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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2013 Journal of Siberian Federal University 6 (12) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет: академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов академик РАН И.И. Гительзон академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л. Миронов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л. Пашков чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Шайдуров чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences Natalia P. Koptseva CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Jānis Šķesteris Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises – 1739 – Alexei V. Nesteruk The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies – 1747 – Yuriy V. Sobolev Environmentalism Aesthetic Aspects: Ecology and Modern Art – 1777 – Serge V. Leliukhin How Russian Rural Teachers Work: Market Trends in the Common Education – 1782 – Alexander À. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province in Tercentenary of Romanovs’ House – 1787 – Oksana A. Gavrilyuk Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education – 1800 – Irina G. Prudius The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama œSkylarkB – 1816 – Yuri Yu. Komlev Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society Stratification in Terms of œInclusive/ExclusiveB and the Growth of Recidivism Among Youth – 1824 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 23.12.2013 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 14,3. Уч.-изд. л. 13,8. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 4115. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershons Breslavs – International Institute of Applied Psychology, Latvia Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor, Novgorod State University Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk State Linguistic University Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal University Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian Federal University Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian Federal University Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor, Siberian Federal University Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Nicolai Petro – Political Science Professor, Rhode Island University, USA Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal University Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian Federal University Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy RAS, Moscow Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member RAS, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian Federal University Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor, Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu Vladimir E. Shinkevich Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations on Countermeasures Against Drugs Use: Basing on the Results of Social Research in the Region – 1831 – Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East – 1838 – Daniil V. Pivovarov Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism – 1847 – Evgenia V. Ivanova The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology – 1857 – Sergey. A. Azarenko Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects – 1867 – Olga V. Arlashkina Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling – 1879 – Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (Territorial and Sectoral Aspect) – 1887 – Elena V. Chistova Internet-Heuristics in Terminology Translation Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Branding – 1896 – Olga M. Khomushku Contemporary Problems Syncretism in Tuva of – 1905 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. of Ethnoconfessional Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1739-1746 ~~~ УДК 1(091) Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises Jānis Šķesteris* University of Latvia 28/30 Mārstaļu Str., Riga, LV-1050 Received 28.08.2013, received in revised form 26.09.2013, accepted 28.11.2013 By focusing on the key concepts of the French philosopher Pierre Hadot – conversion and spiritual exercises – this article provides introduction of the views of this philosopher. Hadot’s main research interest was ancient philosophy, and thus he has developed an innovative method for understanding the philosophy of this period. Hadot points out that from his point of view ancient philosophy was primarily a way of life and therefore must be understood as “spiritual exercises”. This concept is understood as an effort in changing and transforming the self, which is called conversion in the philosophy of Hadot. Keywords: Pierre Hadot, spiritual exercises, conversion, ancient philosophy. Introduction From the very beginnings of Western philosophy1 thinkers have given countless defi nitions of philosophy from the position of their doctrines. Despite the fact that there have always existed many different interpretations of this discipline, an established stereotype of the philosopher as a theoretician has persisted even until today. It is a stereotype that depicts a professional, who is discussing abstract and theoretical questions within the grasp of the conceptual material known only by himself and others of his kind, alienating this reasoning from the on goings of the everyday life. By exploring the views of the French philosopher Pierre Hadot (1922 – 2010), this article will try to describe an alternative understanding of philosophy. * Pierre Hadot was a philosopher and historian whose general research focus was ancient philosophy. By describing his scientific efforts, the Latvian philosopher Igors Suvajevs points out that the works of Hadot can be divided in two distinct parts. (Љuvajevs, 2008, 116) The first part is translations, reconstructed texts and commentary. Hadot has published works of Plotinus, Marius Victorinus, Ambrosius, Marcus Aurelius and Epictetus. The other part consists of his own researches and reflections: “Marius Victorinus” (1960), “Porphyry and Victorinus” (1968), “Plotinus or the Simplicity of Vision” (1963), “Spiritual exercises and ancient philosophy” (1981), “The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius” (1992), “What is ancient philosophy” (1995), “Studies in Ancient Philosophy” (1998), “Philosophy as a Way of © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1739 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises Life” (2002), “Wittgenstein And The Limits Of Language” (2004) etc. Summarizing his conceptual frameworks, Hadot indicates that from his point of view philosophy must be defined as “spiritual exercises”. (Адо, 2005, 342) In order to successfully understand and interpret views of ancient philosophers, this is the aspect, to be taken into account. To the contemporary reader, the philosophical works of this period may seem clumsy, unsystematic, and even contradictious. Hadot draws attention to the fact that the ancient philosophical schools never considered theory as an end in itself; it is clearly and decidedly put in the service of practice. In other words, ancient philosophy was intended to transform, and not to inform, (Адо, 2005, 344) and these transformations were enacted by spiritual exercises. Further on we will try to understand the conception of “spiritual exercises” by analyzing the works of Hadot. Different philosophies When he described contemporary philosophy, Hadot often pointed out that although we do have teachers of philosophy today, we have no philosophers. (Адо, 2005, 310). Hadot came to the idea of a conflict between philosophy and the teaching of philosophy in his youth (Hadot, 2008, 278) and throughout his life he kept the belief of philosophy as a metamorphosis between system of beliefs and existence in it. (Адо, 2005, 17) Guided by this belief he was skeptical towards the modern philosophy, because philosophy represents itself in the form of a technical jargon addressed to specialists. Professionals are training other professionals to be competent in theories, to understand the terminology and to comply with conventional standards of a given field, considering their established and selfpreserved professionalism to be completely selfsatisfactory. In his works dedicated to ancient philosophy Hadot indicates that the discourse of ancient philosophy must be understood from a completely different position, where philosophy is primarily a way of life, however it is a way of life, which is closely linked to philosophical discourse. (Hadot, 2002, 4) For instance, in “Phaedo” Plato describes philosophy as an exercise of death. (Platons, 1997, 106) Plato understands death as the separation of the body and soul. In a philosophical sense the philosopher is trying to separate these two parts, thus liberating the soul, by shedding it from the passions linked to the corporal senses, in order to obtain the autonomy of the thought. Thus, for example, epicureans taught how to reach the pure joy of existence, but stoics – how to get rid of the disposition for things who do not depend on us, by becoming sharply aware of the tragic situation to which the human being is conditioned by fate. With the domination of Christianity, and the separation of theology and philosophy, when philosophy became the servant of theology, obliged to provide the theoretical and conceptual material of theology, philosophy lost its original connection with life. Philosophy became a fully abstract discipline, but all the ancient spiritual exercises were integrated in the spiritual practices of Christianity. This problem was deepened by scholastic tradition of the middle ages and the formation of universities, when the education ceased to focus its attention to the development of human being, and reoriented itself to the formation of professionals. Such a tendency has been maintained until today. And despite the fact that outside the university in the time period from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in the persons of Descartes, Spinoza, Malebranche and Leibniz, developed a genuinely creative philosophical activity and declared its autonomy from theology, it still remained to be a theoretical discourse. In # 1740 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises this period one theoretical discourse criticized another theoretical discourse. As Hadot points out, starting with the eighteenth century with rare exceptions (for example, Nietzsche or Schopenhauer) philosophy returns back to the university with such brilliant personalities as Wolff, Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel. (Hadot, 2008, 271) By continuing this tradition, philosophy has kept its close relationship with the university until nowadays. Starting with the already mentioned Nietzsche, as well as Bergson and existentialism in general, philosophy starts to regain its primeval characteristic – to be a way of life (Hadot, 2008, 108), however, despite the efforts of some individual persons2, philosophy has continued to position itself as a professional and not a existential discipline. Conversion With his philosophical efforts as well as with personal example3 Pierre Hadot stood for philosophy in its primeval constellation. Hadot writes: ”Undoubtly a philosopher must be neither a professor nor a writer, but a person that has made a certain life-choice and accepted a certain way of life, for example, stoicism or epicurism.” ( Hadot, 1992, 92) In other words, philosophy is connected with some defi nite existential choice. As Hadot explains, being a philosopher in the ancient world automatically implicated a contradiction with the normal everyday life, the philosopher was behaving and seeing things differently than everyone around him (Hadot, 2008, 56) An interesting indicator of this situation are the ways in which philosophers were described by authors of comedies and satyrs. They described philosophers as weird and even dangerous persons. For instance, Platonists were considered to be supercilious, stoics – too harsh and rigorous people, and there were rumors that epicureans didn’t eat anything, (Адо, 2004, 156) but Socrates was called atopos, which means “unclassifiable” in the ancient Greek – i.e. something that can’t be classified. According to the etymological meaning of the term philo-sophia (love + wisdom), Socrates was a lover of wisdom. By using the character of Diotima, in his work “Symposium”, Plato describes wisdom as a perfection of knowledge which is available only to gods. (Platos, 1980, 90) Namely, in its perfection wisdom is something alien to the world of mortals. Socrates in his love for the things that are foreign to people becomes likewise foreign for mortals. These few examples portray the gap in the lifestyle and opinions of the common people and the philosophers of the ancient world. This gap implicates that there has been a moment in which the philosopher has experienced some kind of a transformation, which has made him different from others. To name the process of fundamental changes in the personality of a human being, Hadot uses the concept of conversion. Conversion (Latin conversio) stands for turning back, inversion, change of direction. Thus, this term is used to describe various kinds of changes, transformations and rearrangements. For Hadot this term refers to a transformation of the mental order – from a simple alteration of opinion to a complete change of personality. (Адо, 2005, 199) In the ancient Greece, the experience of conversion was mostly connected with the field of politics or law, in which opponents tried to win over each other for some position or truth by using various methods of rhetoric and persuasion. Less popular, but more radical was philosophical conversion. An initially philosophical conversion was connected with politics and expressed itself in the form of the belief – if we want to change a city, we need to change its people. Primarily such a belief was represented in a philosophical context by Plato in his work “The Republic”. Philosopher is the one who can change the city, because he # 1741 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises is “turned” himself. (Platons, 1982, 125) Later this belief was adopted by schools of stoics, epicureans and neoplatonics, who used the notion of conversion not in context of city, but in a more individual sense. In a philosophical sense conversion meant the breakthrough or gap between common, acquainted, naturalistic fallacy of common sense and the truth what may be introduced by philosophy. (Адо, 2005, 210 – 211) Conversion meant the return to a true existence, to an essential, inner freedom, to a new and better perception of things. By developing and accepting some defi nite system of beliefs philosophical schools automatically considered living in relation with this doctrine. Accepting philosophical teaching meant both a way of life, and a conversion. On the one hand, philosophers lived their everyday life in accordance with a philosophical doctrine (Hadot even comes up with some odd and radical examples where, for instance, the stoics discussed such questions as – can a stoic philosopher sit cross-legged or which share of food may a stoic eat if he is having a meal with his father (Адо, 2004, 158)). On the other hand, philosophers worked hard on developing their personalities, in order to, for instance, in the case of the epicureans, achieve control of the passions and acquire a simple joy of existence, or in context of the stoics, to achieve steadiness in face of the strokes of fate. The effort in work of conversion of self was made with assistance of spiritual exercises. Spiritual exercises Understanding of the notion Hadot defines spiritual exercises as an effort in changing and transformation of the self. (Адо, 2005, 343) In this constellation the notion of spiritual exercises is defined in its widest sense, including all the activities that the conversion contains – physical, intellectual, religious etc. Admittedly, Hadot talks about psycho-physiological, sociological, religious and philosophical aspects of the conversion, but his main attention is paid to the spiritual exercises in a philosophical context, and for that reason, in case of the philosophy of Hadot we are talking about philosophical spiritual exercises. By analyzing the term “spiritual exercises” the French philosopher admits that the word “spiritual” sounds outdated (Hadot, 2008, 81) to the contemporary reader. However, this word most precisely expresses idea of “spiritual exercises”. Such alternatives as “psychic”, “moral”, “ethical”, “intellectual”, “of thought”, “of the soul” do not cover all the aspects of the reality that must be described. Despite the fact that spiritual exercises are connected with intellectual and thinking activities, as well as contain certain ethical and moral aspects, these exercises change the system of beliefs of a person, as well as realize a metamorphosis of the personality. These processes do not include an involvement of separate potencies of a human being, but alternatively encompass the whole totality of his psychic world. In this context the term „spiritual” is used, because it reveals all the true dimensions of these exercises. Focusing to the term “exercises” it must be said that it refers to the ancient Greek word “askesis”, but not in modern sense of this word as a restriction of food, clothing, property and sexual life. The ancient understanding of the word “askesis” is related to the inner activities of thought and will. Consequently by summing up meanings of both these components – “spiritual” and “exercises” – we come back to a slightly transformed definition of spiritual exercises which was given earlier. Namely, in this context spiritual exercises are intentional activities of human being that in the process of transformation of the self are directed to the whole totality of a human’s spirit. # 1742 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises Practices of ancient philosophical schools As mentioned above, ancient philosophy does not represent itself as a cluster of abstract theories or exegesis of texts, it occurs as way of life. Being a philosopher meant to be different from the society, by transforming your personality through spiritual exercises and coordinating everyday life by some form of a definite philosophical doctrine. A systematic treatise that codifies the instructions and techniques of the spiritual exercises does not exist. It can be explained both with the loss of numerous texts and with fact that these exercises were closely connected with the oral part of philosophical practice. Due to the information given by Philo of Alexandria, Hadot is able to create an overall summary of the stoic philosophical therapeutics in the framework of this school. Spiritual exercises of the stoic philosophy contained exercises of attention, meditations and “remembrances of good things”, as well as intellectual exercises: reading, listening, research, and investigation, and finally some more active exercises: self-mastery, accomplishment of duties, and indifference to indifferent things. (Hadot, 2008, 84) Attention is a fundamental Stoic spiritual attitude. It is a continuous vigilance and presence of mind, a self-consciousness that never sleeps, and a constant tension of the spirit. (Hadot, 2008, 84) Meditations and exercises of remembrance help to prepare for the unexpected, perhaps dramatic, incidents. By practicing these exercises, the philosopher becomes acquainted with poverty, suffering and death; he directly faces all of these misfortunes. Such exercises imply the control of the inner discourse of a human being, aspiring for an understanding of the distinction between good and evil within the framework of a philosophical doctrine, as well as the understanding of things that are outside the human’s sphere of influence. Intellectual exercises were directed to the simple development of the intellectual capacity. Intellectual exercises such as reading, listening, research, and investigation were directed to the ability to get acquainted with the texts of philosophers and poets, and the understanding of ideas written in texts and spoken by teachers in lectures. Finally, we come to practical exercises, intended to create habits. By performing various social activities and duties, philosophers tried to acquire self-mastery, and get rid of the passions, hate, etc. In context of practical spiritual exercises Plutarch has written a large number of treatises, for example, “On Restraining Anger”, “On Peace of Mind”, “On the Love of Children”, “On Garrulity”, “On Envy and Hatred” etc. (Hadot, 2008, 86) In ancient philosophy six main philosophical schools were represented – platonism, aristotelianism, cynicism, skepticism, epicureanism and stoicism. Each of these schools had an essential philosophical discourse, dogmas or principles that simultaneously were a framework for the practical life. Cynicism was a philosophical school that didn’t pay much attention to the development of a particular philosophical doctrine. In their practice they returned to the uncivilized nature, denying both the lifestyle of the common people, as well as the way of life that was practiced by other philosophical schools. As Hadot points out, Cynicism was generally considered a philosophy; but it was a philosophy in which the philosophical discourse was reduced to a minimum. (Hadot, 2002, 109). It was on the borderline of being a way of life without any philosophy, which means that all the philosophy of cynicism can be considered to be an exercise. All normal conveniences accessible to people, all products of civilization and conventions only soften the body and the mind. This is the reason # 1743 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises why the exercises of cynicism were an almost athletic, philosophically motivated training to endure hunger, thirst and foul weather, so that the individual could acquire freedom, independence, inner strength, relief from worries, and a peace of mind, so as to be able to adapt oneself to all possible circumstances. (Hadot, 2002, 110) By focusing to skepticism and describing its way of life, Hadot uses the term conformism. The only principle of behavior for skeptics was conformity to the laws and ways of the city. (Адо, 2004, 158) They refused to deliberately affect the surrounding world in any way, thus acquiring inner peace. Aristotelians represented the “theoretical” way of life. (Hadot, 2002, 80) Yet in the context of Aristotle we do not speak about “theoretical” as an opposite to practical. He uses word theoretikos, on one hand, to describe knowledge that is acquired only for itself, but on the other hand, it is related to a way of life which devotes life to such knowledge. Way of life of Aristotelians also can be called as a “life of mind”. Such a life is lived according to the mind, in order to find the philosophical happiness. In this sense the theory relates to the philosophy that is practiced and lived. In context of the platonist way of life, Plato’s views of life and education in the Academy, which consider the acquirement of philosophy to be a lifelong process, must be recalled. (Hadot, 2002, 67) On the other hand, it is important to mention the spiritual exercises described by Plato in his works. For example in his “Seventh Letter” he talks about a choice of a way of life that consists of effort that must be implemented every day. (Platons, 1999, 218) In “Timaeus” Plato affirms that we must exercise the superior part of the soul – which is none other than the intellect – in such a way that it achieves harmony with the universe and is assimilated to the deity. (Hadot, 2002, 66) However, as Hadot points out, most famous spiritual practice of Plato is exercise of death. (Hadot, 2002, 67) As it was mentioned earlier, death – it is separation between soul and the body. Philosopher with his effort tries to separate these two parts thus purifying and liberating him of scattering and confusion what is caused by body. Lastly philosophy of Epicureanism can be considered as therapeutics what tried to bring back soul form worries of life to experience pleasure (simple joy of existing). (Hadot, 2008, 87) This was done, fi rstly, with meditations that helped to assimilate the dogmas of philosophy established by Epicurus, and secondly by practicing a discipline of desires by resigning from all that does not apply to the fundamental needs of basic necessity. They practiced exercises directed to relaxation, serenity and the art of that how to feel separate pleasures of body and pleasures of soul. Unfortunately because of the laconism that is required here, we are forced to stay in the confines of short and succinct descriptions of the ideas represented by the ancient philosophical school. In order to answer the question about the motivation to join one or another separate philosophical school Hadot points out that by creating his own philosophy the founder of each school wanted to come up with some prescribed model of how to see the world and how to live in it, mostly woken as a reaction to other, unacceptable choices of life. (Адо 2004, 163) Though the choice of a philosophical school has never been a purely theoretical decision about some firm way of life, and personal motivation played its role by choosing one or other option of life. In other words, there has always been some mutual causal relationship between the theoretical contemplation and choice of life. Likewise theoretical reflection in philosophy has always forged ahead only because of some fundamental inner orientation of life. # 1744 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises Conclusion Most of the researches and reflections made by Hadot were dedicated to the examination of the views and lifestyles of the ancient philosophers, and highlighted the close connection between philosophy and life in this period. But the question still remains – how was the philosophy of that time influenced by the existing cultural factors? Georgian philosopher Zaza Shatirishvili in his essay dedicated to the ancient philosophy and spiritual exercises draws attention to etymological meaning of ancient Greek word „skhole” and Latin „schola” (school) which means “free time”. (Шатиришвили, 2010, 100) Education meant free time from work, possibility to sit back and collect one’s thoughts. This leads us to the question – is the previously described model of ancient philosophy still actual today? 1 2 3 In the description of this problem Hadot points out that in today’s situation, an eclectic model of thought is characteristic to modern people. (Адо, 2004, 161). Namely, the contemporary human being might not accept, for instance, the teaching of stoicism or epicureanism in its whole, but he would accept some separate aspects from different schools. Nonetheless, in the context of spiritual exercises in general, Hadot points out that they do not relate to separate social structures or material conditions. They can be practiced in every age and are still in use. (Hadot, 2008, 282) In relation to this problem Hadot sums up: “Consequently, for me the model of the ancient philosophy is currently still important, which means that the search for wisdom is currently still important and possible.” (Адо, 2005, 352) Hadot points out that we do not know if Socrates used the word philosophia in his discussions with his interlocutors, but it is known that influenced by the personality and teachings of Socrates, Plato is the fi rst one who gave permanent meaning to the word “philosopher”, and therefore also to the word “philosophy” in the Symposium (Hadot, 2002, 39). It is considered that French philosopher Michel Foucault renewed the interest in philosophy as an art of living in Western philosophy. Today his philosophy has drawn the attention of many bright authors from Germany, France, England, Latvia etc. (Kaiza, 2001, 36). With her studies on philosophy of Pierre Hadot Latvian philosopher Anna Kande has accented a close connection between the life of the French philosopher and his philosophy (Kande, 2011, 41). References 1. Hadot P. La philosophie est-elle un luxe?, Le Monde de l’education No. 191. Mars, 1992. P. 90-93. 2. Hadot P. Philosophy as a Way of Life. Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault. Oxford, Cambridge: Blackwell Publishing, 2008. 3. Hadot P. What is Ancient Philosophy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press, 2002. 4. Kaiza F. Aktuālās vāciski publicētās dzīves mākslas filosofijas koncepcijas, Kentaurs XXI. 2001. Nr. 26. 5. Kande A. Konversijas nozīme un iespējamība Pjēra Ado filosofiskajos meklējumos. Rīga, 2011. 6. Platons. Valsts. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1982. 7. Platons. Sokrata prāva. Rīga: Zinātne, 1997. 8. Platons. Dialogi un vēstules. Rīga: Zinātne, 1999. 9. Platons. Menons, Dzīres. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1980. 10. Šuvajevs I. Pjērs Ado jeb Dzīvotā filosofija // Kentaurs XXI. 2008. Nr.47. 116. – 118. lpp. 11. Адо П. Духовные упражнения и античная философия. СПб: Степной ветер, 2005. 12. Адо П. Философия как способ жить. СПб: Степной ветер, 2004. # 1745 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jānis Šķesteris. Introduction to Philosophy of Pierre Hadot Or On to Spiritual Exercises 13. Шатиришвили З. Мераб Мамардашвили и традиции созерцательной жизни // Мараб Мамардашвили: “Быть философом – это судьба...” М.: Прогресс-Традиция, 2010. С. 98–106. Введение в философию Пьера Адо, или О духовных упражнениях Янис Шкестерис Латвийский университет Рига, LV-1050, ул. Марсталю, 28/30 В данной статье рассматриваются взгляды французского философа Пьера Адо. Особое внимание уделено ключевым концепциям его философии – конверсии и духовным упражнениям. Научные интересы Адо были сосредоточены на античной философии, ввиду чего он разработал инновационный метод для понимания философии этого периода. Адо отмечает, что, с его точки зрения, античная философия была прежде всего стилем жизни и поэтому должна пониматься как “духовные упражнения”. Данная концепция понимается как попытка изменить и трансформировать свое “я”, что в философии Адо называется конверсией. Ключевые слова: Пьер Адо, духовные упражнения, конверсия, античная философия. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1747-1776 ~~~ УДК 2-172.2 The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies Alexei V. Nesteruk* University of Portsmouth, Lion Gate Building, PORTSMOUTH, PO1 3HF, UK Received 29.09.2013, received in revised form 30.10.2013, accepted 02.11.2013 The paper gives a philosophical analysis of a famous attempt to model “creation” of the universe in modern cosmology. The Hawking model of quantum cosmology is analyzed with the reference to neo-Platonic and patristic sources, leading to the reformulation of the famous Kantian antinomial predicament on the temporal origin of the universe, in such a way that it transforms into the antinomy of the absolutely necessary being. The conclusion is made that cosmology cannot model creation of the world out of nothing, but can represent a model of differentiation between the intelligible and sensible realms in creation which accounts for the structural element of creatio ex nihilo. In this sense cosmological models are useful to refine and explicate further the epistemological limits arising in modeling of creation of the world. Keywords: antinomies, cosmology, creation, difference, eternity, space, theology, time, universe. Introduction Modern cosmology attempts to predicate the universe in rubrics of the given laws of physics. In spite of the fact that cosmology does not account for the contingent facticity of these laws, it attempts to speculate about “creation” of the universe as if the contingent facticity of the material content of the universe as well as physical laws could be explained. In this paper we discuss one of such cosmological models proposed by Stephen Hawking subjecting it to a philosophical and theological critique. This critique arises from a perennial “negative certitude” of philosophy that the contingent facticity of the world cannot be explained and that any speculation in this * respect leads to a theological stance that the ultimate foundation of the world originates in its otherness. The paper starts with a brief account of the Christian concept of creation of the world out of nothing and then a general predicament of any scientific attempt to “model” such a creation, referring to the first Kant’s antinomy. Then the Hawking model is analyzed philosophically with the reference to neo-Platonic and patristic sources, leading to the reformulation of the antinomial predicament not in terms of the temporal origin of the universe, but in terms of the absolutely necessary being. Thus it is established that modern cosmology provides an interesting example of the metamorphosis of the © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1747 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies Kantian antinomies, reflecting the encapsulation of the unity of the human cognitive faculties in the cosmological discourse. Creation of the World in Theology The Christian teaching on creation out of nothing, its doctrine of creatio ex nihilo, did not enter the cultural and spiritual environment of the ancient world in an empty background. The world-view asserted by Classical Hellenistic philosophy that the world exists necessarily, that is, there is no need for justification of the very fact of the existence of the world, had a deep impact. Greek thought could not cross this line of inquiry about the nature of things that was the foundation of all foundations in its philosophical meditation about the cosmos. The world, according to the Greeks, was permanent, unchangeable and, despite all internal movements, such as the origin and decay of things, the world as a whole was in a state of “eternal return”; its cosmology was cyclic. The endurance of the cosmos of the Greeks was ontologically necessary; the premise of its existence was an absolute fact, the last resort of all possible philosophizing. The message of the Bible and the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo, which was developed by the Fathers of Christian church who challenged Greek philosophy and cosmology by affirming that the cosmos cannot be regarded as a self-explanatory being (May, 1994). Rather, it is dependent on the existence of God and hence cannot be described as eternal, for its dependence on God means that the world is different from God and that its mode of existence, being different from the divine, is finite in all possible senses of the word (for example, temporal): if God is infinite, then the world is finite. The world is created by God and in its matter is radically different from God. The Christian message affirmed two fundamentals with respect to the relationship between God and the world: the world’s radical contingency upon God, which implied that the laws established in the world are contingent and do not possess a status of an absolute necessity. This implied that the act of creation of the world by God out of nothing is a “free” act of God’s willing kindness to the world and, because of God’s freedom, the creation is not inherent in God’s own being. This produces a twofold contingency: contingency on the side of the orders in the universe, which could not have existed at all, and contingency on the side of the God-Creator, who could not have created anything at all. As a accompanying result, the dualism of Classical Greek philosophy, in which there was a separation between the intelligible and the sensible worlds, was overcome: the whole universe, intelligible and sensible, heavenly and celestial, was regarded as creation, as penetrated through with a unitary rational order of a contingent kind, which can be studied only in accordance with its own nature and yet is able through the order and harmony in the cosmos to point to the creator.1 To summarize, Christian teaching on creation represents an immense shift from Greek philosophical monism toward an ontology of the created being, which has its own foundation in its otherness, that is, in God, whose mode of existence is ontologically distinct from that mode of existence of the created world. From a theological point of view, the concept of creation has sense as the concept of the relationship between God and the world, rather than about the world alone. This implies that if science (cosmology, for example) attempts to predicate about the creation of the universe, it can do so only from within the immanent aspects of the world, which are accessible to scientific investigation. This means that it is doubtful from the very beginning that science can provide a model of creation of the world out of nothing that could compete with or simply be leveled to that of the theological teaching about creation. # 1748 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies It would be a challenge for science to try to uncover the signs of the transcendent present in the world. This would mean that “creation in cosmology”, understood discursively, could in principle refer to that aspect of the theological creatio ex nihilo that is associated with the hidden rationality of a contingent origin, the rationality that is inherent in God. This leads to the conclusion that the understanding of creation, if attempted from within science as a challenge to a theological view, should address not only the origination of the material universe, its evolution, and its sustenance but also the question of its rationality and purposive ability inherent in humans to communicate with the universe and to contemplate this rationality. Cosmology can become an instrument which helps to reveal the features of necessity in the contingent facticity of the created universe, but in no way it can replace the doctrine of creatio ex nihilo for its objective is to explicate the world structure from the point of view of physics, that is as a-priori given set of efficient causality. The question about the very reasons for existence of elementary matter forms, as well as laws which govern it, cannot be addressed by cosmology because the laws which express the specific and concrete being of matter cannot enlighten the underlying causes of its very being. The laws of nature provide us with some tools of explicating the necessary feature of these laws, but they cannot address the issue of the facticity of these laws. The world is given and described in terms of some laws, but these laws cannot describe why this world is such as we have it, but not the other. The coming into existence of the universe and of its laws remains a subject of the theological teaching on creatio ex nihilo. Let us now illustrate this general intuition by considering one cosmological theory attempting to interpret “creation of the universe out of nothing”. Origin of the Universe: the Dichotomy between Cosmological Evolution and Initial Conditions as Explication of Kant’s First Cosmological Antinomy We should start by recalling that cosmology, being a part of classical physics, takes for granted that the description of physical processes in the universe is made in terms of space and time. Cosmology uses Einstein’s General Relativity in order to model the spatio-temporal continuum of the universe (space and time are relational upon matter content, so that spatio-temporal dynamics in the universe is linked to matter). This implies that if cosmology were to attempt to explain the origin of space and time it would imply also an explanation of the origin of matter in the universe. This presents a real challenge for cosmology, for this kind of explanation would definitely transcend physics. To explain the origination of matter and space time from “something” which is not matter and not space-time is probably an inconceivable task for physics, which is based on the classical concept of causation. In order to explain the origin of matter and space-time cosmology would have to model the transition from a philosophically understood “nothing” (nothing in an absolute sense, not a physical vacuum) to something (fields, particles, space-time). This kind of modelling is an improper thing for cosmology to do; it rather demands a philosophical (or theological) logic, when the creation of matter and space-time would be expressed in terms of their relation to a transcendent source. Correspondingly, in view of this general understanding, classical cosmology experiences difficulties when it attempts to speculate about the temporal origin of the visible cosmos. This problem is inherent for cosmology which affirms that the universe experiences expansion. Since the dynamics of this expansion is described by # 1749 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies the Einstein equations (for the universal scale factor a (radius of the universe) as a function of cosmological time t), the extrapolation of the solution of these equations backward in time leads inevitably to such a point where t = 0 and α = 0. This point in the evolution of the universe is associated with the beginning of the universe, the point beyond which physics and cosmology can not proceed, for most of the classical concepts loose their sense2. If cosmological theory, by extrapolating the expansion of the universe backward in time, would predict that all physical matter and spacetime disappears at the point of the ‘beginning’, then there would be a temptation to announce that the point of the beginning is the absolute origin of the universe in terms of both space and time, that is, no thing was before this point in terms of the cosmological time t. In reality, however, the situation is completely opposite, that is the values of all physical parameters ( such as density of matter, curvature of spacetime etc.) reach infi nity at the point of beginning. It is because of this that the initial state of the classical universe is called the Big Bang, or cosmological singularity. Both matter and space-time experience extraordinary behavior at this point, which is hardly to be described by physics, and there is no ground to claim that there was nothing at the singularity; on the contrary since all physical quantities are infi nite, that is, indefi nite there, no particular specification of the initial state is possible at all, all hypotheses will be untestable. The appearance of infinities in cosmology is inevitable if one assumes the classical forms of matter in the universe, such as radiation and dust.3 Cosmology with classical forms of matter leads to a series of problems, which can be overcome if one invokes the presence in the universe of “non-classical” matter, such as quantum fields described in modern parlance either as inflaton (Ф), or ‘cosmological “constant” Λ. In these models the dynamics of the universe is driven either by decaying inflaton Ф or cosmological “constant” Λ.4 Formally inflationary cosmology succeeds in removing the singularity at t = 0 and placing it in the asymptotic limit t → – ∞, so that the problem of the beginning of the universe is converted into the problem of its pre-existence in infinite time. The preexistent vacuum state decays in time driving the evolution of the universe to its present state. The only advantage of this model is that the average energy of the vacuum state, which is given by Λ, is finite at all times so that this cosmological model allows one to avoid a bizarre conclusion about the apocalyptic state of matter and geometry at the Big Bang. 5 It can clearly be seen that if one talks about “creation” of the universe in this case, this is the production of matter not out of nothing, but out of matter described either by Ф or by Λwhose pre-existence is postulated. In both cases, that is of cosmology with classical matter or inflationary cosmology, physics fails to explain the nature of the initial condition for the equations which drive cosmological evolution. The dichotomy between the laws of dynamics and the initial conditions which fix a specific outcome of these laws acquires some unique features in cosmology. Since we can speculate on the nature of these conditions only from within our universe by extrapolating backward the properties of the observable universe, the ‘knowledge’ of the initial conditions thus achieved does not tell us anything about the genuine nature of these conditions, as if there were special physical laws responsible for these conditions, separated from us in the past and not being similar to laws of dynamics. Being bounded by the universe in which we live we cannot know the laws of the initial conditions of the universe; for this would require us to transcend beyond the universe, which is impossible. # 1750 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies The ideal variant for cosmologists wishing to describe the creation of matter in the universe would be to construct an initial state such that the total energy of matter would be equal zero and this requirement would be a meta-law, imposed on the matter of the universe in the pre-existent space and time. This kind of a model was offered by Tryon.6 The major feature of this model is that the universe originates in preexistent space and time as a result of a fluctuation of the physical vacuum (a state of quantum matter in which the values of all observables are zero). Geometrically the development of the universe can be presented as a future light cone, whose apex is positioned completely arbitrary in preexistent space and time. This constitutes a philosophical difficulty with this model: it is impossible to specify and justify why the universe originated at a specific point of space and time. The spontaneous creation of the universe (as a result of a fluctuation) could occur anywhere and at any moment of time. This means in turn that the variety of different universes could originate at different locations of preexistent space-time, driving cosmology to face a serious problem of the mutual influence of different universes (See Fig. 1). It is obvious that this kind of model has nothing to do with creation out of nothing in a theological sense, for space, time, quantum vacuum as well as physics behind the fluctuation, are all assumed to be pre-existent. It is rather reasonable to talk here about the temporal origination of the universe rather than about its creation out of nothing. It is interesting to note that the fi rst ‘scientific’ ideas on the origination of the universe in pre-existent space and time were proposed by Newton who intended to reconcile the Biblical account of creation, where the world had to have a beginning, with his view that time could have neither beginning nor end. Newton asserted that the visible universe was brought into existence by God in the past which is separated from us by fi nite time, but this took place within the absolute and infi nite space and time. The creation of matter is detached in his model from the creation of time. We see here a fundamental difference from General Relativity, where space and time are relational upon matter and the split in origination of matter and time seems to be theoretically inconsistent. 7 Fig. 1. Indeterminacy of “creation” of the universe in cosmology with preexistent spase and time # 1751 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies The logical difficulty with this kind of model is connected with our inability to locate the moment of time where the universe originated, from outside, by transcending beyond the universe itself, into its imaginable preexistent «before». We can argue about the beginning of time within the visible universe by extrapolating its expansion backward in time. But this will never allow us to claim scientifically that there either was or was not preexistent time «before» our universe came into existence.8 This situation was described by Kant in his Critique of Pure Reason in the first cosmological antinomy (A 426-427/ B454-455 [ET: p. 396]): Thesis: The world has a beginning in time and is also limited as regards space; Antithesis: The world has no beginning and no limits in space; it is infinite as regards both time and space. In modern terms, the thesis corresponds to the view that the universe as we know it is unique and the Big Bang is an absolute beginning of the universe, as well as time and space. There are no reasonable arguments about existence of anything beyond our universe and ‘prior’ to the Big Bang; the latter is the absolute beginning of being. Any attempt to speculate about the ‘outside’ and ‘before’ the universe, would be, in a spirit of the Kantian philosophy, an ambitious attempt of reason to depart from the empirical series of causation, corresponding to the visible universe, towards purely intelligible series which have different ontology in comparison with the physical universe. The antithesis corresponds to the model of the universe with preexistent time and space, where the visible universe is one particular realisation of a potentially infinite number of existing universes, corresponding to different initial conditions at different moments of preexistent time. Because of the impossibility of locating the point of origination of our universe in the preexistent time and hence of making this point special, one cannot claim that there is no time and space beyond the visible universe. It can originate at any moment of preexistent time so that there could pass potentially infinite time before the visible universe came into being. All points of preexistent space and time are equivalent; space and time is uniform and infinite. One can look at the same antinomy from a different perspective. For example, the thesis can be treated as the affirmation that the visible universe is unique, whereas the antithesis as the opposite, i.e. that the visible universe, being finite in terms of its temporal past, is one particular representative out of the ensemble of the universes with different boundary conditions, that is, at different moments of their origination in preexistent time. In this setting the antinomial nature of any propositions about the origination of the visible universe in preexistent time becomes evident: on the one hand we can not transcend our universe in order to assert scientifically that we are a part of the big ensemble of the universes; on the other hand nothing can stop us from making a Platonic-like assumption that there is the ensemble of the universes, which we cannot verify empirically, but which we can affirm as intelligible entities. In this case the whole meaning of the antinomy reveals itself as predication about two ontologically distinct realities, i.e. the empirical visible universe and the Platonic ensemble of the universes. The presence of such an antinomy in cosmology with preexistent time points to the fundamental ontological difference (diaphora) between the empirical and intelligible, which is inevitably invoked by the reason when it tries to speculate about the origins of the world. The antinomy points towards the conceptual and ontological difference between the empirical time in the visible universe and Platonic- like time in # 1752 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies the preexistent, but rather conceptual universe. The attempt to explain the origination of the visible universe out of an ensemble of possible universes, can then be interpreted as a conceptual causation from the world of ideas to the empirical world. This indicates not the creation of the universe itself, but rather a special aspect of the created realm, its structural differentiation between the empirical and intelligible. Thus one can draw a preliminary conclusion that all models of origination of the universe in pre-existent time will never explain the origination in empirical, scientific terms, rather they will indicate instead a problem of the dualism between the evolution of the observable universe (which follows the laws of dynamics, testable in principle) and its initial conditions (which are untestable in principle and which rather belong to the realm of metaphysics). One can refer to E. McMullin who commented that the spontaneous, uncaused origination of the universe, such as that proposed in the model of Tryon, can not be a “creation” in a proper sense, for the cause of creation, that is, a creator, (which must be outside of the chain of spatio-temporal events in the universe) can not be present in the physical theory. This means that the desire to justify “creation” in cosmology leads to causation in a rather philosophical sense, so that a scientist is leaning towards philosophical ideas, or even theology (McMullin 1988, p. 46). The unsatisfactory nature of the assumption that the universe was created in (preexistent) time was realised as early as the Patristic writes who defended the concept of creation of the world ex nihilo. Basil the Great, in his Hexaemeron (“The Commentary on Six Days of Creation”) I: 5, made a distinction between creation of the intelligible world with no temporal flux and no spatial dimension, and the creation of the visible universe together with “the succession of time, for ever passing on and passing away and never stopping in its course” (Basil the Great 1996, p. 54). Basil asserts that the meaning of the Biblical phrase “In the beginning God created” must be understood as “in the beginning of time” (Ibid., p. 55), that is, God created the visible world together with time, and it was the beginning of time in the visible world. In a different passage Basil argues that the creation of the world was not a spontaneous origination, i.e. conception by chance, but, on the contrary, it was created with a purpose and reason (Ibid, p. 55). In order to articulate the a-temporal nature of “the beginning of the world”, and to remove any causation at the beginning in terms of time-series, Basil affi rms that “the beginning, in effect, is indivisible and instantaneous...the beginning of time is not yet time and no even the least particle of it.” (Ibid., p. 55). Similarly to Basil, Augustine in his Confessions, XI addressed the problem of the origin of time directly, affirming similarly to Basil, and using quite contemporary words, that: “The way, God, in which you made heaven and earth was not that you made them either in heaven or on earth....Nor did you make the universe within the framework of the universe. There was nowhere for it to be made before it was brought into existence” (Augustine 1991, p. 225). The last sentence is a proper theological reaction to any cosmology with preexistent time. If we attempt to talk about creation of the universe out of nothing in cosmology, it means that we can not use for this the cosmological models where the visible universe originates in the “large universe”, preexistent with respect to the visible one. Similarly, in the City of God XI: 6, Augustine asserts that the universe was not created by God in time, but was created with time. Augustine affirmed the creation of the universe and time within it as the only consistent expression of the Christian affirmation of the creatio ex nihilo. The nihilo could not be something, it could not have # 1753 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies any attributes of the created things, it must be absolute philosophical no-thing. In particular it is not in time and space. It is clear then that if cosmology hopes to challenge the theological teaching on creatio ex nihilo it must at least refuse any models of the universe with pre-existent time. In other words, time itself must be explained as a result of cosmological theory. This sounds suspicious at first glance, for any physical theory assumes time as necessary background where the dynamics and change take place. A reasonable starting point in this attempt, however, is to find such models of the universe where the initial state will manifest a global space-like singularity, so that it will not require any assumptions about preexistent time. The initiation of the visible universe takes place at this singularity, so that empirical time originates at this singularity and the universe can be said to be created not in time but in the pre-existent space of the singularity. If one assumes that there is a variety of initial conditions at the global spatial singularity, then the “physics’ of this variety is very problematic again. One can produce very exotic theories about the global initial space, but it will have a limited impact for the verifiability of this theory in the visible universe whose initial conditions are posed only in a tiny domain of the global surface, and that is why any proposal for the nature of a global singularity which covers all possible initial conditions would be untestable from within the visible universe 9. At any rate the model of the origination of the visible universe from the global space-like singularity assumes that there was a finite time back when the observable universe came into existence and started to develop to its present state. Time was brought into existence together with the universe, and the problem of positioning of our universe in preexistent time is not present in such a scenario. At the same time, if the global singularity is assumed to be in existence prior to what we call our universe, it is difficult to assert that the universe was created out of nothing, for the point of origination of the universe is positioned at the initial singularity which is not nothing in a theological sense but preexistent space. It is clear then that one can apply the same argument, which we used before in the context of an antinomial proposition similar to the first antinomy of Kant, where the term time is omitted. From a philosophical point of view the difficulty of predicating the origin of the universe in terms of different initial conditions in space is of the same kind at it was before for models with preexistent time. This implies that the next logical step would be to attempt to modify the theory in order to remove all pre-existent entities, such as time or space, and to construct the model of the universe, where space and time would originate together with matter. Can this ambition be realized in cosmology? In order to make clearer what kind of problem we face here, let us compare the dynamics of particle in classical mechanics on the one hand, and the dynamics of the universe in general relativity on the other hand. The fundamental difference between classical mechanics and general relativity, is that there is no preexistent time in the latter case. Space in general relativity is a relational concept, its dynamics follows the dynamics of matter, and it is a 3-dimensional space which is the dynamical variable in relativity and cosmology. Time emerges in relativity as parameter which describes the change of the 3-space. The common feature of both classical description of dynamics of a single particle as well as the evolution of 3-space is that both of them have a “point” of the beginning (described as a conical singularity). In the case of spacetime it means that the 3-space has a zero radius, for example a zero radius of the universe beyond which all concepts such as space and time loose # 1754 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies their sense. From this point of view one could argue that this is exactly the point at which space and time came into existence, that is, they are “created” at this point. The problem, however, typical for both classical dynamics, as well as for cosmology, is that there is a dichotomy between the laws of dynamics and initial conditions; there is a variety of solutions corresponding to the dynamical equations which drive the evolution and which contain a conical singularity. The theory can not select a particular solution, which would be unique and correspond to the visible universe. We thus face a problem of how to remove this initial point from the solutions. In classical mechanics, it is impossible to do it at all, for time and space do pre-exist and form a background for development of a system. The initial condition corresponds to a choice, made by observers when they start to follow the evolution of a particle. In the case of relativity the situation is much more exciting, for the beginning of time corresponds to some particular properties of space, when the radius of the universe is zero, for example. This point forms a problem for classical physics, for all physical observables approach infinite values in the vicinity of this point; classical physics looses its applicability at the singularity. At the same time, as was proved by Hawking and Penrose, the singularity in classical general relativity is inevitable. The presence of the initial singularities in general relativity leads to the impossibility of formulating in physical terms the initial conditions of the visible universe. The dichotomy between the initial conditions and the laws of the evolution of the universe becomes unbridgeable. If this is true, and we cannot specify in physical terms the “laws” of the initial conditions of the universe, we could not fully answer the question on the nature of the visible universe. In this case the temptation of a deistic kind comes to a cosmologist’s mind; one appeals to a deity which did set up the initial conditions and the laws of the universe, but then left the universe to its own devices. Physics and cosmology provide us with the understanding of the laws of the evolution of the universe, but they do not teach us about the foundations of their facticity, that is, in a theological language, what was God’s choice in setting up the initial conditions. From a theological point of view, which advocates that the created order is contingent upon God, that is, radically different from God, and the laws of the world are free from any inherent necessity, originating in God, it would be ambitious to pretend to uncover the “laws” which stand behind the initial conditions of the universe, for the knowledge of these “laws”, that is, knowing that the initial conditions of the visible universe are conditioned by something which is ontologically necessary, we would enter the domain of the Divine reason and attempt to apprehend God’s intentions in creating the world. This is, however, hardly to be achieved in cosmology on its own, so that theology enters the scene of speculation at this point under the disguise of a hidden theological commitment in cosmology. Indeed, some cosmologists argue for the possible comprehension of the “laws” of boundary (initial) conditions of the visible universe in principle. Hawking, for example, appeals to the history of science to argue that science eventually uncovers the underlying order of things and events which seemed to be decoherent and arbitrary before. He believes that the same kind of order can be found in the extreme physical situation at the cosmological singularity: “there ought to be some principle that picks out one initial state and hence one model, to represent our universe” (Hawking 1988, pp. 123,133). This belief seems to go contrary to the result on inevitability of the singularities in cosmologies with all pathological features of the theory, which we mentioned above # 1755 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies (infinities of all classical physical variables). This in turn provides us with an argument that the “law” of the initial conditions must be nonclassical, different and new in comparison with what is known from general relativity. These laws, if they exist, should avoid the problem of temporal beginning, which has its root in the asymmetry between space and time. Indeed the conical space-time of the universe has one particular feature, which makes the whole geometry singular: its boundary is formed by a conical surface plus a singular point, that is, the apex of a cone. The new nonclassical “laws” of the singularity, if they exist, must change our view on space-time of the universe as a singular cone. This means that the geometrical presentation of the evolution of the visible universe as containing a singular point corresponding to its alleged beginning must be replaced by something which has a different, non-singular boundary. In this case the problem of the beginning of time, according to the proponents of the “laws” of the initial conditions will be explained away and no explicit theistic references would be necessary to explain the “temporal origin” of the universe. How successful is this program? Elimination of Real Time in Quantum Cosmology ? When Hawking advocates the existence of the laws of the initial conditions, he assumes that cosmology from being a classical view of the universe must be transformed into the so called quantum cosmology. The latter “theory” represents an as yet unfinished synthesis of general relativity and quantum mechanics, applied to the universe as a whole. This synthesis is a big issue in modern physics, and needs be subjected to a long philosophical scrutiny. The challenge of quantum cosmology is to provide the “laws” of the initial conditions of the visible universe, that is, to describe the state of origination of the universe in such terms as to condition the emergence of the empirical flowing time in the universe. This means that in no way must time be an a-priori ingredient of these “laws”. At the same time, quantum cosmology does not deny the presence of space in these laws. In other words, space is considered as a more fundamental ontological reference than time. The visible universe is in space and in time; the state which is prior to the visible universe can not be in time, but it is accepted that it can be in space. The existence of space which is devoid of temporality is considered as existence forever, with no need for an explanation “when” this space came into existence at all. The timeless state of the universe (as a pure space) can be considered as an initial member in a series of temporal causation, which itself is beyond time. The conceptual transition from classical to quantum physics can be understood as a change of description of physical objects as having some given positions in space to the description of the dynamics of objects in terms of the so called wave function, which is a function of spatial coordinates and is subject to evolution in time according to the Schrödinger equation. It is important that the coordinates of the particle can not be observed precisely, as occurs in classical mechanics, but one talks about the probability of the particle to be found in the vicinity of the point, which is described by the square of the modulus of the wave function. In general this probability is a function of time and its evolution is completely determined by the Schrodinger equation, if one knows the distribution of probabilities at some initial moment of time. The evolution, described by the Schrödinger equation is reversible, i.e. knowing the initial state one can predict all other states in the evolution of a particle, and, vice versa, one can restore the initial condition if the state of particle is known afterwards. In this sense the “evolution” is a-historical, that is, no novelty # 1756 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies is generated in the system. The specificity of the system is thus determined by the setting of particular initial conditions. However, the most considerable conceptual change when one turns to quantum physics, is that the description of physical processes is done in terms of the wave function which is not a physical observable in principle. As a mathematical object it belongs to the abstract Hilbert space, whose ontology is detached from the empirical world, and represents rather the world of intelligible forms. The synthesis of quantum physics with general relativity, especially in its application to cosmology, leads to a novel feature of the resulting theory, which did not exist in the quantum physics of microobjects. This feature is related to nature of time. As we mentioned in the previous section time in relativity is not a natural parameter in the theory, it is rather an epiphenomenon, constructed upon the primary dynamical variable, which is 3-dimensional space. This means that if one wants to construct a quantum state of the whole universe, i.e. describe this mathematically by the wave function of the universe, this function will not be a function of time explicitly, it will be the function of 3-geometry and matter (some field for example) which is linked to geometry according to general relativity. The state of the universe is thus described by the wave function which is defined in the superspace of all possible 3-dimensional geometries as well as all possible states of matter. Time is not present in this “frozen” formalism. To elucidate this latter point one can make a contrast with the wave function in the realm of ordinary empirical time where the function follows Shrodinger equation with time. If the universe would be described by the wave function following the equation like this, its evolution would follow a simple, reversible dynamics. This means that we can predict the state of the universe at some moment of time t2, knowing its state at t1 < t2. Since the evolution is reversible, one can reverse this conclusion and predict the past state of the universe at t1 if one knows it at t2 which can be taken as the present. Quantum cosmology of the early state of the universe, however has to deal with the situation where the temporality of the universe disappears, so that the description of the equation for the wave function of the universe cannot be done in terms of any temporal dynamics. Since we want to construct the wave function which corresponds to the initial state in terms of classical time t, there must be such a solution the sought wave function with no time must be somehow matched with the wave function which describes the classical universe with time. The condition of this matching would be by definition the “origination” of the visible universe. A possible solution for the wave function which would provide a conical singularity, and where the initial point would correspond to the beginning of space and time together, is not a good candidate for it represents a space-time with a boundary, which is the surface of the cone plus the point of origination. This is why the desirable solution for 4-dimensional geometry in the quantum domain should rather correspond to the geometry where the 4-dimensional spacetime has only a single 3-dimensional boundary. At first glance this kind of solution does not relieve us from the presence of time, for the boundary of 4-dimensional space contains a temporal dimension. The crucial step which has been taken in order to overcome this concern is a conceptual change in views on the asymmetry between space and time, which is an attribute of experience in the macroscopic realm where time is usually considered as an extra-dimension of 4-dimensional space. To overcome this asymmetry Hawking suggested that time, as we perceive it and as it appears in cosmological equations, to be converted into a rather a mathematical abstraction of time – imaginary # 1757 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies time, which is similar to space, but which is principally unobservable and non-measurable. The trick is simple technically but, however, is not so convincing philosophically.10 One may elucidate further how the geometrization of time, that is, its actual removal happens in Hawking’s model. The transition to imaginary time is dictated in quantum cosmology by two reasons: 1) it attempts to provide the description of the initial conditions of the universe with no reference to anything beyond the universe, which could condition the initial conditions from outside; thus it is believed that the initial conditions of the universe could be inferred as a part of a theory; 2) in calculating the main object of quantum description of the universe, that is, the abstract wave function, which is to provide a solution the geometrical configuration of the universe, the method, used by Hawking, involved the so called pathintegral, the mathematical object, defi ned on the set of all possible universes (all imaginable 3-dimensional spaces). This mathematical method, however, imposed a serious constraint on the form of those metrics, that is, spaces, whose paths should appear in the integral. As Hawking writes, “It seems, therefore, that the path integral for quantum gravity must be taken over nonsingular Euclidean metrics” (Hawking, Penrose 1996, p. 66), that is, over the metrics with imaginary time. One should remember this statement for our further analysis, for it illustrates a remarkable inference in theoretical cosmology: the purely mathematical requirement for consistency and the non-singular nature of calculations leads to a choice of the set of geometries with no obvious reference to the physical world. As Hawking expressed this in his Brief History of Time “to avoid the technical difficulties with Feynman's sum over histories, one must use imaginary time” (Hawking 1988, p. 134). The crucial point now is to formulate proper initial conditions for the space-time of the universe, assuming that the universe in not pseudo-euclidean, that is presented by making explicit the difference between space and time, but Euclidean, that is, time and space are equal and “there is no difference between the time direction and directions of space” (Ibid.) There are two ‘natural’ (mathematical) choices: the infinite Euclidean space (which incorporates time), and the compact, finite in volume, space which does not have a boundary. Hawking provides some reasons in favor of the finite (compact) space which does not contain a boundary, This constitutes the essence of his and Hartle “The No-Boundary Proposal”, that the path integral, involved in calculation of the wave function of the universe must be taken over all compact Euclidean metrics (Hartle, Hawking, 1983). This removes the problem of the initial conditions in the universe because, logically, the condition which is supposed to condition the initial state of the universe now reduces to a tautological statement that the universe must be initially with no boundary, that is, the term ‘initial’ looses its ordinary sense, for there is no special location in the universe which could be taken as an ‘initial’ boundary: there is no boundary. The immediate implication of such a conclusion is that the classical solutions of the cosmological models with non-physical infinities in the singularities do not threaten physics anymore, so that one could be tempted to say, that the collapse of physics at the cosmological singularity is overcome; there is no breakdown of physics at the edge of the universe and hence there is no need to appeal to the ‘laws of the boundary conditions’which, according to classical metaphysics could manifest the transcendent plan of the divine design. One should remember, however, that, according to Hawking himself, the “no-boundary proposal” is merely a proposal, it is not a principle, which is # 1758 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies deduced from any more fundamental theory. In a way it is the ultimate premise, which can not be demonstrated syllogistically. As Hawking affirms “like any other scientific theory, it may initially be put forward for aesthetic or metaphysical reasons” (Hawking 1988, p. 136). This merely reaffirms that the no-boundary proposal is a metaphysical, that is non-physical proposal, which is dictated by some indemonstrable belief in reality as “selfcontained and not affected by anything outside itself” (Ibid.) Finally one can say that if the no-boundary proposal is implemented in theoretical calculations, it leads to a wave function of the universe as a function of the radius of a 3-dimensional section of the 4-dimensional compact space which incorporates an imaginary time. The radius a satisfies the Einstein equation which involves the distribution of matter in the universe. The radius of a 3-dimensional compact space a can extend indefinitely from zero to infinity. There is however a threshold in terms of a which marks a radical change in the behavior of the wave-function of the universe. This change corresponds to the transition from the quantum state of the universe as a 4-dimensional compact Euclidean space (with imaginary time being a spatial dimension) to the classical evolving universe, whose geometrical structure corresponds in general to the curvilinear cylinder where its vertical dimension corresponds to real, empirical time. The change from the quantum state of the universe to the ‘classical’ universe, whose evolution leads ultimately to what we observe as the present-day visible universe, is accompanied by the transition from imaginary time to real time. 11 Hawking proposes to present this transition graphically in the form given below: This transition is supposed to describe the ‘creation’ of the visible universe. There is no however, any temporal location, or origination of the universe, for it originates from space, which has no temporal properties, space simply exists. One must be articulated once more that the creation of the visible universe in Hawking’s model is not creation as ‘origination’, it is rather a transition (in a sense which we will have to establish) from a-temporal, that is, timeless Euclidean space, to space-time, where time is distinct from space, and where one observes the temporal flux of events. Fig. 2 Hawking's model: “creation” of the universe with the flow of time from the space-like eternity # 1759 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies The major achievement of the scenario, proposed by Hawking is the elimination of the singular states in the history of the universe, where the physical laws break down. The absence of temporal dimension in the boundary state of the universe removes the problem of preexistent time and offers a response to the paradoxes connected with the creation in pre-existent time. One should remember, however, that the validity of this response is contingent upon the belief that that the world has an imaginary dimension, that is, the very notion of the world is imbued with the fundamentally non-physical. Hawking suggests that if “the so-called imaginary time is really the real time of the world, and that what we call real time is just a figment of our imaginations” (Hawking 1988, p. 139), then the entire universe is compact, with no boundary, so that the vision of the universe as having a beginning in the past (as well as the problem of original creation in general) is just an illusion of human consciousness. Hawking’s attempt to elucidate the meaning of the word “reality”, as he uses it, leads him ultimately to confusion, for, according to him, mathematical theory is just a model and there is no meaning in questions about the ‘reality’ of time, whether it is imaginary or real: “it is simply a matter of which is the more useful description” (Hawking 1988, p. 139). There is, however, a positive asset of quantum cosmology, namely the prediction of the inflationary behavior of the universe, when it gets off the quantum realm; for the inflationary cosmology is a popular model nowadays, which is capable of solving of some puzzles of the classical Big-Bang cosmology. 