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87.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №4 2014

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (4)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет:
академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов
академик РАН И.И. Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л. Миронов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л. Пашков
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Шайдуров
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Boris I. Khasan
Modern Conflictology: Between Fear of Conflict and Love to
Conflict
– 562 –
Victor E. Pahalyan
Adult Education in the Context of Constructive Conflict
Theory
– 566 –
Gershons Breslavs
Ethnic Tolerance Scale Development: Renovation of Integrated
Approach
– 579 –
Larisa A. Novopashina and Boris I. Khasan
Conflict Situation and its Manifestation in Assessment of Quality
of Life
– 597 –
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Natalia V. Gorlova
Goal Attitudes of Schools and Psychological Readiness Towards
Developmental Conflict Resolution in Youth as the Educational
Result
– 609 –
Managing Editor
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences
Natalia P. Koptseva
Boris I. Khasan and Elena Iu. Fedorenko
Conflicts, Negotiations and Risks in Educational Relationships
– 619 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 23.04.2014 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 15,0.
Уч.-изд. л. 14,5. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 862.
Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
David Anderson – Professor, The University
of Aberdeen, Scotland
Gershons Breslavs – International Institute
of Applied Psychology, Latvia
Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles
University in Prague
Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau
University, Germany
Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor,
Novgorod State University
Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk
State Linguistic University
Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal
University
Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net,
LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor,
Department of Strategic and Regional
Studies, University of Jammu
Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate
Professor, Siberian Federal University
Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor,
Siberian Federal University
Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State
Pedagogical University named after
V.P. Astafev
Nicolay
Parfentyev
–
Professor,
Corresponding Member of the Peter
the Great Academy of Sciences and
Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian
Federation, South Ural State University
Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of
the Composers of Russia, Corresponding
Member of the Peter the Great Academy
of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts
Worker of the Russian Federation,
South Ural State University
Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island
University, USA
Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Irina S. Vataschak
Conflicts of professional Development in Teaching Activities:
Natural and Artificial
– 628 –
Julia S. Ket and Tatiana I. Yustus
Visualization Techniques in Negotiation Process
– 639 –
Antonina I. Dudareva
Mediation in Educational Dynamics
– 647 –
Sergey D. Krasnousov
Conflict- Generating Factors of Corrupt Behavior
– 654 –
Tatiana B. Popelnitskaya
Conflict-Generating Factors of Weak Organizational Culture
– 664 –
Dina N. Aslamazishvili and Nikolay A. Ignatov
Symbols Support of Culture Transitions
– 676 –
Elena Yu. Plekhova
Closings in Russian Phone-in Programmes: a Comparison with
Ordinary Telephone Conversations
– 692 –
Vasil Penchev
Is Mass at Rest One and the Same? A Philosophical Comment:
on the Quantum Information Theory of Mass in General
Relativity and the Standard Model
– 704 –
Leonid S. Chernov
Approaching an Alien
– 721 –
Jury F. Abramov and Olga V. Bondarenko
Computational Experiment: Philosophical and Methodological
Foundations of the Cognition of the Complex Systems
– 738 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian
Federal University
Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of
Tromso – The Arctic University of
Norway
Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University of Economics
Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute
of Philosophy RAS, Moscow
Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of
Philosophy and Law of SB RAS
Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member
RAS, Institute of Economics and
Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City
Pedagogical University
Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International
Academy, Riga, Latvia
Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 562-565
~~~
УДК 316.480
Modern Conflictology: Between Fear
of Conflict and Love to Conflict
Boris I. Khasan*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 12.12.2013, received in revised form 21.02.2014, accepted 12.03.2014
The article presents the current state of conflict as a problem and work experience concerning past,
today’s and future conflict situations. The author describes trends in the development of conflictological
ideas and risks of possible extremes evolving during the hasty application of technologies. It was
proposed to stick to the constructive approach, according to which the most important technological
component of practical work with the conflict is retaining a resolved contradiction with the help of
conflict structure (form).
Keywords: conflict, conflict phobia, love to conflict (conflict philia), conflict structure – form,
contradictions, mediation, negotiations.
And yet not a nail was invented not
for the crucifi xion, but for the sake of
less practical things.
Stanislaw Jerzy Lec
For more than seventy years ago, Margaret
Follett, the British expert on organizational
psychology, had an attempt to change radically
the attitude of researchers to conflict. She offered
to look at the conflict as a phenomenon, which
possesses not only unambiguously negative
features, but characteristic positive functions
as well. This approximated the end of “conflict
phobia” era. But until the beginning of the 1990s,
this tradition was nonetheless dominant. Fear of
conflict, like any other fear, is a bad counselor.
And if one relies on it as a main basis for conflict
practice, it is quite clear why we got what we got.
For many centuries of the so-called cultural life
*
we have still had a demonstration of force or its
application as the most convincing argument in
any dispute. All the art of conflict is yet reduced to
the ability to defeat the enemy. The fact that every
victory over another person turns out to be not
a conflict resolution, but rather its reproduction,
is not new anymore. Without any doubt, the
idea proposed by Margaret Follett was to draw
researchers and practicing psychologists near
to a completely new view on the problem – the
conflict was to be studied not as a phenomenon
itself, but as a shell for some specific content.
However, there was some move down in
the other direction. A new synthetic area of
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: khbi@ippd.ru
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Boris I. Khasan. Modern Conflictology: Between Fear of Conflict and Love to Conflict
knowledge began to form actively and that is it –
conflictology [see, for example: Antsupov et.al.].
Since I do not have anything against such
attempts at cooperation (especially as for quite
a long time I myself have pointed out that
the conflict understanding requires manifold
approach (cf. Aleshina)), now I should note that
the tendency was aimed at technologizing the very
process of conflict. Works devoted to negotiating
and mediation gained high popularity. Therapy
of conflict experiences gained its garland with
organizational forms of interaction between
conflicting parties. And it is evident that practical
psychology will be able to be closely contacted
with the procedural law. And it would be great
if there was some consistency in this way. But I
doubt that conflictology will develop unlike the
law, which is for the most part self-concentrated,
rather than concentrated on resolution of
contradictions in legal form.
Conflict is only a form, in which we can
present a contradiction for ourselves to try
to resolve it. Of course it is important not to
forget that any form to work properly must be
specifically organized. We are still taking shell
for its content and thus, it should be noted, have
not learned to treat this form, i.e. organize and
interpret reasonably. It might have been though
that we have not learned it yet, because do
not make difference between the form and its
content. Hence there can appear many illusions,
the most common of which is the illusion of the
possible victory of one person over another. This
illusion is closely related to the most resistant
human misconception that the improvement of
artillery equipment is a synonym for enhancing
human power. Or, in other words, the strong
one is one who is armed. Therefore, the attitude
to conflicts from the time of M. Follett has
developed in the form of overcoming fear
through mastery of conflict techniques. It was
assumed that application of psycho-techniques
for behavior in interpersonal (intergroup, etc.)
conflicts is the way of mastering the form, and
with its help also the content, which is concealed
in this form.
In my opinion, it was a necessary period
in overcoming conflict phobia. Indeed, it is
important, instead of avoiding conflicts, to try to
deal them seriously, to get involved in this matter.
But not to be involved in conflict as it is. This is
unnecessary, in my opinion. The whole world has
been selflessly “playing” for centuries the war
with the hope of winning.
No, I mean another interest. It was important
to try to put the conflict on the object stage, to
see not only its own construction, but what is
presented to us through it as if through a special
tool.
I must say that is not so easy to grasp this
very function of the conflict, the formal and
instrumental one. Controversy is carefully
hidden in a package of the conflict. The package,
in turn, looks like either very scary or very
attractive, and more often it combines both
these qualities. Surprisingly, nobody wonders at
human curiosity to the atrocities, disasters and
everything that can terrify. In this connection, no
matter how critically we perceive psychoanalysis,
Freud and his followers made the most fruitful
attempts to understand this human paradox. But
does psychoanalysis even in its most compelling
reasoning show us an acceptable way? [See a
letter from Freud to Einstein “Why War?”]. And
this topic is far from exhaustion.
We are dealing with fairly obvious now
ambivalence, which, when taken to extremes has
the most astonishing range: from conflict phobia
to conflict philia, from panic feat of conflict
resulting in the avoidance, to fervent curiosity
(cf., for example, all kinds of martial arts, war
games, detective genre, thrillers, etc.).
Between these extremes lies (as always, the
truth is in the middle), noticed by many, but not
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Boris I. Khasan. Modern Conflictology: Between Fear of Conflict and Love to Conflict
yet sufficiently self-reflected, a relatively new
strategy, which is to use a form of conflict to retain
contradictions in the resolved form. This form
should provide search and testing of adequate
for this contradiction means for its resolving
(for the contradiction and not for a conflict form
representing it). So, for example, negotiations
are fruitful only when they are not a form of
struggle disguised as a temporary consent, but
when they allow revealing with the help of their
participants genuine contradictions that led to
the collision, or those that can cause collisions,
if not promptly detected and minimized for joint
activities.
I do not want to detract from the need to
negotiate according to certain rules, the need to
develop technologies and techniques of mediation
and arbitration, but the most important thing is that
we now call the conflict competence, the ability to
understand how in the negotiation process these
contradictions that during this process might
and should be resolved are presented. From this
perspective, any effective negotiation process
is a joint research work of its members. And
this work may have, I think, should have some
educating outcomes that are connected with
finding by participants of real contradictions of
their life and activities.
But what this means for researchers and
practitioners? First of all, the fundamental focus
not on the elimination of confl ict, but its
retention as a subject of study. Both in creating
research position and in the development of
negotiation technologies there can be (should
be) formed an independent stage with its
instrumentalization, in which the conflict form
is defi ned as a material for research for finding
and special reforming of a contradiction,
represented in this confl ict. To do this, fi rst
of all, is necessary to get rid of the conflict’s
emotional evaluation or at least temporarily
postpone (psychologically) such evaluation,
which is either negative (as dangerous) or
positive (as desirable), and update the rational
component of this conflict form itself..
In other words, it is possible (obligatory)
to ask a question to the past, actual or future
conflict – what for?
Such an approach to the study of the nature
of the conflict (specific conflict form) implies
a technical attitude to the conflict as a certain
construction, which is designed for something,
which should reveal some contradiction, make it
visible and therefore manageable. Both negative
as well as positive attitude to the conflict, formed
in advance to it, as any a priori modality, prevents
qualitative definition of such a structure.
In the history of culture it can be found
pretty many similar examples of such research
and constructive work, e.g. analysis of the
products of art (works of art), which, from our
point of view, are nothing but conflict structures,
in which it is represented an essential controversy
at the expense of artistic form (cf. Vygotsky “...
the social technique of feelings”).
– What for?
– To get a possibility of productive
experience.
If we follow this position, it will be important
to distinguish between spontaneous and specially
arranged conflicts; the latter include the technique
of negotiations. In its own turn the process of
constructing the conflict, to which we suggest to
resort for forming and retaining the conflict, is
intolerant to conflict phobia predispositions and
to conflict philia predispositions as well (the last
one is another extreme, which has nothing in
common with the productive orientation).
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Boris I. Khasan. Modern Conflictology: Between Fear of Conflict and Love to Conflict
References
1. Aleshina Iu.E. Problemy teorii i praktiki mediatsii [Problems of the theory and practice of
mediation]. Lichnost’, obshcheniie, gruppovye protsessy. Sovremennye napravleniia teoreticheskikh
i prikladnykh issledovanii v zarubezhnoi psikhologii [Personality, Communication, Group processes.
Modern directions of theoretical and applied research in Western psychology]. Collective work. USSR
Academy of Sciences INION. Moscow, 1991.
2. Antsupov A.Ia., Shipilov A.I. Konfliktologiia: teoriia, istoriia, bibliografiia [Conflictology:
theory, history, bibliography]. Moscow, 1996.
3. Filley A. Resolution of conflict, Ethics good loser. Conflict and human interaction.USA
Congeal, Hunt publishing company, 1976. Cited by translation made for the Bulletin of Conflictologists’
Club, 1991, Issue № 2.
4. Follet M. Dynamic administration. London, 1942.
5. Khasan B.I. Paradoksy konfliktofobii [Paradoxes.of Conflict Phobia]. Filosofskaia i
sotsiologicheskaia mysl’ [Philosophical and sociological thought]. 1990. № 6.
Современная конфликтология:
между конфликтофобией
и конфликтофилией
Б.И. Хасан
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье обсуждается современное состояние проблемы конфликта и практик работы
с прошедшей, актуальной и перспективной конфликтной ситуацией. Описываются
тенденции в развитии конфликтологической мысли и риски крайностей, формирующихся при
поспешном применении технологий. Предлагается опираться на конструктивный подход,
согласно которому важнейшим технологическим компонентом практической работы с
конфликтом является удержание за счет конфликтной конструкции (формы) разрешаемого
противоречия.
Ключевые слова: конфликт, конфликтофобия, конфликтофилия, конфликтная конструкция –
форма, противоречия, медиация, переговоры.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 566-578
~~~
УДК 378.048.2
Adult Education in the Context
of Constructive Conflict Theory
Victor E. Pahalyan*
Moscow Institute of Open Education
7a Prechistenskiy, Moscow, 119034, Russia
Received 18.01.2014, received in revised form 05.03.2014, accepted 25.03.2014
Current status of adult education issue is considered in the context of main objective contradictions,
which are manifested in educational conflicts in the process of obtaining higher professional education
in the field of helping professions. The authors found key contradictions in training of such specialists,
in particular, between the formal requirements for training in university, the professional requirements
themselves and personal willingness of future specialists. This paper is based on practical experience
in the Department of Psychology of the Moscow Institute of Open Education. This experience is built
on the concept of constructive conflict and is able to overcome these contradictions in the educating
process between prior learning experiences of students and the demands for future specialists.
Keywords: adult education, constructive conflict in education, training of practicing psychologists,
psychological maturity, educational result, personal readiness, types of problems that can be solved
in different areas of psychology, preventive developmental psychology.
Methodological Issues
of Adult Education
Analysis of the current state of the
Russian education system makes experts argue
that while substantially retaining its former
representation, developed in Soviet times, it
tends to integrate on a global scale. But in fact
the practice of the educational process is in
conflict with contemporary theories and reveals
some disadvantages of educational concept.
It is important to emphasize that modern
adult education can not but react on the global
challenges of our time, one of which is the process
of increasing discreteness of all forms of human
activity at the level of the European community.
The consequence is the loss of content integrity
*
during the human life, including the field of
education (Gorshkova, 2010). That is why today
the research results today are so critical, when
they ease objective definition of the nature of the
observed conflict and finding ways to resolve it.
In particular, it is made possible through solving
methodological problems of higher professional
education (HPE).
We shall note that today Russian science and
practice have quite diverse, both theoretical and
methodological materials, allowing to improve
the methodology of HPE in general and to develop
technologies appropriate to the level of modern
requirements for professional adult education1.
At the same time, the analysis of publications
in recent decades has shown that problems of
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vicp2003@rambler.ru
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Victor E. Pahalyan. Adult Education in the Context of Constructive Conflict Theory
education psychology of future professionals take
up much less space in science and practice, than
difficulties of the development and education
of preschool and school aged children. It is
obvious that many of the difficulties of high
school education, especially in the early stages
of acquiring the profession, are closely connected
with the educational result of previous stages of
education. In this sense, definition and study of
the problems that hinder high school education
could provide new materials for understanding
the issues of efficiency and effectiveness of the
educational got. However, as shown in the study
of publications on the issues highlighted here,
much of the work on problems existing high
school education has a local focus only, which
is the specifics of the educational process in
university. This approach does not relate these
problems to the previous experience of learning
and development. Perhaps this is a system error,
because analysis of the HPE difficulties enables
an objective assessment of the previous stages
of education. First of all, these are the aspects
that imply continued education in different
institutions of higher education. Positive trend
in this direction is the appearance in recent years
of a number of special studies of psychological
readiness of a school graduate or anyone having
the right to continue education in institutions of
higher education.2
A plurality of components of the problem are
included in the works devoted to the discussion
of common problems of personal maturity3.
Psychological service of a university may also
contribute to solving this problem among many
of them in high school education4.
The analysis of publications on the subject of
adult education, HPE in general and results from
many years of experience in preparing helping
professionals facilitated identifying several
important components of the methodological
foundations of higher professional education
of adults. In particular, the discussion of the
problems of adult education is based here on the
following ideas:
1) psychological maturity is an integral
component of the “educational summit of a
personality”, that is psychological culture. In this
context, the low level of the latter is incompatible
with obtaining a degree in the field of helping
professions and is by no means appropriate for
those who prepare future professionals for this
area;
2) self-actualization is a basic ”mechanism”
of positive change, personal growth (C. Rogers)
and personally oriented training (C. Rogers),
where subjects of interactions are treated as
partners in a dialogue (M.M. Bakhtin, V.S.
Bibler, M. Buber), and their intrinsic value and
equivalence are recognized. It is clear that here a
learning process implies psychologically mature
subjects ready for constructive cooperation, those
who are originally joined by the communication,
in which there happens a certain “breakthrough”
of personalities towards each other;
3) dialogue is a universal philosophical and
anthropological characteristic, background and
basic condition for human consciousness and
self-consciousness, which are the main forms of
their implementation (A.F. Kop’ev);
4) dialogueness is a part of the
“communicative core of personality”, a special
integral trait, that characterizes the ability
(intellectual, emotional, behavioral) of a person
to communicate in a dialogic form. Dialogueness
is manifested in intrapersonal and interpersonal
spaces in dialogical relations (N.L. Karpova and
I.V. Ianchenko);
5) conflict competence is a part of the overall
communicative competence, which includes
awareness of the range of possible strategies
for behavior in the conflict and also the ability
to implement adequately these strategies in
specific situations, this is the ability to retain a
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contradiction in the form of a productive conflict
in a way that facilitates its resolution (B.I. Hasan,
2004);
6) main functions of lecturers involved in
higher professional education are encouraging
and initiating. They are realized by lecturersfacilitators, i.e. specialists, promoting fruitful
learning through the creation of certain conditions:
a person should be involved in the organization
of group activities, the regulations should lead
to comfortable (constructive) psychological
atmosphere, etc. “Giving” or “transferring”
knowledge of the world to the students or making
every effort to create an environment, suitable
for self-mastering by students professional
knowledge and experience – these are not the
same things.
All the previously mentioned allows us to
consider adult education as a special form of
higher professional education, which differs from
the previous stages of learning in motivation
and personal readiness of the participants to
dialogue as the main means of interaction, which
is aimed at mastering future profession, in which
the participants will implement the set goals. In
this light, it is evident that one of the important
conditions for the effectiveness of professional
education for adults is their conflict competence.
Peculiarities of higher professional
education of adults
In higher professional education of adult until
today there have not been a sufficient number of
special works, justifying and showing a specific
role and place of the psychological constituent in
the educational process. University education is
often little different in its psychological content
from school education. It is focused mainly on
the accumulated in secondary schools experience
and “developed” there possibility of a personality.
Such training does not alter the nature of the
motivational component of education, resources of
consciousness of future specialists in these cases
do not get necessary “expansion”, “deepening”
and the new applications.
At the same time, it is obvious that high school
lecturer deals not with the pupils, but already
adult, independent people. This is especially true
of students attending senior courses and system
of additional higher education. The very selection
procedure for university studies indicates that a
person chooses a particular specialty on his or her
own and thus is ready to pass the competitive tests
to master the profession. Moreover, high school
education involves much more individual work of
students in learning the content of a new subject
and ways of its mastering. However, until now the
methodologists of teaching at the university have
not fully been applying psychological abilities of
students in developing the strategy and tactics of
the process of learning the content of the subject
studied. Psychological opportunities of those who
are engaged in the training of specialists have not
been taken into account as well.
Today the issue of professional standards is
actively discussed; specialists work on creating
and implementing these standards in practice,
which indicates that special relevance of this
issue. Adult education also implies professional
standards for a specialist in the HPE system.
While this aspect of the problem is substantially
revealed in the issues of competencies, among
which there is “conflict competence”, considered
as the ability to retain a contradiction in the form
of a productive conflict in a way that facilitates its
resolution ( B.I. Hassan, 2004). Using this notion
allows to evaluate the process of mastering new
knowledge as a resolution of the conflict between
cognitive needs and opportunities to satisfy it.
Unfortunately, we should admit that this kind of
incompetence is easily detected in the educational
process organization and methods of adult
education, and, above all, in preparing helping
professionals. This problem concerns especially
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the preparation of practicing psychologists, where
there is still a “primacy of the learning object –
the contents of knowledge – over the subject”
(V.Ia. Liaudis, 2000). In this paradoxical situation
a huge resource of psychological knowledge and
practice remains external to the one who is its
owner – to the subject of professional education.
It is shown very well in the training programs for
preparing practitioners in the helping professions:
their content and teaching methods used are not
much different from their analogues applied in the
preparation of a specialist, who is not to address
applied and practical problems. It is not such a
rare case. In particular, regarding the training of
psychologists, where the major part of education
and methodological support of their professional
training does not consider the personality5 of the
future professional, does not involve actualization
of its potential, which, in turn, does not create
an “area of its long-term development” (V.Ia.
Liaudis, 2000; Yu.M. Zabrodin, V.E. Pahalyan,
2008; and others). At the same time, numerous
publications on the problems of training and
effectiveness of adult education emphasize the
fact that the concentration of education to the
personality of future professionals is an integral
part of this process6. In particular, some of the
essential principles of such training are aimed at
the use of personal life experience of students.
It is obvious that in adult education it is crucial
for a future specialist to be able to reflect their
experience, since it will allow them to assess
their own resources and use them effectively for
self-actualization in the chosen specialty.
In the context of the methodological
foundations of the modern approach to the
preparation of helping professionals it is also
important to highlight the idea that people are
an open nonlinear self-developing system. As
subjects they are capable of multiple changing not
only the world around, but first and foremost – of
changing themselves7. Certainly, the higher the
level of psychological maturity, the more natural
is this ability.
We have already said that the problems of
psychology of training and education of future
professionals in the field of helping professions
are mostly considered outside the context of the
previous stages of education. Given the fact that
many of the difficulties of learning a profession,
especially in the early stages of its mastering, are
conditioned by the results of school education, we
can draw the following conclusions:
1) psychological readiness/unreadiness8
to higher professional education is one of the
educational results of conflict resolution between
the nature of education and the requirements for
professional training. In case of additional higher
professional education, there is the educational
result of conflict resolution between the previous
high school training and education and the
requirements for special training;
2) Russian modern higher professional
education in the field of helping professions
is targeted mainly at achieving by a future
professional a certain level of readiness in the
scope of knowledge, skills, and abilities, but not
the personal commitment9 to a qualitatively
new level of activity and career development.
This approach does not include requirements for
the nature of motivation and experience of selfeducation and self-development;
3) psychological service at school and
high school in the discussed context actually
solve similar problems. They are not focused
on personality, are not guided by the definition
and development of the internal resources of
a future specialist; they are based rather on
the requirements for activities, ignoring the
requirements of the individual.
Resolution of the conflict existing between
the traditional character of educational activities,
transponded from the mass education at
“authoritative school” to the university and system
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of additional higher professional education, and –
from the other side – ideology of the modern,
human-centered professional education may be
based on such modern approaches as:
– subject-activity approach;
– cultural and historical;
– humanistic;
– existential.
Based on the key ideas of these approaches,
we can distinguish those ideas that can become
the foundation of a methodology for further
analysis of professional education of adults:
– actualization of the subject of activity
involves recognition of their own
intentions, nature and content of the
activities;
– social situation of the development of
a teaching student in the HPE system
appears as a special combination of new
educational environment (educational
and professional environment of the
university) and a new internal position of
a person;
– personality of a human, oriented on
continuing education in a situation of
choosing their own further development
paths determines in such a way the
meaning of this stage of life; and the need
of the personality for self-actualization is
expressed in the necessity to self-realize
in the chosen specialty, profession.
The provisions outlined above are consistent
with the images of constructive conflict and
conflict competence, which propose the ability to
recognize the signs of a contradiction, possession
of control modes for the contradiction resolution,
as well as mastering the ways of productively
oriented and organized conflict behavior of
participants and interaction parties. This allows
us to proceed to the issue of application of the
general ideas in the specific work with adults
studying in the HPE system.
Construction of the conflict
and its resolution in adult education
A human choosing future profession is
sensitive to the development and formation
of subjectivity. To solve the problems of the
psychology of training and education of future
professionals in the field of helping professions
it is also principal that this process involves
not only “mastering” and “acquiring”, but also
“development” and “self-development” of the
personality, which, as it is known, in this kind
of professions is the “main tool” of effective
activity. Starting out from the assertion that the
study of conflicts and actions to resolve them will
help to pave the way to a special artificial design
and construction of them, thereby ensuring
implementation of the tasks of individual and
group development (B.I. Hasan, 2004), specialists
of the department of applied psychology in
the Moscow Institute of Open Education
conduct annually introductory interviews. The
latter represent a structured in a particular way
dialogue, which uncovers “personal readiness”
of those who decided to become a practicing
psychologist. We believe that criteria of such
readiness are:
– productivity of tasks being done by the
entrants, including both “cognitive” and
“motivational” components;
– particular manifestation of affective
component of the personality in a
situation of implementation, presentation
and dialogue on the results of the
work;
– character of actions and behavior of the
entrant in a situation of implementation,
presentation and dialogue on the results
of the work.
The chief means of obtaining such
information:
– monitoring the entrant in a situation
of implementation, presentation and
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dialogue on the results of the work,
including artificially created conflict;
– a conversation on the results of the work,
including artificially created conflict;
– actual test results.
The controllers use the assessment
procedure, built on the notions of a “zone of
actual development” and a “zone of the nearest
development”. In particular, after fulfilling the
assignments, allowing to obtain information
about the characteristics of cognitive resources of
the entrants, they were encouraged interviewed,
with the “help of adults”, which may make the
applicant to change their results.
Next, during the 1st and 2nd years of training
specialists of the department record:
1) dynamics of motivation of students
(via written survey there are made at least 3
“snapshots”, aimed at determining the factors that
influence the success of training and the nature of
its goals);
2) a degree of success of the curriculum
(“successful development in compliance with a
schedule”, i.e. measuring how the student copes
with the pace and the “quality” requirements in
mastering subjects in the curriculum);
3) changes in the cognitive, affective and
regulatory areas of the student (through direct
observation of their behavior in the classroom,
fixing some features in performing practical tasks
and success in learning the program material
for individual subjects and the curriculum as a
whole).
On the basis of the obtained results it is
created the need for an additional interview on
learning difficulties and the students’ decision to
continue their education.
It is of great importance to note once
again that here the focus of the lecturer is not
only “mastering” and “acquiring”, but also
“development” and “self-development” of the
personality of a future specialist . This, in turn,
requires a discussion the issue of the readiness
of an individual to higher professional education.
First of all it touches upon the field of helping
professions, where professional personality is the
main result of the education.
Psychological readiness
of the individual to HPE
In the context of the difficulties that we
face in training specialists, let us once again
return to the discussion of this critical aspect
as the relationship between effectiveness of
training future specialists at the university and
their previous educational experience. In the
currently available literature on this problem
issues of work of practicing school psychologists
it is literally impossible to find such an aspect
as “determination of psychological readiness
for further education, for high school training”.
Apparently, in most cases it is assumed that the
results of school education create such readiness
automatically. The same can be said about the
practical psychology in high school – there
is not here a special task of determining the
“psychological readiness for further education
and self-education, skills training and retraining”.
As well as in institutions dealing with improving
staff performance, which also do not perform a
special task – to determine the “psychological
readiness for further education and self-education,
skills training, retraining”.
For further analysis, it is significant to
note the fact, which drew the attention of V.V.
Davydov, who analyzed the essence of the concept
of activity. He wrote:
“In our opinion, not all
manifestations of human life
energy can be attributed to their
“activity” – genuine activity
is always connected with the
transformation of the reality”
(Davydov
V.V.
Theory
of
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developmental education. M.:
INTOR, 1996, p. 28)
Positive trend in this direction is the
emergence of a number of special studies that
have appeared in recent years – of psychological
readiness of a school graduate or any person
entitled to continuing the education in institutions
of higher education (Deniskina V.Z., 2002;
Zvonnikov V.I., 2007; Kalinina I.A., 2007;
Karakozov S.D., 2011; Kusakina S.N., 2009;
Mikhailov V.K, 2006; Pechatnova N.B., 2009,
etc.). A plurality of components of the problem
are included in works devoted to the discussion
of common problems of maturity of personality
(Portnova A.G., 2008; Rusalov V.M., 2006;
Shamionov R.M., 1997, etc.). The specialists
of psychological service of the university also
contribute to solving this problem of training in
the HPE system.
This makes clear the possible strategy for
bridging existing gaps (problems), the steps here
include:
– personality-centered nature of the
educational process;
– regulatory consolidation of professional
requirements and introduction of them
into the work of those who are involved
in professional guidance, training and
professional selection;
– adding helping professions to the list of
competencies issued by Federal State
Education Standards (FSES), which can
be designated as “personal competence”;
– introduction in the professional standards
for helping professions and HPE lecturers
of such competencies as “the ability to
facilitate”, “psychological maturity”.
But the focus of the topic discussed is not
on HPE common problems, but on training
specialists of “helping professions”, which
often include social work, social pedagogy,
practical psychology. Here we shall rephrase the
previous thesis a little, difficulties in training
specialists of “helping professions” happen due
to the insufficient level of their psychological
readiness for higher professional education
and mastering the chosen specialty.
These difficulties can be overcome in joint
effort and, above all, through the changing nature
of learning mode at schools and high schools, via
resolving the problems, specific for psychological
services of educational institutions. In particular,
it is appropriate to recall here the “good old
practice” – mentoring system, system of tutors.
Talking about it in the context of the HPE tasks
and adult education, training those specializing in
helping professions, we can define such a system
as a specially organized educational space, in
which participants of training activities have the
possibility of free choice of a partner, who will
be able to assist them in mastering curriculum
subjects and gaining experience in personal,
academic and professional life and career.
Any person can become a mentor, if they are
objectively estimated as “experienced and skilled
enough in this area”. A mentor can be a teacher
and a graduate student. Becoming a mentor,
the participant of educational activity receives
the student, work with which must somehow be
evaluated. For example, in training hours spent
on each student; marks put for each mentor by
student for their effective actions, etc. These
marks become a part of the overall assessment of
a specialist or graduate students. Later this rating
assessment may be considered for certification as
one of the criteria for professional growth (along
with such criteria as training, participation in
scientific meetings, publications, etc.).
In terms of methodology, this problem is
reflected in studies conducted in the sphere of
such a phenomenon as “self-regulated learning”
(M. S. Knowles10; С. О. Houle11 and etc.12). In
this context, it is clear that the effectiveness
of the special and psychological training of
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future specialists in helping professions can be
supported by the available at the university system
of tutoring (mentoring), providing additional
assistance to the individual both in mastering the
curriculum subjects, and gaining the experience
in personal, academic and professional life and
career. The presence of a mentor psychologically
prepares future specialists to the next stage
of professional growth, interaction with the
supervisor. We should remark here that we
consider adult education as a special form of
higher professional education, which differs from
the previous stages of education in the nature of
motivation and personal readiness of participants
to enter the dialogues as the primary means of
interaction aimed at learning the content of a
future specialty, in which they will implement
the set goals.
Developing the idea of the relationship
between psychological readiness of a school
graduate or any person having the right to
continue education in institutions of higher
education with the obligatory educational results
of future professionals enrolled in high school,
we will dwell on a specific example from the
experience of our department.
Mastering the system of concepts
in the studied field
while preparing practicing psychologists
In developing the concept for the selection
of future professionals we use a well-known
representation about human inner world structure,
which includes such items as: cognitive, affective
and regulatory spheres. As noted above, the
Department of Applied Psychology of the Moscow
Institute of Open Education since its foundation
has been choosing students for training in the
specialty of additional higher professional
education “Practical Psychology” through
the interview procedure. The latter includes
the fixation of the internal resources, which a
potential specialist can expose. Further, all this
is done in the work with those who successfully
passed the qualification tests at this stage. Let us
draw an example of how to implement one aspect
of this process methodologically.
One of the basic components of higher
professional education is mastering the system
of concepts in the studied subject field. This
question is central in this section of educational
psychology, which is devoted to the problems in
educational psychology. The works of Russian
specialists (L.S. Vygotsky, V.V. Davydov,
N.F. Talyzina, etc.) covered the essence of the
problem substantially and accurately. In foreign
science and practice, this issue was addressed
by such famous scientists as J. Piaget and J.
Bruner. The psychological patterns discovered
in these works have long been incorporated
into teaching practice at school level. However,
as noted above, in the higher professional
adult education there have not been enough
exhaustive works, showing and justifying their
specific place and role of this component in the
educational process.
Keeping as the basis the understanding
of conflict competence as the ability to retain
productive conflict contradiction in a way that
facilitates its resolution (B.I. Hasan, 2004), we
can imagine the process of mastering a new
content as a resolution of the conflict between
cognitive needs and opportunities to satisfy
them. Looking upon learning the system of
concepts of the studied subject field as one of
the basic components of higher professional
education
for
practicing
psychologist,
unfortunately, we have to state constantly that
our students cannot boast the educational results
of their previous experience of school and high
school education, as a rule, they do not know
how to distinguish and differentiate concepts
specific for the studied sphere only and to give
them the appropriate defi nitions, relevant for the
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specific purpose and content. In particular, while
implementing such a task, students attribute to
the new subject sphere all concepts relating to
the subject studied. Therefore, in the course
of practice-oriented subjects while training
practicing psychologists we use various tasks for
independent work of students, aimed at creating
and mastering “Thesaurus” of the studied subject
field. A specially designed methodical procedure
allows overcoming difficulties and determining
the level of mastering the core content of the
program material, and also provides a means
to differentiate the quality at every level (the
volume of the material studied)13.
To realize this procedure the lecturers
should:
♦ create a model of the subject thesaurus;
♦ develop learning objectives for each level
(at least 2 options for each structural
element of the curriculum);
♦ create a computer program as ICTsupport, that will permit to carry out
this procedure without the presence of
a lecturer (remotely, for example, on the
site of an institution or in the office, where
there is a special place and a computer
for the procedures of stating the level of
knowledge on the subject, prescribed by
the education program).
In this light it is appropriate to point out
the importance of ICT-support as a powerful
and modern resource, empowering lecturers and
students in effective mastering the content of the
subjects according to the curriculum.
We shall stress that all these strategies
cannot replace the established qualification
tests in the subjects of the curriculum (exams on
the subject), and are only one of many aids that
give lecturers possibilities to ensure effective
mastering the program content of the subject, and
to make as objective as possible decision on how
students have managed to study the subject.
Everything mentioned above leads to making
several important generalizations and conclusions
concerning problems of adult education, training
future specialists who will be helping people
then.
1. Currently in adult education and in
training specialists in helping professions there
is a number of problems caused by the fact that
not enough attention is paid to training future
specialists in helping professions neither at the
level of legal regulations for higher professional
education and additional higher professional
education, nor at the level of specific practice
itself. Attention is not paid precisely to:
a) a proper definition of the psychological
characteristics of the individual learners
themselves as a resource for effective professional
training;
b) a problem of psychological readiness of
the person to the specific conditions of university
training and education;
c) specific characteristics of the internal
capacity of future specialists, appropriate to their
age and corresponding stage of development and
individual characteristics of learners.
Summing it up, these problems greatly
hinder overcoming the consequences of Russian
higher professional education falling behind the
level of modern requirements to the professional
standards of this kind of professional activity.
2. Qualitative changes in professional
training of specialists in helping professions
suggest the following conditions:
– updating research and methodological
developments within the framework
of “Educational psychology of higher
education” or “Psycho-pedagogy in
higher professional education”;
– determining the peculiar requirements
for specialists in helping professions, as
well as for those studying such subjects
in the course of training and retraining;
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– determining the peculiar requirements
for methodological training of lecturers,
teaching
special
practice-oriented
subjects. The requirements should
include their personal readiness (conflict
competence, dialogueness, etc.).
3. Goals and objectives of “Psychopedagogy in higher professional education”
are set by fundamentally different (from school
and compulsory education) conditions of
higher professional education: the specifics of
the educational environment of high school,
requirements for independent learning activities,
qualitatively different from what was at the
previous stages of education in the nature of
motivation of educational environment subjects,
etc. Firstly, the following aspects stand out here:
– psychological readiness of the individual
for effective educational and professional
activity and interaction with other actors
in the educational environment of high
school;
– orientation of the subjects of the
educational environment of high
school on a professional and personal
achievements.
As a consequence, the basic principle of the
methodology and methods of specialist training
is this “personality-orientation”.
1
2
4. While preparing specialists in helping
professions it is mandatory to appeal to
the psychological resources of the learners
themselves, their initiation and encouragement to
meet the specific requirements of the profession.
This condition greatly expands methodical
resource of qualification tests on the subjects
of the curriculum, which may complement
traditional form of objective assessment of
educational results, allowing the lecturer to take
the most impartial decision about the success of
student in mastering the program according to
the curriculum.
5. In the regulations concerning the
preparation of specialists in helping professions
in the system of higher professional education
and additional higher professional education
there should appear the following points:
– adding to the FSES qualifications of
professional characteristics of students
(requirements to their psychological
maturity and personal readiness for
professional activity, etc.);
– introducing of these characteristics into
the contents of the developed professional
standards in the field of helping professions
and into the work of specialists dealing
with career counseling, professional
training and professional selection.
See, for example: Barkhaev B.P. Pedagogicheskaia psikhologiia [Pedagogical Psychology]. – St. Petersburg. Peter, 2007;
Boluchevskaia V.V. Psikhologicheskie aspekty professional’noi podgotovki spetsialistov pomogaiuschikh professii
sistemy zdravookhraneniia [Psychological aspects of training helping professionals for health care system]. Prikladnaia
psikhologiia i psikhoanaliz (Applied psychology and psychoanalysis: electronic scientific journal), 2009, No. 1-2. available at: http://ppip.su; Gorshkova V.V. Obrazovanie vzroslykh v kontekste kul’tury: fenomenologicheskii aspekt [Adult
education in the culture context: a phenomenological aspect]. Pedagogika, 2011, No.07; Kanatov A.I. Psikhologicheskie
problemy izucheniia vzroslogo cheloveka: aspekt nepreryvnogo obrazovaniia [Psychological problems of studying an
adult: the aspect of continuing education]. Chelovek i obrazovanie (Man and education), 2010, No. 1, pp. 41-44; Moreva
N.A. Tekhnologii professional’nogo obrazovaniia [Technologies in professional education]. Moscow: Publishing Centre
“Academiia”, 2005; Sokolova I.I. (ed.) Praktikum po tekhnologiiam obucheniia sovremennogo studenta [Workshop on
technologies in educating modern student].St. Petersburg. Institute of Vocational Education RAE, 2007; Triapitsyna A.P.
(ed.) Traditsionnye i innovatsionnye formy i tekhnologii obucheniia studentov [Traditional and innovative forms and
technologies in student education]. St. Petersburg: Epigraf, 2007, etc.
Deniskina V.Z. K voporsu gotovnosti vypsknikov shkol dlia slepykh i slabovidiashchikh k vuzovskomu obrazovaniiu [On
the question of readiness of graduates of schools for the blind and visually impaired to higher education]. Komp’yuternі
tehnologії ta vishcha osvita liudei z osoblivimi potrebami: distantsіine navchannia v sistemі sotsіal’no – trudovoї
reabіlіtatsії. Zbіrnik Nauk. Ed.by Kovalenko. Kiev, Vishcha shk, 2002; Zvonnikov V.I. Sovremennye sredstva otsenivaniia rezul’tatov obucheniia [Modern means of evaluating learning results]. Moscow: Publishing Center “Academiia”, 2007;
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3
4
5
6
Kalinina I.A. Psikhologicheskaia gotovnost’ studentov k professional’noi deiatel’nosti i ee vzaimosviaz’ s uspeshnostiu
obucheniia: na primere ekonomicheskogo vuza [Psychological readiness of students to professional work and its relationship with the success of education on the example of the economic university]. Thesis for diss for Candidate of Psychological Sciences. M., 2007; Karakozov S.D. Psikhologicheskie osnovaniia prognozirovaniia uspeshnosti ucheniia studentov
v vuze [Psychological bases of forecasting success of educating students in high school]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i
obrazovaniia (Modern problems of science and education). 2011. №; available at: www.science-education.ru/100-5071;
Kusakina S.N. Gotovnost’ k obucheniiu v vuze kak psikhologicheskii fenomen [Willingness to learn in high school as a
psychological phenomenon]. Thesis for diss for Candidate of Psychological Sciences. M, 2009; Mikhailova V.K. Psikhologicheskaia gotovnost’ k obucheniiu v vuze MVD Rossii [Psychological readiness to learn in the university of Russian
Interior Ministry]. Thesis for diss for Candidate of Psychological Sciences. M., 2006; Pechatnova N.B. Prognozirovanie
uspeshnosti obucheniia v vuze vypusknikov obshcheobrazovatel’noi shkoly [Predicting success in high school education
of secondary school graduates]. Thesis for diss for Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences. Barnaul, 2009; Cherkasova O.D.
Psikhologicheskaia gotovnost’ k obucheniiu v vuze vypusknikov srednikh obshcheobrazovatel’nykh zavedenii v otsenke
shkol’nikov i litseistov starshikh klassov [Psychological readiness for high school education of graduates of secondary
general education institutions in assessing students and pupils of high classes] Available at: http://psyinfo.ru/ru/conference/internet/doc.
See, for example: Leontiev D.A. Lichnostnaia zrelost’ kak oposredstvovannie lichnostnogo rosta [Personal maturity as
mediacy in personal growth]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaia psikhologiia razvitiia (Cultural and historical psychology of development. Materials of fi rst readings in memory of L.S. Vygotsky, Moscow , 15-17 November 2000). Ed. by Petukhova
I.L. M.: Smysl’, 2001, pp. 154-161; Portnova A.G. Lichnostnaia zrelost’: podkhody k opredeleniiu [Personal maturity: approaches to the defi nition]. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal (Siberian psychological journal), 2008. No. 27, pp. 37-41;
Rusalova V.M. Psikhologicheskaia zrelost’: edinstevennaia i mnozhestvennaia kharakteristika? [Psychological maturity:
single and multiple characteristic?] Psikhologicheskii zhurnal (Psychological Journal), 2006. Vol. 27, № 5, pp. 83-97; Sergienko E.A. Zrelost’: moliarnyi ili moduliarnyi podkhod? [Maturity: molar or modular approach?]. Fenomen i kategoriia
zrelosti v psikhologii (Phenomenon and category of maturity in psychology). Ed. by Zhuravlev A.L., Sergienko E.A. M.:
Institute of Psychology RAS, 2007, pp.13-28; Shamionov R.M. Lichnostnaia zrelost’ i professional’noe samoopredelenie
v podrostkovom i iunosheskom vozraste [Personal maturity and professional self-determination in adolescence and early
adulthood]. Thesis for diss for Candidate of Psychological Sciences. St. Petersburg, 1997, etc.
See, for example: Bobylev V., Koposov E., Kruchinin V. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii [Higher Education in Russia],
2007, No.3, pp.10 -13; Rubtsov V.V., Metelkova E.I., Arsen’eva T.N. Problemy sozdaniia organizatsionnykh modelei psikhologicheskoi sluzhby v rossiiskoi vysshei shkole [Problems in creating organizational models of psychological service
in Russian high school]. Psikhologiia obrazovaniia: regionl’nyi opyt (Educational psychology: regional experience). Proceedings of the Second National Scientific and Practical Conference. M., 2005, pp. 148-149; Kaptsov A.V. Perspektivy
razvitiia psikhologicheskoi sluzhby vuza [Prospects for the development of psychological service at the university]. Psikhologiia obrazovaniia: kul’turno-istoricheskie i sotsial’no-pravovye aspekty (Educational psychology: cultural, historical, social and legal aspects). Proceedings of the Third National Scientific and Practical Conference. Vol. 2. M., 2006,
pp. 65-67; Kaygorodov B.V., Varfolomeeva E.A. Psikhologicheskaia sluzhba kak tsentr psikhologicheskoi pomoshchi
sub’ektam obrazovatel’nogo protsessa universiteta [Psychological service as a center for psychological assistance to the
subjects of the educational process in a university]. Psikhologiia obrazovaniia: regionl’nyi opyt (Educational psychology:
regional experience). Proceedings of the Second National Scientific and Practical Conference. M., 2005, pp. 143–144;
Kislova V.S. Sistema psikhologicheskogo soprovozhdeniia v vuze: Bolonskoe izmerenie [Psychological support system at
university: Bologna dimension]. Psikhologiia obrazovaniia: kul’turno-istoricheskie i sotsial’no-pravovye aspekty (Educational psychology: cultural, historical, social and legal aspects). Proceedings of the Third National Scientific and Practical Conference. Vol. 2. M., 2006, pp. 67-68; Soldatova E.L. Ob organizatsii sistemy psikhologicheskogo soprovozhdeniia
v vuze [On the organization of the system of psychological support in high school] Psikhologiia obrazovaniia: kul’turnoistoricheskie i sotsial’no-pravovye aspekty (Educational psychology: cultural, historical, social and legal aspects). Proceedings of the Third National Scientific and Practical Conference. Vol. 1. M., 2006, Educational Psychology : cultural,
historical, social and legal aspects. Proceedings of the Third National Scientific and Practical Conference . Vol. 1. M.,
2006, pp. 29-30; Chirkova T.I. Psikhologicheskaia sluzhba vuza: illuziia ili strategicheskaia vozmozhnost’ resheniia problem professional’noi podgotovki studentov [Psychological service of a university: an illusion or a strategic opportunity
to solve problems in the professional training of students?]. Problemy sovremennogo obrazovaniia (Problems of modern
education). 2011 . No. 1, pp. 82-93. Available at: www.pmedu.
Hereinafter the term “personality” we will use as it is understood by V.A. Ivannikov: a personality is “.... a human, who in
the course of realizing some relationships with the world, society and themselves is guided by other people and chooses
the activities and actions with the obligatory moral evaluation from other people. Such a person is capable of changing, if
necessary, the activity and themselves through willing regulation of activities and actions and intentional change in the hierarchy of values (needs, motives, principles of life)” (Ivannikov V.A. Osnovy psikhologii [Basics of psychology]. – SPb.:
Peter, p. 168).
Alekseev N.A. Lichnostno-orientirovannoe obuchenie; voprosy teorii i praktiki: Monografiia. {Personality-oriented
education, theory and practice: Monograph]. Tiumen, Tyumen State University, 1996; Klarin M.V., Semenova I.N. (ed.)
Gumanisticheskie tendentsii v razvitii nepreryvnogo obrazovaniia vzroslykh v Rossii i SSHA [Humanistic trends in
continuing education for adults in Russia and the United States]. M.: Institute of Theoretical Education and International
Studies in Education RAE, 1994; Brookfield, Stephen (ed.) Self Directed Learning: Prom Theory to Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Basa, 1985; Cross, Patricia. Adults As Learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980; Mezirow J. A Critical
Theory of Self-Directed Learning, Brookfield, S. (ed.) Self-Directed Learning: From Theory to Practice. San Francisco:
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Jossey-Bass, 1985, and etc.
Iurina E.A. Problema subektnosti v psikhologicheskom obrazovanii [The problem of subjectivity in psychological education].
Psikhologiia obrazovaniia v XXI veke: teoriia i praktika (Educational Psychology in the XXI Century: Theory and Practice). Proceedings of International scientific-practical. conference. Volgograd, 14-16 September 2011. Ed. by Andruschenko T.Iu., Kritskii A.G., Merkurova O.P. (in honour of the 80th anniversary of Volgograd State Social Pedagogical University). Volgograd, 2011, pp. 124-126.
Hereinafter the psychological readiness is assumed as a certain state of the inner world of a human (as a whole – cognitive, affective, regulatory components), that promotes or hinders their self-actualization as a personality in all important
aspects of their life: in activities, communication, etc. This is a certain kind of sensitivity before acquiring a new “internal
position” (L.I. Bozhovich).
Hereinafter the personal willingness will be considered in terms of the defi nition of “personality”, drawn above. According to it, personality will be seen as the level of human development, when a person is able to make decisions and take
responsibility, acting deliberately, somehow solving the arising problems under conditions of the person’s independent
actions and joint activities with other people, when this person has in mind people around, norms, set in this culture, and
rules of behavior.
Knowles M. S. Self-directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers. Cambridge Book Co., New York, 1975.
135 p.
Houle C. O. The Inquiring Mind. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1961. – 103 p.
More details on this see in: Lomteva T.N., Kirgintseva N.S. Samoreguliruemoe obuchenie v informatsionnom obshchestve
kak androgogicheskaia problema [Self-regulating learning in the information society as andragogical problem]. Chelovek
i obrazovanie (Man and education), 2009. No. 3, pp. 220-224.
More information can be found in the following paper: Pahalyan V.E. Metodologicheskie osnovaniia i tekhnologiia raboty
po osvoeniiu uchashchimisia osnovnykh poniatii predmetnoi oblasti (na primere podgotovki prakticheskikh psikhologov
v sisteme dopolnitel’nogo vysshego obrazovannia) [Methodological foundations and work technologies to make students
learn basic concepts in the subject sphere (on the example of preparing practicing psychologists in the system of additional
higher education)]. Psikhologiia v vuze (Psychology at the university). 2012. No. 1, pp. 81-89.
References
1. Vachkov I.V. Nekotorye problemy podgotovki prakticheskikh psikhologov [Some problems
of training practicing psychologists]. Natsional’nyi psikhologicheskii zhurnal [National Psychological
Journal]. 2007. № 1.
2. Dubrovina I.V. Kak ne upustit’ glavnogo v podgotovke psikhologa [How not to miss the key
thing in the preparation of a psychologist]. Vestnik prakticheskoi psikhologii obrazovaniia (Bulletin of
Applied Psychology in Education), 2010. No. 1, pp. 3-4.
3. Zabrodin Yu.M., Pahalyan V.E. Podgotovka i perepodgotovka prakticheskikh psikhologov v
kontekste problem otechestvennogo vysshego professional’nogo obrazovaniia [Training and retraining
of practicing psychologists in the context of problems in higher professional education in Russia].
Psikhologiia v vuze (Psychology at the university), 2009. No. 2, pp. 6-20.
4. Klarin M.V. Lichnostno-orientirovannoe nepreryvnoe obrazovanie: na puti k novoi paradigme
[Personality-oriented continuing education: towards a new paradigm]. Gumanisticheskie tendentsii
v razvitii nepreryvnogo obrazovaniia vzroslykh v Rossii i SSHA (Humanistic trends in continuing
education for adults in Russia and the United States). Ed. by Klarin M.V., Semenova I.N. M.: Institute
of Theoretical Education and International Studies in Education RAE, 1994, pp. 45-49.
5. Khasan B.I. Konstruktivnaia psikhologiia konflikta [Constructive conflict psychology]. SaintPetersburg, 2004.
6. Chernikova T.V. Psikhologicheskaia podderzhka spetsialistov “pomogaiushchikh” professii:
antropologicheskii podkhod [Psychological support for specialists in “helping” professions: an
anthropological approach]. Vestnik OGU (Bulletin of OSU). 2004. No. 9, pp. 53-59.
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Образование взрослых в контексте теории
конструктивного конфликта
В.Э. Пахальян
Московский институт открытого образования
Россия, 119034, Москва, Пречистенский пер., 7а
Современное состояние проблемы образования взрослых рассматривается в контексте
основных объективных противоречий, которые проявляются в образовательных конфликтах
в процессе получения высшего профессионального образования в сфере помогающих профессий.
Выделяются основные противоречия в подготовке таких специалистов, в частности между
формальными требованиями к обучению в вузе, требованиями профессиональной деятельности
и личностной готовностью будущих специалистов. Приводится опыт работы кафедры
практической психологии Московского института открытого образования, построенный на
представлениях о конструктивном конфликте и позволяющий преодолеть в процессе обучения
противоречия между опытом предшествующего обучения учащихся и требованиями к
личности будущего специалиста.
Ключевые слова: образование взрослых, конструктивный конфликт в образовании, подготовка
практических психологов, психологическая зрелость, образовательный результат, личностная
готовность, типы задач, которые решаются в разных сферах психологии, превентивная
психология развития.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 579-596
~~~
УДК 394.942
Ethnic Tolerance Scale Development:
Renovation of Integrated Approach
Gershons Breslavs*
Baltic Psychology and Management University College
65 Bruninieku Str., Riga, LV 1011, Latvia
Received 12.12.2013, received in revised form 13.02.2014, accepted 20.02.2014
Many theoretical models have contributed to the field of intergroup relations, but the concept of social
tolerance is still very ambiguous despite huge progress in social psychology and related fields in the
recent 50 years. The concept seems too complicated and researchers prefer to analyze tolerance/
intolerance components: stereotypes, prejudice, perception biases and social discrimination which
seem to be more one-dimensional and available for the study. At the same time, without such data
social policy in ethnic integration cannot be well goal-directed. Social and personality psychology
lack integrated criteria for the assessment of ethnic tolerance/intolerance and the above-mentioned
one-dimensional partial measures of ethnic tolerance cannot compensate this deficit, since they
reveal only some aspects of intergroup attitudes. The elaboration of such a holistic personality
measure for the assessment of intergroup relations in Latvia was the goal of this work1. The fivestage process of scale development has been used. Results have shown that a valid and reliable
instrument for ethnic tolerance assessment has been elaborated. The model of elaboration could be
applied in all countries.
Keywords: social tolerance, ethnic tolerance, ethnic attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, ethnic prejudices,
social discrimination, scale of ethnic tolerance.
The study based on the project Elaboration of a method of societal tolerance monitoring supported by
the EU grant subdivision “Forwarding social integration in Latvia” (Project agreement Nr. 2005/017495-03-01/3-1/50).
Tolerance
and relative concepts’ meaning
Some disadvantages followed also from
the borderline position of this topic between
social psychology and psychology of personality.
Personality researchers view tolerance as an
intergroup phenomenon more or less outside the
field, but social psychologists try to avoid its study
understanding badly-controlled internalization
process of attitudes to out-groups and xenophobic
*
traits shaping. Few psychologists understand
the necessity to combine personality and socialpsychological approaches describing prejudices
and similar constructs (Ekehammar, Akrami &
Fan, 2009).
One of the few books devoted to tolerance
was published more than 40 years ago. The
author of the book defined tolerance as the lack
of prejudices (Martin, 1964, 11 lp.) and discussed
the joint phenomenon tolerance-prejudice. At
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: g_bresl@latnet.lv
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the same time the author doubted if a person
with high tolerance would be well-adjusted to
interpersonal relationships (Martin, 1964, p. 119).
The doubts are based on two arguments. First,
in competitive society tolerance to rivals could
result in losing in busness competition. Second,
it is difficult for an individual to accept behavior
of out-group representatives if it interferes with
the person’s life style and priorities. It is difficult
to expect tolerance to gypsy artists from the
neighbours of a multy-apartment buiding if
they display their musical giftedness at night.
According to social exchange theory (Thibaut, &
Kelley, 1959), people’s estimation of relationships
depends on moral and material reinforcement
in accordance with the estimation of their own
contribution. It means that tolerance cannot be
one-sided disposition for a long time, because
interference from newcomers who ignore local
traditions and disturb the life of the majority will
result in the decrease of tolerance and increase
of prejudices.
The recent international conflict around
cartoons published in the Danish newspaper
on Muhammed-terrorist could serve as a good
example of religous and ethnic tolerance decrease
initiated by local traditions’ violation. It was
initiated by the Muslim community leaders’
appeal to Muslim countries and resulted not
only in the deterioration of relationships between
communities in Denmark but also in deterioration
of relationships between European and Muslim
countries around the world. The leaders of the
Muslim community required respect for their own
religious traditions, at the same time neglecting
the cultural traditions of the host country. It is
obvious that such conflicts stimulate not striving
to mutual understanding in the majority and
minority communities, but rather mutual distrust
and discrimination. Sometimes the majority
actions such as improvement of safety in public
space by forbidding female Muslim dresses
veiling the face (the niqab or burka) in public
places in France and Belgium can lead to the
same outcomes, despite the dresses perturbing
the social norms of European culture.
At the same time, attitudes to national,
ethnic or religous outgroups are mediated by the
socio-historical context, including the history of
communities’ relationships, especially if recently
in their countries serious frictions, war conflicts
and/or violence between these groups occurred
(Barrett & Oppenheimer, 2011). The „enemy
image” can be shaped from early childhood and
supported and stabilized later by perception biases
and prejudices to disliked outgroups distributed
by ethnic or religious homogenous environment.
In early adolescence extreme ethnocentrism
and xenophobia can be formed, which is highly
resistant to change (Barrett & Oppenheimer,
2011). In its turn, the „enemy image” can stimulate
permanent interpersonal and intergroup conflicts
without objective contradictions between these
individuals or groups. The analysis and control
of socio-historical, socio-political and nurture
factors do not exclude the study of dispositional
personality factors.
