72.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №7 2012код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2012 Journal of Siberian Federal University 5 (7) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН А.Г.Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Irina S. Dobryaeva The Language Situation in Modern Australia – 907 – Elena B. Grishaeva Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies – 916 – Diana T. Khaibullina Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova – 923 – Veronica A. Razumovskaya and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky Modern Tendencies of Language Policy and Language Planning in Russia and China: Comparative Study – 927 – Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s Cognitive Memory – 935 – Boris V. Tarev Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects – 944 – Olga F. Neskryabina Ethnic Consciousness: Ethnoidentity Personal Sense and Signs of – 951 – Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva Sergey I. Shelonaev Integrated Model of Media Space – 958 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 20.07.2012 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,3. Уч.-изд. л. 11,8. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 8387. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Sergey M. Geraschenko Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Khasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Vladimir I. Suprun Liudmila V. Kulikova Olga G. Smolyaninova Nicolai N. Petro Andrey B. Shalimov Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute – 970 – Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko and Roman D. Goloushkin The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation for the Involvement of Potential of a Closed City in the Innovative Development of the Region – 978 – Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova, Vladimir S. Luzan, Alexandra A. Semenova, Ekaterina A. Sertakova and Natalia A. Bakhova Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness of Indigenous Peoples Under Conditions of External Civilization Pressure (by an Example of the Yakut Ethnic Group) – 988 – Pavel V. Klachkov Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups – 1005 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Olga V. Korobeynikova The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse – 1015 – Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities for Civil Society – 1022 – Darima D. Amogolonova and Andrei V. Simonov Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries – 1028 – Dmitry O. Trufanov Social Rationality: the Problem of Definitions – 1036 – Natalia M. Vostrikova Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture Course of Chemistry – 1046 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 907-915 ~~~ УДК 81’27 (94) The Language Situation in Modern Australia Irina S. Dobryaeva* Siberian Federal University 82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 11.01.2012, accepted 16.02.2012 In the article the language situation in modern Australia is analyzed from the points of the components, functional distribution of socio-communicative functions between its systems and subsystems and also the factors that formed this situation and are influencing it at present. The English language (Australian English) is found to dominate in the exoglossic aspect while its codified variety (mAusE) is found to dominate in the endoglossic aspect of the language situation, the consequences of this domination for Aboriginal and migrant languages and Australian English itself are studied. The two aspects of the language situation in modern Australia: exoglossic and endoglossic – are found to be isomorphic. Keywords: language situation, exoglossic, endoglossic, language policy, non-balanced, multiculturalism, bilingualism, macro-mediator, micro-mediator, language habitat, migration, multiethnic communities, LOTEs, Aboriginal languages, mAusE, AusE, exonormative, endonormative, supradialect koine, lingua franca, dialectisms, ethnolects, sociolects, polycentric, epicenter. Introduction There is no denying the fact that modern era is the age of global communication, interaction and mobility. It is also the age of global English – Globish. The societies and communities are increasingly becoming multiethnic due to migration. But does this mean they are becoming multilingual and multicultural? With the help of studying the language situation in Australia, which is traditionally viewed as a multilingual and multicultural society, we are trying to analyze the phenomenon of Australian multilinguisity and multiculturalism through studying the modes and types of interaction of migrant languages * 1 and cultures with the English language in the language habitat of Australia. Definitions The defi nitions of a language situation given by different researches (A. D. Shveitser, L.B. Nikolsky, Ch. Ferguson, G.P. Neshimenko etc.) vary in the set of criteria employed by the linguists. The defi nition given by A. D. Shveitser combines most of these criteria and in our research we rely on this defi nition: “Language situation is a model of social and functional distribution and hierarchy of socio-communicative systems and subsystems which coexist and interact within a politico-administrative unit or cultural Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 907 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia habitat in a certain period of time, and also social attitudes of members of these language groups (communities) towards these systems and subsystems.” (Shveitser, 1978: 85) This definition, like most of the others, distinguishes two aspects of a language situation: the internal differentiation of one and the same language (“the system of subsystems”) and the interaction of different languages (“language systems”) operating in one society. Depending on the type of the society: monolingual or multilingual, the former or the latter aspect comes to prominence. The language situation in a monolingual society can be defined as a system of functionally distributed forms of existence of one language (“the system of subsystems”), correlating with the continuum of language communication. According to L. B. Nickolsky’s classification of language situations, such language situations are called endoglossic. (Nickolsky, 1976: 80-88, cited from Shveitser) The language situation in a multilingual society is a similar system, in which different languages are functionally distributed. Such language situations are classified by L.B. Nickolsky as exoglossic. (ibid) The word “hierarchy” in A. D. Shveitser’s definition correlates with L. B. Nicolsky’s classification, in which he defines language situations with functionally equal systems as balanced, and those with functionally unequal systems as non-balanced. In his theory of the language situations G.V. Stepanov distinguishes a “language state” and “language situation”. The “language state” ” is a paradigm of different varieties of the same language which form the functional system of this language: dialects, a codified language, national varieties. The elements of this paradigm can either interact or function independently. The language situation is defi ned by G.V. Stepanov as interaction of different parts of a language paradigm i.e. a syntagmatic aspect of relationship of a language paradigm. (Stepanov, 1976:30-31) In A.D.Shveitser’s definition, as well as in the definition of Ch.Ferguson and in some other definitions, the language situation is connected with a synchronous state, or a “certain period of time”, and is sometimes treated as a static and isolated phenomenon. But this doesn’t mean that a language situation is something isolated. In the words of L. B. Nickolsky :” The interaction of functionally different languages changes in the course of time under the influence of the society and the language policy. This process can be segmented into a number of stages, each of which can be called ‘a language situation’“(Nickolsky, 1976:126). So, the language situation is the result of some linguistic as well as extralinguistic factors and is “determined by such factors as: linguistic, historical, cultural, demographic, geographic, economic, social and political (mostly language policy) “(Guboglo, 1973:231) Of all the factors mentioned above, we consider language policy to be the key factor, forming a language situation. M. Usseler defines language policy as “the measures of state and social institutions concerning the social status of a language as a means of communication, which include social evaluation of a language as a means of communication and also steps to form national languages”. (Usseler, 1987: 196) Language policy in a multinational country is particularly complicated because it should consider such factors as a large number of languages and nationalities present and the types of relationships between them and also the role of different languages and their speakers in social life. We base our research on the detailed and thorough analysis of language policy in Australia by E.B. Grishaeva. (Grishaeva, 2005) # 908 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia The exoglossic aspect of the language situation in modern Australia Australia is a multiethnic state and defines itself as a nation of migrants and a multilingual and multicultural country. The modern language situation in Australia is a result of historical development of Australia and it stems from the early period of colonization and formation of the Australian nation. The English language was transported to Australia at the end of 18th century when the first penal colony was established in port Jackson (modern Sydney). Before the arrival of the British, Australia was a multinational and multilingual society which had around 250 different (and mutually incomprehensible) tribal languages, whose speakers could not understand each other. The language habitat of early Australia was not hierarchical; all its languages had equal status. Therefore, it can be said that the language situation in early Australia was exoglossic balanced. All the languages had equal demographic and communicative capacity. The lack of a lingua franca, a language of intertribal communication, resulted in the inability of the separated indigenous (tribal) languages to oppose the power of the invading English language, which not only destroyed the balance of the traditional language habitat, but also forced most of the Aboriginal languages out of this habitat. Nowadays there are only 120 Aboriginal languages left, which have limited social functions of local or household languages. But there are not only Aboriginal languages and the English language in the language habitat of Australia. There are also numerous migrant languages there. It should be noted, that Australia has always been a migrant country (migration has consistently been part of Australian history). The first migrants were free settles from Britain. Among the first non-English-speaking migrants were Germans, who formed the largest nonEnglish speaking community in 19th century. The second largest group of migrants was Italians, who started to arrive to Australia at the end of 19th century. Asian migration was banned during the policy of “White Australia”, but after the abolition of this policy the country started to accept considerable numbers of Asian migrants as well. All in all, as a result of a constant influx of migrants from non-English speaking countries, the language ecology of Australia was enriched by some 200 migrant languages. They are known as LOTEs-Languages other than English. So far we can witness more than 300 hundred languages present in Australia. Besides the English language, 120 Aboriginal languages and 200 LOTEs there are some early pidgins in the language habitat of modern Australia, which developed simultaneously with the Australian English: Norfolk (or Pitkern) and Cape Barren English. So, we can classify the language situation as exoglossic. But in contrast to the early Australian society, in modern Australia these numerous languages do not have the equal status. Having forced away the Aboriginal languages, English came to dominance in Australia. The migrants arriving to Australia were strongly influenced by Australian surroundings and were supposed and expected to become part of the Australian society. The policy of assimilation demanded that migrants should accept the values of the host culture and study the English language as the most important part of acculturation. The knowledge of English was the necessary condition of integration of an individual into the Australian society. The domination of English the modern Australian society is reflected in its official status – it dominates in government, political administration, official papers and education. # 909 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia Besides that more than 90% of 22 mln population of Australia speak English either as their first or second language. The domination of English is also reflected in its socio-communicative role of a language – macro-mediator: it is the language of intergroup, intercommunity and international communication, catering for all the groups of a multilingual society. The languages of migrant communities (LOTEs), like Aboriginal languages, have the functional status of local (household or “island”) languages, or languages-micro-mediators. Such languages are functionally limited; their role can be compared to the role of dialects. The speakers of such languages are, as a rule, bilingual, speaking their native languages at home and switching to a codified form of the national language in other social situations. This type of bilingualism is known as subordinate bilingualism. According to J. Fishman, the transition from compound bilingualism, i.e. the bilingualism, where contacting languages are functionally interdependent (the English language is based on one’s native language) towards coordinative bilingualism, where languages function independently and again to compound bilingualism, when English begins to dominate in all spheres (and it is the native language that is based on English) takes place within the process of assimilation of 2-3 generations of migrants. Compound bilingualism is a complicated socio-communicative system in which some cells of the functional matrix are filled with English, the others with the native ethnic language. (J. Fishman, 1972:115-116, cited from Shveitser, 1983:43) So, the general tendency of the English languages forcing out indigenous and ethnic languages and gaining the dominant role is the important aspect of the language situation in modern Australia. The domination of English is reflected in both objective and subjective aspects of the language situation in modern Australia. While the objective aspects includes the parameters characterizing language systems and the relationships between these systems, the subjective one is connected with the social prestige of the coexisting systems and with social values of the speakers (“social attitudes of members of these language groups (communities) towards these systems and subsystems.”) The tendency of forcing out of minority languages is accompanied by low language loyalty combined with the low status of native languages and high status of the English language in ethnic communities. To characterize this situation J. Fishman applies the term of Ch. Ferguson “diglossia”, which the author initially used to characterize endoglossic language situations, in which “there is a socially justified and culturally meaningful functional differentiation” of the codes, used in the society, i.e. there is an agreement that one variety has a “high” status, the other – “low” status. As a rule in such situations there is a functional division between these two varieties: “high” is used for “public”, “formal” situations and is often recognized as the official language of the state. This variety has more complex and conservative linguistic features, than “low” variety. The “low” variety is, in contrast, characterized by an “unofficial” status, household usage, changeable and “simplified” structure and is limited to oral communication. (Bell, 1980:175) At the same time J. Fishman notes the opposite tendency – the prestige of native languages in migrant communities is growing as the spheres of its functional usage are being limited. J. Fishman calls this phenomenon “the prestige halo”. It should be noted that this increased prestige is not backed by the increased usage of these languages. So, it is a kind of inverse proportion between # 910 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia the intensity of the use of the native language and the positive attitude towards it. This fact proves that there is no direct connection between the objective and the subjective aspects of the language situation. (Fishman, 1972, cited from Shveitser, 1983:46-47). Despite the fact that Australia is a multiethnic society, the idea of introduction of the second official language was not supported by the population fearing that an attempt to proclaim one of the numerous LOTEs as the second official language could lead to the split of the society into ethnic and language groups. (Grishaeva, 2005) The modern language policy in Australia is aimed at integration of migrants into the Australian society. Among the main principles of this policy are the following: • supporting Aboriginal languages and LOTEs • providing the services in LOTEs • providing the opportunities for studying LOTEs In accordance with these principles, local governments in Australia pay a great attention to the languages of the ethnic communities and provide the services and information in different languages. There exists the Buro of registration for interpreters and translators and an extensive infrastructure of telephone and court interpreting and translation services for non-English speaking population. The languages recommended for studying at schools include: standard Chinese, Indonesian, Arabic and Spanish. (ibid) So, the language situation in modern Australia can be characterized as exoglossic non-balanced, because only one of more than 300 languages present, dominates – the English language. Of all Australian languages, English has the highest demographic and functional capacity and it is the language – macro-mediator with the highest social status. This domination of English is leading to aboriginal and migrant languages dwindling away from the social spheres despite the support of the government. The Endoglossic Aspect of the Language Situation in Modern Australia Describing the exoglossic aspect of the language situation in modern Australia, we treated the English language as a homogeneous phenomenon. But the English language in Australia, catering for all the groups of its multiethnic society, is not at all homogenous. Therefore, the language situation in modern Australia is not limited to the exoglossic aspect, but it is characterized by the combination of exoglossic and endoglossic relationships between the language systems and subsystems forming this language situation. The History of Australian English The English language was transported to Australia at the end of 18th century when the first penal colony was established in port Jackson (modern Sydney). In the period of colonization of Australia the formation of the national English language had already been completed. The Standard British English – the national variety of the English language functioned as an supradialect communication system in England and had a high social prestige while local dialects got low social status. Being a transported language, at first, English in Australia was exonormative – it had an outside standard: the British English. The influence of a Standard British English and its codified norms was huge. Australian English was called “corrupt English” and had a low status due to the features of south English and Irish dialects. These very # 911 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia dialectal aberrations formed the core of the Australian variety of the English language. The recognition of the equal status of the Australian English did not come quickly. The inferiority was sustained with the help of the system of education which was rather conservative and British norms-oriented. The negative attitude lasted till S.Baker’s publication of “The Australian language” and G. Mitchell’s publication “The English in Australia” in 1944. Both linguists claimed that the codified variety of Australian English (or, in the terms of G.Leitner – the mainstream Australian English (mAusE) had the right to differ from the British norm and needed description and judgment from the inside, not the outside. And yet as far as the 1970s Australian English was still exonormative. But the transition to the Australian norms was imminent. As soon as the first edition of the Macquarie dictionary (part of the Macquarie project) was issued in 1981, it became an authority not only in lexical and grammar usage of words, but also in pronunciation. So, by the end of the 1980s mAusE became the official language of the Australian society. Modern Australian English is endonormative, i.e. it has its own standard and norms, and it is an epicenter of the English language in Asia-Pacific region. (Leitner, 2004) The Internal Structure of Australian English Codified Australian English (mAusE) is the official national language and as such it has dialects of its own. On the whole, Australian English does not have the same degree of dialect variety as British English. Moreover, Australia was traditionally considered as lacking dialects and regional varieties. This was accounted for by the fact that in Australia people lived in the conditions which demanded or, at least, encouraged assimilation. Despite the fact that early settlers were the speakers of English and Irish dialects, the language situation in colonial Australia did not encourage the preservation of these dialect differences. On the contrary, accepting various migrant waves, the country was in need of an overdialect koine to help the communication on the continent. The codified variety of Australian English became such overdialect koine. There have traditionally been distinguished three social accents in Australian English: Broad, General and Cultivated. They were distinguished by S. Baker in 1945 and A.G. Mitchell and A. Delbridge in 1965. Nowadays, B. M. Horvarth adds two more accents: Ethnic Broad and Accented. Her statistic analysis shows that according to the articulation of vowels there is a core – Cultivated, General and Broad and a periphery – Ethnic Broad and Accented. The speakers of periphery accents are Greeks or Italians: two thirds of Greeks speak with Accented (sociolect 1) and two thirds of Italians with Ethnic Broad (sociolect 2) (Leitner, 2004:230-231). Grammar and stylistics are quite unified throughout the country. As for the lexis, a survey in regional usage in the lexicon of Australian English, carried out by P. Bryant, found clearly defined usage regions (or dialect zones) in Australia, namely: 1. South-west (southern part of Western Australia) 2. South-Centre (Southern Australia and Eastern Victoria) 3. South-East (Victoria, Tasmania, Riverina, south New Wales, part of Southern Australia) 4. North-East (Queensland and New South Wales) According to her findings, dialectisms are limited to several onomaseological domains, such as: food, household utensils, countryside, birds # 912 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia and plants while there are much less dialectisms in topography, business and weather. (Leitner, 2004: 254-255) So, mAusE plays the role of the national language, has some dialectal differences and it is a codified variety of Australian English. Varieties of Australian English According to G. Leitner, besides mAusE, there are other varieties of Australian English which include: Aboriginal English, English as a lingua franca and ethnical varieties of Australian English. They form the paradigm of Australian English (AusE). Aboriginal English is also called a dialect or ethnolect of AusE. Before the arrival of the British, Australia was a multinational and multilingual society with more than 250 different languages, which were mutually incomprehensible to their speakers. Besides that, there was no language of intertribal communication, a lingua franca. Nowadays Aboriginal English is the main means of communication of Australian Aborigines (indigenous population), and according to many specialists, today it is the means of expressing Aboriginal identity. (Kirkpatrick, 2004: 70). English as a lingua franca is used for communication in mixed ethnical communities. Although Australia is a multilingual society, Australians are mainly monolingual or at best bilingual, speaking their native language and English. Ethnic variants of English are called sociolects, e.g. Italian English or Greek English. They have the features of phonetics, lexis and even grammar structures of migrant languages and have quite a low social status. They are usually the variants of English spoken by the first generations of migrants. Therefore, AusE, being a primary national variety of the polycentric English language, is itself polycentric in the language habitat of Australia. As for the functional distribution of the elements of the endoglossic paradigm, we can say that mAusE as the language of the mainstream society, the language of government, political administration, official papers and education, dominates over the other varieties of AusE, which are limited to local and household usage. It has high social prestige and has a more developed structure. Thus, the endoglossic aspect of the language situation in modern Australia is isomorphic to its exoglossic aspect. They are both polycomponent non-balanced. The combination of sociofunctional distribution and the hierarchy of sociocommunicative subsystems in the endoglossic aspect form the Australian national variety of the English language. Similarly to Australian language dominating in exoglossic situation, mAusE dominates in the endoglossic one. mAuSe has the same relations with the “substandard” subsystem which normally exist between the standard language and dialects within the national language. mAusE is also multifunctional, performing all the social functions typical of the national language (it is the official language, the language of culture, science and mass media) while its “substandard” variants , its social and regional dialects are, as a rule, monofunctional. They are used in a limited range of social situations, household interaction and some professional spheres. Conclusion Our research shows that the language situation in modern Australia is a complex interaction of the systems and subsystems of its exoglossic and endoglossic aspects, which are isomorphic to each other, both being polycomponent non-balanced. English in Australia has the same dominating # 913 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia role it has all over the world. Australian English dominates over more that 300 languages in the language habitat of modern Australia, its codified variant – mAusE – being recognized as the official language of the country (and the only one). Due to its role as the official language and high social prestige, the English language is willingly accepted as a means of international communication (lingua franca) in multiethnic communities thus blurring the language and cultural distinctions and leading to levelling of cultures and their unification, the vehicle for this levelling being the English language – Australian English. Being the primary national variety of the polycentric English language, Australian English is polycentric in the language habitat of modern Australia. 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Language situation and the interaction of languages (Kiev: Naukova Dumka Publishers, 1989) (In Russian). Liguistic encyclopaedic dictionary. Ch. ed. Yartseva V.N. (Moscow: Nauka, Publishing house “Big Russian Encyclopaedia”, 2003) (In Russian). G. Leitner, Australia’s many voices: Australian English – The National Language (Mouton de Gruyter, 2004). G. Leitner, Global English: from Anglo-Saxon dialect to global lingua franca (In German). G.P. Neschimenko, Language situation in Slavic countries (Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 2003) (In Russian). L.B. Nickolsky, The study of the language situation as applied language discipline : Historicopholisophical studies (Мoscow: Nauka Publishers, 1967), p.125-127 (In Russian). L.B. Nickolsky, Language in politics. (Мoscow: Nauka Publishers, 1986) (In Russian). Social linguistics and social practice. (Kiev: Vischa shkola, 1978) (In Russian). A.D. Shveitser, L.B. Nickolsky, Introduction into sociolinguistics (Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publishers, 1978) (In Russian). A.D. Shveitser, Social differentiation of the English language in the USA (Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 1983) (In Russian). # 914 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina S. Dobryaeva. The Language Situation in Modern Australia G.V. Stepanov, The typology of language states and situations in the countries of Roman speech (Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 1976) (In Russian). M. Usseler, Sociolinguistics (Kiev: Vischa shkola, Kiev University Publishing House, 1987) (In Russian). N.B. Vakhtin, E.V. Golovko, Sociolinguistics and the sociology of language (St. Petersburg: Academy of Humanities Publishers, 2004) (In Russian). Языковая ситуация в современной Австралии И.С. Добряева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а В статье анализируется языковая ситуация в современной Австралии с точки зрения компонентов, функционального распределения социально-коммуникативных функций между различными системами и подсистемами, a также факторов, сформировавших данную языковую ситуацию и оказывающих влияние на ее формирование в настоящее время. Выявляется доминирование английского языка (AusE) в экзоглоссном аспекте и его кодифицированного варианта (mAusE) в эндоглоссном аспекте языковой ситуации в современной Австралии и анализируются последствия этого доминирования для аборигенных и иммигрантских языков и самого австралийского английского языка. Выявляется изоморфизм между экзоглоссным и эндоглоссным аспектами данной языковой ситуации. Ключевые слова: языковая ситуация, экзоглоссный, эндоглоссный, языковая политика, несбалансированная, мультикультурализм, билингвизм, макропосредник, микропосредник, языковой ареал, иммиграция, полиэтничные сообщества, языки иммигрантов, аборигенные языки, ДАА, АА, экзонормативный, эндонормативный, наддиалектное койне, лингва франка, диалектизмы, этнолекты, социолекты, плюрицентричный, эпицентр. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 916-922 ~~~ УДК 81’27 Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies Elena B. Grishaeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 12.12.2011, received in revised form 13.01.2012, accepted 16.02.2012 The article examines the concept of multiculturalism as framings provided by theories of multicultural and heterogeneous societies, languages and power and understandings of the broader social context in which multiculturalism typically comes into play. Keywords: multiculturalism, polylinguism, socio-cultural differences, unification, immigration, cultural diversity, linguistic assimilation, heterogeneous cultural groups, tolerance, religious discrimination, linguistic rights, language policy. Introduction The concept of multiculturalism as a core idea has been taken up across social sciences. It has been used, applied and adapted by a wide range of researches. It is currently one of the most articulated concepts within social theories and practice. The term “multiculturalism” as well as its multiple derivatives such as “multicultural society”, “policy of multiculturalism” came into academic glossary in 1960-s in Canada. According to O.V. Golovkina “Academic circles have not yet agreed on the strict definition of the term “multiculturalism”. Scholars failed to assign a fixed meaning of this term and could not prohibit the usage of it in various meanings” (Головкина, 2005: 41; Малахов, 2002: 48-60). The dictionary of Canadian political process defined multiculturalism as “policy of the Liberal government of Canada in 1970-s, continued later by the Conservative government. The policy * 1 aimed at encouraging the development of cultural heritage of ethnic groups in Canada that did not belong neither to the British nor to the French ones (The language of Canadian Politics, 2001: 184-185). Similarly, sociological resources more often define multiculturalism as “a system of beliefs and behaviors that recognizes and respects the presence of all diverse groups in an organization or society, acknowledges and values their sociocultural differences, and encourages and enables their continued contribution within an inclusive cultural context which empowers all within the organization or society” (Rosado, 1997). According to a particular meaning, multiculturalism is presented as ideology; discourse; sphere of policies and practices (Cashmore, 1996: 144). As a concept, multiculturalism assumes special logics and emerges as an instrument of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 916 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies inter-group cooperation aimed at maintaining specific culture and providing individuals and groups with capability to take equal part in all spheres of social life: from politics to culture. Within the ethnography of communication, the term “multiculturalism” is used empirically and descriptively by scholars who study cultural heterogeneity of the society, its polyethnicity and multinationalism as characteristic features, i.e. societies “having a sophisticated ethnographic profile” (Тишков, 2002). According to historical origin, social dynamics and structural relationship of ethnolinguistic and confessional groups within the unified society, scholars, as a rule, distinguish four types of multicultural societies, namely: precontemporary empires, multinational societies in Europe, post national polyethnicity and colonial zone. The modern meaning of “multiculturalism” turned into existence by post national cultural dynamics both in the frames of national states and so called post national (immigrants) states. It is worth supporting the point of view of the vast circle of social scientists arguing that there is a difference between multi-nationalism and polyethnicity. These two terms refer to different types of multiculturalism (Kimlicka, 1995; Miura, 2005: 75; Головкина, 2005: 46). They consider multi-nationalism to be a historical result of either oppressive or voluntary unification of the former independent, self-governed, isolated from the point of view of its territory cultures into one state. What it comes to polyethnicity, it is a result of the individual and group immigration. These groups have got the state of their own. The state is outside this political society. Moreover, postnational multicultural societies are characterized by polyethnicity. Point of View Australia, Canada and Northern European countries evidence that the major reason of multiculturalism was multi-scaled immigration process. A number of immigration waves caused an immense influx of population and its ethnic, linguistic and religious background. As for the American continent, one should say that an idea of the so called “melting pot” was dominant. According to it, representatives of various ethnic groups would definitely melt into an unified identity of the citizen of the USA. It should be pointed out that this idea belonged to J. de Krevcker, a Franco-American farmer, who featured diversity of rural life on the American continent at the end of XVIII century. Before the World War II this idea turned to be a major tendency of social changes. The melting pot concept resulted in closing newspapers of immigrants and converting the former immigrants’ associations into those ones that switched in their practice from mother tongues of its members into English. The Canadian model of multiculturalism, in contrast, respects diversity of all kinds. That is why one of the crucial issues of the multicultural policy in Canada at the end of the XX century was integration of immigrants that did not necessarily ended up by assimilation. It is worth mentioning the fact that institualisation of multiculturalism in its contemporary meaning was set up in Canada in 1971. The government headed by P. Trudeau declared multiculturalism an official policy and ideology of Canada. Due to ethno-demographic scales of contemporary migration process the Canadian government encourages cultural diversity. Migrant minority groups are nowadays being numerically compared to local population that was recently considered to be the majority population. Besides, cultural identity manifestations received public expression: e.g. new associations based on regional, ethnic or linguistic characteristics came into existence; primary education was delivered in native # 917 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies tongues; newspapers were published in native tongues etc. The point was: despite declared equality migrants could not be equal members of society. Due to internal and external obstacles on the way to social integration migrants organize their own ethnic communities within which languages and cultural patterns and norms are being maintained. These groups are characterized, as a rule, by common socio-economic status that is, in fact, their marker. Group members are identified as merchants, taxi drivers, and laundry owners. It is clear that migrants’ isolation turns to be their cultural peculiarity. Migration changed immensely cultural history of Western Europe in 1960-s-1970-s. Originally a language unification principle was part and parcel of the European nations-states. The brightest example of such a nation-state was a concept of the French nation “une et indivisible” (unified and indivisible). Due to new immigration waves of 1960-s-1990-s such European countries as Ireland, Greece and Italy having been for a long time the major countries-exporters of emigrants have turned into those ones that encapsulated diverse communities of immigrants’ minorities. In other words, nowadays Europe looks like polyethnic New World. Modern European multiculturalism is noticeable in big cities – megapolices. According to statistical data, one fifth of the population in London was “non-white” population, a quarter of the population in Frankfurt or Brussels were foreigners (Головкина, 2005: 49). In 1990 10 % of registered population in France was born abroad. There is a substantial difference between the policy of multiculturalism in immigrant and national states. These two types of states differ in terms of their attitude to cultural diversity generated by migration (Головкина, 2005: 63). O.V. Golovkina argues that there are different types of multiculturalism. The concept of multiculturalism was elaborated in Canada in a strict accordance with the social order to explain the national problem. This concept was addressed to Francophone population aiming at calming it down because the French – speaking population did not agree to be considered as the minority group in Canada. There is another model of polyethnic and multicultural society management that is called the republican model of tolerance or the French model of the civil nation. This model was originally formulated by Dominique Schnapper. He declared a major thesis: citizens are equal regardless of their ethnic and religious background. The principle of equality is the most powerful tool to struggle against segregation (Miura, 2005: 75). The republican model invented methodology of cultural diversity management. It set a principle of a strict division of a group and an individual. All forms of cultural differences that are manifested by the individual’s life should be respected. This maxim in question is considered to be a key principle of laicity that does not prioritize any form of religion and guarantees freedom of faith. The formula of the tolerant attitude has been shaped up in a long struggle with the Catholic Church. The republican model ignores ethnocultural and religious background. The equality principle encourages, according to H. Miura, assimilation of foreigners into the French or the Francophone society (Miura, 2005: 75). This assimilative approach has got much in common with Anglo-conformism or the American theory of melting pot. The only difference is that France dismantled slavery in its colonies while in the USA, according to Du Bois, the colour of skin stands behind the American democracy (Ibid., 76). # 918 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies Moreover, the republican type of assimilation assumes equal opportunities. Alternatively, American multiculturalism assigns equality to victimized and discriminated individuals in regard to racial, gender or what so ever characteristics. The model of multiculturalism tolerates diversified communities to live together not losing their identity. But what is more, it contradicts the republican model due to splitting up the society into numerous constituent parts and not providing them with further integration. The republican model is considered to be an universal principle of emancipation of an individual. Multiculturalism, in contrast, is seen to be a differentiating method aimed at, on one hand, breaking down apartheid, and on the other hand, sharing and supporting its racial scheme. The republican model is being projected to modernity, multiculturalism, in contrast, is inspired by post-modern critics and post-colonial ideology. Some scholars subject the idea of multiculturalism to criticism due to its interpretation of being a simplified form of ethnic group contraposition. Nowadays massive mobility of population creates preconditions for immerging cultural combinations or cultural hybridization. Due to cultural mixture that got the name of creolisation, one can mention a so called “Antilles model of a multiple and multiple embedded Creole background” (Ibid: 75). N. Miura draws special attention to the model of creolisation. He considers creolisation breaks down the idea of common ancestry and, therefore, culture can not be viewed as a monolithic one. The model in question values ethnic unification and cultural mixing that leads to multiple and mosaic identity that was also called an unified rhizoma or rooted identity. This type of identity does not refer to any particular territory. Its characteristic feature is relationship within the society. There is no the same individual. The identical individual exists only if he or she is in relation with another, identical individual. Having been born as a result of relationship, the individual possesses distinctive features. It is worth distinguishing two notions: “acquiring the Creole characteristics” (creolized features) and “creolisation”. The first concept presumes a long historical process of cultural mixture. The second one results a dynamic development of mutual collisions and exchanges that nobody can predict. In addition, N. Miura argues that the world is getting creolized. However, contemporary Creole identity is characterized by residence qualification and, consequently, by a new territory acquisition. This fact is in opposition to the original idea of the Creole identity aimed at permanent regeneration fi rstly due to nomadic life style, migration and change of habitat. In conclusion, the scholar states: the Creole model is far from implementation neither in a particular ethno-cultural nor language policy. That is why it is an ideal theoretically equipped model, which would not have been implemented into practice. In other words, one should differentiate empirical studying of social phenomenon from a normative model. At the same time, N. Miura assumes that following to this model would be the only means to stop assimilation. Theorists share the emphasis on the point of view that the French republicanism and the American multiculturalism are objectification of both universality and diversification. Meanwhile, creolisation is being perceived as synthesis of the two models. All in all, it represents logics of diversity. Such dialectics, admittedly, is far from virtue. Its weakness is explained by the logics of # 919 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies deterritorisation which is next to impossible to link with national or state language. Otherwise stated, the weakness, mentioned above, may be used as a bargaining chip of creolisation leading to revolutionary procedures in the sphere of language policy. In 1990-s social and political theories, including the theory of language policy and language planning focused multiculturalism as an academic study issue. The theory of language planning values the close connection of multiculturalism with cultural issues such as: pluralism/particularism; identity (otherness and difference); linguistic rights within heterogeneous cultures; globalization etc. The concept of “multiculturalism” being treated as a group of ideas and actions of different social entities (statutory bodies, for instance) aiming at equal development of diverse cultures, bridging different groups of population in many social spheres, equal opportunities for being employed and provided with educational options is connected with the concept of “tolerance”. The definition of “tolerance” was confirmed by the General UNESCO conference in 1995. It was placed in the Declaration of the Principles of Tolerance and was defined as “respect, acknowledgement and understanding of a rich cultural diversity of the world, forms of self expression and identity manifestation” (Головкина, 2005: 55). Multiculturalism as a whole presumes that individuals and groups are entirely incorporated into a society without neither losing their national or any other identity nor being restricted in their rights. Multiculturalism is a conceptual foundation of non-conflict coexistence of multiple heterogeneous cultural groups in one environment. As a result, a growing diversity leads to outlining multicultural values, such as an idea of mutual commitment and freedom of choice. Resume There are several types of multicultural models of ethno-linguistic management in the polyethnic regions: • Anglo-conformism or the American theory of melting pot leads minority cultures and languages to assimilation; • Canadian multicultural model emphasizes respect of diversity of all kinds including a multilingual model in the sphere of the international trade that is based on respect of the linguistic rights of the consumers and producers from different countries of the American continent; • Australian multicultural model values respect for the freedom and dignity of the individual, freedom of religion, commitment to the spirit of egalitarianism that embraces mutual respect, tolerance, fair play and compassion for those in need and pursuit of public good. Australian society also values equality of opportunity # 920 # • • • • • for individuals, regardless of their race, religion and ethnic background; Republican model of tolerance or integration ( the French model of civil nation) leads to linguistic assimilation; Antilles model of multiple Creole background due to cultural mixing (creolisation); Educational model of the European Union that maintains plurilinguism on the individual level and creates conditions for learning foreign and regional languages; Model of functional coexistence transfigures a model of polarization between world languages and the minority ones; European model of multiculturalism combines an “elitist” plurilinguism (active functional plurilinguism) and a “consumer English”. This combination assumes a Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies good command in several languages and a limited command in English, necessary for consumer purposes; • Model of optional multiculturalism reflects transition in the world practice onto a widely spread and understood language, English, for example, and its use as a language of corporate and business communication under globalization. Meanwhile discussions are spreading throughout Europe nowadays on vitality of multiculturalism; another reason to recognize and understand is that multilingualism, being closely connected with multiculturalism, is “mainstreamed” across multicultural policy areas, including lifelong learning, employment, social inclusion, competitiveness, culture, youth and civil society, research and the media. As it was emphasized, “Linguistic diversity is a …rewarding challenge for Europe” and “the harmonious co-existence of many languages in Europe is a powerful symbol of the European Union’s aspiration to be united in diversity, one of the cornerstones of the European project” (COM (2008) 566 final). References Cashmore, E. Dictionary of race and Ethnic Relations / E. Cashmore/ – 4th ed. L., 1996. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Multilingualism: an asset for Europe and a shared commitment // Commission of the European Communities. – Brussels, 18.9.2008 COM (2008) 566 final. – 2008_056_en.pdf. Головкина, О.В. [Golovkina] Концепция «мультикультурализма» в современном научном дискурсе / О.В. Головкина // Переосмысление Канады: кросс-культурные размышления о канадском обществе. – Вып. 3. – Волгоград, 2005. – С. 41-69. Гришаева, Е.Б. [Grishaeva] Типология языковых политик и языкового планирования в полиэтническом и мультикультурном пространстве (функциональный аспект) / Е. Б. Гришаева. – Изд-во КрасГУ, 2006. Гришаева, Е.Б. [Grishaeva] Роль английского языка в качестве языка-макропосредника в условиях глобализации / Е.Б. Гришаева. – Материалы III Общероссийской научно-практической конференции с международным участием “Современные исследования социальных проблем”. Красноярск: НИЦ, 2011. – С. 45-48. Гришаева, Е.Б. [Grishaeva] Языковая политика в полиэтническом и мультикультурном пространстве (теоретический и функциональный аспекты) / Е.Б. Гришаева / – LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG: Saarbruken, 2011. Kimlicka, W. Multicultural Citizenship. A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights / W. Kymlichka. – Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Малахов, В. [Malakhov] Зачем России мультикультурализм // В. Малахов. – Мультикультурализм и трансформация постсоветских обществ / Под ред. В.С. Малахова и В.А. Тишкова, М., 2002. Miura, N. Three Political Models of Integration within the Francophone Environment: What Route? // French, the University Challenge (Proceedings of the XI-st World Congress of the Teachers of French. Atlanta (USA), July 19-23 2004). – FIPF, 2005. Rosado, C. Ph.D.© ROSADO CONSULTING for Change in Human Systems, 1997. # 921 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena B. Grishaeva. Multiculturalism as a Central Concept of Multiethnic and Polycultural Society Studies The language of Canadian Politics, 2001 Тишков, В.А. [Tischkov] Политика мультикультурализма: теория и практика / В.А. Тишков // Межкультурный диалог на Евразийском пространстве: материалы междунар. науч. конф. 30 сентября – 2 октября 2002 г. г. Уфа. Thomason, S.G. Language Contact and Delibarate Change. Journal of Language Contact, Thema, 1, 2007. – 41-62. www.jlc-journal.org/ Концепция «мультикультурализма»: интегративные модели управления полиэтническими и поликультурными сообществами Е.Б. Гришаева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья отражает общенаучные положения о всеобщей связи и взаимной обусловленности развития языка и многоаспектных социальных проблем современности: этнической идентификации, культурного разнообразия, образования, миграции, глобализации в условиях поликультурного пространства. Понятие мультикультурализма рассматривается в нескольких аспектах: как идеология, как дискурс, как политика и практика. На основе типологических признаков выявляются наиболее типичные модели этноязыкового обустройства, обеспечивающего жизнеспособность референтных языков и культур. Ключевые слова: мультикультурализм, полилингвизм, социокультурные различия, унификация, иммиграция, культурная диверсификация, лингвистическая ассимиляция, гетерогенные культурные группы, толерантность, религиозная дискриминация, языковые права, языковая политика. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 923-926 ~~~ УДК 81’272 Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization Diana T. Khaibullina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 11.01.2012, accepted 16.02.2012 Due to great shift in the Russian economic-political situation, there are inevitable changes to face in the national language policy. One of the key ways to adapt to the current international conditions is to tailor the ameliorated system of language education. The Lifelong Learning conception is regulated according to the Russian Federation strategy as a major trend. Keywords: Lifelong Language Learning, integration, national identity, national language policy, the Common Educational space, principle, recent socio-political changes, educational opportunities. Introduction The issues of national identity are frequently debated in terms of recent socio-political changes of the last decades. It is especially topical when discussing the post-Soviet situation in the Russian Federation in conditions of the world consolidation and globalization. A nation faces overwhelming problems determining its cultural identity. Moreover, it is very questionable and complex process (Rawi, 2001: 8). Thus, there are not only economic and political problems, but also problems of national and state language determination as a device to create a new society in present day conditions. The Role of the Education Policy One of the main long term measures to disseminate and regulate the state language policy is the state language education system. It is considered to be very controversial and problematic * 1 point at present, but still it is equipped to reflect the social demand of a contemporary society. Thus, the Russian Federation had inherited the main theoretical aspects of the Soviet language policy (Federal Low on the State Language in the Russian Federation, 2005: 1), (Federal Law on National Languages in the Russian Federation, 1991: 2), (Model Law “on Languages” N 24-6, 2004: 3). Nevertheless, it had to look for some new ways to implement the policy. The contemporary system of the language education adapted some new forms due to new economic and political conditions, such as the economic recession on the territory of the Commonwealth of Independent States, new international politico-economical relationships. Most ex-Soviet countries are looking forward to entering the league of European counterparts. So, they are re-examining the list of strategic partners not only among the ex-Soviet republics, but also the world nations (Rawi, 2001: 8). Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 923 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Diana T. Khaibullina. Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization Functioning in the sphere of foreign language teaching reflects the common intention to belong to “the European house”. It can be fully illustrated in adapting dogmas of Lifelong Language Learning. It is known that this term was borrowed from various official documentations, which support educational and political processes. In November 2006 the European parliament resolution №1720/2006/ ЕС was made in order to take new integrated educational «Lifelong Learning Programme» in the course of «Europass» project realization. The programme has integrated all well-known and used means and trends to create educational opportunities for different-aged students. Thus, «Lifelong Learning Programme» has become the next phase of long term European policy realization. This policy is aimed to reinforce the process of European consolidation. Today, the creation of the Common Educational Space is considered to be a basis of economic and political integration and cultural interaction (Telegin, electronic resource: 6). A number of important socio-economic forces is pushing for the lifelong learning approach. The increased pace of globalization and technological change, the changing nature of work and the transformation of labour market, and the ageing of populations are among the main forces emphasising the need for continuing upgrading of work, everyday and professional skills throughout person’s life. The demand is for a rising threshold of skills as well as for more frequent changes in the nature of the skills required. Nancy Merz Nordstrom, M.Ed., lists the top 10 benefits of Lifelong Learning as such: • Lifelong Learning helps fully develop natural abilities; • Lifelong Learning opens the mind; • Lifelong Learning creates a curious, hungry mind; • Lifelong Learning increases our wisdom; • Lifelong Learning makes the world a better place; • Lifelong Learning helps us to adapt to change; • Lifelong Learning helps us find meaning in our lives; • Lifelong Learning keeps us involved as active contributors to society; • Lifelong Learning helps us make new friends and establish valuable relationships; • Lifelong Learning leads to an enriching life of self-fulfilment (Nordstrom, electronic resource: 7). Principles of Lifelong Language Learning are becoming more frequently mentioned while discussing the ways to solve problems of Crosscultural communication not only in domestic, but also in professional sphere. It is closely connected with problems of Russian integration into the European and world educational, cultural and economic and political community. This policy provides every person with an opportunity of an individually tailored educational path to get further professional, career and personal development. Besides great amount of benefits, there are some disadvantages. Thus, the most obvious one is an effect of commercialisation of the education process. The brightest example of it is foreign language learning exactly. Moreover, as Olga Oleynikova, chief of the Professional Educations Problems Centre, claims that the term Lifelong Learning is very often substituted or confused with the term Professional retraining as a synonym. It is a point of misunderstanding in the core. But what is more important, it prevents accepting and tailoring the Lifelong Learning conception in the Russian Federation. The fact that there is no designed Lifelong Learning conception at necessary and acceptable level influences the forming of # 924 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Diana T. Khaibullina. Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization national educational strategy. It seems to cramp the integration into contemporary process of international development. As a consequence, Russia is supposed to be at the same level of economic and social development (“Lifelong Learning – is it actual trend for Russia?”, electronic resource: 10). The efficiency of Lifelong Language Learning realization depends on coordination, understanding of common strategy, goals and objectives sharing of professionals which are to implement this policy (Akaeva, electronic resource: 5). Nevertheless, despite the great significance of continuation principle, exactly this aspect is absent in a necessary amount to realize the policy of Lifelong Learning. There are problems to implement the principle of continuation in Lifelong Language Learning policy due to consequences of the educational policy in the 1990s. Thus, the learner-centered approach announced at that period of time identifies the problem of time scarcity. It is obvious that there is not enough given time to study foreign language at any educational unit. Not only the differentiated, but also the individual approach to a student can hardly be implemented as well as to create a positive educational environment for study if there are only two or three hours a week (Rawi, 2001: 8).It also influences the process to solve problem of professional orientation and personal cultural identity that are crucial nowadays. As a consequence, today there are students to come to universities that have different attainment level of foreign language. A teacher should find a special individual approach to students which have some language problems. Such measures are taken to provide an opportunity for further education at university (Rawi, 2001: 8). One of the ways to solve the given problem is a fast-moving turning back to out-of-classroom form of the teaching process implementation. It could create an opportunity to solve the majority of the mentioned problems. Moreover, the huge impact as well as the means in teaching and learning process is supposed to be nowadays a high-tech informational and educational environment. There are great amount of various web applications, social services, agents at present to be not only a tool to form language, speech and cross-cultural competences, but also a real device to apply already achieved competences naturally. It could help a person to experience his or her own integration into contemporary world processes at different levels: personally and professionally. Conclusion On balance, the overall picture seems to be that the educational policy in the course of foreign language education is supposed to be one of the main means to implement the state language policy of the Russian Federation. The prime target of the policy in its turn is not only formation, correction and sustention of language norms and juridical aspect of it, but also creating conditions for cultural identity of a nation as a member of the world community. References Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 1 июня 2005 г. N 53-ФЗ «О государственном языке Российской Федерации». – опубл. 07.06.2005. – «РГ» Федеральный Выпуск №3789. Закон о языках народов Российской Федерации от 25 октября 1991 г. N 1807-1. допл. от 24.07.1998 N 126-ФЗ, от 11.12.2002 N 165-ФЗ. – опубл. 12.12.1991. – Ведомости Съезда народных депутатов и Верховного Совета Российской Федерации № 50. # 925 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Diana T. Khaibullina. Educational Language Policy in Russia under Modernization Модельный закон «О языках», постановление N 24-6 от 4 декабря 2004 г. – опубл. 2005г. – Информационный бюллетень. Межпарламентская Ассамблея государств-участников Содружества Независимых Государств. № 35 (часть 1). С. 236 – 238. Концепция Федеральной целевой программы развития образования на 2011 – 2015 годы (утв. распоряжением Правительства РФ от 7 февраля 2011 г. № 163-р). [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL: http://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/55070647/ Акаева Х.А. [Akaeva] Многоуровневая модель профессионально-ориентированного обучения иностранным языкам в системе «лицей – технический вуз». [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL: ftp://220.127.116.11/text/akayeva_115_210_214.pdf Телегин Д.В. [Telegin] Лингвистическая политика в образовании: Россия и Европейское сообщество. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL: /http://www.isras.ru/files/File/ Publication/Monografii/obraz/4_6_Lingvisticheskaya.pdf N. Nordstrom, Top 10 Benefits of Lifelong Learning. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Top_10_Benefits_of_Lifelong_Learning.html А. Rawi National Purpouse in the World Economy. Post-Soviet States in Comparative Perspective / Rawi Abdelal. – Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001. Некоторые актуальные проблемы обучения иностранному языку в контексте непрерывного довузовского образовательного пространства. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: URL: http://langetr.ucoz.ru/publ/1-1-0-22 «Lifelong Learning – актуален ли европейский тренд для России?». В России системой профессиональной переподготовки пользуются лишь 5% работающего населения. [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.ubo.ru/news/public/?id=2614 Реализация языковой политики в сфере образования в условиях модернизации современной России Д.Т. Хайбуллина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В условиях изменений, коснувшихся экономико-политической ситуации в Российской Федерации, государство столкнулось с неизбежными изменениями в государственной языковой политике, которые необходимо проводить в данный момент. Одним из основных способов адаптации к современным мировым условиям является тщательно проработанная, качественно измененная система языкового образования. Концепция непрерывного образования ассимилируется согласно современной стратегии Российской Федерации. Ключевые слова: непрерывное языковое образование, интеграция, национальное самоопределение, национальная языковая политика, единое образовательное пространство, недавние социополитические изменения, образовательные возможности. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 927-934 ~~~ УДК 81’27 Modern Tendencies of Language Policy and Language Planning in Russia and China: Comparative Study Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 16.01.2012, accepted 1.02.2012 The article deals with the comparative study of language policy and language planning in modern Russia and China. A special attention is paid to FLT and aboriginal and minorities languages teaching in the two countries. Keywords: language policy, language planning, foreign languages, aboriginal and minority languages, FLT, Russia, China, comparative study. Introduction The language policy can be defined as the total sum of the ideological principles and practical measures directed to solve language problems in the society and state frame. In accordance with its goals the language policy may have two main variants: perspective (language planning or language building in other terms) and retrospective (language and speech culture) (Grishaeva, 1997). According to academician R.A. Budagov the language planning can be interpreted as the influence on the language by the state acts, writers, scholars, linguists and all language users as well (Budagov, 1971). The scientific basis for the language planning is the ethnolinguistics (F. Boas, E. Sapir, B. Whorf) and the ethnographies of communication (I. Gumperz, D. Hymes). The language planning is realized via different educational institutions * 1 (pre-schools, secondary schools, higher schools) and mass media. The language planning and language education are closely interdependent. The language planning can be legally adopted by different state acts or be the so called result of the historic practice of some duration. The present situations with the perspective variant of the language policy ın Russian Federation and People’s Republic of China are closely connected with the language planning and the language education. The language planning is mostly based on ideological roots and economic consequences. The world processes in the fields of economy, science, culture and other human areas are reflected in the language planning and national educational tendencies. The integration into European Community, trade and industrial connections with the countries of the Pacific territory and other Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 927 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy… geographical areas of the world resulted into the necessity of formation the so called multilingual personality. The statesmen, men of science and culture think that the modern specialist should have a good command of two or more foreign languages. But the characteristics of Russian and Chinese multilingual personalities differ. That is why the combination of foreign languages is set due to the geographical position and economic relations of the definite territory (the Krasnoyarsk territory for example). The situation in Russia and China greatly differs from the situation in modern Europe (the united Europe) but the idea of Language Portfolio is undoubtedly very fruitful (European Language Portfolio, 2001; General European Competences, 2003; European Language Portfolio, 2003). Any foreign language for the multilingual personality is not only the means of oral and written communication but also the dominant means of access to foreign culture. This statement causes several urgent language planning problems: unification of the purposes of teaching various foreign languages, foreign languages combination, testing principles and procedures, certification procedures. The language education in general has the following directions: teaching native language, teaching foreign languages, teaching state language. ELT in Russia and China The foreign language acquisition was always considered to be one of the cornerstones of the education and the professional development in any progressive country which joins the world community. But one should take into consideration that each country has got its own history and experience in the FLT, its own synchronic and diachronic periodicities and traditions. The mentioned above aspects determine the teaching methodology, the set of the most widely taught foreign languages and the characteristics of state standards in this important academic field. The state policy towards the FLT in the West (in comparison with Russia) was rather implicit and was based on the traditional approach and needs analysis (Protasova, 2004). The language planning in the FLT mostly followed the main trends of the academic, political and economic interests of the society. In the countries of the former “socialist camp” the language policy had its own peculiarities determined mostly by the politics (especially towards the Russian language). In the USSR the language policy towards foreign languages had its variations with the respect to the language situation of the USSR national territories. In the former republics of the USSR the foreign languages were taught alongside with the Russian language as the state language of the country, which was not the mother tongue to the majority of the republics’ population. For example in the Ukraine Soviet Socialist republic the traditional combination of the taught languages was: Ukraine (native), Russian (state), English or other European language (foreign). It is interesting to mention that the Russian language officially got the status of the state language only in 2005 (the Federal Law on the State Language for Different Territories and Subjects of the Russian Federation, №3, 1.06.2005). In the Russian Federation (the biggest republic of the former Soviet Union) the situation with the FLT was not a homogeneous one. Although the language planning was determined by the state standard, the teaching environment and teaching conditions differed greatly in different parts of the vast territory of Russia. Some territories of the Russian Federation (Tatarstan, Bashkirya, Mordovia) were and are traditionally and naturally bilingual or trilingual. The former situation still influences the present situation in the language policy. Another important factor is the universal globalization tendency. # 928 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy… Taking into consideration the situation with the foreign language (in secondary and higher school) we can notice that the traditional set of the taught foreign languages has changed greatly recently. So in the Krasnoyarsk territory the traditional set was: English, French and German. During the last two decades in the Far East and Eastern Siberia the oriental languages began to be taught (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Turkish). Some of the oriental languages are already taught at school; some of them are taught only at the university level. The set of the foreign languages reflect the traditional and new economic and cultural relations of the Krasnoyarsk territory, its unique geopolitical situation. The vivid leader of the taught foreign languages is the English language which reflects the globalization tendency. This foreign language provides the access to the world culture, scientific data to different ethnic groups living on the Krasnoyarsk territory. Some of them belong to the ethnic minorities with the nearly extinct and seriously endangered native language. The English language can play extremely important role for the future development of the Krasnoyarsk territory ethnic minorities. Especially when they join virtual educational institutions in the globalization context. The English language is the so called lingua franca for different virtual educational institutions in the Circumpolar World. The most vivid example is UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTIC (UArctic) which provides a broad and diversified network of individuals, organizations and institutions committed to research and education in the circumpolar region and to promoting sustainable practices for the future. UArctic make contributions that benefit the network as a whole for the improvement of higher education in the North: North2North undergraduate exchange program; Arctic Learning Environment (ALE) online learning; Circumpolar Mobility Program. The English language is the “state language” of UArctic. That is why the special “real” and online programs should be developed in the frame of specially tailored educational programs for ethnic minorities in the epoch of globalization. The clear understanding of the importance of the English language and the developed strategy in this educational area made it possible to gain extremely good results in ELT. One of the vivid examples is the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. It is important to emphases that the role of the English language in the context of globalization has got positive and negative estimations. The positive one is related to the unifying and educating functions of the English language. The negative one is connected with domination of the English language and its frustrating influence on the title languages that initiates total “globanglization” (Kabakchi, 2009). The language policy towards foreign languages in China in retrospective aspect was mostly determined by the ideas of unification and standardization. Looking back over the centuries we may notice that governors of China paid much attention to the relationship between their control over the nation and languages, which representatives of the nation speak. A well known fact is that more than 2000 years ago a famous Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇, 259 BC – 210 BC) started a reform of the writing system aimed at the unification of all various existing scripts of Chinese characters (Clements, 2006: 102-103, 131-134). Those who refused to obey the orders of the emperor were subjected to strict punishments and even death. The impact if this language reform is still felt at present. Fortunately nowadays Chinese government does not resort to such severe punishment measures, but still it pursues quite a strict policy in this area. The state language of the Peoples Republic of China is Chinese and the official form of writing is Simplified Chinese (Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Standard # 929 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy… Spoken and Written Chinese Language: electronic resource). Results of the research, which was accomplished by a group of scholars (Minglang Zhou, Hongkai Sun, 2004), indicate that the main features of the language policy in modern China include the following: 1. simplification and standardization of the sinographic script; 2. promotion of Putonghua (普通话) as the national language; 3. the design and refinement of Pinyin (拼音) (the Romanized spelling of Putonghua) and its adoption for appropriate applications; 4. identification and mapping of languages, dialects (方言) – both Sinitic and nonSinitic; 5. recognition and description of languages meriting official “minority” (少数民族) status; 6. creation of scripts for languages that lack them and the streamlining of traditional non-Sinitic writing systems; 7. translation of words, names, technical terms from other languages; 8. pedagogical issues, including methods for elementary instruction, uniform testing at higher levels, and the teaching of Mandarin to speakers of topolects and non-Sinitic languages within China, as well as to foreigners abroad; 9. bilingualism; 10. foreign language instructions and applications within China. More details on the language situation and language policy in China can be found in a report prepared by the UNESCO, which is a part of the Community Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language Contexts in Asia (Community Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language Contexts in Asia, 2005: 153-167). According to the report, officially, China has 56 nationalities, but more than 200 languages are spoken in the country. This is explained by the fact that many nationalities consist of several diverse language groups that are sometimes as different as English and French. More than 90 percent of the total population belongs to the Han majority; these people speak mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese. We assume that it is evident that the situation with FLT in China was quite different in different times: a well known fact that during the Cultural Revolution in China (1966-1976) there was a political split between the USSR and the PRC, which resulted in the slackening of interest towards Russian as a foreign language within China (which was not typical of China before and which is not typical now). According to the figures given above, more than 200 languages spoken inside of China are considered to be foreign languages. In addition to that in recent years the successes of Chinese economy gave an impetus for the development of FLT in modern China. Surveys show that the most popular foreign languages learnt in China are English, Japanese, Korean, French, and German (Top Foreign Languages Learnt in China 2011: electronic resource). It is evident that this list lacks Russian: dozens of schools and universities of the northeast of China study Russian as a foreign language. Beijing, Shanghai and Harbin are considered to be three major teaching centers, where teaching and studying Russian is traditionally very popular. As for the role of English within the framework of FLT in China, here we may state the following: “In order to function efficiently in its economy with the global market, Chinese needs to bring large numbers of people to a higher level of proficiency in English for a wide variety of functions” (Shaobin, 2002). Results of the research show that “native English speakers are regarded as linguistically privileged, but such non-native English-speakers as the Chinese, in order to overcome their disadvantage, are # 930 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy… launching campaigns to enable themselves to use English more accurately and fluently” (Huimin, 2003). The particular interest to ELT in China resulted in several theoretical and practical issues dealing with “China English” (Chui, 2006; Gargesh, 2006; He, Li, 2009). Aboriginal Languages in Russia and China As for the native language teaching the situation differs in different territories of the former Soviet Union. The situation has aggravated within the last twenty years. In the autonomous territories we have got the stable bilingual situation (Tatar plus Russian). In some territories the native language teaching is obligatory, in some – optional. In the Krasnoyarsk territory we have got the native languages which belong to different levels of endangerment: extinct, possibly extinct, nearly extinct, seriously endangered, endangered, potentially endangered, not endangered. The book “UNESCO RED BOOK ON ENDANGERED LANGUAGES: EUROPE” (published 1999) and the book “The Languages of the People of Russia. Red Book” (Languages of the People of Russia, 2002). Among the languages of ethnic minorities of the Krasnoyarsk Territory we can mention the Ket language, formerly known as Yenisei Ostyak, a Siberian language, the sole surviving language of a Yeniseian language family which has been related to a wider Denecaucasian grouping also including Sino-Tibetian. The language is threatened with extinction—the number of ethnic Kets that are native speakers of the language has dropped from 1,225 in 1926 to 537 in 1989 (Kabanova, 2008). The Even language (also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan) is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely scattered communities of reindeer herders. The Evenki language (also known as Ewenki, Ewenke, Owenke, Solon, Suolun, and Tungus or Tunguz in older works) is the largest member of the northern group of Tungusic languages, a group which also includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely related) Oroqen language. The Evenki language is spoken by Evenks in Russia. Mongolia and China (Pre-Yenisenian Siberia, 2008; Ethnoses of Siberia, 2008). Describing the language situation with ethnic minorities in China we may turn to the report we have touched upon above – the report prepared by the UNESCO, which is a part of the Community Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language Contexts in Asia (Community Based Literacy Programs for Minority Language Contexts in Asia 2005: 153-167). Ethnic minorities are about 100 million people and only eight percent of the Chinese population. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China provides all nationalities of China the freedom to use and develop their languages. A law relating to ethnic minorities adds that conditions permitting, ethnic minority languages should be the media of instruction in schools where the majority of students belong to minority groups. However, the report maintains that in many places these laws are not implemented, and there are no regulations to guarantee that implementation actually takes place, besides government support to mothertongue education applies only to the 55 designated national minorities, leaving some 150 language communities without validation of their need for language development and mother-tongue education. In addition, in Han areas, especially the less developed rural areas where varieties of Chinese other than Mandarin are spoken, many students have difficulty in understanding teaching unless teachers use a dialect of Chinese spoken in the region. Many official minority languages already have writing systems, yet more than 20 still lack them. However, a major problem in language development is that many more than 55 writing systems are needed in China to provide # 931 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy… mother-tongue education to all speakers of minority languages. According to the report, there is a lot of variation in the use of local languages in education, depending on the geographical area and ethnolinguistic group. There are strong and weak forms of bilingual education, and various shades in between. In the strong forms, an ethnic language, usually a regional LWC with a long literate history, is used as the medium of instruction from primary school through high school. In such programmes, Mandarin is taught as a second language starting from Grade 2 or 3. The balance between the use of the local and national language differs. Minorities benefiting from strong forms of bilingual education include Kazakhs, Koreans, Mongolians, Uygurs and Tibetans. The report maintains that that learning achievements of students in bilingual programs – even some transitional ones – are better than in Chinese-only education for ethnic minorities. Common difficulties faced in the use of local languages in China include: a lack of writing systems; a lack of qualified minority language teachers; a lack of texts and materials in minority languages; translation of textbooks from Chinese into minority languages without any adaptation; rapid transition from local languages to Mandarin; and negative attitudes towards the importance and usefulness of minority language education. Reasons for good progress in bilingual education endeavours in China include: positive and progressive approaches to bilingual education by local authorities, strong support of academics, and the major role of minority communities in curriculum development and materials production. Conclusion The comparative study of the language policy in modern Russia and China reveals vivid similarities and differences (invariant and variant features) between the studied objects. The language policy towards the state languages (Russian and Chinese) has got quite different history. The Chinese language usage has being regulated by the state for more than two thousands years via the legislative acts of the emperors and government. The Russian language has got the legal status of the state language less than ten years ago. In the FLT area the dominant role is played by the English language in the both countries. But each country has got its own methodological and didactic traditions varying in different geographical areas and historical periods. The acquisition of the English language has got its national and political peculiarities in the broad context of globalization tendency. The language policy towards aboriginal and minority languages is determined by quantitative and qualitative factors and could be the object of a special study. 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(UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education , Bangkok, 2005). R. Gargesh. “South Asian Englishes”. The Handbook of World Englishes. (Oxford, U.K., Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Bublishers, 2006). He D., Li D.C.S. “Language Attitudes and Linguistic Features in the “China English” Debate”. World Englishes. Vol. 28. № 1. (2009). Zh. Huimin. “Globalization and new ELT challenges in China”. English Today (Cambridge University Press, 2003). – P. 36-41. Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37) http://www.gov.cn/english/laws/2005-09/19/content_64906.htm Zh. Minglang, S. Hongkai. Language Policy in the People`s Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949. (Boston: Springer Science + Business Media Inc., 2004). J. Shaobin. English as a Global Language in China, (http://www.eltnewsletter.com/back/ May2002/art992002.htm). Top Foreign Languages Learnt in China (http://www.lexiophiles.com/english/top-foreignlanguages-learnt-in-china) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya* and Yaroslav V. Sokolovsky. Modern Tendencies of Language Policy… Современные тенденции языковой политики и языкового планирования в России и Китае: сопоставительное исследование В.А. Разумовская, Я.В. Соколовский Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Настоящая статья посвящена сопоставительному исследованию языковой политики и языкового планирования в современной России и Китае. Особое внимание уделяется преподаванию иностранных языков и языков коренных и малочисленных народов двух стран. Ключевые слова: языковая политика, языковое планирование, иностранные языки, языки коренных и малочисленных народов, преподавание иностранных языков, Россия, Китай, сопоставительный анализ. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 935-943 ~~~ УДК 37.014.15 The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s Cognitive Memory Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya* Siberian Federal University 82а Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 30.12.2011, received in revised form 11.01.2012, accepted 20.02.2012 Chinese writing, ideographic and pictographic, is a part of the linguistic picture of the world and concepts conveyed in it on the grammatological level may participate in the formation of social competence as one of the components of intercultural communicative competence. The implication of sociocultural analysis of Chinese hieroglyphics on the basis of the grammatological approach not only will allow language learners to acquire knowledge about the Chinese hieroglyphic concept sphere, cultural identity, cultural realia both in historical and contemporary perspective, but will also teach them to properly use this cognitive basis in further independent language learning process; such an approach can be viewed as an effective mechanism for memorizing which can promote to activate the mastering of hieroglyphic signs due to a relatively easy opportunity for reconstructing the image that is underlying the sociocultural analysis, as well as a method to contribute to the formation of a sustainable motivational component of learning. Keywords: sociocultural competence, intercultural communicative competence, ideogram, phonetic ideogram, grapheme, concept, cognitive approach, grammatological approach, Chinese hieroglyphic picture of the world, concept sphere. Introduction Teaching foreign languages has recently become of special national significance in our country since a foreign language is not only a means of communication, but also the possibility for personal cultural enrichment of the students, their professional self-actualization, furthermore a successful intercultural communication and communication between individual members of society both contribute to the social and economic development and political stability of both individual states and interstate unions. An example is the creation of the European Union which was preceded by the tendency towards * 1 studying foreign languages by the majority of the population. The ability to speak two or more foreign languages during the formation of the European Union was not only “good form”, but rather a good opportunity to quickly find a prestigious well-paid job which explains the fairly active migration of skilled workers in the early years of EU formation. Methodical science of teaching foreign languages has also been given a new impetus to development under existing conditions, there has been an appeal towards the cross-cultural paradigm in the study of teaching process and the process of learning foreign languages and Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 935 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… cultures, competence approach and learnercentered approach to teaching and learning that have finally resulted in a large-scale reconsideration of a conceptual and categorical apparatus of the methodical science, the nature of modern means, methods and techniques of language teaching and the functional load of a foreign-language teacher. Intercultural Communicative Competence in the Context of Language Education Defi ning intercultural communication competence as the ultimate goal of linguists’ preparation has acquired axiomatic value substantiated by a large number of investigators by the moment (E. G. Tareva, G. V. Elizarova, N. D. Galskova, B. P. Furmanov, N. Gez, I. L Pluzhnik, S. G. Ter-Minasova), this phenomenon is also widely studied by foreign scientists (M. Byram, A. E Fantini, Y. Kim, J. Koester, J. Stier, R. L. Wiseman). This competence was established on the basis of foreign language communicative competence proposed by Jan Ate van Ek who in turn singled out in its structure the following sub-components: linguistic, sociolinguistic, discoursal competence, strategic, socio-cultural and social. In the study by G. V. Yelizarova the need for introducing the term ‘intercultural competence’ is being substantiated, intercultural aspect within each sub-competence as a part of intercultural competence is being educed thus modifying the content of the latter and adding to them an intercultural dimension (Yelizarova, 2005). On the grounds of the studies mentioned above, in recent years there has appeared and has been subjected to intensive in-depth research the intercultural communicative competence, represented as an integration of the two competencies such as foreign language communicative competence and intercultural competence (T. Larin, V. A. Bryleva, J. A. Pugacheva, A. N. Annenkov, E. S. Dikova). In modern studies of the formation of intercultural communication competence there has been established the definition of this concept which is the ability and willingness of specialists to recognize, understand and interpret the native world picture and another picture of the world as they interact with each other and then to build on this basis foreign-language communication with representatives of a given society (Annenkova, 2010). This ability is acquired by languagelearners in the process of assigning them a picture of the world in its close interaction with the native view on the surrounding world. As a result of this interaction complex cross-cultural knowledge is formed in the minds of language-learners (specific cognitive structure) which is actualized in the process of intercultural communication in order to achieve mutual understanding. It is the very competence that inheres in the ‘secondary linguistic identity’ (I. I. Khaleeva), which is the main focus of the learning process in a language institute of higher education. In recent studies in the structure of intercultural communicative competence viewed herein as an integration of foreign language communicative competence and intercultural competence the following competencies have been marked out: linguistic – willingness and ability to produce and interpret meaningful utterances of the studied language with regard to the knowledge about ways to express value orientations in relation to the mother tongue; sociolinguistic – awareness of the selection and use of linguistic resources, taking into account the relevance of the social context of communication in a foreign language; strategic – ability and willingness to overcome linguistic and psychological # 936 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication strategies in the process of intercultural communication; social – the ability and willingness to interact with native language users of a studied foreign language, to manage social situations in order to achieve common communicative goals; discoursive – the ability to choose and to use suitable strategies for making and interpreting texts in the process of intercultural communication; sociocultural – knowledge about universal and culture-specific values of the target language culture, forms and ways of translating them into verbal and nonverbal picture of the world. The components of intercultural communicative competence have a mutual influence upon each other: discoursive competence viewed as a competence responsible for building up speech acts is inseparable from the linguistic, social and other competencies that are all within a relationship of mutual penetration. Intercultural competence is also a component that operates on all levels or units of the communicative competence. Over time some linguistic phenomena can receive additional cultural connotations. A bright example may be the appearance of a car model known as ‘’ё-Mobile’’ on the automotive market in Russia when the creators of the brands, apparently, wanted to give an answer to the entire world market by selecting one letter from the Russian alphabet which is not found in other languages and has quite a bright connotative meaning. However, on Chinese news sites dedicated to the beginning of ё-Mobile plant construction, the brand was transferred by an interpreter as a “car model E” (http://chinese.ruvr.ru/2011/06/09/51511807.html), and it is worth mentioning that in this case the sociocultural connotations of this concept have been totally lost. The ability to distinguish cultural values by monitoring the bearers of other languages and cultures and interacting with them without referring to them with direct questions (as in most cases they are simply unable to give an adequate response due to the unconscious nature of the commitment to the values of their native culture) is also one part of language-learners’ social competence, the formation of which would make it possible to avoid such an interference (Yelizarova, 2005). Relying on the analysis of different interpretations of the sociocultural competence (SCC), the following of its components may be evolved: knowledge of the system of universal cultural values; knowledge of the value system of a native culture, forms and methods of their display in public institutions, linguistic picture of the world, models of human behavior, verbal and nonverbal communication etc.; knowledge of the principles of interaction between cultural beliefs, norms and stereotypes in different manifestations of culture clash; knowledge of the cultural values of a studied language, forms and methods of their display in public institutions, linguistic picture of the world, models of human behavior, verbal and non-verbal communication etc.; recognition of the fact that different cultural models have a right to exist; ability to emphatically perceive the manifestation of other cultural patterns; ability to isolate the general and specific informational issues in the cultural identity of different models; willingness to constructively defend their own position without demeaning # 937 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… others and not getting into direct dependence upon other people’s priorities (E. N. Solovov, L. G. Kuzmina, T. N. Yarmina, E. Kompantseva, J. E. Risk, L. A. Milovanova, G. V. Yelizarova etc.). Chinese Hieroglyphics as a Tool for Forming Sociocultural Competence The last decade modern science has been actively suggesting new methods aimed at creating sociocultural competence. There is a number of theses in which researchers propose that the formation of SCC should go through culturally-labeled computer technologies (G. A. Vorob’ev, E. D. Koshelyaeva), studying food culture (E. A. Saveliev), training linguistic country study reading using mass media sources (L. E. Kahn), authentic texts (T. M. Ezhkina), videos (L. A. Voronin), humorous literature (T. N. Yarmina), poetic texts (I. E. Riskey) and so on. The basis for the formation of sociocultural competence in these works is mainly the discourse defined as “an essential component of social and cultural interaction” (Van Dyke), lexical units and the national-cultural semantics, socially and culturally conditioned communication scenario, adopted in some linguistic cultures as well as grammatical phenomena that reflect linguistic features of the world picture. Sociocultural component of Chinese hieroglyphics is recorded on the “level of visually expressed meaning, synthetically united in the very form of hieroglyphic writing, the sign” (Sofronov, 2007). Chinese hieroglyphics is a complex code formation allowing the individual notionally and beyond the communicative situation to analyze cognizable objects and express their characteristics, properties and relations while not only categorizing them, but also determining their significance within the space-time continuum. The language reflects a system of cultural values and vice versa, and all the manifestations of cultural products are reflected in the cognitive structures of the individual and transferred by means of signs and symbols. Language mastering involves the conceptualization of the world as reflected in the language (Bayramova, 2005). Chinese writing that appeared more than four thousand years ago managed to illustrate some of the “hidden” mechanisms of mental structures verbalization in the process of the world cognition, thus has created the Chinese hieroglyphic conceptual picture of the world consideration of which is possible through the prism of the cognitive approach based on the study of the surrounding background and human nature, the language awareness and communicative behavior of individuals. In this context it is also quite reasonable to introduce the term ‘concept’ defined herein as “mental formation, which is presented by important pieces of conscious experience stored in memory” (Karasik, 2004). The concept is a multi-dimensional formation where the value component is of particular cultural significance, after which follows the metaphorical image and various means of language fixing. In philological tradition there has been settled the structural division of Chinese characters into the pictographic, ideographic and phonetic characters. The basis for the pictographic characters is a pictogram – a symbolic picture of a real object. This type of hieroglyphs is the most ancient and the pictograms that it’s made up of were the basis of the next type which is the ideographic characters – as their parts, or keys. As for the phonetic hieroglyphs one of their characters played the role of phonetics which means it was a determinant of phonetic sounds. Linguistic tradition has long considered that there is no semantic connection between the signs of phonetic characters, however, a recent study by V. F. Rezanenko, O. M. Gotlib, # 938 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… A. A. Prutskih, N. P. Martynenko, S. I. Bayramova, A. F. Kondrashevsky has proved the opposite standpoint. Therefore we will assume the phonetic characters are a type of ideographic characters and will turn directly to the ideographic structure of characters. As is has already been mentioned, the Chinese character is composed of several symbols-graphemes, each of which, taken by itself, has little to do with the meaning expressed by an ideogram. However, “a set of symbols that make up a particular ideogram, the meaning of each symbol interacts with the rest, in which the semantic field of each character is specified in one or another aspect and complementary to all the other creates the particular characteristic that is by its quality aimed at the meaning attributed to this particular hieroglyph in relation to which it serves as a subsumption sign” (Rezanenko, 1985) . Among the methods of teaching Chinese characters there is a settled approach implying that on the initial stage of learning one should memorize the simplest graphic elements that have a semantic meaning. Originally graphemes were picturesque images of separate items or combinations of items. During the development of Chinese ethnic groups these ethnicities were undergoing changes which also affected the system of writing by simplifying and unifying it. As a result the form of some graphemes has changed and thus today it is sometimes difficult to determine the image of an object a particular sign goes back to. In order to memorize graphemes Chinese methodologists suggest turning to their etymology. Determination and description of internal sign relations of a hieroglyphic sign will help to understand the culture of the Chinese, their “peculiar” outlook on the surrounding world as well as their paradigm of values which was conceived more than four thousand years ago. The Chinese written characters “are the basic units of designative ethnic perception of the Chinese, they form a so-called “shell” which largely determines the entire typological specifics of the Chinese language and ideology” (Gotlib, 2005). The most archaic Chinese characters ascend to the images of animals, the pictograms were a straightforward and vivid depiction of the main distinguishing characteristics of animals and these nominative units encounter the following meanings: cow (bull), sheep (goat, ram), horse, pig, elephant, dog, deer, tiger, mouse, worm, fish, bird etc. It seems amazing how ancient people’s outlook was similar to the perception of the world by a child, the perception made in a clear and acute way: a long-nosed elephant, a deer with branched antlers, a pig with a fat belly and short legs, a mouse with sharp teeth, long tail, and so on. All these characteristics were reflected in the ancient Chinese pictograms. Hieroglyph ‘sheep (goat, ram)’ also originates from the pictogram found on divination bones with six thousand years’ history that depicted the ram’s head with steep downturned horns. In the style of the pictogram one can discern a kind of abstract thinking found in a simplified sign-symbol, unlike the other pictograms depicting the whole animal, such as horse, fish, tiger pictograms and so on: 羊 (yang) is a grapheme which is represented in a series of ideograms, such as: 样, 养, 详, 鲜, 祥, 翔, 姜, 羌, 洋, 恙, 善, 美 etc.. In Chinese culture the ram is an animal having a peaceful good character that eats grass and does not cause people any harm. Benefits of ram or sheep breeding are great as the meat can be consumed as food, the skin is used to make clothes thus this animal can both provide us with nourishment and warmth. Thanks to its exclusive utilitarian value to the ancient Chinese, the ram became the symbol of happiness. Two characters (吉 羊 “ram of happiness”) are quite often portrayed on ancient vessels. These two characters are the basis for ideogram 祥 which # 939 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… appeared later and consisted of the graphems “ram” and “altar of the ancestors” and had a semantic meaning “good omen”, “good luck”. The meaning of this ideogram has its roots in the ancestors’ worship. The ancient Chinese used to bring the sacrificial lamb on the altar and to pray on their luck and prosperity, and in the minds of the ancient Chinese this action was associated with hope for a favorable outcome. Symbolic meaning as a savior ram is presented in the historical annals “ Zuo Zhuan” (左 傳, IV-III centuries BC). The State of Chu won the Zheng war and Prince Zheng came out to meet the army of the winners topless and leading the ram. Naked torso of the Prince testified that he was ready to take on the Prince Chu’s beatings and insults, and the ram represented the sacrificial animal that brings good omen, thus Prince Cheng expressed his hope for the grant of pardon of his people by Prince Chu. The taste of mutton and lamb meat in the Chinese tradition was the criterion of evaluation of the food taste. Ideogram 鲜 xian (delicious, fresh) consists of graphemes 羊 “ram” and 鱼 “fish.” According to the Chinese’ beliefs, taste of lamb meat and fish is most pronounced in comparison with other food types accessible to a wide range of consumers, their ability to excite the strongest sense of taste and availability were the factors that have made lamb meat and fish favorite food types in China for several millenniums. Another ideogram 美 mei (beauty, beautiful) consists of graphemes 羊 “ram” and 大 “big”. Grapheme 大 originally represented the human figure-a man who stood up to his full height spreading his arms, this grapheme is interpreted in Chinese sources as the physical beauty of a large, healthy animal, the source of wealth for an ancient man. The ideogram 美 presented four concepts of the ancient Chinese associated with this animal: judging by appearance the ram is an animal with a noble bearing, while for sensory system of a human taste lamb meat is fragrant, tasty and fatty, for the organs of touch clothing made of sheep’s fleece is warm, soft and comfortable, the ram or sheep is unpretentious in terms of breeding and possesses good reproductive characteristics of an animal that does not require large investments of money and effort. These ideas combined together finally created a sense of well-being and beauty represented in the semantics of the ideogram 美. Such concepts as ‘’good, kind, kindness, goodness’’ in the Chinese language are represented by an ideogram 善 shan, the most ancient version of this hieroglyph is a picture of a ram’s head with large eyes which are depicted at the bottom of the character. Due to the evolution this part has been replaced by a grapheme 言 yan ‘’speech’’, indicating a bleating ram. For the ancient Chinese meek, humble, peaceful look of the ram and its humble, gentle bleating also became a symbol of kindness. Phonetic ideogram 群 qun (flock, group, herd, crowd) consists of a grapheme 羊 ‘’ram” and the phonetic component represented by a grapheme 君 jun which determines pronunciation of this character and possesses a semantic meaning ‘’lord, ruler, head’’. The cognitive aspect of the ideogram lies in the observation made by the ancient Chinese of hierarchical organization of a flock of sheep in which the whole livestock obeys to a single leader. According to “Lunuy” (論 語) or ‘’Analects of Confucius’’: ‘Countless animals make up herds and flocks while people make up masses’ («兽 三 为 群, 人 三 为 众»). Chinese culture is a collectivist type of culture where ‘’the notion ‘’we’’ is of primary importance and achievements and progress are associated with shared group activity, furthermore group goals, views and needs dominate the personal ones, an individual fully depends on the group and society, such attributes as cooperation, collaboration, compromise and modesty are highly valued. It # 940 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… is considered indecent to emphasize individual achievements and merits” (Yelizarova, 2005). Gregarious organization of a sheep community headed by the leader has become for the Chinese collectivist culture a wonderful symbol of cohesion, teamwork, cooperation and mutual support semantically embodied in the ideogram 群. Separately from a larger number of characters containing the grapheme 羊 there are the most archaic ideograms 羌 qiang and 姜 jiang which are the names of small nationalities that used to inhabit the north-east China in ancient times. 羌 nation in the process of evolution assimilated with the main nationality inhabiting China – Han nationality. The ideogram denoting this ethnic group is composed of graphemes 人 ‘’people’’ and 羊 ‘’ram’’. 羊 in this context is a totem of this ethnic group, a sacred animal, an object of worship, reflecting archaic cognitive mind of ancient people. On the basis of the analysis of ideograms containing the structural grapheme “ram” presented in this article it is possible to conclude that this concept is an important element of the Chinese concept sphere symbolizing beauty, goodness, collectivism and a happy omen, it is also an object of worship and a measure of good taste. It is worth noting that among the characters containing grapheme “ram” there are almost no words with a negative connotation, and those words that have a negative connotation usually acquired it during evolution in the later historic periods, for example, the idiom “scapegoat and whipping boy’’ (替 罪 羊), which has negative connotations is borrowed from the Old Testament phraseology. The difference in the interpretation of the ram concept in the intercultural approach is evident. In Russia the negative meaning of the concept of ram was observed by linguists in the late 19th century as the expression ‘’ram’s head’’ was used to determine the object’s insignificance, and the thick frontal bones and ram’s horns resulted in semantic transfer to the meaning “stupidity, bonehead, stubbornness of a human being” (Bayramova, 2005). Conclusion There is a great number of such cultural correlations of semantic meanings of graphemes included in the ideogram in Chinese hieroglyphics since ideograms and phonetic ideograms make up the majority of Chinese characters. Most of them are connected with archaic notions about the world shared by the ancient Chinese. The modern linguistic picture and hieroglyphic picture of the world in particular are reflected in modern hieroglyphics that has been fairly simplified but nevertheless has deeply preserved the roots of Chinese ethnic mentality. In conformity with everything stated above it can be affi rmed that the inclusion of sociocultural analysis of Chinese hieroglyphics on the basis of grammatological approach will not only provide students with knowledge about the Chinese hieroglyphic concept sphere, cultural identity, cultural realia both in historical and contemporary perspective, but will also teach language-learners to properly use the cognitive basis in further independent language learning; such an approach can be viewed as an effective mechanism for memorizing Chinese characters which can help the mastering of hieroglyphic signs due to a relatively easy opportunity for reconstructing the image that is underlying the sociocultural analysis, as well as a method to contribute to the formation of a sustainable motivational component of learning. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. 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Scientific monograph(Odessa: IPREEI NASU Publishers, 2003) (in Russian). G. V. Yelizarova, Culture and language training (St. Petersburg: KARO Publishers, 2005) (in Russian). V. I. Karasik, Linguistic terms: personality, concepts, discourse (Moscow: Gnosis Publishers, 2004) (in Russian). I. V. Kochergin, Outlines of methods of teaching Chinese language (Moscow: Muravei Publishers, 2000) (in Russian). V. F. Rezanenko, Semantic structure of hieroglyphic writing (basic structural elements)(Kiev: Kiev State University Press, 1985) (in Russian). E. N. Solovova, Methods of teaching foreign languages. Advanced Course (Moscow: AST Publishers, 2008) (in Russian). M. V. Sofronov, Chinese language and Chinese characters (Moscow: East-West Publishers, 2007) (in Russian). S. G. Ter-Minasova Language and Intercultural Communication (Moscow: Word Publishers, 2000) (in Russian). I. I. Haleeva, Fundamentals of the theory of learning a foreign language speech understanding (interpreter’s training) (Moscow: Higher School Publishers, 1989) (in Russian). 李乐毅，汉字演变五百列（北京：北京语言学院出版社，1993年） http://chinese.ruvr.ru/2011/06/09/51511807.html Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nadezhda I. Sosnovskaya. The Method of Forming Sociocultural Competence: Hieroglyph as the Culture’s… Методика формирования социокультурной компетенции: иероглиф как когнитивная память культуры Н.И. Сосновская Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041 г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а Китайское письмо, идеографическое и пиктографическое, является частью языковой картины мира, концепты, выраженные в нем на грамматологическом уровне могут участвовать в формировании социокультурной компетенции, являющейся одной из составляющих межкультурной коммуникативной компетенции. Включение социокультурного анализа китайской иероглифики на основе грамматологического подхода позволит обучающимся не только приобрести знания о китайской иероглифической концептосфере, национальнокультурной специфике, культурных реалиях, как в историческом, так и в современном аспекте, но также научит правильно использовать данную когнитивную базу при дальнейшем самостоятельном изучении языка, будет эффективным механизмом запоминания, способствующим активизации усвоения иероглифических знаков за счет сравнительно легкой возможности реконструировать образ, лежащий в основе социокультурного анализа, а кроме того будет способствовать формированию устойчивого мотивационного компонента обучения. Ключевые слова: социокультурная компетенция, межкультурная коммуникативная компетенция, идеограмма, фоноидеограмма, графема, концепт, когнитивный подход, грамматологический подход, китайская иероглифическая картина мира, концептосфера. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 944-950 ~~~ УДК 378.147:7.071.3(075.8) Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects Boris V. Tarev* National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, 20, Myasnitskaya st., Moscow, 101000 Russia 1 Received 13.12.2011, received in revised form 28.12.2011, accepted 19.01.2012 This article is devoted to the study of borrowed lexis penetration in the recipient language. The author represents the methods of loan words analysis and their usage in the process of foreign-language communication. The financial and economic terminology is taken as the material of the research. We define the types of lexical borrowing and types of teaching assignments which are designed to help students acquire these terminological units. Keywords: terminology, lexical borrowing, loan words, foreign language teaching. Introduction As we know, the transformation of the language system, variability of all levels of language, is a natural phenomenon. Particularly evident these changes manifest themselves at present time when the volume of information flows constantly grows, and technological progress penetrates in all the spheres of modern life and society. In the context of exchange (interactions) between civilizations the modification of the language system is becoming even more intensive, bearing cultural colors. This allows the representatives of different societies understand each other, both in everyday and professional business communication. The mentioned above changes are characterized by different degrees of intensity. It is a well-known fact that grammatical and phonetic systems are more “conservative” thus * 1 providing the slower processes of development, and “reserved” attitude to innovations. It is obvious that this “conservatism” is determined by the fact of these systems are very stable and established: grammar and phonetics resist to perception and assimilation of any changes, including changes that result from language contacts. Lexical system, in its turn, is more flexible and more prone to various types of changes. One way to replenish the lexical system of the language is loan words from other languages. In this context it is interesting to consider in this article two important issues. First, we need to focus on the essence of the loan words replenishing of the thesaurus, to determine the drivers and dynamics of these processes, to assess the irreversibility of this “movement” within lexical system. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 944 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects Second, it is necessary to determine what role this kind of continual processes should play in foreign language teaching of future professionals in the field of economics. Linguistic Aspect of Lexical Borrowing Lexical borrowing is one of the ways of language enrichment and does not lead to the loss of its specificity and identity. Language development continues in accordance with its inherent laws, even if it includes into vocabulary a considerable amount of foreign words, as it was in case with the English language after the Norman conquest (Volodina, 2000). The “fate” of loan words may be different: some of them are firmly fixed in a recipient language and remain in it as an integral part of general language, while others remain in the position of words for special purpose, the third, ceasing to serve the purposes of communication, gradually fell out of use, and then disappear completely. The entry of foreign words into the lexical system of a recipient language is a long and complex process. Due to various reasons assimilation can become incomplete, and the loan word retains some features inherent to it in the donor language. However, these “residual” effects cannot be thought of as a kind of mechanical rough “handling” of the word in the recipient language: a lexical unit with “features of a foreign language” must be supported by a sufficient number of other words with similar features, or a certain linguistic practice in the past or present. Such groups of words form the peripheral systems that seek to be adapted and dissolved in the host system, or to enter it, causing its partial reconstruction. The analysis of the underlying reasons for borrowed lexical of units can set these reasons into two types: extralinguistic and linguistic proper. Extralinguistic reasons include: 1) cultural influence of one nation on another, 2) presence of oral or written contacts between countries with different languages, 3) increasing interest in learning language, 4) prestige of the donor language (which sometimes leads to borrowing by many languages from one language and the appearance of internationalisms), 5) specific social strata passion towards the culture of another country; 6) linguistic culture of social strata that introduce a new word. Proper linguistic reasons are: 1) lack in native language of equivalent words for the new object or concept, 2) tendency to use one loan word instead of descriptive phrases, 3) the desire to improve and preserve the communicative distinction of lexical units, which is achieved through elimination of polysemy or homonymy in the recipient language, 4) the need to specify the appropriate meaning, to distinguish some shades of meaning through attaching them to different words, 5) tendency to expressiveness, that leads to the appearance of foreign-language stylistic synonyms, 6) lack of mother tongue potential to create derivatives on the basis of existing in the language similar words, 7) accumulation in the recipient language of words, which are characterized by similar elements, that is the way of morphemes and derivational elements borrowing. In the narrow scope of this article, we focus only on borrowing of terminology related to financial and economic activity (English language). As it could be seen, first of all it is necessary to analyze the causes and the ways of foreign words penetration in the terminological system of the recipient language. As a rule, # 945 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects the enrichment of any terminological system is most often carried out with the purpose of completion of the detected during its inspection gaps. Also there is a need to fill the gaps resulting from the rejection of the available terms and to specify homonyms. In the case of absence in the lexical system of the recipient language of the words that exist in a foreign terminology, and if the corresponding phenomenon is actual for the current reality with the consequent need to express it by means of linguistic resources, the necessity to coin a new term is becoming evident. Sometimes the whole blocks of terminological lexis are borrowed, if the donor language contains a well developed lexical system specific for a certain sphere of human activity. The problem of implementation in the recipient language of lexical borrowings and international terms has always been in the sphere of terminologists’ attention. And we know that the evaluation criteria of a foreign-language term is seen not so much in its origin, but how it meets the requirements of the recipient language system, so that to be able to be assimilated in that language. It should be noted that there are two ways of the loan terms to penetrate into the recipient language. First, this is the entry through oral speech that is mostly specific for the early stages of language contact. This way is witnessed very rarely at present time in the society with a developed socio-economic system. Second, this is the entry through written texts. When lexical borrowings occur through written sources the penetration goes by means of: 1) special terminology, 2) press, 3) intensive business communication in written form (correspondence), and 4) translation of specialized foreign literature. (We have mentioned only a few of many existing ways of loan lexis penetration). Written borrowings are characterized by greater stability in the corpus of loan lexis, as well as in the phonological and morphological patterns of assimilation in the recipient language. When borrowing process goes through written sources the very process of penetration and assimilation is becoming much more systematic in comparison with similar processes for the borrowings through spoken language. The penetration of foreign lexis into the receiving language can be conditionally classified into six types of written borrowings. This classification is developed by A.V. Superanskaya and represents a fairly complete, although not always indisputable, list of ways and means of adaptation of loan lexis in the recipient language (Superanskaya, 1962: 42). The first of the six ways is a direct borrowing without any change in writing of the loan words. It is possible only if the case of identity of graphic systems between the source and the recipient languages. This can be applied, for example, for the borrowing process from one Western language to another. There are numerous examples of this type of borrowing of finance and economic terminology and this can be revealed while performing a comparative study of Western European languages: − French: arbitrage, bonification, deport, allonge, borderau – English: arbitrage; bonification, deport, allonge, borderau; − German: mark, block, agent, grundism – English: mark, block, agent, grundism; − Spanish: embargo – English: embargo; − Dutch: gulden – English: gulden. The explanation of the fact that in the Western European languages there is a large number of overlapping in writing and in meaning lexical units is, of course, very evident. On the one hand, this is the fact that they are relative languages (e.g., English and German, French and Spanish, etc.) and not always similar in spelling and meaning words must have relations of a loan word and a borrowing word. On the other hand, # 946 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects the widespread use of «internationalisms» – borrowings from Classical Languages. The vast majority of internationalisms in their written form are easily identified in different languages due to the comprehensiveness of their perception and recognition of the adequacy of the general outline, and not the separate parts of the words. For example, − French: assortiment, compagnon – English: assortment, companion; − German: Taxe – English: tax; − Italian: portfogli – French: portfeuille – English: portfolio. Because of the differences between graphic systems the Russian language and the Western European languages it is not possible to talk about such a way of penetration of loan words into the Russian language. The second way of borrowing is transliteration. According to A.V. Superanskaya “transliteration is transformation of graphemes of one written language by means of graphemes of another standardized written language” [Superanskaya, 1962: 36]. From the point of view of the author “transliteration is used in some special cases and should not be widely applied in general situations” (ibid.). Such an understanding of transliteration leads to the fact that this term defines a conditional code through which you can not learn the phonemic system of the donor language and which at best can give an unambiguous re-transliteration. Possible confusion of the notion of the term “transliteration” leads to the fact that the researchers who study the penetration of borrowed lexis are not unanimous in the definition of that term. Thus, the G.I. Donidze insists that while transliterating we can not go beyond the existing alphabet (Donidze, 1976: 3339). At the same time A.V. Superanskaya declares the existence of a certain code system that is able to include characters of other alphabetic systems (Superanskaya, 1962). Due to the fact that the terminology of finance and economic activity is a lexical system significantly close to general language, the search for any particular elements that inherent for this particular terminological system, does not make sense. You can simply designate symbols that common to many terminological systems, such as: «S», «P», being mostly specific for Mathematics. The third way – a practical transcription – is defined as a strictly limited by the graphemes of the recipient written language. This term is closely associated with the term “transliteration” with different meanings attributed to it by different authors. Such a transfer should be used for general language, because a common reader rejects any deviation from the habitual practice of writing, any changes as compared with the existing alphabet are not clear and not appropriate. Whatever term we use, we must admit that this approach is the most productive regardless of whether the interacting graphic systems are similar or not. A great number of examples (English: ad valorem – Russian «ад валорем»; Italian: Girante – Russian: жирант; Spanish: Cargo – English: cargo – Russian: карго, etc.) confirms that this way of borrowing is the most productive, when there is an objective need for a new word, and, respectively, the concept in the recipient language. The fourth way – the academic transcription, phonetic and phonemic, is used only in specific, well-defined cases in specialized literature. Again irrelevance of this path of borrowing for the financial and economic terms gives us the opportunity to leave it without attention. One of the productive ways of lexical system enrichment by means of loan words (not only terminology, but also general vocabulary) is the morphological transfer of a foreign word with the help of forms specific for the grammar of the recipient language # 947 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects Comparison of correlating terms of financial and economic lexis in different languages shows a significant number of matches between the socalled international morphological components. Most of these morphological components back to the Latin and Greek languages (accumulation, economist, deflator, финансист, кредитор, etc.). The practice of borrowing of lexical units into the Russian language very often reveals that foreign language morphological element is replaced by the already existing in the language «more traditional» morphological structure. (See: English: liquidity, adequacy – Russian: ликвидность, адекватность, etc.). Recently, the completion of the adopted economic terminology has been realized due to the penetration of English language words, which replenish the Russian language with derivational constructions. Such words as «маркетинг», «лизинг», «процессинг», etc. have become so common that they can be met even in nonspecial literature. Thus we can assume that the morphological element «-инг», which previously did not show any word-building activity, will be able to act as an active morphological model in a certain period of time. The sixth way of penetration of borrowed vocabulary is realized through lexical “transfer,” that is, full or partial translation. Lexical “transfer” is practiced widely, but this method does not introduce innovations in the language in terms of designation. So, having studied some ways of penetration into the recipient language of financial and economic terms from foreign languages, we can make some generalizations. First of all, we must once again reiterate the postulate that any terminology is being developed in accordance with the general laws of language and subjects to the requirements of its unification and adaptability. Borrowing of economic terms is also subject to these requirements. Considering the productivity of the ways of the borrowing process, we can identify as being particularly active – a direct borrowing, practical transcription (or transliteration) and morphological transfer. Academic transcription and transliteration (as defined by A.V. Superanskaya) cannot be called as active paths, since they themselves are limited in use and cannot be taken in the common language of everyday communication. The undertaken linguistic analysis shows that today the completion of terminological system is an irreversible process. No matter how individual scientists advocate for the “purity” of the language, no matter how they demand to eradicate Anglicisms from the Russian language, they have to accept the ongoing processes that take place in completion of terminological systems. Didactic Aspect of Lexical Borrowing The mentioned above linguistic features affect the process of foreign language teaching, in particular, the process of teaching studentsfuture economists and experts in financial and credit spheres. Terminological lexis is a constant component constituting the content of foreign language teaching. Its composition and quantity are characterized by the curriculum, as far as qualitative attributes of terminology require specific approach as compared to the general vocabulary. The processes that contribute to the development of terminological systems influence the compositional characteristics of the selected terminological units. Consequently, there is a need for periodic review of selected terms, the completion of this terminological pool with new (borrowed) units, whose status in the terminological system of the language is scientifically proven and approved by standards and not only by usage. This replenishment necessitates withdrawal from # 948 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects the terminological system (compensation factor) of a certain amount of units that are less important or obsolete. Consequently we can say that the theory of terminological borrowings considerably affects the decision making process concerning the formation of the list of terms required for the teaching process. Another methodological aspect that undergoes the influence of this theory is directly connected with the process of presentation and semantization of such borrowed terminological units. This process appears to have a profound cultural or rather cross-cultural potential. Using information about the origin of the term, its etymology in the donor language (e.g. French for English, English for Russian, etc.) allows to “intercrossing” the elements of professional cultures. The student is becoming empirically aware of the level of development of his professional area in different countries. This is especially important for professionals in such a specialization as “World economy”. There is penetration into the professional world of another country, understanding of global integration processes in the economy and financial activity. All this is aimed at the development of a professional cross-cultural mentality, being significant in the contemporary context of intercultural communication. In addition to global changes in the substructure of the personality consciousness we can see and realize the smaller but no less important for learning a foreign language processes that are more of pragmatic value. Through the understanding of the essence of such a phenomenon as a lexical borrowing, the causes that lead to irreversibility of that process, the knowledge of the basic patterns and the ability to predict the most likely ways of integrating of new foreign-language terms in the lexical system of the recipient language will allow the student to grasp (to realize, process, fix in memory) the loan terms. And this is the first step in the active use of such terms, free operation with them in the process of professional communication, in the realization of international cooperation. To illustrate the implementation of such potential features of the theory of terminological borrowing, we give examples of exercises that can be used in the presentation, and initial activation of new terminological units. − Pay attention to the underlined words within the given text. Think of their origin. What language are they borrowed from? − Compare the words in columns and match them. Think about their similarity and identity. − Explain the reasons for penetration into the Russian language of the following terms: “leasing”, “ franchising”, “tolling”. Use your knowledge of special disciplines. − Imagine the possible ways of borrowing into the Russian language of the following terms “merchant bank”, “annuity”, “ultimate downfall”. These examples demonstrate the viability and pragmatic value of such assignments. As we can see, there is a possibility to create an integrated system (series) of exercises aimed at training students to understand, translate, and correctly interpret terminological borrowings and to operate them. Conclusion Thus, on the basis of our reasoning, we can conclude that in the process of teaching a foreign language terminology students must be focused on the ways and means of terminological borrowings. This is an interesting (entertaining, motivational) method of work, it is meaningful both in a narrow (methodological) sense, and in a broad (didactical) aspect. # 949 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Lexical Borrowings: Linguistic and Didactic Aspects References M.N. Volodina. Cognitive and Informational Nature of the Term (on the material of terminology of mass media). (М.: MSU Publishing House, 2000). A.V. Superanskaya. Lexical Borrowing and Practical Transcription. (М.: Аcademy of Science of the USSR, 1962). G.I. Donidze. “The Most Important Problems of the Transfer of Non-Russian Toponyms of the Soviet Union”. Toponymy and Historical Geography. (М., 1976). Лексические заимствования: лингвистический и лингводидактический аспекты Б.В. Тарев Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Россия 101000, Москва, ул. Мясницкая, 20 Данная статья посвящена исследованию процессов проникновения заимствованной лексики в принимающий язык. Представлены приемы обучения студентов анализу заимствований и их использованию в процессе иноязычного общения. В качестве материала исследования рассматривается финансово-экономическая терминология. Определены типы лексического заимствования и виды дидактических заданий, нацеленных на усвоение студентами данных терминологических единиц. Ключевые слова: терминология, лексическое заимствование, заимствованные слова, обучение иностранному языку. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 951-957 ~~~ УДК 316.453 Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity Olga F. Neskryabina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 1.09.2011, received in revised form 6.11.2011, accepted 16.12.2011 This article is devoted to the analysis of essence and structure of ethnic consciousness. In modern ethnology has been widely accepted idea that ethnic self-awareness is the major ethnoforming factor. According to the author, the essence of ethnos consists in that value which has for ethnophors their ethnicity. The ethnic self-awareness should be considered in unity of its main components. These are: sense of feeling of the ethnic belonging, expressing specific character of an ethnic community; signs of ethnic self-identification and psychosemantics of ethnic feeling – its personal sense. The major ethnoforming factor is recognition of value of blood-relationship ties, which signs are: ethnonym, language, cultural community, etc. These cultural phenomena act as the signs indicating a community of an origin that doesn’t belittle their value as force consolidating ethnic communities. Mentality or national character doesn’t belong to signs of ethnoidentity, firstly, owing to the semantic uncertainty; secondly, because concerning many ethnoses idea of features of national character is the result of an external assessment. Psychosemantics of ethnic sense is its emotional content, a place in system of values of this individual, correlation to the motivating sphere. The feeling of love and attachment as manifestation «We-motivation» is more preferable in comparison with a pride, as manifestation of motivation of self-affirmation. Keywords: ethnos, ethnic identity, signs of an ethnic origin, psychosemantics of ethnic sense, motivation of ethnoidentity. In a modern scientific and publicistic discourse a problem of essence of ethnos and ethnic identity continues to remain actual. Many researchers proceed from conviction of impossibility to understand essence of ethnic relation out of the analysis of meaning, which in it is put by subjects of the ethnorelations. National consciousness as an ethnoforming factor is attached great importance in world ethnology. According to A.I.Bochkarev, «a * 1 question about what everyone calls his people, nation, tribe, in what he sees his difference from neighbors, but the main thing – what meaning each person puts in an answer to this question – this is the problem of ethnic diagnostics not solved still» (Bochkarev, 2008: 45). It seems that it is a problem not only diagnostics, but also the essence of ethnic relations. It doesn’t mean that the answer to a question about meaning of ethnic origin lies on a surface ordinary Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 951 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity consciousness. The subjective psychological reality, as it is known from experience of development of psychology and sociology, isn’t transparent neither for practical, nor for reflective consciousness and ethological knowledge is constructed on the same methodology as other humanitarian theories. The cultural studies paradigm is still dominated in an approach to defi nition of essence of ethnos. «Modern science – writes V.A. Tishkov, – considers ethnicity as a «sense of belonging to a group of people who are different from others by culture» (Tishkov, 2005: 167). Usually a set of distinctive features includes self-name of group, language, historical myth, religion, some features of material and spiritual culture (In the same place; Lebedeva, 1999: 18). It`s necessary to make an important clarification to this characteristic: historical myth represents a myth about common origin of group. In this case, essential feature of ethnos which, in our opinion, the idea and feeling of relationship is, is included in a set of distinctive features. 1. Meaning of a sense of an ethnic origin or essence of ethnos It`s universally recognized that availability of own name is obligatory feature of ethnos, having important ethnoconsolidating value, but different meaning is attached to this value. There are different interpretations of the question: what is the nature of the relations, which are designated by this own name. Y.V. Bromley is one of the leading domestic ethnologists, he considered that ethnonym is an external reference and culture, language et cetera are behind of its. Y.V. Bromley considered recognition of relationship as the main ethnoforming as manifestation of biologization approach (Bromley, 1983: 45). Certainly accessory to a certain culture is an important factor, and in some cases it gains paramount importance. It is known that many ethnic Germans who were living in Russia for a long time, considered themselves as Russian people. However in such situations the fact is important that not individual, but a family, and, as a rule, rooted in Russian culture in several generations became a part of Russian culture. But the most important thing when evaluating this kind of evidence is that the ethnic origin essentially is the dynamic characteristic. If you use metaphor language, the ethnos is not blood, but «voice of blood». A sense of ethnic community of personality is no more not less stable than the sense of family identity. Lapidary and, in our opinion, exact definition of ethnos belongs to S.N. Bulgakov. In his opinion, national is spiritual-blood-relationship ties (Bulgakov, 1992). This formulation isn`t about addition of two factors – cultural and natural, but about spiritual sense of blood ties, about sacrality of the relationship. Endoetnonim indicates and fixes these ties. The name of the people makes one semantic number with a patrimonial name – with a surname. Extent of identification of the personality with a family and with ethnos undoubtedly, different. Though there are individuals, for whom the family name is the same empty phrase, as the name of the nation. Ethnicity can be transformed, change its original meaning under the influence of certain historical circumstances. So, in process of expansion of limits there was a sacralization of the Russian state. «Russian ceased to be the ethnic characteristic and became state: everything that serves prosperity of the Orthodox state, is Russian» (Lurye, 1997: 276). However, hardly it is possible to speak about complete substitution of sense of identity, at least, at household level. Spirituality of idea of blood relationship about which S.N. Bulgakov speaks, is a cult of memory of the ancestors, which is a universal cultural # 952 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity value. The antiquity in itself has sacral meaning for the person. Why is a bunch «ancient means sacred» formed in the mind – is other question, but its existence doesn’t demand proofs. As to its relation to a problem of ethnic consciousness, it`s not obviously and needs explanations. The idea of ethnos as blood-relationship ties was discussed and exposed to criticism in many researches. It`s much written about subjectivity of criterion of relationship, its dependence on random factors. It does matter, that the degree of relationship doesn’t give in to the strict account, though real breakthrough is carried out last time in this area. But it’s not the point. Possibilities of measurement is a problem of a science, instead of that reality in which the science is engaged. Effectiveness of criticism of the theory of relationship, in our opinion, is reduced by the fact that any of other signs of ethnos doesn’t possess most definiteness. Opponents of the idea of relationship as the main ethnoforming ties resort to such argument: if people don’t know about the biological relationship, it doesn’t influence the relations between them. That in itself is true, but thus proves nothing. It so happens that relatives don’t know about the relationship and don’t form a family group. But whether it is possible to deduce the statement from this fact: «the family isn`t a community based on the blood relationship»? If people don’t know about the historical relationship, it means that there`s no one certain ethnos. But in some cases, they know, and this number contains so many units, how many the people exist on Earth. The relations of relationship aren’t so simple, as those who isn’t inclined to give to them ethnoforming value, probably, consider. Two families became related, it means that the following generation will have common genes. For this generation this affinity has just spiritual character, «bloodness» contains in it, so to speak, potentially. This is not the unique example of that the reality of our selfness exists in the present only potentially, as reality of the represented future. The same applies to ethnoses. Initially far, subsequently they can become related and form new ethnos, such as, Brazilians, Cubans, etc. The existence of these peoples doesn’t undermine idea of blood relationship, as it sometimes seems. The process of ethnogenesis goes constantly, and it is accompanied by unstable identity, an abundance of “floating” ethnoconsciousness, that creates both practical (psychological) and theoretical difficulties. For some reason when speech about ethnoses as related community, counterarguments are derived not from the actual relations of people, their psychology or speech practice, but from the «academic» situations: how to defi ne degree of relationship in ethnos, whether it is possible to establish genotypic similarities, etc. In quite specific situations people need an analysis of the genome for establishment relationship in the solution of family problems. So why accuracy in establishment ethnic relationship should excite us? Certainly, this problem represents scientific interest, but it is not necessary to put sense of the human relations in dependence on its decision. The value of ethnic origin for the man is a value of his roots. In contrast to the biological term «ontogeny» designating borders of individual human life, «biography» means that human life doesn’t begin with the birth moment, but continues as a fact of the biography of his parents and primogenitors. And only in this semantic continuum the feeling of the immortality among the subsequent generations is possible. So we see the spirituality of blood-relationship ties. Vocabulary indicates about the psychological community of family and national ties and that fixes these relations: «relatives», «people», «homeland». # 953 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity 2. Signs of ethnic identification and self-identification The ethnic consciousness is a complex system including the main substructures, which are: • meaning a sense of ethnic identity (in a translation into language of ethnology is an essence of ethnos); • signs of ethnic identification and selfidentification; • psychosemantics of ethnic sense. The community of language, territory, economic life, mentality, traditions, etc. – these realities which are usually treated as ethnoforming factors, in our opinion, are the signs of ethnic self-identification indicating the relations of relationship. Belonging to any ethnos is the fact of consciousness of the individual that, of course, doesn’t mean randomness of ethnoidentity. Man needs signs of his nationality, the signs by which he could judge himself as a representative of a certain ethnos. The primary sign of ethnoidentity is for the individual ethnic origin of his family. The important sign role belongs to national language though many researchers note its uncertainty as a sign of an ethnic origin. In fact, the person cannot speak in language of the nation, that doesn’t prevent him to identify himself to this ethnos. However it`s essentially important that national language exists as language on which relatives speak, or it existed as language of ancestors. These notions – not always distinct and verbalized – is only symbols of deeper, but less realized value what «relationship ties» is. The meaning so-called «a territorial sign» is same. The common place of residence isn`t important in the present, but in the past, as a sign of the general origin, the general historical destiny. Though in the present the aspiration to compact accommodation is natural for an ethnic community. In some cases the choice of a nationality depends on the factors which are not concerning to system of ethnoforming indications. In families where parents have a different ethnic origin, children can make a choice between two identities, for the reasons known only for them one. Equally as they can change the ethnic origin or divide it between several cultures (Tishkov, 2005: 167). Signs of an ethnic origin can operate in system, but can – and separately. In different circumstances, their relative importance varies. Sign character of language, cultural traditions, etc. doesn’t exclude that they have independent consolidating value. There are bases to allocate in system of indications of ethnos more and less stable components (Koptseva, 2011). Some authors carry a mentality of a nation or national character to indications of ethnos (Khomutov, 2003: 269). We think that it is not necessary to consider this formation as one of signs of ethnoidentity which are language, cultural traditions, etc. The matter is that the concept of national character is quite uncertain (Kon, 1971). The special mentality is inherent not in all ethnoses equally that is defined by historical destiny of ethnos and what ethnoses with it cooperate. Not casually ethnologists prefer to speak not about character of the nation, but about the ethnic stereotypes existing concerning various different ethnic formations (Stepanov, 1999; Pochebut, 2012). The concept «stereotype» contains uncertainty of its objective and subjective relatedness. There are still reasons for which the national character should not be attributed to ethnoidentification factors. Even close ethnoses, which are the Scandinavian people, tend to be ironic in relation to each other (Gundelach, 2000). Hardly truly to consider that, say, Swedes include those stereotypes which are expressed in the jokes which are released to their address by Danes or Norwegians in the complex of ethnic indications. And in case of a critical # 954 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity spirit in relation to character of the own ethnos, the effect «I`m another matter» considerably proves. Conversation that Russian badly behave abroad, usually assumes that speaking, being Russian, doesn’t carry this criticism to himself. As a rule, it has the bases to consider, because negative image is created on the basis of behavior of minority of people. If the individual identifies himself with positive features (real or imagined) of his ethnos, it shows personal sense of his ethnoidentification. 3. Personal meaning of ethnoidentity Like other psychological structures, the ethnoconsciousness of the personality accepts various individual values in dynamic (intensity) and in content (psychosemantics) aspects. Psychosemantics of ethnic sense is its emotional content, a place in system of values of this individual, correlation to the motivating sphere – everything that it`s possible to generalize in concept «personal meaning of ethnoidentity». The personal meaning is understood as the relation of the subject to the world. A form of its manifestation may be a «emotional coloring of this or that object, extramental precepts» (Petrenko, 1997: 50). Ethnic senses are emotions and moods expressing the relation to actually ethnic reality, commitment to national values (Platonov, 2001: 106). The dynamic aspect of a complex of ethnoidentity in usual social conditions has small values of size. There are researches in which it is shown that similarity of a personal orientation creates between people closer relations, than their same ethnoidentity (Okoneshnikova, 1999: 221). In the conditions of the conflicts, wars and other social shocks intensity of national senses increases sharply. Psychosemantics of ethnoidentity, in our opinion, reveals a role (value) of ethnoidentity in system of personal motivation and regulation of activity. Accessory of any social community satisfies certain needs of the individual and shows, on the one hand, meaning of identification with group, with another hand – individual structure of his motivational sphere. A sense of ethnic relationship can be means to satisfaction of all requirements inherent in the person, but more it is connected with motivation of safety, need for accessory certain «We» and with motivation of self-affirmation – «I-motivation». The least valuable, from the point of view of moral criteria, the option of personal meaning of ethnoidentity is a personal self-affirmation. When the ethnic sense gives to the person feeling of own importance at the expense of belonging to great (rich, ancient, original, etc.) national culture. In this case emotion of pride is prevailing. The personal meaning of ethnoidentity is presented by the relation senses of national love and pride. Pride – the feeling lifting us over other people. It means comparison, attention emphasis on own advantages, the jealous relation to another’s successes. In contrast to the pride, love is the feeling which is not demanding rational justification. Power of maternal love doesn’t depend on advantages and perfection of the child and if depends, it`s not maternal love, but something absolutely other. I love my people, not because it`s better, stronger, etc., etc., but because this is my people – such position more humanly and more difficult to stay on it. Other more is peculiar to people: to consider that the events in the culture is naturally and to operate that members of your group were the winner. The list towards pride easily leads to nationalism, but «the nationalism is how patriotism is reprehensible» (Bulgakov, 1991: 183). As researchers note, in many cultures there is a tendency of an identification national and state (Ryan, 1995: 3). It is possible to assume that # 955 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity one of the reasons of this phenomenon consists in understanding of importance of patriotic education, as in the case of military conflict people should protect the state, not relatives. It is thought, this, apparently, pragmatical argument, not quite works, as qualities of the defender of the fatherland are quality moral, they depend not only and even not so much on ethnoidentification, how many from values of fidelity, honor, advantage formed in a family. Conclusions: 1. Basic elements of system of ethnoconsciousness are: the meaning of sense of ethnic origin, expressing specifics of an ethnic community; signs of ethnic self-identification and psychosemantics of ethnic sense, its personal sense. 2. The main ethnoforming factor, according to the author, is the consciousness and emotional experience of bloodrelationship ties. A semantic core is not the blood relationship as that, but idea of relationship, value of the family kinship relations. 3. Indications (signs) of an ethnic community are: ethnonym, language, religion, cultural community, etc. 4. The mentality or national character doesn’t belong to signs of ethnoidentity. Firstly, owing to the semantic uncertainty; secondly, because concerning many ethnoses idea of features of national character grows out of an external evaluation. 5. Personal meaning of ethnoidentity is manifested that as what means of satisfaction of requirements belonging to an ethnic community serves. The sense of national pride manifests motivation of selfaffirmation, a sense of love and affection – the motivation of accession. The ability to protect the interests of the nation depends on moral qualities of the individual. References V.P. Alekseev, Ethnogenesis (Moscow: High School, 1986), in Russian. A.I. Bochkarev, Fundamental bases of ethnogenesis (Moscow: Flinta: MPSI, 2008), in Russian. Y.V. Bromley, Essays of the theory of ethnos (Moscow: Nauka, 1983), in Russian. S.N. Bulgakov, Nation and humanity, the chosen compositions in 2 volumes, volume 2 (Moscow: Pravda, 1992), in Russian. S.N. Bulgakov, Christian socialism: Disputes on destinies of Russia (Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian office, 1991), in Russian. P. Gundelach, “Joking Relationships and National Identity in Scandinavia”, Acta Sociologica. Journal of the Scandinavial Sociological Assoc, Vol. 43, № 2 (2000). 113-122. L.M. Drobizheva, “Identity and ethnic precepts of Russian in the own and ino-ethnical environment”, Socis, 12 (2010), 49-58, in Russian. O. B. Istomina, “About types ethnic identity”, Socis, 11 (2011), 61-65, in Russian. A.E.Khomutov, Anthropology (Rostov on Don: Phoenix, 2003), in Russian. I.S. Kon, To a problem of national character (Moscow: Nauka, 1971), in Russian. N.P. Koptseva, “Classical and modern approaches to ethnocultural researches. The core of ethnos”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities and social sciences, 5 (2011 4), 615-632. N. Lebedeva, Introduction to ethnic and cross-cultural psychology (Moscow: Klyuch-S, 1999), in Russian. # 956 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga F. Neskryabina. Ethnic Consciousness: Personal Sense and Signs of Ethnoidentity S.V. Lurye, Historical ethnology (Moscow: Aspect Press, 1997), in Russian. A.P. Okoneshnikova, Interethnic perception and understanding people of each other (Perm: Zvezda, 1999), in Russian. V.F. Petrenko, Bases of psychosemantics (Moscow: Publishing house of the Moscow university, 1997), in Russian. Y.P. Platonov, Ethnic psychology (St. Petersburg: Rech, 2001), in Russian. L.G. Pochebut, Cross-cultural and ethnic psychology (St. Petersburg: Piter, 2012), in Russian. S. Pyan, Ethnic Conflict and International Relations (Dartmouth, 1995). Z.V. Sikevich, National consciousness of Russian (sociological sketch) (Moscow: Mekhanic, 1996), in Russian. P.D. Stepanov, Ethnopsychology in practice of the public servant (Nizhni Novgorod, 1999), in Russian. V.A. Tishkov, Ethnology and Politics: articles of 1989-2004 (Moscow: Nauka, 2005), in Russian. Этническое сознание: личностный смысл и знаки этноидентичности О.Ф. Нескрябина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена анализу сущности и структуры этнического сознания. В современной этнологии получила широкое признание идея о том, что этническое самосознание является основным этнообразующим фактором. По мнению автора, сущность этноса состоит в том значении, которое имеет для этнофоров их принадлежность к этнической группе. Этническое самосознание следует рассматривать в единстве его основных компонентов. Таковыми являются: смысл чувства этнической принадлежности, выражающий специфику этнической общности; знаки этнической самоидентификации и психосемантика этнического чувства - ее личностный смысл. Основным этнообразующим фактором является признание ценности кровнородственной связи, признаками которой являются: этноним, язык, культурная общность и т.п. Данные культурные феномены выступают в роли знаков, указывающих на общность происхождения, что не умаляет их значения как силы консолидирующей этнические общности. К знакам этноидентичности не относится психический склад, или национальный характер, вопервых, в силу своей семантической неопределенности; во-вторых, потому, что в отношении многих этносов представление о чертах национального характера является результатом внешней оценки. Психосемантика этнического чувства – это, его эмоциональное наполнение, место в системе ценностей данного индивида, соотнесенность с мотивирующей сферой. Чувство любви и привязанности как проявление «Мы-мотивации» является более предпочтительным по сравнению с чувством гордости, как проявлением мотивации самоутверждения. Ключевые слова: этнос, этническая идентичность, знаки этнической принадлежности, психосемантика этнического чувства, мотивация этноидентичности. # 957 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 958-969 ~~~ УДК 60.021 Integrated Model of Media Space Sergey I. Shelonaev* Russian Pedagogical University, S.Petersburg 48 Moika, S.-Petersburg, 191186 Russia 1 Received 31.12.2011, received in revised form 7.01.2012, accepted 25.01.2012 The article presents the results of a sociological analysis of the concept «media space». Media space is regarded as a special part of the social space. Analysis is based on the theory of social space P. Bourdieu. Shown that the media space can be described as complex of fields with their own rules and schemes of domination. Media agents are owners of various forms of capital, which is used to strengthen its position in the media space. Presents the integrated model of media space. Identified the following fields of media space: field of production information, field of economy, field of journalism, field of information consumers. Keywords: Media space;media-agents; topological map; multidimensional social space The “paradigmatic shift” is taking place in sociology, as well as in other social sciences currently. It's, in a sense, a preparation for the change of fundamental suppositions, forming for scientific community the picture of the world (paradigm). The scientific paradigm is a common system of viewpoints, the frame identifying rules helping to investigate the study object. The historian Th. Kuhn named the period of paradigm change the scientific revolution, that is the non-cumulative stage of scientific development during which the old paradigm is replaced by a new one incompatible with an old one. The change of paradigms is also complicated by the fact, that the society being the object of study undergone cardinal changes during recent 30-40 years. Currently, one cannot deny that the human society has entered the phase of nonlinear crisis development, which * 1 cannot any more be described traditionally as a linear process in the terms of Laplace determinism, primitive cumulative effects and system striving for balanced condition. The multiple growth of human population being a part of unified public system, hypertrophied development of information technologies and mass media insuring inner links of the system, globalization, deepening of division of labour, transformation of the society to phenomenon impacting globally the planet and the ecosystems, all these allow us to talk about growth of principal complication of the society and its proceeding to functioning on the basis of “stable dynamic disbalance” principle. (Knyazeva, Kurdyumov, 1994). From the point of view of the common theory of systems, the modern society can be described as a complicated self-regulating system, functioning non-linear, unbalanced and Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 958 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space occasionally unstable (bifurcation point). Being in that point the system “chooses” unique way of it's further progress influenced by very weak impacts, that is demonstrates non-linear crisis development (leap, catastrophe). At the same time, the bifurcation point can form as a result of increase if spontaneous auto oscillation and as a result of impact on the system of outer forces (Artyukhov, 2009). It demands new methodological approaches to description and study of social reality. One can assume, that the specificity of the current period of “paradigm change” in sociology is the joint influence of two factor groups: 1) accumulation of empiric facts conflicting with traditional structural-functioning paradigm for the description of the society and 2) change of the study object – cardinal complication of the society with its increase of system elements and also increase of the connections between elements. This is how we can explain “paradigmatic“ character of contemporary sociology, that means synchronous being of different ways to describe and learn the society (Ritzer, 2002, Ivanov, 2005). We can easily fi nd this situation in theory and practice of sociological study of mass media. Mass media, traditionally known as the mediator and as the channel of transmission of information between the source of information and mass audience, nowadays has turned into the global media sphere (Vattimo, 2002) – symbolic space that can be characterize as self-sufficient (Bauman, 2005) and it doesn't have any other connections with elements of social reality (Baudrillard, 2000). Practically we have the phenomenon of the social reality and the description of it doesn’t correspond to its complexity. But now we can also meet the works which describe mass communication in “mechanistic” paradigm (Sokolov, 2002). J. Bryant and S. Thompson say “...the model sender\recipient is very easy for description of the large number of nowadays communication processes by the use of media. This model means that communication is coordinated linear succession of events – suggestion that doesn’t already suits the situation with information technologies now. So the new theories are necessary in order to explain using of the new technologies” (Bryant, Thompson, 2004). In our opinion the adequate answer on the “methodological call” and the necessity of searching new concept foundations for sociological study of the mass media can be “social typology” of the French sociologist P. Bourdieu. Bourdieu suggests to learn the society as the space of specific type – social space. Bourdieu named his theory “social typology” as the society has the characteristic of continuity. The continuity is realized as the form of connection and it is an important characteristics of typological space. The social space has a field structure and shows a multidimentional ensemble of relatively autonomous fields (economic, political, cultural, etc). Social agents (in terminology of Bourdieu) can be positioned in different fields at the same time and so provide the connection between fields and social space. Different fields are described as the fields that are lying in different parts of the space inside common multidimentional space. The fields are different in size and strength which show its hierarchy and subordination. Some fields are the sub-fields of others. For example, the fields of literature and science are the fields of the symbolical reproduction. Differences and borders between social fields are determined by the measure of connection. It is important to say that borders of the field are the parts of low social interaction. A competition for the resources provides internal connection and dynamics of the field # 959 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space that are the most important in this field. So the competition provides the intensive social interaction. Other important categories if the “social typology” are “capital” and “habitus”. So we can say that there is the competition for the capital . The capital has a value as the position of an agents is determined by it. The main forms of the capital are 1. economic capital (material objects); 2. cultural capital (education, for example); 3. social capital; 4. symbolical capital (for example, reputation). Another important thing in the “social typology” is habitus. Habitus is the integral system of dispositions of perception, evaluation, classification and actions. Habitus means the mental representation of individual’s social reality and his position in it. It is formed by the social practice of individual. Also it is system of common social attitudes and stereotypes that helps to orientate spontaneously in social space. The habitus can be individual and collective. We can say that “capital” and “habitus” add each other. Nowadays we live in society that is full of mass median and information. Many scientists say that the main feature of society is the development of the fourth information sector of economy which follows agriculture, industry and service. In this sector mass media has its priority. In our times “the media space” is actively learned by sociology. One of the common descriptions is: “a media space” is the specific reality that is the part of social space and it organizes social practice and ideas of agents which are involved in system of production and consumption of information (Yudina, 2008). We should define that social practice influences on social space making the structure of it according to values, dispositions, images, preferences and other things of social agents that live in the space of media. It is really true as the main function of mass media is to influence on the audience and agents of the social fields that are not involved in media space. According to Bourdieu we can expose the following relationships between media space and physical and social space. 1. A media space as the part of social space projects social constructions on physical space. 2. A media space as a part of social space represents and interprets this space 3. A media space as the specific part of social space projects social constructions on other subspaces and fields of social space. So we can propose the following description. A media space is relatively autonomous multidimentional part of social space which organizes social practice and ideas of agents that are involved in system of production and consumption of mass information. A media space is structured by social space and represents it. This description present the following special features: 1. The media space is totality of social fields of different nature. 2. The media space has a relative autonomy in social spaces it has common objective of involved fields – production and consumption mass of information. 3. The connection between fields and parts of fields that are in media space higher than between them and fields that are not in media space. 