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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2011 Journal of Siberian Federal University 4 (6) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В. В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva Development of a Continuing Professional Training System at Information Satellite Systems Joint-Stock Company and Some Related Problems – 769 – Maria G. Burlutskaya Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises – 779 – Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation – 792 – Julia S. Zamaraeva Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Modern Culture (Association Experiment Results Based on the Methodology œSerial Thematic AssociationsB) – 805 – Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva Svetlana P. Basalaeva Labour Contract Functions – 816 – Natalya N. Nevolko The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade of the XXI Century Concerning the Problem of Ethnic Identification of the Khakass Ethnos – 823 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 17.06.2011 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,1. Уч.-изд. л. 11,6. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 4248. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Sergey M. Geraschenko Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Hasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Alena O. Zadorina The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (19241953) – 837 – Maria I. Ilbeykina Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai: 15 to 60 Years of Age Residents of Krasnoyarsk City – 846 – Irina A. Zhuravleva The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory – 865 – Evgeny A. Kapoguzov Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based Economic Development Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) – 874 – Natalia Yu. Rychkova The Object of Criminal (Plagiarism) Appropriation of Authorship – 884 – Tatyana A. Poluektova œFact-FictionB as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge œAccording to QueeneyB – 894 – Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual – 902 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 769-778 ~~~ УДК 378.005 Development of a Continuing Professional Training System at Information Satellite Systems Joint-Stock Company and Some Related Problems Sergey G. Kukushkina and Natalya P. Churlyaevab* information satellite systems Joint-Stock Company (ISS JSC) 52 Lenin st., Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarski krai, 662972 Russia b Siberian State Aerospace University (SibSAU) 31 Krasnoyarski Rabochi pr., Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia 1 a Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The development of a continuing professional training system at INFORMATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS Joint-Stock Company (ISS JSC) and some specific problems that arise on its way from the planned to market economy are briefly outlined. Current personnel training at ISS JSC is schematically presented along with the Company’s united educational sphere concept within its personnel policy. Some assignments of the unified functional center for personnel management are considered. Keywords: professional training, continuing adult education, vocational guidance, personnel policy. Introduction INFORMATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS Joint-Stock Company (ISS JSC) named after M. F. Reshetnev is the inheritor of APPLIED MECHANICS RESEARCH-ANDPRODUCTION ASSOCIATION (NPO PM) and Russia’s leading space enterprise specializing in the design, development and manufacture of high performance spacecraft and satellite systems. ISS JSC tries to retain the best NPO PM features that existed here in the times of great space achievements, and it seems it has all the capabilities to do that in all the fields of its current activity. It possesses all the necessary requirements: the developed, highly organized structure; adequately equipped experimental and production facilities; stable infrastructure; * 1 reliable partnerships with leading national and foreign organizations and enterprises - license holders, customers, investors, subcontractors, etc. (ISS web-site). Yet, in addition to the abovementioned, successful implementation of the new projects requires the creative staff capable to work in the situation of permanent technological innovations. It is a very serious challenge that all the national space industry enterprises encounter. The problem of engineering creativity should be specially underlined among the others, and ISS JSC is no exception in this context. The Company’s continuing professional training system that was once introduced here, has been being developed for several decades, contributes significantly to training and retraining of the personnel at all levels and, correspondingly, professional skills Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 769 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... development. However, because of its origin and particularity of its development, there are some intrinsic problems that hinder engineering creativity. We shall try to shed some light upon these issues in this article. 1. The growth of a continuing training system within | the planned economy framework More than fifty years ago Michael Reshetnev, the NPO PM founder, brought a quite small but very creative group of engineers, designers and workers to the town of Krasnoyarsk-26 (nowadays Zheleznogorsk). The arms race required the extention of that core initial group, so in order to carry out the large-scale military projects such as producing satellites launched by “Cosmos-3” ballistic missiles, the first 138 employees from Krasnoyarsk Mechanical-Engineering Works were transferred to NPO PM in 1959, followed by 24 engineers from Sergey Korolev’s OKB-1 design bureau. From the very start special attention concerning the competent staff recruitment was mainly paid to the graduates from the leading soviet technical high-schools who were also supposed to accrue the initial creative core. In the short run, Reshetnev’s team began to grow due to the alumni from Moscow Aviation Institute, Leningrad Mechanical Institute, Tomsk Institute of Electronic Control Systems, Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman (MSTU), etc. In 1974, a special department aimed at selection and technical training of young specialists - technical high-schools graduates was created. In the years of the planned economy, high-schools often allocated students for their pre-diploma practice to the places, where the graduates were assigned to work later. This planned allocation helped along the staff selection and its subsequent development. The same scheme worked perfectly well for the graduates from the top soviet technical high-schools: the competitive basis enabled only the best graduates to be selected to work in defense enterprises. It is worth specially mentioning graduates from so called Krasnoyarsk zavod-vtuz (nowadays Siberian State Aerospace University SibSAU), who have started to infill the NPO PM structure since the mid-1960s. In addition, close relationships with Krasnoyarsk zavod-vtuz and Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute (nowadays a subdivision of Siberian Federal University - SFU) were established. As a result, such faculties as “Space vehicles”, “Space information systems”, “Space mechanical engineering”, etc., were formed one by one in these two institutions. Also, several branches of space-oriented faculties from these two universities were created in the 1970s and 1980s in Krasnoyarsk-26. Since the 1970s, an additional assignment with reference to the association’s own employees’ training has been actively developed: 50-60 people were annually taught in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk and other Soviet scientific centers. Also, the branch system for the experts and managers’ professional skills development was launched, and certifying commissions for all of the professional categories were created at NPO PM. In view of future tasks, special attention started to be paid to the youth’s vocational guidance, and soon that activity turned from sporadic into stable. As a result of the above-mentioned and some other achievements aimed at improving the employees’ quality, the association’s own continuing professional training system was designed (Kukushkin, 2010). For about a quarter of the century it was being developed steadily and consciously. However, within the planned economy framework, there appeared some intrinsic problems concerning its further development, in particular, how to provide engineering creativity. In many respects, that was related to the obscure # 770 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... nature not only of the association but of all the soviet system in general. Also, one should not forget that in the planned economy times many continuing professional training systems were formed in the circumstances that did not support the growth on their own basis, that is, the situation characterized by closed-door research and development institutions – innumerable NIIs – research institutes, KBs – designing bureaus, and other secret so-called “post-office boxes”. A more careful look would show that in spite of all the clamor about the soviet technological achievements in the past, and many still existing myths on that ground, such order cannot be recognized as knowledge-based while the problems of continuing training systems development can be correctly interpreted and successfully solved only within the general context of knowledge-based economy growth and development (Filatov, 2005). Moreover, permanent innovations presuppose continuing professional training, and the complete realization of the educational continuity principle is the only possible opportunity within the knowledgebased economy which not only permanently makes use of knowledge (perhaps, even though acquired from external sources) but creates all the diversity of knowledge in the form of hightech production, advanced services, results of research and education. Given that, one should be more scrptical with regard to technological innovations and engineering creativity in those closed-door soviet institutes and bureaus wherefrom not so much results of soviet experts’ own intellectual efforts emerged but rather the secret materials that entered along various channels from external sources, first of all from technologically more developed nations, were considered and developed. Such activity, though illegal and violating authors’ rights but quite ordinary in the cold-war times was usually carried out through the deeply-rooted, wide-branched, and swiftly functioning enormous soviet industrial espionage system, when special service officers became the suppliers and leading soviet experts, scientific institutes’ heads, etc., became the consumers of necessary materials. Those secret materials could be of any sort, from just information or abstract ideas still to be materialized in hardware, to schemes and blueprints, even to ready devices, so that what experts from those research institutes and bureaus had to do was disassemble devices and bring them together again with mother country parts. Nevertheless, even that kind of so-to-say “creative activity” gave evidence of a sufficiently high general level of soviet science, high-school and industry compared to the corresponding world level. Otherwise it would be impossible to produce even those soviet versions of western machinery – the phenomenon that nowadays we can see in almost all the Russian industrial branches with little exceptions. At the same time it is obvious that sooner or later any continuing professional training system with innovative activity based on the outlined above practice arrives to its deadlock. 2. On the way from planned to market economy In spite of the inherent drawbacks, obvious prospects for the association’s continuing professional training system development were evident until the government started to loose interest to space flights and year upon year more and more limited its financing until almost stopped it in the late 1990s. The crash of the USSR and ultimate disappearance of planned economy led to catastrophic reduction of the industrial production actually in all the industrious areas except for those associated with raw material extraction and export. A real disaster shook all the Russian corporate foundations including those of # 771 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... NPO PM and severely hindered development of its continuous training system. However, thanks to the great material and intellectual potential created and stored in the association for decades of relentless work, not only it survived itself in the situation of total economic disorder but reserved the basis for the further development of its continuing training system. To counteract the growing destructive tendencies that threatened the existing continuing professional training system, some measures became possible to cure it within the framework of the planned economy. However, those remedy measures were often formulated in terms of the closed state situation as declarative and universal: “…increasing effectiveness of staff professional training in conditions of modern economy, introduction of the newest educational technologies, forming progressive concepts for high-tech industry branches, etc.” (Fedorov and Baltjan, 2001). They could not actually reach the goals as the situation was getting worse. On the other hand, within the competitive business environment, the association got the chance to access the global market of satellite services, take part in the international cooperation, and find new resources for solving the stockpiled problems rooted in the planned economy time on the basis of getting profit from its market activity. Therefore, despite the emergence of many new problems related to the existence under very peculiar Russian market conditions, the senior managers of the association known now as INFORMATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS Joint-Stock Company (ISS JSC) found certain prospects for its revival and development, however, trying to rely more on the principles that underlie educational systems of the countries with market economy. There were no deliberate attempts to ruin the former continuing professional training system. On the contrary, personnel recruitment and in- service training, retraining and development of the employees’ professional skills are still considered as very important issues among the whole variety of the company’s tasks. Yet, the modern labor market conditions, such as the absence of the graduates’ planned allocation to work, etc., necessitated its substantial changes compared to the planed economy time, and general changes in the company’s personnel policy as well. As a result, along with readjustment all the ISS JSC activity, the entire educational sphere concept was revised which assumed the continuing professional training system as the foundation for the company’s innovative development. Innovative development significantly changed its vector compared to the past. First, the young specialists’ contingent – high school graduates who have been always called for to be the leaders of innovative development are taking a turn for the worse year by year. Not only goes down the number of those willing to get jobs in the space industry, but their quality long ago started to grow worse in many respects too. If a soviet engineer could basically be a carrier of the scientific-technological progress at least on the condition of being supplied with foreign necessary materials and ideas, now even if a young engineer gets schemes, blueprints and other materials, he is unlikely be able to make new devices due to a number of reasons. First of all, the gap between the level of global scientific-technological achievements and national engineers’ limited abilities to comprehend and master them grows rapidly. Secondly, the introduction of new technical ideas on native ground is hindered because national high-tech industry branches have been destroyed and the necessary material basis is practically absent. In particular, there’s actually no element base necessary to build space electronic schemes. Thirdly, the motivation of engineers altered for the worse, and not only # 772 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... in Russia but in the world-wide scale as well (Bonnard and Paul, 2009). Furthermore, innovative development is impossible without integration of research and production, and the former ISS JSC’s name – NPO – testifies itself to the fact that it has always taken place, but now the situation changed significantly (Kukushkin et al, 2010). It concerns not only the information and materials supplies which provided secure research and technological feed along illegal channels earlier. In addition, the links with some research organizations in the former USSR republics were actually tore apart, and national centers for applied science were practically destroyed, and those that still continue to work cannot accept the paradigm that essential materials for innovative projects are in top condition but illegally supplied. Besides, illegal acquisition of information, machinery, technologies, etc. from abroad is becoming more and more senseless mainly due to diminishing compliance of national engineering with the global one, and also to its structural incompatibility. Two global revolutions – the scientific-technical revolution that started in the middle of the last century and the technological revolution that we can observe nowadays -- make our own machinery and technologies so hopelessly obsolete (Ilyshev and Putilina, 2007) that illegal practice became ineffective. Moreover, such practice does not seem reasonable since almost all the necessary materials for innovative projects can now be legally purchased. Instead of the old cold-war practice, the modern market conditions presuppose quite another format of interaction with technologically developed nations – wide international cooperation can be profitable for each participant. ISS JSC cooperation with leading space industry enterprises started in the late 1990s. Its bright prospects brought hopes that the strengths of each partner within the international cooperation could allow creating principally new products that surpass both Russian and western space machines. In this connection, ISS JSC-Alcatel Space cooperation should be mentioned. No doubts, to fulfill innovative projects successfully, engineering education and staff training is of primary importance but one should not forget about all other groups of personnel, too. Labor market with its very tough competitive struggle for competent employees gives rise to changes in the ISS JSC human resources strategy. In an effort to strengthen positions in the global market of satellite services, the company undertook some steps to more progressive personnel management in order to be more consistent for modern market conditions. As a result, a unified functional center for personnel management was created. 