One of the first empirical and theoretical
works trying to explain reasons of intolerance
and prejudice by personality’s dispositions and
traits was the famous book of Theodor Adorno
and his colloborators on the authoritarian
personality
(Adorno,
Frenkel-Brunswik,
Levinson, & Sanford, 1950). The main scale of
their questionnaire was F-scale which shows the
tendency to blindly obey authorities, discriminate
minority out-group representatives and comply
with dogmas. According to the authors’ ideas, the
higher points on the scale show a person’s tendency
to base personal relationships on prejudices and
to discriminate people from out-groups different
in racial, ethnic, gender, or other biological or
cultural features. If these features in a particular
personality are dominant, his/her behaviour will
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be intolerant more or less independently of social
environment.
Current studies also showed the positive
link between right authoritarian political
orientation and prejudices (Ekehammar, Akrami,
Gylje, Zakrisson, 2004). The hostility shown by
authoritarians appears to be directed primarily
toward members of outgroups, that is to say nonmainstream or unconventional. They are more
ethnocentric and prejudiced, showing greater
antipathy toward members of most ethnic groups
to which they do not belong (Altemeyer 1988,
1996). Authoritarianism is a strong predictor of
prejudice, but it is not the only predictor. The
same is true about conservatism as a personal trait
(Fazio, Jackson, Dunton, Williams, 1995), and
Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto (1999) revealed
a complementary social-political tendency called
the social dominance orientation (SDO) that
can predict racial prejudices (Pratto, Sidanius,
Stallworth, Malle, 1994; Akrami, Ekehammar,
& Araya, 2000). SDO assumes the necessity of
social hierachy for individuals and groups and
the tendency to emphasize or increase social
inequality (Sidanius, & Pratto, 1999).
Individuals who are high in SDO are
hypothesized to accept ‘hierarchy-enhancing
legitimizing myths’ which justify social practices
that enhance or sustain social inequality, while
individuals low in SDO are more likely to
endorse ‘hierarchy-attenuating legitimizing
myths’ and justify social practices that reduce
inequality (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999, Ch. 4). In
short, the theory of SDO argues that group-based
hierarchies reproduce and reinforce themselves
via individuals who have a general preference
for hierarchical structures over egalitarian ones.
Research has generally supported the theory’s
hypothesized correlation between SDO and
specific forms of prejudice, stereotyping, and
acceptance of legitimizing myths. For example,
SDO was positively correlated with anti-Black
racism, sexism, nationalism, cultural elitism,
political-economic conservatism, belief in
meritocracy, pro-military attitudes, and favoring
punitive legal policies (Pratto, et al., 1994). SDO
was negatively correlated with favoring civilrights policies, social welfare, environmentalism,
and noblesse oblige.
Some adherents of personality-trait-theory
considered social dominance orientation and
right authoritarian political orientation as the
main factors of prejudice development (Reynolds,
Turner, Haslam, & Ryan, 2001). The follower of
this approach Whitley unambiguously refers these
two concepts to reasons for prejudices (Whitley,
1999). Despite the difficulty to show cause-andeffect relations between these variables and
prejudices, data show that SDO is mediated by
the influence of in-group’s leading position on
prejudices (Guimond, Dambrun, Michinov, &
Duarte, 2003). It is in accordance with the data
that belonging to leading in-groups predicts
higher SDO than belonging to subordinated ingroups and that experimentally manipulated
status of group significantly influences SDO
(Sidanius, & Pratto, 1999).
Although SDO could be considered as a
more general phenomenon than the preference
of a particular leading group, it considers social
status of individuals and groups’ vertical aspect
only, but does not capture the huge amount of
other interpersonal and intergroup relationships,
including the process of enculturation through
integration by Berry (Berry, Trimble, & Olmedo,
1986; Berry, Poortinga, Segall, Dasen, 2002) and
all types of more or less equal interaction between
majority and minority group members.
An important psychological variable
mediating inter-group tolerance is the type of
attachment. Some data show that dispositional
attachment anxiety and avoidance are inversely
related to compassion, but attachment security
(both on subliminal and supraliminal levels) is
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positively related to compassion and altruistic
behavior. The authors concluded that attachment
security could promote prosocial values and
tolerance (Mikulincher & Shaver, 2007).
Tolerance concept’s definition
and study
At the same time, the amount of intergroup
conflicts including collective violence has not
decreased in the 21st century, and psychologists
need more holistic (comprehensive) measures to
assess attitudes to out-groups that could predict
individual predisposition to involvement in such
conflicts and violence.
The last edition of the APA Dictionary gives
the following second and third meanings of the
notion tolerance: “2. Acceptance of others whose
actions, beliefs, physical capabilities, religion,
customs, ethnicity, nationality, and so on differ
from one’s own. 3. A fair and objective attitude
toward points of view different from one’s own”
(APA Dictionary, 2007, p.944).
It seems important to combine both aspects
of the definition because tolerant intergroup
perception should include both: a) acceptance
of others (with different social belonging and
background); b) the fair and objective attitude to
opinions of others. The study of majority-minority
in-group interaction has shown that minorityeffected social change left a group stronger when
that change increased the group’s tolerance than
when the group experienced conversion (Prislin,
& Filson, 2009).
Taking into account the priority of the first
meaning of tolerance (habituation to drugs) in
psychology, it is very difficult to find the use of
the concept in the second meaning (Mummendey,
& Wenzel, 1999; Prislin, & Filson, 2009). In
its turn, the reason for this priority could be
explained by the ambiguity and multilevel
character of the phenomenon of social tolerance.
In social-political discourse all reasons of social
conflicts are sometimes explained by the lack of
social tolerance.
Central to the analysis of tolerance is the
question of how members deal with intergroup
difference. If the outgroup’s difference is judged
to be nonnormative and inferior, devaluation,
discrimination, and hostility are likely responses
toward the outgroup. Judging the outgroup’s
difference to be normative or positive leads
to acceptance and appreciation of this group
(Mummendey, & Wenzel, 1999). For example,
in the Latvian establishment ethnic Latvians
with American background are perceived more
positively than local residents and their speech
accent is viewed as more prestigious.
Dissimilarity or “foreignness” has a Janusfaced character as it may elicit either attraction or
aversion (Graumann, 1992). When the outgroup’s
difference is evaluated negatively, perhaps as
a challenge or threat to the ingroup’s opinions
and attributes and hence to the ingroup itself,
the outgroup should experience devaluation and
discrimination. When the outgroup’s difference
is, however, evaluated positively, for instance
as enrichment or as a variation that in a more
abstract sense still confi rms the ingroup’s
views, then the difference should be accepted
and the differing outgroup should be treated
positively (Mummendey, & Wenzel, 1999).
It is possible to fi nd ambivalent attitudes to
outgroups: acceptance on the conscious level,
but rejection on the unconscious level leads
to the minimization of informal contacts with
members of outgroups.
In the recent work tolerance was defined as
out-groups’ perception and estimation without
prejudices and opinions based on in-group
criteria (values, norms, traditions) only and
as acceptance of human (cultural, religious,
gender, age, opinions, etc.) differences that are
not harmful to other groups’ members (Breslavs,
Ābele, Derjabo, Pišinska & Roze, 2008). The
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latter condition seems to be quite important
because unconditional acceptance could lead to
maladjustment –tolerance to criminal or selfuncontrolled groups could be dangerous for the
functioning of a society.
Sometimes in political discourse the notion
secure tolerance is used for such understanding
of tolerance. The borderline between secure and
insecure seems diffuse and ambigious because
interests of different groups of residents could be
very different, and political establishment has its
own interests not coherent with the interests of the
majority of citizens, which limits the possibilities
of objective expertise in the case of dangers to
some social groups. It would be particularly
complicated in the case of cultural threats. For
example, ethnic Latvians in Latvia, including the
establishment, consider that the Russian language
of minorities is a real threat to the Latvian
language and culture. A special law and many
state language control institutions were set up
on the implicit basis of this opinion. Attempts to
change the status of the Russian language (today
it is just a foreign language) are perceived by the
Latvian ethnic establishment and mass media as
an anti-state and destructive activity.
Theories in the field of intergroup relations
can be divided into two groups: general and
specific. General theories try to answer the
question: why are attitudes to in-groups and
outgroups members not equivalent? Only two
main theories can be mentioned: Cognitive or
Social Identity Theory (SIT) (Tajfel & Turner,
1986), and Functional Theory of Intergroup
Relations (FTIR) by Muzafer Sherif (Sherif,
1966).
Tajfel’s Social identity theory (SIT) is
based on Cooley and Mead’s idea on group real
or imagined membership as the basis for social
identity (Mead, 1934/1967) and on Festinger’s
theory of social comparison. Taking into account
that social identity is an important part of a
person’s identity and people prefer a positive selfimage or self-concept, Henry Tajfel proposed that
similarly with self-concept we tend to assess our
own group and its members better than another
comparing group and its members irrespective of
how strong our affiliation with our own group is
(Tajfel, 1979; Tajfel, & Turner, 1986). Previously,
Tajfel and his colleagues in Bristol had shown
that social categorization per se is sufficient to
generate intergroup discrimination, applying
minimal group technique (Tajfel, 1970; Tajfel,
Billig, Bundy, and Flament, 1971). It means that
our belonging (real or imagined) to a group more or
less automatically brings about the phenomena of
in-group favoritism and out-group discrimination
or derogation. At the same time SIT considered
that identification with one’s in-group, not formal
belonging only, is a precondition for positive ingroup evaluation.
The second approach proposed in the FTIR
is that group members’ intergroup attitudes
and behavior will reflect the real interests of
their group vis-à-vis other groups and the type
of interaction (Sherif, 1966). Sherif organized
a three-stage field experiment on intergroup
relationship in a summer camp for boys around
12 years in the 1950-ies. The full design included:
group formation in the first few days, when
new friends were distributed in out-groups and
groups were separated; intergroup competition,
when groups were involved in a ‘win-lose’ game
competition with attractive prizes for winners
(pen-knifes); and intergroup cooperation at
the third stage, when an important joint task
was proposed and both groups were forced to
combine their efforts. The results showed that the
intergroup relations on the second stage became
very hostile, with permanent conflicts and mutual
accusations with very big in-group favoritism
and out-group derogation, but on the third stage
out-group derogation was reduced together with
intergroup conflicts (Sherif, 1966).
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Specific theories attempt to explain
particular phenomena and factors of intergroup
relationships and attitudes. For example, the
optimal distinctiveness model of social identity
(Brewer, 1991) holds that group identification
is the product of opposing tendencies for the
inclusion in the group and differentiation from
others. When in-groups become larger, their rules
and institutions become rigid and the moral order
is seen as absolute rather than relative, the ingroup’s moral superiority become incompatible
with tolerance for differences. If out-groups do
not subscribe to the same rules and are perceived
as the source of threat to the in-group, the
indifference would be replaced by denigration
and contempt (Brewer, 1999).
W. G. Stephan and C.W. Stephan (1996)
proposed the Integrated Threat theory (ITT)
which classifies reasons for negative attitudes to
out-groups into four major types: realistic threat,
symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, and negative
stereotypes. Rather than conceptualizing the
relationship between threat and attitudes as
stemming from either competition or value
conflict, ITT proposes that both can influence
out-group attitudes simultaneously. Within the
ITT, a realistic threat includes perceptions of
competition, conflicting goals, and threats to
physical and economic well-being of the in-group.
A symbolic threat is similar to ideas underlying
symbolic racism, where a threat arises from a
conflict in values, norms, and beliefs between
groups.
Although intergroup anxiety and negative
stereotypes have not been traditionally considered
to be forms of intergroup threat, W. G. Stephan and
colleagues argued that they also reflect concerns
about negative outcomes from intergroup
relations and therefore constitute unique types of
threat and a source of a conflict (W. G. Stephan
& Stephan, 1996, 2000). Intergroup anxiety
involves feelings of uneasiness and awkwardness
in the presence of out-group members because of
uncertainty about how to behave toward them,
which makes interactions with out-groups seem
threatening (W. G. Stephan & Stephan, 1985).
Intergroup anxiety has been demonstrated to be
a predictor of out-group attitudes and bias (Ho &
Jackson, 2001; Islam & Hewstone, 1993b; Voci
& Hewstone, 2003) and furthermore, people
who tend to be generally high in anxiety often
exhibit higher levels of prejudice (Hassan, 1978).
Negative stereotypes generate threat by creating
negative expectations concerning the behavior of
out-group members. Stereotypes have long been
associated with negative out-group attitudes and
readiness to react in a negative way (Eagly &
Mladinic, 1989; Spencer-Rodgers & McGovern,
2002).
Tolerance scale elaboration
Integrated Threat theory was selected as
appropriate for the understanding of the concept
of tolerance (Stephan & Stephan, 1996). The
five-stage process of ethnic tolerance scale
elaboration comprises: a) phenomenological
data collection through structural interviews
and main topics description about existing
positive and negative ethnic stereotypes,
forms of cooperation and competition, points
of misunderstanding, types of attitudes; b)
formulation of the set of statements (93) from
this data collection according to the Threat
theory and pilot study; c) preparation of the fi rst
89-item inventory with six subscales; d) data
collection with the 89-item inventory and factor
analysis of the data resulting in the reduction of
statements to 50 with three subscales (negative
attitude + negative stereotypes, positive
stereotypes, and positive attitude); e) two-stage
data collection with the 50-item inventory and
18-items’ antipathy scale with contrast samples,
and quantitative analysis (including factor,
variance and correlational analysis) of the data.
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Structural interviews included four parts:
1) description of Latvian and Russian ethnic
groups’ essential traits including similarities and
differences between Latvians and Russians; 2)
criteria of good or bad intergroup relationships
on the individual and societal level; 3) factors of
good or bad intergroup relationships, including
language skills, segregation, and differences in the
interpretation of Latvian history; 4) approaches
to improving these relationships on the individual
and societal level. The data of the interviews were
used on the next stage to formulate 93 statements,
four of which were eliminated after a pilot study
with six Latvian and six Russian-speaking
participants.
All 89 statements were distributed on
six factors based on previous theoretical
assumptions: 1) negative attitudes to the
ethnic outgroup, including blatant prejudices
and realistic threats; 2) negative stereotypes;
3) symbolic threats; 4) subtle prejudices,
including intergroup anxiety; 5) positive
stereotypes; 6) positive attitudes. Taking
into account the complicated topic of the
questionnaire four -point Likert scale with
two-type estimations was used: a) agree- partly
agree – partly disagree – disagree; b) regularly –
sometimes – seldom – never.
At this stage 128 participants were involved
(see Table 1).
Factor analysis on the first data collection
stage showed that in the Latvian sample the first
factor explains accordingly 17.321 % of the total
variance, the following 7.616 %, 5.476 %, 4.613 %,
4.036 %, and 3.496 % of the total variance.
Component factor analysis showed more or
less strong three factors-structure only.
Taking into account the Latvian-Russian
asymmetry in the types of threats, blatant and
subtle prejudices, results of internal consistency
analysis using Cronbach’s α and the results of the
component factor analysis, this ethnic tolerance
scale was reduced on the next stage to 50 items
and three factors only – a) negative attitudes to
ethnic outgroup, including negative stereotypes
and prejudices; b) positive attitudes, c) positive
stereotypes.
In the process of transformation, selection
and rejection of weak items along with
psychometric criteria were used, as well as
criteria of similarity between coherent items in
the Latvian and Russian version. For example,
Table 1. Participants on the 89-item questionnaire (demographic variables)
Samples
Latvian sample
female
N
Age (average)
Mono-ethnic + mixed-ethnic family
male
Russian sample
both
female
male
both
47
20
67
27
34
61
35.8
38V +
9J
34.4
35.4
39
37.4
22V +
12J
38.1
39V +
22J
15V + 5J 53V + 14J 17V + 10J
Education (university)
25
7
32
12
22
34
Education (high school or secondary
school)
Location
22
13
35
15
12
27
Riga
18
7
25
14
20
34
Riga’s region or other city
18
9
27
5
9
14
Country-side
11
4
15
8
5
13
Other countries
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Scree Plot
15
Eigenvalue
10
5
0
88
85
82
79
76
73
70
67
64
61
58
55
52
49
46
43
40
37
34
31
28
25
22
19
16
13
10
7
4
1
Component Number
Fig 1. 89-item tolerance’s scale Varimax rotation on 6 factors (Russian sample)
Scree Plot
16
14
12
Eigenvalue
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
88
85
82
79
76
73
70
67
64
61
58
55
52
49
46
43
40
37
34
31
28
25
22
19
16
13
10
7
4
1
Component Number
Fig 2. 89-item tolerance’s scale Varimax rotation on 6 factors (Latvian sample)
in the factor of positive attitudes to out-group
were maintained such items as “Savu brīvo laiku
es labprāt pavadītu arī krievu kompānijā” (“I
readily spend leisure time in Russian company
too”) in the Latvian version and “Я охотно
проведу время в латышской компании»”
(“I willingly spend leisure time in Latvian
company”) (Breslavs, et al., 2008).
Participants
On the next stage data were collected from
the sample of 265 participants representing two
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Table 2. Participants on the 50-item questionnaire (demographic variables) Social workers and medical personnel
were coded as group 1.1. , policemen, lowers and military personnel as group 1.2.
Izlases
Prof.groups
Latvian
1.1.
1.2.
1.1.
female
Russian
1.2.
1.1.
male
1.2.
both
1.1.
1.2.
1.1.
female
1.2.
1.1.
male
1.2.
both
Sample features
N
Age (average)
Mono-ethnic +
mixed-ethnic
family
Education
(university)
Education (high
or secondary
school)
Location
58
54
0
32
58
86
28
25
12
42
40
67
42.4
21.8
-
23.1
42.4
22.3
44.6
22.5
40.8
25.2
43.4
24.2
-
26+6 48+10 69+17 14+14 13+12
48+10 43+11
9+3
25+17 23+17 38+29
26
2
-
8
26
10
16
1
10
3
26
4
32
52
-
24
32
76
12
24
2
39
14
63
Riga
18
17
-
5
18
22
17
13
8
18
25
31
Riga’s district or
other city
The country-side
25
30
-
14
25
44
10
12
4
15
14
27
15
7
-
13
15
20
From other
countries
-
9
1
ethnic populations and two types of different
professional groups, 251 were accepted as
valid (144 Latvians – 58 social workers and 86
policemen, military personnel, and lawyers; and
107 Russian-speaking – 40 social workers and
medical personnel, 67 – policemen, military
personnel, and lawyers) (see Table 2). In the
retesting procedure 57 Latvian and 66 Russianspeaking respondents participated.
Factor component analysis on the second
data collection stage showed the reduction
of six factors to three main factors only in
the Latvian sample: The first factor (negative
attitudes + stereotypes) explaining 23.942 % of
the total variance. The second factor (positive
stereotypes) – explaining 11.537 % of the total
variance. The third factor (positive attitudes)
explaining 5.641 % of the total variance
(see Fig. 3).
9
1
The three factor structure of the 50-item ETS
was confirmed in the Latvian sample, explaining
41.12 % of the total variance
Three factors with Eigen value>2 are
distinguishable on the Scree Plot.
Analysing Fig. 3, two main factors in the
Latvian sample are clear, but the third factor is
ambiguous.
Quantitative data of factor analysis showed
the first two factors’ priority. Accordingly, these
factors explain 23.942 % and 11.537 % from the
data variations, but the third factor – 5.641 %.
Analysing Fig. 4, two main factors are clear
in thee Russian sample too, but the third factor
looks ambiguous. Quantitative data of factor
analysis showed the first two factors’ priority.
Accordingly, these factors explain 24.665 %
and 8.669 % from data variations, but the third
factor – 6.046 %.
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Scree Plot
12
10
Eigenvalue
8
6
4
2
0
49
47
45
43
41
39
37
35
33
31
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
Component Number
Fig. 3. 50-item tolerance’s scale Varimax rotation on 6 factors (Latvian sample)
Scree Plot
12.5
Eigenvalue
10.0
7.5
5.0
2.5
0.0
49
47
45
43
41
39
37
35
33
31
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
Component Number
Fig. 4. 50-item tolerance scale Varimax rotation on 6 factors (Russian sample)
The first factor, characterizing negative
attitudes and prejudices to ethnic out-group, is
the strongest, but the next two positive factors are
not so strong and differentiated.
According to the study’s plan, two ways
of construct validity verification were used:
the comparison of data from two functionally
contrasting professional groups that could be
potentially different also on social tolerance;
and positive correlation with a similar measure
(convergent validization).
The comparison of two contrasting groups
was made using ANOVA approach (see Table 3).
The results of the Latvian sample show that only
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the difference on the second factor (positive
stereotypes) is significant ( F = 5.16, p = 0.025),
while other diferences are in the predicted
direction but not significant. The small diferences
can be explained by the interaction between
professional, gender and age factors. In group 1.1.
(social workers) the average age was twice higher
(M = 42.8, SD = 9.4) than in group 1.2. (M = 21.9,
SD = 1.8), and group 1.1. was female mainly.
The results of the Russian sample show that
only the difference on the first factor (negative
attitudes and stereotypes) is significant (F = 5.35,
p = 0.023) ), while other diferences are in the
predicted direction but not significant (see
Table 4.). The small diferences can be explained
by the interaction between professional and age
factors. In group 1.1. (social workers) average age
is twice higher (M = 43.54, SD = 8.89) than in
group 1.2. (M = 24.39, SD = 4.83).
Taking into account the main matter
of interest for intolerance 18-item scale My
antipathies was chosen that had been previously
elaborated and verified (Breslav, 2011; Breslavs,
Tjumeneva, 2008). Responses to each of these
items are made on a 9-point Likert scale ranging
from does not apply to me (1) to strongly applies
to me (9). The passive hate subscale consists
of eleven statements as “…activities make me
anxious” and “Obviously feet get me far from
…”, the active hate subscale consists of seven
statements, as “I want to punish such people as…
for public grievance” and “I became enraged
when such people as …vaunt their achievements”.
The internal-consistency reliability of the Hate
subscales on Latvian data showed good results
too – Cronbach’s Alpha 0.913 for passive hate and
0.827 for active hate for the Latvian-speaking
sample, 0.915 & 0.853 for the Russian-speaking
sample accordingly.
The study hypothesis on this stage
presupposed the positive link between the first
factor (negative attitudes +stereotypes) and hate,
but negative links or lack of the link between hate
and the second and third factors. The results (see
Table 5. and Table 6.) confirmed this hypothesis.
In the Latvian sample the first factor has positive
correlation with both hate types (0.218 with
passive hate and 0.240 with active hate), the
Table 3. 50-item scale variance (F Fisher) analysis results (Latvian sample, n=102)
ANOVA
Latvian-50
F
Sig.
Tolerance_fact1
Between Groups
0.0747
0.785177
Tol_fact2
Between Groups
5.157399
0.025291
Tol_fact3
Between Groups
2.493912
0.117445
Hate_sum
Between Groups
0.954645
0.330898
Table 4. 50-scale variance analysis (F Fišera) results Russian sample (n=100)
ANOVA
Russian version -50
F
Sig.
Tolerance_fact1
Between Groups
5.355669
0.022743
Tol_fact2
Between Groups
0.065097
0.799149
Tol_fact3
Between Groups
2.039226
0.156467
Hate
Between Groups
1.86805
0.174826
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Table № 5. Ethnic Tolerance correlations with Hate Latvian Latvian sample (r Spearman)
Variables
Intolerance – negative
attitudes + stereotypes (1)
Tolerance – positive
stereotypes (2)
Tolerance– positive
attitudes (3)
1. Tolerance factor
2. factor
- 0.119
3. factor
- 0.679***
0.330***
Hate-passive
0.218*
-0.114
-0.256**
Hate-active
0.240**
-0.029
-0.190*
* – p ≤ 0.05; ** – p ≤ 0.01, *** – p ≤ 0.001
Table № 6. Etnic Tolerance correlations with Hate Russian Latvian sample (r Spearman)
Variables
Intolerance – negative
attitude + stereotypes (1)
Tolerance – positive
stereotypes (2)
Tolerance– positive
attitudes (3)
1. factor
2. factor
- 0.406***
3. factor
- 0.594***
Hate-passive
0.207*
0.085
-0.075
Hate-active
0.190*
-0.003
0.062
0.596***
* – p ≤ 0.05; ** – p ≤ 0.01, *** – p ≤ 0.001
second factor is not linked significantly, but the
third factor has negative correlation with both
types of hate (Table 5).
In the Russian sample the first factor has
positive correlation with both hate types (0.207
with passive hate and 0.190 with active hate),
but the second & third factors are not linked
significantly with both types of hate (Table 6).
The differences between the two samples can
be explained by more homogenous data of the
Russian sample on the second and third factors
represented in high intercorrelations of these
factors. The Latvian sample data show that
positive stereotypes are higher than positive
attitudes to the out-group and that intercorrelation
is not significant.
The tolerance scale reliability was verified
using two approaches: 1) internal consistency
as a scale’s homogeneity, verified with the most
popular equation by Cronbach’s α; 2) retesting
procedure as a scale’s stability of data. The data
on Cronbach’s α showed good scale’s reliability
for the Latvian and Russian versions (see Table 7.).
For the Russian version Cronbach’s α is a little
higher but both versions look strong enough.
The second approach to the tolerance scale’s
reliability verification through retesting also
revealed good results (see Table 8). All correlations
(r Spearman) are significant and sufficiently
high, which shows the 50-item tolerance scale
high reliability as stability of results, taking
into account that the retesting procedure was
realised approximately three months after the
first assessment.
In figures 5a,b,c, all three factors testingretesting correlation for the Latvian sample are
represented. In figurēs 6a,b,c, – all three factors
testing-retesting correlation for the Russian sample
are represented. All correlations are very high and
significant.
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Table № 7. 50-item tolerance scale’s internal consistency (Cronbach’s α)
Factors/Samples
α Cronbach (Latvian sample)
α Cronbach (Russian sample)
1
.908
.930
2
.846
.863
3
.740
.833
Table № 8. 50-item tolerance scale testing-retesting correlations
Factors/Versions
Latvian (57 respondents)
Russian (66 respondents)
1
.698***
.839***
2
.688***
.834***
3
.723***
.898***
*** – p≤ 0.001
KorelƗciju diagramma latviešu izlasei (2f)
KorelƗciju diagramma latviešu izlasei (3f)
60
45
40
50
35
40
30
2 . te s tƝ š a n a
2 . te s tƝ š a n a
2 . te s tƝ š a n a
KorelƗciju diagramma latviešu izlasei (1f)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
25
30
20
15
20
10
10
5
0
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
10
20
1.testƝšana
30
40
50
0
60
5
10
15
20
(a)
25
30
35
40
45
1.testƝšana
1.testƝšana
(b)
(c)
Fig. 5 a,b,c. Testing-retesting tolerance scale Latvian version correlations for the first factor (a), second factor (b),
and third factor (c)
KorelƗciju diagramma krievu izlasei (1f)
KorelƗciju diagramma krievu izlasei (2f)
70
90
60
80
KorelƗciju diagramma krievu izlasei (3f)
60
50
70
50
40
40
2 . te s tƝ š a n a
2 . te s tƝ s a n a
2 . te s tƝ š a n a
60
50
30
40
30
30
20
20
20
10
10
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
1.testƝšana
(a)
50
60
70
80
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
1.teste?ana
(b)
60
70
80
90
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1.testƝšana
(c)
Fig. 6 a,b,c. Testing-retesting tolerance scale Russian version’s correlations for the first factor (a), second factor
(b), and third factor (c)
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Results
The data have shown significant gender
differences on the second factor (positive
stereotypes) only (male – M = 35.67, SD = 4.76;
female – M = 39.19, SD = 5.15) (see Table 9.). The
diferences on the other factors are not significant.
Similar results are revealed in the Russian
sample where no significant gender diferences
are found at all (See Table 10).
The comparison of professional groups has
shown significant diferences in the Latvian sample
on the second factor only (F = 5.157, p = .025) (See
Table 11). The lack of other diferences could be
explained by big age diferences between groups
1.1. (M = 42.8, SD = 9.4) and 1.2. (M = 21.9,
SD = 1.8).
The comparison of professional groups
has shown significant diferences in the Russian
Table 9. 50-item tolerance scale’s data (Latvian sample)
Factors
1.factor
2.factor
3.factor
Male (n=24)
Female (n=78)
M
73.17
72.97
SD
12.06
12.4
M
35.67**
39.19
SD
4.76
5.15
M
29.92
31.38
SD
5.03
4.96
Male (n=51)
Female (n=49)
49.37
51.35
SD
10.82
12.67
M
58.57
57.39
Table 10. 50-item tolerance scale’s data (Russian sample)
Factors
1.factor
2.factor
3.factor
M
SD
8.57
9.69
M
34.29
33.02
SD
6.77
6.54
Table 11. 50-item tolerance scale’s data on Professional comparison (Latvian sample)
Factors
1.factor
2.factor
3.factor
M
SD
M
SD
M
SD
Social workers and
Policmen, lawers and
medical personnel (n=45) military personnel (n=57)
72.64
73.32
11.92
12.62
39.67*
37.33
5.33
5.01
31.91
31.91
4.07
4.07
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Table 12. 50-item tolerance scale’s data on professional comparison (Russian sample)
Factors
1.faktors
2.faktors
3.faktors
M
Social workers and
medical personnel (n=39)
53.67*
Policmen, lawers and
military personnel (n=61)
48.21
SD
13.33
10.16
M
58.28
57.80
SD
10.06
8.52
M
32.49
34.43
SD
7.14
6.28
sample on the first factor only (F = 5.356, p = .023)
(See Table 12).
The lack of other diferences could also be
explained by big age diferences between groups
1.1. (M = 43.5, SD = 8.9) and 1.2. (M = 24.4,
SD = 4.8).
Discussion
The first stages of the new measure’s
elaboration have shown the possibility to assess
the tolerance construct in its social-psychological
aspect. On the initial stages of the measure’s
elaboration the main themes of out-group
perception of Russian-speaking Latvians by
Latvian Latvians and of Latvians by Russians.
As expected, these themes were not the same for
Latvian and Russian participants. For example,
Latvians were more sensitive to language issues but
Russian-speaking participants to discrimination
issues. To minimize the diferences between two
versions of the scale the same structure and the
same number of items were elaborated. It means
the necessity to use assymetric criteria in the
process of weak items’ transformation, selection
and rejection.
Statements were shaped in coherence
with these themes content and previous studies
on intergroup relations, especially with the
Integrated Threat theory (Stephan & Stephan,
1996). Elaboration of the first six factors’ 89-item
tolerance scale with six subscales (realistic
threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety
and negative stereotypes, positive stereotypes
and positive attitude) and its verification showed
non-coherence of the main factors with the
factors proposed by the ITT. Factor analysis
results of the 89-item tolerance scale showed that
it is impossible to differentiate ethnic out-group
anxiety, ethnic out-group threats and negative
stereotypes about ethnic out-group (Breslavs, et
al., 2008).
In the next version of the scale these factors
were combined into one factor – negative
attitudes. On the next stage of data collection
and the scale’s verification six factors were
reduced to three factors’ (negative attitudes to
ethnic outgroup + negative stereotypes; positive
stereotypes; and positive attitudes to outgroup)
50-item scale with three subscales. Factor
analysis results of the 50-item tolerance scale
showed that the fi rst factor is strong enough for
both versions, but the second and third factors
are not so strong, which leaves the opportunity
to minimize the scale’s structure to two main
factors (negative and positive). The opportunity
to minimize this scale to 38-item two-factor
tolerance scale should be verified in further
studies.
The results of both versions the 50-item
scale’s reliability look good enough including
good internal consistency (the Latvian version –
α = .908, .846, .740 for accordingly, the first,
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second and third factors; the Russian version –
α =.930, .863, .833) and high testing-retesting
correlation (from .688 to .898). This tolerance
version showed positive correlation of the
negative subscale with the hate scale but negative
correlation (or lack of correlation) of the positive
subscales with the hate scale that had been
expected by the test’s elaborators. The comparison
of two contrast professional samples looks not so
decisive, which can be explained by the big age
difference between selected professional groups.
The verification of construct validity could be
continued to get more robust results with the right
authoritarian political orientation and the SDO
measures (Altemeyer, 1996; Pratto, et al., 1994)
as well as aggression measure (Buss, & Perry,
1992).
Conclusion
Results of the 50-item tolerance scale
elaboration look quite promising.
The data have shown good reliability
(internal consistency and retesting stability) and
moderate construct validity of the 50-item scale’s
two Latvian and Russian versions. But taking
into account different intercorrelations between
the second and third factors in the Latvian and
Russian versions, the higher stability of twofactor structure (negative attitudes + negative
stereotypes – positive attitudes + positive
stereotypes), the tolerance scale could be reduced
to the 38-item scale with two subscales.
At the same time, the concept of tolerance
in its social-psychological sense seems to be
insufficiently elaborated theoretically. Many
related concepts, such as stereotypes, prejudices,
social discrimination and derogation should
be revised and placed into a theoretical model
for understanding the processes of intergroup
relationships, taking into account individual
variables that can improve or disturb these
processes.
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29. Whitley, B. E. (1999). Right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and
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Разработка шкалы этнической толерантности:
восстановление интегрального подхода
Г. Бреслав
Балтийский институт психологии и менеджмента
Латвия, 1011, Рига, ул. Бруниниеку, 65
Несмотря на значительный прогресс в социальной психологии в последние 50 лет, понятие
«социальная толерантность» остается весьма туманным. Для исследователей оно
выглядит слишком комплексным, и они предпочитают анализировать отдельные аспекты
этой толерантности – стереотипы, предрассудки, искажения восприятия, социальную
дискриминацию, которые выглядят более одномерными и доступными для изучения. В то же
время представляется, что без сведений о терпимости/нетерпимости к разным социальным
группам в целом невозможно целенаправленно строить социальную политику, направленную
на гуманистическую интеграцию общества. В психологии личности и социальной психологии
на сегодняшний день отсутствуют интегрированные критерии для оценки, в частности
этнической толерантности, и известные одномерные и частные показатели такой
толерантности не могут компенсировать дефицит в этой области.
Целью данной статьи была разработка методики целостной диагностики межэтнических
установок как личностной диспозиции в Латвии. Разработка такой методики представляла
процесс из пяти этапов, в результате чего создана валидная и надежная шкала измерения
этнической толерантности. Данная модель разработки шкалы толерантности может быть
использована в любой стране с учетом конкретного социально-культурного контекста.
Ключевые слова: социальная толерантность, этническая толерантность, этнические
установки, этнические стереотипы, этнические предрассудки, социальная дискриминация,
шкала этнической толерантности.
Исследование проводилось в рамках проекта “Разработка метода мониторинга социальной
толерантности” при содействии отделения ЕС по грантовой поддержке “Развитие социальной
интеграции в Латвии” (Соглашение # 2005/017-495-03-01/3-1/50).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 597-608
~~~
УДК 304.3
Conflict Situation and its Manifestation
in Assessment of Quality of Life
Larisa A. Novopashina* and Boris I. Khasan
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 14.01.2014, received in revised form 13.02.2014, accepted 05.03.2014
This article deals with the questions of reality of conflict on the material of assessment of quality of life.
The results of the research showed that the psychological (internal) factors must be taken into account
in assessment of quality of life. They allow to take into account the lower threshold characteristics of
quality of life, resulting in possibility, and very often necessity of relocation and removal of resources
from the territory.
The object of the study was the conflict situation of the main social groups, manifested in their
perceptions of quality of life. The study groups included representatives of business, the authorities and
general public. The main method of analysis was conflict-analysis, allowing a constructive strategic
approach for working with the reality of conflict.
Keywords: constructive psychology of conflict, conflict situation, reality of conflict, threshold
characteristics in assessment of quality of life
In this article we will study conflict situation
on the material of socio-economic and political
life, namely, on the material of assessment of
quality of life of population.
It is believed in constructive conflict
psychology that, to start with, a real resolution
of conflict requires a clear understanding of the
whole reality of a conflict, which is the beginning
of developing a constructive strategy. Reality
of conflict includes the history of conflict, its
reasons, emotional stress and the actual situation
as a component of a conflict.
Traditional notions of conflict suggest the
opposite – the fi rst thing to do is to look for
universal methods, techniques, “recipes” to
win in a conflict. And involvement in a conflict
*
results in an attempt to quickly do something
that will stop the situation. It is also connected
with a desire to get rid of stress and with the
general attitude to a conflict as a “problem”. But
very often immediate actions and rash decision
not only fail to make life easier, but make it
much more complicated.
Analysis of reality of conflict involves finding
answers to questions such as: who is involved in
the conflict?; what are their goals? (what do they
want); what are their interests? (why do they want
to reach that goal?); what does each of the parties
have to resolve the conflict? And only then, you
can choose the ways that will help to meet the
interests of each party, and as a result – to remove
the contradiction and really resolve the conflict.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: nla@ippd.ru
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Orientation at fast action appears everywhere:
in everyday life and in work processes and
decision-making, at various levels and in various
fields of activity.
The principle of constructive retention and
resolution of a conflict is formulated specifically
to distinguish a “pseudo resolution” from real
“resolution” To resolve a conflict means to work
with the entire reality, seeing it as a task to solve.
Importance of working with a conflict
as a task is manifested in a special way in the
sphere of administrative and political decisionmaking. For example, prolongation of the general
strategy for centralization of power and control,
strengthening administrative components in the
system of methods of governance has become the
basic technology of ensuring functioning of the
state government in the mode of reproduction.
At the same time, the desire for centralization
of political decision-making at times dominates
over attempts to ensure power organizationally.
The
actual
insufficient
organizational
development of power contributes to widening
gaps between the levels of decision-making,
increasing uncoordinated actions and decreasing
the influence of coordinating mechanisms
for cooperation among the various power and
governing bodies.
Such specifics of levels and relations in
decision-making lead to inefficient decisions and
actions, especially when the subject of decisionmaking is a difficult and not fully understood
thing as assessment of quality of life.
At the present time there are a large number
(about 60) of different methods of assessing
quality of life, that use thousands of factors
of human life in society as a whole and in its
individual spheres.
However, most of these methods are, first of
all, objective in nature, inadequately considering
people’s subjective attitude towards quality of
their life; secondly, they are aimed at comparing
levels and quality of life in different regions and
countries and are not adapted for administration.
Such factors as housing, education,
healthcare are the subjects of economic analysis
and are in the focus of attention of the authorities.
Moreover, it is clear that these factors are criteria
of economic development and are used in the
assessment of quality of life in currently existing
methodologies.
At the same time, there are a number of
questions and problems that do not get their
responses and solutions in existing approaches.
For example, attracting young highlyqualified specialists to the territory of the krai
for ensuring sustainable development of the
area is done with the help of a number of socioeconomic factors without taking into account
subjective feelings, needs and motivation of
young people.
An example of this is the situation with
the current system of education, which shows
that it is arranged in a way that does not help to
attract and retain young teachers, for whom it
is monotonous, routine, not prestigious and not
showing any visible horizons of professional
development [7].
It is quite natural that declarations or
“decrees from above” alone, without acceptance,
assimilation, and realization of ideas of
development by every teacher in their own work,
are not enough for real, visible changes.
In the same way, the question about retaining
and attracting highly-qualified specialists does
not have its answer.
In other words, the existing approaches and
models of assessment of quality of life do not
take into account such an important factor as
people’s behavior and do not answer the question
about the conditions under which highly qualified
specialists, young people and residents of the
area will work or develop and invest into one or
another aspects of life of the territory.
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Organizing
and conducting the research
Organizing and conducting this study,
we proceeded from the fact that dynamics of
the behavioral patterns of major groups can
be indicative of effectiveness of management
decisions, can help to design and predict the
processes of development.
In the context of the issues and objectives of
the study it was important for us to identify the
factors that affect the quality of life and discover
the threshold characteristics, which “force”
people to make cardinal decisions and “move” to
other places of living and spheres of business.
To solve this problem, we developed a
research model. At the core of this model is
the hypothesis that, along with the factors that
determine the quality of life, promote or hinder
the development of life potential and capital,
there are also their threshold characteristics,
influencing the decision to change a place of work
and life.
As independent variables were identified:
age, modality, aspirations and economic /
demographic / social / activity factor. In other
words, we believe that objectified factors and
their perceptions do not determine the behavior
directly. Behavior changes under the influence
of internal factors, which, in their turn, form
personal resource capabilities of making and
implementing a decision.
At the first stage, characteristics of quality
of life were identified, taking into account
different professional (sociological, economic,
psychological, organizational, etc.) approaches,
as well as going beyond them. For this, an analysis
of existing international and Russian studies was
conducted, and the method of “brainstorming”
was used. The identified characteristics were
grouped into meaningful factors, which are
represented by: employment, education, health,
environment and family.
At the next stage, groups of people, whose
attitudes, opinions and notions are important for
making this or that decision, were identified by
the method of expert assessment. Three groups
were identified that were included into the
sample of the research. They are government
officials, population and representatives of
professionally active groups, realizing business
behavior.
We proceeded from the assumption that the
behavior of active, business people is crucial and
affects the behavior of other social groups.
At the second stage, the factors of quality
of life were identified which affect the behavior
of business people (representatives of small and
medium-sized businesses). For this purpose
focus groups were conducted. The first group
with representatives from business, which we
called “Business”. The second group – business
people, initiating and carrying out production,
“Producers”. And the group of social services,
which includes representatives of the social
sector.
The choice of such participants is due to the
need to identify the characteristics of quality of
life, affecting decision-making in professionally
active groups. The objectives of this stage were
to identify the characteristics of quality of life,
influencing behavior of people who are active
in business, and the factors which help to retain
professionals in the krai.
The group focused interview allows us to
detect ideas about such characteristics of quality
of life that contribute to active, passive, protest
behavior.
At the third stage, ideas and opinions
about the quality of life of population itself were
studied. We proceeded from the assumption that
there is a set of factors determining migration /
immigration behavior of people. For this purpose,
a sociological survey was conducted to study
the ideas of population about the content of the
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concept of “quality of life” and its assessments in
accordance with their ideas about it.
The structure of the questionnaire included
blocks for studying ideas about way of life,
environment, life safety, health care, education
and upbringing of new generations, business, the
authorities, etc.
The questionnaire contained 55 questions,
including socio-demographic data. In total, 1,409
respondents were interviewed.
At the fourth stage, by the method of
interview, ideas of the authorities about notions
of population about the factors of quality of life –
reasons of decision-making of different groups
about change of place of residence and business
activity.
At this stage the method of in-depth interviews
was used. The sample included representatives of
legislative and executive power.
Results
As a result of the conducted focus groups
it was found that the participants of the group
“Business” identify such factors of quality of life
as: medicine, education, business security, peace
of mind, presence of goals in the territory, having
work.
The main component of this concept,
according to the opinion of the focus group
participants, is “presence of work that a person
likes”, and all the other factors “result from this
one”. Most of the interviewees identified the
concept of quality of life as the presence of a
balanced complex of “Live, work, rest”.
According to the participants, a set of
characteristics, that describe “a suitable place
to live”, includes a more complete list, namely:
geographical location; natural conditions;
population density; support of business by
regional authorities; degree of monopoly; power
vertical; legislation; tax burden; number of
regulatory bodies; distribution mechanism in
the region, level of staff qualification; speed
of communication and presence of specific
individuals, responsible for the general situation.
The most common characteristic given in
this group is the authorities’ interest in business
and industry, their support of these spheres.
Identifying the factors, provoking protest
forms of behavior or migration tendencies, the
focus group participants noted: lack of work,
lack of staff, lack of consumers, low potential of
areas within the country, lack of infrastructure.
In answers to this question, the factors of lack of
work and lack of infrastructure were most often
named.
During the analysis it was found that the
factor of prospects dominate among business
people, and among present factors the one which
is crucial is loss of relevance of the business in
this region.
Participants of the focus group “Production”
included into their ideas about quality of life:
security, cultural environment, a healthy
environment, satisfaction provision of social
services, access to education and quality of food.
The most significant component of the
concept of “quality of life” was “satisfaction with
provision of social services”.
According to the “producers”, the
characteristics “of a suitable place to live”
are: accessibility and quality of education,
accessibility and quality of medicine; safety (i.e.,
low crime), quality and cost of housing, ecology,
availability of kindergartens, availability of rest
for children and adults; prestige of sociallyimportant professions; socio-cultural environment
and convenient infrastructure, highly-qualified
experts, possibilities of self-realization, level of
wages. The most important characteristics named
were- quality and accessibility of education in the
region.
According to the participants in this focus
groups, the following factors cause the protest
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Larisa A. Novopashina and Boris I. Khasan. Conflict Situation and its Manifestation in Assessment of Quality of Life
behavior: bad ecology and natural disasters;
technical or industrial disasters; high level of
unemployment; excessive migration (dominance
of other nationalities); low wages, low level of
socio-cultural environment, excessive density
of buildings in the city; excessive administration
(bureaucracy, raising of taxes, etc.), tragic events
in family life; persecution or severe control
arrangements. A significant factor, according to
the “producers” is a factor of “bad ecology and
natural disasters”.
Dominance of factors of prospects was
revealed in this group, in particular prospects for
career advancement.
In the notions of the focus group “Social
services” the following factors are included:
stability of the surrounding social environment;
stability in wages, food, accommodation,
entertainment; satisfaction with provision
of social services, state of the environment;
level of culture and education; sense of justice;
availability of opportunities for development and
freedom , material standard of living, presence
of positive prospects. The main components of
their notion about quality of life are: satisfaction
with provision of social services; state of the
environment; level of culture and education.
Description of a place as suitable and
desirable for living is represented by the following
characteristics: quality of housing, quality of
food, safety, environment, health, provision of
services, wages, territory, freedom, culture,
national factor, possibility of self-realization and
professional growth, accessibility of education.
The most prominent factors are: provision of
services, opportunities for self-realization and
professional growth.
So, the principal factors for the participants
are the following: artificial raising of prices in the
region, the national factor, natural disasters in the
territory, appearance of material opportunities
for free choice of more comfortable territory.
Participants of this group are guided by
factors of the present – material wealth and
presence of other opportunities; factors of the
future are taken into account when making the
trajectory for their children and grandchildren.
Thus, the main characteristics of quality
of life in the views of the active professional
community have been identified and the
hierarchy of these ideas in the cluster has been
established.
We have assessed the differences in the
expression of factors of quality of life in the views
of three professional and positional groups (using
the criterion χ2).
It has been found the ideas about quality of
life in general, factors provoking active and/or
protest forms of behavior and the factor of time
are similar in the three groups. As for the ideas
about a desirable place to live- they are explicitly
different.
This stage of the research showed that
the main factors for making a decision when
choosing a particular type of behavior in the
cluster of business activity are: lack of conditions
(opportunities) to develop the business in the
region, natural disasters and “poor” sociocultural environment.
At the next stage of the research, ideas of
population about quality of life were identified.
We proceeded from the assumption that there
is a set of external factors, in relation to which
inner feelings, attitudes and well-being begin
to influence migration / immigration behavior.
These factors include: income, education, health
care, safety.
As a result of the sociological survey, ideas
of population about the content of the concept
“quality of life” and its assessment in accordance
with these ideas were identified.
The questionnaire consisted of blocks for
studying ideas about quality of lifestyle, the
environment, life safety, health care, education
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Larisa A. Novopashina and Boris I. Khasan. Conflict Situation and its Manifestation in Assessment of Quality of Life
and upbringing of new generations, business, the
authorities and so on.
The data showed that the main factors for
population are subjective feelings: state of health,
satisfaction with their lives, and only after them:
material well-being, availability of apartments,
free time, personal, family and work safety. Fig. 1
shows the factors of quality of life, obtained
during the survey, which are most important
from the point of view of population.
At the next stage, the opinion of the authorities
about the ideas of population concerning quality
of life was found out.
To accomplish this task, a specially
designed in-depth interview was carried out. 21
representatives of legislative and executive power
were interviewed.
The results of processing of the obtained
information showed that, according to the
opinion of the authorities, ideas of population
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Equalityyofmen'sand
dwomen'srigghts
MaaterialwellͲbeeing
Employymentguarantee
Developm
mentofqualittysocialservices
PersonalandFamilySaffety
EEcologicalsafe
etyandenviro
onmentalquaality
oice
Freedomofactionandcho
Politicalffreedomandpoliticalstabiility
Conditionsforahealthylifesttyle
Availabilityyifhighqualittyeducationaand…
ConditionsforhigghͲlevelbusiness
Quaalityofauthority
Qualityinformationalenvironment
Spirituaality
0
20
40
Theentiresample ̏%
Fig. 1. Factors of quality of life, which are most important for the respondents
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about quality of life mainly consist of external
factors: level of income, level of tariffs, access
to education and health care. In addition to
this, the interviewed participants, named one
subjective (internal) factor – sense of comfort
and security.
Most interviewees, discussing the issue
of quality of life as seen by population,
distinguished different categories, characteristics
and parameters. These categories included:
youth, pensioners, working-age population,
entrepreneurs. It was noted that ideas about
quality of life depend on gender and class (poor,
middle class, high level of income).
According to the opinion of the authorities,
population’s characteristics of quality of life are
mainly connected with conditions of life. The
list and rating of characteristic of quality of life
was made, which, according to the opinion of the
authorities, are used by the population.
After that ideas of the authorities about
quality of life were identified and ranked.
The authorities classify objective criteria as
external factors – demographic, material, social
benefits, programs, social support, mortality, and
introduction of high technologies (cardiology
centre, oncology and perinatal centers), level
of prosperity of population, level of wages,
additional income, development of production
infrastructure, level of unemployment, the
environment, outward appearance of the city,
human ecology.
The question about circumstances and causes
of migration behavior was asked separately.
In their responses, respondents distinguished
different types of migration – labor and political,
as well as different groups of population, for
whom there are specific reasons for making such a
decision. According to the interviewees’ opinion,
these groups include: young people, working
population, and entrepreneurs. In addition,
experts distinguish between external and internal
migration (for example, when a person, in fact,
being in the workplace, stops working)
One-third of the respondents said that
migration is a natural human desire to live and
work where in a better place.
In general, the reasons for making a decision
are given below. Experts believe that these
reasons are:
Conditions of life – work, living conditions,
leisure, self-realization;
Jobs and income, career;
Ecology;
Deprivation of rights, for example, social
benefits and privileges;
Conditions for living in other region are
much better
Change in the status of a citizen – left
school, entered university, moved house, got a job
somewhere, got married, etc.
More comfortable living environment
Injustice in the place of residence
Conditions for business
The level and the ratio of wealth
The guarantees for the future and its
insurance
Low qualification
Lack of housing
Income gap between groups of population
Increase in prices for articles of primу
necessity
Risks to capital – poor infrastructure,
logistics system, conditions.
In addition, the experts highlighted some
internal (subjective reasons), too. These include:
Feeling of hopelessness – noted by 2
experts
Hangout set (the club)
State of health
Inconsistency between the environment and
internal expectations
The analysis of the responses of the
interviewees about triggering mechanisms of
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Larisa A. Novopashina and Boris I. Khasan. Conflict Situation and its Manifestation in Assessment of Quality of Life
protest behavior and its magnetic characteristics
found out that:
1. There are different types of protest
behavior – active and passive; silent and
demonstrated forms; internal and external
protest. The set of causes for these groups is
different. For example, there are initiators and
support groups. The possible causes for initiators
are: justice, desire for power, unrealized
ambitions, or they are just city’s madmen, for
support groups – an interest or mere coincidence
and a sense of group, for young people – selfexpression.
2. There are some external factors,
contributing to launch of protest behavior. They
are:
– Prices and tariffs
– Non-payment of wages
– Clumsy policies on income
– Distortion of information
– Relations with employers
– Lack of security guarantees
– Deterioration of material conditions
– Neglect of the authorities to peoples’
applications
3. In addition, the experts identify internal
factors (causes) of protest behavior. They are:
– Dissatisfaction with actions of the
authorities
– Understanding of rightlessness
– For the intelligentsia – the mismatch
between the real pace of change and declared
changes
– Deceived expectations
– Violated dignity
– Justice
– The value of life
– Annoying factors that led to resentment,
and this resentment is no longer hidden – medical,
social, community services, registration of
documents. And on the part of the authorities –
lack of interaction, dialogue between the
authorities and population, which results in
an increase of a certain critical mass, are
created.
4. There is a point of view that the
protest behavior does not have a system, it is a
technology.
The question of what parameters and
characteristics are taken into account in electoral
behavior was analyzed separately.
According to the experts, quality of life is
used as a factor to attract people to elections and
to influence their choice. In this case, quality of
life is emphasized and the following parameters
are used:
– Housing services and tariffs
– Material
– Spiritual
– Ecological
– Transport
– Environment
– Employment and income
– Housing services
– Performance in innovation and
education
– Everything that concerns a particular
person, living in this area.
The same as in the previous questions,
passive (infantile) and active voting behavior
can be distinguished. Elections are a place of
trade, where loyalty is bought in exchange for
expectations.
Quality of life, according to the interviewees,
is formed where population is in contact with the
external environment, and in this sense Russia is
homogeneous.
Thus, the analysis found that there are labor
and political migration, which, in its turn, can
be internal and external, active and passive; for
each of the types of migration there is a set of
external and internal factors of quality of life,
that determine a particular behavior and its
dynamics.
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Furthermore, protest behavior is studied in a
special way, the experts distinguish its active and
passive forms.
In general, quality of life, according to the
experts, has external and internal factors in the
notions of population. And first of all, population
is focused on external factors, and after that, on
internal.
According to the experts, population
estimates efficiency of the authorities, first of
all , in the characteristics of external factors
such as demographic, material, social benefits,
programs, social support, mortality, introduction
of high technologies (cardiology centre, oncology
and perinatal centers), level of prosperity of
population, level wages, additional income,
development of industrial infrastructure, level
of unemployment, the environment, outward
appearance of the city.
Next, we made a comparative analysis of the
views of different groups that participated in the
study, which showed that ideas about quality of
life that the authorities, people in business and
population have, do not coincide. This is indicated
by the data presented in Table 1.
In our opinion, such a difference, first of
all, means that institutional conditions are not
specified, which makes it difficult for the groups
to understand each other’s ideas. In this sense,
decision-making on the quality of life has the
nature of action, and does not reflect interaction,
decisions made reflect and connect the interests
of not all parties, but only one of them. From
the point of view of current trends or fashion,
decisions of such kind made by the authorities
are, perhaps, adequate, because they partly
correspond to the claims of one of the parties.
But, from the point of view of reality of conflict,
this is a race to the horizon of a decision, but not
actually a management decision, because it does
not pay attention to signals of risk. In other words,
we mean that in assessing quality of life it is
important to take into account the lower threshold
characteristics, resulting in impossibility of
further actions, expressed in everyday language
as a “I cannot go on living like this”. At present,
only the upper threshold characteristics are paid
attention to, catering for which is expressed in
everyday language in the question “how do you
want to live?” and then trying to satisfy these
wishes, but it is impossible to keep up with the
expectations.
A social agreement about quality life
between power-population and business can be
discussed as an institutional form of retention of
visions of different groups.
The study also revealed that the assessment
methodology should also take into account age
specifics. For example, the period of youth is
determined in relation to one’s opportunities for
getting education and status, taking into account
the possibilities of relatives, i.e. it refers to quality
of life through possibilities of parents and one’s
prospects.
In the next age group (those who entered the
labor market) quality of life is determined by the
possibility to realize oneself as a subject in civil,
economic and political context.
The potential of the next generation is
characterized through evaluation of the peak
of life and manifests itself in experiencing the
possible contribution to future generations.
Thus, in this work we examined the
possibility of research apparatus to characterize
a threshold level.
It was found that the area of relationships
is the most representative, i.e. not what is
included into quality of life, but what qualities
emerge as influencing behavior. It was
established that the population’s attitude towards
the factors can be different, in other words
people are prepared to tolerate, this influences
assessment of quality of life, but does not affect
behavior.
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Table 1. Comparative characteristics of quality of life in notions of respondents
Business people
Having a job that a person likes
Security of business
The Authorities
Population
Accessibility and quality of social State of health
services - Education (whether one
pays or not, how much, how much
one pays, how much one pays in
comparison to annual income, what
quality one get sfor this price and
so on)
– Medical services (whether one
pays or not, what the quality is
and so on). Because if the services
are free, the level of income is not
important at this moment.
-Housing and communal services
– Housing
– Transport services
– Communications
Level of income
Satisfaction with one’s life
Peace of mind
Quality of the urban environment
Material well-being
Presence of targets in the territory
Ecology
Having an apartment
Satisfaction with provision of
social services
Access to education, health care,
quality of food
Savety
Level of education
Free time/leisure
Manual labour
Guarantee of work
Financial condition
Good environment
Safety and insuring of business
Availability and quality of health
care
Personal and family safety
Cultural environment
Personal and family safety
Ecology
Comfort
Self-realization
Claims for culture (spiritual)
Claims for ownership
Employment
Quality of a work place
Opportunity to go on vacation
Level of health
Quality of food
Contact with power
The distinction between oneself
and the state
Contentment
Dignity
High level of anxiety
Possibility to influence life
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Larisa A. Novopashina and Boris I. Khasan. Conflict Situation and its Manifestation in Assessment of Quality of Life
Due to the fact that the ideas about quality
of life in the groups of power-population and
business differ , and the authorities believe
that the other two groups, first of all, take into
account external factors, it is necessary to work
out the institutional conditions by organizing, for
example, areas of public consent.
Conclusion
The results of the research, which is built
on the methodological basis of the constructive
psychology of conflict, allow us to draw the
following conclusion:
1. The existing methodologies for determining
and monitoring quality of life have a number of
disadvantages, which significantly reduce their
practical importance for the government bodies
as a guide for managing development of the
region in terms of increasing human potential.
