
fleece is warm, soft and comfortable, the ram or
sheep is unpretentious in terms of breeding and
possesses good reproductive characteristics of an
animal that does not require large investments of
money and effort. These ideas combined together
finally created a sense of well-being and beauty
represented in the semantics of the ideogram 美.
Such concepts as ‘’good, kind, kindness,
goodness’’ in the Chinese language are
represented by an ideogram 善 shan, the most
ancient version of this hieroglyph is a picture of a
ram’s head with large eyes which are depicted at
the bottom of the character. Due to the evolution
this part has been replaced by a grapheme 言
yan ‘’speech’’, indicating a bleating ram. For the
ancient Chinese meek, humble, peaceful look
of the ram and its humble, gentle bleating also
became a symbol of kindness.
Phonetic ideogram 群 qun (flock, group, herd,
crowd) consists of a grapheme 羊 ‘’ram” and the
phonetic component represented by a grapheme
君 jun which determines pronunciation of this
character and possesses a semantic meaning
‘’lord, ruler, head’’. The cognitive aspect of the
ideogram lies in the observation made by the
ancient Chinese of hierarchical organization of a
flock of sheep in which the whole livestock obeys
to a single leader. According to “Lunuy” (論 語)
or ‘’Analects of Confucius’’: ‘Countless animals
make up herds and flocks while people make up
masses’ («兽 三 为 群, 人 三 为 众»). Chinese
culture is a collectivist type of culture where
‘’the notion ‘’we’’ is of primary importance and
achievements and progress are associated with
shared group activity, furthermore group goals,
views and needs dominate the personal ones, an
individual fully depends on the group and society,
such attributes as cooperation, collaboration,
compromise and modesty are highly valued. It
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is considered indecent to emphasize individual
achievements and merits” (Yelizarova, 2005).
Gregarious organization of a sheep community
headed by the leader has become for the Chinese
collectivist culture a wonderful symbol of
cohesion, teamwork, cooperation and mutual
support semantically embodied in the ideogram
群.
Separately from a larger number of characters
containing the grapheme 羊 there are the most
archaic ideograms 羌 qiang and 姜 jiang which
are the names of small nationalities that used to
inhabit the north-east China in ancient times. 羌
nation in the process of evolution assimilated
with the main nationality inhabiting China – Han
nationality. The ideogram denoting this ethnic
group is composed of graphemes 人 ‘’people’’
and 羊 ‘’ram’’. 羊 in this context is a totem of
this ethnic group, a sacred animal, an object of
worship, reflecting archaic cognitive mind of
ancient people.
On the basis of the analysis of ideograms
containing the structural grapheme “ram”
presented in this article it is possible to conclude
that this concept is an important element of the
Chinese concept sphere symbolizing beauty,
goodness, collectivism and a happy omen, it is
also an object of worship and a measure of good
taste. It is worth noting that among the characters
containing grapheme “ram” there are almost no
words with a negative connotation, and those
words that have a negative connotation usually
acquired it during evolution in the later historic
periods, for example, the idiom “scapegoat and
whipping boy’’ (替 罪 羊), which has negative
connotations is borrowed from the Old Testament
phraseology.
The difference in the interpretation of the
ram concept in the intercultural approach is
evident. In Russia the negative meaning of the
concept of ram was observed by linguists in the
late 19th century as the expression ‘’ram’s head’’
was used to determine the object’s insignificance,
and the thick frontal bones and ram’s horns
resulted in semantic transfer to the meaning
“stupidity, bonehead, stubbornness of a human
being” (Bayramova, 2005).
Conclusion
There is a great number of such cultural
correlations of semantic meanings of graphemes
included in the ideogram in Chinese hieroglyphics
since ideograms and phonetic ideograms make up
the majority of Chinese characters. Most of them
are connected with archaic notions about the
world shared by the ancient Chinese. The modern
linguistic picture and hieroglyphic picture of
the world in particular are reflected in modern
hieroglyphics that has been fairly simplified but
nevertheless has deeply preserved the roots of
Chinese ethnic mentality.
In conformity with everything stated
above it can be affi rmed that the inclusion of
sociocultural analysis of Chinese hieroglyphics
on the basis of grammatological approach will
not only provide students with knowledge
about the Chinese hieroglyphic concept
sphere, cultural identity, cultural realia both in
historical and contemporary perspective, but
will also teach language-learners to properly
use the cognitive basis in further independent
language learning; such an approach can
be viewed as an effective mechanism for
memorizing Chinese characters which can help
the mastering of hieroglyphic signs due to a
relatively easy opportunity for reconstructing
the image that is underlying the sociocultural
analysis, as well as a method to contribute to
the formation of a sustainable motivational
component of learning.
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References
A. V. Annenkova, «Terms of the effectiveness of teaching translation as a means of building crosscultural communicative competence», Vectors of innovative methods of teaching foreign languages
and cultures (Pyatigorsk: Pyatigorsk State Linguistic University Press, 2010), p. 121-127 (in Russian)
S. I. Bayramova, «Accounting for cognitive representational schemes in the formation of basic
competence in translation», Linguistic and didactic aspects of translation in translators’ training
(Irkutsk: Irkutsk State Linguistic University Press, 2006), p. 15-25 (in Russian)
N. D. Galskova, Modern methods of teaching foreign languages: A Handbook for Teachers (
Moscow: ARKTI Publishers, 2004) (in Russian).
O. M. Gotlib, Fundamentals of Chinese writing’s grammatology (Moscow: East-West Publishers,
2007) (in Russian).
V. A. Dergachev, Civilizational geopolitics (Large multidimensional space). Scientific
monograph(Odessa: IPREEI NASU Publishers, 2003) (in Russian).
G. V. Yelizarova, Culture and language training (St. Petersburg: KARO Publishers, 2005) (in
Russian).
V. I. Karasik, Linguistic terms: personality, concepts, discourse (Moscow: Gnosis Publishers,
2004) (in Russian).
I. V. Kochergin, Outlines of methods of teaching Chinese language (Moscow: Muravei Publishers,
2000) (in Russian).
V. F. Rezanenko, Semantic structure of hieroglyphic writing (basic structural elements)(Kiev:
Kiev State University Press, 1985) (in Russian).
E. N. Solovova, Methods of teaching foreign languages. Advanced Course (Moscow:
AST Publishers, 2008) (in Russian).
M. V. Sofronov, Chinese language and Chinese characters (Moscow: East-West Publishers, 2007)
(in Russian).
S. G. Ter-Minasova Language and Intercultural Communication (Moscow: Word Publishers,
2000) (in Russian).
I. I. Haleeva, Fundamentals of the theory of learning a foreign language speech understanding
(interpreter’s training) (Moscow: Higher School Publishers, 1989) (in Russian).
李乐毅,汉字演变五百列(北京:北京语言学院出版社,1993年)
http://chinese.ruvr.ru/2011/06/09/51511807.html
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Методика формирования
социокультурной компетенции:
иероглиф как когнитивная память культуры
Н.И. Сосновская
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041 г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а
Китайское письмо, идеографическое и пиктографическое, является частью языковой картины
мира, концепты, выраженные в нем на грамматологическом уровне могут участвовать
в формировании социокультурной компетенции, являющейся одной из составляющих
межкультурной коммуникативной компетенции. Включение социокультурного анализа
китайской иероглифики на основе грамматологического подхода позволит обучающимся
не только приобрести знания о китайской иероглифической концептосфере, национальнокультурной специфике, культурных реалиях, как в историческом, так и в современном
аспекте, но также научит правильно использовать данную когнитивную базу при дальнейшем
самостоятельном изучении языка, будет эффективным механизмом запоминания,
способствующим активизации усвоения иероглифических знаков за счет сравнительно легкой
возможности реконструировать образ, лежащий в основе социокультурного анализа, а
кроме того будет способствовать формированию устойчивого мотивационного компонента
обучения.
Ключевые слова: социокультурная компетенция, межкультурная коммуникативная компетенция, идеограмма, фоноидеограмма, графема, концепт, когнитивный подход, грамматологический подход, китайская иероглифическая картина мира, концептосфера.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 944-950
~~~
УДК 378.147:7.071.3(075.8)
Lexical Borrowings:
Linguistic and Didactic Aspects
Boris V. Tarev*
National Research University
“Higher School of Economics”,
20, Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, 101000 Russia 1
Received 13.12.2011, received in revised form 28.12.2011, accepted 19.01.2012
This article is devoted to the study of borrowed lexis penetration in the recipient language. The author
represents the methods of loan words analysis and their usage in the process of foreign-language communication. The financial and economic terminology is taken as the material of the research. We define
the types of lexical borrowing and types of teaching assignments which are designed to help students
acquire these terminological units.
Keywords: terminology, lexical borrowing, loan words, foreign language teaching.
Introduction
As we know, the transformation of the
language system, variability of all levels of
language, is a natural phenomenon. Particularly
evident these changes manifest themselves at
present time when the volume of information flows
constantly grows, and technological progress
penetrates in all the spheres of modern life and
society. In the context of exchange (interactions)
between civilizations the modification of
the language system is becoming even more
intensive, bearing cultural colors. This allows the
representatives of different societies understand
each other, both in everyday and professional
business communication.
The mentioned above changes are
characterized by different degrees of intensity.
It is a well-known fact that grammatical and
phonetic systems are more “conservative” thus
*
1
providing the slower processes of development,
and “reserved” attitude to innovations. It is
obvious that this “conservatism” is determined
by the fact of these systems are very stable
and established: grammar and phonetics resist
to perception and assimilation of any changes,
including changes that result from language
contacts.
Lexical system, in its turn, is more flexible
and more prone to various types of changes.
One way to replenish the lexical system of the
language is loan words from other languages.
In this context it is interesting to consider in this
article two important issues.
First, we need to focus on the essence of
the loan words replenishing of the thesaurus,
to determine the drivers and dynamics of these
processes, to assess the irreversibility of this
“movement” within lexical system.
Corresponding author E-mail address: boristarev@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Second, it is necessary to determine what
role this kind of continual processes should play in
foreign language teaching of future professionals
in the field of economics.
Linguistic Aspect
of Lexical Borrowing
Lexical borrowing is one of the ways of
language enrichment and does not lead to the
loss of its specificity and identity. Language
development continues in accordance with its
inherent laws, even if it includes into vocabulary
a considerable amount of foreign words, as it
was in case with the English language after the
Norman conquest (Volodina, 2000).
The “fate” of loan words may be different:
some of them are firmly fixed in a recipient
language and remain in it as an integral part of
general language, while others remain in the
position of words for special purpose, the third,
ceasing to serve the purposes of communication,
gradually fell out of use, and then disappear
completely.
The entry of foreign words into the lexical
system of a recipient language is a long and
complex process. Due to various reasons
assimilation can become incomplete, and the loan
word retains some features inherent to it in the
donor language. However, these “residual” effects
cannot be thought of as a kind of mechanical rough
“handling” of the word in the recipient language: a
lexical unit with “features of a foreign language”
must be supported by a sufficient number of other
words with similar features, or a certain linguistic
practice in the past or present. Such groups of
words form the peripheral systems that seek to
be adapted and dissolved in the host system, or to
enter it, causing its partial reconstruction.
The analysis of the underlying reasons for
borrowed lexical of units can set these reasons
into two types: extralinguistic and linguistic
proper. Extralinguistic reasons include:
1) cultural influence of one nation on
another,
2) presence of oral or written contacts
between countries with different languages,
3) increasing interest in learning language,
4) prestige of the donor language (which
sometimes leads to borrowing by many
languages from one language and the appearance
of internationalisms),
5) specific social strata passion towards the
culture of another country;
6) linguistic culture of social strata that
introduce a new word.
Proper linguistic reasons are:
1) lack in native language of equivalent
words for the new object or concept,
2) tendency to use one loan word instead of
descriptive phrases,
3) the desire to improve and preserve the
communicative distinction of lexical units, which
is achieved through elimination of polysemy or
homonymy in the recipient language,
4) the need to specify the appropriate
meaning, to distinguish some shades of meaning
through attaching them to different words,
5) tendency to expressiveness, that leads
to the appearance of foreign-language stylistic
synonyms,
6) lack of mother tongue potential to create
derivatives on the basis of existing in the language
similar words,
7) accumulation in the recipient language
of words, which are characterized by similar
elements, that is the way of morphemes and
derivational elements borrowing.
In the narrow scope of this article, we
focus only on borrowing of terminology related
to financial and economic activity (English
language). As it could be seen, first of all it is
necessary to analyze the causes and the ways of
foreign words penetration in the terminological
system of the recipient language. As a rule,
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the enrichment of any terminological system
is most often carried out with the purpose of
completion of the detected during its inspection
gaps. Also there is a need to fill the gaps resulting
from the rejection of the available terms and to
specify homonyms. In the case of absence in the
lexical system of the recipient language of the
words that exist in a foreign terminology, and
if the corresponding phenomenon is actual for
the current reality with the consequent need to
express it by means of linguistic resources, the
necessity to coin a new term is becoming evident.
Sometimes the whole blocks of terminological
lexis are borrowed, if the donor language contains
a well developed lexical system specific for a
certain sphere of human activity.
The problem of implementation in the
recipient language of lexical borrowings and
international terms has always been in the sphere
of terminologists’ attention. And we know that
the evaluation criteria of a foreign-language
term is seen not so much in its origin, but how it
meets the requirements of the recipient language
system, so that to be able to be assimilated in that
language.
It should be noted that there are two ways
of the loan terms to penetrate into the recipient
language. First, this is the entry through oral
speech that is mostly specific for the early stages
of language contact. This way is witnessed
very rarely at present time in the society with
a developed socio-economic system. Second,
this is the entry through written texts. When
lexical borrowings occur through written sources
the penetration goes by means of: 1) special
terminology, 2) press, 3) intensive business
communication in written form (correspondence),
and 4) translation of specialized foreign literature.
(We have mentioned only a few of many existing
ways of loan lexis penetration).
Written borrowings are characterized by
greater stability in the corpus of loan lexis, as
well as in the phonological and morphological
patterns of assimilation in the recipient language.
When borrowing process goes through written
sources the very process of penetration and
assimilation is becoming much more systematic
in comparison with similar processes for the
borrowings through spoken language.
The penetration of foreign lexis into the
receiving language can be conditionally classified
into six types of written borrowings. This
classification is developed by A.V. Superanskaya
and represents a fairly complete, although not
always indisputable, list of ways and means of
adaptation of loan lexis in the recipient language
(Superanskaya, 1962: 42).
The first of the six ways is a direct
borrowing without any change in writing of
the loan words. It is possible only if the case of
identity of graphic systems between the source
and the recipient languages. This can be applied,
for example, for the borrowing process from one
Western language to another. There are numerous
examples of this type of borrowing of finance and
economic terminology and this can be revealed
while performing a comparative study of Western
European languages:
− French: arbitrage, bonification, deport,
allonge, borderau – English: arbitrage;
bonification, deport, allonge, borderau;
− German: mark, block, agent, grundism –
English: mark, block, agent, grundism;
− Spanish: embargo – English: embargo;
− Dutch: gulden – English: gulden.
The explanation of the fact that in the
Western European languages there is a large
number of overlapping in writing and in meaning
lexical units is, of course, very evident. On the
one hand, this is the fact that they are relative
languages (e.g., English and German, French and
Spanish, etc.) and not always similar in spelling
and meaning words must have relations of a loan
word and a borrowing word. On the other hand,
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the widespread use of «internationalisms» –
borrowings from Classical Languages. The vast
majority of internationalisms in their written
form are easily identified in different languages
due to the comprehensiveness of their perception
and recognition of the adequacy of the general
outline, and not the separate parts of the words.
For example,
− French: assortiment, compagnon –
English: assortment, companion;
− German: Taxe – English: tax;
− Italian: portfogli – French: portfeuille –
English: portfolio.
Because of the differences between graphic
systems the Russian language and the Western
European languages it is not possible to talk
about such a way of penetration of loan words
into the Russian language.
The second way of borrowing is
transliteration. According to A.V. Superanskaya
“transliteration is transformation of graphemes
of one written language by means of graphemes
of another standardized written language”
[Superanskaya, 1962: 36]. From the point of
view of the author “transliteration is used in
some special cases and should not be widely
applied in general situations” (ibid.). Such an
understanding of transliteration leads to the fact
that this term defines a conditional code through
which you can not learn the phonemic system of
the donor language and which at best can give an
unambiguous re-transliteration.
Possible confusion of the notion of the
term “transliteration” leads to the fact that
the researchers who study the penetration
of borrowed lexis are not unanimous in the
definition of that term. Thus, the G.I. Donidze
insists that while transliterating we can not go
beyond the existing alphabet (Donidze, 1976: 3339). At the same time A.V. Superanskaya declares
the existence of a certain code system that is able
to include characters of other alphabetic systems
(Superanskaya, 1962). Due to the fact that the
terminology of finance and economic activity
is a lexical system significantly close to general
language, the search for any particular elements
that inherent for this particular terminological
system, does not make sense. You can simply
designate symbols that common to many
terminological systems, such as: «S», «P», being
mostly specific for Mathematics.
The third way – a practical transcription –
is defined as a strictly limited by the graphemes
of the recipient written language. This term is
closely associated with the term “transliteration”
with different meanings attributed to it by
different authors. Such a transfer should be used
for general language, because a common reader
rejects any deviation from the habitual practice
of writing, any changes as compared with the
existing alphabet are not clear and not appropriate.
Whatever term we use, we must admit that this
approach is the most productive regardless of
whether the interacting graphic systems are
similar or not. A great number of examples
(English: ad valorem – Russian «ад валорем»;
Italian: Girante – Russian: жирант; Spanish:
Cargo – English: cargo – Russian: карго, etc.)
confirms that this way of borrowing is the most
productive, when there is an objective need for a
new word, and, respectively, the concept in the
recipient language.
The fourth way – the academic transcription,
phonetic and phonemic, is used only in specific,
well-defined cases in specialized literature.
Again irrelevance of this path of borrowing for
the financial and economic terms gives us the
opportunity to leave it without attention.
One of the productive ways of lexical system
enrichment by means of loan words (not only
terminology, but also general vocabulary) is the
morphological transfer of a foreign word with
the help of forms specific for the grammar of the
recipient language
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Comparison of correlating terms of financial
and economic lexis in different languages shows
a significant number of matches between the socalled international morphological components.
Most of these morphological components back
to the Latin and Greek languages (accumulation,
economist, deflator, финансист, кредитор,
etc.). The practice of borrowing of lexical units
into the Russian language very often reveals
that foreign language morphological element is
replaced by the already existing in the language
«more traditional» morphological structure.
(See: English: liquidity, adequacy – Russian:
ликвидность, адекватность, etc.).
Recently, the completion of the adopted
economic terminology has been realized due to
the penetration of English language words, which
replenish the Russian language with derivational
constructions. Such words as «маркетинг»,
«лизинг», «процессинг», etc. have become
so common that they can be met even in nonspecial literature. Thus we can assume that the
morphological element «-инг», which previously
did not show any word-building activity, will be
able to act as an active morphological model in a
certain period of time.
The sixth way of penetration of borrowed
vocabulary is realized through lexical “transfer,”
that is, full or partial translation. Lexical
“transfer” is practiced widely, but this method
does not introduce innovations in the language in
terms of designation.
So, having studied some ways of penetration
into the recipient language of financial and
economic terms from foreign languages, we
can make some generalizations. First of all, we
must once again reiterate the postulate that any
terminology is being developed in accordance
with the general laws of language and subjects
to the requirements of its unification and
adaptability. Borrowing of economic terms is
also subject to these requirements. Considering
the productivity of the ways of the borrowing
process, we can identify as being particularly
active – a direct borrowing, practical transcription
(or transliteration) and morphological transfer.
Academic transcription and transliteration (as
defined by A.V. Superanskaya) cannot be called as
active paths, since they themselves are limited in
use and cannot be taken in the common language
of everyday communication.
The undertaken linguistic analysis shows
that today the completion of terminological
system is an irreversible process. No matter how
individual scientists advocate for the “purity”
of the language, no matter how they demand to
eradicate Anglicisms from the Russian language,
they have to accept the ongoing processes that take
place in completion of terminological systems.
Didactic Aspect
of Lexical Borrowing
The mentioned above linguistic features
affect the process of foreign language teaching,
in particular, the process of teaching studentsfuture economists and experts in financial and
credit spheres.
Terminological lexis is a constant
component constituting the content of foreign
language teaching. Its composition and quantity
are characterized by the curriculum, as far as
qualitative attributes of terminology require
specific approach as compared to the general
vocabulary. The processes that contribute to
the development of terminological systems
influence the compositional characteristics of
the selected terminological units. Consequently,
there is a need for periodic review of selected
terms, the completion of this terminological
pool with new (borrowed) units, whose
status in the terminological system of the
language is scientifically proven and approved
by standards and not only by usage. This
replenishment necessitates withdrawal from
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the terminological system (compensation
factor) of a certain amount of units that are less
important or obsolete.
Consequently we can say that the theory of
terminological borrowings considerably affects
the decision making process concerning the
formation of the list of terms required for the
teaching process.
Another methodological aspect that
undergoes the influence of this theory is directly
connected with the process of presentation and
semantization of such borrowed terminological
units. This process appears to have a profound
cultural or rather cross-cultural potential. Using
information about the origin of the term, its
etymology in the donor language (e.g. French
for English, English for Russian, etc.) allows
to “intercrossing” the elements of professional
cultures. The student is becoming empirically
aware of the level of development of his
professional area in different countries. This is
especially important for professionals in such
a specialization as “World economy”. There is
penetration into the professional world of another
country, understanding of global integration
processes in the economy and financial activity.
All this is aimed at the development of a
professional cross-cultural mentality, being
significant in the contemporary context of
intercultural communication.
In addition to global changes in the
substructure of the personality consciousness
we can see and realize the smaller but no less
important for learning a foreign language
processes that are more of pragmatic value.
Through the understanding of the essence of such
a phenomenon as a lexical borrowing, the causes
that lead to irreversibility of that process, the
knowledge of the basic patterns and the ability
to predict the most likely ways of integrating of
new foreign-language terms in the lexical system
of the recipient language will allow the student
to grasp (to realize, process, fix in memory) the
loan terms. And this is the first step in the active
use of such terms, free operation with them in the
process of professional communication, in the
realization of international cooperation.
To illustrate the implementation of such
potential features of the theory of terminological
borrowing, we give examples of exercises that can
be used in the presentation, and initial activation
of new terminological units.
− Pay attention to the underlined words
within the given text. Think of their origin.
What language are they borrowed from?
− Compare the words in columns and
match them. Think about their similarity
and identity.
− Explain the reasons for penetration into
the Russian language of the following
terms:
“leasing”,
“ franchising”,
“tolling”. Use your knowledge of special
disciplines.
− Imagine the possible ways of borrowing
into the Russian language of the following
terms “merchant bank”, “annuity”,
“ultimate downfall”.
These examples demonstrate the viability
and pragmatic value of such assignments. As
we can see, there is a possibility to create an
integrated system (series) of exercises aimed at
training students to understand, translate, and
correctly interpret terminological borrowings
and to operate them.
Conclusion
Thus, on the basis of our reasoning, we
can conclude that in the process of teaching a
foreign language terminology students must be
focused on the ways and means of terminological
borrowings. This is an interesting (entertaining,
motivational) method of work, it is meaningful
both in a narrow (methodological) sense, and in a
broad (didactical) aspect.
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References
M.N. Volodina. Cognitive and Informational Nature of the Term (on the material of terminology
of mass media). (М.: MSU Publishing House, 2000).
A.V. Superanskaya. Lexical Borrowing and Practical Transcription. (М.: Аcademy of Science of
the USSR, 1962).
G.I. Donidze. “The Most Important Problems of the Transfer of Non-Russian Toponyms of the
Soviet Union”. Toponymy and Historical Geography. (М., 1976).
Лексические заимствования:
лингвистический и
лингводидактический аспекты
Б.В. Тарев
Национальный исследовательский университет
«Высшая школа экономики»,
Россия 101000, Москва, ул. Мясницкая, 20
Данная статья посвящена исследованию процессов проникновения заимствованной лексики
в принимающий язык. Представлены приемы обучения студентов анализу заимствований
и их использованию в процессе иноязычного общения. В качестве материала исследования
рассматривается финансово-экономическая терминология. Определены типы лексического
заимствования и виды дидактических заданий, нацеленных на усвоение студентами данных
терминологических единиц.
Ключевые слова: терминология, лексическое заимствование, заимствованные слова, обучение
иностранному языку.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 951-957
~~~
УДК 316.453
Ethnic Consciousness:
Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity
Olga F. Neskryabina*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 1.09.2011, received in revised form 6.11.2011, accepted 16.12.2011
This article is devoted to the analysis of essence and structure of ethnic consciousness.
In modern ethnology has been widely accepted idea that ethnic self-awareness is the major ethnoforming factor. According to the author, the essence of ethnos consists in that value which has for ethnophors their ethnicity.
The ethnic self-awareness should be considered in unity of its main components. These are: sense of
feeling of the ethnic belonging, expressing specific character of an ethnic community; signs of ethnic
self-identification and psychosemantics of ethnic feeling – its personal sense. The major ethnoforming
factor is recognition of value of blood-relationship ties, which signs are: ethnonym, language, cultural
community, etc. These cultural phenomena act as the signs indicating a community of an origin that
doesn’t belittle their value as force consolidating ethnic communities.
Mentality or national character doesn’t belong to signs of ethnoidentity, firstly, owing to the semantic
uncertainty; secondly, because concerning many ethnoses idea of features of national character is the
result of an external assessment.
Psychosemantics of ethnic sense is its emotional content, a place in system of values of this individual,
correlation to the motivating sphere. The feeling of love and attachment as manifestation «We-motivation» is more preferable in comparison with a pride, as manifestation of motivation of self-affirmation.
Keywords: ethnos, ethnic identity, signs of an ethnic origin, psychosemantics of ethnic sense, motivation
of ethnoidentity.
In a modern scientific and publicistic
discourse a problem of essence of ethnos and
ethnic identity continues to remain actual.
Many researchers proceed from conviction
of impossibility to understand essence of ethnic
relation out of the analysis of meaning, which
in it is put by subjects of the ethnorelations.
National consciousness as an ethnoforming
factor is attached great importance in world
ethnology. According to A.I.Bochkarev, «a
*
1
question about what everyone calls his people,
nation, tribe, in what he sees his difference from
neighbors, but the main thing – what meaning
each person puts in an answer to this question –
this is the problem of ethnic diagnostics not
solved still» (Bochkarev, 2008: 45). It seems
that it is a problem not only diagnostics, but also
the essence of ethnic relations. It doesn’t mean
that the answer to a question about meaning
of ethnic origin lies on a surface ordinary
Corresponding author E-mail address: nescr@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity
consciousness. The subjective psychological
reality, as it is known from experience of
development of psychology and sociology, isn’t
transparent neither for practical, nor for reflective
consciousness and ethological knowledge is
constructed on the same methodology as other
humanitarian theories.
The cultural studies paradigm is still
dominated in an approach to defi nition of
essence of ethnos. «Modern science – writes
V.A. Tishkov, – considers ethnicity as a «sense
of belonging to a group of people who are
different from others by culture» (Tishkov,
2005: 167). Usually a set of distinctive features
includes self-name of group, language, historical
myth, religion, some features of material and
spiritual culture (In the same place; Lebedeva,
1999: 18).
It`s necessary to make an important
clarification to this characteristic: historical myth
represents a myth about common origin of group.
In this case, essential feature of ethnos which, in
our opinion, the idea and feeling of relationship
is, is included in a set of distinctive features.
1. Meaning of a sense
of an ethnic origin or essence of ethnos
It`s universally recognized that availability
of own name is obligatory feature of ethnos,
having important ethnoconsolidating value, but
different meaning is attached to this value. There
are different interpretations of the question: what
is the nature of the relations, which are designated
by this own name. Y.V. Bromley is one of the
leading domestic ethnologists, he considered that
ethnonym is an external reference and culture,
language et cetera are behind of its. Y.V. Bromley
considered recognition of relationship as the main
ethnoforming as manifestation of biologization
approach (Bromley, 1983: 45).
Certainly accessory to a certain culture is
an important factor, and in some cases it gains
paramount importance. It is known that many
ethnic Germans who were living in Russia for
a long time, considered themselves as Russian
people. However in such situations the fact is
important that not individual, but a family, and,
as a rule, rooted in Russian culture in several
generations became a part of Russian culture.
But the most important thing when evaluating
this kind of evidence is that the ethnic origin
essentially is the dynamic characteristic. If you
use metaphor language, the ethnos is not blood,
but «voice of blood». A sense of ethnic community
of personality is no more not less stable than the
sense of family identity.
Lapidary and, in our opinion, exact definition
of ethnos belongs to S.N. Bulgakov. In his
opinion, national is spiritual-blood-relationship
ties (Bulgakov, 1992). This formulation isn`t about
addition of two factors – cultural and natural, but
about spiritual sense of blood ties, about sacrality
of the relationship. Endoetnonim indicates and
fixes these ties.
The name of the people makes one semantic
number with a patrimonial name – with a surname.
Extent of identification of the personality with a
family and with ethnos undoubtedly, different.
Though there are individuals, for whom the
family name is the same empty phrase, as the
name of the nation.
Ethnicity can be transformed, change its
original meaning under the influence of certain
historical circumstances. So, in process of
expansion of limits there was a sacralization
of the Russian state. «Russian ceased to be the
ethnic characteristic and became state: everything
that serves prosperity of the Orthodox state, is
Russian» (Lurye, 1997: 276). However, hardly it
is possible to speak about complete substitution
of sense of identity, at least, at household level.
Spirituality of idea of blood relationship about
which S.N. Bulgakov speaks, is a cult of memory
of the ancestors, which is a universal cultural
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value. The antiquity in itself has sacral meaning
for the person. Why is a bunch «ancient means
sacred» formed in the mind – is other question,
but its existence doesn’t demand proofs. As to its
relation to a problem of ethnic consciousness, it`s
not obviously and needs explanations.
The idea of ethnos as blood-relationship ties
was discussed and exposed to criticism in many
researches. It`s much written about subjectivity
of criterion of relationship, its dependence on
random factors. It does matter, that the degree of
relationship doesn’t give in to the strict account,
though real breakthrough is carried out last time
in this area. But it’s not the point. Possibilities of
measurement is a problem of a science, instead
of that reality in which the science is engaged.
Effectiveness of criticism of the theory of
relationship, in our opinion, is reduced by the fact
that any of other signs of ethnos doesn’t possess
most definiteness.
Opponents of the idea of relationship as the
main ethnoforming ties resort to such argument:
if people don’t know about the biological
relationship, it doesn’t influence the relations
between them. That in itself is true, but thus
proves nothing. It so happens that relatives don’t
know about the relationship and don’t form a
family group. But whether it is possible to deduce
the statement from this fact: «the family isn`t a
community based on the blood relationship»?
If people don’t know about the historical
relationship, it means that there`s no one certain
ethnos. But in some cases, they know, and this
number contains so many units, how many the
people exist on Earth.
The relations of relationship aren’t so
simple, as those who isn’t inclined to give to
them ethnoforming value, probably, consider.
Two families became related, it means that the
following generation will have common genes.
For this generation this affinity has just spiritual
character, «bloodness» contains in it, so to speak,
potentially. This is not the unique example of that
the reality of our selfness exists in the present
only potentially, as reality of the represented
future. The same applies to ethnoses. Initially far,
subsequently they can become related and form
new ethnos, such as, Brazilians, Cubans, etc. The
existence of these peoples doesn’t undermine idea
of blood relationship, as it sometimes seems. The
process of ethnogenesis goes constantly, and it is
accompanied by unstable identity, an abundance
of “floating” ethnoconsciousness, that creates
both practical (psychological) and theoretical
difficulties.
For some reason when speech about ethnoses
as related community, counterarguments are
derived not from the actual relations of people,
their psychology or speech practice, but from
the «academic» situations: how to defi ne degree
of relationship in ethnos, whether it is possible
to establish genotypic similarities, etc. In quite
specific situations people need an analysis of
the genome for establishment relationship in the
solution of family problems. So why accuracy
in establishment ethnic relationship should
excite us? Certainly, this problem represents
scientific interest, but it is not necessary to put
sense of the human relations in dependence on
its decision.
The value of ethnic origin for the man is a
value of his roots. In contrast to the biological term
«ontogeny» designating borders of individual
human life, «biography» means that human
life doesn’t begin with the birth moment, but
continues as a fact of the biography of his parents
and primogenitors. And only in this semantic
continuum the feeling of the immortality among
the subsequent generations is possible. So we
see the spirituality of blood-relationship ties.
Vocabulary indicates about the psychological
community of family and national ties and that
fixes these relations: «relatives», «people»,
«homeland».
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2. Signs of ethnic identification
and self-identification
The ethnic consciousness is a complex system
including the main substructures, which are:
• meaning a sense of ethnic identity (in a
translation into language of ethnology is
an essence of ethnos);
• signs of ethnic identification and selfidentification;
• psychosemantics of ethnic sense.
The community of language, territory,
economic life, mentality, traditions, etc. – these
realities which are usually treated as ethnoforming
factors, in our opinion, are the signs of ethnic
self-identification indicating the relations of
relationship. Belonging to any ethnos is the fact
of consciousness of the individual that, of course,
doesn’t mean randomness of ethnoidentity. Man
needs signs of his nationality, the signs by which
he could judge himself as a representative of a
certain ethnos. The primary sign of ethnoidentity
is for the individual ethnic origin of his family.
The important sign role belongs to national
language though many researchers note its
uncertainty as a sign of an ethnic origin. In fact,
the person cannot speak in language of the nation,
that doesn’t prevent him to identify himself to
this ethnos. However it`s essentially important
that national language exists as language on
which relatives speak, or it existed as language
of ancestors.
These notions – not always distinct and
verbalized – is only symbols of deeper, but less
realized value what «relationship ties» is. The
meaning so-called «a territorial sign» is same.
The common place of residence isn`t important in
the present, but in the past, as a sign of the general
origin, the general historical destiny. Though in the
present the aspiration to compact accommodation
is natural for an ethnic community.
In some cases the choice of a nationality
depends on the factors which are not concerning
to system of ethnoforming indications. In
families where parents have a different ethnic
origin, children can make a choice between two
identities, for the reasons known only for them
one. Equally as they can change the ethnic origin
or divide it between several cultures (Tishkov,
2005: 167).
Signs of an ethnic origin can operate in
system, but can – and separately. In different
circumstances, their relative importance varies.
Sign character of language, cultural traditions,
etc. doesn’t exclude that they have independent
consolidating value. There are bases to allocate
in system of indications of ethnos more and less
stable components (Koptseva, 2011).