4. The social agents represented in media space are active an have specific capital and habitus. So that mediaagents realize specific social practices peculiar to media space and translate them outside this media space making the structure of social and physical spaces. We may face with difficulties trying to define exactly the external borders of media space. One thing we can admit definitely that the border of media space lies between the fields of limited and mass information production, which may be considered as unique parts of symbolic # 960 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space amenities production. Uncertainty of borders in media space is determined by the number of circumstances. Firstly, it’s a “fuzziness” of the border between the fields of limited and mass production. We have indicated that Bourdieu introduces a special coordinate of social fields: autonomy – heteronomy. “The field of production is obliged by its structure to the opposition between, on the one hand, to the field of limited production as a system manufacturing symbolic amenities, which are objectively intended for the circle of manufacturers; on the other hand, to the field of mass production of symbolic amenities intended for general public. In contradistinction from the mass production field, which is attempted to the law of competitive struggle for the larger market invasion, the field of limited production strives to create its production norms and criteria of evaluation of its production itself” (Bourdieu, 1993). As we see, the fields of limited and mass information production principally differ by the specificity of functioning, social practice, composition of capital, rules of regulation. In the paper “The market of symbolic production” French scientist researches relationship between these two fields in detail. Particularly Bourdieu injects the term «fields of recognition institution». The main function of these institutes is legitimization. “The instances of cultural conservation and recognition guarding the cultural orthodoxy, i.e. defending the sphere of legally sound culture from the competitive ideas manufactured by the field of limited production as the field of mass production as well, which may cause protest and dissent reactions among different categories of public…” (Bourdieu,1993). Then Bourdieu says about the “communication rupture” and the necessity of code conversion of information from the legitimate language of limited production to the language of mass production field. Thus, there is a zone of weak connectivity between the fields of limited and mass production, where code conversion takes place, and recognition instances carry out the agreement between the information created in different fields. And if the legitimization may be realized inside the fields of production, the function of code conversion of information for the purpose of mass production and consumption becomes the function of agents handling social practice which are peculiar to the media space. That is to say, it is a part of media space positioned as “grey zone” of weak connectivity between the fields of limited and mass production. Secondly, the production of mass information is considerably influenced by the means of material and technical provision of media activity. In concordance with the famous Herbert M. McLuhan’s aphorism “the mean of communication is the message”, material form of symbolic information created in media space has a important sense for the implementation of media aims. We may talk about that fact the features of technical means influence the arrangement of information and included in information as particular symbols of itself. On the other hand, the media agents’ needs transform technical means of information translation and define the progress in this sphere. Thereby, the peculiarities of technology define the structure of media, and modern variety of means of content producing and delivery defines uncertainty of media space borders. Thirdly, media agents may importantly go out of the borders of their social fields in their social practice themselves. For example, research journalism, where the journalist uses for his professional purposes the means traditionally attached by law-enforcement agencies (Tertychnyi, 2002). Nevertheless, even such specific activity is performed for achievement of journalist’s professional aims. So, media agent # 961 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space Fig. 1. Integrated model of media space demonstrating not characteristic for him social practice stays the part of media space. Aforesaid allows us to conclude that the media space is not restricted only by mass information production, but it’s slightly wider then it and has a border of a different compactness and certainty in different parts. As we see in the Fig. 1, the topological structure of media space includes the aggregate of fields of symbolic production in that part, where these fields are able to implement the production of mass information; a field of journalism; governing contour outline represented by the field of economics and a field of consumers of media products, which becomes an object of media influence. Meanwhile, only fields of journalism and consumers are included in the media space entirely. Totality of fields of symbolic production includes the following essential fields: politics, art, jurisprudence, advertising and PR (integrated marketing communications), science and religion. All of these fields represent the groups of fields of lower level, coherence of which is stronger than above, in virtue of the habituses and structures of capital of agents of the fields are close. F. ex., the great number of fields of certain sciences and groups of sciences (humanitarian and natural sciences) are included in the field of science, and it doesn’t prevent to keep the integrity of practice. Let’s make a concrete example. Sociology born in XIX century as a natural science (social physics) has passed a great way of development. Today is already hard to answer the question, is sociology a humanitarian or natural science, unambiguously, but there is no doubt that it’s a science. At the same time, if to concede that the social development is aught determined by God’s will, this sociology loses legitimating as a science and moves to the religion field. The majority of above-mentioned fields are sufficiently minutely described in the papers of Bourdieu (Bourdieu, 2005). De minimis he described the field of advertizing and PR. However, detailed research of this field is represented in the paper of French sociologist J. Baudrillard # 962 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space (Baudrillard, 2006). It’s very important for our analysis, that all of the fields of symbolic production have autonomous and heteronomous zone and they are included in media space only by their heteronomous part. Moreover, the part of these fields directly “whips” to the field of journalism, making almost invisible the border between the journalist and an expert representing one of the fields of symbolic production. Famous French sociologist L. Pinto called them “mediatic intellectuals” in the article “Intellectual doxa”. In his opinion, the main peculiarity of these “media-intellectuals” is their desire for the “newness”, meaning only sensationalism de facto. One of features pulling together all of these doxa producers is their interest to “newness”, or, leastwise, to something that easily identified with such a way of plugging. Intellectualization of journalistic discourse correlate with the introducing to the universe the ideas of sensationalism… The most intellectual of these new producers of “knowledge” find sudden opportunity in the origination of “newness” to become déclassé the most authorized intellectuals whose authority threatened them for a long time (L. Pinto, 1996). On the scientist’s opinion, there is a symbolic exchange between the journalists and media-intellectuals: journalists legitimize their interpretation of social facts with the help of intellectuals; intellectuals receive from the journalists audience and the evidence of meaningfulness, which goes out the circle of specialists. By that the effect of “accumulation of relatively dissimilar capitals” is achieved. Bourdieu calls the mediatic intellectuals “fastthinkers” who “thinks faster than their own shadow” and “offers the cultural fast-food” (Bourdieu, 2002). The other proof of including heterotomous part of fields of symbolic production in the field of journalism is the fact that a number of famous journalists become positioning themselves as historians, economists, political scientists, etc. in media space. In terms of conception of social capital it’s explainable easily. Journalists and experts have different structure of capital and in they tend to build up their own capital at the expense of other media agents’ capital the fighting for the position in media space. The field of journalism takes a central place in topological scheme of media space represented on the Fig. 1. Let’s note that this place is occupied by the journalism not only because this field has the most influential capital, but, first of all, because the coordination of all agents’ activity included in media space is implemented exactly through this field. As the other fields, the field of journalism contains autonomic and heteronomis zone. The last one includes journalists carrying out public actions in media space and operating as personified media agents: announcers, commentators, media analysts, observers etc. We may refer to this group mediatic intellectuals as well. It’s right to include to this cohort personified bloggers. Autonomic zone includes journalists not carrying on public media activity, but realizing social practice of journalism: editors, script writers, copywriters etc. We may single out an intermediate zone of media agents putting into practice public activity anonymously. These persons are most brightly represented in the Internet. In terms of sociology the difference between the members of these zones of field of journalism is in the individual narrative as a mechanism of control of social practice of these media agents and the way of providing of audience’s trust. In the case of personified media agent the production of mass information, on the one hand, restricts him, but, on the other hand, gives different possibilities. Anonymous media agent has different collection of possibilities and restrictions. We may interpret it in the terms of social capital. Personified media agent arouses trust, because he may legitimately rely on his capital # 963 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space accumulated during all social life. In return, anonymous is more free in construction of social capital, because he creates a “virtual personality”. However, this media agent may use only incorporated status of capital (his abilities and reproduced behavior dispositions) creating individual narrative as a social mythology. To understand a real place of field of journalism in the media space structure it’s necessary to define the objective of journalism. There is an idea according to which the essential characteristics of means of mass communication is an introduction to the mass consciousness of defi nite system of meanings, values etc. which are advantageous for some social groups, because it provides their existence. Nowadays, this idea is formed more and clearer in the sociology of means of mass communication. “Satisfying the information needs of mass audience the subjects of mass communication are satisfying their own needs in the influence on this audience” (Gostenina, Kiselev, 2009). The philosopher T. Naumenko analyzed the functions represented in modern papers on theory of journalism in details and came to conclusion, that “the journalism is a system of introduction into the mass consciousness of social assessment of current activity, i.e. assessment of urgent results of practice from the point of interests these or that social groups. … The urgency of these or that events is defi ned by the subject itself bringing in the mass consciousness its assessments” (Naumenko, 2000). It becomes possible because means of mass media satisfy the necessity of getting information for orientation in the environment, which is typical for mass audience. Meanwhile, the other social groups of media space satisfy quiet different necessities as creative, economic or regulatory necessities. On the Fig. 1 we can see the implementation of objective of influence of mass consciousness, which is indexed by the arrow directed at the field of consumers of media production. Conducted analysis allows us to conclude that in the topological model of media space the field of journalism is the field of symbolic production itself and carries out the functions of interpretation (translating information into the codes of mass information production) and coordination of other fields of media space. The field of consumers of media production is an object of other’s fields’ influence. In modern world an adequate socialization, adaptation and current orientation in society is unthinkable without interaction of the human and means of mass communication. Any member of modern society is included in media space as an object of influence. The differences appear only in the degree of involvement and a degree of adherence to these or that fields of symbolic production. Really, you may be not involved in the information streams, the source of which is not a political field, the field of science or religion, but it’s hard to understand the member of modern society who is not involved in field of advertising and mass art at all. The involvement in juridical field represented in media space is an interpretation of, f.ex., changes in labor, pencionary or tax legislation. And it is necessary too, because it directly influences on the urgent practice of social agents. At we see on the Fig. 1, the field of consumers of media production goes out the borders of field of mass production, but it is absolutely included in the media space. It indexes the possibility of including the individual into the media space not through the interaction with means of mass communication, but indirectly, through the “opinion leaders”. The governing outline of media space is organized through the influence of field of economics on the fields of symbolic production. # 964 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space Simplified point of view on the interaction of economics and media is the next. The field of economics transmits into the media space social practice and the habitus of economical agents typical for market economy. “Market system is an economic system controlled and regulated only by markets; an order of production and sharing of items must be absolutely provided by this self-regulating mechanism”. … “Self-regulation means: all produced is for sale in the market and the source of all the profit is the similar acts of sale. So, there are markets for all factors of industrial production, i.e. not only for items (we bear in mind services too), but for labor, land, money; their prices are called commodity prices, salary, rent and percent respectively” (Polanyi, 2002). Indeed, from the point of agents of field of economics, media space is only one of the fields of commercialization functioning on the general principles of free market and competition. So, on the Fig. 1. the field of economics goes out not only the borders of media space, but the borders the field of the symbolic production. But media space cannot be considered exclusively as a part of economic space. Бурдье notices: “Economic competition between the TV channels or printed matters for watchers or readers or, in the other words, for the market shares, is realized in the competition between the journalists. This competition has its special rates: professional reputation, exclusive information, etc. It’s not felt as a specific economic competition for profits, it is subordinated to the conditions connected with the position of this organ in economic, power and symbolic relations” (Bourdieu, 2002). So, the interaction of economic field with the other fields of media space cannot be described as a sum of economic practices. In our opinion the coherence with the field of economics in media space is provided by the relations of dominating and subordination (the relations of power).On the Fig. 1 these relations are indexed by the arrow painted in economic field and directed to the field of journalism, which is considered here as a coordinating instance of media space. M. Weber defined power as a probability of actor’s being in position to realize his social will contrary to the resistance irrespective of the base of this probability. In this definition some features of power are accentuated: 1) the power is not an accessory of individuals, but exists between them; 2) the power must be defined in terms of probability, possibility; 3) any things, qualities, relations may be the base of the power; 4) the power presupposes compulsion to do something in defiance of the others side’s interest. Sociological tradition (Lasswell, Kaplan, Cartwright, Lukes, Giddens etc.) considers the power as a non-central relations and “the relations of null scope”. R. Dahl defines power in the terms of “control over the conduct”: “A” has a power over “B” thus much as it may force “B” to do something he wouldn’t do in the other situation. In Lukes’s opinion, the sphere of power is not limited by the behavior, but includes the control over beliefs and values. Lukes considers that the subject has a power over the object not only when forcing the object to do something he doesn’t want, but when forming his desire. The last statement is the most correct in point of agents of media space. We should appeal to the papers of French philosopher M. Foucault to find out how the economic power realizes in the media space. On the basis of detailed analysis of the history of such social institutes as hospitals, barracks, educational institutions and manufactories in XVIII–XIX centuries the scientist comes to a conclusion that the power regulation of deviant behavior (crime, mental disease, non-fulfilment of the orders, disciplinary breach) is transformed # 965 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space into the indirect, interiorized violence in this period. M. Foucault thinks that the social nature of punishment itself is changed, and, as a result, the power, which is in the middle of XVIII century was too cruel, became more humane up to the second half of the XIX century. Actually, then the new “technology of power” was invented: the body stops to be the subject of deviant behavior and the soul becomes it. Foucault called this new technology “panoptism”, the main feature of which is the transformation of direct violence into the “invisible” power (Foucault, 1999). The model, where this technology of power is the most brightly represented, as Foucault supposes, is the project of Jeremy Bentham “The Panopticon”. Bentham invented the prison of new type: all the cells of ring-shaped prison are illuminated in such way that they were viewed only from the central tower where the only guard could be. The main idea of this prison is: the prisoners don’t know when they are watched and become self-regulated. So, one governs the others staying invisible and depersonalized. The object of control in panoptic is included in the “situation of power” in such way, that the external power becomes interiorized. M. Foucault connects it directly with the appearance the class of bourgeois on the social arena. In addition, the appersonification of power has lead to the appearance of managers as a specific social group realizing the economic power impersonally (Gray, 2008). In our opinion, economic power in media space is realized exactly in this way. Economic violence here has a form of indirect, not personified power (the threat of violence). From the point of topology of media space, the relations of power providing the connection with the field of economics are realized in the next way. As the other fields, the field of economics has its autonomic and heteronomic parts. In the autonomic part the agents not included in the media space act, they use it as one of the ways of commercialization. For example, such agents as banks may be the beneficiaries of economic activity in media space. There are agents of economic fields interacting with media space directly and included in it as a heteronomic part of the field; in our opinion, such agents are the share-holders of media and the clients of advertising and PR-campaigns in media. These agents transmit and partially recode the demand of economic field into the media space. Then this demand with the part of power authorities are given to the management of media and to the journalists positioned in the autonomic part of journalism: chief editors, members of editorial board, etc. The matter of these agents is the subsequent recoding from the language of economics and management to the language of journalism (for example in the form of “editorial politics”) and the providing of the influence on the agents working at the public part of media space. We refer public journalists and mediatic intellectuals here. As far as the power is realized on the principles of “panoptism”, the successful journalists and media-intellectuals form a defi nite skill represented as a necessary part of habitus which is peculiar to the agent working in the field of mass information production. As we pointed earlier, the power is always defined in the terms of probability and possibility. In the other words, the public media person may state a position different from the editorial politics. But, in the conditions of “invisible” power, such behavior may be estimated as deviant and, undoubtedly, it may cause organizational consequences from the blocking of the material by the editor to the closing of the project, withdrawal from the air and dismissial. Let’s note finally, that the topological model of media space elaborated by us is based on the concept of “social topology” of P. Bourdieu and includes not only this thinker’s # 966 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space views, but it was complemented by theoretical ideas of M. Foucault about the essence of powerin modern society and conceptual ideas about the peculiarities of social practice and the role of mediatic intellectuals in the mass information production introduced by L. Pinto. We suppose, this model allows to look at the functioning of means of mass media in the information society in a new way. Conclusions 1. Presents the integrated model of media space. The topological model of media space elaborated by us is based on the concept of “social topology” of P. Bourdieu and includes not only this thinker’s views, but it was complemented by theoretical ideas of M. Foucault about the essence of powerin modern society and conceptual ideas about the peculiarities of social practice and the role of mediatic intellectuals in the mass information production introduced by L. Pinto. 2. Identified the following fields of media space: field of production information, field of economy, field of journalism, field of information consumers. 3. Media agents are owners of various forms of capital, which is used to strengthen its position in the media space. The field of journalism takes a central place in topological scheme of media space represented on the picture, because the coordination of all agents’ activity included in media space is implemented exactly through this field. 4. The media space is totality of social fields of different nature. 2. The media space has a relative autonomy in social spaces it has common objective of involved fields – production and consumption mass of information. 5. The connection between fields and parts of fields that are in media space higher than between them and fields that are not in media space. The social agents represented in media space are active and have specific capital and habitus. So that mediaagents realize specific social practices peculiar to media space and translate them outside this media space making the structure of social and physical spaces. References V.V. Artyukhov, General Systems Theory: Self-organization, sustainability, diversity, crises. (Moscow, LIBROKOM, 2009) – 224 p. in Russian. Z. Bauman, The Individualized Society. (Moscow, Logos, 2005) – 390 p. in Russian. J. Baudrillard, Consumer society. Its myths and the structures. (Moscow, Republic, 2006) – 269 p. in Russian. J. Baudrillard, Symbolic Exchange and Death. (Moscow, Dobrosvet, 2000) – 387 p. in Russian. P. Bourdieu, About television and journalism. (Moscow, FNI “Pragmatics of Culture”, 2002) – 160 p., in Russian. P. Bourdieu, The market of symbolic production. Sociological studies, 1/2, 1993, 49-62, 5, 1994, 50-62, in Russian. P. Bourdieu, Social space: a fields and practice. (S.-Petersburg, Aleteya, 2005) – 576 p., in Russian. P. Bourdieu, Sociology of politics. (Moscow, 1993) – 336 p., in Russian. D. Bryant, S. Thompson, Fundamentals of media effects. (Moscow, Williams, 2004). – 432 p. in Russian. # 967 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space V.I. Gostenina, A.G. Kiselev, Sociology of Mass Communication. (Moscow, Alfa-M, INFRA-M, 2009). – 352 p. in Russian. C. Gray, The organizations. Theories, conflicts and managers. (Kharkov, Humanitarian Center, 2008). – 196 p. in Russian. V.I. Dobrenkov, A.I. Kravchenko, History of foreign sociology. (Moscow, Academic, 2005). – 704 p. in Russian. D.V. Ivanov, Paradigms in sociology. (Omsk, Publishing house of Omsk State University, 2005). – 72 p. in Russian. E.N. Knyazeva, S.P. Kurdyumov, The laws of evolution and complex systems of self-organization (Moscow, Nauka, 1994) – 236 p. in Russian. T.V. Naumenko, The function of journalism and media functions, CREDO NEW, 2 ,2000. in Russian. L. Pinto. Intellectual doxa // Socio-Logos’96. almanac of The Russian-French center of sociological researches of Institute of sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences— Moscow, Socio-Logos, 1996. – P. 32-38, in Russian. K. P. Polanyi The Great Transformation: political and economic origins of our time (S.-Petersburg, Aleteya, 2002). – 320 p., in Russian J. Ritzer, Modern sociological theories. (S.-Petersburg, Piter, 2002). – 688 p., in Russian M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. (Moscow, Ad Marginem, 1999). – 480 p. in Russian N.A. Shmatko, “Habitus” in the structure of sociological theory / Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, 1, №2, 1998, P. 60–70., in Russian. A.V. Sokolov, The general theory of social communication. (S.-Petersburg, Mikhailov V.A., 2002). – 461 p. A.A. Tertychnyi, Investigative journalism. (Moscow, Aspekt Press, 2002). – 384 p. in Russian. G. Vattimo, Transparent society. (Moscow, Logos, 2002) – 128 p. in Russian. E.N. Yudina, Media space as a new sociological category. Teacher ХХI. 2, 2008, Moscow. – P. 151–154 in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey I. Shelonaev. Integrated Model of Media Space Интегративная модель медиапространства С.И. Шелонаев РГПУ им. Герцена Россия 191186, Санкт-Петербург, Набережная реки Мойки, 48 В статье представлены результаты социологического анализа концепта «медиапространство». Медиапространство рассматривается как особая часть социального пространства. Анализ проводился на основе теории социального пространства П. Бурдье. Медиапространство описывается как совокупность социальных полей различной природы со своими правилами и схемами власти. Медиаагенты есть владельцы различных форм капитала, который используется для усиления своей позиции в медиапространстве. Представлена интегративная топологическая модель медиапространства. В структуру медиапространства входят следующие поля медиапространства: поле производства информации, поле экономики, поле журналистики, поле потребителей медиапродукции. Ключевые слова: медиапространство; медиаагенты; топологическая карта; многомерное социальное пространство. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 970-977 ~~~ УДК 130.31 Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute Andrey B. Shalimov* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 24.10.2011, received in revised form 23.12.2011, accepted 24.12.2011 The multiuser sites, which are constructed on web 2.0 technology and forming a special type of social networks, unite a huge part of mankind at present. Social networks are understood as alternative form of being, namely existence in communications and as the integration social institute, which takes up other social generality and realizes their key functions. From the point of view of the author, as the form of being social networks are degression, the embodiment of real and individual essence and existence of the person in the lowest form. Social networks also can be considered as consolidating kernel, the original social megainstitute, which realize all spectrum of social functions. As social institute, social networks are characterized as a strict imperious vertical, in which the user of the site can’t change accepted norms and rules. Keywords: social networks, social media, form of being, existence in communications, event, avatar, social institute, imperious relations It is devoted to professor Albert Y. Raibekas Introduction The ideology of Internet users’ attraction to partial or full filling of web sites by the information what for these users come on a portal, which is called web 2.0, in the beginning of the XXI-st century has led to occurrence of the multiuser web sites, forming the special type of social networks. These portals became the most popular sites in a network, uniting to 750 million of users (the quantity of users of Facebook.com in 2011 (Abelson and Harper, 2011)). The social network represents the automated web service assuming authorization (creation and * 1 use of the account and communications within the limits of thematic (gender, age, educational and others) Internet communities (system of “friends” and “groups”). Social networks became the largest storehouse of the personal information in the history about mankind. For example, it is possible to cite the following data – every month it is loaded more than three billion of photos on servers of Facebook.com and its users exchange more than 30 billion of information units (Hird, 2011). It is difficult to overestimate the value of social networks in users’ life. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 970 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute From the end of 2000th it is possible to say that social networks, or social media, such as Facebook, VK.com, Twitter are separate social institutes (look at example in Hanson et al., 2011) and for millions people they are more significant, than the church, school, army, state, science, etc. Events of 2011 (revolutions in the countries of the Near East and the North Africa) have shown the ability of this social institute to lead to social, historical changes (look at example in Hamamsy, 2011). That’s why the research of social media through their influence on the person’s knowledge of the world is especially actual not only from the scientific point of view, but also in social, economic, sociopolitical and sociocultural aspects. Ontology of social media Objectively social networks exist in memory of servers (so Facebook.com is located on more than 30 000 servers online (the data –May, 2010 (Hird, 2011)) and they are program code which contains a huge volume of the information with the use of various systems of enciphering. From materialistic point of view, social networks are a classical example of a social substance. Structurally social networks personify all levels of social life: from the individual, a family, a collective, a class to ethnoses, the states, and mankind. Similarly in social networks all spheres of public life has already presented: production of goods, science, spiritual sphere, political sphere, service sphere. Subjectively social networks exist at the moment of the reference to them and bear not only separate functions or system of functions, but a different way of personal being. It means subjectively social networks are perceived by the person (the user, the actor) not as the file of the information and a program code which are stored on the server, but as a personal way of existence in communications. Also, life in social networks is not the form of being in a virtual reality and it can be considered as essentially other object for ontological knowledge (contrary opinion you can see in Rahvalova, 2011). The virtual reality in the theory and by means of pre-production models is the world created by objects and subjects means in practice, it is transferred to the person (the visitor of this world) through the complex of sensations received from sense organs: sight, hearing, sense of smell. Being in a social network is consciousness, it creates images of other (distinct from physical, objective) realities, sense organs fi x a fi nding of the person (user) in a concrete existential situation of material existence. Forms of organization of person’s being in social networks are friends (subscribers) and groups. The form of existence, development, movement is communication. Interaction is assumed by the maximum refusal of value of the way of communications, the absence of the medium (intermediary), and direct communications between the sender and the addressee. Thus, there is an obvious contradiction. After all, social media are not only the way of being, but also the way of communications, accordingly, it a priori causes these communications to become the message in itself. Social networks start to offer a circle of contacts, communications and prompt the organization of being. This contradiction essentially influences on personal existential freedom in social networks. At the moment of the reference to social network its program code becomes cognitive system of the person. User’s consciousness, feelings and mind use the data about reality in refraction of social media. The person takes up certain role functions; he is the author of the message, or its addressee. Cognitive process turns to the continuous reporting about your or other’s life (Braslavec, 2011). The reason # 971 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute of it that today users of social media perceive dialogue, communications as the goal in itself. According to researchers (American company Pear Analytics and Russian company Yandex) about 80 % of messages in Twitter it is possible to regard as conversations, 4 % is spam, 9 % are retweets. A productive part of messages is only about 10 %. Thus, social networks are completely changing our representation about distinction between public and personal (more detailed in West et al., 2009). The existential essence of social media is effectively described by the concept of event. From culture point of view it is birth of children, weddings, travel including pilgrimage, etc. These events find the expression in statuses, the personal messages, photos, videos etc. In social networks all events in user’s life, which he considers as Events, are reflected. And for other users and from the point of view of the person the event isn’t presented, if it isn’t reflected in a social network. For example, the wedding of the person had taken place some years ago, but it received reflections in a network later. Other users start to congratulate him at the moment of occurrence of corresponding record on a personal page (often even if they were participants of this celebration in real life). Other example, users try not to reflect negative events in their life in the page (illness, accidents, loss of relatives). On the contrary, the mention of such event leads to instant, mass, but short response that naturally reduces the value of it, and often it leads to more stress for the person. From the existential point of view it is necessary to reflect a death phenomenon in ontology of social networks in the given research. Pages of dead people in social networks aren’t deleted and other users try not to delete them from friends. The phenomena are connected with special existential characteristics in social networks. Time in a social network is necessary to understand through the urgency of event. It is rapid, it means instant loss of an urgency for others since that moment as event has disappeared from the section “news” at friends (subscribers). There is a contradiction – events in social networks can exist eternally, but there is a possibility of return, change of the past, copying of personal history and the history of relations (communications). The space of social network is limited by nothing and it assumes the variety of embodiments. But social networks, thanks to modern program decisions, forcedly lead to short circuit of users in a certain circle of contacts from which it is difficult to get out and create the new. We can say there is a creation of own “worlds”, not individual, but stereotypic unified by software. The name of the world’s largest social network Facebook is the book of faces. The human face is the most individual part of our body, the person is identified on its complete perception. Face expresses a mimicry, our emotions which is addressed to the world around us. Person’s face in social networks is “picture”, the small image, used for visual personification of the user; it is called “userpic” or “avatar”. The avatar is an embodiment of god from spiritual sphere in low forms of being in Hinduism. It means in the Indian philosophy avatar is initially connected with “decrease”, it is possible to translate this word also as degression. The term “avatar” as designation of the picture personalizing the user in the Internet has appeared considerably before occurrence of social networks. The avatar shall «reflect any peculiar features of character of the user and help to make exact impression about his internal inner world and the status». Social networks have entered the requirement of use of real images of the person in avatars (photos, portraits etc.) for the first time. If our face can express a complex of emotions in their dynamics in real life, the avatar # 972 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute in social networks is static emotion. It is the sign of yourself, which user conscious or unconscious sends to another, thus avatar change turns to the social act. The exit in a World Net doesn’t change the structure of spiritual life of people (contrary opinion in Basalaeva and Balabanov, 2010). The idea of the world of ideas, idea of God as allseeing, all-thinking, the all-knowing beginning of the world and set of other similar ideas have appeared much earlier and they were permanent in human consciousness, including subconsciously in the collective unconscious. The Internet is not a noosphere, it is only its embodiment in the lowest form of life, it is digression. Button “Like” simplifies a complex of person’s feelings at formation of own opinion about something. The status reduces private world, its conditions to the formulation in 40 signs. The avatar and the change of is the lowered, simplified version of a human mimicry, expression of our emotions. Each time in social networks we deal with simplification of reality from known and unknown shares of assumptions. Social media as social institute Making a start from classical definition of social institute as constantly repeating and reproduced relations of people; steady set of people, groups, the establishments whose activity is directed on performance of concrete public functions on the basis of certain norms and rules; it is necessary to notice that social media or social networks occupy position of the major public institute in a modern society. The institutionalization of social networks means streamlining, formalization and standardization of public relations and it is caused by social requirement of the person in communication, growing in information society. Successful distribution of social networks and their institutionalization were promoted also by use of developed steady social communications between people, for example, Facebook and VK.com initially positioned itself as social networks of students and graduates of leading high schools. It means social networks don't create new social communications, social relations; it is possible to say that they «parasitize» on others. Moreover, social network often arises at the moment of actualization of dysfunction in any social institute. So, for example, in the beginning of 2000th SMS were much cheaper than calls, therefore the majority of clients of the cellular companies used them as the basic means of communication by mobile phone. By the end of 2000 calls by a mobile phone became much cheaper but price for SMS was the same. It has led to sharp reduction of using by this function. Nevertheless, requirement to write short messages to inform friends about events remained at people. Thanks to it, and also to wide circulation of smartphones and communicators, a social network “Twitter” has appeared. Understanding of social networks as the system of values, norms, ideals, and also samples of activity and behavior of people makes possible to speak not only about their integrating role in the course of public communications as the major sociocultural process, but also about occurrence of accurately expressed structure and codified rules of behavior of members in this social institute. For maintenance of similar behavior of people, management of their certain aspirations, ways of satisfaction of requirements, a resolution of conflicts founders of social networks carry out a number of measures in a program code of sites. It means stability, institutionalization of social media is initially inherent in them and it is expressed in organizing of their functional. Besides, norms and rules of people’s behavior and their social interaction are codified in terms of service, acceptance them is an integral part of reception of an account in the largest social # 973 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute networks (see Statement of Rights and Regulations in VK.com, Terms of Facebook etc.). Roles and statuses in social networks provide their internalization, described rules and functional become property of user’s inner world. The person “lives” his being in social network, he perceives the account as the embodiment of himself, he connects his expectations with events in social networks, he corrects the valuable orientations and finds there space for satisfaction of the requirements (Chernyaeva, 2009). Social networks are organizational issued, founders of social networks possess the rights of moderators, managers. In a modern society popular social networks become the successful commercial enterprises with mullions-strong (and in certain cases multi-billion) cost. At functional level social networks bring or, at least, reflect all basic functions of social institutes. In literal sense reproduction of members of society receives the reflection in the phenomenon of events (change of biographical particulars at parents, photo albums, messages on a wall, etc.). From the point of view of internal logic of system of the given social institute, the program block of registration in a social network answers for reproduction of members of a society, it means the possibility of account’s reception can be understood as the birth of human(for this phenomenon it is also possible to use adjacent concepts, such as regeneration, going out, which have stereotypical conditionality and even archetypical predefiniteness). Family, as the main institute, which is carrying out function of reproduction members of society, is exposed to influence of social networks as well as any other public institute in modern society. Realization of family connections has found expression in a program code of social media not at once but in 2 or 3 years after their triumphal distribution. The possibility to reflect members of the family in the questionnaire is realized in the form of a cross reference and it means the exarticulation of a family cell. Nevertheless, such allocation is only designating of the family, but not its embodiment. Here it is important to notice that for founders of social networks work on a real embodiment of various social groups can become a real development, because at the present possibility of a subscription and occurrence in groups means only joining. The founder of social network VK.com Pavel Durov considers that public lists of friends were the main reason of success of social networks: «the success of social networks is connected with changed representation about minimum possible level of confidentiality and with absence of necessity to follow out-of-date standards». The user of a social network, creating such list, joins in certain social communications that, in general, represents transfer of the samples of behavior and ways of activity which are established in given community, it means socialization (more detailed in Konstantinov, 2008). But, filling the questionnaire in social networks, the person defines him for others, but not for himself. Selfdetermination for others doesn't mean personal self-determination as a rule. There is no selfactualization through self-determination at questionnaire filling. Person instantly joins social communications but he isn't socialized, it means his personality isn't formed (Shalimov, 2011). Because the largest social media are commercial organizations it is initially possible to name them as the place of production and distributions of the goods and services. At present social media are one of the most difficult social mechanisms of manufacture and distribution. On the degree of the importance it is comparable only with exchange, which occurrence as social institute concerns to XIII—XV centuries. But unlike the exchange which is directed only on a meeting of the seller and the buyer social networks have a number of others possibilities with a great # 974 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute value. Firstly, social media become the largest platform for distribution of the commercial information (advertizing and PR), such kind of activity has received the name social media marketing (Salerno et al., 2010). Secondly, they have unlimited possibilities for virtual trade. In social media not distribution of the information about goods or service has the most value but the meeting of people and brands, their coexistence (event) at which relations of the seller and the buyer get in a modern society more value and duration, than «pair of the words thrown through a counter». Thirdly, social media possess huge prospects not only in sale, but in manufacture of the electronic goods and services. The unique person in the world which has the right to write in Twitter messages more, than 170 signs is the president of USA Barack Obama. In general, appearing of Barack Obama and the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev in social networks is a symbol of presence the Power at social media as a major social institute. Soon after the creation of social networks there was a set of responses that they will be used as the mechanism of social control, even shadowings, suppression and managements of manpower resources. It seemed unbelievable that the recent student of philology department Pavel Durov could create a site which number of users began to be estimated in thousand in the beginning, then in millions, and then in tens millions. Similar responses were about the project of student Mark Zuckerberg behind the ocean several years earlier. In spite of the fact that in these social networks preservation of the information without user’s knowledge (a photo, video and the whole accounts) and in management of revolutions in the North Africa and the Near East in 2011 through Facebook, Google and Twitter it is visible the interest of US State department there aren’t authentic acknowledgement of that the personal data are used, for example, by special services as one of government and even suppression tools. For us it’s very important not external realization of imperious relations with use of social networks as social institute but their internal features providing realization of function of management and control. So, for example, presence of sanctions and encouragements is the major sign of realization of such function. So for encouragement of users in social network VK.com there was a rating system, first of all, directed on stimulation of detailed filling of personal page. The system of sanctions for this social network is provided by Terms of service on which the site Administration «reserves the right to itself at sole discretion, and also at reception of the information from other users or the third parties about infringement by the User of the present Rules, to change (moderate) or to delete any information published by the User». Despite existence of the whole codes, which are regulating mutual relations of users and administrations of sites, managers of social networks have exclusive rights of entering of unilateral changes in rules of functioning of the given public institute. Social networks in the given sense realize authoritative control mode with vertical of the power. In spite of the fact that social networks are social institute only thanks to the people; these people, users of sites, possess as much as possible limited rights, mainly, without having possibility of influence on use of social networks, they can’t make rules. Resume As alternative to real form of being social networks are degression, the embodiment of real and individual essence and existence of the person in the lowest form. Even in spite of the fact that the subject by means of functions of social networks often tries to show himself better than he really is, the decrease, a lowering trend # 975 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute are determined by the essence of social networks. Social networks try to personify the essence of communications, it means the person turns to knot, a link of such communicative network. The person is embodied in signs, in language system and he is determined of it. The person, as the thought, embodied in a word, loses the essence, the boundless complexity and he becomes only the sign of himself. If to consider social networks as consolidating kernel, the original social megainstitute, which is realized all spectrum of social functions, they are characterized by a strict imperious vertical in which the user of site can't change the accepted norms and rules in any way. The authoritative anthropological model of social networks is constructed on suppression of freedom in choosing and creation of the routes, the circle of contacts, interests which are set by the system. It doesn't mean that social networks transform people into the zombie, but, nevertheless, their mechanism as social institute is constructed on simplification, making strict frameworks. Thus, social networks as the form of being and social institute on existential and social level is degression of the real person. And the copy is always worse than the original but only if there is an original. References Max Abelson, Christine Harper, “Goldman Sachs May Sell or Hedge Facebook Stake Without Warning”, Bloomberg.com, 01/06 (2011). Kirill S Arseniev, “Formation of a Critical Attitude to Information in University Students Through a Social Media”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 8 (2011, 4), 1100-1108. Oksana G. Basalaeva, Pavel I Balabanov, “Modern World–View of Culture and Web–Space”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 2 (2010, 3), 250-258. L.A. Braslavec, “Social Networks as mass media”, Bulletin Voronezh State University. Philology, journalism, 1 (2009), 125-132. In Russian. K.O. Chernyaeva, “Practices formation of indentify in social networks”, Bulletin of Saratov State University, 4, Issue 1 (2009), 296-304. In Russian. Walid El Hamamsy, “BB = BlackBerry or Big Brother: Digital media and the Egyptian revolution”, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, 47:4 (2011), 454-466. Gary Hanson, Paul Michael Haridakis, Audrey Wagstaff Cunningham, Rekha Sharma, J. D Ponder, “The 2008 Presidential Campaign: Political Cynicism in the Age of Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube”, Mass Communication and Society, 13:5 (2010), 584-607. Jake Hird, “20+ Mind-blowing social media statistics: One year later Posted”, Econsultancy.com, 25 March 2011 http://econsultancy.com/uk/blog/7334-social-media-statistics-one-year-later. Peter A Konstantinov, “Internet Community Socialization Processes”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities and Social Sciences, 4 (2008, 1), 523-530. P. David Marshall , “The promotion and presentation of the self: celebrity as marker of presentational media”, Celebrity Studies, 1:1 (2010), 35-48. Maria A. Pipenko, “Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities and Social Sciences, 4 (2010), 526-535. Natalya A. Rahvalova, “Blogosphere as an Expression of Virtual Reality”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 (2011, 4), 551-559. # 976 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Andrey B. Shalimov. Social Media as the Form of Being and Social Institute A.B. Shalimov, “Alienation and socialization in situation informational society”, Youth and science. Collected articles (2011). In Russian. “Toward predicting popularity of social marketing messages”, In J. Salerno, S.J. Yang, D. Nau, & S.K. Chai (Ed.), Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2011), 317-324. Anne West, Jane Lewis, Peter Currie, “Students’ Facebook ‘friends’: public and private spheres”, Journal of Youth Studies, 12:6 (2009), 615-627. Социальные медиа как форма бытия и социальный институт А.Б. Шалимов Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Многопользовательские сайты, построенные по технологии веб 2.0 и образующие особого типа социальные сети, объединяют на данный момент огромную часть человечества. В статье рассматриваются социальные сети как альтернативная реальной форма бытия, а именно существования в коммуникациях, и как интеграционный социальный институт, постепенно поглощающий другие социальные общности, воплощая в себе их ключевые функции. С точки зрения автора, как форма бытия социальные сети есть нисхождение, воплощение в низшей форме реальных и индивидуальных сущности и существования человека. Социальные сети также можно рассматривать как консолидирующее ядро, своеобразный социальный мегаинститут, реализующий весь спектр социальных функций. При этом как социальный институт, социальные сети характеризуются как строгая властная вертикаль, в которой пользователь сайта никак не может изменить принятые нормы и правила. Ключевые слова: социальные сети, социальные медиа, форма бытия, существование в коммуникациях, событие, аватар, социальный институт, властные отношения. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 978-987 ~~~ УДК 332.1 The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation for the Involvement of Potential of a Closed City in the Innovative Development of the Region Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko and Roman D. Goloushkin* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.05.2011, received in revised form 09.07.2011, accepted 30.07.2011 The article deals with problems involving a high scientific potential of a closed city in the innovative development of regions. It gives the rationale for the effectiveness of this engagement from different perspectives. The mechanisms for the implementation of the model of regional development based on the model of “Open Innovation” are offered. Keywords: innovative capacity, regional innovation infrastructure. To enhance innovation in the regions it is necessary to use the innovative potential of the closed cities, science cities and academic cities. At present, there is a task of developing a mechanism to implement the business models of open innovation of closed cities for innovative development area. This determines the relevance of the research topic. In the given works (E.A. Fiyaksel, M.G. Nazarov, 2010, V.I. Kirko, V.D. Nadelyaev, S.V. Usoltsev, R.D. Goloushkin, 2011) the necessity and possibility of participation of the scientific capacity of the closed cities in the innovative development of the territories were shown on the example of the closed city of Sarov (Nizhnenovgorodskaya region) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory). Large* 1 company towns, such as the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Mining and Chemical Plant”, Public corporation “Information Satellite Systems” and FSUE Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIIEF have a competitive knowledge-based development, which is not used for various reasons in their own production, but can be effectively used in the civilian sector of industry . The main reasons for limiting the “flow” of technology ,which is not used in the manufacture of defense, are: 1) the absence of the Law in Russian Federation, which is similar to the law in the United States (1986) concerning the Federal Technology Transfer (http://ictt.by/rus/Default. aspx?tabid=178). This law has implemented the technology transfer duty of scientists and Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 978 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… engineers of all federal laboratories (analogues of Russian closed cities) and instructed to take into account the activities of technology transfer in the evaluation of employees. It provided for special requirements, incentives and responsibility of the federal laboratories; 2) the absence of Federal Law, which is similar to U.S. law presented by Stevenson-Wydler in1980 (http://ictt.by/rus/Default.aspx?tabid=178). This law deals with innovation activities, which implemented major federal laboratories to control the use of research and Technology (Management of Technology Transfer) and required that the federal laboratories have active participation in technical cooperation; 3) the absence of Federal Law, similar to U.S. law presented by Beyya-Dole in 1980 (Http://ictt. by/rus/Default.aspx?tabid=178). That law allowed the government laboratories to issue exclusive licenses to patents; 4) the absence of the Law in Russian Federation, which is similar to the law in the United States in 1992 (E.A. Sakadynets, D.Y. Faikov 2008) on technology transfer to small businesses, which has approved a test program “Technology transfer to small businesses” (TTSB) for the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Health and Human Services, NASA and the National Science Foundation. 