2. It is possible to conduct monitoring
that detects clear signals about the risks or,
vice versa, stabilization characteristics of
behavior of population, which, in its turn,
determines the socio-economic condition
of the region. Motivational characteristics,
but not evaluation factors can become
framework for assessment, i.e. the sum of
relations of internal and external factors that
cause a person to act and determine his /her
behavior.
3. Distinguishing psychological migration
allows to see its manifestation, primarily in
addictive forms of behaviors (alcoholism,
disease, drugs, etc.).
In fact, we are dealing with people’s
behavior and its strategies: there is a real
migration and internal psychological. At the
same time, whenever dealing with movement
of people, we are dealing with human capital
and its movement, which in its turn affects the
economic situation in the region, as well as its
image and attitude to it.
References
1. Dagbaeva, S.D. (2011) Quality of life of population in the society under transformation: social
techniques of analysis and management: summary of thesis of Doctor of Sociology.
2. Petropavlova, G.P. (2008) Quality of life of the population of the region: research methodology
and factors of growth: summary of thesis of Doctor of Economics.
3. Petrova, A. T. (2008) Development of methodological basis for assessing quality of life of the
population of the region: summary of thesis of Doctor of Economics.
4. Prosperity Index of the countries of the world (or why all thrive, and we are as we are) [Access
mode: http://www.rusfact.ru/node/323], etc.
5. Kirillova, T.A. (2011) Development of human potential as a condition for raising the level and
quality of life of population: summary of thesis of Doctor of Economics.
6. Mitrofanov, K.G., Vasilieva, N.P., Kozyreva E.Yu. (2011) The problems of professionalization of
educators” introduction to the problems Materials 17th Russian scientific-practical. conf. Krasnoyarsk,
141-150.
7. Zaslavskaya, T.I., Kalugina ,Z.I., Russia, which we are gaining, Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2003.
728 p.
8. Larichev, O.I. Theory and methods of decision-making, Moscow: University Book, Logos, 2006. 73-78.
9. Khasan, B.I. Constructive psychology of conflict, St. Petersburg., Peter, 2003. 250 p.
10. Michael Barber, Katelyn Donnelly, The Atlantic, the Pacific, global leadership and the future
of education Saad RizviOceans of Innovation, 49-54.
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Larisa A. Novopashina and Boris I. Khasan. Conflict Situation and its Manifestation in Assessment of Quality of Life
Конфликтная ситуация и ее проявление
в оценке качества жизни
Л.А. Новопашина, Б.И. Хасан
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В настоящей статье рассматриваются вопросы конфликтной действительности на
материале оценки качества жизни. Результаты исследования показали, что в оценке
качества жизни необходимо учитывать психологические (внутренние) факторы. Именно они
позволяют учитывать нижние пороговые характеристики качества жизни, за которыми
стоит возможность, а очень часто и необходимость, смены места жительства и вывоза
ресурсов за пределы территории.
Предметом исследования стала конфликтная ситуация основных социальных групп,
проявившаяся в их представлениях о качестве жизни. В исследовании участвовали
представители групп деловой активности, власти и населения. Основным методом работы
стал конфликт-анализ, позволяющий работать с конфликтной действительностью в
конструктивном стратегическом залоге.
Ключевые слова: конструктивная психология конфликта, конфликтная ситуация,
конфликтная действительность, пороговые характеристики в оценке качества жизни.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 609-618
~~~
УДК 159.9
Goal Attitudes of Schools
and Psychological Readiness Towards Developmental
Conflict Resolution in Youth as the Educational Result
Natalia V. Gorlova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Received 11.12.2013, received in revised form 14.01.2014, accepted 13.02.2014
On the basis of cultural-historical psychology, constructive psychology of conflict and existential
psychology the paper discussed the construct of psychological readiness towards developmental
conflict resolution in youth that is represented by dispositional and operational readiness. The aim of
the research was to study conditions of the formation process of operational psychological readiness
towards developmental conflict resolution in youth at school. Results of the study indicated that students
at school where educational goals and tasks are coordinated with actions with high dispositional
psychological readiness towards developmental conflict resolution in youth at the transition to High
School demonstrated high operational psychological readiness towards developmental conflict
resolution in youth. The methodology of this study could be used for the evaluation of educational
environment of schools.
Keywords: psychological readiness towards conflict resolution, developmental conflicts, youth,
autonomy, responsibility, educational environment of schools.
Introduction
Since the concept of developmental conflicts
was postulated in different theories (S.Freud,
E.Erickson, L.Vygotsky) the idea that contradiction
is the major driving force in the process of
development is not modern anymore. On the
conflict stage in the critical phase of adolescence
developmental crisis adolescents understand the
absence of their individual resources to bring
ideals into life (K.Polivanova).
Psychological readiness in ontogenesis is the
aspiration of a child to a new more mature status
(L.I.Bershedova, 1999), constructive psychology
of conflict insisted that the child may not be ready
*
for the transition to the new age period (Khasan
B.I., 1997).
In our work we distinguish two types of
psychological readiness of youngsters towards
developmental conflict resolution in Youth: 1.
dispositional readiness as their psychological
well-being and their feeling of the current age at
the transition from Secondary to Senior School;
2. operational readiness as the owning of personal
resources that are necessary at the transition to
Youth.
From the standpoint of cultural-historical
psychology we can propose that the school has
the specific role in the formation of psychological
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: gorlova_n@mail.ru
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Natalia V. Gorlova. Goal Attitudes of Schools and Psychological Readiness Towards Developmental Conflict Resolution…
readiness towards developmental confl ict
resolution in Youth. Nowadays there are some
articles that indicated the role of educational
system on the personal development of students
at Senior School1 and the role of school type on
the professional self-determination (Golovei
L.A., 2011). However we can state that the
topic viewing the school as the factor of
influence on the personal development in the
transition to High School is rare in modern
psychology.
Theoretical framework
We consider youth as the period of searching
for meaning in life (Gorlova N.V., 2011). Some
theorists wrote that young people search for
meaning in life in adolescence2, others expected
that this process last during adolescence and
youth3. Third point of view (search for meaning
in life is a characteristic of youth) is broad in
modern psychology4.
We consider that the main developmental
conflict in adolescence is the actualized
contradiction where aspirations of youngsters
on their new stage of autonomy come across the
resistance of adults that may appear as different
limitations and even as expansion of adult
towards teenager’s personal resources (their time,
space, etc.). The basic developmental conflict in
Youth is the actualized contradiction “meaning
of life towards meaninglessness of life” that may
appear in significance of existential topics (such
issues as meaning of activity, including meaning
of life), in long-term goal setting, selection
of the domain for the personal professional
realization, choosing of partner in romantic
relationships.
In our work we use the construct of
dispositional psychological readiness towards
developmental conflict resolution in Youth that
consisted of few components (see Fig. 1):
• Exhaustiveness of topics that determine
developmental conflicts in Adolescence
(situations of expansions on personal
resources of youngsters – their time,
space, image, personal things etc.);
• Significance of topics that determine
developmental conflicts in Youth (longterm goal setting, selection of the domain
for the personal professional realization,
choosing of partner in romantic
relationships);
Significanceof
existential
topics
Significanceof
youthtopics
Exhaustiveness
ofadolescent
topics
Assertion
Psychological
readiness
towards
develomental
conflict
resolutionin
Youth
“Beingmodeof
Existence"
Fig. 1. The construct of dispositional psychological readiness towards developmental conflict resolution in
Youth
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Natalia V. Gorlova. Goal Attitudes of Schools and Psychological Readiness Towards Developmental Conflict Resolution…
• Significance of existential topics, such
issues as meaning (including meaning of
life);
• Definite strategies of conflict resolution
towards developmental conflicts in
Adolescence and Youth (Assertion of
personal standpoint and “Being mode of
Existence”).
We consider that operational psychological
readiness towards developmental conflict
resolution in Youth is adolescent’s personal
resources helpful in the situation of transition
from adolescence to youth:
1. internal locus of control;
2. high meaning-in-life orientations and
general meaningfulness of life;
3. tolerance for ambiguity;
4. the balance between chronological and
psychological ages (or lower psychological
age than chronological ones).
choice of tools and creation of conditions that
can solve stated tasks. Educational environment
is substantially assessed by effects and results in
personal, social and intellectual development of
children. (Rybtsov V.V., 2010).
That is why the main aim of our work is to
determine how high dispositional psychological
readiness towards developmental conflict
resolution in youth corresponds with high
operational psychological readiness at schools
where the formation of components of operational
readiness is announced in goal attitudes and where
it is confirmed by formed educational results.
Our general hypothesis is: students with high
dispositional psychological readiness at schools
where goal attitudes correspond with real actions
towards formation of operational readiness had
high operational psychological readiness.
Methods
Participants
Statement of the problem
Theoretical considerations suggested that
educational system and type of school could
play part in the personal development of students
of High School and in their professional selfdetermination.
The main question of this study is the
question about the conditions of the formation
process of operational psychological readiness
towards developmental conflict resolution in
youth at school.
We consider that the problem in this sphere
is that various schools today declare that they
work on the specific educational results and
competencies but their goal attitudes could be
only claims without any actions that will form
declared educational results.
Modern
educational
theorists
and
psychologists expect that educational environment
is determined by concrete tasks that school set
and solve in its practice and appeared in the
The participants of the study were 117 (51
boys, 66 girls) ninth grades in three schools
located in Krasnoyarsk, the large-sized city and
the capital of the region. The median age of the
participants was 15,4 years. The data collections
were made in spring 2012, at the completion
of the last grade of comprehensive school. The
questionnaires were administered at school
during school hours, but the filling in of the
questionnaires and participation in the study was
voluntary.
Characteristics of schools in the study5
In this section we used materials of the
study “School factor in biographies of graduating
high school students” with our co-authorship.
Schools in this project were selected by experts
from Board of Education depending on status
and substantial contribution of school. Schools in
the study were divided into 3 types: schools with
low parent’s capital (stagnation school), schools
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that have had stable academic results for the
last few years, without any special programmes
(average-sized schools), special subject schools
with advanced study or schools with educational
concept grounded on philosophical basis
(conceptual schools) (Novopashina L.A., Ustus
Y.I., Grigorieva E.G., Dorokhova A.V., Khasan
B.I., 2013).
In our study there were three schools: two
schools of conceptual type (gymnasium as school
with philosophy and lyceum as school with
advanced study) and one school of stagnation
type. In our study gymnasium was named
“School 1”, lyceum – “School 2” and school of
stagnation type – “School 3”.
Besides expert’s evaluation of school’s
types
we
also
analyzed
educational
environment of schools by their goal attitudes.
We used two documents that were placed on the
official Internet sites of schools to determine
goal attitudes of schools. Those were public
reports of schools about their activity and
programmes of development for the next few
years.
There were only two schools that declared
the formation of autonomy and responsibility
as the goals of educational process (School 1
and School 2). According to E.Kaliteevskaya,
D.Leontiev (2006), we consider internal locus
of control as the measurement of responsibility.
Internal locus of control in different spheres (its
subscales) will be additional measurements of
responsibility.
We divided all sample on six groups:
№
1
2
3
Dispositional
readiness
(Readiness)
Dispositional
readiness, School 1
Dispositional
readiness, School 2
Dispositional
readiness, School 3
№
4
5
6
Dispositional nonreadiness (Nonreadiness)
Dispositional nonreadiness, School 1
Dispositional nonreadiness, School 2
Dispositional nonreadiness, School 3
Thus our statistical hypothesis is:
Students from groups “Readiness” of
School 1 and School 2 where the formation of
responsibility is declared in goal attitudes and
is confirmed by real actions demonstrate higher
results on general internal locus of control and its
subscales than students from group “Readiness”
of School 3 that don’t declare the responsibility as
the educational result.
Measures
1. Level of subjective control (Rotter J.,
adaptation in Russian of Bagin E.F, Golynkina
E.L., Etkind A.M., 1984) – measurement of
internal locus of control and it’s subscales
(Internal locus for achievement (ILa), failures
(ILf), family relations (IL-Family), formal
business relations (ILb), interpersonal relations
(IL-IR), health (ILh)). Average mean for
internal locus of control is equal to 5,5 and
higher.
2. Author’s inventory “Topics-situations”
(in co-authorship with B.I.Khasan) – measurement
of dispositional type of psychological readiness
towards developmental conflict resolution
in Youth (measurement of exhaustiveness of
adolescent topics, significance of youth topics,
significance of existential topics, assertion and
“Being mode of Existence”).
Results
First we calculated all general scales and
subscales of Level of subjective control. We
calculated also general coefficient of dispositional
readiness of “Topics-situations”.
We constructed results on readiness and
non-readiness using the formula M+ Standard
deviation. Than we divided results on readiness
(> M+ St.dev.), and non-readiness (<M – St.dev.)
(see Fig. 2).
As can be seen from Fig. 2, 15,38% of
the sample (18 students) belong to the group
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Proportiionofreadinessan
ndnonͲ
ness
readin
15,38
8%
NonͲ
readinesss
Readine
ess
84,62%
N b
Numberofstudents(people)
f
d
(
l )
Fig. 2. Proportion of dispositional readiness and non-readiness in the main sample (117 students)
Prop
portionoffreadinesssandnon
nͲreadinesssin
threesschools
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
8
8
Readiness
2
46
30
School1
NonͲreadineess
23
3
School3
School2
Fig. 3. Proportion of dispositional readiness and non-readiness in three schools
“readiness”, 84,62% of the sample (99 students)
belong to the group “non-readiness”.
As can be seen from Fig. 3, the proportion
of dispositional readiness and dispositional nonreadiness in schools in the sample varied from
21% of students at School 2 (8 people) and 15% of
students at School 1 (8 people) to 8% of students
at School 3 (2 people).
We used Kruskal-Wallis H criterion (see
Table 1) to compare all groups (6), 3 groups
“readiness” separately and 3 groups “nonreadiness” separately. We used Mann-Whitney U
criterion (see Table 1) to receive additional results
on pair-wise comparison of groups “readiness”
and “non-readiness” separately in each school.
As can be seen at Table 1, there are 7
significant differences on general locus of
control and its subscales between all six groups
in the study, 6 significant differences between
groups “readiness” of School 1, School 2 and
School 3.
Students of School 1 of group “Readiness”
had higher results on general locus of control (p
< 0,01), internal locus of control for failures (p <
0,05), internal locus of control in formal business
relations (p < 0,05) and internal locus of control
in interpersonal relations (p < 0,01) than students
from group “Non-readiness” of the same school.
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 demonstrated general
internal locus of control and internal locus of
control for achievement of groups “readiness”
and “non-readiness”. Group “readiness” of School
1 has significantly higher results than groups
“readiness” of School 2 and 3. Their results are
higher than average mean of internal locus of
control (5,5) and they are also higher than results
if group “non-readiness” from the same school.
Group “readiness” of School 2 has significantly
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Table 1. Comparison of groups “readiness” and “non-readiness” of School 1, School 2, School 3 on general locus
of control and its subscales
Statistical criterion
Kruskal-Wallis H
Variable
Mann-Whitney U
Comparing groups
1, 2, 3
General Internal locus of
control
Internal locus for
achievement
Internal locus for failures
4, 5, 6
*
Internal locus for family
relations
Internal locus in formal
business relations
Internal locus in
interpersonal relations
Internal locus for health
All 6
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
*
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
1 and 4 2 and 5 3 and 6 1 and 3 1 and 2 2 and 3
1>4
**
2<5
*
1>4
*
1>3
*
1>3
*
1>3
*
1>4
*
1>4
**
1>3
*
1>3
*
2<5
*
1>2
**
1>2
**
1>2
**
1>2
**
1>2
**
1>2
**
1>2
*
2>3
*
**p < 0,01; * p < 0,05; Stat.tendency – differences on statistical tendency.
Groups: 1 – readiness, School 1; 2 – readiness, School 2; 3 – readiness, School 3; 4 – non-readiness, School 1;
5 – non-readiness, School 2; 6 – non-readiness, School 3.
GeneralIInternallo
ocusof
control
8,0
6,0
Internallocussfor
nt
acchievemen
7,1
5,5
5,4
3,8
4,0
4,4
8,0
3,5
7,0
7,9
6,0
4,0
2,0
3,6 3,0
3,2 3,5
School2
School3
2,0
0,0
School1
School2
nonͲreadiness
0,0
School3
School1
reeadiness
nonͲreeadiness
readiness
r
Fig. 4. General Internal locus of control of groups
"readiness" and "non-readiness"
Fig. 5. Internal locus of control for achievement (ILa)
of groups "readiness" and "non-readiness"
lower results than group “non-readiness” from
the same school.
Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 demonstrated internal
locus of control for failures and internal locus
of control for family relationships of groups
“readiness” and “non-readiness”. Group
“readiness” of School 1 had significantly higher
results than groups “readiness” of School 2 and
3. Their results are higher than average mean of
internal locus of control (5,5) and they are also
higher than results if group “non-readiness”
from the same school.
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Intern
nallocusfforfailuress
7,0
6,0
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
Internallocusforfamily
r
relations
6,5
5,0
6,8
8,0
2,9 2,9
2,9
6,0
2,5
5,6
3,1
4,0
3,0 3,0
2,5
2,0
0,0
School1
School2
nonͲre
eadiness
School3
School1
readiness
School2
nonͲreaadiness
School3
reeadiness
Fig. 6. Internal locus for failures (ILf) of groups
"readiness" and "non-readiness
Fig. 7. Internal locus for family relations (IL-Family)
of groups "readiness" and "non-readiness"
Internaallocusfo
orformal
bussinessrelaations
Internaallocusfo
or
interperso
onalrelattions
6,0
6,0
10,0
4,8
5,0
8,0
4,0
3,1 3,0
3,3 3,0
8,3
6,1
6,0
3,0
4,0
2,0
2,9 3,0
2,9 2,5
School2
S
School3
2,0
1,0
0,0
0,0
School1
School2
nonͲreadiness
School1
School3
nonͲreadiness
readiness
read
diness
Fig. 8. Internal locus for formal business relations
(ILb) of groups "readiness" and "non-readiness"
Fig. 9. Internal locus for interpersonal relations (ILIR) of groups "readiness" and "non-readiness"
Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 demonstrated internal
locus of control for formal business relationships
and internal locus of control for interpersonal
relationships of groups “readiness” and “nonreadiness”. Group “readiness” of School 1
has significantly higher results than groups
“readiness” of School 2 and 3. Their results
are higher than average mean of internal locus
of control (5,5) and they are also higher than
results if group “non-readiness” from the same
school.
There are differences between “readiness”
groups (Fig. 10). Group “non-readiness” of
School 1 has significantly higher results than
groups “non-readiness” from School 2 and
School 3. Group “readiness” from School 2 has
significantly lower results than group “nonreadiness” from the same school.
Discussion
We expected that students from groups
“Readiness” of School 1 and School 2 where
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Internallocusfo
orhealth
6,0
5,3
4,3
4,0
3,0 2,6
2,7 2,5
5
School2
School3
3
2,0
0,0
School1
nonͲͲreadiness
readiness
Fig. 10. Internal locus for health (ILh) of groups
"readiness" and "non-readiness"
locus of control in few spheres (for failures, in
formal business relations and interpersonal
relations) in comparison with students who felt
themselves not ready for the transition.
In other words students with dispositional
readiness felt themselves responsible for their
failures and expected them as the result of their
own activity but not the result of circumstances
of other people. They considered themselves
responsible for the sphere of business and
interpersonal relations.
Conclusion
the formation of responsibility is declared in
goal attitudes and is confirmed by real actions
demonstrate higher results on general internal
locus of control and its subscales than students
from group “Readiness” of School 3 that don’t
declare the responsibility as the educational
result.
Our hypothesis is confirmed. Group
“Readiness” of School 1 demonstrated higher
results on general internal locus of control
and its components than students from group
“Readiness” of School 3.
Students from group “Readiness” of
School 2 where the formation of responsibility
was also declared in goal attitudes didn’t
demonstrate general internal locus of control and
its components. That means the contradiction
between the goal attitudes towards the formation
of responsibility and real actions in formation of
that educational result.
Furthermore interesting results of this study
are the differences between groups “Dispositional
Readiness” and “Dispositional Non-readiness” of
School 1. Students who felt themselves ready to
developmental transition to Youth demonstrated
the general internal locus of control and internal
This article was dedicated to the main
question of the study about the conditions that
form one of components of the operational
psychological readiness towards developmental
conflict resolution in youth at school (the
responsibility).
We found out that concrete tasks set by
schools as educational results should be supported
by concrete steps in the process of problem
solving in their practice and by the choice of
means and creation of conditions that could form
the declared result.
Students of school where the formation of
responsibility was claimed as goal attitude and
the responsibility was really formed demonstrated
this ability as internal locus of control.
Thus we can resume that the educational
environment of school could be evaluated not
only from goal attitudes towards the development
of autonomy and responsibility but from
the standpoint of real results in the personal
development of students.
Acknowledgments
The author would like to thank her research
manager Professor Boris I.Khasan for his kind
assistance and methodological guidance.
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1
2
3
4
5
Voronkova I.V., 2003; Morosanova V.I., Aronova E.A., 2004.
Obykhova L.F., Popova M.V., 2011; Podolskiy A.I., Karabanova O.A., Idobaeva O.A., Heymans P., 2011.
Lishin O.V., 2008; Medvedev A.M., Sudieva I.S., 2009; Osnitskiy A.K., 2010.
Anikina V.G., 2000; Volochkov A.A., Ermolenko E.G., 2004; Dementiy L.I., Kupchenko V.E., 2011; Zagryadskaya N.N.,
1999; Popova T.A., 2009; Pusanova O.A., 2006; Safi n V.F., Nurlygayanov I.N., 2008; Chudnovskiy V.E., 2004.
This study was conducted in 2011-2012 by “Institute of psychology of developmental practices” (Krasnoyarsk) in cooperation with NRU Higher School of Economics (Moscow).
References
1. Bershedova L.I. (1999). Psychological readiness towards the transition to the new developmental
stage as a personal neoformation of critical periods [Psikhologicheskaya gotovnost k perekhodu na
novyi etap vozrastnogo razvitiya kak lichnostnoe novoobrazovanie kriticheskih periodov]. Doctoral
thesis, Moscow.
2. Golovei L.A. Professional self-determination on the verge of adulthood: measures, factors,
crises [Professionalnoe samoopredelenie na poroge vzroslosti: pokazateli, factory, krizisy]. Na poroge
vzrosleniya (On the verge of growing-up). Moscow, 2011, p. 62-77.
3. Gorlova N.V. (2011). Stating the problem of conflicts of development in youth [Postanovka
problemy psikhologicheskoy gotovnosti k razresheniu konfliktov razvitiya unosheskogo vozrasta]. In
the World of Scientific Discoveries, 11 (23), pp. 40-47.
4. Kaliteevskaya E.R., Leontiev D.A. (2006). Ways of formation of personal self-determination
in adolescence [Puti stanovleniya samodeterminacii lichnosti v podrostkovom vozraste]. Voprosy
psychologii, 3, pp. 49-55.
5. Khasan B.I. Ideal form of childhood and problem of developmental dynamics speed [Idealnaya
forma detstva i problema tempov vozrastnoi dinamiki]. Materialy 4-oi nauchno-prakticheskoi
konferentsii “Pedagogika razvitiya: Vozrastnaya dinamika i stupeni obrazovaniya” (Proc. 4th Conf.
“Pegagogics of development: Developmental dynamics and stages of education”). Krasnoyarsk, 1997,
pp. 22-30.
6. Novopashina L.A., Ustus Y.I., Grigorieva E.G., Dorokhova A.V., Khasan B.I. Characteristics
of responsibility as the factor of school in the biography of graduates [Kharakteristiki otvetstvennosti
kak faktor shkoly v biografii vypusknikov]. Materialy 19-i nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii
“Pedagogika razvitiya: initsiativa, samostoyatelnost, otvetstvennost” (Proc. 19th Conf. “Pegagogics of
development: initiation, autonomy, responsibility”). Krasnoyarsk, 2013, pp. 276.
7. Rybtsov V.V. (2010). The model of educational environment of school and general characteristic
of diagnostic’s measures [Model’ obrazovatel’noi sredy shkoly I obtshaya kharalteristika sredstv ee
diagnostiki] In V.V. Rybtsov & I.M.Ulanovskaya (Eds.), Technology of educational environment
evaluation of school (p. 14-36). Moscow, Obninsk, IG-SOCIN.
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Natalia V. Gorlova. Goal Attitudes of Schools and Psychological Readiness Towards Developmental Conflict Resolution…
Целевые установки школ
и психологическая готовность
к разрешению конфликтов развития в юности
как образовательный результат
Н.В. Горлова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье на основе культурно-исторического подхода, конструктивной психологии
конфликта, а также экзистенциальной психологии рассматривается конструкт
психологической готовности к разрешению конфликтов развития в юношеском возрасте,
представленный диспозиционной и оперативной готовностью. Целью исследования стало
изучение условий формирования оперативной психологической готовности к разрешению
конфликтов развития в юности в школе. Результаты исследования показали, что в школе, где
цели и задачи на образование согласованы с действиями, учащиеся при переходе в старшую
ступень со сформированной диспозиционной готовностью к разрешению конфликтов
развития в юности демонстрируют также и высокий уровень оперативной готовности
к разрешению конфликтов развития в юности. Методология исследования может быть
применена для оценки образовательной среды школ.
Ключевые слова: психологическая готовность к разрешению конфликтов, конфликты
развития, юношеский возраст, ответственность, образовательная среда школы.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 619-627
~~~
УДК 37.014.54:347.447
Conflicts, Negotiations and Risks
in Educational Relationships
Boris I. Khsan* and Elena Iu. Fedorenko
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 21.01.2014, received in revised form 12.02.2014, accepted 26.03.2014
The paper discusses problems of conflicts of interests arising in the course of educational process
between subjects of education. The subjects of education are represented by parents, members of
school community (administrators, teachers, school staff), students. The authors observe risks of
education and their distribution among the subjects of education. Educational contract is regarded as
a productive way to resolve conflicts between the subjects of education.
Keywords: risks in education, subjects of educational relationships, conflicts in educational
relationships, negotiations, educational contract.
Attempts to imagine substantive framework
within which the topic “Risk” is currently
being debated can lead to some confusion.
Risk is discussed by specialists in game theory,
in economics, sociology, political science,
management of complex systems, and ecology.
But the problem of risk in modern psychology is
hardly discussed and we have not observed any
research on the topic in the field of pedagogy. We
will make an effort to understand why modern
pedagogy avoids the topic. And as it has been
practiced in pedagogy for a long time, instead
of explanations we will resort to metaphors,
following this tradition and attempting to use a
risky metaphor:
“The act of love involves two
parties, their interests partially
overlap, partially do not overlap,
but the allocations of risk for the
*
consequences of the act are radically
different”.
We believe that this metaphor rather
productively presents an image of typically
evolving educational relationships.
Next, we will follow the ideas that educational
relationships can be described as a conflict with
different prospects of dynamics and resolution, as
well as the ideas that in order to have a productive
perspective, the conflict should be structured
enough (Coser, pp. 106-108).
Efficiently solvable conflicts imply a distinct
representation of the interests of the parties
involved and agreement on the subject and
material for collision of interests. If the reality of
the relationships is not formed in such a way, we are
dealing with so-called “conflict monster”, when
one party wants one thing, the other – another.
Such actions can be called overlapping, but they
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: khasan@ippd.ru
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can scarcely be discussed as an interaction, which
is, according to the classical theory of conflict, an
attribute of the conflict (Coser, p. 49), and by no
means can such actions meet the characteristics of
consistency. And despite the fact that their actions
interfere with each other, because they are realized
simultaneously in a limited space and become
really interdependent, such interaction cannot
be productive. Usually the tension escalates, all
sides trying to enhance forces. This is followed
by mutual negative names, threats, etc.
For professional work with such a situation
it is necessary to identify the real interests of
the parties, to determine the cause of their either
inconsistent or consistent character, and to try to
reconcile the interests.
A peculiarity of educational relationships,
quite clearly presented in a myriad of psychological
and educational works, was coherently
schematized by Vygotsky (Vygotsky, pp. 373-391),
and then literally drawn by G.P. Shchedrovitskii
as a culture translation process, in which special
cultural positions interact, and their activity is
mediated by the social situation of development
and by the use of specific (relevant to cultural
material) transformation methods (Hasan, pp.
38-42). The very development of methods and
appropriation of cultural transformation methods
form meaningful characteristics of educational
relationships. And it is this understanding of
educational relationships that gives us reason to
believe them to be developing and to become a
condition for the development of collective or
individual subject involved in them. In turn, this
means that we “see” in these relationships both
their distinct characteristics, defining cultural
forms of the subjects studied and methods of their
conversion, and relatively high uncertainty in the
individual and collective achievements.
Does this mean that the educational
relationships, while being to a certain extent
dynamic and including conflict, have a high
degree of uncertainty and, as a consequence, are
always risky?
The nature of risks to the parties – participants
of educational relationships is determined by
their interests and expectations, as well as their
contributions made to the educational process.
What do the parties – participants in
educational relationships reckon upon? What are
the risks which they are trying to minimize while
realizing their own interests?
Through our research we have focused on two
institutions – parties in educational relationships.
These are Institute of Education and Institute of
Family. It was important to address the direct
participants in this kind of analysis, although we
certainly understand that the main and familiar
subject of such relationships is Institute of State.
This party stands as if it is behind Institute of
Education, but the last for the last few hundred
years has acquired its own specific interests,
which do not always coincide with the interests
of state.
We have had a few dozen focus groups,
consisting of representatives of educational
institutions and families. It was important to
find out what real interests in education can be
claimed by these groups and how they can be
specified, as well as to know the ideas about their
own contribution to education. So we supposed it
would be possible to get an answer to the question
of risk allocation.
Question about the risks arose from the need
to analyze the seriousness, feasibility and place
of interests in education; their place among other
interests of the relevant institutions. The fact is
that the declarations about the importance of
education, about its alleged priorities have become
a commonplace in various discussions and carried
serious journalistic far away from the real state
of things. Checking whether seriousness of the
relationship in a particular area can be sufficient,
in our opinion, is possible if we understand what
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contributions and under what guarantees people
are willing to make. Or in other words, how much
people are eager to risk and what dangers they are
ready to run in order to achieve certain goals.
So a conscious willingness to take risk is the
measure of the seriousness of the interests.1
The fi rst thing we saw and it was very
important, the formulation of the interest of a
due position in the education field or the clear
articulation of ideas turned out to be incredibly
challenging for the focus group participants.
Moreover, this happened despite the fact that
questions about the purpose of education and
perceptions of educational results are quite a
popular topic to discuss. Focus group members
all the time “produced” exactly this very kind
of maxims, immediately discrediting it by
denying standard wordings like “harmonious
development of personality” or “modern citizen
of the country” as valid representation of their
interests. In this stream further analysis in
groups, conventionally called as “the producers
of education”, showed that participants have a
stable sense of mission, status of education,
about their own contribution to the realization of
this mission, need for external support for this
mission, the omni-recognition of the status of
education by everyone, who one way or another
is involved in these relationships. Namely,
by the founders of educational institutions,
parents, children, society and state in general.
Participants of almost all groups agreed that the
level of remuneration is the criterion of this kind
of recognition and therefore the fundamental
interests of representatives of educational
institutions are concentrated on winning such
recognition, i.e. to obtain and maintain an
appropriate for such mission status.
The users, i.e. those involved in education as
“consumers”, though not denying representations
of the status, yet do not assign to them any
significant place. Here come to the foreground
absolutely pragmatic interests, while they are
also barely articulated. This interest group was
formulated in such a line: “Free us from worries
and ensure results”. In fact, household members,
in accordance with the exact expression of
Evgenii F. Saburov, send a child to teachers,
freeing themselves and transferring responsibility
to another party, while relying on getting a good
result in the distant future. At the same time
attempts to control the flow of the process in the
right direction are carried out on the basis of their
own memories and experiences, as well as leaning
on inconsistent standards. The latter fact is very
influential, because it is an appeal to some “social
contract”, the content of which is interpreted by
the parties rather arbitrarily, but in the full belief
that there exist some generally accepted, wellknown and obvious norms. In strong language,
it looks something like this: “We have given you
our children, you owe us and do what you must
do”.
When these concentrated and formulated
interests are represented to parties – participants
of education, their controversial character
becomes externalized, as in these representations
a common field of actions and their results are
not agreed upon, but their interdependence
and mutual claims and expectations are clearly
visible.
For us as specializing in conflict analysis
and conflict resolution, this kind of “a big picture”
means that, in principle, agreement is possible,
if it comes to light with structuring, sequential
forming and revealing of the basic interests of the
parties, who discuss the possibilities of meeting
demands. In fact, nothing of the sort happens.
More precisely, in our opinion, these activities
are poorly organized and occur randomly at the
level of talks about education policy, mainly in
terms of journalistic.
If we consider the psychological projection
of these relationships in the field of education, we
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will see at the same time – hopes, expectations
and requirements on the one hand, and on the
other hand – distrust, suspicion and resentment.
And all the time we face this “picture”, when
these parties describe their relationship regarding
education. Conferences on education show this
unmistakably, because hardly anyone speaks
on his or her behalf about how they understand
the situation, what they intend to do, and what
exactly they present to the partners or opponents.
Some general assertions and calls dominate
instead. In the best case, representatives of the
parties insist that their interests must be taken
into account (note here – to be accounted for, but
not to be consistent with each other). At the same
time, even those interests are not articulated and
thorough well enough.
Psychological characteristics of such
established relationships assuredly lead us to the
conclusion that they are unproductive, because
simultaneous ambivalence “trust – distrust”
seems strange. Let us emphasize once again –
both parties, considered by us, are as if forced to
“trust” each other (there is no any other option)
and also suspect each other in at least partial
compliance and procedural characteristics
(correct actions) and, even more so in the
inefficient results.
For all that, as our analysis shows, this
situation is not just perceived as tolerable, but
even as comfortable.
Why is it convenient to education? Today
the question is raised about the responsibility of
institutions of education for poor results, and each
time the tension on this issue is amplified and
they say that deposits are growing, whereas the
quality drops and dissatisfaction grows. History
shows that society was never fully satisfied
with the modern institutions of education and
symmetrically – there have never been education
systems that would have been happy with the
attitude towards them from society and state
itself. This situation allows education institutions
actually explain their own ineffectiveness without
making radical self-transformation.
Why is it convenient to the family institution?
In fact, for the same reasons as this tendency
allows discussing the ineffectiveness of education
and as a derivative of this ineffectiveness – many
social ills not as a consequence of their actions,
but as imperfections and errors of the other side.
In other words, this situation retains its own
irresponsibility.
So we state here a sustainable mutual
dissatisfaction at all levels and at the same time
say that there is a need to negotiate. This is
reminiscent of the well-known children situation
when the child is asked under what conditions he/
she will be well to someone, they calmly say: “Let
him first prove a good attitude towards me”. To
put it different, good and understanding behavior
should be preceded by someone else’s. But this
is a childish, maximalist and egocentric position.
Under what condition will our parties face each
other?
Education as an institution is naturally
responsible for the decreasing results and
responsible for that it does not meet the
requirements and expectations. But main
features of mutual discontent can be explained
theoretically by the fact that the parties disagree
on the identification and definition of each other.
One side sees itself as the realizing mission, and
requires some recognition and support, and the
other assigns to the first the status of rendering
services, while declaring recognition of the
mission.
Apparently, a description of educational
relationships within services agreement, typical
for legal practice, is a normal, though not
exhaustive “picture” of the relationship. What
is more, we believe and suggest to consider this
kind of attitude as a necessary but ancillary, not
primary one. The situation nowadays is such that
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the form of rendering services “conceals” a much
more complex content.
In our opinion, any attempt to build
educational relationships, constituted only by
such ideas, has no future actually, because from
the beginning they are regarded not as civil,
but as interpersonal. Each of us understands,
especially one who acts as a customer, that the
attempt to resolve in due order these occurring
disagreements (conflicts) jeopardizes that person,
who is a real subject of an “agreement”, the
one who is included in the educational process
specifically. Expressed differently, those people
are included in relationships, whose behavior has
the most direct and most significant influence on
the conditions and the results of the educational
process. These participants are not just the
material for transformation, regarding which there
appears an agreement between two parties; they
are such participant whose behavior is influenced
to some extent by both sides. Besides, it is vital
that in discussing the educational process we do
not always see with certainty its borders and thus
can hardly pinpoint the content, conditions and
results of the actions of each party involved in the
interaction. It turns out that the person who acts,
relatively speaking, as the customer-consumer has
made rather conspicuous contribution to education
of a child and expects to receive some educational
result (?). We do not discuss here any other kinds
of contribution. The other party also brings in its
own resources, whether they material, technical
and so on and so forth, but their certainty level
is much more obscure. The issue of risks appears
when the parties are not satisfied either with the
consecution of the process, or its results. And this
conversation (topic) is about to start when at least
one party is discontent. In our case we observe
situations of mutual dissatisfaction.
What is the allocation of risks then?
It turns out that, in accordance with the
contribution. The contribution is at risk itself.
But there is one significant feature in the risk
of the party which performs the function of “a
producer of educational services”. The fact is
that since the contributions of the parties are
weakly personified unlike other contributions,
the main risk for this party is associated with
disappointment in the result, pursued by the
activity itself. The net effect is that the party
risks a low status (or better to say – it will
not get high and predicted position). But this
status it has already, regardless of how the
activities are undertaken and what results it
will bring. Society and state with their current
attitude would exonerate the party from
responsibility, in advance fi xing its low status
with known attributes. But the other side bears
full responsibility. It risks all its contributions
and incurred costs (forgone knowledge, time,
material expenses, health, etc.) are irreversible
and irretrievable, at best they are only partly
made up for. Peculiarities of the risks of this
side are that the detection of possible losses may
be significantly postponed in time; these risks
are distant from the very fact of the educational
process and all the while there is some hope that
once it will be possible to remedy something;
only in the end we fi x the result that nothing
can be changed. The words of famous Russian
satirical writer M.M.Zhvanetskii describe this
situation splendidly: “Life – a one-way street”.
Perhaps it would be wise not to dramatize the
situation so badly. Sure enough, the discovery of
some deficiencies of education, as practice shows,
does not signify the complete destruction of the
system, which is still renewable. But it requires
additional and significant resources from those
who actually need such compensations. This is
the real responsibility and these additional costs
show indeed who and what is at risk in situations
of uncertainty in the educational relationships.
If not just to fix the situation, but to define in
a more detailed way, we consider it important to
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re-emphasize the fact that the relationships that
have developed in education are not analyzed as
a joint activity of all stakeholders, interested in
the overall result with the necessary distribution
of responsibility and its sustainability at both
micro- and macro levels. The discussions almost
every time are psychologically pointless, there are
separate speeches about the interests of parents,
interests of state and any public interest.
This qualification can give an answer
about what to do. The parties should align their
interests, rather than oppose them. That is – TO
NEGOTIATE. But when we are dealing with
contracts, in turn we risk to demonstrate quite
ready-made stereotypes and thereby lose the
actual subject matter for discussions. We can get
an immediate response from both parties that
contracts are already here. Schools have a long
tradition to conclude contracts with parents about
the conditions of learning, about the amount
and frequency of parental contributions to the
educational activities of educational institutions
and about the conditions and characteristics of
the expenditure of these contributions, including
reports, etc. And indeed we have registered such a
practice, though slightly reminiscent of a civilized
one. The only thing is that most contracts of this
kind are adhesion contracts. That means you have
not been involved in any discussion on the matter.
You are asked to sign that you agree with some
already established conditions. If you do not like
such a contract – do not sign and therefore do not
enter into a relationship, keep a child to another
school. The fact is that psychologically (and for us
it is no less important than legally) such agreement
releases the parties from personal and personified
liability. This liability is automatically embedded
in a contractual form itself, but is not necessarily
assigned to the participants. It turns out that such
agreements do not insure their parties from the
risks that we are discussing here. Figuratively
speaking, “Well, who cares that patient died when
he was treated properly?” This is because this
option of contracts does not imply participation
of the parties in the formation and creation of the
agreement, i.e. does not imply any joint activity.
We see the prospect for educational
agreements in joint activity contracts. Such an
agreement shall appear in the NEGOTIATION
process, certainly long and difficult, and for sure
it will cost very much to reconcile some points in
the early stages of practicing such negotiations.
It is in this negotiation process where the parties
will be obliged to pursue their own interests, to
articulate their goals in a clear and verifiable
way, to fix the dynamics of their achievements,
to calculate conditions and contributions, to
imagine a real responsibility of the participants.
This practice will, in our view, finally allow
making educational relationship genuinely
civilized. Apparently, in this specter there is
another aspect – the negotiation processes in
education are real and sufficient practice mass
civilian relations. When discussing this topic in
different groups, perhaps interested in education,
we are frequently asked questions that may also
arise while reading the paper further. And now
we will attempt to answer them:
• Who are the agreements on joint activity
in education aimed at?
We believe that first of all, at parents who
are interested in high educational results. But,
unfortunately, according to our data, the number
of such people is less than desirable. Secondly,
at administrators who are interested in boasting
their status, determined by educational results. It
is clear that when we talk about these educational
results, it is assumed that they are in demand
not formally, but purposefully, creating a valid
resource for students.
• In your opinion is education a service? If
it is not, then what is it?
This is a joint activity in which the
contributions are made for achieving the goals
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agreed on. Contributions are made not only in the
form of money, but also in the form of actions,
saying literally – personal strengths. Our task is
to teach people to negotiate and reach agreements
under the conditions of real and mutual
responsibility. At the same time it is important
that subjects of negotiations will be specifically
identified and consistent.
• Is it possible for an educational institution
to be not just a legal party in contract
on joint activity, but also a meaningful
one?
According to the Civil law it is. But what will
be the effect? Of course, we run the risk, as in the
case with the boards of Trustees that people will
simply stage negotiations and agreements. This
depends mainly on what status the educational
institutions receive and what status they claim to.
If they remain just the same, we should not expect
a subject behavior from them.
• If the contract is concluded with the school
represented by its head, the situation of
meaninglessness remains. The situation
is the same, as in the case of creating the
dress – who is the creator – a tailor or a
designer? Some people will be executors
in the terms of content, i.e. they will
provide educational outcomes, but will
it be the other ones, who negotiate and
conclude the contracts?
This primarily refers to the principles
and technologies. Everything will depend on
how to organize the process, involving in it the
parties involved. We do not accidentally claim
that contract makes sense only for those who
are seriously interested in it. So we have also a
question here about how these subjects appear or
occur. But from our point of view the right way is
to introduce some practice not from the top as it
is usually done, but to create precedents from the
bottom and back them up. It is essential for such
cases to be successful and effective. Then people,
who notice these precedents and if they have any
ambition in this regard, will begin learning this
practice, mastering and acquiring it. And we will
get a move on.
• You said that signing of any contract is
preceded by negotiations. How can you
imagine these negotiations?
The first thing to do is to determine the
appropriate parties and their legitimization. They
must be legal and responsible, because when the
director signs the contract with parents, there
is a certain structure behind this decision and
specific performance, of course, is distributed
among many people. If we imagine a situation of
negotiation with each parent, such a possibility
immediately becomes doubtful from the start.
The challenge is to make the process of formation
of such structures on both sides that will receive
the authority to negotiate.
• What is a joint activity? It is clear what a
school activity includes and what parents’
activity implies to ensure studying of
children. But all these activities are done
separately. Is the joint activity something
completely different?
We have used such term as “educational
space” for a long time. Generally, the basic
idea behind the term was that the educational
space has its own structure and is specifically
polarized. In this space school can seriously
account for one part of the space and partially
compensate substantial components of the
other, but it cannot satisfy the needs in other
individual segments of this space, moreover,
this responsibility is not a part of its institutional
objectives. Unfortunately, often we are still
considering the school as the only educational
place, the only educational institution. In
our opinion, it is also the family that is an
educational institution with its own objectives
and they are aimed not only at support of the
school, but defi nitely at the achievement of
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educational results that cannot be described
by the relevant standards. A variety of possible
outcomes can be discussed and interests of the
educational branch and the family institution
can be coordinated during the negotiation
process. It turns out that the family can arrange
its interests in school, and the school can agree
its interests in the family. Reconciliation of
these interests and agreement on joint activity
may lead to some systemic results. Otherwise,
the situation looks like a simple work or service
contract: “you pay, we do, but the results are not
guaranteed and we are not responsible for them”.
It is curious that such kind of relationships is
sometimes called “partnership”.
• Is there a civilized practice of concluding
agreements on joint activity in Russia?
How are these practices presented in
the countries where the civil society is
developed to a high standard?
1
Unfortunately, according to our data, there
are no civilized forms of educational agreements
anywhere. At the same time there have already
been some precedents concerning the conditions
of education and content issues in Russia as well.
An example here is the relationships between
parents and educational institutions for physically
and socially disabled children. In such cases, when
it comes to restorative and correctional pedagogy,
parents and administration have experience
negotiating the terms and results of training,
educational activities in general and joint actions
to achieve these planned results. However, in these
situations we are not having any civic contracts.
Therefore again, the question of liability of the
parties remains open. The negotiation processes
are also still far from civilized forms. We believe
that the very movement towards civilized forms
of relationships in education is an indicator of our
oncoming towards civil society.
Following Niklas Lumann we mean under “risk” such action (decision), which implies the uncertainty of the result with
possible losses for a person acting. In corresponding works “risk” is contrasted with the concepts of “reliability”, “security”. At the same time, from Lumann’s point of view “risk” does not mean the fact that exists regardless of whether it is
seen and who observes it”. See: Niklas Lumann. Der Begriff Risiko. In: N. Lumann. Soziologie des Risikos. Berlin; New
York: Walter de Gruyter Co., 1991.
References
1. Vygotsky L.S. O pedologicheskom analize pedagogicheskogo protsessa [About pedological
analysis of the pedagogical process]. Pedagogicheskaia psikhologiia (Educational psychology). M.,
Pedagogika-Press, 1996.
2. Coser L. Funktsii sotsial’nogo konflikta [The functions of social conflict]. M.: Idea Press,
2000.
3. Khasan B.I. Konstruktivnaia psikhologiia konflikta [Constructive conflict psychology].
Moscow, St. Petersburg: Peter, 2003.
4. Shchedrovitskii G.P. Sistema pedagogicheskikh issledovanii (Metodologicheskii analiz)
[System for Educational Research (Methodological analysis)]. Pedagogika i logika (Pedagogy and
logic). M.: Kastal, 1993.
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Boris I. Khasan and Elena Iu. Fedorenko. Conflicts, Negotiations and Risks in Educational Relationships
Конфликты, переговоры и риски
в образовательных отношениях
Б.И. Хасан, Е.Ю. Федоренко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В представленных материалах обсуждаются проблемы конфликтов интересов, возникающих
в образовательных отношениях между субъектами образования. В качестве субъектов
образования выступают родители, представители школьного сообщества (администраторы,
учителя, школьный персонал), учащиеся. Обсуждаются риски образования и характер их
распределения между субъектами образования. Образовательный договор рассматривается
как способ продуктивного разрешения конфликтов между субъектами образования.
Ключевые слова: риски в образовании, субъекты образовательных отношений, конфликты в
образовательных отношениях, переговоры, образовательный договор.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 628-638
~~~
УДК 37.013.3
Conflicts of Рrofessional Development
in Teaching Activities:
Natural and Artificial
Irina S. Vataschak*
Institute of Psychology of Development Practices
50 Korneev Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660001, Russia
Received 10.12.2013, received in revised form 14.01.2014, accepted 13.02.2014
The paper discusses the possibilities of professional development of young teachers in teaching
activities in connection with the modern challenges of society, and tasks that should be solved by
this development, and also the circumstances, under which this development can occur. In order to
do this, a distinction in understanding of professional development in the everyday and scientific
views was made, the content, adequate to the study of professional development in teaching was
formulated.
The article also contains hypotheses, a description of research strategy and the first data of the research,
conducted on the basis of the social project, which is being carried out in Krasnoyarsk Krai – “The
Youth professional pedagogical games”. Based on the obtained data, preliminary conclusions on the
possibilities of constructing professional development in pedagogical activities were made, and the
problems and prospects of the project were described.
Keywords: professional development, conflict, pedagogical activity.
The study of conflicts of professional
development in pedagogical activity, to be more
exact – at the start of pedagogic work, is carried
out as part of an experimental social project –
“The Youth professional pedagogical games in
Krasnoyark territory”. This project was initiated
by a group of educators and psychologists, and
was commissioned by the Ministry of Education
of the Krai, later on the basis of this project the
“Association of Young Teachers of Krasnoyarsk
territory” was formed, which is now carrying out
the project.
This initiative has been carried out in
Krasnoyarsk Krai since 2011 and it is systematic
*
professional competitions among young teachers
to provide professional identity, finding their
own place among the “others like me”, aimed at
development and realization of new professional
competences. The project is built on a prototype
of sports activities and there are trainings
and competitions in three leagues, each of
which contains a complex of different metacompetencies: project and critical thinking,
conflict construction, leadership, working with age
and so on. Development of these and other metasubject competences can allow, in our opinion,
to more effectively respond to the challenges of
society to modern education [see 1,2].
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: ira@ippd.ru
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Before starting the study of conflicts of
professional development, it was important
for us to form our own understanding of
professional development. And here we are
faced with the opposition of development
and other types of dynamics. In everyday
understanding, development – is the dynamics
of accumulating experience. According to
this vision, young teachers are inexperienced,
inept, “under”, while experienced teachers are
experienced, skilled, and so on. It is assumed
that the experienced do not need development –
they are already developed, they have reached
everything, now they only need to realize the
potential that they have accumulated. And for
the young, development is increase in their
experience, its gradual accumulation.
We understand development differently. On
the one hand, basing on the model, developed
by Larisa Maximovna Mitina – implying a
person’s ability to get outside the continuous flow
of everyday practice, see their work as a whole
and turn it into an object of practical conversion/
transformation. Professional development of
an individual is determined by different kinds
of contradictions. But the main driving force
behind the development of a professional is an
intrapersonal conflict between one’s actions and
one’s self-reflection. The vector of professional
development is a creative self of a person [3].
On the other hand, we focus on the matrix
of professionalization, developed by a team led
by K. G. Mitrofanov. In the matrix, development
occurs during transition from level to level as
increase in the freedom of action, as a transition
to the next level of professional action and greater
freedom of action. That is, not just the increase of
experience and reduction of anxiety or concern
for discipline and other things, but a qualitative
change in the vision the profession [4].
Only such understanding of development,
in our view, is adequate to the contemporary
mission of the teaching profession. The situation
of the modern society and the rhythm of life
require individual’s ability to react quickly, to
make decisions in situations of uncertainty,
to fi nd solutions to increasingly complex
challenges... The younger generation must be
prepared to all of these life situations at school,
by a teacher.
However, traditionally in their early days of
work in educational institutions, young teachers
are puzzled (by the particular job) and concerned
(in terms of their psychological well-being), at
best, by the issues of adaptation. Professional
development is not available, not actualized
and is put off till the time, when adaptation is
completed, and, in fact, the development starts
by itself.
We, on our part, proceed from the fact that
during this period of claims and energy, young
professionals are sensitive to the challenges of
modernity and issues of child development. So
this sensitive period is the best time to involve
a young teacher into problems of professional
development, which will be much more difficult
to do later.
Professional development in the teaching
profession is a result of appearing of a new
professional quality – the ability to see the
activity in its integrity: its objectives, outcomes,
individual actions, etc.
Hypotheses of the study:
1. A teacher develops a new professional
quality on condition of actualization and
resolution of the conflict between the subject and
meta-subject content of his activity.
2. Actualization of this conflict can occur
in specially organized activities, having the
format of professional competitions in the area of
meta- professional competences among teachers
without the subject and object (students).
3. Conflict resolution is possible through
the emergence of new activity-related claims
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in connection with a different vision of the
profession.
Such changes can occur only when a teacher
masters reflection as a special technique.
Description
of the research strategy
The experiment is conducted according to
the following scheme:
1. At the start of their professional activity,
all young teachers of Krasnoyarsk Krai can
be divided into three groups according to
orientation of their claims: “backward” (that is,
oriented at the outdated image of the current
situation in educational institutions), “forward”
(at the latest trends), “nowhere” (the job is not
seen as a place for real self-determination, there
is hope that things will sort out themselves). In
fact, the “forward” group does not really exist in
reality, because they are not informed about the
challenges, the challenges do not reach them…
they are published somewhere, but they do not
consider them relevant for themselves, because
they have got into a real school and they need to
adapt to it. It is the necessity of adaptation that
worries, anxiety and conflicts are connected
with.
We believe that, to start with, it is necessary
to fixate a certain initial state, both the current
and expected ones. Every young teacher has an
understanding of the current situation and ideas
about him/herself in the future, as well as some
intuition about transition from the current state to
the next one, and also why it can happen. At this
stage, in our opinion, there can be two variants:
“natural” and active.
The natural, or predetermined, variant
contains a description of some of the natural
characteristics of the future (the same things
that happen always to everyone will happen to
me), and in the description of transition – the
metamorphosis (was – is). This is not an active
position in regard to the profession. Activity is
seen as actions, which are directed at students
and teaching. But not at one’s profession.
Such person does not regard the profession as
something directed at him/herself. He/she is not
a subject but an “agent” of activity.1 He/she was
placed, equipped, and launched and further he/
she needs steering, managing, and they will move
the way they are told. Consequently, we believe
that he/she has no professional reflection, but only
professional functions.
The activity scenario is the one in which a
professional positioning is present. This position is
that a person intends to build oneself. In this case
he/she describes the initial situation, prospects
and ways of achieving them differently.
Thus, at the first stage of the program, we
tried to fixate these initial conditions in order to
obtain relevant qualifications.
2. But, according to our hypothesis, there are
very few activity-oriented (“forward”) teachers.
Consequently, a challenge must be specially
organized as a challenge, not just published
somewhere: “go read about it someday”. In order
the challenges to be read about, they must assume
some form of an organized activity. In this case
the conflict concerning the “forward” claims can
be actualized.
3. We consider “The Youth professional
pedagogical games” to be such asn activity –
they are competitions in the area of metasubject competences2 among young teachers:
one’s equals, the likes of one. Due to specially
organized problems a teacher must actualize the
conflict between the subject and meta-subject
content of his/her activities. If there were no
latent conflict, it either appears in connection
with problem statements or is ignored. That is,
the aim is to radically change the position, change
orientations and attitudes due to the games: from
external – to internal, the turn at themselves and
their own position.
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At this point we, as organizers, are
confronted with the question of how to make
the participant see this opposition and try to
change their position? After all, there is a risk
that if a person is only a participant all the time
(there is certain material in the league, there is a
league leader, certain rules, etc.), that the same
stereotype of usual school practice will appear.
We expect that participants should leave the
familiar relationship “teacher-student-subject”
and get into a “teacher- teacher relationship”,
“the same as I”, where the subject appears with
meta-subject, where indirect things appear,
which determine my skills as my skills : it is
not with pupils and on the “blackboard” that
teachers reveal themselves, but in competition.
Here they become much stronger and more
distinct mirrors, which cannot be reached in
everyday practice, even if someone comes to
your lessons or somewhere else. At the best, a
visitor will add a correction to one’s habitual
scheme of activity, but here we need completely
different schemes. But there is a risk that unless
specially organized, this transition will not
occur by itself.
And then here is the next question: perhaps
this change occurs only during the transition to
another position: for example, from participation
to judging or coaching? If it is so, if we find
these characteristics with referees and coaches,
distinguishing them from ordinary participants
(and them as ordinary participants) it will mean
that games should be arranged as facilitating
these transitions, expanding the limits.
4. This should be followed by attempts to
resolve the conflict, which create the possibility
for appearing of a new professional quality, which
is tested in various activities. In our opinion,
these tests, as well as search for a different
type of knowledge and way of acting, can form
the interest for “internship”3. Internship in the
Association is opened as a place for reflecting on
games, where in a special discussion it can be seen
whether participants have found deficits, where
they did not even feel them before. Whether what
happened relates to their intentions and goals,
whether they have achieved the result, which has
been counted on, or have discovered and found
much more?
That is, the direction of development in the
project must be specially organized, initially as
a stop. Our idea is that the games should help
to stop and reobjectivize what teachers do at
school. But for this to happen one more stop must
happen – the stop of the game. And if we are not
able stop the game, we will not be able to stop the
school process.
But we could not do it right off, because it
was necessary to start the process, to make the
game desirable, open, to involve some critical
mass of people, in order to make them “start to
play”, for them not to give up. Once it is done,
we can start stopping the game, selecting, for
the participants to have something to compete
for.
5. Activity-related claims and a different
view of the professional positioning are formed.
6. A new activity on a different basis,
exploiting new professional quality, is organized.
Obtained data
Below we will give some data that we have
managed to obtain. To fixate the initial state,
we have asked the participants, who came to
qualifying competitions, some questions that
allow us to discover how they understand the
current state, prospects and the transition, how
they describe these phenomena: in the light
of professional equipment, professional power
or claims, or from the point of view of sociocommunal obstacles. These issues have been
condensed into 6 questions.
The survey involved 48 respondents,
including 45 women and 3 men.
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Professionaldevelopment
13,2
14,7
5,8
13,2
7,4
c
7,4
7,4
10,3
8,8
10,3
SelfͲeducation
Knowsomething
Competences
Growing
Skills
Professionaldevelopment
Resultsofpupils
Managementofactivity
Knowledge
Others
Fig. 1. “What does professional development mean for you?”