Some authors carry a mentality of a nation
or national character to indications of ethnos
(Khomutov, 2003: 269). We think that it is not
necessary to consider this formation as one
of signs of ethnoidentity which are language,
cultural traditions, etc. The matter is that the
concept of national character is quite uncertain
(Kon, 1971). The special mentality is inherent
not in all ethnoses equally that is defined by
historical destiny of ethnos and what ethnoses
with it cooperate. Not casually ethnologists prefer
to speak not about character of the nation, but
about the ethnic stereotypes existing concerning
various different ethnic formations (Stepanov,
1999; Pochebut, 2012). The concept «stereotype»
contains uncertainty of its objective and subjective
relatedness.
There are still reasons for which the
national character should not be attributed to
ethnoidentification factors. Even close ethnoses,
which are the Scandinavian people, tend to be
ironic in relation to each other (Gundelach,
2000). Hardly truly to consider that, say, Swedes
include those stereotypes which are expressed
in the jokes which are released to their address
by Danes or Norwegians in the complex of
ethnic indications. And in case of a critical
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spirit in relation to character of the own ethnos,
the effect «I`m another matter» considerably
proves. Conversation that Russian badly behave
abroad, usually assumes that speaking, being
Russian, doesn’t carry this criticism to himself.
As a rule, it has the bases to consider, because
negative image is created on the basis of behavior
of minority of people. If the individual identifies
himself with positive features (real or imagined)
of his ethnos, it shows personal sense of his
ethnoidentification.
3. Personal meaning
of ethnoidentity
Like other psychological structures, the
ethnoconsciousness of the personality accepts
various individual values in dynamic (intensity)
and in content (psychosemantics) aspects.
Psychosemantics of ethnic sense is its emotional
content, a place in system of values of this
individual, correlation to the motivating sphere –
everything that it`s possible to generalize in
concept «personal meaning of ethnoidentity». The
personal meaning is understood as the relation of
the subject to the world. A form of its manifestation
may be a «emotional coloring of this or that object,
extramental precepts» (Petrenko, 1997: 50).
Ethnic senses are emotions and moods
expressing the relation to actually ethnic reality,
commitment to national values (Platonov, 2001:
106).
The dynamic aspect of a complex of
ethnoidentity in usual social conditions has small
values of size. There are researches in which it
is shown that similarity of a personal orientation
creates between people closer relations, than
their same ethnoidentity (Okoneshnikova, 1999:
221). In the conditions of the conflicts, wars and
other social shocks intensity of national senses
increases sharply.
Psychosemantics of ethnoidentity, in our
opinion, reveals a role (value) of ethnoidentity in
system of personal motivation and regulation of
activity.
Accessory of any social community satisfies
certain needs of the individual and shows, on
the one hand, meaning of identification with
group, with another hand – individual structure
of his motivational sphere. A sense of ethnic
relationship can be means to satisfaction of all
requirements inherent in the person, but more
it is connected with motivation of safety, need
for accessory certain «We» and with motivation
of self-affirmation – «I-motivation». The least
valuable, from the point of view of moral criteria,
the option of personal meaning of ethnoidentity is
a personal self-affirmation. When the ethnic sense
gives to the person feeling of own importance at
the expense of belonging to great (rich, ancient,
original, etc.) national culture. In this case
emotion of pride is prevailing.
The personal meaning of ethnoidentity is
presented by the relation senses of national love
and pride. Pride – the feeling lifting us over other
people. It means comparison, attention emphasis
on own advantages, the jealous relation to
another’s successes. In contrast to the pride, love
is the feeling which is not demanding rational
justification. Power of maternal love doesn’t
depend on advantages and perfection of the
child and if depends, it`s not maternal love, but
something absolutely other. I love my people, not
because it`s better, stronger, etc., etc., but because
this is my people – such position more humanly
and more difficult to stay on it. Other more is
peculiar to people: to consider that the events
in the culture is naturally and to operate that
members of your group were the winner. The list
towards pride easily leads to nationalism, but «the
nationalism is how patriotism is reprehensible»
(Bulgakov, 1991: 183).
As researchers note, in many cultures there
is a tendency of an identification national and
state (Ryan, 1995: 3). It is possible to assume that
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Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity
one of the reasons of this phenomenon consists
in understanding of importance of patriotic
education, as in the case of military conflict
people should protect the state, not relatives. It is
thought, this, apparently, pragmatical argument,
not quite works, as qualities of the defender of the
fatherland are quality moral, they depend not only
and even not so much on ethnoidentification, how
many from values of fidelity, honor, advantage
formed in a family.
Conclusions:
1. Basic
elements
of
system
of
ethnoconsciousness are: the meaning of
sense of ethnic origin, expressing specifics
of an ethnic community; signs of ethnic
self-identification and psychosemantics
of ethnic sense, its personal sense.
2. The main ethnoforming factor, according
to the author, is the consciousness
and emotional experience of bloodrelationship ties. A semantic core is not
the blood relationship as that, but idea of
relationship, value of the family kinship
relations.
3. Indications (signs) of an ethnic community
are: ethnonym, language, religion,
cultural community, etc.
4. The mentality or national character
doesn’t belong to signs of ethnoidentity.
Firstly, owing to the semantic uncertainty;
secondly, because concerning many
ethnoses idea of features of national
character grows out of an external
evaluation.
5. Personal meaning of ethnoidentity
is manifested that as what means of
satisfaction of requirements belonging to
an ethnic community serves. The sense of
national pride manifests motivation of selfaffirmation, a sense of love and affection –
the motivation of accession. The ability to
protect the interests of the nation depends
on moral qualities of the individual.
References
V.P. Alekseev, Ethnogenesis (Moscow: High School, 1986), in Russian.
A.I. Bochkarev, Fundamental bases of ethnogenesis (Moscow: Flinta: MPSI, 2008), in Russian.
Y.V. Bromley, Essays of the theory of ethnos (Moscow: Nauka, 1983), in Russian.
S.N. Bulgakov, Nation and humanity, the chosen compositions in 2 volumes, volume 2 (Moscow:
Pravda, 1992), in Russian.
S.N. Bulgakov, Christian socialism: Disputes on destinies of Russia (Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian
office, 1991), in Russian.
P. Gundelach, “Joking Relationships and National Identity in Scandinavia”, Acta Sociologica.
Journal of the Scandinavial Sociological Assoc, Vol. 43, № 2 (2000). 113-122.
L.M. Drobizheva, “Identity and ethnic precepts of Russian in the own and ino-ethnical
environment”, Socis, 12 (2010), 49-58, in Russian.
O. B. Istomina, “About types ethnic identity”, Socis, 11 (2011), 61-65, in Russian.
A.E.Khomutov, Anthropology (Rostov on Don: Phoenix, 2003), in Russian.
I.S. Kon, To a problem of national character (Moscow: Nauka, 1971), in Russian.
N.P. Koptseva, “Classical and modern approaches to ethnocultural researches. The core of ethnos”,
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities and social sciences, 5 (2011 4), 615-632.
N. Lebedeva, Introduction to ethnic and cross-cultural psychology (Moscow: Klyuch-S, 1999),
in Russian.
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S.V. Lurye, Historical ethnology (Moscow: Aspect Press, 1997), in Russian.
A.P. Okoneshnikova, Interethnic perception and understanding people of each other (Perm:
Zvezda, 1999), in Russian.
V.F. Petrenko, Bases of psychosemantics (Moscow: Publishing house of the Moscow university,
1997), in Russian.
Y.P. Platonov, Ethnic psychology (St. Petersburg: Rech, 2001), in Russian.
L.G. Pochebut, Cross-cultural and ethnic psychology (St. Petersburg: Piter, 2012), in Russian.
S. Pyan, Ethnic Conflict and International Relations (Dartmouth, 1995).
Z.V. Sikevich, National consciousness of Russian (sociological sketch) (Moscow: Mekhanic,
1996), in Russian.
P.D. Stepanov, Ethnopsychology in practice of the public servant (Nizhni Novgorod, 1999), in
Russian.
V.A. Tishkov, Ethnology and Politics: articles of 1989-2004 (Moscow: Nauka, 2005), in
Russian.
Этническое сознание: личностный смысл
и знаки этноидентичности
О.Ф. Нескрябина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья посвящена анализу сущности и структуры этнического сознания.
В современной этнологии получила широкое признание идея о том, что этническое самосознание
является основным этнообразующим фактором. По мнению автора, сущность этноса состоит
в том значении, которое имеет для этнофоров их принадлежность к этнической группе.
Этническое самосознание следует рассматривать в единстве его основных компонентов.
Таковыми являются: смысл чувства этнической принадлежности, выражающий специфику
этнической общности; знаки этнической самоидентификации и психосемантика этнического
чувства - ее личностный смысл. Основным этнообразующим фактором является признание
ценности кровнородственной связи, признаками которой являются: этноним, язык, культурная
общность и т.п. Данные культурные феномены выступают в роли знаков, указывающих на
общность происхождения, что не умаляет их значения как силы консолидирующей этнические
общности.
К знакам этноидентичности не относится психический склад, или национальный характер, вопервых, в силу своей семантической неопределенности; во-вторых, потому, что в отношении
многих этносов представление о чертах национального характера является результатом
внешней оценки.
Психосемантика этнического чувства – это, его эмоциональное наполнение, место в системе
ценностей данного индивида, соотнесенность с мотивирующей сферой. Чувство любви
и привязанности как проявление «Мы-мотивации» является более предпочтительным по
сравнению с чувством гордости, как проявлением мотивации самоутверждения.
Ключевые слова: этнос, этническая идентичность, знаки этнической принадлежности,
психосемантика этнического чувства, мотивация этноидентичности.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 958-969
~~~
УДК 60.021
Integrated Model of Media Space
Sergey I. Shelonaev*
Russian Pedagogical University, S.Petersburg
48 Moika, S.-Petersburg, 191186 Russia 1
Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 7.01.2012, accepted 25.01.2012
The article presents the results of a sociological analysis of the concept «media space». Media space
is regarded as a special part of the social space. Analysis is based on the theory of social space P.
Bourdieu. Shown that the media space can be described as complex of fields with their own rules
and schemes of domination. Media agents are owners of various forms of capital, which is used to
strengthen its position in the media space. Presents the integrated model of media space. Identified the
following fields of media space: field of production information, field of economy, field of journalism,
field of information consumers.
Keywords: Media space;media-agents; topological map; multidimensional social space
The “paradigmatic shift” is taking place
in sociology, as well as in other social sciences
currently. It's, in a sense, a preparation for the
change of fundamental suppositions, forming
for scientific community the picture of the
world (paradigm). The scientific paradigm is
a common system of viewpoints, the frame
identifying rules helping to investigate the study
object. The historian Th. Kuhn named the period
of paradigm change the scientific revolution,
that is the non-cumulative stage of scientific
development during which the old paradigm is
replaced by a new one incompatible with an old
one.
The change of paradigms is also
complicated by the fact, that the society being
the object of study undergone cardinal changes
during recent 30-40 years. Currently, one cannot
deny that the human society has entered the
phase of nonlinear crisis development, which
*
1
cannot any more be described traditionally
as a linear process in the terms of Laplace
determinism, primitive cumulative effects and
system striving for balanced condition. The
multiple growth of human population being a
part of unified public system, hypertrophied
development of information technologies
and mass media insuring inner links of the
system, globalization, deepening of division
of labour, transformation of the society to
phenomenon impacting globally the planet and
the ecosystems, all these allow us to talk about
growth of principal complication of the society
and its proceeding to functioning on the basis
of “stable dynamic disbalance” principle.
(Knyazeva, Kurdyumov, 1994).
From the point of view of the common
theory of systems, the modern society can
be described as a complicated self-regulating
system, functioning non-linear, unbalanced and
Corresponding author E-mail address: shelonaev@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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occasionally unstable (bifurcation point). Being
in that point the system “chooses” unique way
of it's further progress influenced by very weak
impacts, that is demonstrates non-linear crisis
development (leap, catastrophe). At the same
time, the bifurcation point can form as a result
of increase if spontaneous auto oscillation and
as a result of impact on the system of outer
forces (Artyukhov, 2009). It demands new
methodological approaches to description and
study of social reality.
One can assume, that the specificity of the
current period of “paradigm change” in sociology
is the joint influence of two factor groups: 1)
accumulation of empiric facts conflicting with
traditional structural-functioning paradigm for
the description of the society and 2) change of the
study object – cardinal complication of the society
with its increase of system elements and also
increase of the connections between elements.
This is how we can explain “paradigmatic“
character of contemporary sociology, that means
synchronous being of different ways to describe
and learn the society (Ritzer, 2002, Ivanov,
2005).
We can easily fi nd this situation in theory
and practice of sociological study of mass
media.
Mass media, traditionally known as the
mediator and as the channel of transmission of
information between the source of information
and mass audience, nowadays has turned into
the global media sphere (Vattimo, 2002) –
symbolic space that can be characterize as
self-sufficient (Bauman, 2005) and it doesn't
have any other connections with elements of
social reality (Baudrillard, 2000). Practically
we have the phenomenon of the social reality
and the description of it doesn’t correspond to
its complexity. But now we can also meet the
works which describe mass communication in
“mechanistic” paradigm (Sokolov, 2002).
J. Bryant and S. Thompson say “...the model
sender\recipient is very easy for description of
the large number of nowadays communication
processes by the use of media. This model
means that communication is coordinated linear
succession of events – suggestion that doesn’t
already suits the situation with information
technologies now. So the new theories are
necessary in order to explain using of the new
technologies” (Bryant, Thompson, 2004).
In our opinion the adequate answer on
the “methodological call” and the necessity
of searching new concept foundations for
sociological study of the mass media can be
“social typology” of the French sociologist P.
Bourdieu. Bourdieu suggests to learn the society
as the space of specific type – social space.
Bourdieu named his theory “social typology” as
the society has the characteristic of continuity.
The continuity is realized as the form of
connection and it is an important characteristics
of typological space.
The social space has a field structure and
shows a multidimentional ensemble of relatively
autonomous fields (economic, political, cultural,
etc). Social agents (in terminology of Bourdieu)
can be positioned in different fields at the same
time and so provide the connection between fields
and social space. Different fields are described as
the fields that are lying in different parts of the
space inside common multidimentional space.
The fields are different in size and strength which
show its hierarchy and subordination. Some fields
are the sub-fields of others. For example, the
fields of literature and science are the fields of the
symbolical reproduction.
Differences and borders between social fields
are determined by the measure of connection. It
is important to say that borders of the field are the
parts of low social interaction.
A competition for the resources provides
internal connection and dynamics of the field
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that are the most important in this field. So
the competition provides the intensive social
interaction.
Other important categories if the “social
typology” are “capital” and “habitus”. So we can
say that there is the competition for the capital
. The capital has a value as the position of an
agents is determined by it. The main forms of the
capital are 1. economic capital (material objects);
2. cultural capital (education, for example); 3.
social capital; 4. symbolical capital (for example,
reputation).
Another important thing in the “social
typology” is habitus. Habitus is the integral
system of dispositions of perception, evaluation,
classification and actions. Habitus means the
mental representation of individual’s social
reality and his position in it. It is formed by the
social practice of individual. Also it is system
of common social attitudes and stereotypes that
helps to orientate spontaneously in social space.
The habitus can be individual and collective. We
can say that “capital” and “habitus” add each
other.
Nowadays we live in society that is full of
mass median and information. Many scientists say
that the main feature of society is the development
of the fourth information sector of economy
which follows agriculture, industry and service.
In this sector mass media has its priority.
In our times “the media space” is actively
learned by sociology. One of the common
descriptions is: “a media space” is the specific
reality that is the part of social space and it
organizes social practice and ideas of agents
which are involved in system of production and
consumption of information (Yudina, 2008).
We should define that social practice
influences on social space making the structure
of it according to values, dispositions, images,
preferences and other things of social agents that
live in the space of media. It is really true as the
main function of mass media is to influence on
the audience and agents of the social fields that
are not involved in media space.
According to Bourdieu we can expose the
following relationships between media space and
physical and social space.
1. A media space as the part of social space
projects social constructions on physical space.
2. A media space as a part of social space
represents and interprets this space
3. A media space as the specific part of
social space projects social constructions on other
subspaces and fields of social space.
So we can propose the following
description. A media space is relatively
autonomous multidimentional part of social
space which organizes social practice and
ideas of agents that are involved in system
of production and consumption of mass
information. A media space is structured by
social space and represents it.
This description present the following special
features: 1. The media space is totality of social
fields of different nature. 2. The media space
has a relative autonomy in social spaces it has
common objective of involved fields – production
and consumption mass of information. 3. The
connection between fields and parts of fields that
are in media space higher than between them and
fields that are not in media space. 4. The social
agents represented in media space are active an
have specific capital and habitus. So that mediaagents realize specific social practices peculiar
to media space and translate them outside this
media space making the structure of social and
physical spaces.
We may face with difficulties trying to
define exactly the external borders of media
space. One thing we can admit definitely that the
border of media space lies between the fields of
limited and mass information production, which
may be considered as unique parts of symbolic
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amenities production. Uncertainty of borders
in media space is determined by the number of
circumstances.
Firstly, it’s a “fuzziness” of the border
between the fields of limited and mass production.
We have indicated that Bourdieu introduces a
special coordinate of social fields: autonomy –
heteronomy. “The field of production is obliged
by its structure to the opposition between, on
the one hand, to the field of limited production
as a system manufacturing symbolic amenities,
which are objectively intended for the circle of
manufacturers; on the other hand, to the field of
mass production of symbolic amenities intended
for general public. In contradistinction from the
mass production field, which is attempted to the
law of competitive struggle for the larger market
invasion, the field of limited production strives
to create its production norms and criteria of
evaluation of its production itself” (Bourdieu,
1993). As we see, the fields of limited and mass
information production principally differ by
the specificity of functioning, social practice,
composition of capital, rules of regulation.
In the paper “The market of symbolic
production”
French
scientist
researches
relationship between these two fields in detail.
Particularly Bourdieu injects the term «fields of
recognition institution». The main function of
these institutes is legitimization. “The instances
of cultural conservation and recognition guarding
the cultural orthodoxy, i.e. defending the sphere of
legally sound culture from the competitive ideas
manufactured by the field of limited production
as the field of mass production as well, which
may cause protest and dissent reactions among
different categories of public…” (Bourdieu,1993).
Then Bourdieu says about the “communication
rupture” and the necessity of code conversion
of information from the legitimate language
of limited production to the language of mass
production field. Thus, there is a zone of weak
connectivity between the fields of limited and
mass production, where code conversion takes
place, and recognition instances carry out the
agreement between the information created in
different fields.
And if the legitimization may be realized
inside the fields of production, the function of
code conversion of information for the purpose of
mass production and consumption becomes the
function of agents handling social practice which
are peculiar to the media space. That is to say, it is
a part of media space positioned as “grey zone” of
weak connectivity between the fields of limited
and mass production.
Secondly, the production of mass
information is considerably influenced by the
means of material and technical provision of
media activity. In concordance with the famous
Herbert M. McLuhan’s aphorism “the mean of
communication is the message”, material form of
symbolic information created in media space has
a important sense for the implementation of media
aims. We may talk about that fact the features
of technical means influence the arrangement
of information and included in information as
particular symbols of itself. On the other hand,
the media agents’ needs transform technical
means of information translation and define the
progress in this sphere. Thereby, the peculiarities
of technology define the structure of media, and
modern variety of means of content producing
and delivery defines uncertainty of media space
borders.
Thirdly, media agents may importantly go
out of the borders of their social fields in their
social practice themselves. For example, research
journalism, where the journalist uses for his
professional purposes the means traditionally
attached
by
law-enforcement
agencies
(Tertychnyi, 2002). Nevertheless, even such
specific activity is performed for achievement of
journalist’s professional aims. So, media agent
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Fig. 1. Integrated model of media space
demonstrating not characteristic for him social
practice stays the part of media space.
Aforesaid allows us to conclude that the media
space is not restricted only by mass information
production, but it’s slightly wider then it and has
a border of a different compactness and certainty
in different parts.
As we see in the Fig. 1, the topological
structure of media space includes the aggregate of
fields of symbolic production in that part, where
these fields are able to implement the production
of mass information; a field of journalism;
governing contour outline represented by the field
of economics and a field of consumers of media
products, which becomes an object of media
influence. Meanwhile, only fields of journalism
and consumers are included in the media space
entirely.
Totality of fields of symbolic production
includes the following essential fields: politics,
art, jurisprudence, advertising and PR (integrated
marketing communications), science and religion.
All of these fields represent the groups of fields of
lower level, coherence of which is stronger than
above, in virtue of the habituses and structures
of capital of agents of the fields are close. F. ex.,
the great number of fields of certain sciences and
groups of sciences (humanitarian and natural
sciences) are included in the field of science, and
it doesn’t prevent to keep the integrity of practice.
Let’s make a concrete example. Sociology born in
XIX century as a natural science (social physics)
has passed a great way of development. Today is
already hard to answer the question, is sociology a
humanitarian or natural science, unambiguously,
but there is no doubt that it’s a science. At the same
time, if to concede that the social development is
aught determined by God’s will, this sociology
loses legitimating as a science and moves to the
religion field.
The majority of above-mentioned fields are
sufficiently minutely described in the papers
of Bourdieu (Bourdieu, 2005). De minimis he
described the field of advertizing and PR. However,
detailed research of this field is represented in
the paper of French sociologist J. Baudrillard
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(Baudrillard, 2006). It’s very important for
our analysis, that all of the fields of symbolic
production have autonomous and heteronomous
zone and they are included in media space only
by their heteronomous part. Moreover, the part
of these fields directly “whips” to the field of
journalism, making almost invisible the border
between the journalist and an expert representing
one of the fields of symbolic production.
Famous French sociologist L. Pinto called
them “mediatic intellectuals” in the article
“Intellectual doxa”. In his opinion, the main
peculiarity of these “media-intellectuals” is
their desire for the “newness”, meaning only
sensationalism de facto. One of features pulling
together all of these doxa producers is their
interest to “newness”, or, leastwise, to something
that easily identified with such a way of plugging.
Intellectualization of journalistic discourse
correlate with the introducing to the universe the
ideas of sensationalism… The most intellectual of
these new producers of “knowledge” find sudden
opportunity in the origination of “newness” to
become déclassé the most authorized intellectuals
whose authority threatened them for a long time
(L. Pinto, 1996). On the scientist’s opinion, there
is a symbolic exchange between the journalists
and media-intellectuals: journalists legitimize
their interpretation of social facts with the
help of intellectuals; intellectuals receive from
the journalists audience and the evidence of
meaningfulness, which goes out the circle of
specialists. By that the effect of “accumulation
of relatively dissimilar capitals” is achieved.
Bourdieu calls the mediatic intellectuals “fastthinkers” who “thinks faster than their own
shadow” and “offers the cultural fast-food”
(Bourdieu, 2002).
The other proof of including heterotomous
part of fields of symbolic production in the field
of journalism is the fact that a number of famous
journalists become positioning themselves as
historians, economists, political scientists, etc.
in media space. In terms of conception of social
capital it’s explainable easily. Journalists and
experts have different structure of capital and
in they tend to build up their own capital at the
expense of other media agents’ capital the fighting
for the position in media space.
The field of journalism takes a central place
in topological scheme of media space represented
on the Fig. 1. Let’s note that this place is occupied
by the journalism not only because this field has
the most influential capital, but, first of all, because
the coordination of all agents’ activity included in
media space is implemented exactly through this
field. As the other fields, the field of journalism
contains autonomic and heteronomis zone. The
last one includes journalists carrying out public
actions in media space and operating as personified
media agents: announcers, commentators, media
analysts, observers etc. We may refer to this group
mediatic intellectuals as well. It’s right to include
to this cohort personified bloggers. Autonomic
zone includes journalists not carrying on public
media activity, but realizing social practice of
journalism: editors, script writers, copywriters
etc. We may single out an intermediate zone of
media agents putting into practice public activity
anonymously. These persons are most brightly
represented in the Internet. In terms of sociology
the difference between the members of these zones
of field of journalism is in the individual narrative
as a mechanism of control of social practice of
these media agents and the way of providing of
audience’s trust. In the case of personified media
agent the production of mass information, on the
one hand, restricts him, but, on the other hand,
gives different possibilities. Anonymous media
agent has different collection of possibilities and
restrictions. We may interpret it in the terms of
social capital.
Personified media agent arouses trust,
because he may legitimately rely on his capital
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accumulated during all social life. In return,
anonymous is more free in construction of
social capital, because he creates a “virtual
personality”. However, this media agent may use
only incorporated status of capital (his abilities
and reproduced behavior dispositions) creating
individual narrative as a social mythology. To
understand a real place of field of journalism in
the media space structure it’s necessary to define
the objective of journalism.
There is an idea according to which the
essential characteristics of means of mass
communication is an introduction to the mass
consciousness of defi nite system of meanings,
values etc. which are advantageous for some
social groups, because it provides their
existence. Nowadays, this idea is formed more
and clearer in the sociology of means of mass
communication. “Satisfying the information
needs of mass audience the subjects of mass
communication are satisfying their own needs
in the influence on this audience” (Gostenina,
Kiselev, 2009). The philosopher T. Naumenko
analyzed the functions represented in modern
papers on theory of journalism in details and came
to conclusion, that “the journalism is a system
of introduction into the mass consciousness
of social assessment of current activity, i.e.
assessment of urgent results of practice from the
point of interests these or that social groups. …
The urgency of these or that events is defi ned
by the subject itself bringing in the mass
consciousness its assessments” (Naumenko,
2000). It becomes possible because means of
mass media satisfy the necessity of getting
information for orientation in the environment,
which is typical for mass audience. Meanwhile,
the other social groups of media space satisfy
quiet different necessities as creative, economic
or regulatory necessities. On the Fig. 1 we can
see the implementation of objective of influence
of mass consciousness, which is indexed by the
arrow directed at the field of consumers of media
production.
Conducted analysis allows us to conclude
that in the topological model of media space
the field of journalism is the field of symbolic
production itself and carries out the functions
of interpretation (translating information into
the codes of mass information production) and
coordination of other fields of media space.
The field of consumers of media production
is an object of other’s fields’ influence. In modern
world an adequate socialization, adaptation and
current orientation in society is unthinkable
without interaction of the human and means of
mass communication. Any member of modern
society is included in media space as an object
of influence. The differences appear only in the
degree of involvement and a degree of adherence
to these or that fields of symbolic production.
Really, you may be not involved in the information
streams, the source of which is not a political
field, the field of science or religion, but it’s hard
to understand the member of modern society
who is not involved in field of advertising and
mass art at all. The involvement in juridical field
represented in media space is an interpretation
of, f.ex., changes in labor, pencionary or tax
legislation. And it is necessary too, because it
directly influences on the urgent practice of social
agents.
At we see on the Fig. 1, the field of consumers
of media production goes out the borders of field
of mass production, but it is absolutely included
in the media space. It indexes the possibility of
including the individual into the media space
not through the interaction with means of mass
communication, but indirectly, through the
“opinion leaders”.
The governing outline of media space
is organized through the influence of field
of economics on the fields of symbolic
production.
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Simplified point of view on the interaction
of economics and media is the next. The field of
economics transmits into the media space social
practice and the habitus of economical agents
typical for market economy. “Market system is an
economic system controlled and regulated only
by markets; an order of production and sharing
of items must be absolutely provided by this
self-regulating mechanism”. … “Self-regulation
means: all produced is for sale in the market
and the source of all the profit is the similar acts
of sale. So, there are markets for all factors of
industrial production, i.e. not only for items (we
bear in mind services too), but for labor, land,
money; their prices are called commodity prices,
salary, rent and percent respectively” (Polanyi,
2002). Indeed, from the point of agents of field of
economics, media space is only one of the fields
of commercialization functioning on the general
principles of free market and competition. So,
on the Fig. 1. the field of economics goes out not
only the borders of media space, but the borders
the field of the symbolic production. But media
space cannot be considered exclusively as a part
of economic space. Бурдье notices: “Economic
competition between the TV channels or printed
matters for watchers or readers or, in the other
words, for the market shares, is realized in
the competition between the journalists. This
competition has its special rates: professional
reputation, exclusive information, etc. It’s not felt
as a specific economic competition for profits, it
is subordinated to the conditions connected with
the position of this organ in economic, power and
symbolic relations” (Bourdieu, 2002).
So, the interaction of economic field with the
other fields of media space cannot be described as
a sum of economic practices. In our opinion the
coherence with the field of economics in media
space is provided by the relations of dominating
and subordination (the relations of power).On the
Fig. 1 these relations are indexed by the arrow
painted in economic field and directed to the
field of journalism, which is considered here as a
coordinating instance of media space.
M. Weber defined power as a probability of
actor’s being in position to realize his social will
contrary to the resistance irrespective of the base
of this probability. In this definition some features
of power are accentuated:
1) the power is not an accessory of
individuals, but exists between them;
2) the power must be defined in terms of
probability, possibility;
3) any things, qualities, relations may be the
base of the power;
4) the power presupposes compulsion to
do something in defiance of the others side’s
interest.
Sociological tradition (Lasswell, Kaplan,
Cartwright, Lukes, Giddens etc.) considers
the power as a non-central relations and “the
relations of null scope”. R. Dahl defines power
in the terms of “control over the conduct”: “A”
has a power over “B” thus much as it may force
“B” to do something he wouldn’t do in the other
situation. In Lukes’s opinion, the sphere of power
is not limited by the behavior, but includes the
control over beliefs and values. Lukes considers
that the subject has a power over the object not
only when forcing the object to do something
he doesn’t want, but when forming his desire.
The last statement is the most correct in point of
agents of media space.
We should appeal to the papers of French
philosopher M. Foucault to find out how the
economic power realizes in the media space.
On the basis of detailed analysis of the history
of such social institutes as hospitals, barracks,
educational institutions and manufactories in
XVIII–XIX centuries the scientist comes to a
conclusion that the power regulation of deviant
behavior (crime, mental disease, non-fulfilment
of the orders, disciplinary breach) is transformed
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into the indirect, interiorized violence in this
period. M. Foucault thinks that the social nature
of punishment itself is changed, and, as a result,
the power, which is in the middle of XVIII century
was too cruel, became more humane up to the
second half of the XIX century. Actually, then
the new “technology of power” was invented: the
body stops to be the subject of deviant behavior
and the soul becomes it. Foucault called this
new technology “panoptism”, the main feature
of which is the transformation of direct violence
into the “invisible” power (Foucault, 1999).
The model, where this technology of power
is the most brightly represented, as Foucault
supposes, is the project of Jeremy Bentham “The
Panopticon”. Bentham invented the prison of
new type: all the cells of ring-shaped prison are
illuminated in such way that they were viewed
only from the central tower where the only
guard could be. The main idea of this prison is:
the prisoners don’t know when they are watched
and become self-regulated. So, one governs the
others staying invisible and depersonalized.
The object of control in panoptic is included
in the “situation of power” in such way, that
the external power becomes interiorized. M.
Foucault connects it directly with the appearance
the class of bourgeois on the social arena. In
addition, the appersonification of power has lead
to the appearance of managers as a specific social
group realizing the economic power impersonally
(Gray, 2008). In our opinion, economic power
in media space is realized exactly in this way.
Economic violence here has a form of indirect,
not personified power (the threat of violence).
From the point of topology of media space, the
relations of power providing the connection with
the field of economics are realized in the next
way.
As the other fields, the field of economics
has its autonomic and heteronomic parts. In
the autonomic part the agents not included
in the media space act, they use it as one of
the ways of commercialization. For example,
such agents as banks may be the beneficiaries
of economic activity in media space. There
are agents of economic fields interacting with
media space directly and included in it as a
heteronomic part of the field; in our opinion,
such agents are the share-holders of media and
the clients of advertising and PR-campaigns
in media. These agents transmit and partially
recode the demand of economic field into the
media space. Then this demand with the part of
power authorities are given to the management
of media and to the journalists positioned in
the autonomic part of journalism: chief editors,
members of editorial board, etc. The matter of
these agents is the subsequent recoding from
the language of economics and management to
the language of journalism (for example in the
form of “editorial politics”) and the providing
of the influence on the agents working at the
public part of media space. We refer public
journalists and mediatic intellectuals here. As
far as the power is realized on the principles
of “panoptism”, the successful journalists
and media-intellectuals form a defi nite skill
represented as a necessary part of habitus
which is peculiar to the agent working in the
field of mass information production.
As we pointed earlier, the power is always
defined in the terms of probability and possibility.
In the other words, the public media person
may state a position different from the editorial
politics. But, in the conditions of “invisible”
power, such behavior may be estimated as deviant
and, undoubtedly, it may cause organizational
consequences from the blocking of the material by
the editor to the closing of the project, withdrawal
from the air and dismissial. Let’s note finally, that
the topological model of media space elaborated
by us is based on the concept of “social topology”
of P. Bourdieu and includes not only this thinker’s
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views, but it was complemented by theoretical
ideas of M. Foucault about the essence of powerin
modern society and conceptual ideas about the
peculiarities of social practice and the role of
mediatic intellectuals in the mass information
production introduced by L. Pinto. We suppose,
this model allows to look at the functioning of
means of mass media in the information society
in a new way.
Conclusions
1. Presents the integrated model of media
space. The topological model of media space
elaborated by us is based on the concept of “social
topology” of P. Bourdieu and includes not only
this thinker’s views, but it was complemented
by theoretical ideas of M. Foucault about
the essence of powerin modern society and
conceptual ideas about the peculiarities of social
practice and the role of mediatic intellectuals in
the mass information production introduced by
L. Pinto.
2. Identified the following fields of media
space: field of production information, field of
economy, field of journalism, field of information
consumers.
3. Media agents are owners of various forms
of capital, which is used to strengthen its position
in the media space. The field of journalism takes
a central place in topological scheme of media
space represented on the picture, because the
coordination of all agents’ activity included in
media space is implemented exactly through this
field.
4. The media space is totality of social
fields of different nature. 2. The media space
has a relative autonomy in social spaces it has
common objective of involved fields – production
and consumption mass of information. 5. The
connection between fields and parts of fields that
are in media space higher than between them
and fields that are not in media space. The social
agents represented in media space are active and
have specific capital and habitus. So that mediaagents realize specific social practices peculiar
to media space and translate them outside this
media space making the structure of social and
physical spaces.
References
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Russian.
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50-62, in Russian.
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Russian.
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Russian.
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E.N. Knyazeva, S.P. Kurdyumov, The laws of evolution and complex systems of self-organization
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Russian.