3. Assignments of the unified functional center for personnel management By reference to the purpose of maintaining skilled and motivated staff capable to provide competitiveness of the company in the market of satellite services, the unified functional center for personnel management was created. It carries out a number of functions including those intended to support and develop the continuing training system. Fig. 1 illustrates schematically its main assignments. Initially, the unified functional center was mainly destined to solve strategic and current problems of personnel management. Now it also works along various directions in the sphere of professional training starting with vocational guidance for local teenagers. This contingent has always been considered as a substantial sector of eligible workforce and vocational guidance is paid special attention in ISS JSC, as well as in the other space industry organizations (Zelentsov and Petrikevich, 2006). Moreover, # 773 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... Fig. 1. Assignments of the ISS JSC unified functional center for personnel management we believe that vocational guidance will play more important role because the labor market is developing and teenagers are getting more vocational opportunities, and the potential labor contingent now is not restricted by the limits that were inherent in the times of undisclosed towns and planned allocation of the graduates. Within the vocational guidance framework many things are inherited: advanced learning of physics and mathematics at schools is encouraged, regular meetings of the company’s experts with pupils, parents and teachers are provided; lectures, school subject olympiads and other competitions are organized, etc. The centers for vocational guidance are Lyceum №102 and «Astronautics School» – the Educational Center that works with gifted children and talented youth. Company’s tight relations with preliminary vocational training institutions – Professional Lyceum №10 and Professional School №47 – allow carrying out schooling of young workers in line with our purposes. Our experts supervise target students in these two institutions, and with the approval of the authorities, students’ curricula include special courses consistent with their future work for the company. Lyceum students perform their works and do pre-diploma practices in the company’s subdivisions. The same scheme works for SibSAU and SFU students who also carry out their diploma works on problems suggested by the company. Within the first working year after graduating young specialists must pass compulsory coaching according to their individual plans. Besides, target classes are organized for them in order to get more acquainted both with the company’s organizational structure as a whole and the problems that are typical for its particular subdivisions. After the first and the second years of their employment at ISS JSC young specialists must prove their final certification, the results of which allow the management board to make a decision whether acknowledge their professional skill improvements or not. In this way the company carries out necessary additional development of young specialists along both narrow-profile # 774 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... technical directions and more general fields of business ethics and communication. Professional training and skill improvement that the company’s employees have to deal with are carried out in order to: (1) maintain the professional level and qualification of personnel in view of the current industry requirements and growth prospects for ISS JSC; (2) develop personal valuable qualities of employees and provide necessary conditions for their professional growth and self-realization; (3) raise professional competence of the employees; (4) provide their value to meet the industry needs and prospects of the company development; (5) improve their proficiency and skills necessary for effective work. The structure of professional training and skill improvement includes: self-education which is carried out by self-study of special professional literature and by getting acquainted with the best world practices known in the sphere of trainees’ professional interests; internal study in the form of permanent seminars and courses on the current technical problems and key directions of the company’s activity; distance education as an opportunity to swiftly get knowledge in the most significant professional areas; target training both at high-schools focused on preparation of required specialists and in the courses or seminars aimed at professional skills development. Personnel training and improving professional skills are carried out according to the internal company standards titled «System of Quality Assurance and Quality Control: Personnel Study, Professional Skill Development and Certification of Persons in Charge. Essential Regulations». The standards are designed by ISS JSC experts on the basis of the standard programs recommended by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science and includes the mandatory introduction of a special part describing the company specific performance. According to the standards, the curricula and examination cards are reconsidered each five years to meet the changing requirements in professional training and corresponding professions’ qualifying characteristics. They are then verified by the General Director’s assistant (chief engineer). The company’s skilled experts, welleducated high-skilled employees with wide teaching experience and top working achievements are engaged as teachers in professional training, professional skills development and supervision of engineering practice. In order to increase the effectiveness of teaching annual upgrading qualification courses for teachers themselves are organized. Training and development of workers’ professional skills are carried out either individually (training at a workplace) or in groups (in-service training courses). Training can also be taken in the specialized instructive center. Training and professional skills development for persons in charge and experts are carried out in accordance with individual professional training programs both in the special in-service training courses (annual courses to improve qualification) and in external in-service training institutes for professional skills development or other organizations. The necessity to carry out individual professional training for persons in charge and experts, as well as forms of training, its place and terms are designed by the company’s experts who work with personnel as agreed with those persons who are responsible for appropriate structural subdivisions or heads of appropriate departments. 4. The concept of united educational sphere within the company’s personnel policy Long-term experience of work with human resources allowed formulating the concept of united educational sphere (Kukushkin et al, # 775 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... 2009) that is put into practice at the unified functional center for personnel management. The concept says: Innovative orientation aimed at the company’s economic growth is based on continuing professional training of the company’s staff which in turn is based on profound integration of all the training stages under industry conditions; it makes use of the concentric principle for the organization of professional requirements’ content and is based on differentiated approach to personnel training and development. The concept of united educational sphere aims at developing competitiveness of space industry workforce – people who must be capable to respond to diverse current challenges of scientific and technological progress. Several main principles were put into the concept’s basis, that is, the principles of continuity, consistency, consecutivity, completeness of professional training at each coaching stage, poly-synchronism (combining strategically perspective and current tasks), versatility, multi-gradualness, multi-functionality, interlinking of educational programs. The crucial idea incorporated in the concept is the idea of social partnership. Theoretical regulations include the following issues: 1) Integration of all the training stages within industrial background is the best way to increase the professionalism of personnel. It allows establishing professional training directions essential for both working out strategic and perspective problems facing the company and solving its current tasks. 2) The concentric principle for alignment of the professional requirements’ content allows describing the process of professional training in terms of the competence rise in the professional cycle directions which enables to achieve the higher level of skills at each schooling grade. 3) The differentiated learner-centered approach allows organizing certification of the personnel stage-by-stage at each phase of training. Practical management is carried out within the framework of the personnel training and retraining system (staff strategy) basing on the existing system designed for educating engineers. It focuses on the following aims: to create a multilevel system of requirements to professionalpublic certification of personnel skills; to use upto-date industrial and educational technologies for professional training; to develop a new series of instructive textbooks on contemporary space technologies, training and supervising programs for the system of the staff’s professional skills improvement; to create an advanced system of branch inter- and intra-high-school centers on the company’s basis; to support national and international integration of space industry enterprises and high-schools. The following official documents were regarded as sources for the concept: The Concept of Russian Education Modernization up to 2010; The Federal Target Program for Education Development; The Law of Education; The Labor Code; The System of Experts’ Certification in the Engineering Structure; The System of Social and Economic Stimuli Aimed at Professional Growth and the Status of Engineering Work Rise; The System of Continuous Professional Skill Improvement in In-Service Engineering Training. Orientation of the personnel policy toward social partnership presupposes both the goalaiming and rise of motivation within professional training. It demands new approaches with regard to information supply, pedagogical analysis, planning and organization, control and regulation of all the related activities. For these purposes special mechanisms are required, which include interacting with aerospace high schools and other # 776 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... space industry organizations; inter-departmental coordination of personnel policy; forming of the system of professional-public certifications for employees; etc. 5. Conclusions In spite of the fact that little by little Russia becomes nothing but a row-materials resource for technologically more developed nations, Russian space industry goods and services are still of the few that match the level of the world space industry standards. The enormous material potential built for more than half a century due to the colossal government investments, as well as strong human resources created by several generations of researchers and engineers still make space industry stand second to none. To keep this high level, very important measures should be taken in the sphere of personnel development. The essential element of any space enterprise’s policy is continuing professional education that can train the staff capable to work in the situation of permanent technological innovations and, above all, support engineering creativity. Much is being done to develop the ISS JSC own continuing professional training system. Since all the company’s performance is reoriented toward the market, the ISS JSC management board sees some prospects of its further development in market-oriented type training system. However, the current training system inherited many significant features from the past, which should not be underestimated. Although ISS JSC training system belongs mostly to technical education, it is learnercentered and its humanitarian component is strong. The company personnel policy declares that “individuals who are able to create the most progressive high-intellectual space machinery have always been the company’s foremost value”. Acknowledgements We are grateful to all the ISS JSC management board that supported writing this article and particularly, interpretation of the current processes within the ISS JSC professional training. We thank them for their decision to recommend this paper for publication. References C. Bonnard, J. Paul, French engineering graduates in corporate Research and Development, European Journal of Engineering Education, 6 (2009), 593 – 603. B. Fedorov and В. К. Baltjan, Providing personnel for the stable development of the militaryindustrial complex, Aerospace education and the problems of youth. MGTU Bulletin, 3 (2001), 57-71. S. A. Filatov, Continuing professional training system forming within the context of knowledgebased economy. (Novosibirsk: NGUEU Press, 2005, 63. p). I. M. Ilyshev and V. Y. Putilina, Alternative approaches to the value of outstripping innovative schooling, Journal of Engineering Education (Tomsk), 4 (2007), 29–37. S. G. Kukushkin, Development of a continuing professional training system at ISS JSC, Siberian Journal of Pedagogy (Novosibirsk), 3 (2010), 123-128. S. G. Kukushkin, M. V. Lukjanenko, and N. P. Churlyaeva, Integration of education, science and innovative activity within the ISS JSC personnel policy concept, Proceedings of the all-Russian conference “Higher Professional Training Quality Improvement”, (Krasnoyarsk: SFU Press, 2009), 69-74. # 777 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Kukushkin and Natalya P. Churlyaeva. Development of a Continuing Professional Training System... S. G. Kukushkin, M. V. Lukjanenko, and N. P. Churlyaeva, Integration of high-schools, research institutes and industry within the ISS JSC sphere of activity, Proceedings of the all-Russian conference “Higher Professional Training Quality Improvement”, (Krasnoyarsk: SFU Press, 2010). ISS web-site: www.iss-reshetnev.com. V. V. Zelentsov, B. B. Petrikevich, Vocational guidance as a constituent of integrated professional training within the “School-College-Enterprise” system (Moscow: MGTU Press, 2006). Развитие системы непрерывного профессионального образования ОАО «Информационные спутниковые системы» и некоторые связанные с этим проблемы С. Г. Кукушкинa, Н. П. Чурляеваб a Зам. ген. директора, руководитель единого функционального центра по управлению персоналом ОАО «Информационные спутниковые системы» Россия, 662972, Железногорск, ул. Ленина, 52 б д. п. н., проф. каф. систем автоматического управления ГОУ ВПО «Сибирский государственный аэрокосмический университет» Россия, 660014, Красноярск, пр. Красноярский рабочий, 31 Приведены этапы и некоторые проблемы развития системы непрерывного профессионального образования ОАО «Информационные Спутниковые Системы» при переходе от плановой экономики к рыночной. Представлены схема обучения персонала ОАО ИСС и концепция единого образовательного пространства в рамках кадровой политики предприятия. Рассмотрены некоторые направления деятельности единого функционального центра по управлению персоналом. Ключевые слова: профобразование, профориентация, непрерывное образование, кадровая политика. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 779-791 ~~~ УДК П316.444.5 Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises Maria G. Burlutskaya* Ural State Pedagogical University 26 Kosmonavtov av., Yekaterinburg, 620017 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 10.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 This paper studies the interaction of restructuring processes and changes in the internal labour markets and flows of intrafirm mobility at post-soviet enterprises. Using data from case study of two Ural plants, we attempt to define the models of intraorganizational mobility which have been formed at the enterprises during their adaptation to the market. The approach focuses both on the modification of multi-layered post and management structure and on the processes of formation and action of rules that regulate the ascent of employees. We come to the conclusion that intraorganizational mobility does not fully depend on changes in the external labour market; it is determined by the administratively fi xed formal and informal rules, the practice of labour relations that have formed within the enterprise. Our study shows the application of both the protectionist and the contest models of activity within the organization. Recruitment to the top management posts has protectionist features in all the cases. As for the general tendencies of intraorganizational mobility, during crisis periods when enterprises had to survive the contest model is clearly discerned. This model is partly retained in the following period of adaptation to the market, but here we see that elements of protectionism come to the fore in relation to some employees. This paper was prepared within the framework of “Economic and Social Consequences of Industrial Restructure in Russia and Ukraine” project financed by the European Comission. Keywords: intraorganizational mobility; intrafirm mobility; internal labour market; professional mobility Introduction An enterprise may be viewed as an institute of mobility, a very important one that to a great degree determines social class differences in industrial and late-industrial society (Bell, 1973). Western sociology, economy and management have the long-standing tradition of studying intrafirm mobility: the processes analyzed by economists within the framework of the concept of the internal labour market are studied in sociology as processes of intraorganizational * 1 mobility: its factors, trajectories, and the ascent opportunities of its staff (Doeringer et al., 1971; Bartunek et al., 2008). The “old” Russian enterprises that existed prior to the economic reforms of the 1990s, “inherited” the Soviet system of labour relations with its patronizing, the practice of “lifelong” employment, and prevalence of non-financial mechanisms of labour incentives. But the restructuring that all more or less successful modern enterprises had to go through under Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 779 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises the influence of “market pressure” has actually changed the “rules of the game” in the internal labour market. In the past two decades the development of Russian enterprises has undergone a number of periods: 1. survival; 2. adaptation to work in market conditions; 3. developing or maintaining the achieved positions. During each of them we can discover specific changes of intraorganizational mobility. So, the objects of study in this paper are the interaction of restructuring processes and changes in the internal labour markets and, as a result, the flow of intrafirm mobility. Materials and Methods The research has been carried out in accordance with case study methodology, in addition to which various methods of collecting information were used: analysis of documents that pertain to personnel policy, the development strategy of an enterprise; the formation and analysis of the data base on personnel ascents as they are reflected in personnel department documentation; in-depth interviews with managers of various levels and sectors, with rankand-file employees; structured interviews with selected employees that represent the enterprise structure. The reasons for choosing certain enterprises were the following: all of them were established in the Soviet period and in the 2000s underwent important organizational and managerial restructuring. We have chosen two “old” Ural enterprises as the subject of our research. These two enterprises belong to different industry branches and this factor enables us to name them “Khimzavod” (chemical factory) and “Mashzavod” (machinebuilding factory). Both factories were established in the 1940s-50s and have a lot in common. Manpower at these enterprises does not exceed the average, numbering not more than 1000 people. To note, both enterprises have decreased the number of personnel compared to the Soviet period – now there are from 4 to 5 times less employees. This factor is connected with the depression that took place in the early mid-1990s. However, today these factories have been modernized, at any rate, we see many attributes of “advanced” management: significant effort and means have been put into investment and purchasing of up-to-date machinery, the enterprises have been certified with ISO, their top management has been trained at new business schools etc. Both factories began their active development period in the early 2000s together with the Russian economy, but the conditions for this development had begun to form earlier: it was in the early 1990s that both enterprises introduced a number of managerial innovations that can be conventionally called “a turn towards the market”, which actually was the beginning of a significant restructuring process. But these processes and their consequences, including those that occur at the internal labour market, turned out to be absolutely different in the two factories that have been studied. From the present research point of view, it is a great luck that our analysis enabled us to describe two different restructuring models, two different approaches to how “the Soviet legacy” can be transformed. One of the options (Mashzavod) gave us an example of an attempt to combine a “market” orientation and an updated management structure with what was in fact the Soviet system of labour relations and, in particular, a model of the internal labour market. The other variant (Khimzavod) totally rejected Soviet practice and actively introduced Western management set-ups with their practice of internal ascent, evaluation and incentives for employees. # 780 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises Results Ascent of employees in the internal labour market takes place along two main axes of mobility: professional (career) and the economic one (which means pay changes) (Mayer et al., 1987). As a mobility institution, an enterprise may be viewed in two aspects: structurally, from the point of view of the ascent possibilities that it provides, which are the number of positions, their complexity and the multi-layered structure of management and the posts to be held there, plus its dynamics. Secondly, an enterprise may be viewed as a field of formation and action of rules that regulate the ascent of its employees (Burton et al., 2007). To be more precise, who is to be selected for promotion, what personal or professional criteria are important for ascent in the internal labour market, what the employees may be punished or dismissed for. Some of these rules are fixed formally while others are formed by everyday practice of interaction that determines the chances of intraorganizational mobility for each employee. Speaking about the structure of the factories that have been studied, on the whole, it is similar. Both enterprises have a three-level management structure with linear management on the lowest level (foreman, team-leader), medium-level management (shop and sector managers) and top management. Functional division is typical: production is separated from the sales and the administrative sections, and there is a division into the main production process and the subsidiary services. It is of interest to note that in the process of restructuring both factories tried in a greater or lesser degree to introduce elements of matrix structure. Khimzavod introduced divisional structure with a certain degree of independence for the divisions by letting them have their own sales sector and index of economic effectiveness. Later, however, the idea was abandoned. Mashzavod went even further by forming independent juristic units out of some of the sectors, but leaving the a common internal labour market, so that managers could move from one enterprise to another, and new managers could be recruited from “neighbouring” structures, this being the usual practice. In the long run the institutional framework of mobility at the enterprises is determined by the traditional hierarchic structure built along functional lines. The management structure of this type to a great degree determines the specificity of the internal labour market at Russian factories: the presence of a barrier between the production and the non-production sectors is one of their features. One can actually speak about different labour markets for each of these categories of employees, where internal mobility, as a rule, is limited by the framework of its own professional group that occupies certain posts. A configuration of management structure such as this gives the widest career possibilities for the employees of the main production sector. To begin with, it is connected with the longest “staircase” that includes qualification competence categories and possibility of growth along the “team-leader – foreman / shift foreman – shop manager” line. One spectacular example for Mashzavod is the following: a person began his career in 1974, became a foreman in the Soviet period, then after graduating became a shop manager. In the 1990s when many people quit the factory, those young managers who were able to work in the new conditions got promoted. Our protagonist became a deputy head manager of production and monitored one of the main production lines. Then he continued to hold this post when the production line became a separate branch. He has been holding this post up to this day. Another example of typical career for Khimzavod is the following: a person came to the factory in 2001, at a quite young age (40). Got # 781 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises Table 1. Mobility level of personnel at the factories from 2000 to 2009*. KHIMZAVOD Mobility % Number of of the sector transfers per one employees mobile person The total of the factory employees Main production process Subsidiary production process Specialists in administrative sectors 47,5 МASHZAVOD Mobility % Number of of the sector transfers per one employees mobile person 1,8 41,4 1,9 70,4 1,7 52,6 1,9 29,9 1,2 21,6 1,8 35,0 1,4 46,8 2,0 * According to the study of the employees’ personal records, the material from the personnel department, only the vertical transfers were recorded when a person occupied a new post, or received another category or rank (for workers). employed as a qualified worker, but it is worth nothing that he had higher education and working experience in the military sphere. The next year he got promoted to a higher post; he became a medium-level manager (bypassing the linear management stage), the latest reorganization brought him the post of deputy director-general. Our studies revealed such career growths, both in the Soviet period and recent time. However, a rather significant difference between the factories has been noticed. Mashzavod has quite a number of such “old” careers, whereas Khimzavod has more new ones. The enterprises that have been studied have good mobility chances for the production personnel due to the specificity of their sphere of work: as we have already noted, both enterprises underwent difficulties when searching for production specialists in the external labour market. That is why both factories deliberately stimulate internal mobility of the main production personnel by introducing specialized programs to stimulate development of these workers: a personnel reserve (Khimzavod) and support for the young employees (Mashzavod). In addition to the vertical mobility, which is rather limited for this category of employees, we can make note of the privileged position of the highly qualified production personnel. They are instructed, so they feel that they are important and valued. As a result, it is the production personnel that are mobile, especially at Khimzavod. Analysis of the database of the personnel department sheds light on some certain tendencies of internal mobility of various categories of employees. The maximum mobility level was noted in the main production sectors of Khimzavod – 70.4 % of the employees of these sectors survived the upheavals of the 2000s. Mashzavod shows a similar tendency but with a bit less mobility – 52.6 % (see Table 1). However, at both factories half of the transfers of workers have to do with ascent. At Khimzavod the system of giving the workers a higher rank is of a regular and systematized nature – each year they go through a planned qualification competence test, which includes a theoretical exam and a task, with their immediate superiors and colleagues giving them references. If the result of the qualification competence test is good they may be given a higher rank: “If you want to raise your qualification level here, you have at least to pass a test. This testing enables you to apply for a higher rank. And of course then you will be paid more” (worker, Khimzavod). # 782 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises Mashzavod has no system of testing qualification competence, but you can apply for a higher rank: “we have a tariff and qualification commission, it gives you a rank and the certain rank of each person is confirmed” (worker, Mashzavod). Here we may point out that in the crisis conditions the ranks rise is not stimulated, it is even impeded. That means that, theoretically, such a possibility does exist, but in practice ranks are not raised: “A test in qualification competence is a motivation: if you go through it you raise your rank and your salary. At present the enterprise has no such possibility. On the contrary, the task is to reduce wages” (head of personnel department, Mashzavod). One more category mobile personnel: the specialists Mashzavod is the place where specialists have good mobility opportunities. One can see a clearly protectionist position towards young specialists there. This trend is a deliberate policy, which began to show itself in the early 2000s, when ageing of personnel at the enterprise became a problem. It was at that time that the decision to attract and keep young specialists was taken. The management was looking for them among school leavers, a special program to support the young specialists had been created (this fact has already been mentioned). “Rapid” career ascent is a characteristic for young specialists who came to this factory. Here is an example: a manager of construction sector came to the factory while still a student in 2004 as engineer-constructor. Ascent due to his activity and high motivation, he was a good organizer: “the first time I was promoted because… the sector manager that had been here before me needed some kind of administrative help with the interaction issues. He was more of a man of science… so he made me his assistant, so I got a new post, I became a deputy sector manager. After that it all went naturally, I had to look into quite a number of questions, to go to business trips, work with clients, etc.” This example is possibly the most striking, but it is quite typical for enterprises – the 2000s saw a great number of managers being changed. For some of them these transfers turned out to be rather intensive – when the sectors got separated and became branches of the enterprise these people became their directors (as in the case with the electronic advertising sector, the IT sector). It is significant that restructuring opened up new possibilities for specialists’ careers – the