Existence of professional prospects
100,00000
81,25
80,00000
60,00000
40,00000
14,58
20,00000
4,17
0,00000
Yes
No
I find it difficult to answer
Fig. 2. “Do you think about your professional prospects?”
The first question “What does professional
development mean for you?” suggested an
independent formulation of a response by the
respondents. 43 respondents gave 68 possible
answers to the question about professional
development. We have distributed these
variants of responses into three groups.
The ratio of these responses is shown in
Fig. 1.
The next question “Do you think about your
professional prospects?” suggested a choice of
one of the three answers. Quantitative data are
presented in Fig. 2.
Then followed a clarification question for
those, who answered the previous question in the
affirmative: “What are your plans for the next 5
years”. 37 respondents gave 57 possible answers
to this question. These answers were distributed
into six groups presented in Fig. 3.
Thus, the idea of development as valuable
for young teachers exists, but not in the form
of internal, quality or activity-related changes,
rather in the traditional form of following
generally accepted standards in the form of
skills upgrading (further training) and a gradual
increase in knowledge.
We can conclude that young teachers’ ideas
of professional development are quite naive,
superficial, do not reflect the essence of the
concept of “development”, not concretized. That
is, the natural scenario. The claim – echoes of
the activity scenario have been found in a small
proportion of respondents, who gave the answer
about activities management.
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Plans for the next 5 years
Certification
Professional development
Education
To hold a position
Progress of children
To learn something
Abstract plans
Others
Fig. 3. “What are your plans for the next 5 years?”
Existence of the conflicts in professional activity
70,00000
60,00000
50,00000
40,00000
30,00000
20,00000
10,00000
0,00000
60,42
33,33
4,17
Yes
No
I find it difficult to answer
Fig. 4
The next question “Were there conflicts
in your professional activity?” suggested that
the respondents should choose one of the three
alternatives (Yes / No / Do not know). The
quantitative distribution of responses is shown in
Fig. 4.
This was followed by the specifying
question “Specify what kind of conflicts you
have encountered”. The participants were asked
to choose up to 3 variants. In our opinion,
description of conflicts and their detailing is one
of the key factors. In what areas and what kinds
of conflicts are found?
In total, the respondents made 70 choices,
quantitative data on the respondents are shown
in Fig. 5.
The options were:
1. Conflicts with students (about discipline,
academic performance, etc.)
2. Conflicts with parents
3. Conflicts with the administration,
colleagues
4. Lack of resources for professional
activity
5. Absence of the horizon for development
6. Difficulties in setting priorities
7. Worries about their own competence
8. Conflicts, related to the status of a
teacher
9. Impossibility to realize creative initiatives
and ideas
Also, the respondents had the opportunity to
offer their own kind of conflict, but none of the
respondents did this.
The last question was “What are the most
difficult things for you in the teaching profession?”
The respondents were also asked to give their own
answer. In the responses of 41 respondents there
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Structure of the conflicts in professional activity
25,00
22,86
21,43
20,00
15,71
15,00
12,86
10,00
10,00
7,14
5,71
2,86
5,00
1,43
0,00
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
Fig. 5. “Specify what kind of conflicts you have encountered”
Difficult in work
14,6
22,9
Work with parents
6,25
Contact with children
Motivation of pupils
Maintaining documentation
Self-management
12,5
18,75
12,5
Timeorganization
Others
12,5
Fig. 6. “What are the most difficult things for you in the teaching profession?”
were given 48 possible answers to the question
about the experienced professional difficulties.
We have distributed these answers into six groups
according to their content. They are presented in
Fig. 6.
Thus, based on the data obtained, we now
have a cohort of people who, on the one hand,
have energy and claims, on the other hand –
oriented at adjustment and reproduction in their
mind, relations, and stereotypical understanding
of development. And this is the key contradiction:
adjustment in the perspective – , but the inner
professional need is not in that at all! If they start
adjusting, they will either be broken and absorbed
by the system, or “being kicked out” from it.
And it seems that by participating in the
games, the contradiction in these orientations is
exposed, a different reality is revealed. Now it
is important to strengthen this line and change
it from emotions to activity, in order the games
not just stay a recreational area or cease to be
interesting. Of course, it can be an interim solution
that teachers will somewhat reduce the idea of the
games and draw them into school reality through
diversity of forms: take samples of behaviors, but
not activity, not meta-subject, school life there
will be more fun than it is now, more diverse.
And our task is to problematize the situation on
purpose to get a claim to genuine development,
the one that we need.
We were able to see how professional
development is seen in a natural way (learning
new models, further training, etc.), but according
to our hypothesis, development should be
understood as problematization of their own
modes of action, the ratio of action – result, the
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adequacy of resources for development of certain
ways: when a person begins to see not the form
of action, but its meanings and the fact that it that
it transforms when I am free and can already see
the way it works, rather than the form it exists
in.
Of course, one incomplete season of the
games, which began in November last year
and so far there were only two competition and
training stages, is not sufficient to obtain the
intended result, but we have tried to fix some of
the contours of movement in March this year at
the semi-final competition.
To the question “Why do you participate in
the YPPG”? the participants could choose several
options from 9 possible or suggest their own. The
total number of 201 choices was made by the
participants, the percentage of the responses is
shown in Fig. 7.
The options were:
1. To have fun, socialize with other young
teachers.
2. I am interested to learn something new.
3. To gain strength and energy, to get an
“energy boost”.
4. To compare myself with other teachers
in the competition, take a high place in the
rankings.
5. To get new forms and methods for lessons,
work with children.
6. To be aware of what is happening in the
region, not to miss something important.
7. Because there are no other specialized
activities for young teachers in the krai.
8. In order to increase your professional
competence, and use them in your professional
activities.
9. In order to develop, not to stagnate.
10. There were given only four independent
answers to this question, each of which
corresponded to one of the nine options, proposed
in the questionnaire, each of which differed only
in wording. Therefore these responses will not be
analyzed separately.
The next question “Do you associate what
is happening at the general meetings of the
Association (training, competitions, Rally of
leaders, etc.) with your professional activity? If
so, how?” also suggested 9 possible responses
and their own version.
A total of 120 choices were made, the
percentage ratio of the respondents is summarized
in Fig. 8.
The options are:
1. Do not connect.
2. Intuitively, it seems that these spaces are
related, but do not know how yet.
3. I use exercises and forms, taken in the
YPPG at the lessons or class hours.
Purposes and participation reasons in the YPPG
25,00
15,00
19,90
18,91
20,00
16,42
14,43
7,96
10,00
7,46
6,97
5,00
2,49
3,48
7,
6,
1,99
0,00
2,
3,
4,
5,
1,
Fig. 7. “Why and do you participate in the YPPG ?”
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9,
10,
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The connection between Association and professional activities
30,00
25,00
25,00
20,00
21,67
15,83
18,33
15,00
10,00
3,33
5,00
1,67
4,17
4,17
8,
9,
5,83
0,00
6,
4,
2,
5,
3,
10,
7,
Fig. 8. “Do you associate what is happening at the general meetings of the Association with your professional
activity? If so, how?”
4. Meetings of the Association of Young
Teachers make me reconsider my professional
activities and perceptions of them, open up new
horizons for development.
5. In training and competition I increase
competences, which I can use later in any of my
activities, including professional.
6. I exchange experience with other teachers,
to adopt the ways and correct my professional
activities.
7.I use the material and the experience from
school reality in competitions.
8. Competitions are a model of school life –
some things become clearer in them.
9. I am trying to connect these spaces, but do
not always succeed.
10. An independent answer.
Preliminary conclusion
Thus, the games are, on the one hand, a
mirror of professional (but not only) conformity,
1
2
on the other hand – a resource for well-being or
opening / closing prospects.
We can see that the YPPG is marked by
participants as important and significant, there
are attempts at understanding and re-evaluation
of the two realities, finding links between them.
But the question about the so-called “step”
remains open: how many competitions one
needs to participate in and how for something to
change? Maybe one needs to play 5 consecutive
years? How to participate? Perhaps one needs to
move from common participation to judging, for
example? What should be the dynamics?
Another open question is that our
competitions are built as knock-out games. While
our aim is to retain participants through various
forms of association, the games are so arranged
so that they have leave. Therefore, we need to
think about how to change the structure of the
games in order to really test our hypotheses and
implement significant changes.
We distinguish between the traditional subject and the so-called “agent” of activity by the criterion of aim possession: a
subject is the author and holder of realized aims of activity, but an agent accepts existing aims.
In today’s reality with the introduction of requirements of meta-subjectivity of educational outcomes into the Federal State
Educational Standard, meta-subject competences, on the one hand, have become very popular, but on the other hand –
have begun to lose their content, distinguishing them from all other competencies.
One of the rather concise explanations of the term “meta-subjectivity”, in our opinion, can be the description of
A. V. Khutorskiy: “Meta-subjectivity characterizes getting beyond subjects, but not abandoning them. Meta-subject is
what stands behind a subject or several subjects, lies in their basis and at the same time connected with them through the
root. Meta-subjectivity cannot be detached from the subject” [5].
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3
A teaching internship is starting to develop as part of the activities of the Association, in addition to the YPPG. The term
is borrowed from the medical sphere, and now it has again begun popular in the sphere of education to develop the idea
of internship. We mean quite a different content of a familiar word: this is not an internship from “outside”, bringing up
an unprepared teacher to the capabilities of a real activity, instead it is the work on the request of an intern: if there has
been found an inconsistency between the claims of a teacher and his real activity (resource available after the professional
training). In this case, a person fi nds his/her deficits him/herself.
References
1. Vataschak, I.S. Opportunities for professional development of young teachers. Youth and
Science: collection of materials of VIII Russian conference of students, post-graduate students and
young scientists dedicated to the 155th anniversary of birth of K. E.Tsiolkovskiy [electronic resource]
№ order 7880/ Ed. O. A .Kraev. Krasnoyarsk: Sib. Fed. University Press, 2012.
2. Vataschak, I.S. Designing and providing professional development for young teachers.
Psychology of Education: Status and Prospects. Materials of the Second Conference of educational
psychologists of Siberia. Irkutsk, 27030 June 2012 / VPO “ISU”; Editorial Board.: Barkov, N.P. [Et all.]
Irkutsk: Publishing House of ISU, 2012.
3. Mitina, L.M. Personal and professional development of an individual under new socio-economic
conditions, Psychological Issues. 1997. № 4. P. 28-38.
4. Mitrofanov, K.G., Vasiliev, N.P., Kozyreva, E. Yu. Problems professionalization of workers of
education: introduction to the problems, Pedagogy of development: driving forces and development
practice: materials of the 17th scientific-practical. conf. Krasnoyarsk: KKIPK, 2011. 298 p.
5. Khutorskiy, A.V. Meta-subject content and outcomes of education: how to implement Federal
State Educational Standards (FGOS). http://www.eidos.ru/journal/2012/0229-10.htm
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Конфликты профессионального развития
в педагогической деятельности:
естественные и искусственные
И.С. Ватащак
Институт психологии практик развития
Россия, 660001, Красноярск, ул. Корнеева, 50
В статье обсуждаются возможности профессионального развития молодых учителей в
педагогической деятельности в связи с современными вызовами общества, выяснено, какие
задачи должно решать это развитие и при каких условиях оно может происходить. Для
этого дифференцировано понимание профессионального развития в обыденном и научном
представлениях и сформулировано содержание, адекватное исследованию профессионального
развития в педагогической деятельности.
Также представлены гипотезы, описание исследовательской стратегии и первичные
данные исследования, проведённого на основе разворачивающегося в Красноярском крае
социального проекта «Молодёжные профессиональные педагогические игры». На основании
полученных данных сформулированы предварительные выводы относительно возможностей
конструирования профессионального развития в педагогической деятельности и описаны
проблемы и перспективы проекта.
Ключевые слова: профессиональное развитие, конфликт, педагогическая деятельность.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 639-646
~~~
УДК 371.255
Visualization Techniques
in Negotiation Process
a
Julia S. Keta* and Tatiana I. Yustusb
Krasnoyarsk University Gymnasium «Univers № 1»
50 Korneev Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660001, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 11.12.2013, received in revised form 17.01.2014, accepted 25.02.2014
Negotiations beneficial to negotiators’ interests are the most effective model of conflict resolution. This
approach to negotiations necessarily requires cooperative interaction between participants. However,
the problem of organizing cooperation remains open. This article describes visualization techniques
applicable in negotiation process and shows possibilities for effective realization of negotiation
techniques. The experimental research has shown that visualization helps to productively resolve
contradictions by allowing their registering and structuring and facilitates transition of participants’
attitudes from confrontation to cooperation.
Keywords: negotiations, cooperation, confrontation, visualization technique, communication in
negotiations.
Negotiations have already become a familiar
and even everyday phenomenon of modern
life. It has also become usual for professionals
to distinguish two fundamentally different
approaches to negotiations. Their names differ
from author to author [1, 2, 5, 6, 10], but the
essence remains the same – negotiations are
interaction in the sort of fighting for one’s own
interests (1) or interaction, aimed at overcoming
the struggle for a joint search for mutually
beneficial solutions (2).
Authors of texts about negotiations and
trainers teaching negotiation techniques,
should certainly choose their position, and, as
a rule, they clearly inform course participants
or readers, which approach they consider
*
most adequate and what values they base their
conception on.
We will not be an exception, and tell from
the beginning that we stick to the approach of
principled negotiations and negotiations based
on mutual interests (they are the model of “winwin”, a joint search for solutions with a partner, a
joint resolution of the problem, etc.). We believe
that productive negotiations are cooperation of
all participants for searching of or developing the
most beneficial solution for all of them. We also
believe that negotiation technology always gives
an opportunity to find such a solution.
However, being psychologists, we also
know that such kind of human interaction is not
natural, but rather unnatural. That is, struggle
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: juliaket.90@mail.ru
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is much more characteristic for human nature
than cooperation. We will not dwell on reasons
for this circumstance, we will only mention that
in negotiation practice transition to cooperation
does not occur by itself.
The question we are looking for an answer
to is how to organize cooperative interaction,
which is very valuable for us, during negotiation
process.
Part of the answer lies in the negotiation
technology in its Harvard interpretation. If
everything is done according to the technology,
the parties will have to cooperate. But what can
make communication, adequate technology of
negotiations according to one’s own interests,
possible? It is necessary to fi nd ways, techniques,
which would allow to overcome confrontational
stereotype and spontaneity and draw the
participants in the position “above” the situation
that led them to the negotiating table.
Looking for an answer to this question it is
useful to consider the experience of collective
action and collective thinking in other types of
practices – for example, in organizational activity
games, mediation, conflict analysis. Analysis of
literature describing psychotechnics in these
practices [6, 7, 9] shows that the most clear and
necessary for objectification is visualization
technique. When previously disjointed material,
distributed among the participants, is shared
and “laid out” on the common board, it provides
an objective picture, alienated from all the
participants.
We know that there are at least two parties in
the negotiations, who “meet” about the common
theme, subject, and often cannot come to an
agreement. Each party comes to the negotiation
table with their own vision and perception of the
situation, and if it so happens that the vision of
one party remains closed for another, and vice
versa, then they do not meet productively. In order
to build arguments, it is necessary for the parties
to have a common picture, look for options,
basing on the same premises. Besides that, if
you look at the situation of negotiations from the
outside, a general stereotype is triggered – the
parties sit “opposite each other”, when a visual
image appears, which is taken outside, then the
negotiation “space” changes. A certain scheme
appears, in which there are inconsistencies
and gaps, and two parties appear, that together
deal with these inconsistencies. It seems
that visualization can become a way to build
cooperative interaction in negotiation process.
Analyzing the literature on visualization, we
identified some common visualization techniques
that can be used for building communication in
negotiation process. The most detailed description
of the techniques are given in the works of
European authors: “Working with conflict.
Practical skills and strategies for working with
conflict.” S. Fischer, D.Ludin, Smith et al [5] G.
Hesl “ Mediation in resolution of conflicts” [8]. To
understand the general mechanism of their work
and the impact on communication in negotiations
we will give the description of three methods,
which are summarized below:
Conflict mapping – is a method of graphical
presentation of conflict in which the parties are
placed according to their attitude to the problem
and to each other;
The purpose of the method: it is used to see
the relationships between the parties more clearly,
to find out how the participants are distributed:
direct, indirect actors, etc., to see where actual or
potential allies are ;
When to use : when there are many
participants, relationships between them are
complicated, when it is not clear who is a direct
and who is an indirect participant; ;
Cards – this is a method of conflict analysis,
in which the interests and goals of the conflicting
parties are deliberately separated and written on
separate cards ;
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Purposes of the method: it contributes to
a better understanding of the situation due to
the fact that each participant determines their
own purposes and interests and those of their
opponents, after that the cards of all the participant
are compared. This allows to see the differences
in the parties’ picture of reality and understand
the need to coordinate it.
When to use : when there is a lot of
information and there is no clear understanding
of the requirements of the opponent, and when it
is difficult to determine the interests and goals of
both parties and to understand how they relate;
Table – is a method of structuring
information, a list of data organized into a certain
system and distributed into graphs.
Purpose of the method: bringing large
amounts of data in order to optimize the method
of storing it and using it;
When to use: when working with large
amounts of information, and as a consequence,
with many interests \ goals, etc. ;
Diagram, drawing –is a method of graphical
representation of information by grouping it and
marking connections and relations between the
groups;
Purpose of the method: identifying key
units to determine connections and relations
between them;
When to use: when working with a large
amount of information, when you need to
present your own interests and show how they
are related to the interests of the opponents;
when you feel information overload and
difficulty to hold it.
So, to negotiate in a productive way it is
necessary for the situation to be structured,
the actions of the parties, their goals and
interests need to be defined, communication
needs to be built and the situation needs to
be as “transparent” as possible. Visualization
techniques allow to objectify diverse information,
which individual participants in the negotiations
have. Therefore, we can assume that visualization
techniques can become ways of structuring the
situation (structuring will be achieved by using
visualization techniques) in the negotiation
process. In addition, visualization can help
to change the attitude of the participant from
confrontation (against each other) to cooperation
(together against the problem). This idea formed
the basis of our experimental study.
The experimental study
of visualization techniques
as a way to structure
a conflict situation in negotiations
In the experiment, we tried to find the
connection between using visualization techniques
and productivity of the negotiation process,
attitudes of participants of the negotiations to
each other.
We assumed that:
1) using visualization techniques by
participants of negotiations helps to productively
resolve the conflict by structuring it;
2) using visualization techniques by
participants of negotiations affects subjective
perception of a conflict situation and helps
to change attitudes from confrontation to
cooperation.
The participants of the research were
students of Siberian Federal University,
studying for a degree in Psychology (2 groups),
in International Economics (2 groups), young
teachers of Krasnoyarsk Krai, having not more
than three years of teaching experience (2
groups); municipal employees and managers,
executives of a construction company in
Krasnoyarsk (6 groups). The total sample was
96 people. All participants were interested in
further training in the field of negotiations and
they had basic knowledge of conflict analysis
and negotiations.
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The participants of the study were grouped
into 12 groups of 8 people, based on the
requirements of the methodology applied to the
research. The unit of analysis in this study was the
group. Some of these groups were experimental,
some were control groups. To justify the
distribution and understanding of the course of
the research we will describe its program and
stages.
At the first stage of the research, as
mentioned above, in order to organize the impact
on the experimental group, the participants were
equipped with visualization techniques (“tables”,
“diagrams”, “conflict mapping”, “drawing”,
“cards”, etc.): a set of techniques was discussed
with the participants before the negotiation
process, appropriateness of their use and ways
to apply them. In addition, the materials were
prepared that would allow the use of the techniques
(such as tables for participants, a drawing board,
cards, etc.)
At the second stage of the research
preparations were made for structuring the
negotiating process. In order to equip researchers
with a tool to answer the main question of whether
the techniques have impact on: registering
contradictions in the negotiation process;
identification of the subjective perception of
the conflict situation by the participants of the
negotiations, we have developed a set of criteria
to determine the attitudes of the participants:
cooperation or competition. These criteria formed
the basis of criterion- based observation of the
negotiation process.
At the third stage of the study a game procedure
“The Inheritance of Grandmother Charlotte” was
chosen for construction of negotiation process.
This procedure was carried out in each of the
groups, control and experimental. At this stage
the researcher, equipped with the criteria for
detection of a certain feature, monitored the
negotiation process.
Description the game procedure
The number of participants is 8 people.
According to the story, each of the participants
is a close relative or friend of Grandmother
Charlotte, who died and left a will in which each
of the participants was included. The goal of the
participants is to divide up the inheritance. Each
participant receives a plot describing their goals,
interests and character traits. The participants
must act in accordance with their storylines. In
some points, their goals are consistent, some are
directly opposite. There are 10 positions that must
be distributed. If the property is not distributed (if
agreement cannot be reached and a contract to be
sighed during the limited time), the participants
will lose half of the total cost of the property.
The performance criteria of the negotiations
are both the fact of reaching/not reaching an
agreement, and additional bonuses received by
the participants for satisfying the interests stated
in their plots. All conditions of getting bonuses
are known by the participants in advance.
The moderator of the procedure reads out
the general conditions, keeps track of time and
takes the form of the contract, which was signed
\ not signed by the participants. Furthermore, the
moderator can give the participants additional
bonuses that they can get depending on the
personal plot.
This procedure was chosen in view of
the fact that 1) it involves a large number of
participants and, as a consequence, a large
amount of information; 2) content-wise, the
information is of different nature: emotional,
informative, specifying ; and 3) a large amount
of emotionally – colored information noises
procedural component of the negotiation process.
These conditions organize reality, where it is
possible to use visualization techniques.
In addition, the procedure provokes the
initial confrontation attitude. We were interested
in whether the participants can change their
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attitude to cooperation if they use visualization
techniques.
As a result of the research of experimental
control groups, the following data were obtained.
For convenience, we made a table (see Table 1.),
where we placed the fact of using the technique,
registering contradiction, attitudes, demonstrated
by the participants and the result of negotiations:
whether the parties managed to reach an
agreement.
The data will be interpreted in the following
way: the data of the control and experimental
groups will be compared on a particular
characteristic, then the data within each group
will be interpreted separately.
In 7 out of 7 cases of use of visualization
techniques in the negotiation process, the
contradiction was registered by the participants:
the participants can articulate what the main
problem, the main difficulty of the situation is,
distinguish interests and goals of each other,
analyze the gap; however, in the cases where
visualization was not used, the contradiction
was not registered by the participants, with one
exception: out of five examples of negotiations
process without using visualization techniques
only in one case the contradiction was articulated.
This allows us to make the conclusion about
connection between the use of visualization
techniques and formulation of contradictions.
Comparison of these groups by the type
of attitude of the participants: in 7 out of 7
experimental groups the participants show
the attitude of cooperation, in 5 of the control
groups only in one group the participants
demonstrated the attitude of cooperation, in all
others – competition. This allows us to make
the conclusion about the connection between
Table 1. The experimental data for modeling the negotiation process
№ group
Visualization
techniques used
№1
+
№2
+
№3
+
№4
+
№5
+
№6
+
№7
+
Technique
Contradiction is
registered/not
registered
Attitude of
competition/
cooperation
Effectiveness
(whether an
agreement is
reached or not)
Data of the experimental group
Conflict
mapping
Table
Registered
Cooperation
+
Registered
Cooperation
+
Conflict
mapping
Conflict
mapping
Conflict
mapping
Table
Registered
Cooperation
кооперация
Cooperation
+
-
Registered
Cooperation
кооперация
Cooperation
Registered
Cooperation
+
Table
Registered
Registered
+
-
Data of the control group
№8
-
-
Not registered
Competition
-
№9
-
-
Registered
Competition
+
№10
-
-
Not registered
Competition
-
№11
-
-
Not registered
Competition
-
№12
-
-
Not registered
Competition
-
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the use of the techniques of visualization and
attitude which facilitates productive resolution
of the conflict due to its articulation: in 7 out
of 7 cases of use of visualization techniques in
the negotiation process, the contradiction was
articulated by the participants: the participants
can formulate the main problem, the difficulty of
the situation, identify interests and goals of each
other, analyze the gap;
2) using visualization techniques by the
negotiators affects the subjective perception of
a conflict situation and contributes to change
of attitudes from confrontation to cooperation
of the participants towards each other: using
visualization techniques facilitates cooperation
between the negotiators.
Comparison of these groups in terms of
productivity of the negotiation process (whether
an agreement was reached): in 5 of 7 experimental
groups, the participants reached an agreement,
in one of the five control groups agreement was
reached. This can be interpreted as follows:
using visualization techniques by the negotiators
affects the productive outcome of the negotiation
process.
The analysis of the data of the experimental
group shows that of all the techniques only
conflict mapping and tables were used. This
means that these techniques are most preferable
for this procedure. According to the participants,
these techniques were most appropriate for them,
taking into account the specifics of the stimulus
information.
By observing the negotiation it was
possible to identify some general trends of
unfolding action in the procedure “Inheritance of
Grandmother Charlotte”. In all control groups we
observed the following: all the given time is spent
by the participants for the stage of presentation
of positions. This is due to the fact that when
participants present their attitude towards the
subject, describe their claims, they receive
criticism about the traits of character, and also
the participants whose goals coincide with those
of the speaker, immediately become active and
start bargaining over the desired property. This
makes discussion of the parties’ presentations
way too long and destroys the general logic. In
one of the control groups the participants spent
so much time on discussion of the presentations
that not all the participants had the time to
present their characters. Lack of fixations and
changing of logic complicates the process of
decision-making. Besides that, the participants
simultaneously discuss several issues: what they
want to achieve, how, on what basis they think it
appropriate to distribute the property, character
traits and relationships between the participants.
The transition from one issue of discussion to
another creates difficulty in understanding and
retaining information and is reflected in the
emotional attitude to the process. As an example,
we will give some comments of the participants:
“After the fifth minute of discussion, I completely
lost track of the conversation, what everyone’s
demands were. The only thing that I realized is
that it is better to remain silent, maybe something
will be clarified by the end of the conversation”,
“this is not negotiations, it is some farce, in this
situation, I can sign any nonsense, so I will not
sign the contract”.
In those cases where visualization was
used, the following points can be noted. Work
with tables was carried out by the participants
throughout the whole negotiation process.
At the stage of the parties’ presentations, the
participants built their speech basing on the
column specified in the table: thus, it took
about 7 minutes. In addition, a large amount
of unnecessary information that could “noise”
this procedure was cut off (details of life, traits
of character, relationships with Charlotte, etc.).
Later each of the participants worked with their
own table and was looking for the “right” person
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to talk to on the basis of their goals. The example
of the participants words after the procedure: “.. I
looked at the table and understood who I needed
to communicate with. First it felt like everyone
needed everything at once, that everyone claimed
the same items, then when everything was laid
out it turned out there were some extra items
left unclaimed”. “It is very convenient to use
the table, there appears a picture of everyone’s
claims and what should be negotiated in the first
place”. Thus, we can conclude that the technique
of “tables” helps to save time in the negotiations
and structure information on the claims of other
participants, thereby highlighting the participants
with overlapping interests.
As for the technique of “conflict mapping”, it
has been applied as follows : all participants were
grouped on the basis of kinship. Subsequently,
the participants discussed the inheritance of
property rights within their “branches” in the
family tree. Thus, it creates some principle or
the best way to solve this situation. The logic of
distribution of the property becomes common
and open, helping to reduce tension between the
parties. For example: “.. the problem ceased to
exist when all the participants were drawn and
it became clear, who is related to whom, after
that it became clear to everyone who gets what
and why”. The second version of the application
“conflict mapping” is moving not from kinship,
but from from the item (point of the will). As
a result of this there appeared some microgroups of participants, interested in obtaining
the same item, and these groups held separate
negotiations. This suggests that visualization
helps to identify the optimal way to resolve
the situation, sets the principle of acting which
becomes common for all participants and,
as a consequence, changes the attitude from
competition to cooperation.
All this allows us to draw the following
conclusions:
1) using visualization techniques by
negotiators facilitates productive resolution of
the contradiction due to its formulation: in 7 out
of 7 cases of use of visualizing techniques in the
negotiation process was the contradiction was
articulated by the participants: the participants
can articulate the main problem, the main
difficulty of the situation, identify each other’s
interests and goals, analyze the gap.
2) using visualization techniques by the
negotiators affects the subjective perception of
a conflict situation and contributes to change
of attitude from confrontation to cooperation:
in 7 out of 7 cases after use of visualization
techniques the participants, demonstrated attitude
of cooperation ;
3) using visualization techniques by the
negotiators affect the productive outcome of the
negotiation process : in 5 out of 7 cases of use of
visualization techniques, the participants reached
an agreement ;
4) if the negotiators do not use visualization
techniques, the attitude of participants to each
other can be both cooperation and confrontation;
5) signs of registered contradictions are the
following : analysis of the gap by the participants,
formulation of the key problem, difficulty;
evaluation of one’s own and the opponents’
resources; identification of goals and interests of
the negotiating parties.
In addition, the experimental study showed
that the technique of “conflict mapping” facilitates
finding optimal solutions to the situation through
(1 ) agreement on the key principle, which the
cooperation will be based on, and (2) grouping
the participants of the negotiation process,
identification of characters with intersecting
intentions. The “tables” technique helps to save
time in the negotiations and structure information
regarding claims of other participants, thereby
highlighting the participants with overlapping
interests.
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So, the experiment showed that visualization
helps participants to implement the technology of
negotiations. The ability to use objectification
technique makes it possible to overcome the
attitude of confrontation and move to the joint
search of the solution, beneficial for both parties.
This conclusion is an important step in the search
for an answer to a typical question to trainers on
principled negotiations – we understand and like
what you say, but how is it done?
References
1. Camp, J. First say “No”. M.: Dobraya kniga, 2006.
2. Oliver, D. How to win in negotiations. Neva Economics, St. Petersburg, 2005.
3. Fischer C., D. Abdi, D., Ludin, D., Smith, R., Williams, S. Working with conflict. Practical skills
and strategies for working with conflict – Trans. from English., 2nd ed. Almaty: Resursy primirenia,
2005.
4. Fisher, R., Shapiro, D. Beyond the common sense: How to use emotions in negotiations. M.,
Dobraya kniga, 2007.
5. Fisher, R., Yury, W., Patton, B. Negotiations without defeat. Harvard method. St. Petersburg:
Exmo, 2010.
6. Khasan, B.I. Constructive conflict psychology. St. Petersburg: Peter, 2003.
7. Hertel, A. Professional conflict resolution: Mediation competence in our life. St. Petersburg,
2007.
8. Hesl, G. Mediation in conflict resolution / Mediationdieerfolgreichekonfliktlosung: Theory and
Technology, St. Petersburg: Rech’, 2004.
9. Shchedrovitskiy, G.P. Thinking. Understanding. Reflection. Moscow, 2005.
10. Martin, D. Wyborn, J. One Stop negotiation. NY, 2006.
Техники визуализации
в переговорном процессе
Ю.С. Кета, Т.И. Юстусб
а
Красноярская университетская гимназия «Универс» № 1
Россия, 660001, Красноярск, ул. Корнеева, 50
б
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Переговоры по интересам – наиболее эффективная модель разрешения конфликтов. Этот
подход к переговорам с необходимостью требует кооперативного взаимодействия участников.
Однако вопрос о средствах организации кооперации остается открытым. В статье описаны
техники визуализации, применимые в переговорном процессе, и показаны их возможности для
эффективной реализации технологии ведения переговоров. Экспериментальное исследование
показало, что визуализация способствует продуктивному разрешению противоречия за счет
его оформления и обеспечивает смену установки участников с конфронтации на кооперацию.
Ключевые слова: переговоры, кооперация, конфронтация,техника визуализации, коммуникация
в переговорах.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 647-653
~~~
УДК 37.091.398
Mediation in Educational Dynamics
Antonina I. Dudareva*
Krasnoyarsk University Gymnasium «Univers № 1»
50 Korneev Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660001, Russia
Received 10.01.2014, received in revised form 14.02.2014, accepted 12.03.2014
This article provides a theoretical assumption and then a fragment of its testing on the material of
a concrete study. The main premise of the study is dependence of students’ educational dynamics
on the function of mediation, linking the dynamics of a student with the “cultural subject”. In this
case – orientation of students of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogy at their own education,
becoming a psychologist, solving professional tasks in the Organizational-activity game (the OAG) as
an institution of mediation. The hypotheses are as follows:
- A change in the dynamics of educational relations is possible with the appearance of a new
psychological objective, a new method of solving it.
- Eemergence, testing and assimilating of a new way of solving a psychological problem is provided
by special techniques and organization of the space of the game.
- Such an organization can be set in the OAG.
The mechanism of development, which the OAG is based on – is a conflict. It is their behavior in a
conflict, that shows what is being objectified by students – an educational objective or their feelings –
I as a future professional or I as an “offended” party in this situation.
Keywords: mediation, constructive conflict, the Organizational-activity game, educational dynamics,
activity approach.
There are several points of view regarding
the concept of mediation. For example, there is
a concept of mediation in social psychology [5]
or mediating function in the cultural-historical
concept and psychology of development [4, 9],
both these concepts are categorically related, but
differ by activity. These distinctions appear in
connection with the areas, one is considering –
politics, commerce or education, etc. Mediation
occurs in a situation, where you immediate
interaction is not possible – this is its essence. Let
us consider the sphere of education to determine
the function of mediation (carried out by a
teacher-mediator) in development of educational
*
subject relations of students. To do this, let us first
consider the educational relations themselves.
Educational relations
Educational relations was quite clearly
schematized by L.S. Vygotskiy [see 8] as a
process of translation of culture, in which specific
cultural positions interact, and their activity is
mediated by the social situation of development
and by use of special (corresponding to cultural
material) ways of transformation. They are
learning and interiorizing of methods of cultural
transformation, that constitute key characteristics
of educational relations [8, p. 89]. Education does
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: tonya@ippd.ru
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not happen itself. As a cultural process it requires
a special form and way of transmission.
A unit of educational relations is the system:
a teacher, a student and a subject, connected by
definite relations. These relations can develop as
follows: first, there exist relations of a teacher and
a student (in these relations personality-centered
orientation prevails) and relations of a teacher and
a subject as functional ones. The starting point
of educational relations is perception of a subject
as external, which a student does not possess
but wishes to. In the course of development of
educational relations there should appear the
relation of a student-a subject, in which the way of
working with subject is taken from the relations
of a teacher- a subject.
Thus, there is a separation of personal and
subject-orientation
of educational relations
and shifting the focus to a subject. Here we can
register depersonification of:
• a subject, or rather a method of subjecttransforming action (action-psychological
aspect);
• a figure (position), change of the status of
a teacher from a “master” to “conductor”
(socio-psychological aspect).
For mediation to happen, that is, to succeed
as a connection, depersonification in activity and
socio-psychological aspects must take place.
Such process of transformation of relations
can be and must be constructed. The mechanism of
development is thought to be a productive conflict
[6], which is conceived, specially designed and
implemented.
It must be said that under the dynamics
of educational relations we understand in this
work not correspondence-- non-correspondence
to standards, but advancement of a student in
thinking, connected with claiming and learning
professional ways of activity, as compared to
their previous level. The object of assessment
here is learning cultural tools, which, according
to the theory of L.S. Vygotskiy, is a guiding
line of educational process [cited from 3]. It is
best demonstrated in the model of individual
progress. [3, p. 29]. According to the model,
there are three levels in development of thinking
and understanding. The levels reflect levels of
mastering tools of subject transformation, and
are the principal scheme, which is based in a
particular case on the content of a particular
subject. Level I. learning of the external pattern of
subject transformation. Level II. Distinguishing
(modeling) the essential relation of the subject
system. Level III. Inclusion of the generalized
method into the set of the resources of action,
that can be accepted and rejected, modified and
transformed.
In general, development of educational
relations (especially in higher education) depends
on actions, made by a student, and decisions that
he/she takes. According to the conception of K.
Lewin, a situation of decision-making is a conflict
one. [10]. He writes that in psychological terms, a
conflict is characterized as a situation in which an
individual is simultaneously affected by opposite
forced of equal strength. [10]. Thus, we obtain a
scheme of unfolding of an action in the field with
the influence of forces and decision-making.
In the terms of K. Lewin’s conception,
a mechanism of developing of relations – a
conflict – is described. To determine the content
of this conflict – the material on the unfolding
takes place, we consider a five-factor model of
conflict [7, p. 38]. This model defines a number
of stable factors that take into account the
material, the nature of interaction, the specifics
of the parties, the dynamics of unfolding and thus
objectivizes conflict interaction. 1. The subject
of the conflict is the status in hierarchic system
of relations. 2. The object of the conflict is the
indicator of identity, belonging. 3. The object of
conflict is acquired (internalized) gap in some
external subject material. 4. The object of conflict
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is the sense of self-worth. 5. The conflict situation
appears as a consequence of lack of success,
of failure to reach the intended result, or as an
anticipation of such failure [7].
If we analyze actions in a situation
according to this model, the general strategy of
behavior it becomes clear, its causes and reasons,
and, therefore, in this case, it (behavior) can be
controlled: it can be given dynamics and guided.
In fact, it is becoming quite clear what we are
dealing with and how to work with it, but still so
far it is only a supposition
So, based on the analysis of the sources on
the subject of our work, we can summarize these
materials in the scheme (see Fig. 1), where a model
of development is acquisition of the degrees of
freedom in learning the way to solve a problem,
a mechanism of development – a conflict, and the
content of the conflict – objectivity, outlined in
the five-factor model of conflict.
Mediation
in educational relations
The educational system is literally “built-in
between” creators of culture and consumers of
culture. According to the plan, it should unite,
connect the former with the latter, however,
in practice, it separates them and becomes an
independent production and self- sufficient
structure. The tasks of mediation are not
meaningful in terms of the subject matter of the
activities of the parties (the focus of content is
not specified), but they are meaningful in terms
of the teaching object. “A mediator is the one
who expresses the way of initiation of a “reverse”
search and treatment. An adult (a teacher or a
parent) is a mediator only to the degree in which
he/she is looking for, testing (initially it is an
adult, but not a child who does it) the situation, in
which his/her adult’s idea itself, i.e. what he/she
imagines and expresses (but not their “personal
characteristics”) becomes an object of children’s
LevelIII
2
Cf
(assimilation,application
inadifferentsituation)
LevelII
1
(distinguishing the
background)
Level I
(learning the
pattern)
Fig. 1. The scheme of educational relations where 1 – a
student; 2 – an intermediary acting as the ideal form
for the student
interest and testing. The problem of mediation is
set by non-coordination, non-relatedness of two
positions (real (present situation) and ideal (way
of seeing this situation)), and the task is to find
something that will connect them and change
into one another)” [9, p. 62]. That is, when an
intermediary initiates an action, at this time he
acts himself, in this way showing by his/her own
example and reflecting attempts of acting of
those, who his activity is aimed at.
One of these institutions of mediation is the
Organizational-activity game (the OAG), which
is studied in this work. The OAG links “pure”
idealizations, communication which exists “here
and now” (which is not subject to the laws of logic
at all), past activities and people themselves – in
their personal, spiritual, social- psychological
dimensions – into a single, but preserving
its complexity polysystem, that becomes the
springboard for the development of research of
systems of people’s thinking and developing. [2,
p. 389]. That is a new vision of a situation and
their capabilities of acting in it open for them. An
act of development takes place in which the game
is directly involved: it works as an intermediary
mechanism.
A lot of games (in their scenario or
independent line of development) are aimed
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at improving existing structures of activities
(mainly institutional). In such games,
participants do not radically revise their status
as socio-cultural subjects, but only recognize
it more clearly. Such are the games, conducted
with students. Usually in these games standard
social roles are played and considered, such as a
professional role, job position, and suchlike. The
starting point of the game is problem statement,
which is initiated by acute conflicts in current
activities of participants, inability to efficiently
solve the problems they are facing. The main
products of the games, aimed at improving of
activities, are a problem-analytical picture of the
existing situation and a project for its change,
which removes the identified difficulties and
conflicts for the sake of realizing certain tasks
and socio-cultural values.
The studied case
The subject in educational relation is
an educational task regarding one’s own
“psychological” education. Dynamics of attitude
to one’s own professional development is
manifested in formation of professional thinking,
that is, a change of ways to solve a problem. And,
hence, the hypotheses of this paper are:
A change of ways to solve an educational
task (dynamics of relations) becomes possible
when viewing the situation by students changes
according to the scheme:
– a new type of viewing the situation on
is launched on the material of a new
educational objective;
– space for trying, manipulation;
– internalizing through reflection;
– a new type of vision as one’s own;
In this scheme the idea of L.S. Vygotskiy can
be traced, according to which a final formation
of ability happens through diverse use of an
interiorized form of action and has as its final
result a new, now culturally-based spontaneity.
[1] In the course of trying and manipulating, the
skill is assimilated and interiorized, so it becomes
“natural” in use and “cultural” in origin.
The points of this scheme can be provided
in the OAG.
Thus, we can make the following
conclusions:
– The change in the dynamics of educational
relations is possible with the appearance
of a new psychological objective, a new
method of solving it.
– The emergence, testing and assimilating
of a new way of solving a psychological
problem is provided by special techniques
and organization of the space of the
game.
– Such an organization can be set in the
OAG.
Basing on the hypotheses, we get the
following scheme to test them: the means
for dynamics of educational relations can be
provided in the OAG, the organizers of the OAG
for students determine the structure of the game
and include special techniques. That is actually a
scheme of educational co-existence: meeting of
certain potential (of the students, participating in
the game) and organized (of the organizers-game
technicians) educational directions, leading to a
change of way of seeing the situation (change in
dynamics).
The study was conducted in several stages,
it compares the data of the two games. After the
first game it was planned to identify a change in
the orientation of students towards education,
for them to have claims for independence in
the professional sphere. From the next year’s
continuation of the game it was necessary
to obtain first of all, confirmation of such an
effect the game, and secondly, to identify the
intermediary function in the game (consciously
carried out by the organizers), and thirdly, to
fixate the postgame effect as matching of actions
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of an intermediary and the situation, in which he/
she acted.
The study was conducted in several stages:
1) conducting the Organizational-activity
games with the fi rst-year students of the Faculty
of Psychology and Pedagogic, 2) measuring the
postgame effect, and 3) assessing the provision
of a mediatory function in the game. The fi rst
stage is the most interesting and significant,
the next two are complementary and supported
the data, obtained in the fi rst. At the fi rst
stage, the dynamics of educational orientation
was traced, if there appeared one. The main
method to detect it was reflexive reports of
students, fi xating changes during the game.
The participants were offered a form to fi ll out,
which was based on the projective material. It
was assumed that educational orientation will
manifest itself in it during its actualization
in the game (if students already have it in a
potential form).
Referring to the data, obtained on the results
of the first game (see Fig. 2), it can be noted
that the greatest focus on the subject (III factor)
is fixated during the second day. 19 % of the
students demonstrate subject orientation when
asked a question, aimed at overcoming obstacles
(in response to the game’s problem setting). In
addition to this, data about self-estimation (IV
factor) increase during the second day from
10 % with reference to objectives to 28 % during
the second.
Thus, we can conclude that in response to the
organized problems students either demonstrate
defensive reaction (which is evidenced by the
increase in Factor VI), which is the case with the
majority, or beget an orientation at overcoming,
i.e. educational orientation is activated.
Analyzing the data of postgame reflexive
reports of the second game, which took place a
year later (see Fig. 3), we can see that 78 % of
students consider the game as a usual educational
situation, maintaining status relations with
teachers. However, towards the end of the game
this orientation decreases by 47 %.
The data of the second day are quite
interesting, where an increase in Factors II, II and
VI can be seen (14, 12 and 16 %, respectively) –
this is the reaction of students to the problems,
set by the organizers. After the first game, there
was an increase only in Factors III and IV, which
may be indicative of group solidarity against
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
daysofthegame
IĮ̨̨̨̛̛̬̦̯̣̦̼̖̯̦̹̖̦̐̌̽́̚
III̪̬̖̥̖̯̔
IV̶̨̨̡̭̥̖̦̌̌
V̸̨̨̨̛̱̭̯̯̖̯̭̯̖̦̭̯̏̏̏̏
Fig. 2. The dynamics of educational orientation of participants of the game
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100
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
̨̛̛̬̼̖̦̐̏̔
Ȉ̡̨̨̛̛̖̬̯̣̦̼̖̯̦̹̖̦̌̽́
IĮ̨̨̨̛̛̬̦̯̣̦̼̖̯̦̹̖̦̐̌̽́̚
III̪̬̖̥̖̯̔
IV̶̨̨̡̭̥̖̦̌̌
V̸̨̨̛̱̭̯̯̖̯̭̯̖̦̦̭̯̏̏̏̏
Fig. 3. The dynamics of educational orientation of participants of the game a year later
difficulties, or productive collective nature of
overcoming difficulties. The choice of a cause for
group solidarity now depends on: whether it is a
protective reaction (Factor IV) or activation of
educational orientation (Factor III).
In general, the data of both years demonstrate
dynamics and activation of educational orientation
in the course of the game and by the final day
(14 % – 2009 18 % – 2010). Basing on which we
can make a conclusion about certain stability of
the results and effectiveness of the games as a
form of mediating action.
The mediating function, considered on
the material the game, works for students of
psychology through its discovery, and the
activities of the organizers for its presentation to
students are adequate to the situation. However,
we can speak of only a partial proof of the
theoretical hypotheses, which were made, because
the game is only one of the places for realization
of the intermediary function in education, it is
certainly worthy of special consideration, but
does not provide exhaustive answers to the posed
questions.
References
1. Elkonin, B.D. Vvedenie v psikhologiiu razvitiia (v traditsii kul’turno-istoricheskoi teorii L.S.
Vygotskogo) [Introduction to psychology of development (in the tradition of cultural-historical theory
of L. S. Vygotskiy)]. M.: Trivola, 1994. 168 p.
2. G.P. Shchedrovitskii. Filosofy Rossii vtoroy poloviny XX veka. [G.P. Schedrovitskiy. Russian
philosophy of the second half of the XX century]. Ed. by P.G. Schedrovitskiy , V.L. Danilova. M.:
ROSSPEN, 2010. 600 p.
3. Khasan, B.I. Konstruktivnaia psikhologiia konflikta [Constructive psychology of conflict]. St.
Petersburg.: Peter, 2003. 250 p.
4. Khasan, B.I. Psikhotekhnika konflikta: uchebnoe posobie. [Psychotechnics of conflict: a
educational manual]. Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 1995. 99 p.
5. Khasan, B.I., Fedorenko E.Ju. Conflicts in educational relations and distribution of risks
between subjects [Konflikty v obrazovatel’nykh otnosheniiakh i raspredelenie riskov mezhdu
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sub”ektami]. Pedagogika razvitiia: obrazovatel’nye interesy i ikh sub”ekty (Pedagogy of development:
educational interests and their subjects). Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2005.
6. Lewin, K. (1951) Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright
(ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
7. Monitoring individual’nogo progressa uchebnykh deistvii shkol’nikov. [Monitoring individual
progress of learning activities of pupils]. Ed. by P.G. Nezhnov, B.I. Khasan, B. D. Elkonin. Krasnoyarsk:
Publishing Center of KPD, 2006. 132 p.
8. Problems of psychology of development. [Problemy psikhologii razvitiia]. Materialy
konferentsii “Psikhicheskoe razvitie v ontogeneze: zakonomernosti I vozmozhnye periodizatsii”
(Materials of the conference “Psychological development in ontogenesis: laws and possible periods”).
Moscow, 19-22 October 1999. Ed. by E.E. Kravtsova, V.F. Spiridonov. M.: Vera Medica, 2000. 384 p.
9. Sotsial’naia psikhologiia: Khrestomatiia: Uchebnoe posobie dlia studentov vuzov [Social
Psychology: A Reader: Textbook for students]. Comp. by E.P. Belinskaya, O.A. Tikhomandritskaya.
M., 2003. 475 p.
10. Vygotskiy, L.S. Sobranie sochinenii v 6 tomakh. T. 2. [Coll. of works: In 6 volumes. V. 2]. M.,
1982.
Посредничество
в образовательной динамике
А.И. Дударева
Красноярская университетская гимназия «Универс» № 1
Россия, 660001, Красноярск, ул. Корнеева, 50
В данной статье приводится теоретическое предположение и далее фрагмент его проверки
на материале одного конкретного исследования. Основным посылом в работе является
зависимость образовательной динамики учащегося от функции посредничества, связывающей
динамику этого учащегося с «культурным предметом». В данном случае – направленность
студента психолого-педагогического факультета на собственное образование, становление
себя психологом, решающим профессиональные задачи, через организационно-деятельностную
игру (ОДИ) как институт посредничества. Гипотезы заключаются в следующем:
– изменение в динамике учебно-предметных отношений возможно при появлении новой
психологической задачи, нового способа ее решения;
– возникновение, апробация и присвоение нового способа решения психологической задачи
обеспечивается специальными техниками и устройством пространства;
– такая организация может быть задана в ОДИ.
Механизмом развития, который закладывается в ОДИ еще на этапе ее проектирования,
является конфликт. Именно поведение в конфликте показывает, что учащимся
предметизируется – образовательная задача или самочувствие – я как будущий профессионал
или я как ситуативно «обиженный».
Ключевые слова: посредничество, конструктивный конфликт, организационно-деятельностная
игра, образовательная динамика, деятельностный подход.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 654-663
~~~
УДК 005.334
Conflict-Generating Factors
of Corrupt Behavior
Sergey D. Krasnousov*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Received 10.12.2013, received in revised form 16.01.2014, accepted 27.02.2014
The paper examines factors contributing to development and revealing of conflict, provoking people to
aggravation of contradictions, resulting in corrupt behavior in the private sector. The main conflictgenerating factor, according to the author, is presence of contradictions in the person, who has been
delegated with power, between his personal interests and interests of the organization. In most cases,
the person focuses on the immediate areas, both territorial and temporal (the sphere of immediate
interest), this leads to the fact that what falls within this sphere has more value than what lies beyond.
This circumstance also reinforces the priority of group and individual interests, which are usually
located in the sphere of a person’s immediate interest, above all others, including the persons who
direct the work of the organizations in the private sector or work in any capacity in such organizations.
Thus, the propensity for corruption is not an exception, but rather is part of human nature. But with
management mechanism becoming more complicated, certain powers being delegated to a certain
person who directs the work of an organization in the private sector or work in such an organization,
the circle of common interests becomes much broader than those that fall within the immediate interests
of this person. Group and individual interests begin to prevail over common ones, which can lead to
corruption.
Keywords: corruption, conflict-generating factors, the private sector.
For real prevention of corruption in the
private sector it is not enough to define the
essence of this phenomenon, types and forms
of its manifestation in society. It is necessary to
focus on the determinants, producing it, which in
their turn include conflict-generating factors.
A laconic definition of causes of corruption
has been developed by a number of foreign
economists in the analysis of corruption as
an economic model of relations of “principalagent”. R. Klitgaard proposed to express it in
the following formula: corruption = monopoly
*
+ discretion – accountability. Corruption occurs
only when the person authorized to make a
decision, has a monopoly of power1 or a very wide
scope of discretionary powers2. In other words,
the cause of corruption (conflict-generating factor
of corrupt behavior) is that a single individual
has opportunity to make decisions aimed at
others and desire to abuse this opportunity.
In modern criminological literature in Russia
there have been developed sufficient number of
various classifications of reasons (determinants)
for crime and corrupt behavior3. However, the
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: skrasnousov@sfu-kras.ru
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authors do not make specific conclusions whether
determinants can include conflict-generating
factors. We believe that it does not contradict
the fundamentals of criminology, and for the
purposes of this article we use these words as
synonyms
Most often determinants of corruption
are divided into economic, political, legal and
psychological4, sometimes social, spiritual,
moral, psychological and organizational and
management determinants are added5.
The system of social factors determining
crimes of corruption is very diverse. These
include:
– absence of the state ideology, directing to
legitimate solution of problems connected
with corruption;
– legal nihilism;
– legal passivity and ignorance of a
significant part of the adult population,
which make them too heavily dependent
on law enforcer6;
– underdevelopment of civil society7;
– changes in social values and morality, the
general decline in the cultural level of the
masses8.
Among social factors there may also be
anomy, i.e. a state of society in which its members
have lost the importance of social norms
and regulations. According to R.K. Merton,
committing crime may be not only an abnormal
reaction of an abnormal individual to normal
social conditions, but also a normal reaction of an
normal individual to abnormal conditions9.
According to V.A. Nomokonov, “a common
objective source of antisocial and criminal
behavior is deformation of social relations. Causes
of crime are a product of not only the so-called
social subsystems, but also a systemic effect,
resulting from global or partial defectiveness
of society as a whole. This defectiveness is not
only and is not so much in economic problems.
“Defectiveness” is an integrative indicator of the
state of, first of all, imbalance, acute conflicts of
interests of citizens, social groups, society and
the state”10.
Specificity of manifestations of the nature of
corrupt behavior in the private sector is the fact
that the social environment may push to, as well
as warn against, committing crimes related to
official position of the offender.
In relation to the analyzed social phenomenon
the position of Henry Mendras is of interest,
who drew attention to another important social
factor of corruption: when directors move from
one place of work to another, they usually take
with them their loyal colleagues – their “clients”
who are faithful to them, because they “make
a career”. Directors have power through such
“clients” – the power of the first and the career of
the second go hand in hand. The “team“concept
of staff appointments has social preconditions11.
We should not forget about such sociopsychological phenomenon as stigmatization.
The influence of stigmatizing effect is studied by
K. Sedlenieks. It is because “everybody knows”
that in certain countries (e.g. countries with “
transition economy”) there is more corruption
by definition, we are inclined to use the term
“corruption” to describe many of the socio –
economic relations, which, being found in the
countries of “the first” world, do not classify as
corruption12. As a result, in foreign countries
there is the impression of a very high level of
corruption in certain countries and impossibility
to achieve certain goals without using corruption
schemes. Thus, a foreign entrepreneur, who has
knowledge from various sources about the high
level of corruption in Russia, when deciding
on doing business in Russia or with Russian
companies can immediately take a decision about
the use of corruption mechanisms.
In this work we would like to pay a
particular attention to socio- psychological and
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psychological of causes of corruption crime in the
private sector, as they are, in our opinion, crucial
in the implementation of special preventive
measures..
Most often, among the psychological causes
of corrupt behavior are the following:
– low level of solidarity of the population
with the norms of responsibility for
corruption;
– some exaggeration in the public
consciousness of the level of corruption
in the administrative apparatus, including
organizations;
– psychological readiness of a considerable
part of the population to bribery for
realization of both legal and illegal
rights;
– extremely low subjectively perceived
risk of being prosecuted for corruption
offenses ;
– the phenomenon of mutual guilt of the
briber and the bribe-receiver13.
Factors affecting corrupt behavior are most
evident in the psychology of large social groups.
For the individual who directs the work of an
organization in the private sector, or works there
in any capacity, a job in such an organization is
not a service to the society or the organization,
but rather getting privileges and satisfaction of
personal interests at the expense of the society
or organization. Inclining in favour of corrupt
behavior, the individual who directs the work of
an organization in the private sector or works in
any capacity in such an organization is influenced
by cognitive dissonance 14. The essence of this
theory, proposed by L. Festinger15, is that a
person’s attitudes change because he/she has to
maintain consistency between his/her knowledge.
The person feels stress (“dissonance”) when
two thoughts or two beliefs (“cognitions”) are
psychologically incompatible. This occurs when
the person decides to do or say something that he/
she has mixed feelings about. To reduce tension
the person often adjusts his/her attitude16. In the
mind of a person who directs the work of an
organization in the private sector or works in any
capacity in such an organization, there appears
a contradiction between understanding of
importance of the work that he/she does, and its
low social guarantees. To resolve this contradiction
a person often inclines toward corrupt behavior,
thereby satisfying his/her expectations for social
guarantees of his/her work.
In some cases, criminal behavior of a person
who directs the work of an organization in the
private sector or works in any capacity in such an
organization is affected by the mutual exchange
rule, which states that a person must try to repay
in this way for something that another person
provided him with17.
Another factor affecting criminal corruption
behavior is conformism that changes beliefs or
behavior in response to real or imagined group
pressure in those cases when there is no explicit
requirement to agree with the group, nor any
reason that could justify this change of behavior18.
Among the people who direct the work of
organizations in the private sector or work in any
capacity in such organizations, as in any other
professional groups specific tradition are formed,
which are unspokenly followed by all members
of this profession. Following this tradition, they
create the most comfortable conditions for their
existence. It is transformed into a formula for
success and career growth: “do like everyone
else, and you will achieve positive results”. Young
specialists coming to work in a company, adopt
the negative experience from older colleagues.
Thus, the organization becomes a “school” of
traditions of corrupt behavior19.
Entrepreneurs, inclining to criminal corrupt
behavior, are greatly influenced by conformism.
Since the vast majority of representatives of this
sphere give commercial bribes (illegal payments)
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and this phenomenon is not condemned by the
professional community, there is a supposition
that this behavior is normal and necessary for
business20. Moreover, rejection of such behavior
may lead to unnecessary increase of business
risks (because it is impossible to talk about fair
competition between those who give commercial
bribes (illegal payments) and those – who
do not). Giving a commercial bribe (illegal
payment) does not guarantee future success
of business, but rejecting corrupt behavior is
very often related to being ousted from the
market.