L. Pinto. Intellectual doxa // Socio-Logos’96. almanac of The Russian-French center of sociological
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K. P. Polanyi The Great Transformation: political and economic origins of our time (S.-Petersburg,
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J. Ritzer, Modern sociological theories. (S.-Petersburg, Piter, 2002). – 688 p., in Russian
M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. (Moscow, Ad Marginem, 1999). –
480 p. in Russian
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P. 151–154 in Russian.
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Интегративная модель
медиапространства
С.И. Шелонаев
РГПУ им. Герцена
Россия 191186, Санкт-Петербург,
Набережная реки Мойки, 48
В
статье
представлены
результаты
социологического
анализа
концепта
«медиапространство». Медиапространство рассматривается как особая часть
социального пространства. Анализ проводился на основе теории социального пространства
П. Бурдье. Медиапространство описывается как совокупность социальных полей различной
природы со своими правилами и схемами власти. Медиаагенты есть владельцы различных
форм капитала, который используется для усиления своей позиции в медиапространстве.
Представлена интегративная топологическая модель медиапространства. В структуру
медиапространства входят следующие поля медиапространства: поле производства
информации, поле экономики, поле журналистики, поле потребителей медиапродукции.
Ключевые слова: медиапространство; медиаагенты; топологическая карта; многомерное
социальное пространство.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 970-977
~~~
УДК 130.31
Social Media as the Form of Being
and Social Institute
Andrey B. Shalimov*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 24.10.2011, received in revised form 23.12.2011, accepted 24.12.2011
The multiuser sites, which are constructed on web 2.0 technology and forming a special type of social
networks, unite a huge part of mankind at present. Social networks are understood as alternative form
of being, namely existence in communications and as the integration social institute, which takes up
other social generality and realizes their key functions. From the point of view of the author, as the form
of being social networks are degression, the embodiment of real and individual essence and existence
of the person in the lowest form. Social networks also can be considered as consolidating kernel, the
original social megainstitute, which realize all spectrum of social functions. As social institute, social
networks are characterized as a strict imperious vertical, in which the user of the site can’t change accepted norms and rules.
Keywords: social networks, social media, form of being, existence in communications, event, avatar,
social institute, imperious relations
It is devoted to professor Albert Y. Raibekas
Introduction
The ideology of Internet users’ attraction
to partial or full filling of web sites by the
information what for these users come on a
portal, which is called web 2.0, in the beginning
of the XXI-st century has led to occurrence of the
multiuser web sites, forming the special type of
social networks. These portals became the most
popular sites in a network, uniting to 750 million
of users (the quantity of users of Facebook.com in
2011 (Abelson and Harper, 2011)).
The social network represents the automated
web service assuming authorization (creation and
*
1
use of the account and communications within
the limits of thematic (gender, age, educational
and others) Internet communities (system of
“friends” and “groups”).
Social networks became the largest
storehouse of the personal information in the
history about mankind. For example, it is
possible to cite the following data – every month
it is loaded more than three billion of photos on
servers of Facebook.com and its users exchange
more than 30 billion of information units (Hird,
2011). It is difficult to overestimate the value of
social networks in users’ life.
Corresponding author E-mail address: a_shalimov@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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From the end of 2000th it is possible to say
that social networks, or social media, such as
Facebook, VK.com, Twitter are separate social
institutes (look at example in Hanson et al., 2011)
and for millions people they are more significant,
than the church, school, army, state, science, etc.
Events of 2011 (revolutions in the countries
of the Near East and the North Africa) have
shown the ability of this social institute to lead
to social, historical changes (look at example in
Hamamsy, 2011). That’s why the research of social
media through their influence on the person’s
knowledge of the world is especially actual not
only from the scientific point of view, but also in
social, economic, sociopolitical and sociocultural
aspects.
Ontology of social media
Objectively social networks exist in memory
of servers (so Facebook.com is located on more
than 30 000 servers online (the data –May, 2010
(Hird, 2011)) and they are program code which
contains a huge volume of the information with
the use of various systems of enciphering. From
materialistic point of view, social networks
are a classical example of a social substance.
Structurally social networks personify all levels
of social life: from the individual, a family, a
collective, a class to ethnoses, the states, and
mankind. Similarly in social networks all spheres
of public life has already presented: production of
goods, science, spiritual sphere, political sphere,
service sphere.
Subjectively social networks exist at the
moment of the reference to them and bear not
only separate functions or system of functions,
but a different way of personal being. It means
subjectively social networks are perceived by the
person (the user, the actor) not as the file of the
information and a program code which are stored
on the server, but as a personal way of existence
in communications.
Also, life in social networks is not the
form of being in a virtual reality and it can
be considered as essentially other object for
ontological knowledge (contrary opinion you
can see in Rahvalova, 2011). The virtual reality
in the theory and by means of pre-production
models is the world created by objects and
subjects means in practice, it is transferred to
the person (the visitor of this world) through
the complex of sensations received from
sense organs: sight, hearing, sense of smell.
Being in a social network is consciousness, it
creates images of other (distinct from physical,
objective) realities, sense organs fi x a fi nding
of the person (user) in a concrete existential
situation of material existence.
Forms of organization of person’s being
in social networks are friends (subscribers) and
groups. The form of existence, development,
movement is communication. Interaction is
assumed by the maximum refusal of value of the
way of communications, the absence of the medium
(intermediary), and direct communications
between the sender and the addressee. Thus,
there is an obvious contradiction. After all, social
media are not only the way of being, but also the
way of communications, accordingly, it a priori
causes these communications to become the
message in itself. Social networks start to offer
a circle of contacts, communications and prompt
the organization of being. This contradiction
essentially influences on personal existential
freedom in social networks.
At the moment of the reference to social
network its program code becomes cognitive
system of the person. User’s consciousness,
feelings and mind use the data about reality in
refraction of social media. The person takes up
certain role functions; he is the author of the
message, or its addressee. Cognitive process
turns to the continuous reporting about your
or other’s life (Braslavec, 2011). The reason
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of it that today users of social media perceive
dialogue, communications as the goal in itself.
According to researchers (American company
Pear Analytics and Russian company Yandex)
about 80 % of messages in Twitter it is possible
to regard as conversations, 4 % is spam, 9 % are
retweets. A productive part of messages is only
about 10 %. Thus, social networks are completely
changing our representation about distinction
between public and personal (more detailed in
West et al., 2009).
The existential essence of social media is
effectively described by the concept of event.
From culture point of view it is birth of children,
weddings, travel including pilgrimage, etc.
These events find the expression in statuses,
the personal messages, photos, videos etc. In
social networks all events in user’s life, which he
considers as Events, are reflected. And for other
users and from the point of view of the person the
event isn’t presented, if it isn’t reflected in a social
network. For example, the wedding of the person
had taken place some years ago, but it received
reflections in a network later. Other users start to
congratulate him at the moment of occurrence of
corresponding record on a personal page (often
even if they were participants of this celebration
in real life). Other example, users try not to reflect
negative events in their life in the page (illness,
accidents, loss of relatives). On the contrary, the
mention of such event leads to instant, mass, but
short response that naturally reduces the value
of it, and often it leads to more stress for the
person.
From the existential point of view it is
necessary to reflect a death phenomenon in
ontology of social networks in the given research.
Pages of dead people in social networks aren’t
deleted and other users try not to delete them
from friends. The phenomena are connected
with special existential characteristics in social
networks.
Time in a social network is necessary to
understand through the urgency of event. It is
rapid, it means instant loss of an urgency for others
since that moment as event has disappeared from
the section “news” at friends (subscribers). There
is a contradiction – events in social networks can
exist eternally, but there is a possibility of return,
change of the past, copying of personal history
and the history of relations (communications).
The space of social network is limited by
nothing and it assumes the variety of embodiments.
But social networks, thanks to modern program
decisions, forcedly lead to short circuit of users
in a certain circle of contacts from which it is
difficult to get out and create the new. We can say
there is a creation of own “worlds”, not individual,
but stereotypic unified by software.
The name of the world’s largest social
network Facebook is the book of faces. The human
face is the most individual part of our body, the
person is identified on its complete perception.
Face expresses a mimicry, our emotions which
is addressed to the world around us. Person’s
face in social networks is “picture”, the small
image, used for visual personification of the user;
it is called “userpic” or “avatar”. The avatar is
an embodiment of god from spiritual sphere in
low forms of being in Hinduism. It means in the
Indian philosophy avatar is initially connected
with “decrease”, it is possible to translate this
word also as degression.
The term “avatar” as designation of the
picture personalizing the user in the Internet
has appeared considerably before occurrence of
social networks. The avatar shall «reflect any
peculiar features of character of the user and
help to make exact impression about his internal
inner world and the status». Social networks have
entered the requirement of use of real images of
the person in avatars (photos, portraits etc.) for
the first time. If our face can express a complex of
emotions in their dynamics in real life, the avatar
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in social networks is static emotion. It is the sign
of yourself, which user conscious or unconscious
sends to another, thus avatar change turns to the
social act.
The exit in a World Net doesn’t change the
structure of spiritual life of people (contrary
opinion in Basalaeva and Balabanov, 2010). The
idea of the world of ideas, idea of God as allseeing, all-thinking, the all-knowing beginning
of the world and set of other similar ideas have
appeared much earlier and they were permanent in
human consciousness, including subconsciously
in the collective unconscious. The Internet is
not a noosphere, it is only its embodiment in the
lowest form of life, it is digression. Button “Like”
simplifies a complex of person’s feelings at
formation of own opinion about something. The
status reduces private world, its conditions to the
formulation in 40 signs. The avatar and the change
of is the lowered, simplified version of a human
mimicry, expression of our emotions. Each time
in social networks we deal with simplification
of reality from known and unknown shares of
assumptions.
Social media as social institute
Making a start from classical definition
of social institute as constantly repeating and
reproduced relations of people; steady set
of people, groups, the establishments whose
activity is directed on performance of concrete
public functions on the basis of certain norms
and rules; it is necessary to notice that social
media or social networks occupy position of the
major public institute in a modern society. The
institutionalization of social networks means
streamlining, formalization and standardization
of public relations and it is caused by social
requirement of the person in communication,
growing in information society.
Successful distribution of social networks
and their institutionalization were promoted
also by use of developed steady social
communications between people, for example,
Facebook and VK.com initially positioned itself
as social networks of students and graduates of
leading high schools. It means social networks
don't create new social communications, social
relations; it is possible to say that they «parasitize»
on others. Moreover, social network often arises
at the moment of actualization of dysfunction
in any social institute. So, for example, in the
beginning of 2000th SMS were much cheaper
than calls, therefore the majority of clients of
the cellular companies used them as the basic
means of communication by mobile phone. By
the end of 2000 calls by a mobile phone became
much cheaper but price for SMS was the same.
It has led to sharp reduction of using by this
function. Nevertheless, requirement to write
short messages to inform friends about events
remained at people. Thanks to it, and also to wide
circulation of smartphones and communicators, a
social network “Twitter” has appeared.
Understanding of social networks as the
system of values, norms, ideals, and also samples
of activity and behavior of people makes possible
to speak not only about their integrating role in
the course of public communications as the major
sociocultural process, but also about occurrence
of accurately expressed structure and codified
rules of behavior of members in this social
institute. For maintenance of similar behavior of
people, management of their certain aspirations,
ways of satisfaction of requirements, a resolution
of conflicts founders of social networks carry
out a number of measures in a program code of
sites. It means stability, institutionalization of
social media is initially inherent in them and it
is expressed in organizing of their functional.
Besides, norms and rules of people’s behavior
and their social interaction are codified in terms
of service, acceptance them is an integral part
of reception of an account in the largest social
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networks (see Statement of Rights and Regulations
in VK.com, Terms of Facebook etc.).
Roles and statuses in social networks
provide their internalization, described rules and
functional become property of user’s inner world.
The person “lives” his being in social network,
he perceives the account as the embodiment of
himself, he connects his expectations with events
in social networks, he corrects the valuable
orientations and finds there space for satisfaction
of the requirements (Chernyaeva, 2009).
Social networks are organizational issued,
founders of social networks possess the rights
of moderators, managers. In a modern society
popular social networks become the successful
commercial enterprises with mullions-strong
(and in certain cases multi-billion) cost.
At functional level social networks bring
or, at least, reflect all basic functions of social
institutes. In literal sense reproduction of
members of society receives the reflection in the
phenomenon of events (change of biographical
particulars at parents, photo albums, messages on
a wall, etc.). From the point of view of internal
logic of system of the given social institute, the
program block of registration in a social network
answers for reproduction of members of a society,
it means the possibility of account’s reception
can be understood as the birth of human(for this
phenomenon it is also possible to use adjacent
concepts, such as regeneration, going out, which
have stereotypical conditionality and even
archetypical predefiniteness). Family, as the
main institute, which is carrying out function of
reproduction members of society, is exposed to
influence of social networks as well as any other
public institute in modern society. Realization
of family connections has found expression in a
program code of social media not at once but in 2
or 3 years after their triumphal distribution. The
possibility to reflect members of the family in the
questionnaire is realized in the form of a cross
reference and it means the exarticulation of a
family cell. Nevertheless, such allocation is only
designating of the family, but not its embodiment.
Here it is important to notice that for founders
of social networks work on a real embodiment
of various social groups can become a real
development, because at the present possibility of
a subscription and occurrence in groups means
only joining.
The founder of social network VK.com Pavel
Durov considers that public lists of friends were
the main reason of success of social networks:
«the success of social networks is connected
with changed representation about minimum
possible level of confidentiality and with absence
of necessity to follow out-of-date standards». The
user of a social network, creating such list, joins
in certain social communications that, in general,
represents transfer of the samples of behavior
and ways of activity which are established in
given community, it means socialization (more
detailed in Konstantinov, 2008). But, filling the
questionnaire in social networks, the person
defines him for others, but not for himself. Selfdetermination for others doesn't mean personal
self-determination as a rule. There is no selfactualization through self-determination at
questionnaire filling. Person instantly joins social
communications but he isn't socialized, it means
his personality isn't formed (Shalimov, 2011).
Because the largest social media are
commercial organizations it is initially possible
to name them as the place of production and
distributions of the goods and services. At present
social media are one of the most difficult social
mechanisms of manufacture and distribution.
On the degree of the importance it is comparable
only with exchange, which occurrence as social
institute concerns to XIII—XV centuries. But
unlike the exchange which is directed only on a
meeting of the seller and the buyer social networks
have a number of others possibilities with a great
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value. Firstly, social media become the largest
platform for distribution of the commercial
information (advertizing and PR), such kind
of activity has received the name social media
marketing (Salerno et al., 2010). Secondly, they
have unlimited possibilities for virtual trade. In
social media not distribution of the information
about goods or service has the most value but the
meeting of people and brands, their coexistence
(event) at which relations of the seller and the
buyer get in a modern society more value and
duration, than «pair of the words thrown through
a counter». Thirdly, social media possess huge
prospects not only in sale, but in manufacture of
the electronic goods and services.
The unique person in the world which has
the right to write in Twitter messages more, than
170 signs is the president of USA Barack Obama.
In general, appearing of Barack Obama and
the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry
Medvedev in social networks is a symbol of
presence the Power at social media as a major
social institute.
Soon after the creation of social networks
there was a set of responses that they will be
used as the mechanism of social control, even
shadowings, suppression and managements of
manpower resources. It seemed unbelievable
that the recent student of philology department
Pavel Durov could create a site which number
of users began to be estimated in thousand in
the beginning, then in millions, and then in
tens millions. Similar responses were about
the project of student Mark Zuckerberg behind
the ocean several years earlier. In spite of the
fact that in these social networks preservation
of the information without user’s knowledge
(a photo, video and the whole accounts) and in
management of revolutions in the North Africa
and the Near East in 2011 through Facebook,
Google and Twitter it is visible the interest
of US State department there aren’t authentic
acknowledgement of that the personal data are
used, for example, by special services as one of
government and even suppression tools.
For us it’s very important not external
realization of imperious relations with use of
social networks as social institute but their
internal features providing realization of function
of management and control. So, for example,
presence of sanctions and encouragements is
the major sign of realization of such function.
So for encouragement of users in social network
VK.com there was a rating system, first of all,
directed on stimulation of detailed filling of
personal page. The system of sanctions for this
social network is provided by Terms of service on
which the site Administration «reserves the right
to itself at sole discretion, and also at reception
of the information from other users or the third
parties about infringement by the User of the
present Rules, to change (moderate) or to delete
any information published by the User». Despite
existence of the whole codes, which are regulating
mutual relations of users and administrations of
sites, managers of social networks have exclusive
rights of entering of unilateral changes in rules of
functioning of the given public institute. Social
networks in the given sense realize authoritative
control mode with vertical of the power. In spite
of the fact that social networks are social institute
only thanks to the people; these people, users of
sites, possess as much as possible limited rights,
mainly, without having possibility of influence on
use of social networks, they can’t make rules.
Resume
As alternative to real form of being social
networks are degression, the embodiment of
real and individual essence and existence of the
person in the lowest form. Even in spite of the
fact that the subject by means of functions of
social networks often tries to show himself better
than he really is, the decrease, a lowering trend
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are determined by the essence of social networks.
Social networks try to personify the essence of
communications, it means the person turns to
knot, a link of such communicative network. The
person is embodied in signs, in language system
and he is determined of it. The person, as the
thought, embodied in a word, loses the essence,
the boundless complexity and he becomes only
the sign of himself.
If to consider social networks as consolidating
kernel, the original social megainstitute, which is
realized all spectrum of social functions, they
are characterized by a strict imperious vertical in
which the user of site can't change the accepted
norms and rules in any way. The authoritative
anthropological model of social networks is
constructed on suppression of freedom in
choosing and creation of the routes, the circle of
contacts, interests which are set by the system.
It doesn't mean that social networks transform
people into the zombie, but, nevertheless, their
mechanism as social institute is constructed on
simplification, making strict frameworks.
Thus, social networks as the form of being
and social institute on existential and social level
is degression of the real person. And the copy is
always worse than the original but only if there is
an original.
References
Max Abelson, Christine Harper, “Goldman Sachs May Sell or Hedge Facebook Stake Without
Warning”, Bloomberg.com, 01/06 (2011).
Kirill S Arseniev, “Formation of a Critical Attitude to Information in University Students Through
a Social Media”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 8 (2011, 4),
1100-1108.
Oksana G. Basalaeva, Pavel I Balabanov, “Modern World–View of Culture and Web–Space”,
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 2 (2010, 3), 250-258.
L.A. Braslavec, “Social Networks as mass media”, Bulletin Voronezh State University. Philology,
journalism, 1 (2009), 125-132. In Russian.
K.O. Chernyaeva, “Practices formation of indentify in social networks”, Bulletin of Saratov State
University, 4, Issue 1 (2009), 296-304. In Russian.
Walid El Hamamsy, “BB = BlackBerry or Big Brother: Digital media and the Egyptian revolution”,
Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 47:4 (2011), 454-466.
Gary Hanson, Paul Michael Haridakis, Audrey Wagstaff Cunningham, Rekha Sharma, J. D
Ponder, “The 2008 Presidential Campaign: Political Cynicism in the Age of Facebook, MySpace, and
YouTube”, Mass Communication and Society, 13:5 (2010), 584-607.
Jake Hird, “20+ Mind-blowing social media statistics: One year later Posted”, Econsultancy.com,
25 March 2011 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7334-social-media-statistics-one-year-later.
Peter A Konstantinov, “Internet Community Socialization Processes”, Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities and Social Sciences, 4 (2008, 1), 523-530.
P. David Marshall , “The promotion and presentation of the self: celebrity as marker of presentational
media”, Celebrity Studies, 1:1 (2010), 35-48.
Maria A. Pipenko, “Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere”, Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities and Social Sciences, 4 (2010), 526-535.
Natalya A. Rahvalova, “Blogosphere as an Expression of Virtual Reality”, Journal of Siberian
Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 (2011, 4), 551-559.
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Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute
A.B. Shalimov, “Alienation and socialization in situation informational society”, Youth and
science. Collected articles (2011). In Russian.
“Toward predicting popularity of social marketing messages”, In J. Salerno, S.J. Yang, D. Nau, &
S.K. Chai (Ed.), Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction: Lecture Notes in
Computer Science (2011), 317-324.
Anne West, Jane Lewis, Peter Currie, “Students’ Facebook ‘friends’: public and private spheres”,
Journal of Youth Studies, 12:6 (2009), 615-627.
Социальные медиа как форма бытия
и социальный институт
А.Б. Шалимов
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Многопользовательские сайты, построенные по технологии веб 2.0 и образующие особого
типа социальные сети, объединяют на данный момент огромную часть человечества. В
статье рассматриваются социальные сети как альтернативная реальной форма бытия,
а именно существования в коммуникациях, и как интеграционный социальный институт,
постепенно поглощающий другие социальные общности, воплощая в себе их ключевые функции.
С точки зрения автора, как форма бытия социальные сети есть нисхождение, воплощение в
низшей форме реальных и индивидуальных сущности и существования человека. Социальные
сети также можно рассматривать как консолидирующее ядро, своеобразный социальный
мегаинститут, реализующий весь спектр социальных функций. При этом как социальный
институт, социальные сети характеризуются как строгая властная вертикаль, в которой
пользователь сайта никак не может изменить принятые нормы и правила.
Ключевые слова: социальные сети, социальные медиа, форма бытия, существование в
коммуникациях, событие, аватар, социальный институт, властные отношения.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 978-987
~~~
УДК 332.1
The Mechanism of Implementing
the Business Model of Open Innovation
for the Involvement of Potential of a Closed City
in the Innovative Development of the Region
Vladimir I. Kirko,
Galina I. Popodko and Roman D. Goloushkin*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.05.2011, received in revised form 09.07.2011, accepted 30.07.2011
The article deals with problems involving a high scientific potential of a closed city in the innovative
development of regions. It gives the rationale for the effectiveness of this engagement from different
perspectives. The mechanisms for the implementation of the model of regional development based on
the model of “Open Innovation” are offered.
Keywords: innovative capacity, regional innovation infrastructure.
To enhance innovation in the regions it
is necessary to use the innovative potential of
the closed cities, science cities and academic
cities. At present, there is a task of developing
a mechanism to implement the business models
of open innovation of closed cities for innovative
development area. This determines the relevance
of the research topic.
In the given works (E.A. Fiyaksel,
M.G. Nazarov, 2010, V.I. Kirko, V.D. Nadelyaev,
S.V. Usoltsev, R.D. Goloushkin, 2011) the
necessity and possibility of participation of
the scientific capacity of the closed cities in
the innovative development of the territories
were shown on the example of the closed city
of Sarov (Nizhnenovgorodskaya region) and
Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory). Large*
1
company towns, such as the Federal State Unitary
Enterprise “Mining and Chemical Plant”, Public
corporation “Information Satellite Systems” and
FSUE Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIIEF
have a competitive knowledge-based development,
which is not used for various reasons in their own
production, but can be effectively used in the
civilian sector of industry .
The main reasons for limiting the “flow” of
technology ,which is not used in the manufacture
of defense, are:
1) the absence of the Law in Russian
Federation, which is similar to the law in the
United States (1986) concerning the Federal
Technology Transfer (http://ictt.by/rus/Default.
aspx?tabid=178). This law has implemented
the technology transfer duty of scientists and
Corresponding author E-mail address: director.nifti@mail.ru, pgi90@bk.ru, romang@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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engineers of all federal laboratories (analogues of
Russian closed cities) and instructed to take into
account the activities of technology transfer in the
evaluation of employees. It provided for special
requirements, incentives and responsibility of the
federal laboratories;
2) the absence of Federal Law, which is
similar to U.S. law presented by Stevenson-Wydler
in1980 (http://ictt.by/rus/Default.aspx?tabid=178).
This law deals with innovation activities, which
implemented major federal laboratories to control
the use of research and Technology (Management
of Technology Transfer) and required that the
federal laboratories have active participation in
technical cooperation;
3) the absence of Federal Law, similar to U.S.
law presented by Beyya-Dole in 1980 (Http://ictt.
by/rus/Default.aspx?tabid=178). That law allowed
the government laboratories to issue exclusive
licenses to patents;
4) the absence of the Law in Russian
Federation, which is similar to the law in
the United States in 1992 (E.A. Sakadynets,
D.Y. Faikov 2008) on technology transfer to small
businesses, which has approved a test program
“Technology transfer to small businesses” (TTSB)
for the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Energy,
Ministry of Health and Human Services, NASA
and the National Science Foundation.
5) the absence of regulations, procedures to
facilitate technology transfer (licensing), Russian
defense enterprises in the civilian sector in view
of all measures of mutual responsibility.
The latter has negative outcomes for the
economy and the modernization of Russia’s
national economy as a whole, namely:
1) very limited participation in the closed
economic development of regions and Russia as
a whole;
2) not claimed intellectual property – patents,
know-how and technology, which required lots of
human and material resources;
3) in some cases – the loss of priority in the
world with innovative designs *
A striking example of this situation may be
the loss of priority of the USSR in the technology
of explosive nanodiamonds. The technology
was first developed in the Federal State Unitary
Enterprise “Russian Federal Nuclear Center – AllRussian Research Institute of Technical Physics
named after E.I. Zababakhin” in a closed city
Snezhinsk in1963, and it was declassified only in
1985 under the influence of many research groups
in that time, including those in Russia, Ukraine
and the United States, which have developed
similar technology for getting nanodiamonds. It
is difficult to say where Russia would have been
in the field of nanotechnology, if the technology
had been transferred in time to the civilian sector
and patented in the leading countries of the world
(V.V. Danilenko, 2004).
The involvement of the scientific and
innovative potential in the closed business
processes of the regional economy is difficult
for several reasons related to the development of
innovative activity in the closed cities themselves,
namely, the lack of a market mentality, the
reluctance of employees to resign from the local
industry, “nepotism” of a small town, narrowmindedness in terms of investment, lack of
funds for innovation, marketing and so on.
(E.A. Sakadynets, D.Y. Faikov, 2008).
Therefore,
one
must
agree
with
E.M. Korostishevskaya, which offers the
idea of enhancing high-tech innovation
on the basis of restructuring defense and
development of the theory and practice of open
innovation in the military sector of the country
(E.M. Korostishevskaya, 2011). The authors of the
given article fully agree with this idea, however
nowadays there are almost no tools and incentives
for companies interested in the defense industry
to open its technologies and transfer them to the
civilian sector.
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As a radical example, we can show a real
situation which faced the expedition of students
and teachers of the Siberian Federal University.
This expedition was organized in the framework
of the grant of the Federal target program
“Scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel
of innovative Russia” in 2009-2013, and grants of
the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Foundation in
2010-2011. Expeditions were organized in several
towns of Dolgan-Nenets district municipality in
Taymyr (village Nosok and village Karaul) and
Evenk municipal district (village Surinda and
village Essey). There live locally indigenous
minorities of the North that are engaged in
traditional occupations, such as reindeer
breeding, fishing and hunting. Conducted project
workshops with the residents and the village
administration have identified an urgent need of
people living there in modern technologies and
equipment, as follows:
- Energy supply in the villages, herding,
hunting and fishing brigades (the cost
of electricity varies from 20 – 30 rub. /
KWh);
- Modernization of the architecture of
settlements and the construction of houses
and mobile tents;
- Providing
a
sustainable
mobile
communications and the Internet in the
towns;
- Modern clothing and footwear;
- Building and insulating materials (the
cost of 1 m3 of timber, imported from the
mainland, is 32 rubles.)
- Modern technologies of deep processing
of local raw materials (meat, fish, wild
plants, etc.)
Fig. 1 shows a few photos from the modern
life of reindeer-breeders in Evenk municipal
district in the village Surinda (Evenks) and
fishermen – hunters in the village Nosok (DolganNenets district municipality in Taymyr).
At the Krasnoyarsk Territory, there are two
closed cities – Zheleznogorsk and Zelenogorsk,
which possess the highest scientific – technical
potential, due to their town-enterprises such as
JSC “Information Satellite Systems” named after
M.F. Reshetnev “(JSC “ISS”), Federal State Unitary
Enterprise “Mining and Chemical Plant” (MCP)
and JSC “Electro-Chemical Plant “ (JSC ECP) .
They are the defense industry enterprises, which
have in their assets and liabilities of the numerous
scientific and technical developments that could
be used to significantly improve the quality of
life of indigenous peoples who are engaged in
traditional economic activities and are components
of the cultural heritage of Russia (the readers of
this article understand that a radical example is
given here). It should be noted that the peoples
inhabiting the northern territories of Russia still
use the technology, which was developed by their
ancestors, in their traditional fields.
Due to the nature of their defense industry,
it can be hardly expected that they will start
adapting their products and technologies for
civilian use. For example, defense companies,
which have designed and manufactured the suit
of an astronaut, using the latest technologies and
materials, are unlikely to develop a modern tent
or a suit for a reindeer-breeder.
In this case, you must agree with
A.Y. Smetanov, who suggests the idea of
broadcasting innovation potential defense
industry through an innovative structure of the
university complexes (A.Y. Smetanov, 2009). That
is University here is viewed through its scientific,
technological and innovative potential, not only as
adaptator of defense technologies to the civilian
market, but also it provides the generation of
knowledge-intensive small businesses and their
training.
Until now, high-tech enterprises in the closed
city, which were based on technology defense,
have usually formed around a core enterprises
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(a)
(b)
(с)
(d)
Fig. 1 Photographs of the modern life of reindeer-breeders in the teams section in the village Surinda (Evenki,
a-b) and the fishermen – hunters in the village Nosok (Nenets, c-d).
of defense industrial complex(E.A. Fiyaksel,
M.G. Nazarov, 2010, V.I. Kirko, V.D. Nadelyaev
, S.V. Usoltsev, R.D. Goloushkin, 2011). Fig. 2
and 3 show Schematic diagram of the adaptation
of technology to the civilian defense industry
market-based business model of open innovation
offered by G.Chesbro (H. Chesbrough, 2003).
Modern universities have all the conditions
for the implementation of the proposed scheme,
namely, scientific and technical potential;
units responsible for technology transfer; units
responsible for the preservation of state and
commercial secrets, industrial parks, business
incubators, etc.
This scheme has significant advantages:
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For the defense industry:
- Better use of technology enterprises
established in the civil defense sector.
Especially those technologies that are not
used and will not be used in their main
production;
- Additional income for the defense industry
of small businesses coming from the sale
of licensing agreements for the transfer of
intellectual property;
- Additional income of scientists, designers
and technologists defense companies, the
authors of patents, know-how, etc.;
- The use of technological innovations,
created as a result of adaptation of
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Fig. 2. A good example of adapting technology to the civilian defense industry market.
SB
SB
SB
SB
Military
industrial
complex
technology
Universitycomplex
Civilmarket
SB
SB
SB
Closed city
SB
Fig. 3. Adaptation Scheme of defense technologies in the civilian market, based on the business model of open
innovation G.Chesbro (SB – small businesses).
technology by scientists and technologists
of the university systems and knowledgebased small businesses.
For the University:
- The possibility of greater involvement of
teachers, students and graduate students
in science and innovation;
- Expanding the network of small hightech enterprises in industrial parks and
business incubators;
- Preparation of teams for projects;
- Additional income of the University
and its faculty from the sale of licensing
agreements and investments.
The key success factors for implementation of
the University of interaction with the Enterprise is
the presence of military industrial complex units
performing technology transfer (the University)
and the unit carrying out recruitment and training
of technology (in the defense industry).
From the principle of building a system on
the model of the “triple helix” (Henry Itskovits,
2010), these structures are to some extent have to
be integrated into each other, and their interaction
must have a feedback. They bear an additional
special role.
For units of the University Technology
Transfer:
1) the formation, maintenance and updating
of data bank on new advanced technologies
related to the profile of the respective defense
companies;
2) maintaining a data bank on companies
that were created using the potential of defense
enterprises, their technical and economic
characteristics;
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3) the provision of services to businesses and
individuals who are owners of new technologies,
establishing business contacts with defense
companies as possible to the consumer of their
development, as well as in the conclusion of the
transaction;
4) To find investors and financing sources
for specific projects, including preparation of
materials needed for investment (business plans,
etc.);
5) Search for University departments,
enterprises and organizations capable of the
further development and adaptation of the
interesting developments and technologies for
civil use;
6) The organization of the examination
and testing of scientific and technological
developments to assess the prospects of their
use in the enterprise and resolve issues on the
acquisition and transfer of licenses.
The unit, which carries out the recruitment
and training of technology (in the defense
industry), such as manufacturing and technology
center, has become a gateway, which serves
for the interaction of defense companies with
the environment, and in our case with the
universities.
Its functions should include:
1) the formation, maintenance and updating
of data bank on the technologies available at the
defense enterprise and ready for transfer;
2) Preparation of materials (including
licensing) for technology transfer from
universities or the appropriate small business
under the license agreement;
3) control over the use of intellectual property
and information leakage;
4) establishing a system to promote
employees – the authors transferred intellectual
property.
Due to the nature of production, defense
companies are working behind closed doors
that greatly hampers their interaction with
universities. Cities in which they are located
have the status of closed cities, the entrance to
their territory is by a pass, and their employees
sign a nondisclosure agreement. Also there is
an informal closure, when people don’t want
to share inner information, even if it is not
secret.
In recent years economists started talking
more and more about the advantages of openness,
saying the concept of innovation development
of “open innovation”. “Open Innovation” is
a purposeful implementation of the various
organizations of the inflow and outflow of
knowledge, undertaken to improve their internal
innovation activities, as well as to extend the use of
innovation in the environment (V. Vanhaverbeke,
2008).
To understand what approach for a company
development is the most efficient, so let’s consider
it as an economic microsystem in terms of its
effectiveness.
On the criterion of Pareto (V.M. Galperin,
S.M. Ignatiev, V.I. Morgunov, 2008), the system
is effective if it is impossible to increase the
welfare of at least one agent without decreasing
the welfare of others. If the system is closed, then
only the system itself benefits from the use of
these developments. If these developments are
taken and given to other agents, then this system
might benefit from it by receiving income from
the sale of licenses, as well as the agents which
also get income. However, the criterion ceases
to be satisfied when you exit out of the system
implemented in the defense industry of secret
projects. Thus, if you want this system to be
effective according to Pareto’s views, you must
open it just enough to have access to confidential
and unworkable technology.
Kaldor-Hicks criterion (URL: http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaldor-Hicks_efficiency)
suggests that the welfare of agents can be reduced
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even under the condition that the agents with
the increasing wealth compensate the losses.
However, such an alternative to this system in
military industrial complexes enterprises is not
suitable because of irreversible losses associated
with the leak of classified information.