12 The model, proposed by Hawking, caused a resonance not only in professional physical and mathematical circles, but also among philosophers and even theologians. The reason for this is that Hawking himself concluded his exposition of the “history of time” in the universe in a theological manner; he states that “the idea that space and time may form a closed surface without boundary also has profound implications for the role of God in the affairs of the universe” (Hawking 1988, p. 140). Immediately after this “theological” claim he exposed himself as a deist, by asserting that one needs the idea of God in order to describe the initial conditions in the universe and to set up the laws of the universe (Hawking 1988, p. 140). Finally, in order to refute his own deism, Hawking proposed to take his scenario of the “evolution” of the universe with an imaginary time, not only as a model (which helps with explanation of observations in a spirit of his positivism), but also ontologically: “if the universe is really completely self-contained, having no boundary or edge, it would have neither beginning, nor end: it would simply be” (Hawking 1988, p. 141). The ultimate manifestation of Hawking’s triumph as a “religious thinker” is in his concluding phrase which caused so much agitation and controversies in scientifico-theological circles, namely “What place, then, for a creator? (Hawking 1988, p. 141). Some General Comments on Hawking's Model Hawking builds his cosmology on the grounds of positivistic, (according to his own definition) methodology, i.e. in an approach which never makes enquiries on the ontological meaning of those “realities” which are present in cosmological theories. He describes his understanding of the meaning of cosmological theories in the following words: “Theory is just a model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations we make. It exists only in our minds and has no other reality (whatever that might mean)” (Hawking 1988, p. 9; also p. 139). If one reads this passage straightforwardly one will be puzzled by the emphasized part of # 1760 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies this quotation; for it follows that cosmology, being a theoretical enterprise, does not provide us with any realistic vision of what the universe is actually, but supplies only the symbolic means for the description of what we observe here and now. If cosmology exists only in our minds, it is similar to any kind of science fiction with the only difference that it pretends to describe the entire universe in a coherent mathematical way, which will be consistent with what we observe in the sky. If one follows consistently this view one must admit that such notions as the universe as a whole, Big Bang etc. are just mental constructs and they have no independent ontological status apart from their remote effects in the present day universe (this conclusion does not surprise us at all, for we have already established the limited sense of reality behind cosmological constructs). Summarizing in different words, cosmology as a theory dealing with the remote temporal past as well as with remote parts of its space has no ontological references, according to Hawking. But Hawking achieved this conclusion on the basis of the ad hoc positivism and not through the epistemological analysis of cosmological constructs. All its claims have a status of conventions useful for understanding of the observable universe in terms of unobservable entities, that is, equations and concepts. Here he manifests the intrinsic teleology pertaining to the process of cosmological explanation, which demands the appeal to the entities which allow a coherent synthesis of the visible universe. A particular cosmological theory is valued for its quality to provide a more effective description of our observations; there is no sense in asking whether the constructs which constitute the theory are referred to anything which we call “real”, they just matter as useful tools of description and no more. The ultimate description of the universe represents a purpose of cosmological research, but this regulative, formal purposiveness of cosmology does not have to entail the existence of the material pole (nexus finalis) of this purpose. The universe as a whole, be it classical or quantum cosmology, is not an object, for the efficient physical causality is not applicable to it. It is subject to that causality which relates the notion of the universe, as a purpose of explanation, to the faculty of reflective judgement, using Kantian terminology. Later Hawking reaffirmed his positivistic approach to cosmology by juxtaposing it with the Platonism of Penrose (Hawking, Penrose 1996, p. 121). According to Hawking, Penrose is worried about the reality of those concepts which are involved in quantum cosmology, whereas it does not bother him: “I do not demand that a theory corresponds to reality because I do not know what it is (Ibid.). This last remark makes the overall philosophical position of Hawking controversial because, as we mentioned before, he is prone to ontologically realistic commitments. Indeed if cosmological theory does not provide any empirical evidence for ontological references of cosmological constructs (such as cosmological fluid, global space-time, the wave function of the universe, the Big Bang etc.), then any positive or negative predication about God as the absolute cause of the temporal beginning of the universe, as inferred from a cosmological theory, has only a rhetorical sense; for the construct of the early universe which Hawking proposes as a “true” theory of the state of the universe which preceded that one which we observe now, is just a construct, not an ontological entity. This implies that if Hawking wants to use the beauty and elegance of this construct in order to deny the existence of God-creator, that is, the original cause of the universe, he tacitly levels both constructs, “the universe” and “God”, making them uniform terms of the logical alternative which, according to Hawking’s logic , must exist only in his mind. If this is true, one then immediately recognizes # 1761 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies that the “God” which is meant by Hawking in his famous phrase “What place, then, for a creator?” is just a concept, an idea of God, a mental symbol of an uncertain deity. If Hawking thinks about God (as a genuine positivist) as a construct, then he can dismiss one construct (God) in favor of another (timeless universe). But this operation of the reason has no proper theological implications, for the God of theology is not a construct, but a subject of existential, that is ontological, experience. All idols of God (even those negative which follow from cosmology) are strictly refused by apophatic theology. But if Hawking believes that he can dismiss God in an ontological sense, then one should admit, that he falls into contradiction with himself, for there is no chance of comprehending the existence of the living God while resting on a positivistic view of nature. In the concluding chapter of his book Hawking exposes his controversial thought by making a correct distinction between two questions in cosmology: a) “What is the universe?” and b) “Why the universe does exist?”. He assumes that his response to the question a) is provided by his arguments throughout his book, that is, the universe has such a particular structure, which follows from the laws of physics and a special no-boundary condition (we remember that this is a positivist’s statement). But in the question b) Hawking enquires not into the particular temporal origin of the universe, but into the fact of the very existence of the universe. Why does the universe, which is described by the Hawking model, exist at all? What is the ground of contingent facticity of the universe. This question, by it essence is a perennial ontological question, a response to which can never be made on positivistic grounds. One can say that with certainty, although negative, that this question cannot be answered. Hawking’s hope is associated with his vision of a complete theory of the world, which “would be the ultimate triumph of human reason-for then we would know the mind of God” (Hawking 1988, p. 175). It is still unclear whether the knowledge of “the mind of God” in the last quotation is just a mental construction of a positivist scientist, or Hawking speaking about knowledge of God through ontological communion with Him. The dream of the final theory as a principle which could explain the structure of the universe in self-sufficient terms, without appeal to its contingency upon a transcendent source, assumes that the advance of science will stop at some stage, so that the ultimate knowledge will give a divine power into the hands of human beings. This could make a real challenge to the creatio ex nihilo concept for knowing the laws of the universe in full would imply no necessity for a transcendent creator. This implies that Hawking’s claims of dismissal of a creator of the universe in a sense of an original creation, have a much more moderate impact on theology in comparison with his beliefs in the final theory, be it purely positivistic or not. 13 In spite of the preceding criticism of Hawking’s philosophical presuppositions, the goal here is to demonstrate that his model of creation of the universe out of nothing, which by no means dismisses the Christian dogma of creatio ex nihilo, can actually contribute in a quite sophisticated way to the Christian understanding of creation out of nothing. This assumes that one must undertake a theological interpretation of Hawking’s model, thus intentionally departing from a positivistic treatment of cosmology. However in this interpretation we follow not a straightforward invocation of theological parallels, but careful studying of Hawking’s propositions philosophically, in particular through a prism of the Kantian antinomies. Our task now is to make an analysis of the key concepts employed by Hawking, in order to make a distinction among them in terms of their ontological nature: what is empirical in his model # 1762 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies and what is intelligible, what is the meaning of the mixing of the empirical and intelligible which takes place in his model and how this interplay between empirical and intelligible can be used in explication of that which theological creatio ex nihilo proclaims. By so doing, we intentionally interpret the theory through those philosophical and theological ideas which are not present in the theory itself. The meaning of such an analysis is to support an intuition that any scientific theory, attempting to argue on the origins of the world (including Hawking’s as an example), will inevitably contain the features of the dualism between the empirical and intelligible. The problem then is not to overcome this dualism, but to identify this dualism as an inevitable structural element of all attempts to treat the universe as creation, the structural element which involves the process of knowing the universe into antinomial difficulty manifesting the inaccessibility of creation on the grounds of rational enquiry. By revealing the apophatic nature of all claims on creation out of nothing in cosmology, the knowledge of contingent facticity of the universe remains an ultimate mystery pointing toward its otherness, the otherness which points beyond creation as such. Imaginary Time in Quantum Cosmology and Neo-Platonic Timeless Time The model of Hawking is a model of the created order (but radically different from that one which is associated with the empirical temporal order) which can be used for formalizing the logic of all possible attempts to describe creation from within the world. In words of the Greek philosophy, with the help of this model one can formulate the logos of creation (the expression theological in its essence), where the logos stands for the underlying principle, the foundation to which we have access from within the world. As we mentioned this before, this logos is encoded in the dichotomy in creation between the intelligible and empirical. This dichotomy has a particular technical expression through the Greek noun diaphora (difference) in creation, as its constitutive element. In ancient Greek thought this diaphora can be elucidated in terms of temporality. Indeed, recall the distinction between phenomenal reality and transcendent reality, which was developed in neo-Platonism and was used by Christian theologians in order to contrast the created and Creator. At the same time Christianity through adapting and interpreting neo-Platonism made a distinction between the intelligible in creation as contrasted to the empirical (phenomenal) in creation. This implied that the term “transcendent” in the Christian context was referred to the uncreated, whereas both the intelligible and empirical were treated as immanent with and constitutive for creation. Neo-Platonists made a distinction between time and eternity, which was based on the distinction in relationship between eternity and intelligible universe on the one hand, and between time and visible (empirical) universe on the other hand. In the Christian context it can be affirmed that the realm of the intelligible has no time (in an empirical sense), i.e. it is timeless, not eternal; for it is still created, so that it has a beginning in a logical sense and cannot be called eternal in the same sense as one asserts the eternity of God. The empirical realm, i.e. the world of senses is always in a state of temporal flux of events and the creation of novelty; from this perspective one can use the Neo-Platonic terminology in order to speak about timeless time of the intelligible created domain as transcendent time. In this context the adjective transcendent stands as a contrast to empirical time, which is measured by the flow of events. What then is the meaning of timeless time (or transcendent time) at all if it is detached from # 1763 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies empirical, living time? The response to this question can come from the observation that since all sensible things, involved in temporal flux, are “mirrored” in the intelligible realm through the immanent aspects of their inner essences (i.e. the logoi), the flux of these things itself can be “mirrored” in the intelligible world as a definite structure (e.g. logical structure), so that this structure would represent itself as “frozen time”, as time with no succession or happenings of events, as a serial order stripped of process. This “frozen time” is called timeless time or transcendent time. There is an interesting distinction, made by Proclus, between transcendent time as “unparticipated” time on the one hand, and empirical time as “participated” time (see for details (Plass 1966). The transcendent time is a fixed ‘monad’ in distinction with empirical time; it can be thought as a number (in a Pythagorean sense), the number of cycles of the Hellenistic universe. The temporal flux of the empirical world proceeds according to this number, i.e. ‘temporal time’ is derivative from transcendent time. The ontological status of transcendent time is determined as its participation in the ousia of an intelligible being, which is timeless. Proclus used such adjectives as “eternal, fixed, unified” when he referred to transcendent time. If one appropriates transcendent time as a feature of the created realm, it would be more suitable to use such adjectives as “timeless” or “immutable” with respect to it. Proclus thought about time as an integral concept, which unites both aspects of one and the same being. He treated time as a two-sided unity: on the one side time is in itself, i.e. there is time’s inner being which is stable, immutable and timeless; on the other side, outwardly, i.e. with respect to the empirical world, time reveals itself as temporal flow of events and things. The former aspect of time is unparticipated time, the latter one is the time which participates in transcendent time. Coming back to quantum cosmology, it is not difficult to catch some similarities between Hawking’s model of the universe and that one in neo-Platonism. Indeed the attempt of Hawking to make a distinction between the reality of imaginary time of the quantum universe and the reality of empirical flowing time, which one experiences in macroscopic visible universe, is based on his assumption about human cognitive faculties. He asserts that what one experiences as real time is just an “figment of our imagination.” This is similar to the neoplatonic distinction between two sides of the same time as unparticipated and participated time. Indeed, the imaginary time in quantum universe is undivided and unified time, which is, in fact, just a spatial dimension, given in its whole span across the Euclidean universe and is described by some number, a radius of this universe, for example. This is the inner aspect of time, that is, it is transcendent timeless time (timeless in a sense that the order of things in this time is not identifiable as the flow of events in real time). The outward aspect of this time, which is accessible to human perception, corresponds to temporal flow in pseudo-Euclidean spacetime. It is because of a human intellectual ability that one can speculate that the empirical time can be thought as imagination of transcendent time; thus one can assert that the empirical time indeed participates in transcendent time (but we know about this only through an intellectual inference). In analogy with Pythagorean metaphysical mathematics one can argue that the wave function of the universe, which contains implicitly all information about the entire structure of the universe as a spatial and temporal continuum, can be considered as a “monadic” property of the universe, that is, such an intelligible totality which is conditioned only by the laws of mathematics # 1764 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies and by the metaphysical (that is, non-empirical) no-boundary proposal. The visible universe, as a domain in the empirical part of the created realm, is predetermined somehow by the wave function in the quantum domain. In other words the “monadic” wave function of the universe, as a part of the intelligible, contains, according to quantum cosmology, the ground for a particular realization of the visible universe. We do not want to pursue this idea in order to claim that the ontology of the visible universe is rooted in the ontology of the intelligible transcendent time. This would be the desire of Hawking, and it was exactly the issue where he was criticized. Our interpretation follows rather a dualistic approach, based on the basic dichotomy within the created world, the the diaphora between sensible and intelligible creation with no desire to ontologize the imaginary time universe as existent on the same footing with the empirical universe. On the contrary, the comparison of quantum cosmology with the neo-Platonic treatment of time convinces us that the quantum Euclidean universe in Hawking’s model is an intellectual construction, that is, its ontological status corresponds to an entity from the intelligible realm of the created world. This makes Hawking’s rhetoric on the place of a creator in the universe unsound. Indeed the 4-dimensional space of the Euclidean universe, being by its epistemological status an unobservable entity, can only be hypostasized by the reason as intelligible reality. The straight relation of this intelligible reality to the visible universe, which is made along the lines of the positivistic rhethoric of Hawking, is inconsistent. One more note on the similarities between Hawking’s model and neo-Platonic views on time. There is the distinction between so called first and second creation which can be found in neo-Platonism. The first creation is the creation of eternity itself, whereas the second creation is the creation of time. In Hawking’s case it is difficult to talk seriously about his quantum, Euclidean universe as eternal and endless time, of the ‘greatest time’, for in terms of imaginary time the universe is finite. It is certain, however, that an order in imaginary time is the timeless order from the point of view of real time. In this sense it recalls the difference between eternity and “the whole time” in neo-Platonism. The wave function of the universe can be said to encapsulate the whole time, rather than eternity. Indeed, the wave function satisfies the equation which does not contain time at all; time appears later as an internal parameter, derivative from some particular spatial degrees of freedom. But since by itself the wave function represents conceptual reality, that is, it is an object from an intelligible creation, one cannot say that it describes in any plausible way eternity. In analogy with neo-Platonists who assert that the whole time is unity, which is fixed numerically (in a Pythogorean sense), and that the flowing time is derivative from the “whole time”, that is, its activity (energia) is caused by the whole time, one can see in Hawking’s model a similar tendency of thought, namely that the genuine ontological time is imaginary time, and the wholeness of this time for us, human creatures whose senses adjusted rather to the pseudo-euclidean temporal flow, is manifested either in the abstract idea of the wave function of the universe (which, in fact, contains as a variable the variety of different geometries containing in a codified form the wholeness of their own times), or in the image of the 4-dimensional Euclidean sphere. The energeia of this timeless transcendent time (imaginary time), that is, the “transformation” of the “whole time” into the temporal flow in real time corresponds to the transition from intelligible timeless time to the empirical time accessible to our senses14 The major question then is: what is the status of the transition from imaginary time to # 1765 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies real time? Either this transition is physically real, that is, the timeless Euclidean universe is ontologized as physical reality (which seems to be Hawking’s claim when he argues as a physicist), or this transition is purely subjective, that is, it plays merely a role of a theoretical hypothesis in justifying some observable data with no serious reference to the concept of reality which stands behind the scientific constructs involved (this is again Hawking’s claim when he reveals himself as a positivist). With no further comments on this internal inconsistency of the quantum cosmology of Hawking, we are inclined to interpret the transition from the intelligible Euclidean universe to the visible universe which is implied in this cosmology, not as “physically objective”, and not as “psychologically subjective”, but rather as a detection of the structural ontological differentiation between the intelligible and sensible realms of being. The difference of this interpretation from the original Hawking’s model as well as from its critiques by other writers, is that the model of the intelligible Euclidean universe with imaginary timeless time (let us denote this universe as IU-intelligible universe) and the visible universe with real, empirical time (denote VU-visible universe) are both treated as two ontologically different realms of the created order. The transition IU → VU which stands in quantum cosmology for the explanation of the origination of the visible universe from the quantum domain and which corresponds to the diagram in Fig. 2 receives a completely different interpretation as seen from within Christianized Platonism, where both realms are related to the created order, but not to anything beyond the created being. The reader should remember that Fig. 2 is a typical picture reproduced in many books on quantum cosmology and its philosophical commentaries, which explains in visual terms what the model, based on the no-boundary proposal attempts to say – namely, that the visible universe (VU), associated with pseudo-euclidean structure (that is with clear distinction between time and space), does originate from the timeless Euclidean region (IU), where time is spatialized, being an imaginary spatial coordinate.15 The Euclidean universe, not being in time, possesses existence with no point of origin: it just exists. The visible universe has its origin as the transition from the quantum domain to the classical domain. Both universes IU and VU are assumed to be on the same ontological footing in quantum cosmology, so that the diagram is supposed to present the process in the physical realm. According to our interpretation the diagram in Fig. 2, however, corresponds rather to the transition between two ontologically distinct domains, so that their linking together in one single complex, as is done in the diagram, has no more than an allegorical sense for it unites two ontologically different entities. The transition IU → VU then has meaning not as a causal transition from one physical stage to another, but as a logical indication of the difference in the created domain between what is given to us as the visible universe, and what is thought of as the intelligible explanation of what is visible. The comparison of Hawking’s model which affirms the universe as a closed one with imaginary time on the one hand, and which provides the mechanism of the emergence of the visible universe involved in temporal flux on the other hand, with the neo-Platonic model of time as a dialectics of transcendent timeless time and flowing time, has for the purposes of our analysis the following significance. The neoPlatonic dichotomy between transcendent and empirical time is rearticulated in the Christian context as the polarity between the intelligible and sensible realms of creation. In other words, from perspective (of the dualism between # 1766 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies the sensible and intelligible in creation) the ambition of quantum cosmology to describe, by using Hawking’s model, the creatio ex nihilo is unjustified because, in fact, it describes rather the “origination” of that part of space-time, which we associate with the visible universe, out of the timeless realm, which by its own genetic status represents rather an intelligible world, than anything physical, if one intends to ontologize it. If we refine this thought further, we must admit that Hawking’s model proposes a scenario of some ‘changes’ in the created contingent universe (be it intelligible or empirical universe), through the mathematical and physical laws. The fact of this contingency is not reflected in quantum cosmology, which, by its methodological design is monistic, that is, it tries to explain the structure of the universe from within itself. The contingency, on the contrary, if someone would like to reveal its presence in the cosmological theory, would mean identifying such elements in the model, which point to the ground of the universe, its immanent physical and mathematical laws, that is, their contingent facticity, which is beyond the description in terms of these laws, that is transcendent to the universe. Thus our next step in the analysis of Hawking’s cosmological model is to understand what it actually says in terms of the universe’s contingence and this leads us again to the question as to what is the meaning of the distinction which appears in Hawking’s universe between the spatialised, imaginary time-universe, where time is effectively closed and finite, and the pseudoeuclidean space-time of the visible universe, where the linear history of events is contemplated by us. One possible answer comes from the distinction between the Greek vision of the closed universe, where there was no actual flow of time and special dates in history. History was always problematic for Greek cosmology; history was thought rather as an illusion in an endless cyclic return of the world. The Hellenistic universe has no beginning and no end terms. It is clear now that the model of Hawking, if one treats this model ontologically and accepts that his imaginary time is real (so that the universe is closed) rather stands for the ideal of Greek cosmology and provides the “schemata” of history as the sequence of possible events stripped of the temporal flow. The Hellenistic universe is characteristically nonChristian for it has no beginning and no end. This means that the cosmology with imaginary time is in a serious conflict with Christian eschatology, as the progressive movement of time (kinesis) to its rest (stasis). The biblical view of time, in contrast to the neo-Platonic treatment of time, does not start from the universe as enclosed (that is, the universe existing as a totality, for example as a 4-dimensional spatial continuum), it rather reflects the awareness that time is the succession of the individual events connected with the divine economy in the world. This biblical understanding of time does not allow any theory of laws of time which underlie its empirical appearance through separate events. And this is in a strong contradistinction to the neo-Platonic view that the whole time can be described in spatial, overall terms. From here it is clear that the model of Hawking, if one treats this model ontologically, i.e. accepts that his imaginary time is real, so that the universe is closed, rather stands for the ideal of Greek cosmology and provides the “schemata” of history as the sequence of possible events stripped of the temporal flow. If, however, we look at quantum cosmology as a model initiating the classical universe with a linear flow of time the whole evaluation of Hawking’s model can change. For in this case whatever was in the quantum temporal world can be treated as a kind of “typology” of what should happen later in the development of the universe in real time. In this case the reference to quantum state of the universe as to the “past”, # 1767 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies looses its strong sense; for from the “typological” point of view the history of the visible universe can be treated as initiated not from the imaginary “past”, but from the eschatological “future”. This implies, that the “transition” from the quantum universe to the empirical classical universe, as depicted in Fig 1, assuming intuitively that time is flowing to the top of the diagram, can be easily reversed as an upside-down diagram, where time is flowing down from the future. The analogy which we used while talking about the quantum universe as the concise image of the history of the universe in real time, must not be transferred straightforwardly into the theological discourse of creatio ex nihilo, for we must remember that both the quantum universe as well the classical historical universe are both created and contingent upon the othereness which is responsible for their contingent facticity. What we wanted to articulate is the created nature of the universe, which is differentiated into the intelligible and empirical. From this perspective indeed the intelligible quantum universe as “giving origination” to the visible universe neither exist in the “past” nor in the “future” of the visible universe, it rather exists as the parallel, intelligible creation, which is articulated by the human being. In this the whole meaning of Hawking’s model changes completely, leading us to the conclusion that this model can hardly deal with the creation ex nihilo itself, but rather with the constitution of the latter through the articulation of the difference in the created world. Quantum Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies In order to proceed in our treatment of the meaning of Hawking’s model from a philosophical and theological point of view, we should refine the notion of the ontological difference in creation as related to the Christian understanding of creatio ex nihilo. We recall the words in the beginning of the Christian Creed which affirm the belief “in one God, Father, Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and all things visible and invisible”. What is meant by things visible and invisible. Are these terms purely ‘technical’ words with no deep theological foundation, or, alternatively do they express the dichotomy in creation, its division into two distinct realms, which are both important in the context of religious belief? If the words of the Creed mark an ontological difference between two realms of the created being, what would be a proper theological explanation of this dualism? The affirmation from the Creed, which we quoted above, reflects the Christian understanding of creation ex nihilo: God created the world out of nothing in such a way that there was an initial distinction between two realms: the realm of intelligible forms and the realm of sensible reality. The intelligible realm is simply understood as the “spiritual”, “intellectual” level of created being. A good way of referring to this realm is as the noetic level of creation, or kosmos noetos. On this level God formed the angels , who have no material body. But this level contains also intellectual images of sensible reality, that is, ideas. This makes the noetic realm reminiscent of the world of Platonic ideas. Ideas as intellectual images of sensible reality are inevitable ingredients of scientific theories, so that it is arguable that scientific ideas have an immediate relation to the noetic realm which complements the sensible realm, that is, the material universe. The objective existence of the intelligible realm lies in the fact that it contains the community of living minds following from humanity’s ability to think, rationalize, memorize and symbolize the sensible creation in intelligible forms. The only thing which is not so easily grasped by the empiricist or positivist type of thinker, is that the world of intelligible forms has an ontology different in comparison to the ontology of the sensible realm. It is exactly at this point that some # 1768 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies modern scientific theories of the universe follow a naive assumption that their mathematical constructs have the same ontology as the objects which they suppose to describe.16 In theology, the ontological dualism between the realms of creation, proclaimed in the Creed, is, in fact, a structural difference in the unity of creation, which explicates this mystery from the side of creation. The dichotomy in creation in general has its particular manifestation in the constitution of human being, their composite hypostasis traditionally described in terms of body and soul (intellect). Theology asserts human uniqueness exactly as “simultaneous” (joint) existence on two levels of reality, so that only man can be a mediator between these levels and hence be a witness of their ultimate originary unity in the creation.17 If one attempts to formulate the concept of creatio ex nihilo in cosmological terms, that is, in terms of the traces of creation in the world, one can argue that there is a structural element in the world, that is the difference between intelligible and sensible, which carries in itself what the Greeks called the logos (the underlying sense) of creation. In other words, the distinction between the sensible and intelligible can be used in order to affirm that the world is created with a particular sense. The Greek Fathers of Christian Church used the word difference as a cosmological, theological, term in order to articulate the creatio ex nihilo from within the world. This term comes as the translation of the Greek διαφορα′ (diaphora) (this term has theological contradistinction to the Greek word διαιρεσις (diairesis) which means division). It was Dionysius the Areopagite who used first the term diaphora, applying it to the differences of all things in creation18. Maximus the Confessor followed him and used the term diaphora, as a characteristic of created being, its constitutive and distinctive feature. The diaphora is the ontological feature of the created being, its constitutive element. This implies that the difference in creation will never disappear. It plays a constructive role in creation, because it provides a common principle of all created things: all things are differentiated in creation and at the same time the principle of their unity is that they are differentiated. In particular it provides a common principle for the unity of intelligible and sensible creation through its constitutive meaning in the creatio ex nihilo. From this perspective the issue of the creatio ex nihilo can never be separated from the issue of differentiation in creation between intelligible and sensible. The diaphora in God's creation is an established order, the principle of variety and unity in creation, which is distinct from the Creator. The immediate implication of the ontological category diaphora in creation, as applied to a scientific quest for the creatio ex nihilo, is that any physical or cosmological model trying to imitate the creatio ex nihilo in scientific terms, should deal with the fact that it is not enough just to produce a reasonable scenario of how the empirical visible (sensible) universe came into being from “nothing”; one should realize that there is a “parallel” creation of the invisible world, the world of intelligible forms or the noetic realm. But the theory of creation of the noetic realm would be quite problematic, because it assumes a theory of meaning, or a theory of the intelligence which is responsible for the models of the sensible creation in physics and their very articulation in the noetic realm. This demonstrates in turn that while providing the genesis of the physical picture of the world, one needs to appeal to realities which are not quantifiable in the rubrics of physics. One needs philosophy or even theology. Science therefore can responsibly argue only for a “half” of creation (the empirical realm), assuming that the meaning of this “half” is provided from outside, from the noetic realm, which is not itself a subject matter of science (but # 1769 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies rather of philosophy and theology). The noetic realm is involved into the formation of scientific knowledge, so that it is this realm which is the guarantor of its expression and preservation, but the origin of this realm is not subject to science. Science uses logical laws and intellectual forms, but it does not give any account for the very possibility of this usage. In this sense science deals with being, but it does not produce the mechanisms of generation of being. As Heidegger was saying: science is not thinking yet! It is because of this that the maximum science can claim in the analysis of the genesis of the world, is that it found the mechanism of differentiation in creation between empirical (sensible) and intelligible (noetic) as seen from the sensible perspective. This results in the fact that the creatio ex nihilo is accessible through science only up to the extent of ontological differentiation in creation, but not as theological creation out of nothing. This idea can be illustrated with the help of the following diagram: The quantum universe which is represented by the Euclidean 4-dimensional sphere stands here for the intelligible universe IU. The visible universe, which resembles the Pseudo-Euclidean space with a clear distinction between time and space, stands here for the visible universe VU as a part of the empirical realm. In contradistinction with Fig. 2, we treat IU and VU as ontologically distinct universes, so that instead of their literal matching (which happens in Fig. 2) and physical causation between them, we rather affirm the mechanism of their differentiation in creation, which by itself represents the constitutive element of creation ex nihilo in a theological sense. This means that instead of treating the model of Hawking as the model of creation out of nothing, we treat it as a particular theoretical scheme of the diaphora (difference) in being. Now we come to the climax of our analysis, namely to the point where the dualistic scheme of realms in the world, as a structural element of its created nature, is to be subjected to the antinomial analysis in the style of Kant. Our objective at this stage is to trace that metamorphosis of Kantian antinomies, their mutual interaction, which is explicated in modern cosmology through Hawking’s model. Let us rearticulate the main strategy of our analysis. The pivotal idea of cosmology is to explain the observable cosmos. The idea of the universe as a whole is invoked in cosmology in order to operate mathematically with equations applied to Fig. 3. Interpretation of "creation" in Hawking's cosmology as constitutive differentiation between the intelligible and empirical universes # 1770 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies the universe beyond the horizon of its visibility for us. Yet it is assumed that the universe, being a uniform continuum of matter and space-time at large is subject to a scientific grasp. This universe as a heuristic idea can be denoted as VU-visible universe. The specific features of this universe are supposed to be explained in terms of simple principles of unity, which provide the explanation for the whole variety of things in the universe, which seems to be completely contingent at fi rst glance (this is the telos of cosmological explanation). The contingency of the observable universe becomes a fi nal target of cosmology, which hopes to replace this contingency by some “necessary law” which itself will need no further explanation. In quantum cosmology it is believed that this kind of law should exist and it is sought in the remote past of the universe when classical physics must be replaced by a quantum description of matter and space-time. This implies that the universe which is observed by us here and now as a contingent state of affairs was not so in the past, that is, it followed a pattern of behavior which excluded the contingency of its further evolution and consequently its appearance to us as it is. The fundamental difficulty with this attempt is that the law of the initial conditions of the universe, as we have discussed before, does not belong to the temporal series of causations in the visible universe VU, that is, by definition it transcends the universe VU. In Hawking’s model this transcendence is achieved explicitly by breaking the ordinary temporal series of causations in the VU, and by appealing to the modified state of affairs which does not contain time, that is, to the Euclidean 4-dimensional space which, being beyond temporal flux, and not subject to any origination, yet initiates the “classical’ universe, that is, the universe VU with the temporal flux. This primordial universe was qualified by us as the intelligible universe and denoted as IU. The invocation of the intelligible object IU in order to explain so to speak the empirical universe VU can become a subject of a criticism, analogous to the Kantian critique of the argument for the existence of absolutely necessary being. Since IU can not be found as an element of the empirical series in VU, its invocation as an explanatory element has sense only as a construct. This means that IU which is to explain the structure of the universe VU, in fact, departs from the field of empirical realities and the temporal series in the universe VU by acquiring the properties of the pure constructs. This is the logic of the transition in quantum cosmology from VU to IU: VU → IU. It is quite natural, for one ascends from the variety of data to a unified principle which is to explain this data. The situation changes completely, however, when the transition from VU to IU is reversed, that is, when the quantum universe is now treated as a level of reality which is more fundamental than VU, giving rise to the visible universe from the underlying quantum structure. (This is the meaning of Hawking’s claim that the quantum universe with imaginary time can be more fundamental and genuine level of reality, whereas the visible distinction between space and time in classical universe is merely a figment of our imagination.) According to the logic of quantum cosmology, the transition IU→ VU describes the actualization of the visible universe VU out of IU; it, however, must be understood by us, in view of our interpretation of the quantum universe IU, as a causation in a conceptual space, invoked by the thinking intellect. This implies that the mechanism which actualizes the universe VU out of IU is itself treated by us also as a construct with the intelligible ontology. We observe here a kind of intellectual inversion from causation originating in the temporal series (VU → IU), to causation originating in the purely intelligible series (IU → VU), the completeness # 1771 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies of which is based upon existence of an absolutely necessary cause (that is, the quantum universe). This jump in reflection is based on an inability to build the empirical content of the concept of the unconditioned condition (IU) in the series of empirical causes. According to Kant, however, from the structure of the visible universe VU one can not conclude via the empirical analysis to the existence of such a necessary cause (IU) which would not be contingent itself. And that is why one can state that there is no an absolutely necessary cause or being which would explain VU. This means that the quantum universe has no ontological references in the empirical realm. It exists as an intelligible object, which functions in thought only as the purpose of the logical justification of the theory of the visible universe VU as a contingent state of affairs involved in temporal flux. Hawking, as we have seen, believes, however, that IU has the same physical ontology as VU, and that is why the causation which brings VU into existence out of IU is sought as a physical law (we mentioned before that Hawking claimed that there must be laws of the initial conditions in the universe). The clash between the realistic treatment of IU promoted by Hawking in spite of his generally positivistic metaphysics on the one hand, and the opposite claim on the same treatment following from a simple Kantian analysis, leads us to an antinomial puzzle, which points to the only justifiable formula for dealing with the situation; namely to treat Hawking’s intention to justify the visible universe as originated from quantum level, i.e. the transition IU → VU, as an example of antinomial reasoning, which is similar to the Kantian reasoning on an absolutely necessary being expressed in his Critique of Pure Reason in the fourth antinomy (A452-453/B480-481). The antinomy about the origination of the visible universe out of intelligible quantum universe can now be formulated as follows: Thesis: There belongs to the world the quantum universe (Euclidean 4-sphere) IU which provides the boundary condition for the visible universe VU, and whose existence is absolutely necessary for the visible universe VU to exist; and this is a causal condition for VU to be as it is. Antithesis: There nowhere exists the quantum universe IU in the world, as the cause of the visible universe VU (there is no connection between IU and VU: they belong to the different ontological realms (intelligible and empirical) correspondingly). The appearance of such an antinomy in the discourse of origin of the universe is remarkable because, as we remember, the initial motivation of Hawking’s model was to overcome the difficulties associated with the fi rst Kantian antinomy on the origin of the universe in time, that is on the beginning of the universe in time. What happened, as a result of quantum cosmology’s attempt to remove the problematics of the fi rst antinomy, is very interesting: one detects a certain metamorphosis of antinomies. The overcoming of the fi rst antinomy led with a sort of inevitability to the formulation of the antinomy of the origin of the universe not in terms of time, but in terms of the absolutely necessary being. This shift in the explication of the problem of origin of the universe has taken place not purely philosophically, but under the pressure of developments of cosmological theory. In other words, the very progress of knowledge suggested a concrete scheme of that how to explicate the intrinsic interconnectedness of the Kantian antinomies. This shift, as we argue, reflects some general patterns of scientific attempts to fi nd the foundation of the world undertaken by human subjects. # 1772 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies Kant could use the antinomy formulated by us for a negative conclusion about the empirical evidence for the existence of an absolutely necessary being (IU) as a cause of the visible universe VU. His argument would be that the quantum universe IU belongs to the intelligible realm and does not have an independent ontological being apart from the thought, which brought the ideas of IU into being. However this conclusion constitutes nothing negative, for the antinomies, as puzzles for human reason, can be considered as natural difficulties arising in relating the ontology of the sensible world to the ontology of the intelligible world and vice versa; these difficulties point towards the limits of the human power of knowledge. However, one can go further and claim that the new explication of the fourth cosmological antinomy of Kant, in fact, refi nes the scheme of constituting of the very human cognitive faculties. Namely, this antinomy in its logical performance by reason, manifests the process of mediation between the sensible and intelligible worlds, performed by a human subject in virtue of that this subject is itself a complex of the physicobiological and intellectual-spiritual, so that the mediation between the sensible and intelligible worlds happens within this human subject. Thus the structural similarity in the constitution of humanity and the universe is revealed: it can be formulated as that there is a common underlying principle (logos) which lies in their foundation and the content of this principle is that there is the ontological difference (diaphora) between the sensible and intelligible in both the universe and humanity. An interesting feature of modern cosmology, which is not a philosophical discipline, is that it reveals the unity of the human reason with respect to two realms in the created being. This unity is reveled through the transformation of the first Kantian antinomy (on the temporal beginning or eternity of the universe), into the fourth one (on the ultimate foundation of the world), the transformation through which the problem of the underlying foundations of the contingent facticity of the world is explicated in a new way. This fact demonstrates that cosmology is imbued with anthropology in the sense that its transcendental consciousness reveals the antinomial difficulties arising as soon as the understanding transcends the boundaries of experience and endeavors to speculate on the foundations of its own facticity. Taking this into account, cosmology can be seen not only as a natural science, but also as a human science, which narrates no so much about the external world, but rather about humanity and its place in the universe.19 The presence of antinomies in the cosmological discourse, where one attempts to speculate on the creation of the universe out of nothing in a theological sense, points to the fundamental difference in the contingent creation between the intelligible and sensible realms. It makes possible for us to guess whether this tendency of a split in theory between empirical realities and their conceptual images, if taken in its extreme, will always lead a scientist to the detection of the ultimate frontier in attempting to synthesize the variety of physical experience in a single principle of unity, namely to the unbridgeable ontological diaphora in the created domain. The mediation between intelligible and sensible, which is performed by a philosophizing cosmologists, and which is theologically justifiable, reflects the unification of the divisions in creation (that, is the division between intelligible and sensible realms) which take place not ontologically, but on the level of cognition. The antinomial structure of the proposition about the causation between the intelligible quantum universe and the visible, combined together with our analysis of the intelligible # 1773 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies ontology of the quantum realm with an imaginary time, leads us finally to the conclusion that that quantum cosmology is dealing with differentiation in the contingent creation, that is, with the basic diaphora in creation, rather than with creatio ex nihilo in a theological sense. However, since the presence of the difference between the intelligible and sensible reflects a general tendency and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 specific feature of all scientific attempts, which try to provide the genesis of the attributes of the empirical universe in a single unified theory, it becomes evident that these scientific models are not theologically irrelevant in what concerns their particular schemes which allow one to detect the presence of the diaphora as a constitutive element of creatio ex nihilo. See, for example, Athanasius of Alexandria, Contra Gentiles 8, 34, 38, 40. This issue was a matter of interesting discussions in the papers of J. A. Wheeler in 1960-80s. The full bibliography can be found in his (Wheeler 1994, 351-4). “Dust” stands here for the uniform distribution of clusters of galaxies, which are treated as noninteracting particles (similar to the concept of the ideal gas). The bibliography on inflationary cosmology is vast, so that the reader, for example, can refer to a recent book (Weinberg, 2008). A simple model of what has been said in the text can be found for example, in the papers (Gunzig et al., 1998, 2000). See (Tryon 1988). A detailed analysis of this model can be found in (Isham, 1988). E. Mc. Mullin points out that the position of Newton was a departure from the medieval Aristotelians who were not inclined to separate creation of matter and time (McMullin 1988, p. 44). There exist some models which attempt to model the pre-Big Bang state of the universe. Many leading cosmologists argue that the global initial conditions do not provide much use for conclusions about the visible universe. See, e.g. (Barrow, 1993; 1999, p. 26). By leaving aside all technicalities in this trick one must be said, however that the idea to geometrize time dates back to the developments of special relativity, where the unification of space and time in one complex was achieved through the concept of the interval between two events, which is usually treated as a metric, that is the device which allows one to measure distances between any events in space time, which is named as Minkowski space. The idea of geometrization of time was not received positively among philosophers: it is enough to invoke the name of A. Bergson, who in his famous book (Bergson, 1999) argued that this approach is philosophically damaging for taking into account various aspect of the reality of time. See details in (Hawking, Penrose, 1996, pp. 84-86). See e.g. a good review paper of (Coule 2000). In this paper the healthy criticism of the creationist pretensions of quantum cosmology is developed. The author rightly affi rms that the issues of “creation” is overstated in quantum cosmology and its aim is to provide “quantum determination of the cosmological state” rather than to claim the “creation”. J. Horgan in chapter 4 of his book (Horgan,1996) discusses the implication of Hawking’s cosmological model in the context of his claims about the end of physics as soon as the ultimate theory of everything will be built. Horgan accepts a view that cosmology in the form as it is developed by theoretical physicists like Hawking, departs from any experimental base (in comparison with astronomy for example). He calls this cosmology ironic rather than scientific, making a conclusion that the trend it takes in its extreme speculation provides not an end of science as ultimate knowledge of everything, but rather the “epitaph” for cosmology itself, as a scientific discipline. Damascius offered an interesting geometrical analogy in explaining the nature of empirical time as the radiance which circles around the intelligible center, the unity of all time, which preserves the order of time in the empirical world. See (Sambursky, Pines, 1961, pp. 64-93). Intelligible time in this picture is the cause of the coherent continuity of the temporal flow. This makes the empirical time united with the intelligible one as the radii are united in the center of a circle. Damascius argues then that the whole time exists at once as all radii exist at once at the center of a circle. He then draws a conclusion that the whole time exists simultaneously in the same way as the whole space of the cosmos (it is interesting that this intuition is very similar to the spatialization of time as is often done in the context of the relativity theory). The Hawking model with imaginary time offers something similar, for its fi nite universe covers the whole span of all possible real times in a single space-like structure, whose existence, according to Hawking, is not in the flux of time, it rather represents a hidden form of time, its encapsulated form. The physical and mathematical problems which arise in this matching are discussed in Ch. 7 of (Hawking, Penrose 1996). See papers of (Tegmark 2008) and (McCabe 2004-2005). The idea that humanity acts as a mediator between divisions in creation was developed by Maximus the Confessor. See in this respect books (Thunberg1995), (Tollefsen, 2008). See his The Divine Names, 5,8; The Celestial Hierarchies, 4,3,1. This point was advocated in (Nesteruk, 2011). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies References Patristic writers: Abbreviation : NPNF – P. Schaff and H. Wace (eds.), The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Grand Rapids, MI: W. B. Eerdman Publishing Company, 1996. 1. Athanasius of Alexandria, Contra Gentiles, [ET: NPNF, vol. 4]. 2. Augustine, Confessions, [ET: Saint Augustine. Confessions. Trans. H. Chadwick, Oxford University Press, 1991]. 3. Augustine, City of God. [ET: Augustine. Concerning the City of God against Pagans, Trans. H. Bettenson, NY: Penguin Books, 1980]. 4. Basil the Great, The Hexaemeron, [ET: NPNF, vol. 8]. 5. Dionysius the Areopagite, The Divine Names [ET: The Divine Names and the Mystical Theology. Trans. C. E. Rolt. London: SPCK, 1979]. 6. Dionysius the Areopagite, The Celestial Hierarchies [ET: The Mystical Theology and the Celestial Hierarchies of the Dionysisus the Areopagite. Godalming: The Shrine of Wisdom, 1965]. General bibliography 7. Barrow, J. “Unprincipled Cosmology”, Quarterly Journal Royal Astronomical Society, v. 34, 1993, pp. 116-34. 8. Barrow, J., Between Inner Space and Outer Space, Oxford University Press, 1999. 9. Bergson, H., Duration and Simultaneity, Manchester, Clinamen Press, 1999. 10. Coule, D., “Quantum creation and inflationary universes: A critical appraisal”, Phys. Rev. D 62, 2000, pp. 12401-12416. 11. Gunzig, E., Maartens, R., Nesteruk, A., Class. Quant. Gravity, v. 15, 1998, pp. 923-32. 12. Gunzig, E., Nesteruk, A., Stokley, M., Gen. Rel. Grav., v. 32, 2000, pp. 329-46. 13. Hawking, S. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. London: Bantam, 1988. 14. Hawking S., Penrose, R., The Nature of Space and Time. Princeton University Press, 1996. 15. Hartle, J. B., Hawking, S. W., “Wave function of the universe”, Phys. Rev. D 28, 1983, pp. 2960-65. 16. Horgan, J., The End of Science, London: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. 17. Isham, C., “Creation of the Universe as a Quantum Process”. In Physics, Philosophy and Theology. R. J. Russell et al. (eds.), Berkley, CA: CTNS, 1988, pp. 313-31. 18. Kant, I., Critique of Pure Reason, 2nd ed. Trans. N. K. Smith. London: Macmillan, 1933. 19. May, G., Creatio Ex Nihilo: The Doctrine of ‘Creation out of Nothing’ in Early Christian Thought. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1994. 20. McCabe, G., “The Structure and Interpretation of Cosmology”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Part 1, v. 35, 2004, pp. 549-95; Part 2, v. 36, 2005, pp. 67-102. 21. McMullin, E., “Is Philosophy Relevant to Cosmology?” In Modern Cosmology and Philosophy, J. Leslie (ed.), NY: Prometheus, 1998, pp. 35-56. 22. Nesteruk, A. V., “Cosmology at the Crossroads of Natural and Human Sciences: is Demarcation Possible?” Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. Part. 1, vol. 4, n. 4, 2011, pp. 560-76, Part 2, vol. 4, n. 5, 2011, pp. 644 -66. # 1775 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Problem of Creation of the World in Cosmology and Metamorphosis of Kantian Antinomies 23. Plass, P. C., “Timeless Time in Neoplatonism”, The Modern Schoolman LV, November 1966, pp. 1-19. 24. Sambursky, S., Pines, S., The Concept of Time in Late Neo-Platonism, Jerusalem, 1961, pp. 64-93. 25. Tegmark, M., “The Mathematical Universe”, Foundations of Physics, vol. 38, n. 2, 2008, pp. 59-101. 