Corrupt behavior of entrepreneurs is also
affected by the rule of mutual exchange. In
some cases, the entrepreneur gives a commercial
bribe (illegal payment) as gratitude for actions
performed in his favor by a person who directs
the work of an organization in the private sector
or works in any capacity in such an organization.
The second variant of behavior is when the
entrepreneur purposefully provides services to a
person, who directs the work of an organization
in the private sector or works in any capacity
in such an organization, putting the latter in a
dependent position.
The third group, which enters into corrupt
relations in the private sector, is private individuals
(citizens).
The theory of cognitive dissonance also
explains criminal corrupt behavior of citizens.
The general attitude of private individuals
is that the person who directs the work of an
organization in the private sector or works in
any capacity in such an organization is a “man
of the organization”, qualified to help citizens
overcome certain difficulties. When a citizen is
faced in practice with a person, who directs the
work of an organization in the private sector or
works, in any capacity, in such an organization,
its in-organizational procedures create the
impression that the persons who direct the work
of an organization in the private sector or work in
any capacity in such an organization, themselves
hinder the realization of the rights of citizens. As a
result, the only way to channel the activities of the
person who directs the work of an organization in
the private sector or works in any capacity in such
an organization, in the direction of help expected
from them by a citizen is to give a commercial
bribe ( illegal payment).
It is possible to consider psychological
causes of crime at the individual level through
their place in the mechanism of criminal behavior
and its formation.
We can assume that corrupt behavior of
citizens and the person who directs the work of
an organization in the private sector or works in
any capacity in such an organization under the
conditions of anomy is caused by various reasons.
The theory of conflict explains deviant behavior
by the presence of social conflicts, both class
and group ones. Part of possible group conflicts
has already been considered in the analysis of
motivation of social groups. Clash of cultures
can lead to contradiction in interpretations
of social relations. Internalization of conflict
creates a situation of internal conflict of values
and interests that are also able to trigger social
deviance. Besides, such type of corruption as
nepotism as (favoritism in relation to relatives or
friends regardless of their professional qualities)
can be generated by a conflict of loyalty21.
It should be emphasized that the mechanism
of corruption in principle may provide two
versions of corrupt behavior : in one case there
is interaction between two main actors, each of
which seeks to satisfy their own interests with the
help of corruption, and in another case corruption
activity is reduced to the actions of only one
person ( corruptionist ), who satisfies his personal
interest or interests of other persons on his own
(without interaction with other subjects ), using
the power granted to him22.
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It is obvious that the mechanism of formation
of criminal behavior in bilateral corruption has
its own characteristics. For sellers of corruption
services attractiveness of corrupt behavior is
important, which, according to S.A. Golovko,
consists of a number of factors23: the number and
availability of a variety of benefits ; the degree
of corruption behavior permitted by society and
the state ; probability of punishment; the number
and quality of work or services required from
the corruptionist for receiving remuneration;
possibility of performing work or services
required from the seller of corruption services.
But corrupt behavior of the seller of
corruption services depends on many other
factors, in particular, the level of legal income of
potential sellers of corruption services24.
The model of behavior of a corrupt buyer
differs from the behavior of a corrupt seller,
primarily in target function. The corruptionistbuyer always wants to get corrupt services as
any normal buyer, with minimal costs. Demand
for corrupt services depends on a number of
variables, most significant among which are prices
for corruption services. Supply of corruption
services is affected by the demand and sphere of
production of corruption services (prohibitions
and restrictions in the legislation). In addition,
there are a number of variables that affect both
demand and supply:
– level of income of individuals interested
in obtaining corrupt services;
– level of income of persons providing
corrupt services;
– number and severity of bans on receiving
corrupt services ;
– probability of disclosure and severity of
punishment ;
– imposition of corrupt services by the
seller ;
– imposition of demand for corrupt services
by the buyer.
Based on different combinations of these
variables, several classic models of corrupt
behavior in bilateral corruption in the private
sector can be identified.
The first model assumes interest of persons
providing and receiving corrupt services in each
other. In the case of realizing the first model the
level of latency should be the highest25. “Corruption
is not only secretive, but also consentient. It
usually does not give rise to complaints, as the
guilty parties are benefiting from the illegal
transaction”26. Given the monopolistic nature of
supply of corruption services, this model holds
price discrimination.
The second model assumes that the subjects
of corruption are not interested in each other.
In the absence of demand and supply of corrupt
services, corruption will equal to zero.
The third model considers the situation of
imbalance when the person providing corruption
services is interested in realizing these services,
but the potential recipient is not interested. In this
model, there is extortion of corruption services.
Since the other side of corruption relations is not
interested in them, it increases the risk for the
corruptionist, and attempts to get extra payment
for the risk increases it even more.
The fourth model is a mirror reversal of the
third model. In this case, the person who can
provide corruption services, is not interested in
providing them, but the recipient is interested.
In this case, the latter has higher uncompensated
risks and other additional expenses. To achieve
results, the recipient must either increase the
size of remuneration offered to the potential
corruptionist, or offer him an alternative “income”,
for example, life and health of his family, etc.
An important role in the mechanism of
formation of corrupt behavior is played by a
motif. Among the most common motives for
corrupt behavior we can name compensation for
losses connected with working in a particular job
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as perceived by the person who directs the work
of an organization in the private sector or works
in any capacity in such an organization. In this
case, the following factors push to loss of moral
immunity:
– feeling of uncertainty ;
– low wages, not appropriate to
qualifications and responsibilities of the
work performed ;
– unfairness in promotions ;
– rudeness or incompetence of the boss27.
We agree with the opinion of V.I. Popov,
who believes that the causes of corruption
are predominantly ideological factors, rather
than economic issues28. Therefore, they are
psychological aspects that become crucial in
determining the causes of corruption in general
and in the private sector in particular.
When considering the causes of corruption in
the private sector it is necessary to remember that
corruption is impossible without power, it appears
only in the depths of the mechanism of realization
of “power relations”, changing its functional
purpose, in connection with which, the work of
this mechanism is carried out only in the interests
of participants in corrupt relations. In corruption
“power relations” cease to fully or partially fulfill
a socially useful role in management of society,
and are used by corruptionists solely as a means
to achieve their own goals29. Corruption exists
because the person who directs the work of a
company in the private sector or works, in any
capacity, in such an organization can administer
resources that do not belong to him by making
or not making certain decisions30. In other words,
corruption always involves improper use of public
power for private benefit31. Therefore, we can
1
2
conclude that causes of corruption are directly
related to implementation of power.
But the main reason of corruption and,
consequently, a conflict-generating factor of
corrupt behavior, as part of this reason is, in our
opinion, a contradicting conflict in the person
who is delegated with powers between his
private interests and public ones. In the course
of evolution a person is programmed for “selfish
socialization”, which means that people can only
exist and develop within society, but always
strive to realize their own individual interests.
Therefore, there is a tendency in every person:
to benefit at the expense of others, especially
if the probability of being caught is or seems
insignificant. In most cases, the person focuses on
the immediate areas, both territorial and temporal
(the sphere of immediate interest), this leads to the
fact that what falls within this sphere has more
value than what lies beyond. This circumstance
also reinforces the priority of group and
individual interests, which are usually located in
the sphere of a person’s immediate interest, above
all others, including the persons who direct the
work of the organizations of the private sector or
work in such organizations. Thus, the propensity
for corruption is not an exception, but rather is
part of human nature32. But with management
mechanism becoming more complicated, certain
powers being delegated to a certain person who
directs the work of an organization in the private
sector or work in such an organization, the circle
of common interests becomes much broader than
those that fall within the immediate interests of
this person. Group and individual interests begin
to prevail over common ones, which can lead to
corruption.
Here and below, power is the ability and the opportunity to exercise one’s will, to exert a decisive influence on activity and
behavior of people, even in spite of their resistance. See Ivanec, G.I., Kalinskyi, I.V., Chervonyuk, V.I. Russian Constitutional law, available at: http://slovari.yandex.ru/~books/Constitutional %20law%20РФ/Power/
Herzfeld Thomas Corruption begets Corruption: zur Dynamik und Persistenz der Korruption (2004) Frankfurt am Main,
Peter Lang GmBH, P. 47.
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7
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9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
See: Kuznetsova, N.F. Problem of criminological determination (1984) Moscow, Pp. 48-55; Nomokonov, V.A. Criminal behavior: determination and responsibility (1989) Vladivostok, Publishing House of Far Eastern University
Press, P. 77;Shestakov, D.A. Criminology: New approaches to crime: criminological laws and legislation. Combating
crime in a changing world (2006) St. Petersburg, Publisher R. Aslanov “Law Center Press”, P. 201;Karabanov, A.L.,
Melnik, S.K. Modern problems of combating corruption: the criminal law and criminological aspects (2010) Moscow, Volters Kluver, P. 54-66; Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials
of Krasnodar Krai (2006) St. Petersburg, P. 38, 43-46;Shedyi, M.V. Causes of corruption in modern society (2009)
Investigator, No 2, P. 52-57; Tretyakov, V.I. Corruption and problems, generating it (2008) Philosophy of Law, No 2
(27), P. 14-17.; Andreev, V.V., Borisova, E.R. Corruption and accountability in state purchases (2009) Cheboksary,
ChKI RUK, P. 57-67.
See: Karabanov, A.L., Melnik, S.K. Modern problems of combating corruption: the criminal law and criminological aspects (2010) Moscow, Volters Kluver, P. 54-66.
See: Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials of Krasnodar Krai (2006) St. Petersburg, P. 38, 43-46; Shedyi, M.V. Causes of corruption in modern society (2009) Investigator, No 2, P. 52-57. Tretyakov,
V.I. Corruption and problems, generating it (2008) Philosophy of Law, No 2 (27), P. 14-17; Andreev, V.V., Borisova, E.R.
Corruption and accountability in state purchases (2009) Cheboksary, ChKI RUK, P. 57-67.
See: Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials of Krasnodar Krai (2006) St.
Petersburg, P. 46.
Shedyi, M.V. Ibid. p 53.
See: Kuleshov, P. Yu. Organizing combating corruption in government: foreign experience (2006) Moscow, P. 50. See
Merton, R.K. Social structure and anomy (1968) Sociology of Crime, Moscow, P. 299.
Cited from: Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials of Krasnodar Krai (2006)
St. Petersburg, P. 46.
See: Nomokonov, V.A. Theory of causality in criminology needs a deeper approach, available at: http://www.crime.vl.ru/
index.php?p=1980&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1
See: Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials of Krasnodar Krai (2006) St.
Petersburg, P. 46.
Olimpieva, I.B., Panchenko, O.V. Corruption, anti-corruption and position of the social scientist (2007) Fighting windmills? Socio- anthropological approach to the study of corruption, St. Petersburg, Alateya, P. 9.
See: Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials of Krasnodar Krai (2006) St.
Petersburg, P.43-44;
Bushmin, SI, Cameco, M.N. Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt behavior (2007) Corruption and
democracy: collect. of scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO, P. 24.
See: Zimbardo, F., Lyayppe, M. Social influence (2000) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 124. Cited from: Bushmin, SI, Cameco,
M.N. Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt behavior (2007) Corruption and democracy: collect. of
scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO, P. 26.
See: Myers, D. Social Psychology (2004) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 182. Cited from: Cited from: Bushmin, SI, Cameco,
M.N. Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt behavior (2007) Corruption and democracy: collect. of
scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO, P. 26.
See: Chaldini, R. Psychology of influence (2004) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 124. Cited from: Bushmin, SI, Cameco, M.N.
Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt behavior (2007) Corruption and democracy: collect. of scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO, P. 26.
See: Zimbardo, F., Lyayppe, M. Social influence (2000) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 71. . Cited from: Bushmin, SI, Cameco,
M.N. Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt behavior (2007) Corruption and democracy: collect. of
scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO, P. 27.
Bushmin, SI, Cameco, M.N. Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt behavior (2007) Corruption and
democracy: collect. of scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO, P. 27.
Ibid. P. 27.
Golik, Yu. V., Karasev, V.I. Corruption as a mechanism of social degradation (2005) St. Petersburg, Publisher R.Aslanov
“Law Center Press”, P. 23, 175-176.
See: Karpovich, O.G. Corruption in Russia today (2007) Moscow, Yurist, P. 127 ; Korchagin, A. G., Ivanov, A.M. Comparative study of corruption and official crimes (2001) Vladivostok, P. 165.; Bogush, G.I. Corruption and international
cooperation in the fight against it (2004) Moscow, P. 40-41.
See: Golovko, S.A. Combatting corruption crime in Russia: Past, Present and Future: Diss....of candidate of legal sciences,
Tyumen, 2006. P. 96-97
See: Golovko S.A. Ibid. p 98.
See: Golovko S.A. Ibid. p 100-101.
Luneev, V.V. Crime in the twentieth century: global, regional and Russian tendencies / V.V. Luneev. – M.: Publishing house
NORMA, 1997. P.267.
See: Shevelevich, A.A. Legal and administrative framework for combating corruption in civil service: Diss.... of Cand. of
legal sciences. Moscow: Moscow State Law Academy, 2008. p 78;
Golik,Yu. V., Karasev V.I. Corruption as a mechanism of social degradation. – St. Petersburg. : Publisher R.Aslanov “Law
Center Press”, 2005. P. 178.
Popov, V.I. Current problems of combating the most dangerous forms of organized crime. Moscow, 2004. P. 96.
Sichinaev, I.M. Penal measures against corruption crimes: Diss.... of cand. of legal sciences. Moscow, 2006. Pp. 16-17.
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31
32
Kuznetsova, O.A. Corrupt activities: criminological and legal aspects: Diss.... of Cand. Of legal Sciences. Tambov, 2007.
P. 19.
Agybaeva, A.N. Legal and criminological measures to combat corruption: Textbook. – Almaty, 2003. pp. 8-9.
Cited from: Golik,Yu. V., Karasev V.I. Corruption as a mechanism of social degradation. – St. Petersburg. : Publisher
R.Aslanov “Law Center Press”, 2005. Pp. 23.
Mohrs T. “Ungesellige Geselligkeit” oder Wieso wir für Korrumpierbarkeit des Menschen dankbar sein sollten, in: Korruption in Ost und West: Eine Debatte, Hrsg, von C. Söller und T. Wünsch, Verlag Karl Stutz, Passau, 2008. S. 19-22.
References
1. Agybaeva, A.N. Legal and criminological measures to combat corruption (2003) Almaty,
P. 8-9.
2. Andreev, V.V., Borisova, E.R. Corruption and accountability in state purchases (2009)
Cheboksary, ChKI RUK, P. 57-67.
3. Bogush, G.I. Corruption and international cooperation in the fight against it (2004) Moscow,
P. 40-41.
4. Bushmin, SI, Cameco, M.N. Influence of psychology of social groups on criminal corrupt
behavior (2007) Corruption and democracy: collect. of scientific articles, Krasnoyarsk, RUMTS YuO,
P. 24-27.
5. Nomokonov, V.A. Theory of causality in criminology needs a deeper approach, available at:
http://www.crime.vl.ru/index.php?p=1980&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1
6. Golik, Yu. V., Karasev, V.I. Corruption as a mechanism of social degradation (2005)
St. Petersburg, Publisher R.Aslanov “Law Center Press”, P. 23, 175-178.
7. Golovko, S.A. Combatting corruption crime in Russia: Past, Present and Future (2006)
Tyumen, P. 96-98, 100-101.
8. Zimbardo, F., Lyayppe, M. Social influence (2000) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 71, 124.
9. Ivanec, G.I., Kalinskyi, I.V., Chervonyuk, V.I. Russian Constitutional law, available at: http://
slovari.yandex.ru/~books/Constitutional %20law%20РФ/Power/
10. Karabanov, A.L., Melnik, S.K. Modern problems of combating corruption: the criminal law
and criminological aspects (2010) Moscow, Volters Kluver, P. 54-66.
11. Korchagin, A. G., Ivanov, A.M. Comparative study of corruption and official crimes (2001)
Vladivostok, P. 165.
12. Kuznetsova, N.F. Problem of criminological determination (1984) Moscow, Pp. 48-55.
13. Kuznetsova, O.A. Corrupt activities: criminological and legal aspects (2007) Tambov, P. 19.
14. Kuleshov, P. Yu. Organizing combating corruption in government: foreign experience (2006)
Moscow, P. 50.
15. Luneev, V.V. Crime in the twentieth century: global, regional and Russian tendencies (1997)
Moscow, NORMA, P. 267.
16. Myers, D. Social Psychology (2004) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 182.
17. Merton, R.K. Social structure and anomy (1968) Sociology of Crime, Moscow, P. 299.
18. Nomokonov, V.A. Criminal behavior: determination and responsibility (1989) Vladivostok,
Publishing House of Far Eastern University Press, P. 77.
19. Karpovich, O.G. Corruption in Russia today (2007) Moscow, Yurist, P. 127.
20. Olimpieva, I.B., Panchenko, O.V. Corruption, anti-corruption and position of the social
scientist (2007) Fighting windmills? Socio- anthropological approach to the study of corruption,
St. Petersburg, Alateya, P. 9.
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21. Popov, V.I. Current problems of combating the most dangerous forms of organized crime
(2004) Moscow, P. 96.
22. Savenko, I.A. Corruption offenses and measures and their prevention: on materials of
Krasnodar Krai (2006) St. Petersburg, P. 38, 43-46.
23. Sichinaev, I.M. Penal measures against corruption crimes (2006) Moscow, P. 16-17.
24. Tretyakov, V.I. Corruption and problems, generating it (2008) Philosophy of Law, No 2 (27),
P. 14-17.
25. Chaldini, R. Psychology of influence (2004) St. Petersburg, Peter, P. 124.
26. Shevelevich, A.A. Legal and administrative framework for combating corruption in civil
service (2008) Moscow State Law Academy, P. 78.
27. Shedyi, M.V. Causes of corruption in modern society (2009) Investigator, No 2, P. 52-57.
28. Shestakov, D.A. Criminology: New approaches to crime: criminological laws and legislation.
Combating crime in a changing world (2006) St. Petersburg, Publisher R. Aslanov “Law Center Press”,
P. 201.
29. Herzfeld Thomas Corruption begets Corruption: zur Dynamik und Persistenz der Korruption
(2004) Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang GmBH, P. 47.
30. Mohrs T. “Ungesellige Geselligkeit” oder Wieso wir für Korrumpierbarkeit des Menschen
dankbar sein sollten, in: Korruption in Ost und West: Eine Debatte (2008) Hrsg, von C. Söller und
T. Wünsch, Verlag Karl Stutz, Passau, P. 19-22.
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Конфликтогенные факторы
коррупционного поведения
С.Д. Красноусов
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье рассмотрены факторы, способствующие развитию и вскрытию конфликта,
провоцирующие людей на обострение противоречий, итогом которых становится совершение
коррупционных деяний в частном секторе. Основной конфликтогенный фактор коррупции
кроется, по мнению автора, в наличии противоречия у лица, которому делегировали властные
полномочия, между его личными интересами и интересами организации. В большинстве
случаев человек сфокусирован на ближайших сферах – как территориальных, так и временных
(сфера ближайшего интереса). Это приводит к тому, что для него большее значение имеет
то, что попадает в указанную сферу, чем то, что за нее выходит. Это обстоятельство
также усиливает приоритет групповых и индивидуальных интересов, которые, как правило,
находятся в сфере его ближайшего интереса, над всеми другими, в том числе и у лиц, которые
руководят работой организации частного сектора или работают в такой организации. Таким
образом, склонность к коррумпированности не является исключением, а скорее составляет
часть человеческой натуры. Но при усложнении механизма управления, при делегировании
отдельных полномочий определенному лицу, которое руководит работой организации частного
сектора или работает в такой организации, круг общих интересов становится значительно
шире, чем те, которые входят в сферу ближайших интересов указанного лица. Групповые
и индивидуальные интересы начинают превалировать над общими, что может привести к
совершению коррупционных правонарушений.
Ключевые слова: коррупция, конфликт, факторы, частный сектор.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 664-675
~~~
УДК 005.334.2
Conflict-Generating Factors
of Weak Organizational Culture
Tatiana B. Popelnitskaya*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 02.12.2013, received in revised form 13.02.2014, accepted 20.02.2014
This article presents the results of the applied research of conflict-generating factors of weak
organizational culture (on the example of commercial organizations of Krasnoyarsk). The features
of goal setting, organizational structure, business information exchange, motivation, control, gender
attitudes and organizational pathologies, which are specific to weak culture, are described.
Deep understanding of these features allows to predict, prevent and constructively resolve
organizational conflicts at the early stages and to optimize management and negotiation processes
within the organization.
Keywords: conflict-generating factors of weak organizational culture.
From the standpoint of constructive conflict
resolution, the analysis of organizational context
is as important for productive conflict resolution
as the result of interaction. Kramer and Messick
believe that “to understand the phenomenon of
conflict and negotiations, it is necessary to consider
the impact of social and institutional context in
which this phenomenon not accidentally, but
rather inevitably fixed” [1].
Context determines the procedural side, the
value- normative content of conflict and conflictgenerating environmental factors, reflecting
organizational contradictions..
First of all, the basic organizational
contradictions are localized in the area of strategic
and tactical goals of functional units and the
organization as a whole. They are also fixed in the
features and strength of organizational culture of
the company.
*
Organizational
culture
accumulates,
reproduces rules and rituals of business
relations and makes them predictable,
thus perpetuating the whole complex of
contradictions within itself. Therefore, conflictgenerating environmental factors are renewable,
constant and specific to a particular type of
organization.
In practice, it is a priori assumed that
successful companies often have strong
corporate culture. While inefficient business
has weak culture, vague strategic mission and
low business reputation. However, the studies
conducted in successful regional commercial
firms with extensive experience in the market
(more than 10-25 years) showed that connection
between economic profitability, positive image
and strength of culture is not direct and obvious.
Market leaders can have very weak culture that
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: tpalatova@mail.ru
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has an insidious and slow destructive effect on the
development of the company and its innovative
potential.
In addition, the concept of “strength of
organizational culture”, widely used in scientific
and applied publications is very amorphous and
descriptive. It is not clear what specific content
authors mean when they use the concept of
“weak” culture. What specific features of culture
and management processes should be relied on to
change it.
Descriptive approach to the concept of
culture and its types (weak, moderate, strong)
is accompanied by the obvious deficiency
of tools for monitoring it, adapted to the
characteristics of national mentality and business
environment.
Most foreign methods for assessing
the strength of organizational culture use
questionnaires that ask respondents direct
questions about core values of the company, level
of information transparency, planning horizon,
rituals of mentoring, criteria for professional
selection and growth, etc. (for example, the
method of Daft R.F. (“Evaluation of strength of
organizational culture”, 2001). However, testing
of such foreign questionnaires in domestic
companies revealed obvious pretentiousness,
bias and superficiality of staff’s answers.
Employees are motivated to sustain positive
reputation of their company in the eyes of their
organization’s leadership, external consultants
and observers. But, in a real situation under the
group pressure employees often demonstrate
other attitudes, and negative behavioral
patterns, which strongly disagree with the
beliefs and estimates obtained from the stage of
psychological testing. This sets the complicated
context and confl icting contradiction between
declared, expected and actual opinions and
manifestations of organizational behavior of
employees.
Attributive models, evaluating only formal
features of the company’s success, are often unable
to give an adequate idea of the deep structural and
dynamic features of culture. This also casts doubt
on the validity of popular foreign methodologies
of evaluation of strength of culture.
Adequate monitoring of strength of
organizational culture requires development
of more complex theoretical models used
for designing diagnostic tools. Among these
domestic techniques is the questionnaire for
study of organizational culture by Semenov
Y.G. The questionnaire consists of eight sets
of questions aimed at identifying features of
goal setting, organizational structure, business
information exchange, motivation, control,
gender attitudes and organizational pathologies
in companies. Local and general indices are
interpreted as factors of organization’s wellbeing
/ distress.
This article presents a complex of symptoms
of conflict-generating factors, specific for
organizational culture of commercial mediumsized businesses, service sector (on the example
of regional companies of Krasnoyarsk ).
The obtained results are diagnostic and
evaluative, and reflect the subjective refraction of
value-normative content of organizational culture
and its conflict-generating factors in business
communications.
These factors have complex nature and are
causes and effects of typical positional conflicts
in the organization, assuming that they have
a stochastic nature rather than cause-effect
relation. Genesis and order of development of
these indicators is not obvious, because it is not
the subject of this study.
Local conflict-generating factors more deeply
reveal the content of the main organizational and
psychological aspects of weak corporate culture
of an enterprise. They also allow filling the
concept of “weak culture” with specific empirical
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characteristics amenable to qualitative and
quantitative measurements in expert estimation,
surveys, testing of personnel.
To increase the prognostic and applied value
of the results, the obtained material is divided
into nine blocks, reflecting the specific goal
setting, organization, control and motivation,
organizational pathologies.
So, companies with weak organizational
culture are characterized by the following figures
of local and general (total) indices
Block 1. “Goal setting”
1. Democracy in goal setting: negative and
low values ranging from -0.143 to -0.286 (sample
average is -0.06)
2. Collegiality in goal setting: negative
values ranging from -0.429 to -0.4 (sample
average is 0.12)
3. Connection of goals and actions of the
collective: low – average values ranging from 0.2
-0.714 (sample average is 0,354)
4. Clarity of setting the goals by top
management: negative and low values ranging
from -0.857 to 0.1 (sample average is 0, 349)
5. Clarity and practical applicability of
orders: negative values ranging from -0.1 to -1
(sample average is 0, 138)
6. Strategic importance of goals: positive
values ranging from 0.286 -0.75 (sample average
is 0.30)
7. Relevance of goals: negative values ranging
from -0.1 to -0.857 (sample average is 0,319)
8. Soundness of goals: high positive values
ranging from 0.714 – 0.857 (sample average is
0,568)
9. Priority of plans over current work: low
negative values ranging from – 0.143 to -0.571
(sample is average – 0,155)
10. Provision of resources to carry out plans:
negative and neutral values ranging from -0.857
to 0 (average is 0,453 sample)
11. Feasibility of plans: negative or neutral
values ranging from -0.714 to 0 (sample average
is 0,359 sample)
12. Excess labor intensity: low, negative
values ranging from -1 to -0.4 (sample average
is 0, 028)
13. Developing potential of plans for teams
and their employees: negative and low positive
values in the range from – 0.857 to 0.1 (average is
0,379 sample)
14. Forethought tasks: negative and low
positive values ranging from -0.857 to 0.1 (sample
average is – 0, 053)
15. Coherence of personal plans with
collective tasks: negative and positive values
ranging from -0.857 to 0.4 (sample average is
-0.577)
16. Relevance of goals and objectives: wide
range of positive values from 1 – 0,857 (sample
average is 0,458)
17. Demand for tasks: wide range of positive
values from 1 – 0,857 (sample average is 0,720)
18. Socio- psychological ecology: positive
values ranging from 1 to 0,714 (sample average
is 0,772)
Thus, weak organizational culture is
characterized by persistent problems in planning
and goal setting.
Poor strategic planning and focus on current
tasks is accompanied by excessive labor intensity,
weak connections between the objectives of
management with actions of the collective, low
collegiality in goal setting.
Poorly considered priorities and objectives
accompanies chronic shortage of resources for
implementation of plans, low developing potential
of plans for the team and the company.
Low levels of relevance and soundness
of goals objectively affect the figures of plans’
performance. Minimizing personal contribution
of employees in the process of goal-setting
certainly affects such figures as “clarity and
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applicability of orders,” the demand for tasks,
coherence of personal plans with the objectives
of the team, significantly reducing motivation of
labor activity of workers.
Closedness of management leads to
prevalence of current work over plans, plans have
a formal role, they can change rapidly under the
pressure of circumstances or subjective decisions
of the management.
At the same time, paradoxically, indicators
for socio-psychological environment in such
organizations are better than in companies
with strong culture. This is explained by the
fact that the procedures of making plans on
the part of the staff are confl ict-free, uncritical
and conformal, according to the principle “let
them plan on the top, we barely have time to
work.”
Low collegiality and democracy in setting
goals objectively raise the demand for clear and
precise tasks in the form of managerial orders,
and also the need for additional information.
Thus, we can logically assume that the
increase of strategy, collegiality and democracy
in goal-setting will have a positive impact
on the feasibility and resource base of plans.
While relevance, soundness and coherence of
objectives with personal plans and objectives of
the collective will improve effectiveness of goal
setting and increase motivation of the staff. It
will help to balance the current work with the
priorities of strategic and innovative development
of the company..
Block 2. Index “Business
information exchange”
In an organization with weak culture a
pronounced and stable set of dysfunctional
symptoms can be observed.
Extremely low completeness of information
transmission, depth of discussion of problems,
chronic failure of the leadership to keep its
promises, excessively declarative administrative
information. Low level of information awareness
of subordinate employees is combined with
increased bias in leadership assessment. At
the same time there are unreasonably high
time expenditure on meetings, irregularity in
discussions of current problems of the collective
with the management and avoidance of direct
and personal forms of communication of the
head with the subordinates. Trust of employees
to management varies in a wide positive
range: from distrust to complete trust. At the
same time, paradoxically, the leadership itself
consistently shows very high level of mistrust
to the information of their subordinates.
Such signs, related to business information
exchange, are observed as unstable collegiality
in discussing work assignments, lowest degree
of understanding of directives, low level of
awareness of the leadership about the problems
of employees.
Disparity between direct communication
and feedback is greatly disturbed, which is
combined with the crisis of mutual trust of the
collective and administration, extremely high
activity of non-official channels of information
in the form of gossip, denunciation. We can
assume that in the conditions of closedness
and lack of interest of management to open
discussion of topical issues, non-official channels
of information are essential to compensate for
the intensity of business information exchange
in general.
In order to reduce conflict, regular two-way
raising of the level of awareness and openness
of communication is necessary, built on
objective criteria for assessing solutions. This
will eliminate the disparity of direct and return
communication, increase confidence in the
leadership, relevance and depth of discussion of
problems, effectiveness of exchange of business
information in general.
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Block 3. Indicator
“Organizational structure, coordination”
Identifies
organizational
structure,
coordination and effectiveness of its components.
So, weak culture is characterized by the following
values of local and general (total) indices: :
1. Relevance of organizational structure
to performed functions, goals, objectives : high
negative values ranging from -0.929 to – 0.857
(sample average is -0.512 )
2. Degree of formalization (regulation) of
organizational cooperation: low negative values
ranging from – 0.143 – 0 (sample average is 0,743)
3. Relevance of coordination to the nature
of tasks: average negative values ranging from
-0.714 to – 0.571 (sample average is -0.131)
4. Degree of coordination from above: low
positive values ranging from -0.286 to 0.143
(sample average is 0.503)
5. Completeness (depth) of coordination:
high negative values ranging from -1.00 to -0.857
(sample average is -0.009)
6. Synergy: high negative values ranging
from – 714 to -0.789 (sample average is 0,420) )
7. Positive impact on the management on
coordination: high negative values from -0.1 to
-0.857 (sample average is 0,290)
8. Impact of conflicting orders on
coordination: medium, high positive values from
0.571 to 1.00 (sample average is 0,696)
9. Optimality of organizational system of
business interaction: extremely high negative
index of -1 (sample average is 0,053)
10. Compliance of work to job duties: a wide
range of values of the indicator from -0.600 to
0.286 – 0, 714 (sample average is 0,147)
11. Effect of excessive number of managers
on organization of work: high positive values of
0.857 – 1.00 (sample average is 0,550)
12. Influence of personal interests and
ambitions on coordination of actions: extremely
high rate of 1.00 (sample average is 0,706)
13. Self-organization: wide spread positive
values ranging from 0.357 -0.857 (sample average
is 0,358)
14. Discipline: high negative values from
-0.714 to -0.857 (sample average is 0, 308)
15. Corporate unity: the range of values from
low negative to medium positive in the range of
-0.143 to 0.429 (sample average is -0.076)
16. The average value of the overall index
for the sample is 0,440.
We can conclude that organizations with
weak organizational culture are characterized
by extremely low optimality of organizational
system of business interaction. A pronounced
disparity between personal interests and
ambitions and corporate interests is combined
with persistently low coordination of actions,
unstable self-organization and a low degree of
coordination from above.
Low relevance of organizational structure
to performed functions and tasks causes a whole
range of negative symptoms of organizational
behavior: low discipline, pronounced disparity
between work and official duties, excessive
number of managers. Managerial activities are
excessively formalized and conducted in the form
of conflicting orders, and, in general, are assessed
by the staff as negative impact of management on
organization.
Extremely low degree and completeness
(depth) of coordination combined with extremely
high impact of personal interests and ambitions
on coordination of actions. That can serve as
an indirect indicator of deep heterogeneity
and latent contradictions of weak culture (e.g.,
presence of oppositional, confrontational and
conformal subcultures). In this case, obviously
excessive influence from above is accompanied
by low relevancy of coordination of the nature
of tasks.
Superficial coordination of irrelevant
organizational structures to solve formal
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problems is reflected in the low rates of synergy,
the unstable state of corporate unity.
Block 4: Communication
(direct, feedback), criticism,
organizational responsiveness
For organizations with weak culture of the
following results were obtained:
1. Relevance of criticism: extremely high
negative values – 1 (sample average is -0.367)
2. Mutual demands: extremely high negative
values -1 (sample average is 0,215)
3. Benefits of criticism, its effectiveness:
extremely high negative values -1 (sample average
is -0.065)
4. Practice of concealing failures: neutral
indicators equal to 0 (sample average is 0,204)
5. Susceptibility of the leadership to criticism
as a signal to error correction: a wide variation
in the range of positive values of 0, 050 – 1.00
(sample average is 0,111)
6. Personification of subjects of criticisms as
“scapegoats”): extremely high negative values -1
(sample average is -0.507)
7. Confidence of the leadership in rightness
of its criticism: extremely high negative values -1
(sample average is 0,356)
8. Consistency in solving the problems of the
organization: spread of low bipolar values ranging
from -0.300 to 0.429 (sample average -0, 071)
9. Distribution of costs of business mistakes
and miscalculations between employees and
managers: low negative and positive values from
-0.286 to 0.150 (sample average is 0, 029)
10. General LI 6: the average value of the
overall index for the sample is -0.046
According to the obtained results, we can
conclude that the skills of constructive criticism
and effective feedback are the weakest point in
commercial organizations.
Total index of organizational responsiveness
and efficiency of direct – feedback communication
has the lowest estimates of integral indicators of
the 9 blocks.
Traditionally, the purpose of criticism is to
be a tool for effective monitoring and correction
of deviations and mistakes. And also, to be a
means of improving the quality of products, work
and effectiveness of any business processes,
professional and personal growth.
However, in organizations with weak culture
extremely low degree of relevance of criticism is
combined with heightened demands, avoiding
responsibility, vicious practice of blame game
and excessive demands in relations between
the leadership and employees. At the same time
extremely low evaluating of the efficacy and use of
criticism, lack of feedback between administration
and staff, unstable leadership susceptibility to
criticism as a signal to correction of errors were
obtained. When confronted with difficulties
everyone tries to avoid personal responsibility.
There is a very low level of distribution of expenses
between employees and managers. As such, there
is no established practice of concealing failures,
criticism is public and severe. Heighten demands
and “inaccessibility of leadership” is combined
with extremely high level of personalization
of the objects of criticisms. All this is reflected
in the low level of systemic interaction and
solutions, low reactivity of the organization as an
agent of the market as a whole. Deep problems
with speed and quality of feedback certainly
affect not only in-organizational climate, but also
external relations with the environment. Quality
of services, products, business reputation, and
company’s competitiveness as a whole decline.
Block 5. Control, authority, discipline,
efficiency, innovation, creativity
Function of
with weak culture
shortcomings in
Incompleteness of
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control in organizations
has a number of significant
distribution of functions.
workload is combined with
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excess of management personnel, shortage of
workers, acutely insufficient resources to perform
the work. Moderately weak or tough external
control correlates with low degree of authorization
to perform tasks, lack of an effective system of
financial and non-financial incentives to reduce
costs of production. Also, a pronounced bias of
the blame for errors and disciplinary infractions.
Such non-constructive forms of “tough” policy
and untimely control of the deviations are reflected
in low authority of the leadership, weak influence
of authority of management on responsibility of
subordinates. High requirements to employees
are connected with unstable readiness of
leadership to admit their own mistakes and
consequences of mismanagement. At the same
time, they are combined with a “fluctuating”
level of democracy.
The experiment confi rmed that tough, undue
control has a stable strong interrelation with
lack of demand for innovation, low innovative
potential of employees and a high level of
resistance to innovation. low work motivation
and absence of objective and fair criteria for
evaluation of labor cause widespread practice of
minimum effort from employees, high personnel
turnover and adverse organizational conditions
for dynamic development of the organization as
a whole.
Thus, a high conflict level of weak
culture is directly connected with the forms
and imperfections of control. It objectively
reflects management problems, the ratio of
creative organizational trends, and the degree of
efficiency of organizational processes in general.
Formation of strong culture will favorably affect
the functions of control and optimization of the
internal audit of personnel.
Block 6. Activation (motivation),
stimulaion
Thus, weak cultures are characterized by:
1. Level of employment commitment :
extremely high negative value -1.00 (sample
average is 0.391 )
2. Prospects of promotion: extremely high
negative value -1.00 (sample average is 0,167)
3. Awareness of career prospects: medium,
high negative values ranging from -.429 to -1.00
(sample average is 0,057)
4. Completeness of realization of abilities:
extremely high negative value -1 (sample average
is 0,071)
5. Desire for self-realization, to perform more
complex and challenging work: extremely high
negative value of -1.00 (sample average is 0,013)
6. Interconnection of production efficiency
with wages: extremely high negative value of
-1.00 (sample average is 0,046)
7. Restrictions level: high negative values
ranging from -0.929 to -1.00 (sample average is
-0.413)
8. Rewarding loyalty to organization
and satisfaction from belonging to the team:
extremely high negative value of -1.00 (sample
average is 0,381)
9.Encouraging vocational and career growth
and readiness for professional advancement:
extremely high negative value of -1.00 (sample
average is 0,241)
10. The need for training: high negative
value -0.857 (sample average is 0,497)
11. Predominance of career professionalism
over protectionism: extremely high negative
value -1.00 (sample average is 0,639)
12. Effect of leadership style on labor
activity: extremely high negative value of -1.00
(sample average is -0.567)
13. Attention of a head of department to an
employee: bipolar low scattered values ranging
from -0.143 to 0.286 (sample average is 0,013)
14. Existence of forms of mentoring, need
for mentoring: extremely high negative value of
-1.00 (sample average is -0.578)
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15. Knowing the history of the company and
subdivision: low negative values ranging from 0,
71 to 0 (sample average is 0,520)
16. The role of organizational traditions:
indicator value is 0 (sample average is 0)
17. Respect for the reputation of the
collective: high negative values ranging from
-0.714 to -0.857 (sample average is -0.104)
18. Equitable remuneration: bipolar low
values ranging from -0.143 to 0.286 (sample
average is 0.014)
19. Priority of real effectiveness in
leadership’s assessment, rather than its visibility:
medium, high positive values from 0.429 to 1.00
(sample average is 0,336)
20. Commitment to continue work in the
enterprise: a wide variation in the scale of positive
values from 0.071 -1.00 (sample average is 0,510)
21. Objective assessment of the leadership:
extremely high negative value -1.00 (sample
average is -0.276)
22. Average LI: The average value of the
overall index for the sample is 0,157
The obtained extremely high negative value
of 15 local indexes, unequivocally demonstrate
the consistently low level of staff motivation in
organizations with weak culture.
This results in an extremely low level of
objectivity of evaluation of the leadership and
extremely high level of restrictions. That is,
workers deliberately limit their productivity, not
using to the full measure their physical, mental
and professional abilities in performance of their
job duties. Such behavior may also be the form
of passive resistance to innovation or sabotage by
employees.
Motivation of employees in organizations
with weak culture is characterized by extremely
low level of employment commitment,
completeness of realization of their abilities,
lack of desire to perform more complex
and demanding work. This is accompanied
by unreadiness for promotion, absence of
clear job prospects, unawareness of personal
career prospects and low desire for selfrealization. Career building is dominated by
protectionism, rather than high professional
qualification.
Low level of motivation and need for
training are very organically combined with lack
of interest in the collective to mentoring, absence
of effective forms of mentoring. And also, in
negative assessments of existing economic
systems of motivation, which are reflected in high
negative correlation of production efficiency with
the level of actual salary.
Staff disloyalty is reflected in the low level
of respect for the reputation of the collective,
absence of the feeling of satisfaction and pride
from belonging to this team. In an organization,
there is no system of material and social rewards
for loyalty to the organization.
Management impacts are characterized by a
complex of negative symptoms: low objectivity
of staff assessment, unfairness of the system
of remuneration, chronic attention deficit of
subdivision chiefs to employees.
Paradoxically, low motivation and lack of
career prospects correlate with determination of
employees to continue work in the enterprise. It
is possible to assume that the need for stability
of workplace, comfort and “general poor
performance” is clearly predominant in labor
motivation of such collectives. Declarative
management culture obviously contradicts
reality.
Characteristically,
employees
of
organizations with weak culture estimate the role
of organizational traditions as insignificant. They
do not know the history of the company and its
divisions. What is an indirect confirmation of the
fact that amorphous values and priorities of the
company cause problems of mismanagement and
low work motivation.
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Block 7. The level of proneness
to conflict and its factors
This Block diagnoses the state of social
and psychological ecology of the organizational
environment, degree of its conflictogenity.
for weak cultures the following results are
obtained:
1. Level of proneness to conflict in the
collective : neutral, low negative values -0 -0.30
(sample average is 0,110 )
2. Vagueness in the distribution of
responsibilities among team members: high
positive value of 0.714 (sample average
is 0,502)
3. Involvement into doing work, not relevant
to the specialty: medium, high values ranging
from 0.571 to 1.00 (sample average is 0,629)
4. Vagueness in definition of work
assignments: medium and high positive values of
0.50 -0.825 (sample average is 0,694)
5. Lack of coordination between workers:
high positive values of 0.571 -1.00 (sample
average is 0,602)
6. Poor material and technical base of the
enterprise: high positive values of 0.675 -1.00
(sample average is 0, 606)
7. Tough leadership style: medium, high
positive values of 0,425-1,00 (sample average is
0,464 )
8. Subjectivism in estimates of labor of
subordinate employees: high positive values of
0,857, in a single case with a moderate culture
indicator is 0.450 (sample average is 0,515)
9. Unfair payroll, bonuses, vacations
distribution: wide spread positive values of
0.286 – 0.857 (sample average is 0,465)
10. Strained relations between team
members: high positive values from 0.857 to 1.00
(sample average is 0,523)
11. Careless attitude of employees to work:
medium, high positive values from 0.571 to 0.857
(sample average is 0.610)
12. Average value of the overall index “level
of proneness to conflict and its factors” for
the sample is 0, 520)
In all organizations with weak culture an
increased level of proneness to conflict was found
in the organizational environment, exceeding the
average for the sample.
The main source of conflict in these
organizations is a factor of imbalance of
distribution of functional responsibilities
between subdivisions: vagueness in distribution
of functional load between team members,
lack of coordination among the workers,
involvement into doing work, not relevant to the
specialty.
A separate objective conflict generating
factor is a low material and technical base of
the enterprise. And also, such features as tough
management style, subjectivity in the evaluation
of work of employees, vagueness in setting work
assignments, absence of an adequate system of
financial and non financial incentives to the staff.
According to the employees, this is reflected
in “ unfair payroll, bonuses and vacations
distribution”.
Another factor of heightened proneness to
conflict in the organization is inefficient employee
motivation, which, in general, is expressed
in careless attitude of employees to work,
devaluation of labor values . Strained relations
between team members are a characteristic
feature of unfavorable socio- psychological
climate.
Block 8. Gender factors
of weak organizational culture
In organizations with weak culture the
following complex of symptoms of conflict
generating-factors is observed: extremely high,
negative values of the indices of discrimination
in appointment of women to senior
positions.
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Assessing of the level of overvaluation of
superiority of men over women in the context of
specific professional and personal qualities has
the following profile :
– high, positive values of the level of
professionalism, organizational skills for
workers of both genders;
– wide spread positive values, readiness
for learning, creativity, perseverance,
objectivity in assessing labor of
males
and
female
subordinate
employees of;
– low, negative values of the risk proneness
among women ;
– the spread of low bipolar values of the
degree of self-control and tact ;
– zero indicator values of reduction
the level of conflict with female
leadership.
Thus, weak cultures are characterized by
presence of general negative gender attitudes
in relation to female managers and directors.
Psychological barriers and hidden discrimination
in the appointment of women to senior positions
were identified. Which is obviously an additional
conflict-generating factor of psychological tension
in working interactions of male and female fellow
workers.
When assessing the most preferred profile of
a manager such qualities of superiority of men over
women as risk appetite, level of professionalism,
organizational skills, creativity, perseverance,
objectivity in assessing labor subordinates are
overestimated. The most dominant “female”
qualities are: a willingness to learn, tact,
low degree of self-control. According to the
respondents in this sample, female management
does not obviously decrease the level of
conflict. The predominance of “objective” male
professionalism over patronage is an adequate
mechanism for career growth and selection for
senior positions in the organization.
Block 9. Organizational pathologies
of weak organizational cultures
In interpreting the obtained data only
those features that have received extremely high
negative or positive values of local indices and are
steadily found in all the surveyed organizations
with a weak profile of culture were considered.
According to the obtained data, the highest
number of distinct organizational pathologies
are related to the sphere of business information
exchange,
goal
setting,
organizational
responsiveness and communications (direct,
feedback), peculiarities of coordination and
control.
The weakest point of goal setting in
organizations with weak cultures are the low
level of clarity and applicability of orders, excess
labor intensity and superficiality of tasks. All the
highlighted features reflect orientation for tactical
planning horizon. Priority of current, short-term,
last-minute plans and objectives over strategic
objectives of the company. High demand for tasks
and a strong influence of personal interests and
ambitions for coordination of activities confirms
the fact of low relevance of, disparity between
employees’ personal plans and team objectives.
One of the sources of organizational
pathologies is the structure of organizational
interaction. Namely, the effect of excess of
managers on organization of work and a high
level of restrictions in the organization.
The following problems of in-firm
communications can be observed: limited access
to relevant and current information (completeness
of information), unnecessarily high costs for
meetings. Low level of informational awareness
is combined with formalization and closedness
of managerial communications. Ineffective
negotiating practice necessitates strict control
over the execution of orders and heightened
requirement of leadership to subordinates
employees.
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Part of organizational pathologies relates to
peculiarities of work motivation : predominance
of protectionism over the professionalism
and negative gender attitudes to women
leaders has been revealed in weak cultures.
In assessing achievements and application
of the system of remuneration to employees,
the leadership gives priority to subjective
preferences rather than actual performance. In
this situation the practice of minimal effort is
common.
The obvious problem of weak cultures
is non-constructive criticism. In particular,
personification of subjects of criticism as
“scapegoats”.
It is noteworthy that very low collegiality
of discussions of work assignments is
combined with the lack of off-duty channels
of information (in the form of denunciation,
gossip ).The sphere of informal communication
becomes a powerful negative factor of an
unfavorable socio- psychological climate, and
inevitably becomes the object of increased
control by management.
Such problems with control in the surveyed
organizations are consistently combined with such
facts of major administrative and disciplinary
violations as corrupt leadership, work on the side,
cases of industrial theft.
Thus, the conducted study allows to identify
the most serious conflict-generating factors in the
activities of modern business organizations with
weak organizational culture. Attributive models
of organizational culture, which foreign methods
are based upon, as a rule, assess only formal
attributes of the company’s success. But they do
not give an adequate idea of deep structural and
dynamic characteristics and strength of culture.
Parametric approach to understanding the
phenomenon of culture and its strength allows a
more comprehensive analysis of conflict generating
factors of its environmental. Knowledge of these
characteristics enables to predict, prevent and
constructively resolve positional conflicts at
the early stages. They should also be taken into
account by experts and managers at all levels in
the formation organizational culture of modern
commercial enterprises.
References
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York, SAGE Publications, Inc, 2010.
2. Deal, T., Kennedy, A. Corporate Cultures, the Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, 1988.
3. Giddens A. The Constitution of Society. Cambridge, 1989. P. 198–199.
4. March J.G., Simon H.A. Organizations. New York, 1958.
5. Mastenbroek W. Conflict Management and Organization Development (1987).
6. Gruzdev, A., Gruzdeva, L. Formation of corporate culture under the conditions of competition.
“HR manager. Personnel Management,” 2011, N 7.
7. Karpov, A.V., Skityaeva, I.M., Volkova, N.V., Yamshchikov, I.A. Organizational culture: concept
and reality. Moscow-Yaroslavl: Avers Press, 2002.
8. Reshetnikova, K.V. Management Sociology. Theoretical and methodological basis of
typology of positional conflicts. Electronic resource: http://www.ebiblioteka.ru/browse/doc/
5201304
9. Simonov, S., Kalmykova, O., Gagarinskyi, A Prevention and Conflict Management in the
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10. Spengl, M., Eisenhart, M. Negotiations. Solving problems in different contexts / Transl. from
English. – Publ. House Humanitarian Centre, 2009. 592 p.
11. Khasan, B.I, Sergomanov, P.A. Psychology of Conflict and Negotiation: Textbook for students
of Higher Education. Moscow: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2004. 192 p.
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Конфликтогенные факторы
слабой организационной культуры
Т.Б. Попельницкая
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В данной статье представлены результаты прикладного исследования конфликтогенных
факторов слабой организационной культуры (на примере коммерческих организаций г.
Красноярска). Описаны особенности целеполагания, оргструктуры, информационноделового обмена, мотивации, контроля, гендерные установки и организационные патологии,
специфичные для слабой культуры.
Глубокое понимание этих особенностей позволяет на раннем этапе прогнозировать,
предотвращать и конструктивно разрешать организационные конфликты и оптимизировать
управленческие и переговорные процессы внутри организации.
Ключевые слова: конфликтогенные факторы слабой организационной культуры.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 676-691
~~~
УДК 130.2
Symbols Support of Culture Transitions
Dina N. Aslamazishvilia and Nikolay A. Ignatovb*
a
Georgian American University,
8 Merab Aleksidze Str., Tbilisi, 0160, Georgia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 28.06.2013, received in revised form 20.07.2013, accepted 20.08.2013
In the present article we have proposed that the symbol or rather the changing of the symbols system is
able to support culture transitions. The essential attributes of the symbol (universality, differentiability,
substantiveness, imperativeness, communicativeness, teleologicality, duality, polysemy), being
developed throughout history, have been persistently displayed their regulative role in spiritual
processes of transition from a state of traditional culture to a state of trans-traditional culture.
Similar considerations have been applied to the transition from gathering onto producing and
consequently from gathering culture to the state of agriculture. Inventors of agriculture and their
followers managed to have successfully combined their primitive concepts and their mysterious symbols
thereby having also invented the first fundamental culture transition encouraged and supported by a
process of replacing the lunar symbol with the solar symbol which emergence and self-determination
was the most vivid symbolic embodiment of culture transition at the time.
Keywords: man, symbol, lunar symbolics, solar symbolics, primeval, civilization, culture transition,
agriculture.
Introduction
At present more and more scholars have
been arguing that our long history can be seen
to fit patterns. The American sociologist and
futurologist Alvin Toffler proved to be the most
brilliant among them. And he sees this pattern
in the shape of three huge waves with the result
of their long-range effects in the three great
subsequent civilizations: Agricultural, Industrial,
and an advance of an entirely New Civilization
which wealth creation system he presciently
calls “the super-symbolic economy.” A.Toffler
asserts that the “new system for making wealth is
totally dependent on the instant communication
*
and dissemination of data, ideas, symbols, and
symbolism. It is, as we will discover, a supersymbolic economy in the exact sense of that term.
Its arrival is transformational.” (Toffler, 2001,
pp.44-45)
In his most famous book “The Third Wave”
(Toffler, 1981) A.Toffler argues that the first wave
of transformation began about 10,000 years ago
when a most prescient person, probably a clever
woman planted a seed and nurtured its growth
for the future. She must have been a “pre-historic
Einstein.” That way the age of agriculture started
its victorious advance all over the oikoumene and
more and more numerous tribes moved away from
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: nikoig@mail.ru
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Symbols
and culture transitions
nomadic wandering with gathering and hunting
and began to build their villages and develop a
new culture, i.e. the agriculture.
“There is no generally accepted view of the
causes of transition to agriculture” (Alexeyev,
1984, p.417 (The translation is ours. – D.A., N.I.)).
Nevertheless we can investigate those conditions
that could more or less affect the utterly complicate
revolutionary process of transition from solely
consuming towards producing economies. Closer
analysis of the transition causes from climatic
changes to subconscious selection made for
refuting any as a conclusive one “since the process
of transition from consuming to producing
economy was most complicate and it enveloped
all or almost all the aspects of life of primitive
anthropogeocenoses” (Ibidem). It seems plausible
that one of the numerous aspects was the fact that
heavenly bodies attracted the emergent man’s
active visual perception. And it was natural
that the heavenly phenomena observed with the
naked eye, were connected by our ancestors with
rudiments of their primitive social life, that is in
fact they were somehow or rather interpreted or
symbolized. Just to exemplify, the tribal systems of
collective relations were programmed by natural
rhythms among which the most immediate were
sunrise and sunset and alterations of the phases
of the Moon. Along with these regularities there
sometimes happened solar and lunar eclipses–
miraculous and enigmatic heavenly phenomena
at the time.
Since the very beginning of human history
evolving people have ever been involved in
complex and contradictory mutual relations
which have always been symbolically supported.
Symbols could flash and their exchange could
operate only in evolving collective relations. Jean
Baudrillard argues that “symbolic exchange…
creates a transitional, unstable state of sociality”
(Baudrillard, 2000, p.29). In our opinion, creating
any sociality, especially a civilization, goes
hand in hand with creating new symbols. The
Agricultural Civilization could not escape the
common lot when it slowly but surely superseded
tribal cultures of the Zero Wave. And our future
civilization will also have to throw in this lot
with the previous ones. Undoubtedly much
will depend on people’s creating new symbols,
whether the future postindustrial civilization or
whatever it will be called, will suffer or benefit
from the same fate. It is obvious that culture
transition involves a great amount of accumulated
raw data. The discrete data contextually placed
become information which is then configured to
become knowledge. And only knowledge can be
compressed up to symbols which can affect social
relations greatly and deeply. That is extremely
significant with the symbolics of the Soviet Union
and contemporary Russia. As a matter of fact,
now all political movements use symbolism to
reinforce their beliefs in the public. For instance,
A Solar eclipse (not to scale) http://csep10.phys.utk.
edu/astr161/lect/
A Lunar Eclipse (not to scale) http://csep10.phys.utk.
edu/astr161/lect/time/eclipses_lunar.html
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Barack Obama’s sigil in his presidential campaign,
2012
Barack Obama used a “solar symbol” as his
movement’s sigil. It symbolized the new age, the
new dawn, and age of reason.
In general various approaches to the
definition of the symbol require not only and
not so much knowledge of specific symbols but
abstracting from them and transcending many
parameters of the symbol altogether. The symbol
in its own nature is dualistic because it unites
its two aspects: external (a phenomenological
form) and internal (an ontological content).
These aspects of the symbol reveal both the
gnoseological range of problems of its sense and
structure and the ontological field of imperative
space of the symbolic sphere. In this paper
our undivided attention has been drawn by the
former. We could find a support for our viewpoint in the “Theories of the Symbol” by the
Franco-Bulgarian philosopher Tzvetan Todorov
who explained the title of his insightful book as
follows, “The symbol–the thing itself, not the
word–is the object of this book” (Todorov, 1982,
p.9).
Our investigation of the ontological
aspects of the symbol as “the thing itself” has
led us to define it as an intuitive spiritual origin
manifested in the relationship of man and the
world as signs, images, metaphors that develop
communicative, psychological, and semantic
environment of human existence and shape
and reshape a symbolic reality. The ontological
aspects of the symbol are reflected in the
following essential characteristics: universality,
differentiability, substantiveness, imperativeness,
communicativeness, teleologicality, duality,
polysemy.
Symbol… symbolics… symbolical… On the
one hand, symbolical payment actually means so
little to pay that it is considered to be no payment at
all. On the other hand, symbolic means something
so much that it is able to mean everything. When
this word flies off our tongue or when it sounds in
our ears we are in two minds about its meaning:
whether in something does it denote ephemeral
or permanent, changeable or stable, volatile or
durable, temporary or enduring, brief or perennial,
short-lived or long-lived, inconstant or constant,
occasional or continual, transient or abiding,
ending or lasting, momentary or perpetual,
temporal or eternal, etc. And all these epithets are
rooted in the following dilemma: either symbol
concretizes, i.e. gives a tangible form to the
abstract thus being just an allegory or it abstracts
the concrete thus being essentially a Kantian
symbol. Kant claimed that images of things or
contemplations were considered as symbols.
The notions of reason could be applied to these
contemplations. Therefore symbols in contrast
to signs are significant themselves because they
are tools of representation through conceptions
(Kant, 1994, p.215). In so doing the symbolized
idea of mind is signified by the analogy with the
contemplation. In this wise the symbol or rather
the changing of the symbols system is able to
support culture transitions.