According to the criterion of Rawls
(V.M. Galperin, S.M. Ignatiev, V.I . Morgunov,
2008) effectiveness of the system is evaluated on
the welfare of its less rich agents. If we assume
that at this point the defense companies in the
region are provided most with technologies, then,
respectively, the remaining agents in the system
are the least well off, and therefore, when they
receive the necessary technology, it increases
the efficiency of the system as a whole. And in
this case, an open system is more efficient than
a closed one.
Allocative efficiency. The system meets the
allocative efficiency if it gives the most optimal
combination of products with the most effective
combination of resources (O.S. Sukharev, 2009).
In our case, technology, scientists, engineers,
technologists, as well as finance and materials
are considered to be resources. As not all defense
technology projects are being implemented on
the military industrial complexes enterprises, it
is not necessary to talk about the optimal set of
products. That means that allocative efficiency is
not achieved in a closed system. Another thing,
if the way of the technology will be cleared and
the university will be able to find the best ways
to transmit the technology to the civilian market,
that’s when the system is close to being allocative
efficiency.
X-efficiency of H. Leibenstein (H.
Leibenstein, 1995). If actual costs are higher than
the lowest possible system, then this system has
X-inefficiency. The costs of defense enterprises
can be reduced by improving the management
or partially offset by work in a partially open
innovation.
How one should implement the transition to
innovative development approach from closed to
open innovation? E.A. Fiyaksel and M.G. Nazarov
propose to adopt the Law of the Russian
Federation that is similar to the law in the United
States in 1986 on federal technology transfer.
This law implemented a technology transfer in
the duty of scientists and engineers of all federal
laboratories (Russian counterparts of closed city)
and instructed to take into account the activities of
technology transfer in the evaluation of employees
(E.A. Fiyaksel, M.G. Nazarov, 2010).
Even in the case of adoption of this law, the
creation of specialized units for technology transfer
(in the defense industry and the University) and
establishment of a formal connection between
them, the process of technology transfer will
actually not work.
More preliminary work need to be done: to
determine the appropriate goals and objectives,
key activities and tools, performance measures
and monitoring criteria and procedures for
project selection (R.A. Kokorev, 2008). The fact
of the matter is that the most effective control is
exercised on the basis of informal institutions
(R.M. Nizhegorodtsev, 2008). The latter also
applies to businesses and private agents, under
the influence of a complex and extensive system
of formal and informal institutions. So how to
establish the interaction of the university and the
defense industry so that it actually carries out?
V.M. Polterovich provides three types of
strategies for building institutional systems:
Shock Therapy, cultivation, and the strategy
of intermediate institutions (V.M. Polterovich,
2009). At the same time the third strategy has the
best chance of success. Therefore it is proposed
to make a transition from the development of
innovative concepts from “closed innovation”
to “open innovation” on the defense industry
enterprises, using a strategy of intermediate
institutions. To do this, one should use the
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Welfare
ˀ2
P1
E
N*
Numberofchanges
Fig. 4. A change of the welfare of agents while changing institutions.
method of interactive planning. The essence
of this method lies in the gradual development
and change in institutions, monitoring system
status and the subsequent adjustment of the
plan.
Let N be a number of changes, P1 – the
welfare of defense enterprises, P2 – the wellbeing areas where the innovative potential of a
closed city will be broadcast. Since it is assumed
that the use of technology transferred will be paid
royalties, the development can be represented in
the graph given in Fig. 4.
Using the method of interactive planning
(V.M. Polterovich, 2009), we can set up the
exchange of technologies that the innovative
development of the territories will eventually
catch up with the development of the defense
industry, and it will happen at the point E. This
point is exactly a point of Pareto-efficiency of the
system. And although it is given on the chart that
after passing the point E the welfare of agents
continues to increase, however, in practice, it is
not necessary to move beyond that point, because
the defense industry should always be more
developed than the civil society.
Thus E is an equilibrium point of the system,
and while achieving it, the setting of the institute
of exchange of technologies between the defense
industry enterprises and the University can be
regarded completed.
The analysis shows the feasibility of the
transition of enterprises to the development
model based on the concept of open innovation.
When implementing such a transition, it should
be clarified that H. Chesbrough’s option is not
really suitable for this case, because it implies a
reduction of R & D (research and development),
which is unacceptable for our defense industry.
However, from the standpoint of improving
X-efficiency of the system, one should enhance
the effectiveness of management in the defense
industry. Therefore, speaking about the
mechanism of the potential involvement of the
closed businesses in innovative activities of the
regional economy, the following principles must
be taken into account:
1) Focus on effective management in the
organization of production;
2) Build effective business model of company
management based on the interaction with the
environment;
3) Doing your own research and development,
as well as the use of innovations which have been
developed in the external environment;
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4) To promote the cooperation of the experts
from the leading experts in this field.
This work was supported by the Federal
Target Program “Research and scientific-
pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia” in
2009-2013, in the framework of arrangement №
1.2.1a, and Krasnoyarsk regional fund to support
scientific and technological activities.
References
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твердого тела», 2004, Т.46, вып. 4, С. 581—584
Сакадынец Е.А. [E.A. Sakadynets], Файков Д.Ю. [D.Y. Faikov], «Инновационные
возможности закрытых административно-территориальных образований (на примере
Сарова нижегородской области)», Инновации. 2008. № 9.
Коростышевская Е.М. [E.M. Korostishevskaya], «Модель открытых инноваций», Инновации
№5(151)2011.
H. Chesbrough. «Open Innovation. The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from
Technology», 2003.
Сметанов А.Ю. [A.Y. Smetanov] «Технопарк на базе предприятия ВПК: теория и практика
внедрения инноваций», Высшее образование сегодня. 2009. № 12.
Генри Ицковиц [Henry Itskovits] «Тройная спираль. Университеты – предприятия –
государство. Инновации в действии», Генри Ицковиц; пер. с англ. под ред. А.Ф. Уварова. –
Томск: Изд-во Томск. гос. ун-та систем упр. и радиоэлектроники, 2010.
Ванхавербеке В. [V. Vanhaverbeke ], «Формирование и развитие теории открытых
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H. Chesbrough. Open Innovation. The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology,
2003.
Гальперин В.М. [V.M. Halperin], С.М. Игнатьев [S.M. Ignatieff], В.И. Моргунов
[V.I. Morgunov] «Микро-экономика», том 2, Санкт-Петербург, 2008.
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Kaldor-Hicks_efficiency (дата обращения: 7.11.2011).
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экономической теории. 2009. – №2.
Лейбенстайн Х. [H. Leibenstein], «Аллокативная эффективность в сравнении с
«Х-эффективностью» // Теория фирмы. СПб.: Экономическая школа, 1995.
Кокорев Р.А. [R.A. Kokorev], «Роль институтов и диверсификации экономики Российской
Федерации» http://www.un.org/esa/policy/eitconference/2apram_report_kokorev_rus.pdf 2008.
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Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation…
Нижегородцев Р.М. [R.M. Nizhegorodtsev], «Проблема формализации институтов: граница
между формальным и неформальным в институциональном развитии», Журнал экономической
теории. 2008. № 3.
Полтерович В.М. [V.M. Polterovich] Проблема формирования национальной инновационной
системы, Экономика и математические методы, 2009 том 45.
Обоснование применения концепции
открытых инноваций
для вовлечения потенциала ЗАТО
в инновационное развитие региона
В.И. Кирко,
Г.И. Поподько, Р.Д. Голоушкин
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье рассматривается проблемы вовлечения высокого научного потенциала ЗАТО в
инновационное развитие регионов, дано обоснование эффективности этого вовлечения с
различных позиций. Предложены механизмы для реализации модели развития регионов на
основе модели «Открытые инновации».
Ключевые слова: инновационный потенциал, региональная инновационная инфраструктура.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 988-1004
~~~
УДК 304.444
Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms
of Self-Awareness
of Indigenous Peoples Under Conditions of
External Civilization Pressure
(by an Example of the Yakut Ethnic Group)
Natalya P. Koptseva*, Natalia N. Pimenova,
Vladimir S. Luzan, Alexandra A. Semenova,
Ekaterina A. Sertakova and Natalia A. Bakhova
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 10.12.2011, received in revised form 1.02.2012, accepted 10.02.2012
In the present situation of active development of resource-rich territories of Siberia and the North,
the problem of self-preservation of their indigenous ethnos has become more urgent. The preservation of the indigenous ethnic groups and their cultures is complicated by strengthening external
civilization pressure. However, self-reproduction mechanisms are inherent for any ethnic group,
and they are the way of preservation, renovation of the indigenous peoples’ ethnic identity, acting as
forms of their national identity. At the present time people know both traditional elements of ethnic
culture that contribute to its reproduction, and some phenomena of today that may also act as means
of formation and preservation of the ethnic group. In today’s practice of indigenous peoples these
ethno-formative mechanisms are both preservation and development of the unique aboriginal religion and history of the ethnic group, and the legal instruments of society, the development of national
cinematograph and animation, national mass media. The present article examines the opportunities
of the mentioned cultural elements at their performance of the functions of formation and preservation of the nation by an example of the Yakut ethnic group. This article is the result of the analysis of
effective practices of conservation and development of traditional Yakut culture under conditions of
foreign civilization pressure.
Keywords: ethnic identity, indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North, ethno-formative mechanisms,
legal instruments, national cinematograph, ethnos history, ethnic religion, national mass media.
Consideration of the legal regulation of
social and cultural development of indigenous
smaller peoples as the ethno-reproducing
practices under conditions of the civilization
pressure from “developed” societies can provide
*
1
a number of problems in connection with the
current state of its legislative framework. One
of such problems is the crucial importance of
such factor as small population, in determination
of the specific rights of indigenous peoples and
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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guarantees of the special protection of their areas
of residence and traditional nature use. In this
case, it would be productive to assign the existing
rights to the category of “indigenous peoples”, as
it is customary in international practice, and also
to return this status to indigenous peoples who
at certain times have been forced to change the
area of their residence (who have been evicted),
and therefore who have lost the places of their
traditional nature use without any compensation
for their loss. One of the most urgent issues
today is the creation of territories of traditional
nature use, as since the issuing of the Federal
Law “On Territories of Traditional Nature Use
of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia
and the Far East of the Russian Federation” no
federal territory of traditional nature use has
been established, but several appeals from the
indigenous communities have been submitted to
the Russian government. At the same time, the
Federal Law “On Guarantees of the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation”,
arguing that indigenous smaller peoples and their
representatives are entitled to compensation of
losses that are caused by damage to the native
environment of their habitat by economic activity
of organizations and individuals, does not define
any clear criteria of the losses or the mechanism
of their compensation, as well as control over this
process. Some laws still contradict each other,
as, for example, the Law on the Territories which
determines the rights of indigenous smaller
peoples for the receipt of the ground lands in
the territories of traditional nature use for free
use, and the Land Code, which evens this right
of indigenous peoples. There are inconsistencies
in the way the powers of local authorities are
determined by different federal laws specifically
aimed at the regulation of the rights of indigenous
smaller peoples, and the Federal Law “On General
Principles of Local Government Organization in
the Russian Federation”. The solution of these
problems should contribute to the implementation
of ethno-formative opportunities of legal
regulation practices.
From the point of view of reproducing
traditional culture as a relevant and modern
one, cinematograph and animated films are
phenomena that are referred to the most relevant
and effective practices of ethnic identity and selfidentity of indigenous peoples in the context of
global transformations of the tools offered by
the project of modernity. By the example of the
Yakut cinematograph, the article studies the main
aspects of the way this phenomenon performs the
function of ethnic determination: positioning
of national cinematograph as a form of support
of the national language and the preservation
of the national originality, the specific “cultural
zones” of the Yakut cinematograph, features
of its operation as a national ideal forming
system, which are the values developed by the
cinematograph as the basic concepts of the Yakut
ethnic group culture.
One of the traditional practices of ethnic
group that act as forms of its self-reproduction
and preservation, is the support and development
of the national religion that is positioned as
Shamanism for the Yakut ethnic and cultural
group. Today Shamanism represents a wide range
of phenomena among indigenous peoples, from
those saved in a version that is close to the original
one, the traditional Shamanism that evolved to
the new-reconstructed ritual mechanisms and the
involvement of traditional Shamanic practices
as the elements of the ritual complex of other
religions. The gradation of the indigenous peoples’
participation in these forms is wide: today they
act both as real practitioners, tradition bearers
(the Yakut Shamanism has positioned itself as
preserved without interrupting the tradition), and
as reconstructors of the shaman ritual practices
and inventors of new forms (Neoshamanism
that is typical for modern Yakutia). Demand for
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Shamanism has rapidly risen with the collapse
of the Soviet Union, when it was selected as a
way of self-determination of the Yakut people
as the specific one in relation to other national
communities. The aim reconstructing the
religious practices as a cultural phenomenon in
this case was to reproduce the ethnic group in
its independence and uniqueness, and thus the
aggravating problem of national identity was
solved. Shamanism is a surprisingly stable and
non-conservative practice. It is ready for historical
changes, and therefore, using mechanism of the
new-reconstructed Shamanic practices as an
ethno-formative component, reproduced ethnic
groups, it is a new ethnic group with an inherited
name and the base of traditions that is adapted to
modern conditions and needs the determination
of their own boundaries during the period of
global transformations.
One of the most meaningful and effective
practices of ethnic and cultural identity is
inclusion of its own people into the world history
and the development of national lines in the world
science, the purposeful formation of national
leaders in all fields of science. The indigenous
peoples of the circumpolar areas have directed
their efforts for revival of ethnic groups, some of
them revive their traditions, language and culture
in a rather closed way, within their historical
homeland and within their ethnic group, adjusting
to the historical conditions; by the example of
the Yakuts, we see how the representatives of
an ethnic group tend to do it in an open manner.
They are reviving their culture, including it into
the historical world context not so much as into
a logically consistent, but as into a great and
meaningful context, at which the basic research
of the region where ethnic group are aimed at.
To prove the dominant state of their culture,
researchers turn to analysis of various data, such
as archaeological, genetic, linguistic, etc. where
they find the relationship with the most significant
processes of history, thus, in fact, these processes
are more likely to be assessed as a creation of new
history, the origin of which is associated with a
particular ethnic group or original territory of
residence that has an exclusive relationship with
the concept of the new mythology of the people.
The article considers the possibility of various
forms of historicism in the reconstruction and the
formation of ethnic identity of the nation.
One of the most relevant factors of ethnic
identity and self-identification in the current
situation is mass media. As a practice of modernity,
current media culture is an intensive flow of
information, methods people use for exploring the
world in its social, moral, psychological, artistic
and intellectual aspects. Due to mass media, the
nature of the social and cultural changes can be
defined as processes of globalization as well as
processes of national identity actualization. This
article considers the forms of reproduction and
formation of ethnic identity by means of mass
media.
Practices of conservation and development
of the unique original religion of an ethnic group,
practices of restoration and preservation of the
history of ethnic group, correct legal instruments
of society, development of national cinematograph
and animation, national mass media are able and
do act as ethno-formative mechanisms in today’s
practice of the Yakut ethnic group. This article
considers the possibilities of these mechanisms of
the formation and preservation of the nation by an
example of the Yakut ethnic group, and in some
cases the article comes up with recommendations
for correcting their current forms in order to
increase the efficiency of these mechanisms and
to comply with the interests of other nations.
1. Law as an
ethno-formative mechanism.
It was necessary to start analyzing effective
practices of conservation and development of a
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traditional culture under conditions of foreigncivilization pressure from the legal regulation
of indigenous peoples’ social and cultural
development. As a result, in connection with
the current state of legal regulation of social
and cultural development of indigenous smaller
peoples under conditions of the civilization
pressure by “developed” societies, the following
problems can be pointed out:
1. One of the general problems that can
seriously affect the future fate of these people,
lies in the defi nition of indigenous peoples
contained in the Federal Law “On Guarantees
of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of the
Russian Federation” (hereinafter – the Law
on Guarantees). The term “Indigenous smaller
peoples” refers to people who live in the
territories of traditional settlement of their
ancestors, preserving the traditional way of
life, housekeeping and crafts, numbering at
least 50,000 people in the Russian Federation
and identifying themselves as separate ethnic
communities. Among other criteria, the
legislator originally laid quantitative criterion
of inclusion of indigenous peoples into the
category of smaller peoples, thus outlining the
boundaries of the Law implementation. The
law has secured special rights for indigenous
peoples, that count less than 50,000 people and
has not provided any legal consequences for the
people, the number of which fail to meet this
criterion, i.e. reaches 50,000 people or more.
Following the logic of the current legislation,
these people and their representatives, having
ceased to be smaller, lose all the rights that were
reserved for them. The environment and natural
resources of the former territory of traditional
nature use will also remain without any special
protection. It is not clear, what in this case should
be done by the public authorities and the local
government that have created the territory of
traditional nature use.
Consequently, it is advisable not to use the
quantitative characteristic for determination
of the entitled subject, but to use the concept
of “indigenous peoples”, as it is accepted in
international practice, and assign special rights to
indigenous peoples, in order not to cause conflicts
related to the change of the people status in the
future.
2. The second problem is also related to
the definition of indigenous peoples that is laid
down in the law. Article 12 of the Federal Law
“On Territories of Traditional Nature Use of
Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the
Far East of the Russian Federation” determines
that in case of confiscation of ground lands and
other isolated natural objects that are within
the boundaries of the territories of traditional
nature use for state or municipal needs, persons
belonging to smaller peoples, and communities
of indigenous peoples are granted equivalent
ground lands and other natural objects, as
well as compensated for losses caused by such
confiscation. Based on the meaning of this
standard, it follows that it refers to cases where
there is confiscation of individual ground lands,
or isolated objects, or even the whole territory
of traditional nature use, but we are talking not
about the loss of communication with all lands
that have been previously traditionally occupied
by indigenous peoples, i.e. about migration.
It is necessary to think out a mechanism to
prevent such a situation, for example, to indicate
that indigenous peoples are not only the people
living in the territories of traditional settlements of
their ancestors, but also the people who are forced
to migrate by the state from such territories or to
provide additional compensation and guarantees
for the peoples and their representatives who have
lost the status of indigenous smaller peoples as a
result of governmental activity.
3. One of the most urgent problems at
this stage is the problem of establishment of
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traditional nature use territories. It is particularly
true for the territories of traditional nature use on
the federal level. Since the issuing of the Federal
Law “On Territories of Traditional Nature Use
of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia
and the Far East of the Russian Federation” no
federal territory of traditional nature use has
been established, but several appeals from the
indigenous communities have been submitted to
the Russian government.
Moreover, according to the functional
legislation, the territories of traditional nature
use are a variety of specially protected natural
territories that means that it is possible to use
the general procedure of the establishment of
protected territories that are fixed by the legislation
on specially protected natural territories. The
legal regime of almost all protected territories
(except for the state nature reserves and national
parks) is determined by the provisions about the
certain protected territories. For most types of
protected territories there is no acceptance of
typical provisions, but they are established and
operate successfully.
4. According to the Federal Law “On
Guarantees of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
of the Russian Federation”, indigenous smaller
peoples and their representatives are entitled to
compensation of losses that are made as a result of
damage to the native environment of their habitat
by economic activity of organizations of all forms
of property and individuals (Article 8, part 1,
paragraph 8) [ibid]. The law does not determine
where funds paid as compensation for such losses
are specifically sent, who and in what way use
these funds. The law also does not explain how
interested representatives of indigenous peoples
are involved in the distribution and control
over the use of funds that are transferred as the
compensation of incurred losses.
In practice, as a rule, these funds are
sent to the accounts of local authorities that
are organized and operate on the relevant
territories. Meanwhile, proper control over the
implementation of transferred funds is not carried
out. The funds that should be used for restoration
and improvement of pastures, hunting territories
and other needs, are often used for other purposes.
It is still not clarified what kind of loss should be
compensated to indigenous peoples and in what
amount. It is important to establish clear criteria
of losses, goals, defining the areas of expense of
the funds, collected for compensation of losses,
and the mechanism of compensation at the
legislative level.
5. Part 2, Article 11 of the Law on territories
stipulates that ground lands and other isolated
natural objects that are within the boundaries
of territories of traditional nature use are
granted to persons belonging to smaller peoples
and communities of indigenous peoples for
free use. However, the Land Code levels this
opportunity to get the ground land for free use.
Representatives of indigenous smaller peoples
and their communities have equal rights with
other citizens and organizations to have ground
lands.
The Code does not provide the right to receive
ground lands within the boundaries of territories
of traditional nature use for free use. Like other
citizens, representatives of indigenous peoples
and their organizations can obtain ground lands
from the land that is state or municipal property
by purchasing it on an auction or on the basis of the
decision of the authority to give ground land for
rent. This puts indigenous peoples in an unequal
position, because the traditional way of life and
traditional economy that is carried out by them
often make it impossible to get the revenues that
are sufficient for purchasing ground lands along
with other bidders. If indigenous peoples carry out
traditional nature use as entrepreneurial activity,
such activity will immediately lose the status of
traditional nature use, because indigenous people
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traditionally use resources to ensure a certain
standard of living, i.e. living for themselves.
Indigenous peoples, implementing their
special rights, for example, carrying out
traditional nature use, are able to provide the
possibility of other citizens to implement their
rights for land and nature use, as well as rights
for a healthy environment, because they ensure
the preservation of this environment and natural
resources on the territories of their traditional
residence and do not alienate the land and natural
resources from the use by other subjects. It means
that their traditional nature use is carried out
along with other subjects. If the latter, in turn, do
not deplete natural resources and do not destroy
the natural landscape and environment, their
rights do not cross each other.
6. There are inconsistencies in the
determination of the powers of local selfgovernment between the federal laws specifically
aimed at the regulation of the rights of indigenous
smaller peoples, and the Federal Law No. 131-Ф1
«On General Principles of Local Government
Organization in the Russian Federation» issued
on 06.10.2003.
For example, according to the Federal Law
«On Guarantees of the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples of the Russian Federation», the powers of
local governments for the protection of original
habitat, traditional way of life, economy and crafts
of indigenous peoples include the establishment
of general principles of “organization and activity
of territorial public self-government in the places
of their traditional residence and economic
activity».
At the same time, granting the authority to
establish the general principles of organization
and operation of territorial public selfgovernment of the given peoples to the local
governments is not entirely consistent with the
nature of the powers of local self-government that
follows from the Federal Law No. 131-ФЗ «On
General Principles of Organization of Local SelfGovernment in the Russian Federation» issued on
06.10.2003. As the closest authorities to public,
local authorities should determine not the general
principles, but specific procedure of organization
and implementation of public territorial selfgovernment on the territory of the municipality,
the conditions and procedure of allocation of the
necessary funds from the local budget for the
needs of local public authorities, also in respect to
indigenous peoples. They should carry out these
powers on the basis of general principles that
are already included in the given Law (Article
27), and do not set these general principles by
themselves.
2. The development of national
cinematograph and animated films
as an ethno-formative mechanism
One of the most relevant and effective
practices of ethnic identity and self-identity
of indigenous peoples in the context of global
transformations is the use of the tools that
are developed and proposed in the project of
modernity that are not denying the traditional
culture, but reproducing it as relevant and
contemporary. And the first place among these
practices, of course, is taken by cinematograph
and animated films.
The main national pride of the Yakut
cinematograph is in the fact that most films
are made in Yakut language. Cinematograph is
largely oriented to the audience in the Republic,
and not outside is boundaries. As a social and
cultural practice, this approach draws us to
conclusion that national cinema is an important
mechanism of preservation of the language of the
Yakut people. Moreover, the principle of making
movies in Yakut language indicates the fact that
ethnic group is developed according to the model
of the simultaneous and incorporation into the
“large” ethnic community and preservation of
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national uniqueness. At this stage cinematograph
serves as the practice of preservation of the
national uniqueness.
Unique ethnic peculiarity of the Yakut
cinematograph manifests itself in the following
cultural “zones”:
1) visualization of epic and fantastic stories
of Olonkho in animated movies and “transference
in time” of the values of the national epos into the
life stories of modern people;
2) traditional way of life in Yakutia: uluses,
fishing, hunting, etc.;
3) works of national literature: works written
by P. Oyunskiy are used in the movies as a basis
for adaptation, folk tales are used in animated
movies.
4) creation of national cultural heroes
(intentional search for such cultural heroes
who will be well known throughout the world),
lifestyle and actions of whom are mythologized
and transformed into the cultural ideal, even if it
is wrong from the perspective of history.
Yakut cinematograph system is complicated
and successfully developed according to the model
of the major national cinematographic schools,
where there are different niches. The niche of
mainstream films with didactic adaptation of
mentally “healthy” lifestyle of people in the
Republic is occupied by “Sakhafilm”. The niche
of genre films (thrillers, action movies, “black”
movies, fiction, etc.), that is oriented in particular
to export is occupied by the private film company
“Almazfilm”. There are independent movies
that could eventually become a platform for
the emergence of film masterpieces in the
Yakut cinematograph. There is beginning of
the development of animated movies. Thus, at
the structural level, the Yakut cinematograph is
developing according to the successful models of
national film schools.
Gradually, in addition to the originality of
plots there is the beginning of the development
of specific character of the Yakut film aesthetics:
the weakness of dramatic concept (unreliability
of causal and logical relationships in the
films), restrained acting (it is known that such
physiognomic feature of the Yakut ethnic group
as restraint of facial expressions does not allow
actors to play emotionally, so it often creates
heroic images). It is also characterized by stylistic
orientation to the Asian cinematograph that is
spiritually close to Yakutia and that has earned
success on a global level.
Acting as a national ideal-formative system,
the Yakut cinematograph forms the following
values: national patterns of behavior in which ruse
is put much higher than power; ideal of a hero both
in the spiritual and physical aspects, the value
of a family, involvement of the Russian nation
in the history, tolerance in interethnic relations,
but at the same time preservation of own cultural
uniqueness, originality and independence.
3. Conservation and development
of the unique national religion
as an ethno-formative mechanism
Such social and cultural practice as
development of the national religion (including
national variants of the world religions) has great
significance as an extremely efficient one. For the
Yakut ethnic group, the role of such national
religion is played by Shamanism.
Today Shamanistic practice is represented by
a wide range of phenomena among the indigenous
peoples, from the ones preserved in the closest way
to the original, evolved traditional Shamanism
and recently reconstructed ritual mechanisms
and merge of traditional Shamanistic practices
into the ritual complex of other religions.
Just like the list of the kinds of today’s
Shamanism, the gradation of participation of
Siberian indigenous peoples is extremely wide.
They act as real practitioners, tradition bearers
(it refers to the kinds of Shamanism preserved in
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the closest way to the original, as well as forms
of Shamanism evolved with full or partial loss of
traditional practice), as reconstructors of ritual
Shamanistic practices (Neoshamanism, urban
Shamanism, “no drum” practices), as inventors of
their innovative forms (Shamanism as an ethnic
and cultural practice), or as experts at adapting
Shamanistic techniques by other kind of ritual
practices (experiential Shamanism).
At the same time, it is wrong to claim
that Shamanism traditions have never been
interrupted, though for a long time Shamanistic
ritual practices have been facing some resistance.
So, despite of active Christianization of Siberian
people that has been taking place since the 17th
century (or, since the 19th century, for some
territories), the ethnographers of the end of the
19th – beginning of the 20th century noticed the
universal expansion of Shamanistic religious
practices among the Northern and the Siberian
peoples (expeditions of Mikhailovskiy V.M.,
Sternberg L.Y., Johelsson V.I., Bogoraz V.I.,
Popova A.I., Sokolnikov N.P., Vasilyev V.N.,
Rudenko S.I., Zelenin D.K.). For the fi rst time,
Shamanism phenomenon was mentioned in one
of the chapters of the monograph “Description
of the Peoples Habitat in the Russian State”
by Georgi I.G. which is called “On the Pagan
Law of Shamans”. Soviet ethnographers also
paid much attention to studying cultural
phenomena of Siberia and the North that
concern Shamanism, that still existed and drew
the interest of researchers despite of being
prohibited (researches by Shirokogorov S.M.,
Dolgikh B.O., Smolyak A.V., Levin M.G.,
Potapov L.P., Popov A.A., Vasilevich G.M.,
Ivanov S.V., Pelikh G.I., Prokofieva E.D.,
Khomich L.V., Alexeeva N.A., Simchenko
Yu.B., Gracheva G.I., Mazan A.I.).
The first wave of the dominating ethnos’
resistance against Shamanistic practices was the
conversion of the indigenous population of the
Siberian and Northern territories to another belief
(17th-19th centuries). The second wave or resistance
that occurred in the 19th- beginning of the 20th
century was caused by the point of view, widespread among ethnographer researchers, which
regarded Shamanism as a physic anomaly. The
ethnographic researches of that time described
the phenomenon of Shamanism as a specific form
of polar hysteria that has mass character, or as
domination of shamans over other members of
the community (18; 2; 22). During the Soviet
era, Shamanism dramatically transformed itself
under the atheistic policy followed by the state,
which included several branches of measures:
destroying and isolating professional shamans,
educating work with the population, prohibition
of traditional medical practices, destroying
the part of traditional national culture that
concerns religious or mystic knowledge. For this
reason, during the Soviet era all three spheres
of Shamanistic practices were transformed, and
each of them restored itself later in its own way.
The measures of the struggle against Shamanism
as a phenomenon were the following: educational
measures, that were building up a network of
boarding schools where children were educated
away from their traditional culture under the
domination of the “bigger ethnos” culture; health
measures, that were providing the indigenous
peoples of Siberia and the Northern territories
with professional medical assistance points
in order to lessen the demand for traditional
medical practices, compulsory medical treatment
of practicing shamans; economic measures, that
were forming up state deer farms (sovkhoz), the
technologies of which would not accept applying
any of the traditional Shamanistic practices
connected with this economy field; legislative and
executive measures, prosecution for breaking the
official prohibition of the Shamanistic practices.
At the same time, the process of marginalization
of the representatives of the smaller indigenous
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peoples played its role in interrupting the
Shamanistic traditions. By the end of the 20th
century, the professional niche of Shamanism
had almost ceased its existence for the reason
of the small number (or even absence) of initiate
shamans. The reasons for this were both medical
technologies and the marginalization process, the
long-lasting prohibition of Shamanism during
which even those shamans who did not undergo
any medical treatment, forgot their traditional
practices or lost the motivation for their practice.
Everyday Shamanism, which is a less noticeable
phenomenon, did not face such strong resistance
of the USSR ideologists, so it remained in the rural
areas and to a large extent, in cities as well. The
proofs can be found in the field researches of many
Soviet ethnographers of the second half of the 20th
century that described the presence of Shamanistic
practices in the Northern people’s life under the
conditions of prohibition. These descriptions can
be found in works of Smolyak A.V., who took part
in more than 20 ethnographic expeditions in the
areas of Siberian indigenous peoples’ settlements
from the 1950-s to 1990-s, Kharitonova V.I., the
head of the Medical Anthropology Group of the
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the
Russian Academy of Science, who still carries
out active researches of Shamanism in the life of
indigenous Siberian peoples.
As a result of the processes that have been
accompanying the indigenous peoples of the
North during the Soviet time, Shamanism has
dramatically transformed itself, as the number
practicing initiate shamans has reached the critical
point of extinction. Nevertheless, the extinction
of the Northern shamans has been noticed before:
in the end of the 19 century (year 1892 edition)
Mikhailovskiy V.M. described the Shamanism
extinction under the influence of Buddhism,
Christianity and “Mahommedanism” (Islam).
Concerning this, the ethnographer remarks that
“even though the shamans are disappearing,
they are trusted and often asked for help” (28,
P.62). This way, the “extinction” situation in
Siberia and in the Extreme North is a longlasting phenomenon, and it cannot be considered
as something exclusive in the indigenous
peoples’ life, it is more of a rule, just like the
dual faith situation. With the development of the
relationships between the indigenous smaller
peoples with the dominating Russian ethnos,
Shamanism lost its status of the general outlook
of their representatives; several generations of
people who grew up in the conditions of foster
homes and Soviet schools, apart from their
original traditions, could not be their bearers
anymore, though Shamanistic beliefs remained
in their lives in the form of superstitions. At the
same time, during the prohibition of Shamanism
among the indigenous population of Siberia and
the North, a phenomenon that researchers called
“shamans without drums” started to spread,
which means that representatives of indigenous
peoples who had the “shaman gift” but could
not undergo the ritual initialization, started their
practice.
The process of Shamanism renewal began in
the 1990-s, which was economically and culturally
difficult time for the indigenous peoples of Siberia
and the North. This period became the starting
point for the vital self-identification, restoring
the ethnic identification of the population as
representatives of the indigenous nationalities,
not as a mass of a “smaller Soviet people”, as it
was in the Soviet era. The long-lasting resistance
against Shamanistic practices and the subsequent
boom of Shamanism popularity caused various
transformations of this tradition. Today’s shaman
environment is patchy, as shamans differ from
each other in age, way of tradition heritage (those
who inherited the knowledge naturally, but did not
practice it during the prohibition, and neoshamans
who have completed special training courses), in
the practice character and their nationality: there
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are not only representatives of the indigenous
smaller peoples of Siberia and the North who
know and practice Shamanism. The difference
of motivation for practicing Shamanism for
the indigenous population of Siberia and the
North and for representatives of other nations
(Russians or Ukrainians) has been published in
the comparative research of biographies of the
shamans from Moscow and Sayano-Altai region.
The biographies of shamans were studied on
the basis of a survey on their life episodes that
could be connected to the respondents’ being
bred as shamans. The results prove that the value
of belonging to Shamanism and attitude to it,
along with solving issues on the inheritance
of the gift by the respondents’ children within
shaman groups from Moscow and Sayano-Altai
region, are totally opposite. The attitude towards
Shamanism of Moscow respondents is always
positive, while the representatives of indigenous
people of Siberia speak of their gift as of an
obnoxious burden, or hard labour. Considering
that all respondents from Moscow wished
their children to follow their path and become
shamans, respondents from Siberia are totally
against such heritage, but they realize that “it is
their fate” and their children will “have to live
such life”. Integrated survey results showed, that
unlike Moscow shamans, the shamans from the
indigenous Siberian population take Shamanism
as, first of all, a way of survival or getting rid of
physiological and psychological suffering, and
secondly, as support of ethnical identity (as the
main way of supporting the family, as a way of
being different from the other people, a way of
solving psychological and emotional problems
take further positions in the rating). This way,
the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North
think of Shamanism as of a sphere of stating
their ethnical identity and reproducing it. For this
reason the demand for Shamanism grew rapidly
with the collapse of the USSR, when every nation
living in Russia started seeking for means of selfidentification as a special one towards all other
national communities. The task of reconstructing
religious practices as a cultural phenomenon was
to reproduce the ethnos in its independence and
uniqueness, which solved the urgent problem of
national self-identification.