26. Thunberg, L., Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of Maximus the Confessor. Chicago: Open Court, 1995. 27. Tollefsen, T. T., The Christocentric Cosmology of St Maximus the Confessor, Oxford University Press, 2008. 27. Tryon, E. P., “Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?”, In. J. Leslie (ed.), Modern Cosmology and Philosophy, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998, pp. 222-25. 29. Wheeler, J. A., At Home in the Universe, NY: American Institute of Physics Press, 1994. 30. Weinberg, S., Cosmology, Oxford University Press, 2008. Проблема сотворения мира в современной космологии и метаморфоза кантовских антиномий А.В. Нестерук Университет Портсмута Лайон Гэйт Бюлдинг, ПОРТСМУТ, РО1 3НF, Великобритания В статье проводится философский анализ известной в космологии попытки моделировать сотворение вселенной из ничего. Модель квантовой космологии Хоукинга с мнимым временем анализируется в соотношении с идеями неоплатоников и представителей патристики. Анализ показывает, что современная космология представляет собой уникальный случай продемонстрировать трансформацию антиномической трудности, возникающей при попытке установить конечность вселенной во времени (первая антиномия Канта), в антиномию, сходную с четвертой кантовской антиномией об абсолютно необходимом существе. Сделан вывод, что космология не может моделировать творение мира из ничего, однако она позволяет уточнить и эксплицировать далее структурный элемент богословски понимаемого сотворенного мира, а именно онтологическое различие между областью умопостигаемых форм и областью видимых вещей. Делается также вывод о том, что космологические модели позволяют эксплицировать эпистемологические ограничения, возникающие при попытке смоделировать творение мира из ничего. Ключевые слова: антиномии, богословие, вечность, время, вселенная, космология, пространство, различие, творение. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1777-1781 ~~~ УДК 7.036 Environmentalism Aesthetic Aspects: Ecology and Modern Art Yuriy V. Sobolev* Siberian State Technological University 82 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia Received 18.11.2012, received in revised form 21.01.2013, accepted 03.11.2013 In the present paper the author considers the problems of ecology and modern art in the context of environmentalism aesthetics. Through nominal logical analysis, applying historic and semiotic methods to the field of an examined problem the author identifies the main aesthetic and philosophical aspects of the correlation between a current position of ecology and artwork. In the process of achieving the major goal, which is stating the place of “aesthetic junction” in the context of ecologic artistic discourse, the author consequently does the following: defines a place of ecologic range of problems in a historic philosophical context; clarifies the main approaches to the given problem in foreign and homeland traditions; outlines possible ways for correct entering the modern environmental aesthetics. Theoretical material of the paper can be used in the courses of aesthetics, culturology and study of art. Keywords: aesthetics, environmentalism, ecology, modern art, culture. Understanding environmental issues within the discursive field of the philosophical tradition is a relatively new phenomenon; today ecology is seen mainly as one in a general range of contemporary global issues (in particular, as one of critical problems in history and philosophy of science). This is one of the reasons why a philosophical view on the ecological state of the modern world is becoming a habitual fixation and statement of the common (already timehonoured) idea that a human destroys the world. Against this background, it seems as if a utopian anachronism to retain the pathos of modern European philosophy era, expressed in the famous idea of Francis Bacon about overcoming nature with the help of technical advances. However, * already in the first half of the 20th century, the problem of man and world relationships became a subject to interpretation for such scholars as E. Mach, P. Teilhard de Chardin, V.I. Vernadsky (Vernadsky, 1991). Later came the theory of “deep ecology” (1973) by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss. The essence of deep ecology, which questions the “basic principles of our society” (Næss), is to avoid the limitations of methodological framework of modern science. (For example, another representative of this direction – W. Fox – suggested renaming deep ecology into transpersonal ecology as a certain symbiosis of deep ecology with the eastern spiritual knowledge and experience of European philosophical psychology). So, why © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1777 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy V. Sobolev. Environmentalism Aesthetic Aspects: Ecology and Modern Art is it philosophy which makes “ecological” issue so topical, this very ecological issue which is apparently inherent in ordinary research field? To start with, the term “ecology” dates back about the middle of the 19th century. But only at the end of this century, the term came to science through the agency of the German biologist Ernst Haeckel, who in 1886 published his work “General Morphology of Organisms”. Etymological analysis of the concept of “ecology” tells us that “ecology” is a “science of home and house” and in a broader sense – a “science of the world surrounding human – environment”. Therefore upon any alarm (sometimes irrational!) and translation of a problem into the humanitarian sphere of knowledge is more than justified, when we have to face a lexical item of “environmental problem”, as in the language of the material objects the “environmental problem” is perceived as a rebellion against our own house and our own intrinsic habitat, which is a way of aggressive acculturation, the “winning” result of the latter would be found in ruining the human natural home. Therefore, economic and environmental activities of mankind are experience they acquired in relationships with nature. Such experience is primarily required to identify possible answers to the questions corresponding to the ability to achieve human own homeostasis in nature’s lap with the obligatory self-restraint of human influence on natural ecosystems. And the purpose of a human in these economic and sociocultural activities is to take reasonable decisions in terms of awareness of the arisen management problems of human activities. Environmental problem as a problem of interaction between man and nature inevitably leads us to the broader issue – the question of the correlation of culture and nature. In the philosophical tradition the original statement of this problem might have been found in the ancient cosmological worldview without which the environmental setting of the problem can not be possible in principle, since the ancient Greeks did not think of themselves as contrasted to external nature (the macrocosm) and put out of it. According to Aleksei Losev, “Antiquity is built on animated, reasonable (and not just on objective, not just objectively material and sensual) sense of cosmology (Losev, 1988: 154-155). In this context, we have the Socratic motto-creed “Know thyself” as an illustration of that a human is not just an organic substance of the macrocosm, but a cosmic and harmonious potency, self-creating itself in the mode of a macrocosmic habitat. In other words, culture can not be reduced to values as the finished results, instead it incorporates the degree of development of the human himself, for neither a human, nor a culture can exist in a static state. In connection with the aforesaid it is appropriate to recall the concept of the noosphere, which is based on an understanding of a human habitat as a media of active influence on human mind. Accordingly, the biosphere as a sphere of wildlife, including the human culture, under this influence is transformed into the noosphere, the limits of which are expanded repeatedly and determined each time by the limits of penetration into the nature of human mind. One of the brightest representatives of the noosphere theory – T. de Chardin in his famous work “The Phenomenon of Man” wrote: “Men can fully see neither themselves outside of humanity, nor humanity – outside of life, nor life – outside of the universum” (Teyar de Chardin, 2002: 140). But even in an attempt to unite into a single ontological plane men and their cultural way of being, the highest form of which is human spiritual activities, and also the world around, one can not distinguish between these two natures. Art as the apotheosis of human cultural activity turns out to be woven into the process and range of problems of interaction between nature # 1778 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy V. Sobolev. Environmentalism Aesthetic Aspects: Ecology and Modern Art and society. Therefore, the main environmental problem processes are considered not just in the context of the global crisis state, but also as a reflection of the dramatic and, in general, inevitable consequence of (a product of) culture. And in this sense the artist’s work can be thought as a secondary reflection, as a repetition and fixation of the act in the “failed” culture, as an attempt to change the extemporaneous result of an activity with a scheme “nature – culture – death of nature” for a meaningful cultural outcome “nature – culture – death of nature – restored culture as art”. In other words, the aesthetic result of an art-istic activity of an artist turns to be functional (according to Aristotle): on the one hand, the artist’s work is informative, as it gives “knowledge”, on the other hand, this activity is aesthetic and hedonistic as acquaintance with this work gives a pleasure to the viewer (Aristotle, 1957: 48-49). Here we should note one important peculiarity, which determines correct entering the problem: the aesthetic phenomenon goes beyond the limits of art itself, and culture in general. To put it otherwise, in the context of humanitarian understanding of environmental issues, we can speak about the aesthetics of nature (in this case, about the destruction of the natural aesthetics). The rationale for this position can be found in the work “Aesthetics of Nature” by A.F. Losev and M.A. Takho-Godi: “Everyone understands nature primarily as a kind of a natural attribute that does not require for itself any artificial properties and any aesthetics. On the other hand, however, all the arts, without exception, not to mention the ordinary human consciousness, persistently point out the beauty of nature, its existing harmony, rhythm, and talk about the lyrical or ominous moments, which are characteristic of certain paintings of nature. Such phenomena suggest that the aesthetics of nature does certainly exist and that it is infinitely varied, capable of causing in the human psyche both calm and excitement, senses of grandeur and immensity, feelings of peace and tranquility. Aesthetic impact of nature on man arises no doubt. But the aesthetics of nature can not be based on random impressions, personal tastes and like any science it needs logical definitions, categories and principles” (Losev et al., 2006: 5). As we can see, the aesthetic model of nature has remained throughout human history such a visible image that surrounds and permeates human existence, provoking a man as an artist to answer through the mimetic act of creation. Strictly speaking, imitation as a key principle of creative thought is a constituent in the whole Western European aesthetics: from an ancient mythologema of organic arrange-ment of the world to Christian revelation about con-gruity and con-forming of man into God in freedom of creative will and expression. “God became man so that man might become God” – this famous formula expressed by the Reverend John Chrysostom bears to the greatest extent certificate of mimetic (but in this case now – ontological!) principle of human life creation. Consequently it is not surprising when an artist seems to have overcome the syndrome of postmodern paradigm by reversing (return) to nature through the understanding of the environmental problem. In a sense, it is the process of dialectical logical completing the circle of the whole period of artistic creation history: from mimesis to speculation and back. And all creative searches of modernists, which had their incarnations in various forms of art, were themselves artistic acts, a social game and escape from nature. Aesthetic (emotional and sensual) human intentions even in the “failed”, peripheral culture, i.e. in trash, waste, debris, enable one to see (and imitate, copy) the supreme example of an artist, which is nature. As one of those cultural phenomena of the 20th century it is appropriate to # 1779 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy V. Sobolev. Environmentalism Aesthetic Aspects: Ecology and Modern Art recall environmental art (in other cases, the term “eco-art” is used). “The term “environment” (derived from the English language) is polysemous. From the point of etymological studying it means the area surrounding something. When used in a broader sense, this term is often confused with “ecology”, the complex of relationships between any object and its environment. Most of the meanings of the term “environment” are within these limits” (Bychkov, 2003: 606). Representatives of environmentalism (mainly plastic one) in different countries of the world do not just create works from recycled materials, but with their help attract public’s attention to ecological problems. Consonance of discordant sounds is informatively effectively: a viewer, while immersing into the experience of aesthetic, is involved in the interpretation of the presence of a very important, but diffused, and therefore invisible background of their own life, which has the negative consequences of human acculturation. However, the representatives of environmentalism themselves are not excited about this definition. For most of them, it is not an art in the strict sense of the word, but a kind of a loudspeaker, allowing “crying out” to reach society and draw attention to environmental issues. Same professional artists using techniques and materials borrowed from environmentalism call it modern art, without any additional definitions and clarifications. Eco-artists call to draw attention to the problem of the spread of household waste, including electronic one. They create extraordinary paintings, sculptures, decorative objects, items of clothing, upon looking at it is not immediately clear what material has been used for their creation. Examples of environmentalism artworks include the following curiosities: “House of Glass Beer Bottles”, created by Tito Ingeneri (Argentina); “The CD Chair” from Belen Hermosa (Spain); “Sneakers of Electronic Parts” from Gabriel Disho (USA); “Advertising Banner of Obsolete Computer Displays” ( USA); “Plastic Bottle Chandelier”(Canada), “Picture- Installation of Discarded Phones”, created by Nigel Sielegar; a sculpture of a huge mobile phone from a large number of discarded mobile phones (Romania); a house of plastic bags filled with Styrofoam packing peanuts from Max Wallach; A couch constructed from 20 Macintosh II computers (USA) and many other objects. In summary, we note the question whether environmentalism belongs to one of the trends in contemporary art remains unsolved. Probably, the formulation of such a problem itself can be removed in the result, for instance, of development and dissemination of environmentalism as, for example, a social movement. But no doubt that the phenomenon of environmentalism itself (or eco – art) is worth studying: the visual (artistic) image implies the substantial messages about a real universal threat – global ecological catastrophe, and it should become a clear reminder to the person of the existence of “first nature” and its tragic status today, when nature is dissolved in an alien state of concrete walls in metropolitan cities. Refences 1. Aristotle. On the art of poetry (Moscow, Fiction edition, 1957), in Russia. 2. Bychkov V.V. Lexicon nonclassica. Art and esthetic culture of the XX century (Moscow, «ROSSPEN», 2003), in Russia. 3. Eko art and design (http://www.zelife.ru/ecophoto/87-ecodesigngoods.html) [Accessed 07 December 2012], in Russia. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy V. Sobolev. Environmentalism Aesthetic Aspects: Ecology and Modern Art 4. 5. 6. 7. Losev A.F., Taho-Godi M.A. Aesthetics of nature (Moscow, «Science», 2006), in Russia. Losev A.F. Spirit aspiration (Moscow, «Politizdat», 1988), in Russia. Teyar de Chardin P. The Phenomenon of Man (Moscow, «ACT edition», 2002), in Russia. Vernadsky V.I. Some Words About The Noösphere (Moscow, «Science», 1991), in Russia. Эстетические аспекты энвайроментализма: экология и современное искусство Ю.В. Соболев Сибирский государственный технологический университет Россия 660049, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 82 В настоящей статье автором рассматриваются проблемы экологии и современного искусства в контексте эстетики энвайроментализма. Путем формально-логического анализа исторического и семиотического методов внутри проблемного поля исследования выявляются ключевые эстетико-философские аспекты взаимосвязи современного статуса экологии и художественного творчества. В ходе достижения главной цели – определения места «эстетического узла» в рамках эколого-художественного дискурса – решаются следующие задачи: определяется место экологической проблематики в историкофилософском контексте; освещаются основные подходы к данной проблеме в зарубежной и отечественной традиции; намечаются возможные пути для корректного вхождения в современную энвайроментальную эстетику. Теоретический материал статьи может быть использован в курсах по эстетике, культурологии, искусствоведению. Ключевые слова: эстетика, энвайроментализм, экология, современное искусство, культура. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1782-1886 ~~~ УДК 37.06 How Russian Rural Teachers Work: Market Trends in the Common Education Serge V. Leliukhin* Stolypin Volga Region Institute 23/25 Sobornaia Str., Saratov, 410031 Russia Received 24.07.2013, received in revised form 31.07.2013, accepted 04.08.2013 Author investigates market trends in Russian common education in the contest of functioning of profession of rural teacher. He chose neo-Weberian approach in sociology of professions focused on the conflict and the negative aspects of the relationship between the state, the market, professions and citizens. He used biographical method as a kind of ethnographic approach to the case study in two different districts of Saratov region. Author conducted narrative interview with the principal and opened interviews using the methodology of free association with the students of the school (N=20) in the village Prokudino of Atkarsk district in November 2012. Author conducted narrative interviews with teacher and principal; opened interviews with schoolchildren (N=8) of school number 10 in the village of Kamensky in Krasnoarmeisk district in September 2012. Author described two market trends in the context of theory of Bourdieu's capital. He showed the different effects on the functioning of the profession of Russian rural teachers. The optimization of schools led to the conversion of the cultural capital of teachers and social capital of pupils into the economic capital. The economic capital as a way to overcome the financial barrier and social capital of young professional environment converted in the cultural capital needed for the labor market demanded specialist in the rural school. Keywords: Rural teacher, Bourdieu, capitals, sociology of professions. The optimization of the school network is the market trend of Russia and several transition countries, such as Armenia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Romania and Ukraine (Coupe 2011). This very situation is characterized by a multitude of very small schools and very small classes. Many governments try to reduce costs and would like to merge small schools as the cost of one big school with many students is typically smaller than the cost of having a network of many small schools with few students in each. The place of their residence * is the zone of territorial availability for 92 % of Russian schoolchildren (Konstantinovsky 2008). Children tend to learn where they live. Russian parents and teachers took the real actions in response to the threat of closure of schools in different regions of the country: Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Transbaikalia etc. (Chilikova 2010). Declining quality of education in some rural schools is due to the fact that the teaching staff in them is not staffed. Russian Ministry of Education held a competition for graduates in 2010 to fi x this problem. 8 winners in the © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1782 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Serge V. Leliukhin. How Russian Rural Teachers Work: Market Trends in the Common Education Saratov region received grants in the amount of 500,000 rubles. Basic theoretical and methodological orientations of sociology of professions include functionalist, critical and neo-Weberian approaches (Romanov 2009). Some sociologists carry out searching for the ideal model of the profession in the context of the paradigm of structural functionalism. Others examine the inequalities in the mosaic of professions and occupations, the positions and specializations within the critical approach. The conflict and the negative aspects of the relationship between the state, the market, professions and citizens are in the focus the neo-Weberianism. Began to study the profession of rural teachers in general education we chose neo-Weberian approach. Biographical method as a kind of ethnographic approach to the case study has become a tool of our study (Romanov 2008). Trying to understand how optimization of the school network affected on the functioning of the profession of rural teachers, we identified the adoption of children from orphanages by the staff of the rural schools. Such manifestations of activity took place in Chuvashia, Penza and Saratov regions (Kuzin 2012, Kulikov 2009). We focused on the study the experience of the teachers of the village Prokudino of Atkarsk district in Saratov region. We conducted narrative interview with the principal Svetlana Zonova and opened interviews using the methodology of free association with the students of the school (N=20) in November 2012. Studying the results of the financial support for rural teachers, we turned to the analysis of personal experience of Elena Samarina. She is the winner of the special contest of Russian Ministry of Education. She graduated from the Pedagogical Institute of Saratov State University in 2010 and began to work as a teacher of the secondary school number 10 in the village Kamensky (Krasnoarmeisk district, Saratov region). In September 2012 we studied the characteristics of participation in the contest during the narrative interview with Elena Samarina and principal of school Valentina Soina. We used opened interviews with schoolchildren (N=8) to analyze the interaction of teacher and kids. Pedagogical Poem of Prokudino Village Prokudino is located about 30 km from the district center, the city of Atkarsk. Regular buses to the village for a long time do not go, though Prokudino is a pretty big and strong village. Local school is new, spacious and wellkept grounds. Local media and federal channels informed about the teachers who have taken in orphans. The response of teachers to the content of publications and reports was a hurt: «Why not just write about us and did not speak. They said we took the kids for money. They decided it was the step of desperation to save work. They discussed all the details from the past of kids, although we shared the secrets. Imagine what it was like to read to our children… We would save not only themselves, but the whole village. Village with no school is doomed» (Svetlana Zonova, principal). Teachers took the decision to foster children 10 years ago. Svetlana Zonova had three of their children and one adopted daughter. Some of her colleagues were involved in the program of family educational groups of local orphanage «Dobrota». Orphans temporarily staged in the family of teachers in this program. Seven teachers and three school officials took the children from the orphanage. 30 former orphans were enrolled in the school for all the years of work with foster children. Orphanage «Dobrota» has ceased to exist as unnecessary due to teachers from Prokudino. Turning to the study of the structure of everyday thinking of children, we proceeded from the fact that the world appears to the individual in # 1783 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Serge V. Leliukhin. How Russian Rural Teachers Work: Market Trends in the Common Education his own experience and interpretation. We used the association experiment to understand the mood of children. We conducted a study anonymously so as not to highlight orphans among guys. We asked children to compare their current internal state to the season. Children spoke positively in their associations. They talked about the spring, because «my heart warm, fun. I am surrounded by people who love me. It’s heyday, energy, power, prosperity». They compared themselves to the summer, when the «beautiful, interesting life. Every day in the summer is a holiday». We identified one case of negative associations, when the soul of a child is autumn: «Journalists come to the school and ask the question, how do you in the family. Or even worse, shoot us and shown on TV that we foster children». We used the theory of capital Bourdieu to interpret the data (Bourdieu 2002). Accumulation of cultural capital in incorporated state manifested in the form of improving teachers’ personalities. They let orphans in the world of their families. They overcame the difficulties of mutual adaptation. They took responsibility for the lives of orphans. The school as a cultural symbol in objected state of the village has been preserved. Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev have visited the school in the village of Engels district of Saratov region and noted: «School is modern, good. There is a school – there is a village. Therefore, educational institutions must be preserved; their optimization can lead to mindless mechanical reduction of the socalled small schools» (Gorevaia 2012). He made this conclusion after 10 years of the application of optimization in the educational policy of the state. Children were in families. They were able to accumulate social capital by forming a network of connections required for material and symbolic profits. Cultural capital of teachers and social capital of pupils were converted into economic capital. Professional employment of teachers has been saved. They prevented the negative effects of reducing the number of students at the school. School could lose the status of a secondary. Teachers would have lost work because of job cuts. The winner of the contest in the village of Kamensky Kamensky village is located in the southern part of the Saratov region, bordering with the Volgograd region. It has existed since 1765, was founded by German colonists and until 1943 known as Grimm. The village preserved German artifacts: primary school, a shop with a warehouse complex, residential stone houses with typical northern German attributes facade. We found that Elena Samarina learned from the director of the school in the village of Kamensky on existing vacancy of teacher of German language and ability to obtain a grant. She decided to participate in the contest. Young teacher in the countryside, begins its new stage of life “from scratch”, has a serious financial problem. Their salary is less than 8, 000 rubles a month (including allowances for working in rural areas), and the value of the house about 1 million rubles. Elena Samarina received 500, 000 rubles as the winner of contest. This money is not enough to buy a house in the village. Moreover, she could not use them immediately. She could do it only after a year of work in the school and the positive evaluation of the grant project. She had parents in the village of Kamensky. She could live in the family home. Without parental home, she would not take part in contest. We have studied the process of joining Elena Samarina in the teaching profession. We have systematized answers of pupils. We asked them to continue the two phrases. Firstly, «Elena Alexandrovna is a teacher who taught me…». Secondly, «She is the person with whom I take the example in the ...». We revealed knowledge # 1784 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Serge V. Leliukhin. How Russian Rural Teachers Work: Market Trends in the Common Education and skills, developed with the participation of Elena, which go beyond the study of the German language. She contributes to the socialization of pupils, teaching them «to respect for others», «to talk to older people, especially teachers», «to listen to what they say, which give advice». She teaches them responsibility: «If you take the job, then finish it to the end». She develops their self-control: «Thanks to her in our sometimes «furious» class appeared necessary discipline». She teaches them how to behave: «I want to walk like her, she walks beautifully». We have applied the theory of Bourdieu's capital for the interpretation of the data. We concluded that the rural school teacher acquired cultural capital in the institutionalized state, having the opportunity to work in a specialty and professional recognition. Economic capital in the form of a grant state support and social capital contributed to this result. After graduation she returned to her old school, but as a colleague of his former teachers. She began her professional activities in the team, who knew her and appreciated all the previous years. The school has gained highly skilled with the financial support of the government of the Russia. Two market trends in the context of their analysis using the theory of Bourdieu’s capital have different effects on the functioning of the profession of Russian rural teachers. The optimization of schools led to the conversion of the cultural capital of teachers and social capital of pupils into the economic capital. Financial support for young rural teachers through the organization of professional contest was not widely supported by university graduates for a number of reasons identified earlier (Leliukhin 2012). The economic capital as a way to overcome the financial barrier and social capital of young professional environment converted in the cultural capital needed for the labor market demanded specialist in the rural school. References 1. Bourdieu P. (2002). Forms of Capital. Economic Sociology, (3/5), 60-74. 2. Chilikova L. (2010). The authorities of the Ulyanovsk region will publish a program of schools’ optimization [Vlasti Ul’ianovskoi oblasti opublikuiut programmu optimizatsii shkol]. Russian general educational portal of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, available at www.school.edu.ru/news.asp?ob_no=76197 (access 8 April 2012). 3. Coupe T. (2011). Is School Network Optimization An Opportunity for Education in Transition Countries. Free Forum for Research on Eastern Europe and Emerging Economies. 2011. Nov. 7, available at freepolicybriefs.org/2011/11/07/is-school-network-optimization-an-opportunity-foreducation-in-transition-countries/ 4. Gorevaia I. (2012). Dmitry Medvedev: School lives, village lives [Dmitry Medvedev: zhivet shkola – zhivet selo. Nashe slovo, (98), 1-2. 5. Konstantinovsky D.L. (2008) Inequality and Education. Attempt of sociological research on the life starts of the Russian youth (1960th – beginning of 2000th [Neravenstvo i obrazovanie. Opyt sotsiologicheskikh issledovanii zhiznennogo starta rossiiskoi molodezhi (1960e – nachalo 2000)]. Moscow, SFC. 552 p. 6. Kulikov A., Savankova N. (2009). Far Cry [Bolshaia Raznitsa] Rossiiskaia gazeta – Weekly, available at www.rg.ru/2009/10/22/eksperimenty.html (access 8 April 2012). 7. Kuzin A. (2012). Adopted a School. [Shkolu udocherili] Rossiiskaia gazeta – Weekly – VolgaUral, available at www.rg.ru/2012/02/22/reg-pfo/shkola.html (access 8 April 2012). # 1785 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Serge V. Leliukhin. How Russian Rural Teachers Work: Market Trends in the Common Education 8. Leliukhin S. (2012). Young teacher: entry into the profession problems and how to overcome them [Molodoi uchitel: problemy vkhozhdenia v professiiu i ikh preodolenie]. Kadrovik, (10), 114118. 9. Romanov P.V., Iarskaia-Smirnova E.R. (2009). World of Occupations: revision of analytical perspectives. Socis, (8), 25-35. 10. Romanov P.V., Iarskaia-Smirnova E.R. (2008). Methods of Applied Social Research [Metody prikladnykh sotsial’nykh issledovanii]. Moscow, Variant, 2008. 215 p. Работа сельского учителя в России: тенденции на рынке общего образования С.В. Лелюхин Поволжский институт управления им. П.А. Столыпина Россия 410031, Саратовская область, Саратов, ул. Соборная, 23/25 В данной статье автор анализирует тенденции на рынке российского общего образования в контексте работы сельского учителя. Для анализа был выбран неовеберианский подход в социологии профессий фокусирующийся на конфликте и негативных аспектах взаимоотношений между государством, рынком, профессионалами и гражданами. В качестве этнографического подхода автор использовал биографический метод для изучения ситуаций в двух различных районах Саратовской области. Автором были проведены индивидуальные интервью с директорами школ, а также открытые интервью с использованием методологии свободной ассоциации с учениками школы (N=20) в деревне Прокудино Аткарского района в ноябре 2012 г. Также были проведены индивидуальные интервью с учителями и директором, и открытые интервью с учениками школы (N=8) в посёлке Каменском Красноармейского района Саратовской области в сентябре 2012 года. Автором описываются два тенденции на рынке общего образования в контексте теории капиталов Бурдьё. Он показывает, как профессия российского сельского учителя подвергается влиянию различных аспектов. Оптимизация школьного образования привела к конверсии культурного капитала учителей и социального капитала школьников в экономический капитал. Специалистам в сельской школе требуется экономический капитал как способ преодоления финансового барьера и социальный капитал молодых профессионалов, конвертируемый в культурный капитал, необходимые для рынка труда. Ключевые слова: сельский учитель, Бурдьё, капитал, социология профессий. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1787-1799 ~~~ УДК 93/99 Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province in Tercentenary of Romanovs’ House Alexander А. Valitov* and Igor S. Tomilov Tobolsk Complex Scientific Station UB RAS 15 Ac. Yuri Osipov, Tobolsk, 626150 Russia Received 06.06.2013, received in revised form 09.06.2013, accepted 02.11.2013 The purpose of this article is the research devoted to celebration in the Tobolsk province of the tercentenary of Romanovs’ house. Besides, participation and a contribution of inhabitants of this region in anniversary events at all-imperial level are noted. Assistance of the population of the Tobolsk province in preparation and carrying out actions of various character – from secular to religious and from regional to nation-wide is revealed. The contribution of the authorities of edge, his inhabitants is shown. The trip to St. Petersburg of archpriest Dimitry Smirnov with a gift of the Abalaksky icon for emperor Nikolay II from inhabitants of the Tobolsk province is also colourfully and brightly described, his personal moods and experiences are shown. At last, reflection is found and influence of this event in the general context of celebrations, and value of anniversary for all estates of the Tobolsk province is in detail opened. Thus, in four years prior to falling of the imperial power in Russia, the nation was fastened by three eyelids of monarchic traditions. As experiment of Western Siberia shows, most fully it was shown in the provinces remoted from the center. Keywords: anniversary, Romanovs’ house, the Tobolsk province, the Abalaksky icon, the Tobolsk delegation, the siberian and Tobolsk diocese, an imperial family. Work performed under the project of young scientists and graduate students TKNS UB RAS 2013 (№ M-G-13-1). Introduction In public life late imperial Russia the events have come to occupy an important place dedicated to anniversaries and memorials of famous historical events. Beginning of XX century was marked by a series of celebrations of various kinds and sizes. The researcher Cymbaev K.N. noted: «The constant celebration of important dates is a feature of russian life of this period, when the * society and the state is literally covered by the Jubilee fever» (Tsimbayev, 2005). But on the other hand, one of the members of the imperial family, watching the celebration in 1913, recalled: «I got the impression that the anniversary of the Romanov’s House passed without much enthusiasm ... Of course, in the theater the invited audience shouted “Hurrah”, the band played a hymn, but there was no mood. Everything was state-owned, there was no feeling that everybody © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1787 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… of Russia unanimously celebrates his dynasty» (Konstantinovich, 1955: 94). At that time there were not only the anniversaries of major historical events in Russia, usually organized by the state. Various political, social, scientific, cultural, commercial interests have used the smallest reasons for celebrating received a certain resonance. In the last years before the First World War noncircular anniversaries were often widely celebrated annually tens such as the 40th anniversary of the founder of a scientific aerodynamics N.E. Zhukovsky, the 30th anniversary of the funeral of General M.D. Skobelev or 45th anniversary of the founding the Katkovsky’s school in Moscow. Domestic and foreign historians underestimated phenomenon of anniversaries of late imperial Russia in the early XX century. In contrast to european celebrations, which have been studied in detail, the russian almost had no interest by historians. Dealt with only certain aspects of the phenomenon, mainly related to the war of 1812 (Nekrasov, Zemtsov, 1969). In soviet historiography only in the article by Dyakova there is mention of the century in the battle of Borodino in the total number of anniversaries in relation to their impact on the pre-revolutionary Russian historiography (Dyakov, 1981). This theme had not received further development of until now. One may note only one section of the monograph «Russia at the beginning of XX century», dedicated to the celebrations of 19031913 years (Ulyanova, 2002). Built on a wealth of facts and describing all the major anniversaries of the century, this work is only a general overview of the topic. One of the first major research projects in the newest national historical literature devoted to Emperor Nicholas II, is the study of B.V. Ananyich and R.Sh. Ganelin (Ananyich, Ganelin, 1993). The merit of the authors of a detailed account of the monarch’s biography and an attempt to examine his views. And anniversary’s celebrations passes reference. However, a weak base documentary research strikes. The work is based mainly on the works of 1960-1970’s, memories or diaries dignitaries, who treated the Emperor biased or relatives. Certain factual material about the reign of Nicholas II gives the work of A.M. Anfimova (Anfimov, 1994). Of foreign researchers Richard Wortman addressed primarily to study anniversaries. The fundamental work «Scenarios of power» belongs to him, which remains one of a kind work, detailed coverage of the ceremonial and festive traditions of imperial Russia. One of the chapters of this study specifically devoted to the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, in which the author describes in detail the celebration – from training activities and erecting monuments to the actual celebrations in St. Petersburg and other cities (Wortman, 1989). In addition, to the problem of perception and processing of military and historical experience in 1912 an article german historian K. Schneider is devoted «100 years after Napoleon» (Schneider, 2001). The religious aspect of the anniversary celebrations and the Church’s role in these events in detail and thoroughly covered in a number of papers of K.N. Tsimbaev «The Orthodox Church and state anniversaries of Imperial Russia» (Tsimbayev, 2005). However, in all these works the regional aspect of the anniversary celebrations affected only indirectly, and the role of the province in the celebration of the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty has never been the subject of a special study. «No one of the previous anniversaries excited so many different aspirations and hopes, as the threehundredth anniversary of the Romanov dynasty – hopes that the majority remained unfulfilled»1. Symbolically, it is the anniversary fell on the last peaceful year of the Russian Empire. # 1788 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… The jubilee became popular. The patriotic fervency felt everywhere. The threehundredth anniversary of the Romanovs’ dynasty was not perceived in society only as a celebration of the ruling dynasty and its local environment. This anniversary is an aware society as extremely important milestone in the history of the country for which the last 300 years have been a special period of statehood. Historian A.E. Presnyakov wrote, in the preface to the anniversary sixvolume «Three Centuries», that «under the authority of the fi rst Romanovs have been formed and are the main features of the Russian state and social class, which dominated until the liberation reforms of Alexander II», followed by a period of «fighting the old with the new in the Russian state and public life» started releasing the peasants as serious slow transformation of Russia into a constitutional state (Three centuries, 1991: 9). Prominent royal bureaucrat, Governor of Moscow in 1904-1912 years V.F. Dzhunkovsky expressed the same thought this way: «For three hundred years Russia has made the work of thousands of years, turned into two light and from obscurity Moscovy turned into an irreversible omnipotent great power of the Russian empire. Romanovs. Especially it happend with the accession of Peter. Russia moved heroic step forward and by enriching and conquests led to world domination and whole possession. It was created by the great and whole Russia» (Dzhunkovsky, 1997: 145). Preparing for the anniversary continued for several years, and especially intensively since 1911. For coordination of the festivals special committees and commissions were organized, such as the Committee on the device of the 300th anniversary of the accession of the Romanov dynasty, chaired by A.G. Bulygin Romanov and commission of the State Duma. Throughout Russia, local committees operated chaired by governors. In celebration of the anniversary are there three major stages – the celebration in St. Petersburg in February 1913, «pilgrimage» of Nicholas II and his family to the historical places of the Romanov dynasty in the Volga cities in May 1913, staying in Moscow in late May 1913 (Russia at the beginning of XX century, 2002: 560). The population of the province of Tobolsk participated in the preparation and within the festivities. Of the three largest cities in the province of Tobolsk a special delegation was elected that was to directly represent the region at the celebration of the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty. The structure of the head of the deputation entered the city: Tobolsk – S.M. Trusov, Kurgan – F.F. Shwetov and Tyumen – P.I. Nikolsky2. On February 10, 1913 in St. Petersburg went delegation to participate in the celebrations and congratulations. Tobolsk delegation drove with them for presentation to the Sovereign Abalaksky icon of God’s Mother, which was set up to collect donations for the entire province3. In addition to these persons on the anniversary of the Romanov dynasty the representative of the Muslim population T.S. Aytmuhametov drove. For the prevention of disorder and drunken revelry Tobolsk City Council banned Thursday trade throughout the day, in commemoration of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty February 214. Central authorities to unify and give uniformity festivities on the eve of the anniversary, the Ministry of Education has prepared a special circular, which was clearly stated the approximate order of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty institutions. The local authorities adhere to this circular in organizing and conducting ceremonies5. The order of the celebration in Tobolsk the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanov # 1789 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… dynasty in Russia was identical to the ministerial circular6. According to the memories of contemporaries in the morning the city is decorated with flags, in parish churches early Masses were served, Imperial manifesto read, pray fro, and to 10 hours with all the Churches processions to St. Sophia Cathedral moved, where the icon of the Abalak Mother of God was brought before. In the square lots of people crowded, which for lack of space of the cathedral could not get into it. After Mass in the cathedral, by the reading of the manifesto and the Te Deum, in the front area the parade a parade of the local garrison was held. At the parade for the first time a military structure and pupils of the Tobolsk gymnasium arrived. Garrison commander Lt. Col. N. Pantyukhin first made a speech to the representatives of the parade, and then to high school pupils with welcoming remarks as to future recruits. In the evening a solemn act was held in the People’s audience. Chairman of the meeting Tobolsk Governor A. Stankevich, opening act, said feelingly speech and said that an hour ago, he and Bishop Alexis sent a telegram to Emperor, that from all the province sentences of rural societies and greeting telegrams are received. The act consisted of three sections: in the first branch three times since the beginning of the national anthem was performed by all choirs and pupillary present, then high school teacher A.J. Wjalych read historical account of the Romanov dynasty, in conclusion choruses of all educational institutions performed cantata of M.A. Goltisona «Glory to the House of Romanovs». The second and third branches sang choruses seminary, diocesan schools and gymnasiums. Four high school students in suits read «Feat of Susanin», a poem of K.F. Ryleeva. Participants noted many recitations of the celebration, the most striking of which was the performance of student from Lizunov’s seminary – «Death of Hermogen», of H.Gorodkov schoolboy of IV class – «Ipatiev Monastery», of a student of class VIII. M. Gorodkova – «The Foundation of St. Petersburg», «Rozhkov – Who is he», of a student of the first class Zubkova «Ivan Susanin», of a student of class II of Bogushevich «Moscow Kremlin». A joined choir of bishops, diocesan seminary and female college has sung beautifully «Has come true, come true in Moscow will» and «Glory». Also public liked schools of the Diocesan Women’s Choir «God love the King», the choir of high school students also sang not bad «Glory», with the music of A.I. Krasnotovsky. In the end there was dancing – in the lobby of a students’ audience third grade girls’ school’s student Gustyleva sang good an aria of Vanya from the opera «A Life for the Tsar». The evening was very crowded and gala – men were in dress uniform, ladies in bright dresses. On Friday, February 22, there was the evening of a public meeting in girls ‘school, on Saturday February 23, in the boys’ school. Morning performances were arranged for the people. In the parochial schools were literary and vocal mornings, so for example, was in St. Andrew School7. The anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was celebrated in Tyumen according to the similar scenario. From early morning on February 21 Tyumen was decorated with national flags, according to witnesses, «... a rare house in the center was decorated with flags, on the outskirts of the city, in the barns, Zarechka, Zatyumenka and in new quarters – everywhere were waving flags, many banners were displayed, facade of the City Council was made with garlands of pine needles». In Znamenskaya church, with a vast concourse of people, after the liturgy of the clergy # 1790 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… all the local churches gathered with icons and went to the Royal Square, where a thanksgiving service was given. The area was packed with people. Solemn prayers were served after the liturgy in the all parishes. People of other religious faiths were not outside, so in the local church, mosque and synagogue, prayers were served for the health of the king and the royal family. In the evening the city was decorated luxuriously with illumination. According to the recollections of local residents, «no one remembers in Tyumen such illuminations»8. Tyumen Police Department received the following message on the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty in the Tyumen district, «February 20 in all the churches in the county a memorial service had for the deceased kings of the House of Romanov, and on 21 there were the solemn prayers with the cross passages. In the village of Fominskoje public buildings were decorated with flags and garlands of greenery. In the night reading was held at the college with chorus of students. School was illuminated and a gathering parish decided to purchase and put in the township board of an icon of the Saviour. In Velizhanskaya parish, in township board the spare lower ranks assembled, filed anthem, the reading held. In Bogandinskaya parish was also reading. In Sazonovskaya parish in the township board outline of the major events in Russia over the past 300 years was read. In Gilevolinovskaya parish reading held, in the village of Yarkovsky and Gilevolinovsky too. In Chervishevsky parish reading was in 2 classroom school. In the village of Tavdinsky in college students sang the hymn, the children were given sweets. At Trinity Parish readings took place in schools of Kulakowsky and Lugovskoy»9. Also the remotest villages of the province responded and had a wonderful celebration. «In the village Obdorskoye on 21 of February in a day of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, in the Peter-Paul church there were rector of Obdorsk spiritual mission abbot, Innokentiy the service of the abbot Peter-Paul church, Plekhanov and two associates on the mission, A. Kryzhanovskii and hieromonk Nikon; conciliar Divine Liturgy with the proclamation of the reigning House of many years»10. The village organized a procession with banners, icons on the main streets of the village, which ended in the People’s House, where a short prayer service was served. It was in the People’s House Trust of national sobriety, the day of the anniversary, which hosted the festivities. Hall and other rooms have been decorated with cloth, decorated initials, and portraits of the Emperor. During the four hours of the day and seven o’clock in the evening the audience were shown new pictures, death of Susanin, and in the evening there was the play «Kostroma Forest» by Kolevoy, the entrance on the show and tableaux was free to this day. On this day in the People’s House there were a record number of visitors in 1254 people. Celebrating the anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was held on the outskirts of the Russian empire in the northern Obdorsk. Local natives: ostiaks and samoyeds, and monks were able to celebrate this momentous anniversary day. The important role in organizing commemorative events belonged to the monks of Obdorsk mission that managed to combine and create for all inhabitants a pleasant and useful sight. Of great interest were attending live pictures. According to the authorities on this day there was not a drunk, the only drawback to the celebration was crowded room, which was not designed for so many people. Even persons deprived of their liberty were able to see the ceremonial event, in the Tyumen prison on February 20 in the prison church was a memorial service, on 21 of February after the prayer and the liturgy reading was about the # 1791 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… major events of the reign with the distribution of pamphlets and illustrations to the prisoners. In addition in the main building of the prison had been arranged with reading prison choir. Tobolsk province was thoroughly decorated for the holiday. So, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty were decorated with flags three days 21, 22 and 23 February, in the evening bright lighting burnt daily. Contemporaries noted that «Tobolsk was in many places very beautiful with illumination especially city government stood out, prison, wine store and the building of the provincial administration, where a huge banner burned, hosted by the Exchequer»11. In Tyumen, «especially luxurious with illumination were home at the Royal and Sadovaya street. Superiority in this respect, of course, belongs to the Land-Building Party (the house of Bryukhanov). On the balcony, decorated with carpets, green, electric lanterns – beautiful banners were burning in the windows that were put initials of all the Kings and Queens, a very elegant monogram on the balcony of the Shadrin’s house burned luxurious, facade was decorated greenery and city council with lanterns, monograms were not bad on the building of Police and balcony of Prikazchichiy’s club. If the houses on Sadovaya street were not abundant, there was the mass burning fires. Thousands of people were walking down the street, looking in Tyumen at unprecedented illumination»12. By Imperial manifesto a partial amnesty was for the province, so 62 people were released from office in Tobolsk convicts, 17 people from the prison of the castle, five from the city police. Amnestied got the pass certificates and went to the place they have chosen to live under the surveillance of police. On 21of February 119 people were freed out from Kurgan’s prison of 400 people in prison. 25 people were released from the home of detention. Amnestied already have served two thirds of the imposed sentence, and all those arrested in the administrative procedure13. In Tyumen, on 21 of February more than 70 people were released from the local prison on the basis of the Imperial manifesto. And there were more than 10 people children14. The newspaper «Prishimye» reports that farmers were looking forward to Feb. 21, when, according to them, the peasants great favor will be given, such as the addition of arrears, forgiveness of repayable loans. Reduction of salaries of land taxes, etc. as well as collecting taxes actually went on at a rapid rate, among the peasants had the belief that local authorities rush to tear man arrears, so that they are not covered manifesto15. The involvement of other inhabitants of the province of Tobolsk in the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty – is the involving in the national events in the capital. Here, Archpriest Dimitry Smirnov took a direct representation from Tobolsk diocese too. In January 1913, at the invitation of the Governor of Tobolsk A.A. Stankewich Bishops House in the presence of the bishop of Tobolsk and the Siberian Alexis was a meeting of representatives of all departments and agencies of Tobolsk to discuss the celebrations in Tobolsk anniversary of the 300th anniversary of the reign of the Romanov dynasty in Russia on February 21 and bring to participation by all segments of the population. At this meeting, the bishop was invited to bring from the Orthodox population of Tobolsk diocese to Emperor in the anniversary celebration Abalaksky icon of the Mother of God (Smirnov, 1913: 1). All present agreed unanimously to the proposal Archbishop. And the archpriest D. Smirnov was elected as the representative of the diocese for presentation of icon. It is known that the Emperor Nicholas II, when he was still the crown prince, driving through # 1792 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… Siberia, on the way back from circumnavigation was in Tobolsk, and on July 10, 1891, prayed in the cathedral before Abalaksky the Mother of God (Smirnov, 1913: 2). A special created commission began to work immediately, discussed the size of the icon, decoration and value, and the firm has been chosen to make icons. It was decided to order the icon in size of 12 by 10 inches, in a silver artfull of chasuble with gold crowns on the image of the Mother of God and Savior, with inserts of Siberian stone, and one solid Moscow firm «PI Olovyanishnikova Sons» was elected to the Order and the value of the order was defined in 1000. Chairman of the Commission made the order on the manufacture of icons to speed up the case on the telegraph. The day after this Governor informed the bishop that there will not be the offering of congratulations to Emperor. Then His Eminence addressed by telegraph to the Procurator of the Holy Synod V.K. Sabler for permission to present Nicholas II icon in the anniversary of celebrations and to come to St. Petersburg for the archpriest Dmitry Smirnov. Before the receiving a response to the telegram order was suspended. After 8 days there was a positive response, and the order of the icon was restored. Under the terms of order this icon was to be delivered to St. Petersburg on 15 February to the store the same firm after manufacture in Moscow. And in the morning on February 6, D. Smirnov went from Tobolsk and on the 12th arrived in the capital (Smirnov, 1913: 3). Registered (as a priest, except registration passport book to the police, he had to show his ticket to registration in the spiritual consistory, in the office of the chief procurator of the Holy Synod and by the Dean of the visitors clergy), archpriest made visits to relatives and friends, as well as being in Petersburg Tobolsk’s governor A. Stankevich. Gently on the appointed day the firm sent the icon to St. Petersburg. The field and the background of the icon «were covered with silver gilt garment with matte color, the wreaths are on the Savior and the Mother of God of gold, over the crown of the Virgin crown is of fine lace work, and in the tops of the crown there are five inserts of various Siberian stone inserts of little size, of the same size are on the crown» (Smirnov, 1913: 4). The back of the icon was covered with a dark brocade forged antique, and silver gilded plaque was attached with the inscription: «His Majesty Blessed All-Russian Autocrat Nicholas II on the day of the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty in blessing from the Tobolsk’s church». The icon was placed in a folding, upholstered in red silk. From the icon, according to the optional seminary rector, some pictures were made: 6 shots of icons and 6 shots in folding. The next day, the archpriest Dmitry Smirnov visited the metropolit of St. Petersburg Vladimir and Procurator of the Holy Synod V.K. Sabler that were not against of the presentation of the icons to Emperor. In addition, V.K. Sabler recommended me to introduce the vice-director of his office of PI Ispolatova and to tell him my address for sending tickets to enter of the Kazan Cathedral and the Winter Palace. Smirnov received these tickets only on 20 February and only after intensified trouble with his hand. About 9 o’clock on February 21 the priest went to the Kazan Cathedral in advance to get in it. On the way there was an interesting episode. The driver, drove the Archpriest, obviously touched by decoration of the capital and enjoying the sunny morning, said: «What a beautiful day, the Lord has given to holiday today. And not for nothing. Because we have to wait for three hundred years this festival!» (Smirnov, 1913: 5). On the streets of St. Petersburg at the time was an unusual move «fun, festive mood of the crowd, rush to the Festival Centre – Kazan # 1793 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… Cathedral and Nevsky Prospekt, on which the royal cortege will follow from Zimny Palace to Kazan Cathedral, to catch even a glimpse of their King. Troops moved on to music and arranged to destinations along the Nevsky Prospekt, forming a trellis along the way of Sovereign. Processions went to the ringing of bells. On Nevsky Prospect tram and car traffic was stopped in the morning. Only those cab drivers and crews were allowed who had special permits to travel to Kazan Cathedral tickets issued from the office of the mayor to the persons entitled to enter into it with a ticket. These tickets were attached to their hats» (Wortman, 2002). In the early 10 th of a hour D. Smirnov arrived to Kazan Cathedral, filed a ticket and entered the temple through the west entrance of the Kazan street. Here on the west and south sides was arranged many temporary hangers, some of which were delivered to the lower military ranks to remove and to clean up clothes and posing labels. The were not many people in the Cathedral else. Now, the whole question was, where it is more convenient to be, to see everything and everyone. Some Archpriests and priests, and members of deputations, including representatives from the Tobolsk diocese archpriest D. Smirnov, went to the altar of the left aisle of the cathedral, and there have been allowed to become a sacristan solea of this chapel, which was located near the main southern entrance to the cathedral from the Nevsky Prospekt. Here, standing on a hill, you can see most of the cathedral and people in it, and the proximity of the main entrance made it possible to see the Emperor and his family, grand dukes and duchesses, senior officials of the Empire, which also included by this cathedral entrance. The place was so profitable that the sacristan came and removed from solea others people once during the liturgy (Smirnov, 1913: 6). About 10 o’clock the metropolitan of the Cathedral of St. Petersburg and Procurator of the Holy Synod V.K. Sabler arrived at. According to the meeting and garbing of metropolitan reading was started, during which the profits processions arrived with icons of Jesus Christ from the house of Peter the Great and Our Lady of Pochaev. Then the Divine Liturgy began, which four metropolitan committed: of St. Petersburg, Kiev, Serbian and Tripoli with the participation of six archpriests, two archdeacons -of St. Isaac’s and Kazan Cathedral and archdeacon of Nevsky Monastery. At that time, the choir sang on the right of the court chapel, on the left – the combined choirs of the metropolitan and the Kazan Cathedral (Smirnov, 1913: 7). But this all was not without some problems. «At the beginning of the liturgy, and especially during the readings, the cathedral was even slightly noisy because of many deputations arriving on-site, and speaking. But then, when the vast majority of people came to the cathedral, was put into it’s place, and when the Court of Ceremonies took a role, pointing newcomers the places in the cathedral, this noise calmed down and stopped» (Smirnov, 1913: 8). During the liturgy dignitaries of the empire, foreign ambassadors and grand dukes and duchesses were arriving to the main entrance of the cathedral gradually. Among the high personages to the beginning of the liturgy profits there were Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna and Grand Duke Ivan Konstantinovich. And the witness does not forget to enjoy the film opened to him. «By the end of the liturgy Kazan Cathedral represented an imposing sight: it brought together representatives of the vast Russian Empire and the representatives most of the world. Here at the very solea of the main chapel on the right side are seen to us gold chairs made and prepared for Empress and showing Imperial place, then –there are grand dukes and duchesses, court ladies, foreign ambassadors, dignitaries of the empire: the first and second # 1794 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… grades of Court, ministers, members of State Council, Senators, Speaker of the State Duma of the city of Rodzianko, members of the State Duma, from the left side in front of the cathedral to the south entrance of the cathedral there are military representatives of the world, and then from the middle of the temple to the west entrance there is a sea of heads from all classes of all over Russia. The gold embroidery, the glitter dresses,the variety of uniforms were striking and blinding us provincials, who hasn’t seen these meetings». Finally, the choir sang «O Lord! By thy King shall rejoice «that heralded the arrival of the king». From the street, one heard cheers of «Hurrah», welcomed the monarch and his family, coming to the cathedral. Higher clergy, led by the Patriarch of Antioch Gregory came to the entrance to the cathedral to meet the emperor. Nicholas II went with the Empress Alexandra Fedorovna and Maria Feodorovna, followed by high Cossack carrying the heir Alexis, and four great princesses went, the daughters of the Emperor. Patriarch brought to King St. cross to kiss, metropolitan of St. Petersburg Vladimir sprinkled it by St. water, and welcomed a brief speech. Then the governor and his family, preceded by church dignitaries, entered the cathedral, they were greeted by a respectful bow of those assembled, which they passed. Then the royal family has stood on the right side of the main limit of solea (Smirnov, 1913: 8). Archpriest said that «all this made us so welcome to an experience not to be blotted out all my life, all that fills the hearts of even more boundless love and devotion to the Emperor and his dear native land, a desire to serve them until the end of his life hard, so hard honestly, without hypocrisy and willingness to put his life for them». Archdeacon after meeting the Emperor even before a prayer service began reading Imperial manifesto, in which the monarch recalled the merits for the dear homeland over the past 300 years, «of all the children of the Russian upper classes to the laborers». Then it was quite normal in this case prayer of hierarchs of the Russian Church, headed by the Patriarch of Antioch and the representatives of the clergy of the capital, there were only on the left side in two rows. «The patriarch of Antioch uttered the exclamations prayer in Greek, he had read the Gospel in Arabic, and then metropolitan of St. Petersburg in Slavonic, metropolitan of St. Petersburg read prayer kneeling on 21th February 1913 too». It is needless to say, that at this time all of us in the cathedral together with the emperor joined the event (Tsimbayev, 2005). After the end of the prayer service the emperor and his family kissed to St. cross, then to the main shrine of the Cathedral of the Kazan to Icon of the Mother of God and to the brought shrines – the image of the Savior from the house of Peter the Great and Pochaev Icon of Our Lady (Smirnov, 1913: 10). Then all went to the door of the cathedral (Smirnov, 1913: 10). There was in the temple of shrines a strong crush and distress, the people behind made hardly their way to them. Meanwhile, at the entrance of the cathedral a kind of traffic jam formed – the procession went off with the icon of the Mother of God of Pochayev, which was accompanied by the members who came from Volhynia monarchist organizations with their flags and banners. In the ticket, which was given to participants to celebrate the entrance to the Winter Palace, February 22, was noted, that the Congress was appointed for an audience with the emperor until 10 o’clock in the morning. Therefore, about half of the 10th in the morning on February 22 Dmitry Smirnov was on Jordan entrance of the Winter Palace, taking with the icon in a box. «On the stairs to the second floor the court lackeys stood, and paired sentries were at the door. There were # 1795 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… many people, all housed in the Nicholas Hall and avant-hall. The clergy was invited to pass into the room and placed on the left side». With the icon as a gift to Emperor was only one Tobolsk archpriest, so she called the true interest: many came and asked what this icon, why the images of St. And St. Nicholas. Mary Magdalene, from whom brought near the icon, how much, etc (Smirnov, 1913: 11). Before the royal reception was still time that D. Smirnov quietly spent in conversation with the other priests. Soon the «Ceremonies were on the list and began to examine and set the deputation. I was entered in the queue after the deputation from the St. Petersburg church of One Hope . It was explained that anyone coming to the Sovereign, to do him a nod, saying nothing, and then approach the Empress Maria Feodorovna (Empress Alexandra Feodorovna in the day was not at the reception), bowed to her, kiss her hand, and go to the portrait gallery» (Smirnov, 1913: 11). Finally, the doors opened to a nearby concert hall, where stood the Emperor and the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, a little behind them on a chair sitting heir to the crown prince, were daughters of the king, they were surrounded by dignitaries of the Empire and suites. «It started bringing congratulations. Deputations unbroken chain moved into the concert hall. Anyone coming to the Emperor, stayed and did obeisance to him, and the master of ceremonies on the list aloud called rank, title or position, name and surname, Sovereign also posted a bow, then everyone would go to the Empress Maria Feodorovna, and acted as previously indicated» (Smirnov, 1913: 11). When approaching a queue Tobolsk Fr he «felt an unusual peace joyful mood of happiness and some confusion with the excitement». Master of Ceremonies reported: «Cathedral archpriest Smirnov from Tobolsk to Abalaksky icon of the Mother of God of the population of Orthodox Tobolsk diocese. - Consecrated icon? – Asks the Sovereign. - Consecrated, Your Imperial Majesty, – I answer» (Smirnov, 1913: 11). Then the head of the empire of the cross, kissed the icon and again asked from whom icon. After receiving an explanation, he turned to Archpriest Dimitry Smirnov, with the following words: «give my heartfelt thanks to all». Bowing, representative Tobolsk diocese gave the icon to one of the Emperor’s entourage, then also bowed to the Empress Maria Feodorovna, kissed her hand and went to the Portrait Gallery. Here all the members received an invitation to one of the palace hall for breakfast, which «welcoming host Russian land» treated his subjects, brought him congratulations. «Long in the entire room lined with tables were covered with the most diverse and delicious snacks, bottles of grape wines, fruit and vases with fresh flowers, which were immediately dismantled and a souvenir snack. There were given coffee, tea. In view of the carnival for the clergy was arranged by a special branch table, where all the snacks were of fish» (Smirnov, 1913: 13). At the exit of the Nicholas Hall has one of the officials of the Court with drawer, in which there were a lot of satin boxes. Each retiring he handed one of these boxes, explaining that it is the anniversary badge zhaluemy sovereign emperor to bring him the memory of all congratulations. Badge must be worn on the right side of the chest above all other icons and can be transmitted to offspring. Coming out of the palace, D. Smirnov immediately sent a telegram to the Archbishop of Tobolsk and the Siberian Alexis, sharing only past events (Smirnov, 1913: 14). «In conclusion, I would like to share an experience that on me, though small, part in the celebrations which took place in St. Petersburg # 1796 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty on 21 and 22 February 1913. Hours and minutes I spent in the Kazan Cathedral and the Winter Palace, will be the lightest and welcome in life and not be blotted out from the rest of my heart, though – maybe – and short life. They lifted my spirit revived several starts to weaken faith in the affinity with which a very young age, he considered holy to his heart, which he considered to be the very first moments of the conscious life of irrefutable axiom, and ignited under piles of smoldering ash and the fire of love for their country, for their King and his family. Now is not russian, so-called intellectuals began to engage in self-flagellation and selfspitting long since it denies and mocks folk beliefs, expectations, hopes and ideals of the russian person. But in recent years from such a degenerate negative relationship between the intelligentsia of all things Russian sludge, scum, scum floated out, pour a variety of ways throughout the broad face of the Russian land and closed quite popular soul – with what more people live, with what our State still stands and holds. Sometimes started thinking – if they faint not hesitate to whether these principles, these are the basics? Sometimes you look around yourself, you notice only part, faintly, remain in dark corners, but not hot Detecting bright display of faith and love for his native country, and selfless devotion to the monarch – and bitterly think: what is the same, our Holy Mother Russia and what she comes? Is it absolutely necessary to the devastation that it experienced 300 years ago? All the talk about him and his august family – as the most near and dear to us substantially all interests have focused on how to get information on how to spend these great days of the Emperor, where he was, what he did, what he said, which issued orders to the occasion of the festival, and so on and so forth ... The streets through which he had to pass, were just chock full of people. People stood patiently for hours waiting for him, patiently endured and packed and crowded, just to see him a little, did not complain to the sides dented and damaged costumes» (Smirnov, 1913: 13). Results Thus, the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the ruling House of Romanov held widely in a big way, not only in the heart of the Empire – St. Petersburg and central provinces, but also in the periphery, in the remote corners of the country (one year, due to the outbreak of World War II, it would hardly be possible.) Moreover, as numerous sources evidenced, the activities were really with the active participation of the people and society (Wortman, 1989). Though I must admit that the initiative of all kinds of celebrations come, however, from the top. However, this fact did not stop to meet adequately in 1913 across Russia as a significant event, which has not passed by the province of Tobolsk. Throughout the region – from the North to the southern border – put in order settlements (decorated buildings, cleaned streets), in the cultural sphere witnessed performances, masquerades, and plays ball in the evening, in the religious life committed countless prayers, vigils, liturgies, processions etc. In St. Petersburg Home empire-wide celebrations were sent two delegations – from the province and diocese with very symbolic gift – a list of the icon of Abalaksky Mother of God. It is interesting to note that the preparation for the anniversary has already been since 1911! Of course, all this was done with the pomp and glamour – the inhabitants of the province and the authorities wanted to meet worthy the three centuries of dynasty, keeping up with the leading cities of the empire. Therefore, the source contains a lot of inspirational phrases. Hardly # 1797 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… anyone could have predicted that before the end of the board, «adored by all the crowned family» 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 is just four-plus years, and that this end will be no less bloody than its beginning. Russian school. 