Cultures as if eternal Heraclitean fire blazes
in them either storming in Dionysian dancing
or smouldering in Apollonian dreams, transit
from one state into another. Man’s incessant
spiritual search has been indicative of these
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processes since the time immemorial. Spiritual
processes in cultures are normally developed in
the spatial field of a symbolic sphere and finally
can blow it up. Globalization has emerged as
an unprecedented accelerator to facilitate these
processes. The symbol as the everlasting primeval
mover possessing two energies (regulating
and chaotizing), regulates the development of
spiritual processes of culture transitions. The
essential attributes of the symbol (universality,
differentiability, substantiveness, imperativeness,
communicativeness, teleologicality, duality,
polysemy), being developed throughout history,
have been persistently displayed their regulative
role in spiritual processes of culture transitions
from a state of traditional culture to a state of
trans-traditional culture. It was likely that the
same pattern could have framed the transition
from gathering onto producing and consequently
from gathering culture to the state of agriculture.
At present it is well known that primordial
nomadic groups of people were entirely dependent
upon their hunting, fishing and gathering just
like many other animals including ape-like subhuman ancestors. All our human ancestors had
been hunting and gathering since emergence of
man millions years ago to 12-10 thousand years
ago. Although they were no more than just hunters
and gatherers before the age of agriculture, there
is much evidence of their skills and arts. Rock
paintings and carvings, engravings and bone
statuettes dated 35-40 thousand years ago are
but a few marks of rudimentary symbolizing. So
our hypothesis is that along with survival there
was born a process of symbolization. Plenty of
marvelous prehistoric petroglyphs are irrefutable
evidence in favor of the origin of homo sapiens.
That revolution can be explained on the following
hypothesis: the anthropological Rubicon was
then crossed if and only if there had emerged the
phenomenon of symbolizing which was naturally
connected with tool making. A verisimilar
Fantasy Figure Gallery – Luna by Dorian Cleаvenger
symbolic practice is hinted with as far back as
Neandertals’ deliberate burying their dead. The
famous French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan
also happened to consider a cist to be the first
symbol in which we can recognize mankind by
its remains (Lacan, 1995, p.89).
In the course of time the power of symbolizing
could be exercised further on. In our opinion, the
process of changing that former primeval modus
vivendi which was closer to animals than to future
man, could not help largely depending on the
symbol as an intangible phenomenon developed
on the basis of perceiving and then using some
singled natural phenomena to represent essential
events in man’s primitive life. Subsequently
continuous night hunting accounted for the
abundance and strength of lunar cults and later
lunar symbolism because moonlight had ever
been of great importance for the success of game
hunting.
Besides the Moon served as one of the
incipient measures of time. The first calendars
were devised on the basis of lunar phases. Finally
the powerful lunar symbolism had been spreading
worldwide. The symbol started to slowly but surely
acquire its own features connected with beyond.
Here we consider the beyond as universality
(transcendentality in the Kantian sense: “…the
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word ‘transcendental’…doesn’t signify something
that goes beyond all experience, but something
that does indeed precede experience a priori, but
whose role is simply to make knowledge through
experience possible.” (Kant, 2010–2015, footnote
16 on p.77)).
In other words it is the creative aspect of
the symbol, id est man’s ability to experience
not only existent being but imaginary being
as well. Man’s fertile imagination is largely
realized through symbols and the man-made
world as the world of human culture is indeed the
world of symbols determining man’s life. Plato
was the first philosopher to have combined the
existent and the imaginary worlds in the idea–a
combination of the concept and the symbol.
Some thinkers including Plato himself digressed
from Plato’s ideal world to scholasticism as they
made successful and unsuccessful attempts to
arrest change. They drew inspiration from the
works by the mythographers Homer and Hesiod.
Their concepts predominated over their symbols.
Some other thinkers digressed from Plato’s ideal
world to mysticism. They drew inspiration from
the philosophy of Heraclitus of Ephesus who
argued for a law-like interchange of elements,
symbolized by fire. Their symbols predominated
over their concepts.
It is conceivable that inventors of agriculture
and their followers managed to have successfully
combined their primitive concepts and their
mysterious symbols thereby having also
invented the first fundamental culture transition
encouraged and supported by a process of
replacing the lunar symbol with the solar symbol
which emergence and self-determination was
the most vivid symbolic embodiment of culture
transition at the time.
On the basis of researching the symbolical
phenomena by J.Baudrillard, A.Bely, U.Eco,
M.Eliade,
I.Kant,
J.Lacan,
A.F.Losev,
F.Nietzshe, K.A.Svasyan, Tzvetan Todorov
and many other scientists we made an attempt
to elaborate on regulatory agents of symbolical
knowledge through the features which are
coherently connected with appropriate essential
attributes of the symbol. They are the following:
universality, differentiability, substantiveness,
imperativeness,
communicativeness,
teleologicality, duality, polysemy. These
features are metaphorically called either
after the names of heroes or metaphors from
philosophical and literary works to demonstrate
the regulative role of the symbol in spiritual
processes of culture transitions. As a result
we have made an attempt to shed some light
on symbols support of culture transition from
primitive societies of hunters and gatherers to
agricultural civilizations.
Universality of the symbol
The symbol is inherently universal and
hence it is capable to unite senses. The symbol’s
universality results from its primeval sense in the
meaning of emerging and developing the humane
in man. The feature of the symbolical knowledge
corresponding to the given intrinsic attribute of the
symbol–universality, is “Pandora” who possesses
everything and symbolically unites everything.
Those were both the Moon and the Sun. Objects,
properties, relations are all united in a universal
symbol, e.g. “the moon is a feminine symbol,
universally representing the rhythm of time as it
embodies the cycle” (Dictionary of Symbolism,
2001, Moon).
On the other hand, the Sun was as universal
as the Moon and moreover it was later considered
as the universal Deity in fully developed
agricultural civilizations, e.g. ancient Egypt and
pre-Columbian Meso-American cultures. “The
primitive mind, recognizing the beneficent power
of the solar orb, adored it as the proxy of the
Supreme Deity” (Hall, 1993, p.139). Thus, man
having switched over to another way of surviving,
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managed to switch over to the most influential
symbol of the daytime. Moreover, in daily life the
solar symbol was stronger than the lunar symbol
as the former could influence not only hunters who
were mostly robust men but women and children
and the aged, too. So universality turned out to
develop on a more numerous and brilliant basis.
Later in the course of developing patriarchy, the
Sun was interpreted as the universal father, while
the Moon held the universal mother. “The sun
is the absolute cosmic power; it is the universal
FATHER, while the MOON is the universal
MOTHER; it is often symbolized by the WHEEL
or the disk, a CIRCLE or a BALL; it is the center of
being and intuition, it is knowledge and warmth,
glory and splendour.” (Dictionary of Symbolism,
2001, Sun).
Universality of the symbol in the
contemporary world has just been appreciably
realized in the global functioning of the Internet
which power over minds is already comparable
to the powerful influence of the conventional
mass-media. With the emergence of the World
Wide Web the symbolical universality has moved
to the cultural universality which is still stronger
and almost ubiquitous. The Internet is largely
turning to an original virtual culture with its own
language, art, mythology, and probably religion.
According to the Canadian scientist
R.Logan’s investigations into the evolutionary
chain of languages, man has to master today
the sixth and latest language–the Internet. As a
consequence of and together with speech, writing,
mathematics, science, and computing, we can see
now the birth and rapid development of Internet
communications. Professor R.Logan specifies
five distinct periods in the development of Homo
sapiens language communication: the age of
non-verbal mimetic communication; the age of
orality; the age of literacy; the age of electric
mass media; and the age of digital interactive
media. Transition of human communication from
one language technology to another does not
eliminate the chance and necessity to use and
improve a new technology upon the preceding.
He draws our attention to the well-known fact
of information overload of culture as the main
cause of all new technologies emergence because
from time to time man has to process an ever
increasing amount of information within the
narrower limits of old technologies of processing
information. Every new language technology
is developed on the basis of communicative
properties of the previous cultural technologies,
supplementing its own elements of reservation,
storage, and retrieving information. Thus each of
them has been leading not only to creating new
symbolics and newly-coined language but also to
information explosion and new problems which
solving causes the emergence of the next form of
language (Logan, 2000).
It is now clear that language in culture is not
only a major means of human communication
but also an irreplaceable information and
technological tool of mastering the symbolic
reality. Henceforth technological “extensions”
of various human organs include information
and technological “expansion” of man’s nervous
system and brain far beyond the limits of an organic
body that leads to emergence of a new type of
mentality featuring the planet transformation into
a “global village” with universal symbolics. Thus,
the regulating energy of the symbol introduces
universal harmony of various senses in culture and
creates new traditions, thereby promoting culture
transition from a state of traditional culture to a
state of trans-traditional culture. At the dawn of
humanity it was the changeover from the lunar
symbolics to the solar symbolics that supported
the culture transition to agricultural civilization.
People created something new while trying hard
to accumulatively retain the old. “The phases of
the moon symbolize immortality and eternity,
enlightenment or the dark side of Nature herself”
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(Dictionary of Symbolism, Moon). Therefore
we can still find plenty of evidence of attractive
poetic search into the Moon’s symbolizing and
back to the lunar symbolization of ansa lunata
in the Terramara pottery of the Apennine culture
and vessels of Central Europe of the Middle to
Late Bronze Age. According to The Cambridge
Ancient History “The most characteristic pottery
shapes are vessels with one or two ansa lunata
handles…” (The Cambridge Ancient History,
2003, p.59). Nevertheless having faced with a
completely different mode of survival, humankind
had an exigence of switching over to another
symbolization, namely to the Sun’s symbolizing.
Differentiability of the symbol
Differentiability of the symbol results from
its capability to distinguish meanings. Symbolical
knowledge is featured by the sign of “The Wall”
which separates reality from deceit and illusion
and simultaneously reunites them again. The
lunar symbol had been able to play this part
for hunters but producers were able to carry on
their audacious experiments in the daylight. So
metaphorically they managed to build a higher
wall to separate reality from illusion. The solar
symbol turned out to become more appropriate
for clearing that cultural demarcation line. In
accordance with J.Baudrillard’s suggestion “the
symbolic is neither a concept, nor an instance or a
category, nor a ‘structure’, but an act of exchange
and a social relation which puts an end to the real,
which resolves the real, and in the same stroke the
opposition between the real and the imaginary”
(Baudrillard, 2000, p.243).
The influence of differentiability of the
symbol on modern culture is exemplified with
its active and often aggressive use of advertising
which affects individual and mass consciousness
by means of signs, images, and metaphors. Due to
this pervasive influence the illusion and reality mix
up in their division and opposition, stereotypes of
behavior of the person in a society are engaged
and perfected, the concept of prestigiousness
is also formed while social and economic
differentiation goes deeper. In the framework
of modern globalization, society is erecting a
civilization wall behind which the person tries
to survive and succeed. The wall threatens all of
us with a collapse turning into a deadlock wall
of current global problems. Their urgent solving
depends not only on technologies but first of all
on man’s capabilities to distinguish and predict
consequences of his actions. Developing these
capabilities during culture transitions is exercised
through the reflective reference to backbone
symbols. Thus, chaotizing energy of the symbol
helps differentiate meanings and thereby makes
for promoting culture transition from a state of
traditional culture to a state of trans-traditional
culture as it had done thousands years ago.
Exactly so the solar symbol was put into operation
having collected novel senses connected with the
newly invented survival through primitive crop
farming and animal husbandry. The wall between
reality and illusion was consolidated in radiant
sunbeams whilst the confrontation of man and
nature became aggravated in their new dialogue.
Substantiveness of the symbol
The symbol is substantive being capable
to embody systems of meanings. Symbolical
knowledge is featured by the sign of “The
Garden of Diverging Paths” which leave the
uniform indivisible point–the primeval sense–for
polysemantic space and then they converge in a
uniform world outlook. At first it was the lunar
worship with the relevant world outlook which
was finally superseded by the solar adoration
with its culmination in Ancient Egypt.
A well-known example of concomitant
expansion of substantiveness of the symbol in
the symbolical sphere was the construction of the
Egyptian pyramids–Pharaohs’ gigantic tombs. The
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ancient Egypt culture crystallization took place
having been uniquely developed from the first
brick mastabas to majestic stone constructions.
In the spiritual sphere the pyramidal form
symbolized the final confirmation of a Pharaoh
as a deity. All pyramids were geographically
oriented that proves not only a high level of the
Ancient Egyptians’ astronomical knowledge but
also their symbolical connexion with number
four. The erection of every pyramid was the
most important act of a cult and ought to have
expressed a mystical identity of the country and
its ruler (History of Art, 1998).
The symbolical primeval sense (man in the
face of nature) of the Ancient Egypt culture filled
the creation of the pyramids with sign-bearing,
image-bearing, and metaphor-bearing expressions.
And the pyramids had already been considered
in Antiquity as one of the Seven Wonders of the
World. The pyramid was required by Egyptians
as a symbol of the “eternal present” and it was
really a core of their culture for it symbolized
stability and permanency of both cosmic and
social order of their life. Thus, the ordering
energy of the symbol fills its symbolical sphere
with the contents of signs, images, and metaphors
and thereby it promotes culture transition from
a state of traditional culture to a state of transtraditional culture. But from the very beginning
it had been step by step a culture transition to
a very well developed agricultural civilization
along the Nile banks. And it was not surprising
that both the sense systems of the lunar and solar
symbols became interpenetrating in the Egyptian
agricultural civilization. Myths had frequently
matched the Moon and the Sun as a primeval
integrality: henceforward as probably the Chinese
Yang and Yin. The Egyptian headdress with an
image of the sun disc enclosed by the horns of the
moon, was created as a first symbolic integrity of
the Sun and the Moon (Tressider, 1999, Moon).
Thus it was a model culture transition from tribal
Available at: http://blogspot.ru/ 2009/09/winged -sundisk-symbol-of-ancient.html [Accessed 28 June 2013]
societies to the emergence of historically remote
agrarian states, Ancient Egypt being a shining
star among them all.
Imperativeness of the symbol
The symbol is capable to operate with
imperative ordering of meanings. Symbolical
knowledge is featured by the sign of “The Shadow”
which constantly and persistently pursues culture
with phantoms of its past states: successes and
failures, honors and dishonors, virtues and sins.
Imperativeness of the symbol originates from
the primeval sense which prevents the symbol
from being dissolved in a variety of senses and
meanings. Imperativeness provides the symbol
with the power to regulate culture development
by reconstruction of certain systems of signs,
images, metaphors. It is shown, e.g., in impulses
to Eros and Thanatos (Z.Freud). Man strives to
overcome Thanatos to make it non-existent and
to create something that has a cultural sense to
be beyond existing signs, images, metaphors.
Nevertheless, Thanatos’ shadow hangs over
man who tries and overcomes its fatal effect by
resorting to creativity and art. Art origins and
developments are to meet the needs that are
sort of foreshadows at first and then realized
in creating and recreating an actually human
character of man’s ability to live and man himself
as a general and universal human being (New
Philosophy Encyclopedia, 2010. Vol. II. Art,
p.161). Art’s power of influence on life and man
is really infinite. In art, generalization is made up
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by means of transition from one concrete state to
another and so that image creation is necessarily
sense creation as a play of subtle symbolical
senses. Man himself gets developed into a symbol.
Thus, the triumphant imperativeness of the solar
symbol makes for culture transition from the
lunar symbol with its fading imperativeness and
consequently to the agricultural civilization with
its vividly bright imperativeness.
of cultures of two different types: immediate
consumption and deferred consumption as a
result of producing. It is appropriate to mention
here that our relevant zero structure is correlated
to Umberto Eco’s absent structure which he
interprets as rather a “locus of incessant ‘play’”
than a certain structure lying in depth (Эко, 2004,
p.31). The depth and the incessant ‘play’ are of
course referred to human relations in evolving
societies.
Communicativeness of the symbol
The symbol is capable to communicate
encoded meanings. Symbolical knowledge is
featured by the sign of “The Tower of Babel”
construction. For thousands of years has mankind
been seeking after a general “lingua franca” to
be employed in intercultural communications.
Due to its communicativeness the symbol
recreates sign structures-communicates in
culture as pre-images of a new Tower of Babel.
To exemplify it nowadays, the action of the
symbol’s communicativeness is vividly realized
in the expansion of communicative functions
of such a societal institute as the museum
(Gnedovsky, 1994). Since the late XXth century
the museum has been developing beyond its
function to be only an exhibition space and using
extensive possibilities of communications with
the visitors. Another example, now libraries have
been following the same way. The processes
of this kind might be rooted deep to transition
from hunters and gatherers’ petroglyphs of the
lunar symbol culture to ancient Egyptian artists’
paintings on the walls of their temples depicting
tillers of the solar culture.
The “Tower of Babel” sign of symbolical
knowledge expands the field of functioning of
spiritual processes of culture transitions. The
symbol’s communicativeness resulting from its
zero structure ensures expansion of intercultural
exchange of signs, images, metaphors, e.g.,
symbol-signs of the Moon and the Sun in all kinds
Teleologicality of the symbol
The symbol is capable to make meanings
purposeful. Symbolical knowledge is featured by
the sign of “Sisyphus” in whose image mankind
strives for an illusory purpose of mastering the
primeval sense whilst creating a symbolical web
of meanings in culture. Due to its teleological
nature the symbol launches cultures towards
“the start and the goal of the world process, from
the first motions of consciousness right to the
state of being hurled back into nothingness…”
(Nietzsche, 1874, p.36).
In passionate seeking for the primeval sense
(the origin of man) as far back as in the ancient
world, people even set up secret societies to
cognize mysterious meanings and transfer them
to initiates. A classical example is Manly P. Hall’s
investigating these processes in his “Encyclopedic
Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and
Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy” (Hall,
1993).
To exemplify a fixed result of changing
culture and its symbolic system, let us remember
Eleusinian mysteries or Orphics’ religious and
mystical movement. For instance the former had
the sense of a harvest festival to celebrate by
every Indo-European (Eliade, 2002). Thus, the
teleologicality of the symbol makes for a cultural
transition from a state of traditional culture
to a state of trans-traditional culture. As to the
symbols under consideration, the teleological
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character of the lunar symbol is borne again in
the teleological character of the solar symbol.
As a matter of fact, the Moon was a symbol of
cyclical affluence, rebirth, immortality in a lot
of cultures whereas the Sun became a symbol of
creative energy towards greater affluence with
the same immortality.
Duality of the symbol
The symbol is dual in that it is a union of form
and content. Symbolical knowledge is featured
by the sign of “Gilgamesh” who personifies
ubiquity of the symbol in culture. The duality
of the symbol’s inner nature generates ordering
and chaotizing energies in spiritual processes of
cultural transitions. The symbol’s duality is found
in the most secret corners of culture. The symbol
in its duality trips like a lotus flower–steadily and
meditatively, and in this way it is similar to one
of the categories of the Old Chinese philosophy–
the Tao: “The Tao is like a well: used but never
used up. It is like the eternal void: filled with
infinite possibilities” (Lao-tzu. Tao Te Ching,
from chapter 4).
Bundles of energy of human experience
in interacting with both the moonlight and the
sunlight permeated the culture in transition
from the lunar symbolism to the solar symbolics.
That took place in the past and at present a most
interesting phenomenon is the spiritual transition
developing in the Western culture of the early third
Millennium. Perhaps this transition is preceded
by an era of profound symbolic transformation
and the advent of super-symbolic civilization
on a global scale. Russia is increasingly being
involved into this whirlpool, too. The European
transition lies in the eternal reversion of values
that are Apollonian in their form and Dionysian
in their nature.
Any transition process resembles the rough
sea off the coast: it begins as high tide and ends
as low tide. So it was ebb and flow during the
transition to the agricultural civilization and so
now the earthmen are moving to the latest economy
based on knowledge. The high tide is saturated
with Apollo’s energy–desire for unity, solidarity,
integration, order. The low tide with Dionysus’
energy tends to destruction, fragmentation,
individuation, chaos. At its culmination the
transition process reaches its peak where the
transition crucial chance is determined–at
this point of the mythical full moon period the
symbols are activated and generate a dispersion
of symbolic fields which are transformed at the
frontier of the zero structures. The contemporary
transition process is already at the stage of rising
because the symbols of new Europe pulsate
with renewed vigor. They lack only the energy
of an insurgent who would become a stimulus
of symbolic fields dispersion, a new hero, a new
“good European.” If Socrates and Plato had not
appeared in Ancient Greece, Europe would have
been very different now, full of Thales’ water or
amusing itself with Heraclitus’ fire.
F.Nietzsche preached to love the country of
children, of those who need to be loved, for those
distant but not yet present “good Europeans” were
his children. Zarathustra is still faster running
away from us although we can become his near
relations but love of the distant will make him run
much faster from the present “good Europeans.”
Where are you–the new “good Europeans”–the
children of chaos and nostalgia, those proclaimed
decadents of nihilism of symbols? F.Nietzsche
completes Chapter VII of his “Beyond Good and
Evil” with the following, “Oh Europe! Europe!
We know the horned animal which was always
most attractive to thee, from which danger is ever
again threatening thee! Thy old fable might once
more become “history”–an immense stupidity
might once again overmaster thee and carry thee
away! And no God concealed beneath it–no! only
an “idea,” a “modern idea”!” ( Nietzsche, 1886,
Chapter VII. Our Virtues).
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Reflecting on the symbolic situations of
the past, we are peering into the present symbolic
situation where we are able to see how almost
everywhere there has been emerging a fuzzy
model of culture so far–the culture of new pattern
which is open to future extraneous ideas and at
the same time seeking to preserve its own identity
in the past. There springs up a new culture in
which there is borne “a new system of wealth
creation.” It is anticipated to be knowledge-based
and relying less on wealth and violence (Toffler,
2001). There is being formed a model of epochmaking spiritual transition whereby the pattern
of the spiritual processes development of culture
transitions amongst the contemporary Western
cultures progressively tends to a state of transtraditional culture with its own symbols.
Polysemy of the symbol
The symbol is capable to operate with a
variety of its meanings. Symbolical knowledge is
featured by the sign of “The City of the Marked
Cow” in which multiple shades of meanings
mix up. The polysemy of the symbol makes for
chaotization of the variety of meanings, mixes
up models by destroying traditional taboos. It
is vividly displayed in contemporary art, e.g.,
in some works by one of the most well-known,
mysterious and disputable American artists
Matthew Barney who has been working with
large-scale installations and video films. The
most scandalous product of his creativity is a
serial of five video films “Cremaster” where the
artist reproduces a mythical world of images of
the postindustrial epoch. All the five parts of
“Cremaster” are rich with Masonic signs and
hyperbolic persons and objects as if arrested in
space and time (Barney, 2002).
In the European art the transition from a
dominating role of substantiveness of the symbol
to almost hypertrophied pressure of its polysemy
happened in the XXth century that was expressed
in a mixture of genres, emergence of installations
and performances in the creative works from the
French-American painter, sculptor and writer
Marcel Duchamp to the Dutch photographer
Erwin Olaf and other stylish artists.
Not only in mass pop culture but also in graphic
and dancing art there were exploded secrecy
and intimacy as fast as many taboos connected
with showing naked bodies. The instances under
discussion show intense symbolicalness in the
transitive state of culture. The “new” art creators
themselves reflect the culture crisis in their artistic
images. Their contemporary art actually sneers at
“clip-culture” (A.Toffler’s term). It makes sense
to conclude that every iteratively accomplished
Copernican revolution in culture derived its
strength in the polysemy of the symbol which due
to the developing of its new meanings, allowed
the system of commonplace conceptions to grow
more flexible thus determining its dynamic
development without losing its inner content.
The symbol polysemy results from its zero
structure which “preserves” the primeval sense
in its primordiality by transforming the meanings
bombarding it into its own reflexions. Thus,
the chaotizing energy of the symbol mixes up
multiplicity of meanings and their shades making
for culture transition from a state of traditional
culture to a state of trans-traditional culture.
How was that in the civilization’s green past? We
cannot know for certain but we can suppose again
that the primitive man’s perception of the two
tantalizing and symbolizing luminaries happened
to undergo the process of transition. We can dwell
upon how the solar symbol turned out to operate
with a much greater variety of its meanings. Our
ancestors could be visually convinced of that
in the fruitful solar energy for their crop plants
whilst the intuitive beginning of that evidence
had been with gatherers.
Starting from the above analysis of the
important role of such inherent characteristics
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of the integral symbol as universality,
differentiability, substantiveness, imperativeness,
communicativeness, teleologicality, duality,
polysemy and on the basis of the development of
the appropriate features of symbolic knowledge
(“Pandora”, “The Wall”, “The Garden of Diverging
Paths”, “The Shadow”, “The Tower of Babel”,
“Sisyphus”, “Gilgamesh”, “The City of Marked
Cow”), we can reasonably believe that cultures
in the trans-traditional state develop towards
the culmination of this state with the prospect
of returning to the state of traditional culture
again. It is not improbable that the actual epochal
transition will be associated with the genesis of
a super-symbolic civilization and activation of
super-symbolic consciousness and creativity.
The spiritual processes of culture transitions are
connected with the issue what unites or could
unite Europe today besides integrated economic
space and a free visa system. Whether the
European spirit is still topical in differentiating
the denying West from the creating East.
The Western culture is largely based on
the symbol of negation and being appreciably
intoxicated it follows in the escort of Dionysian
mysteries, while the Eastern culture dreams
Apollonian dreaming. Peering into a symbolic map
of the world let us think together with Zarathustra
about new tablets of a single, inseparable,
unattainable and forever pulsating Zoroastrian
fire–that primeval sense that the Giants-builders
of the tower of Babel had lost in their fight against
a new Ruler. The Tower of Babel was destroyed
and collapsed and cut the world by its fragments
into two eternally opposing parts–the East and
the West, Asia and Europe. The pacified East,
similar to the ancient Taoist, contemplated and
lived in harmony with the world, while the West
was unbalanced waving the flags of civilization
and aristocratism. Most of the Western nations
had been chaotically attacking the world to no
purpose for centuries. The West was against the
Rest. However, “The ultimate purpose of culture
is recreation of mankind” (Bely, 1994, p.23). So,
upon closer examination the Eastern and Western
world views prove to be not so different because
there is an inseparable universal symbolic
spiritual unity in them.
Symbolizing has always been contradictory
and burdened with antinomies. Discrepancies
find their ways in all kinds of crises. Against
the background of the West-East eternal
confrontation, the interconfessional relations
have been worsened lately. The crisis was shown
in the sensational events related to the caricatures
of Prophet Mohammed a few years ago. All of a
sudden the unprecedented diffusion of the English
language all over the world, globanglization–(the
term is ours. – D.A., N.I.)–has dashed against the
rejection of the American mass culture and the
language purism in many countries.
Another crisis in the art has been rather long
identified and characterized by the slogan “art
for art’s sake”, and by compilations of different
genres, and by decadent frames of mind (e.g.
exhibitions of anatomized human corpses by
an infamous avant-garde artist Gunther von
Hagens, notorius prose by Vladimir Sorokin
and some other repulsive extravagancies). The
contemporary art has been agonizing in search
of new symbol forms: extravagant signs, images,
metaphors. These trends suggest that the Western
culture is in a state of trans-traditional culture.
Europe is waiting for its heroes to struggle for
another culture transition.
This refers both to the philosophy of culture
and to the philosophy of science. The leading
domestic and foreign philosophers express their
disappointment with absolutization of the Western
and sophistic project of science that is determined
by the principle of freedom of the scientist’s will.
They try and protect the Aristotelian principle of
perfection. Thus, in Professor N.M.Churinov’s
conception “the main thing is that the cosmic,
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dialectical, information project of science is
being strongly asserted in the field of scientific
knowledge now. …along with the development of
the crisis of contemporary civilization it appears
as a real way to resolve the crisis, the way in
which scientists can find productive research
results indicating the azimuth of the salvation
of mankind, the azimuth of solving the global
problems” (Churinov, 2006, p.94).
The symbolic reality as the most important
human dimension of information reality and as a
sui generis structure, needs to be understood in
terms of the “completing principle of perfection”
since the free creation of symbolic forms is not
nearly enough realize another culture transition
which challenges the contemporary civilization.
Man in a culture is able to achieve the perfection
of creativity only through the development of his
or her own spiritual perfection wherein we can
see a reflection of the primeval sense–the deepest
sense of human existence. Thinkers of all times
and races have never let the concept of human
integrity and “the ideal of a perfect human
being and his general meaning of life” sink into
oblivion. “Ideals of perfect human integrity are
reflected in specified visual images in every
culture. These ideals are colorfully embodied by
cultural heroes.” (Zhukovsky, Pivovarov, 2012,
p.48). Moreover, in our opinion, cultural heroes as
such develop into integral symbols in the process
of a culture transition.
Conclusion
Symbols and culture are integral parts of
each other and their close relationship began
in the remotest primitive society where they
determined human development in a syncretic
way. Man’s persistent efforts in searching for
the sense of his existence–his primeval sense–
perpetually come back as new spirals of culture
transitions. Over and over again do these pursuits
wrap social being with diverse symbols. The
symbols and their active “intervention” in the
spiritual processes of culture transitions might
and do burst into a “clash of civilizations” (Samuel
Huntington’s term) in our insecure world. Indeed,
not only economic and some other factors but
above all else intercultural differences during a
culture transition are found at the root of every
disagreement to really cause the current global
conflicts. Against the background of universalist
tendencies and globalization the contemporary
world is burdened with cultural contradictions
and first and foremost symbolic discrepancies.
Anyway, once mankind was already at the
threshold of the ancient culture transition
supported by the transition from the plentiful
lunar symbolism towards the ubiquitous solar
symbolics. As a result, the fruitful Agricultural
Civilization came into being. Then mankind
invented the machine industry. As a result, the
Industrial Civilization brought progress whilst
driving away nature and natural symbolics.
New symbols came down like industrial parts
from assembly lines in more and more numerous
quantities. They very often derailed and deorbited
and went down like RMS Titanic. Nowadays the
present-day mankind is again at the threshold of
still another culture transition and most probably
the information civilization in its culmination
would develop into a super-symbolic civilization.
New survivalists might not be those who could
be able to learn, forget and relearn but those who
could be able to symbolize and desymbolize, to
constantly create and change symbols. Peering
into how people are working hard to create
their wealth, one cannot but already discern
three wealth creating systems that are radically
different from each other. A.Toffler believes that
a “plow, assembly lines, and computer” can serve
as their “generalized symbols” now. But symbols
are able to do much more.
Symbols have constantly interfered with
transient processes. People have been observing
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this throughout human history and the history of
philosophies. The symbol penetrates into human
existence making it defined and unlimited at the
same time because, on the one hand, the symbolic
sphere imperatively determines and frames the
scope of a human being, and on the other hand,
man himself proves to be a symbol when he
expands its sense to a boundless desert. And it
is also dangerous. In Friedrich Nietzsche’s words
in his Poetic Writings “the desert devours and
strangles” (Nietzsche, 1889).
Symbolism as world understanding, as it
was called by Andrei Bely in his treatise of the
same title, has a number of leading positions
in the spiritual environment of culture and
the social environment of the state ideology
(Bely, 1994). Therefore the issue of the nature
of symbolism, arising at the origins of our
emerging information civilization, is highly
relevant in the modern paradigm of pretransient state. What awaits us: the destruction
of our “Tower of Babel” and the construction
of new symbolic systems under the banner of
the primeval sense? Or further strengthening
of the functioning religions and philosophies
which heterogeneity prevents the unification of
countries and peoples more often than not? The
study of symbolic sphere, namely the symbol
and symbolism in the context of spiritual
processes of culture transitions, can be helpful
in discovering innovation approaches to our
burning challenges.
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Символьная поддержка
культурных переходов
Д.Н. Асламазишвилиa, Н.А. Игнатовб*
a
Грузино-Американский университет,
Грузия, Тбилиси, 0160, ул. Мераба Алексидзе, 8
б
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье выдвинута гипотеза о том, что символ (или скорее, изменение системы символов)
способен поддерживать культурные переходы. Атрибуты символа (универсальность,
дифференцируемость,
содержательность,
императивность,
коммуникативность,
телеологичность, двойственность, многозначность), развиваемые на протяжении всей
истории, устойчиво играют регулятивную роль в духовных процессах перехода от состояния
традиционной культуры к состоянию транстрадиционной культуры.
Аналогичные соображения высказаны о переходе от собирательства к производству и,
как следствие, от культуры собирательства к агрокультуре. Изобретателям сельского
хозяйства и их последователям удалось успешно объединить свои первобытные понятия
и таинственные символы и тем самым изобрести первый фундаментальный культурный
переход, поддержанный процессом замены лунного символа солнечным символом, возникновение
и самостоятельность которого было самым ярким символическим воплощением культурного
перехода того времени.
Ключевые слова: человек, символ, лунная символика, солнечная символика, первобытный,
цивилизация, культурный переход, сельское хозяйство.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 692-703
~~~
УДК 81’27
Closings in Russian Phone-in Programmes:
a Comparison with Ordinary
Telephone Conversations
Elena Yu. Plekhova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 03.02.2014, received in revised form 26.02.2014, accepted 12.03.2014
The paper investigates ways of closing a sequence and an entire interaction in Russian. It analyses
linguistic forms used for this purpose and their functions in a radio phone-in programme and
compares them with those found in Russian ordinary telephone conversations. This study is based on
the methodology of conversation analysis. Firstly, it discusses a broad range of closings in the Russian
phone-in and everyday telephone interactions. Thereafter, it focuses on a specific linguistic form
‘ladna’. The analysis shows that although radio phone-in programmes share some characteristics with
ordinary talk, differences exist in the organization of the conversation, linguistic forms deployed and
functions they perform. Furthermore, the Russian form ‘ladna’ turns out to be language-specific with
regard to its functions. Consequently, the research confirms the existence of language peculiarities in
sequence organization.
Keywords: conversation analysis in Russian, closings in Russian, phone-ins, Russian telephone
conversations, ladna.
Introduction
Conversations do not simply end but are
brought to a close which means that they should
be properly initiated by carrying out work at
various points in the conversation. Closings
occur within the local organization of utterances,
in other words, they should fit the speaker’s prior
utterance. The problem of closings of ordinary
conversation was discussed in the famous work
by Schegloff and Sacks “Opening up Closings”
(1973). Later, Schegloff discussed sequence
closing thirds as a type of post-expansion in
his primer in conversation analysis “Sequence
Organization in Interaction” (2007).
*
A few papers went a step further by
investigating closings in institutional talk.
In particular, Martinez (2003) focused on
the closing process in televised talk shows
and made a comparison with news interview
closings discussed by Clayman (1989). In his
article Robinson (2001) described the activity of
closing physician-patient encounters. Pavlidou’s
comparative research (1997) examined how
closings are managed in Greek and German.
Some features of the closing process in
institutional contexts were found to be similar
to ordinary conversations, namely closing was
proved to be an integral part of the organization
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: elena_plekhova@mail.ru
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of the entire communicative encounter.
Nevertheless, there are also differences which are
based on contingencies of the institutionalized
context and genre-specific peculiarities within
broadcast talk. One of these differences relates
to the termination of the interaction. Whereas
closing a conversation is an interactional process
in everyday talk, broadcast talk is characterized
by the unilateral termination of the call by the host
(Clayman 1989, Martinez 2003). It is consequently
expected that possible pre-closings will mainly
occur in ordinary conversations as they offer the
floor to the co-interactant and require that he or
she either aligns or disaligns with the proposed
closing.
Following the previous research, the current
study is attempting to investigate closings in one
more type of institutional talk with the focus on
language-specific characteristics. Using data
from a Russian radio talk show and Russian
ordinary telephone conversations the aim of the
present research is to find out what linguistic
forms are used in the closing process and what
functions they perform. This aim will be achieved
by analysing linguistic forms found in a Russian
phone-in programme and comparing them with
those found in everyday telephone interactions.
Data and methodology
For the present study 30 episodes of the
talk radio programme “Poekhali?” which can
be translated as ‘Shall we go?’ from the Russian
radio station “The Echo of Moscow” were studied.
Conversations between the host and callers include
what Hutchby (1996a) calls ‘confrontation talk’
as the host makes opinionated assertions and can
criticize callers’ comments if they are not in line
with hers. Closings in the Russian radio phone-
in programme are compared with closings in
ordinary telephone conversations. The database
used for this comparison consists of 30 audiorecorded telephone conversations between native
Russian speakers of different ages.
The data were analyzed using the methods
of conversation analysis (Clayman 2010; Heritage
and Clayman 2010; Hutchby 1996a; Schegloff
2007). According to this methodology, instances
of closings in the radio phone-in programme and
recorded telephone conversations were collected
and transcribed using the conversation-analytic
transcript notational conventions developed
by Gail Jefferson (Schegloff 2007). Further,
similarities and differences between closings
in radio talk shows and everyday telephone
interactions were investigated. The cases
demonstrated in the paper are representative of
the collected data. English translation is presented
alongside the original Russian data.
Closings in a Russian
radio phone-in programme
The fi rst common type of closing found in
the radio programme is spasiba (vam) ‘thank
you’ which is characteristic of the interactionbased genres of broadcast talk. Usually it occurs
at the end of the conversation when the host
thanks the caller for giving his or her opinion
or sharing his or her experience. In Extract (1)
the caller’s failed attempt to extend the sequence
after the host has said spasiba proves its function
of closing the call. The host states that such
professionals as doctors, teachers of Russian or
career counsellors might be employed in migrant
camps (lines 1-3) but the caller responds that all
migrants he has been working with can speak
Russian (lines 4-6).
(1) Migrant camps
1 Host:
Tam xatja by budit vrach naprimer. ili budit [FPP]
there though PRT will be doctor for example or will be
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‘There’ll be a doctor for example or’
2
uchitel’ ruskava jazyka. ili budit chelavek katoryj
teacher Russian language or will be person
who
‘a Russian teacher or a person who’
3
pamozhyt s trudaustroistvam. m?
will help with employment
‘will help with employment.’
4 Caller:
(Slushajte) skol’ka ljudej cheres mai ruki prashlo, [SPP]
listen
how many people through my hands went
‘Listen, I have been working with many people’
5
ni adin iz nix (.) ne skazal shto on ne panimajet
not one of them not said that he not understands
‘none of them has said that he or she does not understand’
6
ruskava jazyka. ja inagda s ruskimi razgavarivaju,
Russian language I sometimes with Russians
talk
‘Russian. I sometimes talk to Russians,’
7
ani ne umejut razgavarivat’ paruski.
they not can
speak
Russian
‘they can’t speak Russian well.’
8 Host: → Georgij, ja vas panjala, spasiba. vy reska protif=
Georgiy I you understood thanks you sharply against
‘Georgiy, I understood you. Thank you. You are strongly
against.’
9 Caller:
=Padazhdite [a ftaroj ftaroj
Hold on PRT second second
‘Hold on, and the second, second’
10 Host: →[Net net vsё vsё
No no all all
‘No, no, that’s all, that’s all.’
11
spasiba Georgij
thanks Georgiy
‘Thank you, Georgiy.’
12
my s vami davol’na dolga uzhe pagavarili
we with you enough long already talked
‘We have already talked for a long time with you.’
13
ja vas panjala. panjala shto vy protif vot
I you understood understood that you against PRT
‘I understood you. I understood that you are against’
14
takix lagerej. panjatna. kstati
vot
such camps understand by the way PRT
‘these camps. I see. By the way,’
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15
s Georgiem saglasen Vladimir Shapashnikaf. eta u nas
with Georgiy agrees Vladimir Shaposhnikov this at us
‘Vladimir Shaposhnikov agrees with Georgiy. This is’
16
adin iz rukavaditelej sajuza prafsajuzaf Rasii,
one of leaders union labour union Russia
‘one of the leaders of labour union association in Russia.’
At line 8, the host starts with the address
term Georgij and states that she understood
the caller. The use of the address term in the
beginning of the host’s turn (line 8) seems to
perform a specific function as the radio talk
show framework makes “the direction of address
transparent and knowable in advance” (Clayman
2010: 161). Clayman states that address terms can
be employed “in the service of a variety of other
actions beyond addressing per se” (Clayman 2010:
179). For instance, in broadcast interviews address
terms are used by interviewees in disalignments
from prior talk, including topic shifts, nonconforming responses, and disagreements or in
managing expressive actions.
Although Clayman (2010) analysed the use
of address terms by interviewees, it seems that
hosts in radio phone-in programmes employ them
to perform similar functions. In Extract (1) the
host starts her turn with the address term Georgij
(line 8) to disalign with the current state of affairs,
particularly instead of continuing the interaction,
she interrupts the caller and attempts to close
down the call (line 8) as the caller’s response was
too long (lines 4-7). She adds the linguistic form
spasiba and summarises his opinion.
At line 9, the caller attempts to extend the
sequence further, which is interrupted by the
host’s categorical net net ‘no no’, vsё vsё ‘that’s
all, that’s all’ and repeat of spasiba (lines 1011). The host may have undertaken this more
aggressive closing move because his first attempt
to terminate the interaction failed. Net net and
vsё vsё deserve special attention as they present
the so-called multiple sayings (Stivers 2004).
Each of them is repeated two times under a single
intonation contour before they both come to period
intonation. The host employs multiple sayings as
she has already indicated her understanding of
the caller’s stance (line 8) and intends to close
down the entire interaction. However, the caller
persists in an effort to provide further clarification
of his standpoint (line 9). Therefore, the multiple
sayings display to the caller that the elaboration
was unnecessary and the entire course of action
should be halted. In other words, they address a
larger course of action rather than only the just
prior turn at line 9.
Furthermore, the multiple sayings may
express that the host is annoyed with the
caller’s persistence to provide a detailed
justification of his view after the host thanked
him and summarised his opinion at line 8. The
unwarranted perseverance of the caller’s course of
action is emphasised by the overlap between the
caller’s and the host’s turns at lines 9-10. Further
evidence for this is seen at lines 12-14 where the
host explains that they had a long conversation
and she understood the caller’s stance. At lines
15-16, the host terminates the call by inviting the
audience to listen to the expert’s opinion.
The second way to close a sequence observed
in the radio phone-in programme is to mark receipt
of information. The most common turn type is
panjatna / panjala ‘I see’ which is used to claim
information receipt but does not mark the host’s
attitude to what has been said. The third expression
that is used by the host to close a sequence is
xarasho which can be translated as ‘okay’ or
‘good’. It functions in a similar manner to ‘okay’ in
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English, in that it displays acceptance of a second
pair part and does not provide an assessment of
what has been said. One more way of closing a
sequence is an explicit expression of agreement
with the caller. The most common formulations
used by the host are saglasna/saglashus’ ‘I agree’,
da ‘yes’, pravda or verna ‘true’ and words like
prekrasna or zdorava ‘great’.
The analysis of closings in a Russian radio
phone-in programme revealed that linguistic
forms spasiba ‘thank you’, panjatna/panjala ‘I
see’, xarasho ‘okay’ or ‘good’ are deployed to
mark the caller’s second pair part as adequate
and consequently close a sequence. Forms like
saglasna/saglashus’ ‘I agree’, da ‘yes’, pravda
or verna ‘true’, prekrasna or zdorava ‘great’ are
also used as sequence closures but express the
host’s agreement with the caller’s standpoint.
The words spasiba and xarasho were found to
perform multiple functions by closing a sequence
and an entire conversation.
Closings in Russian
ordinary telephone conversations
The linguistic form spasiba ‘thank you’ is not
used in ordinary conversations as informal talk
does not presuppose thanking your co-interactant
for the interaction. Some forms are replaced with
synonymous expressions which are marked by
the informal register. Interlocutors in ordinary
phone interactions employ some linguistic forms
which are not found in phone-ins, for example the
long a which Russian speakers use to show their
understanding in casual interactions. In Extract
(2), where Galina and Nadezhda are talking about
their plans for tomorrow, Galina uses the long
a in third position to accept her interlocutor’s
response and close a sequence. At line 1, Galina
starts by asking her co-interactant if she will be
at home tomorrow morning.
Nadezhda says that she is leaving early
tomorrow (line 2) which answers Galina’s question
and thus the second pair part is considered to be
adequate. At line 4, Galina marks the adequacy
of the response by the long a which performs the
function of closing the sequence. Further talk
confirms that the section about plans for tomorrow
morning is closed because Nadezhda opens a new
sequence by informing her interlocutor that she
has been to the tax office today (line 5).
The analysis of closings in ordinary telephone
conversations revealed both similarities and
differences in linguistic forms used in ordinary
conversations and radio phone-in programmes.
(2) Plans for tomorrow
1 Galina:
Ty zavtra utram budish doma?
[FPP]
you tomorrow morning will be home
‘Will you be at home tomorrow morning?’
2 Nadezhda:
Zavtra tozhe ujdu rana zavtra zhe
[SPP]
tomorrow also go early tomorrow PRT
‘Tomorrow I am also leaving early. Tomorrow’
3
etat ministr (.) zamministra zhe priezhaet=
this minister vice-minister PRT comes
‘The minister, vice-minister is coming.’
4 Galina: →
=A:::
5 Nadezhda:
Sevodnja xadila v nalogavuju,
[SCT]
today went to tax office
‘Today I have been to the tax office.’
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Ladna as a language-specific closing
in Russian phone-ins
The linguistic form ladna which was
found in the analysed episodes seems to have
no counterpart in English. In radio phone-in
programmes ladna can be interpreted as ‘good’
or ‘let it be, we cannot do anything’ (Dictionary
of the Russian Language 2009). From the
perspective of conversation analysis ladna with
the former meaning indicates that the speaker of
a first pair part claims acceptance of a second pair
part and closes the sequence, the use is similar
to the English ‘okay’. However, in the latter
meaning the word implies that the sequence is not
complete due to the inadequacy of a second pair
part but nevertheless the host takes a stance that
the interlocutors are done.
In Extract (3), where the topic of the
programme is emigration from Russia, the host
and the caller are discussing where the caller’s
friends are going to migrate. In this extract the
host employs the linguistic form ladna to accept
the caller’s response and close a sequence. The
host begins the extract by asking the caller
where her friends are planning to move and thus
expecting to hear names of countries.
(3) Emigration from Russia
1 Host:
A kuda exat’ sabirajutsa?
PRT where go be going
‘Where are they going?’
2 Caller:
Nu: mmm dumaju paka
PRT
shto v
think for the time being that in
‘Well, I think they are moving to’
3
evrapejskuju chast’, vobschem gde ta Balgarija,
European part in general where PRT Bulgaria
‘the European part, somewhere in Bulgaria’
4
ili (.) Chernagorija, vot
or
Montenegro PRT
[tak (gde ta)
so where PRT
‘or Montenegro’
5 Host:
[Nu nedaliko.
PRT not far
‘Well, not far,’
6
[skazhim tak
say so
‘so to speak.’
7 Caller:
[Da nedaliko. ja dumaju
yes not far I think
‘No, not far, I think’
8 Host: → Ladna Nadezhda spasiba vam bal’shoje,
okay Nadezhda thank you big
‘Okay, Nadezhda, thank you very much.’
9
telifon prjamova efira tri shest’ tri
telehone direct air three six three
‘The telephone number of the programme is three six three’
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10
tri shest’ pjat’ devjat’. no: prezhde chem perexadit’,
three six five nine but before than cross
‘three six five nine. But before turning’
11
k vashym zvankam davajte (.)
to your calls let’s
‘to your calls let’s’
12
eschё adnu nashu gostju paslushaem:, eta Nina Astanina.
else one our guest listen
this Nina Ostanina
‘listen to one more guest, this is Nina Ostanina,’
13
diputat Gosdumy.
deputy State Duma
‘deputy of the State Duma.’
Following the caller’s answer that her
friends are going to Bulgaria or Montenegro
(lines 2-4), the host’s turn in third position
takes the form of an assessment: Nu nedaliko
‘Well, not far’ (line 5). The caller extends the
sequence by saying da and repeating what the
host has said (line 7). The caller’s response
that her friends are going to Bulgaria or
Montenegro which are not far away from Russia
provides sufficient information in answer to the
question regarding the place where her friends
are planning to migrate. Having received this
response, the host marks its adequacy with
the linguistic form ladna and thanks the caller
(line 8). Thereafter, she repeats the telephone
number of the programme (lines 9-10) and
introduces a new guest (lines 11-13). In this
extract ladna performs multiple functions
in sequential organzation: on the one hand,
the host closes the sequence by accepting the
caller’s answer as sufficient; on the other hand,
she closes down the entire call and interaction
between herself and the caller.
Whereas in Extract (3) ladna was used to
mark the adequacy of the caller’s response, Extract
(4) from the same episode of the programme
features a different situation when the answer
does not come up to the host’s expectations. The
extract begins with a question about the caller’s
work experience in the country (lines 1-2).
(4) Emigration from Russia
1 Host:
Rabotat’ ta ni mishajut? Rashit.
[FPP]
to work PRT not interfere Rashid
‘Do they hinder you from your work, Rashid?’
2
vsё
v parjadke s etim
everything in order with this
‘Is everything alright with this?’
3 Caller:
Nu absaljutna net esli ty rabotaesh,
[SPP]
PRT absolutely no if you work
‘Well, absolutely not. If you work,’
4
[( )
5Host:
[Ex pavizlo vam. xarasho.
PRT had luck you good
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‘Well, you are lucky. Good.’
6→
nu ladna Rashit. xarasho. rady my za vas
PRT okay Rashid good glad we for you
‘Well, okay, Rashid. Good. Good for you.’
7
v o:bschem ne dumaete vy nikuda uezhat’
in general not think you nowhere go away
‘In general, you are not thinking of immigration.’
8
nu i slava bogu. davajte telifon
PRT and glory god let’s telephone
‘Well, thank goodness! The telephone number’
9
prjamova efira tri shest’ tri tri shest’ pjat’ devjat’
direct air three six three three six five nine
‘of the programme is three six three three six five nine.’
10
a vy zadumyvalis’, na:t vaprosam
PRT you were thinking above question
‘And have you thought about the question’
11
uezhat’ ne uezhat’? Exa Maskvy zdrastvujte.
go away not go away Echo Moscow hello
‘whether to immigrate or not? “The Echo of Moscow”, hello!’
At line 3, the caller says that everything
is all right and attempts to continue his
response by starting the conditional clause:
Esli ty rabotaesh ‘If you work’. However,
this is interrupted by the host’s comment: Ex
pavizlo vam ‘Well, you are lucky’ (line 5). The
host’s turn indicates that she did not expect
this answer to her question and she views the
caller’s positive experience as an exception. It
is interesting that having received a response
which is contrary to her expectations, the
host intends to terminate the call. She uses an
upbeat assessment xarasho ‘good’ (line 5) and
the expression nu ladna (line 6) to terminate
the conversation.
The host in the phone-in uses the combination
nu ladna to override any further extension on the
caller’s part which results from contingencies
of the radio show format where the host has to
bear in mind timing and the requirement to talk
to a number of callers. Therefore, the caller’s
attempt to elaborate on his response comes into
conflict with the programme’s time constraints
and the host has to initiate her closing turn in an
interruptive manner.
The analysis revealed that along with the
function to close a sequence by accepting the cointeractant’s response, the polysemic word ladna
is also used as an indicator of the inadequacy of
the second pair part and leads to termination of
the call.
Ladna as a closing
in Russian ordinary
telephone conversations
Ordinary talk is marked by the frequent
use of ladna which performs various functions
compared to the more common function of
closing down the interaction in phone-ins. For
instance, ladna in telephone conversations
is more often deployed as a sequence
closing third. In contrast to radio phone-in
programmes, ladna can function in a similar
manner to ‘okay’ in English as a possible
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(5) Money
1 Nastya:
Ja vot tebe atdam
den’gi shtoby
(ty ne)
[FPP]
I you will return money in order to you not
‘I will return the money to you so that you’
2 Anya:
Tak ty uspakojsja. uspakojsja.=
[SPP]
So you calm down calm down
‘Stop talking about this.’
3 Nastya: →
=Ladna.
‘Okay.’
4
(1.0)
5
6→
Nu ladna ( )
PRT okay
‘Well, okay.’
7 Anya:
Uspakojsya Nastja. axa. nu davaj. davaj.
Calm down Nastya yes PRT let’s let’s
‘Stop talking about this, Nastya. Well, yes, bye bye.’
8 Nastya: Paka.
‘Bye.’
pre-closing. In Extract (5) Nastya is talking
to her friend Anya about the money she owes
her. At line 1, Nastya begins by saying that
she is going to return money to her friend.
After having received Anya’s response to her
fi rst pair part, Nastya uses the linguistic form
ladna to give her co-interactant an opportunity
to reopen topic talk before closing down the
conversation.
In response to Anya’s statement that she
should stop talking about the money (line 2),
Nastya employs the linguistic form ladna (line
3) and makes a long pause (line 4). Therefore,
ladna indicates that the speaker of the first
pair part has nothing else to say and offers
the floor to her co-interactant to introduce a
new topic. The pre-closing function of ladna
is emphasised by the long pause Nastya makes
waiting for her interlocutor’s contribution.
After having received no response from Anya,
at line 5 Nastya repeats her warrant for closing
the conversation by saying nu ladna. She
invites her co-interactant once again to reopen
topic talk. Finally, at line 6 Anya asks her
friend one more time to stop talking about the
money and accepts her co-interactant’s preclosing move with axa ‘yes’ which is followed
by termination of the conversation. Nastya
says goodbye (line 7) and the interactants hang
up the phone.
The linguistic form ladna does not only
initiate pre-closing of a conversation but can also
accept it. In Extract (6) Misha is asking Nastya
about her plans for the day (line 1). After Misha
has closed the sequence and established a warrant
to terminate the conversation, Nastya accepts his
pre-closing by saying the same linguistic form
ladna.
At lines 2-3, Nastya tells Misha that she is
going to see the celebration of the university’s
anniversary. This response is sufficient for
Misha’s question about Nastya’s plans and he
accepts it as adequate by saying the long a::: (line
4) which is common in ordinary conversations.
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(6) Today’s plans
1 Misha: Shto ty dumaesh delat’ sivodnya?
what you think do
[FPP]
today
‘What are you going to do today?’
2 Nastya: Ja schas vot pajdu u nas tam
[SPP]
I now PRT will go at us there
‘I’m going to’
3
jubilej
univera.
anniversary university
‘the anniversary of the university.’
4 Misha: A::: (.)
Nu ladna.
PRT okay
‘Well, okay.’
5 Nastya: →Nu ladna. nu davaj.=
PRT okay well let’s
‘Well, okay, bye.’
6 Misha: =Nu ladna. axa. nu davaj vsivo. vsё tagda.
PRT okay yes well let’s all all then
‘Well, okay, well, bye.’
As this is followed by the linguistic form nu ladna
and termination of the call, the long a indicates
that Misha closed the sequence. After Misha’s nu
ladna (line 4) Nastya repeats the same expression
(line 5). Thereafter, Nastya and Misha say their
goodbyes (lines 5-6) and the call is terminated.
The analysis demonstrated that the linguistic
form ladna is deployed in ordinary conversations
to close a sequence by marking the interlocutor’s
response as adequate. In contrast to radio phonein programmes ladna in everyday talk is not
used to terminate an entire interaction but it can
be employed to establish a warrant to close it.
Furthermore, this linguistic form can accept a
pre-closing move made in the previous turn.
Conclusion
The present research on closings in Russian
confirmed that phone-in programmes present
a distinctive instance of institutional talk and
revealed language-specific characteristics of the
tokens used in talk radio shows and ordinary
telephone conversations. Although phoneins have some features of ordinary telephone
conversatons, they also differ from them in terms
of organization of the talk, employed linguistic
forms and their functions. Therefore, further
research needs to be done to clarify the specificity
of talk radio genre and to explore language
peculiarities in sequence organization.
Acknowledgments
I thank the Eranet-Mundus project for
providing the funding. I am also grateful to my
supervisors Dr Kobin H. Kendrick (The Max
Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics) and Dr
Ad Foolen (Radboud University Nijmegen) for
comments and suggestions.
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Elena Yu. Plekhova. Closings in Russian Phone-in Programmes: a Comparison with Ordinary Telephone Conversations
19. Schegloff, E. A., & Sacks, H. (1973). Opening up Closings. Semiotica, 8(4), 289-386.
20. Spravochno-Informatsyonnyy Portal “Gramota.ru” (Reference and Information Portal
“Gramota.ru”), available at: http://gramota.ru/
21. Stivers, T. (2004). “No no no” and Other Types of Multiple Sayings in Social Interaction.
Human Communication Research, 30(2), 260-293.
22. Stivers, T., & Robinson, J. D. (2006). A Preference for Progressivity in Interaction. Language
in Society, 35(3), 367-392.
Завершение речевых секвенций
в русскоязычных ток-шоу на радио:
сравнение с повседневными
телефонными разговорами
Е.Ю. Плехова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье исследуются способы завершения отдельных речевых секвенций и всего разговора
на русском языке. Анализируются языковые формы, используемые для этой цели, и их функции
в ток-шоу на радио. Эти формы сравниваются с вариантами, которые применяются в
обычных телефонных разговорах на русском языке. Исследование основано на методологии
конверсационного анализа. В статье обсуждается ряд способов, используемых для завершения
секвенций и разговора в ток-шоу и в повседневных речевых взаимодействиях на русском языке.
В исследовании также анализируется языковая форма «ладно». Анализ показывает, что,
несмотря на то что жанр ток-шоу имеет некоторые характеристики бытового общения,
существуют и различия в организации разговора, используемых языковых формах и их
функциях. Кроме того, русская форма «ладно» и ее функции отражают специфику языка.