In this case the religious Shamanistic
practices really do act as a modern mechanism
of ethnos reproduction that is characterized by a
high demand at the ethnic self-identification of
the nation. It is also interesting that nowadays
Shamanism performs a socially uniting function
for the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North
by positioning the culture of the given ethnos
as critically different, unique and distinctive
from the dominating nation’s culture, and in
respect with this task new forms of Shamanistic
practices emerge. At the same time such forms of
Shamanistic practices as dual faith, carry out their
function of ethnos reproduction. According to the
surveys conducted by the Institute of Ethnology
and Anthropology of Russian Academy of
Science among some indigenous ethnos of
Siberia and the North, dual faith is evaluated as a
specific component of their national culture. This
is what the survey of Buryatia about synthesis of
Shamanism and Buddhism showed: the majority
of the respondents called “Buryat Buddhism” and
its practices, based on merge of Shamanistic and
Buddhist rituals, a distinctive representative of
their national culture.
Concerning this, the science of the last ten
years expresses its own specific point of view
towards the phenomenon of Shamanism as a
regular outlook, the special status of which, its
antiquity, its inhesion to ”retarded” nations was
created as a result of colonial approach domination
in studying the indigenous peoples of the North.
This point of view is typical for Northern peoples’
culture and history researches of the post-Soviet
period, which enabled them to re-evaluate
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the character of the relationship between the
dominating and smaller peoples of Russia. So,
Hakkareinen M.V. studied Shamanism through
the prism of the history of this phenomenon on
the initial stage of Russian colonial project, when
the symbolic border that separated the European
part of Russia from the conquered Siberia
was only beginning to establish itself (44):
Shamanism did not initially exist as a separate
religious institution, it formed itself in the process
of the evolvement of the Russian Empire. The
notion of Shamanism played a significant role in
establishing the colonial order, as the observed
phenomenon from the Shamanists’ life stated and
proved social inequality of the peoples living in
the West and the East of the Empire. It all resulted
in the opposition between the East and the West.
The author also believes in the important role of
the peoples’ researchers in creating cultural and
social reality of the nations, when Shamanism
emerged only as a result of generalization and
conclusions drawn by researchers.
The latest historical and sociological
researches regard Shamanism as a cultural
phenomenon the special status of which was
artificially formed. The Shamanistic practices
today do act as ethno-formative components of
a special national culture of indigenous peoples.
The polarity of the modern views towards the
nature and function of modern phenomenon
of Shamanism is evident: Shamanism as a
product of colonial approach and Shamanism
as a nation tradition’s component which is able
to reproduce the ethnos. At the same time, even
the Shamanism produced as a colonial product,
pointing out the nonequivalence of the peoples
is used by the peoples as something that states
their national specificity, a means of the ethnos’
reproduction, formation and reconstruction. So,
Shamanistic practices are really demanded today
as a means of forming the ethnos; in this respect,
their modern kinds are not equally efficient.
So, experiential Shamanism is not an ethnoreproducing practice, as it has absolutely different
tasks and only assumes applying Shamanistic
techniques for solving some personal problems;
and they are mostly aimed at Europeans. Such
practices cannot be used as ethnos-reproducing
concerning the indigenous population of Siberia
and the North. Practices of Neoshamanism and
urban Shamanism also do not totally comply with
the tasks of outlining the borders of a certain
ethnos, as they involve representatives of various
nationalities, and, therefore, are more likely to
aid overcoming ethnic borders and contributing
into ethnos assimilation within one religious
framework, forming up a specific confessional,
not national, union of people. Shamanistic
practices bear evolution character with various
degree of transforming the tradition: Shamanism
as a result of certain tradition evolution, “no
drum” practices, Shamanism closest to its
original forms, Shamanistic practices with total
loss of the ritual complex and even Shamanistic
practices on the background of dual faith, can
be considered as wanted and able to reproduce
the ethnos, separating it from other nations and
giving its representatives an opportunity to
identify themselves. Such artificially formed
practice as “stage Shamanism” is also efficient.
In this case, religious practices perform the
task of forming an indigenous ethnos under the
spontaneous reconstruction process, identifying
their representatives. Shamanism is a surprisingly
stable and non-conservative practice, which
is open to historical transformations, so, it is
essential to understand, that using the mechanism
of newly reconstructed Shamanistic practices
as an ethno-formative component today, the
reproduced ethnic groups are not the ethnos that
used to live in the Northern and Siberian lands a
hundred years ago. This is a new ethnos which
inherited the old name and the tradition base,
an ethnos that is assimilating to the modern
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conditions and needs establishing its own borders
in the period of global transformations; the means
of which are such cultural practices as the ritual
side of Shamanism in the majority of its today’s
varieties.
4. National history as an
ethno-formative mechanism
for Yakuts
It is suggested that one of the most significant
and efficient practices of ethnic and cultural
identity is, on one hand, including of the people
into the world history, and on the other hand,
development of national lines in the world
science, artificial and purposeful “breeding” of
national leaders in all spheres of science, where
it is possible.
For the past decades, the majority of the
ethnos living in the territory of circumpolar zone
started following the way of cultural “revival”.
However, while some of them are restoring their
traditions, language, culture in a closed way,
within the borders of their historical motherland
and within their ethnos, preserve the core of
their ancient outlook, transform and assimilate
themselves to the historical conditions (Innu,
Evenki, Saami etc.), the others (Yakuts) prefer
doing it in a more open way. Moreover, these
ethnos revive their culture, including it into the
all-world historical context not as a common one,
but as something more significant and powerful.
The main scientific researches of the region where
the ethnos lives are aimed at that. To prove the
dominating status of their culture, the researchers
turn to analyzing various data: archaeological,
genetic, linguistic etc., where they could find any
connection to significant processes of history.
Thereby, some ethnos (Yakuts) today deny
many existing historical data and start creating
new history, the origin of which is connected
with their ethnic group in particular or with the
territory of their inhabitance. However, they are
much more likely to create their new mythology,
because they take such knowledge about the
world around them, about their ancestors and
life of their people as real pages of their history,
while in the world academic community it has
not been accepted yet. Because the base for this
history is often composed by the texts from the
general folklore fund of the ethnos that were
written by different people in different times, not
historical documents. For the reason of stability
of the religious beliefs in the ethnos conscience,
they still keep archaic legends and stories, while
today on the ground of old myths the new ones
are being created.
The situation that emerges is contradictory.
On one hand, the majority of ethnos that live
within the circumpolar territory does not position
itselves as peoples who have made a specific
contribution into the development of the world
history and have influenced it. On the other hand,
there are some certain ethnos that pay excessively
much attention to this. Thus, some misbalance in
the lives of the indigenous smaller peoples of the
North can be pointed out. The balance needs to
be restored.
In this case, the main recommendation for
the policy in respect of the indigenous peoples
of the circumpolar territories is the following:
various forms of historicism expression of
various ethnos should be accurately followed,
in case of any deviations their analysis and
timely intervention should be carried out.
Because in this case, the main thing is holding to
some limits.
5. National mass-media
and their role in forming
the ethnic conscience of the Yakuts
There is no doubt that mass media is
especially significant for ethnic identification and
self-identification. As a practice of modernity,
modern media culture is an intensive information
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flow, a means of combined assimilation of the
world in its social, moral, psychological, artistic,
intellectual aspects. Just like the majority of
the modern institutions, the mass media is
an institutional and organizational entity that
combines the characteristics of an institution
and its organizational form. The mass media
is the reason why the character of social and
cultural changes can be determined both by the
globalization processes when the mass media is
included into the process of universalization and
becomes a universal mechanism of social and
cultural unification, and the process of national
identification actualization.
1. In the project of future development of
the national state, mass media is a combination
of informational and communicative means that
have been developed by the people in the process
of historical and cultural growth, which aids
forming national community conscience and
socialization of a personality.
2. On one hand, mass media ties up the
separate cultural worlds, and on the other hand,
in the process of interaction with some certain
cultures, it highlights their differences, creates
contradictions between globalization and
localization of cultural samples, between the
universal and the national in the modern culture.
3. National mass media plays crucial role
in spreading and filling social and cultural
samples with content. Mass media can perform
propaganda, ideological, agitation, educational
tasks.
4. It is necessary to develop projects aimed at
assisting the implementation of the main principles
of the national policy concerning the minorities
and their languages, to define the best practice
of the authorities concerning the rights of the
minorities in the mass media sphere (the best website in the minority languages; best journalism
training course for the journalists working in
the minorities mass media; best publication in
the minority languages; development of creative
talents of children by means of publishing a
newspaper in the national language).
5. National mass media performs a special
unique function of forming the informational
analogue of the society by means of creating a
certain world outlook, along with covering the
functions of other social institutions.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social science. 2009. № 2 (1). – P. 31–55.
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University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3. 2009. № 2. P. 323 – 334. Журнал Сибирского
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Алмазфильм – Режим доступа: http://www.arthouse.ru/attachment.asp?id=3064
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Мацук М.А. [M.A. Matsuk] Материалы научного симпозиума. Вопросы истории и культуры
северных стран и территорий. № 2 (6), 2009 // http://www.hcpncr.com/index.html
Робер-Ламблин Ж. [J. Robert-Lamblin] Различные аспекты долговременного
антропологического обследования в Аммассалике (Восточная Гренландия). Изменения в
демографической структуре и образе жизни. Вопросы истории и культуры северных стран и
регионов № 4, 2008 // http://www.hcpncr.com/index.html
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Циркумполярная цивилизация в музеях мира: вчера, сегодня, завтра» http://arcticmuseum.
com/index.html
Этнообразующие механизмы
и формы самосознания коренных народов
в условиях внешнего цивилизационного давления
(на примере якутского этноса)
Н.П. Копцева, Н.Н. Пименова,
В.С. Лузан, А.А. Семенова,
Е.А. Сертакова, Н.А. Бахова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В современной ситуации активного освоения богатых ресурсами территорий Сибири и
Севера все большую актуальность приобретает проблема самосохранения этносов, исконно
проживающих в этих регионах. Путь сохранения коренных этносов и их культур осложнен
усилением внешнего цивилизационного давления. Тем не менее, любому этносу присущи
механизмы самовоспроизводства, и именно они способны помочь сохранить, восстановить
этническую идентичность представителей коренных народов – выступить формами их
национального самосознания. В настоящее время известны как традиционные элементы
культуры этноса, способствующие его воспроизводству, так и явления сегодняшнего дня,
которые также могут выступить средствами формирования и сохранения этноса. Такими
этнообразующими механизмами в сегодняшней практике коренных народов выступают как
сохранение и развитие уникальной исконной религии этноса и история этноса, так и правовые
инструменты общества, развитие национального кинематографа и анимационного кино,
национальные масс-медиа. Данная статья рассматривает возможности перечисленных
элементов культуры в выполнении ими функции формирования и сохранения нации на примере
якутского этноса и представляет собой результат анализа эффективных практик сохранения
и развития традиционной якутской культуры в условиях иноцивилизационного давления.
Ключевые слова: этническая идентификация, коренные народы Сибири и Севера, этнообразующие
механизмы, правовые инструменты, национальный кинематограф, история этноса, этническая
религия, национальные масс-медиа.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1005-1014
~~~
УДК 323.28+808.51
Political Analysis of the Public Statements
of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups
Pavel V. Klachkov*
Department of Expertise and Analytics
of the Governour of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
110 pr. Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660009 Russia 1
Received 8.06.2011, received in revised form 26.06.2011, accepted 11.08.2011
Considering that terrorists’ aim is to influence the public conscience in information space, effectiveness of both terrorist and counterterrorism activity largely depends on consideration of features and
principles of the latter. That is why the modern radical organizations pay as much attention to the
work in mass media and Internet as to the acts of violence. The public statements of terrorists are the
weapon in media war. To study them the author proposes to use the methods of political and situation analysis. The research demonstrates that these statements are valuable sources if information
and their detailed analysis let us to detect objective and subjective features of terrorists and nontransparent subjects who support them. It concerns, in particular, the compilation of psychological
profiles of the leaders of the terrorists groups and determination of the “grows poles”, that is not
formed, but visible tendencies. Thus, political analysis of the public statements of terrorists lets us
to improve the mechanisms of prediction and prevention of terrorist activity which means that it has
undoubtful practical importance.
Keywords: political analysis, situation analysis, terrorism, public statements, counterterrorism
activity.
In the present time it is undoubtful, that
effective countermeasures to terrorist activity
are impossible without fundamental and applied
research. In order to characterize the systems of
methods which are used to study definite political
events and political situation in general, prediction
of the possible development of the situation and
making of the competent politically-motivated
decision, the term “political analysis” is used1.
According to K.V. Simonov, opposed to
theoretical politology, political analysis is focused
on active participation in the political process as
a modifying principle. The object of research
*
1
in this case is “problematic situations from the
current political practice, which decisions are to
be found as soon as possible”. The results of the
applied research is “perishable” but extremely
valuable product, especially in critical cases,
when the most important decisions are to be made
under conditions of time, informational and other
restrictions2.
According to A.I. Soloviev, the importance
of political analysis as an applied subject lies in
the fact that it “formulates the basic requirements
for studying the problems, the search of the most
suitable decisions and identifies the necessary
Corresponding author E-mail address: klachkov@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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technological equipment and activities, which
prevent subjectivity and arbitrary actions”3.
K.V. Simonov notes, that political analysis has
pyramidal structure: on the basis of situation
analysis it also includes political forecasting and
procedures of formulation and decision making.
Moreover, situation analysis, which studies the
condition of the political system and combination
of interaction between its subjects in a certain
period of time, may also be an independent type
of activity.
Tragic, but integral part of the modern
political reality is terrorism – a phenomenon,
which N.A. Baranov defines as “non-state violent
use of force with the aim to spark mass panic in
the society, to weaken and even overthrow the
government and initiate political changes in the
state. It is aimed to destabilize the state regimes,
agitation of population’s excitement about their
defenselessness in the face of violence, change of
the government in a country or meeting different
political, religious or ethnical requirements”4.
By systematic use of violence, terrorists
try to frighten the population and make it panic.
Terrorist acts of local and regional scale happen
more often during the election period. According
to A. Fomin, terrorism can reach maximum
efficiency in the democratic countries where
the population is involved in the actual election.
This method is less effective in countries with
authoritarian and totalitarian political regimes,
where the election results are known in advance5.
At the international level, the terrorist forces
become agents of change in the global balance of
power.
For the most detailed analysis of the situations
involving the use of violence for political purposes
it is important, above all, to create the necessary
conceptual apparatus and to develop the adequate
methods of analysis. This raises the question
about the methods of the situation analysis,
applicable for the investigation of terrorist threats
in terms of the lack of information and time. The
analysis of the public statements by the subjects of
terrorist activity appears to be one of them. Such
statements are intended, as a rule, for the mass
audience and can easily influence the situation as
a whole, and the interests of the definite political
actors. As A.N. Kurbatskii rightly pointed out, the
act of terrorism in the modern world is mainly a
component of the information war6. Regular public
statements of the representatives of some terrorist
groups proof this fact. Thus, the structure of the
“Taliban”, along with specialized departments
for working with the groups of suicide bombers
and units of learning how to create improvised
explosive devices, created news agencies such as
the studio “Ummat” and “Radio Shariat.”
However, the public statements of the
terrorists are above price material for the analysis.
The spatiotemporal parameters, the external
context and location of the speeches within the
boundaries of the events, are of particular interest,
as the statement of the leader of a terrorist group
which became the public domain, as well as any
political text, was born under the influence of the
complex interacting social factors and due to a
number of different circumstances.
Any person acting on behalf of the terrorist
organization has a number of objective and
subjective qualities, which give his work a
certain direction and, at the same time, act as
limiting factors. Among the objective factors
the following factors should be mentioned first of
all: independence or dependence of that person,
his/her involvement in certain systems of social
relations (such as terrorist networks and contacts
with various internal and external political
forces and with foreign intelligence services),
a person’s publicity, status, or absence of such
characteristics.
The major limiting factors are: counteraction
to the extremists from the authorities, including
anti-terrorist units, the number and organization
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of the forces available to terrorists, the social
basis on which they rely and the amount of
resources under their control. Terrorists often
exaggerate the number of their ranks, but on the
basis of the analysis of their statements we can
draw conclusions about whether they contain true
information about the number of members of an
organized network, or they mention only their
imaginary “comrades”.
Speaking about the subjective limiters we
should assume that any person shares certain
beliefs (or, at least, have to make show that
there is any), has certain skills and doesn’t have
others (as a rule, not perpetrators but ideologists
of terrorist acts make the statements), has
certain sibling or other personal connections
(sometimes the terrorists want to break them,
but often turn it to their advantage) and also has
personal abilities and qualities. The latter, in
particular, include intellectual (ability to develop
an ideology and a plan of action, systematic
thinking), psychological (charisma, the ability
to suggest), and endurance and stamina, as well
as professional skills (including propaganda),
etc.
For example, in the study of the public
statements of Osama bin Laden it should be noted
that from 1986 he took part in at least five major
battles, as well as in hundreds of small-scale
armed clashes. Afghan period in bin Laden’s
live was a starting point for his becoming a
terrorist. According to his own words, “One day
in Afghanistan was worth more than a thousand
days of praying in a mosque”7.
The real motivation of the leader of a
terrorist group is important too. Despite the
popular belief, motivation can be not only
ideological, or psychopathology, but also
financial, career but of any origin. If there are no
alternative “social elevators” people can build
their career in a terrorist network by agreeing to
bear the associated risks for the sake of the high
social status, access to finance and the ability to
determine the behavior of other people.
One of the main goals of a terrorist act is
the psychological impact on individuals who
are not direct victims of a certain crime. Let
us remember that the word “terror” is literary
translated as “horror.” The terrorists, carrying
out different specific actions – terrorist acts, have
the aim to occurrence of this particular emotional
state, which, however, without loud public
outcry, in most cases can not lead to achieving
the goals, declared by the organizers. Often they
are used by the terrorists merely to demonstrate
their demands and opportunities: usually after
the terrorist attack its organizers publicly “take
responsibility” for its implementation, announce
why it was committed, and set conditions
for termination of such actions. Thus, even
without reaching the global, ultimate goals, they
reach staging or intermediate goals: a terrorist
group becomes well-known to the public and
“respected” in their circles, people talk about it,
it is started to be considered.
For example, the leader of the North
Caucasus separatists Doku Umarov, posting a
video message on the Internet, took responsibility
for organizing the terrorist attack in Domodedovo
on 24 January 2011, after that he laid down the
conditions for cease of the terrorist activity.
He assured that the explosions would be more
frequent, and would not cease until the federal
forces leave the Caucasus8.
The public statements of extremists
may contain the ideological background of
their terrorist activity. Thus, in his statement,
Umarov pointed out that the terrorist attack in
Domodedovo was a response to “the crimes of
Russia in Caucasus.” The terrorist said that he
and his colleagues wanted to make the Caucasus
“free and Islamic”. He also called the federal
forces the occupiers and declared his intention
to “set the land of Caucasus Muslims free, to
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establish law and justice” and promised Russia
“the year of blood and tears9”.
The terrorists’ statements almost always
contain threats and accusation to the enemy, as
if giving them a moral right to the most brutal
actions. An example of this is the following
statement: “We, “Islambouli Brigades,” declare
that our soldiers managed to capture two Russian
planes ... Russia continues to kill Muslims. We
will not stop until the bloody war stops... We will
not stop and going to continue attack the regions
with the wrong regimes.”10
Sometimes extremists’ statements contain
information about obtaining access to the
especially dangerous technologies of destruction.
For example, in 2002 the leaders of “Al-Qaeda,”
stated that their terrorist group is close to the
creation of a primitive nuclear device11. According
a prepared text), and many other signs of a forced
agreement of Umarov with what he was instructed
to speak on camera”13. Sometimes, on the basis
of the semantic and psychological analysis of the
speech we can make conclusions about the truth or
falsity of the speaker’s statements: “Not denying
the fact that Umarov could know something
about the preparation of the terrorist attack in
Domodedovo, it can be argued that he was not the
organizer of the attack. That is why the search
and neutralization of the real organizers of this
attack should be continued”14.
The schemes of construction of the images
of “enemies” and “friends” in the terrorists’
public speeches and statements are very
interesting. In particular, the radical Islamists
often accuse Muslims, who do not support their
struggle, in infidelity (“takfi r”)15. Many public
to V. Sud, extremist theologists have already
have justification for the use of the weapons of
mass destruction. If they use it they will say that
the terrorists did not mean to kill the innocent
people. In April 2001, Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi
stated that the military operations carried out
by “Hamas”, “Islamic Jihad”, “Fatah” and other
terrorist groups, were not intended to kill children,
who become victims just accidently12.
Of course, the statements of the representatives
of radical groups may contain disinformation,
aimed to mislead law-enforcement authorities.
However, this deception may also serve as a
source of valuable information that will help to
identify those, who pay for a terrorist attack,
and other “shadow” (“non-transparent”) subjects
of the terrorist activity, who are behind the
organizers of crimes.
The statements of terrorists can be analyzed
from the point of view of psycho-emotional
characteristics, “Umarov does not believe in
what he says. This estimation is confirmed by
unconvincing tone of his voice, wan, often shifted
glance, depressed eyes (it looks like he is reading
statements by terrorist leaders are devoted to the
actual political aspects of the fight against their
opponents who also resort to terrorism. Thus,
advocates of the “Al-Qaeda” has repeatedly
blamed “Hamas” in being “too gentle”, what
expressed in negotiations with Israel and the
non-observance with the jihad commandments16.
On the other hand, the terrorists can speak
favorably about the actions of people with other
beliefs and religions in order to expand their
social basis17 or to discredit certain political
figures, what is beneficial for those, who “order”
these statements.
Often, the terrorist’s statements contain
ideologemes, which are based on pseudohistoric research and have certain point of view
on the “ownership” of definite areas, etc.18 As a
rule, these concepts do not stand any scientific
scrutiny. However, the goal of the operational
policy analysis is not denial of the myths, but the
restoration, with the help of different cues, of a
conceptual picture, using which, it is possible
to understand the logic of the terrorists and to
predict their future actions.
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Recently someone Umar Bashkirskyi, who
identified himself as the representative of the
Mujahedeen of the Urals, asked his Caucasus
colleagues to send experts to help organise largescale guerrilla movement. He even developed a
mini-program, which described how underground
resistance, which main task will be establishment
of jihad in the Urals, should be founded. Firstly,
Omar suggested the commanders of the “Caucasus
Emirate” to send several teams of the well-trained
militants to study the situation in the mountains
of South Ural, and for “intelligence activities
and acts of sabotage.” Secondly, he believes it is
possible to create “ribats” (military camps) for
training new recruits. Thirdly, the author of the
letter writes about “military operations of high
complexity” under the conditions of constant
exchange of experience and “establishment
of military-strategic interaction between the
Caucasus and the Ural Mujahideens”19. The
reaction of the North emirs is still unknown,
but, nevertheless, it is possible to say that the
terrorists consider the Urals as a possible basis for
the manifestation of their activity. The situational
analysis of such documents makes it possible not
only to determine the direction of the existing
political processes, but also to identify the
potential “growth poles” – “the tendencies in the
political sphere, which has not yet been formed,
but already visible”20.
When using the techniques of the political
analysis for the study of the public statements
of the representatives of the extremists groups,
the entire world experience of fighting terrorism
and thorough study of not only successful antiterrorist actions, but also the mistakes which were
made, should be taken into account. For example,
despite the fact that the Europeans live side by side
with terrorism since the XIX century, (especially
rich in acts of terrorism was the period of the
late 60s - mid 80s of last century), the majority of
Europeans (55%) hold the opinion that, that the
U.S. policy has greatly contributed to the tragedy
of September 11 and is indirectly responsible
for it. The U.S. investments and training of Bin
Laden and his Mujahedeens in the ‘80s, providing
multi-billion dollars aid to Israel and the war in
Iraq gave stimulus to the emergence of a strong
terrorist movement in the Middle East. This, in
turn, led to fact that the war now is conducted
not by the big armies of the fighting states, but
by the “special forces” that create, according to
what George Orwell said in 1984, “the special
psychological climate and keep the structures of
the society intact.” In other words, in this case
we deal with a confrontation between the two
types of organizations, two different types of
relationships – formal and informal. Even now,
when the Islamic terrorists have become a serious
political force that represents a threat to the West,
they are considered by some Americans (such
as von Bulow) as “useful idiots”, which used by
high-ranking persons of the USA to establish
world hegemony21.
Some analysts and officials claim that in the
politicization of the clergy of Afghanistan – a trend
that began in the 70s and still continues today – the
Americans themselves is partly to blame. In the
rural areas, where the presence of the government
is little or there is no presence of government at
all, and the only way to get an education – is to
educate in the madrasas, the religious preachers
may have great influence, especially when the
tribal leaders lost their authority. Unpopular
actions of the NATO forces, such as night raids,
pushed some imams to encourage the members
of their congregations to take part in jihad. The
maulvis and the mullahs are political now,” an
Afghan official says. “They’re telling people, ‘If
you kill someone, you’ll go to paradise.’ At the
same time, killing people by “the Taliban” is less
likely to cause strong emotions, than the violence
committed by the NATO forces, in which local
people see the occupants. Even those who support
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the presence of the NATO troops are less tolerant
to them22.
D. Galkovsky points at two important
factors that determine the face of the modern
terrorism. Firstly, a lot of things depend on
the level of operations. If an enemy soldier is
killed in the occupation zone, it is important
for the propaganda purposes, to indicate that
he was killed by a saboteur or a member of the
local resistance movement. But when it comes
to destroying the capital of the neighboring
state as a result of thermonuclear explosion,
and especially in the peace time, in this case,
attribution of the authorship will not add
anything to the stunning effect, and in the
most cases it will be even harmful. Secondly,
under condition of the hyper-information
awareness of the modern society, the terrorist
technologies should be considered not only as
military and economic, but as psychological
and emotional impacts. Figuratively speaking,
the modern acts of terror are akin to the chess
moves, and not the slaps in boxing. The indirect
effects of terrorist attacks or even double-triple
combinations in multidirectional actions are of
great importance23. We should also remember
about the characteristic features of the political
struggle, where terrorism is its part, that the
political struggle has many moves and many
layers. Without this understanding short-sighted
and irresponsible actions of politicians may have
very unpredictable and dire consequences.
Speaking about the modern phase of
terrorism, it should be mentioned that very often it
is ideologically linked to Islamic fundamentalism,
which sometimes incredibly combines the
archaic basis and tendency for assimilation of
the new products of scientific and technological
progress. According to the researchers, “Radical
Islam – not a phenomenon of the Middle Ages
and not peculiar to that period simplicity. This is
postmodern ideology that can inspire different
social groups. It uses the modern means of
information and communication platforms, and
positions itself as an alternative form of life, the
most attractive for those who are dissatisfied with
the existing social reality24.”
The use of the advanced information
technologies by the Islamic radicals began
even before the Internet appeared. The cassette
tapes were used In Iran for the distribution of
the messages of Ayatollah Khomeini and their
copies were not expensive25. The appearance
of the Internet had an enormous influence on
the global jihad, creating the possibility of
relationship between an individual and the virtual
community.
The global computer network is important
to the terrorists. For example, it can be useful for
the dissemination of disinformation and threats
to make people afraid and feel helplessness, and
for showing shocking documentary evidence of
their actions. The example of this may be placed
on several web sites recording of the execution of
American journalist Daniel Pearl26.
The Internet is also used by the members
of the terrorist groups to communicate with the
perpetrators of terrorist acts and coordinate their
supporters. It is paradoxical, but the development
of the Internet, which gave the ruling elites the
unique opportunity to manipulate public opinion,
significantly influenced the effectiveness and
mass character of the acts of protests. According
to I.L. Morozov, an international stratum
of protesting youth has formed nowadays.
These young people follow the leaders of the
developed countries and the largest international
corporations around the world, easily organise
actions of protest in the USA, the Czech Republic
and Australia. As a rule, these people are from the
wealthy, though not from the reachest families.
They can follow the political and economic
changes in the world, coordinate and correct their
actions and concentrate power at the right time in
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the right place of the world with the help of the
specialized sites and informational mailings.27
Islamists from the “Al-Qaeda” successfully
combines multimedia resources, propaganda,
and innovative communication tools to create
a complex model of psychological war. Osama
bin Laden and his followers pay a lot of
attention to PR-actions on the Internet, where
the visitors of the multiple sites of “Al Qaeda”
and “sympathizing” not forbidden organizations
can get access to audio and video recordings,
photos and advertisements. Despite the constant
pursuit, arrests and deaths of many members,
the destruction of its operational bases and
training camps in Afghanistan, “Al-Qaeda”
is able to conduct a campaign to make people
panic. Since 11 September 2001 the organization
has consistently placed on their websites reports
about planning the “big attacks” on the targets
in America. These warnings were widespread in
the press and it lead to the feeling of fear and
insecurity in the hearts of people around the
world, and especially in the United States28.
It is noteworthy that the majority of the
terrorist groups on their Web sites do not display
their acts of violence. Instead, regardless the
programmes of the terrorists, their motives and
location, a lot of sites are concentrated on two
problems: restrictions of the freedom of expression
and difficult position of their companionsin-arms, who are political prisoners29. The
reports of the terrorists on the Internet have a
powerful response among the supporters of the
extremists, they are also made to make a bid for
sympathy from the Western audiences, which
cherish the ideas of pluralism and tolerance and
disapprove the attempts to make the political
opposition keep silence. The target audience for
the statements which contain such complaints
may be even representatives of the enemy camp,
because terrorists, making emphasis on the
anti-democratic actions taken against them, try
to instill a sense of embarrassment and shame
among their enemies. According to G. Weyman,
on the Internet, which for many users is a symbol
of freedom and uncensored communication, the
expression of the protest of the banned terrorist
groups has a special effect30.
However, experience has shown the
possibility of successful countermeasures
to the terrorists in the sphere of information
technologies. For example, recently, it becomes
more difficult for terrorists to use satellite phones
and alike equipment. As a result, communication
with the headquarters is broken, and the
global jihad may come back to the plots on the
organization of local operations without support
from the “center”31. The documents which were
found in computers confiscated from terrorists
played an important role in condemning the
terrorists, for example, in trials over Abdul Aziz
(Imam Samudra) in New York, who was accused
in the bombing of the U.S. embassies in the East
Africa and in Indonesia. This fact gives basis to
suppose that suitable information and propaganda
against distribution of the terrorists’ statements
may be quite effective.
According to A.A. and Al.A. Nurullayevs,
the exceptional cruelty displayed by the terrorists
and typical for them negligence to the local
customs and traditions tend to deprive them of the
support of the masses, including people with the
same religion, which the leaders of the extremist
groups claim to believe in32. However, disorder in
the life of millions of people, mass unemployment,
anger, frustration caused by the unsatisfaction
with the basic needs (safety, identity, recognition,
etc.) and other consequences of the acute systemic
crisis faced by Russia and others former Soviet
republics, apparently, for a long time will be
a source of religious and political extremism,
which is characterized by the desire for the rapid
solution of the complex problems, regardless of
the “price” that has to be paid for it33.
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According to the observations of the
psychologists, “at certain times and not always
the worst (let’s remember Germany in the 70s, which was so dissimilar to Russia is to the
90-s), so-called contagium may be created,
that is mental and emotional atmosphere which
contribute to terrorism ... At that time motivation
of proto-terrorist behavior is increasing. It is not
worth emphasizing that atmosphere at that time
is quite depressing and all that contribute to
all the forms and types of terrorism. Melodies
of the “criminal tango” sound louder at all the
levels of social relations ... “34. According to A.
Eskin, shots and bursts of automatic fire have
become the familiar background sound for the
citizens of Dagestan, and all the major Russian
cities have a division of the radical Wahhabi. Not
long ago, in Tyumen, died a Caucasian who was
making a bomb for a terrorist act35. According
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
to this researcher, “a pessimistic case scenario
will begin with a gradual rejection of the North
Caucasus from Russia, and then – migration of
the most part of the population of this region
to Moscow and other major cities as a result of
war and poverty. Together with that, separatist
tendencies in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and the
other autonomous republics and regions will
become intensified36.
The systematic study of the phenomenon of
terrorism and religious and political persuasion,
the monitoring of its manifestations and
development of the effective methods of resistance
are considered to be of vital importance. The
political analysis of the public statements of
terrorists makes it possible to improve the
mechanisms of prediction and prevention of the
terrorist activity, and thus has a direct practical
importance.
Ref.: Симонов К.В. [Simonov K.V.] Политический анализ. – М.: Логос, 2002. Internet: http://www.zipsites.ru/books/
polit_analiz/ A.I. Soloviev notes, that there is another, wide meaning of this phrase, which means scientific research of
politics, Соловьев А.И. [Soloviev A.I.] Политология: Политическая теория, политические технологии: Учебник для
студентов вузов. – М.: Аспект Пресс, 2006. – С. 431.
Ref.: Симонов К.В. [Simonov K.V.] Ibid.
Soloviev A.I. Ibid.
Баранов Н.А. [Baranov N.A.] Политические отношения и политический процесс в современной России: Курс
лекций. – СПб.: БГТУ, 2004. – С. 244.
Ref: Fomin A. The Forty First. Commentaries to the 41st world economic forum in Davos:
http://www.csef.ru/studies/economics/projects/reasons_of_current_crisis/articles/1141/
Курбацкий А.Н. [Kurbatskyi N.A.] Роль СМИ в борьбе с международным терроризмом // Материалы международной
конференции «Что на данный момент принесли Беларуси процессы глобализации и какие дискуссии ведутся
вокруг них?» / Фонд им. Ф. Эберта. Мн: БГУ, 2004. – С. 134.
Cit.from: Ольшанский Д.В. [Olshanskyi D.V] Психология терроризма. – СПб.: Питер, 2002. – С. 200.
See: Козулин Я. [Kozuin Y.] «По моему приказу». Доку Умаров взял на себя ответственность за теракт в Домодедово
24 января // Internet: http://www.vz.ru/incidents/2011/2/8/467052.html
Cit.from: Ibid.
Cit.from: Хвостик Е. Новиков К. [Khvostic E., Novikov K.] Общество с безграничной ответственностью //
«Коммерсантъ». – 2004. – 28 августа. – № 59 (2998). – Internet: http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/501293
See: Qaeda Leader Said to Report A-Bomb Plans By Philip Shenon // New York Times. – USA. – 23 April 2002.
См.: Суд В. [Sud V.] Радикальный ислам в Южной Азии и его последствия для региона // Радикальный ислам:
взгляд из Индии и России / Под редакцией Сергея Кургиняна и Викрама Суда. – М.: МОФ-ЭТЦ, 2010. – С. 55-56.