1913. (3). Р. 92. City Chronicle (1913). Siberian page. (8). January 17. P. 2. City Chronicle (1913). SP. (11). January 24. P. 2. City Chronicle (1913). SP. (21). February 17. P. 3. City Chronicle(1913). Siberian trade newspaper. (9). P. 2. City Chronicle (1913). SP. (22). February 19. P.2. City Chronicle (1913). SGT. (44). P. 3. City Chronicle (1913). SGT. (44). P. 3. City Chronicle (1913). SGT. (48). P. 3. Correspondence (1913). SGT. (59). P.3. City Chronicle (1913) SP. (24). February 23. P. 1. City Chronicle (1913) SGT. (45). P. 3 City Chronicle (1913) SP. (26). P. 2-3. City Chronicle (1913) SGT. (43). P. 3. City Chronicle (1913) SGT. (55). P. 2. References 1. Ananyich, B.V., Ganelin, R.Sh. (1993). Nikolay II. History’s questions, (2), 58-76. 2. Anfimova, A.M. (1994). Reign of emperor Nikolay II in figures and the facts. National history,(3). 58-76. 3. Gabriel Konstantinovich, the Grand Duke. V mramornom dvorche. Iz khroniki nashei sem‘i [In the marble palace. From the chronicle of our family]. New York, 1955. 384 p. 4. Dzhunkovsky, V.F. Memuary [Memories] V.2. Moscow, 1997. 688 p. 5. Dyakov, V.A. Borodinskie iubilei i ikh vozdeistvie na dorevolitcionnuiu istoriografiiu [Borodinskiye anniversaries and their impact on a pre-revolutionary historiography Problems of history of the russian social movement and historical science]. Moscow, 1981. pp. 302-312. 6. Nekrasov, M.A., Zemtsov, S.M. Otechestvennaia voina 1812 g. i russkoe iskusstvo [Patriotic war of 1812 and russian art]. Moscow, 1969. 120 p. 7. Yakovlev, A.N. Rossia v nachale XX veka [Russia at the beginning of XX century] Moscow, The new chronograph, 2002. 744 p. 8. Archpriest Dimitry Smirnov. Moe poezdka na Pomanovskie prazdnestva v Sankt-Penerburg [My trip to the Romanov festivities in St. Petersburg]. Tobolsk, 1913. 15 p. 9. Tri veka [Three centuries] (Reprint). V. I. Moscow, 1991. 283 p. 10. Ulyanova, G.N. Natsional‘nye torzhestva(1903-1913). Rossia v nachale XX veka [National celebrations (1903-1913). Russia at the beginning of the XX century]. Researches. Moscow, 2002. 11. Wortman, R.S. (1989) “Invisible Threads”. The Historical Imagery of the Romanov Tercentenary. Russian History. (2 – 4), 389–408. 12. Wortman, R.S. Stsenarii vlasti. Mify I tseremonii russkoi monarxii [Scenarios of Power. Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, Vol. 2 . From Alexander II to the Abdication of Nicholas II]. Princeton New Jersey, 2000. 797 p. 13. Tsimbayev, K.N. (2005) Orthodox Church and state anniversaries of Imperial. Russia National history, (6), 42-51 . 14. Tsimbayev, K.N. (2005) 300th Anniversary of House of Romanovs anniversary of 1913 as art action (prolog). Historian and artist, (1), 181-195. # 1798 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander А. Valitov and Igor S. Tomilov. Residents’ Participance in the Celebration of the Tobolsk Province… 15. Schneider, K. (2001) 100 years after Napoleon. Russian lands acclaimed war experience Jahrbucher for history of Eastern Europe 49 (1). 45-66. Празднование юбилея дома Романовых в Тобольской губернии А.А. Валитов, И.С. Томилов Тобольская комплексная научная станция УрО РАН Россия 626150, Тобольск, ул. ак. Ю. Осипова, 15 Целью данной статьи является исследование, посвященное празднованию в Тобольской губернии трехсотлетия Дома Романовых. Кроме того, отмечено участие жителей данного региона в юбилейных событиях на общеимперском уровне. Выявлено содействие населения Тобольской губернии в подготовке и проведении мероприятий различного характера – от светских до религиозных и от региональных до общегосударственных. Показан вклад властей края, его жителей. Также красочно и ярко описана поездка в Санкт-Петербург протоиерея Димитрия Смирнова с подношением Абалакской иконы в дар для императора Николая II от жителей Тобольской губернии, показаны его личные настроения и переживания. Подробно раскрыто влияние данного события в общем контексте празднований и значение юбилея для всех сословий Тобольской губернии. Таким образом, еще за четыре года до падения императорской власти в России нация была скреплена тремя веками монархических традиций. Как показывает опыт Западной Сибири, наиболее полно это проявилось в отдаленных от центра губерниях. Ключевые слова: юбилей, Дом Романовых, Тобольская губерния, Абалакская икона, тобольская делегация, Сибирско-Тобольская епархия, императорская семья. Работа выполнена в рамках проекта молодых ученых и аспирантов ТКНС УрО РАН 2013 (№ М-Г-13-1). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1800-1815 ~~~ УДК 378.4 Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education Oksana A. Gavrilyuk* Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after professor V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky 1 P. Zheleznyak Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660022 Russia Received 30.08.2013, received in revised form 02.09.2013, accepted 13.10.2013 Continuing the efforts to define and describe teacher autonomy as an essential factor of teacher professionalism and self-development, this study expands the understanding of perceived university teacher autonomy through investigating the content of this complex personality attribute in a context of today’s transformation of Russian higher education. Taking into account self-determination theory, competency-based approach, theory of a rational performance and the Tuning approach to university teacher professional activity, this paper proposes an integrated definition of perceived university teacher autonomy as teacher generic competency ensured by a dynamic complex of teacher personality attributes and work-related competencies. The content of perceived university teacher autonomy is represented in a conceptual model. This study shows perceived university teacher autonomy potential as a mainspring of enhancing teacher professional self-development, teacher performance and job satisfaction, as well as his effective coping with different types of teaching-related stressors in a context of Russian higher education reform. Keywords: higher education, university teacher, personal autonomy, perceived autonomy, selfdetermination, intrinsic motivation, professional self-development, locus of control, goal setting, decision making, making choices, mindfulness. Introduction In Russia today, major transformations and innovations are having an effect on higher education. This trend has led to an increasingly significant role for university teachers to play within their educational institutions and has called for their innovative contributions to the effective, progressive development of the education system of the country. New expectations for university teachers’ performance and accountability make teachers face new challenges and develop new knowledge and skills. The work of teaching in * high school comprises today a plenty of activities that include teaching, learning new information and skills, keeping abreast of technological innovations, dealing with students, parents, and the community. All these factors have given rise to growing concerns about teachers’ well-being and increasing attention to perceived teacher autonomy, which has been actively investigated in the USA and in Europe (Allwright, 1990; Little, 1994, 1995; Voller, 1997; Benson, 2000; Smith, 2000; Aoki 2002 et al.) and is becoming one of important © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: Oksana.firstname.lastname@example.org # 1800 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education educational issues in Russia, especially in the field of foreign language education (Tambovkina, 2000; Koryakovtseva, 2001; Nosacheva, 2010 et al.). Over the last decade, several researchers have emphasized that the notion of teacher autonomy is a necessary and complementary part of the learner autonomy concept (Little, 1995; Smith, 2000; Benson, 2000; Aoki, 2002). Autonomy has also been identified as necessary for a teacher’s sense of professionalism (Ingersoll & Alsalam, 1997; Hanson, 2003; Little, 2002; Pearson and Moomaw, 2006). With all the efforts to emphasize this relatively new concept, the question of what particular work-related competences and personality attributes are required for teachers to be autonomous remains open. This problem compels us to focus on solving several issues reflected in the following organization of the study: the next section contains a literature review of the construct of teacher autonomy. It is followed by the discussion of research methodology applied in this study. Then, the content of the phenomenon is discussed and represented in a conceptual model. And finally, results and their interpretations are discussed. Conceptions of teacher autonomy The phenomenon of teacher autonomy takes its rise in the philosophical conceptions of “freedom” and “autonomy” as well as in the psychological concept of personal autonomy. A review of definitions of personal autonomy reveals both diversity and commonality. It is often described as a state of relative independence, based on the person’s being self-directing and self-governing (Ryan & Deci, 2006). Bernard Berofsky associates personal autonomy with positive freedom. He sees the latter as a set of personal traits which are essential or highly useful to the satisfaction of a wide range of activities and decisions, both short- and long-term. According to B. Berofsky, autonomy encompasses relevant knowledge, including self-knowledge, and a variety of intellectual and physical competencies. Among intellectual competencies, he indicates capacities for memory, perception, calculation, reasoning, information processing, and the elimination of irrational and inconsistent belief sets (Berofsky, 1995). This view reflects on A.S. Arseniev’s idea about “freedom for”, which is more positive in respect of personal development and self-actualization than freedom “from” (Arseniev, 1999). G. Dworkin assumes autonomy to be a global property referring to a person as a whole, not to particular acts (Dworkin, 1988). Thus, personal autonomy is meant as a trait that individuals can exhibit relative to any aspects of their lives (Dworkin, 1988). In general autonomy theory has been explored across domains as varied as health care (Davis, et al., 1987; Grandjean et al., 1986; Williams & Deci, 1996; Kutner, 1984), education (Assor et al., 2005; Kuznetsova, 2009; Vallerand et al., 1993), and business (Herzberg, 1966; Sarata, 1984, et al.). Thus, Herzberg saw autonomy as the condition in which employees experience personal responsibility for work outcomes (Herzberg, 1966). Sarata considered autonomy as the freedom an individual has to decide how and when to undertake a work activity (Sarata, 1984). While personal autonomy was found to be important in many works, it was rarely examined in relation to teachers and teaching. A review of the foreign education-related literature reveals that teacher professional autonomy is not strictly defined and may be presented in a variety of forms. Teacher autonomy is often defined as “control one’s own work environment” (Pearson and Hall, 1993 : 173),“freedom to make certain decisions” (Short, 1994: 490-491), teachers’ capacity to engage in self-directed teaching, including detachment, critical reflection, # 1801 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education decision-making and independent action (Little, 1995; Tort-Moloney, 1997); the capacity, freedom, and/or responsibility to make choices concerning one’s own teaching (Aoki, 2002) or teachers’ autonomy as learners (Smith, 2000, Savage, 2001). Friedman’s paper suggests that teacher autonomy involves “encouraging and strengthening the power of teachers” (Friedman, 1999 : 60). Following this approach, Pearson & Moomaw believe that autonomy in teaching implies teachers’ freedom to make professional choice (i.e., to decide appropriate activity for their students or choose their own teaching style) as well as freedom to participate in decision-making (Pearson & Moomaw, 2005). This corresponds to W. Littlewood’s perception of an autonomous person as one who has an independent capacity to make and carry out choices which govern his or her actions. According to W. Littlewood, “this capacity depends on two main components: ability and willingness…” (Littlewood, 1997 : 428). Some researchers regarded teacher autonomy as teacher’s work in isolation (Willner, 1990, et al.). However, this viewpoint was disputed in the more current research (Gabanska, 1995; Littlewood, 1999; Smith, 2000 et al.), indicating that autonomy implies interaction. Indeed, this point of view in its essence complies with the opinion expressed by A.G. Asmolov who pointed out that qualities of a human being that characterize one as the system element “open” only in the conditions of interactions within this system (Asmolov, 1986). In Russia, having been viewed for a long time as a negative thing associated with individualism, the concept of personal autonomy was often replaced by some other terms, as, for example, independence and freedom. Thus, discussing the issues connected with person’s independence from external factors, Russian researchers often use the concept of “freedom” / “personality freedom” (Ball, 1997, et al.). In the context of teaching they emphasize “pedagogical freedom” as an important part of civil democratic development” (Kuznetsova, 2009 : 109). Nowadays, the problem of personal autonomy seems to attract more attention of Russian researchers (Dergacheva, 2005; Kalitiyevskaya, Leontiev, 2004; Koryakovtseva, 2001; Kravchenko, 2008; Leontiev, 2006; Makarova, 2000 et al.). Studying the psychological aspect of autonomy, O.E. Dergacheva proves in her work that there is a correlation between personal autonomy level and such personality attributes as locus of control, self-empowerment, and risk taking (Dergacheva, 2005 :118), and this idea seems to be indicative of the competency-based approach potential. Investigating the educational context, L.N. Makarova believes autonomy to be teachers’ personality trait, which allows them “to determine the frameworks for creating their own character and style subject to their own domestic rules and resisting to external destabilizing pressure” (Makarova, 2000 : 14). N.Y. Tambovkina explains teacher autonomy as “ability to think and act in one’s profession independently from foreign will, circumstances, one’s own fears; to make one’s own choice and important decisions through creating one’s own goals and working out individual strategies for meeting these goals’ objectives” (Tambovkina, 2000 : 63). This approach reflects the ideas of Russian researchers which consider responsibility and mindfulness to be key elements of teacher autonomy (Leontiev, 2006; Nosacheva, 2009; Tambovkina 2000 et al.). Recent Russian works on teacher autonomy, though few in number, investigate the phenomenon in a large context of teacher personal development. For instance, N.F. Koryakovtseva views teacher autonomy as “a requirement for effective personal development and self-actualization in a broad sociocultural context” (Koryakovtseva, # 1802 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education 2001: 12). G.P. Sharapkina considers autonomy to be “the basis for professional socialization” and states that “its development is one of the top targets of teacher training process” (Sharapkina, 2004: 148). Generally, most of the existing definitions made by foreign and Russian researchers point to one common aspect, which stresses that teacher autonomy requires being self-governed and is based on the recognition of greater power and freedom to the teachers in their professional activities and capacity for self-directed professional development. In this research teacher autonomy is defined in terms suggested by Kamii (Kamii & Housman, 2000) who has referred to the fact that autonomy is an ability, not a right to be self-governing. On this basis we use in the presented paper the term “perceived teacher autonomy” which seems to prevent confusion between “provided” and “perceived” autonomy and correspond to the Myers & McCaulley’s definition of perception as “all the ways of becoming aware of things, people, happenings, or ideas” (Myers & McCaulley, 1985: 1). Following the above mentioned Arseniev’s idea about two types of freedom, we consider perceived teacher autonomy as “freedom for” which implies social interaction, personal development and self-actualization. This approach, firstly, allows us to consider perceived teacher autonomy as a complex of teacher professional competencies and personality attributes which make his/her teaching autonomous. Secondly, it makes us broaden understanding of teacher autonomy through considering it as an important factor promoting teacher personal and professional development and preventing teacher attrition. Research methodology The investigation of perceived teacher autonomy content required a more detailed study of R. Ryan & E. Deci’s self-determination theory, in which self-determination is considered as feeling and realization of freedom in person’s choice of behaviour and existence in the world independently from external environment and inner-personal processes effects (Ryan, Deci, 2006). The results of theoretical and applied research conducted within the framework of Self-determination theory (SDT) of R. Ryan & E. Deci demonstrate the benefits of developing personality traits for the improvement of people’ life, the enhancement of their psychological wellbeing and the prevention of burnout syndrome (Ryan, Deci, 2006). Generally personality traits are considered as permanent, socially important psychological attributes, relations and actions, which allow the person to behave as a responsible actor. Personal autonomy seems to be one of these personal traits which are now attracting attention of educational researchers both in Russia and abroad. In the frameworks of this theory perceived teacher autonomy can be described as teacher personality attribute ensuring teacher self-determination as realizing of autonomous behaviour. According to Selfdetermination theory, the need for autonomy is the central need of an individual and is a need to have a choice and act with self-determination; it is the universal need to feel like an agent or an initiator; it is linked to one’s purpose in life and to one’s actions as they are in agreement with one’s integrated “I”. Satisfaction of this need is an important condition, which determines psychological well-being, optimal functioning and healthy development of a personality; frustration of this need, on the other hand, leads to the decrease of psychological well-being and the degradation of activity (Ryan, Deci, 2006). Ryan & Connell (1989) have demonstrated that different types of behavioural regulation can be located on a continuum of perceived autonomy, which they associated with perceived # 1803 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education locus of causality (PLOC) (Ryan & Connell, 1989), and suggested five types of perceived motivations: external, introjected, identified, integrated and intrinsic. The latter, intrinsic motivation, defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequence, is considered by the authors to be autonomous because it satisfies personally relevant goals and services the innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When intrinsically motivated, a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external products, pressures or reward. Besides, intrinsic motivation is associated with increased engagement and persistence in tasks (Ryan & Deci, 2000: 56). A person with autonomous motivation is thus an agent that pursues its own agenda for reasoning and behaviour in accordance with its intrinsic motivation. Enlarging these outcomes and extrapolating them into the context of teaching, Pearson and Moomaw define teacher autonomy as “a common link that appears when examining teacher motivation, job satisfaction, burnout, professionalism, and empowerment” (Pearson & Moomaw, 2005). The authors believe that intrinsic factors of teacher autonomy include “desire to assist students to accomplish goals, desire to make a difference in society and sense of achievement when students learn” (Pearson & Moomaw, 2005 : 39). Consequently, we can regard the complex of the above mentioned teacher desires and sense of professional achievement as intrinsic motivation to professional achievement. Taking into account that in the context of modern higher education in Russia being autonomous often requires teacher’s mastering new skills and competences to deal with new challengers, an autonomous teacher should also be a lifelong learner (Gavrilyuk, 2010). On this basis, motivation to autonomy in teaching should involve not only intrinsic motivation to professional achievement, but intrinsic motivation to teacher personal development. Drawing on Kunda’s work on motivation in psychology (Kunda, 1990), we assume that autonomy in teaching is ensured by intrinsic motivations to professional achievement and personal development, which can lead to the generation and adoption of teacher professional and personal development goals and affect the outcome of the reasoning or behavioural task intended to satisfy those goals. Meanwhile, Taylor identified five personality characteristics associated with need for achievement including high levels of self confidence, the ability to set clear and challenging goals, an understanding of risk taking, a strong internal locus of control, and problem solving ability (Taylor, 1985).On this basis, teacher intrinsic motivations to professional achievement and personal development seem to underlie a better performance in teaching. Indeed, this idea has been proved in a number of studies considering the more autonomous motivations as related to positive outcomes and the more controlled motivations as associated with negative outcomes across domains as varied as health care, education, politics, etc. (Assor et al., 2005; Ryan and Connell, 1989; Vallerand et al., 1993; Williams & Deci, 1996). Considering perceived autonomy as teacher’s ability, not a right to be self-governing makes appropriate studying this phenomenon in the framework of competency-based approach. The latter is known to represent a researchsupported approach based on the primary goal of defining the critical behaviours needed for effective and superior individual and organizational performance. Competencies are often associated in up-to-date pedagogical literature with different types of skills or abilities, ensuring professional # 1804 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education behaviours. Thus, the Bologna process documents define competencies at the level of higher education institutions as a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities. Being presented in the context of competencies for adults working as professionals in the training and performance sector as evaluators, instructional designers, instructors, and training managers, competencies are regarded by The International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction (IBSTPI) as statements of behavior which often reflect attitudes, but are not personality traits or beliefs. Generally, IBSTPI defines a competency as “an integrated set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that enables one to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation or function to the standards expected in employment” (Richey et al., 2001). This paper adopted the above-mentioned definition made by IBSTPI as the operational definition which seems to be broad and reflect the context of our research. Such approach means that competencies does not represent but do underlie behaviours. As Gronczi et al. pointed out, comparing competence and performance, “competencies were defined as combinations of attributes that underlie successful performance” (Gonczi et al., 1993). The authors stated also that “performance is what directly observable, whereas competence is not directly observable, rather it is inferred from performance” (Gonczi et al., 1993). Such approach means that perceived teacher autonomy, representing an underlying enduring personality characteristic and determined by a teacher’s motivations, intents, attitude and values, is not easy to be observed and measured, though it can be measured through observation and measuring of a set of teacher’s behaviours. Perceived teacher autonomy can, thus, be regarded as teacher’s ability to work autonomously across many workplace situations. In other words, this generic characteristic can predict a teacher’s behavior in different workrelated situations (i.e., autonomous teacher sets challenging goals, he / she is ready to take calculated risks, is able to make free choices, to take sound decisions despite uncertainties, to create his / her own teaching style subject to his / her own domestic rules, to resist to external destabilizing pressure, etc). It appeared that the idea of regarding perceived teacher autonomy as a competency is relevant to the Tuning approach, which has been developed by TUNING Educational Structures in Europe to (re-)designing, develop, implement, evaluate and enhance quality of higher education institutions programmes. According to the Tuning approach, ability to work autonomously represents one of generic (transferable) competencies, necessary to all the professionals. In the context of the Tuning approach, distinguishing three types of generic competencies (instrumental, interpersonal and systemic), perceived teacher autonomy can be regarded as one of systemic ones, as it is reported to represent a combination of understanding, sensibility and knowledge and requires prior acquisition of both other types. The idea of enhancing quality of performance in higher education, central in the Tuning approach, is also relevant to the theory of a rational performance (Tareva, 2001), which characterizes the individual as a free and responsible agent, who is intrinsically mastery oriented (being a student) or intrinsically motivated to professional achievement (being a teacher). Meanwhile, the above mentioned qualities are similar to those that describe an individual that is autonomous (Ryan & Deci, 2000). From a theoretical standpoint, it would seem that an individual having a rational activity style will be more autonomous, and a more autonomous individual will have a rational activity style. Taking into account that rationality underlies a better performance, we can assume # 1805 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education that autonomy will also improve the quality of action. Generally, the theories and approaches, discussed above, seem to be perspective in the context of our research because they allow us to investigate perceived teacher autonomy with respect to university teacher professional activity through defining a set of teachingrelated autonomous behaviours that impact job performance, can be measured against established standards, and can be improved through training and development. Teacher personality attributes and workrelated competencies ensuring perceived teacher autonomy It is reported that autonomy involves increased engagement and persistence in tasks or goal commitment defined as one’s determination to reach a goal (Lau, 2012, Locke & Latham, 1990). As D. Little et al. (Little et al., 2002) assume, the development of teacher autonomy entails a process of internalization or personal agency also defined as the sense of personal empowerment / psychological empowerment / self-empowerment, which implies self-belief, trust, and self-leadership and involves both knowing one’s goals and having what it takes to achieve them. The term “empowerment” is often reported as an individual’s belief in his/her ability to exercise choice. Meanwhile, the capacity of the person to make choice proceeding from the information received from the environment and from the processes occuring inside of the person entails the concept of will which is closely connected in the psychological literature with the concept of self-determination (Deci, 1980 : 6; Gabanska, 1995). Most definitions of empowerment focus on issues of gaining power and control over decisions and resources that determine the quality of one’s life. Rappaport (1987) defined empowerment as a process by which people, organizations, and communities gain mastery over issues which are of concern to them. Extrapolating these ideas into the context of teaching, we can assume that university teacher personal empowerment is the expansion of his freedom of choice and action in the university educational area; it involves increasing teacher’s authority and control over the resources and decisions that affect his teaching practice. Exercising real professional choice, the person generates great efforts which are accompanied by feelings of vitality and energy. Accordingly, perceiving his engagement in various teaching tasks as interesting and meaningful, autonomously-motivated teacher experiences less exhaustion, feels more competent and gains increased control over his work. We believe, however, that as the sense of personal empowerment doesn’t mean that a teacher has to always be right. It means a teacher is inwardly prepared to face whatever professional context serves up. Being self-empowered, teachers know their professional goals and can use their own judgment in achieving them. In other words, selfempowered teachers know they have an active and important role in the educational process, and this quality allows them to reduce the number of the stressors they have to cope with and contributes to job satisfaction. This approach reflects the psychological aspect of personal empowerment, which has been regarded as an individual’s cognitive state characterized by a sense of perceived control, competence, and goal internalization. From this point of view, personal empowerment is considered as a multi-faceted construct reflecting the different dimensions of being psychologically enabled, and is conceived of as a positive integrate of perceptions of personal control, a proactive approach to life, and a critical understanding of the socio-political environment, which is # 1806 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education rooted firmly in a social action framework that includes community change, capacity building, and collectivity (Oladipo, 2009: 121). Analysis of psychological works on self-empowerment/ personal agency allowed us to argue that selfempowerment/personal agency makes people more open, questioning, actively looking for solutions and developing their self-esteem (selfconfidence) and self-efficacy (great trust in one’s own abilities). That’s why self-empowerment/ personal agency is also considered one of the requisites for personal growth and success, better psychological well-being (Oladipo, 2009). Campion et al. define personal empowerment as the employees’ ability to make decisions and to accept responsibility for the outcome of those decisions (Campion et al., 1993). However, the processes are reported to be directly related to personal autonomy (Ryan, Deci, 1985) and to teacher autonomy in particular (LaCoe, 2008). Meanwhile, lack of participation in decision-making is reported to be linked to depersonalization and considered as a significant predictor of burnout syndrome (Lasalvia & Tansella, 2011: 279). Indeed, when teachers perceived that they lack of participate in decision making, they would feel that they are in condition which is uncontrollable, so they feel helplessness and feel uncertainly of their teaching practice. In order to cope with the situation, teachers will depersonalize their relationships with colleagues and students. In the context of up-to-date social and economic changes and Russian educational system ambiguity, marked by novelty, complexity, insolubility and lack of structure, teacher’s capacity to decision making extends its meaning through transformation into “decision making under ambiguity”, which implies the ambiguity tolerance (tolerance for ambiguity). Referring to an individual’s ability to accept ambiguity, lack of structure, complexity, insolubility, etc., or to “a person’s ability to function rationally and calmly in a situation in which interpretation of all stimuli is not clear” (Chappelle & Roberts, 1986: 30), the ambiguity tolerance is reported to be linked to risk taking because those who can tolerate ambiguity are more likely to take risks (Ehrman & Oxford, 1995). This approach makes the ambiguity tolerance extremely important for modern teachers who need experiencing positive emotions even in stressful, ambiguous, problematic situations through transforming them into the challenges for self-development. Teachers who are tolerant of ambiguity seem to be more willing to take risks and open to change. Accordingly, they can perceive and accept new information without frustration and without appeals to authority even though this information involves many unknown elements. As we can see, being tolerant of ambiguity makes the agent to be more autonomous. On this basis, we consider the ambiguity tolerance to be one of the crucial components ensuring teacher professional autonomy. The ambiguity tolerance is also regarded as an important issue in personal development and is considered to be correlated with creativity and (Kirton, 2004). Meanwhile, creativity involves the ability to create one’s own ways of proceeding (constructivism), the latter being reported to be one of the important attributes of personal autonomy (Gabanska, 1995). The internal locus of control (or innerdirectedness) is another personality trait that is expected to be related to goal commitment, job attitudes and, subsequently, one of the important features of an autonomous person (Stajkovic, Luthans, 1998). Dormann, et al. believe that locus of control represents a belief in oneself relative to one’s environment (Dormann, et al., 2006). In recent research on management theory locus of control is represented as the degree to # 1807 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education which people believe that their actions influence what happens to them (Williams, 2007). Thus, individuals with high internal locus of control (internals) believe that what happens to them, good or bad, is largely a result of their choices and actions. As for individuals with high external locus of control (externals), they believe that what happens to them is caused by external forces outside of their control. Internals are reported to have a strong belief that outcomes such as rewards are under their control (Spector, 1988), to be able to adopt proactive, problem-solving means to change the environment, and they are more likely to engage in goal-directed activities (Hoffman et. al., 2003). Studies also suggest that locus of control is strongly related to job satisfaction (Leone, Burns, 2000; Spector, 1988). In this respect it should be pointed out that following the ideas of E.L. Deci and O.E. Dergacheva (Deci, 1980; Dergacheva, 2005), we do not consider the term “internal locus of control” to be a synonym to above-mentioned “perceived locus of causality”, because “internal locus of control doesn’t necessarily involve intrinsic motivation and self-determination” (Dergacheva, 2005 : 86). Based on these ideas, we believe that the presence of internal locus of control is important, but not sufficient to make the teacher act autonomously. As for perceived locus of causality, it is often regarded, as it was mentioned above, as a continuum of perceived autonomy, the highest level of the latter (self-determination) being ensured by intrinsic motivation (Ryan, Connell, 1989; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Indeed, the concept of “self-determination” is often considered as a synonym to “personal autonomy”, but the latest research indicates that personal autonomy is often defined as a broader phenomenon (Dergacheva, 2005; Pearson & Moomaw, 2005). Drawing on the above mentioned Pearson and Moomaw’s definition of teacher autonomy (Pearson & Moomaw, 2005) and taking into account the context of university teacher professional activity, we assume that perceived university teacher autonomy can be involved in a wider range of processes than self-determination alone. With regard to the above-mentioned and to the context of teaching, the perceived locus of causality seems to be an important teacher personality attribute which can ensure teacher’s perception of work-related autonomy together with some other personality traits and workrelated competencies. It should be added that we consider the degree of perceived locus of causality (Ryan, Connell, 1989) to be central feature that differentiates the terms “autonomy” and “independence”, which have often been used as synonyms in Russian pedagogical science. We assume that perceived teacher autonomy involves a higher level of independence, where the teacher decides not only how to reach the established educational goals but establishes new goals himself according to his own perceptions of the educational context. Conceptual Model of Perceived University Teacher Professional Autonomy Based on the above-mentioned ideas and drawing on Arseniev’s idea about two types of freedom (Arseniev, 1999) and Leontiev’s psychological theory of personal autonomy (Leontiev, 2006), this study regards perceived teacher autonomy as the core of “freedom to”, which 1) implies professional interaction, personal development, self-actualization, selfempowerment and work engagement, 2) is ensured by intrinsic motivations to professional achievement and personal development, and a complex of such personality attributes (internal locus of control, professional responsibility, creativity) and competencies (ability to goal # 1808 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education setting, ability to decision making, ability to make choices, pedagogical mindfulness), 3) leads to better performance, job satisfaction, increase of self-esteem and work-related self-efficacy. In this interpretation perceived teacher autonomy is represented as a high-level competency, ensured by a set of teacher personality traits and leading to better performance. We consider autonomous activity to be related to comparisons between self-generated teacher professional goals and the extent to which they are reached in practice. These comparisons seem to characterize the degree of perceived teacher autonomy. As a result, a review of the professional literature with respect to SDT, Competencybased approach, the Tuning approach and the Theory of a rational performance allowed us to pose the following definition of perceived teacher autonomy: Perceived teacher autonomy is determined by intrinsic motivations to professional achievement and development, professional responsibility, creativity and relative independence from external factors generic competency, that underlies successful performance across different teachingrelated situations through creating one’s own professional goals, taking intellectual and moral decisions, making free choices, and selfmonitoring one’s own professional experience. With regard to this definition, an autonomous teacher seems to always be ready to deal with challenges which appear in the changing educational environment. In other words, an autonomous teacher is able to deal with his stress positively through transforming the existing stressors into the factors of his own selfdevelopment. Subsequently, for an autonomous teacher teaching generally represents a wide range of experiences and relationships with joy, fascination and satisfaction rather than risks for frustration and disappointment. This viewpoint corresponds with the idea proposed by Priebe & Reininghaus (2011) who turn from the negative stress model to an approach that emphasizes the positive sides of work – i.e. the factors that promote “work engagement”, a positive, fulfilling, effective-motivational state of workrelated well-being (Bakker et al., 2005). The above mentioned ideas are relevant to ‘positive psychology’, a new research and application field that describes aspects of the human condition that lead to happiness and fulfillment to determine the factors that better one’s life (rather than trying to prevent negative situations) (Ryan, Deci, 2000, Ryff, 1995, Caprara et al., 2010). Our investigation allows us to reveal the benefits of promoting perceived teacher autonomy through development of teacher intrinsic motivations to professional achievement and teacher personal development, together with teacher personality attributes (internal locus of control, professional responsibility, creativity) and work-related competencies (ability to goal setting, ability to decision making, ability to make choices, pedagogical mindfulness), ensuring perceived teacher autonomy (Fig. 1). The research model investigated in this study as shown below in Figure 1 implies that being intrinsically motivated to professional achievement and personal development, and having a complex of such personality attributes (internal locus of control, professional responsibility, creativity) and competencies (ability to goal setting, ability to decision making, ability to make choices, pedagogical mindfulness), an autonomous teacher is able to deal with any educational environment challenges positively through transforming them into the factors of his own self-development. This activity implies professional interaction and pro-social behavior, self-actualization, selfempowerment and leads to personal development and job satisfaction, promoting work engagement as a positive, fulfilling, effective-motivational # 1809 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education Fig. 1: Conceptual Model of Perceived University Teacher Professional Autonomy state of work-related well-being considered above as the antipode of teacher burnout. Engagement is related to better performance which leads, in its turn, to the increase of teacher self-esteem and professional self-efficacy. This helps the teacher to constantly keep and develop his personality traits ensuring his professional autonomy. In other words, an autonomous teachers is well adjusted with the possibility of high job satisfaction since there is always a chance for a positive change in his/her value orientation which results, in its turn, in more autonomous behavior. Accordingly, perceived teacher autonomy may allow him / her to tolerate occasional frustrations and setbacks, and prevent exhaustion as one of three main burnout components. In the context of new social and professional demands, perceived teacher autonomy, thus, helps the teacher to keep his / her individuality in each act of his / her selffulfillment. The proposed approach to investigate perceived teacher autonomy reveals its special potential as a mainspring of higher education reform, ensuring pedagogical research, effective implementation of new educational technologies, teacher influence on university policies, teacher professional development and self-actualization. Resume In this paper we showed several theoretical approaches able to become the methodological bases for investigating perceived teacher autonomy phenomenon. Among them SDT, competencybased approach, theory of a rational performance and the Tuning approach to university teacher professional activity, based on which we have proposed an integrated definition of perceived teacher autonomy. We consider perceived teacher autonomy as teacher generic competency, determined by intrinsic motivations to professional achievement and development, professional responsibility, creativity and relative independence from external factors and underlying successful performance # 1810 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana A. Gavrilyuk. Understanding University Teacher Autonomy as a Mainspring of Reforming Higher Education across different teaching-related situations through creating one’s own professional goals, taking intellectual and moral decisions, making free choices, and self-monitoring one’s own professional experience. At the conceptual level of our research it means that a teacher himself, his desires, his process for forming the desires and the resulting actions are all the sorts of things that could be regarded as autonomous. The proposed aspect of understanding perceived university teacher autonomy reveals its crucial role in providing a new type of higher education through allowing pedagogical research, effective implementation of new educational technology, ensuring teacher psychological wellbeing as well as teacher professional development and self-actualization. Finally, implications for future research are based on the conclusion that University teacher autonomy cannot be understood without studying teacher motivations, personality traits and workrelated competencies in a broad socio-cultural context. We hope this work will set the stage for research initiatives investigating the potential of perceived university teacher autonomy as an important factor which must be taken into account to prevent teacher burnout. References 1. D. Allwright, “Autonomy in Language Pedagogy”, in CRILE Working papers 6. Centre for Research in Education (Lancaster : University of Lancaster, 1990). 2. N. 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(London: Longman, 1997), p. 192-203. 73. G. C. Williams, & E. L. Deci, “Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70 (1996), 767779. 74. R. G. Willner, “Images of the future now: Autonomy, professionalism and efficacy”. Doctoral Dissertation, (Fordham University, 1990). Автономность преподавателя университета как движущая сила реформирования высшего образования О.А. Гаврилюк Красноярский государственный медицинский университет им. профессора В.Ф. Войно-Ясенецкого Россия 660022, Красноярск, ул. П. Железняка, 1 Продолжая попытки определить и описать автономность преподавателя как существенный фактор его профессионализма и саморазвития, данное исследование расширяет понимание освоенной автономности преподавателя вуза посредством изучения содержания этой сложной личностной характеристики в контексте современных преобразований в российском высшем образовании. С учетом теории самодетерминации, компетентностного подхода, теории рационального стиля деятельности и тюнингового подхода к профессиональной деятельности преподавателя вуза эта работа дает интегрированное определение освоенной автономности преподавателя вуза как его метакомпетенции, обеспечивающейся динамическим комплексом личностных характеристик и профессиональных компетенций. Содержание понятия «освоенная автономность преподавателя вуза» представлено в концептуальной модели. Исследование раскрывает потенциал освоенной автономности преподавателя вуза как движущей силы профессионального саморазвития педагога, повышения его профессиональной активности, удовлетворенности работой, а также его умения эффективно справляться с различными типами профессиональных стресс-факторов в контексте реформы высшего образования в России. Ключевые слова: высшее образование, преподаватель вуза, личностная автономность, освоенная автономность, самодетерминация, внутренняя мотивация, професиональное саморазвитие, локус контроля, целеполагание, принятие решений, осуществление выбора, рефлексивность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1816-1823 ~~~ УДК 82-2:821.133.1(091)-792.2Anouilh-Jean The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” Irina G. Prudius* Moscow State Pedagogical University 1 M. Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow,119991 Russia Received 03.10.2013, received in revised form 17.10.2013, accepted 22.10.2013 A French writer, Jean Anouilh, is one of the most famous innovators in the sphere of drama of the twentieth century. His drama is rightfully called intellectual: in its basis there is the ideological confrontation of two worlds: a conformist and a non-conformist one, the stand of the latter the dramatist supported over the period of his creative development. Therefore one and the same problems, one and the same ideas pass through Anouilh’s works. The play “Skylark” is one of the summits of Jean Anouilh’s drama creative work. In the article – “The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” – the composition peculiarities of this play are considered as well as the retrospective method used by Anouilh as fundamental for the creation of the play. Keywords: dramaturgy, french literature, Anouilh Jean. Point During the whole 19 century problems in drama are growing. In its last third H. Ibsen’s drama, which can be related to the drama of ideas, appears. In drama of the 20th century, starting with B. Show’s works, idea subdues the structure. Besides the term “the drama of ideas” the term “intellectual drama” comes into service. In our opinion there is no distinction in kind between them. Only a varying degree of structure subordination to the idea might be considered. The writers transfer the conflict of the play to the intellectual sphere and in connection with it they reconsider their attitude to the structure of drama itself. A.G. Obraztsova wrote about B. Show’s works: “The collision of ideas in Show’s dramas is so consuming, that it entirely subdues the plot, the dialogue, the characters” th * (Obraztsova, p. 68, 1965). These words can refer to the intellectual drama in whole. Drama often became “non-dramatic”; intrigue (if it had been) could fade away right in the first act (in case if the play was divided into acts at all). B. Show was right when remarked: “I, as well as our leading dramatists, am constantly praised for our old professional stunts… As for our real achievements, they are either not noticed, or condemned for “non-dramatism” or some other nonsense of that kind” (Show, p.492, 1963). M.S.Kurginyan writes that drama should be enriched with “epic comprehensiveness, that a mass hero, not an individual one, should be put into the foreground; the whole epoch should be a storyline, not just separate episodes” (Kurginyan, p.165, 1989). Therefore the drama structure is built via the clash of the main idea and the ones © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1816 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” opposed to it, like “crossing” at which different points meet and from which they move away” (Kurginyan, p.166, 1989). But besides the transference of conflict into the intellectual sphere, drama of the 20th century reveals itself also in compositional transformations. And, as M.S.Kurginyan correctly remarked, “innovative forms of the contemporary drama <…> are born in works of progressive-minded dramatists influenced by the new problems of the new epoch <…> for all the variety the search is united by one common tendency: the breach of those general principles and specific drama laws , followed as obligatory, by their predecessors” (Kurginyan, p.165, 1989). A French writer, Jean Anouilh, is one of the most famous innovators in the sphere of drama of the twentieth century. His drama is rightfully called intellectual: in its basis there is the ideological confrontation of two worlds: a conformist and a non-conformist one, the stand of the latter the dramatist supported over the period of his creative development. Therefore one and the same problems, one and the same ideas pass through Anouilh’s works. The play “Skylark” is one of the summits of Jean Anouilh’s drama creative work. In our work the composition peculiarities of this play are considered as well as the retrospective method used by Anouilh as fundamental for the creation of the play. P.Pavies, a French researcher of theatre art, defines retrospection as “a term <…> for indication a scene or a motif in a play, prior to the performed episode” (Pavies, p. 322, 2003). And further: “This method <…> reminds an introduction to a play at the height of the action, the plot of which sends us then to the prior events” (Pavies, p. 322, 2003). G.N.Khrapovitskaya defined the functions of the retrospective method in “new drama”: “Retrospections – descriptions – epic elements in a drama are one of the reactions of the form to a changed content. At the same time it is the reaction of that part of the form which is called composition” (Khrapovitskaya, p.191, 1979). And further: Presence of retrospection creates the illusion of time extension of the events, so does an open ending” (Khrapovitskaya, p.194, 1979). In the 20th century drama structure is getting more and more complex. P.Pavies in his “Theatre Dictionary” writes not only about retrospection, but also about its forms: “retrospection within retrospection” (crossing of two or more past times) or “cascade of retrospections” (number of retrospections in characters’ cues following one another). P.Pavies stated that it was necessary “to define the moment of retrospection for the audience to understand what was going on. <…> It should always be definite, limited with distinct “frames” for adequate perception: retrospection within retrospection or moreover cascade of retrospections can only disorient the audience. But the methods mentioned above are reasonable when the principle of linear and objective narration is deliberately broken and there is a stake on the overlaying of realities” (Pavies, p. 322, 2003). M.G.Merkulova remarked that “the specific character of retrospection functioning in drama is first of all connected with “resurrection of the past” as a representation on the stage, therefore the realization of retrospection at the levels of action, character and conflict formation inherent to drama literary kind is particularly significant” (Merkulova, p. 55, 2006). In Jean Anouilh’s works the retrospective method is more than just reasonable. Retrospection within retrospection is the author’s constant compositional trick for drawing the audience in the stage reality. “Skylark” is the brightest example of the retrospective composition in Anouilh’s drama. Two thirds of the play consist of retrospection: it is the performance of Jeanne d’Arc’s life before the trial, though the play begins with the bringing in the verdict. With the help of # 1817 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” retrospection the whole Jeanne’s life is shown, uncovering plenty of hard events, which couldn’t crush her determined character. Example In Anouilh’s drama works the division into acts is often absent. The same situation is with “Skylark”. Directors had to decide themselves when to set an intermission so not to harm the notional goal of the author, who hadn’t intended to make any break in the stage action. So “Skylark” came out extremely integral with Jeanne’s past and present inseparably interwoven. The tense plot intrigue (if Jeanne will be sentenced, if she’ll die or not), the end of which is well-known, steps back and gives place to actionreflection in the heroine’s mind, which is though not always represented as a monologue, oftener as a dialogue, but attracts readers’ and audience’s attention to the very process of the formation of the thoughts. Jeanne. Cela aurait été mieux, n’est-ce pas, si j’avais été brulée? Warwick. Je vous ai dit que pour le Gouvernement de Sa Majesté, l’abjuration est exactement la meme chose... Jeanne. Non. Pour moi? (Anouilh, pp. 176177, 2009) (Jeanne. Tell me, would it be better, if I were burned? Warwick. I have already told you that for His Majesty’s government it is one and the same thing... Jeanne. No. For me?) To make the audience understand how difficult it is for the character to make their decision, Anouilh uses the retrospective composition to extend the time frames of the stage action. Almost the whole play is the narration about Jeanne’s life before the trial. Before that the author put the stories of characters’ past into the mouths of these or those personages. In “Skylark” the retrospective action is performed directly on the stage. All the personages from Jeanne’s past life (before the trial) appear and tell their stories themselves. For example, the scene of the first meeting of Jeanne and Charles, the king of France, happens before the trial, but is shown on the stage. So this scene in the play is already retrospection. It is performed after the dialogue between Warwick and Cauchon, discussing Jeanne’s grandeur and solitude, who they have been forcing to sign the deed of repudiation for nine months. Warwick knows, that Jeanne will lead the French army, but suggests Cauchon watch the scene of the meeting of the king and Maid of Orleans, since “little coward Charles” has always “amused” him. Charles’s image is already brought down to the level of retrospection. With the help of retrospection within retrospection (Charles’s narration about the family) Anouilh “deheroizes” the king of France as much as possible. Even in Warwick’s words we can see the author’s negative attitude to the king, but to emphasize that, Anouilh doesn’t put the story about Charles into the mouth of one of Jeanne’s judges, but lets the personage come to the stage and reveal himself to the audience. Charles is depicted as a “nasty boy” or “little Charles”. In comparison with Jeanne he looks pathetic and not capable to take any resolute actions, moreover he realizes that. In the dialogue with Iolanthe (Charles’s mother-in-law), which is more alike a monologue, the king accuses his generals of being deceitful, of the war being more like a fair, where everything is sold and bought. His private life itself resembles the war: Charles complains to Iolanthe that he is tired to fight for his budget with his wife and his lover, who care only about new fashionable caps for appearing in society. At this moment Anouilh # 1818 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” brings the retrospection: the king recollects his grandfather – Charles the Great, who, in his opinion, became famous, because “in his time there was no such scarcity”. Charles also tells about his parents, who “have spent the entire treasury on food”. Though the king tries to set himself right with not only Iolanthe, but also the audience, his image is falling even more. Charles. Quand comprendrez-vous, tous, que je ne suis qu’un pauvre petit Valois de rien du tout et qu’il faudrait un miracle? C’est entendu, mon grand-père Charles a été un grand roi; mais il vivait avant la guerre où tout était beaucoup moins cher. Et d’ailleures, lui, il était riche... Mon père et ma mère ont tout mangé; il y a eu je ne sais combien de dévalutions en France, et je n’ai plus les moyens d’etre un grand roi, moi, voilà tout! (Anouilh, p.76, 2009) (Charles. When will you all understand that I’m just a worthless offspring of the Valois, and at least a miracle will be needed to make your dreams come true? Of course, my grandfather, Charles, was a great king, but he lived before the war, that time there was no such scarcity. Though he was rich... My father and my mother have spent all the money on food ; in France there have been so many devaluations that I can’t even remember, and I personaly don’t have means to become a great king, and that’s all!) Charles excuses his failure to act during the war with absence of money. But in the conversation with Jeanne it already becomes evident that the king is also coward and just weak-willed. In this dialogue Jeanne promises him to reveal the secret of always being brave. The king supposes that Jeanne is a witch, but he assures her that he won’t tell anybody. And just at that moment he utters such words: Charles. Les supplices, j’ai ça en horreur. Une fois, ils m’ont emmené voir bruler une hérétique. J’ai vomi toute la nuit. (Anouilh, p.97, 2009) (Charles. Tortures, to me, they are horrible! Once they dragged me to watch how a heretic was burned. I had been vomiting all night.) He doesn’t want to give up Jeanne to the Inquisition not because he admires the heroine, but because of his own reasons – in order not to watch the tortures. Anouilh, spontaneously giving an insignificant retrospective element, intensifies Charles’s deheroization, depicting his weak character. Anouilh uses the retrospective method and at the moment of Jeanne’s crucial choice. After she has signed the deed of repudiation, the heroine is being conducted to the dungeon, where Warwick comes to support her. In the dialogue with Warwick Jeanne’s cues sound aloof, they are more alike a monologue, within which she is still hesitating, not knowing which decision is more right for her. And so Jeanne, having whispered incomprehensibly, cries that she doesn’t want to linger, as most people do. Recollections about the voices (retrospection), having foretold her a great future, make her refuse the almost forced agreement, made at the trial, and accept the execution, but remain herself – the real Jeanne d’Arc, for who no compromise exists. Jeanne. Messire saint Michel! Sainte Marguerite! Sainte Catherine! <…> Je ne suis née que du jour où j’ai fait ce que vous m’avez dit de faire, à cheval, une épée dans la main! C’est celle-là, ce n’est que celle-là, Jeanne! <…> Pour ce qui est de ce que j’ai fait, je ne m’en dédirai jamais. (Anouilh, pp.172-173, 2009) (Jeanne. Archangel Michael! Saint Margaret! Saint Catherine! <...> I was born on that very day when you talked to me for the first time. I began to live since the day, when I had done what you had told me to accomplish astride, with a sword in my hand. That is the real Jeanne, only she is the Jeanne! <...> I will never repudiate what I have done.) # 1819 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” Retrospective elements are brought unexpectedly, are closely interwoven with the stage action – the court session, and then again unexpectedly come to the direct action on the stage. The intrigue dies when Jeanne signs the deed of repudiation (of all her ideas and deeds). And so she is allegedly safe and has to spend the rest of her life in the nunnery, but the audience knows, that Jeanne d’Arc will be burned at the stake, even before the beginning of the stage action. So the concentration of the action is in the heroine’s mind. But the conflict, consisting in the confrontation of conformists and non-conformists, which passes through all of Anouilh’s plays, focuses not only on the main heroine. The confrontation between Jeanne and the surrounding world, embodied in her judges, is important. And if Jeanne makes the only possible and right decision for her (which turns true for the author too), the other personages (excluding the Inquisitor) are not so defi nite in their choice. Her main opponents – Warwick and Cauchon – are constantly hesitating about Jeanne’s verdict. In their recollections some lyrical notes can be heard. For Cauchon she is “a poor girl”, “a child”, an innocent victim. For Warwick – the heroine, with whose help the French got their victory. Cauchon. Nous avons ergoté neuf mois avant de vous livrer Jeanne. Neuf mois pour faire dire «oui» à une petite fille abandonnée de tous. <…> La santé de la mère <…> nous préocpait seule et nous avons de bonne foi sacrifié l’enfant quand nous avons cru comprendre qu’il n’y avait pas autre chose à faire. (Anouilh, p.65, 2009) (Cauchon. We had been arguing for the whole nine months, before we gave up Jeanne to you. The whole nine months to persuade a poor girl, left by everyone, to say “yes”. <...> We are concerned solely about health of the mother [the country] <...>and we scarified the child when we, as it seemed to us, had understood that there was no other way.) And then it is Warwick who names Jeanne the skylark, which proclaimed the French victory over the Englishmen. Warwick. C’est cette petite alouette chantant dans le ciel de France. (Anouilh, p. 111, 2009) (Warwick. This little skylark sang in the skies of France.) In the dialogue between Warwick and Cauchon, taking place before the episode with Charles, everything, referring to the present – to the trial, is performed stiffly, as if enumerating the facts. As for the recollections, the retrospective elements, they are on the contrary full of warmth and sympathy to the main heroine. Jeanne embodies the ideas of freedom of will and mind, when her judges – subordination to the dogmata and system. If everything referring to Jeanne is the truth, then that, referring to her opponents is lies and doubts. Here we can talk about the problem of faith. Jeanne’s belief in God is absolute, it goes from her heart, but she also believes in the Man, their willpower, capacity to cope with all life difficulties and resist in any situation. Cauchon. Ainsi, Jeanne, tu excuses l’homme? Tu le crois l’un des plus grands miracles de Dieu, voire le seul ? Jeanne. Oui, Messire. (Anouilh, p. 121, 2009) (Cauchon. Well, Jeanne, do you excuse the man? Do you believe that he is the greatest miracles of God, if not the only? Jeanne. Yes, Monsieur.) Before the execution Jeanne asks for a crucifi x, the English soldiers bring it to her – they, her recent enemies, admire her strongwilled character. The Inquisitor is afraid that the Englishmen might come down on her side. Her story becomes eternal, her name – a legend. # 1820 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” Jeanne’s judges don’t have any veritable faith either in God, or in the Man. They have only the law and settled scheme of behaviour, which are impossible to neglect. Any rebel is a traitor. In the speeches of Jeanne’s antagonists there are only cynicism and an attempt to persuade the heroine to take their side, in comparison with Jeanne, who doesn’t try to convince anybody of the truth of her words. The Inquisitor is her most vehement accuser. He says that she is worse than devil. L’Inquisiteur. Plus notre ennemi est petit et fragile, plus il est tendre, plus il est pur, plus il est innocent, plus il est redoutable... <…> La chasse à l’homme ne sera jamais fermée... <…> et qui humiliera encore une fois l’Idée au comble de sa puissance, simplement parce qu’il dira «non» sans baisser les yeux. (Anouilh, p.123-124, 2009) (The Inquisitor. The weaker and the more fragile our enemy is, the gentler, the purer and the more innocent it is, the more dangerous it is...