Следовательно, исследование подтверждает существование языковых особенностей в
организации секвенций.
Ключевые слова: конверсационный анализ русского языка, окончание секвенций на русском
языке, ток-шоу на радио, телефонные разговоры на русском языке, ладно.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 704-720
~~~
УДК 117:519.21
Is Mass at Rest One and the Same?
A Philosophical Comment:
on the Quantum Information Theory of Mass
in General Relativity and the Standard Model
Vasil Penchev*
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Institute for the Study of Societies and Knowledge
31 Neofit Rilski, 1000, Sofia, Bulgaria
Received 05.02.2014, received in revised form 26.02.2014, accepted 12.03.2014
The way, in which quantum information can unify quantum mechanics (and therefore the standard
model) and general relativity, is investigated. Quantum information is defined as the generalization
of the concept of information as to the choice among infinite sets of alternatives. Relevantly, the
axiom of choice is necessary in general. The unit of quantum information, a qubit is interpreted
as a relevant elementary choice among an infinite set of alternatives generalizing that of a bit.
The invariance to the axiom of choice shared by quantum mechanics is introduced: It constitutes
quantum information as the relation of any state unorderable in principle (e.g. any coherent quantum
state before measurement) and the same state already well-ordered (e.g. the well-ordered statistical
ensemble of the measurement of the quantum system at issue). This allows of equating the classical and
quantum time correspondingly as the well-ordering of any physical quantity or quantities and their
coherent superposition. That equating is interpretable as the isomorphism of Minkowski space and
Hilbert space. Quantum information is the structure interpretable in both ways and thus underlying
their unification. Its deformation is representable correspondingly as gravitation in the deformed
pseudo-Riemannian space of general relativity and the entanglement of two or more quantum
systems. The standard model studies a single quantum system and thus privileges a single reference
frame turning out to be inertial for the generalized symmetry [U(1)]X[SU(2)]X[SU(3)] “gauging” the
standard model. As the standard model refers to a single quantum system, it is necessarily linear
and thus the corresponding privileged reference frame is necessary inertial. The Higgs mechanism
U(1) → [U(1)]X[SU(2)] confirmed enough already experimentally describes exactly the choice of the
initial position of a privileged reference frame as the corresponding breaking of the symmetry. The
standard model defines ‘mass at rest’ linearly and absolutely, but general relativity non-linearly
and relatively. The “Big Bang” hypothesis is additional interpreting that position as that of the
“Big Bang”. It serves also in order to reconcile the linear standard model in the singularity of the
“Big Bang” with the observed nonlinearity of the further expansion of the universe described very
well by general relativity. Quantum information links the standard model and general relativity in
another way by mediation of entanglement. The linearity and absoluteness of the former and the
nonlinearity and relativeness of the latter can be considered as the relation of a whole and the same
whole divided into parts entangled in general.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: vasildinev@gmail.com
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Vasil Penchev. Is Mass at Rest One and the Same? A Philosophical Comment…
Keywords: general relativity, the standard model, quantum information, mass at rest, qubit, the Big
Bang
There are two big and exceptionally
corroborated theories about the fundamental
physical reality. Unfortunately, they seem to be
inconsistent with each other. General relativity
explained very easily or even granted mass at
rest. Quantum mechanics managed to confirm
experimentally an analogical mechanism about it
only almost a century later.
However if they are inconsistent, should the
corresponding concept of mass at rest in each of
them be one and the same? Or the opposed: might
‘mass at rest’ reconcile both great theories?
These two questions are investigated
only in a possible reference frame: that of
theory of quantum information (designated in
the title and bellow abbreviated as “quantum
information”); even less, only within a most
common philosophical consideration referring to
its foundation, principles and conditions.
The main conclusions of the article are:
The concepts of mass at rest both in the standard
model and general relativity coincide being
defined as a relevant relation in both cases.
However, the standard model defines that relation
as linear and absolute while general relativity as
non-linear and relative. Thus the former refers to
some singularity or quantum leap while the latter
to some smooth development of some whole
consisting of parts. The additional hypothesis
of the “Big Bang” interprets these differences
in definition rather reasonably situating the
origin of the standard model in the singularity
of the absolute beginning of the universe, but
referring the non-linear and relative approach of
general relativity to the further development of
the universe. Quantum mechanics also allows
these two absolutely opposite viewpoints to be
reconciled and even equated in the framework
of wave-particle duality identifying the “Big
Bang” and the further expansion of the universe
as one and the same. Quantum information
is the conceptual apparatus for that duality to
be investigated relevantly and quantitatively
within the theory of information for the concept
of quantum information both generalizes that
of information and unifies mathematically the
discrete (quantum) and continuous (smooth).
Furthermore, there are other possibilities for
the consistent interpretation of ‘mass at rest’ in
both great theories, being inconsistent in turn to
the “Big Bang” hypothesis, but consistent to the
approach of quantum information.
The plan of the paper is the following:
1. Quantum information: origin and
concepts
2. The standard model in terms of quantum
information: mass at rest
3. General relativity in terms of quantum
information: mass at rest
4. Mass at rest in quantum information and
those in the standard model and general relativity
as its interpretations
5. Conclusions about the mathematical
fundament of the physical world
1. Quantum information:
origin and concepts
The first paper, which is usually cited
in publications in quantum information, is
Einstein. Podolsky, and Rosen’s “Can QuantumMechanical Description of Physical Reality
Be Considered Complete?” (1935). It was a
culmination of Einstein’s resistance against
quantum mechanics just for relativity both special
and general seemed inconsistent with it. The paper
managed to demonstrate for first time that a new
kind of correlations, the quantum correlations
are implied by the mathematical formalism
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of quantum mechanics therefore restricting
in addition the specific degrees of quantum
freedom: the Heisenberg principle of uncertainty.
The conclusion, which the three authors made,
was that quantum mechanics is incomplete as it
implies the existence of restrictions, which does
not describe.
In fact, the theory of quantum information
in the framework of quantum
mechanics was
૚ۧ
generated just by the direct collision with relativity
being due to their mutual inconsistency. In thus,
the concept of quantum information can be very
useful in order to elucidate interlinks between the
notions and quantities about ‘mass at rest’ in both
theories. The nature of that connection turns out
to be a kind of generalization of the concept of
information, namely quantum information.
The most important stages in the development
and establishment of quantum information
outlined the experimentally observable difference
between “classical” and quantum correlations as
૚ۧ૚ۧ
well as the phenomena, in which they take place:
those of entanglement.
The fundamental notion of quantum
information is that of quantum bit, or ‘qubit’. It is
defined as follows:
‘Qubit’ is: α|0〉+β|1〉 where α, β are complex
numbers such that |α|2+ |β|2=1, and |0〉, |1〉 are any
two orthonormal vectors (e.g. the orthonormal
bases of any two subspaces) in any vector space
(e.g. Hilbert space, Euclidean space, etc.)Thus
Hilbert space underlying quantum mechanics
is representable as the quantity of quantum
information and any wave function, i.e. any state
of any quantum system being a point in it can be
seen as a value of that quantity. Consequently
all physical processes turn out to be quantuminformational, and nature or the universe is
a quantum computer processing quantum
information.
The qubit is also isomorphic to a ball in
Euclidean space, in which two points are chosen:
A qubit is equivalently representable as a unit ball
in Euclidean space and two points, the one chosen
within the ball, and the other being the orthogonal
projection on its surface, i.e. as a mapping of a
unit ball onto its surface (or any other unit sphere).
Indeed: α, β are two complex numbers such that
|α|2+ |β|2=1; |0〉, |1〉 are two orthonormal vectors or
a basis such as two૚ۧorthogonal great circles of the
unit ball. Then: ሬሬሬሬሬሬሬሬԦ
defines a point of the unit
ߙȁͲۧ૚ۧ
ሬሬሬሬሬሬሬሬԦ
ball and the pair of ߙȁͲۧ and ሬሬሬሬሬሬሬሬԦ
ߚȁͳۧ defines a point
of the unit sphere.
Consequently, Minkowski space, which
is the space-time of special relativity, being
an expanding ball in Euclidean space, can be
understood as the same quantity of quantum
information in another hypostasis of it. Therefore
the concept of quantum information connects
Hilbert space of quantum mechanics with
Minkowski space of special relativity as two
isomorphic interpretations of the quantity of
quantum information. Thus a wave function is
equivalent to a world line under the condition of
wave-particle duality. Both are values of quantum
information or “results” of computations of the
universe quantum computer.
Intuitively, the two aspects of wave-particle
duality should represent correspondingly the
two kinds of motion: quantum (discrete) and
smooth (continuous). Mathematically, the same
is represented by a Fourier-like exchange of
ଵ
the argument of the function: ௧ ՞ ‫ݐ‬, or ‫ ܧ‬՞ ‫ݐ‬
. The former is for the quantum representation
or interpretation, and the latter is for the smooth
ones.
However, one should add that “t” is for
‘time’, one rather extraordinary and even unique
physical variable: unlike any other, it is featured
by its “arrow”. This expresses some process of
ordering and thus it is connected to the concepts
of choice and information, and mathematically
to the axiom of choice and the well-ordering
theorem, which is equivalent to it. Indeed all
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past is well-ordered by the parameter of time,
all future is still unorderable in principle in the
present moment, which is between them and
in which the ordering is being made by means
of choices and thus involving the quantity of
information for the choices to be measured as
an amount.
Furthermore one can question about that
kind of description of reality, which is invariant
to the past, future, and present: in other words,
that kind of mathematical formalism, which
can equate the special variable of time to any
other physical quantity, which is not featured
by its “arrow”. This would require the past,
which is always well-ordered, and the future,
which is always unorderable in principle, as
well as the present, in which the ordering is
being made by a relevant series of choices, to
be somehow equated to each other. That kind of
mathematical formalism is necessary to involve
the axiom of choice in a rather extraordinary
way: Indeed the present making the ordering
requires the axiom of choice in order to be
able to convert the unorderable future into the
well-ordered past. However the future excludes
the axiom of choice, otherwise it would not
be “unorderable”. Consequently, the searched
formalism should possess a property rather
contradictory at fi rst glance: invariance to the
axiom of choice. It should describe equally well
as the well-ordered past utilizing the axiom of
choice as the unorderable future excluding it. It
seems to anyone that any formalism satisfying
that condition should be inconsistent and thus it
cannot exist.
However it exists: and even more, it is very
well known and even utilized for it is that of
quantum mechanics, Hilbert space. One should
demonstrate why quantum mechanics is forced to
resolve the problem of how to describe uniformly
the past and future as well as to involve the
invariance to the axiom of choice.
Indeed quantum mechanics is defined as
that science, which describes the system of a
macroscopic device and a measured quantum
entity by the indications of the former. The ratio
of their masses or energies can be accepted
as converging to infinity. Consequently, the
ratio of the periods of the de Broglie waves
correspondingly associated to them will converge
reciprocally to zero. Thus the present of the
quantum entity will includes a big enough part of
the future and past of the device. All this should
be uniformly reflected in the indications of the
device. This implies the necessity for quantum
mechanics to describe uniformly the present,
future and past as it does absolutely depends
on the indications of the apparatus generalizing
them in the form of a common theory.
The same can be demonstrated in another
way: Quantum mechanics is forced to resolve
the problem of how to describe uniformly
continuous (smooth) and discrete (quantum)
motions. This requires a present moment, in
which the continuous motion is, a past moment,
which is the beginning of the quantum leap, and
a future moment, which is the end of the leap to
be described uniformly in general.
One can also demonstrate in a way
independent of the above two arguments that the
mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics
should satisfy the condition for invariance to the
axiom of choice: The theorems about the absence
of the hidden variables in quantum mechanics
(Neumann 1932; Kochen, Specker 1968)
exclude any well-ordering in any coherent state
of any quantum system before measurement.
However the results of any measurement can be
always well-ordered in principle by means of
the parameter of time. This requires the wellordering theorem, which is equivalent to the
axiom of choice. Nevertheless the coherent state
before measurement excluding any well-ordering
must be equated to the well-ordered set of results
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after measurement. This implies the invariance
at issue.
In turn, the invariance to the axiom of choice
implied by the necessity of a uniform description
of the present, past and future implies the concept
of choice and ordering, on the one hand, and that
of information as that quantity expressing the
amount of choices or the degree of ordering, on
the other hand.
Intuitively, the concept of information is
connected with those of ‘choice’ and ‘ordering’
so: Information is some relation of different
orderings of one and the same entity or eventually
the relation between the absolute lack of ordering
(as a special kind or benchmark of ordering) and
a given ordering. Any ordering is being made by
a well-orderable series of choices. Consequently,
the choice should be the “atom” or ‘unit’ of
ordering and thus that of information. Then the
quantity of information should be the quantity of
choices necessary to be obtained that ordering at
issue or the information interpreted as complexity
after Kolmogorov (1968).
Indeed the unit of “classical” information,
the binary digit or bit, is an elementary choice
between two equiprobable alternatives. Any
other finite choice defined as a choice between
a finite set of non-equiprobable alternatives
can be measured as some real number of bits.
Furthermore, any finite series of finite choices can
be measured in the same way and represented as
the ultimate tape after a Turing machine (Turing
1937) has done its work.
However, that way is irrelevant as to an
infinite choice or an infinite series of choices:
It does not allow of defining or comparing the
quantity of information in infinite sets. Even more,
if the concept of infinite choice and corresponding
information is introduced, the foundation of
set theory will need perfection: The axiom of
choice is necessary in order to guarantee always
the possibility of choice of an alternative among
an infinite set of those. Furthermore, the invariance
to the axiom of choice as above is unavoidable for
the state before choice, necessary for the concept
of information as a relation to it, to make sense.
After those conditions have satisfied, the concept
of information relevant as to infinite sets can be
already introduced and demonstrated that it is
isomorphic to that of quantum information in
quantum mechanics.
Indeed utilizing the “ball representation”
of a qubit, it can be defined as the choice of two
points correspondingly the one being among the
points of the unit ball, and the other among only
the unit sphere (the surface of the unit ball). This
means two choices correspondingly among a
set and among a true subset of it. Only infinite
choice defined as above can be decomposed
into two choices, the one of which being among
a true subset of the alternatives of the other;
and vice versa: if that condition is satisfied, the
choice is necessary infinite. And what is more
important: the unit of a qubit allows of defining
and comparing the quantity of information as to
infinite sets. The qubit as the measure of infinite
information hardly is unique, but probably it
is one of the simplest ones and what is used in
nature according to the contemporary corpus of
knowledge.
After the concept of quantum information
has involved, Hilbert and Minkowski space can be
seen also uniformly as two aspects or “hypostases”
of quantum information, correspondingly the
global and local ones. Indeed, on the one hand,
any wave function (a point in Hilbert space) can
be represented as an infinite series of qubits as
follows:
Given any point in (complex) Hilbert space
as a vector {C1, C2, … Cn, Cn+1, …} one can
replace any successive couple of its components
such as ({C1, C2}, {C2, C3}…{Cn–1, Cn}…) with a
single corresponding qubit {Q1, Q2, … Qn, Qn+1, …}
such that:
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ߙ௡ ൌ
஼೙
ሺାሻඥȁ஼೙ ȁమ ାȁ஼೙శభ ȁమ
;ߚ௡ ൌ
஼೙శభ
ሺାሻඥȁ஼೙ ȁమ ାȁ஼೙శభ ȁమ
if Cn, Cn+1 are not both 0. However if both are
0, one needs to add conventionally the center
(α n = 0, βn = 0) to conserve the mapping of Hilbert
space and an infinite qubit tape to be one-to-one.
On the other hand, any qubit (meaning its
“ball representation”) is isomorphic to an inertial
reference frame after the unit ball with two chosen
points from it has interpreted as the space-time
ball within the light cone with the position and
velocity of an inertial reference frame. The qubit
will be one and the same as to all points (the world
line) of a reference frame as far as it is inertial.
Furthermore, any world line being smooth can be
described as an infinite set of its tangents in any
point of it. Any tangent of those will represent the
world line of an inertial frame and thus a qubit.
Consequently, any world line can be mapped
one-to-one as a wave function by the mediation
of a series of qubits: or in other words, both wave
function and corresponding world line can be
interpreted as one and the same value of quantum
information measured in qubits.
The difference between a world line and
its corresponding wave function consists only
in the different interpretation of time as this
is described above: The world line is being
outlined just now, in the present moment
distinguishing unambiguously between the
well-ordered past and the future unorderable in
principle. The present is between them making
the choice and therefore transforming the nonorderable future into the well-ordered past. Thus
the concept of world line shares only the one
interpretation of time. The other interpretation
of time generates the concept of wave function
describing uniformly the well-ordered past, the
ordering present, and the unorderable future by
the mediation of the invariance to the axiom
of choice. However the concept of world line
needs exactly the axiom of choice rather than
that invariance to it. Nevertheless the necessity
of the axiom of choice is also involved in the
invariance to it. The world line describes locally
the process of choice while the wave function
does the same globally. If one utilizes the
representation of the universe as a quantum
computer, the distinction between ‘world line’
and ‘wave function’ can be seen as that between
the current state of a quantum computation and
the ultimate result of it.
However if one unifies the concepts of wave
function and world line on the base of quantum
information, the pathway for quantum mechanics
and general relativity to be unified is already
outlined clearly in a rather unexpected way: In a
sense, they does not need and cannot be unified
being one and the same only seen in different
aspects: globally and locally.
However, the global aspect should be
referred to the smallest while the local aspect to
the big and biggest: the macroscopic world and
the universe. This contradicts common sense
linking the global to the biggest, and the local
to the smallest. One way to be reconciled is the
conception of the cyclic universe, in which the
biggest is returned as the smallest. The discussion
till now is consistent to that understanding as it
is still kinematic for the concept of mass at rest
has not yet been introduced. Indeed quantum
complementarity is consistent to that “relativity”
of the small and the big for any pair of conjugate
quantities in quantum mechanics shares it. The
mass at rest is what involves certain asymmetry
between any two conjugates and therefore
between the big and the small.
At last, one can investigate also uniformly the
deformations of Minkowski space (as the pseudoRiemannian space of general relativity) and that of
Hilbert space (as the phenomena of entanglement)
being correspondingly the local and global aspect
of one and the same generalized deformation.
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Indeed, after general relativity has
identified any world line in Minkowski space
with the corresponding geodesic line in pseudoRiemannian space, quantum information
can identify not only a world line with a wave
function, but furthermore any two successive
qubits of a world line or a wave function with
two parallel qubits of two different world lines
or wave functions. Thus entanglement and the
gravitational field can be seen uniformly.
If a reference frame in Minkowski space is
not inertial, it can be decomposed into two or more
inertial reference frames situated successively
in time. To be considered the case of two ones
is enough for the principle to be visualized.
First, these two qubits can be identified as one
and the same in a deformed space like pseudoRiemannian space. Then they can be interpreted
as two interacting qubits belonging to the wave
functions of two entangled quantum systems.
At last, these three cases can be identified. As
general relativity identifies inertial mass (the first
case) with gravitational mass (the second case) as
quantum information identifies the well-ordered
time in general relativity (the second case)
with the time invariant to ordering in quantum
mechanics (the third case). Indeed the inertial
mass and the well-ordered time are counterparts
by the mediation of energy and quantum duality
as well just as the gravitational mass and the time
invariant to ordering are the same ones.
By the way, energy (and therefore mass) can be
discussed as the “reciprocal space-time” from this
viewpoint, which is that of quantum mechanics:
Furthermore if special relativity unifies space and
time “proportionally”, general relativity continues
unifying space-time and energy “reciprocally”
from this viewpoint originating from quantum
mechanics and therefore consistent to it. In other
words, the concept of energy (and therefore that
of mass) serves to describe the relation between
two “kinds” of time: the time-until-now, which
is well-ordered, and the “eternal” time, which
is invariant to ordering. The former should be
refer to the local aspect and thus, to general
relativity and the latter to quantum mechanics
and information.
Thus a common viewpoint to the notion
of mass at rest in general relativity, quantum
mechanics, and the standard model can be build.
2. The standard model
in terms of quantum information:
mass at rest
The core of the standard model is the unity
of three symmetries [U(1), SU(2), SU(3)], which
“gauge” Hilbert space underlying mathematically
quantum mechanics correspondingly as to
each one from the following three fundamental
interactions: electromagnetic, weak, and
strong. Additionally, the three symmetries are
independent of each other, or in other words,
“orthogonal” to each other so that the standard
model can be represented as the tensor product
of them: [U(1)] X [SU(2)] X [SU(3)]. The mass at
rest appears by the “Higgs mechanism”: U(1) →
[U(1)] X [SU(2)]. In fact the “Higgs mechanism”
includes two hypotheses: (1) It explains how the
particles of the weak field (Higgs 1964) acquire
their mass at rest (2) It shows that all the rest
having some nonzero mass at rest should obtain
mass by means of the same mechanism.
No one has managed to find that symmetry,
which would suitable for gravitational interaction
and should complement the standard model to
the cherished “Great unification”. The efforts
continue. Many scientists suspect that the
formulation of the problem is wrong, though.
This paper also will try to demonstrate where
could be the mistake if the problem of the “Great
unification” is formulated as revealing the
symmetry relevant to gravity: even more, the
mistake of all attempts to be created the theory of
quantum gravity.
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The objectivity now is to be given a clear and
simple interpretation of those symmetries and thus
of the corresponding fundamental interactions on
the base of wave-particle duality by means of the
concepts of quantum information:
The introduction of gauge symmetries
addresses the description of the “forces” and
“fields” of classical mechanics and physics
in a relevant and quantum way. Indeed any
classical force forces the motion of any particle
undergone to its action restricting all possible
positions and states of the particle at issue to a
single one. An alternative way for this to be
described is the introduction of some suitable
“gauge” group relevant to that force so that all
possible positions and states of any particle
undergone to the action just of this kind of force
to be represented as some group and thus as some
symmetry unifying all those opportunities in a
single mathematical structure. Even more, if
the case is quantum mechanics and thus waveparticle duality is granted, the only way to be
described mathematically the force is by means
of some relevant group and symmetry: Indeed
all elements of the group correspond to the wave
“half” of duality; any element chosen somehow,
for example by measurement, corresponds to
the particle “half”. However all group and the
chosen element are identified by the viewpoint of
quantum mechanics just for wave-particle duality.
In other words, the laws of quantum mechanics
should be invariant to choice.
Classical physics in general and any force in
particular are not invariant to choice, though: Any
kind of force in classical physics is defined just as
that choice, which restricts to the single position
and state, which are observed. Emphasizing
the differences between the quantum and
classical concept of ‘force’, one can say that
the quantum measurement should be a “force”
according to the classical understanding. Thus
many misinterpretations of quantum mechanics
as “subjective” or ostensibly depending on an
observer can be clearly elucidated.
Wave-particle duality and the invariance to
choice are forced for resolving the main problem
of quantum mechanics: how to be uniformly
described both the smooth motions of classical
physics and new discrete motions in the quantum
world commeasurable with the Planck constant.
Thus quantum mechanics introduced implicitly a
generalization of Einstein’s general principle of
relativity (e.g. Einstein 1918): All physical laws
should be invariant to any motions including the
quantum rather than to smooth ones having an
exactly determined velocity in any point of the
trajectory.
The three gauge symmetries of the standard
model mean the invariance to the choice of
an inertial reference frame among the group
of the “wave” of the chosen reference frame.
Thus all reference frames from the group share
a few common parameters: a common spacetime, a common position as the beginning and
a common velocity. All fundamental particles
of the standard model describes the parameters
of that chosen inertial reference frame moving
smoothly in the dual and thus equivalent terms of
a discrete (quantum) motion. Roughly speaking,
the fundamental particles are the “coefficients
of decomposition” of just that smooth inertial
motion in the equivalent representation in terms
of quantum motion.
Consequently, there is a privileged subgroup
of the group of all inertial reference frames
according to the standard model. The common
parameters of their motions are usually masked
and designated as the “Bing Bang” put the
beginning of the universe. At first glance, this
is an obvious and direct contradiction ostensibly
both with special and with general relativity
elucidating their inconsistency in relation to
quantum mechanics mentioned in the beginning:
The concept of ether rejected by special relativity
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is equivalent to some privileged nonempty
subset among the set of all inertial reference
frame. Though Einstein himself showed (1920)
that general relativity unlike special relativity
is independent of the concept of ether (i.e. it is
consistent both with the concept of ether and its
rejection), the privileged reference frames did no
return back in physics.
However the standard model implicitly
introduces privileged reference frames even in
the fundament of the physical laws by means
of the set of particles expressing the parameters
of that subgroup of inertial reference frames in
quantum language.
The sense of the general “gauge” symmetry
underlying the standard model [U(1)]X[SU(2)]
X[SU(3)] is the following: It consists of
three rotations, which can be considered as
independent of each other for the tensor product
of them is constituted. These rotations translate
the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics
into the language of group symmetry. They
mean that the corresponding “wave image” of
a chosen reference frame should be accepted as
equivalent to each other. The idea of all gauge
symmetries is just the theory to be “gauged” to
accept the quantum wave as a whole identical to
any “point” of it. Furthermore, after the gauge
symmetries are “extracted” and determined, all
other differences rest on some real differences of
the states of one or more quantum systems. Thus
after the gauge symmetries are determined, a
generalized, “wave-particle” reference frame is
chosen so that all differences in quantum states
can be defined absolutely to it. This is what
is well-known as the “Big Bang”. Indeed the
concept of the “Big Bang” privileges a reference
frame determined by its position (x0,y0,z0) in
the “beginning of time” (t0 = 0) as well as its
velocity and eventually acceleration: those of the
expansion of the universe. However, the standard
model needs a reference frame to be privileged
for it to be able to describe the parameters of that
reference frame. The “Big Bang” hypothesis is a
much stronger interpretation, which is consistent
not only to it, but also to a considerable part of the
traditional metaphysics involving some Creator,
Who has created the universe, etc. A reference
frame to be privileged is consistent to general
relativity, too.
Now the objectivity is the kind of that
reference frame privileged by the standard model
to be restored on the base of the generalized
“gauge” symmetry [U(1)]X[SU(2)]X[SU(3)]. It
consists of three rotations: U(1), SU(2), SU(3).
The sense to be rotations has already elucidated
above: This involves that invariance necessary
for wave-particle duality. The dimensionality
of the symmetries is successive beginning from
the lowest, which is possible: that of a unit circle,
U(1). The next one, SU(2) is that of a unit ball
or “3-circle”, and the next one, SU(3) is that of a
unit “3-ball” or “4-circle”, which is topologically
isomorphic to the space-time of special relativity,
i.e. to the so-called imaginary area of Minkowski
space. One might suggest that no reason for that
kind of circle-symmetries to be restricted to
the last known level (i.e. to SU(3) and “strong
interaction”) and consequently, they might be
continued in future in the course of cognition.
In fact, the tensor product of the three
symmetries involved by the standard model to
“gauge” the universe quantum-mechanically
determines as the privileged reference frame an
inertial one consistent to a definite space-time
position of the alleged “Big Bang” and a constant
velocity of the expansion of the universe. However
it cannot determine which exactly should be that
inertial reference frame at issue in the standard
model.
There is a fundamental correspondence
by means of those three symmetries: U(1)
juxtaposes all positions in space-time (which
cannot yet be introduced) as equivalent for
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the light cone is isotropic. Furthermore SU(2)
juxtaposes a special position in space-time
to weak interaction (the Higgs mechanism)
therefore generates the space itself as it needs
also some special position in it anywhere be it. At
last SU(3) juxtaposes a special velocity to strong
interaction therefore privileging an inertial
reference frame, to which any motion can be
defi ned absolutely, and the space-time itself is
ultimately constituted as it needs some special
(inertial) reference frame in it whichever be it.
Consequently space-time can be considered as
a common premise of the standard model being
equivalent to the underlying symmetry: [U(1)]
X[SU(2)]X[SU(3)] However, the standard model
also interprets that condition exacting which is
the privileged inertial reference frame. The “Big
Bang” hypothesis précises further the standard
model attaching that privileged inertial reference
frame to the “creation” of the universe, but the
standard models needs exactly this reference
frame to be privileged somehow and however.
As the standard model fills the “blank” remained
by the underlying symmetry, as the “Big Bang”
hypothesis fills an analogical blank about which
is the reason an inertial reference frame to be
privileged.
No additional symmetries after SU(3) are
possible if the contemporary quantum mechanics
based on Hilbert space is granted for it is necessary
linear and thus excludes from consideration any
non-inertial reference frame.
In the present context, which can be
designated as temporal, the eventual non-linearity
of quantum mechanics would mean some kind of
interaction between different moments in one and
the same time (one and the same well-ordering)
or between different “times” (i.e. different
well-orderings) in different universes possibly
smoothly transiting into each other. Till now,
there are no experiments or facts, which might
justify that complication and “Occam’s razor”
removes that possibility of nonlinear quantum
mechanics.
The structure of the contemporary
fundamental physical knowledge consists of two
parts, correspondingly linear and non-linear,
which are divided into two disjunctive theories:
quantum mechanics and general relativity. The
standard model defines a privileged reference
frame, which is consistent to both, but it is
necessary inertial and thus only to quantum
mechanics. It is hardly amazing for quantum
mechanics rather general relativity underlies
the standard model, which in turn is not able to
incorporate general relativity in any way.
One can coin the metaphor of a peculiar
equation, which should equate quantum
mechanics (plus the standard model) with general
relativity just as the linear and non-linear part
of an algebraic equation therefor implying the
possibility of resolving just for some unknown
reference frame. The “Big Bang” reference frame
satisfies that equation being necessary linear in the
singularity of the “beginning of all beginnings”
generating the standard model, and after that
transforming smoothly into non-inertial reference
frame of the expanding universe according the
astronomical observations consistent to general
relativity.
However, one can offer a fundamentally
different reference frame satisfying the same
“equation” therefore explaining otherwise its
privileged position: the space-time position
of the Earth in the universe. Globally, it is not
inertial, but locally it is inertial for the change
of its position is too slow in comparison to the
measures of human cognition. In other words, the
standard model is valid for about fifty years as
the change of the space-time position of the Earth
during that period of time is negligibly small.
Nevertheless whether the “Big Bang” or the
position of the Earth is what privileges an inertial
reference frame, both need the condition of the
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mass at rest in the standard model and general
relativity to be one and the same or at least
commeasurable concepts in order that equation to
be able to be constituted. Otherwise one or more
additional members of that “equation” should be
added or even that “equation” cannot make sense.
The unity of the concepts of “mass at rest” is the
key.
Though the standard model involves
privileged reference frames, any contradiction to
special relativity can be avoided utilizing the above
“invariance to choice” “in opposite direction”:
In the former direction, it means that any group
(symmetry, “force”) can be replaced equivalently
by any element of it. Consequently in the latter
direction, it should mean that any element can
be equivalently replaced by any group, to which
it belongs. In fact those “two directions” have a
clear and intuitive sense correspondingly of the
direction “from a wave to a particle” and of the
direction “from a particle to a wave” in waveparticle duality, which underlies both.
Now the direction “from an element to a
group (symmetry, “force”)” allows that subgroup
of reference frames privileged by the standard
model to be replaced equivalently (i.e. identified)
as the entire group of all inertial reference frames
therefore restoring special relativity as to the
standard model.
As to general relativity, yet Einstein (1920)
himself demonstrated that it is consistent with any
privileged reference frames. Consequently, if it is
not consistent with the standard model, the cause
cannot be the fact that it privileges some reference
frame. However in a sense, the cause could be
that the privileged reference frames are inertial.
Indeed one can figure that the inertial frames
privileged by the standard model are only a kind
of approximation to some non-inertial reference
frames, which should be privileged by the future
development of the theory. “Dark matter” and
“dark energy” can be easily interpreted in thus: the
dark matter meaning some positive acceleration
of the privileged reference frame would introduce
new groups (symmetries) of unitary matrices and
thus would enrich the standard model with new
fundamental bosons and fermions, and most of
them would have some nonzero mass at rest.
Thus that positive acceleration generates the
“dark energy” of energy infusion, and the mass at
rest of the necessary new particles does the “dark
matter”. By the way, the dark energy and matter
are calculated by means of general relativity
therefore demonstrating that ‘mass at rest’ is not
one and the same in both theories (the standard
model and general relativity) as quantities.
The conceptual analysis shows that the
notions of ‘mass at rest’ are different in both
theories rather than some only quantitative
difference in their forecasts. In other words, “dark
matter” means not only some hidden amount of
mass at rest but the quantity of the difference
between two ways for the concept of ‘mass at rest’
to be defined in both theories. One can add a third
way to be defined for quantum mechanics because
it is not exactly the same of the standard model:
Even more, it can serve as a mediator between
those two ways for defining ‘mass at rest’ coining
‘entanglement’ studied by quantum information.
All three theories define ‘mass at rest’ as
some ratio between two measures of the relation
of two inertial frames (or subgroups of such ones
having empty intersection).
The standard model has advantage of giving
an absolute definition of ‘mass at rest’ using two
privileged reference frames: that of the “Bing
Bang” and that of light. The Higgs mechanism
of spontaneous symmetry U(1) violation [U(1)]
→ [U(1)] X [SU(2)] means a point in all spacetime, which has yet been absolutely coherent for
U(1), to be chosen, namely that of the “Big Bang”.
Unlike special relativity, the standard model has
no troubles to attach an inertial reference frame
to light for even the usual “non-light” inertial
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frames in it are defined as relevant subgroups, i.e.
invariantly to the rotations of the corresponding
unitary matrices. After both special inertial
reference frames can be well-defined, they define
at once in turn ‘mass at rest’ and quantities,
which can feature its amount: the so-called “God
particle”, the Higgs boson. Using the same kind
of “Bible metaphors”, one can say that the “God
particle” is absolutely defined by two reference
frames: God’s reference frame of light and the
reference frame of the creation designated by the
Creator by the Divine Act of a Point in SpaceTime to Be Chosen as That of The Beginning, the
“Big Bang”.
By the way, Leon Lederman who wrote (with
Dick Teresi) the book “The God Particle: If the
Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question?”
(1993) comments the relation between the
standard model and quantum information so:
One of the more intriguing places where
quantum spookiness has arisen is in the very
creation of the universe. In the earliest phase
of creation, the universe was of subatomic
dimensions, and quantum physics applied to
the entire universe. I may be speaking for the
masses of physicists in saying that I’ll stick
to my accelerator research, but I’m mighty
glad someone is still worrying about the
conceptual foundations of quantum theory.
For the rest of us, we are heavily armed with
Schrödinger; Dirac, and the newer quantum
field theory equations. The road to the God
Particle – or at least its beginning – is now
very clear (p. 188).
Unlike the standard model, quantum
mechanics cannot initially even define ‘mass at
rest’ at all rather than cannot define mass at rest
absolutely. In fact, the concept of ‘mass at rest’
contradicts the Heisenberg principle of uncertainty
if Einstein’s “E=mc2” is granted: ‘Mass at rest’
requires both an exact energy (mass) and an exactly
determined moment of time, in which this mass
is just “at rest”. However the concept of “mass
at rest” is consistent with energy conservation,
but both contradict that quantum uncertainty.
The decision was “Solomonic”: The principle
of uncertainty was suspended as to energy and
time. The so-called “fourth uncertainty” was
effectively rejected (Broglie 1990: 273-276) thus
allowing both energy conservation and mass at
rest in quantum mechanics. In fact, ‘mass at rest’
was implicitly defined in quantum mechanics just
by that “Solomonic decision”. One can see how:
Quantum mechanics resolves the problem of
how the quantum (discrete) and smooth motions
to be described uniformly. However this is
impossible in any finite mathematical structure:
Thus the complex Hilbert space is involved. It
is not only infinitely dimensional explicitly, but
also any finitely dimensional subspace of it uses
implicitly infinity for its basis is complex. Its
units can be equivalently represented as qubits.
Therefore quantum mechanics is always linear,
and the underlying mathematical formalism
of the infinitely dimensional complex Hilbert
space is correspondingly always “flat” in a sense.
However, only a single and standalone quantum
system can be described in thus in general. In
particular, an arbitrary number of subsystems
can be done in the same way as far as they are
associated with subspaces, including infinitely
dimensional, of the Hilbert space of the system.
Mass at rest serves for this to be always possible.
If the compound system consists of two
entangled subsystems, this implies some nonzero
mass at rest of the system conserving the general
principle of orthogonality: a joint space for the
system and its subspaces for the “particles”.
Indeed then mass at rest is introduced relatively
as the ratio of two measures of the orthogonal
subgroups having an empty intersection as being
orthogonal to each other. In fact, all entanglement
is represented globally as a correctional coefficient
of mass at rest. After it has introduced, the
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corresponding subspaces can be disentangled.
This is the way for the “particle” ideology to be
established in quantum mechanics and developed
further in the standard model, which defines
the mass at rest already absolutely as above.
Consequently, the concept of mass at rest and
that of entanglement are complement in a sense.
Entanglement cannot be consistently introduced
in the standard model directly just as it is always
introduced implicitly by means of “mass at
rest” representing entanglement integrally and
globally.
One can see a little below that general
relativity introduces mass at rest in a third
way, which is both local and relative. General
relativity cannot be incorporated in the standard
model explicitly (the cherished theory of
quantum gravity or the “Great unification”) just
because it is already incorporated implicitly by
the concept of mass at rest and by the “particle”
ideology. In other words, the standard model
is as a “complement” to general relativity as
it is a “complement” to quantum information
above. If the standard model defines mass at rest
absolutely and globally, general relativity does
the same relatively and locally. The “bridge”
between them is the theory of entanglement, i.e.
quantum information, by defining mass at rest
relatively as general relativity, but globally as
the standard model. Furthermore it constructs
a relevant isomorphism between the global and
local representation. So, one can return more
backward in history: from the standard model
through quantum mechanics back to general
relativity, the teenage years of the 20th century.
the particle with nonzero mass at rest is, and that
of this particle. The space of general relativity is
smooth almost everywhere and thus it is locally
“flat” there: that is the subgroup of inertial frames
in the point can be replaced by the corresponding
subgroup in the “flat” Minkowski space. In
other words, the geodesic line can be replaced
equivalently by its tangent in a neighborhood of
the point. The subgroup of inertial frames “of
light” both in pseudo-Riemanian and Minkowski
space can be defined just in the same way as
quantum mechanics does it.
Nevertheless, general relativity is not able to
define ‘mass at rest’ absolutely, as the standard
model manages to do this globally, even locally
though it is both consistent with privileged
reference frames as Einstein showed and having
the one subgroup of the privileged reference
frames: that of light in vacuum. The cause is that it
does not privilege any other subgroup and thus is
not able to determine any privileged relation and
ratio. However it being consistent with privileged
reference frames can be complement with a such
one if one manages to define it relevantly at least
as much as the standard model does this.
4. Mass at rest in the standard model
as an interpretation of that both
in quantum information
and in general relativity
3. General relativity in terms
of quantum information:
mass at rest
The following is necessary to be
demonstrated:
Quantum information and general relativity
define mass at rest equivalently but from different
viewpoints: correspondingly globally and locally
in relation to time.
Both are consistent not only to each
other but also to the standard model, which
complements them with a privileged relation and
General relativity defines mass at rest as the
ratio of the measure two subgroups of inertial
frames: that of space-time in the point, in which
ratio by means of correspondingly a privileged
subgroup of inertial frames attachable to the
“Big Bang” or to the Earth and a privileged wave
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function attachable to the universe. However
both privileged viewpoints should be equivalent
according to the former statement.
In other words: The local viewpoint in
relation to time generates the concept of a
privileged reference frame, which can be
approximately or exactly inertial as the standard
model states in addition, or non-inertial as the
abundance of “dark matter” or “dark energy”
hints. The global viewpoint in relation to time
generates the concept of a wave function.
Both viewpoints are equivalent to each other.
However both add a fundamental random choice
determining physical reality by means of some
fundamental constants.
The nature of that fundamental choice needs
some philosophical interpretation, which turns
out to be different in each of both cases somehow
“by itself”:
The metaphor of the “Big Bang” suggests
the choice to be external to the universe and thus
all series of “Bible metaphors” takes place.
The concept of the privileged wave function
of the universe suggests that the choice is made
in the present moment of time by some real
observer such as mankind on the Earth. It implies
some changes in the fundamental constants and
even in the form of the physical laws not only
in the course of time but even from an observer
(i.e. reference frame) to another in the universe.
Being too shocking, this conclusion should be
purposely emphasized: physical reality can be
different in relation to different observers in
the universe. In particular, the standard model,
even only approximately, is valid in a limited
neighborhood of the earth though too vast in order
to be commeasurable with the dimensions of the
universe. Another position can privilege another
wave function and thus another reference frame,
another “Big Bang” and other laws of the physics.
Though the universe is one single, it can seem
radically different to remote enough observers.
Furthermore, the laws of physics can change in
the course of time even on the Earth.
Consequently, the “Big Bang” interpretation
implies some common metaphysics shared by all
observers in the universe: It includes a common
beginning of the universe, namely the “Big
Bang”, as well as a common corpus of physical
laws, namely the “standard model” and any future
perfections of it. It is a last form of geocentrism
naively suggesting that the physical laws valid
on the Earth are necessary valid anywhere in the
universe as if the Earth should be the center of the
universe by itself.
The concept of the “here-and-now” choice
bids farewell to “God” and thus abandons any
universal metaphysics in the universe in the
following sense: The choice depends on the
space-time position, in which it is made. It will
define different referent frames and different
wave functions as privileged according to the
corresponding space-time position. This will
imply different “standard models” in remote
enough points of the universe. The transition
between two “standard models” would be smooth.
Two “standard models” can be considered as
two “universes” or “worlds” in the many-world
interpretation of quantum mechanics. However
the main problem of quantum mechanics is how
any smooth transition and discrete leap between
two states (e.g. two space-time positions) to be
described mathematically uniformly. After it has
resolved that problem, the solving implies that
two “parallel” universes can be also seen as two
remote enough observers within a single universe
like ours. Even more, their different corpuses of
fundamental physical laws are unambiguously
determined by their corresponding space-time
positions (reference frames) to the universe.
Looking at the universe, the observers in each of
them will see quite different phenomena for the
fundamental physical laws will be quite different
in each reference frame. The unification of special
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and general relativity and quantum mechanics is
what implies that generalization of the dependence
on the observer in the former two theories. The
concept of observer or observation in the latter
theory is replaced by that of measurement. Any
quantum measurement orders the universe
differently, and the many-world interpretation
of quantum mechanics situates any different
ordering as a different “world” or as a “parallel
universe”. The unification with relativity, which
requires smooth transitions almost everywhere in
the universe, is what implies that the space-time
position determines the laws (the ordering) in the
“world” (the “parallel universe”) of any remote
enough observer.
What is necessary to be demonstrated at last
is how quantum information and general relativity
define mass at rest equivalently. Quantum
information can define mass at rest integrally, to
all time, while general relativity does the same
differentially, to any given moment therefore
requiring for the change in time to be smooth.
5. Conclusions about
the mathematical fundament
of the physical world
One can offer the following thought
experiment: A spaceship starts from the Earth to
some star in a nebula, which is remote enough. It
would be better the acceleration of the spaceship
to exceed that of the expansion of the universe.
It will continue to seem as a spaceship to any
observer on Earth according to the physical laws
valid on it. However an observer in the spaceship
will find that the fundamental physical laws or
constants are changing gradually in its course.
The unification of quantum mechanics and
general relativity, which implies that mass at
rest is one and the same in both cases, implies
also that dependence of the physical laws of the
space-time position of the observer. The universe
will be as that elephant from the parable, which
is described by blinds quite differently according
to which part of the elephant they touch. Their
description is absolutely dependent on their
positions to the elephant.
This implies a rather extraordinary relation
between the set of different physical realities
according to the different observers, on the one
hand, and a common or at least more constant
mathematical form underlying them, on the other
hand. Those realities depending on the observers
are only “outward appearances”, the mathematical
form of the underlying laws is universal. However
the transition between the mathematical form and
its different phenomena is gradual. The concept
of quantum information serves to describe the
link of the mathematical and physical as well
as that between general relativity and quantum
mechanics.
References
1. De Broglie, L. (1990). Heisenberg’s Uncertainties and the Probabilistic Interpretation of
Wave Mechanics with Critical Notes of the Author. Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: Kluwer Academic
Publishers, (Chapter 16).
2. Einstein, A. (1918). Principles to the theory of general relativity [Prinziplelles zur allgemeinen
Relativitätstheorie]. Annnalen der Physik. 55(4), 241-244.
3. Einstein, A. (1920). Ether and the theory of relativity [Äther und Relativitätstheorie]. Berlin:
Springer.
4. Einstein, A., Podolsky, B., & Rosen, N. (1935). Can Quantum-Mechanical Description
of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? Physical Review, 47(10), 777-780. doi:10.1103/
PhysRev.47.777
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5. Higgs, P. (1964). Broken symmetries and the masses of gauge bosons. Physical Review Letters,
13(16): 508-509. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.508
6. Kochen, S. & Specker, E. (1968). The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics,
Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 17(1), 59-87. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-1795-4_17
7. Kolmogorov, A. (1968) Logical basis for information theory and probability theory. IEEE
Transactions on Information Theory, 14: 662–664. doi:10.1109/TIT.1968.1054210
8. Lederman, L. & Teresi, D. (1993). The God particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the
Question? London: Bantam, (Chapter 5).
9. Turing, A. (1937). On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem.
Proceedings of London Mathematical Society, series 2, 42(1), 230-265. doi:10.1112/plms/s2-42.1.230
10. Von Neumann, J. (1932). Mathematical foundation of quantum mechanics [Mathematische
Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, Berlin: Verlag von Julius Springer, (Chapter IV.2), pp. 167-173.
Остается ли масса покоя неизменной?
Философский комментарий о массе
в квантовой теории информации
в свете общей теории относительности
и стандартной модели
Васил Пенчев
Болгарская академия наук
Институт исследования общества и знания
Болгария, 1000, София, Неофит Рилски, 31
Данная статья отвечает на вопрос, каким образом квантовая информация может
объединять квантовую механику (и, таким образом, стандартную модель) и общую теорию
относительности. Понятие квантовой информации обобщает концепцию информации, сводя
ее к выбору между бесконечным количеством альтернатив. Таким образом, оно предполагает
постоянное наличие аксиомы выбора.
Единица квантовой информации, кубит, понимается как простейший выбор среди
бесконечного количества альтернатив, что в обобщенном виде можно представить в виде
бита. В статье представлен инвариант аксиомы выбора, присутствующей в квантовой
механике: квантовая информация представляется как отношение любого состояния,
неупорядоченного по своей сути (например, любое квантовое состояние до измерения) и
того же самого состояния в упорядоченном виде (например, упорядоченная статистическая
картина измерения исследуемой квантовой системы). Это позволяет отождествить
классическое и квантовое время как упорядочивание любого физического множества или
множеств и их последовательной суперпозиции. Это отождествление понимается как
изоморфизм пространства Минковского и пространства Гильберта.
Квантовая информация – это структура, которую можно трактовать двояко, что
составляет основу для такого отождествления. Соответственно, ее деформация
представляется как притяжение и переплетение между собой двух или более квантовых
систем в деформированном псевдоримановом пространстве общей относительности.
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Vasil Penchev. Is Mass at Rest One and the Same? A Philosophical Comment…
Стандартная модель изучает одну квантовую систему, рассматривая ее систему координат
как инерциальную для обобщенной симметрии U(1)XSU(2)XSU(3), являющейся «мерилом»
стандартной модели. По отношению к квантовой системе стандартная модель всегда
линейна, и, следовательно, избранная ей система координат всегда инерциальна.
Механизм Хиггса U(1) → U(1)XSU(2) точно описывает выбор инерциальная позиции избранной
системы координат как определенное нарушение симметрии, что уже было подтверждено
экспериментальным путем. Стандартная модель определяет «массу покоя» линейно и
абсолютно, в то время как общая теория относительности – нелинейно и относительно. Теория
Большого взрыва представляет собой дополнительную трактовку этой позиции как таковой.
Она также примиряет линейную стандартную модель в свете однозначности Большого
взрыва с наблюдаемой нелинейностью дальнейшего расширения Вселенной, хорошо описанного
общей теорией относительности. Квантовая информация связывает стандартную модель и
общую теорию относительности иным образом – переплетая их между собой. Линейность и
однозначность первой и нелинейность и относительность второй можно рассматривать как
отношение целого к тому же целому, разделенному на части, переплетенные между собой.
Ключевые слова: общая теория относительности, стандартная модель, квантовая
информация, масса покоя, кубит, Большой взрыв.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 721-737
~~~
УДК 316.776.2
Approaching an Alien
Leonid S. Chernov*
The Urals Institute
Branch of the Presidential Russian Academy
of the National Agriculture and State Service
66 8 Marta str., Yekaterinburg, 620063, Russia
Received 12.09.2013, received in revised form 25.11.2013, accepted 12.01.2014
V.V. Bibikhin in his 2001 paper “Terrible Things” writes that in the XX century “because of the total
erasure of religious worldview terrible things had acquired much of what used to be attributed to the
evil spirits”.1 We may as well agree and add: mass culture speaks today of the terrible things, shows
them, takes an interest in them, comes into contact with them and flirts with them. Much of what is now
printed, published and produced as a film should not be imposed on the wide screen, come to readers
or other audience. But the different thing happens too, when seemingly lightweight or commercial
work in its essence turns to be carrying the same “transcendent” and religious meaning, which is
described by V.V. Bibikhin.
The religious matters are discussed by the words and language of secular, popular and seemingly
quite distant from religion things. This happens without the author’s awareness, on the grounds of
that the world is all arranged according to some stable relations and rules. The horrible thing is still
horrible despite the fact so much is said about it and that now it is dressed in a modern and ironic
coat of many colors. Alien, another, foreign substance do not cease to be even with the background of
tolerance, multiculturalism and liberal all-understanding.
In this paper we made an attempt to treat a stranger as having no correlation with our world, the Alien
as absolutely and completely confronting the human.
Keywords: alien, alienation, Otherwise, terrible, epic movie, undestanding, salvation, Lieutenant
Ripley.
* * *
M.
Mamardashvili
in
his
paper
2
“Consciousness and Civilization” cited a
poem by the German poet Gottfried Benn “The
whole” (Das Ganze). “Look at you, how gross
and disgusting you are! Do you really think you
actually matter and are any better than any other
creature in the world? You are nasty, sick and
then you die”. M.K. Mamardashvili uses this
work by G. Benn to demonstrate graphically
*
the idea of dissociation of the human. The poem
speaks of apprehending some goal, and also
about that in the process of achieving this goal
various parts and elements of human life are not
consistent with each other. “One part was drunk,
one part –in tears”, “One looked sternly at you,
the other was soft”, “One saw what you built,
another – only what you destroyed”, the citations
are given as they are quoted by Mamardashvili.
But in the end, it is expected that the goal will
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: leon-chernov@yandex.ru
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be achieved, which means that “a faith will be
ever clear”. And the whole was born at last.
However, it turned out to be something strange
and monstrous. What appeared and what “should
be” looks like “a bare headed skunk in a pool of
blood//And on its eyelash there is a pattern of
tears”.
The result of expectations is not clear either
to understand them or to give them a distinct
emotional evaluation. It is something vague and
strange in the sense that this should not exist.
This is not what was expected and intended as a
goal. Neither for the person on behalf of whom the
poem is written, nor for the reader, a witness of the
incident. The strain of the poem is created by an
unpredictable and illogical ending. That is what
happened in the end is beyond our understanding,
it is unpleasant, disgust, it is crying and stares as
if it was a stone.
It’s amazing how this something that is
described in a poem by G. Benn resembles
visually the Alien from the famous series of
science fiction films about Aliens. We recall of
the fact that there are four of these films3. Let us
try to use this story about the fantastic Alien for
understanding the phenomenon of the strange, the
alien on the whole. G. Benn’s poem “Das Ganze”
as well as the film “Alien” are pushing us to the
conclusion that the unity and integrity of people
and strangers should not be expected.
* * *
Let us remember the history of “Alien.”
In the first film that was shot by Ridley Scott
and shown at the cinemas in 1979, people saw the
creature of so-called xenomorph. It exists in two
forms: in the form of small having a tail “spiders”
and in the form of large dental creatures like
dragons. “Spiders” which are hatched from eggs
live in man’s body and then are born in it. They
naturally destroy body when go out of it. Monsters
quickly grow and begin to kill all members of
the small crew. They are extraordinarily rapid,
aggressive, and literally indestructible. A film
is completed by death of all crew and escape of
Lieutenant Helen Ripley in a space capsule with a
red cat into the bargain.
The second part of the film “Alien”, shot
by James Cameron, shows an attempt to destroy
aliens on a planet, where they exist. The attempt
was unsuccessful. Ripley survives again and
rescues Rebecca-Newt. They with an injured
corporal and a crippled robot try to fly away a
little farther. In the second part we can see an
alien’s female – oviposit out of which “spiders”
hatch, searching for the method of penetration
in a human. The plot of appearance of large
alien individuals looks like tangled. The alien’s
appearance requires a man as a mediator.
The third “Alien” was shot by David Fincher,
director of such famous in the nearby future
films as “Seven” and “The Game”. The action
of the third film takes place in a community of
prisoners expecting near doomsday. In this film
the Alien is called a dragon. He destroys almost
all community of former criminals. The last
embryo of the Alien is liquidated by the wellcoordinated work of unarmed prisoners and at the
cost of Ripley’s sacrificial death.
The fourth part of “Alien” was shot by the
French director Jean Genet in 1997. This film
is interesting because of the attempt to show
the interpenetration of a man and a xenomorph.
Ripley is raised from the dead artificially, the
Alien is grown in a laboratory. After all, the Alien
has obvious anthropomorphous features and feels
drawn to Ripley. Nevertheless, Ripley beats the
Alien in this part of film.
We will try to single out some substantial
qualities and characteristics of the Alien, to link
them to form a single image and after doing that we
will try to understand, what type of relationship
is possible between a man (that in all parts of film
is embodied by Ripley) and the Alien.
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Firstly, we fix the incomprehension about
who is before us. At the first meeting with the Alien
we can’t understand for a long time why he does
stick to the face of a man, for what purpose? This
incomprehension of reasons and sense of actions
makes the Alien really frightful, because there is
a fear of unclear actions. When the first man dies
in the process of “hatching” embryo from him,
it seems that there is a possibility to catch easily
and quickly destroy this “small freak”. Originally
it is small like a bird. Such attitude toward the
Alien, non-clarified, but having simultaneously
some underestimation of danger, proceeds during
all the film, up to the end of the fourth part.
Armed to the teeth Marines, prison governor,
geneticists and so on don’t believe Ripley and
laugh at her. Every time Ripley confidently talks
that it is impossible to beat the Alien, domesticate
it or to save for experiments. It is possible only to
destroy it by all means: at the cost of shipwreck,
loss of cargo, cost of human life. There is an
attempt to replace the Alien with the Other,
Stranger with “some reservations”. The Other
exists in this obtrusiveness of misunderstanding
by the people of that nature which Ripley talks
about. It is possible somehow to agree with
the Other, understand it, enter with it into a
dialogue, agreement or association, form Unit
with it. Another can be understood, people can be
surprised at it. “The Alien with reservations” is
not such a stranger and maybe will become Our.
The Alien is out of agreement and
understanding, it is out of logic and some
rationality. In this sense the fantastic environment
of all “Aliens” is justified by an aim to underline
nature of alien.
Reserved space of compartments of ships,
cabins, laboratories, space bases brings nearer
the Alien to a man. They face each other. As it is
straightly shown in one of episodes of the fourth
part, when a doctor, delighted by the beauty of
the Alien, intermingles with it (more precisely –
with her, because this one is female) through
the glass. But physical, direct approximation
gives nothing. Every film is begun with utopia
and supposition, that alien can be understood
and used in the human aims. And each time
it appears impossible. We remind that at the
beginning of the fi rst part of film Ripley didn’t
want to put into the side of the ship the fi rst
infected man. That, who did it, appeared to be
an android, carrying out the order of the socalled “Mother” – host side computer of the
ship. The computer personifies exactness, order,
quickness and rightness of choice of decisions
and in this sense it expresses some objective
impartial knowledge, including that about such
object as the Alien.
In 1968 Stanley Kubrick in the film “A Space
Odyssey” captures the conflict between humans
and computers which are given much authority.
In “A Space Odyssey” electronic brain confronts
a man and assumes the role of decision-maker at
the cost of the humans’ life. This confrontation
confuses in “Alien”. Mother-computer instructs
to keep the Alien on assumption of the crew’s
death and thus a human begins to oppose both
technology and aggressive Alien. The robotandroid Ash, the one who let the first infected in
the humans’ ship, supports Mother-computer’s
instruction. A dual pair “human-technology” is
transformed into a ternary structure “humantechnology-alien”. It’s clear that the human in
this confrontation is in difficult straits because
he deals with classic alienation in the form of
technology and the alienation of the new type.
This new alienation cannot be understood purely
in Marxist or civilized way as initially the Alien
is not a product of mankind; it’s not made by
human hands. The Alien shows up and then gets
into a human. The fact that the Alien uses the
human body for the birth of a monster-dragon is
the attitude of external parasite which seizes the
human body.