Филатов А.[Filatov A] В поисках кукловодов // Internet: http://alfafilatov.livejournal.com/25631.html
Ibid.
See: Takfi r – one of the worst diseases of the Islamic world // Internet: http://islam.com.ua/news/3318/
On 14 august 2009 in Rafah during Friday prayer Abdel Latif Moussa, the leader of the head of the division of “Al-Qaeda»
in Gaza, stated: «The Gaza Strip – is an Islamic emirate, we are in «Al-Qaeda», and our leader is Osama Bin Laden!»
According to Moussa’s words, «Hamas holds a secular policy, and only pretends to belong to Islam. They do not follow
Sharia law, and prefer to meet with the congressmen, with Tony Blair and Jimmy Carter ... If the «Hamas» will choose the
path of Allah and Jihad, we will follow it. But if they try to occupy our mosques, we will cut their hands off.” Cit. from:
Fight in Rafah between HAMAS and “Al Qaeda”//Internet: http://www.7kanal.com/news.php3?id=266445
The website «Kavkaz-Center» placed a number of materials in support of the spread of radical Islam in Yakutia. In one of
them says: “No one wants to teach the Yakuts and impose them the stereotypes. But, following the imperatives of Islam as
a religion of justice, Muslims can not remain indifferent to the fate of their neighbors, and by the Turkic line – the blood relatives who are under attack of the common enemy” Туленков Д. [Tulenkov D.] Якутия: ислам – путь к освобождению
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19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
// Интернет: http://www.kavkazcenter.com/russ/content/2007/06/09/51353.shtml
On the radical sites on the Internet the following was stated: “Siberia – is the Islamic land, Dar-ul-Islam. And non-Muslim
indigenous peoples of Siberia – are the dhimmis of our ancestors.” Бекхан А. [Bekhan A.] Кровавые злодеяния русских
колонизаторов в Сибири // Internet: http://irekle-syuz.blogspot.com/2008/07/blog-post_5983.html
See: Umar Bashkirskyi. The message from the Mujahideen of Idel-Urals to the mujahedeen of the Caucasus Emirate //
Internet: http://kavkazanhaamash.com/facty/18--/458-2011-02-10-00-50-11.html
Симонов К. [Simonov K.] Ibidem.
Securitization, Dual State and US-European Geopolitical Divide Or The Use of Terrorism to Construct World Order Ola
Tunander (PRIO) http://humanbeingsfi rst.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/cacheof-tunander-theuseofterrorismtoconstructworldorder.pdf
Why Afghans Don't Bash the Taliban for Bombings By Julius Cavendish http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2052660,00.html
Галковский Д. [Galkovsky D.] Три слоя лжи. «Умные немцы» // http://www.vz.ru/columns/2005/7/26/2344.html
Саран С., Наир Х. [Saran S., Nair H.] Радикальный ислам: вызов либеральному духу Индии // Радикальный ислам:
взгляд из Индии и России / Под редакцией Сергея Кургиняна и Викрама Суда. – М.: МОФ-ЭТЦ, 2010. – С. 163.
Сейджман М. [Seidjman M.] Сетевые структуры терроризма. – М.: Идея-Пресс, 2008. – С.169.
Вейман Г. Как современные террористы используют Интернет // http://nak.fsb.ru/nac/ter_org.htm!id=10284591@
cmsArticle&_print=true.html
See: Морозов И.Л. [Morozov I.L.] Политический экстремизм – леворадикальные течения. Учебное пособие для
студентов и аспирантов. – Волжский, Издательство ВФ МЭИ, 2002. – С 45. On 18 June 1999, on the day of the summit
of «Big Eight» left-wing radical youth, having coordinated their actions on the Internet, arranged simultaneous action in
all the major European capitals, which can be compared to the «student revolution» in 1968. See: Ibidem.
See: Вейман Г. [Veiman G.] Как современные террористы используют Интернет // Internet: http://www.chekist.ru/
article/2893
The report from Dhaka on the website AsiaNews says: “During the arrests of the Mujahideen from JMB, in addition to
the promotional materials in support of jihad, weapons, explosives and computers were found. In one of the leaflets fundamentalists accuse that the media which are controlled by the Christians, represent the noble mujahideen campaign to set
the country free from the infidels in the wrong way. They promise to throw all the enemies of Allah and corrupted political leaders out, and establish an Islamic state.” Банерджи И. [Banerdji I.] Радикальный ислам в Бангладеш, Непале и
на Мальдивских островах // Радикальный ислам: взгляд из Индии и России / Под редакцией Сергея Кургиняна и
Викрама Суда. – М.: МОФ-ЭТЦ, 2010. – С. 469.
See: Veiman G. Ibidem
Unprofessionalism of the explosions on 16 May 2003 in Casablanca (where the bombers were lost on the way to their
targets), probably indicates a new state of the global jihad, which, perhaps, is deprived of a considerable part of its communication capacity.
See.: Нуруллаев А.А., Нуруллаев Ал. А. [Nurullayev A.A., Nurullayev Al.A.] Религиозно-политический экстремизм
// Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. – Сер.: Политология. – 2003. – № 4 – С. 87.
See: Ibidem. P. 92.
Психологи о терроризме («круглый стол») [Physiologists about terrorism (round table discussion)]// Психологический
журнал. Т. 16. 1995. № 4. С. 48.
See: Эскин А. [Eskin A.] Взгляд из Сиона: поддержать Россию http://www.avigdor-eskin.com/page.
php3?page=6&item=456
Ibidem.
Политический анализ публичных заявлений
лидеров террористических групп
П.В. Клачков,
Экспертно-аналитическое управление
Губернатора Красноярского края
Россия 660009, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 110
Поскольку целью террористов является воздействие на общественное сознание,
осуществляемое в информационном пространстве, эффективность как террористической,
так и контртеррористической деятельности во многом зависит от степени учета
свойств и закономерностей последнего. Именно поэтому современные радикальные
организации уделяют работе в сфере масс-медиа и сети Интернет не меньше внимания, чем
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осуществлению насильственных действий. Публичные заявления террористов являются
оружием в информационной войне. Для их изучения автор предлагает использовать методы
политического и ситуационного анализа. В статье демонстрируется, что эти выступления
являются ценными источниками информации, всестороннее исследование которых
позволяет выявить объективные и субъективные черты террористов и стоящих за ними
нетранспарентных субъектов. Речь идет, в частности, о составлении психологических
портретов лидеров террористических групп, а также об определении «полюсов роста», то
есть еще не сформировавшихся, но уже просматривающихся тенденций. Таким образом,
политический анализ публичных заявлений террористов позволяет совершенствовать
механизмы прогнозирования и предотвращения террористической деятельности, а значит,
имеет непосредственное практическое значение.
Ключевые слова: политический анализ, ситуационный анализ, терроризм, публичные
выступления, контртеррористическая деятельность.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1015-1021
~~~
УДК 811.11-112
The Dialectical Interconnection of
the Institutional
and Everyday Political Discourse
Olga V. Korobeynikova*
Irkutsk State Linguistic University
8 Lenin Str., Irkutsk, 664025 Russia 1
Received 2.03.2012, received in revised form 19.04.2012, accepted 1.05.2012
The article analyzes the Democratic and the Republican Parties political platforms of 2008 as a means
of conveying ideas and beliefs to ordinary citizens and the interconnection between the institutional and
everyday political discourse which gives better understanding of how the US political elite manages to
persuade ordinary citizens to adopt their words and ideas.
Keywords: institutional political discourse, everyday political discourse, political narrative,
reframing.
Point
In recent years, the studies of political
discourse have considerably increased in numbers.
Political discourse today is being analyzed
from various perspectives due to differences
in theories, aims, and methods of analysis.
Therefore scholars disagree on many central
issues including the nature of the term political
discourse. In “The Handbook of Discourse
Analysis,” John Wilson considers the ambiguous
nature of the term: “The term is suggestive of at
least two possibilities: first, a discourse which is
itself political; and second, an analysis of political
discourse as simply an example discourse type,
without explicit reference to political content or
political context” (Wilson, 2003:398) Wilson
believes that this ambiguity may present a serious
problem for a researcher who faces the necessity
to decide what to consider political discourse.
*
1
Today linguists mostly adhere to two opposite
views on the term political discourse – the broad
and the narrow ones. The narrow definition
describes political discourse as the whole range of
speech acts used in political discussions (Baranov
et al., 1991) or the whole “class of genres defined
by a social domain, namely that of politics”
(Van Dijk, 1998:11). Thus, in this case, political
discourse is limited to strictly institutional level.
The broader definition includes the analysis
of everyday political discussion. Therefore, this
approach considers political discourse on both
institutional and everyday level. Researchers
keeping to this definition believe that the study
of political language will not be complete
until it includes the language used by ordinary
people in private conversations when they talk
about politics. As Geoffrey Nunberg observes
in “Talking right: how conservatives turned
Corresponding author E-mail address: oljenka9@mail.ru
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liberalism into a tax-raising, latte-drinking, sushieating, Volvo-driving, New York Times-reading,
body-piercing, Hollywood-loving, left-wing
freak show”: “Most of the books and articles on
political rhetoric concentrate on the language of
speeches and public pronouncements, rather than
the language that ordinary people use when they
are talking about political topics… but while the
language of politicians and pundits is ultimately
aimed at persuading people to act in certain ways,
it can only get there by first persuading them to
talk in certain ways.” (Nunberg, 2007:3)
In this article we will accept the broad
definition of the term political discourse and
will examine public speeches of professional
politicians. These speeches belong to the
institutional political discourse. However,
analyzing them as a vehicle for conveying ideas
and beliefs to ordinary citizens, we may understand
better the phenomenon of interdiscoursivity, that
is interconnection between the institutional and
everyday political discourse which will help
us see how the US political elite manages to
persuade ordinary citizens to adopt their words
and the ideas these words stand for.
In “Talking right: how conservatives turned
liberalism into a tax-raising, latte-drinking,
sushi-eating, Volvo-driving, New York Timesreading, body-piercing, Hollywood-loving, leftwing freak show”, Geoffrey Nunberg discusses
the importance of “narrative” which means that
American political elite should be able to produce
a story Americans will believe into, and it must
be a coherent story, not a simple statement of
political positions (Nunberg, 2007). This idea is
close to George Lackoff’s idea of “reframing”
American politics with the help of new rhetoric
related to values (Lackoff, 2002). Lackoff claims
that liberals and conservatives build their political
discourse resorting mostly to their moral systems
which differ greatly. However Nunberg believes
that “having a narrative” is more complicated than
reframing, as it means “making that story part of
the fabric of American political discourse” and it
could be done by giving new meanings to words
and by “…getting Americans to accept those new
meanings” (Nunberg, 2007:16)
Nonetheless, both scholars agree that, in
recent years, conservatives have been doing
a better job “reframing” American politics
according to conservative values (by Lackoff)
or producing a better “narrative” (by Nunberg).
They were able to escape undesirable language
while diverting people’s attention to the ideas and
values they wanted to focus on for some reasons.
Example
In this article we will analyze Democratic
Party and Republican Party 2008 political
platforms. First, they are carefully worded political
documents produced by professional politicians
stating parties’ positions on political issues and
appealing to voters by referring to the issues
important to them. Second, analysis of political
platforms may give a better understanding of
the interconnection between the primary and
secondary political discourse, as platforms are
inevitable tools in parties’ struggle for control of
a nation.
To work with the texts of parties platforms, we
chose a computer program LITL developed in the
Computational Linguistics Laboratory at Katanov
State University of Khakasia by V.А.Yatsko and
M.S. Starikov. The program allows the user to “…
conduct various searches on his/her own corpora
and get statistical information on distribution of
various words, patterns, and phrases…” (Yatsko
and Starikov, 2010)
After processing the texts, the program
showed the following results:
First, it is necessary to analyze the length
of the documents. Comparing the platforms, it is
easy to notice that Republicans use fewer words/
sentences/paragraphs while Democrats produce
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Table 1. The Analysis of the Democratic and the Republican Parties platforms of 2008 by LITL
The Democratic Party 2008
paragraphs
4793
sentences
5862
The Most Frequent Words
The Republican Party 2008
words
paragraphs
3972
7190
sentences
words
4557
5002
The Most Frequent Words
We
966
We
439
America
239
our
296
Democratic
226
American
92
Obama
224
support
88
Change
190
health
83
new
164
government
78
American
146
all
75
Party
119
federal
74
Americans
108
people
60
health
102
tax
53
support
102
Americans
51
longer speeches which may have some important
consequences. On the one hand, Republicans risk
leaving some issues unaddressed or not explained
clearly enough. On the other hand, however,
Democrats may easily annoy their fellow citizens
with a too-long document which, by diluting their
main message, may leave the audience confused
about it. The golden mean here is not easy to
achieve. It will depend on many factors including
how many issues the party wishes to address,
whether those issues are urgent and major or minor
and have been previously repeatedly discussed.
And, certainly, a lot depends on wording because
the vocabulary party leaders use to relate to the
audience and how often they use certain words
influence voters view of the party and, as a result,
their decision on Election Day. Therefore, to
influence voters’ decision making process, the
party must produce a coherent, carefully worded
and, thus, appealing document.
Second, the wording of the paper is of vital
importance. In his article “Teaching Progressives
to “Speak American””, David Kusnet writes:
“After all, we had just lost a presidential election
to an aristocrat named George Bush, whose
economic program boiled down to tax breaks for
multimillionaires but who managed to convince a
narrow majority of the voters that his opponent was
some sort of cultural elitist. And our candidate, a
high-minded fellow from Massachusetts, seemed
unable to respond effectively to those attacks or to
connect emotionally with most voters” (Kusnet,
2006:130) Kusnet argues that learning from the
opponent is an essential part of every campaign.
It is important to relate to the audience and the
following steps may help:
1. Lead with Principles, Not Programs.
The power of statistics is not enough to
influence people’s decision on Election Day. It
is necessary to explain what stands behind the
data – that is party’s beliefs.
2. Be Tough and Caring.
Kusnet warns that it is possible to
misunderstand George Lakoff’s ideas of
the progressive-conservative divide when
conservatives are viewed as strict parents and
progressives – as nurturing parents. Kusnet
reminds that Lakoff believes it is necessary
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to carry out the core principles of caring and
responsibility with strictness which became
especially indispensable after the 9/11 terrorist
attack when voters felt insecure and wanted a
leader able to defend the country. Some examples
of such leadership include Robert F. Kennedy,
Tony Blair in the UK with his slogan “Tough
on crime, tough on the causes of crime.” and
Bill Clinton with some “tough” decisions and
actions.
3. Use the Power of Populism.
It is important to address to regular people,
not to economic elites, and to manage to persuade
working Americans that you are fighting for their
interests.
4. Speak in Parables.
Parables that are part of American culture
may become a very effective part of the rhetoric.
Some examples include Rot at the Top, Virtue
Unrewarded, The Caring Community, The People
Rising, etc.
5. Speak with Your Natural Voice.
It means politicians, in order to sound
natural, should show that they are individuals
different from others.
6. Engaging Ordinary Voters.
And, finally, it is necessary to engage
everyday language which many voters speak and,
thus, understand best of all. (Kusnet, 2006)
In conclusion, David Kusnet writes:
“Appealing to common values, developing
populist parables, and speaking engaging
everyday language-that is how progressives can
communicate to our fellow citizens and persuade
all Americans to follow their best instincts and
their best interests” (Kusnet, 2006:140)
George Lakoff in his book “Moral politics:
how liberals and conservatives think” argues
that “policy debates are not matters of rational
discussion on the basis of literal and objective
categories. The categories that shape the debate
are moral categories; those categories are defined
in terms of different family-based conceptions
of morality, which give priority to different
metaphors for morality” (Lackoff, 2002:169).
Lakoff gives the moral categories systems of
conservatives and progressives as well.
Thus, we may analyze the “narrative”
of both parties in order to see what kind of
appeal they are using to relate better to their
audience. And by observing and studying the
frequency of word occurrence in one of the
major official papers produced by both the
Democratic and The Republican Parties, it is
possible to understand which of the linguistic
tools mentioned above parties used to achieve
the desired effect – voters’ approval of a party’s
candidate. It will also help us analyze and
Table 2. Conservative and liberal categories of moral action (Lackoff, 2002)
Conservative categories of moral action:
Liberal categories of moral action:
1. Promoting Strict Father morality in general.
2. Promoting self-discipline, responsibility, and selfreliance.
3. Upholding the Morality of Reward and Punishment.
a. Preventing interference with the pursuit of selfinterest by self-disciplined, self-reliant people.
b. Promoting punishment as a means of upholding
authority.
с. Ensuring punishment for lack of self-discipline.
4. Protecting moral people from external evils.
5. Upholding the Moral Order.
1. Empathetic behavior and promoting fairness.
2. Helping those who cannot help themselves.
3. Protecting those who cannot protect themselves.
4. Promoting fulfillment in life.
5. Nurturing and strengthening oneself in order to do
the above.
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Table 3. The analysis of words and word forms in the Democratic and the Republican Parties platforms of 2008
by LITL
Words/Word Forms
Work*(worker/s, work/ing/s/ed, etc.)
Democratic Party
Republican Party
222
77
Democr*(democracy, democratic, democrat/s)
356
47
Chang*(change, chang/ing/es/ed, etc.)
268
24
New
182
42
Immigr*(immigration, immigrant/s, etc.)
25
15
Environment*(environmental)
42
31
Econom*(economy, economic, etc.)
105
72
Fair*(fairness)
40
17
Responsib*(responsible, responsibility, responsibilities, etc.)
40
21
Help*(help/ing/s/ed, helper/s, etc)
110
20
Develop*(development, develop/ing/s/ed, etc.)
90
40
Str(o/e)ng*(strengthen/ing, strong, etc.)
90
36
Feder*(federal, federation, federalist)
44
80
Value*(values)
18
32
Abort*(abortion/s, etc.)
3
15
Tax*(taxes, taxation)
49
99
Author*(authority, authoritative, etc.)
3
13
conclude why the Democratic Party’s rhetoric
was persuasive enough to make Obama the
U.S. President in 2008.
Both parties appealed to the nation with the
most frequent words being we, our, America,
Americans, people. It is important to make
people believe that, as a leader, you are not
susceptible to “class wars” and all Americans
are equally important as a nation. Moreover, by
using pronouns we/our, both Republicans and
Democrats were trying to relate to people by
presenting themselves as nation’s integral part, as
one of them, and not a stranger from the privileged
elite (what Kusnet calls “power of populism”).
Moreover, both Parties use the words support and
health to appeal to voters by showing they care
about people (“tough and caring”).
However, other frequent words are quite
different for both parties with Democrats
promoting change and democratic views (new,
change, Democratic) and Republicans pushing
their strongest argument – taxation (tax).
To better understand both Parties’ appeals,
it is necessary to consider other words and word
forms that appear quite often in the paper.
The table above shows that both parties
discuss similar matters in their platforms. It can
be explained by the fact that both Republicans and
Democrats can’t but address the sensitive issues
that tear the nation apart. Had they failed to do
so, they would have been accused of ignorance
of the most debatable issues (taxes, immigration,
environment, etc.). However, by studying how
often the parties use those words/word forms, we
may understand the message the party is trying to
convey to people.
The Democratic Party follow major steps
mentioned by David Kusnet appealing to
regular Americans trying to persuade them
the Party is protecting the interests of those
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who work honestly (work, help). Democrats, in
their attempt to succeed a Republican president,
also needed to promote the necessity of change
in government (hence the words new, change,
develop, Democratic). Moreover, Democrats fit
into the frames described by George Lakoff:
Democrats traditionally promote fairness ( fair),
help those who cannot help themselves (support,
help), fulfillment in life (development), and
strengthen oneself in order to do the above
(strengthen).
Republicans, on the other hand, while
appealing to the whole nation as well (with
the most frequent words America, people,
Americans, etc.), promoted ideas of selfreliance (the word help is seldom mentioned
in the text) and upholding the Moral Order
(the issues like abortion and traditional values
are discussed). They also raise the question of
taxation (promises of tax cuts helped the Party
in previous campaigns).
It is worthy of note that both parties
discuss economic and environmental matters
almost with the same frequency which means
those are the issues not susceptible to partisan
ideology.
Resume
Therefore, the analysis of the Republican
and the Democratic Parties’ platforms allows us
to conclude that both parties carefully worded
their political documents to appeal to voters
by referring to the issues important to them.
However, in 2008, Barack Obama and the
Democratic Party, whose ideas he was pushing
forward in his presidential campaign, made
a wise decision of promoting the necessity of
change. Americans got tired of all the mistakes
their previous Republican president had made
(wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, aggressive foreign
politics, profound budget deficit of the country,
etc.) and were ready for that change and eagerly
let those ideas and words into their conversations.
Thus, the Democratic Party managed to win
voters’ discourse and, therefore, their votes on
Election Day while Republicans failed to suggest
issues of equal value which eventually cost their
candidate, John McCain, presidential office.
References
A. N. Baranov and E.G. Kazakevich, Parliamentary Debates: Traditions and Innovations
(Moscow: Znanije, 1991), in Russian
D. Kusnet, “Teaching Progressives to “Speak American”” in Get This Party Started: How
Progressives Can Fight Back and Win, ed. by Matthew R. Kerbel (New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Publishers Inc., 2006), 129-140
G. Lakoff, Moral politics: how liberals and conservatives think (Chicago: The University of
Chicago Press, 2002)
G. Nunberg, Talking right: how conservatives turned liberalism into a tax-raising, latte-drinking,
sushi-eating, Volvo-driving, New York Times-reading, body-piercing, Hollywood-loving, left-wing
freak show (New York: PublicAffairs, 2007)
J. Wilson, “Political Discourse”, in The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. by Deborah Schiffrin,
Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton (Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003), 398-415
T. A. Van Dijk, “What is political discourse analysis?”, in Political linguistics, ed. by Jan
Blommaert and Chris Bulcaen (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1998), 11-52
The American Presidency Project [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.
presidency.ucsb.edu/platforms.php
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V.А.Yatsko and M.S. Starikov, Linguistic Toolbox Lite (Katanov State University of Khakasia)
[Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://cll.khsu.ru ; http://vetsky.narod.ru/CLL.html
О диалектическом взаимодействии
институционального и бытийного
политического дискурса
О.В. Коробейникова
Иркутский государственный
лингвистический университет
Россия 664025, Иркутск, ул. Ленина, 8
В статье анализируются политические платформы Демократической и Республиканской
партии 2008 года как инструмент передачи идей и убеждений простым гражданам, а также
связь между институциональным и бытийным политическим дискурсом, что позволяет лучше
понять механизм влияния политической элиты США на простых граждан страны.
Ключевые слова: институциональный политический дискурс, бытийный политический дискурс,
политический нарратив, рефрейминг.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1022-1027
~~~
УДК 342.722 ББК 67.404
Democratization of Lawmaking
and Legal Order:
Real Opportunities for Civil Society
Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban*
Siberian Federal University
26 Kirenskogo, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 28.31.2011, received in revised form 1.02.2012, accepted 17.02.2012
From the standpoint of generalization at the level of social philosophy the article examines the nature
and structure of the law and its role in the democratization of all aspects of the society, the relation of
law and politics, historically caused legal nihilism of the population under totalitarianism. The need
for legitimation of the law as one of the important aspects of building a constitutional and modern civil
society in Russia is discussed.
Keywords: democracy, civil society, law, law and order, constitutional state, authority, legitimacy
Point of view
“Dura lex set lex” (“The law is harsh,
but it is the law”) is a well-known formula of
Roman law. Obviously, it must be one of the
characteristics of the modern type of democracy
being built simultaneously with the formation
of a constitutional state and civil society. It
is equally clear that the law and order in our
country are still far from European models. We
are not talking about the complete eradication of
the crime in “the bright future” – it is a utopia
from “one only true doctrine”. Deviant behavior
will exist as long as the humankind exists,
and if the crime is considered to be a disease,
it is completely incurable. Another thing is the
extent of this disease in the social organism. The
Russian authorities do not obviously cope with
the task of creating proper law and order, from
*
1
here there are some extremes: the mass adoption
of prohibitive and restrictive laws, making a
number of supervisory bodies to mandatory
appeals “Don’t scare business”. One reason of a
clearly unsatisfactory state of the law and order
is commonly referred to the traditional legal
nihilism of the Russian. It is difficult to disagree
with it, but there is a logical question: what
causes nihilism? In our opinion, it is caused by
the age-old division, even by the contraposition
of the subjects of lawmaking and enforcement
on the one hand and the main population as an
object of enforcement on the other hand. In this
sense we can talk about different classes of the
society, but it should be immediately emphasized
that in this context we use the term “class” not in
its traditional Marx’s understanding, but in the
sense of “ruling” and “not ruling” classes as it is
proposed by G. Mosca (Mosca G., 1994,17).
Corresponding author E-mail address: e_cheban@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Example
The term “law” is traditionally used to refer
to the system of special kinds of social norms
established or sanctioned by the state, which are
characterized by the fact that they express will
of the ruling classes, have a mandatory character,
and in its implementation are provided with a
coercive power of the state. Such a conception
of the law is its total “juridization”, i.e. its
identification with a set of laws.
Moreover, this normative understanding of
the law is actually connected with the undemocratic
state. The latter has always positioned itself as the
voice of everyone and all people, some kind of
an absolutely honest Institute, which due to these
unique qualities creates and applies the law. The
law and order in this approach are understood
as unconditional observance of legal norms
coming from the state by people under authority,
regardless of the perception of people under
authority of these rules as fair (“friendly”) or as
unfair (“alien”).
In terms of philosophical understanding the
law should not be merely understood as a set of
mandatory formal rules because such an approach
actually does not give social-cultural being of
the law. If the authoritative will is expressed in
existing laws, it does not mean that it exists in
the law, which is a special type of relationship
of social actors and the state, “objectively
determined and historically volatile measure of
freedom” (Nersesyants V.S., 1980, 27).
The concept of the law is most common
among the subordination and coordination
of correlative concepts: legal ideology and
psychology, law and order, legal regime, legal
culture etc. Legislative activity of the state as
a necessity of power and control in democratic
societies should be due to the law. The law is
effective only when it corresponds to the actually
existing social relations and sense of justice.
Exactly here there is the problem of justice,
it means, that the law perceived by public as
unfair cannot be an effective regulator of social
relations. Only the fair (= legal) law is a real social
and moral value, only such a law is executed with
minimal use of state coercion or without it.
The law is a social-cultural phenomenon in
which the political, economic, national, cultural,
etc. history of the society is “reflected” and both
the continuity of generations and eras is mirrored.
The law is a contradictory unity of the act as a
formal expression of justice and the will of the
ruling class, and inherent in each class’s view of
the relationship between what exists and what
should be in the law and its practical application.
Moreover, these perceptions are formed as a
result of historical development. “The spirit
of the people, their history, religion, degree of
political freedom cannot be separated either by
their influence on each other, or in their inner
essence, they are connected to one nod” (Gegel
G.V., 1959, 78).
The law is the essence of the unity of the
acts and its reflection in the public mind but it
is not a mirror reflection and not due to the law
itself, as the society should not be based on the
law but the law should be based on the society.
Only in this context, adequate representation of
the relationship between the law, government and
state of a democratic type is possible.
It is important to take into account the role
played by the legal minds in the implementation of
the state legislative functions and in the practice
of legal regulation. Obviously, the efficiency of
the legal action as a whole depends directly on
the degree of compliance of legal norms with
legal consciousness of individual groups, classes
and the society.
The law, having the function of a universal
regulator of social relations, is the main and
most effective means of politics that in general
at the level of philosophical reflection can be
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represented as a “changed form” of sociality.
And in the political “pseudo-concreteness” of
the undemocratic type an alienated essence of
the man himself is transformed, which became
for him an external force, some kind of the
imperative determining the “basic” boundaries
of his existence. The most important tool for
the establishment of such boundaries is the law.
The democratic state by definition should lead to
“releasing” of the human from alienation and in
this process the law plays an essential role.
On the one hand, the law is the system of acts,
the official legal ideology, legal consciousness
of ruling classes and the enforcement by the
state. On the other hand, the law is completed
by legal ideology of other social sections and
groups, with their legal psychology, legal views
and experiences in general, emerging as a rule
at the ordinary level (of course going to the level
of elements of the civil society). Here there is
a practical manifestation of the law: “lawful”
behavior, active or passive unlawful behavior
in the case of non-compliance with the law and
legal consciousness of people (as a simple failure
of the law). The concept of justice of legal norms
adopted by the state and the actual jurisdiction is
an element of the legal consciousness of all classes
and sections of the population, determining to a
large degree their behavioral attitude to the law,
the state, political power in general.
Two marked oppositions (sides) of the law, at
the same time denying and counting one another
in their practical interaction form this particular
legal regime, the type and level of the law and
order, to a certain extent – the political regime in
general. In addition, the law can be represented as
a contradictory unity of three main components
(which can also be called as the sides).
1. The normative component is a system of
legal norms operating in a society.
2. The doctrinal component is general
principles of law, the official, as well as any
other legal ideology. All legal ideologies of the
society should be attributed to the doctrinal side
of law, because objectively they express and
justify a separate group of interest, influence on
the formation of legal consciousness of people,
thereby creating motivation of the legal or illegal
behavior.
3. The activity component is the jurisdiction
implemented by the state, legal psychology
of various social groups and mainly practical
behavior of people in the area of law motivated by
it. The activity side (component) of the law also
includes valuable orientations and behavioral
patterns of classes, groups, individuals, stable
dynamic patterns of behavior of subjects of legal
relations.
The law is the form in relation to the
politics, which is the content here. All more or
less significant changes in the politics are always
reflected in the law. In particular, changes in the
activity component of the law are inevitably
contradictory in itself, as reflect the difference or
opposition (up to antagonism) of the legal views
of different classes and sections. To a certain
extent, they reflect the conservatism of the legal
consciousness as a whole, legal psychology in
particular. But in any case all this is the result and
form of expression of difference or indigenous
opposition of fundamental political interests, which
somehow are affected by changes in the law.
Such an understanding of the relationship
between the politics and the law may give raise
an objection, as the traditionally predominant
among lawyers is the view that the law is not
fully connected with the politics that legal and
political system is only partially “overlap” each
other. This is usually argued by the fact that the
law draws, expresses and reinforces not only
political but also economic, family, household
and other social relations, so ostensibly the legal
sphere cannot be included as an element in the
political sphere.
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In our opinion, the law in general should
be regarded as a political phenomenon. The
main thing here is not that the law in its nature
is inextricably connected with the politics and
the state, but it is also an argument. But if we
take any of three above-mentioned sides of the
law – regulatory, doctrinal and activity, we will
always fi nd a political interest behind them
and, accordingly, domineering or subservient
will; stereotypes of legal or illegal behavior
to a greater or lesser extent are determined
by general political attitudes. Psychological
people’s attitude to the legal validity, which
follows directly from the concepts of justice
is also an expression of political interest. The
political interest is directly and sometimes open
manifested in the regulatory, doctrinal and
activity-related aspects of the law.
Genetic, functional and institutional
dependence of the regulatory side of the law on
the state and state authority also gives a reason to
consider the legal sphere to be the element of the
political sphere. The law as a whole is an essence
of the form, a way of existence of the politics –
in our opinion, that should be the approach to
the knowledge of the legal effects according to
social-philosophical point of view. Being a form
of the politics, the law, to a certain extent, is
“indifferent” toward the latter. That means, it is
relatively independent, but it is unacceptable to
make its independence absolute.
The ratio of the law and the politics is affected
to the extent that democracy as a form (a method)
of ruling is a political phenomenon. Therefore, for
the democracy of the modern type the task of the
closest approach, up to full compliance with each
other (this is the ideal) of the three components
of the law – normative, doctrinal and activity,
is of course a political task. The solution of this
problem in Russia is absolutely necessary, but it
faces “terra incognito” – the legitimation of the
law.
Conclusion
The term “legitimacy” is often understood
as legitimacy (legality) of something. Meanwhile,
legitimacy supposes an indissoluble unity of
two parts – the rule of law and rightfulness of
something in people’s view. If we talk about
legitimacy of the law, the fi rst side – “legitimacy
of the law” – may seem strange. However, for
example, the regional law can be contrary to
the federal law, the latter can be contrary to
the Constitution. Thus, in accordance with the
law of 2000 on the formation of the Federation
Council the half of the upper chamber of the
highest legislative body of the country consists
of the representatives of the executive branch
of the Federation. But there is Article 10 of the
Constitution, which appointed the principle of
separation of powers, i.e. the structural and
functional isolation of three branches of the
power, inadmissibility of combining them,
“mixing them” in order to avoid dictatorship.
And that is “the legitimacy of the law”. This
is however the subject to be considered by the
Constitutional Court.
As for the second side of legitimacy of the
law , its rightfulness in people’s view, of course,
opinions differ. But people get objectively
included in various social groups, so far having
similar interests and opinions, and laws are
mostly related to the legal status of particular
groups, strata, organizations – retirees, students,
military personnel, political parties, media,
etc. Traditionally, however, bills are introduced
“privately” – in the administration of the head
of the State, in the Government and others,
as “privately” they are discussed in the State
Duma Committee, then submitted to the plenary
sessions. For this reason, many new laws need
to be amended at once (for example, in the Law
on Citizenship of the Russian Federation of 2002
nine amendments were made), and sometimes
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they cause a sharp discontent in the society (e.g.
acts of housing or education reforms).
A profound public examination of laws to
be considered in the Parliament is required. It is
not difficult to organize it at the present level of
information. Participation in the discussion of
laws, bringing them “to mind” will be an important
aspect of civil society institutions (parties, social
organisations, independent media, etc.). There
will be self-expression and self-assertion of these
institutions, the growth of confidence in them by
the citizens, hence the development of the civil
society as a whole. And strengthening the rule of
law, respect for the law increases if the project
has been recognized as rightful by “friendly”
organizations.
Political sociality is characterized by the fact
that a person is psychologically inclined to trust
above all to “friendly”, “close” organizations
and associations, so their participation in the
discussion of draft laws, and then the public
approval of these projects will form the basis for
the positive attitude to the country’s legal acts
taken by people. It should be emphasized that at
the present time when the political activity of the
population is relatively low, a very important role
in the legitimation of the law the trade unions
could play an important role, of course, if they
stop to perform the traditional function of “the
belt from the parties to the masses” and become
finally the real spokesmen and defenders of the
interests of workers.
Let us investigate another aspect. Experts
preparing draft laws are usually associated with
official government agencies – the President,
the Government of the Federation and therefore
they must take into account relevant corporate
interests and goals. In addition, not all deputies
of the State Duma who discuss and adopt laws
are professional enough in the lawmaking.