<...> The hunting of that one will never end...<...> who once more will humiliate the Idea, having reached the summit of might, humiliate by just saying “no” without casting down their eyes.) Here one more conflict is marked – the confrontation of the idea of implicit obedience to laws, embodied at the highest pitch by the Inquisitor, and the idea of humanity, which is embodied in Jeanne herself and to which Warwick, Cauchon and ordinary people are prone. The final of the play proves the triumph of humanism over laws. Thus, Anouilh yet believes in the human ability to overcome the frames set by the society and the state. In the final of the play Jeanne, who consciously dooms herself to death, doesn’t perish. The dramatist with the help of a ridiculous personage Baudricour stops her execution at the stake, saying that at the trial the most important episode in Jeanne’s life was forgotten – her presence on the coronation of the king of France, Charles. So the play finishes with the retrospective final, which happens before the beginning of the stage action, – before the trial. The play is structured so that in the final it closes up with the absolute triumph of Anouilh’s main heroine, having said her “no” to the world, but not with Jeanne’s death. Charles. La vraie fin de l’histoire de Jeanne, la vraie fin qui n’en finira plus, celle qu’on se redira toujours, quand on aura oublié ou confondu tous nos noms, ce n’est pas dans sa misère de bete traquée à Rouen, c’est l’alouette en plein ciel, c’est Jeanne à Reims dans toute sa gloire... La vraie fin de l’histoire de Jeanne est joyeuse. Jeanne d’Arc, c’est une histoire qui finit bien! (Anouilh, p.188, 2009) (Charles. The real end of Jeanne’s story, the real end, which will never end, which will always be retold even when our names have been forgotten or confused, – this story is not about the troubles of a creature, coursed in Rouen, but the story of a skylark in the skies, it is Jeanne in Rheims, in the prime of her glory. The real end of her story is a happy one. Jeanne d’Arc it’s the story with a happy ending!) In the world, where the compromise rules, there is no life for Jeanne, and she chooses death. But, as we have already said, the fi nal scene of the play is not the heroine’s execution as it should have been expected. Anouilh, using retrospection, in the end of his work presents his favourite heroine flourishing – on Charles’s coronation, where only she was allowed not to kneel. She turns her eyes to the skies, “as she is depicted in pictures”. Resume “Skylark” is one of the best Anouilh’s plays. Though he used the retrospective method in his earlier works, in “Skylark” the dramatist # 1821 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” applies not only retrospection, but also its form – retrospection within retrospection – the characters’ past reflects not only in their cues, but also it is performed directly on the stage. Anouilh mainly uses the very retrospection within retrospection to show the past events and their influence on the present – the trial of Jeanne – more objectively. In “Skylark” the retrospections are often performed in the form of a dialogue, though they are taken for monologues, as the personages, being absorbed in their past, stop paying attention to their interlocutors (for example, in Jeanne’s speeches). Sometimes retrospection appears suddenly, as a spontaneous recollection (Charles’s cue about the tortures), what focuses audience’s attention on this very detail, on this very moment. The past is interwoven with the present, and by their crossing the drama conflict is brighter represented – the contradiction between Jeanne and her judges, between the ideas of freedom of will and humanity and the idea of implicit obedience to the rules, set in the society. The retrospective end affirms the victory of humanism and freethinking over the law. Thus, with the help of the retrospective method in “Skylark” Jean Anouilh created one of his brightest works, which is still being performed. Reference 1. Anouilh J. Skylark [L’Alouette]. Paris, La table ronde, 2009. 192 p. 2. Khrapovitskaia G.N. Osnovnye puti razvitiia norvezhskoi dramy vtoroi poloviny XIX – nachala XX vekov (Ibsen, B’ernson, Gamsun, G.Heiberg) [The Main Ways of Development of the Norwegian Drama of the Second Half of the 19th Century – of the Beginning of the 20th Century (Ibsen, Bjørnson, Hamsun, G.Heiberg)]. Moscow, Publ. MGPI after V.I.Lenin, 1979. 894 p. 3. Kurginian M.S. Chelovek v literature 20 veka [A person in the literature of the 20th Century]. Moscow, Publ. Nauka, 1989. 248 p. 4. Merkulova M.G. Retrospekciia v angliiskoi novoi drame kontsa XIX – nachala XX veka: istoki i funktsionirovanie [Retrospection in the English new drama of the end of XIX – the beginning of XX centuries: origins and functioning]. Moscow, Publ. Prometey, 2006. 184 p. 5. Obraztsova A.G. Dramaturgicheskii metod Bernarda Shou [Bernard Shaw’s drama method]. Moscow, Publ. Nauka, 1965. 313 p. 6. Pavi P. Slovar’ teatra [Theatre dictionary]. Moscow, Publ. house GITIS, 2003. 516 p. 7. Shou B. O drame i teatre [About drama and theatre]. Moscow, Publ. foreign literature, 1963. 639 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Prudius. The Retrospective Composition of Jean Anouilh’s Drama “Skylark” Ретроспективная композиция в драме Ж. Ануя «Жаворонок» И.Г. Прудиус Московский педагогический государственный университет Россия 119991, Москва, ул. М. Пироговская, 1 Французский писатель Жан Ануй является одним из самых известных новаторов в области драматургии XX века. Его драма по праву названа интеллектуальной: в ее основе идейное противостояние двух миров – конформистов и нон-конформистов, с позицией последних драматург был солидарен на протяжении всего творческого пути. Поэтому у Ануя из произведения в произведение переходят одни и те же проблемы и одни и те же идеи. Пьеса «Жаворонок» – одна из вершин драматургического творчества Ж. Ануя. В статье «Ретроспективная композиция в драме Ж. Ануя «Жаворонок» рассматриваются композиционные особенности данной пьесы и использование Ануем приема ретроспекции как основополагающего при создании данного произведения. Ключевые слова: французская драма, интеллектуальная драма, Ануй Жан. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1824-1830 ~~~ УДК 343.9 Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society Stratification in Terms of “Inclusive/Exclusive” and the Growth of Recidivism Among Youth Yuri Yu. Komlev* Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia 35 Magistralnaya Str., Kazan, 420108 Russia Received 24.07.2013, received in revised form 31.07.2013, accepted 04.08.2013 The article outlines the basics of the theory of restrictive social control. We consider the possibility of preventive restrictive social control to limit the negative deviance of youth under the stratification of Russian society by «inclusive / exclusive» and the growth of recidivism. Keywords: inclusive, exclusive, recidivism, social control, “the crisis of punishment”, deviance, restriction, restrictive social control. 1. Introduction 2. Statement of the Problem The problem of social control over the massive social and personal dangerous destructive deviant behavior in today's society is a subject for permanent attention of different scholars: sociologists, psychologists, criminologists. Social control over such negative manifestations of deviance as: crime in all its manifestations, alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, gambling and suicidal behavior acquires the status of an extremely important scientific and practical problem, especially in the context of public and personal safety. Its theoretical, applied and social significance increases markedly in the new social context of globalization, migration and, in particular, the stratification of “ultra-modern capitalism” in terms of “inclusive / exclusive” (inclusion / exclusion). The concept of “exclusion” was initially used in academic sense by French sociologists of the second half of the twentieth century to describe those who find themselves on the sidelines of economic progress in terms of “new poverty”. As is known, in the context of stratification in Western societies the “inclusion / exclusion” meta-code describes the growing gap between the increasing well-being of one part of people and the “worthless others. In this case, the exclusion of the poor from social prospects in the developed countries is done gradually through the accumulation of difficulties, social ties breaking, suspension, identity crisis, the growth of deviance. In Russia the exception of large masses of the population, and mainly young people, took * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1824 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri Yu. Komlev. Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society… place rapidly at the turn of the 21st century as a result of the shock therapy by Gaidar and Chubais privatization, as well as an outcome of the string of subsequent market reforms, formation of oligarchy and state-bureaucratic capitalism. The process of exclusion is taking place even today: in our country the poor are becoming poorer, the rich are becoming richer, the gap between the rich and the poor is becoming deeper. The stratification of the social structure in terms of “inclusion / exclusion” has created new preconditions for the determination of multiple negative deviance, complicated the situation with social control and public safety. It has proved to be especially harmful for the juvenile environment. The “excluded” teenagers and young people are often homeless, socially unattended, increasingly commit not only acts of street hooliganism, ordinary theft, but more latent socially dangerous crimes, vandalism and extremism, hate crimes and xenophobia. Many of these torts remain latent, but even recorded crime rate shows evidence of the crisis of social control over the negative deviance among youth. The phenomenology of the crisis in the field of social control not being capable of deterring crimes is often referred to by criminologists as “crisis of punishment” (T. Matisen, N. Kristi, Ya. Gilinsky, etc.). In the community of the excluded without effective social control the scope of the constructive activity of young people becomes significantly narrow and, along with the “intermittent” deviant careers there is a growing risk of “intensive” ones in the way of recidivism and professionalization of crime. It is no coincidence that the highest percentage of recidivism is recorded in the age group of 22 to 24 years. Thus, according to statistics from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, along with the general crime rate in the country being reduced in 2010 repeated crimes increased by 40 %. Structurally a half of repeated crimes are serious and high crimes, more than 60 % of the total repeated crimes are theft, robbery, brigandage and hooliganism – types of crimes that create the greatest threat to personal and public safety (I.V.Petrov). Along with the criminal behavior selfdestructive forms of deviance in youth community become increasingly widespread: alcoholism, drug addiction, and gambling. Since 1990, rates of drug abuse in Russia, according to S.G. Olkov, began to grow with exponential acceleration. According to statistics, the incidence of drug abuse among teenagers in Russia is about two times and abuse of inhalants is about eight times higher than the drug abuse rate for the population in general. At the same time, many domestic researchers note the continuing “rejuvenation” of drug use (E.A. Koshkina, N.A. Sirota, 2001; Yu.Yu. Komlev, 2005; M.E. Pozdnyakova, 2007). It is pretty unlikely that some of the youngsters decide to change their deviant biography, and become law abiding citizens under the conditions Russian rigid mentality, the “crisis of punishment”, incapability of certain institutions of socialization and social control to perform their functions. It is well known that, the “crisis of punishment” in Russian conditions was strengthened by increased incapability of law enforcement agencies to perform their functions in the society divided into the “included” and socially excluded, convincing evidence of that is “Evsukov Syndrome”, “Kazan new phenomenon in the “Dalny” police station, and many other systemic disruptions in the work of law enforcement with reference to ensuring public and personal safety. Dysfunctions of police departments revealed themselves in the alienation of law enforcement agencies from local communities and society as a whole, the loss of public trust in law enforcement, in the absence of # 1825 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri Yu. Komlev. Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society… civilian control in the field of legality and law and order, in the corruption of some of the soldiers and officers, in hypertrophic centralization and bureaucratization of the Interior Ministry. The entry into force of the Federal Law (2011), “On Police”, FL (2011) “On the Administrative Supervision of Persons Released from Prison,” the adoption of other laws and regulations, the development of the draft of the Federal Law “On Principles of Prevention of Crime in the Russian Federation” , presentation of proposals to further reforms of the Interior Ministry in the format of the “Road Map” largely determined socially oriented vector and conceptual legal framework of the reform of Local Police Departments as key institutions of social control. However, the actual practice of law enforcement is still going the same way: reactive, repressive measures against, especially socially excluded dominate over proactive forms of control. Despite a slight decline in recent years, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, the proportion of juvenile crime age group of 14 to 30 years in the structure of the perpetrators of the crimes remains extremely high. In particular, according to the statistics service of Tatarstan, it is stable at about 50 %. Moreover, against the background of general decline in recorded crime in the country as a whole, and the Republic of Tatarstan, in particular, there is a high percentage of repeated crimes in adolescent youth. Briefly speaking, the “crisis of punishment” continues. In modern conditions, the majority of Russian scholars, who investigate deviant behavior, believe that the issue of improving the efficiency of social control over the negative deviance in Russian society, which is being stratified according to the model of “inclusion / exclusion”, needs a thorough academic analysis, needs a new “crazy”, according to Ya. I. Gilinsky, theory of deviant behavior and social control (Ya. I. Gilinskiy 1998). 3. Methodology and Methods of the Research The department of philosophy, political science, sociology and psychology of Kazan Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for quite a long time from 1999 to 2010 fruitfully conducted empirical studies on specificity and scope of “norm-breaking” behavior among young people, resulting from the use of psychoactive substances, drugs, alcohol, and committing misdemeanors. In addition to the empirical generalization of deviant behavior facts within integrative perspective analysis there were theoretically synthesized basic tenets of the theory of restrictive social control (TRSC) over the negative deviance among adolescents and young adults. The main methodological assumptions that shaped the conceptualization of the restrictive social control are as follows: 1. It is a commonplace that the global and domestic deviant behavior studies highly presuppose a number of fundamental points: on the negative and positive deviance, on relativity, constructedness, complementarity of social norms and deviations, the functionality of deviant behavior, of social control as a set of tools and methods to influence the society and state of the negative forms of deviance to minimize them. 2. Modern deviant behavior studies and criminology widely use theoretical integration. Proponents of the integrative approach believe that it is more important to focus on different and complementary aspects of deviance and control. According to G. Barak modern criminology needs to develop “an integrated paradigm” (A.E. Liska, 1989). 3. The objective of theoretical integration is to identify common positions of two or more theories in order to make their synthesis into a single restated theoretical model with higher explanatory potential than it is for a separate # 1826 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri Yu. Komlev. Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society… theory. Theoretical integration is usually based on thoughtful options of combining two or more closely related theories. A. Liska in 1989 identified and described these types of theoretical integration, such as: conceptual, propositional, single-level, cross-level (A. E. Liska, 1989). Conceptual integration is a type of synthesis for combining concepts, provisions of the one and the other theories that overlap in its meaning. Propositional integration connects the complementary adoption of different theories. Single-level integration requires only association of micro theories or theories of macro-level. Cross-level integration describes the synthesis of structural and procedural theories. 4. The foreign scientific sources contain wide evidence of different versions of the above types of theoretical integration, developed in the 70-8090-ies of the 20th century. Examples of conceptual integration theory are “conceptual absorption” by R. Aykers, theory of “integrative conceptual framework” by F. Pirson and N. Wayner. D. Elliot, M. Kron, G. Kaplan, T. Thornberry, Ch. Tittl, A. Liska developed propositional integrative models. In the 1990-s the problems of theoretical integration were tackled by T. Myth and R. Meer, B. Tatum and G. Barak. T.V. Shipunova was one of the first in Russia to propose a synthetic theory of crime and deviance on the basis of a unifying concept of social injustice. 4. Discussion On the basis of foreign and domestic experience of constructing theories of social control and deviant behavior, summarizing original empirical data, using the methodological principles of complementarity and polyconceptuality TRSC is being conceptualized as an open methodological framework (Komlev, 2009). Its structure consists of selected consistent and complementary concepts related to a number of mono theories of social control on the three levels of social restraint: institutional, group and personal. First of all, these are provisions of the preventive control concept by T. Parsons, Walter C. Reckless deterrence theory, theory of relations by T. Hirschi, M. Gottfredson and T. Hirschi’s theory of self-control. The experience of integration of theoretical knowledge at three levels in models of control is presented in the works of G. Barak, where he emphasizes the possibility of combining cultural interactions between individuals, social ecology and the relationship of institutions (G. Barak, 1998). Within the framework of TRSC at the institutional level in order to determine the mechanism of deterrence it is proposed to proceed from the Parsonian position that, in reality, no social system is in a state of perfect balance. The factors that influence deviation are always active and they are so stable that they cannot be completely eliminated from the motivational system of actors. The mechanisms of social control do not eliminate these factors, and only serve to limit the consequences of their actions, provide a rebalancing of deviance by opposing forces. Hence, when modeling preventive counter negative deviance one should consider both functional and dysfunctional states of socialization institutions. The group level departs from the view of the theory by T. Hirshi about the power of social networks that turn an individual to the model of conformal behavior for implementing specific conditions of juvenile deviance deterrence (attachment, commitment, involvement, confidence). Theoretical and empirical value here relates to such a deterrent condition as involvement in social contacts with the group. Meanwhile this involvement appears to be seen in two ways: as a manifestation of the social bond with a group of negative deviants, and with the group in which conformal behavior is normal # 1827 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri Yu. Komlev. Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society… or norms are focused on creativity and positive deviance. The personal level of control upholds a standpoint of M. Gottfredson and T. Hirschi’s theory of self-control, which emphasizes the role of effective preventive self-control as a general factor in the mechanism of deviance deterrence. It absorbs a standpoint of Walter C. Reckless` deterrence theory about “external” and especially “internal” deterrence of deviation factors. And here the precondition relating to the positive self-concept (self-control, perseverance, self-esteem, developed the “ego” and “superego”, commitment, sense of justice and rationality – focus on the goal and commitment to normative behavior) is supplemented by the negative selfconcept (undeveloped self-control, instability, low self-esteem, undeveloped “ego” and “superego”, lack of commitment, low sense of justice and rationalism). Thus, socialization can be seen either as a plus (standard) or a minus (deviant). The reformulated and supplemented provisions of the existing theories of control are stated above and treated as an open for the development methodological framework, which is integrated around the concept of “restriction” (limitation). Its essence lies in the fact that an open but finite set of divergent social constraints determines: the nature of functional and dysfunctional state of socialization institutions, their social effectiveness; specific social ties and involvement of individuals in a group of negative deviants or conformist direction of socialization and the formation of an individual self-concept. Varying the finite number of restrictions of various kinds on the selected control levels can strengthen or weaken the effect of social containment (counter) negative adolescents and youth deviance, social conditions and create preconditions for the transfer of the destructive activity of teenagers in a constructive direction (positive conformity and deviance). Thus, the theory of restrictive social control is focused on the control and prevention, especially for adolescents and youth deviance. The restrictive concept allows for structured sets of countervailing restrictions and vary them according to the number and orientation of action. Here the set of constraints, which creates obstacles for the development of dysfunctions in social institutions, should be optimized and increased. For example, in modern Russian conditions, there is an urgent need to neutralize dysfunctions of institutions of mass communication, such as: making of crime and violence one of the cores of agenda (manifested in the dominant distribution of films showing criminal violence, aggressive behavior and offences), broadcasting “anesthesia” (emerging as the growth of mass apathy and inertia, as the transition from “active participation to passive knowledge”), etc. G. Barak, a supporter of the integrative theoretical approach, believes that without restrictions and censorship for cruelty and violence in films and on TV we cannot ensure the survival of the youth environment (G. Barak, 1998). Typical limitations of these dysfunctions for mass media can be reduction of time and places for broadcasting, the number of television programs with elements of violence. Such restrictions will create the preconditions for reducing probability of internalization for leisure patterns of criminal behavior, for increasing time to engage in any constructive activity. A set of constraints that disrupt the functionality of the media, on the contrary, should be minimized. Reducing barriers for implementation of features such as correlation (explaining, interpreting and commenting on the value of events and information, socialization, coordination of the various forms of social activism, public order and harmony) and continuity (the expression patterns of the # 1828 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri Yu. Komlev. Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society… dominant culture, strengthen and support social values ), significantly increases the functionality of the media. In other words, a program with positive functional contents should have the best time in the broadcasting schedule, and not night time. A set of constraints on the group level, which prevents involvement in dubious teenage street company also needs to be optimized and increased. This may be moving to another area, a vacation in another city or village, rest with the parents, etc. The limitations set which frustrates constructive engagement teenager in a group with conformal behavior or rules-oriented creative process and the positive deviance should be minimized. You can reduce the barriers to activity of initiative groups united constructive, informative or creative purposes, or street football, hockey and other teams that form the basis of mass sports movement. At the individual level also a significant role belongs to increasing the number of constraints that inhibit the formation of a negative self-concept and deviant socialization. Without building educational and other barriers to the formation of pedagogically neglected children, it is difficult to rely on the capacity of self-control. Minimizing the set of constraints that stand in the way of forming a positive self-concept and normative socialization, eliminating excessive care, as well as the conditions that form the “home boys” who are not ready to everyday challenges, increasing the likelihood of normative socialization and development of self-control. 5. Conclusion A number of restrictive provisions, which were put forward, have been tested in some empirical research projects to study drug abuse among teens and youth in the Republic of Tatarstan. Some of them are in the area of public safety, traffic safety, in the media, trade organizations, advertisers. They were implemented in practice in 2005-2011 and confirmed its viability. Other elements of the restrictive theory of control are yet to be evaluated in terms of empirical validity. References 1. Gilinsky Ya. I. Deviantology: sociology of crime, drug abuse, prostitution, suicide and other “deviations”, 2-nd ed., Rev. and add. St. Petersburg.: Publishing R. Arslanova “Press Law Center”, 2007. 520 p. 2. Komlev Yu. Yu. Restrictive theory of social control. Kazan: Kazan Law Institute of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, 2009. 120 p. 3. Petrov I. V. Russia has skyrocketed recidivism // RBCDAILY. Available at: http://www. rbcdaily.ru/2011/03/30/focus/562949979958708 (accessed on 30.03.2011) 4. Barak G. Integrating Criminologies. Allyn and Bacon.1998. – P. 1-272. 5. Liska A.E. Strategies and requisites for theoretical integration in the study of crime and deviance //Theoretical Integration in the Study of Deviance and Crime. Albany: State University of New York Press,1989. – P. 1-20. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri Yu. Komlev. Basic Provisions and Prospects of the Restrictive Social Control under the Conditions of Society… Основные положения и перспективы рестриктивного социального контроля в условиях стратификации общества по основанию «inclusive/exclusive» и роста рецидивизма в молодежной среде Ю.Ю. Комлев Казанский юридический институт МВД России Россия 420108, Казань, ул. Магистральная, 35 В статье излагаются основы теории рестриктивного социального контроля. Рассматриваются превентивные возможности рестриктивного социального контроля по ограничению негативной девиантности молодежи в условиях стратификации российского общества по критерию «inclusive/exclusive» и роста рецидивной преступности. Ключевые слова: рецидивизм, социальный контроль, «кризис наказания», девиантность, рестрикция, рестриктивный социальный контроль. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1831-1837 ~~~ УДК 316.614 Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations on Countermeasures Against Drugs Use: Basing on the Results of Social Research in the Region Vladimir E. Shinkevich* Siberian Institute of Law of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service 20 Rokossovskogo Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660131 Russia Received 24.07.2013, received in revised form 31.07.2013, accepted 04.08.2013 The article deals with the social research results regarding the drug abuse situation among young people of the region basing on the opinion poll of secondary school pupils, students of vocational training colleges, universities and working young people of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Special attention is paid to the fact that the age of the first trial of psychoactive substances is getting younger and that social environment in this respect is especially important. Moreover, the role of parents in teaching their under-age children the anti-drug culture is emphasized. As a result, some recommendations on countermeasures against drug abuse and development of the idea of a healthy lifestyle have been developed. Keywords: drug abuse situation, drug abuse among young people, spread of drug abuse, countermeasures against illicit traffic of drugs and psychotropic substances. Introduction One of the main problems the Russian society faces is the problem of drug abuse as a global threat of national safety. The Chairman of the State Anti-Drug Committee, Director of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service V.P. Ivanov in his speech on February 12, 2012 at the meeting of the Supreme Courts of Republics, regional courts and courts of the same level of the Russian Federation pointed out that the increase * in drug use among the population of the country today is one of the most dangerous threats for the Russian society. The pressure on the Russian young people to use drugs does not ease, and “… creativity of death traders does not have any limits” (V.P. Ivanov, 2012). To determine the drug abuse situation the Russian Federation Government approved the Resolution on State System of Drug Situation Monitoring in the Russian Federation. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org # 1831 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir E. Shinkevich. Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations… Research Methods Monitoring of social phenomena, including the state of the drugs situation, in its classic version involves a comprehensive study of three types of information: statistical data, expert assessments of specialized agencies and organizations and the results of social research. In 2012 the staff of Siberian Institute of Law of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service conducted a social study of the drug situation among young people of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, using a survey method. The research based on a specially developed sampling covered almost all categories of youth: schoolchildren, students of vocational colleges, students of vocational and higher education institutions, working young people. The following main blocks of questions were determined during construction of the questionnaire: − determining the extent of non-medical use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances among young people, taking into account the latent component of the drug situation; − analysis of the social environment factors contributing to the spread of non-medical use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and drug-related crime; − analysis of the drugs demand and supply; − analysis of the effectiveness of the prevention of non-medical use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Research Results Generalization of the results of the empirical part of the research and analytical work suggest both general trends and specific features of the drug threat perception by young people. Comparison with the results of the previous years shows that the age when young people get acquainted with psychotropic substances for the first time is young – 12-16 years. This indicates a lack of understanding of the risk to become a drug addict, an alcoholic or a smoker by young people. As a consequence, the high demand for expansion of social advertising of healthy lifestyles, formation of positive leisure skills, abilities to handle stress and street temptations to get “quick synthetic happiness” has been determined. Analysis and generalization of the results of monitoring of the empirical data suggests that the total number of university students who use narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances remains high, according to the answers’ results э about 15 %; this factor is slightly higher for young working people – about 19 %; the most acute problem of drug addiction is determined among young people of vocational colleges – up to 21 %. Drug experience is also frequently met among the under-age youth. About 10 % of schoolchildren and more than 15 % of students of vocational schools answered positive to the presence of such experience. At least once in their lives they have tried drugs. More than a third of students, schoolchildren and students of vocational institutions have or have had experience of tobacco use, more than two-thirds – experience of drinking alcohol. We believe that reduction of the non-medical use of drugs, formation of the negative attitude towards illicit trafficking and drug use, and significant reduction in demand for drugs among young people of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, considering monitoring results, can be a solution to a number of problems including, in particular, overcoming of tolerant attitude among the underage youth and students to the use of psychoactive substances in order to reduce the demand for them among the adolescent population and formation of personal responsibility for their behavior, development of socio-active lifestyle with dominating values of a healthy living, the # 1832 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir E. Shinkevich. Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations… settings for the rejection to use psychoactive substances. One can not deny the relevance of introduction of organizations with innovative psycho-pedagogical, including training, technologies in educational institutions and youth communities ensuring development of the healthy lifestyle values and creating conditions for the involvement of young people in creative activities, physical education, tourism and selfeducation . The survey results show that early prevention of drug abuse is very important. The results of the survey of young people in older age groups suggest that most of them have received their first drug experience in school years. The research results suggest that the main subjects of the expansion of the circle of under-age consumers of different psychoactive substances are external. Up to 70 % of the initial proposals to smoke cigarettes, 45 % of the proposals to try alcoholic beverages, as well as in the overwhelming number of cases – up to 90 % – the proposals to try the effect of drugs come from friends and acquaintances. The presence of relatively high levels of selfaspiration among students to try the effect of smoking and drinking is also noteworthy. About a quarter of the respondents have fi rst tried alcohol, smoked their fi rst cigarette on their personal initiative. If in case of offering their children to try tobacco or drugs parents usually are not active actors (although 3 % of the respondents among students mentioned that they were offered to try the effect of tobacco and drugs for the fi rst time by their parents), in 30 % of cases the parents themselves offer their children to try alcohol for the fi rst time, even if the beverages are light. That is the category of people in the social environment that is most entitled “to prohibit”, “to allow” and “to control”, to apply any sanctions from the early days of a person's life, who are for the most part by birth respected by their children. More than 85 % of the under-age respondents said that they are happy with their parents, feel control for the place and time they spend out, especially in the evening. At the same time, only about 40 % reported that their parents are wondering how their children spend their free time, which speaks for the lack of involvement or only formal involvement of parents in the organization and control of their children's leisure time. It is the parents who suggest emotional support to their children (80 % of cases), which indicates the great potential of the older to explain the importance of a healthy lifestyle and to develop healthy living habits in their children. This effectiveness can largely be multiplied if the parents themselves adhere such organization of their life. Consequently, in spreading of alcoholfree culture the most important place is occupied by social environment, parents and other close relatives. Increase in the number of the under-age youth involved in drug use is largely due to insufficiently developed, inferior sense of awareness of danger and consequences of not only one-time, but regular use of any types of psychoactive substances. About 30 % of respondents from students do not consider regular smoking and drinking alcohol dangerous, they consider it more like an ordinary habit, a form of “relaxation”. The same way the harmful effects on the body and the risk of various drugs are underestimated. Depending on the drug type the risk is estimated between 55 and 85 %, therefore the under-age young people try to differentiate this risk depending on the drug type and do not understand the danger as a complex. Most pupils are not aware that a drug addict in the search for “getting high” will strive to find new and new doses regardless of its quality, he/she won’t be interested neither in speed nor results of the # 1833 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir E. Shinkevich. Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations… possible social, psychological and physiological degradation of an individual and a body due to drug abuse. The analysis showed that the students surveyed are much better oriented in the forms of drug dependence than alcohol dependence. When considering the correlations it has been revealed that there is a clear relationship between the parameters that reflect the wrong judgment about the signs of drug addiction (euphoria from drinking, increasing tolerance, psychic and physical dependence are not marked as the signs of the disease), and the frequency of drug offers from the persons of the closest environment, as well as the presence of consumption of naswar, ecstasy and inhalants. The abovementioned is the reason to consider increasing drug use awareness among schoolchildren as a factor preventing their involvement in drug abuse. Formation of skills of the healthy lifestyle organization among teenagers depends on the family, on the ability of the parents even in the conditions of busy working schedule to find common ground in organization of leisure time, not only as a senior by the right, but as a fellow by spirit. In order to prevent any negative behavior and to develop healthy lifestyle skills the solution of the issues of free time organization at school is extremely important on the basis of informed, willing and free choice. Parents need to be not only in their age space, but “stay young” to know the features of modern youth processes, available “fashionable” lifestyles that meet the principles of organization of a healthy lifestyle. Unfortunately, not all parents understand this. Most often they are concerned about solution of professional problems, implementation of production tasks, faithful performance of professional duties. They pay more attention to manufacturing and professional sector than to their own children. Unfortunately, such organization of a professional lifestyle of parents is appreciated by their chiefs, who themselves often live in such a rhythm of life. Today one not even need to carry out any research to confirm or refute the hypothesis that the practice has no examples when for excessive efforts in professional activities at the expense of free time someone has been punished. As a rule, they are more often awarded by their chiefs for “conscientious attitude and great contribution ...” and punished by life, which “awards” them with family problems. In the ranking of the problems that exist in the modern Russian society, both students and working young people give the first place in almost all the categories to the growth of drug and alcohol abuse in the society. These factors have a negative correlation with such values as “health”, “happy family life”, “financially secure life”, which young people determined as the most important ones, as well as with their concern with “the fate of children”, “a chance of getting a serious disease”, “a possibility of becoming a victim of a crime”, “fear of making errors”. Consequently, young people understand the harm of drug addiction, alcoholism for realization of their life goals, as well as noting the opportunities for interesting free time, point out the need to expand the network of new sports clubs, swimming pools (15 %) and especially the yard playgrounds (up to 22 %), parks (30 % of respondents). The majority of young people reported that there is no danger of becoming an addict for them personally, that is, they almost underestimate the environment in which they live, learn and spend their leisure time. However, 35 % of young people have such people in their social environment, including the family, who are tolerant to the use of psychoactive substances (other than alcohol and nicotine), with about 60 % of the respondents indicating that they received offers to try drugs from those with whom they have to communicate. Proposals are received in the student’s environment, and at the sites of # 1834 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir E. Shinkevich. Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations… employment. This indirect factor indicates that the respondents themselves have at least one-time experience of drug use. About 20 % of students and working young people reported about personal experience of drug use, with 70 % of the respondents having tried these substances before entering higher educational institution or being employed. This again points at the need to strengthen anti-drug work with teenagers in secondary schools during the period when a young person by virtue of his/ her internal energy seeks to learn something new, which is not always useful. The survey found out that the drug situation among young people shall be recognized as highly latent. Despite the fact that 20 % of young people have had the experience of using psychoactive substances other than alcohol and nicotine, only some of them indicated that they use drugs regularly or with high frequency. At the same time, about 45 % of the young people who use drugs have expressed a desire to seek help in rehabilitation centers. W e consider the results of the assessment by drug users of the prospects to overcome psychoactive substance abuse independently as alarming. Only about 12 % of the respondents in this category understand that self-healing is impossible. Yards near houses, staircases and friends are determined by almost all categories of young people as the most likely places for drugs spreading. 60 % of the respondents mentioned these places as potentially attractive for distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. The measures on expanding the possibilities for sports, active organization of free time can contribute to minimization of the negative influence of the “yard”, “staircases”, “community of idle fellows”. Up to 55 % of the respondents indicated a lack of sports clubs, comfortable parks within walking distance and equipped sports facilities in the yard which are needed both by teenagers and young adults. In the youth community today mainly sports clubs are high in demand. In general, the youth awareness about the kinds of drugs and their effect is combined with a tolerant attitude towards drug use by friends, that is, young people have overcome the psychological barrier in the form of a kind of taboo on drug use, there is no active psychological defense against the first trial and the subsequent use of psychoactive substances. The majority of respondents, considering the situation with the spread of psychoactive substances in the society critical (50 %) believe that they personally are protected from this problem. Only 13-17 % of young people have pointed out that for them personally the problem of drug addiction is relevant in some way. Conclusions Today we can confidently declare that we need an integrated work to prevent the spread of drug abuse among young people, which would integrate the suppression of demand and supply of drugs, improvement of the quality of medical and psycho-social assistance to those requiring it and its availability, involvement of young people in different forms of socially useful activities, formation of the culture of healthy living. All this will contribute to a positive trend for the stabilization and improvement of the drug situation in the youth community both in one region and in Russia as a whole. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir E. Shinkevich. Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations… References 1. Vstupitel’noye slovo predsedatelya GAK direktora FSKN Rossii V.P.Ivanova na zasedanii Komiteta 26 sentyabrya 2012 g.[Introduction by the Chairman of the State Anti-Drug Committee, Director of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service V.P.Ivanov to the Committee on September 26, 2012] // V budushcheye s nadezhdoy: vystupleniya direktora FSKN Rossii V.P. Ivanova [To the future with hope: speeches of the director of Russian Federal Drug Control Service V.P. Ivanov], July-October 2012. Moscow: Russian Federal Drug Control Service, 2012. – pp.25-31. 2. Ivanov V.P. Narkotizatsiya naseleniya strany – odna iz naibolee opasnykh ugroz dlya Rossiyskogo obshchestva: vystupleniye predsedatelya GAK direktora FSKN Rossii na soveshchanii predsedateley Verkhovnykh sudov respublik, oblastnykh i ravnykh im sudov Rossiyskoy Federatsii 14 fevralya 2012 g. [Drug abuse among the population as one of the most dangerous threats to the Russian society: the speech of the Chairman of the State Anti-Drug Committee, Director of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service at the meeting of Chairmen of Supreme Courts of the republics, regional and courts of the same level of the Russian Federation on February 14, 2012] // V budushcheye s nadezhdoy: vystupleniya direktora FSKN Rossii V.P. Ivanova [To the future with hope: speeches of the director of Russian Federal Drug Control Service V.P. Ivanov], February 2012. Moscow: Russian Federal Drug Control Service, pp. 4-10. 3. Monitoring narkosituatsii i profilaktika narkopotrebleniya v molodezhnoi srede Krasnoyarskogo kraya: otchet o NIR (zaklyuchitel’nyi). № gos. registratsii 01201251736 [Monitoring and prevention of drug abuse among young people of the Krasnoyarsk Territory: report about R&D (final), No. of State Registration 01201251736] /Research supervisor D.D. Nevirko. Krasnoyarsk: Siberian Institute of Law of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service, 2012. 456 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir E. Shinkevich. Drug Abuse Among Young People of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Some Recommendations… Состояние наркоситуации в молодежной среде Красноярского края и некоторые рекомендации по противодействию наркопотреблению: по результатам социологических исследований в регионе В.Е. Шинкевич Сибирский юридический институт ФСКН России Россия 660131, Красноярск, ул. Рокоссовского, 20 В статье на основании опроса учащихся средних общеобразовательных учреждений, профессионально-технических учреждений, студентов средних специальных и высших учебных заведений, работающей молодежи Красноярского края представлены результаты социологических исследований состояния наркоситуации в молодежной среде края, обращено внимание на понижение возраста первого знакомства с действием психоактивных веществ на организм, на значимость в этом социального окружения. Более того, подчеркнута роль родителей в привитии несовершеннолетним и молодежи основ антинаркотической культуры. В результате выработаны некоторые рекомендации по противодействию наркопотреблению, по формированию здорового образа жизни. Ключевые слова: наркоситуация, молодежная наркомания, распространение наркомании, противодействие незаконному обороту наркотических средств и психотропных. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1838-1846 ~~~ УДК 159.992.6 Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East Eduard D. Ponarin* and Veronika V. Kostenko The National Research University “Higher School of Economics” 20 Myasnitskaya, Moscow, 101000 Russia Received 18.04.2013, received in revised form 28.08.2013, accepted 09.10.2013 The issue of gender inequality in the Arab world has been attracting public scrutiny for many years. However, the opportunity to analyze it on the basis of a large volume of valid data appeared not long ago due to the “Arab Barometer” project conducted in seven countries of the region. The data show that the youth in the Arab East is more conservative than the older generation despite a higher level of education. At the same time more educated representatives of each age group are more tolerant to the issue of gender equality. The most liberal country is Lebanon, the most conservative one is Yemen. Keywords: gender inequality, the youth, the Arab East, tolerance. Introduction The status of females in Muslim countries and in the Arab East in particular has been a significant issue both in modern discourse on human rights and in research of values. Attitude to females as humans dependent on men and incapable of running business and ruling the state leads to encroachment on their rights as well as to the economic backlog of the countries of the region as the majority of married females are not involved in the labour market. Such attitude to females is often associated with values and traditions of Islamic religion and culture. However, this point needs to be validated. In this article we analyze the interconnection of level of religiousness with values concerning gender equality. Moreover, we test the hypothesis that a more conservative attitude to females is peculiar to the older generation while the youth of the Arab world treats this issue in a more liberal * way. We also study the dependence of gender attitudes on level of education and country of residence. The article is based upon the data of the fi rst wave of the “Arab Barometer” research conducted in 2008 by Mark Tessler, professor of the University of Michigan, and his colleagues in seven countries of the Arab East: Jordan, Algeria, Morocco, Palestinian autonomy (Gaza Strip and the West Bank), Yemen, Lebanon and Kuwait. Theoretical Approach and Recent Researches Theoretical schemes of this article integrally base on the revised R. Inglehart and K. Welzel’s modernization theory (Inglehart, Welzel, 2005). According to this theoretical frame, the support of gender equality (as well as other egalitarian values) is connected with age, level of education, socio-economic status and level of religiousness. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1838 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East It means that younger, more educated and wellto-do, and less religious people demonstrate a strong tendency to support equality and gender equality in particular. Moreover, females are more egalitarian in their set of values than males. The theoretical explanation of the Muslim peoples’ backwardness concerning gender equality can be found in Samuel Huntington’s works (Huntington, 1996), in which he argues that the period after the cold war faces the conflict of civilizations between Western Christianity, on one side, and Islam and Orthodoxy, on the other side. S. Huntington believes that Muslim societies with their undeveloped individualism prefer strong leaders who are associated with liberal-and-democratic values. He also supposes that Muslim countries are the region in the world where females are in the most vulnerable position. These assumptions were tested by Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Noris on the quantitative data (Inglehart, Norris, 2003a). It was proved that the population of Islamic societies strives for democracy. At the same time on the basis of the World Values Survey the researchers came to the conclusion that people in Muslim countries are still conservative towards human rights, females’ rights and tolerance to unpopular minorities (for example, homosexuals). According to the modernization theory, the policy of females’ equality should be important for people born in richer and more politically stable societies whereas those whose youth was spent under more dangerous circumstances, on the contrary, stick to more conservative attitudes towards many issues including the position of females in society. Methods and Materials The research is devoted to influence of age, gender and education on attitude to gender equality. The gender equality index is built on the basis of the data available. The index is an effect variable in the research. The index of 7 variables listed above was formed to define the attitude to gender equality. The index is coded on the scale from 0 to 1, where 0 means a conservative (chauvinist), 1 – a liberal. Thus, the higher the index is the more supporting the respondent is towards the idea of gender equality. The variables of the index are defined as the following ones: (1) A married female can work out of home if she would like to (2) Generally males are more successful in a political sphere than females (3) Higher education is more important for boys than girls (4) Both males and females must have equal career opportunities (5) Males and females must be equally paid for equivalent work (6) A female can travel abroad alone if she would like to (7) A female can be a president or a primeminister of a Muslim country These variables fix the role of females both in a public sphere and in family relations. Questions two and three were reversely recoded for all the statements to have the same focus of meaning. The index is consistent; Cronbach’s α (alpha) is 0.774. General number of observations in the database was 8122. However, some questions from the index had skipped values. It should be noted that at index calculation even one skipped value leads to the loss of the whole index for this case. Thus, the number of valid observations was 6108. The use of multiple imputation function with the help of a package of MI environment for statistical computing of R made it possible to restore the skipped values to a high accuracy1. This enabled to bring the number of valid variables to the initial number of respondents (8122). # 1839 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East Descriptive statistics According to Fig. 1, the citizens of Lebanon show very liberal gender attitudes whilst the people of Algeria and Yemen are more conservative and inclined to think that females must have fewer rights and freedoms in public and private spheres than males. Such results are to some extent connected with the level of a state’s economic development. For example, in Yemen, the poorest country, the level of gender equality support is the lowest. However, the highest GDP per a person is registered in Kuwait ($ 43.8 thousand) but it is Lebanon that is the most liberal country as per the index of gender equality though it takes the second place regarding GDP per a person ($15.9 thousand, the amount which is thrice less than that in Kuwait). Thus, oil-producing countries of the Persian Gulf, being the richest, do not show the highest rates of liberalization but are much more liberal than other Arab societies. Fig. 2 shows that in all Arab countries under research more males agree that females must be limited in rights whereas females are quite contrary in their opinions. This tendency is observed in all countries chosen. It should be noted that in every case the differences are statistically significant. Fig 1. Average index of attitude to females in Arab countries Fig 2. Values of gender equality index for males and females in Arab countries # 1840 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East The matter is that in some countries and namely in the most and the least conservative ones the gap between males and females as per the gender equality index is minimum. In the countries that are in the middle of the list the gap is rather big. Especially significant differences are observed in Arab Maghreb and namely in Algeria and Morocco. This observation proves that there is the need for emancipation on females’ part in all the countries of the region but it is suppressed by males. The tendency of a stronger support of gender equality on females’ part is observed in other countries of the world but the gap is significantly less. Fig. 3 shows that the increase of average value of the gender equality index is agerelated, that means that elderly people are a bit more liberal than the youth. Besides, the peak of a conservative attitude is observed in the age group of people of 25-34 years old. This result is extremely unusual as in other countries of the world the tendency is quite opposite and the youth demonstrate the most liberal attitudes towards all issues. Fig. 4 shows the results of this observation on the basis of two criteria and namely level of education and age. The youngest groups turn out to be the most educated but more conservative towards females. The general tendency is obvious: less educated people (groups 1 and 2 who finished several grades only or mastered a basic programme of secondary school) are conservative towards the issue of gender equality. However, even the lowest index is more than 0,45. The higher the level of education is, the more significant the fluctuations per groups are. The differences in group 6 (higher education) is especially great. Fig. 4 shows a very important tendency: people of older generation (older than 65) hold more liberal opinions on females’ position in the society (upper lines on the graph). The youth at the age of 18-24 and especially at the age of 25-34 are the most conservative among all age groups in the chosen countries of the Arab East. This observation is counter-intuitive for two reasons. Firstly, the youth are generally more educated and education is connected with the liberalization of opinions. Secondly, the youth all around the world are inclined to a lesser conservatism in comparison with their parents. Thus, the results of the research contradict these general tendencies. The data can be analyzed according to linear regression (least squares method). The dependent variable is gender equality index, the independent ones are binary factors as per the countries, level of religiousness (frequency of reading the Koran), support of democracy, and such social-and- Fig. 3. Average indices of attitude to gender equality regarding age (for all the countries under research) # 1841 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East Fig. 3. Interrelation of gender attitudes with age and level of education demographic variables as gender, age and level of education. Gender, country and level of education have the most explanatory force in the model. On the level of the countries the most liberal society (with a significant lead) is Lebanon, the most conservative one is Yemen. Males are more conservative than females. The Muslims, reading the Koran daily, are more conservative in their gender attitudes. Those who do not read the Koran at all are most liberal in their attitude to females. This connection is linear. Those who support democracy are generally inclined to support gender equality though the connection is not very strong. The higher level of education is the more inclined the respondent is to support gender equality. People older than 65 are the most liberal group concerning gender equality in the Arab East. Age groups of 55-65 also demonstrate a high level of support of gender equality in public and private spheres. People of 25-34 years old constitute the most conservative group even if this factor is controlled as per their level of education, age and level of religiousness. Discussion At the present stage of research it is quite hard to judge about the mechanisms that have influenced the archaization of young people’s views on the position of females in the Arab world. However, it’s possible to set forth a set of theoretically grounded statements that help to analyze the results. • The Arab peoples’ struggle for independence from colonial empires that took place in the 50s-60s of the XX century was kind of secular and modernization-like by its nature and wasn’t guided by Islam. Thus, at the period of formation of the older generation’s views (this period is stated to be the age of 18-22) religion was pushed to the background and relatively secular views and consequently less conservative attitude to females were characteristic of these people. • Disintegration of the USSR lead to counter-modernization processes and archaization of views and values in the countries of the Arab East, related to the Soviet alliance, and particularly in Algeria and Yemen. It was connected # 1842 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East Table 1. Regression model. Dependent variable – gender equality index* Independent variables Beta t Value Gender (female) 0,12 29,97 *** Support of democracy 0,12 12,03 *** Education_primary school 0,05 7,01 *** Education_secondary school 0,08 9,51 *** Education_vocational school 0,1 10,64 *** Education_bachelor 0,12 13,64 *** Education_master & up 0,14 11,08 *** Lebanon 0,16 22,28 *** Morocco 0,06 8,2 *** Kuwait 0,07 7,89 *** Palestine 0,01 1,66 . Algeria -0,02 -2,3 * Yeman -0,09 -11,93 *** Jordan – base category . . . Age (18-24) -0,04 -3,6 *** Age (25-34) -0,05 -4,44 *** Age (35-44) -0,03 -2,83 ** Age (45-54) -0,03 -2,43 * Age (55-64) -0,01 -0,63 Age (65+) – base category . . . The Koran (often) -0,05 -8,86 *** The Koran (sometimes) -0,03 -5,19 *** . . . The Koran (seldom or never) R = 26.7 2 *Value levels are marked the following way: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 with the suspension of their fi nancial support and intensification of poverty and, moreover, with relaxation of advocacy of secularism and equality of gender roles which were integral parts of socialist ideology. • In the mid of the 1980s strengthening of Islamic fundamentalism took place. It was the formation period for the generation who were 25-34 years old at the moment of the research (2009). This process can be partially considered the echo of the cold war as the Arab East was one of the regions where # 1843 # confrontation of superpowers unfolded. The USA counted on oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf and won in the cold war, thus having strengthened an ideological role of Islamic fundamentalism in the region. This victory together with these countries’ fi nancial prosperity determined the vector of development of Near East for several decades to a great extent. • Modernization processes in the region are parallel to archaization ones as educated people of each age group stick to more liberal views on gender equality. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East The present research focuses on several interesting tendencies in the development of Near East. Lebanon turned out to be the most liberal society regarding the attitude to gender equality. Its indices are comparable to those of western Europe. At the same time Lebanon is not a very rich country at present (in comparison with the oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf) and thus this effect can’t be explained by an economic factor only. In the 60s – 70s this country was called “a Near-East Switzerland” not only due to its mountainous scenary but fi rst and foremost due to very reliable banks that ensured the country’s well-being within several decades. However, the civil war in Lebanon in 1975-1990 resulted in the outflow of the most educated and economically active population. Wars, especially long ones, are usually connected with a significant decay in postmaterialism values, growth of traditionalistic attitudes and archaization. Nonetheless, Lebanon keeps the position of the most liberal society of the Near East region. This phenomenon is worthy of separate research. 1 Conclusion Following the results of the research it can be concluded that two tendencies are being simultaneously realized in the Arab world: modernization and archaization. Within the framework of the first tendency there is the growth in number of educated people that reaches its maximum for the age group of those who were 25-35 years old at the moment of the first wave of “Arab Barometer” project in 2007 and are 3040 years old now. Conversely, the shift in values in the direction of more archaic ideas on gender roles in society takes place due to the processes of Islamization of the region. Owing to this, the least educated category of people who are over 65 years old turns out to be the most liberal in their views on equality of males and females, whilst the most well-educated and young segment of population (25-35 years old) demonstrates the most conservative, chauvinistic positions when males demand more rights in a public sphere than females. At that, educated people in each age group have more liberal views than those of their age but lacking good education. 10 imputations and 1000 iterations to mitigate the influence of reshuffling noise, R-hat = 1.1. References 1. Abou-Habib, L. (2003). Gender, Citizenship, and Nationality in the Arab Region. Gender and Development, 11/3, 66-75. 2. Abu-Lughod, L. (2002). Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others. American Anthropologist, 104/3, 783-790. 3. Afary, J. (2004). The Human Rights of Middle Eastern & Muslim Women: A Project for the 21st Century. Human Rights Quarterly, 26/1, 106-125. 4. Ahmed, L. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992. 5. Alwin, D.F., Cohen, R.L., Newcomb, T.M. Political Attitudes over the Life Span: the Bennington Women After Fifty Years. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. 6. Cherif, F.M. (2010). 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Gender and Society, 18/4, 473-493. 27. Rizzo, H., Abdel-Latif A., Meyer K. (2007). The Relationship between Gender Equality and Democracy: A Comparison of Arab Versus Non-Arab Muslim Societies. Sociology, 41, 1151-1170. 28. Ross, M. (2008). Oil, Islam and Women. American Political Science Review, 102/1, 107-123. 29. Spierings, N., Smits, J., Verloo, M. (2009). On the Compatibility of Islam and Gender Equality: Effects of Modernization, State Islamization, and Democracy on Women’s Labor Market Participation in 45 Muslim Countries. Social Indicators Research, 90/3, 503-522. # 1845 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Eduard D. Ponarin and Veronika V. Kostenko. Attitude to Gender Equality in the Arab East Отношение к гендерному равноправию на Арабском Востоке Э.Д. Понарин , В.В. Костенко Национальный исследовательский университет “Высшая школа экономики” Россия 101000, Москва, ул. Мясницкая, 20 Проблема гендерного неравенства в Арабском мире уже много лет привлекает общественное внимание, однако лишь недавно появилась возможность анализировать этот вопрос на большом объеме достоверных данных благодаря проекту «Арабский барометр», который был проведен в 7 странах региона. Данные показывают, что молодежь на Арабском Востоке консервативнее старшего поколения, несмотря на более высокий уровень образования. В то же время в каждой отдельно взятой возрастной группе более образованные люди относятся к вопросу гендерного равноправия толерантнее. Самой либеральной из стран, включенных в выборку, является Ливан, самой консервативной – Йемен. Ключевые слова: гендерное неравенство, молодёжь, Арабский Восток, толерантность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1847-1856 ~~~ УДК 122 Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism Daniil V. Pivovarov* Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia Received 18.04.2013, received in revised form 28.08.2013, accepted 09.10.2013 The author describes his conception of the relationship of such philosophical concepts as causality, effectiveness and determinism. The notions of material causality and teleonomic causality are compared. The study shows the difference between the doctrines of monocausalism and conditionalism. Causality is interpreted as a special case of effectiveness, and effectiveness is defined as the essential attitude of changes on an output of nonequilibrium system to changes on its input. The principle of determinism is specified and expanded. The author’s analysis proves that the principle of determinism must not be reduced to the idea of causality. Keywords: the idea of causality, cause and effect, teleonomic cause, indeterminism, monocausalism, conditionalism, reverse connection in unbalanced system, effectiveness, the principle of determinism, the non-deterministic tendency. 