sectors were reorganized, some directions of work and the sectors that went with them were developed, they grew in size and it was in these conditions that the young and energetic specialists ascended. However, as the employees thought, this period came to an end very quickly, and at present the “top position” for the specialists is that of a sector manager: “at that period when we had all those reorganizations, there were possibilities for career growth, but now, during the last 2 years… I have a feeling that “the green light” has somehow faded. Actually that’s true, because reorganizations have stopped” (sector manager, Mashzavod). The attitude towards specialists at Khimzavod is quite different – they are not viewed by the management as a social policy priority: we have personnel with a standard qualification – lawyers, accountants. They do not interest us too much at the moment. We are interested in the production personnel” (top manager, Khimzavod). Besides that, there is a practice of hiring sector managers from the outside, the same goes for managers of non-production branches (personnel department, sales department, financial department, etc.). This means that career possibilities for specialists working at the enterprise are from the very start limited because they are excluded from contests to occupy vacant posts of sector managers. The same goes for the sector managers themselves because # 783 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises they see no perspectives of growth. One of the departments of the enterprise may be cited as an example: sector manager, who had been working for the enterprise since 2003, was accepted to the post of manager. Prior to that he had taken part in the reorganization of the factory as a consultant, and was taken on when the work on the project had been over. There are constant changes in the sector staff. The hiring policy is about new specialists without work experience being chosen from the external labour market, so that their pay is low. Nobody does anything to make them more loyal to the enterprise, the management is indifferent to the constant change of employees in the sector: “young girls were taken on as economists, sometimes without any experience whatsoever… their salary was low, but that’s how they learned, they acquired experience. In about three years’ time they quit, some stayed longer, they quit and found better-paid jobs” Thus we see that intrafirm mobility for the specialists at the enterprises that have been studied is quite at variance: at Mashzavod there is a stronger tendency towards internal employment of sector managers and career growth for specialists is stimulated. At Khimzavod, on the other hand, professional ascent for specialists is considerably limited both by the general attitude of the management towards this category of personnel and by the practice of employing sector managers from the outside. The result is clearly seen in the transfer statistics (see Table 2): at Mashzavod. In the 2000s, practically half the specialists changed their posts, with one mobile person having about two transfers. At Khimzavod change of posts was recorded only for a third of the specialists, the average number of transfers being 1.4. It is important to note that for this category of personnel career possibilities are valuable from the professional point of view, and it can be used as criterion for evaluating the place of work, as our research shows: at Mashzavod it is the specialists who are to a great degree satisfied with their work (85 % are satisfied or almost satisfied). At Khimzavod the specialists are less satisfied than the production personnel and the reason they give is low salary and the absence of growth perspectives within the enterprise (this reason was given as the main one by 1/5 of the specialists). Workers of the subsidiary sphere of production are at the periphery of the internal labour market. Both studied enterprises actually do not see this category of personnel as of interest for the personnel policy they pursue. Of course, this category of personnel also has some level of mobility (see Table 1), but it is much lower than in the other sectors, and transfers are usually connected with the fact that tariffs for certain posts become higher, though responsibilities are not much altered due to ascent. To pass over from the structural conditions of intraorganizational mobility to rules and norms that are regulated by the internal labour market, first of all it is necessary to stop on the system of remuneration, of bonuses and their absence. The common factor for both enterprises in this sphere is the differentiation in the ways of fixing incentives for the production and the nonproduction personnel, as well as innovations in the sphere of remunerations that are, by the way, directed towards the solution of certain set tasks. Traditionally, in both factories the workers and the specialists were paid by the hour with a permanent unchangeable part being paid regularly according to the tariff or a person got paid for the post he/she held, plus the bonus. The ratio of the permanent part and the bonus in different sectors was different. What was common for all was that bonuses were paid without the real results of work being taken into account. Bonuses were withheld only if rules of discipline were seriously broken. # 784 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises In the period of adaptation to the new conditions of the market both factories reviewed their methods of payment, this factor mainly concerned the production personnel. The aim had not changed – the quality of work still served as an incentive, but organizationally the two factories solved it in different ways. Khimzavod is introducing the KPI system, a system of indexes, which helps to differentiate the amount of the bonus: “quality, output, wastes and discipline, before we had simply the bonus. The amount depended on the output and what was agreed upon when they took you on, for this category you got so much, for that one that much” (foreman, Khimzavod). The new system of pay changes the relations within the internal labour market, because it leads to greater economic inequality. Theoretically, now the worker can influence the level of his/her remuneration. But there is a disadvantage: most of the workers don’t understand what this new system of payment is all about. At any rate right now only 1/3 of the workers in the main production sphere (linear managers, mostly) can definitely say that they understand it. On one hand, the situation is typical when innovations are introduced, on the other hand, the system is really complicated – there are several indexes, each of them having its own significance for the amount the bonuses amount. In other words, its transparency and convenience, so obvious to the managers, is incomprehensible to the workers and their perception of it as being fair is still a big question. When the new system of payment was introduced at Khimzavod, the deprived category of employees was again the specialists. They do not feel that their salary depends on the results of their work: “we have always had a system of fi xed payment, last year they decided to work out a system of motivation for each post, they thought a bit and worked it out, but it has not been introduced” (manager of economic department, Khimzavod). Most specialists (actually one in four) feel that their pay does not correspond to their qualification and the effort they put into their work. One exception is the sales department where the motivation system is clearly defined: “we all have corporate bonuses that are aimed at definite set tasks. In addition to corporate bonuses, we all like to go bowling, which is also a part of it” (sales manager, Khimzavod). Bonuses for top managers include the corporate share (if the sales plan has been fulfilled by 96 %), and a part of the bonus is for your personal gains – participation in projects, for example. Besides, combining posts is stimulated, so are refresher courses, knowledge of English, etc. Starting from the 2000s Mashzavod has also tried to connect the workers’ wages in the main production sphere to the quality of their labour. Actually the system is very simple – you might be deprived of your bonus if there are problems with quality of the commodities produced, a fact that is registered by the Section of Technical Control, or if the clients complain. “Our bonus is practically 40 % of our wages, 20 % of which is for the production plan and some other functions, and 20 % is for quality. People have got so used to it that it is almost like set wages, something you get automatically. People are very seldom deprived of their bonus, as a rule… it’s either the product does not pass technical control or the client does not accept it, when it happens that the workers are punished” (production manager, Mashzavod). That is, the system of paying bonuses to workers does not add any differentiations in wages to the traditional one where wages are set according to the rank. But here, as in some other fields, Mashzavod has a non-formalized system, which is a fund for bonuses with the bonuses being distributed by the direct manager of the worker. “We are allowed to use a small part of the # 785 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises whole volume of production. That is, we send the made product to the warehouse, the percentage is counted, and we are, say, given 30 000 rubles, so we use this money to pay for the overtime and other motivations are compensated this way as well” (production manager, Mashzavod). Until recent time, the specialists used to have a similar system of receiving bonuses, but in 2009 it was changed in the non-production sectors and now it depends on the work results: 20 % is for corporate results, that is, whether or not the factory has received any financial assets; 10 % for the results the sector has achieved, which actually means that the work at hand is to be done thoroughly and evenly, without interruptions. To speak the truth, this type of bonus system does not stimulate anyone, it is an undercover to lower the salary of the specialists in crisis conditions when the sales are not too high. That is how quite a number of specialists see it: “the factory managers are deprived of bonuses more often than are the production personnel. And mind that they use indexes that they can’t really influence. That is how the bonus system with sales as the criterion looks: quite a number of people are “tied” to them, they can’t exert any influence on the amount that is sold” (manager of economics department, Mashzavod). Thus, at the stage of reorganization, which we call “adaptation to the market”, both factories began to change their system of payment and bonuses, while trying to solve the problem of quality control of the goods produced and (secondly) to stimulate the personnel. On the whole, the system of payment becomes more market-oriented as it starts to depend on whether or not the client is satisfied, as well as on the sales. As the other issues are concerned, Khimzavod follows the path of maximum formalization and systematization of the process. At Khimzavod a lot remains on the level of “manual” management and depends on medium-level managers. Both factories, however, don’t have enough time to put their innovations into practice, partly due to the crisis, and partly due to the negative way the personnel views the changes. As a result, the switchover to new payment methods does not in effect exert any influence on the development of the internal labour market. Changes in payment exert much greater influence on internal mobility – it is this factor that is viewed by the employees as a rise in status, as positive dynamics. As it was shown in the survey of the enterprises personnel, almost all employees of the factories noticed a rise in wages during the last three years. At Khimzavod the peak was reached in 2007. This year was the last when a mass planned 15 % increase in pay actually took place – this system was in action for quite a number of years, but in 2008 it was cancelled. Nothing has taken place yet and there is no total increase of wages, there are only individual changes in the level of payment that accompany the movement up the professional “staircase” (see Table 2). Mashzavod has a totally different situation. Wages are never raised en masse at the factory. It does sometimes happen that wages are increased for some sectors, which the employees think is a rise for everyone, because they usually compare what they get with what their nearest colleagues get. It is only the sector managers who know the mechanism of wage increases, which in the long run depends on the personal decision of the director-general: that is, here again we come across the combination of the authoritarian style of management and of attempts to introduce some market-oriented principles of management. “It all happens thanks to me, I am the initiator, I write a note in which I ask to consider the possibility. In a talk with the head engineer I explain everything, why it is so. The head engineer either supports me or says that it’s of no use now, because it is impossible, which means that we put it off till the # 786 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises Table 2. The reason for payment increase – the result of workers’ survey; the percentage of those who claim that there was an increase. Khimzavod Mashzavod Raising of rank 20,3 2,7 Raising of position 9,5 10,7 Increase in wages for the good quality of my work (rank or position not raised) Payment increase for everyone 10,8 16,0 52,7 61,3 Other reasons 6,7 9,3 Total 100 100 right moment comes. If there is an opportunity, we ask the director-general to make the final decision” (production manager, Mashzavod). In 2008 quite a number of sectors got an increase in payment according to this principle. At the same time individuals could get a rise if the manager put in a word for them, it could be for some work done or on the initiative of the worker if they have the courage to speak up for themselves (of course, this can be done only by the employees who know what they worth). We have come across such cases in our study as well. Specialists, workers and managers may be cited as examples here. Thus, employees of both factories more often noted increases in wages en masse (“everyone got a rise”). A payment increase for some personal achievements is seldom recorded. At Khimzavod in the last few years such an increase was given to many workers of the main sector, along with the rank rise. At Mashzavod a rise in payment as a result of ascent or for personal achievements was felt only by the managers (60 % of this group), and much less by the specialists (1/3 of the group). At Khimzavod, besides the managers, a rise in payment as encouragement of personal achievement was noted only by the sales specialists. But on the whole the employees do not feel that this differentiation in payment is just. At Mashzavod only 15 %, and at Khimzavod only 20 % consider the pay for the work they do adequate to the effort they exert and to their qualification. The problem of whether the employees think that they are fairly paid or not, and whether they are fairly promoted is very important for the formation of the feeling of satisfaction by the work that is done, and for loyalty to the enterprise. One may notice a discrepancy in the way norms are reconsidered, those norms that regulate social mobility along the axis of income. Khimzavod, at least on the level of declarations, is oriented towards stimulation of individual results, the activeness of the workers. Now that it has rejected the system of social benefits, and almost all the non-material incentives of stimulating the employees, differentiated system of payment for the work done and a transparent set-up for increasing pay definitely must be introduced. However, at present nothing of the sort is happening for most categories of workers (the only exceptions are managers and sales departments). Meanwhile Mashzavod still retains the system of social benefits, and is, on the whole, oriented towards the patronizing attitude to the personnel, and logically speaking it should have retained a uniform system of payment and a planned increase of wages en masse. But it # 787 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises Activity of intraorganizational mobility within various periods of the factories development (1998-2009). Analysis of the personal, material from the personnel department. With the change of post, category or rank (for workers) only vertical ascent has been recorded is here that increase in wages to a great degree depends on the initiative of the worker himself or his manager, though the final decision, quite in the patronizing key, is made personally and at the moment considered right by the director-general. Here we can come to the conclusion that restructuring influences the internal labour market and intraorganizational