Not every politician is a law-giver. Public
examination of draft laws would largely resolve
these contradictions.
In our opinion, the legitimation of laws (a
specific procedure is not difficult to work out)
could not only improve the rule of law in the
country, raise the level of public confidence in
government and political activity of people, but
also in general do a good service in the process
of formation of the legal state and developed
civil society, i.e. a modern type of democracy in
Russia.
References
G.V. Gegel. Compositions. 1929-1959.V.1-14. In Russian.
G. Mosca. The ruling class. Social investigations. № 10. 1994. In Russian.
V.S. Nersesyants. Methodological problems of relations between law and order and legality. M.
1980.In Russian.
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Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities…
Демократизация правотворчества и правопорядок:
реальные возможности гражданского общества
А.Г. Аникевич, Е.П. Чебан
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, ул Киренского, 26
В статье с позиций обобщения на уровне социальной философии анализируется сущность
и структура права, его роль в процессе демократизации всех сторон жизни общества,
соотношение права и политики, исторически обусловленный правовой нигилизм населения
при тоталитаризме. Аргументируется необходимость легитимации закона как одного из
важных аспектов построения правового государства и современного гражданского общества
в России.
Ключевые слова: демократия, гражданское общество, право, правопорядок, правовое
государство, власть, легитимность.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1028-1035
~~~
УДК 942.060
Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism
in the XIX and XX Centuries
a
Darima D. Amogolonovaa* and Andrei V. Simonovb
Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies,
Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
6 Sakhyanovoi, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia
b
Russian State University for the Humanities,
6 Miusskaya square, Moscow, 125993 Russia 1
Received 4.11.2011, received in revised form 11.12.2011, accepted 16.02.2012
The paper “Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX centuries” deals with the
phenomenon of Britishness as a form of national identity in a context of British Empire. The authors
argue that arising and functioning of the Empire became the most essential factor that affected the
ethnic groups of Great Britain in the processes of the XIX century nation-building in counterbalance
to ethnocultural identities. Collapse of the Empire resulted in deactualization of Britishness and return
to the previous identities. Simultaneously, the British identity appeared to be rather productive for the
self-identification of the “newcomers”. Thus, Britishness has got extra senses related to distinct racial
and cultural differentiation of the British society.
Keywords: Britishness; identity; ethnicity; British Empire; world-system; constructivism
Introduction
The epoch of globalization is characterized
with unprecedented confluence of nationstates in the political and economic alliances,
increasing migratory flows, and arising
new forms of multicultural and multiethnic
societies. Simultaneously, the present-day
situation shows manifestation of various
ideologies with common content that can
be named nationalism. Modern humanities
recognize that the concept of nationalism is
very broad and does not necessarily imply the
involvement of a big number of people who
feel themselves as members of the national
community into political activities. The most
*
1
general defi nition of nationalism, which
includes both nationalism of the emerging
nation and nationalism of the existing nation,
is proposed by the Encyclopedia of Social and
Cultural Anthropology: “Nationalism is the
political doctrine which holds that humanity
can be divided into separate, discrete units –
nations – and that each nation should constitute
a separate political unit – a state. The claim to
nationhood usually invokes the idea of a group
of people with a shared culture, often a shared
language, sometimes a shared religion, and
usually but not always a shared history; to this it
adds the political claim that this group of people
should, by rights, rule themselves or be ruled
Corresponding author E-mail address: amog@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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by people of the same kind (nation, ethnicity,
language, religion, etc.)” (Barnard, Spencer,
2003: 590).
In this sense, the nationalism of the United
Kingdom completely corresponds to the idea
of Britishness (Britishism) in at least two
definitions: the first one, patriotic unity within
the nation-state, which, as W. Connor defines, is
characterized by the absence of ethnic conflicts
(Connor, 1994: 69) and the second one, daily life
and social customs that can be described in M.
Billig’s terms of banal nationalism (Billig, 1995).
Which content of Britishness will occupy
prevailing status, depends on a sense of
homogeneity and horizontal ties. As a matter of
fact, the conflict in the framework of a nation
consists in particular in the fact of dominance when
one or several ethnic groups prevail in number,
influence or cultural expansion thus preventing
the sense of super-ethnic unity. In the course of
last decades, polyethnicity and multiraciality of
the British society have actualized a problem
whether Britishness exists at present, or existed
in history, or will exist in the future. Actually, the
situation in Great Britain is not unique: almost
all multiethnic states including Russia are facing
a crisis of all-national identity. Therefore, the
investigation of the phenomenon of Britishness
is relevant for identifying common and peculiar
features of nationalisms. Comparativist analysis
of situations in different communities contributes
to better knowledge how national ideologies
impact public consciousness; British example is
rather indicative in the sense of gradual increase
of tension in interracial relations and “washing
out” of all-national identity.
Materials and Methods
In our work we employ materials from
relevant research works on political and cultural
history of Great Britain (M. Storry, P. Childs,
P.W. Barker, T. Wright, A. Aughey, J. Darwin,
etc.), printed archives (Hyam, 1992; Goldsworthy,
1994), and mass media discussions, such as in the
Daily Telegraph, the Daily Star, the Mirror, the
Sun and the Sunday Times.
The research applies the methodology of the
world-system analysis (Wallerstein, 1974) and
constructivist paradigm (Anderson, 1991; Barth,
1969; Cohen, 2000; Gellner, 1983; Smith, 1986)
of contemporary social and political anthropology
in combination with the system principle to social
processes. The basic methodological principles
are supplemented with a concept of depoliticized
nationalism in M. Billig’s interpretation. The
latter concept strictly divides nationalism into the
ideology of arising nation and banal or everyday
reproduction of national belonging by means of
“flagging” that implies a sort of repeated actions
aimed at consumption of symbols. On the one
hand, banal reproduction of Britishness seems
to be older than most other nationalisms. And
on the other hand, in the present-day conditions
of globalization and impetuous immigration to
Great Britain, traditional British values (whatever
is understood under them) being fixed within the
limits of banal nationalism get a political context
of non-tolerance.
Results
The phenomenon of Britishness is tightly
connected with the historical processes in the
UK, with its role in the international politics both
in the past and present, and with globalization,
which manifests in the growing immigration
of the representatives of other ethnoracial and
cultural communities to the British Isles. When
proposing consideration of Britishness as a
specific form of nationalism, we do not exclude
other interpretations of the phenomenon, such
as cultural identity. At the same time it is worth
marking that in the modern social science
nationalism is often represented beyond the
limits of a militant political ideology: it can act
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as a collective “we-image”, i.e. as a language
and principle of self-description that promotes
construction of communality.
Historically Britishness was formed within
the United Kingdom and for political reasons
was far inferior to ethnic (ethnocultural and
ethnopolitical) identities of the Scots, Welsh
and Irish. Status inequality of different ethnic
groups in the economic sphere and access to the
power resources (A. Smith caustically marked
this as “residential segregation” (Smith, 1998:
60)) contributed to a steady representation of the
British as almost exclusively Englishmen from
the point of view of both outside observers and
non-English British.
The situation has changed significantly when
military-colonial expansion began. Widening
overseas possessions gave career opportunities
to all ethnic groups in Britain, thus improving
their financial situation. Since the end of the
XVIII century, thanks to the participation in the
conquests, the British identity (as belonging to the
most successful community) has coexisted with
ethnicity though the latter was not replaced. Due
to the fact that the social basis and ethnicity of the
participants of colonial campaigns (sailors and
soldiers) was very broad, the term “Englishmen”
was losing its narrow ethnic content: it was getting
the meaning of Britishness that was taking roots
in the representations of both conquered peoples
and British public consciousness.
Final formation of Britishness as a nationalist
ideology and self-awareness of the Brits took
place in the second half of the XIX century
when the British Empire reached its development
having become a major force in world politics
and economy. Actively propagandized British
values coupled with the rapid growth of British
wealth derived the notion of Britishness from
merely political rhetoric and introduced into
the broadest social classes. Britishness has
become synonymous with world domination and
legitimized rights to economic resources of the
colonies and to the fate of the peoples of Asia
and Africa. This results in strong relationship
between Britishness and British imperialism
that was understood as a civilizing mission of
the United Kingdom among the disadvanced
communities, which thus joined Christianity,
European education, and social institutions and
systems.
Collapse of the British Empire could not but
affect the Britishness in ideological sense. The
loss of the empire “core” entailed actualization
of English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish ethnocultural identities instead Britishness. It would be
appropriate to cite a letter from our British friend
who wrote (quotation was kindly permitted):
“People thought of themselves as English, Irish,
Welsh, Scottish, (and actually, more than this, from
Warwickshire, Somerset, Perthshire, London,
Cornwall, etc. etc.), but as united in living under
the British Imperial Government”. This young
woman, a British researcher, is of opinion that
actualization of Britishness alongside with ethnic
identity was initiated in the late XX century by the
communities of immigrants who call themselves
the “British” (“black British”, “Muslim British”
or simply “British”). Precisely for this reason,
the “indigenous” white British try to “reserve”
the term and corresponding sense of Britishness
for themselves. Thus at present, Britishness is
considered as an ambiguous concept: on the
one hand, it implies greatness of the nation that
possesses glorious historical memory; on the
other hand, this meaning of Britishness is being
pushed aside due to newcomers whose Britishness
has exactly opposite meaning: the British by
citizenship but not by “roots and blood”. The
term thus again shows the opposition between the
“ethnic” British and “newcomers”.
Of course, the Britishness is far beyond the
imperial context. Other contexts are of no less
importance: traditional values in which a notable
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place is given to the monarchy and Anglican
Church, customs and way of life and behavior,
democratic institutes and freedoms, level and
quality of life, etc. Complete research implies
studying and analyzing the totality of Britishness,
in which imperial ideology is only one of the
constituent elements.
Discussion
Scientific literature on British identity is
rather wide; most researchers are of opinion that
the formation of Britishness took place within
strengthening British monarchy and successful
albeit painful process of inclusion of Scottish,
Welsh and Irish areas in the structure of a united
state (Wright, 2003; Julios, 2008). However,
political actions, though uncontroversial, did not
create a British national identity. When defining
political identity in Britain, Philip Lynch argues
that in the everyday consciousness, Britishness is
a synonym for Englishness, the latter forming in
fact all the specific features of national patriotism
and national character, which manifests in
commitment to conservatism. “The emergence
of the English then British nation-state and
national identities prior to the era of ideological
nationalism and democratic politics limited the
scope for the emergence of ethnic or oppositional
patriotisms... In the United Kingdom’s (UK)
multinational state, the balance between a
state-based British identity and older ethnic or
national identities has been a complex one. The
nations of the UK maintained important aspects
of their ethnic, political and cultural identities,
with a British state patriotism added to these to
provide a sense of shared identity and interests,
thereby limiting the scope for separatist sub-state
nationalisms” (Lynch, 1999: 2).
Priority of English in the British national
values as well as in the idea of the British nation
grows out of ideas that emerged and developed in
the British political culture and English national
identity. Being the most advanced political and
economic part of the UK, England extrapolated
all over the country its bureaucratic model, the
social hierarchy and relationships between social
strata, property relations and interpersonal
relations, home and foreign policy. And the
French revolution that threatened the British state
security in particular because the Irish belonged
to the Roman Catholic Church promoted
unconditional recognition of Anglicanism as the
national religion.
Introducing
British/English
traditions
into different ethnic groups was uneven: while
anglization of the Scottish elites was rapid, the
same process among the Irish was, first, delayed
and, second, faced considerable resistance at
least because of obvious political and cultural
discrimination against the backdrop of economic
backwardness. Absence of the national religion,
that could be a bridge between ethnic and cultural
groups, implied an inner contradiction between
the Anglican Church and other branches of
Christianity – Roman Catholicism and Calvinism –
thus increasing cultural differentiation.
However, in the XVIII and XIX centuries,
the processes of national homogenization greatly
intensified by the establishment of Britain as
an imperial metropolis; simultaneously, the
monarchy being the bulwark of the imperial
ideology became the British national heritage and
national idea. In addition to economic, military
and political characteristics of the empire, a
geopolitical factor was of undoubted importance.
The Empire, over which “the sun never set”
occupied by the end of the XIX century the
fifth part of the Earth with a population of four
hundred million people; this placed Britain into
“the center of the world” (Johnson, 2003: 1).
This undoubtedly contributed to a feeling
of British/metropolitan superiority over all
other parts of the Empire. No doubt that actual
participation in the creation of the empire was of
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more importance than simple self-identification
with the imperial power. Such participation
with accompanied financial incentives was
large scale and included into the notion of the
dominating nation also those who due to their
ethnic characteristics and historical memory
held a subordinated position in the British
society. Isaac Land marks that colonial wars
became the biggest unifying force of Britishness
because thanks to them the various ethnic and
social groups – “competing factions” – chose
to cooperate with the government rather than
recalling past wrongs or to call for separatism.
Military campaigns of British Army and Navy
were represented as patriotic actions, in which
the civilians took an active part (for example,
women collected donations and made clothes for
the soldiers, and traders created philanthropic
societies) (Land, 2009: 6). While military service
in the colonial army for defending the interests
of Great Britain in various parts of the world
certainly created a patriotic image, British
nationalism for soldiers and sailors became a
quite pronounced alternative to the ethnic (local)
identity: “Britain was a nation forged in war, and
the sine qua non of “Britishness” was a more
or less direct contribution to the war effort. By
this logic, sailors should have been among the
first and most enthusiastic Britons. Conscription
removed them from whatever local or provincial
milieu they knew before” (Land, 2009: 7).
This was especially true concerning the Irish:
in the middle of the XIX century, the Irish in the
Bengal army by number almost caught up with
the English. The Irish who were also colonized
by the British understood military service as
one of very few employment opportunities. It is
worth marking that decrease in the number of
the Irish in India after the Great National Revolt
(1857-59) and ensuing famine meant their return
to homeland only partially: many of them chose
to leave for the United States (Mohanram, 2007:
167). Thus, the British identity that prevailed in
the Irish in the colonies came into conflict with
the feeling of their discriminatory status in Great
Britain.
However, in the colonies, as Graham
Dawson wrote, the notions of “Englishmen”
and “British” turned out to be interchangeable
in the identification sense. Unlike in Britain,
in the colonies both words meant belonging to
Britishness understood as “imperial race” that in
its turn included equally the English, Scots, Welsh
and Irish – all those who enjoyed the privileges of
being the British both in the “color” colonies and
“white” Dominions (Bassnett, 2003: xxiv).
Thanks to the social significance of the
formation, expansion and strengthening of the
empire, Britishness in the XIX century was
closely linked with British imperialism. The latter
was and still is understood in two ways: initiated
by John Hobson, it implies a policy of territorial
expansion, while the Marxist interpretation
of John Hobson’ ideas presented by Vladimir
Lenin offers the class nature of this phenomenon
with simultaneous statement that imperialism
is the last stage of capitalism. It is clear that in
the Marxist ideological terms, imperialism is
completely negative and unfair phenomenon,
which is aimed at pillaging of the colonies.
Economic and political interpretation of British
imperialism in the non-Marxist key implied the
missionary spread of Anglo-Saxon civilization
and in this sense the Victorian political leaders
of all parties were enthusiastic supporters of
imperialism (Tompson, 2003: 255-256). Thanks to
huge profits from the colonies, it became possible
to increase significantly in the British level and
quality of life; in its turn, this contributed to a
certain leveling of economic borders between
social layers and reducing social tension.
Colonialism
promoted
getting
rid
of “superfluous” people: migration to the
colonies, Australia and other regions reduced
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unemployment, expanded markets for British
goods and ultimately improved the living
standards of the British Isles. The proceeds from
colonial expansion as well as organization of trade
unions, raising the educational level of the British
made possible the enforcement of important laws
relating people engaged in physical labor. For
example, women’s work in the mining industry
was prohibited; besides, according to the new
law, women’s working hours could not exceed
ten hours. Important reforms touched also the
sphere of politics: for example, at the initiative
of the Prime Minister B. Disraeli, in 1867 the
Parliament adopted the “Reform Act” that
significantly expanded the social base of voters.
In other words, the general democratization
of British society promoted a sense of British
identity. In the epoch of Queen Victoria’s Golden
Age when Great Britain took the place of the
first world power, the British felt true prosperity.
A feeling of imperial superiority was skillfully
constructed by conservators at power and was
commonly shared by the British.
No doubt that when vast majority of the Brits
felt real benefits from the imperial government
policy, imperialism was assessed positively thus
contributing to the consolidation of Britishness
as a nationalist ideology that influenced public
consciousness of all social and ethnic groups. It
is safe to assume that for the British community
in general, Britishness and imperialism were
synonyms and that is why imperialism was not
the approved ideology only: it formed the basis
of national pride with the consequent uncritical
attitude to the seizure of foreign territories and
building up British prosperity on the robbery of
other nations. British “we-image” as civilizing
missioners in Asia and Africa has not been
shaken even by the great national revolt in India
when the British received though sketchy but still
some objective data about the brutality of British
soldiers and officers during the suppression of
insurgency. Moreover, the victory over the Indians
and the subsequent transition of India under the
British Crown (formerly these functions were
formally fulfilled by the East India Company)
were perceived as a logical and important step
in strengthening the Empire, which would be
beneficial for the Indians.
Anti-imperialist ideas in Great Britain
were not closely linked with liberal thinking
(which would entail liberalism within the
British society); this rather results from Labor
Party (founded in 1900) activities. During the
XIX century, even with the growing authority
of trade unions, British society as a whole was
under the influence of conservatives, the social
achievements of the metropolis being attributed
mainly to them: higher salaries, improved
working and living conditions. At the beginning
of the XX century, when anti-imperial sentiments
became quite pronounced, they in fact meant only
a “more equitable” distribution of income from
the colonies between the regions of Britain.
Imperialism as a military and economic
way to mastering the resources of the weaker
parts of the world did not cause among Britons
any moral and ethical challenge as British
public consciousness uncritically supported
the postulate of their superiority. Moreover, the
right to somebody else’s territories and life was
transformed into an obligation and moral duty
to civilize the backward peoples by for example
converting them to Christianity and introduction
of the English language. One can say that
imperialism that was inseparably connected with
national pride was in the XIX century the main
content of Britishness. State sovereignty and
individual freedom that had been by that time
fully formed in the British political culture did not
mean the universal principle of their application
in relation to the colonial regions of the empire.
Therefore, all forms of colonial domination
(the destruction of traditional systems of land
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tenure, tax increases, protectionism in relation
to British goods, changes in administrative
and political boundaries, brutal suppression of
uprisings and riots) were presented and perceived
as necessary steps for the gradual integration
of the underdeveloped nations in the civilized
world. This assumed that after the completion
of this mission, the British would give control
over this or that colony to the local democratic
forces providing them with full jurisdiction of an
independent state. In other words, imperialism
was presented as a heavy burden that the British
were forced to bear for the good of the many
millions of people in the colonies. This illusion,
supported by powerful anglization of the native
elites, dominated the British public consciousness
until the middle of the XX century.
Conclusion
Understanding of Britishness as messianic
British imperialism was carried out in all possible
ways of imperial propaganda, “from which there
was no escape for the population between the
1880s and the 1960s” (Ward, 2004: 15). The
vehicles of imperialism aimed at propaganda
of Britishness as national superiority included
the system of education: textbooks and teachers’
worldview, various patriotic organizations, the
ideology of political parties, church services, art
culture including literature (in particularly for
children), exhibitions, theater, and later – radio,
cinema and television. Ideas of Britishness have
been actively commercialized: “Imperialism
itself became a commodity to be sold to the
British public… Empire was all around us,
celebrated on our biscuit tins, chronicled on our
cigarettes cards, part of the fabric of our lives. We
were all imperialists then… While consumption
played some part in fostering British national
consciousness, it also helped to reinforce other
forms of identification – especially with the
Dominions, with England, Wales and Scotland,
and with particular regions and localities”
(Ward, 2004: 15). The quotation is important
from different points of view. First, it allows us
to evaluate the concept of “banal nationalism”
proposed by Michael Billig (in the context of
our topic – “banal imperialism” that replaced
British nationalist ideology (Billig, 1995). Banal
imperialism was of everyday character and
usage since it did not necessarily and directly
call to all-British goals and interests; it rather
maintained pragmatic and material assessment
of one’s belonging to Britishness as a way to
solving life problems. Second, the imperial
worldview promoted leveling of social conflicts
in the context of regional identities and objective
differences in incomes. Thirdly, and this is very
important, the collapse of the empire led not to
the disappearance of Britishness but to its return
to the “old” forms of identity – ethno-group and
ethno-territorial.
References
A. Barnard, J. Spencer, eds., Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology (L.,N.Y.:
Routledge, 2003).
S. Bassnett, ed., Studying British Cultures. An Introduction (London & New York: Routledge,
2003).
M. Billig, Banal Nationalism (London: Sage Publications, 1995).
W. Connor, Ethnonationalism. The Quest for Understanding (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton
University Press, 1994).
D.J. Goldsworthy, ed., The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951– 1957. 3 vols.
(London: University of London, 1994).
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R. Hyam, ed., The Labour Government and the End of Empire. 1945–1951. 4 vols. (London:
University of London, 1992).
C. Julios, Contemporary British Identity (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2008).
R. Johnson, British Imperialism (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2003).
I. Land, War, Nationalism, and the British Sailor. 1750–1850 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan,
2009).
P. Lynch, The Politics of Nationhood. Sovereignty, Britishness and Conservative Politics (L.:
Macmillan Press LTD, 1999).
R. Mohanram, Imperial White. Race, Diaspora, and the British Empire (Minneapolis, London:
University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
A. D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986).
R.S. Tompson, Great Britain. A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present (New York:
Facts On File, Inc., 2003).
P. Ward, Britishness since 1870 (London: Routledge, 2004).
T. Wright, British Politics. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2003).
Имперская идеология и британский национализм
в XIX и XX вв.
Д.Д. Амоголоноваа, А.В. Симоновб
а
Институт монголоведения, буддологии и тибетологии СО РАН
Россия 670047, Улан-Удэ, ул. Сахьяновой, 6
б
Российский государственный гуманитарный университет
Россия 125993, ГСП-3, Москва, Миусская площадь, 6
В статье «Имперская идеология и британский национализм в XIX и XX вв.» феномен британства
рассматривается как форма национальной идентичности в контексте Британской империи.
Авторы доказывают, что становление и развитие империи было наиболее существенным
фактором, повлиявшим на процесс британского нациестроительства в XIX веке, вследствие
которого в иерархии идентичностей общенациональная идентичность стала доминировать над
этнической. Развал империи привел к тому, что британская идентичность стала утрачивать
актуальность, а доминантные позиции заняли исторические этнические идентичности.
Одновременно «британство» стало широко использоваться в самоидентификации «новых»
граждан Великобритании. Таким образом, британство как идентичность приобретает новые
смыслы, тесно связанные с расовой и культурной дифференциацией британского общества.
Ключевые слова: британство, идентичность, этничность, Британская империя, мир-система,
конструктивизм.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1036-1045
~~~
УДК 316.012
Social Rationality:
the Problem of Definitions
Dmitry O. Trufanov*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.11.2011, received in revised form 25.12.2011, accepted 7.01.2012
This paper observes the problem of definitions of social rationality. The author applies the postnonclassical sociological approach to the analysis of social rationality. The sociological approach is critically
necessary insofar as rationality is a social phenomenon, and any rationalizing activity acts as an activity of the social subjects. Postnonclassical approach is being employed in this research in connection
with the fact that it claims the dialectical unity of the cognizer and the object of knowledge and thereby
enables us to overcome the conflict of existing versions of rationality, absolutizing its epistemological
or ontological aspects. This point of view allowed the author to assert that an essential feature of rationality is reflective design (logicization) of objects of reality – the unity of logization as means of cognitive reflection, accessible to person, and logicized item as an object of cognitive reflection. Meanwhile
logization is defined as the use of logical tools, regardless of the presence in this application certain
logic errors (this feature distinguishes logicized from logical). Guided by these theoretical grounds, the
author formulates the definition of social rationality in the broad and narrow senses. In the broad sense,
social rationality is a set of reflexive content of social reality, in the narrow sense social rationality is
displayed as any reflective act (its process and outcome) of an individual or a group subject of social
action, carried out by using verbal means of communication.
Keywords: rationality, social rationality, postnonclassical approach, logization, reflexivity.
Introduction.
The current state of social rationality
In the modern social sciences there
exists theoretical pluralism with regard to the
ambit of “rationality”. This, together with the
known advantages, creates a methodological
problem raised by the existence of different
theoretical approaches applying to the conflicting
versions of rationality. In connection with
this the urgent task is to construct a theory
of rationality capable of integrating different
approaches into its understanding and to create
*
1
a space for communication, setting the ratio of
complementarity between them. The need for a
conception of unified rationality has been pointed
out by many authors, offering various options
for solving this problem (Avtonomova, 1995;
Fedotova, 1999; Shvyrev, 2003; Asatryan, 2007;
et al.).
The following methods of interpreting the
values of rationality are mostly used in scientific
literature: as logically reasoned, acknowledged,
expressing the logical relationship between
aims and means (Weber, 1990; Pareto, 2008);
Corresponding author E-mail address: truf@artefactband.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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as designed, conformed to law content of the
reality (Mudragey, 2002; Fenvesh, 2010); as an
effective basis, determined as an ability to select
actions, means and structures to achieve the goal
(Hungarov, 1995; Nikiforov, 1999; Genov, 2007).
Also, there is no single concept of social
rationality. Social rationality is discussed as
a type of rationality, which expresses a set of
standards of social and group behavior, serving
goals socially significant for this society
(Rakitov, 1982); as a concept denoting cognitive,
social and transforming activity of individuals
and groups; as the way of functioning of social
systems, expressed in their structural logic
and their ability to self-refer and self-regulate
(Sivirinov, 2003). Along with this, many authors
consider rationality as a characteristic of human
social behavior, discussing it in the terms of
decision theory (Indina and Morosanova, 2009;
Grandori, 2010), theory of rational choice (Segre,
2008; Kazachkov, 2008; Elster, 2009; Best, 2009;
Mehlkop and Graeff, 2010), game theory (Back
and Flache, 2008; Weesie et al., 2009) and model
of frame selection (Kroneberg et al., 2010). Also,
several authors examine cognitive rationality as
the problem of contacts in the systems of social
action, which is related to the interpretation of the
social actors of knowledge and behavior (Stone,
2009; Gintis, 2010). Several authors, using the
term “social rationality” do not give its definition
which generates a plurality of its meanings
(Rodionova and Bolotova, 2010).
Meanings of rationality listed above do not
exhaust all its possible interpretations. However,
already mentioned meanings are materially
different from each other, which leads to the
impossibility of applying them in the study of
social objects through the prism of opposition
“rational – irrational”. So, logization of connection
between the objectives and means of activity does
not inevitably entail a high degree of effectiveness
of the latter. On the contrary, the effectiveness of
the mentioned connection is not necessarily the
subject of reflection and can exist as unformed
and random content. Adherence to standards of
activity as the embodiment of rationality does
not constitute the need for an effective way to
achieve the goal. On the contrary, going beyond
the standards of rationality (an irrational action)
may be more effective than following those.
Finally, the conformity to law of a particular
social phenomenon or an action is not necessarily
the subject of logization and may not have the
articulation in the reflexive field of an actor.
Thus, irrational can be rational, and vice versa. In
this regard, the conclusion that marks the current
state of rationality is the thesis by I.T. Kasavin,
made more than fifteen years ago, that “perhaps,
the only, generally recognized conclusion about
the problem of rationality is the recognition of its
debatable state” (Kasavin, 1995, p. 187).
Point.
Postnonclassical approach
to the problem of social rationality
To solve the stated problem, in our opinion, it
should be approached from a sociological point of
view, with the application of the postnonclassical
approach to the analysis of social reality. We
will explain this position. As it is well-known,
the features of the classic scientific approach are
abstraction from the cognizer in the aggregate
of their cognitive abilities and means and the
opposition of subject and object of cognition
(the position of ideal (absolute) observer). The
principle of opposition of the cognizer and the
object of cognition is asserted by Weber, who
follows G. Rickert and posits it as the basis of
all the knowledge (Gaidenko, 1991). Without
belittling the heuristic value of this principle
per se, we note that in the process of cognition
of the social phenomena which social rationality
belongs to, its use is associated with significant
difficulties. The latter is due to the fact that the
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cognizer, using rational means of cognition
(thought), always has social distinctions. They
are expressed, on the one hand, by the subject’s
applying the sign system (language), constitutive
of thoughts and consciousness, on the other
hand – by the aggregate of value orientations
of subject and cultural meanings, creating
orientation of their cognitive activity. Both the
first and the second are possible only in the social
space. Thus, the cognizer, dealing with social
reality, is an integral part of this very reality. In
this regard, the ideal (absolute) observer, as the
cognizer of social reality, is an ideal model, which
has no place in the actual practice of knowledge.
As N.M. Smirnova has rightly pointed out, this
model ignores the inclusion of a subject “in the
structure of the life-world”, a subject’s lack of
freedom “from the premises caused by their
position in a social group” (Smirnova, 1999, p.
208-209). Consequently, the absolute position of
an observer is the point of observation outside
social reality. Given the above-noted social
conditioning of the cognizer, the existence of
such a point of observation is impossible. Thus,
any observation of a social object is a participant’s
observation. This thesis was extensively
discussed in sociology even 40 years ago in the
light of the principle of complementarity in the
process of cognizing social objects. According
to the conclusions made by Ya. S. Alekseev and
Ph. M. Borodkin, “the object of study now is not
the very reality, which existence is independent
of the observer, but the system consisting of an
object (in the classical sense) and the conditions
of observation, by which we mean the set of
measurement procedures, including methods
and tools of measurement, as well as the actual
observer (researcher), who is connected with the
observed system” (Alexeyev and Borodkin, 1970,
p. 41).
Non-classical scientific approach involves
taking into account the cognitive activity of the
subject as a factor influencing the achievement
of knowledge and its outcome. Finally,
postnonclassical science is characterized by the
inclusion of the cognizer in a scientific picture of
the studied reality, in consideration of influencing
the nature of attained knowledge not only the
cognitive components of cognitive activity of the
subject, but also the key determinants of subject’s
activity – needs, values, goals (Trufanov, 2010).
Thus, in both the non-classical and
postnonclassical approaches the participation of
the cognizer in the object of knowledge is actively
postulated. The subject constitutes the object by
its cognitive actions, applied means of knowledge,
and value orientations. As a result the cognizer and
the object of knowledge display complementarity,
integrity, ontological continuity, so that their
separation is possible only at the theoretical level.
Consequently, the cognizer must be included
in the sphere of scientific analysis. Focusing on
this theoretical starting point, we used the term
“postnonclassical approach” as a generic concept
for the concepts of “non-classical approach” and
“postnonclassical approach”.
Taking into consideration these key points
we define our approach as the postnonclassical
approach, which includes the cognizer in the
area of scientific analysis on the basis of the
principle of complementarity (Turchenko, 2003;
Nemirovsky, 2005). Such an approach, as it will
be shown later, is necessary to solve the problem
of social rationality, as well as to construct a
unified theory of rationality capable of integrating
different approaches in its understanding.
Example.
Definitions of social rationality
Analysis of the above interpretations of
rationality on the grounds of the theoretical points
of postnonclassical approach shows that the
conflict of definitions of rationality is created by
distinguishing of epistemological and ontological
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aspects of rationality. Thus, the interpretation of
rationality in the epistemological aspect claims
cognitive criterion of rationality, characterizing
cognitive, interpretational, social and transforming
activity of the social subjects. The interpretation
of rationality in the ontological aspect sets it as an
objective property of reality, conformity to law, a
way of self-reference and self-regulation of social
systems. Therefore, complementarity of different
definitions of rationality can be established by
admitting the mergence of epistemological and
ontological aspects of rationality. It is known
that the traditional gap between ontology and
epistemology has been overcame in dialectic
(there cannot be any “pure ontological” or “pure
epistemological” characteristics) (Bazhenov,
1976) and in social theory (in social life there
are no natural facts – any fact is included in the
horizon of interpretation) (Zinchenko, 2003).
Thus, an inextricable link between the subject
and the object of knowledge is postulated, when
the subject is an integral part of the object. In this
regard, seeking the invariant content of rationality,
V.G. Fedotova points out the methodological
principle of his study, which establishes the unity
of cognitive and social criteria of rationality
(Fedotova, 1999).
Thus, the definition of rationality must take
into account mergence, the unity of method and
content of the rationalization on the basis of their
ontological continuity. The attempts to implement
this principle in the existing definition of
rationality, as a rule, narrow object at the expense
of absolutization of partial contents of cognitive
rationality (Lipsky, 1997; Shvyrev, 2003; et al.).
Thus, V.S. Shvyrev discusses reflexive control as
an essential trait of rationality (Shvyrev, 2003).
Such a sign of rationality, in the opinion of the
author, are “special efforts of the consciousness
of the subject to analyze of proportionality of
the subject’s position and subject’s real situation,
suggesting an independent outline of the “perfect
plan” of actions, which is orientated on the real
situation” (Shvyrev, 2003, p . 42-43). This analysis
of proportionality is the point of reflexive control,
aiming at the correlation of the “perfect plan” of
actions and very actions as the act being actually
carried out. Thus, the outline of consciousness
be should realized, the activity of the subject
should be defined as rational or otherwise – as
irrational. Rationality in this sense describes
the subjects’ active attitude to the world, their
freedom to choose behavior alternatives, which is
opposed to “any kind of automatism of external
determination, when the subject performs a
passive recipient of affecting their mentality
forces (automatism of instinctive immediate
reaction, habit, stamp, actions implemented
under the influence of tradition and authority,
etc.)” (Shvyrev, 2003, p. 45).
Such a conception of rationality, in our
opinion, is very narrow. It is doubtful whether
the reduction of the author of the manifold
manifestations of rationality to the outline
of “perfect plan” of actions and correlation it
with reality is error-free. It is unclear why this
content of consciousness is chosen as a criterion
of rationality, why reflexive practice of different
intentionality must be assigned to the field of
irrational.
Following the logic of V.S. Shvyrev, the
answer to this question must be that the discussed
content of rationality has been chosen as its
criterion on the grounds that it constitutes the
subject as an autonomous author. This author has
the freedom of choice of the behavioral patterns,
resisting the external determination of the latter.
Thereby rationalization in this sense implies “the
possibility of presenting a problem situation from
the outside, modeling it as a whole in a perfect
plan, objectification of subject’s own position as a
result of this modeling – it is the famous thesis of
“the separation of the subject from the world” –
and designing options of motion within the model
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of the problem situation” (Shvyrev, 2003, p. 45).