1. The idea of causality Cause and effect – the pair philosophical categories which together express one of the moments of general interaction, genetic communication of phenomena, i.e. this pair indicates the specific influence of some base on its substantiation (Pivovarov, 2003, 108). The idea of causality, possibly, has occurred from supervision over actions of people on creation and change of things, and then it has been extrapolated on all space (the world order) and has got universal sense. The formula “if p, then q” usually expresses the principle of causality. The following definition is in the basis of this formula: the cause is such a phenomenon p which generates with necessity other phenomenon q, i.e. its consequence. Necessity shows itself through accidents, that’s why always there is a moment of * randomness in realization of any cause (Suppes, 1970). Cause and action (effect) are not things. They are necessary events that take place in things. By virtue of unity of the world, each phenomenon depends to some extent on some other phenomena. Forms of interconditionality of phenomena are diverse; among them in contrast with causality modern determinism allocates such not genetic dependences, as functional, probabilistic, correlation connection and links of conditions. The mental operation of formal logical sequence (implication) is different from the objectively-real causal link. Although the implication is also expressed by the formula “if p, then q”, but it is not necessarily linked with the idea of material derivation of one another (the generation of the consequence q by its premise p). © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1847 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism In opinion of the majority of philosophers and scientists, process of causing is directed in one way only. It is characterized by a time asymmetry (proceeds from the existing to the arising). The process of causing is irreversible. The consequence cannot exchange a place with its cause. Critics of this point of view consider illogical the statement as if the cause precedes in time to its consequence – after all, then, is that in the interval before the appearance of the consequence q the cause p at all is not a cause as does not generate q. To assume, first, more correctly that p and q coexist simultaneously, and secondly, that consequence provides jet impact (reverse) on the reason. There is also questioned the universality of the principle of causality. Some researchers speak about an opportunity of causeless material things. The declaration appears periodically, that the principle of causality has become outdated and has lost its methodological value for sciences. So too there is an opinion, that mankind, which anthropomorphized phenomena of nature, attributes causality to them, while causality is not inherent in the very nature of things. However, the majority of scientists do not hurry to part with the principle of material causality. Often causes of phenomena deeply hidden from the eye and it are necessary to search them thoroughly. They should be reveal and calculate carefully, being based on intuition, observation, experiment, logical thinking. You can study the process of causing in the aspects of matter, energy and information. Idealists believe that the objective or subjective aim (information) is capable in itself to generate phenomena whereas modern materialists see a cause as a unity of substance, energy and information, every time correlating them among themselves in different proportions. According to a degree of the importance of this or that abstractly allocated aspect of causation, the cause is spoken of as about primary transition from p to q either substances, or energy, or information. In this case, scientists rely on the laws of conservation of matter and energy, as well as on the law of increase of information. The causes are classified in different ways. The final cause (in Latin – causa finalis) is derived from the Absolute as the primary source (the God, matter-substance), and secondary causes – from modes of the Absolute. Immediate causes have direct effect; indirect causes will be completed through a number of intermediate links. It is possible to distinguish the internal and external, major and minor, rigid and non-rigid causes. They are one-linear, two way feedback and branching circuits of causing. The objective causes are carried out irrespective of will and consciousness of people. The subjective causes are concluded in goal setting, will and actions of people; these causes depend on emotions, experience, reason and intuition of human beings. Teleological causality – a special case of informational causality. Teleology (from Greek – telos; genitive teleos – an aim; logos – a word, doctrine) explains the whole chain of world events and the genesis of individual phenomena by reference to the belief that there is a concerted impact (of the God, entelecheia) on the substance; the creative consciousness of the person, too, is treated as the source of causal determination. Teleology is usually understood as: 1) the doctrine about implementation of some superhuman objectively-ideal purposes (transcendent or immanent) in nature and society; 2) the concept of causal dependence of artificial objects on the conscious aims of people. This doctrine developed mainly within the limits of idealistic philosophy. As it is known, W. Wundt introduced the concept of psychic causation and argued that some of the mental processes depend strongly on other psychic phenomena: feeling depends on perceptions, perceptions are due to our will, etc. (Wundt, 2007). It should be noted that some # 1848 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism modern materialists have unwillingly recognized (although with funny pantheistic reservations) teleological causality. They have tied the idea of objective spontaneous law of the world with the idea of expediency of organic and technical integrity and have altered “teleological cause” in “teleonomic cause” (from Greek: telos – aim, nomos – law, science). In their opinion, the expediency is not incorporated initially in wildlife, and it is a result of spontaneous evolution of matter. For example, there is a proposal to replace the notion of teleology, which has a specific meaning in theology and idealism, with scientific and materialistic concept of teleonomy (Alekseev, Panin, 2004, 497-498). Teleonomic causality is defined as the spontaneous regular generation of phenomena of nature by informational streams (program) with the organized feedback. Aims that men are guided in their impacts on signs or objects of practice refer to the category of consciously-teleonomic cause. But is recognition by some materialists of teleonomic causes differs essentially from the thesis about realization of laws of matter in physical phenomena? Apparently, it is a tautology. In this case, it turns out that mattersubstance somehow always strives to objectify its permanent aims-laws in the form of phenomena of nature, but never sells them to the end, does not reach phenomenal perfection. If laws of nature are eternal and everything is subordinated to them, then the teleonomic causes are universal. Therefore, all other causes should be derived from aims-laws, and this is equivalent to the assertion that none of substantial aim can be fully implemented until the end. If teleonomic causes (read: “objective aimslaws“) are eternal and do not evolve, then it is illogical to claim that expediency in living nature is, on the one hand, a special case of constant teleonomy, and on the other – a consequence of the spontaneous process of changing teleonomic causes. The opposite thesis would be more logical: (a) either teleonomic causes evolve; (b) or expediency is contrary to teleonomy and occurs in spite of it. Finally, it is not clear, why do we need to convert the external analogy between purposefulness and spontaneous action of some natural law into pantheistic thesis about the spontaneous purposes of matter? Much easier to assign the supermind to matter-substance and then say after monotheists that the Absolute turned its conscious aims in the physical laws and subordinated all natural phenomena to these laws. It is considered, that Buddha Gautama the first has formulated the principle of causality in the general form and has given ethical sense to it. He taught that life is suffering, and sufferings are caused by our desires. The main causes of suffering are envy, ignorance and lust. Aristotle, F. Bacon, B. Spinoza and J. S. Mill have brought the greatest contributions to the development of the principle of causality. Aristotle introduced the notion of the first cause of universe. The first cause is the Nous, divine mind, primordial engine. It is primary, unique, simple, and transcendent; it defines itself. Considering an example with a sculptor, Stagirit classified the causes on acting, material, formal and teleological. The acting cause – the sculptor himself, he makes changes. The material reason – substance (marble) in which there are changes. The formal reason is a principle of organization of matter. It is an idea that is inseparable from matter, i.e. the form of a product of sculptor’s activity (the finished statue). The teleological, or final, cause is connected with representations about those or other attractions, intentions, aims of any action – for example, with the desire of the sculptor to make a fine artistic object (Aristotle, # 1849 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism 1999, 106-109). Modern philosophers prefer to use only concepts of the acting and teleological causes. D. Hume expressed doubt in the universal status of the principle of causality. On what basis it can be argued that any arising thing has its cause and why the reason must necessarily produce specific consequences? Reflecting upon these questions, Hume came to the conclusion that it is impossible to prove logically the existence of causality because something that is taken for “effect” is not contained in what is called “cause”, and the majority of the consequences are not similar to their causes. The concept of causality was born, in Hume’s opinion, from the following ordinary conclusion: “After this, therefore because of this” (in Latin: “Post hoc, ergo propter hoc”). Such erroneous conclusion grew over time into a stable association of expectations and became a mass habit. People began to believe that if p appears somewhere, it will by all means generate event q in future. In fact, physical necessity is a fiction of human brains. Contiguity and connection of p and q are sensually perceived, but the necessity of their relationship is not given to us in our experience. Hume concludes that the principle of causality derives from the characteristics of our psyche, and this principle is hardly applicable to the real world (Hume, 1966 ). The philosophical doubt in objective character of causal relationships or denying of universality of the principle of causality can be named “indeterministic tendency in philosophy”. J. S. Mill, developing empiricism of F. Bacon, invented such inductive methods of revealing of different reasons as methods of similarities, distinctions, related changes and remains. The general idea of these methods consists in the consideration of the circumstances of the studied phenomenon with a view to the exclusion of all those of them, which cannot be the cause for it (or consequence), and to recognize not excluded circumstances as the desired cause (Biryukov, Shvirev, Sukhanov, 1964, 421-423). The way of action of causes and specific features of consequences change with the variation of conditions. It is often believed, that identical causes generate identical consequences. A cause, however, is realized not in a “pure” form, but through variety of causal conditions. The causal conditions are the factors, which influence on the occurrence, existence and disappearance of one thing or another, but which in themselves do not produce this thing (Parniuk, 1972). A pretext can play a certain role in the initiation of a causal link – that is the external trigger condition of a random nature. It is difficult to separate causes from conditions of their actions not only in practice but also in theory. Therefore, two methodological approaches are competing constantly – monocausalism (from Greek: monos – one, the only one; from Latin: causa – cause) and conditionalism (from Latin: condicio – condition). Really, the border between conditions and causes is relative – a cause operates through conditions and under their influence. Monocausalism accepts the thesis that each phenomenon has the only one own cause, and causality is entirely different from the amounts of conditions. In essence, monocausalism denies the important role of conditions in the production of consequences through causes. Many traditionally minded philosophers and scientists prefer to position of monocausalism. In contrast, conditionalists (J. S. Mill, M. Fervorn, etc.) reduce each cause to the full amount of all conditions that precede the explained phenomenon. They dissolve a cause in the related conditions, or even offer to eliminate the concept of cause from sciences. Attempts to find the «golden midst» between these points of view yet do not have a logical clarity. # 1850 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism 2. Efficiency Efficiency – the essential attitude of changes on an output of nonequilibrium system to changes on its input. Transformation of one form of energy into another lies in the basis of many of nonequilibrium processes. Usually we start using the concept of efficiency, when we ask the questions: (a) what is the loss of energy? (b) whether it is possible to reduce losses to some reference level? Efficiency of functioning of nonequilibrium system is defined by its ability to resolve internal and external contradictions. There are some conditions and the requirements which relate to the parameter of efficiency: (a) the parameter of efficiency characterizes system as a whole, instead of its any part; (b) the parameter of efficiency and its dependence on the established factors should provide reception of a quantitative estimation with demanded reliability; (c) it is necessary, that the area of changes of the parameter of efficiency has precisely outlined borders. The parameter of efficiency is some amount received from division of an output stream of a system on its entrance stream (Bistry, Pivovarov, 1989). Feedbacks have a significant impact on the efficiency of the functioning of any system. In this case the feedback is understood as the impact of the results (output) of the functioning of nonequilibrium system on the character of the functioning (input) itself. Under certain conditions the feedback (positive or negative) can provide growth of efficiency of use of external energy. In the most general sense the concept of effect means realization of energy of some cause in its consequence. A small cause sometimes produces an avalanche-like, a catastrophic effect, i.e. it acts as a starting causality. You should not limit yourself only to the discovery of the prime cause in the analysis of the functioning of the nonlinear system. Also it is inadmissible to ignore the internal and external random factors, the role of boundary conditions and environment, because that’s exactly fluctuations determine to a decisive extent a radical transformation of the system in the field of attractors. The traditional notion of cause becomes very vague with respect to self-organizing systems with feedback, which are widely distributed in nature. I. Kant and G. W.F.Hegel had been agreed with the idea of non-linearity and the irreversible nature of the interaction of the material cause and effect: there is something in the action (in the consequence), which was not in the cause. Even if the cause has stopped, the effect, initiated by it, continues to develop. The substrate that is experiencing the impact of any cause has an active infertility. This is especially the case for the living organisms and the spiritual human life – do not allow the continuation of any cause in them, but to interrupt and transform this cause. In Hegel’s opinion, abstract rational interpretation of communication of a cause and effect – as time precedence and necessary generation of consequence by its cause – can be overcome as a result of more multilateral understanding of causality as interactions and mutual changes of a cause and effect: interaction is the causal relationship, which is placed in its full development (Hegel, 1975, 331-340). In order not to confuse rational and more scientific understandings of causality, possibly, it is necessary to generalize them in a special notion of efficiency in which concepts of cause and effect are reflected most full. Efficiency is such a process (and result) of interactions of straight ties and feedback in nonequilibrium system which conducts self-organizing system to realization of some aim. The concept of efficiency is not identical to the representation of fatal necessary creation # 1851 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism of an effect B by a starting factor A. The real process of generating of B is anyhow connected with the action of factors and conditions – necessary and incidental, external and internal. Internal accidents play the major role in the functioning of the nonequilibrium system. The nature of such accidents is hidden in the relative autonomy of elements of a system. Complicated internal processes occurring in any of subsystems, are capable to change (especially in the points of bifurcation) purposeful behavior of its system. The activity of elements of the given system creates the internal and rather independent flows interacting with the main stream of this system. Therefore the notion of efficiency includes the integrated result of necessary and accidental causality, and both have internal character. External noise, changes in the environment and conditions of functioning have a significant impact on the behavior of a system. The concept of efficiency is an original measure of dynamics of two opposite processes inside of a system – entropic and negentropic. The parity of these processes varies at different moments of time. Or one or another trend dominates. Thermodynamics of irreversible processes allows uniting three fundamental theoretical grounds: (a) the second beginning of thermodynamics for open systems; (b) the principle of growth of negentropy, which develops mainly by biological science; (c) the notion of efficiency of transformation of energy. The concepts of cause and effect explain very little in relation to systems with feedback, because sometimes external and internal flows turn mutually into such a way, that a consequence in such systems appears much more actively then its cause. However, there are systems, in which feedbacks cannot physically influence a source of the input signal and its energy. Nevertheless, and in this case the feedback still actively changes the content which is delivered to the input of the system. Sometimes the source of the external flow, passing through the system, disappears. However, the transformed content of this stream is reproduced inside the feedback on the input of the system. Any flow in a system is caused by the difference of potentials whatever they may be (the difference of potentials creates a generalized force). Surplus and shortage of a potential are extreme sides of the stream to the output, hence the parameter of order takes both positive and negative values. Sometimes a system can use its internal nonbasic streams in order to return rapidly to the equilibrium (steady) state. Or, on the contrary, it happens that these nonbasic flows can increase the free energy of the system, which is spent on counteraction to external flow. Efficiency of functioning of nonequilibrium system is connected with manufacture of entropy, and it means, that growth of dissipation of energy will increase efficiency of the system. Thus, efficiency is the integrated parameter of nonequilibrium system which characterizes the interaction of such system with its environment and the ratio of processes of reversibility and irreversibility in it. Efficiency is correlated with nonequilibriumness. It is defined through the parameters of nonequilibriumness. And it is a function of integrity of a system and the parameter of order. As a matter of fact, external and internal streams form productive force of nonequilibrium system because they do the work, as a result of which the system tends to an extreme condition. It is impossible to describe exhaustively the evolution of any natural or social system with the help of the traditional doctrine of causality, as it should to consider the unimaginable quantity of interactions within each element. It is necessary to take into account a coordination of spatial and temporal characteristics of nonequilibrium # 1852 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism conditions, as any part of each whole has its own rhythm and its own orientation. If to recognize the epistemic complexity of nonequilibrium systems, you should make a conclusion, that the concept of efficiency is more constructive than the concept of monocauslism. The concept of efficiency is able to unite two statements in some dialectical synthesis: (a) every effect has only one reason (monocausalism); (b) every phenomenon is a product of a large number of conditions (conditionalism). As we can see, the concept of efficiency considerably expands the idea of causality. 3. Determinism Determinism (from Latin determino – I define) – the philosophical doctrine about various kinds of conditionality of the phenomena of material and spiritual world. In ancient immemorial times there appeared the ideas that things are created by the primary elements, and some phenomena depend on other phenomena. These ideas are rooted in ancient myths about the creation of the world, are covered in religious doctrines about deities, predestination and fate, found in animism, totemism, fetishism and magic. The word “determination” comes from the word “Terminus” – the name of the Roman deity of borders and field edges. Later this word has come to mean the operation of logical definition of a concept through the nearest sort (genus) and species differences. Now it began to be applied more broadly and is understood as the objective dependence of things on the causes that give rise to them – on first principles, laws of nature. The central and traditional principle of this doctrine – the principle of causality. In the recent past only the doctrine of the universal causality was brought under the concept of determinism. The world depicted in such determinism in the form of a chain of causes, which act directly and rigidly. There was no place for accidents in this circuit. Nowadays the content of determinism has significantly extended. Determinism has replenished with the ideas of the indirect reasons, random or probabilistic forms of causality. Also determinism included now the idea of noncausal links, indirectly associated with causality (Anscombe, 1971). Quite often philosophers offer to formulate the general definition of determinism through the notion of objective law: “determinism is the doctrine about the objective lawful relationship and interdependence of phenomena of material and spiritual worlds”. This widespread definition, undoubtedly, is narrow. Firstly, it is not taken into consideration the objective nonlawful determination of phenomenal type (accidental singularity, a single mutation). Secondly, this definition does not provide subjective forms of determination (teleological, unconsciously, mental, logical-functional). Those who accept such definition, consider the supporters of any teleology (objective-idealistic and subjectiveidealistic) as “indeterminists”. Many (but not all) materialists long time rejected the idea of teleological determination and purposefulness of the world. Whether however it is possible to deny the fact of the expedient device of plants, animal, technical constructions? Materialists are not able to clearly prove that the “subjective reasons” are just the empty fabrications of idealists, and that the causes of any human mental constructions (including poetic images, fantasies and even logical errors) must be bound to withdraw from the regularities of neurophysiological processes, schemes of practice or of the objective laws of the external world. Among Marxists, for example, the opinion prevails that indeterminists, in particular, are the thinkers who see the source of the causal relationship in the human consciousness. This view is inaccurate. It is difficult not to recognize # 1853 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism the specific dependence of human actions and affairs on the conscious aims of the people. The creative power of consciousness and subjective goals – the most important factors of human activities, which theology studies. If science does not take into account the role of goal-setting in the trajectory of motion of bodies, it is often not able to explain these trajectories. So, from a purely physical description of the observed trajectory of flight of the plane a scientist cannot determine the avenues of further displacement and the landing point of the physical bodies – for this you need to know the goal of the flight pursued by the pilot. Therefore, in my opinion, teleology should be considered an important form of determinism. Strictly consistent indeterminism is very rare in the history of philosophy because the profession of a philosopher requires rational and demonstrative explanations the ultimate foundations of being and thinking. It offers to withdraw logically something dependent from independent – from those or other basic intuitions about matter, spirit, consciousness, will, etc. Materialists are convinced that true determinism is the concept of material determination only, and idealists, on the contrary, search for the truth in determining matter by spirit. In my opinion, indeterminism is not a special and separate philosophical current. It is the only one of the trends in any philosophy – the tendency to put under doubt or deny determination (material or spiritual). This trend should be, although in different ways, is associated with the opposite desire to think of the dependence of the material and spiritual phenomena of some factors. This tendency is necessary, though differently, interfaced to opposite aspiration to reflect upon dependence of material and spiritual phenomena on any factors. For example, it is probably incorrect to rank unconditionally Hume or Kant to indeterminists that Marxists do pretty often. Hume justifies the belief in causality through reference to sustainable habits of people, and Kant – to the unconditional and the innate ability of the human productive imagination. At the same time, from the point of view of idealists, materialistic denial of teleology is also a peculiar nondeterministic tendency. Apparently, one can say that Marxism is determinism «from the bottom» and indeterminism – «from the top». A more precise definition of determinism requires different and more abstract concepts than “causality” and “objective law”. Probably, the concepts of basis, foundation and superstructure would be more appropriate here. Determinism is the doctrine about determination, i.e. about forms of dependence of foundation from its basis and superstructure – from its foundation. The character of determination is identified in connection with the specificity of respective conditions. So, the consequence is due to its cause and causal conditions. A function is determined by the conditions of introduction of some independent variable. Natural phenomena are determined by the peculiarities of action of objective laws. There were three concepts of determinism in history of philosophy: objectively-idealistic (Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Hegel, etc.), subjectiveidealistic (Protagoras, Berkeley, Fichte, Kant, etc.) and materialistic (Democritus, Hobbes, Holbach, Feuerbach, Engels, etc.). Objective idealists believe that space and our consciousness are created and defined by the goal setting activity of the spiritual Absolute, transcendent or immanent. Subjective idealists are looking for the cause of our world view in the activities of human consciousness, which produces ideal goals, invents images of the world’s communications and extrapolates them outside. Materialists deduce the ultimate cause of the world order from the idea of universal and lawful interaction of material phenomena. We can distinguish three periods in European history of materialistic determinism: (a) antique # 1854 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism determinism (the school in the city of Miletus, atomists, the teaching of Anaxagoras, etc.); (b) mechanical determinism of the XVII- XVIII centuries (Galileo, Newton, Hobbes, Laplace, etc.); (c) determinism of a probabilistic type in the XX century. Some scientists predict that probabilistic multi-valued determinism appears in the XXI century, which is hard to imagine. On P.A. Holbach, all material and spiritual events are fatally predestinated (Holbach, 1963, 237). P.S. Laplace thought about the universe as a closed system and believed that it is possible to predict unequivocally the state of the world at any moment, if we know the initial conditions (Laplace, 1982, 364). This view is called “Laplace’s demon”. Unlike Laplace’s (hard, «iron») determinism, probabilistic determinism teaches that the given cause does not necessarily directly produces the relevant effect. A cause often acts in a nonlinear manner through a variety of internal and external conditions. It depends on the history of the former interactions, and its desired character appears in the form of accident. Special periods have not been allocated in the history of idealistic determinism, although, for example, Plato’s metaphysical determinism explicitly differs from dialectical determinism of Hegel. The concept of predetermination plays an important role in objectively idealistic determinism. Modern philosophical discussions focus on three levels of causal determination: are there (a) any singular causation; (b) causal laws, (c) and causal powers (causal potentiality and possibility)? It is also important to find out, what is the relationship between these levels? (Mellor, 1971). For example, for every singular causal fact is there a law that it can be brought under (Davidson, 1980)? In sociology number of concepts relate to some form of determinism. Thus, the teaching of K. Marx called “economic determinism”, since it states that all forms of social being and social consciousness are determined by the objective economic laws, which prevail in the society. Representatives of “cultural determinism” developed the idea that every culture causally determined by the basic ideals and norms of life. E. Durkheim and M. Weber have shown that it is religion which sacralizes these core values. “Technological determinism“ – a kind of social determinism, according to which social development is determined by the technical civilization, but the growth of technology depends very little on the consciousness and activity of the people creating it. References 1. Alekseev, P., Panin A. (2004) Philosophy [Philosophia]. Moscow, 2004, P. 497-498. 2. Anscombe, G.E.M. (1971) Causality and Determination, Cambridge, 1971. 3. Aristotle (1999) Metaphysics [Metafizika]. Rostov-on-Don, 1999. P. 106-109. 4. Davidson, D. (1980) Essays on Actions and Events, Oxford, 1980. 5. Biryukov, B., Shvirev, V., Sukhanov, A. (1964) Methods of investigation of the causal ties [Metodi issledovania prichinnih sviazei]. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In 4 vol. Vol 3. Moscow, 1964, P. 421-423. 6. Bistry, G.P., Pivovarov, D.V. (1989) Non-equilibrium systems: integrity, efficiency, and reliability [Neravnovesnie sistemi: tcelostnost, effektivnost, nadezhnost]. Sverdlovsk, 1989. P. 82-119. 7. Hegel, G.W.F. (1975) The science of logic [Nauka logiki]. In 3 v. V. 1. Moscow, 1975. P. 331-340. 8. Holbach, P.A. (1963) The system of nature [Sistema prirodi]. Selected works. In 2 vol. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1963. P. 237. # 1855 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Causality, Effectiveness, Determinism 9. Hume, D. (1966) A treatise on human nature [Traktat o chelovecheskoi prirode]. Works in 2 v. V. 1. Moscow, 1966, P. 168-181. 10. Laplace, P.S. (1982) The presentation of the system of the world [Izlozhenie sistemi mira]. Leningrad, 1982. P. 364. 11. Mellor, D.H. (1971) The Matter of Chance. Cambridge, 1971, Ch. 4, 8. 12. Parniuk, M.A. The principle of determinism in the system of the materialistic dialectics [Prinsip determinizma v sisteme materialisticheskoi dialektiki]. Kiev, 1972. 13. Pivovarov, D.V. (2003) The main categories of ontology [Osnovnie kategorii ontologii]. Ekaterinburg 2003, P.108. 14. Suppes, P. (1970) A Probabilistic Theory of Causality, Amsterdam, 1970. 15. Wundt, W. (2007) Introduction to psychology [Vvedenie v psihologiu]. Moscow, 2007. Причинность, эффективность, детерминизм Д.В. Пивоваров Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина, Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В статье изложена авторская концепция взаимосвязи таких философских понятий, как каузальность, эффективность и детерминизм. Проанализированы концепты материальной каузальности и телеономной причинности. Показано различие между учениями монокаузализма и кондиционализма. Причинность истолкована как частный случай эффективности, а эффективность определена как существенное отношение изменений на выходе неравновесной системы к изменениям на ее входе. Уточнен и расширен принцип детерминизма, доказана его несводимость к принципу причинности. Ключевые слова: идея причинности, причина и следствие, целевая причина, индетерминизм, монокаузализм, кондиционализм, обратная связь в неравновесной системе, эффективность, принцип детерминизма, тенденция индетерминизма. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1857-1866 ~~~ УДК 7.046 The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology Evgenia V. Ivanova* Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia Received 28.07.2013, received in revised form 30.09.2013, accepted 05.11.2013 This article reveals the ambiguity of interpretation of Baba Yaga character by the representatives of different schools of mythology. Each of the researchers has his own version of the semantic peculiarities of this culture hero. Who is she? A pagan goddess, a priestess of pagan goddesses, a witch, a snake or a nature-deity? The aim of this research is to reveal the ambiguity of the archetypical features of this character and prove that the character of Baba Yaga as a culture hero of the archaic religious mythology has an influence on the contemporary religious mythology of mass media. Keywords: religious mythology, myth, culture hero, paganism, symbol, fairytale, religion, ritual, pagan priestess. Introduction. “Religious mythology” is a new term, which is relevant to contemporary religious and cultural studies, philosophy of religion and other sciences focusing on correlation between myth and religion. This concept as well as its structural elements is being specified and elaborated in contemporary native religious studies (Ivanova, 2012, p.56). For example, I.N. Yablokov thinks that within the contemporary philosophy of the myth one can distinguish “syncretic archaic, religious, “scientific”, political, artistic-literary, ordinary and social mythologies” (Yablokov, 2012, p.91). However, stating that the archaic religious myth and the developed religious myth differ from each other, we do not find any meaningful units of this concept. It appears that the central figure in a religious myth is the culture hero, whose different variations have been already * examined by the author of the article (Ivanova, 2012, p.56). The subject of the research presented in this article is topography or conceptual space of notional understanding of the fairytale pagan culture hero – the character of Baba Yaga. Materials and Methods. The earliest notional perspective on the given character is natural mythological interpretation. A.N. Afanasyev calls attention to the fact that Yaga flies through the sky in a fiery mortar, which she urges on with a burning broom and that during the time of her flight the trees groan, writhe and crack, and the winds howl. He writes that this mortar as well as the turning hut (hearth) is the metaphor of the storm cloud. Yaga possesses magical firebreathing horses, seven-league boots, a selfflying carpet and self-playing gusli, thus being also the owner of the fast-moving clouds, heavy thunderstorms and bolts of lightning. When © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1857 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology chasing fugitive heroes, she flies after them as a black cloud. In parallel with Slavic fairytales with Baba Yaga as a central figure, Neo-Greek and Albanian fairytales display Lamia (witch, sorceress) or Draconida (snake). Slavic people themselves render Baba Yaga and the mythical snake as identical characters: what is attributed to the snake in one variant is performed by Yaga in another; in the Ukraine a witch is also often called a snake. Similar to a snake, she hides the springs of living water, copper, silver and gold, that is the treasures of the sun. Therefore she is able to cast foul or fine weather at her own will. Russian witches as well as Baba Yaga hover in the air in an iron mortar (kettle-cloud) propelling with a pestle or a staff (thunder-club) and sweeping away the traces of their passage with a broom. When they gather on the Bald Mountain, there are the fiery flames burning and the roaring kettles boiling. Thus the witches boil rainwater on a thunderflame. According to A.N. Afanasyev, iron mortar is the metaphor of the storm cloud (Afanasyev, 1982, p.49). The well-known fairytale of Ivan the Fool’s victory over Baba Yaga (she told him to sit still on a baking shovel in order to cook and eat him, but he asked her to show how exactly it is done and popped her into the stove himself) is interpreted by A.N. Afanasyev as the victory of the sunbeam over the black storm cloud. Thus, A.N. Afanasyev underlines that the triune character “Snake-Witch-Baba Yaga” is the depiction of nature-deities or administrators of natural phenomena. That is why the romantic natural mythological school interprets the phenomenon of Baba Yaga by the reason that the most ancient notions of the world and its structure are the reflection of the earthly life in heaven. The second view on the origin of this character is thoroughly developed by a Christian researcher A. Men, who emphasized the fact that numerous vulgar superstitions of sorcerers, hexes and witches echo “from the ancient times, when sacrifices, spells and magic were in the hands of women” (Men, 1996, p.26). He thought the consequence of this to be the character of Baba Yaga as the mistress of the woods, birds and animals. Not only creatures, but also nature elements follow her will. She “hisses like a snake”, “roars like a beast”, is able to take the shape of different animals in which case reaching fantastic sizes. All this being said, it is possible to conclude that Baba Yaga was one of the pagan goddesses of fertility giving life to all the nature and setting cosmic paces, whose role has been diabolized since the adoption of Christianity in Russia. There was the character inversion from a beautiful woman into a hag and a malicious one at that, the one feared even by the children. The character became trivial and superficial, reflecting integral magical and ritual notion no more, but only negative moral qualities: likes stealing and eating children – so if you, kids, misbehave, you will end up on Yaga’s baking shovel. The third view on the origin of the character is Baba Yaga being a priestess of the pagan goddess Lada. The ritualistic school, the members of which see the actions of fairytale characters as the reflection of forgotten archaic rituals (V.Y. Propp, B.A. Rybakov, A. Andreev), indicates which forces Yaga served and what exactly she was “in charge of”. V.Y. Propp analyzes several types. The first type is Yaga the Benefactor visited by a hero. She riddles him and then gives him a horse, magical items or rich gifts. These are the magic clew, the winged horse, self-flying carpet, seven-league boots, self-playing gusli, the golden spindle, etc. The second type is Yaga the Kidnapper. She steals a child and attempts to cook it, followed by the child’s escape and rescue. The third type is Yaga the Warrior. She returns to her hut and cuts a strip out of the hero’s back. She is endued with unmatched strength, being able to fight two heroes at the same time without feeling their strikes as if they were mosquito # 1858 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology bites. V.Y. Propp also reviews the fourth type – Yaga the Warden of the Underworld. These types are represented in all Russian folk tales. But a more in-depth study of this character shows that all of these types are inherent namely to Yaga the Priestess, the performer of the ancient rituals. The fourth perspective on the given character is mythological. She is the guide between the worlds, sort of a border guard. V.Y. Propp clings to the same notion providing the following argumentation. First of all, Yaga resides in the deep forest – the entrance to the underworld (Propp, 1986, p.53). Koshnoe tsarstvo (the underworld in Slavic mythology) was comprised of two layers: the one in the ground, where the ancestors remain, and the other below the ground, where the demon spirits live. In this case, Yaga helped a fairytale hero to sneak specifically into the lower layer to save the princess stolen by malicious forces, while ritually, as ritualists emphasize, she was guarding the entrance to the realm of the ancestors. She was the symbolic figure of an administrator of “the rites of passage”, when a person being tested sort of died under one guise in “ignorance” and resurrected under another as an initiate “possessing secret knowledge” after the ritual was performed. So a hero walks without purpose and stumbles upon the chicken-legged hut. He is anything but daunted by this sight and knows how to handle it – it needs to be turned in a specific direction. The act of turning itself is the symbolic opening of the doors to the underworld in the mythological universe. The very hut can be viewed as a symbol. First of all, it reminds of the ancient totemic rituals or the rituals associated with the burial of the dead. B.A. Rybakov points out that “wooden coffin huts covering the urns with burnt bones in the cities of the dead stand in rows as if huts in a village” (Rybakov, 1988, p.12). Chicken legs are rather wooden piles saturated with bdellium. Another interesting version of the hut was brought out as early as in the XIX century by ethnographers, who hypothesized that the hut is possibly a symbol of “labaz” (a barn), which is well-known in Northern countries. This is a kind of a household building on tall smooth piles intended for storing gear and supplies from mice and predators. These tree stands are always positioned “with the back turned to the forest and the front turned to the traveler” so that the entrance can be approached from a river or a wood trail. Little ceremonial barns with neither windows nor doors resemble the look of the fairytale hut even more. They usually contained dolls dressed in national fur clothing. The doll occupied almost the whole barn and served as a container for the soul of the departed until it is reborn in a child. In order to get into the underworld Ivan has to become “sort of dead” since the living are not welcome in the realm of the dead. So Ivan must complete a special ritual – he must be served and fed by no ordinary food, but the food of the dead. In this case he can remind the mistress of the feeding or even request it. This ceremonial “decedent” feeding is declared taboo for the living so that one would not incidentally join in the underworld. Supposedly, these are the mushrooms (toadstools). Mushrooms are the food of both the living and the dead. Mushrooms often act as a classifier of binary oppositions in mythology: plant kingdom – animal kingdom, profane – sacral, “food for the Gods” – “food for the dead”, food – antifood. Exuberance of mushrooms is coupled with the fact that toadstools serve as the main ingredient of hallucinogenic drinks commonly used by shamans in their journeys into the underworld. Mushrooms are also included in the “life – death – fertility” triad, thus resembling the functions of the world tree (journeying to upper and lower realms from the center of the world). Taking a steam bath is another substantial element of the hero’s behavior on a visit to Baba # 1859 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology Yaga. Therefore the hero’s initiation to the underworld is twofold: through a steam bath and through a meal. In order to sneak into the underworld unnoticed the hero must get rid of the smell of the living. But only Yaga, who is in possession of the magical steam bath, knows how it can be done. Could well be the case that Slavic mythology presumed the existence of a certain magical bath besom used by Yaga for steaming the hero and forcing his soul out of his body. The sequence of actions is as follows: the hero is steamed and clean – deprived of the smell of the living – his soul removed from his body – ritually dead – served and fed – joined in the underworld – served in the “opening of the mouth” ritual to be able to speak and see in the underworld – put to sleep – buried in the sepulcher – turned into a winged creature – continues his search. The character of Baba Yaga herself is the reflection of Death. The words by V.Y. Propp may be in order here: “When Ivan enters the hut, Yaga is lying either on a stove or on a bench. She occupies the whole hut: her head in the front, one leg in one corner, the other leg in another. Or else: Baba Yaga lying on a stove, her bony legs stretched from corner to corner, her nose sticking into the ceiling. But nowhere is she mentioned as a giant. Therefore it is not her, who is too big, but the hut, which is too small. Yaga looks like a corpse in a narrow coffin or in a special cage, where people are left to rot. She is a corpse. Russian Yaga does not possess any other attributes of a corpse. But Yaga as an international phenomenon does have a wide range of such attributes of decay, which help us understand the bony legs of hers” (Propp, 1986, p.70). Another native ritualist, K.D. Laushkin points out Baba Yaga being one-legged. He emphasizes this attribute being not yet adequately investigated, though meanwhile “this very attribute provides an opportunity to interpenetrate the ancient zoomorphic identity of Baba Yaga” (Laushkin, 1970, p.181). In fact, some fairytales do call our heroine the one-legged. A character of the fairytale “Tsarevitch Ivan and warrior maid Blue-eye” addresses her, “Ah, you the one-legged Babushka Yaga”. In “Ivan the Fool” Baba Yaga appears in front of three brothers in the forest and “hops around them on one leg”. The other attributes of Yaga’s leg are: bony, wooden and gilded. Let’s take a closer look at the symbolism of one-leggedness. In chthonic symbolism one-leggedness (lameness) is associated with the symbol of a snake. Remember Greek mythological figures: Hephaestus, Oedipus, even Zeus. K.D. Laushkin derives the following rule: “if there’s something wrong with the mythical creature’s legs, there’s a snake at the bottom of it” or “if the mythical creature bears relation to snakes, there’s something amiss with his legs” (Laushkin, 1970, p.181). The theory of transformation is as follows: 1) a snake (primitive stage); 2) a humanoid creature with the tail of a snake (Erichthonius stage); 3) one-legged deity; 4) lame deity (Hephaestus stage); 5) deity handicapped in one leg (Oedipus stage); 6) fully “humanized” deity with either a myth or a ritual suggesting former lameness (Zeus stage). Turning back to the character of Baba Yaga, we find that before death she turns into a snake. Therefore, according to K.D. Laushkin, the origin of the given character is as follows: in primeval times – a snake, the embodiment of death; in pagan times – Baba Yaga (the one-legged), Slavic goddess of death; in modern times – Baba Yaga (the bone-legged), fairytale character. So initially she was crawling like a snake. Then she started hopping on one leg (one-legged deity stage). Then she started riding her mortar on the ground and later on got off the ground to catch the air. The last Baba Yaga’s locomotion, which is most common in fairytales, kind of represents her ultimate takeoff and full liberation from supernatural functions related to # 1860 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology earth and the underworld. She turns into a purely fairytale character and once again represents the “Snake – Witch – Baba Yaga” triad. Now let’s review another attribute – Yaga’s blindness. Moreover, let’s emphasize that the hero, who comes to Yaga, also complains about his eyes. He says, “First give me some water to wash my eyes, feed me and then ask whatever you wish to ask”, “My eyes are swollen”. In other words he is getting blind. V.Y. Propp considers such blindness to be a special mark of the chosen, matching blindness of males serving in initiation rituals against fairytale ephemeral blindness. A mighty old man with huge eyebrows and heavy eyelashes is a well-known character of our native folk tales. These eyebrows and eyelashes have grown so thick they have caused completely blurred vision: it takes several strong men, who can lift his eyelashes with pitchforks, in order for him to see clearly (the tale of Ivan Bykovich). This character resembles Viy from the homonymous short story by Gogol. However many Viy’s attributes were not included in the Gogol’s story. For instance in Podolia Viy is viewed as a horrible annihilator, who kills people with his gaze and turns cities and villages into dust. People’s imagination portrays Perun, the god of thunder and lightning, in the same sublime fashion: he hurls thunderbolts from under his cloud eyebrows as well as brings death and fires. As Afanasyev points out, human eyes had to obtain mystic supernatural meaning under the influence of metaphorical language. What had been previously said about the heavenly eyes was eventually understood literally and transferred by human on himself. If the flaring gazes of Perun bring death and fires, then the same terrible power is inherent to human vision as well. Hence the belief in “the evil eye” and “the basilisk glance”. The natural mythological school does not contradict the ritualistic one here at all: quite the opposite, the fusion of these two viewpoints provides further understanding of one of the attributes of Yaga the Witch: artificial blindness – the absence of visual light – the possibility of seeing invisible light – initiation ritual – new knowledge, new light leading to enlightenment – the recovery of physical vision. Such is the pattern of appearance of new knowledge and “witting”, wherefrom the “witch – Baba Yaga” dyad emerges. So the possibility of seeing the physical world in a new perspective is not granted to anyone. There is an inversion – a reversal in mundane consciousness. Things, which are considered significant among the profane, are seen differently by “the witches”. But seeing differently is dangerous in mundane consciousness, hence the epithets of “evil”. Meeting a blind man is bad luck. Collective consciousness disapproving of such “knowledge” has endowed people with poor “abnormal” vision with the qualities of moral imperfection, envy, hatred and deceit. Therefore Baba Yaga has poor vision as of later fairytales. Another characteristic feature of Baba Yaga is her strongly emphasized physiology. She is always portrayed as an old woman besides an unmarried one. Her relationship with Koschei the Deathless is complicated, though he is neither her husband nor her lover in fairytales. Baba Yaga is the mother to monsters. However, as of later fairytales one can encounter the following characters: her son – Oleshka the short-legged, the imps – Vezi, Sini and Puzi or just some abstract nameless sons. She does also have relatives: either the Yagishna sisters or the snake brothers. But let us turn back to her maternal duties. “Yaga represents a stage, whereon fertility was thought through women independently from men. Yaga is the mother to forest beasts. Being a personification of her sex, she does not have any sexual life. She is just a mother already, being a wife neither in the present nor in the past. And even though she is never mentioned as the mother of beasts in fairytales, she has absolute # 1861 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology power over them, since mother is in the first place the master. She undergoes changes in a myth as follows: she retains the maternity attributes only keeping her power over beasts, and as the very life of a hunter depends on his game, she also keeps the power over human life and death” (Propp, 1986, p.70). The ritualists conclude that ritual perishes but fairytale remains. Just as remains life in its concrete rather than symbolic aspects, just as remains death. What was attached to the ritual, what happened to the initiate now happens either in a fairytale or to the dead. This is the explanation of the hero venturing into the forest as martyrdom (or initiation); this also explains why from the earliest times the dead were boiled and burned just as the initiates, why the initiate had to lose his sight, why he was tested for his smell just as the stranger to the underworld would be tested in the future. With the advent of agriculture and agricultural religion the whole “forest” religion turns into sheer evil: a mighty wizard turns into an evil sorcerer, the mother and the master of beasts – into a witch, who lures children into the forest to “cook them and eat them”. “The practices, which abolished the ritual also abolished its creators and carriers: the witch, who burns children alive is similarly burnt first by a storyteller, the carrier of the epic fairytale heritage, and eventually by the carriers of the other paradigm. This storyline shows that it was created not during the ritual practices, but during the practices, which would replace it turning sacred into evil, into half-heroic and halfhumorous grotesque” (Propp, 1986, p.111). B.A. Rybakov has a somewhat different vision of Baba Yaga. He considers her to be the manifestation of a female goddess. This goddess was ambivalent representing Mokosh when threatening the harvest, and being the embodiment of Mara or Marzanna in case of a plague or a threat to human life. Fairytales adopted the second aspect of this ambivalence – hostility to the world. “Yaga is lying in her hut stretched from corner to corner, her legs in one and her head in another; her lips on the lintel, her nose sticking into the ceiling, her face of clay and her breasts stuffing up the stove. This description suggests the given character’s connection with Oneeyed Likho (a ravenous woman giant devouring people). Likho resides in the forest hardly fitting inside her hut and cooks the slaughtered victims in the stove” (Rybakov, 1988, p.219). In the other of his studies B.A. Rybakov points out Baba Yaga the Horsewoman riding in the lead of her host. In the “Of three kingdoms” set of fairytales Baba Yaga is in charge of the innumerable host issuing commands from the horseback. The heroes vanquish Yaga’s armies and she retreats to the dungeons followed by the protagonist. B.A. Rybakov emphasizes that a variety of belligerent female characters indicates a different, other than forest type of Baba Yaga. This one lives beyond the steppe river, by the silken grass at the seaside. Pastures, livestock and herds of excellent horses are constantly mentioned in fairytales. All of this is located somewhere near the mountains with cliffs and ravines either at the seaside or overseas. Apparently, as the author implicates, this is the pre-Turkic steppe realm of the Amazons of Cimmerian-Sarmatian origin. Could well be the case that the armed conflicts between Russian bogatyrs and snake women in the “snake lands” reflect the setting of VIII BC, when male Cimmerians went on campaigns to the Middle East (722-611 BC). The very means of fighting the bogatyrs, who reached the core of the snake lands, were different from the ones in the Cimmerian period, when there was evident aggression from the Yaga’s forces infiltrating Russia; snake women here are no Amazons, no self-sufficient warriors. This is just the women left in the rear with no part in warfare. The means of fighting the bogatyrs # 1862 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology here are purely female: snake women turn into ruddy apples, spring water and duvets in order to lure the conquerors and kill them subtly. When in the snake lands Russian bogatyr is often chased by Yaga flying in a mortar. B.A. Rybakov interprets this by the Russian wooden mortar being similar to the Scythian or Sarmatian kettle on a tray and rallies V.Y. Propp’s opinion of Yaga representing a “corpse”, which cannot move on its own and for that reason requires some sort of an object, as well as Afanasyev’s metaphors of storm clouds. Now let us review another perspective on the character of Baba Yaga. A ritualist, one of the contemporary researchers of Slavic paganism A. Andreev argues that Yaga is the goddess of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun (Andreev, 1996, p.79). He uses an extensive amount of evidence making references to numerous folkloric and Indo-Aryan sources. Taking this viewpoint into consideration let us remind ourselves of a fairytale, which many folklore researchers often refer to. This is the fairytale of Yaga being the mistress of three horsemen. Vasilisa the Beautiful is sent to get some fire from Baba Yaga, and the description of her journey represents a tale of the Day in a truly mythological form – three horsemen go before her: the white horseman on a white horse (the Day), the red horseman on a red horse (the Fair Sun) and the black horseman on a black horse (the Dark Night). The second aspect of studying Baba Yaga by A. Andreev is her being the goddess of Death (mentioned above already). This author considers her not just the goddess of Death, but also the master of the Souls. It is her, who sends them on Earth and takes them back. The third aspect analyzed by A. Andreev is that supposedly Yaga is not a goddess, but rather a priestess of the mentioned goddesses (a witch). That is why she is endowed with secret knowledge. Supposedly, as a result, she was diabolized and adopted a rather unattractive physical appearance. A. Andreev along with the other ritualists analyzes some specific features of Yaga’s appearance searching for a key to the given character’s puzzle. The first among others is the unfastened hair. A particular hairdo of Yaga is never mentioned, though fairytales hint at the unfastened hair and the magic deeds of hers. The national cult always associates hair with magic. According to the ancient beliefs the unfastened hair was the symbol of magic powers, thus being the strongest charm. The unfastened hair is associated with marriage, death and burial, saving the lives of livestock, people and the world. Having been forgotten, this cultural element turns into a threat during different times with the different mentality. Thus emerges one of the attributes of a witch-sorceress – the long unfastened hair. Another ritual forsaken by people is the overbaking of babies. Much was written about it by many researchers. According to A. Andreev, Yaga is the priestess saving babies. The inversion leads to Yaga having the urge to “eat the baked child” as well as the witches urging to steal children in order to eat them. V.Y. Propp views this ritual as the overbaking of the dead as related to the underworld, but A. Andreev analyzes precisely the ritual of “the overbaking of babies”. This was usually performed by an elderly woman with the children of her own; preference was usually given to the ones living a flawless moral life. Moreover, a special ritual emphasis in terms of childbearing was attributed to the Hearth (supposedly, according to the Law of Similarity in sympathetic magic – like produces like). By the way A. Andreev thinks that “not only the Hearth possesses the qualities of the womb, but also the Womb possesses the qualities of the hearth, its fieriness in particular. Isn’t this the origin of colloquial terms such as the fervor of love or the fiery passion, which are directly relevant to # 1863 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology childbearing?” (Andreev, 1996, p.80). Therefore the description of the overbaking ritual or any of Yaga’s actions is the description of the rituals related to obstetrics and protecting the child either prematurely born or the one born with rickets. For this purpose a child was wrapped in a big johnnycake (“the mother’s womb”), put inside the heated hearth on a baking shovel for a short period of time and then taken out and covered by a rotten pan. The ritual’s meaning was sort of the second birth of a child after the first unsuccessful one. In this case the great importance was attached to the magic actions; therefore the “ignorant” ones were not allowed to participate. The ritual actions have been forgotten but fairytales, which take everything literally and aim at teaching the younger generation of good and evil, remained. In this case good turned into evil and anchored as edification: common people are not allowed to do this. Let’s turn back to the priestess, who aided new mothers. A. Andreev tries to analyze the Yaga’s name. He writes that “to yagat” means “to shout loudly, to cry during birth. People enrage themselves in a similar fashion before fighting or during the fight in order not to feel pain. This gives ground for thinking that “to yagat” means not just to cry and shout, but to let out a torrent of raging power with one’s voice”. The researcher also concludes that most probably Yaga is one of the birthing mothers, the Mother of the Harvest and the Mother of the Gods and the witches following her lead are the priestesses. Alternatively she is the teacher, mentor or sort of an examiner in the female initiation rituals (Andreev, 1996, p.85). As a cultural hero of religious mythology Yaga possesses the magic items – the fetishes. In many texts she is the keeper of life force and the essence of life taking shape of magic water contained in two barrels or wells with the living and dead water. Supposedly, the “living” and “dead” water are the symbols of death and rebirth during the initiation ritual. Results. Having mentioned a fair number of perspectives on the character of Baba Yaga, what kind of results do we arrive at? It would be certainly fascinating to identify her with one of the goddesses of the Slavic pantheon – Mokosh, Lada, Rozhanitsa (a pagan goddess with a favorable role) or Mara (an unfavorable role). Nonetheless the abundance of the analyzed data leads us to the conclusion that she is rather a half-goddess (a cultural hero). Why so? All of the researchers place her in one of the mythical worlds: either in the upper one, where she possesses the water of nature – the “living” water, or in the lower one, where she is the guide to the underworld for heroes searching for their stolen brides. Therefore she is the mediator between two worlds living in between. Moreover it stands to mention that the upper worlds had certain hierarchies with Yaga belonging to the “visible” upper world – in the sky or in the proximate lower world or on its border. She is the intermediate agent of the gods – neither a god, nor a human, but both. Hence she is the mother, but not a wife, the mother of beasts, but not humans, etc. As any mediator she does not have her own free will, she just passes it to humans, though not to everyone, but only to the chosen. It is no coincidence her character being the one of a priestess, a teacher, mentor and the oracle of sacral pagan knowledge of Life and Death. The unfastened hair, the Hearth, the magical and the heavenly Fire and the apprenticeship – these are the symbols of the one bearing knowledge, passing and controlling it. She is in charge of people in this middle world – from the very birth (the Hearth) till marriage or death. These are the three major sacred milestones in life of every man in this world and all of them are accompanied by a priestess, because these milestones are full of magic and thus important, # 1864 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology with the whole social life ultimately depending on how they pass. This was mentioned by both V. Propp and A. Andreev. The latter associated the priestess with transitional rituals and thought that “concerning children and their education the grown-ups had to be utterly strict and precise. Otherwise the world would go the wrong way. A tiny mistake in education will eventually lead to accumulation of alien qualities and instead of a man you will bring something terrible into this world – an alien” (Andreev, 1996, p.89). Yaga did actually play a stabilizing role – the violation of the sacred rituals could possibly shatter the World of men. Hence there appeared a great importance of educating and examining the neophytes. Yaga was this educator (again as a mediator between the worlds), who brought harmony into this world and taught people of their social role by showing the initiates the Path of the social Force and the Path of the individual Force. She knew and saw something different from what common people could see and she passed this knowledge to her apprentices. Unfortunately, the concept of apprenticeship did not preserve in the Russian culture, but it does fi nd evidence in the vast ethnographic matter of other nations, especially in an ancient Indian tradition of apprenticeship. Conclusion. How come did Yaga turn from a protagonist into an antagonist? We mentioned this above already: the forsaken rituals turn into fairytale characters due to the shifting paradigm and fairytales generate an inversion. Noteworthy is how V.Y. Propp comments upon it, “With the enhancement of the tools of labor, the adoption of agriculture and new social structure the ancient barbarous rituals are handled as redundant or even cursed and their edge is turned against their performers. If a man is ritually blinded by a forest creature, which tortures him and threatens to eat him, then the myth, which is already detached from the ritual, becomes the means of “outcry”. A similar situation happens with the burning: it is the children, who are burned in the ritual, but in a fairytale children burn the witch” (Propp, 1986, p.75). In the following ages Yaga is getting even more diabolized and coalescent with the Western European characters of witches and sorceresses as a result of cross-cultural interaction. This is how we find her in Russian fairytales. Is this cultural hero relevant to the contemporary religious mythology? In a huge thesaurus of dualistic myths of life and death, good and evil, witches, vampires and werewolves – the characters of the contemporary mass media formation of myths, Baba Yaga remains a cultural hero – a mediator between the “diurnal” and “nocturnal” worlds and a profound archetypical character generating all of the basic mythologems of dramatic, romantic, heroic, pagan and neopagan scenarios in the contemporary religious mythology. References 1. Afanasyev A.N. Drevo zhizny [Tree of Life]. Moscow, 1982. 464 p. 2. Andreev A. (1996) Russian gods in the mirror-world. Indo-European myths and magic, 3, 68-94. 3. Ivanova E.V. (2012) “Religious fantasy” as element of contemporary religious mythology. Humanities and social sciences, 5(1), 56-61. 4. Ivanova E.V. Smysloobrazuyushchaya funktsiya mifa (obraz kulturnogo geroya) [Semantic Function of the Myth (Image of the Culture Hero)]. Yekaterinburg, 2004. 298 p. 5. Laushkin K.D. (1970) Baba Yaga and one-legged gods: revisited origin of the character. Folklore and ethnography, 181-187. # 1865 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenia V. Ivanova. The Problem of Mysteriousness of Baba Yaga Character in Religious Mythology 6. Men A. Magiya, okkultizm, khristianstvo [Magic, Occultism, Christianity]. Moscow, 1996. 196 p. 7. Propp V.Y. Istoricheskie korni volshebnoi skazki [Morphology of the Folk Tale]. Leningrad, 1988. 361 p. 8. Religiovedenie [Religion Studies], edited by I.N.Yablokov. Moscow, 2012. 479 p. 9. Rybakov B.A. Yazychestvo Drevnei Rusi [Paganism of Ancient Russia]. Moscow, 1988. 800 p. Проблема загадочности образа Бабы-яги в религиозной мифологии Е.В. Иванова Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина, Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В данной статье раскрывается многозначность прочтения образа Бабы-яги представителями различных мифологических школ. Каждый из исследователей данного образа по-своему трактует семантические особенности данного культурного героя. Кто она? Языческая богиня, жрица языческих богинь, ведьма, змея, повелительница небесных стихий? Цель исследования автора статьи – раскрыть многозначность архетипических характеристик этого образа и доказать влияние образа Бабы-яги как культурного героя архаической религиозной мифологии на современную религиозную мифологию средств массовой информации. Ключевые слова: религиозная мифология, миф, культурный герой, язычество, символ, волшебная сказка, религия, ритуал, языческая жрица. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1867-1878 ~~~ УДК 17.022.1 Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects Sergey A. Azarenko* Ural Federal University named after B.N. Yeltsin 51 Lenina, Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia Received 21.08.2013, received in revised form 02.10.2013, accepted 27.11.2013 This text explores the system of values modernity. Modernity is usually expressed through the metaphor of the Information Age, stressing the dominant position in the society of information and communicative streams. A human in general is a joint being and therefore he initially belongs to communication. Compatibility as measurement of ontology of communication is a place of formation of joint practice of people, united by repeated and regular bodily interactions, in which the message is created, contributing to join people in a community with certain ideas and values. But existence of the modern man is problematized largely because of its absorption in information streams, that are intensified be electronic technologies. People can not do without telecommunications, mobile communications, etc., so that a man is included in the set of replacing each other streams of information, that have not only diverse, but also generally contradictory and conflict contents. Immersion in full of contradictions information field generates such phenomena and problems as “clip thinking” to the detriment of complete semantic thinking; domination game, not the real, actual forms of the relations. Relationships between men and women are changing, getting the forms that threaten the existence of a family. And, at last, in such unsteady information space of simulation and virtuality it becomes in general difficult to speak about authenticity or not authenticity of borders of our existence. Keywords: communication, system of values, social practices and technology, bodily interactions, community. Condition of spirituality in the modern world Modernity is usually expressed through the metaphor of the Information Age, stressing the dominant position in the society of information and communicative streams. A human in general is a joint being and therefore he initially belongs to communication. Compatibility as measurement of ontology of communication is a place of formation of joint practice of people, united by repeated and regular bodily interactions, in * which the message is created, contributing to join people in a community with certain ideas and values. It is impossible to imagine people outside the commune and communication, outside of society and relations. But existence of the modern man is problematized largely because of its absorption in information streams, that are intensified be electronic technologies. People can not do without telecommunications, mobile communications, etc., so that a man is included in the set of replacing each other streams of © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1867 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects information, that have not only diverse, but also generally contradictory and conflict contents. Immersion in full of contradictions information field generates such phenomena and problems as “clip thinking” to the detriment of complete semantic thinking; domination game, not the real, actual forms of the relations. Relationships between men and women are changing, getting the forms that threaten the existence of a family. And, at last, in such unsteady information space of simulation and virtuality it becomes in general difficult to speak about authenticity or not authenticity of borders of our existence. In this context it is worth to mention such phenomenon of modernity as a world economic crisis. Most of the researchers are looking for the reasons for the imperfection of the financial and economic mechanisms, but it seems that reasons to cause it lie deeper – in the field of anthropology of management and, finally, in the spiritual area. So, we live in the information age, we can not do without modern ways of communication, as well as our children – without communicating by the Internet at the expense of live communication. This is the situation of everyday life, but it has a deeper process, namely: a process of narrowing of space and time of our existence, deformation of the semantic horizon of a man, bringing down of his complete perception to clip thinking. Thanks to modern technical facilities people can interact, reducing the distance, and because of the specific operation of these facilities, communication always occurs in limited, “reduced” time, i.e. in the form of short messaging. No wonder that the information field is dominated by such form of communication as a slogan – a key element of any ads and commercials. Thus there is a contraction, restriction of time and space of our world, which has not external, but the essential character. Actually, this type of “network” communication has already started to deform spiritual world of a man, reducing it to a state of “fragmented consciousness.” And some forms of information products are claiming almost at an ontological value. In this way, advertising today serves not only as a way of moving goods, but assumes the function of a cultural norm that defines life. The modern information field starts to define behavior of people in society and in particular of youth. Clip communication actually works on the distruction of cultural tradition, which based on complete meanings and the root relations, keeping and broadcasting them during a long time. The saturation of the communication, full of modern technical means, generates effect of “a communication rumble” that considerably complicates human life. How to survive in that it seems dense communication, but in reality is “communication noise” when they talk together, but can not hear each other? People do not see that live in the world of simulation and virtuality, which dominated the “truncated” senses and bodies. Nevertheless the need for complete meanings is inexhaustible, because they give the chance to feel full value of staying in the world and therefore modern people don’t cease to be interested in spiritual practices and look for rescue within themselves. The social aspect of sense consists in its initial pre-message to communication, given not only by the language and semantic-communicative system of society: myths, symbols, narratives, discourses, texts and intertexts, – but, as we believe, action, practices and techniques. The sense is premised by society, and it is constituted in a network of those relations to which it imperatively precedes. Practices and techniques in society are present not asstructures, but as recursive processes, promoting translation of significant cultural meanings for society. Meaning is always compatible by definition. Compatibility already implies a clear separation of meaning, # 1868 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects in which community is born. Russian thinkers expressed it through the idea of the primacy of catholicity. Disturbance of meaning is equal to a violation of social relations. In modern society, as opposed to the root meanings, rhizomatic meanings and forms of relationship began to prevail. Rhizome, according to Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, – the structure that exists without a root, as a tumbleweed in the free space of the desert. Modern man has to live in a situation which Bauman calls “from pilgrim to tourist.” Instead of moving into the region of the spiritual, when, making efforts, people moved to the holy places, to submit to a spiritual transformation, now they go there mainly for superficial impressions, for admiration, becoming collectors of pleasures. From here – a prevalence of not original relations, that demand from people not spiritual efforts, but game efforts. Game promotes realization of bodily energy of people, and also favors to development of social forms of accommodation, but at the same time we have to deal with (not without the help of telecommunications) passion to computer games, immersion in virtual space game- hoax, in which playing of another is effective and normal. Nowadays game continues to do the traditional social functions, but more and more taking the form of hoax,simulation or game presentation. A modern man lives in conditions of society of performance. Performance becomes world outlook, and society – socially organized visibility. The desire of show penetrates all human activities, turning them into the game. In society the game atmosphere is created, and it becomes more and more preferable occupation. Especially brightly it is shown in network communication. A lot of websites offer game communication, suggest to make friends, but not real, virtual. At the same time with distribution of game communication where each person, disappearing under “nickname” can choose to himself any role, real social and gender roles are deformated, and with them – habitual semantic oppositions male/female, active/ passive, etc. The majority of men and women are united today, according to Bauman more due to deception, instead of a social order, advertising, not indoctrination. People are involved in a game where sensual pleasures have the vast importance. Women more and more claim the professional calling and partnerships in business, and in the areas of sexual. Giddens notes that the fact of sexual equality in a society promoted the domination of eroticism. The relations between the man and the woman began to seem in the light of a sensuality, instead of love and a family. In love the man responds on feelings of another in all fullness of life in which he os capable to be better. But love requires human efforts. Pragmatic people today often do not want to spend their strength or time. Meanwhile, eroticism is only a superficial grasp of the person. This circumstance has danger of transformation of existential territory of the first importance, which serves, on the one hand, to social reproduction, and, with another, to reproduction of a human as actually a human. It is a question of destruction a family Crisis of a family is noted around the world. Illegitimate children who were the “shameful” phenomenon earlier, make now a half of all born children. Today the mankind passes to other demographic mode of existence: from continuously increasing in population to maintenance of its constant number; to redistribution of the relations between various age categories (increase in number of elderly people) with a growth of average life expectancy. (According to forecasts average life expectancy in Russia will grow till eighty years.) Changes in social communications in a wide range of social communications and # 1869 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects interactions led to generation of simulyatsionny and virtual space. If earlier sign and symbolical structures of daily and spiritual communication reflected reality, marking a field of actions in social reality, now sign structures, which lose communication with reality, prevail. It is on the one hand. And on the other hand, process of social reproduction assumes copying or repetition, without which reproduction would be impossible. Besides, our separate existence in compatibility is found on border with another, where we as heirs appear within ontology of “trace”. In fact, take place in compatibility of communication (especially in the network society) can not in its fullness, but only as a “trace”, as Derrida rightly believed. People exploring the trace, reproduce it, and thus create the next trace and so on, and so they involuntarily are in the power of repetition or in the power of the simulacrum as a copy of a copy. But repetition is at the same time an attempt to order our world, allocating it with sense, and aspiration to reproduce it. And we as beings producing and reproducing meanings, get in the power of this repeatability. But is it possible to give up the repetition and start “from scratch”? Sociality, using electronic technologies, stimulates mechanisms of copying and copying of copying even more, that is strengthens simulyatsionny processes. Simulacra are built in symbolical space of a sociality, serving its reproduction. It turns out that it is impossible to do without repetition and, therefore, without simulyatsionny process. This circumstance puts us in quite ambiguous situation when we should guess how we exist: really or only imitating any relation. We have ti observe such communicative streams and such social codes which are closed on themselves. Circulation of empty communication, imitation of these or those connections and relations is everywhere increased. Bright example of this reproduction is the advertizing form of messages. What is the danger of this phenomenon? For a long time we had to be in a sign-and-symbolic mode, where the opposition real / unreal or surreal was clearly presented now the communication is based on the opposition virtual / actual, where contact with reality is lost and the relationship becomes a surrogate. In this situation the pronlem of control becomes inportant. Habermas emphasizes that the increasing complexity of the social system requires constant strengthening of the role of control. We believe that the current world crisis, which for the most part regarded as an economic, actually refers to the “failure” of the control system. In this regard, the “crisis” now is not a temporary phenomenon, after which everything will return to its previous state. Modern “crisis” actually means a border of transition of society in other reality, other condition. The model of the social development which initiated by liberal economy and has generated consumer society, stop working. Actually she relied on the narrowed idea of the person, reducing it to material requirements. Significant in the person was considered only thar allowed to sell to him next goods for consumption with success. “Crisis” indicates that this model of development is settled and completed. It should be understood that the process of changing of development paths is the responsibility of control, which requires the government self-reform. Using modern technology more and more complicates and accelerates social processes that lead to social differentiation, that lead to problematical character of formation of new structures of interaction. Strategic installation on an innovation causes to life – as reciprocal (and protective) reactions (and for reasons of economy of forces and time) – the appeal to former traditional forms of relations (for example, # 1870 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects ritual). And in a course appear both pseudotraditional (neopagan), and traditional forms. In this connection, the question arises of how to relate to the traditions as a form past, what abour their Renaissance? Heidegger showed that all of us are pas, but which is withdrawn from the future. Traditional forms can not be returned in its entirety, but should probably be applied to the conditions of social existence. We see, for example, that spiritual practices are reborn in the psycho practices, and in many cases serve as a means of “therapeutic” effect on modern people, that are taken by the inhuman flows and rhythms of life, disseminating the person and spending his forces. People appeared to be taken by illnesses – both of bodies and of souls. Below we will give expanded understanding of an illness, which, in our opinion, is quite applicable for the description as physical ans as social pathology. Really, the illness is firstly a spirit illness, instead of bodily. Since the most ancient times they spoke about it, and we find this thought in descriptions of the different spiritual practices. In Christianity saints wrote about it. Prp. Serafim Sarovsky spoke: “Health is a gift of God, but not always this gift is useful, as any suffering, illness has the power to cleanse us from spiritual defilement, expiate sins, humble and soften our soul, force to change their mind, realise our weakness and remember God. So illnesses are needed by us and our children.” Swami Sivananda, which based on the ancient tradition of yoga, says, that all chronic, long-lasting and functional illnesses and disorders inevitably arise from violations occurring in the mechanism of work of organs: An illness is a result of violations of the laws of nature. Nature wants everyone to be strong and healthy. If you are weak, it indicates that your organs or different cells of your body do their function properly”. The only correct way of treatment is that proceeds from the prime cause of a disease and directs all forces to restoration of normal work of all system. “Nature does all the work itself. Medications only help nature in her recovery, regeneration work”1. The primary causes of the illness, according to Sivananda, may be the bad thoughts, and if this causes ruin, all illnesses of body disappear. Mental illnesses are often caused by excitation. It is necessary to avoid excitation because when the body is in excitation, things are perceived distortedly, and prana (energy), begins to flow throughout the body by fits and starts. Therefore, concludes Sivananda, due to illnesses of spirit are emerging illnesses of the body. Hence his attitude to the healing power of mantra, which are, to put it briefly, a symbolic way of self-regulation of the human body, similar to the prayer in the Christian tradition. Topologically speaking, illnesses or abnormality occur in a state of transition from own to another. Transition is a state of limit or break the previous state. The illnesses is staying apart from a body, which undergoes an exaggerated impact of Another . To stay in itself, our body pretending to be ill,, simulating and articulating certain “my and his other” states. But to pretend means to create something in the event of transition or redistribution! The body is in pain-stress with the Another (being with Another is painful, as it is Another ), but there is an illness when some Another is exaggerated with my own, suppressing the body or energy channels. And then the human thoughts often leave a human, becoming delirious. Influenced by Another thoughts may come out from the borders of a body. Spiritual practices at all times promote the improvement of people’s, as they carried the ability to restructure systematically perceptions and states of body, promoting it from negative to positive states, but rather promoting it to a # 1871 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects balanced “oneself with Another” state. Now psychotechniques in many respects began to carry out this function. They influence a state of “compatibility” in a body well. Compatibility of a body represents a mobile configuration of its components of elements. If there is a stop, stagnation, a clip, pain is generated as a symptom of a disease. Pain is a manifestation of “immobility”, energy stagnation in some places of bodily compatibility, elements of which can coexist only in mutual motion to each other, as realization and implementation of the energy of a body. Understanding of energy in various spiritual practices reveals a certain similarity. Energy concept goes back to Aristotle. According to Aristotle, energy is actualization of potency of exists. This is the process itself, movement, activity of actualization, and not the result. Christian theology maintains Aristotle understanding of energy. Compare, for example, as St.. John of Damascus wrote: “The energy is active movement. Active is called that move on their own accord”. However, S. Horuzhy said: “Energy is the fi rst pulse and the actual movement of the initiative, and the creature always has a whole set of diverse and divergent energies” 2. According to the classical dichotomy of human composition, there are different physical and mental energies. To a similar concept, says Horuzhy, and also on the basis of asceticism comes an Indian thought. Here’s how to determine dharma in the philosophy of classical yoga: “Dharma or qualitative definition, is nothing more than the ability [literally, “energy” – approx. Trans.] of carrier-substrate, given the limited scope. “ Dharma at the same time is energy and qualitative certainty. By thought of Horuzhy, convergence of concept of dharma with the idea of “separate energy” in hesychast austerity course is natural, because they both came from the experience of intense scrutiny, study of spiritual practice of human. In 90 years in our country books Castaneda were especially popular. This coincided with a moment in the life of society, when there was a need for a person with an active way of behavior, destroying the boundaries of “the usual.” In the book “Journey to Ixtlan” constancy is condemned, the rigid schedule in behavior, that does the person the inert and at the same time, vulnerable at meets with extraordinary and unexpected events and forces. The book tells about ways of training and development of ability to “unexpected behavior”. Good “hunter” precisely knows the schedule of the victim, but he doesn’t submit to any schedule, and it is his advantage. The victim for which it hunts, is enslaved by the strong schedule of the way of its life, hat does its behavior predictable. Hunter is free, fluid and unpredictable. In the book there is an idea that behaviors of the most of people as usual, predictable, and this means that they will always be someone’s victims. The point of the training is to stop yourself being a victim and become a “hunter”. You must practice the behavior that breaks any stereotypes. Despite the effectiveness of this practice, its content and the spiritual meaning doubtful. Leaving aside its analysis (which requires a separate study), we point only to need of refering to other, non-aggressive practices. It is a spiritual and physical practice of yoga, Buddhism, Orthodox Hesychasm,that are also aimed to the rejection of preassigned behaviors and at the sametome help build a harmonious relationship with the world. To slip out of the traps of communication we need not repeat the path of the victim, but did not become a hunter. Spiritual and physical practices in question allow to harmonize relations with the world because they are not built on benefits, bur in principles of life in the present with an open heart. # 1872 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects These spiritual practices, belonging to different cultural traditions, have bodily techniques and tools to work with the energies, promoting overcoming of stagnant processes in a body. By means of these practices in bodily compatibility the mechanism of selforganization of energy starts working. Directing attention to body sites with developments of stagnation and making certain actions, we release dejectednesses “ourselves with Another” (that is we help to direct correctly moving elements of compatibility). In yoga, for example, various complexes of asanas and the principles of breath and its delay are developed. There are techniques of silence, for example, in Christianity – in a prayer of silence of life – in – in a prayer of silence of life together with God. It assumes return to space of initial silence, silence and harmony. Silence returns the human to a bodyness at that very moment when he starts speaking or creating something from silence. Silence assumes known effort as it is necessary to overcome distracting thoughts, but silence erects to a gleam. When a human becomes silent, God begans to be shone in consciousness of a human. In silence (hesychia) there is also a meeting of a man with himself. Achieving this state improves everyday life, strengthens man, helps him managing with the challenges of modern life. There are are also known techniques of laughter in some traditional cultures. At present time they are reborn. For example, there is a well-known technique of yoga-laughter by Indian physician Madan Katari, or technique laughter Osho. Laughter turns on action of a body, revives him, relieves stress, stimulates the circulation of the internal organs, releasing “sandwiched” energy. But laughter is twofold, has a double meaning, and therefore it is important that it has to serve the balanced configuration of compatibility. Laughter helps overcoming the suffering, that is “a spreading of a body” and serves as its lifeenhancing rebuilding. Certainly, psychotechniques can’t replace spiritual practices, because the last allow a person to be himself fully – and it means not only to follow implementation of himself, but also to disconnect borders of his existence. However psychotechniques have a good influence on a human body. In certain cases modern psychotechniques place emphasis on personal growth, being guided by individualist idea of a man. However, in our opinion, such idea of a man is utopian in the world, where a man is initially a being that lives in interaction with others. The Arab parable speaks about the father, that, being on a mortal bed, brings together three sons to share between them the wealth of all his life in the form of seventeen camels. He bequeaths to the eldest son a half of camels, to the average son – a third part, and to the youngest – a ninth part. The father dies, and sons can’t solve a problem, in what way they should divide camels as their number is odd and it doesn’t share in half. They ask scientists for advice, but those can’t help them. Once they meet an old wise man and ask him for help. He says that fi nds it difficult to solve their problem, but he has one camel and he is ready to give them it. Thanks to it they have eighteen camels. The eldest son receives a half, that is nine camels, the average son receives the third part, that is six camels, and the youngest receives the ninth part, that is two camels. But as a result, when they put together numbers of camels, they receive seventeen, as well as the father bequeathed. There was only one camel of the old wise man on which he went away. This parable says that the solution is possible only in the presence of a wise man – another, in common, instead of alone. This is a topos of the teacher, the psychologist or the trainer. # 1873 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects From spirituality to politics The world of a sociality is reproduced thanks to social practices. Social practices are various, it is impossible to select one as a leader. However each practice has any special purpose and a special place in society among others practices. For example, spiritual practice promotes internal transformation of a human, without what formation of the personality is impossible. In spiritual practice there is a formation of the complete person – in unity of a body, soul and spirit. All spiritual practices, including philosophy (according to P. Ado) find the main reason of suffering in human passions. All spiritual practices anyway contain technique of mobilization of energy and its discharge, intellectual concentration and requirement of ascesis – rejection of sensual excesses. Spiritual practices are not just a system of knowledge, but exactly a practice. Key point of our concept is that in any social practice there is a message, which promotes joining people in the community with certain notions and values. From this statement it is clear that the main process of this practice, in our opinion, is communication. Communication, according to Deleuze, actually, is a prerequisite of modern philosophical thought and philosophical studies, which consists in generating concept. For the ancient philosophy this prerequisite was a contemplation and for the philosophy of the New Age ot is a reflection. Communication isinteractions of people, mediated by signs, symbols and texts. This is a significant and symbolic structures that “holds” and let pass meaningful content, including values, between humans in communication. But the transfer of value can occur not only through the medium of sign structures, but also through the physical relationship. Different cultural traditions have a representation of a “spiritual body”. In Russian philosophy the concept of “spiritual body” has a consistent and meaningful development. A. Losev wrote: “Apart from the particulars and trying to identify the main idea of the philosophy of Solovyov, it is, perhaps, the idea of spiritual corporeality. From this idea we can withdraw all other basic ideas of Solovyov, the most outstanding are the idea of Unity and the Incarnation, the idea of transformation of a body and a spirit and the idea of the Church as the Body of Christ”3. Florensky, explaining the process of generation of culture, also said about a body and proposed the concept of organoprojection. Actually he showed a birth of a “spiritual” body of culture. The cultural and historical concept of Florensky, created within orthodox paradigmatics, implies the negation of culture as a single in time and space process, with a denial of evolution and progress of culture. Existence of separate cultures, according to Florensky, is subordinated to a rhythm of replacing each other types of culture— medieval and renaissance. The first type is characterized as organic, objective, focused and self-assembly and the second is characterized as dissociation, subjectivity, an abstractness and superficiality. Florensky carries his own outlook to the XIV-XV centuries of the Russian Middle Ages. He considers that the second principle of thermodynamics is the basic law of the world – the law of entropy taken as the law of Chaos in all areas of a universe. World confronts Logos – the beginning of ectropion – the opposite of entropy change in the direction of ordering, greater organization and complexity. The culture is a conscious fight against world equalizing: the culture is generated by isolation, that is a delay of equalizing process of the Universe, and increase of a difference of life, contrary to equality – death. Culture of the European Renaissance, according to Florensky finished its existence to the beginning of the ХХth century. From the first # 1874 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects years of the new century in European culture there are shown signs of another type of culture. The concept of bodyness and compatibility in philosophy of L. Karsavin reveals the interrelation of subjects of the world and lets to understand the equivalence of cultures and epochs. The West European cultural tradition – in the broadest sense of the word – knows four systems of values: Greek, Christian, new temporary (liberal) and modern which is still being formed in the conditions of resolute rapprochement of cultures under the influence of new information technologies. Generation of social space is mediated by existence certain practices and bodily techniques. Specific corporal techniques always correspond to practices. Role of practices is production and reproduction of the social world, role of techniques are special ways of possession of a body. Each cultural epoch of European civilization has its own dominated practices and forms of bodily techniques. In Antiquity among the soldiers there were spread such physical techniques as gymnastics, dietetics and asceticism. Communities of soldiers cultivated values of solidarity, responsibility and valor. In medieval Christianity the leader spiritual practice with bodily techniques of abstention and prayer and values - belief, hope and love. In modern times, due to the growth of crafts and trade, the life of Europeans moved mostly in the cities. Here goes the formation of industrial body of society with certain social practices and techniques. Leading values were also changing – now they are liberty, equality and fraternity. Nowadays there is a mixture of various practices and, therefore, of different techniques, therefore wecan observe the simultaneous coexistence of different processes: a reproduction of values of previous eras and a partial rejection of them. In today’s society political and communicative pragmatics comes to the forefront. Social spacetime behaves as a mobile field of interactions of many social agents,belonging to different practices and techniques. Between these agents there is process of political struggle and the game on the “social scene”. The behavior of such system is absolutely non-linear, and therefore unpredictable. In this competitive game political interests have more weight than the ethics of communication. Competition also enters into the sphere of human relations. This practice of building ofinteraction has its own specific techniques, often built on deceit and some tricks. For example, the technique of shifting. This technique is used in business negotiations, in sales, and it is based on the principle of contrast and replacement of one supply by another. Firstly they offer the client bad terms of a transaction, undesirable and unprofitable, and then – they formulate a proposal that the sellers actually were preparing to make. The second proposal in comparison with the first looks much more attractive, and the client agrees, not paying attention to the fact that its price is also too high. This trick uses human psychology: everything is learned in comparison! Another technique negotiations is crunch. This technique is used in the course of trading. It is built on the psychological pressure on a seller to make him lower the price even without the counter-offer. A buyer make a seller understand that a price and terms of the transaction does not suit him, but a buyer himself doesn’t make an offer about a price or terms of transaction. He is waiting for concessions, encouraging a seller. For this purpose a buyer uses a minimum two types of devices: leads an argument in favor of the opinion, that the price is too high, or he is trying to confuse the seller by his emotional reaction to the price or terms of transaction, cause uncertainty and ultimately make knuckle under. “The negotiation wave” is another example of hard, “on the edge”, techniques of discussion. Its purpose is to bring the client to a state of # 1875 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects psychological stress, in which he loses control and agrees with unprofitable terms. This action is based on a sharp change of regime of negotiations from approval to disapproval of actions and proposals by client. All these techniques are methods of struggle, that based on inherently dishonest, concealing real motives of actions and methods. Because of a lack of ethics and moral in society, schools began to make lessons on secular ethics. But in the age of pragmatism the presented ethical systems turned out to be built only on the principles of rational-practical choice. Philosophical bases of this ethic can be found, for example, in the works of Aristotle. In the opinion of Aristotle, virtue is in the middle between two evils: excess and deficiency. Generosity, according to its concept, is a medium, a balance between squander and avarice. On secular ethics lessons children are invited to become selfish and reasonable, rationally choosing the ”golden mean”. To some extent, the presence of common sense is really useful. But it is unclear why they forget that our culture (as well as European) was formed in the area of Christian civilization and has always been based on its values and laws. In fact, they take into account only three ethical pragmatics: the traditional, scientificrational and politically-business. The Christian ethics component is ignored. As a result there is a dissipation of values of belief, hope and love. Arguments of hard rationality prevail over the reasons of a heart. There is an impression that there is generated a type of completely heartless business people, as if the success of acting depends only on rationality and pragmatism. Nowadays, in practice of difficult social communication, as some scientists believe, the new idealized triad of synthesizing values starts being formed, namely: Understanding, Trust and the Piece, addressed to Another. Crisis of civilization and the paradox of value relationships require a radical rethinking of both individual and ancestral systems for the future. At the individual level on of such systems now is the “sense”, that requires an understanding of any otherness, on the ancestral it is “Universality” which is able to become a basis of universal standards of people’s behavior, excluding distinction between “us” and “them”, “allies” and “enemies.” The idea of a social body of a man have started being split. Particulary, according to Baudrillard, modernity has to deal with four concepts of a body. The basic notion of the body in medicine is the “corpse” – it is limit representation of a human body in the medical community. For religion the basic concept of a body is an “animal” with his instincts and “flesh” desires. In classical political economy an ideal representation of a body, according to Baudrillard, is a “robot”. It is a perfect model of functional “release” of a body as labor, a projection of a man of absolutely sexless and rational productivity. In a system of political economy of a sign, in Public Relations a basic concept of a body is “dummy”. In the concept of dummy there is a reflection of conception of man that is no longer only a labor, but a “sign” value of model of consumption. Dummy is not a subject, for example, of sexual desires, but a symbol of sexuality as a consumer quality of a man, a model and a way of consumption. A corpse, an animal, a car and a dummy – these are the negative ideal types of a body, which are developed and depicted in systems replacing each other. However, not in everything it is possible to agree with the offered typology of the concept of “social body” of a man. Probably, physicians need rather a concept of “ill”, not “dead” body. ”An ill body’, that requires improvement. The idea of the body as an “animal” is not produced by the Church. These ideas can be rather attributed to youth, which has often youth groups, that are living according the laws of “ pack”, with such values as hierarchy, violence, expansion, protection of a # 1876 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects territory. Social relations in such groups are based on principles of personal dependence instead of universal standards of behavior. The church, on the contrary, returns people to inherent values of belief, hope and love. In conditions of involvement of different cultures into communication there is a question, if this interaction should be based on situational values and rules, reflecting political struggle and opposition, and how traditional cultural, concretely Christian values have to fit into this interaction? Can we explain, for example, young people, that the value of money is transient and generally fatal? After all, the money has historically emerged as a useful tool of exchange and, therefore, also have some cost and value. Nowadays money actually became the only form of expression of intensity of desire. In money the youth sees firstly a mean of achievement. But desires by the nature are infinite. The desire generates bigger desire which finally enslaves people, depriving them of freedom. And it, in our opinion, can be explained, by showing a distinction between imaginary and real values. Thus it is necessary to distinguish pleasure and satisfaction. The pleasure is connected with realization of physiological functions of an organism, and satisfaction is a category relating to the plan of mental human life. The satisfaction arises when a man realizes that have made something significant, that he can be proud, made it for others, that is he made a gift. As they speak in the East, the sense of human happiness is to find the way and to go on it. When a man is passionate about some thing, he forgest about everything else. In this sense wisdom says: live here and now, but remember the purpose, a lodestar, and live in love. In the East they say: a day spent without a smile and love was in vain. This feeling should be present in a heart and actts of a man. Indeed, human life takes place in time, between the past and the future (life and death). This “between” translates itself through the present and real. To be really in the present means to stay in such existential measurements, as, for example, love, game, work, power, belief and death. In these measurements a man person is taken to his limits and fractures, faiths and distrust, suffering and joy, in pain and pleasure, really living here and now. The meaning of life is achievable when we really are living in the present. Spiritual practices lead us to a comprehended life. They are based on belief and practice of creation oneself. In the social sciences, from the nineteenth century, it is accepted to distinguish community and society. The notion of community is connected with idea of natural, traditional communication between people. Society characterizes relatedness of people on interests. Nowadays we can observe, that traditional ties are more and more replaced by public interests. Processes of individualization, pluralization and globalization in general have questioned the reproduction of traditional communities and their values. Today is possible to speak about groups of “accomplices”, the unity of that is based on short-term bonds and values, produced by the group itself. Member of groups of “associates” can choose which model of relationships and what values they will follow: traditional or group. This situation of the duality problematizes human existence, forcing him to make afforts to built relationships with Another. Social groups differ on character of the purposes: there are destructive groups and there are creative, directed on positive result. Many Internet communities are an example of groups of the second type. And network community initially is based as not having hierarchy and the managing center, and therefore each of its members has an equal voice. Internet # 1877 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey. A. Azarenko. Modernity: Transformation of System of Values and its Anthropological Aspects communities have already proved that they are capable to purposeful actions, and, in difference from a crowd, can represent real social force, that 1 2 3 is capable to resist to “center” and the power of goverment. Recent events on Bolotnaya Square showed it eloquently. Swami Sivananda. Home yoga. Facilitated course of physical training for modern men and women. Kiev, 2003. P.62 Horuzhy S. To Phenomenology of austerity. Moscow: Publishing humanities, 1998. P.350. Losev Russian Philosophy / / Losev. passion for dialectics. Literary Reflections of a philosopher. Moscow: Soviet Writer, 1990. P.91. Современность: трансформация системы ценностей и ее антропологические аспекты С.А. Азаренко Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина, Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В статье исследуется современная система ценностей. Современность принято выражать через метафору информационной эпохи, подчеркивая главенствующее положение в социуме информации и коммуникативных потоков. Человек вообще существо совместное и потому изначально принадлежит коммуникации. Совместность как измерение онтологии коммуникации есть место формирования совместной практики людей, объединяемых повторяемыми и регулярными телесными взаимодействиями, при которых создается со-общение, способствующее при-общению людей к со-обществу с определенными представлениями и ценностями. Но существование современного человека проблематизируется во многом именно из-за его погруженности в информационные потоки, которые интенсифицируются электронными технологиями. Люди уже не могут обходиться без телекоммуникаций, мобильной связи и т.п. вещей, вследствие чего человек оказывается включенным во множество сменяющих друг друга потоков информации, несущих не просто разнородное, но и, по большей части, противоречивое и конфликтное по смыслу содержание. Погруженность в перенасыщенное противоречиями информационное поле порождает такие феномены и проблемы, как «клиповое мышление» в ущерб целостному смысловому мышлению; доминирование игровых, а не действительных (деятельностных) форм отношений. Изменяются отношения между мужчиной и женщиной, приобретая формы, которые ставят под угрозу существование семьи. И, наконец, в таком зыбком информационном пространстве симуляции и виртуальности становится вообще затруднительно говорить о подлинности или неподлинности границ нашего бытия. Ключевые термины: коммуникация, система ценностей, социальные практики и техники, телесные взаимодействия, совместность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1879-1886 ~~~ УДК 316.354:351/354 Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling Olga V. Arlashkina* Khakas State University named after N.F. Katanov, 90 Lenin, Abakan, 655017 Russia Received 27.07.2013, received in revised form 05.08.2013, accepted 06.11.2013 The article details the author’s approach to social research of staff management in organizations from the perspective of social interaction. A brief overview of sociological conceptions allows defining the nature of social interaction, its types and characteristics. The author provides a sociological interpretation of staff management, presents and substantiates a methodological approach to the analysis of staff management as a system of social interaction and enumerates its specific characteristics, identified empirically. Basing on this study, the author has developed an organizational model of staff management, the scheme and description of which are given in the article. This model is based on the identified characteristics and possibilities of social interaction, as well as traditional approaches to structuring organizational subsystems and can be used to form a socially efficient and sustainable system of staff management. Keywords: social interaction, staff management, the system, the subjects of interaction, the organizational model. Introduction The process of managing employees (or staff management) in organizations today is a popular subject of research, but most of these studies are in the spheres of economics and psychology. In our opinion, this is due to the fact that companies, ordering such research, pursue very specific objectives of reducing economic costs and increasing profits, or are aimed at searching for specific personal qualities of employees. Sociological studies in the sphere of staff management in Russia are mainly conducted on a national or regional scale (but not in a separate organization) or have a specific aim, for example, study motivation or are focused on evaluating a * certain aspect. Staff management is most often considered as one of the organizational activities, but not as interaction of organizational subjects (Vesnin, 1998, Ulrich, Brockbank, 2005, Krymov, 2009). However, organizations are increasingly having management problems related, to lack of understanding of laws of social interaction, absence of coordination of actions of their main participants, misuse of means of communication, etc. According to the author, the consideration of staff management from the perspective of social interaction is necessary due to development of horizontal and network management, the desire of employees to take an active part in © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1879 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling organizational processes, the need for effective feedback. Conceptual basis for the research The category of interaction is one of the basic methodological principles of research of natural and social phenomena. This is a general scientific concept which, however, characterizes the essence of social relations better than other fundamental concepts. One of the most prominent conceptions of social interaction is the theory of P. Sorokin, according to which the structure of social interaction includes such elements as: subjects of interaction, mutual expectations, purposeful activity, means of interaction. (Sorokin, 1993). T. Parsons has created two models of social action (interaction): voluntarist model of a single action and a conception of cybernetic systems of action, which includes four major interrelated types: social system, culture, personality and organism (the scheme of AGIL) (Parsons, Smelser, 2012). Social interaction as such is seen through the emergence of social reality in line with two sociological paradigms: the paradigm of social defi nitions and the paradigm of social behavior. The fi rst includes symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and ethnomethodology, the second -- behaviorism and exchange theory. These theories predominantly focused on everyday social interaction as a primary element that shapes society, determines social roles of individuals and their impression from interaction, is realized in spiritual unity, symbols, meaningful patterns of behavior of people, in exchange of benefits and rewards between them (Adams et al ., 2001). Social interaction in terms of the integrative approach is the center, combining individual social activities and social structures, as described in the conceptions of E.Giddens, J. Habermas, H. Luhmann, P. Bourdieu and J. Turner (Giddens, 1986, Habermas, 1991, Luhmann, 1995, Bourdieu, 1990, Turner, 1988). According to the principle of duality by E. Giddens, the basis of unity of actions of an individual and the structure is social practice. In the course of social practice social integration (interpersonal and intergroup interaction) and system integration (interaction between social systems in the extended space-time frame) generating social contradiction and social conflict, that cause social change, are formed. (Giddens, 1986). The essence of interaction from the point of view of the integrative approach can also be defined in terms of the possibility of establishing non-vertical modes of social being, refocusing to the subject-subject structure, modeled by interpersonal communication (J. Habermas). “Strategic behavior” aimed at achieving goals within an asymmetric subject-object procedure and pragmatic use of the Other as an object (means) should be replaced by “communicative behavior” (subject-subject), which implies acceptance of the Other as a self-sufficient values (Habermas, 1991 ). Social interaction (communication) and its meaning, by N. Luhmann, is the basis for “autopoiesis”, meaning self-reference and selfreproduction of social systems, such as: functional (the media, politics, science, etc.), the system of face-to- face interactions, and also organizational systems. Each functional system tends to include communications that are specific only for it, but at the same time, to exclude communication of a different kind. Communication as such is the trinity of information, communication and understanding (awareness of difference between information and communication) (Luhmann, 1995). Social interaction in the field theory by P. Bourdieu is defined through the notion of social # 1880 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling space as a systematic intersection of connections uniting subject with similar characteristics. In social space, people interact and group according to similarity of their positions and “habitus” that “is at the same time a system of models: of behavior reproduction and the system of models of perception and evaluation of behavior” (Bourdieu, 1990). Social interaction can also be considered at the micro- and macro-levels by analytic theorizing (J. Turner). At the micro-level, the form, direction and intensity of interaction depends on importance of the four types of motivation, based on the need for security, selfassertion, “factuality” (general agreement, order) and need for resources. The degree of mutual accommodation and cooperation between individuals in interaction directly depends on the amount of common knowledge and its use in signaling and interpretation. Interactions and structure are systemically interrelated. Reproduction of the structure during interaction depends on the extent to which individuals are able to “regionalize” (to order spatial location and mobility), “routinize” (form regular interaction procedures), “standardize” (set norms of interaction), “ritualize” ( create patterns of behavior), and “categorize” (mutually typify each other and their relationships) their joint actions. At the macro-level social interactions cease to be interaction of individuals and manifest themselves in processes of increment (increase in resources), differentiation (formation of sub-groups, subcultures and hierarchies under the influence of competition, exchange and mobilization of power) and integration (coordination, unification and symbolic confrontation between social units) (Turner, 1988). In general, the integrative approach allows analyzing the space of society at all levels, to take into account their interaction and mutual influence. Therefore, approaching any phenomenon of social life as social interaction allows the researcher to conduct its detailed analysis and form the system model, taking into account interests of participants, their activities, social medium and other communication attributes. Definition and classification We believe that social interaction as a means of uniting social elements (subjects, individuals) into the integrity of the structure (organization, society) occurs between these elements in the process of exchange of social actions (functions), for which different means are used (speech, gestures, signs, etc.), and leads to socially significant results. Social interaction is cyclical and reproducible. The whole cycle of social interaction depends on the environment, in which it occurs. Thus, social interaction exists and can only be represented in totality of elements connected by system relations. This totality can be described as follows: interacting entities carry out social activities in a particular environment by available means, which leads to socially meaningful results. Each element of interaction has properties and qualities that distinguish one kind of social interaction from another, which determines the basis for different classifications, for example: • by the types of subjects: interpersonal, between an individual and the group, inter-group, international social interactions; • by the presence of people-mediators: direct and indirect; • by the specifics of action: information (exchange of knowledge messages), material and symbolic (the exchange of money, gifts, documents), physical (exchange of movements); • by type of means: spoken, gestural, written, electronic, etc.; # 1881 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling • by characteristics of the medium: political, economic, professional, organizational, family, etc.; • by length in social time: temporary (episodic) and permanent (long-term); • by direction in social hierarchy: horizontal and vertical. In general, the number, composition and characteristics of subjects of interaction, types of performed activities, selected means of interaction, social results and description of the environment in which social interaction takes place, all of this, in our view, determine the structure of social interaction and can be used to analyze and describe it. The distinctive feature of staff management as a system of social interaction, according to the author, is that the whole set of described elements is in the focus of study. This theoretical and methodological premise allows characterizing personnel management as a category of sociology of management. In this capacity, it has its basic categorical features, which present staff management as: • a type of management activities aimed at developing socially significant properties of employees and workforce as a whole; • a generic term in relation to other definitions, such as “personnel management”, “human resource management”, etc.; • a basis for formation of functional roles, social and economic statuses of organizational subjects, and their personal and work potential; • a system of social interaction with general and special (unique to this system) characteristics. Staff management as a system of social interaction is characterized by the following features: # 1882 # • staff management is an open system, since the medium of interaction affects the entire cycle and its elements; • elements of staff management are separate subsystems and are connected to one another by cause-and-effect relations, the connection of elements of staff management is fixed in rituals; • each of the elements of staff management has its own important characteristics, for example, subjects of interaction are characterized by status; the environment (medium) –by organizational culture, the means are determined by discourse, the results of interaction are indicators of social well-being. • staff management is intersubjective and purpose-rational, each of its subjects is endowed with individual will and pursues important goals ; • staff management as a system of social interaction has different functions: it creates and changes organizational structures, facilitates socialization of employees, it is the mechanism of transmission of cultural experience, it creates social climate, etc. • the system of staff management cannot exist without feedback, through which the results and the degree of achievement of goals of interaction are assessed; • staff management as a system of social interaction is variable and develops according to various scenarios, as its subjects can choose alternative courses of action; • staff management has the property of integrity and displays its properties only in interconnection of all elements of interaction; • it is a self-regulatory system, as the subjects act on the basis of stable patterns Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling of behavior , reflecting during the process of interaction. In this context, we define staff management as the system of directed social interaction of organizational subjects, performing their respective roles and functions, corresponding to their status, performance of which leads to achievement of results significant for this system. Methodology and methods of analysis For the analysis of staff management as a system of social interaction the author formed a methodological approach, based on the propositions of structural-functional and discourse analysis, the integrative approach, as well as the conception of social interaction by P. Sorokin (Fig. 1). The main elements of the analysis, as indicated in the figure, are the actors of staff management (such as top management of an organization, middle-and lowerlevel managers, HR specialists, as well as non-management workers), their activities (functions), means of communication, social Actors Social and Demographic Characters Organizational Status results of interaction, but also a certain social environment (internal-organizational and external). Each element is endowed with its own characteristics, which are researched by various sociological methods. Basing on the proposed approach, the author of the article conducted the empirical research, which included the method of observation, analysis and content analysis of documents, using questionnaires, tests, expert surveys (Arlashkina, 2012). Modeling The conducted research revealed specific characteristics of staff management, including: duality of social relations, manifested in simultaneous existence of pair interaction types (e.g., linear and functional); resource interdependence and role-defined position of subjects of staff management; underestimated status of middle / lower-level managers and HR specialists, high degree of regulation, standardization and ritualization of interaction; specific discourse based to use speech patterns, terms and jargon; importance of feedback, Activities Means Results Goals and Principles Communications Social Welfare Motives Discourse Satisfaction Roles and Functions Ritualization Confidence Feedback Staff Management Problems Regulations, Deviations, Sanctions Values, Organizational Culture SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Fig. 1. The methodological approach to the study of staff management as a system of social interaction # 1883 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling satisfaction and mutual trust for achieving results of social interaction. However, our theorizing and empirical data are insufficient to assess the fruitfulness of the approach to staff management as social interaction. The leaders of organizations, in our opinion, should also get an intelligible management scheme that would allow taking into account the specifics of the type of social interaction, which is staff management, and would be comparable to conventional approaches to making such kinds of schemes. In this connection, we have developed a model of personnel management for practical application in organizations, schematically shown in Fig. 2. This model defines the scope of powers and responsibilities of actors of interaction and establishes the content of their activities in interconnection of goals, functions, principles and methods of staff management. Activities are The Scope of Powers and Responsibilities of Actors carried out with the help of social techniques, practices and procedures. Socially significant results of staff management complete social interaction. The model also considers the impact of internal factors (business strategy, organizational culture) and external environment, which makes the model of personnel management fully completed. Environmental factors (indicated in the diagram on the right) have an impact on the totality of internal elements (inside the dashed line marking the boundaries of the organization). There is a direct connection between the internal organizational elements of the model (indicated by a straight line) and a reverse one (shown in dashed lines). Along the direct connection the higher (superior) element of the patterns of social interaction determines all the positions of a subordinate Business Strategy Organizational Culture Environmental Factors Philosophy of Staff Management Top Managers and Staff Managers Line Managers and Staff Managers Goals of Staff Management Principles of Staff Management Strategies Policies Functions of Staff Management Functions of Staff Management Structure of Staff Management Organizational Structure Staff Managers Social Techniques, Practices and Procedures Organizational Regulations, Instructions and Standards Line Managers and Non-Managerial Specialists Socially Significant Results of Staff Management Fig. 2. The model of social interaction in staff management # 1884 # Distant (Global) Environment (Social Values, Labor Legislation, etc.) Nearest Environment (Stakeholders, Candidates for Vacancies, Trade Unions, Mass Media, Employment Agencies, Educational Organizations, etc.) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling element. A reverse connection between the elements corresponds to systemic nature of staff management and has the practical goal of continuous improvement. Conclusions The developed model of staff management does claim to cover all the characteristics of social interaction , it is only intended to demonstrate a version of the system organization of social management functions, the cycle of exchange of resources at the disposal of organizational subjects and exchange of activities, forming effective relations of trust. It is obvious that emergence of social reality will never allow full covering of the studied form of social interaction—staff management. However, we hope that our proposed analytical approach and social modeling based on it will not only improve efficiency and manageability of organizations, but also draw attention to the possibility of creating comfortable organizational communication, where efficiency, rationality, and innovation will arise organically and naturally. References 1. Vesnin V.R. Practicheskiy menedgment personala: Posobie po kadrovoy rabote. [Practical personnel management: A Handbook for personnel work,] M.:Yurist, 1998, 496 p. 2. Ulrich D., Brockbank W. The HR Value Proposition, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts, 2005, 316 p. 3. Krymov A.A. Vy – upravlyayuschiy personalom. [You are a HR manager.] M.: Vershina, 2009, 320 p. 4. Adams B.N., Sydie R.A. Sociological Theory, Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, 2001, 612 p. 5. Arlashkina O.V. Upravleniye kadrami kak sistema socialnogo vzaimodeystviya: struktura, harakterisrika, regulirovaniye [Staff management as a system of social interaction: structure, characteristics, regulation], LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2012, 220 p. 6. Bourdieu P. The Logic of Practice, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1990, 333 p. 7. Communicative Action: Essays on Jürgen Habermas’s Theory of Communicative Action, Edited by Honneth A., Joas H., MIT Press, Cambridge, 1991, 301 p. 8. Giddens A. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, University of California Press, Berkley, 1986, 402 p. 9. Luhmann N. Social Systems, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1995, 627 p. 10. Parsons T., Smelser N. Economy and Society: A Study in the Integration of Economic and Social Theory, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005 (1956). 327 p. 11. Sorokin P. Sistema sociologii. V 2 t. T. I. Socialnaya analitika: Uchenie o stroenii prosteyshego (rodovogo) socialnogo yavleniya [System of sociology (vol. 1.) Social analysis: theory of construction of a primitive (generic) social phenomenon], Moscow, 1993, 447 p. 12. Turner J.H. A Theory of Social Interaction, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1988, 225 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga V. Arlashkina. Staff Management as Social Interaction: Analysis and Modeling Управление кадрами как социальное взаимодействие: анализ и моделирование О.В. Арлашкина Хакасский государственный университет им. Н.Ф. Катанова Россия 655017, Абакан, пр. Ленина, 90 В статье подробно излагается авторский подход к социальному исследованию управления кадрами в организациях с позиции социального взаимодействия. Краткий обзор социологических концепций позволяет определить сущность социального взаимодействия, его виды и свойства. Автор дает социологическую интерпретацию управления кадрами, представляет и обосновывает методологический подход к анализу управления кадрами как системы социального взаимодействия и перечисляет его специфические характеристики, выявленные эмпирическим путем. На основании проведенного исследования автором разработана организационная модель управления кадрами, схема и описание которой приведены в статье. Данная модель выстроена с учетом выявленных характеристик и возможностей социального взаимодействия, а также традиционных подходов к структурированию организационных подсистем и может быть использована для формирования социально эффективной и устойчивой системы управления кадрами. Ключевые слова: социальное взаимодействие, управление кадрами, система, субъекты взаимодействия, организационная модель. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1887-1895 ~~~ УДК 005.342(571.51) Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (Territorial and Sectoral Aspect) Roman G. Shorokhov* and Irina S. Ferova Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 16.09.2013, received in revised form 22.10.2013, accepted 19.11.2013 The article gives assessment of the level of the innovation and development potential of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The possible reasons of the region’s lagging behind the innovative leaders are considered. SWOT analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the innovation development was performed with determination of the main possible directions of the future sustainable development. Establishment of an innovation and technology cluster, which can be based at the territory of the closed city of Zheleznogorsk, is considered as a tool to achieve sustainable development. Keywords: innovative profile, sustainable development, territory, region. The innovative profile of the Krasnoyarsk Territory formed to the present moment has serious shortcomings. Let us try to identify the main reasons of the region’s lagging behind the acknowledged conventional technological (neighbouring Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions) and innovative (Moscow and St. Petersburg) leaders with general positive tendencies towards growth by the key indicators. The main peculiarity of the human resources potential of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is a relatively low economic activity of the population compared with the innovative regions, which slows down the formation of a proper framework for stimulation and growth of innovations in the region. The current structure of employment is characterized by a low proportion of workers * with higher education understanding innovations, low numbers of human resources involved in science, applied research and development that characterizes the traditional priority of mediumand low-tech industries, which do not require special skills. Working population of the region has the lack of availability of advanced technology. The percent of expenditures on information and communication technologies is very low, and the availability of modern computer hardware, special software, including global networks, has a tendency to decrease. Moreover, in this area, a long-term negative trend is observed, which is associated with a reduced number of students getting higher education, who would be able to form the human resources basis for the innovative development of the region in the future (Gorn, 2012). © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1887 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova. Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk… Similarly, the structure of the technological potential of the region indicates the commitment and historical specialization in the sectors with the low added value: a satisfactory technological structure of the fixed assets is observed only in the traditional mining and processing industries, construction. Nevertheless, high suitability is ensured not by the rate of renewal of fixed assets, but rather by the prevailing proportion of objects with long life and low level of depreciation (Strategiya sotsial’no-ekonomicheskogo.., 2010). In general, the technological structure of the region’s industries is characterized by a low level of renewal of fixed assets and capital/labour ratio than for the innovative regions. Moreover, the region also has a technologically “failing” industries, which, however, form the basis of its infrastructure. Thus, the transport sector has the lowest ratio of return on assets for the compared regions and the highest proportion of fully depreciated facilities. The positive moment about the technological potential of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is high, (relative to the average value for Russia and compared regions) capital productivity in key sectors of the region, which, however, has no significant effect on the overall unsatisfactory technological intensiveness. The structure of the scientific potential of the Territory is featured by low prevalence of applied research and technology developments, as evidenced by low values of the indicators of employment in research and development, staffing with research personnel and innovative activities of organizations. High personal output of the low-numbered research personnel concentrated in research institutes and universities is not properly demanded in practice and does not give a significant economic breakthrough: the region as a whole has low efficiency of research and development activities (hereinafter R&D), expressed in the absolute value of the research and developments being used, patents obtained, and advanced technologies being introduced. Moreover, the region has a low, even relative to the national average, share of expenditures on R&D in the GRP and the share of implementation of innovative products and services in the structure of the shipped products. This is due to a relatively low investment activity (investments share in the gross regional product (hereinafter GRP) is lower than in the innovative regions) and a relatively low proportion of expenditures on the industrial hightech investments in the structure of investments spending (Mindeli, 2010). The carried-out analysis of the components of the innovative profile made it possible to identify the main strengths and weaknesses of the innovation potential of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (Table 1). Table 1. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Innovation Potential of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Strengths Weaknesses 1 2 1. Human Resources Potential • Stable growth of the population employment. • High level of employment of economically active population. • Medium level of economic activity of the population and its slowing-down growth. • Unsatisfactory structure of employment by the level of education. • Fall of the amount of the young people getting higher education in the population of the region. • Negative migration flows. # 1888 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Continuation table 1 2. Technological potential • Satisfactory rate of fixed assets life, their low level • Average rates of renewal of FCA in the whole of wear and tear due to the predominance of industries industry. operating on fixed assets with the long-term use (due • Availability of FCA is provided not by renewal and modernization, but due to their technological to the low level of depreciation). • Trend of sustained growth of rates of the fixed structure (high percentage of fixed assets with the capital assets renewal (hereinafter – FCA). long-term use). • Technological structure of FCA in processing • High extent of wear and the percentage of fully industries (metallurgy) is due to a significant depreciated operating facilities in the transport and communications sectors, with low rates of proportion of facilities with long-term use that provides satisfactory performance indicators, the replacement. return on assets is above the average for Russia. • Low indicators of the capital/labour ratio. • Rates of FCA renewal in construction, processing • Low operating efficiency (outputs) of FCA in the and mining industries is above the average for Russia. transport and communications sectors, in production and distribution of electricity, gas and water. • Overall return on assets of FCA in the region exceeds the average return on assets in Russia and the neighbouring regions of the Siberian Federal District. • Higher rates of growth in return on assets over the rates of increase of capital/labour ratio. 3. Research potential • Sustained growth of innovative activity of organizations in comparison with the average for Russia. • Satisfactory level of applied innovations. • Performance of research staff and the quality of the research (in terms of scientific research results for 1,000 researchers). • Quite steady growth rates of the innovations output (rapid growth of production of innovative products and services over the release of products in the region). • Reduction of the proportion of research personnel (including those with graduate degrees) in the structure of the employed population. • Reduction of the proportion of the number of enterprises that carry out research and development in their overall number. • Changes in the structure of distribution of trained research personnel (increase of the proportion of scientists not performing research). • Low prevalence (scales) of research and reduction of productivity of the basic science. • Low indicators of the amount of innovative products and services in the scale of regional products and in the structure of innovation production of the state. • Extremely low proportion of expenditures on R&D in the GRP, the tendency towards its decrease. • Poor structure of expenditures on R&D: the tendency to “eating up” the funds, the low proportion of expenditures on equipment as the strategic basis of innovation. 4. Investments potential and information and communication technologies • The level of using special software for general purposes and software intended for scientific research is higher than the average for Russia. • Relatively high (compared to other regions) proportion of expenditures on information and communication technologies (hereinafter ICTs) in GRP. • Increase of the index of investments actual volume • Small proportion of expenditures on investments in the GRP. • Low investments indicator per capita. • Lack of the population access to global networks. • Low percentage of personal computers for employees of organizations. • Low level of expenditures on purchase of computers, software, staff training in the structure of expenditures on ICTs Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova. Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk… Fig. 1. Place of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the national innovation performance Abilities to integrate the innovation potential of the region in the implementation of the strategic vectors of modernization of the Russian economy are presented in Table 2. Thus, we can identify a number of trends in innovative development of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. • Development of the innovation infrastructure, including formation of venture capital funds and other financial institutions to invest in innovative projects. This is the main priority, while its solution is of particular importance for the achievement of key strategic objectives for the following reasons: 1) Bridging the gap in the innovation processes, imbalances of supply and demand at the regional level and the possibility of expanding cooperation (integration) of the participants of the innovation system are determined by the level of development and efficiency of the innovation infrastructure; 2) The solution of this problem is to a greater extent within the sphere of authority of the regional government and administration; 3) The rate of development of small and medium entrepreneurship in innovation depends on the development of the innovation infrastructure; • Development of creative thinking of the population , namely, development of rational thinking and creation of quality circles at enterprises; revival of the system of children’s and youth scientific and technical creativity, organization of contests, competitions, contests, etc.; • Formation and development of innovative high-tech clusters and creation of leading sectors of the regional economy on their basis. The formation of new high-tech sectors of economy should be considered together with the trend of economic globalization and the inevitable integration of the regional economy into the international division of labour. Experience of the neighbouring regions’ development shows that small innovative companies are capable of achieving high growth rates in the shortest possible time to get the niches in the global markets of high-tech products; • Strengthening innovation of traditional industries. Non-ferrous metallurgy can be considered as a “locomotive” capable of revitalizing the regional economy in a short period # 1890 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Table 2. Main Trends of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Strategic development trends Obtaining leading positions in the effective production, transportation and use of energy Organizations, events and projects – In order to ensure energy security of Russia, it is planned to build new power generating facilities of federal importance in the Krasnoyarsk Territory: o completion of construction of the Bogychany hydropower station within the framework of the project “Integrated Development of the Lower Angara Area”; o projects of constructing a hydropower stations cascade on the Angara river; o new power capacities of coal-fired thermal power plants in the KATEK area. – Large-scale projects of federal importance on hydrocarbons development in the northern areas of the Krasnoyarsk Territory; establishment of Vankorneft OJSC in 2009 to develop oil fields in the Vankor group of fields; investment projects of Gazprom on development of YurubchenoTokhomskoye, Sobinsko- Teterinskoye and other fields. – Development of engineering and transport infrastructure in the framework of the project “Integrated Development of the Lower Angara Area”, Taimyr and Evenkia. – Establishment of industrial park for the development and implementation of energy-saving technologies ( Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant, Siberian Federal University, Siberian Aerospace University). – Formation of a regional technology platform “Energy, energy efficiency and energy saving” (Siberian Federal University). Development of new nuclear – Production centers in Zheleznogorsk and Zelenogorsk. technologies – Improvement of technologies of storage and extraction of valuable components from spent nuclear fuel. Development of information – Implementation of joint projects of the Institute of Computational technologies on the basis of Modeling, Institute of Biophysics of SB RAS and Siberian Federal University using super computers, global in the field of geographic information technologies on the basis of SibFU open-access information supercomputer. networks in particular. – Formation of a regional technology platform, “Information and Telecommunications, and Space Technology for Innovative Development of Siberia” (Siberian Aerospace University). Development of ground – Manufacture of communication satellites of Information Satellite and space infrastructure Systems named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev, OJSC. to transmit any kinds of – Development and implementation of GLONASS system modules (JSC information “Academician M.F.Reshetnev “Information Satellite Systems”, Siberian Federal University, Siberian Aerospace University, Radio Engineering Plant, OJSC). – Formation of a regional technology platform, “Information and Telecommunications, and Space Technology for Innovative Development of Siberia” (Siberian Aerospace University). Development and manufacture – Production of new drugs within the framework of Kraspharma OJSC of special types of medical modernization. equipment, besides up-to- date – Research performed by the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Siberian means of diagnostics and Federal University, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after medical products Voyno-Yasenetsky. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova. Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk… of time with a synergistic effect of development of new processes, new materials, composites and consumer goods. Thus, determination of the strategic objective of the region’s innovative development can be defined as achievement of long-term international competitiveness of the region through development and dissemination of technical, technological and social innovations aimed at improving the level and quality of life. It is possible to achieve this objective through establishment of an effective regional innovation system, which is defined by the presence of the following components: the ability to generate knowledge and technologies, including the sale of the scientific, educational and innovation potential; developed channels and institutions of technology transfer and commercialization integrating the activities of various participants of innovation processes; high innovative activity of enterprises and organizations in the region; system support of innovative activities by regional and federal authorities. Strategic directions of the formation of the effective regional innovation system should include interrelated target settings for all of its subsystems: 1. The system of scientific and technical education: development of human potential through continuous educational process that combines both the needs of the individual development and the demands of the labour market to the presence of professional skills. 2. The system of knowledge generation: improving the competitiveness of the research and education complex of Siberia and the region, creating the conditions for its reproduction on the basis of integration of research and education activities, use of achievements in fundamental research of the research centers of SB RAS and SB RAMS to provide a high level of education in the universities of the region corresponding to the world-class science and technology. 3. The system of technology generation: support of the sectors of the new economy, in which the potential of knowledge is transformed into commercial products with the high added value, development of small and medium-sized businesses in the innovation sector. 4. System of technological upgrading of enterprises: the formation of regional programmes on creation and development of high-performance, environmentally friendly and resource-saving technologies at the enterprises of the region. 5. Innovative infrastructure: development of favourable conditions to carry out research and development, technology transfer and commercialization of innovations by increasing the number and diversity of the infrastructure facilities, developing the network of interactions between the participants and expanding international cooperation of innovative companies. Today the Krasnoyarsk Territory as a whole has a formalized and structured innovative environment. The regional innovation infrastructure, including the centers of equipment joint use and resource centers at universities, a network of innovation and technology centers at industrial enterprises and academic institutions, the regional business incubator, the regional fund of scientific and technological activities support, is developing rapidly (Shendrik). The cluster of nuclear and space technologies at Zheleznogorsk is being actively developed; it received the support of the federal government. To coordinate all those involved in innovation in the region, the Ministry of Investments and Innovations was established in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Everything mentioned above, provides the region with real prerequisites for development # 1892 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova. Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk… of the innovation and technological enclave/ cluster, in which two starting points may be outlined: - development of a high-tech subcluster, including military, space engineering, communications and nuclear energy sectors (the centers are the cities of Zheleznogorsk and Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk); - formation of a subcluster of innovative services based on ICTs. This subcluster is related to services supply as it should cover all areas of the regional economy. It should include a system of scientific and technical education, a system of knowledge generation and a system of modernization. An important role is played here by development of the institute of engineering centers, establishment of a science park and creation of special economic zones. These specific areas may include, for example, the Angara- Yenisei area of high technologies of subsoil use. The Krasnoyarsk Territory has already got Siberian Federal University, which is a mediator of knowledge and technology between the Russian Academy of Sciences and production companies, being at the same time a key player at the market of practice-oriented personnel with the necessary competencies, the list of which is determined in the process of interaction of the university and potential employers. SibFU is the object and the subject of innovation development programmes of large financial-industrial groups and enterprises operating in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and influencing the development of the global economy. Thus, it is a clear competitive advantage of the region. The formation of this cluster in our opinion should have a step-by-step nature of development: - accumulation of knowledge and innovative developments in various fields; - the effective introductory stage and appropriate decision at the legislative level, which will qualitatively change the real course of the economy of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. - orientation of the leading research and education center of the region (SibFU at the maximum involvement in solving the tasks and implementation of projects of national importance; - integration of research and development, and design and development departments of SibFU and KSC RAS with technology modules of corporations within the framework of the science park; - practical focus of research performed in the region. The main project line that determines the development of the cluster in the nearest future will be the creation of the Krasnoyarsk science park at Siberian Federal University. The proposed practice is based on the experience of world leaders: the main prerequisite for the efficient development and operation of science parks is close links with major universities – the Silicon Valley was formed on the basis of Stanford University, Science Park Highway 128 – on the basis of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the largest science parks in the UK, Germany, France, etc. The transfer of this right (the leading role) to the University provides significant strategic benefits for the region as a whole, primarily due to the system of mandatory elements of the innovative infrastructure already established at SibFU, such as: the center of scientific and technical information, research department, research and education centers, centers of equipment joint use, the center of standardization, metrology and quality management, the center of innovation consulting, the prototyping center and the technology transfer center. However, the transition to a qualitatively new level requires an infrastructure of # 1893 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova. Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk… specialized engineering centers, which is being actively developed by the University on its own. In particular, the projects of applied research centers has been developed in such priority areas for the region as: development of remote sensing technologies for determination of mineral deposits and monitoring of their mining using UAV complexes; mining and processing, processing of natural and technogenic mineral resources; information technology; oil refining catalyst technology; radio engineering; metallurgical industry; power engineering; energy efficiency and energy saving; innovative building technologies. These findings may provide the basis for the formation of the future concept and specialization of the project of the science park in Krasnoyarsk. Creation of the science park at SibFU will give a significant impetus to the development of these centers and at the same time, will lead to the expansion of integration links within and outside the regional economy, the launch of new lines of production, which fits the logic of the execution of the order of the Russian Federation President, Vladimir Putin, from 2006 on innovative development of the regions through the established system of leading universities (Innovatsionnoe razvitie obrazovaniya.., 2006). Therefore, the Krasnoyarsk Territory has the potential for development of the innovative technological enclave or cluster. One of the centers of the cluster may be Zheleznogorsk due to the accumulated scientific and technological potential. The individual elements of the innovative structure already developed in Krasnoyarsk (for example, SibFU) may become additional catalysts for the development of the cluster. References 1. Gorn, A.P. Razvitiye chelovecheskogo potentsiala Krasnoyarskogo kraya [Development of the Human Resources Potential at the Krasnoyarsk Territory]/ A.P. Gorn, O.I. Nemchenko // Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [The Bulletin of the Tomsk State University]. 2012. No. 11. Pp. 69-78. 2. Innovatsionnoe razvitie obrazovaniya – osnova povysheniya konkurentosposobnosti Rossii / Doklad Prezidenta Rossii V.V. Putina na Zasedanii Gosudarstvennogo soveta «O razvitii obrazovaniya v Rossiyskoy Federatsii» [Innovative development of education: the basis of increasing the competitiveness of Russia: the Report of the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, at the Meeting of the State Council “On the development of education in the Russian Federation”] dated March 24, 2006. 3. Mindeli, L.E. Otsenka sostoyaniya i perspektiv razvitiya nauki v Rossii [Assessment of the Condition and Prospects of Science Development in Russia]/ L. E. Mindeli // Energiya: ekonomika, tekhnika, ekologiya [Energy: Economics, Technics and Ecology] 2010. No. 11. Pp. 7-14. 4. Strategiya sotsial’no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Sibiri do 2020 goda: Rasporyazheniye Pravitel’stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 5 iyulya 2010 g. №1120-r. [The strategy of social and economic development of Siberia till 2020: the Order No. 1120-r of the Government of the Russian Federation dated July 5, 2010] 5. Chelovecheskiy kapital Krasnoyarskogo kraya: Forsayt-issledovanie – 2030 / Analiticheskiy Doklad [Human Resources Capital of the Krasnoyarsk Territory: Foresight Study – 2030 / Analytical Report]; edited by V.S. Yefimov. Krasnoyarsk: Siberian Federal University, 2010. 126 p. # 1894 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Roman G. Shorokhov and Irina S. Ferova. Main Strategic Directions of Innovative Development of the Krasnoyarsk… 6. Shendrik, A.V. Perspektivy razvitiya Krasnoyarskogo kraya i regional’naya ekonomicheskaya politika [Prospects of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Development and Regional Economic Politics]/ available at http://geoconflict.narod.ru/2008/may/shendrik.html Основные стратегические направления инновационного развития Красноярского края (пространственно-отраслевой аспект) Р.Г. Шорохов, И.С. Ферова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье оценивается инновационный уровень и потенциал развития Красноярского края. Рассмотрены возможные причины отставания региона от инновационных лидеров, проведен СВОТ-анализ сильных и слабых сторон инновационного развития, определены возможные основные направления дальнейшего устойчивого развития. Предложено создание инновационно-технологического кластера, который может базироваться на территории ЗАТО город Железногорск как инструмента достижения устойчивого развития. Ключевые слова: инновационный профиль, устойчивое развитие, территория, регион. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2013 6) 1896-1904 ~~~ УДК 81’255:004.738.52:005.4 Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology Elena V. Chistova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 24.10.2013, received in revised form 25.11.2013, accepted 26.11.2013 This article describes the algorithm of translating special texts in the field of branding with implementation of Internet-heuristics methods. The author explains the urgency studying the terminology of branding, reveals the notion of Internet-heuristics, describes translation problems and offers her own methods of overcoming these problems. Keywords: Internet-heuristics, information search, translation, terminology, branding. Introduction Branding Terminology International contacts rapidly increasing in the era of intensely accelerating scientific and technological progress have led to the particular relevance of translation of special texts abound with professional vocabulary. Most modern dictionaries have significant drawbacks, in particular, absence of the requested professional vocabulary, lack of data on implementation of the terms or redundancy of translation options. Therefore, during the work with just emerging terminologies it is appropriate to apply the techniques of Internet-heuristics. The objective of this article is to describe the algorithm of translating special texts in the field of branding. The article demonstrates in detail the application of Internet-heuristics methods for the choice of the most adequate equivalent, also in the situation when there are no equivalents in the translation language. As an example of the studied terminology we have chosen the field of branding. With the development of commercialization of technological, industrial and scientific activities, the concept of the brand is particularly important. World practice shows that sales of goods of famous brands are constantly increasing, while non-branded products are losing their positions in the market. This implies that producers need to introduce new tools of differentiation, namely, “unique, emotional, intangible characteristics of the proposed object” [Kashapova, 2012:6]. This effect is achieved by means of branding. Branding is an interdisciplinary field at the joint of science and art, which actively develops and is interesting not only for the economic society, but also for the specialists of other fields of science. Branding provides attraction and possession of customers, employees, investors, shareholders, suppliers, and may become an important factor * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1896 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Chistova. Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology for the stable position of the company at the market and its competitiveness. Russian companies until recently have not been paying enough attention to brand management, and the consumer market in Russia has been constantly lagging behind the similar structures of developed countries. However, in connection with the entry of Russia into the World Trade Organization and increasing competition, the branding issues more and more often become the subject of Russian scientific studies on the economy (E.V. Agamirova, O.N. Alkanova, A.N. Vorobyev, M.O. Makashev, D. Yu. Rodin, S.A. Rybchenko, T.N. Yakubova, et al.). These studies focus on the ambiguous understanding of the notions “brand” and “branding” in the Russian economic society. This is due to the fact that the technology was fully borrowed from American scientists and, accordingly, has been translated from English into Russian. This explains the differences in the differentiation of the key terms. This circumstance makes the problem of translation of special texts on branding especially topical. As an independent scientific discipline with its own highly specialized terminology, branding requires an independent linguistic study devoted to the issues of cross-language harmonization of its terminology. The Problems of Translating the Terms The problems of standardization, unification and translation of the terms have been actively studied by such terminologists as K. Ya. Averbukh, G.G. Babalova, S.I. Vinogradov, S.V. Grinyov-Grinevitch, T.R. Kiyak, I.S. Kudashev, V.M. Leichik, D.S. Lotte, Yu.N. Marchuk, G. Pikht, V.A. Tabanakova, V.A. Tatarinov, S.D. Shelov, etc. It should be also noted that the issues of studying the translation of special vocabulary are extensively covered in translation studies. The most relevant and consistent results in this field are presented in the works by A.V. Achkasov, B.N. Klimzo, L.L. Nelyubin, A.N. Parshin, R.F. Pronina, Ya.I. Retsker, A.D. Schweitzer, etc. However, most of the findings in these studies were obtained on the material of closely related or nonrelated languages, which reduces the universal theoretical status of the chosen language units and methods. Moreover, with the rapid increase of the number of new terms and the lack of regulatory dictionaries due to the low degree of unification of translated terminology and slow thesaurus fixing, the previously developed methods and principles of harmonization of terminologies require revision and improvement. Therefore, the necessity to apply the polyparadigm approach accumulating the achievements of the science of terminology, sociolinguistics, translation studies and IT technologies on the material of several nonrelated languages (English, Russian and Chinese) appears quite clear. To solve this issue we offer to use the methods of Internet-heuristics. Internet-heuristics in Translation Internet-heuristics is defined as “a set of empiric rules that allows specialists in various fields to meet the specific information needs and to find answers to the issues they face by querying the search tools (catalogs, search systems, meta search engines, hidden web databases, etc.)” [Volodin, 2006:208; Pechinskaya, 2011:51-52]. Skills of Internet heuristics include such skills as clarification of information needs, setting of the search problem, identification of possible carriers of information, selection of an optimal search tool, preliminary definition and subsequent clarification of the request, extraction of information from information files (in particular, feeds of search engines), estimate of search results (according to the criteria of reliability, timeliness, completeness # 1897 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Chistova. Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology and accuracy of the information) [Veize, 1985:1; Kharzeeva, 2006:38; Burcet, 2011:2]. The issues of using Internet resources in translation of scientific and technical texts were discussed in detail in the books by B.N. Klimzo “Art of a Technical Translator”, A.B. Krupnik “Searching on the Web: Tutorial”, as well as the article by A.V. Achkasov “Working with Terminology and Computer Assisted Translation Tools”. The authors offer numerous ways to search for standards and patents, unfamiliar abbreviations, schemes and devices of a technological process, geographic names and translation equivalents of terminology absent in standard dictionaries. However, in our opinion, these recommendations are fragmented in these works, i.e. they have a point focus on a particular problem. Our article demonstrates an attempt to compile, systemize and expand the existing recommendations for translators. In this regard, we have developed a special algorithm for translation of special texts by means of Internet-heuristics. This algorithm is peculiar due to the inclusion of the terminological systems diagnostics into the preliminary translation analysis. The reason for this was the idea that when the equivalence is reached in the translation of a special text, it is not a single term we should take as a translation unit, but a whole terminological system as a landmark of translation decisions. Translation of a single term in isolation from this system leads to distortion of the general meaning of an utterance. Recognition of the terminological system as a translation unit helps to determine the boundaries of the equivalence of the term included therein, and provides high quality translation of special texts. Therefore, let us further describe the algorithm of translation of special texts basing on the methods of information search on the Internet. The Algorithm of Translating Special Texts During translation it is necessary: 1. To get familiar with the content of the source text and perform preliminary translation analysis of the special text. 2. Since translation is a recursive process, the next time we turn to the text closer and deeper, we must remember that only 30% of the terms are highly specialized [Averbukh, 2004:93]. Therefore, we can identify key terms among them (not more than 10) and the translation unit – the terminological system these terms belong to. In modern conditions of integration of different scientific fields and interdisciplinary approaches to research, in some cases it is quite difficult to properly determine the appropriate terminological system. To achieve this objective, you can use the Internet-heuristics methods, for example, make a request in Google search engine. To do this, it is necessary to enter the word “glossary” or “thesaurus” and then the name of the supposed field of knowledge, for example, “glossary logistics”. Analysis of the list of terms presented in the found glossary helps to establish whether they meet the request of the translator or require further search. As practice shows, in order to accurately determine the name of the terminological system being searched, one should get familiar with the contents of two or three, and in some cases more glossaries. Among universal bases of glossaries, for example, www.glossary.ru can be noted. It contains the following sections: “Economics”, “Management”, “Property”, “Documents”, “Information”, “Law”, “Planet Earth”, “Life”, “Society”, “Physical Figures”, “Chemical Compounds”. This resource contains definitions of terms and their translations into the Russian and English languages, detailed diagrams of classtype relations of terminological systems. These schemes show a clear structure of the glossary: # 1898 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Chistova. Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology the articles and sub-glossaries it includes, as well as its inclusion into the glossaries of a higher rank. It also presents neighbouring glossaries “contacting” with the main glossary by this or that component. All these options, to a certain extent, help to determine the name of the requested terminological system, if to translate its elements it is necessary to solve certain tasks during the search for an adequate equivalent. In some cases, there are situations when after determining the terminological system it is still impossible to fi nd the translation of a term. Then the requested equivalent should be found in the adjacent terminological systems. For example, when translating the term monolithic brand into the Chinese language one can use the site http://cn.bing.com. After the introduction of the request, the user gets the following information: It sounds as follows: monolithic grain 整块 药柱 monolithic head 整体磁头;整体结构磁头 monolithic joint 填弃后形成的整体式缝 monolithic dam 整体式坝 monolithic mold 整体铸型. This search engine shows similar translations for one of the components of the term. As a consequence, one can assume that one of the versions of the translation of the term monolithic brand will be 整体品牌. 3. To diagnose the terminological system using the symmetry and asymmetry method. A specific feature of the developed algorithm of terminological systems harmonization by identifying asymmetric bases of translation is the fact of introducing the work with terminological systems into the translation process, which was omitted or was not focused on in previous methods of translation of special texts. 4. Having defi ned the translation unit, one can begin to search their equivalents using the found glossaries and thesauruses, the English- Russian dictionaries, English defi nition dictionaries, English dictionaries of synonyms. During the search for the most appropriate equivalent using Internet resources, it is possible to establish the coefficient of frequency of use of a particular variant of a term, for example by means of http://www.google.ru/cse/. When searching for the equivalent for the English term brand value, several translations are found. After putting them through the Google search engine, one can obtain the following quantitative indicators (such kind of text Results: approximately 41, 800 (0.35 sec.) appears under the search box below): стоимость бренда (advertising) 56, 800, 000 позиция бренда (advertising) 4, 900, 000 ценность бренда (marketing) 1, 070, 000 ценность торговой марки (economics) 939, 000 стоимостная оценка бренда (marketing) 38, 900 It is obvious that the most frequently met equivalent is the Russian translation стоимость бренда. The next step will be verification of this term for adequacy by means of its definition. Brand value – The monetary premium that results from having customers who are committed to your brand and willing to pay extra for it. The financial value calculated or determined to be attributable to the brand, apart from other tangible assets. Further let us check differentiation of the terms ценность and стоимость in the Russian language: Ценность – importance, significance, usefulness of something. Стоимость – value of something expressed in money or amount of expenditures on something [Tverdokhlebov 2006:98]. Therefore, under brand value one shall understand the monetary estimate and not the # 1899 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Chistova. Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology importance of the phenomenon itself. Then we can agree with Google frequency analysis and accept the following definition for the term стоимость бренда: “analytical estimate of the price, which can be obtained in the case of selling the brand” [Makashev, 2006:78]. 5. To find a similar text of some Russian author, study it carefully and identify translation equivalents. The analogue text provides the translator with a pattern of the harmonious synthesis of the stylistic devices identified during the analysis [Alekseeva, 2003:259], which form functioning of lexical units and the style of such texts. The following Internet resources most effectively help in finding analogue texts: search systems/ engines, portals, databases, meta search engines, ratings, etc. Internet-heuristics can be effective only if the query is competently formed, therefore we have developed an author’s algorithm for forming an optimal query during translation of terminological systems: • To determine the boundaries of a multicomponent term: brand identity misalignment; • To find equivalents for each component: brand → бренд; identity → идентификация; айдентика; misalignment 1) (in Multitran dictionary) несовпадение с осью; нецентрированность; устойчивое отклонение реального валютного курса от уровня равновесия; 2) (по принципу установления антонима misalignment ← alignment выравнивание → искривление, нарушение); • To code the synonyms, keywords and single-rooted words with the help of Boolean operators: (бренд*) and (систем* идентификация* айдентика идентичность*) and (отклонение* смещение* расхождение* несовпадение*); • To estimate the search results: смещение показателей идентификации бренда, изменение элементов визуальной идентификации бренда; • To even the variative, standard and contextual asymmetry (be means of constructing a logical chain and translation transformations): смещение показателей идентификации бренда → изменение элементов визуальной идентификации бренда → нарушение идентификации бренда (by analogy with: нарушение половой идентификации). 6. To develop one’s own working miniglossary of key terms for further convenience. If one finds a more appropriate translation equivalent during the work, the changes shall be made to the glossary, so it would be easier to maintain the uniformity of terminology during verification of the translated text. 7. To perform a post-translation analysis, correcting punctuation, grammar and syntax errors with the help of: LexTutor http://www.lextutor.ca/ concordancers/concord_e.html VusualThesaurus http://www. visualthesaurus.com/ Grammarly http://www.grammarly.com/ 8. To present the translation for proofreading. Conclusion Therefore, in our work we present the identification mechanism for terminological systems, the method to establish the frequency coefficient the term use, as well as the method to form an optimum query when translating professional vocabulary. These developments allow translators to navigate moreefficiently in the existing terminological flow, timely reflect on all the changes in the professional vocabulary and translate special texts better and faster in shorter periods of time. # 1900 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Chistova. Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology References 1. Burcet J. The second digital divide // Personal website of Josep Burcet, available at http:// www.burcet.net/escenarios/digitaldivide.htm. 2. Averbukh K. Ya. Obshchaya teoriya termina [General Theory of the Term]: Monograph / K. Ya. Averbukh. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University [ISU], 2004. 251 p. 3. Agamirova E.V. Brending v sisteme prodvizheniya uslug predpriyatiy industrii gostepriimstva [Branding in the System of Services Promotion in the Hospitality Industry] / E.V. Agarimova: PhD thesis in Philology. Moscow. 2007. 199 p. 4. Alekseeva I.S. 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Rodin: PhD thesis in Economics. Moscow, 2005. 214 p. 29. Rybchenko S.A. Formirovaniye strategiy brendinga na rossiyskom rynke myasnoy produktsii [Formation of Branding Strategies in the Russian market of Meat Products] / S.A. Rybchenko: PhD thesis in Economics. Ulyanovsk, 2008. 214 p. 30. Tabanakova V.D. Avtorskiy termin: znayu, interpretiruyu, perevozhu [Author’s Term: I know, I interpret, I translate] / V.D. Tabanakova: monograph. Tyumen: Publishing house of Tyumen State University, 2013. 208 p. 31. Tatarinov V.A. Teoriya terminovedeniya. Teoriya termina: istoriya i sovremennoye sostoyanie [Theory of Terminology Science. Theory of the Term: History and Current State] / V.A. Tatarinov. Moscow : Moskovskiy litsey, 1996. 311 p. 32. Tverdokhlebov G.A. Dialektika rynochnogo ravnovesiya [Dialectics of Market Balance] // Ekonomika i finansy. Fond pravovykh issledovniy [Economics and Finances. Fund of Legal Research] No. 20, 2006, available at http://www.tverd4.narod.ru/st03.html. 33. Kharzeeva S.E., Kutuzova G.I., Lushnikova E.I. Smyslovoy analiz i modelirovanie nauchnogo teksta: obrazovatel’nyye aspekty [Semantic Analysis and Modeling of the Scientific Text: Educational Aspects] / S.E. Kharzeeva // Mir russkogo slova, 2006. No. 1. Pp. 37–42. 34. Schweitzer A.D. Perevod i lingvistika [Translation and Linguistics] / A.D. Schweitzer. Moscow, 1973. 35. Shelov S.D. Ob iyerarkhii v grafovykh strukturakh: opyt primeneniya k lingvisticheskim zadacham [On Hierarchy of Graph Structures: Experience of Using for Linguistic Problems] / S.D. Shelov // Nauchno-tekhnicheskaya informatsiya. Series 2, 2002. No. 2. Pp. 1–7. 36. Yakubova T.N. Brending kak faktor formirovaniya korporativnykh konkurentnykh preimushchestv (zarubezhnyy opyt i rossiyskaya spetsifika) [Branding as a Factor in the Formation of Corporate Competitive Advantages (Foreign Experience and Russian Specifics)] / Т.N. Yakubova: Author’s Abstract of PhD thesis in Economics. Moscоw, 2009. 145 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena V. Chistova. Internet-Heuristics in Translation of Branding Terminology Интернет-эвристика в переводе терминологии брендинга Е.В. Чистова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В данной статье описывается алгоритм перевода специальных текстов в области брендинга с применением методов интернет-эвристики. Автор объясняет актуальность исследования терминологии брендинга, раскрывает понятие интернет-эвристики, перечисляет переводческие проблемы и предлагает собственные способы и приемы их преодоления. Ключевые слова: интернет-эвристика, информационный поиск, перевод, терминология, брендинг. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2013 6) 1905-1912 ~~~ УДК 398(517.1) Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva Olga M. Khomushku* Tuva State University 36 Lenin Str., Kyzyl, 667000 Russia Received 03.12.2013, received in revised form 11.12.2013, accepted 19.12.2013 In the present article we supposed to show the pecularities of ethnoconfessional processes in Tuva, the influence of religious traditions on the spiritual culture of the Tuvan people, the evolution of ideological orientations based on the data of the sociological research which has been carried out by the authoress for a number of years and also the theoretical generalization of the obtained empiric material. Keywords: ethnoconfessional processes, national culture, religious world view, Buddhism, shamanism, ethnoconfessional syncretism in Tuva. At present the process of restoration of traditional forms of the national culture is taking place. The connection of the religious traditions with the ethnos is a historically conditioned phenomena. That’s why the main methodological reference-point in studying problems on the confessional-ethnic level is the analysis of the correlation of religion and culture as today most of the confessions have got an ethnically expressed character – a result of a longterm interaction of the confessional specificity with the ethnic specific character of the people with whom they turned to be historically connected. Religions traditions of the Tuvans were formed on the basis of ancient beliefs which had existed before shamanism and lamaism came into existence. Those were ancient cults such a totemism, fetishism, cults of local masters etc. * Buddhism (in the form of lamaism) started percolating in Tuva by XIII century, Buddhist monuments dating from that time were revealed by archeologists. But later Buddhism lost its initial influence and a new wave of its dissemination took place in XVII century. Thus, in Tuva there was established a certain religious syncretic system which included a complex of religious views, traditions and institutions. These religious elements, first of all traditions and customs, appeared as a result of a certain vital activity of the people, an expression of their inner requirements as well as a way of consolidating and passing ethnocultural information to following generations, they existed independently enough at the same time forming a single social cultural system. The Republic of Tuva occupies a special place among other regions of Russia due to its © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1905 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva specific historical development – it became a part of the USSR much later than the others (in 1921-1944 it was an independent state – the Tuva People’s Republic – TPR). It was reflectad in a number of legislative documents describing the dynamics of the state-religious relations in Tuva. The constitutions of the Tuva People’s Republic (for the period of its existence there were adopted 5 constitutions) as legal acts of the highest order settled the basic principles of socialeconomic and political system, determined trends of its development. It equally applies to directions in the field of liberty of concienc’e and religion. But even the first legal papers testified the duplicity of relations between religious organizations and the state. On the one hand there was declaration of rights and lirties, on the other there existed a possibility of their polysemantic interpretation, therefore a deviation from them. Besides as the latest investigations of the problem proved a lot of the legislative directions had no social guarantees. So the law adopted by Malyi Khural of TPR in 1928 “About Separation of Religion from State” confirmed the liberty of religion established by the TPR Constitution (Article 1), the performance of religious rites. The annolation to the article determined the responsibility to the law for “public worship violation” as a result of some ruffianly actions. At the same time in the present legislative statement the activities of religious organazations were already regulated rather hard:”The Government, permitting to learn Buddhist texts, demands of people in every separate case to solicit a special permission for it, to report on the reasons influencing the wich”( Central State….). If in 1929, there were officially 25 Buddhist Temples in Tuvawith a total of 4813 practicing Lamas as well as 487 Shamans, by 1937 there were only 5 temples left with a total of 67 Lamas. Furthermore, the number of Shamans had decreased to all but 30. By the beginning of the 40s all Buddhist monasteries in Tuva had been completely destroyed. A type of religious awakening could be recognized in 1957-1958 in the city of Chadan with the opening of a “prayer yurt”, where for a time served the wellknownTuvan Lama KhomushkuKenden. In 1959 by decision of the party, the prayer yurt was closed. The entry of Tuva into the USSR in 1944 fixed leislative norms, adjusting relations between religious organizations and the state on the basis of the corresponding Soviet legal documents. In reality it applied mainly to the only operating Russian Orthodox Church in Kyzyl, not numorous Protestant communities and settlements of old believers as the shamanist-lamaist institution of ministers of religion undergone repressions in the thirties was practically absent. The unification of Tuva with the Soviet Union in 1944 identified the confession of the various religious groups within the Republic. Informational records regarding the activities of the religious organizations helped to categorize them as members of one of the following religious movements: Orthodox Christianity, The Union of Evangelical Christian Baptists, Old Believers, Buddhism and Shamanism. In 1981,12 Lama and 24 Shamans carried out religious services. By 1984 these numbers had changed to 11 Lamas and 38 Shamans. The democratic reorganization of the country starting in the 1990s, enabled the renaissance of earlier existing spiritual institutions. In 1990, the Ministry of Justice registered the first Buddhist community. Statistics from the 18thof August 2011 show that religious organizations registered by the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Tuva (further known as “administration”) number 44. These religious organizations adhere to the following religious confessions: # 1906 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva Buddhism 18 organizations Shamanism 8 organizations Evangelical Christians (Pentecostals) 5 organizations Russian Orthodox Church 4 organizations Evangelical Christian-Baptists 3 organizations Evangelical Christians 2 organizations Church of the whole Gospel 1 organization Seventh Day Adventists 1 organization Jehovah’s Witnesses 1 organization Old Believers 1 organization Historically the Gelukpen school of Tibetan Lamaism was widely spread in Tuva. Although we need to make a reservation here as the traditional Gelukpa school presupposes a rather ramified system monastic ethics including side by side with other requirements the vow of celibacy. For the Tuvan people whose number is less than three hundred thousand people (according to the information of the Statistical Board of 2009 the population in Tuva was 313 940 people), it creates certain problems because it may lead to the reduction of the population. That’s why in Tuva a peculiar form of the Gelukpa school traditions is being formed which providesfor a presence of married lamas (and the vow “Don’t fornicate” is understood as the vow of loyalty to the companion). Today in Tuva preference is also given to the Gelukpa traditions with regard for all the national peculiarities of the region. Here we can note two mutually complementary tendencies of the development of Buddhism in Tuva: 1. spreading of the outward ritual sphere of Buddhism (reading of sutras, healing ceremonies, fixing of favourable and unfavourable days, ceremonies of family and every day life cycle etc), 2. is more connected with missionary activities of Tibetan lamas (there are practicing and teaching lamas from Tibet in Tuva) as well as with the activity of the spiritual representative of Dalay-Lama in Russia – geshe Dzhampa Tinley, whose lectures always gather a numorous audiens (about 30 % of the people present is Russian speaking). Cristianity is represented in Tuva by the following confessions: – Russian Orthodox Church which has its rather long history. The first Orthodox church in Tuva was built in 1910 in Turan and the second one in 1914 in Kyzyl. The Turan church was pulled down in 1961 and it was restored only in 1996. The Kyzyl church remained and is still functioning today (led by Father Superior Vyacheslav). The number of those who attend the Russian Orthodox Church is more or less stable based upon family spiritual traditions. An important event for Orthodox believers was the visit by His Holiness the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Kirill, who visited the republic on the first ever Patriarchal visit on the 31st of August 2011 and blessed the new Resurrection Cathedral. During his visit, the Patriarch visited with the head of the Tuvan Buddhists, the Kamby-Lama of the Republic of Tuva Tenzin Tsultim and proposed the creation of a Buddhist – Orthodox interreligious council. – The community of old believers in Kyzyl was registered in 1991 though the old believers spreading areas are more extensive and have got their own history, there were kept entire settlements of old believers. Here the cult activity is limited mainly to ceremonial and every day life sphere. – Religious organizations of Protestant orientation, in 1997 there were registered 9 such groups by the Ministry of Justice of the republic. The problem of unfluence of Protestant missionaries (Russian and foreign) remains very critical. Here the contingent of believers is remaned not only among Russian speaking # 1907 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva people but also among the Tuvans. Thus, the Tuvan Christian Church of evangelic religion “Sum-Bok-Ym” organized in May, 1995 conducts regular devine services which are regularly attended by more than 100 people, among them 99 % is Tuvans, about 70 % is young and middleaged people. The present day religious situation in Tuva is determined by polycofessionalism characterized by 2 tendencies: as revival and development of the traditional religions (in Tuva these are shamanism, Buddhism and Russian Orthodox, popular mainly among Russian inhabitants); by growing influence of Protestant groups. The reasons for the second tendency lie, fi rst of all, in the policy of previous years when Buddhist cult structures were practically all destroyed, the system of Buddhist teaching was not conducted for a long time; secondly, fi nancial problems acquire especial significance when a low level of well-being of fi nansial support. At the same time many Protestant groups can be fi naced from foreign religious organizations, can get humanitarian aid, different gifts, money for educating their followers etc. Although we may notice the fi rst steps done inthis direction, thus representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church, Dkharma Centre and Ministry of Health of Tuva jointly reached an agreement about possibilities to invite ministers of religion to medical-preventive institutions and hospitals (by requests of sick people) observing the Low “About the Liberty of Conscience” of the Tuva Republic (Article 16, point 3). While researching the modern state of religious believes of the Tuvans, characteristics of the religious evolution it’s necessary to consider a series of aims: firstly, reseaching of modern believers – shamanists, Buddhists and degree of conservation of traditional confessional propositions in their ideological purposes, of activities of ministers of religion, their ideology and its evolution under modern condition; secondly, clearing up of factors of regious complex rendering, especially the specificity of the Tuvan people’s every day life which gives a certain originality to all the confessional directions. While investigating the contemporary state of religiousness of the population in Tuva we used different sources: first of all, materials from the Manuscript Fund of the Tuvan Research Institute of Langage, Literature and History; secondly, the results of field research work, carried out in different years (1985-2006). Only the whole complex of the mutually complementary materials gives us an opportunity to ansiver more or less objectively and fully the question about the character of modern religiousness. As materials we used the data of a number of sociological research work carried out in a few regions of Tuva, the objects of the research were representatives of different sections of the population – schoolchildren, office, professional, industrial and agricultural workes ets. We’d like to make a reservation at once – the estimation of validity of the present reseach turns difficult by the fact that each research work got an independent character although in all the researches we used a common, specially worked out questionnaire and methodics of conducting. At the same time they have got not only an illustrative meaning but not being representative for a general totality they let us give rather rightful and well-founded descriptions and estimation of the religious phenomenon formed in Tuva today. In all the researches we undertook the following tasks: – revealing of examined people’s attitude to religion, orientations to concrete confessional directions; – determining of the degree of showing religiousness among the examined people; # 1908 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva – establishing of objective and subjective factors that influence the attitude to religion by different group of people. The aim of our research work was to study the degree of religiousness and peculiarities of forming ideological orientations of the examined people. The common indication of religious conscionusness is religious belief. The latter includes the knowledge and acceptance of certain ideas, notions as veritable and of confidence in objective existence of creatures, qualities, connections that compose an objective meaning of religions images. But in reality existing religions conciousness as a rule, wanders away from the model. That’s why it beccomes impotant to characterize religionsness as “quality of an individual or a group which shows in believing and worshiping the supernatural on the level of conciousness as well as in activities (characteristic feature – religions belief, knowledgee and acceptance as true religions ideals, notions and dogmas” (Rytkevich, 1994). The observations conducted among the Tuvan population of the republic show that the idea of the supernatural, sacred, divine origin has got a rather diffused, non-shaped character Apparently thre are some reasons that affected it. First of all, early shamanestic and ancient notions of the early times got mixed up with later features of lamaist ideas (especially at present). It’s not coincidence that the term “Tuvan Buddhism” is more often used to characterize the contemporary religious complex in Tuva. Today we can say that the image of the supernatural is rather obscure and discrepant. Thus, according to one of the informants “for every Tuvan there always exists the idol, some kind of a Supreme ruler”. According to our observations the image of the supernatural of modern Tuvan contains shamanist and lamaist features, and what is more, depending on the age in the conciousness of a Tuvan there fixes aspiration for creating the image from anthropomorphaus features adding some other characteristics – eternity, ubiquitousness. It’s inherent in elderly Tuvans of about fifty-sixty years old. The age gradation in forming the imag of the supernatural is seemingly connected with the fact that the generation (people of fifty-sixty) was brought up (that is, the time of their becoming a personality, the formation of their world outlook) at the time when the state policy towards religion and church was especially tough – the thirties when khuree were closed and destroyed, ministers of religion were suject to repressions. A younger generation – at the age of thirty-fortygrew up, under more loyal conditions when there was already no such a universal interdiction, that’s why there increased a possibility of their learning some traditional religious ideas. Besides modern Tuvan kept in their conciousness the image of the female idol – “dariygi”. Though the term is of a lamaist origin, it descended from the cult of Mother – Goddess, subsequenly personified through its separate features into an independent divine image. As we have already noted earlier in the religious conciousness of the Tuvan a big place is also occupied by a notion about human soul. Today the majority of the Tuvans hasn’t got an accurate notion about soul, in their conciousness (in great bulk) there is no differentiation between the ideas of “tyn”, “sagysh”, “sunezin” – different designations of the state of soul. People of the elder generation – elder than sixty can give a rather exact characteristic of these ideas whereas putting the rest has mainly got a notion about “sunezin”, putting the meaning of the human spiritual substance into it. Thus we can say that the ideas of the supernatural in ordinary conciousness of the Tuvan have gradually evolved. At first it happened under the influence of lamaistic views, # 1909 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva later on due to official ideological interdictions, impossibility torender religionus views openly. Notions about the supernatural were washed away, only the most common ideas remained and image of the supernatural was supplemented with some features of the Cristian dogma. Thus a considerable part of the inquested incline to the fact that “God is the Supreme spiritual source” although the distribution of the answers fluctuates depending on the national affiliation. Besides, in different confessions it has also got different modifications, thus in Buddhism the emphasis is laid mostly on the idea of moral purification, a better or a worse regeneration depending on the person’s deeds in this life. None the less ideas about supernatural powers, supreme origin (Buddha, Boddkhisattva etc) are present in Buddhusm, althoudh in the religious views of the Tuvans the idea of God as a central figure hasn’t been developed despite the fact that in the Tuvan language there is a world that in modern ordinary conciousness coinsides with the Russian term of God – “burkhan”. But it’s rather the idol whose qualities are the hypostization of natural forces than a personified being. It’s interesting that 10,34 % of Russian considers that,”God is an enlidhtened being which gives a way to salvation”. This is absolutely nontypical for the ideological orientation of Orthodoxy (58 % of the inquested Russian reckon themselves in it). It sooner tells about the influence of the Tuvan ethnoconfessional culture. In order to get sociological characteristics of the evolutionary process of religious ideas taking place in ordinary conciousness it’s necessary to have estimating criteria by which it’s possible to judge the level of religious (or nonreligious) conviction of an individual, of social groups and of the population as a whole. It’s impossible to analyse the modern state of religiousness in Tuva and try to follow the evolution of religious images , ideas in the whole system of religious complex without taking into account all the changes that have happened lately. Pcularities of the way of living, peripeteias of the historical fortune of the nation tell on the character of religiousness. The lack of special cult structures, absence of ministers of religious worship (with the exception of those who had some other status, that is, who perfomed some religious ceremonies mainly connectaims), the whole atmosphere of biased treatment of everything that was somehow connected with any display of religiousness couldn’t but influenced the picture of the religious complex as a whole. Thus modern religious conciousness on the whole, especially its ordinary level, is gradually evolving. If earlier any person’s whole life was practically penetrated by certain religious ideas (including the picture of the universe and different rituals, ceremonies), structly speaking, religion always appeared as means of regulating, reserving appropriate dispositions, traditions, customs in which lies its cultural and histrical role, today we can see a tendency to include into the present system secular elements. And the interlacing of sacred and secular in religious conciousness gives a complex systems of views and notions. That’s why it’s one of the main tasks to analyse all the changes which were provoked by modern social transformation (transition to settled way of life, industrialization, urbanization), as well as the main trndencies of evolution of modern religious consciousness, especially on the ordinary level. The research carried out in 1996 revealed a certain dynamics in the state of religiousness. To compare the data we made use of the same typology as in the previous research work. And if earlier only 10 % of the inquested people attributed themselves to believers, in the research of 1996 more than a half of the inquested # 1910 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva (urban population) considered themselves to be believers. Such a self-appraisal should also be corrected by a number of other indices which will let us analyse more strictly the degree of religiousness of the people. These can be quatitative (attendance of cult places, performance of rituals) as well as qualitative indices (ideological aims and orientations). Thus we asked the question: “What in your opinion influences a person (choose out of the listed below, it’s possible to give several variants of ansivers)?” It’s interesting that the confessional belonging didn’t exert much influence on the distribution of the ansivers. Only 27,91 % of the Buddhists note the influence of karma (25,40 % of the Christians think the some way), at the same time the Christians marked such factors as spoiling and bewitching whereas the shamanists accentuated biofild and magic. It’s possible that all these things testify to new religious searchings. It’s not accidental that 44,44 % of the Christians ansive-red the question “Can soul move into a new body after man’s death?” affirmatively (the Buddists – 48,84 %). Thus summing up everithing aforesaid we can make certain conclusions. As a result of the evolution of the religious complex in Tuva one can observe certain changes in the religious conciousness of believers which are are determined by the new social, economic and political conditions. Some elements of hte religious complex (especially behaviour) are activiely interacting with different secular elements and forms of the culture. Therefore, one can understand pecularities of the transformation of this or that irrational education only in the context of the present cultur. Secular elements extend the spectrum of influence of religious and magic ideas on the people’s conciousness. Thanks to them there rises the activity of ideological, social, political and other functions of the religious system. One can also notice some efforts to put not a mystic but rational content into the major religious ideas and notions, to interpret them from the point of view of common sens, personal life experience. Thus, at present we can talk about a many-variant picture of the religious state in Tuva though it’s rather complicated to forecast further prospects as the processes are mainly of unpredictable character. We can nark out as an example of some tendencies of the religious evolution in Tuva: washing away the traditional religiousness, we can talk about some elements of modernization in confessional directions because today animation of religious activities involves modifications in dogma and cult according to the modern life conditions. References 1. Central State Archives of the Tuva Republic. F. 92. Op. 1. Ed. kr. 352. p. 14. 2. Rytkevich E.D. Religiosnost russkogo naseleniya: sdvigi i tendentzii//Massovoye soznanie i massovyie deystviya. M.,1994, p. 46-67. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Khomushku. Contemporary Problems of Ethnoconfessional Syncretism in Tuva Современные проблемы этноконфессионального синкретизма в Тыве О.М. Хомучку Тувинский государственный университет Россия 667000, Кызыл, ул. Ленина, 36 В данной статье мы предлагаем рассмотреть особенности этноконфессиональных процессов в Тыве, влияние религиозных традиций на духовную культуру тувинцев, эволюцию идеологических ориентаций, основанных на данных социологических исследований, которые проводились автором в течение нескольких лет, а также теоретическую генерализацию полученных эмпирических данных. Ключевые слова: этноконфессиональные процессы, национальная культура, религиозное мировоззрение, буддизм, шаманизм, этноконфессиональный синкретизм в республике Тыва.