mobility is intensified more thanks to structural transformations, and not due to a targeted personnel policy. Processes of intraorganizational mobility are strengthened mainly in the periods when important technological and organizational changes take place, though they always lag behind in time. At Khimzavod internal mobility increased in 2005, a year after some new equipment had been installed. A typical career during technological innovations period: a man came to the factory in 2005 as a qualified worker, learned working with the new equipment. Production processes developed, new people came and they had to be taught: “people came, my experience grew, new, less experienced people came, automatically I became their supervisor. Then there appeared the post of colour matcher, we had no ranks then. The managers thought up ranks for us, then they came up with the senior colour matcher, then I became a colour matcher manager, that is the foreman of the sector”. At present our protagonist works as the sector foreman, this last promotion took place in 2008, during the period of highest mobility rate at the enterprise. This period may be designated as organizational restructuring of production processes. An example of career growth at that period: a man came to the factory in 2003 as an apprentice worker, with higher education and work experience on various posts, in a year became head of the shift (this may be related to the first period). He quit in 2005, went over to a rival company and received a much higher post, in 2006 came back as a shift manager, in early 2009 was appointed as a manager of one of the production branches. “For me it was a surprise, I couldn’t even imagine… How did it happen? My manager asked me and another fellow to come up to his office. We were shown in and he said – so and so, gentlemen, the party lays its hope on you… Where did those who headed this sector go, I don’t know. And I’m not really interested. What I have to do is to produce a good product, no wastes” At Mashzavod mobility began in 1999, a fact that may be tied to change of director-general and transfers of managers and the formation of a new team. The second stage of mobility was in 2003 when organizational restructuring began, which turned the enterprise into a holding. Finally, a noticeable increase of ascent took place in 20072008, which was connected with the development # 788 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises of new trends and diversification of production. We have already mentioned one of the examples of career growth in these years – the career of a young specialist, manager of the construction department. To note, the factor that helped to promote him was his active participation in bringing a new trend to a commercial level, his ability to set up relations with clients. An example of a career of the first period: an employee came to the factory with higher education and work experience as a deputy manager of a sector. In 1.5-2 years of work the production manager in the main production shop was dismissed and our protagonist was asked to occupy this post. “He [the former manager], most probably had done something the director didn’t like, or his qualifications were wrong and he was asked to leave. Then they decided to try me… Why I was chosen, I don’t know. I think it was just that I happened to be at hand” (production manager of the construction subsector, Mashzavod). As we see, examples taken from Mashzavod and from Khimzavod are very similar. In the situation when production is developed and technological transformations take place, those people who take active part in the innovations and can switch over to new formats of work are promoted. In situations of structural, organizational and managing transformations the most important thing is, obviously, education, training, work experience, management included, even outside the enterprise. The impression is made that the factor of “a new man” is important, one that is not related to the previous managing team, but is loyal to the enterprise. The specific feature of Mashzavod is that they have a team of top managers consisting of only a few members, but their internal mobility is very high – they are periodically “switched over” to take responsibility for new, often numerous problems and trends. Here is one very good example: at present the deputy director-general for production сame together with the new director-general from his old place of work. He used to work as a manager of sales department. Then, when sales began to grow, he became in charge for leasing territory, then our protagonist was appointed the head accountant (having no financial or economic education), then the head of personnel department, then again – back into the production process This example (it is not the only one) clearly shows that the factor of loyalty to the enterprise and personally to the director-general was the key one, as well as his ability to work in the team and carry out all kinds of managerial tasks. Conclusion Western sociology has come up with several models of intrafirm mobility, these models of mobility depending on the rules and norms that determine the ascent of employees within the enterprise. Turner (Turner, 1960) pointed out two types of intraorganizational mobility: contest with its competition of experience and abilities on equal terms to occupy the next higher post, and the protectionist or sponsored one, when leaders are discerned very early and their chances of ascent within the organization increase. Rosenbaum (Rosenbaum, 1984), who developed these ideas and partly combined the models, offered a “tournament model”, the essence of which is that a career within the organization is based on the principle of “a drop-out competition”, where everyone has equal chance in the first stage, but the next stages are only for those who “win” the previous ones. That is, the higher post you occupy, the more important is the experience of the previous successful positional ascents. The present study shows the realization of both the protectionist and the contest models of activity within the organization. Recruitment to the top management posts in all cases has a protectionist character – loyalty # 789 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises to the enterprise and to the director-general personally turns out to be important criteria of selection at both enterprises (which, of course, does not exclude their being professionals, but it certainly limits the opportunity of vertical ascent for most employees). This type of model for employing “top” managers is fully initiated by the directors-general who, on the one hand, want to make way for all innovations and, on the other, it helps them feel more secure in the situation of the risky Russian capitalism. As for the general tendencies of intraorganizational mobility and of transfers to positions of linear and medium-level management, in the period when enterprises had to survive, as we think, the contest model is clearly discerned. Partly because the benefits that accompanied ascent in the mid-1990s were minimal, those who ascended, in essence, were those who were ready to work in the severe conditions and were loyal to the enterprise. The chances are actually equal. This model has been realized in Khimzavod since 2004, when active introduction of new equipment puts the employees in practically equal situations – nobody knows how to work with the new equipment and the person who shows more interest, flexibility and aptitude towards learning is the one who gets promoted. This model is partly retained in the following period of adaptation to the market and development when the organizational structure is transformed, when initiative and (to a lesser degree) experience are valued. But here we see that elements of protectionism come to the fore in relation to some employees (it is graphically seen in Mashzavod), because in the period of innovations the most important factor is the employee’s loyalty to the enterprise and to the top management. Here we see a the tournament model – those who have shown themselves to be the best in their previous work ascend quicker, then they ascend for the second time. The protectionist model of mobility is manifested in conditions when there is a deficit in the labour market and it is introduced into the personnel policy of factories deliberately. Here we mean the program of young specialists’ support at Mashzavod and the program of personnel reserve at Khimzavod. Those categories of personnel that are important for the development of the enterprise are being promoted purposefully. The suitable people are taken note of at the moment when they are still rank-and-file, thus they are given chances of mobility. Today at Mashzavod where the program has been in progress for several years already, we can see examples of successful career ascent of young specialists whom the protectionist policy helps to keep in the enterprise and helps make them loyal to the factory. At Khimzavod there are as yet no examples of career ascent of representatives of the “personnel reserve”, but, obviously, it is a matter of time, because the program has only just been introduced. Analysis of transformations in the personnel management of industrial enterprises in conditions of transitional economy lets us suppose that the models of intraorganizational mobility do not fully depend on changes in the external labour market, demand and supply dynamics or cost of manpower in the economy of the region. To a much greater degree the logic of development of the internal labour market is determined by administratively fixed formal and informal rules, the practice of labour relations that have formed within the enterprise. References D. Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books, 1973. # 790 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria G. Burlutskaya. Intraorganizational Mobility in Post-Soviet Enterprises J. Bartunek, Zhi Huang, I. Walsh, The development of a process model of collective turnover. Human Relations. January 1, 61: 5-38. 2008. M.D. Burton, C. Beckman, Leaving a Legacy: Position Imprints and Successor Turnover in Young Firms. American Sociological Review. April vol. 72, 2: 239-266. 2007. P. Doeringer, M. Piore, Internal Labour Markets and Manpower Analysis. Lexington: Heath, 1971. K.U. Mayer, R. Carroll Glenn, Jobs and classes: structural constraints on career mobility. European Sociological Review, Vol. 3 No. 1. 1987. J.C. McElroy, P. Morrow, E.J. Muller, Intraorganizational mobility and work related attitudes. Journal of organizational behavior, vol. 17, 363-374. 1996. J.E. Rosenbaum, Career mobility in a corporate hierarchy. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press. Schein, E. H. 1984. R. Turner, Modes of social ascent through education: Sponsored and contest mobility. American Sociological Review, 25: 855-867. 1960. Внутриорганизационная мобильность на постсоветских предприятиях М.Г. Бурлуцкая Уральский государственный педагогический университет Россия 620017, Екатеринбург, пр. Космонавтов, 26 В статье рассматриваются процессы внутриорганизационной мобильности на разных стадиях реструктуризации постсоветских предприятий. Статья написана на базе кейс-стади на двух уральских заводах и рассматривает предприятие как институт мобильности. В центре внимания – изменения должностной структуры и правил продвижения в ней (как формальных, так и неформальных), которые меняются в ходе адаптации предприятия к рынку. Как показало наше исследование, модели внутренней мобильности предприятия, развитие внутреннего рынка лишь отчасти зависят от изменений на внешнем рынке труда, динамики спроса и предложения и стоимости рабочей силы в экономике региона. В гораздо большей степени логику развития внутреннего рынка труда определяют формальные, административно закрепленные и неформальные правила, практики трудовых отношений, сложившиеся на предприятиях. Мы обнаружили, что на предприятиях реализуется протекционистская и конкурентная модели мобильности. Рекрутирование на позиции топ-менеджмента во всех случаях носит протекционистский характер. Что касается внутриорганизационной мобильности в целом, то в кризисные периоды преобладает конкурентная модель, в периоды развития и стабильности начинает проявляться и все более распространяться потекционизм или, как вариант, модель турнира. Авторы благодарят Европейскую комиссию за финансовую поддержку, предоставленную в рамках проекта «Экономические и социальные последствия реструктуризации в России и Украине». Ключевые слова: внутриорганизационная мобильность, внутрифирменная мобильность, внутренний рынок труда, профессиональная мобильность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 792-804 ~~~ УДК 168.522 + 323.1 Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova* Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, SB, Russian Academy of Sciences 6 Sakhyanovoi, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The paper presents the findings of research that constitutes a part of a larger project titled “Buryat Ethnicity in the Context of Sociocultural Modernization”. This is the first time scholars studying Buryatia have undertaken such a comprehensive research on the question of the relationship between the Buryat ethnic consolidation integration and sociocultural modernization. The complex methodological principles introduce new ground for scientific discourse to analyze the processes of national-cultural revival far beyond the Buryat topic. The research of ethnopolitical processes analyzes: (i) elites’ activities directed at re-ethnicization; (ii) coexistence and opposition of national (ethnic) and Russian (civil) identities by placing ethnicity in the first place within the hierarchy of ideological, public, and individual identities; construction of a so-called boundary identity that implies a separation from Russia and an affinity for other historical and cultural groups; and (iii) identification of distinct stages in discourses of ethnicity. The authors argue that sociopolitical discourses in Buryatia are ethnonationalist and ethnoregional with simultaneous recognition that political processes among Buryats occur in the conditions of recognized identification within Russia, which nevertheless loses in competing with ethnic identity. Keywords: Nationalism; ethnicity; re-ethnicization; historical and cultural memory; desecularization Introduction In the last two decades sociopolitical changes in Russia have produced new social practices and national consolidation construction efforts made by the members of the Buryat intellectual elite. Today, the preservation of Buryat national culture has become a key political issue in the agenda of de-ethnicization of the state structure. The ethnic elite is expecting inevitable assimilation and loss of cultural values. Our goal is to identify the forms of Buryat ethnic elites’ constructing ideologems/mythologems to * 1 maintain ideas of history and culture that serve as a base for national consolidation in public imagination. At present, Buryat sociocultural modernization includes active reconstruction of the Buryat community according to some principles based on ethnic kinship. Such reconstruction is marked by materials and instruments of ideological discourse as a subject of history (especially the historical commonalities that exist among Mongolian peoples); the territory corresponding to those historical commonalities Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 792 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation (and legitimizing indigenous ethnic rights); traditional culture (mainly, Buddhism and Buryat language as the principal conditions for re-ethnicization); ethnic consolidation; and preserving and strengthening the political status of Buryats1 within the Russian Federation. Materials and Methods In the present work we employ materials from relevant scientific and public discussions, such as the proceedings of the All-Buryat Congresses (1991, 1996, 2003 and 2006), roundtables on the problems of Buryat statehood (UOBAD, 2003; Ulan-Ude, 2005), pronouncements made at conferences, including one called “The Tragic Date in Buryat History” (Ulan-Ude, 2005); editorials and letters published in such newspapers as Buryatia (1992-2005), Molodezh Buryatii (1993-2005) Ugaim zam (2003-2005) etc., materials from the Archive of the All-Buryat Association for Culture Development, as well as scientific and popular literature and various cultural events, both religious and secular. The research applies the constructivist paradigm methodology (Anderson, 1991; Barth, 1969; Cohen, 2000; Gellner, 1983; Smith, 1986) of contemporary social and political anthropology in combination with the system principle of social processes. According to the constructivist paradigm, we understand ethnicity as “a continuing ascription which classifies a person in terms of their most general and inclusive identity, presumptively determined by origin and background as well