But it is quite clear that such a separation from the
world assumes the position of the ideal (absolute)
observer, the impossibility of which we have
indicated above.
Thus, the criterion of rationality, set by
V.S. Shvyrev, is an attempt to implement the
principle of mergence of epistemological and
ontological aspects of rationality by integrating
in the concept of “rationality” both cognitive
(making an ideal plan of actions), and “really
practical” (actions correspond to an ideal plan)
activity of the subject. However, as it was
shown, such an attempt narrows the variety of
manifestations of rationality at the expense of
absolutization of its particular contents. Trying
to ignore the specific content of the experience
and knowledge with a goal to fi nd an invariant
component of rationality, the author, in fact,
posits the specific content of consciousness as
a marker of rationality.
In our opinion, in the search of the invariant
criterion of rationality beyond the specific contents
of consciousness, as such, we should review
not the content, but the very form of activity –
reflection as auto-communication of the subject.
Definitely, the adopted postnonclassical approach
to the problem of social rationality allows us to
select the property of reflexivity (verbalization)
as an invariant in the various approaches and
definitions of rationality, without which these
definitions no longer exist (definitions, but not the
phenomena which they fix). In this case, reflexivity
involves logization – the application of the logical
tools (concepts, judgments, conclusions) in spite
of the logic errors in such an application. The
latter circumstance distinguishes logization
from logic. Thus, logization is a way of existence
of rationality, expressing its cognitive side
(epistemological characterization of rationality).
Ontological aspect of rationality is expressed in
the intentionality of logization: logization always
focuses on the specific content of reality and is
impossible beyond that content. The content of
logization contains various objects of reality,
including logization itself. This allows us to assert
the social nature of rationality because of the
impossibility of verbalized reflection (logization)
without social reality. Thereby, the concepts of
“rationality” and “social rationality” should be
recognized as synonymous.
Proceeding from this understanding,
social rationality in the broadest sense should
be represented as a set of reflexive content of
social reality. Reflection at this level should be
understood as a cognitive self-referral of social
practice – the aggregate of mutually orientated
reflections of the social actors (the network
reflection). This aggregate creates “its own layer”
of social reality, reflecting in the cognitive tools
its own being of the given reality.
In this definition, we also rely on the thesis
of S.L. Frank about existence as transfinite
content. According to his work, the essence of
being (being is a whole, comprehensive unity)
as “transfinite is that it is the unity of certainty
and uncertainty – because the difference between
them is a difference within the very existence (as
well as any other difference)” (Frank, 2007, p. 8485). “If we now separate mentally these logically
consistent contents from what is beyond their
limits and do not belong to them, then – in the
face of this last element – we will have – in just
such a negative definition – the irrational. This
irrational should be seen as something of the
substrate or materia prima” (Frank, 2007, p. 72).
Thus, reality is the unity of issued and formless,
definite and indefinite, logicalized and not. In this
case, the criterion of logical focus distinguishes
rational and irrational. Such a view allows us to
consider the content of reflexive social reality as
the unity of method and content of rationality, as
mergence and interdependence of logization and
logicalised.
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In this broad understanding social
rationality reveals features of a social fact
in Durkheim’s sense (Durkheim, 1990). An
individual in the process of socialization is facing
social rationality as a social and cultural intent,
having external existence and enforcement in
relation to it. These intents express rationality
in the form of social norms, collective opinions,
assessments and standards of behavior that
have received a verbal expression, as well as in
the form of knowledge, information and other
products of reflexive activity of individuals and
communities.
Further, since the reflexive content of social
reality implies cognitive activities of subjects,
the social rationality in the narrow sense should
be defined as any reflective act (its process
and outcome) of individual or group subject of
social action, carried out by using verbal means
of communication. In this case, a reflexive act
is always the unity of logization (the way of
accessible cognitive reflection) and logicized
(the object of cognitive reflection). Thus,
discussion of the above versions of rationality is
carried out by their logization. There is no other
way to make the values of rationality under
discussion, but to establish and articulate the
belonging of certain predicates to the concepts
of items thought. Rational as effective, rational
as a set, rational as appropriate in the system
of values, rationality as comprehensibility of
the objective of universal and other existing
values of rationality are reflexive contents and
are not available outside logization. Currently,
our reader is in the context of such a form of
social interaction, which should be defi ned as
a form of social rationality. Here we can repeat
after Searle, that “any thought, language, and
therefore, the argument assumes the existence
of rationality” (Searle, 2004, p. 12).
However, the above definitions of rationality
are the kinds of social rationality, understood
as a set of reflexive (verbalized) contents. The
basis for their allocation is in the meanings of
concepts (objects, events and connections within
reality, marked by the concept), the relation
between them being rationalized. So, rational as
a set is allocated on the basis of the logicalised
relationship between the meanings of “social
phenomenon”, “conformity to law”, “design”,
“order”; rational as effective involves logicalised
connection between the meanings of “social
action”, “goal achievement”, “efficiency”, “means
for goal achievement”, etc. These kinds of social
rationality are its substantial aspects and can be
used to study the individual parts and contents of
social reality.
The flip side of rationality is social
irrational – a set of non-reflexive contents of social
beyond logic of the recorded meanings. This is
materia prima, according to S.L. Frank, which
rationalization is directed on. Thus, rational
and irrational components of social reality form
a complex synthesis. As B.S. Sivirinov notes,
“sociology should consider irrational as varying
hypostasis of rational, and vice versa. In other
words, sociology should take and consider the
obvious functional “mergence”, inseparability
of rational and irrational in society“ (Sivirinov,
2003, p. 10). In this way, conformity to law of
particular social structures and phenomena is an
irrational content as long as it is not articulated
in the reflexive activities of individuals and
communities. Receiving such an articulation,
conformity to law becomes a rational content
and begins to exist as knowledge, performing
also a function of socio-cultural prediction in the
intergenerational transmission of experience. The
very conformity to law as the rational content is
a reflective model of relations between social
objects and patterns of existence of the social
systems and is used to “measure” these relations
in a particular social object. Also, the efficiency
becomes the rational content in connection with
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what is a reflective model of relations between
means and results of the activity, applied to
rationalize this relation in specific situations of
the activity of individuals and communities.
Next, we will make conclusions.
Results
1. To solve the problem of social rationality it
is heuristically valuable to apply postnonclassical
sociological approach. Sociological approach
is necessary insofar as rationality is a social
phenomenon, and any rationalizing activity is
an activity of a social subject. Postnonclassical
approach is necessary as long as it maintains the
dialectical unity of the cognizer and the object
of cognition, and thereby enables us to establish
mergence of ontological and epistemological
aspects of rationality. This theoretical position
allows integrating different approaches in the
understanding of rationality, the differences
between them are related to absolutization of
ontological or epistemological aspects.
2. The concepts of “rationality” and “social
rationality” are synonymous and express the same
content. In this case, rationality is always social,
since it does not exist outside social reality. The
essential feature of rationality is reflective design
(logicization) of the objects of reality (the unity of
logization and logicized).
3. Social rationality in the broad sense is the
aggregate of reflective contents of social reality.
Reflection on this level acts as a cognitive self-
referral of social practices that creates “its own
layer” of social reality, reflecting by the means
of cognitive tools the very existence of given
reality.
4. Social rationality in the narrow sense is
any reflexive act (its process and outcome) of an
individual or a group subject of social action,
carried out with the help of the verbal means
of communication. In this sense, the concept
of social rationality characterizes the cognitive
activity of social actors, which creates a set of
reflexive content of social reality.
Thus, social rationality should be defi ned
as the reflexive content of social reality that is
constituted by the cognitive practices of the
social actors. This approach reveals the essential
feature of rationality, which is invariant in
different defi nitions and allows combining
conflicting versions of rationality within a
unified theoretical model. Moreover, different
versions of rationality are correlated as the
forms of social rationality, understood in this
way. Also, this approach allows us to refi ne
the methodological principle of theoretical and
empirical study of rationality, which establishes
the unity of cognitive, social, ontological and
epistemological aspects of rationality. Finally,
the application of this approach would develop,
on the basis of empirical reduction of rationality,
the effective methods of applied study of the
rationality of the social systems in its various
aspects.
References
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philosophical inquiry (Moscow, 1995), 48-76, in Russian
Ya.S. Alexeyev, Ph.M. Borodkin, “The principle of complementarity in sociology”, in Sociology
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B.V. Asatryan, Social rationality in the interpretation of social development: abstract of a thesis
of cand. of Ph. Sciences (Taganrog, 2007), in Russian
I. Back, A. Flache, “The Adaptive Rationality of Interpersonal Commitment” in Rationality and
Society, 1 (vol. 20) (2008), 65-83
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H. Best, “Organic Farming as a Rational Choice: Empirical Investigations in Environmental
Decision Making” in Rationality and Society, 2 (vol. 21) (2009), 197-224
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1976), 5-15, in Russian
E. Durkheim, On the division of social labor. The method of sociology / translation from French
and an afterword by A.B. Hoffmann (Moscow: “Nauka”,1990), in Russian
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V.G. Fedotova, “Social rationality and democratic society” in Rationality at the crossroads: in 2
books. Book. 1 (Moscow, 1999), 231-263, in Russian
T.A. Fenvesh, “Socio-anthropological aspects of rationality in the context of the philosophy of
Russian cosmism” in Society, culture and creativity in the context of social rationality (Krasnoyarsk: the
branch of St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law in Krasnoyarsk,
2010), in Russian
S.L. Frank, “Inconceivable: Ontological introduction in the philosophy of religion” (Moscow,
2007), in Russian
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Weber’s renaissance” (Moscow, 1991), in Russian
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T.A. Indina, V.I. Morosanova, “The rationality of decision-making (based on political voting
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(2008), 60-65, in Russian
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and presentations of the First Russian Congress of Philosophy (4-7 June 1997). In 7 volumes. Vol. 3.
Ontology, epistemology, logic and analytic philosophy (St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University,
1997), 85-87, in Russian
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Russian
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sociology” in Sociology. Journal of the Russian Sociological Association, 2 (2005), 19-31, in Russian
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crossroads: in two books. Book 1 (Moscow, 1999), 295-313, in Russian
V. Pareto, Compendium of General Sociology (Moscow, 2008), in Russian
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V. Rodionova, T. Bolotova, “Social rationality and communicative possibilities of the collective
mind” in Power, 5 (2010), 50-52, in Russian
S. Segre, “Durkheim on Rationality” in Journal of Classical Sociology, 1 (vol. 8) (2008), 109144
B.S. Sivirinov, “Social rationality as a component of social prospects” in Sociological Research,
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V.S. Shvyrev, Rationality as the value of culture. Tradition and modernity (Moscow, 2003), in
Russian
J. Searle, Rationality in Action (Moscow, 2004), in Russian
P. Stone, “Rationality, Intelligibility, and Interpretation” in Rationality and Society, 1 (vol. 21)
(2009), 35-58
N.M. Smirnova, “The rationality of social knowledge: cognitive normativism and strategies of
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Russian
D.O. Trufanov, “Social rationality as a methodological problem in sociology. Postnonclassical
approach” in Society, culture and creativity in the context of social rationality (Krasnoyarsk: the branch
of St. Petersburg Institute of Foreign Economic Relations, Economics and Law; in Krasnoyarsk, 2010),
in Russian
V.N. Turchenko, “The problem of classicality and nonclassicality of sociology” in Non-classical
sociology in modern Russia: the accumulation of methodological capacity and technological
capabilities (Moscow-Barnaul, 2003), 24-31, in Russian
M. Weber, “On some categories of interpretive sociology” in Selected works (Moscow, 1990),
495-546, in Russian
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V.V. Zinchenko, “Communicative rationality” as an a priori of social sciences (methodological
review of projects)” in Theoretical journal «Credo new», 3 (2003), in Russian
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Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions
Социальная рациональность:
к проблеме дефиниции
Д.О. Труфанов
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье обсуждается проблема дефиниции социальной рациональности. Автор применяет
постнеклассический социологический подход к анализу социальной рациональности.
Социологический подход необходим постольку, поскольку рациональность есть явление
социальное и любая рационализирующая деятельность есть деятельность социального
субъекта. Постнеклассический подход применен в связи с тем, что он утверждает
диалектическое единство познающего субъекта и объекта познания и тем самым позволяет
преодолеть конфликтность существующих версий рациональности, абсолютизирующих
гносеологические или онтологические ее аспекты. Такая точка зрения позволила автору
утверждать, что существенным признаком рациональности является рефлексивная
оформленность (логизированность) объектов реальности – единство логизации как
способа когнитивного отражения, доступного человеку и логизируемого как объекта
когнитивного отражения. При этом логизацию автор определяет как применение логического
инструментария, независимо от наличия в данном применении логических ошибок (этот
признак отличает логизированное от логического). Основываясь на указанных теоретических
основаниях, автор формулирует определения социальной рациональности в широком и узком
смыслах. В широком смысле социальная рациональность есть совокупность рефлексивных
содержаний социальной реальности; в узком – любой рефлексивный акт (его процесс и
результат) индивидуального или группового субъекта социального действия, осуществляемый
с помощью вербальных средств коммуникации.
Ключевые слова: социальная рациональность, рефлексивность, постнеклассический подход.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1046-1055
~~~
УДК 378.147:54:669
Potential of Technology
of Critical Thinking Development
for Upgrading University Lecture Course
of Chemistry
Natalia M. Vostrikova*
Siberian Federal University
Chemistry Department
95 Krasnoyarskiy Rabochi Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660025 Russia 1
Received 14.12.2011, received in revised form 25.12.2011, accepted 15.07.2012
The work covers the issue of expedience of using mechanisms, methods and strategies of the technology of critical thinking development (TCTD) at chemistry lectures at university. The survey proved that
using TCTD during a lecture course of chemistry disciplines alongside with other innovative technologies, in particular, with information and communication technologies leads to increasing the level of
comprehension, understanding of information , as well as improvement of skills of independent processing of training material.
Keywords: methods, mechanisms, strategies of the technology of critical thinking development via reading and writing, chemical disciplines, lecture form of studying.
Introduction
Training a professionally competent
specialist capable of unassisted acquiring of
required knowledge and applying it to solve
various professional and everyday tasks brings
about the need to create a favourable environment
for students’ educational and cognitive activity,
which requires updating all organizational types
of studying at university.
The analysis of information sources on
teaching chemistry disciplines proved that
improvement of lecturing type of studying shall
be primarily aimed at elimination of passive
perception of information, encouragement of
feedback and increasing the students’ self*
1
sufficiency. Introduction of topical study
elements, using hand-outs, application of
information and communication technologies
(ICT), conducting express control, and initiation
of dialogue comprising elements of individual
and group work – all this is aimed at eliminating
the illustrating and explanatory nature of a
lecture [Bezrukova, 2006; Gavronskaya, 2005].
Moreover, a lecturer is still the main source
of information during a lecture, whereas a
student is basically involved in a reproductive
speculative activity. We believe that shifting a
student into a subjective position during a lecture
can be facilitated by methods and strategies of a
technology of critical thinking development via
Corresponding author E-mail address: vnatali59@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture…
reading and writing, which is shortly named the
Technology of Critical Thinking Development
(TCTD).
Materials and Methods
The analysis of literature on pedagogics
proved the viability of using this technology for
studying the humanities, the process of which
is characterized with processing a considerable
amount of text information. Internet and
modern literature on pedagogics provide us with
information on some pilot projects on TCTD
application during school lessons of literature,
history, mathematics, and chemistry. Our interest
was aroused by the practicability of using TCTD
methods for studying chemistry at university, in
particular, in the course of teaching chemistry
to first year students majoring in metallurgy at
Siberian Federal University.
The main idea of the technology is generating
skills of independent processing of information,
its critical apprehension and development of
reflexive abilities. The technological foundation
of TCTD is formed by a basic model of three
stages: challenge – apprehension – reflection that
allows students to make their own decisions on
goals they pursue in studying, perform an active
search of information and reflect on what they
have learned. Thus, the first stage – “challenge” –
provides for updating one’s knowledge, making
assumptions, defining the goals of studying
and forming a cognitive interest. The second
stage – apprehension – is aimed at unassisted
monitoring of the process of training material
understanding. The final third stage – reflection –
includes synthesis of information, providing for
consolidation of the material and comparing it
with previously obtained knowledge (Zagashev,
2003).
In the course of using methodological
mechanisms and TCTD strategies, the material
of the lecture is subdivided into semantic units,
and conveyance of each of them follows the
technological cycle “challenge – apprehension –
reflection”. According to psychologists, such a
structure of a lecture corresponds to stages of
human perception: first one needs to ‘tune in”,
recall what is already known on this topic, then
ponder what this information can be useful for
and how it can be applied.
When giving lectures within the basic course
of chemistry to students majoring in metallurgy
we used such strategies as “Advanced lecture”,
“Logbook”, “ What we Know – What we Want to
know – What we Learned”, and such mechanisms
as “Cluster”, “INSERT”, “Logbook”, “True-false
statements”, “Conceptual table” etc (Zagashev,
2003).
Cluster mechanism is a graphic method
of organizing the training material. It allows
outlining large or small semantic units, names
of which are written in rectangles with circles
radiating from them forming the so-called cluster
branches that disclose the meaning of these
semantic blocks. The resulting clusters with
branches reflect interrelations between these
blocks.
We used this mechanism when studying
the topics “Oxidation-reduction reactions”,
“Chemical bond”, and “Electrolyte solutions”.
The example of a cluster generated in the course
of discussing the topic “Oxidation-reduction
reactions” with students at the end of a lecture is
shown in Figure 3. It can be seen that this cluster
does not represent bonds between, for instance,
properties of reagents (ionization energy, electron
affinity) and element location within Mendeleev
periodic table; ionization energy and reducing
agent, electron affinity and oxidizing agent; halfreaction method and medium, measurement of
oxidation and reduction potential and galvanic
element.
Students can saturate cluster branches with
information both during the lecture and while
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Fig.1. Cluster for studying the topic “Oxidation and reduction reactions”
studying the material independently, as well
as in the course of analysing electrochemical
processes. We believe the applicative aspect
of this topic to be important for metallurgy
students. Thus, the future metallurgists shall
be able to select an oxidizing and reducing
agents for processing the particular type of
raw material depending on their oxidation
and reduction potential, as well as forecast the
reaction products depending on the medium the
reaction goes in. Basing on this, main trusses
can be outlined within a cluster, the subordinate
ones can be removed, and more attention can be
paid to interrelation of selecting an oxidizing and
reducing agents depending on their oxidation
and reduction potential. This will defi nitely
change the look of the cluster. Thus, creating
a cluster enables a student to apprehend the
applicability and structure of the topic being
studied, see the connection between main
chemical notions, discern main information
from subordinate data, which, in general,
facilitates the systematic comprehension of the
training material.
Mechanism “True-false statements” is one
of the methods used to actualize basic knowledge
that has been acquired long before this training
session. This method suggests evaluating
understanding of logic assertions, statements of
planned training material. For instance, students
have learned back in school that hydrogen
evolves during inter-reacting of metals standing
before hydrogen in metal activity series with
solutions of diluted acids (hydrochloric acid and
sulphuric acid). By analogy they assume evolving
of hydrogen from nitric acid solution as well, not
taking into account the oxidizing properties of
nitric acid depending on its concentration and
metal activity. The example of making statements
on metals dilution in nitric acid of various
concentrations is given in Table 1 below.
Application of this method at the challenge
stage facilitates formation of the ability to express
one’s point of view on the issue being discussed
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Table 1. True/False statements on the topic “Chemical properties of metals”
Statement
Answer
1. Dilution of active metals in diluted nitric acid is accompanied by evolution of gaseous
hydrogen.
2. Hydrogen is never evolved during inter-reacting of metals with nitric acid solutions.
yes
3. Ammonia is primarily generated by diluting active metals in diluted nitric acid.
?
4. Low-active d- metals of period 4 and 5 of the Periodic Table do not dissolve in the
solution of diluted nitric acid.
5. Low-active d- metals of periods 4 and 5 passivate in the solution of high-concentrated
nitric acid with formation of metal oxide in the highest oxidation degree, nitrogen oxide
(IV) and water.
?
yes
no
Table 2. KWL on the topic “Oxidation and reduction reactions”
Know
Want to know
Learned
Oxidizing agent
How can an oxidation-reduction reaction be 1. One shall define elements that change
defined by the equation?
their oxidation rate.
2. One should know formulae of typical
oxidizing and reducing agents.
Reducing agent
How should reaction products be
One should take into account the medium,
registered?
characteristic oxidation rates of chemical
elements, acid-base nature of element
compounds.
Oxidation process What is the method of placing coefficients Electronic balance method, electronic-ionic
within equations of reactions passing in a
method (half-reaction method).
solution?
Reduction process How can the direction of an oxidationCalculation of the process electromotive
reduction reaction be defined?
force , one shall know the value of
oxidation and reduction potential of halfreactions.
Electronic balance Other methods. What are they for?
Electronic-ionic method is applied for
method
reactions passing in solutions.
by evaluating one’s own knowledge, whereas in
case of studying new material this helps forming
a skill of forecasting basing on one’s own
chemistry background. Students appear to have
great difficulties in reasoning statements made at
the challenge stage, while using this mechanism
at the reflection stage is accompanied by reasoned
confirmation of statements.
One of the main methods of material
graphic arrangement is a table. According to
the strategy “What we Know – What we Want
to know – What we Learned (KWL)” invented
by Donna Ogle in 1986, a lecture starts by filling
in a KWL table. This strategy develops students’
skills of goal-setting. Individual filling in of the
first table column “Know” is aimed at actualizing
the knowledge a student already has, the second
column “Want” – at activating mental processes
for studying new material, whereas filling in of
the third column “Learned” develops the skill of
making conclusions, which allows integrating the
knowledge obtained into one’s personal system
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of knowledge while receiving subjectively new
piece of information (Table 2).
Group compilation of questions and notions
of this table enables students together with a
teacher to distinguish the following categories of
training material that can form boxes of a new
table and act as a plan of next lectures:
Categories of
information we plan
to use
A. Basic concepts
B. Types of oxidation
and reduction reactions
C. Impact of different
factors on oxidation and
reduction reactions
D. Methods of placing
coefficients in equations
of oxidation and
reduction reactions
E. Direction of oxidation
and reduction reactions
3. References
1. N.G.Korzhukov
General and nonorganic chemistry (in
Russian). Textbook
for universities (Text)
/ ed.by V.I.Delyan//
Moscow: MISIS.
INFRA-M, 2004. –
512p – in Russian
2. S.D.Kirik,
G.A.Koroleva,
N.M.Vostrikova
et al. Non-organic
chemistry: electronic
teaching materials
on the discipline//
Registration certificate
No.14934 dd 22.12.2008
Federal State
Unitary Enterprise
INFORMREGIST
Research and
Development Center.
With account of this topic being studied
within the school course of chemistry, as well as
considering the significant reduction of university
lecture hours, this strategy allows separating
issues and topics that can be allocated to be
studied by students in an extra-curricular mode.
Another form of tabular ways of material
graphic arrangement is characterized by
distinguishing general and specific properties by
comparing three and more notions and objects. A
horizontal line of such a “concept table” is formed
by things being compared, whereas a vertical
row represents various properties and features
this comparison is based on. Distinguishing a
series of objects to be compared is possible in the
course of studying element chemistry and types
of chemical bond. For instance, a concept table
compiled together with students during a lecture
on electrochemical processes that go within
a galvanic element in case of electrochemical
corrosion of metals and electrolysis looks as
follows (Table 3).
A concept table can be filled both in the
process of a lecture and at the reflection stage.
In case there is not enough time during a
lecture, some main criteria can be distinguished
as key words, the chemical context of which a
student can disclose by him/herself outside the
curriculum.
Detection of main criteria of objects under
study facilitates development of main logic
operations: discretion of the main essence,
definition, comparison and classification,
generalization and systemizing, definition of
possible interrelations and interdependencies,
which all leads to comprehension of the material
and its systematic understanding. This table
acts as an approximate basis for students to
understand chemical reactions in the course of
laboratory experiments and individual tasks, as
well a specific basis for understanding the new
material of even higher level of generalization,
in particular during studying such specialized
disciplines as “Theory of electrometallurgical
processes”, “Rare metal metallurgy” etc.
A specific feature of a strategy called
“Logbook” is fulfilling short written tasks during
10-15 minutes of a lecture with students selecting
various methods of graphic representation of the
material (Zagashev,2003).
Information is registered in its simplest form
in a table that students fill in with answers to the
following questions: What do I already know on
this topic? What do I need to learn about this?
Why? Another option is a table comprising two
questions: What do I know? What have I learned?
The method of filling in the latter type table
given below was used during a lecture devoted to
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Table 3. Concept table on the topic “Electrochemical processes”
Anode sign
Negative
Electrochemical
corrosion of metals
Negative
Cathode sign
Positive
Positive
Negative
Electrode type
Metal
Metal
Metal (cathode)
Comparison criterion
Processes at a cathode:
reduction
Processes at an anode:
oxidation
Galvanic element
Electrolysis
Positive
Hydrogen
Inert: graphite
Oxidation-reduction
Active anode (metal)
Metal cations:
Mn+ + ne− = M0
Hydrogen ions:
2 H+ + 2e− = H2
Molecular oxygen:
O2+2H2O + 4e− = 4OH−
Metal (anode):
M0 − ne− = M n+
Metal cations:
Mn+ + ne− = M0
Hydrogen ions:
2 H+ + 2e− = H2
Water molecules:
2H2O+2e− = H2+ 2OH−
Acid residue:
2Cl− − 2e− = Cl2
Water molecules:
2H2O − 4e− = O2+ 4H+
Active anode:
M0 − ne− = M n+
forecasting products of oxidation and reduction
reactions passing in various media (Table 4).
As we can see from the table above, the
information that is new for a student is represented
in the form of short statements or conclusions
in comparison with the knowledge the student
already has on this topic.
At the apprehension stage during processing
of new training material a very active thinking
activity is registered in case of using INSERT
mechanism. As Table 5 shows, while reading
a text or perceiving the information verbally, a
student performs reflexive activity by comparing
the incoming information with knowledge that
he/she already has and pointing out the unclear
aspects.
Theoretical material is represented mainly
in the form of a polylogue “lecturer – audience”
with creation of problematic situations and
is accompanied by lecture demonstration
experiment, as well as periodic switching to
solving practical professionally oriented tasks.
Hydrogen ions:
2 H+ + 2e− = H2
Molecular oxygen:
O2+2H2O + 4e− = 4OH−
Metal (anode):
M0 − ne− = M n+
The students are given an opportunity to solve
problems independently, then do text tasks and
then discuss and come up with a group solution.
This method widely uses digital educational
resources that allow combining verbal and visual
method of information comprehension, as well
as provide for a lecturer getting feedback from
the audience. During a lecture students are
provided with a chance to apprehend material
that represents any difficulties.
The critical moment is reflection at the
end of a lecture that is aimed at detection and
digestion of most important aspects of the
lecture, development of skills on formation of
statements, thesis representation of material,
wording of conclusions or questions, which in
general contributes to apprehension of chemical
information. Main types of written reflection
include: written work, written interview, essay,
theses, analysis of a logbook, completing a
cluster, formation of logical and semantic models
and mental maps, discussion of challenging
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Table 4. Mechanism “Logbook” used for studying the topic “Products of oxidation and reduction reactions in
various media”
What do I know?
What have I learned?
Medium influences the
direction of an oxidationreduction reaction.
Solution of potassium
permanganate in an
oxidation-reduction reaction
gains on different colours in
different media.
Products of reaction in
alkaline medium are salts,
poorly soluble residues
(oxides, hydroxides, salts),
and water.
Salts are generated in
alkaline medium.
Hydroxides and salts are
formed in neutral medium.
In order to balance an
oxygen atom, Н+ or Н2О
shall be added to an
equation.
Products of oxidation-reduction reactions depend on medium.
Medium:
acid
neutral
alkaline
Colour of solution
colourless
grey-brown
green
Product of reaction
salt: MnSO4
oxide: MnO2
salt: K 2MnO4
Oxidation
(+2)
(+4)
(+6)
Salts containing metal cations are mostly generated in acid medium:
Mn 2+, Cr3+, V2+, Fe3+.
Formation of acids is also possible: HMnO4
Complex salts are formed in a concentrated solution of alkaline.
During sintering salts are formed in alkaline media; metal goes to an acid
residue in the highest degree of oxidation.
Oxides and hydroxides are formed in neutral medium.
According to ionic-electron method, strong electrolytes are written in their
ionic form, whereas weak ones – in molecular form.
Balancing of oxygen atoms in the left and right parts of a half-equation
depends on the medium: acid: Н2О →Н+
neutral: Н2О →Н+ or
Н2О → 2ОН−
alkaline: Н2О → 2ОН−
Table 5. INSERT mechanism
«V» -Already known
« -» – Thought differently
«+» – new information
« ?» – did not understand
9 – information that is already known;
+ – information that is new;
- – information that differs from the knowledge the student already has, something he/she has a different idea of;
? – information that remained unclear to the student and requires additional explanation encouraging the student
to look for details.
questions, making questions and cinquains, doing
test tasks.
Discussion
Questioning of students was used as a
method to evaluate efficiency of a computer-based
lecture with application of TCTD. Fig. 2 shows
diagrams plotted on the basis of results of the
survey on evaluation on the lecture “Definition
of products of oxidation and reduction reactions
in different media”. A control group included 20
students that studied chemistry in 2007-2008
academic year (lectures were given with use of
computer programs) and an experiment group
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a
b
c
d
Fig.2. Results of questioning of students on evaluation of accessibility (a), level of difficulty (b), level of novelty
(c) and level of interest (d) for the material given at the lecture “Definition of products of oxidation and reduction
reactions in various media”: in the control group (2007-2008) the lecture was given with the help of computer
programs; in the experimental group (2010-2011) – with use of computer programs and TCTD
of 20 students that studied chemistry in 20102011 academic year (lectures were with use of
computer programs and TCTD).
It should be noted that this material
always caused difficulties in understanding and
comprehension. Questioning of students according
to the approved method (4, p. 377) showed that
students of the control group (in total 90% for
two items) and experimental group (in total 65%
for two items) noted high level of difficulty of
the material (2-quite difficult, 3- medium level
of difficulty), a 25 % increase was registered in
the number of experimental group students that
marked item 4 (practically no unclear moments).
Accessibility of the material in the experimental
group is higher (30%) if compared with the
control group (5%) as the students noted that
there were practically no unclear moments (item
4); the number of students, for whom practically
everything was clear except for some specific
aspects (item 3) increased by 15%.
The number of experimental group students,
for whom less than a half of the material was
clear (item 2) decreased by ≈10% (almost 1.5
times); the percentage of students who practically
did not understand the material (item 1) remained
the same.
High level of novelty was noted by students
of both the groups. Thus, the sum of answers
of item 3 (I have learned a lot of new things)
and 4 (practically all material has been new to
me) accounts for 65% of total answers given by
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Fig.3 Results of questioning students on evaluation of organizing unassisted work during the lecture “Definition
of products of oxidation and reduction reactions in various media” in the experimental group (2010-2011 academic
year), the lecture was given with use of computer programs and TCTD
students of the control group and 80% – of the
experimental group.
~10 % increase in the number of students
that marked item 4 (practically all material has
been new to me) can be explained by low level of
school chemistry course.
According to respondents’ evaluation, the
level of interest in the experimental group is 15%
higher than in the control group. Thus, the sum of
answers of item 2 (something has caused interest)
and 3 (a lot of interesting aspects) accounts for
90% of answers in the experimental group and
for 75% of answers in the control group. However,
the number of respondents that gave answers
of item 4 (very interesting) in the experimental
group decreased by 10% in comparison with 20%
of answers in the control group; the number of
answers of item 1 (non interesting) decreased by
~ 5% .
The results of the survey on questioning
students in 2010-2011 academic year with
the purpose of evaluating the organization of
unassisted work during lectures showed that 40%
of students liked to work in pairs (item 1), while
40% of respondents liked to work independently
(sum of items 2 and 4): formulate their own
conclusions and statements, and check their
correctness (Fig 3).
15% of them though mentioned that they
like independent work during a lecture but such a
mode of working is quite difficult for them; 20%
(item 3) that prefer just listening to a lecturer’s
detailed explanation and making notes are likely
to have problems with independent work during
a lecture as well.
The given results lead to a conclusion that
application of TCTD at a lecture with use of
computer programs provided quite high theoretical
level considerably increasing accessibility and
level of interest for the material being delivered.
It is in particular proved by the fact that over 50%
of students did individual works on this topic and
got higher attestation results. The development
of students’ personal qualities was evaluated
indirectly by some outward indicators: time and
quality of fulfilling individual tasks, eagerness
to reason one’s answer and to find methods to
eliminate unclear aspects of topics being studied,
as well as the desire to make talks, implement and
represent mini-projects.
Conclusion
We believe it necessary to use TCTD
mechanisms and methods during the lecture
course of chemistry disciplines at university
depending on a didactic goal set alongside with
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Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture…
other innovative technologies, in particular, with
information and communication technologies
that allow increasing the visual expression of
training material within the context of chemical
information. Since TCTD mechanisms and
methods are aimed at developing a student’s
thinking abilities, increase of comprehension
level, understanding of information is also
registered, as well as improvement of skills of
independent processing of training material.
References
N.P.Bezrukova, “Information and Communication Technologies in a Lecture Course of the
Discipline “Analytical Chemistry”, Chemical Technology, 5 (2006), pp. 43–46, in Russian.
Yu.Yu.Gavronskaya “Interactive Methods in Studying Chemistry”, News of Tula State University.
Series: Modern Educational Technologies in Teaching Disciplines (Tula, Tula State University), (4)
2005, pp. 29–35, in Russian.
I.O.Zagashev, Crytical Thinking: Development Technology (S.Petersburg, Alliance Delta), 2003,
284 p., in Russian.
N.P.Bezrukova, Theory and Practice of Upgrading Studying Analytical Chemistry in a Pedagogical
University. Thesis of a Doctor of Pedagogics: 13.00.02. Krasnoyarsk, 2006. –378p., in Russian.
Возможности технологии развития
критического мышления
в модернизации лекционного курса
химии в вузе
Н.М. Вострикова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье изучается целесообразность применения приемов, методов, стратегий технологии
развития критического мышления (ТРКМ) на лекции при изучении химии в вузе. Исследование
показало, что применение ТРКМ в лекционном курсе химических дисциплин, совместно с
другими инновационными технологиями, в частности с ИКТ способствует повышению уровня
восприятия, понимания информации, совершенствованию умений самостоятельно работать
с учебным материалом.
Ключевые слова: технология развития критического мышления, дисциплины химии, лекция.
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