5) the absence of regulations, procedures to facilitate technology transfer (licensing), Russian defense enterprises in the civilian sector in view of all measures of mutual responsibility. The latter has negative outcomes for the economy and the modernization of Russia’s national economy as a whole, namely: 1) very limited participation in the closed economic development of regions and Russia as a whole; 2) not claimed intellectual property – patents, know-how and technology, which required lots of human and material resources; 3) in some cases – the loss of priority in the world with innovative designs * A striking example of this situation may be the loss of priority of the USSR in the technology of explosive nanodiamonds. The technology was first developed in the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Federal Nuclear Center – AllRussian Research Institute of Technical Physics named after E.I. Zababakhin” in a closed city Snezhinsk in1963, and it was declassified only in 1985 under the influence of many research groups in that time, including those in Russia, Ukraine and the United States, which have developed similar technology for getting nanodiamonds. It is difficult to say where Russia would have been in the field of nanotechnology, if the technology had been transferred in time to the civilian sector and patented in the leading countries of the world (V.V. Danilenko, 2004). The involvement of the scientific and innovative potential in the closed business processes of the regional economy is difficult for several reasons related to the development of innovative activity in the closed cities themselves, namely, the lack of a market mentality, the reluctance of employees to resign from the local industry, “nepotism” of a small town, narrowmindedness in terms of investment, lack of funds for innovation, marketing and so on. (E.A. Sakadynets, D.Y. Faikov, 2008). Therefore, one must agree with E.M. Korostishevskaya, which offers the idea of enhancing high-tech innovation on the basis of restructuring defense and development of the theory and practice of open innovation in the military sector of the country (E.M. Korostishevskaya, 2011). The authors of the given article fully agree with this idea, however nowadays there are almost no tools and incentives for companies interested in the defense industry to open its technologies and transfer them to the civilian sector. # 979 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… As a radical example, we can show a real situation which faced the expedition of students and teachers of the Siberian Federal University. This expedition was organized in the framework of the grant of the Federal target program “Scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia” in 2009-2013, and grants of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Foundation in 2010-2011. Expeditions were organized in several towns of Dolgan-Nenets district municipality in Taymyr (village Nosok and village Karaul) and Evenk municipal district (village Surinda and village Essey). There live locally indigenous minorities of the North that are engaged in traditional occupations, such as reindeer breeding, fishing and hunting. Conducted project workshops with the residents and the village administration have identified an urgent need of people living there in modern technologies and equipment, as follows: - Energy supply in the villages, herding, hunting and fishing brigades (the cost of electricity varies from 20 – 30 rub. / KWh); - Modernization of the architecture of settlements and the construction of houses and mobile tents; - Providing a sustainable mobile communications and the Internet in the towns; - Modern clothing and footwear; - Building and insulating materials (the cost of 1 m3 of timber, imported from the mainland, is 32 rubles.) - Modern technologies of deep processing of local raw materials (meat, fish, wild plants, etc.) Fig. 1 shows a few photos from the modern life of reindeer-breeders in Evenk municipal district in the village Surinda (Evenks) and fishermen – hunters in the village Nosok (DolganNenets district municipality in Taymyr). At the Krasnoyarsk Territory, there are two closed cities – Zheleznogorsk and Zelenogorsk, which possess the highest scientific – technical potential, due to their town-enterprises such as JSC “Information Satellite Systems” named after M.F. Reshetnev “(JSC “ISS”), Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Mining and Chemical Plant” (MCP) and JSC “Electro-Chemical Plant “ (JSC ECP) . They are the defense industry enterprises, which have in their assets and liabilities of the numerous scientific and technical developments that could be used to significantly improve the quality of life of indigenous peoples who are engaged in traditional economic activities and are components of the cultural heritage of Russia (the readers of this article understand that a radical example is given here). It should be noted that the peoples inhabiting the northern territories of Russia still use the technology, which was developed by their ancestors, in their traditional fields. Due to the nature of their defense industry, it can be hardly expected that they will start adapting their products and technologies for civilian use. For example, defense companies, which have designed and manufactured the suit of an astronaut, using the latest technologies and materials, are unlikely to develop a modern tent or a suit for a reindeer-breeder. In this case, you must agree with A.Y. Smetanov, who suggests the idea of broadcasting innovation potential defense industry through an innovative structure of the university complexes (A.Y. Smetanov, 2009). That is University here is viewed through its scientific, technological and innovative potential, not only as adaptator of defense technologies to the civilian market, but also it provides the generation of knowledge-intensive small businesses and their training. Until now, high-tech enterprises in the closed city, which were based on technology defense, have usually formed around a core enterprises # 980 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… (a) (b) (с) (d) Fig. 1 Photographs of the modern life of reindeer-breeders in the teams section in the village Surinda (Evenki, a-b) and the fishermen – hunters in the village Nosok (Nenets, c-d). of defense industrial complex(E.A. Fiyaksel, M.G. Nazarov, 2010, V.I. Kirko, V.D. Nadelyaev , S.V. Usoltsev, R.D. Goloushkin, 2011). Fig. 2 and 3 show Schematic diagram of the adaptation of technology to the civilian defense industry market-based business model of open innovation offered by G.Chesbro (H. Chesbrough, 2003). Modern universities have all the conditions for the implementation of the proposed scheme, namely, scientific and technical potential; units responsible for technology transfer; units responsible for the preservation of state and commercial secrets, industrial parks, business incubators, etc. This scheme has significant advantages: # 981 # For the defense industry: - Better use of technology enterprises established in the civil defense sector. Especially those technologies that are not used and will not be used in their main production; - Additional income for the defense industry of small businesses coming from the sale of licensing agreements for the transfer of intellectual property; - Additional income of scientists, designers and technologists defense companies, the authors of patents, know-how, etc.; - The use of technological innovations, created as a result of adaptation of Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… Fig. 2. A good example of adapting technology to the civilian defense industry market. SB SB SB SB Military industrial complex technology Universitycomplex Civilmarket SB SB SB Closed city SB Fig. 3. Adaptation Scheme of defense technologies in the civilian market, based on the business model of open innovation G.Chesbro (SB – small businesses). technology by scientists and technologists of the university systems and knowledgebased small businesses. For the University: - The possibility of greater involvement of teachers, students and graduate students in science and innovation; - Expanding the network of small hightech enterprises in industrial parks and business incubators; - Preparation of teams for projects; - Additional income of the University and its faculty from the sale of licensing agreements and investments. The key success factors for implementation of the University of interaction with the Enterprise is the presence of military industrial complex units performing technology transfer (the University) and the unit carrying out recruitment and training of technology (in the defense industry). From the principle of building a system on the model of the “triple helix” (Henry Itskovits, 2010), these structures are to some extent have to be integrated into each other, and their interaction must have a feedback. They bear an additional special role. For units of the University Technology Transfer: 1) the formation, maintenance and updating of data bank on new advanced technologies related to the profile of the respective defense companies; 2) maintaining a data bank on companies that were created using the potential of defense enterprises, their technical and economic characteristics; # 982 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… 3) the provision of services to businesses and individuals who are owners of new technologies, establishing business contacts with defense companies as possible to the consumer of their development, as well as in the conclusion of the transaction; 4) To find investors and financing sources for specific projects, including preparation of materials needed for investment (business plans, etc.); 5) Search for University departments, enterprises and organizations capable of the further development and adaptation of the interesting developments and technologies for civil use; 6) The organization of the examination and testing of scientific and technological developments to assess the prospects of their use in the enterprise and resolve issues on the acquisition and transfer of licenses. The unit, which carries out the recruitment and training of technology (in the defense industry), such as manufacturing and technology center, has become a gateway, which serves for the interaction of defense companies with the environment, and in our case with the universities. Its functions should include: 1) the formation, maintenance and updating of data bank on the technologies available at the defense enterprise and ready for transfer; 2) Preparation of materials (including licensing) for technology transfer from universities or the appropriate small business under the license agreement; 3) control over the use of intellectual property and information leakage; 4) establishing a system to promote employees – the authors transferred intellectual property. Due to the nature of production, defense companies are working behind closed doors that greatly hampers their interaction with universities. Cities in which they are located have the status of closed cities, the entrance to their territory is by a pass, and their employees sign a nondisclosure agreement. Also there is an informal closure, when people don’t want to share inner information, even if it is not secret. In recent years economists started talking more and more about the advantages of openness, saying the concept of innovation development of “open innovation”. “Open Innovation” is a purposeful implementation of the various organizations of the inflow and outflow of knowledge, undertaken to improve their internal innovation activities, as well as to extend the use of innovation in the environment (V. Vanhaverbeke, 2008). To understand what approach for a company development is the most efficient, so let’s consider it as an economic microsystem in terms of its effectiveness. On the criterion of Pareto (V.M. Galperin, S.M. Ignatiev, V.I. Morgunov, 2008), the system is effective if it is impossible to increase the welfare of at least one agent without decreasing the welfare of others. If the system is closed, then only the system itself benefits from the use of these developments. If these developments are taken and given to other agents, then this system might benefit from it by receiving income from the sale of licenses, as well as the agents which also get income. However, the criterion ceases to be satisfied when you exit out of the system implemented in the defense industry of secret projects. Thus, if you want this system to be effective according to Pareto’s views, you must open it just enough to have access to confidential and unworkable technology. Kaldor-Hicks criterion (URL: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaldor-Hicks_efficiency) suggests that the welfare of agents can be reduced # 983 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… even under the condition that the agents with the increasing wealth compensate the losses. However, such an alternative to this system in military industrial complexes enterprises is not suitable because of irreversible losses associated with the leak of classified information. According to the criterion of Rawls (V.M. Galperin, S.M. Ignatiev, V.I . Morgunov, 2008) effectiveness of the system is evaluated on the welfare of its less rich agents. If we assume that at this point the defense companies in the region are provided most with technologies, then, respectively, the remaining agents in the system are the least well off, and therefore, when they receive the necessary technology, it increases the efficiency of the system as a whole. And in this case, an open system is more efficient than a closed one. Allocative efficiency. The system meets the allocative efficiency if it gives the most optimal combination of products with the most effective combination of resources (O.S. Sukharev, 2009). In our case, technology, scientists, engineers, technologists, as well as finance and materials are considered to be resources. As not all defense technology projects are being implemented on the military industrial complexes enterprises, it is not necessary to talk about the optimal set of products. That means that allocative efficiency is not achieved in a closed system. Another thing, if the way of the technology will be cleared and the university will be able to find the best ways to transmit the technology to the civilian market, that’s when the system is close to being allocative efficiency. X-efficiency of H. Leibenstein (H. Leibenstein, 1995). If actual costs are higher than the lowest possible system, then this system has X-inefficiency. The costs of defense enterprises can be reduced by improving the management or partially offset by work in a partially open innovation. How one should implement the transition to innovative development approach from closed to open innovation? E.A. Fiyaksel and M.G. Nazarov propose to adopt the Law of the Russian Federation that is similar to the law in the United States in 1986 on federal technology transfer. This law implemented a technology transfer in the duty of scientists and engineers of all federal laboratories (Russian counterparts of closed city) and instructed to take into account the activities of technology transfer in the evaluation of employees (E.A. Fiyaksel, M.G. Nazarov, 2010). Even in the case of adoption of this law, the creation of specialized units for technology transfer (in the defense industry and the University) and establishment of a formal connection between them, the process of technology transfer will actually not work. More preliminary work need to be done: to determine the appropriate goals and objectives, key activities and tools, performance measures and monitoring criteria and procedures for project selection (R.A. Kokorev, 2008). The fact of the matter is that the most effective control is exercised on the basis of informal institutions (R.M. Nizhegorodtsev, 2008). The latter also applies to businesses and private agents, under the influence of a complex and extensive system of formal and informal institutions. So how to establish the interaction of the university and the defense industry so that it actually carries out? V.M. Polterovich provides three types of strategies for building institutional systems: Shock Therapy, cultivation, and the strategy of intermediate institutions (V.M. Polterovich, 2009). At the same time the third strategy has the best chance of success. Therefore it is proposed to make a transition from the development of innovative concepts from “closed innovation” to “open innovation” on the defense industry enterprises, using a strategy of intermediate institutions. To do this, one should use the # 984 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… Welfare ˀ2 P1 E N* Numberofchanges Fig. 4. A change of the welfare of agents while changing institutions. method of interactive planning. The essence of this method lies in the gradual development and change in institutions, monitoring system status and the subsequent adjustment of the plan. Let N be a number of changes, P1 – the welfare of defense enterprises, P2 – the wellbeing areas where the innovative potential of a closed city will be broadcast. Since it is assumed that the use of technology transferred will be paid royalties, the development can be represented in the graph given in Fig. 4. Using the method of interactive planning (V.M. Polterovich, 2009), we can set up the exchange of technologies that the innovative development of the territories will eventually catch up with the development of the defense industry, and it will happen at the point E. This point is exactly a point of Pareto-efficiency of the system. And although it is given on the chart that after passing the point E the welfare of agents continues to increase, however, in practice, it is not necessary to move beyond that point, because the defense industry should always be more developed than the civil society. Thus E is an equilibrium point of the system, and while achieving it, the setting of the institute of exchange of technologies between the defense industry enterprises and the University can be regarded completed. The analysis shows the feasibility of the transition of enterprises to the development model based on the concept of open innovation. When implementing such a transition, it should be clarified that H. Chesbrough’s option is not really suitable for this case, because it implies a reduction of R & D (research and development), which is unacceptable for our defense industry. However, from the standpoint of improving X-efficiency of the system, one should enhance the effectiveness of management in the defense industry. Therefore, speaking about the mechanism of the potential involvement of the closed businesses in innovative activities of the regional economy, the following principles must be taken into account: 1) Focus on effective management in the organization of production; 2) Build effective business model of company management based on the interaction with the environment; 3) Doing your own research and development, as well as the use of innovations which have been developed in the external environment; # 985 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… 4) To promote the cooperation of the experts from the leading experts in this field. This work was supported by the Federal Target Program “Research and scientific- pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia” in 2009-2013, in the framework of arrangement № 1.2.1a, and Krasnoyarsk regional fund to support scientific and technological activities. References Фияксель Э.А. [E.A.Fiyaksel], Назаров М.Г. [M.G. Nazarov] «Создание инновационных кластеров в наукоградах», Инновации № 12 (146), 2010; Кирко В.И. [V.I Kirko], Наделяев В.Д. [V.D. Nadelyaev], Усольцев С.В [S.V. Usoltsev], Голоушкин Р.Д. [R.D. Goloushkin] «Инновационная структура ЗАТО г. Железногорска – реализация модели инновационного процесса «тройной спирали» Г. Ицковица», Инновации № 4 (150), 2011; V.I. Kirko, V.D. Nadelyaev, S.V. Usoltsev, R.D. Goloushkin. “Interaction of State and Business in Formation of Innovative Structure on the Example of CATU Zheleznogorsk” Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences; Даниленко В. В. [V.V. Danilenko], «Из истории открытия синтеза наноалмазов. Физика твердого тела», 2004, Т.46, вып. 4, С. 581—584 Сакадынец Е.А. [E.A. Sakadynets], Файков Д.Ю. [D.Y. Faikov], «Инновационные возможности закрытых административно-территориальных образований (на примере Сарова нижегородской области)», Инновации. 2008. № 9. Коростышевская Е.М. [E.M. Korostishevskaya], «Модель открытых инноваций», Инновации №5(151)2011. H. Chesbrough. «Open Innovation. The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology», 2003. Сметанов А.Ю. [A.Y. Smetanov] «Технопарк на базе предприятия ВПК: теория и практика внедрения инноваций», Высшее образование сегодня. 2009. № 12. Генри Ицковиц [Henry Itskovits] «Тройная спираль. Университеты – предприятия – государство. Инновации в действии», Генри Ицковиц; пер. с англ. под ред. А.Ф. Уварова. – Томск: Изд-во Томск. гос. ун-та систем упр. и радиоэлектроники, 2010. Ванхавербеке В. [V. Vanhaverbeke ], «Формирование и развитие теории открытых инноваций» Инновации № 1 (111), 2008. H. Chesbrough. Open Innovation. The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, 2003. Гальперин В.М. [V.M. Halperin], С.М. Игнатьев [S.M. Ignatieff], В.И. Моргунов [V.I. Morgunov] «Микро-экономика», том 2, Санкт-Петербург, 2008. Эффективность Калдора-Хикса [Электронный ресурс], URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Kaldor-Hicks_efficiency (дата обращения: 7.11.2011). Сухарев, О.С. [O.S.Sukharev], «Проблемы эффективности в экономике», Журнал экономической теории. 2009. – №2. Лейбенстайн Х. [H. Leibenstein], «Аллокативная эффективность в сравнении с «Х-эффективностью» // Теория фирмы. СПб.: Экономическая школа, 1995. Кокорев Р.А. [R.A. Kokorev], «Роль институтов и диверсификации экономики Российской Федерации» http://www.un.org/esa/policy/eitconference/2apram_report_kokorev_rus.pdf 2008. # 986 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Galina I. Popodko… The Mechanism of Implementing the Business Model of Open Innovation… Нижегородцев Р.М. [R.M. Nizhegorodtsev], «Проблема формализации институтов: граница между формальным и неформальным в институциональном развитии», Журнал экономической теории. 2008. № 3. Полтерович В.М. [V.M. Polterovich] Проблема формирования национальной инновационной системы, Экономика и математические методы, 2009 том 45. Обоснование применения концепции открытых инноваций для вовлечения потенциала ЗАТО в инновационное развитие региона В.И. Кирко, Г.И. Поподько, Р.Д. Голоушкин Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье рассматривается проблемы вовлечения высокого научного потенциала ЗАТО в инновационное развитие регионов, дано обоснование эффективности этого вовлечения с различных позиций. Предложены механизмы для реализации модели развития регионов на основе модели «Открытые инновации». Ключевые слова: инновационный потенциал, региональная инновационная инфраструктура. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 988-1004 ~~~ УДК 304.444 Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness of Indigenous Peoples Under Conditions of External Civilization Pressure (by an Example of the Yakut Ethnic Group) Natalya P. Koptseva*, Natalia N. Pimenova, Vladimir S. Luzan, Alexandra A. Semenova, Ekaterina A. Sertakova and Natalia A. Bakhova Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 10.12.2011, received in revised form 1.02.2012, accepted 10.02.2012 In the present situation of active development of resource-rich territories of Siberia and the North, the problem of self-preservation of their indigenous ethnos has become more urgent. The preservation of the indigenous ethnic groups and their cultures is complicated by strengthening external civilization pressure. However, self-reproduction mechanisms are inherent for any ethnic group, and they are the way of preservation, renovation of the indigenous peoples’ ethnic identity, acting as forms of their national identity. At the present time people know both traditional elements of ethnic culture that contribute to its reproduction, and some phenomena of today that may also act as means of formation and preservation of the ethnic group. In today’s practice of indigenous peoples these ethno-formative mechanisms are both preservation and development of the unique aboriginal religion and history of the ethnic group, and the legal instruments of society, the development of national cinematograph and animation, national mass media. The present article examines the opportunities of the mentioned cultural elements at their performance of the functions of formation and preservation of the nation by an example of the Yakut ethnic group. This article is the result of the analysis of effective practices of conservation and development of traditional Yakut culture under conditions of foreign civilization pressure. Keywords: ethnic identity, indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North, ethno-formative mechanisms, legal instruments, national cinematograph, ethnos history, ethnic religion, national mass media. Consideration of the legal regulation of social and cultural development of indigenous smaller peoples as the ethno-reproducing practices under conditions of the civilization pressure from “developed” societies can provide * 1 a number of problems in connection with the current state of its legislative framework. One of such problems is the crucial importance of such factor as small population, in determination of the specific rights of indigenous peoples and Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 988 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… guarantees of the special protection of their areas of residence and traditional nature use. In this case, it would be productive to assign the existing rights to the category of “indigenous peoples”, as it is customary in international practice, and also to return this status to indigenous peoples who at certain times have been forced to change the area of their residence (who have been evicted), and therefore who have lost the places of their traditional nature use without any compensation for their loss. One of the most urgent issues today is the creation of territories of traditional nature use, as since the issuing of the Federal Law “On Territories of Traditional Nature Use of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation” no federal territory of traditional nature use has been established, but several appeals from the indigenous communities have been submitted to the Russian government. At the same time, the Federal Law “On Guarantees of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation”, arguing that indigenous smaller peoples and their representatives are entitled to compensation of losses that are caused by damage to the native environment of their habitat by economic activity of organizations and individuals, does not define any clear criteria of the losses or the mechanism of their compensation, as well as control over this process. Some laws still contradict each other, as, for example, the Law on the Territories which determines the rights of indigenous smaller peoples for the receipt of the ground lands in the territories of traditional nature use for free use, and the Land Code, which evens this right of indigenous peoples. There are inconsistencies in the way the powers of local authorities are determined by different federal laws specifically aimed at the regulation of the rights of indigenous smaller peoples, and the Federal Law “On General Principles of Local Government Organization in the Russian Federation”. The solution of these problems should contribute to the implementation of ethno-formative opportunities of legal regulation practices. From the point of view of reproducing traditional culture as a relevant and modern one, cinematograph and animated films are phenomena that are referred to the most relevant and effective practices of ethnic identity and selfidentity of indigenous peoples in the context of global transformations of the tools offered by the project of modernity. By the example of the Yakut cinematograph, the article studies the main aspects of the way this phenomenon performs the function of ethnic determination: positioning of national cinematograph as a form of support of the national language and the preservation of the national originality, the specific “cultural zones” of the Yakut cinematograph, features of its operation as a national ideal forming system, which are the values developed by the cinematograph as the basic concepts of the Yakut ethnic group culture. One of the traditional practices of ethnic group that act as forms of its self-reproduction and preservation, is the support and development of the national religion that is positioned as Shamanism for the Yakut ethnic and cultural group. Today Shamanism represents a wide range of phenomena among indigenous peoples, from those saved in a version that is close to the original one, the traditional Shamanism that evolved to the new-reconstructed ritual mechanisms and the involvement of traditional Shamanic practices as the elements of the ritual complex of other religions. The gradation of the indigenous peoples’ participation in these forms is wide: today they act both as real practitioners, tradition bearers (the Yakut Shamanism has positioned itself as preserved without interrupting the tradition), and as reconstructors of the shaman ritual practices and inventors of new forms (Neoshamanism that is typical for modern Yakutia). Demand for # 989 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… Shamanism has rapidly risen with the collapse of the Soviet Union, when it was selected as a way of self-determination of the Yakut people as the specific one in relation to other national communities. The aim reconstructing the religious practices as a cultural phenomenon in this case was to reproduce the ethnic group in its independence and uniqueness, and thus the aggravating problem of national identity was solved. Shamanism is a surprisingly stable and non-conservative practice. It is ready for historical changes, and therefore, using mechanism of the new-reconstructed Shamanic practices as an ethno-formative component, reproduced ethnic groups, it is a new ethnic group with an inherited name and the base of traditions that is adapted to modern conditions and needs the determination of their own boundaries during the period of global transformations. One of the most meaningful and effective practices of ethnic and cultural identity is inclusion of its own people into the world history and the development of national lines in the world science, the purposeful formation of national leaders in all fields of science. The indigenous peoples of the circumpolar areas have directed their efforts for revival of ethnic groups, some of them revive their traditions, language and culture in a rather closed way, within their historical homeland and within their ethnic group, adjusting to the historical conditions; by the example of the Yakuts, we see how the representatives of an ethnic group tend to do it in an open manner. They are reviving their culture, including it into the historical world context not so much as into a logically consistent, but as into a great and meaningful context, at which the basic research of the region where ethnic group are aimed at. To prove the dominant state of their culture, researchers turn to analysis of various data, such as archaeological, genetic, linguistic, etc. where they find the relationship with the most significant processes of history, thus, in fact, these processes are more likely to be assessed as a creation of new history, the origin of which is associated with a particular ethnic group or original territory of residence that has an exclusive relationship with the concept of the new mythology of the people. The article considers the possibility of various forms of historicism in the reconstruction and the formation of ethnic identity of the nation. One of the most relevant factors of ethnic identity and self-identification in the current situation is mass media. As a practice of modernity, current media culture is an intensive flow of information, methods people use for exploring the world in its social, moral, psychological, artistic and intellectual aspects. Due to mass media, the nature of the social and cultural changes can be defined as processes of globalization as well as processes of national identity actualization. This article considers the forms of reproduction and formation of ethnic identity by means of mass media. Practices of conservation and development of the unique original religion of an ethnic group, practices of restoration and preservation of the history of ethnic group, correct legal instruments of society, development of national cinematograph and animation, national mass media are able and do act as ethno-formative mechanisms in today’s practice of the Yakut ethnic group. This article considers the possibilities of these mechanisms of the formation and preservation of the nation by an example of the Yakut ethnic group, and in some cases the article comes up with recommendations for correcting their current forms in order to increase the efficiency of these mechanisms and to comply with the interests of other nations. 1. Law as an ethno-formative mechanism. It was necessary to start analyzing effective practices of conservation and development of a # 990 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… traditional culture under conditions of foreigncivilization pressure from the legal regulation of indigenous peoples’ social and cultural development. As a result, in connection with the current state of legal regulation of social and cultural development of indigenous smaller peoples under conditions of the civilization pressure by “developed” societies, the following problems can be pointed out: 1. One of the general problems that can seriously affect the future fate of these people, lies in the defi nition of indigenous peoples contained in the Federal Law “On Guarantees of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation” (hereinafter – the Law on Guarantees). The term “Indigenous smaller peoples” refers to people who live in the territories of traditional settlement of their ancestors, preserving the traditional way of life, housekeeping and crafts, numbering at least 50,000 people in the Russian Federation and identifying themselves as separate ethnic communities. Among other criteria, the legislator originally laid quantitative criterion of inclusion of indigenous peoples into the category of smaller peoples, thus outlining the boundaries of the Law implementation. The law has secured special rights for indigenous peoples, that count less than 50,000 people and has not provided any legal consequences for the people, the number of which fail to meet this criterion, i.e. reaches 50,000 people or more. Following the logic of the current legislation, these people and their representatives, having ceased to be smaller, lose all the rights that were reserved for them. The environment and natural resources of the former territory of traditional nature use will also remain without any special protection. It is not clear, what in this case should be done by the public authorities and the local government that have created the territory of traditional nature use. Consequently, it is advisable not to use the quantitative characteristic for determination of the entitled subject, but to use the concept of “indigenous peoples”, as it is accepted in international practice, and assign special rights to indigenous peoples, in order not to cause conflicts related to the change of the people status in the future. 2. The second problem is also related to the definition of indigenous peoples that is laid down in the law. Article 12 of the Federal Law “On Territories of Traditional Nature Use of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation” determines that in case of confiscation of ground lands and other isolated natural objects that are within the boundaries of the territories of traditional nature use for state or municipal needs, persons belonging to smaller peoples, and communities of indigenous peoples are granted equivalent ground lands and other natural objects, as well as compensated for losses caused by such confiscation. Based on the meaning of this standard, it follows that it refers to cases where there is confiscation of individual ground lands, or isolated objects, or even the whole territory of traditional nature use, but we are talking not about the loss of communication with all lands that have been previously traditionally occupied by indigenous peoples, i.e. about migration. It is necessary to think out a mechanism to prevent such a situation, for example, to indicate that indigenous peoples are not only the people living in the territories of traditional settlements of their ancestors, but also the people who are forced to migrate by the state from such territories or to provide additional compensation and guarantees for the peoples and their representatives who have lost the status of indigenous smaller peoples as a result of governmental activity. 3. One of the most urgent problems at this stage is the problem of establishment of # 991 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… traditional nature use territories. It is particularly true for the territories of traditional nature use on the federal level. Since the issuing of the Federal Law “On Territories of Traditional Nature Use of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation” no federal territory of traditional nature use has been established, but several appeals from the indigenous communities have been submitted to the Russian government. Moreover, according to the functional legislation, the territories of traditional nature use are a variety of specially protected natural territories that means that it is possible to use the general procedure of the establishment of protected territories that are fixed by the legislation on specially protected natural territories. The legal regime of almost all protected territories (except for the state nature reserves and national parks) is determined by the provisions about the certain protected territories. For most types of protected territories there is no acceptance of typical provisions, but they are established and operate successfully. 4. According to the Federal Law “On Guarantees of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation”, indigenous smaller peoples and their representatives are entitled to compensation of losses that are made as a result of damage to the native environment of their habitat by economic activity of organizations of all forms of property and individuals (Article 8, part 1, paragraph 8) [ibid]. The law does not determine where funds paid as compensation for such losses are specifically sent, who and in what way use these funds. The law also does not explain how interested representatives of indigenous peoples are involved in the distribution and control over the use of funds that are transferred as the compensation of incurred losses. In practice, as a rule, these funds are sent to the accounts of local authorities that are organized and operate on the relevant territories. Meanwhile, proper control over the implementation of transferred funds is not carried out. The funds that should be used for restoration and improvement of pastures, hunting territories and other needs, are often used for other purposes. It is still not clarified what kind of loss should be compensated to indigenous peoples and in what amount. It is important to establish clear criteria of losses, goals, defining the areas of expense of the funds, collected for compensation of losses, and the mechanism of compensation at the legislative level. 5. Part 2, Article 11 of the Law on territories stipulates that ground lands and other isolated natural objects that are within the boundaries of territories of traditional nature use are granted to persons belonging to smaller peoples and communities of indigenous peoples for free use. However, the Land Code levels this opportunity to get the ground land for free use. Representatives of indigenous smaller peoples and their communities have equal rights with other citizens and organizations to have ground lands. The Code does not provide the right to receive ground lands within the boundaries of territories of traditional nature use for free use. Like other citizens, representatives of indigenous peoples and their organizations can obtain ground lands from the land that is state or municipal property by purchasing it on an auction or on the basis of the decision of the authority to give ground land for rent. This puts indigenous peoples in an unequal position, because the traditional way of life and traditional economy that is carried out by them often make it impossible to get the revenues that are sufficient for purchasing ground lands along with other bidders. If indigenous peoples carry out traditional nature use as entrepreneurial activity, such activity will immediately lose the status of traditional nature use, because indigenous people # 992 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… traditionally use resources to ensure a certain standard of living, i.e. living for themselves. Indigenous peoples, implementing their special rights, for example, carrying out traditional nature use, are able to provide the possibility of other citizens to implement their rights for land and nature use, as well as rights for a healthy environment, because they ensure the preservation of this environment and natural resources on the territories of their traditional residence and do not alienate the land and natural resources from the use by other subjects. It means that their traditional nature use is carried out along with other subjects. If the latter, in turn, do not deplete natural resources and do not destroy the natural landscape and environment, their rights do not cross each other. 6. There are inconsistencies in the determination of the powers of local selfgovernment between the federal laws specifically aimed at the regulation of the rights of indigenous smaller peoples, and the Federal Law No. 131-Ф1 «On General Principles of Local Government Organization in the Russian Federation» issued on 06.10.2003. For example, according to the Federal Law «On Guarantees of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation», the powers of local governments for the protection of original habitat, traditional way of life, economy and crafts of indigenous peoples include the establishment of general principles of “organization and activity of territorial public self-government in the places of their traditional residence and economic activity». At the same time, granting the authority to establish the general principles of organization and operation of territorial public selfgovernment of the given peoples to the local governments is not entirely consistent with the nature of the powers of local self-government that follows from the Federal Law No. 131-ФЗ «On General Principles of Organization of Local SelfGovernment in the Russian Federation» issued on 06.10.2003. As the closest authorities to public, local authorities should determine not the general principles, but specific procedure of organization and implementation of public territorial selfgovernment on the territory of the municipality, the conditions and procedure of allocation of the necessary funds from the local budget for the needs of local public authorities, also in respect to indigenous peoples. They should carry out these powers on the basis of general principles that are already included in the given Law (Article 27), and do not set these general principles by themselves. 2. The development of national cinematograph and animated films as an ethno-formative mechanism One of the most relevant and effective practices of ethnic identity and self-identity of indigenous peoples in the context of global transformations is the use of the tools that are developed and proposed in the project of modernity that are not denying the traditional culture, but reproducing it as relevant and contemporary. And the first place among these practices, of course, is taken by cinematograph and animated films. The main national pride of the Yakut cinematograph is in the fact that most films are made in Yakut language. Cinematograph is largely oriented to the audience in the Republic, and not outside is boundaries. As a social and cultural practice, this approach draws us to conclusion that national cinema is an important mechanism of preservation of the language of the Yakut people. Moreover, the principle of making movies in Yakut language indicates the fact that ethnic group is developed according to the model of the simultaneous and incorporation into the “large” ethnic community and preservation of # 993 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… national uniqueness. At this stage cinematograph serves as the practice of preservation of the national uniqueness. Unique ethnic peculiarity of the Yakut cinematograph manifests itself in the following cultural “zones”: 1) visualization of epic and fantastic stories of Olonkho in animated movies and “transference in time” of the values of the national epos into the life stories of modern people; 2) traditional way of life in Yakutia: uluses, fishing, hunting, etc.; 3) works of national literature: works written by P. Oyunskiy are used in the movies as a basis for adaptation, folk tales are used in animated movies. 4) creation of national cultural heroes (intentional search for such cultural heroes who will be well known throughout the world), lifestyle and actions of whom are mythologized and transformed into the cultural ideal, even if it is wrong from the perspective of history. Yakut cinematograph system is complicated and successfully developed according to the model of the major national cinematographic schools, where there are different niches. The niche of mainstream films with didactic adaptation of mentally “healthy” lifestyle of people in the Republic is occupied by “Sakhafilm”. The niche of genre films (thrillers, action movies, “black” movies, fiction, etc.), that is oriented in particular to export is occupied by the private film company “Almazfilm”. There are independent movies that could eventually become a platform for the emergence of film masterpieces in the Yakut cinematograph. There is beginning of the development of animated movies. Thus, at the structural level, the Yakut cinematograph is developing according to the successful models of national film schools. Gradually, in addition to the originality of plots there is the beginning of the development of specific character of the Yakut film aesthetics: the weakness of dramatic concept (unreliability of causal and logical relationships in the films), restrained acting (it is known that such physiognomic feature of the Yakut ethnic group as restraint of facial expressions does not allow actors to play emotionally, so it often creates heroic images). It is also characterized by stylistic orientation to the Asian cinematograph that is spiritually close to Yakutia and that has earned success on a global level. Acting as a national ideal-formative system, the Yakut cinematograph forms the following values: national patterns of behavior in which ruse is put much higher than power; ideal of a hero both in the spiritual and physical aspects, the value of a family, involvement of the Russian nation in the history, tolerance in interethnic relations, but at the same time preservation of own cultural uniqueness, originality and independence. 3. Conservation and development of the unique national religion as an ethno-formative mechanism Such social and cultural practice as development of the national religion (including national variants of the world religions) has great significance as an extremely efficient one. For the Yakut ethnic group, the role of such national religion is played by Shamanism. Today Shamanistic practice is represented by a wide range of phenomena among the indigenous peoples, from the ones preserved in the closest way to the original, evolved traditional Shamanism and recently reconstructed ritual mechanisms and merge of traditional Shamanistic practices into the ritual complex of other religions. Just like the list of the kinds of today’s Shamanism, the gradation of participation of Siberian indigenous peoples is extremely wide. They act as real practitioners, tradition bearers (it refers to the kinds of Shamanism preserved in # 994 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… the closest way to the original, as well as forms of Shamanism evolved with full or partial loss of traditional practice), as reconstructors of ritual Shamanistic practices (Neoshamanism, urban Shamanism, “no drum” practices), as inventors of their innovative forms (Shamanism as an ethnic and cultural practice), or as experts at adapting Shamanistic techniques by other kind of ritual practices (experiential Shamanism). At the same time, it is wrong to claim that Shamanism traditions have never been interrupted, though for a long time Shamanistic ritual practices have been facing some resistance. So, despite of active Christianization of Siberian people that has been taking place since the 17th century (or, since the 19th century, for some territories), the ethnographers of the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century noticed the universal expansion of Shamanistic religious practices among the Northern and the Siberian peoples (expeditions of Mikhailovskiy V.M., Sternberg L.Y., Johelsson V.I., Bogoraz V.I., Popova A.I., Sokolnikov N.P., Vasilyev V.N., Rudenko S.I., Zelenin D.K.). For the fi rst time, Shamanism phenomenon was mentioned in one of the chapters of the monograph “Description of the Peoples Habitat in the Russian State” by Georgi I.G. which is called “On the Pagan Law of Shamans”. Soviet ethnographers also paid much attention to studying cultural phenomena of Siberia and the North that concern Shamanism, that still existed and drew the interest of researchers despite of being prohibited (researches by Shirokogorov S.M., Dolgikh B.O., Smolyak A.V., Levin M.G., Potapov L.P., Popov A.A., Vasilevich G.M., Ivanov S.V., Pelikh G.I., Prokofieva E.D., Khomich L.V., Alexeeva N.A., Simchenko Yu.B., Gracheva G.I., Mazan A.I.). The first wave of the dominating ethnos’ resistance against Shamanistic practices was the conversion of the indigenous population of the Siberian and Northern territories to another belief (17th-19th centuries). The second wave or resistance that occurred in the 19th- beginning of the 20th century was caused by the point of view, widespread among ethnographer researchers, which regarded Shamanism as a physic anomaly. The ethnographic researches of that time described the phenomenon of Shamanism as a specific form of polar hysteria that has mass character, or as domination of shamans over other members of the community (18; 2; 22). During the Soviet era, Shamanism dramatically transformed itself under the atheistic policy followed by the state, which included several branches of measures: destroying and isolating professional shamans, educating work with the population, prohibition of traditional medical practices, destroying the part of traditional national culture that concerns religious or mystic knowledge. For this reason, during the Soviet era all three spheres of Shamanistic practices were transformed, and each of them restored itself later in its own way. The measures of the struggle against Shamanism as a phenomenon were the following: educational measures, that were building up a network of boarding schools where children were educated away from their traditional culture under the domination of the “bigger ethnos” culture; health measures, that were providing the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Northern territories with professional medical assistance points in order to lessen the demand for traditional medical practices, compulsory medical treatment of practicing shamans; economic measures, that were forming up state deer farms (sovkhoz), the technologies of which would not accept applying any of the traditional Shamanistic practices connected with this economy field; legislative and executive measures, prosecution for breaking the official prohibition of the Shamanistic practices. At the same time, the process of marginalization of the representatives of the smaller indigenous # 995 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… peoples played its role in interrupting the Shamanistic traditions. By the end of the 20th century, the professional niche of Shamanism had almost ceased its existence for the reason of the small number (or even absence) of initiate shamans. The reasons for this were both medical technologies and the marginalization process, the long-lasting prohibition of Shamanism during which even those shamans who did not undergo any medical treatment, forgot their traditional practices or lost the motivation for their practice. Everyday Shamanism, which is a less noticeable phenomenon, did not face such strong resistance of the USSR ideologists, so it remained in the rural areas and to a large extent, in cities as well. The proofs can be found in the field researches of many Soviet ethnographers of the second half of the 20th century that described the presence of Shamanistic practices in the Northern people’s life under the conditions of prohibition. These descriptions can be found in works of Smolyak A.V., who took part in more than 20 ethnographic expeditions in the areas of Siberian indigenous peoples’ settlements from the 1950-s to 1990-s, Kharitonova V.I., the head of the Medical Anthropology Group of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Science, who still carries out active researches of Shamanism in the life of indigenous Siberian peoples. As a result of the processes that have been accompanying the indigenous peoples of the North during the Soviet time, Shamanism has dramatically transformed itself, as the number practicing initiate shamans has reached the critical point of extinction. Nevertheless, the extinction of the Northern shamans has been noticed before: in the end of the 19 century (year 1892 edition) Mikhailovskiy V.M. described the Shamanism extinction under the influence of Buddhism, Christianity and “Mahommedanism” (Islam). Concerning this, the ethnographer remarks that “even though the shamans are disappearing, they are trusted and often asked for help” (28, P.62). This way, the “extinction” situation in Siberia and in the Extreme North is a longlasting phenomenon, and it cannot be considered as something exclusive in the indigenous peoples’ life, it is more of a rule, just like the dual faith situation. With the development of the relationships between the indigenous smaller peoples with the dominating Russian ethnos, Shamanism lost its status of the general outlook of their representatives; several generations of people who grew up in the conditions of foster homes and Soviet schools, apart from their original traditions, could not be their bearers anymore, though Shamanistic beliefs remained in their lives in the form of superstitions. At the same time, during the prohibition of Shamanism among the indigenous population of Siberia and the North, a phenomenon that researchers called “shamans without drums” started to spread, which means that representatives of indigenous peoples who had the “shaman gift” but could not undergo the ritual initialization, started their practice. The process of Shamanism renewal began in the 1990-s, which was economically and culturally difficult time for the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North. This period became the starting point for the vital self-identification, restoring the ethnic identification of the population as representatives of the indigenous nationalities, not as a mass of a “smaller Soviet people”, as it was in the Soviet era. The long-lasting resistance against Shamanistic practices and the subsequent boom of Shamanism popularity caused various transformations of this tradition. Today’s shaman environment is patchy, as shamans differ from each other in age, way of tradition heritage (those who inherited the knowledge naturally, but did not practice it during the prohibition, and neoshamans who have completed special training courses), in the practice character and their nationality: there # 996 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… are not only representatives of the indigenous smaller peoples of Siberia and the North who know and practice Shamanism. The difference of motivation for practicing Shamanism for the indigenous population of Siberia and the North and for representatives of other nations (Russians or Ukrainians) has been published in the comparative research of biographies of the shamans from Moscow and Sayano-Altai region. The biographies of shamans were studied on the basis of a survey on their life episodes that could be connected to the respondents’ being bred as shamans. The results prove that the value of belonging to Shamanism and attitude to it, along with solving issues on the inheritance of the gift by the respondents’ children within shaman groups from Moscow and Sayano-Altai region, are totally opposite. The attitude towards Shamanism of Moscow respondents is always positive, while the representatives of indigenous people of Siberia speak of their gift as of an obnoxious burden, or hard labour. Considering that all respondents from Moscow wished their children to follow their path and become shamans, respondents from Siberia are totally against such heritage, but they realize that “it is their fate” and their children will “have to live such life”. Integrated survey results showed, that unlike Moscow shamans, the shamans from the indigenous Siberian population take Shamanism as, first of all, a way of survival or getting rid of physiological and psychological suffering, and secondly, as support of ethnical identity (as the main way of supporting the family, as a way of being different from the other people, a way of solving psychological and emotional problems take further positions in the rating). This way, the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North think of Shamanism as of a sphere of stating their ethnical identity and reproducing it. For this reason the demand for Shamanism grew rapidly with the collapse of the USSR, when every nation living in Russia started seeking for means of selfidentification as a special one towards all other national communities. The task of reconstructing religious practices as a cultural phenomenon was to reproduce the ethnos in its independence and uniqueness, which solved the urgent problem of national self-identification. In this case the religious Shamanistic practices really do act as a modern mechanism of ethnos reproduction that is characterized by a high demand at the ethnic self-identification of the nation. It is also interesting that nowadays Shamanism performs a socially uniting function for the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the North by positioning the culture of the given ethnos as critically different, unique and distinctive from the dominating nation’s culture, and in respect with this task new forms of Shamanistic practices emerge. At the same time such forms of Shamanistic practices as dual faith, carry out their function of ethnos reproduction. According to the surveys conducted by the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of Russian Academy of Science among some indigenous ethnos of Siberia and the North, dual faith is evaluated as a specific component of their national culture. This is what the survey of Buryatia about synthesis of Shamanism and Buddhism showed: the majority of the respondents called “Buryat Buddhism” and its practices, based on merge of Shamanistic and Buddhist rituals, a distinctive representative of their national culture. Concerning this, the science of the last ten years expresses its own specific point of view towards the phenomenon of Shamanism as a regular outlook, the special status of which, its antiquity, its inhesion to ”retarded” nations was created as a result of colonial approach domination in studying the indigenous peoples of the North. This point of view is typical for Northern peoples’ culture and history researches of the post-Soviet period, which enabled them to re-evaluate # 997 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… the character of the relationship between the dominating and smaller peoples of Russia. So, Hakkareinen M.V. studied Shamanism through the prism of the history of this phenomenon on the initial stage of Russian colonial project, when the symbolic border that separated the European part of Russia from the conquered Siberia was only beginning to establish itself (44): Shamanism did not initially exist as a separate religious institution, it formed itself in the process of the evolvement of the Russian Empire. The notion of Shamanism played a significant role in establishing the colonial order, as the observed phenomenon from the Shamanists’ life stated and proved social inequality of the peoples living in the West and the East of the Empire. It all resulted in the opposition between the East and the West. The author also believes in the important role of the peoples’ researchers in creating cultural and social reality of the nations, when Shamanism emerged only as a result of generalization and conclusions drawn by researchers. The latest historical and sociological researches regard Shamanism as a cultural phenomenon the special status of which was artificially formed. The Shamanistic practices today do act as ethno-formative components of a special national culture of indigenous peoples. The polarity of the modern views towards the nature and function of modern phenomenon of Shamanism is evident: Shamanism as a product of colonial approach and Shamanism as a nation tradition’s component which is able to reproduce the ethnos. At the same time, even the Shamanism produced as a colonial product, pointing out the nonequivalence of the peoples is used by the peoples as something that states their national specificity, a means of the ethnos’ reproduction, formation and reconstruction. So, Shamanistic practices are really demanded today as a means of forming the ethnos; in this respect, their modern kinds are not equally efficient. So, experiential Shamanism is not an ethnoreproducing practice, as it has absolutely different tasks and only assumes applying Shamanistic techniques for solving some personal problems; and they are mostly aimed at Europeans. Such practices cannot be used as ethnos-reproducing concerning the indigenous population of Siberia and the North. Practices of Neoshamanism and urban Shamanism also do not totally comply with the tasks of outlining the borders of a certain ethnos, as they involve representatives of various nationalities, and, therefore, are more likely to aid overcoming ethnic borders and contributing into ethnos assimilation within one religious framework, forming up a specific confessional, not national, union of people. Shamanistic practices bear evolution character with various degree of transforming the tradition: Shamanism as a result of certain tradition evolution, “no drum” practices, Shamanism closest to its original forms, Shamanistic practices with total loss of the ritual complex and even Shamanistic practices on the background of dual faith, can be considered as wanted and able to reproduce the ethnos, separating it from other nations and giving its representatives an opportunity to identify themselves. Such artificially formed practice as “stage Shamanism” is also efficient. In this case, religious practices perform the task of forming an indigenous ethnos under the spontaneous reconstruction process, identifying their representatives. Shamanism is a surprisingly stable and non-conservative practice, which is open to historical transformations, so, it is essential to understand, that using the mechanism of newly reconstructed Shamanistic practices as an ethno-formative component today, the reproduced ethnic groups are not the ethnos that used to live in the Northern and Siberian lands a hundred years ago. This is a new ethnos which inherited the old name and the tradition base, an ethnos that is assimilating to the modern # 998 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… conditions and needs establishing its own borders in the period of global transformations; the means of which are such cultural practices as the ritual side of Shamanism in the majority of its today’s varieties. 