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Describing alienated labor, Marx emphasizes
that it is connected with objectification and
development of the object. “Objectification acts
as loss of the object and the enslavement by
the object, the development of the object – as
alienation”4. If the Alien is perceived strictly on
the basis of K. Marx’s ideas about alienation then
the human would have to work in its creation and
then find out during the process of its development
that the created things became the Alien. And the
human in all four parts of the film is trying to
“master” the Alien without any result. This fact
indicates the human’s attempt to fit into the Marx’s
logic of human vs. alien opposition. After all, the
Alien resembles a natural phenomenon, natural
disaster, fire or water coming out of hand.
If we compare the behavior of the Alien in
this movie with the behavior of various kinds
of “miscreant” who are aggressive also towards
people, whether it be cyborgs, mutants, mad
animals, maniacs, snakes, zombies, undead, etc.,
the Alien’s specific character will be exactly far
away from the human. The Alien from “Alien”
initially is not associated with the human; it
didn’t come deliberately to the Earth for sources
of energy or for other specific reasons as the
monster-cockroach from the movie “Men in
Black”. The Alien wasn’t sent from the future
to perform special tasks as in the second part of
“Terminator”. The Alien is not a maniac who eats
human fear; it is neither a vampire who needs
blood, nor a werewolf who is half a human itself.
The Alien is alien to the human totally though
it uses the human as an incubator for its own
reproduction. Fundamentally, the Alien could
use any other body for its own purposes, if this
opportunity was given to. This assumption is
supported by the episode of the third part when a
growing individual of the Alien lodged in a cow
carcass for some time. This example highlights
the fundamental difference between the Alien
and the human. If in the first two parts it seems
that the Alien cannot live and be born without
human, the ability to exist in the body of animal
emphasizes that the Alien does not need a human
at all.
What gives us such an intensified contrast
between the human and the Alien? The opposition
is of such a degree that the Alien even does not
fall in the category of alienated object or subject.
The alienation exactly gives the material to the
strongest emotions and heart-rending conflicts of
various kinds: between the individual and society,
an adult and a child, society and ideology. Such
conflicts are fertile material for history of cinema
and art on the whole.
In one of the last scenes of the movie “One
Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” (directed by Milos
Forman, the film was released in 1975) Billy
after a romantic night with a girl suddenly starts
to beg the nurse Fletcher that she would not tell
his mother about this “incident”. McMurphy
is horrified watching this scene, knowing that
Fletcher actually pushes the guy to commit
suicide. That’s why McMurphy does not run
away as he has planned and tries to strangle
Fletcher. The enormity of Billy’s alienation
looks even worse than horrible monster-nurse.
He is in the hospital ward willfully and thus he
voluntarily accepts mockery and violence there.
Alien in Billy consist in his illness which makes
him a weak-willed subject at a critical moment.
But this “alien” is perfectly estimated by Fletcher
and included in the register of specific mental
illness. For hospital it is not “alien”, not terrible,
not dangerous and can be treated. It is natural. It
can be easily manipulated at the right moment as
they cynically do this in the case with Billy.
Again, the Alien in “Alien” is not alienated
from the human because there is no connection
between the Alien and the human. It is not the
object for manipulation, control; fundamentally
it is not clear, whether the Alien can think. On
the one hand, it behaves as a mad insect driven
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by instincts. But its cunning and refined behavior
in hide-and-seek reaches such a degree that it
seems that the Alien is reasonable. It appears in
the most unexpected places, it always is in time
to go to a ship or space shuttle at the very last
second. Finally, it can drive mechanisms (e.g. lift)
as it was in the second part of the movie. So the
Alien is outside the alienation, beyond its limits.
This fact underlines the impossibility of contact
and interaction between the Alien and the human.
The contact is possible only in one way – in the
form of destruction and non-contact.
* * *
This kind of radical attitude to the “Alien” is
not obvious and we admit its inconsistency. One
can easily imagine a stranger who came to our
home, this kind of a stranger, foreigner, wanderer,
to which the characters of Platonic dialogues talk.
In this case, this stranger will be different from us;
he will be so different being unlike us. Therefore
this stranger will help to build our own identity,
as by determining the alien we will better define
our own, close to us.
For example, a doctor of philology N.V.
Pestova in her work “The lyrics of German
Expressionism: profiles of strangeness”5 by using
vast poetic material specifies the phenomena of
“strangeness” and “foreign”. Alien phenomenon
appears as paired with “of the same kin”, which is
not a stranger, but a member of the mandatory dual
pair my/another. If we use only a few epithets and
features which uses N. V. Pestova to characterize
“another” and which she finds in the poetry of
German Expressionism, the stranger appears to us
with the following countenances: outcast, misfit,
madman, cursed, outsider, stranger, foreigner.
The alien will be accompanied by: emptiness,
nostalgia, mystery, strangeness, fairy-tale, etc.
In fact, we can see the whole set of adjectives,
characteristics, words and concepts that were
used by German Expressionists to describe the
world around us. This world is crumbling, scary,
aggressive, socially alienated from the people.
World of war, disease, loneliness in the city, the
suffering people, the loss of intimacy, seeking
God, sick children, the elderly sufferers and
so on. In other words, such a characteristic of
strangeness and alien reveals a certain aspect of
being alienated.
N.V. Pestova devotes few chapters to the
various parts of alienation: “Alienation and
estrangement in the aesthetic discourse at the turn
of the century”6, “Alienation and estrangement in
the sociological discourse of the beginning of the
century”7, “The topological aspect of strangeness.
The origins of global alienation of modern
man”8. Alienation as a social phenomenon,
as a sociological phenomenon, a symptom of
the crisis era is accepted by the author as the
methodological basis for seeking in the lyrics of
German Expressionism these “profiles”, modes,
the specification of the alienation. N.V. Pestova
refers to the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche,
the sociology of Georg Simmel in order to fix
the presence of the idea of alienation, and, then,
to see the diversity of the supporting evidence
in poetry and literature. But in her work we
can not find, alas, a detailed characterization
of the alienation. Alienation is meant more as a
crisis in general, as some nihilistic, destructive
process that influenced the artistic culture on the
whole, and in the case of German Expressionism
led to a mass of “foreign” and “alien” images.
Characteristic, for example, is such of the author’s
arguments: “the experience of strangeness in
the city, which is automatically alienate every
subject and every individual, can be traced to the
earliest publications of expressionist decade to
publications in exile after the party of National
Socialists came to power”9. The city as a social
cesspool, as a scene of mob and sin, as a stone
bag, really nourishes literature with appearance
of strange, painful images. And in the poetry of
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expressionism the connection between the city
and the strangeness is manifested as sharp and
intense. But that does not automatically mean
that all life in the city leads to alienation and,
therefore, the appearance of the Alien in it. City
life without any sense of alienation was described
by Russian writers Pushkin, Gogol, and Bloc. But
even the city of expressionists does not produce
the alien by its own presence only. Between the
city and alienation in the city and the appearance
of a stranger are some events in chain, these
are intermediate logical units. If they are not
fixed, the alien and strangeness lack their origin.
Alienation as a process, in our view, does not
generate “foreign” mechanically, as in the very
process of alienation the alien is already present.
And as it was demonstrated by the movie “Alien”,
someone else is always there. It first appears, and
then, as it turns out, is perceived as aggressive,
angry, mad, etc., i.e. – aloof.
Here is another example from N.V. Pestova.
She commented “Digression on outsiders” by
Georg Simmel as: “In this small digression there
appeared two points which are sociologically
extremely important and impressed by
expressionistic lyrics. A stranger, despite his
outsider status, is still an organic member of
the group, in the life which he can not but take
part because of the inevitable stay within the
dynamic synthesis of close – far. Even suffering
from his strangeness and experiencing it as a
‘transcendental homelessness’, a stranger draws
his strength in it and maximizes its use”10.
But in this case it appears that a stranger,
foreign, alien are losing their specific strangeness.
They are disposed of only that extent that they are
close to their own close. The author understands
alienation in the anthropological and sociological
sense, which does not allow the stranger to
become really strange and binds him all the time
to something being not really strange. Hence, we
have the initial ambivalence of stingers, leading
to their inevitable romanticizing. It turns out that
the alien can be “positively coloured”.
In the third part of the “Alien” one of the
psychopathic prisoners, former serial killer, the
man who called the Alien “a dragon”, releases
this dragon of the stone trap. Upon killing his
friend this unfortunate person asks the dragon
“what he should do”. He is ready to fulfill
the commandments of the new master, being
fascinated (as well as some of the other characters
in the movie) by the Alien’s terrible beauty. He
hopes for a particular appreciation from Alien.
But of course, that won’t follow. What follows
is the usual state of things: the Alien kills his
liberator, emphasizing the impossibility of any
agreement between him and the man.
* * *
The articles, written by Yu. S. Stepanov
about “our” and “alien”, published in the
Dictionary of Russian culture11, realise the aspect
of consideration “alien” as paired with “our”.
This attitude to other people is in this relation is
moving closer to the above approach, proposed
by N.V. Pestova.
Yu. S. Stepanov wrote: “This opposition in
various forms permeates the entire culture and
is one of the main concepts of any collective,
public, folk, national attitudes. Including, of
course, Russian national culture. Depending
on the massiveness of the object which is taken
into consideration, we find somewhat special,
but always a clear distinction between “our”
and “alien”. It is so definite as it is known in
our household by the boys of one and the same
entrance, one and the same house, one and the
same yard with a few houses. This loyalty
is expressed in the devoted attitude to “our”
and in fights with “aliens” ... The principle of
“our” – “aliens” dissects the families, us and our
neighbours, forms kins and clans in more archaic
societies, religious sects, ... etc”12.
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This kind of approach to the “Alien” through
“Aliens” is certainly legitimate and interesting.
The author initially fixes in this dictionary article
the sociologism of his point of view, highlighting
others on the “terms of the collective”, in other
words – in terms of the magnitude of the subject.
In addition, a pair of Our/Aliens is examined as
one, holistic concept of the Russian culture. In the
first place in this pair stands Our, which naturally
puts mark on this article (OUR and ALIENS)
in particular, and on all the work done in the
Dictionary.
However, this approach implies that not only
someone else will always be correlated with our,
but he does risks cease to be a stranger. Moving
away from the entrance to another entrance, from
city to city, we are changing the status of others
for our. Being initially villagers, we eventually
become citizens, and the city becomes our own.
Although Yu. S. Stepanov pays a lot of space in
this article to the concept of ethnicity expressed
by L.N. Gumilev, thus emphasizing that the
opposition of “us” and “them” is not in the field
of the mind and consciousness, and deeper in
the ethnic group, yet, even in this respect to
“other” the author supposes that people’s active
interaction with alien makes it perceived as our.
So, for example, K.N. Leontiev believed that due
to the Turkish influence Bulgarian ethnic group
and Bulgarian Orthodox believers have given
the world so many ascetics. But the opposite
approach was chosen by Strakhov. Defending
N.Ya. Danilevsky he wrote that for the transfer of
foreign cultural values to the native soil we should
first of all develop our language and culture.
The fact that “our” and “alien” are
interdependent and connected is obvious, but
our position is to consider and study the Alien
separately, apart from Our. Yu. S. Stepanov gives
an indirect indication of the fact that the “alien”
exceeds the limits of what is based near, with
“our”. He writes regarding the etymology of the
word “alien” (in Russian – чужое): “There is
no doubt, however, that in the Russian culture
the meaning of the word (or the words13) comes
close to the concept of “Miracle” (Чудо – in
Russian), as to the phenomenon of something
being inexplicable by natural order of things,
and in some ways and in some word usages both
concepts are imposed directly on top of each
other (as contaminants). These cases include in
particular adjective miraculous (in Russian –
чудной14), – this form is undoubtedly derived
from the root “miracle”, this word in the Russian
language almost coincides with the meaning
of another, other, foreign, strange, unusual,
and the verb to alienate (чужатися), which is
undoubtedly in its form derived from the word
alien – chuzhii (чужии) and by its maening “be
surprising” coincides entirely with the verb “to
be surprised, amazed” (чудитися), derived from
the root of miracle (чудо15).
The author does not draw any conclusions
and implications of this kind of etymological
relationship between words “alien” and “miracle”.
If we use the knowledge of this relationship when
watching “Alien”, again we will see the semantic
enhancement of Alien’s strangeness. The Alien
is so strange to the man that its appearance next
to the man, its genetic origin – is a miracle.
Fantastic surrounding of “Alien” films is justified
by this fact in particular, as mentioned above. To
show quite strange Alien the producers needed
a fantastic story about a spaceship, abandoned
asteroid, angry campaign, brave Ellen Ripley,
played by Sigourney Weaver.
Miracle of Alien is not only and not so
much in the fantastic stunts and special effects
of the film, and not in the tragic situation where
people are the victims of evil spiders. And not
even in savoring horror of the emergence of a
new individual monster – xenomorph. Reduced
“message” of eight-hour battle of Lieutenant
Ripley is just that simple: The Alien as a miracle is
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strange and unnatural (as writes Yu. S. Stepanov).
Meeting It is unnatural too, and certainly it is not
natural to assume that it is possible to explore
the Alien, to curb and tame It. It can and must
be fought back, but it is best not to allow it to a
human, not to be with It at all.
* * *
At the beginning of this work we marked
the difference between the other and the alien
and emphasized that the Alien is like the others,
can mimic them, but can not be like them. In
order to see the difference between the Other and
the Alien clearer and do not mix otherness and
alienation, let us turn to the work of Emmanuel
Levinas “Time and the Other” and consider the
Other in more detail.
“Future death, its foreignness does not
leave the subject any initiative. Between
the present and death, between the Self and
otherness as mystery is spread a chasm. We do
not insist on the fact that death ceases the being,
that it is the end and nothing, but on the fact
that the Self in front of its face can absolutely
do nothing. Victory over death is not a problem
of eternal life. Overcome death, i.e. save with
otherness ....the attitude, which should remain
personal”, – writes Emmanuel Levinas16. W e
see that the Alien is associated by Emmanuel
Levinas with the death, and the Other with death
overcoming. Intimate personal relationships
such as: parental relationship, married couples,
friends ontologize the Self. In this sense, the
very existence is an act of doubles, because it is
fundamentally ambivalent relationship between
the Self and the Other. Only in conjunction
with another a person overcomes death. So says
Emmanuel Levinas.
We illustrate this provision by the film
“Alien”.
Indeed, in all four parts of the film Lieutenant
Ripley, fleeing from death herself, helps to save
other people. Particularly it is shown in the
second part of the film when Ripley returns to
the collapsing station to rescue Newt girl. Before
that, she vows “honestly” not to leave Newt in
any situation and performs the promise at the
risk of her life, at the cost of sacrifice. Newt, who
lost parents, as a result, calls Ripley mom. If we
recall that Ripley herself “lost” 17her daughter, it
turns out that before the face of death, escaping
from the Alien, Ripley and Newt found each
other as mother and daughter. In the same part
of the movie it is shown how Ripley begins to
feel sympathy for Hicks, a cute, brave corporal.
Hardly noticeable chaste and erotic tension that
is established between Ripley and Hicks in jokes,
opinions and requests to rid of a painful death
in the sticky web of the Alien gives the end of
this part of the film an authentic expression and
drama. The Other, as we see it here, is completely
opposite to the Alien, the Other can support,
rescue, sacrifice.
Although Emmanuel Levinas in these
lectures (“Time and the Other”) sometimes
confuses the other and the alien, but it is not a
semantic confusion. For example, he writes that
the future of the death is that it is completely
different/other18. Or when he calls fatherhood as
a relationship the alien, despite the fact that the
father is the other19. In the end, the Other and
the Alien are fundamentally divided. The Other
is on the side of life, the Alien – on the side of
death. If death refers to the other, it happens in
case of inevitability, as the absence of life. We
should not talk casually and dialectically, that if,
say, there was not the Alien, then Ripley would
not be a new Newt’s mother and she would not
have met with Corporal Hicks. For example,
Carter Burke, who protects the interests of
the campaign in this part of the fi lm, who, in
turn, seeks by all means to bring the Alien
on the ground. He is dying alone, branded by
everybody as a scoundrel and criminal. “The
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other of death” did not give him a personality,
a friend, someone with whom he would have
survived this last moment of his life. Burke is
on the same side as the Alien, though he looks
like a man. He made this choice to take this
side when admitted the possibility that, as if
the Alien may be tamed, explored, used in the
so-called scientific interest.
Death is inevitable and the Alien really
brings the death of Ripley, Newt, Hicks, robot
Bishop, the entire crew. But death can come
even without Alien xenomorph. It is the law,
because death is inevitable by any means,
because the man is mortal. “Imminent death is
a part of its essence” 20, – emphasizes Emmanuel
Levinas. In this sense, Emmanuel Levinas
consistently pursues a line of Heidegger, who
proposed to understand the human being in the
world in terms of its being up to the death. But
Emmanuel Levinas goes further, specifying
death through suffering. It is one thing to meet
death bravely, heroically, showing true human
authenticity (of existence), and quite another
thing – to die helplessly, in pain and torment.
Grasp of death is absolute, if heroism is not
possible, if the activity of the Self, the subject
are kept to a minimum.
Heroes of the “Alien” die differently.
Someone dies suddenly and alone and someone
– as a charismatic preacher Dylan from the third
part of the film in the literal melee confrontation
with the Alien, sacrificing his own life. Life and its
final moments do not give everybody the meeting
with the Other, and in any case, a meeting with
the Alien in the form in which it appears in the
“Alien” is not compulsory, because death would
come even without the Alien, on the grounds of
death characteristics.
Summing it up, due to the specific analysis
of the suffering done by E. Levinas we reinforce
our belief that there the Alien is the Alien and
mixing it with the Other is impermissible.
* * *
Let us ask the question: for understanding
that someone else is someone else’s do you
need to understand and feel as Pestova and
Stepanov? And why not to consider the alien in
isolation, separately, without the concept and the
phenomenon of “our”? We suppose that the alien
is evil in its pure form, and we should forbid the
alien to approach us in order to avoid inevitable
death. This conclusion is drawn from the four
films about the Alien.
Really, as stated above, in stories of German
Expressionism, in case of another ethnic group,
strangers, etc, the alien is connected with danger
and risk. Where there is danger and risk, there
are close suffering, undesirable aftermath,
destruction and chaos – all these things can be
called evil.
The Alien is shown, besides his “soft”
options, so-called “profiles”, modes, as demonic
and satanic. He penetrates into a man, uses
a man and kills a man. He spreads fear, panic,
chaos. This bond (evil/alien) at the beginning of
the research of the alien is the most natural and
primary.
The question of the genetic origin of evil is
a secret for onlooker of “Alien”. The film doesn’t
give answer. For example, the book and movie
“The Lord of the Rings” indicate the origin of
the ring of power, which was created by Sauron,
personification of evil. He enclosed his strength
and power in the Ring. And if Sauron is a symbol
of evil, the ring, respectively, is the subject
of evil, tempting thing. All of his temporary
owners experienced the effects of the ring. It is
amazing how long the hobbit Bilbo managed to
be the owner of the ring without influence on
himself. The Ring is frozen in time, “fell asleep,”
as noticed one of the experts on the tale of the
ring. Can we call the Ring “strange object” in the
respect of his owners, in particular, of the hobbits
Bilbo and Frodo? Of course, it`s possible, but “the
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alien of the Ring” brings less damage for their
owners than “the alien of Alien”.
Alien xenomorph does not give time for
reflection and thinking. It annihilates everything
at once and quickly. This harshness, swiftness
emphasizes, that is better not to handle with
such a strange thing. Approaching of a human
to embryo, from which spider-alien is hatched,
brings into action the process of disclosure of
embryo and human death. Fast death is inevitable
and unavoidable.
There is an episode of chat between crew
members in the first part of “Alien”, in which
it is clear, that a signal from a planet, where
xenomorphs were found out, is a warning signal,
and not SOS as it had been decided earlier.
It is unknown who gave a signal. The Alien is
somewhere, it exist somewhere. It is dangerous,
but people do not know about it. And they do not
need to know about it, because this knowledge
results in the total destruction of anyone who is
close to the Alien. In the second part of the film
Ripley emotionally proved to the commission of
experts that the Alien is dangerous and that she
blew up the ship with a valuable load not in vain.
In the fourth part of film she repeats her own
words with confidence: “You will die”. “Our” in
this logic of reasoning becomes unimportant. You
may not speak and ask about it. “Our” does exist,
it is here, it does not need any identification, you
just need to save, secure, preserve it, so strange
should never be allowed anywhere near “our”.
The Alien is dangerous. And being
dangerous does not mean that it is not “Our”.
“Our” can also be dangerous, as dangerous as
only the estranged “our” can be, as dangerous
as our own illness, our weapons, our mistakes.
Lt. Ripley does not want to let to the board of
the ship the first infected person, not because
she foresees, as the future danger confronts her
identity. Not because the first unfortunate victim
of the Alien threatens her and the ship perceived
as “our”. Ripley does not know it yet, and then she
finds it out empirically. In the meantime, Ripley
simply executes the instruction of her level, while
robot – android Ash who let the Alien to the ship
executes his instructions, with the scale higher
than that of Ripley. Instruction, some Ripley’s
“natural instinct” of self-preservation, is aimed
at security/safety of the ship, whereas “Mother”
computer instruction is to explore new destructive
forms of life. To onlookers it seems that the robot
saves a person, but in fact the robot thinks not
about the man, but about the Alien. Ripley, as it
seems, sacrifices a human’s life, but she tries to
save the crew. She notices crucial danger in the
Alien, while Ash notices in the Alien the beauty
of destructive power. In both cases the choice is
made and the winner is that choice that leads to
death, to the penetration of the Alien to the ship
and to all subsequent terrible events.
* * *
Keeping in mind the above state of affairs
with regard to human and the Alien, their first
meeting and its effects, we can make an analogy
of films with the first touch of the scourge of Adam
and Eve. The analogy of the film with a religious
understanding of the origin of evil, allows us to
see the evil Alien in its deepest, truest sense.
Once again, let us remember the very
beginning of “Alien”. Before the dramatic action,
before any talks and events, before the start of
everything the audience sees half-naked people
waking up. They wake up slowly, under clean
bright white light. They are woken up as usual
by automatic program that opens transparent,
perfectly clean capsules with sleeping people.
Before this scene, the camera moves slowly for
a few minutes showing the audience the space
station design, where everything works flawlessly
and perfectly. “Technological Eden” inspires by
its own work the sense of reliability and stability,
the work which seems impossible to fail. Caring
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“Mother” computer controls all operations and
processes, allowing what it considers fit and
forbidding unacceptable things The first common
meal, though it consists of canned food, impresses
by its fertility being even some over the top. This
fact is emphasized by smoking (!?) Astronauts,
which looks pretty weird. But if they smoke,
then, there can be no question about any shortage
of clean air. “Mother” takes care of everything.
Right there on the table in the midst of people
cat Jonesy is sitting and there are two bird toys
nearby.
This kind of idyll, abundance, peace underline
a virgin, initial state of a man who once fell asleep
or dead, but on someone’s wish comes to life again.
This is indicated by travelers themselves, they tell
a lot of jokes, talk about money. This small talk
about that seems inappropriate and even frivolous
on the background of cosmic landscapes and
majestic ship. They behave like children. They
are careless, relaxed, nothing taking seriously and
caring friendly towards each other. Among them
there are two pretty women, but no particular
sympathy towards them is visible so far. In other
words, until the Alien appearance “Nostromo”
(the name of the ship) is a small paradise island in
space. Reliable and quiet.
Idyll violation is caused by two reasons. 1.
The Alien invades people’s life. 2. A man helps
the Alien to invade into people’s life.
What is the psychological intrigue and
emotional core of all parts of the movie? The
answer is: those moments and cinematic shots,
those pauses and moments of waiting for the birth
of a little Alien, when a person is killed and it
becomes clear that the evil (the Alien) immediately
comes through man. Especially in those cases
when neither the audience nor the characters
in the film do not feel suspicious. It happens as
when Eve does not know what will follow after
a serpent’s offer: “And he said unto the woman,
You shall not surely die ...21” And then, almost
immediately, it is clear that the consequences of
the fall will affect all descendants of Adam and
Eve, as the effects of the Alien penetration to the
territory of the Human will lead to certain death
of everybody, and all people need to escape at the
very moment of it.
In the film this clarity will appear after a
while, the first infected person wakes up firstly,
then sits around the table and only after that dies.
And even then it will not be obvious that the
Alien ruins all, because, as noted above, initially
it does not look too dangerous. But having made
the penetration, the Alien is virtually unbeatable.
And Ripley is beginning to understand it before
anyone else. That is why it is so important to take
the first decision regarding the Alien, namely, do
not let It to the ship.
The serpent beguiled22 Eve (human after
all) because of its evil nature and because of the
presence of human free will. The penetration of
the Alien was the result of free human choice (a
program for “Mother” was written by men) in
respect of the unknown. This selection is similar
to the choice of Adam and Eve. “... Adam and
Eve freely chose a path that led them away from
God and thus deprived them of life. Sentence
pronounced on them and given them into the
devil’s hands was not an act of tyranny, it must
have flown out of their own choice”, – says JI.
Meyendorf, commenting on the issue found at
G. Palamas23. The selected evil begins to bear
destruction and death, as the sin is transmitted to
human nature.
The essence of evil and its source after
making a choice become fixed and difficult to
determine. It becomes unclear whether evil comes
from a serpent or evil is the consequence of the
Fall? Why do people begin to die: either because
the Alien kills them because of its original
bloodlust, or it is the price paid for carelessness?
We will quote a special study of the Orthodox
theologian on that evil in his understanding of
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the Old Testament and the New Testament, in
fact, is a unity. Fr Timothy Butkevich, professor
of theology at the University of Kharkov in the
end of the XIX century in his full two-volume
treatise devoted to the nature and origin of evil,
writes: “... it is clear that the universality of sin,
or, equivalently, the sinfulness of human nature
itself, was recognized by the Savior Himself,
but certain is that fact that our Lord Jesus Christ
was referring to the original fall, when he said
to the Jews: ‘Your father is the devil, and the
lusts of your father. He was a murderer from the
beginning, and abode not in the truth, because
there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie,
he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar and the
father of lies’. (John 8: 44) ... All the Fathers of
the Church and almost all the best theologians of
the latest ... in the above words of Jesus Christ
correctly have seen the exclusive reference to the
fact of the original fall, and the fact that the fall of
the devil (in this sense they have understood the
words ‘does not stand in the truth)24. Further, the
author quotes the Blessed Theophylact: “When
people lie, it is as if they get use of someone else’s
falsehood”25.
“Someone else’s falsehood” is here, in our
context, that someone else’s body, which a man
is forced to bear after the penetration of the Alien
in the human body. Falsehood is created by the
man himself, and in this sense he is responsible
for it, but all the same, when we raise the question
of the beginning of evil, at the very beginning
of this top will be just it – the Alien. “He was a
murderer from the beginning,” – we quoted the
Gospel of John.
And having won once, it begins to grow
rapidly, strive to breed, expand. And as a person
in respect of the Alien has a choice, though not
great, but still has, then this meeting: a person
with the Alien begins to repeat many times. Once
again, remember the movie: one having learnt
about the Alien, begins to rave and lose heart,
someone runs away and becomes an easy target
for the Alien, someone (like synthetics Bishop)
is active, someone like Burke is trying to sell an
Alien embryo, and some, like Ripley and preacher
Dylan, fight to the end.
The Alien, in other words, is to be understood
not only as ontological evil in its devastating
“horrible” incarnation, in the form of the original
evil that touched Adam and Eve26, but also as
temptation, as evil potential, waking up after the
man touched him. And since this touch occurred
at the beginning of the first part, the semantic
focus of the film “Alien” as a whole is not in the
scenes of shooting, car chases, crashes of massive
concrete structures, in the end not in watching a
really terrible Alien. The focus is in those scenes,
in those dialogues, conversations and episodes in
which a decision is made, whether to touch the
Alien, to study it, to let It into the place and the
home of the person or not.
All the third part of the “Alien” deals with
the theme of temptation in the literal sense. Cute
Ripley gets into a colony of repeat offenders
and is constantly under the threat of violence.
Settlers openly talk about her as a “subject”,
seductive and enticing, telling her about it in
person. They fight with each other, struggling
with temptation and this tense background,
this whipping up the atmosphere, which were
artfully created by D. Fincher. This is the visual
“lining”, which fi rmly substantiates this whole
part. Note that Ripley all the time being in the
colony is already infected. It turns out that she
directly and immediately fights what is inside
her, i.e. herself.
In the prayer “Our Father” we have such
words: “And lead us not into temptation, but deliver
us from evil”. So these words are commented in
one of the modern Orthodox catechism. “Deliver
us from evil” – literally means – “Save us from the
devil” ... getting rid of the devil, and thus being
saved from all unrighteousness, stupidity, deceit,
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evil and wickedness, which lead to destruction
and death27.
It is crowning place of prayer “Our Father”.
St Maximus the Confessor comments it as such:
“The temptation is called the law of sin, the first
person shown in the existence of God didn’t have
it, and the “evil” means the devil, who added this
law to human nature and by deception convinced
the person to direct all the desire of his soul to the
unallowed instead of what is permitted, and thus
to be tempted to violate the commandments of
God, so that he lost his incorruption, freely given
to him by God’s grace”28.
Maximus the Confessor wrote that the
temptation is called “voluntary disposition of the
soul” to the carnal passions. As applicable to the
selected material it is extremely difficult to define
the attitude of being caught by temptation and
free choice. The Alien penetration to the ship and
after in a person is a voluntary act made on the
part of the person. This is the first. The second
is the tyranny of the passions, which according
to Maximus the Confessor, “randomly invades”
in a person because of “his free consent”. In this
combination of freedom of the person and the
randomness of evil/temptation on the part of
the Alien there is an unresolved philosophical
paradox, which leads to the appearance of the
Alien in the world of man.
The way out of this paradox and its resolution
is the faith of the person who, according to the
prayer “Our Father”, must first forgive his neighbor
and as a result receive from God a “gift of double
grace”: the forgiveness of his sins against another
man, and the forgiveness of possible future sins.
The prayer “Our Father” says about the
temptation right after begging to “forgive our
sins”, as people shall forgive their debtors.
Therefore, the issue of the action of temptation
becomes dependent on the request for forgiveness
and being forgiven. Here Ripley and all the
surrounding people are helpless, because none
of them asks for forgiveness and repents about
anything. But all the same.
If we recall how Ripley directly invokes
God in the action of final extermination of the
Alien in the first part of the film, how she fulfills
a promise to save Newt in the second film, how
she actively and insistently makes attempts to get
in touch with the Alien. These actions we can
see as her repentance, effort to correct a mistake
that first, significant mistake. Not even bearing
in mind how she is killed by jumping into molten
lead and thus sacrificing herself. And it happens
in the third part, in the community, as it is said
“of fundamental Christians”.
Maximus the Confessor confirms the idea
that the Alien is unnatural, when he emphasizes
that evil acts are “contra natural”. Nature of the
intact human is of logos matter (more accurately,
the human inherently has “a logos of nature29”);
therefore, the human belongs to being and
essence. And the existence of passions “doesn’t
have the independent being”.
Under the true human nature (applicable to
the film) we should understand the preservation
of the body in the ordinary sense of the word,
because the Alien intrudes on the body in the
truest sense of the word. Infected, cankered body
is the body unnatural, passionate, and alien to the
man himself. The logical and factual drama of
the whole film is concluded in that idea: when the
most natural and intimate nature – your body – is
a den, nest of death and devastating start. And a
person cannot do anything with it. And Another, in
that meaning, which Emmanuel Levinas implies
by this word, can only kill the man himself with a
nasty germ living in him. From his point of view,
this will be the highest mercy to let person know
that he would not be a source of future death.
In the completion of the third part of ”Alien“
Ellen Ripley killing herself tries to restore the
original nature of man in general (of surrounding
people), thinking that the last xenomorph is being
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killed with her. In this decision and act her will
is free, and this will focus on the protection of
nature of other people. Others will not be afraid
of infection and stay out of danger. Maximus the
Confessor wrote that the man ”...is obliged to
make a companion to nature… his will, which
should not bring anything that doesn’t grant the
logos of nature ... 30”.
In the film there are no prayers, no Christian
attributes, no religious belief in its form, which
St. Maximus the Confessor describes and that
a Christian believer has. But Ripley carries out
the obligation to restore the nature of man with
genuine Christian determination. “Logos’s
nature” of Ripley, her naturalness are infected,
but her free will is else able to make the right
decisions. This combination does not possess the
original harmony and purity of the primary image
of the person yet. There is an attempt to correct
something that happened in the middle of the first
part of the film, when she unwittingly permitted
entry to the ship to an infected person.
Ripley’s death and sacrifice were intended
to stop all the possible continuation of the
“Alien” in the movie form. But this has not
happened. In the fourth part Ripley will be
resurrected and subsequent continuations will
begin to exploit the image of the Alien, his looks,
specific movements, monster’s birth scheme in
the person. All efforts, which have been taken
to prevent the ingress of the Alien on Earth in
the human world, have gone down the drain.
“Terrible things” have ceased to be terrible and
have become a common way and technology
to rattle nerves. A deep meaning of rebellion,
which Ripley carried out in respect of the Alien,
has been lost and forgotten in sequels.
* * *
An indirect confirmation of the fact that the
Alien of movie “Alien” is diabolically evil, not
only and not simply terrible, disgusting, fantastic,
etc. – is the story of J. Cortazar “The Devil’s
Drool”31, namely, is its name.
The story tells of how a casual photographer
unwittingly warned teenager’s corruption and
thus warned a sin. You could say precisely saved
his life. The photographer would know about this
only when later he blew up the picture in which
he photographed that situation of temptation/
seduction, which he in the past, as such had not
perceived or understood. The multiple watching
of the enlarged photo made possible to clarify the
past, made the event clear and understandable.
In a fantastic way a photographic image after a
while presented the reality in the form, which
was actual and present. The future has changed
the past.
The story is called “The Devil’s Drool” by
name of cobwebs hanging from the trees in the
morning. This web is a way of watching and a
symbol of that a person does not see things right
as they are. “The Devil’s Drool” is a layered
metaphor, one of the meanings of which is
implied by J. Cortazar falsity of this present as
the moment. If the future clarifies the past, then,
the things and events take place in eternity, not
in time intervals of the past-present-future.
Diabolical thus is temporary, untrue, situational.
The Devil’s Drool is that lust of the owner of
“pit mouth” and “black tongue”32, the man from
whom the boy was saved by the adventitious
presence of carefree photographer Michel at the
morning promenade. Here is the description of
this man in the story: “What I remember best is the
grimace that twisted his mouth askew, it covered
his face with wrinkles, changed somewhat both
in location and shape because his lips trembled
and the grimace went from one side of his
mouth to the other as though it were on wheels,
independent and involuntary. But the rest stayed
fixed, a flour-powdered clown or bloodless man,
dull dry skin, eyes deepset, the nostrils black and
prominently visible, blacker than the eyebrows or
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hair or the black necktie”.33 A truly sinister and
dark creature with “black holes” for eyes.
Evil nature of tempting J. Cortazar
emphasizes by the description of the boy. The boy
ran away from the quay through the “angel’s hair
–angel spittle”34, the very cobweb, mentioned
above. The boy is called by the author of the story
“rosy-cheeked cherub”, fleeing in his “fragile
paradise”.
“Drooling devil” or as it is written “drooling
delight” in this story avoided contact with humans.
And if we revert to “Alien”, in the film we see just
this very abundance of saliva in its physiological
state. Saliva serves as a manifestation of the
Alien. His appearance is always shown with
current saliva fluid dripping out of toothy mouth.
The campaign posters for the movie “Alien”
portrayed this creature with sticky mucus. In
Cortazar’s story Michel- photographer had these
spits from a woman, who was the mediator
between the boy and a scary pale man. Curses
flew as spittle35. Spitting saliva – this is a possible
language of temptation and death.
In “Alien” the Alien leaves glue, sticky
mucus everywhere. After the appearance of
saliva viewers are waiting for the appearance
of the Alien. Drooling is a symbol of the Alien,
evil, devilish character. In such a sticky web the
Alien wraps a man before “fertilize” him with its
spider. Heroes of all parts of the film repeatedly
stumble upon this sticky mass, as it was stated
in the second part of the film – a “product of
secretion”.
This saliva substitutes a language for the
Alien, it is no accident, while seeing its “face”
(snout, head, mouth, neb), we always see this.
This kind of organic selection highlights just
ontological difference between a human and an
alien. These droolings, which stick to the hands
or face of the person, should cause the viewer’s
disgust to the Alien in terms of emotional attitude.
This aversion caused by contact with something
warm, interior, slimy, and strange is familiar to
everyone.
Such non-human language is the language
of disgust and surprise; the language as a
warning of death, the language of organic
emissions in the end allows perceiving the Alien
as a conscious being. Yes, the Alien sometimes
emits audible sounds, but these sounds are like a
loud squeak/screech of an animal. And by these
squeaks the Alien is close to the animal world.
So It squeaks when dies or when It is hurt. It
has already been said, that the fi rst beacon,
which was heard by the computer “Mother” at
the beginning of the series, broadcast a strange
signal decoded both as a signal of danger and
as a warning signal. And it is not clear what the
nature of this signal and these sounds is, not
clear who sent these sounds into space and for
what purpose.
But at the end of the first part by the sound
of the signal the Alien “talked” with Ripley in her
small canoe in which she had slept in the interval
between the first and second parts during nearly
seventy years. Once again, the most frequent
accompaniment of the Alien is neither the
squeals and screams, nor the mysterious sound –
radio signal, but it was its saliva, sticky like glue
drooling, replacing the words, language, and
speech. Drooling of direct deadly lust, drooling
as a weapon and cobwebs.
Such a sophisticated and truly inhuman
language may belong only to the Alien. This
language is by its own presence makes the Alien
closer to the person, makes the Alien seem as a
person with whom you can talk in principle, but its
appearance, the outer form of the untranslatable,
of course, force us to admit that the contact is not
possible. And one more note to complete the work,
although in a movie about the Alien viewers see a
lot of different individuals of the Alien, so many
that they can not count, but still, each new Alien
is perceived as one and the same Alien, the first
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one that came through on “Nostromo” in the first
part. This allows us to understand the Alien as
a name, not only as an indication of the foreign.
All Strangers are united by one name – Alien.
This suggests that the Alien has the grounds for a
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personality, It has a face, It is every time the same
Alien, being one and the same creature with the
same face. Although we are aware that there are
a lot of aliens. And, nevertheless, they are seen
as one.
V.V. Bibikhin . Another beginning. Saint-Petersburg 2003. P. 169
M.K. Mamrdashvili. Consciousness and Civilization// As I see philosophy. Moscow. 1990. P. 108 – 109.
Later films “Alien vs. Predator”, “Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem” are not considered here as being inconsistent with the
original intention of the Alien established in the fi rst film by Ridley Scott. After the death of Ripley in the third part, the
fourth part of the “Alien” looks artificial in comparison with the fi rst three, and, unfortunately, carries a lightweight tone
of irony.
K. Marx. Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 // Marx-Engels Collected Works. V. 42. Moscow 1974. pp. 88
N.V. Pestova. The lyrics of German Expressionism: profiles of strangeness. Yekaterinburg. 2002 When citing the electronic version of the book, pages are given according to the electronic version. Access mode: http://avantgarde.narod.ru/
beitraege/ed/np_chuzhd.htm
Chapter 4 of the second part of the book.
Chapter 5 of the second part of the book.
Chapter 3 of the third part of the book.
N.V. Pestova …P.257
N.V. Pestova ….P. 122
Yu. S. Stepanov CONSTANTS: Dictionary of Russian culture. Moscow, 2001 P. 126 – 144
Yu. S. Stepanov…P.126
The author tries to trace the etimology of Russian words чуждии, чужии, стуждии, туждии, щуждии to the key concept
of alien.
Highlighted by Yu. S. Stepanov.
Yu. S. Stepanov…P.139-140
El. Levinas. Time and the Other. // Patrology. Philosophy. Hermeneutics. Collection of papers of the Highest Religious and
Philosophical Schools. Saint-Petersbourg. 1992. P. 118 – 119
Ripley slept for so long that during this time her own “earth” daughter grew up and died of old age.
E. Levinas…P.119
E. Levinas…P.125
E. Levinas …P.113
Genesis 3:4
Genesis 3:4
Archpriest John Meyendorff. The life and works of St. Gregory Palamas. Introduction to the study. . P. 174
Fr (protoiereus) Timothy Butkevich. Evil, its essence and origin. Vol. 1 Kiev, 2007. P. 81 – 82
Ibid …P.83
“Ring of Power” is also tempting. Author of “The Lord of the Rings” demonstrates and reveals the slow mechanism of
action of this temptation to man. The authors of “Alien”, as already indicated, expedite this mechanism so that the problem
and the issue of temptation seem almost invisible.
Fr. Thomas Hopko. Fundamentals of Orthodoxy. Minsk. 1991. P. 287
St. Maximus the Confessor. Theological and ascetical treatises. Book I. Moscow, 1993. P. 199-200
St. Maximus the Confessor ... p. 200
Ibid ... p. 200
Screening this story M. Antonioni in 1967 directed the film “Blow Up”. The original story is called “The Devil’s Drool»”,
although the thread-cobwebs hanging from the trees in the morning, as it says in the story, in Argentina, the home of the
author, are called the “«hairs of angel”.
J. Cortazar. The Devil’s Drool/ / Julio Cortazar. Chaser. Stories. St. Petersburg. 1993. P. 128
J. Cortazar. … P. 125
J. Cortazar. … P. 124
The fact that the drooling is associated with death, Anton Chekhov demonstrated in a funny way, when his character was
forced to die of grief from a failed spitting.
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Leonid S. Chernov. Approaching an Alien
Приближение к Чужому
Л.С. Чернов
Уральский институт
филиал Российской академии народного хозяйства
и государственной службы при Президенте РФ
Россия, 620063, Екатеринбург, ул. 8 Марта, 66
В статье 2001 года «Ужасные вещи» В.В. Бибихин пишет, что в XX веке «Из-за общего
стирания религиозной картины мира ужасные вещи переняли многое из того, что раньше
относили к нечистой силе». Соглашаемся и добавляем: массовая культура говорит сегодня об
ужасных вещах, показывает их, интересуется ими, вступает с ними в контакт и заигрывает
с ними. Многое из того, что сегодня печатается, публикуется и выходит как кинопродукция –
в принципе не должно выноситься на широкий экран, в читательскую или какую-либо иную
аудиторию. Случается и другое, когда внешне легковесное или коммерческое произведение в
глубине своей оказывается несущим тот самый «трансцендентный» и религиозный смысл, о
котором пишет В.В. Бибихин.
О религиозном говорится словами и языком мирского, популярного и казалось бы – внешне
совершенно от религии далёкого. Такое происходит и без ведома автора, согласно тому, что в
мире всё устроено по некоторым устойчивым связям и правилам. Ужасное не перестало быть
ужасным от того, что о нём так много сказано и от того, что его облачили в современную
ироническую и разноцветную одежду. Чужое, чуждое, чужеродное – не перестают
быть таковыми на фоне толерантности, терпимости, либерального всепонимания и
мультикультурности.
В данной статье осуществляется попытка отнестись к Чужому без соотнесённости со
Своим, к Чужому как абсолютно и полностью Иному в отношении человека.
Ключевые слова: чужой, отчуждение, Другой, понимание, ужасный, спасение, киноэпопея,
лейтенант Рипли.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2014 7) 738-743
~~~
УДК 167.7
Computational Experiment:
Philosophical and Methodological Foundations
of the Cognition of the Complex Systems
Jury F. Abramov and Olga V. Bondarenko*
Irkutsk State University
1 Karl Marx Str., Irkutsk, 664001, Russia
Irkutsk State Agricultural Academy
Pos. Molodejniy, Irkutsk area, 664038, Russia
Received 12.01.2014, received in revised form 22.02.2014, accepted 24.03.2014
Inclusion of information technology equipment in the process of obtaining new knowledge actualizes
the problem of the subject-object relationship. Computational experiment is considered as the
development of mental experimentation, consequently, in the process of constructing numerical
models of the complex objects the meaning of existence (semantics and pragmatics) is the human –
«privileged» existent. We analyzed the philosophical and methodological bases of modeling the
dynamics of complex systems. It is shown that the computational experiment becomes a kind of
«bridge» between the sciences and the humanities culture in processes of the cognition of the
complex systems.
Keywords: cognition, computational experiment, complex system, abstraction of potential
realizability.
Introduction
Nowadays it is difficult to find a field of
scientific activity, which would have developed
without the use of information technology.
Information technology equipment for the
first time even became a tool for humans to
increase productivity. Mankind thought that
the dream of implementation of Leibniz’s
overall method with the advent of computers
is rapidly approaching. Some of today’s
problems are close to his dream-idea: when in
the event of disagreement the two philosophers
no longer have to resort to the dispute, as it
*
does not resort to the counters. Instead of
dispute they would say to each other: «Let’s
calculate».
Variety of applications of computers is able
to hit any imagination. In a world that becomes
more and more «digital» and that connects to
powerful communication networks, information
technology, which led to the information
revolution, occupies a central place. Modern
Information revolution has become the most
important social phenomenon, qualitatively
changing all human activities, including scientific
cognition.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: ov-bond@yandex.ru
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Statement of the problem
It is well known that a radical change of
cognition means, introduction of experimental
techniques has led to the establishment of
classical science. Trends in the development
of the experiment and mathematisation made
the transition to nonclassical and later to
postnonclassical science possible. How comparable
epistemological consequences of computerization
and previous periods in the development of
science? Are computers (essentially not so much
computing as information technology) able to
create «artificial intelligence» and replace what
is usually meant by human creative activity?
Uncover the underlying mechanisms and sources
to give an accurate description of the processes of
self-organization of complex objects?
Discussion
Appearance of the term «artificial
intelligence» is due by historically the first
scientific direction in simulation of using
electronic computers creative processes: the
game of chess, writing poetry and music, proofs
of theorems, and others. It does not matter how
creative processes occur in reality at human and
the more so that science with absolute certainty
knows little about this subject. Final result is
important. «Artificial intelligence» is not what
«artificial kidney» or «heart.» This concept is
only metaphorical. Computer is always no more
than a tool, even intelligence tool. In this sense,
the notion of «computer science», the expression
adopted in the English-speaking world, but not
«artificial intelligence» is more successful and
does not cause adverse emotions.
Experts emphasize that the establishment
of thinking (without quotes) computers,
either now or in the foreseeable future is out
of the question. In computer programs the
anthropomorphic metaphor is embedded
and in some cases natural intelligence of
professionals is a bad role, replacing one reality
by another. Without «software» computer is
elegant bunch of chips. In a detailed approach
becomes apparent that computer «intelligence
«, «creativity» has a narrow local character
and is determined entirely by human activity.
New in science, engineering, life – is the result
of human creativity, often reinforced with a
powerful means of information processing –
computer technology.
Experienced practice methods for obtaining
new information are not canceled with the advent of
new computing, but are modernized according to
modern needs and possibilities of science. Actual
today math (computational) experiment serves as
the development of mental experimentation with
numerical models of real processes, as modern
technology and methodology of theoretical
studies.
Historical roots of mathematical experiment
goes precisely into the period of classical science,
when for the first time precise quantitative
mathematics methods were applied to describe the
phenomena of nature and a simple mathematical
model were constructed. Modern computer
experiment requires painstaking and lengthy
preparation. Currently, the design of scientific
research information system for many orders of
magnitude the time spent on purely computational
operations. In the «Human – Information
Technology» system the strategic experimenter
remains the subject of cognition. Wiener slogan:
«The Human Use of Human Beings, Machine –
Machine one’s» (Wiener, 1989) will be relevant
as long as the computers are not able to perceive
the world as people and to set themselves the
of socio-deterministic goals. Otherwise – the
highest value is not a man, but a machine. What
will come of this a long time ago was described in
works of science fiction R. Sheckley «Watchbird»,
E. Elmer «Robot Nemesis», etc. It is unlikely that
we will arrange it.
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Inclusion of information technology
equipment in the process of obtaining new
knowledge actualizes the problem of the subjectobject relationship. In this situation it is necessary
to re-solve the classic philosophical problems, to
distribute the borders in a new way: «objective –
subjective», «rational – irrational». The problem
of the identity of thinking and being in the history
of science occurred more than once, for example,
what was regarded as an objective in the physics
of Aristotle proved subjective in Newtonian
physics. More complicated is the situation with
the cognition of complex objects characterized
by nonlinear dynamics. Shifting boundaries
of subject-object relations in the process of
cognition of the complex systems involves the
rejection of dogma existence of a unique «kingly
way» in science, means a variety of approaches
and possible solutions to problematic situations –
the set of epistemological trajectories of the truth
cognition. This is due, ultimately, by philosophy
as the limiting form of our conscious choice, or as
Kierkegaard said, – «indirect communication».
That can be said that in a certain context of
cognitive activity reveals only a part of the system
(«world – knowledge – human») properties,
structure, functions of objects that act as fractals
of our knowledge of the world, as a localization
of endless whole. Our specificity as macro
creatures with finite physical and intellectual
abilities in the infinite world limits the scope of
cognitive activity. Therefore, we always work
with a specific fractal – «regional tenderloin» of
our knowledge. In contrast to the knowledge, the
specific feature of information is the possibility
to highlight the formal syntax side in specific
scientific studies and to operate with it is relatively
free of semantics and pragmatics. Autonomy
of formal «signal-code» form of information
always presupposes an interpreter. Both in the
logical-mathematical symbols, and in the process
of constructing numerical models of complex
objects using information technology the sense
of existence (semantics and pragmatics) finally
rests with the human – «privileged» existence.
This is especially important if we understand
«mathe» in Heidegger’s sense. Essence, which
according to M. Heidegger, is prior to conceptual
seeing of things, that is, the cognition of things
is always carried out in the light of pre-existing
ideas (and, mathematics itself acts as a derivative
of the so understood «mathe») (Heidegger,
1967). Projective function of cognition provides
its mathe, allowing the subject of cognition to
predict, assume force «to act the physical reality
under «scenario» as close as possible to the
theoretical description» (Prigogine, 1986).
Mathematical models, which were used
to describe the objects of classical and nonclassical science, were usually built on the basis
of abstractions of potential infinity. Abstract
potential infinity mathematically interpreted as
preservation of phase volume (that means in the
physical sense of system energy conservation)
and corresponds to the average distribution of
spatially symmetric and invariant under time
structures. However, in real systems, the phase
volume is reduced and leads to their quality
regeneration.
Before 70-th years of the twentieth century,
science mainly designed models to research
the actual being of complex objects. Study of
the dynamics of dissipative systems through
processes of selection and combination of
random events in nonrandom (localization
effect) and the application of numerical modeling
allowed to reveal underlying mechanisms of the
sources and causes of self-organization – the
effect of creating structures in the process of
energy dissipation (decreasing phase volume
of the system) . «In other words, the number
of states in which the system may be becomes
lower. This property is called dissipativity, and
is analogous to the self-organization ... With
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the passage of time, the phase volume tends to
zero and all the trajectories of the system will
be committed to attracting this finite set, called
attractor» (Kurdyumov and Malinetsky, 1996).
Abstract of potential feasibility corresponds to
that the state of system explicitly depends on the
space coordinates and on the time and results in
a localized process configuration. Abstraction
of potential realizability became theoretical and
methodological basis of the synergetic approach
to the dynamics of complex systems. This
means the conceptual transformation, when
the description of development (not as a result,
but as the formation, i.e. therefore the process
of autogenesis from chaos at micro level of
macro order parameters, whereby evolutionary
selection is realized) from a scientific point of
view must meet four minimum requirements are
«responsible» for the process of entering into a
chaotic system creative phase:
– Nonlinearity, meaning in human terms
disproportionate of results to efforts
expended; mathematically – a violation
of the principle of superposition;
– The irreversible, expressed in symmetry
breaking (difference) between the past
and the future;
–
Instability that characterizes the
capabilities of the system to change
the course of evolution and do some
phenomena (polyfurcations) the starting
point of a new path of development;
– Disequilibrium (loss of stability),
manifested increasing differences in the
structure and functioning of the system
under the influence of small perturbations
from the environment (situation where
small causes, due to the presence of
feedback, there are large consequences).
In terms of the construction of numerical
models of complex systems in «prior development
of synergy we can distinguish two periods,
two paradigms. The first period can be called
the era of dissipative structures ... The next
period can be described as a period of dynamic
chaos ... It appears that the new paradigm will
be based on a combination of dynamics and
statistics. Mathematical models based on such
combination, proposed by the theory of selforganized criticality, allowed a new look on the
set of nonlinear processes» (Malinetsky, 2010).
In fact, in the phase space of many natural and
social objects characterized by a large variety of
dynamical regimes, there are places called regions
of «jokers». In these areas, accident or factor,
which has no value in any other situation can be
decisive (leading to loss of stability) and not only
affect the «destiny» of the system, but also the
leap to translate it to another point in the phase
space (to another stable state). Rule by which
this step processes is called the «joker». Clearly,
this greatly increases the number of variants and
the degree of uncertainty, and means that the
behavior of the system with acceptable accuracy
is defined by only a few variables, everything
else is unimportant in this case. Regions of
phase space areas where these conditions are
implemented were termed riverbeds (Malinetsky
and Potapov, 2000).
The method of «riverbeds and jokers», used
to describe the different (micro, macro) levels of
systems, which vary by large different dynamic
regimes, is «based on a selection by asymptotic
analysis of areas with large forecast horizon
and a small number of essential variables and
areas of poor predictability. For «riverbeds and
jokers» different modeling algorithms are used»
(Zulpukarov, 2007). And here comes the paradox:
the adequacy of a qualitative and quantitative of
model of the observed dynamics of a complex
system depends largely on the degree of scientific
intuition and «understanding» of reality.
Speaking about the problems of constructing
mathematical models of complex systems,
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attention should be paid to one important
caveat associated with the use of information
technology in research. When modeling the
processes within the computational experiments
should be considered the fact that if the
trajectory of the system fills a certain region of
phase space, such a trajectory on the computer
cannot be predicted «pathwise». The fact is that
computers have a digit capacity. All equations
are translated into numbers (for example, the
system of partial differential equations using
sampling to a system of ordinary differential
equations, and goes on the bill). But when we
wrote the system of equations in conventional
derivatives, we assumed that the continuous part
of the coordinates: one part of the coordinates
we discretize, another left continuous. The
computer has no continuous coordinate – all
coordinates are discrete. Therefore, at each time
interval there is a fi nite set of points, which can
get a system that is non-periodic motion, in
principle, cannot be. The distribution only can
be predicted, but not each path individually.
Conclusion
Therefore, in the case of nonlinear equations
describing the evolutionary processes in open
systems that exchange matter and energy with
the «outside world», available mathematical
methods and techniques are sufficient to
reconstruct mainly qualitative analysis of real
situations. Full approximation of knowledge
about complex systems, quantitative processing
them using modern information technology is
practically not yet possible not only for physical
reasons, but also the level of mathematical
research inhibits that process. Nevertheless it
is a computational experiment that allows to
solve the problem of sensitivity «trajectories»
of complex objects to the initial data and the
diversity of their account in the phase space,
the problem of redundancy mathematical
models. However, the primary heuristic role
is played by scientific creativity. Without the
use of special techniques of approximation
and reconstruction of reality, changes of the
significantly important by algebraic variables
(dimensions, correlation parameters, the
smoothness of solutions, etc.), topological,
etc. the opening the fundamental properties of
complex systems would not become real. And,
fi rst of all, mathematical images of structures –
attractors, «trees» of bifurcations. There would
be no understanding of chaos as a fundamental
property of formation processes and specific
scientific logical-mathematical models to
describe it. In other words, the computer
experiment becomes a bridge between the
sciences and the humanities culture in the
processes of cognition of complex.
References
1. Viner, N. Kibernetika, ili upravlenie i svjaz’ v zhivotnom i mashine.[ Cybernetics: Or the
Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine] Moscow, 1989. P. 67.
2. Zul’pukarov, M.-G.M., Malineckij, G.G., Podlazov, A.V. (2007). Primenenie metoda rusel i
dzhokerov dlja opisanija dinamiki sistemy Rozencvejga–Makartura. [Application of method of riverbeds
and jokers to describe the dynamics of the Rosenzweig-Macarthur system] Matem. modelirovanie, 19
(6), 3.
3. Kurdjumov, S.P., Malineckij, G.G., Potapov, A.B. Nestacionarnye struktury, dinamicheskij
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Вычислительный эксперимент:
философско-методологические основания
познания сложных систем
Ю.Ф. Абрамов, О.В. Бондаренко
Иркутский государственный университет
Россия, 664003, Иркутск, ул. Карла Маркса, 3
Иркутская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия
Россия, 664038, Иркутская обл.,
Иркутский р-н, пос. Молодежный
Включение информационной техники в процессы получения нового знания актуализирует
проблему субъект-объектных отношений. Вычислительный эксперимент рассматривается
как развитие мысленного экспериментирования, следовательно, в процессе построения
численных моделей сложных объектов смысл сущего (семантика и прагматика) остается за
человеком – «привилегированным» сущим. Проанализированы философско-методологические
основания моделирования динамики сложных систем. Показано, что вычислительный
эксперимент становится своеобразным «мостиком» между естественно-научной и
гуманитарной культурой в процессах познания сложного.
Ключевые слова: познание, вычислительный эксперимент, сложные системы, абстракция
потенциальной осуществимости.
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