as a form of social organization maintained by inter-group boundary mechanisms, based not on possession of a cultural inventory but on manipulation of identities and their situational character” (Barnard and Spencer, 2003: 192). This approach focuses on the situational and contextual character of ethnicity to make a clearer understanding of such political dimensions as the formation of inter-group relations, political mobilization and social stratification. While constructivism satisfies the needs of our research on contemporary Buryat ethno-ideology more than any other theoretical framework, we still cannot accept its concept of “an imagined community” completely with the reference to the historically developed ethnos. At present, ethnos, even of a speculative and “imagined” form exists due to the cultural and political circumstances. Therefore, we place ourselves in the position of moderate constructivism. Besides, modern investigations in culture, even regarding its politicization, need semiological approach in combination with the structural method (Lotman, 2001). Results As sociopolitical changes in Russia within the last two decades gave birth to a wide array of new social practices, Buryat intellectuals began mobilizing efforts to reconstruct and revive Buryat identity. An important issue at stake for these elites is developing the idea of the Buryats as a specific ethnic group, a process largely shaped by the rejection of Soviet- era politics and experiences. As a result, when constructing Buryat identity today, national intellectual elites use longer-term historical paradigms for selfidentification. Recent sociological studies aiming to measure ethnic identity in Buryatia demonstrate in what way the elites are producing and mobilizing ethnicity for the purposes of nationalcultural revival. One sociologist, comparing the studies she had conducted in the Ust’-Orda Buryat autonomous district in 1990 and 1997, noted that in response to the question “who am I?” none of respondents specified an ethnic form of belonging in the first round of the survey, while in 1997 “Buryat” category appeared in # 793 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation the responses of a quarter of those questioned (Yelayeva, 1999: 61-62). We contend that the increasing importance of ethnicity on the scale of identity preferences results from the intentional efforts of national intellectual elutes to mobilize ethnicity. The Buryat national movement actively formulates common interests and constructs boundaries of ethnicity, by which we mean ethnic indicators used as symbols of group identification: “In the beginning of the 1990s, the All-Buryat Congress established the preconditions for ethnic consolidation under the new circumstances. The following tasks were put forward as significant for ethnic revival: strengthening the sovereignty of the Republic, strengthening the sense of shared history and connection with the Mongol world, revealing and reviving the richness of the national culture, art, language, and national consciousness … In the search for a national idea, attempts were undertaken to create new theories … Modified ideas of ‘pan-Mongolism’ were revived as a foundation for political tasks. However, the leaders of the Buryat revival mainly focused on the ideas about the past. Reflecting upon the future is an unusual occurrence” (Yelayev, 2000: 308). Buryat intellectuals are actively involved in developing a way of supporting and preserving Buryat ethnic identity, creating an image of the ethnic group, forming ethnic stereotypes, and identifying attitudes towards such a phenomenon as markers of ethnicity. The reference to cultural traditions is becoming especially important in the creation of a symbolic system distinct from that of the socialist past. Traditional culture and the ethnic paradigm of the Buryat-Mongols serve as the most important resources of ethnic symbolism for constructing the discourse of national-cultural revival. Discussion History in Buryat consolidation: All-Mongolian past, Genghis Khan and his Empire In constructing a modern political ideology, Buryat intellectual elites pay appreciable attention to such concepts as national consciousness, national originality (which implies a connection with culture), and the unity of the Buryat people embodied in the Buryat ethnic name. A wider common Mongolian unity finds its expression in the paradigm Buryat-Mongolia or Buryat-Mongols, which links Buryatia to wider understanding of Central-Asian civilization, which the Baikal area is recognized to be an integral part of, and which is based on notions of common origin (“consanguinity”) and common territory (“native ground”), in a recognizable ‘Blut und Boden’ theme. Buryat scholars keep debating over the historical development of Buryat culture, with the ideological dividing line between those who emphasize the historical contingency and social constructions at work in the development of Buryat ethnicity, and those who posit the existence of a primordial Buryat nation. In our opinion, the professional academic point of view on this phenomenon was set forward by T. M. Mikhailov, who argues: “The ethnic and geopolitical understanding of the terms Buryat and Buryatia arose in the modern and contemporary periods. During the Mongolian period of our history (from the 12th to the first half of the 17th century), Zabaikal and Prebaikal were a part of the Mongolian state, and during the time of the Khan and his descendants they became core components of the Empire. There was no such thing as Buryat nationhood. … The sense that ‘we are Buryats’ did not arise all at once. However, over the course of 150-200 years, as a result of the formation # 794 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation of a completely new culture and social psychology, … the ethnic label ‘Buryat,’ with the active cooperation of the Russian state, became a symbol of the coming together of an entity and a political slogan” (Mikhailov, 1996: 18-19). While Mikhailov acknowledges the social and political factors at work in the construction of a Buryat identity, many other contemporary Buryat intellectuals strive to establish the most historically remote ethnogenesis possible, driven by ethnic ideology that symbolically links authenticity with “roots” and “ancientness.” For this reason, Mongolian history is preferable to Buryat history proper. The powerful importance of time for ethnic ideology means, first of all, constructing a “great history,” because as P. Chatterjee said, “a nation, as nationalists believe, must have a past” (cited by Kaplonski, 2004: 119). In this context, the revitalization of the Buryat-Mongols name attains special, instrumental meaning with the beginning of Perestroika, when the Buryat-Mongols/BuryatMongolia paradigm was reintroduced, marking a new stage of identity construction. This paradigm corresponds to the problem of national consolidation and revival of the spiritual culture of the Buryat people. The information statement, “About the name the Buryat-Mongol Republic,” submitted in 1991 by the Scientific Council of the Buryat Institute of Social Studies to the leaders of the Republic, asserts: “…all Mongolian peoples have a common ancient culture, rooted in the CentralAsian civilization, and had a common writing system – the classical, so-called old-Mongolian vertical script. Mongolian scholars have always stated that BuryatMongolian culture and the Buryat-Mongolian language should develop on the base of a traditional, common Mongolian foundation, for being separated from it they will lose their prospect for development.... We think that in everyday use, in press and literature, such ethnic labels as “Buryat” and “BuryatMongols” can be used similarly, however our Republic should carry the traditional name, Buryat-Mongolian” (Bring back the name, 1998: 11, 13, 14). At present, the name Buryat-Mongols carries a particular symbolic impotrance. This is connected to the fact that it became a symbol of national revival when it was officially recognized for the first time as a marker of state formation (of the Republic), being formed on the basis of a widely shared ethno-territorial unit including Pribaikalye and Transbaikalia that had come into being in the post-revolutionary years, to be precise, in 1924. The concept of a unified ethnicity of Buryat-Mongols is a key component of the discourse of national and cultural revival, and the Buryat Institute of Social Studies has argued that restoring the name of the Republic is one of the most important goals: “We consider that the reintroduction of the traditional name, the eternal name of ‘Buryat-Mongolia,’ would enable the following positive tendencies, which we have noticed in the freeing-up the traditions and the culture of our ancestors, not only in our Republic but in other autonomous areas: playing an important role in the spiritual rebirth and consolidation of our people, in the future journey of the Mongol peoples on the paths of democracy, and in the social progress and harmony of civilization” (ibid., 13). The emphasis made on the eternal character of the name, which only became a historical fact in 1923, focuses our attention on the sacramentalising nature of this name. It has the magical ability to organize the country, locating the Republic within concentrically larger entities emanating from the center to the periphery: # 795 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation from our Republic – the autonomous okrug – to our people – the Mongol people – to human civilization (ibid.). As we can see, the Buryat – Mongolia paradigm, as one level of ethnic loyalty, has found its place in a number of hierarchies of national/ethnic loyalties in modern Buryat political culture. Due to the revitalization of “Blut und Boden” ideas connecting Buryats and Mongols, the discussion of national ‘belonging’ has been given a prominent place in newspaper publications and articles within the last decade. One primordialist writer, Professor Chagdurov, Doctor of Philology, applied anthropomorphizing imagery to Buryatia and Mongolia, as he lamented that current regimes continue to limit the national revival: “… the paradox … is that within the power structures of Buryatia and Russia, a primordial ethnic group (Mongols by blood) has not been allowed to be named legally by the names of mother and father simultaneously – as Buryat-Mongol, as it had been before July 7, 1958, even though it would be more ethical for those who hold power in the Republic of Buryatia, including those who represent the interests of the majority of its population, to dare to return to the native ethnicity its mother name” (Chagdurov, 2003: 52). Notably, leaders of the modern national cultural revival do not try to revive panMongolism as a political project, a source of major anxiety for Soviet and presently Russian leaders. The key question for Buryat leaders concerns emphasizing shared national cultural features. As Chimitdorzhiyev stated: “We think that restoration of the primordial name (Buryat-Mongolia) will open up certain opportunities for reviving and deepening the national basis of our language and culture as a whole... Having restored the Buryat-Mongol name, we will recognize that the Buryats had an ancient culture that was created together with other Mongolian peoples. This act will promote wider contacts between them, and will strengthen their friendship and cooperation, first of all, in the field of culture and language” (Chimitdorzhiyev, 1991: 50). Legitimating the primordial rights of the Buryat ethnicity is fi rst and foremost based on the idea of “ancient” and “privatized” history. This assumption can be seen in publications which recommend, for example “paying closer attention to the Sayan-Baikal region as the most probable and most ancient fatherland of the Mongols” (Angarkhayev, 2003: 70), or to consider the probability that the native land of Genghis Khan is ethnic Buryatia (Damdinov, 2003: 72-75). Another arena in which attempts are made to prove the antiquity of the Buryats concerns evidence regarding their participation in the workings of the Mongol Empire. This argument relies on inaccurate re-definitions of the meanings of the terms ethnicity and territory, insofar as these researchers claim that the ethnic group (Buryats) were from the start spread over their modern territory. For example, “The Buryat lands in the Baikal area (Bagrudzhim-Tukum) were, both in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, drawn into the unified Mongol state –first of Khan and later into the Mongol kingdom of the Lesser Khans” (Chimitdorzhiev, 1996: 60). This formulation, published in 1996, was later developed and re-stated in the following form: “Our ancestors – the Buryat tribes and their forefathers –became, early in the Middle Ages, a single ethnic body along with other Mongol tribes. They lived in the northern reaches of the Mongol world in the country of Bargudzhin-Tukum, on both sides of Lake Baikal” (Chimitdorzhiev, 2000: 32). # 796 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation The establishment of the Buryat-Mongol/ Buryat-Mongolia paradigm in contemporary discourses of national-cultural revival becomes an essential part of historical and cultural practices, and the restoration of the joined Buryat-Mongol name is closely connected with demands for recognizing Buryats as a repressed people. If the central authorities agreed to return the former name, they would nearly automatically acknowledge that the partition of the republic in 1937 was illegal; this in turn could bring about the further escalation of nationalist agitation. The possibility of establishing such a precedent is considered dangerous, because irredentist feelings were rather strong among many (if not all) ethnic minorities in Russia. Genghis Khan Genghis Khan occupies a particularly prominent place in the discourse of national cultural revival, linking together the great state of the past with a cultural hero of Buryat ethnic ideology. For Buryats’ historical and national consciousness as well as for Mongols’, the image of Genghis Khan is one of the major “national” images. Certainly, Genghis Khan is represented as a quintessential cultural hero: from demiurge – the creator of the new (fair) world and mankind – to the creator of writing, as mentioned above. His birth was connected with Sky Signs and symbols of the Mongol Empire that occupied a significant part of Eurasia. In the historical and cultural discourses, increasing importance is given to the correlation of Buryat history with the history of the Mongolian Empire. Professor of Philosophy I. S. Urbanayeva emphasizes Genghis Khan’s full realization of his goals and his purposefulness: “… the great steppe reformer consciously cultivated the Central-Asian tradition that he reflected … to provide unity to his world and to introduce order in it, corresponding to the concept of Man and human self-respect” (Urbanayeva, 1995: 214). Urbanayeva further characterizes the Yasa, or collected laws, rules, and words of wisdom, as the mechanism through which Genghis Khan tried “to return the lost order, to restore the Great Truth … to put people on the right road” (ibid.: 206). The globalizing importance of Genghis Khan is emphasized by the archaeologist, B.B. Dashibalov, a Doctor of History whose words echoed the quotation above, in some places verbatim. In our view, such repetition serves the purpose of creating a sense of reality, much as incantation: “But Genghis Khan belongs to the whole world. He cannot be only Chinese, Mongolian, Kazakh or Buryat; he was outside of ethnic frameworks. Mongols of the 13th century were carriers of the idea of Eurasianism, they destroyed isolation, stagnation of consciousness, religious intolerance and created open Eurasian space and a planetary worldview. The enormous state of Genghis Khan existed for more than 200 years because its inhabitants found validity, law and order” (Makhachkeyev, 2003: 15). The destruction that inevitably results from aggressive wars is interpreted as preparation for the transition to a new stage: “During these intrusions they – the ancestors of our native peoples of the republic – not only destroyed countries higher than their own (“more civilized settled lands”. – S.Ch.), the centres of civilizations of Iran, China and other Christian, Islamic and Buddhist countries, but also restored everything, erecting on the ruins of what had been destroyed a more effective state and political system, a steadier economy, a more capacious culture” (Chagdurov, 2003: 48-49). This allows the author to name the Mongolian Empire the “Golden Age” of the history of mankind. A common topic of such claims is the civilizing function of Genghis Khan, who is said to have ordered the space of Eurasia: “In conquering peoples, he, first and foremost introduced into the conquered # 797 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation territories order and justice, and forbid robbery of the enemy, under