4. National history as an ethno-formative mechanism for Yakuts It is suggested that one of the most significant and efficient practices of ethnic and cultural identity is, on one hand, including of the people into the world history, and on the other hand, development of national lines in the world science, artificial and purposeful “breeding” of national leaders in all spheres of science, where it is possible. For the past decades, the majority of the ethnos living in the territory of circumpolar zone started following the way of cultural “revival”. However, while some of them are restoring their traditions, language, culture in a closed way, within the borders of their historical motherland and within their ethnos, preserve the core of their ancient outlook, transform and assimilate themselves to the historical conditions (Innu, Evenki, Saami etc.), the others (Yakuts) prefer doing it in a more open way. Moreover, these ethnos revive their culture, including it into the all-world historical context not as a common one, but as something more significant and powerful. The main scientific researches of the region where the ethnos lives are aimed at that. To prove the dominating status of their culture, the researchers turn to analyzing various data: archaeological, genetic, linguistic etc., where they could find any connection to significant processes of history. Thereby, some ethnos (Yakuts) today deny many existing historical data and start creating new history, the origin of which is connected with their ethnic group in particular or with the territory of their inhabitance. However, they are much more likely to create their new mythology, because they take such knowledge about the world around them, about their ancestors and life of their people as real pages of their history, while in the world academic community it has not been accepted yet. Because the base for this history is often composed by the texts from the general folklore fund of the ethnos that were written by different people in different times, not historical documents. For the reason of stability of the religious beliefs in the ethnos conscience, they still keep archaic legends and stories, while today on the ground of old myths the new ones are being created. The situation that emerges is contradictory. On one hand, the majority of ethnos that live within the circumpolar territory does not position itselves as peoples who have made a specific contribution into the development of the world history and have influenced it. On the other hand, there are some certain ethnos that pay excessively much attention to this. Thus, some misbalance in the lives of the indigenous smaller peoples of the North can be pointed out. The balance needs to be restored. In this case, the main recommendation for the policy in respect of the indigenous peoples of the circumpolar territories is the following: various forms of historicism expression of various ethnos should be accurately followed, in case of any deviations their analysis and timely intervention should be carried out. Because in this case, the main thing is holding to some limits. 5. National mass-media and their role in forming the ethnic conscience of the Yakuts There is no doubt that mass media is especially significant for ethnic identification and self-identification. As a practice of modernity, modern media culture is an intensive information # 999 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… flow, a means of combined assimilation of the world in its social, moral, psychological, artistic, intellectual aspects. Just like the majority of the modern institutions, the mass media is an institutional and organizational entity that combines the characteristics of an institution and its organizational form. The mass media is the reason why the character of social and cultural changes can be determined both by the globalization processes when the mass media is included into the process of universalization and becomes a universal mechanism of social and cultural unification, and the process of national identification actualization. 1. In the project of future development of the national state, mass media is a combination of informational and communicative means that have been developed by the people in the process of historical and cultural growth, which aids forming national community conscience and socialization of a personality. 2. On one hand, mass media ties up the separate cultural worlds, and on the other hand, in the process of interaction with some certain cultures, it highlights their differences, creates contradictions between globalization and localization of cultural samples, between the universal and the national in the modern culture. 3. National mass media plays crucial role in spreading and filling social and cultural samples with content. Mass media can perform propaganda, ideological, agitation, educational tasks. 4. 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Положение об агентстве по делам Севера и поддержке коренных малочисленных народов Красноярского края, утвержденное Постановлением Правительства Красноярского края # 1001 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… от 14.10.2008 № 132-п [Электронный ресурс]. URL: www.krskstate.ru/government/executiv/ agency. Жукова Е.В. [E.V. Zhukova] Проблемы правового обеспечения прав коренных малочисленных народов в области традиционного природопользования / Е.В. Жукова // Экологическое право. – 2009. – № 1. – С. 11–14. Андриченко Л.В. [L.V. Andrichenko] Регулирование и защита прав национальных меньшинств и коренных малочисленных народов в Российской Федерации. М., 2005. – С. 347–348. Жуков М.А. [M.A. Zhukov] Старожильческое население российского севера как субъект традиционного природопользования // Проблемы традиционного природопользования. Север, Сибирь, Дальний Восток Российской Федерации. М., 2000. – С. 32-43. Хабриева Т.Я., Андриченко Л.В., Елеонский В.О. [T.Ya. Khabrieva, L.V. Andrichenko, V.O. Eleonskiy] Концепция развития законодательства в области защиты национальных меньшинств и коренных малочисленных народов // Концепции развития российского законодательства / Под ред. Т.Я. Хабриевой, Ю.А. Тихомирова, Ю.П. Орловского. М., 2004. – С. 181. Бочарникова Т.В. [T.V. Bocharnikova] Проблемы и перспективы развития традиционного хозяйства коренных малочисленных народов Севера // Экономика коренных народов. – № 1, 2000. – С.7–9. Заключение и выполнение соглашений при осуществлении проектов по освоению полезных ископаемых // Материалы российско-канадского семинара, 14-16 октября 2003 г., г. Сыктывкар. – Канадский институт природоресурсного права, университет г. Калгари, Альберта, 2003. – 146 с. Куриков В.М. [V.M. Kurikov] Стратегия развития северных этносов / Екатеринбург, ХантыМансийск, 1999. – 298 с. Напрасников А.Т., Рагулина М.В., Калеп Л.Л. и др. [A.T. Naprasnikov, M.V. Ragulina, L.L. Kalep and others] Территории традиционного природопользования Восточной Сибири: Географические аспекты обоснования и анализа. – Новосибирск: Наука, 2005. – 212 с. О совершенствовании правового регулирования в сфере государственной национальной политики // Аналитический вестник Совета Федерации Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации. 2007. № 17(334). С. 36-37. Филиппов В.Т. [V.T. Filippov] Защита прав коренных малочисленных народов Севера в решениях Конституционного Суда Республики Саха (Якутия) // Общепризнанные принципы и нормы международного права, международные договоры в практике конституционного правосудия / Под ред. М.А. Митюкова и др. М., 2004. С. 294-304. Харючи С.Н. [S.N. Kharyuchi] Коренные малочисленные народы: проблемы законодательства. – Томск: Издательство Томского университета, 2004. – 360 с. N.P. Koptzeva, N.M. Libakova. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth. Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophy of the Universal Unity and Works of Art in the Russian Painting // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 2). Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. – P. 67–83. N.P. Koptzeva, A.A. Makhonina. Henrich Rickert’s methodology and its application for solution of the problem of cultural values in contemporary theory of culture // Journal of Siberian Federal # 1002 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 2009. № 2 (2). Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. – P. 247–258. N.P. Koptzeva, K.V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2). Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. – P. 491–506. N. Koptzeva, A. Semenova. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social science. 2009. № 2 (1). – P. 31–55. V. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Subject of Applied Culturology // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3. 2009. № 2. P. 323 – 334. Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки 3. 2009. № 2. С. 323–334. V. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4. 2009. № 2. P. 587 – 594. Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки 4. 2009. № 2. С. 587–594. N.P. Koptzeva, A.A. Semenova. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level // Journal Of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social science. – 2009. – №2 (1). – стр. 31 – 55. Алмазфильм – Режим доступа: http://www.arthouse.ru/attachment.asp?id=3064 Дорообо, киине! (Здравствуй, кино! – якут.) – Режим доступа к статье: http://www.kinopressa. ru/news/17.html Кинематограф – зеркало или молот? Кинокоммуникация как социокультурная практика: научная монография / Под общ. ред. М.И. Жабского [M.I. Zhabskiy]. – М.: Канон +, 2010. – 535 с. Кино Якутии: короткий метр (избранное) – Режим доступа: http://rfaf.ru/rus/library/251_ b1248_view_p1 Лубашова Н.И. [N.I. Lubashova] Кинематография России XX в.: культурологический аспект: автореф. дис. … д-ра культурологии. – Краснодар, 2007. Лукина А.В. [A.V. Lukina] Социокультурные технологии формирования национальной идентичности (историко-методологический аспект): автореф. дис. … канд. культурологии. – Екатеринбург, 2004. Плахов А. [A. Plakhov] Режиссеры настоящего: в 2 т. Том 1. Визионеры и мегаломаны. – СПб.: Сеанс, Амфора, 2008. Плахов А. [A. Plakhov] Режиссеры будущего: индивидуалисты и универсалы. – СПб.: Сеанс; Амфора, 2009. Хатковская И.И. [I.I. Khatkovskaya] Национальное кино и/или пост-национальный кинематограф // Визуальная антропология: Новые взгляды на социальную реальность / под ред. Е. Ярской-Смирновой, П. Романова, В.Круткина. – Саратов: научная книга, 2006. – С. 260-280 Эшпай В.А. [V.A. Eshpai] Американская киноколлекция. 1992 – 2022. – М.: НИИ Киноискусства, 2008. Мацук М.А. [M.A. Matsuk] Материалы научного симпозиума. Вопросы истории и культуры северных стран и территорий. № 2 (6), 2009 // http://www.hcpncr.com/index.html Робер-Ламблин Ж. [J. Robert-Lamblin] Различные аспекты долговременного антропологического обследования в Аммассалике (Восточная Гренландия). Изменения в демографической структуре и образе жизни. Вопросы истории и культуры северных стран и регионов № 4, 2008 // http://www.hcpncr.com/index.html # 1003 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova… Ethno-Formative Mechanisms and Forms of Self-Awareness… Циркумполярная цивилизация в музеях мира: вчера, сегодня, завтра» http://arcticmuseum. com/index.html Этнообразующие механизмы и формы самосознания коренных народов в условиях внешнего цивилизационного давления (на примере якутского этноса) Н.П. Копцева, Н.Н. Пименова, В.С. Лузан, А.А. Семенова, Е.А. Сертакова, Н.А. Бахова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В современной ситуации активного освоения богатых ресурсами территорий Сибири и Севера все большую актуальность приобретает проблема самосохранения этносов, исконно проживающих в этих регионах. Путь сохранения коренных этносов и их культур осложнен усилением внешнего цивилизационного давления. Тем не менее, любому этносу присущи механизмы самовоспроизводства, и именно они способны помочь сохранить, восстановить этническую идентичность представителей коренных народов – выступить формами их национального самосознания. В настоящее время известны как традиционные элементы культуры этноса, способствующие его воспроизводству, так и явления сегодняшнего дня, которые также могут выступить средствами формирования и сохранения этноса. Такими этнообразующими механизмами в сегодняшней практике коренных народов выступают как сохранение и развитие уникальной исконной религии этноса и история этноса, так и правовые инструменты общества, развитие национального кинематографа и анимационного кино, национальные масс-медиа. Данная статья рассматривает возможности перечисленных элементов культуры в выполнении ими функции формирования и сохранения нации на примере якутского этноса и представляет собой результат анализа эффективных практик сохранения и развития традиционной якутской культуры в условиях иноцивилизационного давления. Ключевые слова: этническая идентификация, коренные народы Сибири и Севера, этнообразующие механизмы, правовые инструменты, национальный кинематограф, история этноса, этническая религия, национальные масс-медиа. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1005-1014 ~~~ УДК 323.28+808.51 Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups Pavel V. Klachkov* Department of Expertise and Analytics of the Governour of the Krasnoyarsk Territory 110 pr. Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660009 Russia 1 Received 8.06.2011, received in revised form 26.06.2011, accepted 11.08.2011 Considering that terrorists’ aim is to influence the public conscience in information space, effectiveness of both terrorist and counterterrorism activity largely depends on consideration of features and principles of the latter. That is why the modern radical organizations pay as much attention to the work in mass media and Internet as to the acts of violence. The public statements of terrorists are the weapon in media war. To study them the author proposes to use the methods of political and situation analysis. The research demonstrates that these statements are valuable sources if information and their detailed analysis let us to detect objective and subjective features of terrorists and nontransparent subjects who support them. It concerns, in particular, the compilation of psychological profiles of the leaders of the terrorists groups and determination of the “grows poles”, that is not formed, but visible tendencies. Thus, political analysis of the public statements of terrorists lets us to improve the mechanisms of prediction and prevention of terrorist activity which means that it has undoubtful practical importance. Keywords: political analysis, situation analysis, terrorism, public statements, counterterrorism activity. In the present time it is undoubtful, that effective countermeasures to terrorist activity are impossible without fundamental and applied research. In order to characterize the systems of methods which are used to study definite political events and political situation in general, prediction of the possible development of the situation and making of the competent politically-motivated decision, the term “political analysis” is used1. According to K.V. Simonov, opposed to theoretical politology, political analysis is focused on active participation in the political process as a modifying principle. The object of research * 1 in this case is “problematic situations from the current political practice, which decisions are to be found as soon as possible”. The results of the applied research is “perishable” but extremely valuable product, especially in critical cases, when the most important decisions are to be made under conditions of time, informational and other restrictions2. According to A.I. Soloviev, the importance of political analysis as an applied subject lies in the fact that it “formulates the basic requirements for studying the problems, the search of the most suitable decisions and identifies the necessary Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1005 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups technological equipment and activities, which prevent subjectivity and arbitrary actions”3. K.V. Simonov notes, that political analysis has pyramidal structure: on the basis of situation analysis it also includes political forecasting and procedures of formulation and decision making. Moreover, situation analysis, which studies the condition of the political system and combination of interaction between its subjects in a certain period of time, may also be an independent type of activity. Tragic, but integral part of the modern political reality is terrorism – a phenomenon, which N.A. Baranov defines as “non-state violent use of force with the aim to spark mass panic in the society, to weaken and even overthrow the government and initiate political changes in the state. It is aimed to destabilize the state regimes, agitation of population’s excitement about their defenselessness in the face of violence, change of the government in a country or meeting different political, religious or ethnical requirements”4. By systematic use of violence, terrorists try to frighten the population and make it panic. Terrorist acts of local and regional scale happen more often during the election period. According to A. Fomin, terrorism can reach maximum efficiency in the democratic countries where the population is involved in the actual election. This method is less effective in countries with authoritarian and totalitarian political regimes, where the election results are known in advance5. At the international level, the terrorist forces become agents of change in the global balance of power. For the most detailed analysis of the situations involving the use of violence for political purposes it is important, above all, to create the necessary conceptual apparatus and to develop the adequate methods of analysis. This raises the question about the methods of the situation analysis, applicable for the investigation of terrorist threats in terms of the lack of information and time. The analysis of the public statements by the subjects of terrorist activity appears to be one of them. Such statements are intended, as a rule, for the mass audience and can easily influence the situation as a whole, and the interests of the definite political actors. As A.N. Kurbatskii rightly pointed out, the act of terrorism in the modern world is mainly a component of the information war6. Regular public statements of the representatives of some terrorist groups proof this fact. Thus, the structure of the “Taliban”, along with specialized departments for working with the groups of suicide bombers and units of learning how to create improvised explosive devices, created news agencies such as the studio “Ummat” and “Radio Shariat.” However, the public statements of the terrorists are above price material for the analysis. The spatiotemporal parameters, the external context and location of the speeches within the boundaries of the events, are of particular interest, as the statement of the leader of a terrorist group which became the public domain, as well as any political text, was born under the influence of the complex interacting social factors and due to a number of different circumstances. Any person acting on behalf of the terrorist organization has a number of objective and subjective qualities, which give his work a certain direction and, at the same time, act as limiting factors. Among the objective factors the following factors should be mentioned first of all: independence or dependence of that person, his/her involvement in certain systems of social relations (such as terrorist networks and contacts with various internal and external political forces and with foreign intelligence services), a person’s publicity, status, or absence of such characteristics. The major limiting factors are: counteraction to the extremists from the authorities, including anti-terrorist units, the number and organization # 1006 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups of the forces available to terrorists, the social basis on which they rely and the amount of resources under their control. Terrorists often exaggerate the number of their ranks, but on the basis of the analysis of their statements we can draw conclusions about whether they contain true information about the number of members of an organized network, or they mention only their imaginary “comrades”. Speaking about the subjective limiters we should assume that any person shares certain beliefs (or, at least, have to make show that there is any), has certain skills and doesn’t have others (as a rule, not perpetrators but ideologists of terrorist acts make the statements), has certain sibling or other personal connections (sometimes the terrorists want to break them, but often turn it to their advantage) and also has personal abilities and qualities. The latter, in particular, include intellectual (ability to develop an ideology and a plan of action, systematic thinking), psychological (charisma, the ability to suggest), and endurance and stamina, as well as professional skills (including propaganda), etc. For example, in the study of the public statements of Osama bin Laden it should be noted that from 1986 he took part in at least five major battles, as well as in hundreds of small-scale armed clashes. Afghan period in bin Laden’s live was a starting point for his becoming a terrorist. According to his own words, “One day in Afghanistan was worth more than a thousand days of praying in a mosque”7. The real motivation of the leader of a terrorist group is important too. Despite the popular belief, motivation can be not only ideological, or psychopathology, but also financial, career but of any origin. If there are no alternative “social elevators” people can build their career in a terrorist network by agreeing to bear the associated risks for the sake of the high social status, access to finance and the ability to determine the behavior of other people. One of the main goals of a terrorist act is the psychological impact on individuals who are not direct victims of a certain crime. Let us remember that the word “terror” is literary translated as “horror.” The terrorists, carrying out different specific actions – terrorist acts, have the aim to occurrence of this particular emotional state, which, however, without loud public outcry, in most cases can not lead to achieving the goals, declared by the organizers. Often they are used by the terrorists merely to demonstrate their demands and opportunities: usually after the terrorist attack its organizers publicly “take responsibility” for its implementation, announce why it was committed, and set conditions for termination of such actions. Thus, even without reaching the global, ultimate goals, they reach staging or intermediate goals: a terrorist group becomes well-known to the public and “respected” in their circles, people talk about it, it is started to be considered. For example, the leader of the North Caucasus separatists Doku Umarov, posting a video message on the Internet, took responsibility for organizing the terrorist attack in Domodedovo on 24 January 2011, after that he laid down the conditions for cease of the terrorist activity. He assured that the explosions would be more frequent, and would not cease until the federal forces leave the Caucasus8. The public statements of extremists may contain the ideological background of their terrorist activity. Thus, in his statement, Umarov pointed out that the terrorist attack in Domodedovo was a response to “the crimes of Russia in Caucasus.” The terrorist said that he and his colleagues wanted to make the Caucasus “free and Islamic”. He also called the federal forces the occupiers and declared his intention to “set the land of Caucasus Muslims free, to # 1007 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups establish law and justice” and promised Russia “the year of blood and tears9”. The terrorists’ statements almost always contain threats and accusation to the enemy, as if giving them a moral right to the most brutal actions. An example of this is the following statement: “We, “Islambouli Brigades,” declare that our soldiers managed to capture two Russian planes ... Russia continues to kill Muslims. We will not stop until the bloody war stops... We will not stop and going to continue attack the regions with the wrong regimes.”10 Sometimes extremists’ statements contain information about obtaining access to the especially dangerous technologies of destruction. For example, in 2002 the leaders of “Al-Qaeda,” stated that their terrorist group is close to the creation of a primitive nuclear device11. According a prepared text), and many other signs of a forced agreement of Umarov with what he was instructed to speak on camera”13. Sometimes, on the basis of the semantic and psychological analysis of the speech we can make conclusions about the truth or falsity of the speaker’s statements: “Not denying the fact that Umarov could know something about the preparation of the terrorist attack in Domodedovo, it can be argued that he was not the organizer of the attack. That is why the search and neutralization of the real organizers of this attack should be continued”14. The schemes of construction of the images of “enemies” and “friends” in the terrorists’ public speeches and statements are very interesting. In particular, the radical Islamists often accuse Muslims, who do not support their struggle, in infidelity (“takfi r”)15. Many public to V. Sud, extremist theologists have already have justification for the use of the weapons of mass destruction. If they use it they will say that the terrorists did not mean to kill the innocent people. In April 2001, Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated that the military operations carried out by “Hamas”, “Islamic Jihad”, “Fatah” and other terrorist groups, were not intended to kill children, who become victims just accidently12. Of course, the statements of the representatives of radical groups may contain disinformation, aimed to mislead law-enforcement authorities. However, this deception may also serve as a source of valuable information that will help to identify those, who pay for a terrorist attack, and other “shadow” (“non-transparent”) subjects of the terrorist activity, who are behind the organizers of crimes. The statements of terrorists can be analyzed from the point of view of psycho-emotional characteristics, “Umarov does not believe in what he says. This estimation is confirmed by unconvincing tone of his voice, wan, often shifted glance, depressed eyes (it looks like he is reading statements by terrorist leaders are devoted to the actual political aspects of the fight against their opponents who also resort to terrorism. Thus, advocates of the “Al-Qaeda” has repeatedly blamed “Hamas” in being “too gentle”, what expressed in negotiations with Israel and the non-observance with the jihad commandments16. On the other hand, the terrorists can speak favorably about the actions of people with other beliefs and religions in order to expand their social basis17 or to discredit certain political figures, what is beneficial for those, who “order” these statements. Often, the terrorist’s statements contain ideologemes, which are based on pseudohistoric research and have certain point of view on the “ownership” of definite areas, etc.18 As a rule, these concepts do not stand any scientific scrutiny. However, the goal of the operational policy analysis is not denial of the myths, but the restoration, with the help of different cues, of a conceptual picture, using which, it is possible to understand the logic of the terrorists and to predict their future actions. # 1008 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups Recently someone Umar Bashkirskyi, who identified himself as the representative of the Mujahedeen of the Urals, asked his Caucasus colleagues to send experts to help organise largescale guerrilla movement. He even developed a mini-program, which described how underground resistance, which main task will be establishment of jihad in the Urals, should be founded. Firstly, Omar suggested the commanders of the “Caucasus Emirate” to send several teams of the well-trained militants to study the situation in the mountains of South Ural, and for “intelligence activities and acts of sabotage.” Secondly, he believes it is possible to create “ribats” (military camps) for training new recruits. Thirdly, the author of the letter writes about “military operations of high complexity” under the conditions of constant exchange of experience and “establishment of military-strategic interaction between the Caucasus and the Ural Mujahideens”19. The reaction of the North emirs is still unknown, but, nevertheless, it is possible to say that the terrorists consider the Urals as a possible basis for the manifestation of their activity. The situational analysis of such documents makes it possible not only to determine the direction of the existing political processes, but also to identify the potential “growth poles” – “the tendencies in the political sphere, which has not yet been formed, but already visible”20. When using the techniques of the political analysis for the study of the public statements of the representatives of the extremists groups, the entire world experience of fighting terrorism and thorough study of not only successful antiterrorist actions, but also the mistakes which were made, should be taken into account. For example, despite the fact that the Europeans live side by side with terrorism since the XIX century, (especially rich in acts of terrorism was the period of the late 60s - mid 80s of last century), the majority of Europeans (55%) hold the opinion that, that the U.S. policy has greatly contributed to the tragedy of September 11 and is indirectly responsible for it. The U.S. investments and training of Bin Laden and his Mujahedeens in the ‘80s, providing multi-billion dollars aid to Israel and the war in Iraq gave stimulus to the emergence of a strong terrorist movement in the Middle East. This, in turn, led to fact that the war now is conducted not by the big armies of the fighting states, but by the “special forces” that create, according to what George Orwell said in 1984, “the special psychological climate and keep the structures of the society intact.” In other words, in this case we deal with a confrontation between the two types of organizations, two different types of relationships – formal and informal. Even now, when the Islamic terrorists have become a serious political force that represents a threat to the West, they are considered by some Americans (such as von Bulow) as “useful idiots”, which used by high-ranking persons of the USA to establish world hegemony21. Some analysts and officials claim that in the politicization of the clergy of Afghanistan – a trend that began in the 70s and still continues today – the Americans themselves is partly to blame. In the rural areas, where the presence of the government is little or there is no presence of government at all, and the only way to get an education – is to educate in the madrasas, the religious preachers may have great influence, especially when the tribal leaders lost their authority. Unpopular actions of the NATO forces, such as night raids, pushed some imams to encourage the members of their congregations to take part in jihad. The maulvis and the mullahs are political now,” an Afghan official says. “They’re telling people, ‘If you kill someone, you’ll go to paradise.’ At the same time, killing people by “the Taliban” is less likely to cause strong emotions, than the violence committed by the NATO forces, in which local people see the occupants. Even those who support # 1009 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups the presence of the NATO troops are less tolerant to them22. D. Galkovsky points at two important factors that determine the face of the modern terrorism. Firstly, a lot of things depend on the level of operations. If an enemy soldier is killed in the occupation zone, it is important for the propaganda purposes, to indicate that he was killed by a saboteur or a member of the local resistance movement. But when it comes to destroying the capital of the neighboring state as a result of thermonuclear explosion, and especially in the peace time, in this case, attribution of the authorship will not add anything to the stunning effect, and in the most cases it will be even harmful. Secondly, under condition of the hyper-information awareness of the modern society, the terrorist technologies should be considered not only as military and economic, but as psychological and emotional impacts. Figuratively speaking, the modern acts of terror are akin to the chess moves, and not the slaps in boxing. The indirect effects of terrorist attacks or even double-triple combinations in multidirectional actions are of great importance23. We should also remember about the characteristic features of the political struggle, where terrorism is its part, that the political struggle has many moves and many layers. Without this understanding short-sighted and irresponsible actions of politicians may have very unpredictable and dire consequences. Speaking about the modern phase of terrorism, it should be mentioned that very often it is ideologically linked to Islamic fundamentalism, which sometimes incredibly combines the archaic basis and tendency for assimilation of the new products of scientific and technological progress. According to the researchers, “Radical Islam – not a phenomenon of the Middle Ages and not peculiar to that period simplicity. This is postmodern ideology that can inspire different social groups. It uses the modern means of information and communication platforms, and positions itself as an alternative form of life, the most attractive for those who are dissatisfied with the existing social reality24.” The use of the advanced information technologies by the Islamic radicals began even before the Internet appeared. The cassette tapes were used In Iran for the distribution of the messages of Ayatollah Khomeini and their copies were not expensive25. The appearance of the Internet had an enormous influence on the global jihad, creating the possibility of relationship between an individual and the virtual community. The global computer network is important to the terrorists. For example, it can be useful for the dissemination of disinformation and threats to make people afraid and feel helplessness, and for showing shocking documentary evidence of their actions. The example of this may be placed on several web sites recording of the execution of American journalist Daniel Pearl26. The Internet is also used by the members of the terrorist groups to communicate with the perpetrators of terrorist acts and coordinate their supporters. It is paradoxical, but the development of the Internet, which gave the ruling elites the unique opportunity to manipulate public opinion, significantly influenced the effectiveness and mass character of the acts of protests. According to I.L. Morozov, an international stratum of protesting youth has formed nowadays. These young people follow the leaders of the developed countries and the largest international corporations around the world, easily organise actions of protest in the USA, the Czech Republic and Australia. As a rule, these people are from the wealthy, though not from the reachest families. They can follow the political and economic changes in the world, coordinate and correct their actions and concentrate power at the right time in # 1010 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups the right place of the world with the help of the specialized sites and informational mailings.27 Islamists from the “Al-Qaeda” successfully combines multimedia resources, propaganda, and innovative communication tools to create a complex model of psychological war. Osama bin Laden and his followers pay a lot of attention to PR-actions on the Internet, where the visitors of the multiple sites of “Al Qaeda” and “sympathizing” not forbidden organizations can get access to audio and video recordings, photos and advertisements. Despite the constant pursuit, arrests and deaths of many members, the destruction of its operational bases and training camps in Afghanistan, “Al-Qaeda” is able to conduct a campaign to make people panic. Since 11 September 2001 the organization has consistently placed on their websites reports about planning the “big attacks” on the targets in America. These warnings were widespread in the press and it lead to the feeling of fear and insecurity in the hearts of people around the world, and especially in the United States28. It is noteworthy that the majority of the terrorist groups on their Web sites do not display their acts of violence. Instead, regardless the programmes of the terrorists, their motives and location, a lot of sites are concentrated on two problems: restrictions of the freedom of expression and difficult position of their companionsin-arms, who are political prisoners29. The reports of the terrorists on the Internet have a powerful response among the supporters of the extremists, they are also made to make a bid for sympathy from the Western audiences, which cherish the ideas of pluralism and tolerance and disapprove the attempts to make the political opposition keep silence. The target audience for the statements which contain such complaints may be even representatives of the enemy camp, because terrorists, making emphasis on the anti-democratic actions taken against them, try to instill a sense of embarrassment and shame among their enemies. According to G. Weyman, on the Internet, which for many users is a symbol of freedom and uncensored communication, the expression of the protest of the banned terrorist groups has a special effect30. However, experience has shown the possibility of successful countermeasures to the terrorists in the sphere of information technologies. For example, recently, it becomes more difficult for terrorists to use satellite phones and alike equipment. As a result, communication with the headquarters is broken, and the global jihad may come back to the plots on the organization of local operations without support from the “center”31. The documents which were found in computers confiscated from terrorists played an important role in condemning the terrorists, for example, in trials over Abdul Aziz (Imam Samudra) in New York, who was accused in the bombing of the U.S. embassies in the East Africa and in Indonesia. This fact gives basis to suppose that suitable information and propaganda against distribution of the terrorists’ statements may be quite effective. According to A.A. and Al.A. Nurullayevs, the exceptional cruelty displayed by the terrorists and typical for them negligence to the local customs and traditions tend to deprive them of the support of the masses, including people with the same religion, which the leaders of the extremist groups claim to believe in32. However, disorder in the life of millions of people, mass unemployment, anger, frustration caused by the unsatisfaction with the basic needs (safety, identity, recognition, etc.) and other consequences of the acute systemic crisis faced by Russia and others former Soviet republics, apparently, for a long time will be a source of religious and political extremism, which is characterized by the desire for the rapid solution of the complex problems, regardless of the “price” that has to be paid for it33. # 1011 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups According to the observations of the psychologists, “at certain times and not always the worst (let’s remember Germany in the 70s, which was so dissimilar to Russia is to the 90-s), so-called contagium may be created, that is mental and emotional atmosphere which contribute to terrorism ... At that time motivation of proto-terrorist behavior is increasing. It is not worth emphasizing that atmosphere at that time is quite depressing and all that contribute to all the forms and types of terrorism. Melodies of the “criminal tango” sound louder at all the levels of social relations ... “34. According to A. Eskin, shots and bursts of automatic fire have become the familiar background sound for the citizens of Dagestan, and all the major Russian cities have a division of the radical Wahhabi. Not long ago, in Tyumen, died a Caucasian who was making a bomb for a terrorist act35. According 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 to this researcher, “a pessimistic case scenario will begin with a gradual rejection of the North Caucasus from Russia, and then – migration of the most part of the population of this region to Moscow and other major cities as a result of war and poverty. Together with that, separatist tendencies in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and the other autonomous republics and regions will become intensified36. The systematic study of the phenomenon of terrorism and religious and political persuasion, the monitoring of its manifestations and development of the effective methods of resistance are considered to be of vital importance. The political analysis of the public statements of terrorists makes it possible to improve the mechanisms of prediction and prevention of the terrorist activity, and thus has a direct practical importance. Ref.: Симонов К.В. [Simonov K.V.] Политический анализ. – М.: Логос, 2002. Internet: http://www.zipsites.ru/books/ polit_analiz/ A.I. Soloviev notes, that there is another, wide meaning of this phrase, which means scientific research of politics, Соловьев А.И. [Soloviev A.I.] Политология: Политическая теория, политические технологии: Учебник для студентов вузов. – М.: Аспект Пресс, 2006. – С. 431. Ref.: Симонов К.В. [Simonov K.V.] Ibid. Soloviev A.I. Ibid. Баранов Н.А. [Baranov N.A.] Политические отношения и политический процесс в современной России: Курс лекций. – СПб.: БГТУ, 2004. – С. 244. Ref: Fomin A. The Forty First. Commentaries to the 41st world economic forum in Davos: http://www.csef.ru/studies/economics/projects/reasons_of_current_crisis/articles/1141/ Курбацкий А.Н. [Kurbatskyi N.A.] Роль СМИ в борьбе с международным терроризмом // Материалы международной конференции «Что на данный момент принесли Беларуси процессы глобализации и какие дискуссии ведутся вокруг них?» / Фонд им. Ф. Эберта. Мн: БГУ, 2004. – С. 134. Cit.from: Ольшанский Д.В. [Olshanskyi D.V] Психология терроризма. – СПб.: Питер, 2002. – С. 200. See: Козулин Я. [Kozuin Y.] «По моему приказу». Доку Умаров взял на себя ответственность за теракт в Домодедово 24 января // Internet: http://www.vz.ru/incidents/2011/2/8/467052.html Cit.from: Ibid. Cit.from: Хвостик Е. Новиков К. [Khvostic E., Novikov K.] Общество с безграничной ответственностью // «Коммерсантъ». – 2004. – 28 августа. – № 59 (2998). – Internet: http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/501293 See: Qaeda Leader Said to Report A-Bomb Plans By Philip Shenon // New York Times. – USA. – 23 April 2002. См.: Суд В. [Sud V.] Радикальный ислам в Южной Азии и его последствия для региона // Радикальный ислам: взгляд из Индии и России / Под редакцией Сергея Кургиняна и Викрама Суда. – М.: МОФ-ЭТЦ, 2010. – С. 55-56. Филатов А.[Filatov A] В поисках кукловодов // Internet: http://alfafilatov.livejournal.com/25631.html Ibid. See: Takfi r – one of the worst diseases of the Islamic world // Internet: http://islam.com.ua/news/3318/ On 14 august 2009 in Rafah during Friday prayer Abdel Latif Moussa, the leader of the head of the division of “Al-Qaeda» in Gaza, stated: «The Gaza Strip – is an Islamic emirate, we are in «Al-Qaeda», and our leader is Osama Bin Laden!» According to Moussa’s words, «Hamas holds a secular policy, and only pretends to belong to Islam. They do not follow Sharia law, and prefer to meet with the congressmen, with Tony Blair and Jimmy Carter ... If the «Hamas» will choose the path of Allah and Jihad, we will follow it. But if they try to occupy our mosques, we will cut their hands off.” Cit. from: Fight in Rafah between HAMAS and “Al Qaeda”//Internet: http://www.7kanal.com/news.php3?id=266445 The website «Kavkaz-Center» placed a number of materials in support of the spread of radical Islam in Yakutia. In one of them says: “No one wants to teach the Yakuts and impose them the stereotypes. But, following the imperatives of Islam as a religion of justice, Muslims can not remain indifferent to the fate of their neighbors, and by the Turkic line – the blood relatives who are under attack of the common enemy” Туленков Д. [Tulenkov D.] Якутия: ислам – путь к освобождению # 1012 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // Интернет: http://www.kavkazcenter.com/russ/content/2007/06/09/51353.shtml On the radical sites on the Internet the following was stated: “Siberia – is the Islamic land, Dar-ul-Islam. And non-Muslim indigenous peoples of Siberia – are the dhimmis of our ancestors.” Бекхан А. [Bekhan A.] Кровавые злодеяния русских колонизаторов в Сибири // Internet: http://irekle-syuz.blogspot.com/2008/07/blog-post_5983.html See: Umar Bashkirskyi. The message from the Mujahideen of Idel-Urals to the mujahedeen of the Caucasus Emirate // Internet: http://kavkazanhaamash.com/facty/18--/458-2011-02-10-00-50-11.html Симонов К. [Simonov K.] Ibidem. Securitization, Dual State and US-European Geopolitical Divide Or The Use of Terrorism to Construct World Order Ola Tunander (PRIO) http://humanbeingsfi rst.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/cacheof-tunander-theuseofterrorismtoconstructworldorder.pdf Why Afghans Don't Bash the Taliban for Bombings By Julius Cavendish http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2052660,00.html Галковский Д. [Galkovsky D.] Три слоя лжи. «Умные немцы» // http://www.vz.ru/columns/2005/7/26/2344.html Саран С., Наир Х. [Saran S., Nair H.] Радикальный ислам: вызов либеральному духу Индии // Радикальный ислам: взгляд из Индии и России / Под редакцией Сергея Кургиняна и Викрама Суда. – М.: МОФ-ЭТЦ, 2010. – С. 163. Сейджман М. [Seidjman M.] Сетевые структуры терроризма. – М.: Идея-Пресс, 2008. – С.169. Вейман Г. Как современные террористы используют Интернет // http://nak.fsb.ru/nac/ter_org.htm!id=10284591@ cmsArticle&_print=true.html See: Морозов И.Л. [Morozov I.L.] Политический экстремизм – леворадикальные течения. Учебное пособие для студентов и аспирантов. – Волжский, Издательство ВФ МЭИ, 2002. – С 45. On 18 June 1999, on the day of the summit of «Big Eight» left-wing radical youth, having coordinated their actions on the Internet, arranged simultaneous action in all the major European capitals, which can be compared to the «student revolution» in 1968. See: Ibidem. See: Вейман Г. [Veiman G.] Как современные террористы используют Интернет // Internet: http://www.chekist.ru/ article/2893 The report from Dhaka on the website AsiaNews says: “During the arrests of the Mujahideen from JMB, in addition to the promotional materials in support of jihad, weapons, explosives and computers were found. In one of the leaflets fundamentalists accuse that the media which are controlled by the Christians, represent the noble mujahideen campaign to set the country free from the infidels in the wrong way. They promise to throw all the enemies of Allah and corrupted political leaders out, and establish an Islamic state.” Банерджи И. [Banerdji I.] Радикальный ислам в Бангладеш, Непале и на Мальдивских островах // Радикальный ислам: взгляд из Индии и России / Под редакцией Сергея Кургиняна и Викрама Суда. – М.: МОФ-ЭТЦ, 2010. – С. 469. See: Veiman G. Ibidem Unprofessionalism of the explosions on 16 May 2003 in Casablanca (where the bombers were lost on the way to their targets), probably indicates a new state of the global jihad, which, perhaps, is deprived of a considerable part of its communication capacity. See.: Нуруллаев А.А., Нуруллаев Ал. А. [Nurullayev A.A., Nurullayev Al.A.] Религиозно-политический экстремизм // Вестник Российского университета дружбы народов. – Сер.: Политология. – 2003. – № 4 – С. 87. See: Ibidem. P. 92. Психологи о терроризме («круглый стол») [Physiologists about terrorism (round table discussion)]// Психологический журнал. Т. 16. 1995. № 4. С. 48. See: Эскин А. [Eskin A.] Взгляд из Сиона: поддержать Россию http://www.avigdor-eskin.com/page. php3?page=6&item=456 Ibidem. Политический анализ публичных заявлений лидеров террористических групп П.В. Клачков, Экспертно-аналитическое управление Губернатора Красноярского края Россия 660009, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 110 Поскольку целью террористов является воздействие на общественное сознание, осуществляемое в информационном пространстве, эффективность как террористической, так и контртеррористической деятельности во многом зависит от степени учета свойств и закономерностей последнего. Именно поэтому современные радикальные организации уделяют работе в сфере масс-медиа и сети Интернет не меньше внимания, чем # 1013 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Political Analysis of the Public Statements of the Leaders of Terrorists Groups осуществлению насильственных действий. Публичные заявления террористов являются оружием в информационной войне. Для их изучения автор предлагает использовать методы политического и ситуационного анализа. В статье демонстрируется, что эти выступления являются ценными источниками информации, всестороннее исследование которых позволяет выявить объективные и субъективные черты террористов и стоящих за ними нетранспарентных субъектов. Речь идет, в частности, о составлении психологических портретов лидеров террористических групп, а также об определении «полюсов роста», то есть еще не сформировавшихся, но уже просматривающихся тенденций. Таким образом, политический анализ публичных заявлений террористов позволяет совершенствовать механизмы прогнозирования и предотвращения террористической деятельности, а значит, имеет непосредственное практическое значение. Ключевые слова: политический анализ, ситуационный анализ, терроризм, публичные выступления, контртеррористическая деятельность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1015-1021 ~~~ УДК 811.11-112 The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse Olga V. Korobeynikova* Irkutsk State Linguistic University 8 Lenin Str., Irkutsk, 664025 Russia 1 Received 2.03.2012, received in revised form 19.04.2012, accepted 1.05.2012 The article analyzes the Democratic and the Republican Parties political platforms of 2008 as a means of conveying ideas and beliefs to ordinary citizens and the interconnection between the institutional and everyday political discourse which gives better understanding of how the US political elite manages to persuade ordinary citizens to adopt their words and ideas. Keywords: institutional political discourse, everyday political discourse, political narrative, reframing. Point In recent years, the studies of political discourse have considerably increased in numbers. Political discourse today is being analyzed from various perspectives due to differences in theories, aims, and methods of analysis. Therefore scholars disagree on many central issues including the nature of the term political discourse. In “The Handbook of Discourse Analysis,” John Wilson considers the ambiguous nature of the term: “The term is suggestive of at least two possibilities: first, a discourse which is itself political; and second, an analysis of political discourse as simply an example discourse type, without explicit reference to political content or political context” (Wilson, 2003:398) Wilson believes that this ambiguity may present a serious problem for a researcher who faces the necessity to decide what to consider political discourse. * 1 Today linguists mostly adhere to two opposite views on the term political discourse – the broad and the narrow ones. The narrow definition describes political discourse as the whole range of speech acts used in political discussions (Baranov et al., 1991) or the whole “class of genres defined by a social domain, namely that of politics” (Van Dijk, 1998:11). Thus, in this case, political discourse is limited to strictly institutional level. The broader definition includes the analysis of everyday political discussion. Therefore, this approach considers political discourse on both institutional and everyday level. Researchers keeping to this definition believe that the study of political language will not be complete until it includes the language used by ordinary people in private conversations when they talk about politics. As Geoffrey Nunberg observes in “Talking right: how conservatives turned Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1015 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Korobeynikova. The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse liberalism into a tax-raising, latte-drinking, sushieating, Volvo-driving, New York Times-reading, body-piercing, Hollywood-loving, left-wing freak show”: “Most of the books and articles on political rhetoric concentrate on the language of speeches and public pronouncements, rather than the language that ordinary people use when they are talking about political topics… but while the language of politicians and pundits is ultimately aimed at persuading people to act in certain ways, it can only get there by first persuading them to talk in certain ways.” (Nunberg, 2007:3) In this article we will accept the broad definition of the term political discourse and will examine public speeches of professional politicians. These speeches belong to the institutional political discourse. However, analyzing them as a vehicle for conveying ideas and beliefs to ordinary citizens, we may understand better the phenomenon of interdiscoursivity, that is interconnection between the institutional and everyday political discourse which will help us see how the US political elite manages to persuade ordinary citizens to adopt their words and the ideas these words stand for. In “Talking right: how conservatives turned liberalism into a tax-raising, latte-drinking, sushi-eating, Volvo-driving, New York Timesreading, body-piercing, Hollywood-loving, leftwing freak show”, Geoffrey Nunberg discusses the importance of “narrative” which means that American political elite should be able to produce a story Americans will believe into, and it must be a coherent story, not a simple statement of political positions (Nunberg, 2007). This idea is close to George Lackoff’s idea of “reframing” American politics with the help of new rhetoric related to values (Lackoff, 2002). Lackoff claims that liberals and conservatives build their political discourse resorting mostly to their moral systems which differ greatly. However Nunberg believes that “having a narrative” is more complicated than reframing, as it means “making that story part of the fabric of American political discourse” and it could be done by giving new meanings to words and by “…getting Americans to accept those new meanings” (Nunberg, 2007:16) Nonetheless, both scholars agree that, in recent years, conservatives have been doing a better job “reframing” American politics according to conservative values (by Lackoff) or producing a better “narrative” (by Nunberg). They were able to escape undesirable language while diverting people’s attention to the ideas and values they wanted to focus on for some reasons. Example In this article we will analyze Democratic Party and Republican Party 2008 political platforms. First, they are carefully worded political documents produced by professional politicians stating parties’ positions on political issues and appealing to voters by referring to the issues important to them. Second, analysis of political platforms may give a better understanding of the interconnection between the primary and secondary political discourse, as platforms are inevitable tools in parties’ struggle for control of a nation. To work with the texts of parties platforms, we chose a computer program LITL developed in the Computational Linguistics Laboratory at Katanov State University of Khakasia by V.А.Yatsko and M.S. Starikov. The program allows the user to “… conduct various searches on his/her own corpora and get statistical information on distribution of various words, patterns, and phrases…” (Yatsko and Starikov, 2010) After processing the texts, the program showed the following results: First, it is necessary to analyze the length of the documents. Comparing the platforms, it is easy to notice that Republicans use fewer words/ sentences/paragraphs while Democrats produce # 1016 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Korobeynikova. The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse Table 1. The Analysis of the Democratic and the Republican Parties platforms of 2008 by LITL The Democratic Party 2008 paragraphs 4793 sentences 5862 The Most Frequent Words The Republican Party 2008 words paragraphs 3972 7190 sentences words 4557 5002 The Most Frequent Words We 966 We 439 America 239 our 296 Democratic 226 American 92 Obama 224 support 88 Change 190 health 83 new 164 government 78 American 146 all 75 Party 119 federal 74 Americans 108 people 60 health 102 tax 53 support 102 Americans 51 longer speeches which may have some important consequences. On the one hand, Republicans risk leaving some issues unaddressed or not explained clearly enough. On the other hand, however, Democrats may easily annoy their fellow citizens with a too-long document which, by diluting their main message, may leave the audience confused about it. The golden mean here is not easy to achieve. It will depend on many factors including how many issues the party wishes to address, whether those issues are urgent and major or minor and have been previously repeatedly discussed. And, certainly, a lot depends on wording because the vocabulary party leaders use to relate to the audience and how often they use certain words influence voters view of the party and, as a result, their decision on Election Day. Therefore, to influence voters’ decision making process, the party must produce a coherent, carefully worded and, thus, appealing document. Second, the wording of the paper is of vital importance. In his article “Teaching Progressives to “Speak American””, David Kusnet writes: “After all, we had just lost a presidential election to an aristocrat named George Bush, whose economic program boiled down to tax breaks for multimillionaires but who managed to convince a narrow majority of the voters that his opponent was some sort of cultural elitist. And our candidate, a high-minded fellow from Massachusetts, seemed unable to respond effectively to those attacks or to connect emotionally with most voters” (Kusnet, 2006:130) Kusnet argues that learning from the opponent is an essential part of every campaign. It is important to relate to the audience and the following steps may help: 1. Lead with Principles, Not Programs. The power of statistics is not enough to influence people’s decision on Election Day. It is necessary to explain what stands behind the data – that is party’s beliefs. 2. Be Tough and Caring. Kusnet warns that it is possible to misunderstand George Lakoff’s ideas of the progressive-conservative divide when conservatives are viewed as strict parents and progressives – as nurturing parents. Kusnet reminds that Lakoff believes it is necessary # 1017 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Korobeynikova. The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse to carry out the core principles of caring and responsibility with strictness which became especially indispensable after the 9/11 terrorist attack when voters felt insecure and wanted a leader able to defend the country. Some examples of such leadership include Robert F. Kennedy, Tony Blair in the UK with his slogan “Tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime.” and Bill Clinton with some “tough” decisions and actions. 3. Use the Power of Populism. It is important to address to regular people, not to economic elites, and to manage to persuade working Americans that you are fighting for their interests. 4. Speak in Parables. Parables that are part of American culture may become a very effective part of the rhetoric. Some examples include Rot at the Top, Virtue Unrewarded, The Caring Community, The People Rising, etc. 5. Speak with Your Natural Voice. It means politicians, in order to sound natural, should show that they are individuals different from others. 6. Engaging Ordinary Voters. And, finally, it is necessary to engage everyday language which many voters speak and, thus, understand best of all. (Kusnet, 2006) In conclusion, David Kusnet writes: “Appealing to common values, developing populist parables, and speaking engaging everyday language-that is how progressives can communicate to our fellow citizens and persuade all Americans to follow their best instincts and their best interests” (Kusnet, 2006:140) George Lakoff in his book “Moral politics: how liberals and conservatives think” argues that “policy debates are not matters of rational discussion on the basis of literal and objective categories. The categories that shape the debate are moral categories; those categories are defined in terms of different family-based conceptions of morality, which give priority to different metaphors for morality” (Lackoff, 2002:169). Lakoff gives the moral categories systems of conservatives and progressives as well. Thus, we may analyze the “narrative” of both parties in order to see what kind of appeal they are using to relate better to their audience. And by observing and studying the frequency of word occurrence in one of the major official papers produced by both the Democratic and The Republican Parties, it is possible to understand which of the linguistic tools mentioned above parties used to achieve the desired effect – voters’ approval of a party’s candidate. It will also help us analyze and Table 2. Conservative and liberal categories of moral action (Lackoff, 2002) Conservative categories of moral action: Liberal categories of moral action: 1. Promoting Strict Father morality in general. 2. Promoting self-discipline, responsibility, and selfreliance. 3. Upholding the Morality of Reward and Punishment. a. Preventing interference with the pursuit of selfinterest by self-disciplined, self-reliant people. b. Promoting punishment as a means of upholding authority. с. Ensuring punishment for lack of self-discipline. 4. Protecting moral people from external evils. 5. Upholding the Moral Order. 1. Empathetic behavior and promoting fairness. 2. Helping those who cannot help themselves. 3. Protecting those who cannot protect themselves. 4. Promoting fulfillment in life. 5. Nurturing and strengthening oneself in order to do the above. # 1018 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Korobeynikova. The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse Table 3. The analysis of words and word forms in the Democratic and the Republican Parties platforms of 2008 by LITL Words/Word Forms Work*(worker/s, work/ing/s/ed, etc.) Democratic Party Republican Party 222 77 Democr*(democracy, democratic, democrat/s) 356 47 Chang*(change, chang/ing/es/ed, etc.) 268 24 New 182 42 Immigr*(immigration, immigrant/s, etc.) 25 15 Environment*(environmental) 42 31 Econom*(economy, economic, etc.) 105 72 Fair*(fairness) 40 17 Responsib*(responsible, responsibility, responsibilities, etc.) 40 21 Help*(help/ing/s/ed, helper/s, etc) 110 20 Develop*(development, develop/ing/s/ed, etc.) 90 40 Str(o/e)ng*(strengthen/ing, strong, etc.) 90 36 Feder*(federal, federation, federalist) 44 80 Value*(values) 18 32 Abort*(abortion/s, etc.) 3 15 Tax*(taxes, taxation) 49 99 Author*(authority, authoritative, etc.) 3 13 conclude why the Democratic Party’s rhetoric was persuasive enough to make Obama the U.S. President in 2008. Both parties appealed to the nation with the most frequent words being we, our, America, Americans, people. It is important to make people believe that, as a leader, you are not susceptible to “class wars” and all Americans are equally important as a nation. Moreover, by using pronouns we/our, both Republicans and Democrats were trying to relate to people by presenting themselves as nation’s integral part, as one of them, and not a stranger from the privileged elite (what Kusnet calls “power of populism”). Moreover, both Parties use the words support and health to appeal to voters by showing they care about people (“tough and caring”). However, other frequent words are quite different for both parties with Democrats promoting change and democratic views (new, change, Democratic) and Republicans pushing their strongest argument – taxation (tax). To better understand both Parties’ appeals, it is necessary to consider other words and word forms that appear quite often in the paper. The table above shows that both parties discuss similar matters in their platforms. It can be explained by the fact that both Republicans and Democrats can’t but address the sensitive issues that tear the nation apart. Had they failed to do so, they would have been accused of ignorance of the most debatable issues (taxes, immigration, environment, etc.). However, by studying how often the parties use those words/word forms, we may understand the message the party is trying to convey to people. The Democratic Party follow major steps mentioned by David Kusnet appealing to regular Americans trying to persuade them the Party is protecting the interests of those # 1019 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Korobeynikova. The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse who work honestly (work, help). Democrats, in their attempt to succeed a Republican president, also needed to promote the necessity of change in government (hence the words new, change, develop, Democratic). Moreover, Democrats fit into the frames described by George Lakoff: Democrats traditionally promote fairness ( fair), help those who cannot help themselves (support, help), fulfillment in life (development), and strengthen oneself in order to do the above (strengthen). Republicans, on the other hand, while appealing to the whole nation as well (with the most frequent words America, people, Americans, etc.), promoted ideas of selfreliance (the word help is seldom mentioned in the text) and upholding the Moral Order (the issues like abortion and traditional values are discussed). They also raise the question of taxation (promises of tax cuts helped the Party in previous campaigns). It is worthy of note that both parties discuss economic and environmental matters almost with the same frequency which means those are the issues not susceptible to partisan ideology. Resume Therefore, the analysis of the Republican and the Democratic Parties’ platforms allows us to conclude that both parties carefully worded their political documents to appeal to voters by referring to the issues important to them. However, in 2008, Barack Obama and the Democratic Party, whose ideas he was pushing forward in his presidential campaign, made a wise decision of promoting the necessity of change. Americans got tired of all the mistakes their previous Republican president had made (wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, aggressive foreign politics, profound budget deficit of the country, etc.) and were ready for that change and eagerly let those ideas and words into their conversations. Thus, the Democratic Party managed to win voters’ discourse and, therefore, their votes on Election Day while Republicans failed to suggest issues of equal value which eventually cost their candidate, John McCain, presidential office. References A. N. Baranov and E.G. Kazakevich, Parliamentary Debates: Traditions and Innovations (Moscow: Znanije, 1991), in Russian D. Kusnet, “Teaching Progressives to “Speak American”” in Get This Party Started: How Progressives Can Fight Back and Win, ed. by Matthew R. Kerbel (New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2006), 129-140 G. Lakoff, Moral politics: how liberals and conservatives think (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002) G. Nunberg, Talking right: how conservatives turned liberalism into a tax-raising, latte-drinking, sushi-eating, Volvo-driving, New York Times-reading, body-piercing, Hollywood-loving, left-wing freak show (New York: PublicAffairs, 2007) J. Wilson, “Political Discourse”, in The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. by Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton (Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003), 398-415 T. A. Van Dijk, “What is political discourse analysis?”, in Political linguistics, ed. by Jan Blommaert and Chris Bulcaen (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1998), 11-52 The American Presidency Project [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www. presidency.ucsb.edu/platforms.php # 1020 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Korobeynikova. The Dialectical Interconnection of the Institutional and Everyday Political Discourse V.А.Yatsko and M.S. Starikov, Linguistic Toolbox Lite (Katanov State University of Khakasia) [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://cll.khsu.ru ; http://vetsky.narod.ru/CLL.html О диалектическом взаимодействии институционального и бытийного политического дискурса О.В. Коробейникова Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет Россия 664025, Иркутск, ул. Ленина, 8 В статье анализируются политические платформы Демократической и Республиканской партии 2008 года как инструмент передачи идей и убеждений простым гражданам, а также связь между институциональным и бытийным политическим дискурсом, что позволяет лучше понять механизм влияния политической элиты США на простых граждан страны. Ключевые слова: институциональный политический дискурс, бытийный политический дискурс, политический нарратив, рефрейминг. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1022-1027 ~~~ УДК 342.722 ББК 67.404 Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities for Civil Society Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban* Siberian Federal University 26 Kirenskogo, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 28.31.2011, received in revised form 1.02.2012, accepted 17.02.2012 From the standpoint of generalization at the level of social philosophy the article examines the nature and structure of the law and its role in the democratization of all aspects of the society, the relation of law and politics, historically caused legal nihilism of the population under totalitarianism. The need for legitimation of the law as one of the important aspects of building a constitutional and modern civil society in Russia is discussed. Keywords: democracy, civil society, law, law and order, constitutional state, authority, legitimacy Point of view “Dura lex set lex” (“The law is harsh, but it is the law”) is a well-known formula of Roman law. Obviously, it must be one of the characteristics of the modern type of democracy being built simultaneously with the formation of a constitutional state and civil society. It is equally clear that the law and order in our country are still far from European models. We are not talking about the complete eradication of the crime in “the bright future” – it is a utopia from “one only true doctrine”. Deviant behavior will exist as long as the humankind exists, and if the crime is considered to be a disease, it is completely incurable. Another thing is the extent of this disease in the social organism. The Russian authorities do not obviously cope with the task of creating proper law and order, from * 1 here there are some extremes: the mass adoption of prohibitive and restrictive laws, making a number of supervisory bodies to mandatory appeals “Don’t scare business”. One reason of a clearly unsatisfactory state of the law and order is commonly referred to the traditional legal nihilism of the Russian. It is difficult to disagree with it, but there is a logical question: what causes nihilism? In our opinion, it is caused by the age-old division, even by the contraposition of the subjects of lawmaking and enforcement on the one hand and the main population as an object of enforcement on the other hand. In this sense we can talk about different classes of the society, but it should be immediately emphasized that in this context we use the term “class” not in its traditional Marx’s understanding, but in the sense of “ruling” and “not ruling” classes as it is proposed by G. Mosca (Mosca G., 1994,17). Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1022 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities… Example The term “law” is traditionally used to refer to the system of special kinds of social norms established or sanctioned by the state, which are characterized by the fact that they express will of the ruling classes, have a mandatory character, and in its implementation are provided with a coercive power of the state. Such a conception of the law is its total “juridization”, i.e. its identification with a set of laws. Moreover, this normative understanding of the law is actually connected with the undemocratic state. The latter has always positioned itself as the voice of everyone and all people, some kind of an absolutely honest Institute, which due to these unique qualities creates and applies the law. The law and order in this approach are understood as unconditional observance of legal norms coming from the state by people under authority, regardless of the perception of people under authority of these rules as fair (“friendly”) or as unfair (“alien”). In terms of philosophical understanding the law should not be merely understood as a set of mandatory formal rules because such an approach actually does not give social-cultural being of the law. If the authoritative will is expressed in existing laws, it does not mean that it exists in the law, which is a special type of relationship of social actors and the state, “objectively determined and historically volatile measure of freedom” (Nersesyants V.S., 1980, 27). The concept of the law is most common among the subordination and coordination of correlative concepts: legal ideology and psychology, law and order, legal regime, legal culture etc. Legislative activity of the state as a necessity of power and control in democratic societies should be due to the law. The law is effective only when it corresponds to the actually existing social relations and sense of justice. Exactly here there is the problem of justice, it means, that the law perceived by public as unfair cannot be an effective regulator of social relations. Only the fair (= legal) law is a real social and moral value, only such a law is executed with minimal use of state coercion or without it. The law is a social-cultural phenomenon in which the political, economic, national, cultural, etc. history of the society is “reflected” and both the continuity of generations and eras is mirrored. The law is a contradictory unity of the act as a formal expression of justice and the will of the ruling class, and inherent in each class’s view of the relationship between what exists and what should be in the law and its practical application. Moreover, these perceptions are formed as a result of historical development. “The spirit of the people, their history, religion, degree of political freedom cannot be separated either by their influence on each other, or in their inner essence, they are connected to one nod” (Gegel G.V., 1959, 78). The law is the essence of the unity of the acts and its reflection in the public mind but it is not a mirror reflection and not due to the law itself, as the society should not be based on the law but the law should be based on the society. Only in this context, adequate representation of the relationship between the law, government and state of a democratic type is possible. It is important to take into account the role played by the legal minds in the implementation of the state legislative functions and in the practice of legal regulation. Obviously, the efficiency of the legal action as a whole depends directly on the degree of compliance of legal norms with legal consciousness of individual groups, classes and the society. The law, having the function of a universal regulator of social relations, is the main and most effective means of politics that in general at the level of philosophical reflection can be # 1023 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities… represented as a “changed form” of sociality. And in the political “pseudo-concreteness” of the undemocratic type an alienated essence of the man himself is transformed, which became for him an external force, some kind of the imperative determining the “basic” boundaries of his existence. The most important tool for the establishment of such boundaries is the law. The democratic state by definition should lead to “releasing” of the human from alienation and in this process the law plays an essential role. On the one hand, the law is the system of acts, the official legal ideology, legal consciousness of ruling classes and the enforcement by the state. On the other hand, the law is completed by legal ideology of other social sections and groups, with their legal psychology, legal views and experiences in general, emerging as a rule at the ordinary level (of course going to the level of elements of the civil society). Here there is a practical manifestation of the law: “lawful” behavior, active or passive unlawful behavior in the case of non-compliance with the law and legal consciousness of people (as a simple failure of the law). The concept of justice of legal norms adopted by the state and the actual jurisdiction is an element of the legal consciousness of all classes and sections of the population, determining to a large degree their behavioral attitude to the law, the state, political power in general. Two marked oppositions (sides) of the law, at the same time denying and counting one another in their practical interaction form this particular legal regime, the type and level of the law and order, to a certain extent – the political regime in general. In addition, the law can be represented as a contradictory unity of three main components (which can also be called as the sides). 1. The normative component is a system of legal norms operating in a society. 2. The doctrinal component is general principles of law, the official, as well as any other legal ideology. All legal ideologies of the society should be attributed to the doctrinal side of law, because objectively they express and justify a separate group of interest, influence on the formation of legal consciousness of people, thereby creating motivation of the legal or illegal behavior. 3. The activity component is the jurisdiction implemented by the state, legal psychology of various social groups and mainly practical behavior of people in the area of law motivated by it. The activity side (component) of the law also includes valuable orientations and behavioral patterns of classes, groups, individuals, stable dynamic patterns of behavior of subjects of legal relations. The law is the form in relation to the politics, which is the content here. All more or less significant changes in the politics are always reflected in the law. In particular, changes in the activity component of the law are inevitably contradictory in itself, as reflect the difference or opposition (up to antagonism) of the legal views of different classes and sections. To a certain extent, they reflect the conservatism of the legal consciousness as a whole, legal psychology in particular. But in any case all this is the result and form of expression of difference or indigenous opposition of fundamental political interests, which somehow are affected by changes in the law. Such an understanding of the relationship between the politics and the law may give raise an objection, as the traditionally predominant among lawyers is the view that the law is not fully connected with the politics that legal and political system is only partially “overlap” each other. This is usually argued by the fact that the law draws, expresses and reinforces not only political but also economic, family, household and other social relations, so ostensibly the legal sphere cannot be included as an element in the political sphere. # 1024 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities… In our opinion, the law in general should be regarded as a political phenomenon. The main thing here is not that the law in its nature is inextricably connected with the politics and the state, but it is also an argument. But if we take any of three above-mentioned sides of the law – regulatory, doctrinal and activity, we will always fi nd a political interest behind them and, accordingly, domineering or subservient will; stereotypes of legal or illegal behavior to a greater or lesser extent are determined by general political attitudes. Psychological people’s attitude to the legal validity, which follows directly from the concepts of justice is also an expression of political interest. The political interest is directly and sometimes open manifested in the regulatory, doctrinal and activity-related aspects of the law. Genetic, functional and institutional dependence of the regulatory side of the law on the state and state authority also gives a reason to consider the legal sphere to be the element of the political sphere. The law as a whole is an essence of the form, a way of existence of the politics – in our opinion, that should be the approach to the knowledge of the legal effects according to social-philosophical point of view. Being a form of the politics, the law, to a certain extent, is “indifferent” toward the latter. That means, it is relatively independent, but it is unacceptable to make its independence absolute. The ratio of the law and the politics is affected to the extent that democracy as a form (a method) of ruling is a political phenomenon. Therefore, for the democracy of the modern type the task of the closest approach, up to full compliance with each other (this is the ideal) of the three components of the law – normative, doctrinal and activity, is of course a political task. The solution of this problem in Russia is absolutely necessary, but it faces “terra incognito” – the legitimation of the law. Conclusion The term “legitimacy” is often understood as legitimacy (legality) of something. Meanwhile, legitimacy supposes an indissoluble unity of two parts – the rule of law and rightfulness of something in people’s view. If we talk about legitimacy of the law, the fi rst side – “legitimacy of the law” – may seem strange. However, for example, the regional law can be contrary to the federal law, the latter can be contrary to the Constitution. Thus, in accordance with the law of 2000 on the formation of the Federation Council the half of the upper chamber of the highest legislative body of the country consists of the representatives of the executive branch of the Federation. But there is Article 10 of the Constitution, which appointed the principle of separation of powers, i.e. the structural and functional isolation of three branches of the power, inadmissibility of combining them, “mixing them” in order to avoid dictatorship. And that is “the legitimacy of the law”. This is however the subject to be considered by the Constitutional Court. As for the second side of legitimacy of the law , its rightfulness in people’s view, of course, opinions differ. But people get objectively included in various social groups, so far having similar interests and opinions, and laws are mostly related to the legal status of particular groups, strata, organizations – retirees, students, military personnel, political parties, media, etc. Traditionally, however, bills are introduced “privately” – in the administration of the head of the State, in the Government and others, as “privately” they are discussed in the State Duma Committee, then submitted to the plenary sessions. For this reason, many new laws need to be amended at once (for example, in the Law on Citizenship of the Russian Federation of 2002 nine amendments were made), and sometimes # 1025 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities… they cause a sharp discontent in the society (e.g. acts of housing or education reforms). A profound public examination of laws to be considered in the Parliament is required. It is not difficult to organize it at the present level of information. Participation in the discussion of laws, bringing them “to mind” will be an important aspect of civil society institutions (parties, social organisations, independent media, etc.). There will be self-expression and self-assertion of these institutions, the growth of confidence in them by the citizens, hence the development of the civil society as a whole. And strengthening the rule of law, respect for the law increases if the project has been recognized as rightful by “friendly” organizations. Political sociality is characterized by the fact that a person is psychologically inclined to trust above all to “friendly”, “close” organizations and associations, so their participation in the discussion of draft laws, and then the public approval of these projects will form the basis for the positive attitude to the country’s legal acts taken by people. It should be emphasized that at the present time when the political activity of the population is relatively low, a very important role in the legitimation of the law the trade unions could play an important role, of course, if they stop to perform the traditional function of “the belt from the parties to the masses” and become finally the real spokesmen and defenders of the interests of workers. Let us investigate another aspect. Experts preparing draft laws are usually associated with official government agencies – the President, the Government of the Federation and therefore they must take into account relevant corporate interests and goals. In addition, not all deputies of the State Duma who discuss and adopt laws are professional enough in the lawmaking. Not every politician is a law-giver. Public examination of draft laws would largely resolve these contradictions. In our opinion, the legitimation of laws (a specific procedure is not difficult to work out) could not only improve the rule of law in the country, raise the level of public confidence in government and political activity of people, but also in general do a good service in the process of formation of the legal state and developed civil society, i.e. a modern type of democracy in Russia. References G.V. Gegel. Compositions. 1929-1959.V.1-14. In Russian. G. Mosca. The ruling class. Social investigations. № 10. 1994. In Russian. V.S. Nersesyants. Methodological problems of relations between law and order and legality. M. 1980.In Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratization of Lawmaking and Legal Order: Real Opportunities… Демократизация правотворчества и правопорядок: реальные возможности гражданского общества А.Г. Аникевич, Е.П. Чебан Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, ул Киренского, 26 В статье с позиций обобщения на уровне социальной философии анализируется сущность и структура права, его роль в процессе демократизации всех сторон жизни общества, соотношение права и политики, исторически обусловленный правовой нигилизм населения при тоталитаризме. Аргументируется необходимость легитимации закона как одного из важных аспектов построения правового государства и современного гражданского общества в России. Ключевые слова: демократия, гражданское общество, право, правопорядок, правовое государство, власть, легитимность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1028-1035 ~~~ УДК 942.060 Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries a Darima D. Amogolonovaa* and Andrei V. Simonovb Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 Sakhyanovoi, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia b Russian State University for the Humanities, 6 Miusskaya square, Moscow, 125993 Russia 1 Received 4.11.2011, received in revised form 11.12.2011, accepted 16.02.2012 The paper “Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX centuries” deals with the phenomenon of Britishness as a form of national identity in a context of British Empire. The authors argue that arising and functioning of the Empire became the most essential factor that affected the ethnic groups of Great Britain in the processes of the XIX century nation-building in counterbalance to ethnocultural identities. Collapse of the Empire resulted in deactualization of Britishness and return to the previous identities. Simultaneously, the British identity appeared to be rather productive for the self-identification of the “newcomers”. Thus, Britishness has got extra senses related to distinct racial and cultural differentiation of the British society. Keywords: Britishness; identity; ethnicity; British Empire; world-system; constructivism Introduction The epoch of globalization is characterized with unprecedented confluence of nationstates in the political and economic alliances, increasing migratory flows, and arising new forms of multicultural and multiethnic societies. Simultaneously, the present-day situation shows manifestation of various ideologies with common content that can be named nationalism. Modern humanities recognize that the concept of nationalism is very broad and does not necessarily imply the involvement of a big number of people who feel themselves as members of the national community into political activities. The most * 1 general defi nition of nationalism, which includes both nationalism of the emerging nation and nationalism of the existing nation, is proposed by the Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology: “Nationalism is the political doctrine which holds that humanity can be divided into separate, discrete units – nations – and that each nation should constitute a separate political unit – a state. The claim to nationhood usually invokes the idea of a group of people with a shared culture, often a shared language, sometimes a shared religion, and usually but not always a shared history; to this it adds the political claim that this group of people should, by rights, rule themselves or be ruled Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1028 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries by people of the same kind (nation, ethnicity, language, religion, etc.)” (Barnard, Spencer, 2003: 590). In this sense, the nationalism of the United Kingdom completely corresponds to the idea of Britishness (Britishism) in at least two definitions: the first one, patriotic unity within the nation-state, which, as W. Connor defines, is characterized by the absence of ethnic conflicts (Connor, 1994: 69) and the second one, daily life and social customs that can be described in M. Billig’s terms of banal nationalism (Billig, 1995). Which content of Britishness will occupy prevailing status, depends on a sense of homogeneity and horizontal ties. As a matter of fact, the conflict in the framework of a nation consists in particular in the fact of dominance when one or several ethnic groups prevail in number, influence or cultural expansion thus preventing the sense of super-ethnic unity. In the course of last decades, polyethnicity and multiraciality of the British society have actualized a problem whether Britishness exists at present, or existed in history, or will exist in the future. Actually, the situation in Great Britain is not unique: almost all multiethnic states including Russia are facing a crisis of all-national identity. Therefore, the investigation of the phenomenon of Britishness is relevant for identifying common and peculiar features of nationalisms. Comparativist analysis of situations in different communities contributes to better knowledge how national ideologies impact public consciousness; British example is rather indicative in the sense of gradual increase of tension in interracial relations and “washing out” of all-national identity. Materials and Methods In our work we employ materials from relevant research works on political and cultural history of Great Britain (M. Storry, P. Childs, P.W. Barker, T. Wright, A. Aughey, J. Darwin, etc.), printed archives (Hyam, 1992; Goldsworthy, 1994), and mass media discussions, such as in the Daily Telegraph, the Daily Star, the Mirror, the Sun and the Sunday Times. The research applies the methodology of the world-system analysis (Wallerstein, 1974) and constructivist paradigm (Anderson, 1991; Barth, 1969; Cohen, 2000; Gellner, 1983; Smith, 1986) of contemporary social and political anthropology in combination with the system principle to social processes. The basic methodological principles are supplemented with a concept of depoliticized nationalism in M. Billig’s interpretation. The latter concept strictly divides nationalism into the ideology of arising nation and banal or everyday reproduction of national belonging by means of “flagging” that implies a sort of repeated actions aimed at consumption of symbols. On the one hand, banal reproduction of Britishness seems to be older than most other nationalisms. And on the other hand, in the present-day conditions of globalization and impetuous immigration to Great Britain, traditional British values (whatever is understood under them) being fixed within the limits of banal nationalism get a political context of non-tolerance. Results The phenomenon of Britishness is tightly connected with the historical processes in the UK, with its role in the international politics both in the past and present, and with globalization, which manifests in the growing immigration of the representatives of other ethnoracial and cultural communities to the British Isles. When proposing consideration of Britishness as a specific form of nationalism, we do not exclude other interpretations of the phenomenon, such as cultural identity. At the same time it is worth marking that in the modern social science nationalism is often represented beyond the limits of a militant political ideology: it can act # 1029 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries as a collective “we-image”, i.e. as a language and principle of self-description that promotes construction of communality. Historically Britishness was formed within the United Kingdom and for political reasons was far inferior to ethnic (ethnocultural and ethnopolitical) identities of the Scots, Welsh and Irish. Status inequality of different ethnic groups in the economic sphere and access to the power resources (A. Smith caustically marked this as “residential segregation” (Smith, 1998: 60)) contributed to a steady representation of the British as almost exclusively Englishmen from the point of view of both outside observers and non-English British. The situation has changed significantly when military-colonial expansion began. Widening overseas possessions gave career opportunities to all ethnic groups in Britain, thus improving their financial situation. Since the end of the XVIII century, thanks to the participation in the conquests, the British identity (as belonging to the most successful community) has coexisted with ethnicity though the latter was not replaced. Due to the fact that the social basis and ethnicity of the participants of colonial campaigns (sailors and soldiers) was very broad, the term “Englishmen” was losing its narrow ethnic content: it was getting the meaning of Britishness that was taking roots in the representations of both conquered peoples and British public consciousness. Final formation of Britishness as a nationalist ideology and self-awareness of the Brits took place in the second half of the XIX century when the British Empire reached its development having become a major force in world politics and economy. Actively propagandized British values coupled with the rapid growth of British wealth derived the notion of Britishness from merely political rhetoric and introduced into the broadest social classes. Britishness has become synonymous with world domination and legitimized rights to economic resources of the colonies and to the fate of the peoples of Asia and Africa. This results in strong relationship between Britishness and British imperialism that was understood as a civilizing mission of the United Kingdom among the disadvanced communities, which thus joined Christianity, European education, and social institutions and systems. Collapse of the British Empire could not but affect the Britishness in ideological sense. The loss of the empire “core” entailed actualization of English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish ethnocultural identities instead Britishness. It would be appropriate to cite a letter from our British friend who wrote (quotation was kindly permitted): “People thought of themselves as English, Irish, Welsh, Scottish, (and actually, more than this, from Warwickshire, Somerset, Perthshire, London, Cornwall, etc. etc.), but as united in living under the British Imperial Government”. This young woman, a British researcher, is of opinion that actualization of Britishness alongside with ethnic identity was initiated in the late XX century by the communities of immigrants who call themselves the “British” (“black British”, “Muslim British” or simply “British”). Precisely for this reason, the “indigenous” white British try to “reserve” the term and corresponding sense of Britishness for themselves. Thus at present, Britishness is considered as an ambiguous concept: on the one hand, it implies greatness of the nation that possesses glorious historical memory; on the other hand, this meaning of Britishness is being pushed aside due to newcomers whose Britishness has exactly opposite meaning: the British by citizenship but not by “roots and blood”. The term thus again shows the opposition between the “ethnic” British and “newcomers”. Of course, the Britishness is far beyond the imperial context. Other contexts are of no less importance: traditional values in which a notable # 1030 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries place is given to the monarchy and Anglican Church, customs and way of life and behavior, democratic institutes and freedoms, level and quality of life, etc. Complete research implies studying and analyzing the totality of Britishness, in which imperial ideology is only one of the constituent elements. Discussion Scientific literature on British identity is rather wide; most researchers are of opinion that the formation of Britishness took place within strengthening British monarchy and successful albeit painful process of inclusion of Scottish, Welsh and Irish areas in the structure of a united state (Wright, 2003; Julios, 2008). However, political actions, though uncontroversial, did not create a British national identity. When defining political identity in Britain, Philip Lynch argues that in the everyday consciousness, Britishness is a synonym for Englishness, the latter forming in fact all the specific features of national patriotism and national character, which manifests in commitment to conservatism. “The emergence of the English then British nation-state and national identities prior to the era of ideological nationalism and democratic politics limited the scope for the emergence of ethnic or oppositional patriotisms... In the United Kingdom’s (UK) multinational state, the balance between a state-based British identity and older ethnic or national identities has been a complex one. The nations of the UK maintained important aspects of their ethnic, political and cultural identities, with a British state patriotism added to these to provide a sense of shared identity and interests, thereby limiting the scope for separatist sub-state nationalisms” (Lynch, 1999: 2). Priority of English in the British national values as well as in the idea of the British nation grows out of ideas that emerged and developed in the British political culture and English national identity. Being the most advanced political and economic part of the UK, England extrapolated all over the country its bureaucratic model, the social hierarchy and relationships between social strata, property relations and interpersonal relations, home and foreign policy. And the French revolution that threatened the British state security in particular because the Irish belonged to the Roman Catholic Church promoted unconditional recognition of Anglicanism as the national religion. Introducing British/English traditions into different ethnic groups was uneven: while anglization of the Scottish elites was rapid, the same process among the Irish was, first, delayed and, second, faced considerable resistance at least because of obvious political and cultural discrimination against the backdrop of economic backwardness. Absence of the national religion, that could be a bridge between ethnic and cultural groups, implied an inner contradiction between the Anglican Church and other branches of Christianity – Roman Catholicism and Calvinism – thus increasing cultural differentiation. However, in the XVIII and XIX centuries, the processes of national homogenization greatly intensified by the establishment of Britain as an imperial metropolis; simultaneously, the monarchy being the bulwark of the imperial ideology became the British national heritage and national idea. In addition to economic, military and political characteristics of the empire, a geopolitical factor was of undoubted importance. The Empire, over which “the sun never set” occupied by the end of the XIX century the fifth part of the Earth with a population of four hundred million people; this placed Britain into “the center of the world” (Johnson, 2003: 1). This undoubtedly contributed to a feeling of British/metropolitan superiority over all other parts of the Empire. No doubt that actual participation in the creation of the empire was of # 1031 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries more importance than simple self-identification with the imperial power. Such participation with accompanied financial incentives was large scale and included into the notion of the dominating nation also those who due to their ethnic characteristics and historical memory held a subordinated position in the British society. Isaac Land marks that colonial wars became the biggest unifying force of Britishness because thanks to them the various ethnic and social groups – “competing factions” – chose to cooperate with the government rather than recalling past wrongs or to call for separatism. Military campaigns of British Army and Navy were represented as patriotic actions, in which the civilians took an active part (for example, women collected donations and made clothes for the soldiers, and traders created philanthropic societies) (Land, 2009: 6). While military service in the colonial army for defending the interests of Great Britain in various parts of the world certainly created a patriotic image, British nationalism for soldiers and sailors became a quite pronounced alternative to the ethnic (local) identity: “Britain was a nation forged in war, and the sine qua non of “Britishness” was a more or less direct contribution to the war effort. By this logic, sailors should have been among the first and most enthusiastic Britons. Conscription removed them from whatever local or provincial milieu they knew before” (Land, 2009: 7). This was especially true concerning the Irish: in the middle of the XIX century, the Irish in the Bengal army by number almost caught up with the English. The Irish who were also colonized by the British understood military service as one of very few employment opportunities. It is worth marking that decrease in the number of the Irish in India after the Great National Revolt (1857-59) and ensuing famine meant their return to homeland only partially: many of them chose to leave for the United States (Mohanram, 2007: 167). Thus, the British identity that prevailed in the Irish in the colonies came into conflict with the feeling of their discriminatory status in Great Britain. However, in the colonies, as Graham Dawson wrote, the notions of “Englishmen” and “British” turned out to be interchangeable in the identification sense. Unlike in Britain, in the colonies both words meant belonging to Britishness understood as “imperial race” that in its turn included equally the English, Scots, Welsh and Irish – all those who enjoyed the privileges of being the British both in the “color” colonies and “white” Dominions (Bassnett, 2003: xxiv). Thanks to the social significance of the formation, expansion and strengthening of the empire, Britishness in the XIX century was closely linked with British imperialism. The latter was and still is understood in two ways: initiated by John Hobson, it implies a policy of territorial expansion, while the Marxist interpretation of John Hobson’ ideas presented by Vladimir Lenin offers the class nature of this phenomenon with simultaneous statement that imperialism is the last stage of capitalism. It is clear that in the Marxist ideological terms, imperialism is completely negative and unfair phenomenon, which is aimed at pillaging of the colonies. Economic and political interpretation of British imperialism in the non-Marxist key implied the missionary spread of Anglo-Saxon civilization and in this sense the Victorian political leaders of all parties were enthusiastic supporters of imperialism (Tompson, 2003: 255-256). Thanks to huge profits from the colonies, it became possible to increase significantly in the British level and quality of life; in its turn, this contributed to a certain leveling of economic borders between social layers and reducing social tension. Colonialism promoted getting rid of “superfluous” people: migration to the colonies, Australia and other regions reduced # 1032 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries unemployment, expanded markets for British goods and ultimately improved the living standards of the British Isles. The proceeds from colonial expansion as well as organization of trade unions, raising the educational level of the British made possible the enforcement of important laws relating people engaged in physical labor. For example, women’s work in the mining industry was prohibited; besides, according to the new law, women’s working hours could not exceed ten hours. Important reforms touched also the sphere of politics: for example, at the initiative of the Prime Minister B. Disraeli, in 1867 the Parliament adopted the “Reform Act” that significantly expanded the social base of voters. In other words, the general democratization of British society promoted a sense of British identity. In the epoch of Queen Victoria’s Golden Age when Great Britain took the place of the first world power, the British felt true prosperity. A feeling of imperial superiority was skillfully constructed by conservators at power and was commonly shared by the British. No doubt that when vast majority of the Brits felt real benefits from the imperial government policy, imperialism was assessed positively thus contributing to the consolidation of Britishness as a nationalist ideology that influenced public consciousness of all social and ethnic groups. It is safe to assume that for the British community in general, Britishness and imperialism were synonyms and that is why imperialism was not the approved ideology only: it formed the basis of national pride with the consequent uncritical attitude to the seizure of foreign territories and building up British prosperity on the robbery of other nations. British “we-image” as civilizing missioners in Asia and Africa has not been shaken even by the great national revolt in India when the British received though sketchy but still some objective data about the brutality of British soldiers and officers during the suppression of insurgency. Moreover, the victory over the Indians and the subsequent transition of India under the British Crown (formerly these functions were formally fulfilled by the East India Company) were perceived as a logical and important step in strengthening the Empire, which would be beneficial for the Indians. Anti-imperialist ideas in Great Britain were not closely linked with liberal thinking (which would entail liberalism within the British society); this rather results from Labor Party (founded in 1900) activities. During the XIX century, even with the growing authority of trade unions, British society as a whole was under the influence of conservatives, the social achievements of the metropolis being attributed mainly to them: higher salaries, improved working and living conditions. At the beginning of the XX century, when anti-imperial sentiments became quite pronounced, they in fact meant only a “more equitable” distribution of income from the colonies between the regions of Britain. Imperialism as a military and economic way to mastering the resources of the weaker parts of the world did not cause among Britons any moral and ethical challenge as British public consciousness uncritically supported the postulate of their superiority. Moreover, the right to somebody else’s territories and life was transformed into an obligation and moral duty to civilize the backward peoples by for example converting them to Christianity and introduction of the English language. One can say that imperialism that was inseparably connected with national pride was in the XIX century the main content of Britishness. State sovereignty and individual freedom that had been by that time fully formed in the British political culture did not mean the universal principle of their application in relation to the colonial regions of the empire. Therefore, all forms of colonial domination (the destruction of traditional systems of land # 1033 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries tenure, tax increases, protectionism in relation to British goods, changes in administrative and political boundaries, brutal suppression of uprisings and riots) were presented and perceived as necessary steps for the gradual integration of the underdeveloped nations in the civilized world. This assumed that after the completion of this mission, the British would give control over this or that colony to the local democratic forces providing them with full jurisdiction of an independent state. In other words, imperialism was presented as a heavy burden that the British were forced to bear for the good of the many millions of people in the colonies. This illusion, supported by powerful anglization of the native elites, dominated the British public consciousness until the middle of the XX century. Conclusion Understanding of Britishness as messianic British imperialism was carried out in all possible ways of imperial propaganda, “from which there was no escape for the population between the 1880s and the 1960s” (Ward, 2004: 15). The vehicles of imperialism aimed at propaganda of Britishness as national superiority included the system of education: textbooks and teachers’ worldview, various patriotic organizations, the ideology of political parties, church services, art culture including literature (in particularly for children), exhibitions, theater, and later – radio, cinema and television. Ideas of Britishness have been actively commercialized: “Imperialism itself became a commodity to be sold to the British public… Empire was all around us, celebrated on our biscuit tins, chronicled on our cigarettes cards, part of the fabric of our lives. We were all imperialists then… While consumption played some part in fostering British national consciousness, it also helped to reinforce other forms of identification – especially with the Dominions, with England, Wales and Scotland, and with particular regions and localities” (Ward, 2004: 15). The quotation is important from different points of view. First, it allows us to evaluate the concept of “banal nationalism” proposed by Michael Billig (in the context of our topic – “banal imperialism” that replaced British nationalist ideology (Billig, 1995). Banal imperialism was of everyday character and usage since it did not necessarily and directly call to all-British goals and interests; it rather maintained pragmatic and material assessment of one’s belonging to Britishness as a way to solving life problems. Second, the imperial worldview promoted leveling of social conflicts in the context of regional identities and objective differences in incomes. Thirdly, and this is very important, the collapse of the empire led not to the disappearance of Britishness but to its return to the “old” forms of identity – ethno-group and ethno-territorial. References A. Barnard, J. Spencer, eds., Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology (L.,N.Y.: Routledge, 2003). S. Bassnett, ed., Studying British Cultures. An Introduction (London & New York: Routledge, 2003). M. Billig, Banal Nationalism (London: Sage Publications, 1995). W. Connor, Ethnonationalism. The Quest for Understanding (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994). D.J. Goldsworthy, ed., The Conservative Government and the End of Empire 1951– 1957. 3 vols. (London: University of London, 1994). # 1034 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Darima D. Amogolonova, Andrei V. Simonov. Imperial Ideology and British Nationalism in the XIX and XX Centuries R. Hyam, ed., The Labour Government and the End of Empire. 1945–1951. 4 vols. (London: University of London, 1992). C. Julios, Contemporary British Identity (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2008). R. Johnson, British Imperialism (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003). I. Land, War, Nationalism, and the British Sailor. 1750–1850 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009). P. Lynch, The Politics of Nationhood. Sovereignty, Britishness and Conservative Politics (L.: Macmillan Press LTD, 1999). R. Mohanram, Imperial White. Race, Diaspora, and the British Empire (Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press, 2007). A. D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986). R.S. Tompson, Great Britain. A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present (New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003). P. Ward, Britishness since 1870 (London: Routledge, 2004). T. Wright, British Politics. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2003). Имперская идеология и британский национализм в XIX и XX вв. Д.Д. Амоголоноваа, А.В. Симоновб а Институт монголоведения, буддологии и тибетологии СО РАН Россия 670047, Улан-Удэ, ул. Сахьяновой, 6 б Российский государственный гуманитарный университет Россия 125993, ГСП-3, Москва, Миусская площадь, 6 В статье «Имперская идеология и британский национализм в XIX и XX вв.» феномен британства рассматривается как форма национальной идентичности в контексте Британской империи. Авторы доказывают, что становление и развитие империи было наиболее существенным фактором, повлиявшим на процесс британского нациестроительства в XIX веке, вследствие которого в иерархии идентичностей общенациональная идентичность стала доминировать над этнической. Развал империи привел к тому, что британская идентичность стала утрачивать актуальность, а доминантные позиции заняли исторические этнические идентичности. Одновременно «британство» стало широко использоваться в самоидентификации «новых» граждан Великобритании. Таким образом, британство как идентичность приобретает новые смыслы, тесно связанные с расовой и культурной дифференциацией британского общества. Ключевые слова: британство, идентичность, этничность, Британская империя, мир-система, конструктивизм. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1036-1045 ~~~ УДК 316.012 Social Rationality: the Problem of Definitions Dmitry O. Trufanov* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.11.2011, received in revised form 25.12.2011, accepted 7.01.2012 This paper observes the problem of definitions of social rationality. The author applies the postnonclassical sociological approach to the analysis of social rationality. The sociological approach is critically necessary insofar as rationality is a social phenomenon, and any rationalizing activity acts as an activity of the social subjects. Postnonclassical approach is being employed in this research in connection with the fact that it claims the dialectical unity of the cognizer and the object of knowledge and thereby enables us to overcome the conflict of existing versions of rationality, absolutizing its epistemological or ontological aspects. This point of view allowed the author to assert that an essential feature of rationality is reflective design (logicization) of objects of reality – the unity of logization as means of cognitive reflection, accessible to person, and logicized item as an object of cognitive reflection. Meanwhile logization is defined as the use of logical tools, regardless of the presence in this application certain logic errors (this feature distinguishes logicized from logical). Guided by these theoretical grounds, the author formulates the definition of social rationality in the broad and narrow senses. In the broad sense, social rationality is a set of reflexive content of social reality, in the narrow sense social rationality is displayed as any reflective act (its process and outcome) of an individual or a group subject of social action, carried out by using verbal means of communication. Keywords: rationality, social rationality, postnonclassical approach, logization, reflexivity. Introduction. The current state of social rationality In the modern social sciences there exists theoretical pluralism with regard to the ambit of “rationality”. This, together with the known advantages, creates a methodological problem raised by the existence of different theoretical approaches applying to the conflicting versions of rationality. In connection with this the urgent task is to construct a theory of rationality capable of integrating different approaches into its understanding and to create * 1 a space for communication, setting the ratio of complementarity between them. The need for a conception of unified rationality has been pointed out by many authors, offering various options for solving this problem (Avtonomova, 1995; Fedotova, 1999; Shvyrev, 2003; Asatryan, 2007; et al.). The following methods of interpreting the values of rationality are mostly used in scientific literature: as logically reasoned, acknowledged, expressing the logical relationship between aims and means (Weber, 1990; Pareto, 2008); Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1036 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions as designed, conformed to law content of the reality (Mudragey, 2002; Fenvesh, 2010); as an effective basis, determined as an ability to select actions, means and structures to achieve the goal (Hungarov, 1995; Nikiforov, 1999; Genov, 2007). Also, there is no single concept of social rationality. Social rationality is discussed as a type of rationality, which expresses a set of standards of social and group behavior, serving goals socially significant for this society (Rakitov, 1982); as a concept denoting cognitive, social and transforming activity of individuals and groups; as the way of functioning of social systems, expressed in their structural logic and their ability to self-refer and self-regulate (Sivirinov, 2003). Along with this, many authors consider rationality as a characteristic of human social behavior, discussing it in the terms of decision theory (Indina and Morosanova, 2009; Grandori, 2010), theory of rational choice (Segre, 2008; Kazachkov, 2008; Elster, 2009; Best, 2009; Mehlkop and Graeff, 2010), game theory (Back and Flache, 2008; Weesie et al., 2009) and model of frame selection (Kroneberg et al., 2010). Also, several authors examine cognitive rationality as the problem of contacts in the systems of social action, which is related to the interpretation of the social actors of knowledge and behavior (Stone, 2009; Gintis, 2010). Several authors, using the term “social rationality” do not give its definition which generates a plurality of its meanings (Rodionova and Bolotova, 2010). Meanings of rationality listed above do not exhaust all its possible interpretations. However, already mentioned meanings are materially different from each other, which leads to the impossibility of applying them in the study of social objects through the prism of opposition “rational – irrational”. So, logization of connection between the objectives and means of activity does not inevitably entail a high degree of effectiveness of the latter. On the contrary, the effectiveness of the mentioned connection is not necessarily the subject of reflection and can exist as unformed and random content. Adherence to standards of activity as the embodiment of rationality does not constitute the need for an effective way to achieve the goal. On the contrary, going beyond the standards of rationality (an irrational action) may be more effective than following those. Finally, the conformity to law of a particular social phenomenon or an action is not necessarily the subject of logization and may not have the articulation in the reflexive field of an actor. Thus, irrational can be rational, and vice versa. In this regard, the conclusion that marks the current state of rationality is the thesis by I.T. Kasavin, made more than fifteen years ago, that “perhaps, the only, generally recognized conclusion about the problem of rationality is the recognition of its debatable state” (Kasavin, 1995, p. 187). Point. Postnonclassical approach to the problem of social rationality To solve the stated problem, in our opinion, it should be approached from a sociological point of view, with the application of the postnonclassical approach to the analysis of social reality. We will explain this position. As it is well-known, the features of the classic scientific approach are abstraction from the cognizer in the aggregate of their cognitive abilities and means and the opposition of subject and object of cognition (the position of ideal (absolute) observer). The principle of opposition of the cognizer and the object of cognition is asserted by Weber, who follows G. Rickert and posits it as the basis of all the knowledge (Gaidenko, 1991). Without belittling the heuristic value of this principle per se, we note that in the process of cognition of the social phenomena which social rationality belongs to, its use is associated with significant difficulties. The latter is due to the fact that the # 1037 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions cognizer, using rational means of cognition (thought), always has social distinctions. They are expressed, on the one hand, by the subject’s applying the sign system (language), constitutive of thoughts and consciousness, on the other hand – by the aggregate of value orientations of subject and cultural meanings, creating orientation of their cognitive activity. Both the first and the second are possible only in the social space. Thus, the cognizer, dealing with social reality, is an integral part of this very reality. In this regard, the ideal (absolute) observer, as the cognizer of social reality, is an ideal model, which has no place in the actual practice of knowledge. As N.M. Smirnova has rightly pointed out, this model ignores the inclusion of a subject “in the structure of the life-world”, a subject’s lack of freedom “from the premises caused by their position in a social group” (Smirnova, 1999, p. 208-209). Consequently, the absolute position of an observer is the point of observation outside social reality. Given the above-noted social conditioning of the cognizer, the existence of such a point of observation is impossible. Thus, any observation of a social object is a participant’s observation. This thesis was extensively discussed in sociology even 40 years ago in the light of the principle of complementarity in the process of cognizing social objects. According to the conclusions made by Ya. S. Alekseev and Ph. M. Borodkin, “the object of study now is not the very reality, which existence is independent of the observer, but the system consisting of an object (in the classical sense) and the conditions of observation, by which we mean the set of measurement procedures, including methods and tools of measurement, as well as the actual observer (researcher), who is connected with the observed system” (Alexeyev and Borodkin, 1970, p. 41). Non-classical scientific approach involves taking into account the cognitive activity of the subject as a factor influencing the achievement of knowledge and its outcome. Finally, postnonclassical science is characterized by the inclusion of the cognizer in a scientific picture of the studied reality, in consideration of influencing the nature of attained knowledge not only the cognitive components of cognitive activity of the subject, but also the key determinants of subject’s activity – needs, values, goals (Trufanov, 2010). Thus, in both the non-classical and postnonclassical approaches the participation of the cognizer in the object of knowledge is actively postulated. The subject constitutes the object by its cognitive actions, applied means of knowledge, and value orientations. As a result the cognizer and the object of knowledge display complementarity, integrity, ontological continuity, so that their separation is possible only at the theoretical level. Consequently, the cognizer must be included in the sphere of scientific analysis. Focusing on this theoretical starting point, we used the term “postnonclassical approach” as a generic concept for the concepts of “non-classical approach” and “postnonclassical approach”. Taking into consideration these key points we define our approach as the postnonclassical approach, which includes the cognizer in the area of scientific analysis on the basis of the principle of complementarity (Turchenko, 2003; Nemirovsky, 2005). Such an approach, as it will be shown later, is necessary to solve the problem of social rationality, as well as to construct a unified theory of rationality capable of integrating different approaches in its understanding. Example. Definitions of social rationality Analysis of the above interpretations of rationality on the grounds of the theoretical points of postnonclassical approach shows that the conflict of definitions of rationality is created by distinguishing of epistemological and ontological # 1038 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions aspects of rationality. Thus, the interpretation of rationality in the epistemological aspect claims cognitive criterion of rationality, characterizing cognitive, interpretational, social and transforming activity of the social subjects. The interpretation of rationality in the ontological aspect sets it as an objective property of reality, conformity to law, a way of self-reference and self-regulation of social systems. Therefore, complementarity of different definitions of rationality can be established by admitting the mergence of epistemological and ontological aspects of rationality. It is known that the traditional gap between ontology and epistemology has been overcame in dialectic (there cannot be any “pure ontological” or “pure epistemological” characteristics) (Bazhenov, 1976) and in social theory (in social life there are no natural facts – any fact is included in the horizon of interpretation) (Zinchenko, 2003). Thus, an inextricable link between the subject and the object of knowledge is postulated, when the subject is an integral part of the object. In this regard, seeking the invariant content of rationality, V.G. Fedotova points out the methodological principle of his study, which establishes the unity of cognitive and social criteria of rationality (Fedotova, 1999). Thus, the definition of rationality must take into account mergence, the unity of method and content of the rationalization on the basis of their ontological continuity. The attempts to implement this principle in the existing definition of rationality, as a rule, narrow object at the expense of absolutization of partial contents of cognitive rationality (Lipsky, 1997; Shvyrev, 2003; et al.). Thus, V.S. Shvyrev discusses reflexive control as an essential trait of rationality (Shvyrev, 2003). Such a sign of rationality, in the opinion of the author, are “special efforts of the consciousness of the subject to analyze of proportionality of the subject’s position and subject’s real situation, suggesting an independent outline of the “perfect plan” of actions, which is orientated on the real situation” (Shvyrev, 2003, p . 42-43). This analysis of proportionality is the point of reflexive control, aiming at the correlation of the “perfect plan” of actions and very actions as the act being actually carried out. Thus, the outline of consciousness be should realized, the activity of the subject should be defined as rational or otherwise – as irrational. Rationality in this sense describes the subjects’ active attitude to the world, their freedom to choose behavior alternatives, which is opposed to “any kind of automatism of external determination, when the subject performs a passive recipient of affecting their mentality forces (automatism of instinctive immediate reaction, habit, stamp, actions implemented under the influence of tradition and authority, etc.)” (Shvyrev, 2003, p. 45). Such a conception of rationality, in our opinion, is very narrow. It is doubtful whether the reduction of the author of the manifold manifestations of rationality to the outline of “perfect plan” of actions and correlation it with reality is error-free. It is unclear why this content of consciousness is chosen as a criterion of rationality, why reflexive practice of different intentionality must be assigned to the field of irrational. Following the logic of V.S. Shvyrev, the answer to this question must be that the discussed content of rationality has been chosen as its criterion on the grounds that it constitutes the subject as an autonomous author. This author has the freedom of choice of the behavioral patterns, resisting the external determination of the latter. Thereby rationalization in this sense implies “the possibility of presenting a problem situation from the outside, modeling it as a whole in a perfect plan, objectification of subject’s own position as a result of this modeling – it is the famous thesis of “the separation of the subject from the world” – and designing options of motion within the model # 1039 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions of the problem situation” (Shvyrev, 2003, p. 45). But it is quite clear that such a separation from the world assumes the position of the ideal (absolute) observer, the impossibility of which we have indicated above. Thus, the criterion of rationality, set by V.S. Shvyrev, is an attempt to implement the principle of mergence of epistemological and ontological aspects of rationality by integrating in the concept of “rationality” both cognitive (making an ideal plan of actions), and “really practical” (actions correspond to an ideal plan) activity of the subject. However, as it was shown, such an attempt narrows the variety of manifestations of rationality at the expense of absolutization of its particular contents. Trying to ignore the specific content of the experience and knowledge with a goal to fi nd an invariant component of rationality, the author, in fact, posits the specific content of consciousness as a marker of rationality. In our opinion, in the search of the invariant criterion of rationality beyond the specific contents of consciousness, as such, we should review not the content, but the very form of activity – reflection as auto-communication of the subject. Definitely, the adopted postnonclassical approach to the problem of social rationality allows us to select the property of reflexivity (verbalization) as an invariant in the various approaches and definitions of rationality, without which these definitions no longer exist (definitions, but not the phenomena which they fix). In this case, reflexivity involves logization – the application of the logical tools (concepts, judgments, conclusions) in spite of the logic errors in such an application. The latter circumstance distinguishes logization from logic. Thus, logization is a way of existence of rationality, expressing its cognitive side (epistemological characterization of rationality). Ontological aspect of rationality is expressed in the intentionality of logization: logization always focuses on the specific content of reality and is impossible beyond that content. The content of logization contains various objects of reality, including logization itself. This allows us to assert the social nature of rationality because of the impossibility of verbalized reflection (logization) without social reality. Thereby, the concepts of “rationality” and “social rationality” should be recognized as synonymous. Proceeding from this understanding, social rationality in the broadest sense should be represented as a set of reflexive content of social reality. Reflection at this level should be understood as a cognitive self-referral of social practice – the aggregate of mutually orientated reflections of the social actors (the network reflection). This aggregate creates “its own layer” of social reality, reflecting in the cognitive tools its own being of the given reality. In this definition, we also rely on the thesis of S.L. Frank about existence as transfinite content. According to his work, the essence of being (being is a whole, comprehensive unity) as “transfinite is that it is the unity of certainty and uncertainty – because the difference between them is a difference within the very existence (as well as any other difference)” (Frank, 2007, p. 8485). “If we now separate mentally these logically consistent contents from what is beyond their limits and do not belong to them, then – in the face of this last element – we will have – in just such a negative definition – the irrational. This irrational should be seen as something of the substrate or materia prima” (Frank, 2007, p. 72). Thus, reality is the unity of issued and formless, definite and indefinite, logicalized and not. In this case, the criterion of logical focus distinguishes rational and irrational. Such a view allows us to consider the content of reflexive social reality as the unity of method and content of rationality, as mergence and interdependence of logization and logicalised. # 1040 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions In this broad understanding social rationality reveals features of a social fact in Durkheim’s sense (Durkheim, 1990). An individual in the process of socialization is facing social rationality as a social and cultural intent, having external existence and enforcement in relation to it. These intents express rationality in the form of social norms, collective opinions, assessments and standards of behavior that have received a verbal expression, as well as in the form of knowledge, information and other products of reflexive activity of individuals and communities. Further, since the reflexive content of social reality implies cognitive activities of subjects, the social rationality in the narrow sense should be defined as any reflective act (its process and outcome) of individual or group subject of social action, carried out by using verbal means of communication. In this case, a reflexive act is always the unity of logization (the way of accessible cognitive reflection) and logicized (the object of cognitive reflection). Thus, discussion of the above versions of rationality is carried out by their logization. There is no other way to make the values of rationality under discussion, but to establish and articulate the belonging of certain predicates to the concepts of items thought. Rational as effective, rational as a set, rational as appropriate in the system of values, rationality as comprehensibility of the objective of universal and other existing values of rationality are reflexive contents and are not available outside logization. Currently, our reader is in the context of such a form of social interaction, which should be defi ned as a form of social rationality. Here we can repeat after Searle, that “any thought, language, and therefore, the argument assumes the existence of rationality” (Searle, 2004, p. 12). However, the above definitions of rationality are the kinds of social rationality, understood as a set of reflexive (verbalized) contents. The basis for their allocation is in the meanings of concepts (objects, events and connections within reality, marked by the concept), the relation between them being rationalized. So, rational as a set is allocated on the basis of the logicalised relationship between the meanings of “social phenomenon”, “conformity to law”, “design”, “order”; rational as effective involves logicalised connection between the meanings of “social action”, “goal achievement”, “efficiency”, “means for goal achievement”, etc. These kinds of social rationality are its substantial aspects and can be used to study the individual parts and contents of social reality. The flip side of rationality is social irrational – a set of non-reflexive contents of social beyond logic of the recorded meanings. This is materia prima, according to S.L. Frank, which rationalization is directed on. Thus, rational and irrational components of social reality form a complex synthesis. As B.S. Sivirinov notes, “sociology should consider irrational as varying hypostasis of rational, and vice versa. In other words, sociology should take and consider the obvious functional “mergence”, inseparability of rational and irrational in society“ (Sivirinov, 2003, p. 10). In this way, conformity to law of particular social structures and phenomena is an irrational content as long as it is not articulated in the reflexive activities of individuals and communities. Receiving such an articulation, conformity to law becomes a rational content and begins to exist as knowledge, performing also a function of socio-cultural prediction in the intergenerational transmission of experience. The very conformity to law as the rational content is a reflective model of relations between social objects and patterns of existence of the social systems and is used to “measure” these relations in a particular social object. Also, the efficiency becomes the rational content in connection with # 1041 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions what is a reflective model of relations between means and results of the activity, applied to rationalize this relation in specific situations of the activity of individuals and communities. Next, we will make conclusions. Results 1. To solve the problem of social rationality it is heuristically valuable to apply postnonclassical sociological approach. Sociological approach is necessary insofar as rationality is a social phenomenon, and any rationalizing activity is an activity of a social subject. Postnonclassical approach is necessary as long as it maintains the dialectical unity of the cognizer and the object of cognition, and thereby enables us to establish mergence of ontological and epistemological aspects of rationality. This theoretical position allows integrating different approaches in the understanding of rationality, the differences between them are related to absolutization of ontological or epistemological aspects. 2. The concepts of “rationality” and “social rationality” are synonymous and express the same content. In this case, rationality is always social, since it does not exist outside social reality. The essential feature of rationality is reflective design (logicization) of the objects of reality (the unity of logization and logicized). 3. Social rationality in the broad sense is the aggregate of reflective contents of social reality. Reflection on this level acts as a cognitive self- referral of social practices that creates “its own layer” of social reality, reflecting by the means of cognitive tools the very existence of given reality. 4. Social rationality in the narrow sense is any reflexive act (its process and outcome) of an individual or a group subject of social action, carried out with the help of the verbal means of communication. In this sense, the concept of social rationality characterizes the cognitive activity of social actors, which creates a set of reflexive content of social reality. Thus, social rationality should be defi ned as the reflexive content of social reality that is constituted by the cognitive practices of the social actors. This approach reveals the essential feature of rationality, which is invariant in different defi nitions and allows combining conflicting versions of rationality within a unified theoretical model. Moreover, different versions of rationality are correlated as the forms of social rationality, understood in this way. Also, this approach allows us to refi ne the methodological principle of theoretical and empirical study of rationality, which establishes the unity of cognitive, social, ontological and epistemological aspects of rationality. 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Zinchenko, “Communicative rationality” as an a priori of social sciences (methodological review of projects)” in Theoretical journal «Credo new», 3 (2003), in Russian Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry O. Trufanov. Social Rationality: the Problem of Defi nitions Социальная рациональность: к проблеме дефиниции Д.О. Труфанов Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье обсуждается проблема дефиниции социальной рациональности. Автор применяет постнеклассический социологический подход к анализу социальной рациональности. Социологический подход необходим постольку, поскольку рациональность есть явление социальное и любая рационализирующая деятельность есть деятельность социального субъекта. Постнеклассический подход применен в связи с тем, что он утверждает диалектическое единство познающего субъекта и объекта познания и тем самым позволяет преодолеть конфликтность существующих версий рациональности, абсолютизирующих гносеологические или онтологические ее аспекты. Такая точка зрения позволила автору утверждать, что существенным признаком рациональности является рефлексивная оформленность (логизированность) объектов реальности – единство логизации как способа когнитивного отражения, доступного человеку и логизируемого как объекта когнитивного отражения. При этом логизацию автор определяет как применение логического инструментария, независимо от наличия в данном применении логических ошибок (этот признак отличает логизированное от логического). Основываясь на указанных теоретических основаниях, автор формулирует определения социальной рациональности в широком и узком смыслах. В широком смысле социальная рациональность есть совокупность рефлексивных содержаний социальной реальности; в узком – любой рефлексивный акт (его процесс и результат) индивидуального или группового субъекта социального действия, осуществляемый с помощью вербальных средств коммуникации. Ключевые слова: социальная рациональность, рефлексивность, постнеклассический подход. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2012 5) 1046-1055 ~~~ УДК 378.147:54:669 Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture Course of Chemistry Natalia M. Vostrikova* Siberian Federal University Chemistry Department 95 Krasnoyarskiy Rabochi Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660025 Russia 1 Received 14.12.2011, received in revised form 25.12.2011, accepted 15.07.2012 The work covers the issue of expedience of using mechanisms, methods and strategies of the technology of critical thinking development (TCTD) at chemistry lectures at university. The survey proved that using TCTD during a lecture course of chemistry disciplines alongside with other innovative technologies, in particular, with information and communication technologies leads to increasing the level of comprehension, understanding of information , as well as improvement of skills of independent processing of training material. Keywords: methods, mechanisms, strategies of the technology of critical thinking development via reading and writing, chemical disciplines, lecture form of studying. Introduction Training a professionally competent specialist capable of unassisted acquiring of required knowledge and applying it to solve various professional and everyday tasks brings about the need to create a favourable environment for students’ educational and cognitive activity, which requires updating all organizational types of studying at university. The analysis of information sources on teaching chemistry disciplines proved that improvement of lecturing type of studying shall be primarily aimed at elimination of passive perception of information, encouragement of feedback and increasing the students’ self* 1 sufficiency. Introduction of topical study elements, using hand-outs, application of information and communication technologies (ICT), conducting express control, and initiation of dialogue comprising elements of individual and group work – all this is aimed at eliminating the illustrating and explanatory nature of a lecture [Bezrukova, 2006; Gavronskaya, 2005]. Moreover, a lecturer is still the main source of information during a lecture, whereas a student is basically involved in a reproductive speculative activity. We believe that shifting a student into a subjective position during a lecture can be facilitated by methods and strategies of a technology of critical thinking development via Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1046 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… reading and writing, which is shortly named the Technology of Critical Thinking Development (TCTD). Materials and Methods The analysis of literature on pedagogics proved the viability of using this technology for studying the humanities, the process of which is characterized with processing a considerable amount of text information. Internet and modern literature on pedagogics provide us with information on some pilot projects on TCTD application during school lessons of literature, history, mathematics, and chemistry. Our interest was aroused by the practicability of using TCTD methods for studying chemistry at university, in particular, in the course of teaching chemistry to first year students majoring in metallurgy at Siberian Federal University. The main idea of the technology is generating skills of independent processing of information, its critical apprehension and development of reflexive abilities. The technological foundation of TCTD is formed by a basic model of three stages: challenge – apprehension – reflection that allows students to make their own decisions on goals they pursue in studying, perform an active search of information and reflect on what they have learned. Thus, the first stage – “challenge” – provides for updating one’s knowledge, making assumptions, defining the goals of studying and forming a cognitive interest. The second stage – apprehension – is aimed at unassisted monitoring of the process of training material understanding. The final third stage – reflection – includes synthesis of information, providing for consolidation of the material and comparing it with previously obtained knowledge (Zagashev, 2003). In the course of using methodological mechanisms and TCTD strategies, the material of the lecture is subdivided into semantic units, and conveyance of each of them follows the technological cycle “challenge – apprehension – reflection”. According to psychologists, such a structure of a lecture corresponds to stages of human perception: first one needs to ‘tune in”, recall what is already known on this topic, then ponder what this information can be useful for and how it can be applied. When giving lectures within the basic course of chemistry to students majoring in metallurgy we used such strategies as “Advanced lecture”, “Logbook”, “ What we Know – What we Want to know – What we Learned”, and such mechanisms as “Cluster”, “INSERT”, “Logbook”, “True-false statements”, “Conceptual table” etc (Zagashev, 2003). Cluster mechanism is a graphic method of organizing the training material. It allows outlining large or small semantic units, names of which are written in rectangles with circles radiating from them forming the so-called cluster branches that disclose the meaning of these semantic blocks. The resulting clusters with branches reflect interrelations between these blocks. We used this mechanism when studying the topics “Oxidation-reduction reactions”, “Chemical bond”, and “Electrolyte solutions”. The example of a cluster generated in the course of discussing the topic “Oxidation-reduction reactions” with students at the end of a lecture is shown in Figure 3. It can be seen that this cluster does not represent bonds between, for instance, properties of reagents (ionization energy, electron affinity) and element location within Mendeleev periodic table; ionization energy and reducing agent, electron affinity and oxidizing agent; halfreaction method and medium, measurement of oxidation and reduction potential and galvanic element. Students can saturate cluster branches with information both during the lecture and while # 1047 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… Fig.1. Cluster for studying the topic “Oxidation and reduction reactions” studying the material independently, as well as in the course of analysing electrochemical processes. We believe the applicative aspect of this topic to be important for metallurgy students. Thus, the future metallurgists shall be able to select an oxidizing and reducing agents for processing the particular type of raw material depending on their oxidation and reduction potential, as well as forecast the reaction products depending on the medium the reaction goes in. Basing on this, main trusses can be outlined within a cluster, the subordinate ones can be removed, and more attention can be paid to interrelation of selecting an oxidizing and reducing agents depending on their oxidation and reduction potential. This will defi nitely change the look of the cluster. Thus, creating a cluster enables a student to apprehend the applicability and structure of the topic being studied, see the connection between main chemical notions, discern main information from subordinate data, which, in general, facilitates the systematic comprehension of the training material. Mechanism “True-false statements” is one of the methods used to actualize basic knowledge that has been acquired long before this training session. This method suggests evaluating understanding of logic assertions, statements of planned training material. For instance, students have learned back in school that hydrogen evolves during inter-reacting of metals standing before hydrogen in metal activity series with solutions of diluted acids (hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid). By analogy they assume evolving of hydrogen from nitric acid solution as well, not taking into account the oxidizing properties of nitric acid depending on its concentration and metal activity. The example of making statements on metals dilution in nitric acid of various concentrations is given in Table 1 below. Application of this method at the challenge stage facilitates formation of the ability to express one’s point of view on the issue being discussed # 1048 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… Table 1. True/False statements on the topic “Chemical properties of metals” Statement Answer 1. Dilution of active metals in diluted nitric acid is accompanied by evolution of gaseous hydrogen. 2. Hydrogen is never evolved during inter-reacting of metals with nitric acid solutions. yes 3. Ammonia is primarily generated by diluting active metals in diluted nitric acid. ? 4. Low-active d- metals of period 4 and 5 of the Periodic Table do not dissolve in the solution of diluted nitric acid. 5. Low-active d- metals of periods 4 and 5 passivate in the solution of high-concentrated nitric acid with formation of metal oxide in the highest oxidation degree, nitrogen oxide (IV) and water. ? yes no Table 2. KWL on the topic “Oxidation and reduction reactions” Know Want to know Learned Oxidizing agent How can an oxidation-reduction reaction be 1. One shall define elements that change defined by the equation? their oxidation rate. 2. One should know formulae of typical oxidizing and reducing agents. Reducing agent How should reaction products be One should take into account the medium, registered? characteristic oxidation rates of chemical elements, acid-base nature of element compounds. Oxidation process What is the method of placing coefficients Electronic balance method, electronic-ionic within equations of reactions passing in a method (half-reaction method). solution? Reduction process How can the direction of an oxidationCalculation of the process electromotive reduction reaction be defined? force , one shall know the value of oxidation and reduction potential of halfreactions. Electronic balance Other methods. What are they for? Electronic-ionic method is applied for method reactions passing in solutions. by evaluating one’s own knowledge, whereas in case of studying new material this helps forming a skill of forecasting basing on one’s own chemistry background. Students appear to have great difficulties in reasoning statements made at the challenge stage, while using this mechanism at the reflection stage is accompanied by reasoned confirmation of statements. One of the main methods of material graphic arrangement is a table. According to the strategy “What we Know – What we Want to know – What we Learned (KWL)” invented by Donna Ogle in 1986, a lecture starts by filling in a KWL table. This strategy develops students’ skills of goal-setting. Individual filling in of the first table column “Know” is aimed at actualizing the knowledge a student already has, the second column “Want” – at activating mental processes for studying new material, whereas filling in of the third column “Learned” develops the skill of making conclusions, which allows integrating the knowledge obtained into one’s personal system # 1049 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… of knowledge while receiving subjectively new piece of information (Table 2). Group compilation of questions and notions of this table enables students together with a teacher to distinguish the following categories of training material that can form boxes of a new table and act as a plan of next lectures: Categories of information we plan to use A. Basic concepts B. Types of oxidation and reduction reactions C. Impact of different factors on oxidation and reduction reactions D. Methods of placing coefficients in equations of oxidation and reduction reactions E. Direction of oxidation and reduction reactions 3. References 1. N.G.Korzhukov General and nonorganic chemistry (in Russian). Textbook for universities (Text) / ed.by V.I.Delyan// Moscow: MISIS. INFRA-M, 2004. – 512p – in Russian 2. S.D.Kirik, G.A.Koroleva, N.M.Vostrikova et al. Non-organic chemistry: electronic teaching materials on the discipline// Registration certificate No.14934 dd 22.12.2008 Federal State Unitary Enterprise INFORMREGIST Research and Development Center. With account of this topic being studied within the school course of chemistry, as well as considering the significant reduction of university lecture hours, this strategy allows separating issues and topics that can be allocated to be studied by students in an extra-curricular mode. Another form of tabular ways of material graphic arrangement is characterized by distinguishing general and specific properties by comparing three and more notions and objects. A horizontal line of such a “concept table” is formed by things being compared, whereas a vertical row represents various properties and features this comparison is based on. Distinguishing a series of objects to be compared is possible in the course of studying element chemistry and types of chemical bond. For instance, a concept table compiled together with students during a lecture on electrochemical processes that go within a galvanic element in case of electrochemical corrosion of metals and electrolysis looks as follows (Table 3). A concept table can be filled both in the process of a lecture and at the reflection stage. In case there is not enough time during a lecture, some main criteria can be distinguished as key words, the chemical context of which a student can disclose by him/herself outside the curriculum. Detection of main criteria of objects under study facilitates development of main logic operations: discretion of the main essence, definition, comparison and classification, generalization and systemizing, definition of possible interrelations and interdependencies, which all leads to comprehension of the material and its systematic understanding. This table acts as an approximate basis for students to understand chemical reactions in the course of laboratory experiments and individual tasks, as well a specific basis for understanding the new material of even higher level of generalization, in particular during studying such specialized disciplines as “Theory of electrometallurgical processes”, “Rare metal metallurgy” etc. A specific feature of a strategy called “Logbook” is fulfilling short written tasks during 10-15 minutes of a lecture with students selecting various methods of graphic representation of the material (Zagashev,2003). Information is registered in its simplest form in a table that students fill in with answers to the following questions: What do I already know on this topic? What do I need to learn about this? Why? Another option is a table comprising two questions: What do I know? What have I learned? The method of filling in the latter type table given below was used during a lecture devoted to # 1050 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… Table 3. Concept table on the topic “Electrochemical processes” Anode sign Negative Electrochemical corrosion of metals Negative Cathode sign Positive Positive Negative Electrode type Metal Metal Metal (cathode) Comparison criterion Processes at a cathode: reduction Processes at an anode: oxidation Galvanic element Electrolysis Positive Hydrogen Inert: graphite Oxidation-reduction Active anode (metal) Metal cations: Mn+ + ne− = M0 Hydrogen ions: 2 H+ + 2e− = H2 Molecular oxygen: O2+2H2O + 4e− = 4OH− Metal (anode): M0 − ne− = M n+ Metal cations: Mn+ + ne− = M0 Hydrogen ions: 2 H+ + 2e− = H2 Water molecules: 2H2O+2e− = H2+ 2OH− Acid residue: 2Cl− − 2e− = Cl2 Water molecules: 2H2O − 4e− = O2+ 4H+ Active anode: M0 − ne− = M n+ forecasting products of oxidation and reduction reactions passing in various media (Table 4). As we can see from the table above, the information that is new for a student is represented in the form of short statements or conclusions in comparison with the knowledge the student already has on this topic. At the apprehension stage during processing of new training material a very active thinking activity is registered in case of using INSERT mechanism. As Table 5 shows, while reading a text or perceiving the information verbally, a student performs reflexive activity by comparing the incoming information with knowledge that he/she already has and pointing out the unclear aspects. Theoretical material is represented mainly in the form of a polylogue “lecturer – audience” with creation of problematic situations and is accompanied by lecture demonstration experiment, as well as periodic switching to solving practical professionally oriented tasks. Hydrogen ions: 2 H+ + 2e− = H2 Molecular oxygen: O2+2H2O + 4e− = 4OH− Metal (anode): M0 − ne− = M n+ The students are given an opportunity to solve problems independently, then do text tasks and then discuss and come up with a group solution. This method widely uses digital educational resources that allow combining verbal and visual method of information comprehension, as well as provide for a lecturer getting feedback from the audience. During a lecture students are provided with a chance to apprehend material that represents any difficulties. The critical moment is reflection at the end of a lecture that is aimed at detection and digestion of most important aspects of the lecture, development of skills on formation of statements, thesis representation of material, wording of conclusions or questions, which in general contributes to apprehension of chemical information. Main types of written reflection include: written work, written interview, essay, theses, analysis of a logbook, completing a cluster, formation of logical and semantic models and mental maps, discussion of challenging # 1051 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… Table 4. Mechanism “Logbook” used for studying the topic “Products of oxidation and reduction reactions in various media” What do I know? What have I learned? Medium influences the direction of an oxidationreduction reaction. Solution of potassium permanganate in an oxidation-reduction reaction gains on different colours in different media. Products of reaction in alkaline medium are salts, poorly soluble residues (oxides, hydroxides, salts), and water. Salts are generated in alkaline medium. Hydroxides and salts are formed in neutral medium. In order to balance an oxygen atom, Н+ or Н2О shall be added to an equation. Products of oxidation-reduction reactions depend on medium. Medium: acid neutral alkaline Colour of solution colourless grey-brown green Product of reaction salt: MnSO4 oxide: MnO2 salt: K 2MnO4 Oxidation (+2) (+4) (+6) Salts containing metal cations are mostly generated in acid medium: Mn 2+, Cr3+, V2+, Fe3+. Formation of acids is also possible: HMnO4 Complex salts are formed in a concentrated solution of alkaline. During sintering salts are formed in alkaline media; metal goes to an acid residue in the highest degree of oxidation. Oxides and hydroxides are formed in neutral medium. According to ionic-electron method, strong electrolytes are written in their ionic form, whereas weak ones – in molecular form. Balancing of oxygen atoms in the left and right parts of a half-equation depends on the medium: acid: Н2О →Н+ neutral: Н2О →Н+ or Н2О → 2ОН− alkaline: Н2О → 2ОН− Table 5. INSERT mechanism «V» -Already known « -» – Thought differently «+» – new information « ?» – did not understand 9 – information that is already known; + – information that is new; - – information that differs from the knowledge the student already has, something he/she has a different idea of; ? – information that remained unclear to the student and requires additional explanation encouraging the student to look for details. questions, making questions and cinquains, doing test tasks. Discussion Questioning of students was used as a method to evaluate efficiency of a computer-based lecture with application of TCTD. Fig. 2 shows diagrams plotted on the basis of results of the survey on evaluation on the lecture “Definition of products of oxidation and reduction reactions in different media”. A control group included 20 students that studied chemistry in 2007-2008 academic year (lectures were given with use of computer programs) and an experiment group # 1052 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… a b c d Fig.2. Results of questioning of students on evaluation of accessibility (a), level of difficulty (b), level of novelty (c) and level of interest (d) for the material given at the lecture “Definition of products of oxidation and reduction reactions in various media”: in the control group (2007-2008) the lecture was given with the help of computer programs; in the experimental group (2010-2011) – with use of computer programs and TCTD of 20 students that studied chemistry in 20102011 academic year (lectures were with use of computer programs and TCTD). It should be noted that this material always caused difficulties in understanding and comprehension. Questioning of students according to the approved method (4, p. 377) showed that students of the control group (in total 90% for two items) and experimental group (in total 65% for two items) noted high level of difficulty of the material (2-quite difficult, 3- medium level of difficulty), a 25 % increase was registered in the number of experimental group students that marked item 4 (practically no unclear moments). Accessibility of the material in the experimental group is higher (30%) if compared with the control group (5%) as the students noted that there were practically no unclear moments (item 4); the number of students, for whom practically everything was clear except for some specific aspects (item 3) increased by 15%. The number of experimental group students, for whom less than a half of the material was clear (item 2) decreased by ≈10% (almost 1.5 times); the percentage of students who practically did not understand the material (item 1) remained the same. High level of novelty was noted by students of both the groups. Thus, the sum of answers of item 3 (I have learned a lot of new things) and 4 (practically all material has been new to me) accounts for 65% of total answers given by # 1053 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… Fig.3 Results of questioning students on evaluation of organizing unassisted work during the lecture “Definition of products of oxidation and reduction reactions in various media” in the experimental group (2010-2011 academic year), the lecture was given with use of computer programs and TCTD students of the control group and 80% – of the experimental group. ~10 % increase in the number of students that marked item 4 (practically all material has been new to me) can be explained by low level of school chemistry course. According to respondents’ evaluation, the level of interest in the experimental group is 15% higher than in the control group. Thus, the sum of answers of item 2 (something has caused interest) and 3 (a lot of interesting aspects) accounts for 90% of answers in the experimental group and for 75% of answers in the control group. However, the number of respondents that gave answers of item 4 (very interesting) in the experimental group decreased by 10% in comparison with 20% of answers in the control group; the number of answers of item 1 (non interesting) decreased by ~ 5% . The results of the survey on questioning students in 2010-2011 academic year with the purpose of evaluating the organization of unassisted work during lectures showed that 40% of students liked to work in pairs (item 1), while 40% of respondents liked to work independently (sum of items 2 and 4): formulate their own conclusions and statements, and check their correctness (Fig 3). 15% of them though mentioned that they like independent work during a lecture but such a mode of working is quite difficult for them; 20% (item 3) that prefer just listening to a lecturer’s detailed explanation and making notes are likely to have problems with independent work during a lecture as well. The given results lead to a conclusion that application of TCTD at a lecture with use of computer programs provided quite high theoretical level considerably increasing accessibility and level of interest for the material being delivered. It is in particular proved by the fact that over 50% of students did individual works on this topic and got higher attestation results. The development of students’ personal qualities was evaluated indirectly by some outward indicators: time and quality of fulfilling individual tasks, eagerness to reason one’s answer and to find methods to eliminate unclear aspects of topics being studied, as well as the desire to make talks, implement and represent mini-projects. Conclusion We believe it necessary to use TCTD mechanisms and methods during the lecture course of chemistry disciplines at university depending on a didactic goal set alongside with # 1054 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M.Vostrikova. Potential of Technology of Critical Thinking Development for Upgrading University Lecture… other innovative technologies, in particular, with information and communication technologies that allow increasing the visual expression of training material within the context of chemical information. Since TCTD mechanisms and methods are aimed at developing a student’s thinking abilities, increase of comprehension level, understanding of information is also registered, as well as improvement of skills of independent processing of training material. References N.P.Bezrukova, “Information and Communication Technologies in a Lecture Course of the Discipline “Analytical Chemistry”, Chemical Technology, 5 (2006), pp. 43–46, in Russian. Yu.Yu.Gavronskaya “Interactive Methods in Studying Chemistry”, News of Tula State University. Series: Modern Educational Technologies in Teaching Disciplines (Tula, Tula State University), (4) 2005, pp. 29–35, in Russian. I.O.Zagashev, Crytical Thinking: Development Technology (S.Petersburg, Alliance Delta), 2003, 284 p., in Russian. N.P.Bezrukova, Theory and Practice of Upgrading Studying Analytical Chemistry in a Pedagogical University. Thesis of a Doctor of Pedagogics: 13.00.02. Krasnoyarsk, 2006. –378p., in Russian. Возможности технологии развития критического мышления в модернизации лекционного курса химии в вузе Н.М. Вострикова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье изучается целесообразность применения приемов, методов, стратегий технологии развития критического мышления (ТРКМ) на лекции при изучении химии в вузе. Исследование показало, что применение ТРКМ в лекционном курсе химических дисциплин, совместно с другими инновационными технологиями, в частности с ИКТ способствует повышению уровня восприятия, понимания информации, совершенствованию умений самостоятельно работать с учебным материалом. Ключевые слова: технология развития критического мышления, дисциплины химии, лекция.