penalty of death” (Choibonov, 2003: 242). Such discourses, we argue, exemplify the mythologizing of history – an ideological use of Genghis Khan aimed at constructing a new cosmos of ethnic space. Representatives of the creative elite – unsatisfied with the results of scholarly work – actively include themselves into the process of modelling the Mongolian Empire as their “own” space by placing it in the modern territories inhabited by Buryats. A member of the Union of Writers in Russia, A. Gatapov, places the birthplace of Alan-Goa (whose youngest son, Bodonchar, was Genghis Khan’s ancestor), not on the whole territory around Baikal, but in a valley of the Barguzin river – a site with highly evocative symbolic value, for it is considered the location from where the Buryat civilization had originated in ancient times, from where the genetic kinship with Mongols and especially with the Golden Clan of Genghis Khan had stemmed (Gatapov, 2003: 6). There are numerous examples of what Hobsbawm famously titled the “invention of tradition” in regards to putative ancient connections between Genghis Khan and Buryat lands. Much of this occurs as historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and other experts focus extensive attention on questions concerning the origin of the Mongols – the territory they came from, their genetic and cultural roots, the boundaries of their nomadic dispersion and settlement, etc. What is known is that they first appeared in the territory of present-day Mongolia not earlier than the 9th10th centuries (or later). Specialists in Mongolian history are very careful in these issues, especially in the use of terminology, because the term Mongol most likely did not exist at that time. However, for the discourse of ethnopolitical revival, scientific assumptions and discussions are easily swept aside; defenders of the nation find it much more productive to present suppositions as facts. A notable issue is how the contemporary division of Buryats in geographically distinct regions plays into narratives regarding the origin of Mongols. Buryats are divided into Western (Predbaikalskiye) and Eastern (Transbaikalian) communities, and the ‘western” version of Mongolian ethnogenesis has become so important in both pan-Mongolian and internal Buryat contexts. Thus, nationalist activists claim that it was the territory of ethnic Buryatia where the legendary land of ancestors of all the Mongols – known as Ergune-Kun – was situated. For example, A.L. Angarhaev privatizes Genghis Khan by connecting him with the Buryat lands, arguing that Ergune-Kun is the Irkut river (a main tributary of the Angara, a single river that flows from Lake Baikal). This connection between the ancient name and the familiar river on Buryat lands that enables him to establish the shared quality of Buryat/Mongol “blood and soil” (Angarkhayev, 2003: 69). In contrast, Professor I.S. Urbanayeva connects this historical locality with the valley of the Selenga River (Urbanayeva, 1995: 194). The journalist C. Gomboin has been the most consistent spokesperson of the idea that Genghis Khan belonged to the ethnic Buryats. Referring to the statement of his grandfather, he insists that Genghis Khan was both born and buried “on the river Onon near the mountain DelyunBoldok, in the Yikhe-Aral locality” (Gomboin, 2002: 49), situated in the territory of the Aga Buryat autonomous district (Chita region). As authoritative evidence of his view, he cites legends that still exist in the Aga Buryat autonomous district. “From Esukei … in 1160 on the bank of Onon, a little bit higher than the village Chindat (Shindan), at the bottom of Delyun-Boldok Mountain that is three versts from the Kuchuyev sentry, the great Temuchin, subsequently known under the name Genghis Khan, was born. # 798 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation According to the legend, Transbaikalia is the native land of Genghis Khan” (ibid.). Localizing Yikh-khorig in the territory of Buryatia is an important step in the development of the idea of shared “blood and soil.” Burial places of outstanding ancestors (forefathers) are of great importance in the sacralisation of space. Ancestors connect all parts of the cosmos in space and time from their position in the centre of the cosmological model of the world. As a result of such spatial constructions, the sacred centre of the Mongolian Empire is connected with the territory of Buryatia. B.B. Dashibalov, citing for added authority the respected archaeologist Kiselyov, provides an illustrative example of this: “Can we can say that Genghis Khan was a Buryat? It is necessary to note at once that the Buryat people in today’s form did not exist at that time. There were tribes of Khori-Mongols, Bulagachins (Bulagats) and Keremuchins (Ekherits), which became a part of the Buryat ethnicity. These facts permit us to answer the question under discussion affirmatively. Yes, he was a Buryat! <…> Genghis Khan was born among Khori Mongols who had been wandering on the banks of the river Onon since ancient times. The archaeologist and Corresponding member S.V. Kiselyov specified as the place of his birth the natural border of DeljunBoldok in Aga. A similar natural border is also located on the other side of the border in Mongolia, where the Buryats of Khori origin also reside. These two places are located near each other and the border that divides them didn’t exist before. Therefore Genghis Khan can rightfully be named a Buryat” (Makhachkeyev, 2003: 15) This analysis of Genghis Khan’s image in historical and cultural discourses reveals the perceived urgency of both projects underway to reconstruct Buryat collective identity: at stake is the immediate Buryat ethnic-identity, as well as the assertion of a more expanded identity, the Mongol-Buryats, which are often used as synonyms. In both cases, one symbol of identity, Genghis Khan, is used, and transformed as necessary when used in other identity practices. Intellectuals are engaged in an active search to prove that Genghis Khan belonged to the Buryat land and Buryat “blood” as a means of establishing a foundation for unity between the Buryats and Mongols, based on common origins (“consanguinity”) and a common territory (“the native land”), ‘Blut und Boden.’ Culture in the Practice of Ethnic Identity The important role of elite intellectuals in mobilizing the revival of Buryat identity is visible in the frequent use of sociological surveys on the idea of ethnic identity presented to the population. These surveys raise the topic, give it importance, and provide respondents with possible answers regarding the meaning and importance of the Buryat identity. The responses highlight the ways ideas of Buryat revival are focused on a combination of culture, claims of national sovereignty and a vision of ethnic identity based on common origins with the Mongols. In reply to the question, ‘What conditions are now most necessary for the revival of your people?’ slightly more than a half of all questioned chose the ‘revival and development of national culture,’ more than 48 % chose the ‘development of a market economy, broad economic independence,’ and for urban areas the share of this answer constituted 56 %. Yet a significant number of respondents (44 %) chose ‘strengthening independence, the sovereignty of the republic, and control over the use of natural resources’ and about 34 % chose ‘support for language’ (Yelayeva, 1999: 63). # 799 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation Despite some statistical differences caused by distinctions in how the questionnaires were formulated, these surveys enable us to see the hierarchy of identity paradigms through which Buryats construct their ethnicity. According to A.V. Biltrikova, the question “What are your principal associations with the idea of our Buryat people?” yielded the following distribution of responses: 1) the place where I was born – 66 %, 2) our land, territory – 63,2 %, 3) the language of our people – 60,4 %, 4) our past, our history – 55,2 %, 5) our religion – 44,4 %, 6) personal qualities of our people – 42,5 %, 7) the state in which I live – 22,2 % (Biltrikova, 1996: 75). It is notable that the basic concepts deployed to promote national integration by intellectual elites, such as traditional culture, national culture, and ethnic culture, are not precisely defined, and used interchangeably as synonyms. A vivid example of this can be found in a program speech of the former Chairman of the Congress of Buryat people E.M. Yegorov: “The basic goals of the Congress include the restoration of the ethno-cultural foundation of the Buryat people as inhabitants of that vital environment which daily feeds us… I think that the intellectual centre of the Congress should accumulate values of traditional culture of our people, revive its symbols, achievements of science, philosophy, ethics, ethnopedagogy – everything that comprises the genebank of the nation. (Whatever) … stimulates the national spirit, serves the cause of the survival of the people and is of interest for all mankind… Due to historical circumstances, the loss of belief became one more source of the disintegration of our people, and recent conflicts among Buryat lamas do not at all promote the cause of spiritual revival and consolidation of the Buryats. … The main priority here should be the strategy of ethnic survival and development of the Buryat ethnos within the commonwealth of ethnic groups of the Russian Federation” (Yegorov, 1998: 56-57) (In this and subsequent sections, the italics put by the authors). It is also worth noting that within the last twenty years, Buryat national ideology has undergone a substantial transformation from the inculcation of the concept of the birthright to the land, i.e. militant secessionist and irredentist nationalism, to the present-day propaganda to preserve its ethnic cultural traditions. Religion is considered to be the most stable and universal element of Buryat culture, and therefore in the public understanding Buddhism and Shamanism have taken their roles as religions, which are ethnic space markers as well as national symbols – the national religion. Notably in the last years the discourse on national identity, both in the scientific literature and in the mass-media, has emphasized the national character of Buddhism and Shamanism, despite their obvious distinctions, and has attributed to them a unity of world-outlook and conceptual apparatus, brought about by using the terms and categories of Buddhist religiousphilosophical thought. Moreover, in the discourse Buddhism and Shamanism have become synonyms for the ethno-national culture. The components of this culture, notably the traditional world-outlook, the folklore, the spirituality, and other features of an ostensibly national character (tolerance, responsiveness, hospitality, aspiration to knowledge, etc.) are exclusively explained by religious values. Therefore it is not astonishing that in sociological inquiries the Buryat respondents maintain that the “preservation and development of the national culture” (religion in the first place) is a more important condition for national revival than the “development of market economy and wide economic independence” (See Yelaeva, 2005: 117-227). # 800 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation Conclusion Elite reflections on the problems of national revival are marked by the absence of certain programs and policies, and can be said to suffer from the more general, post-Soviet crisis in the humanities, in which scholars confront the simultaneous strains of economic collapse and the urgent contest to establish appropriate analytic frameworks and theories. Despite these challenges, their efforts to construct a mythic-symbolic system focused on the past (and specifically, the connection of generations) that promotes ethnic integration, is notable. They are undertaking the creation of an intertextual cultural meaning system, where continuity is traced over space and time, from the nomadic civilizations of Central Asia – the Mongolian Empire and Genghis Khan, through the spread of Buddhism, the national movement of the early 20th century, and the formation of BMASSR—and all are portrayed as moments of the manifestation of a unitary ethnic identity. Despite the decrease in ethno-political mobilization in Buryatia since 2000, religion as a cultural boundary marker has become one of the main arguments in the discourse about political identity: “the people of Buryatia” in the sense of fellow-citizenship2 solely denotes the fact of joint residence in the same territory. Though the peaceful character of this joint residence is very often emphasized, nevertheless the boundaries between the ethno-cultural components of such a community appear to be much more important than the common historical destiny. Therefore, the newly created community of a “Buryat nation” – an ethno-nation – is more capable of producing emotions and empathy than the well-known and recognized but featureless and amorphous category “people of Buryatia” is. Buddhism and Shamanism (which in public understanding appear most often as indistinguishable entities) are considered as instruments of ethnic integration and as symbols of ethnic belonging, irrespective of the individual depth of belief and knowledge (if at all existent) of their religious mythologies and dogmas. However, it is notable that under the present-day condition of religious freedom and the ongoing politicization of religious belonging the overwhelming majority of Buryats describe themselves as belonging to the Buddhist religious community. Both national ideology and public discourse consider Shamanism as an obviously insufficient integrating factor. Moreover, the importance of clan-territorial membership in Shamanism is judged as a destabilizing factor for the Buryat nation. At the same time, despite of declaring themselves Buddhists, the majority of people when talking particularly about their belief, prefer to defi ne themselves from the position of religious syncretism. In other words, the cultural interdependence (the coexistence of Buddhism, Shamanism, and Russian Orthodoxy in Buryatia) as well as the years of militant atheism resulted in a simple belief in God and supernatural forces (Biltrikova, 2001: 74). Hence, in the people’s syncretistic religious understanding the very fact of belief is much more important than religious dogmatics. At the same time, the emphasis on the religious component of culture in the discourse of ethnic identity promoted growing interest in the rituals as well as the contents and the meaning of the Buddhist religion. Sociological research has brought to light that many educated people who call themselves Buddhists, want to obtain better knowledge about the history of Buddhism and its philosophy. Therefore literature on Buddhism, publications in the mass media, and in an even higher degree the various teachings of Buddhist lamas, especially Tibetan, are very popular among intellectuals. # 801 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation 1 2 In 1937 the USSR Supreme Council approved the creation of the Irkutsk and Chita regions that included the districts inhabited by the Buryats (UOBAD and Aga Autonomous District, respectively). Another important event was the decision of the Supreme Council (1958) to drop the second component in the Buryat-Mongol politonym by renaming the republic into the Buryat ASSR. Both decisions traumatized the nation, and became impetuses for political mobilization during Perestroika and post-Soviet period. The recently occurred merge of two Buryat autonomous districts with Irkutsk and Chita regions was also negatively and painfully accepted in the Buryat public consciousness. The Constitution of the Republic of Buryatia proclaims the existence of the “multinational people of Buryatia that in the course of historical development united the Buryats, Russians, Evenks, and citizens of other nationalities”. References B.R. Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991). А.L. Angarkhayev, “‘Genghis Khan’s throne’ (towards a question about foremother land of the Mongols”, in Genghis Khan in the fates of the peoples of Eurasia. Materials of the International scientific conference, October 3-5, 2002, ed. by S. V. Kalmykov et al. (Ulan-Ude: BGU, 2003), in Russian. A. Barnard, J. Spencer, eds., Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology (L.,N.Y.: Routledge, 2003). F. Barth, “Introduction”, in: Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, ed. by F. Barth, (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1969). A.V. Biltrikova, “National intelligentsia in processes of consolidation of the Buryat people”, in The Modern Condition of The Buryat People and Views on its Development (Conference papers), ed. by Yu. Randalov et al. (Ulan-Ude: Izd-vo BNC SO RAN, 1996), 72-76, in Russian. A.V. Biltrikova, Present-day Buryat national intelligentsia (Ulan-Ude: BNC SO RAN, 2001), in Russian. S.Sh. Chagdurov, “‘The Golden Age’ in the history of mankind”, in Genghis Khan in the fates of the peoples of Eurasia. Materials of the International scientific conference, October 3-5, 2002 (UlanUde: BGU, 2003), 48-56, in Russian. Sh.B. Chimitdorzhiyev, Who are we, the Buryat-Mongols? (Ulan-Ude, 1991), in Russian. Sh.B. Chimitdorzhiev, Did the Buryats Ever Have a Civilization? (Ulan-Ude: Belig, 1996), in Russian. Sh.B. Chimitdorzhiev, The Buryat-Mongols: History and Modernity. Thoughts of a Mongolist (Ulan-Ude, 2000), in Russian. Sh.B. Chimitdorzhiyev, “Genghis Khan and his epoch in the Mongolist studies”, in Genghis Khan in the fates of the peoples of Eurasia. Materials of the International scientific conference, October 3-5, 2002, ed. by S. V. Kalmykov et al. (Ulan-Ude: BGU, 2003), 126-134, in Russian. M.R. Choibonov, “Genghis Khan, the spiritual Teacher of the future generations”, in Genghis Khan in the fates of the peoples of Eurasia. Materials of the International scientific conference, October 3-5, 2002, ed. by S. V. Kalmykov et al. (Ulan-Ude: BGU, 2003), 240-246, in Russian. A. P.Cohen, “Peripheral Vision: Nationalism, National Identity and the Objective Correlative in Scotland,” in Signifying Identities: Anthropological Perspectives on Boundaries and Contested Values, ed. by A. P.Cohen (L., N. Y.: Routledge, 2000), 145-169. D.G. Damdinov, “Delun-Bodok – the birthplace of the great Genghis”, in Genghis Khan in the fates of the peoples of Eurasia. Materials of the International scientific conference, October 3-5, 2002, ed. by S. V. Kalmykov et al. (Ulan-Ude: BGU, 2003), 72-75, in Russian. # 802 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation A. Gatapov, Alan-Goa was born on the Khori-Tumat land, or Not whole Transbaikalia referred to BARGUDZHIN-TOKUM”, in Buryatia, 12 July 2003, 6, in Russian. E. Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (N.Y. :Cornell University Press: 1983). Ch.D. Gomboin, “The great sacred zone of ancient Mongols” in Treasures of culture of Buryatia, ed. by A.M. Tarunov (Moscow, 2002), 47-50, in Russian. C. Kaplonski, Truth, History and Politics in Mongolia. The memory of heroes (L., N.Y.: Routledge Curzon, 2004). Yu. M. Lotman, Semiosphere (SPb.: Isskustvo-SPb., 2001), in Russian. “A. Makhachkeyev, Genghis Khan was Buryat”, in Inform Polis, 15 October 2003, 15, in Russian. T.M. Mikhailov, “National consciousness and mentality of the Buryats” in The Modern Condition of the Buryat People and Views on its Development (Conference papers) (Ulan-Ude, 1996), 18-25, in Russian. A. D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986). Bring Back the Name Buryat-Mongolia, ed. By Sh.B. Chimitdorzhiev (Ulan-Ude, 1998), in Russian. I.S. Urbanayeva, A Man at Baikal and the world of Central Asia (Ulan-Ude, 1995), in Russian. Ye.M. Yegorov, “Congress of Buryat people – the factor of democratization of the Republic”, in Problems of history and cultural-national construction in the Republic of Buryatia, ed. by B.V. Bazarov et al. (Ulan-Ude, 1998), 54-57, in Russian. A.A. Yelaev, Buryat people: origin, development, and self-determination (Moscow, 2000), in Russian. I.E. Yelayeva, “Traditions and innovations in ethnic culture of the Buryats”, in Siberia: Ethnogenesis and Cultures. Issue 5 (Ulan-Ude, 1999), 48 – 70, in Russian. I.E. Yelaeva, “Buryats: Repertoire of identities in the present-day sociocultural context”, in Buryat Ethnicity in the context of Sociocultural Modernization (post soviet period), ed. by T.D. Skrynnikova (Irkutsk: RPC “Radian”, 2005), 117- 227, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana D. Skrynnikova and Darima D. Amogolonova. Symbols of Post-Soviet Buryat National Consolidation Символы постсоветской бурятской национальной консолидации Т.Д. Скрынникова, Д.Д. Амоголонова Институт монголоведения, буддологии и тибетоведения СО РАН Россия 670047, Улан-Удэ, Сахьяновой, 6 В статье представлены некоторые результаты выполнения проекта «Бурятская этничность в контексте социокультурной модернизации», который является первым комплексным исследованием проблемы соотношения между идеологией бурятской национальной консолидации и социокультурной модернизацией. На основании комплексных методологических принципов формируется новый научный дискурс, анализирующий процессы национально-культурного возрождения не только в Бурятии, но и во всем постсоветском пространстве. Исследование этнополитических процессов включает анализ (1) деятельности элит по реэтнизации; (2) сосуществования и конфликта между национальной (этнической) и российской (гражданской) идентичностями вследствие того, что этничность занимает главенствующую позицию в иерархии идеологических, социальных и индивидуальных идентичностей; (3) выраженных этапов в дискурсах этничности. Авторы доказывают, что бурятские социополитические дискурсы являются этнонационалистическими и этнорегиональными и одновременно характеризуются неоспоримой идентификацией с Россией, хотя и вступающей в конфликт с этничностью. Ключевые слова: национализм, этничность, реэтнизация, историческая и культурная память, десекуляризация. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 805-815 ~~~ УДК 304.444 Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk Territory Modern Culture (Association Experiment Results Based on the Methodology “Serial Thematic Associations”) Julia S. Zamaraeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 According to the modern cultural theory applied socio-cultural research is in demand due to an urgent need to understand an essence of occurring processes in the globalizing world (Koptzeva, 2010 and Zamаraeva, 2010). One of these global processes today is the migration resulting in general changes of social processes and social relations and, consequently, requiring new definitions of the social reality. Studying the migration as a special space of the intercultural interaction which arises at the relation of the migrant and the receiving environment, is in the great demand not only by the problematics of the migration modern processes, but, first of all, by an absolute urge to reveal the basic principles of coexistence of various ethnic groups in a multicultural world society. This particular applied research contains the results of psychological cultural analysis aimed at obtaining authentic information about the migration phenomenon as a modern cultural process and determining the specifics of migratory relations forming the Krasnoyarsk Territory culture. The main hypothesis of the research is the thesis that the migration phenomenon as the actual process of the modern reality initiates the processes of identifying cultural differences in the human minds, performs the function of culture events translation, determines the specific language of communication and rules of behaviour at the relation of the migrant and the receiving environment. In this regard, this applied research conducted by the association experiment method is relevant in terms of the possibility to identify the completeness and depth of associative ideas that arise in relation to the cultural migration phenomenon. Interpretation of research results allows to realise the semantic phenomenon content and also to analyse the conceptual ideas which exist in modern experience, to define the actual condition of the relation to the migratory phenomena. Keywords: migration, relation of the migrant and the receiving environment, intercultural relations, cultural phenomenon, Krasnoyarsk Territory culture, psychological cultural experiment, association experiment, modern applied interdisciplinary methods, concept “ foreign”. The work is carried out with the financial support of the federal purpose oriented programme «Scientific and scientific-pedagogic staff in innovative Russia for 2009-2013» concerning the problem «Culture of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the North in the situation of global transformations: * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 805 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… foresight research until 2050 based on the materials of analysis of the Yakut ethnos» held within the framework of the event 1.2.1 «Scientific investigations carried out by research groups guided by doctors of science». Introduction The influence of migration as a powerful factor of social dynamics of the modern society affects greatly the development of economical, political and socio-cultural processes. Therefore, without analysing the mass behaviour psychology there cannot be complete understanding of the migration nature as a cultural phenomenon. One hundred and fifty years ago prominent scientists proposed alternative concepts to explore human psyche (mind): W. Wundt’s psychological school and “the theory of unconscious” (Z. Freud, K. Jung) representing scientific explanation of human behaviour in everyday situation. The founders and followers of both schools proved that consciousness is nothing but “inner experience” gained in the development of real phenomena and, therefore, it reflects the internal laws of this reality. Later these conceptual ideas formed the basis of the association experiment method allowing to display experimentally the outside internal mental processes and to clarify the nature of certain social phenomena. In the 20th century this method became one of the most useful methodological tools of interdisciplinary field of science (mostly in psycholinguistics, psychology, sociology, psychiatry). In the modern theory of culture the association experiment method occurs at the boundary of such sciences as psychology and cultural studies and it focuses primarily on the human consciousness studies disposed outwardly in a pure form. Since culture exists not only in the form of real artefacts, but also in the form of the phenomena hidden in the human mind, it is necessary to attract the method of psychocultural experiment in order to study the hidden meanings of the cultural phenomena experience. The relevance of the psychological experiment is due to the fact that human consciousness is directly involved in its cultural development (Libakova, 2010). This article represents the results of the applied psycho-cultural experiment which demonstrates the distinctness of the migration cultural phenomenon. The methodology “Series of Thematic Associations” which belongs to the authors A. I. Nazarov and R.V. Sokolov (Nazarov, 2007) was chosen as a key method for the experiment has become Students of Siberian Federal University (300 people) became the recipients of the association experiment. The main contents of the association experiment method The relevance of the methodology “Series of Thematic Associations” lies in the possibility to obtain not only the typical (stereotypical) ideas that appear right in the human mind (this methodology is traditionally used in the experiments when the first word of associations is taken into account), but also to make a deeper understanding by using the identification of areas (fields) which are associated by the recipient’s consciousness with its own experience of the phenomenon. The objective of the research is to obtain actual cultural information about the relation of the migration to the phenomenon for the later modelling of the system of values about this phenomenon in the modern reality. The objectives are: 1) definition of the basic notions for the research (a stimulus word), 2) developing the method to group the results, 3) selection of the testees and development of instructions for the recipients, 4) statistical analysis of the # 806 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… information according to the type of grouping, and 5) interpretation of the results.1 Stage 1. Defi nition of the basic notion for the research. Due to the fact that it is necessary to determine the specific nature of the migrant’s and the receiving environment relation as a cultural phenomenon, the recipient should be offered a stimulus word which would bring associations and crystallise the essence of the relation to the migration as a cultural phenomenon. The main theoretical hypothesis lies in the idea that the migrant’s and the receiving environment relation process is accompanied by the identification process which leads to crystallisation and transformation of “one’s own” and “different” qualities (Zamаraeva, 2010). Consequently, the word “migration” is defi ned in the meaning of the space for the relation and cannot be offered by recipients. In other words, the notion itself captures a social phenomenon, but does not directly transfer to the field of relation itself. For the validity of the stimulus word choice it is possible to present the following facts: the word is of Latin origin (out of the modern context) and at the moment it has no clear scientific defi nition (numerous classifications, the absence of a coherent theory, etc.), and therefore it is not settled properly in the ordinary mind. The most correct and appropriate thing to explore the problematics of the migrant and the receiving environment relation is the word “foreign” which acts as an abstract representative of the notion “other”; it directly depends on the migration phenomenon, and is relevant in the everyday experience (while meeting the representatives of other cultures); it allows to fi nd the distinctness of ideas about the cultural phenomenon of the migration by means of associative utterance. Stage 2. Developing the method to group the results. According to the objectives of the research it is necessary to obtain the most complete picture of the phenomenon of the migration, so it is needed to apply a number of ways of grouping. The fi rst group will include the most frequent, common reaction words to the stimulus word “foreign”, then they will be differentiated in the reverse order (according to the degree of popularity), and fi nally modified to the percentage in order to visualise a number of key concepts associated with the studied cultural phenomenon. The second group will include a range of consciousness spheres which are associatively realised by recipients as implicated and determining the knowledge of the cultural phenomenon. This grouping is justified by the authors of the series of thematic associations as “space-time development of the executive action” that contributes to “naming of the associates”. Continuous thinking on the stimulus word allows to verbalize the relevant content hidden in the recipients’ minds more fully. Consequently, during the processing of the results it is possible to record the spheres of consciousness (semantic groups) implicated in the stimulus word, and discover deeper knowledge of the cultural phenomenon. The third group will contain estimative features in relation to the word “foreign” (positive and negative), since the emotional experience characterises the attitude to the migration phenomenon. Stage 3. Selection of the testees and development of instructions for the recipients. The group of recipients was selected out of the students of Siberian Federal University, mostly senior fulltime students (from the 3rd to the 5th year of study), which made total of 300 people majoring in “Cultural studies”, “Advertising”, “Art Criticism”, “Psychology”, “Jurisprudence”, “Foreign Languages”, “Social Pedagogy”, “Economics”, “Sociology”, “Philosophy”, “Physics”, “Physical Education”, “Public Relations”, “Linguistics and Intercultural Communication” and “Journalism”. As the knowledge about the outside world is # 807 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Fig. 1 formed in the educational process, the student group answers the questions actively and frankly, which is very important for the experimental research. At the beginning of the experiment the students were offered a short instruction defined by the rules to conduct the experiment procedure. The main points were related to the naming of the experiment form, its duration in time (20 minutes), significant rules for plunging into independent thinking (for example, not breaking the silence or completing the thinking process when the consciousness does not demonstrate any associations any longer). Stage 4. Statistical analysis of information according to the type of the group. The first group: “the most frequent, stable associations in the associative range of respondents to the word “foreign” (Fig. 1): Language (s) (52) – 17 %; culture (38) – 10,9 %; development (31) – 10,5 %, globalization, civilization (22) – 6,8 %; state, nation (19) – 6,5 %; politics (18) – 6,2 %; economics (17) – 5,8 %; different, unusual (14) – 4,8 %; alien (13) – 4,4 %; abroad (12 ) – 4,2 %, Americans, Chinese (11) – 3,8 %; clothing (10) – 3,4 %; university (9) – 2,6 %; mindset (8) – 2,5 %; unity (7) – 2,4 %; art (6) – 2,3 %; modern culture (5) – 2,2 %; travelling (4) – 2 %; religion (3) – 1,5 %. The second group: “the relevant fields (spheres) that determine the special nature of the migration phenomenon by means of the word “foreign”. These fields demonstrate the modern ideas about the migration; consequently, they may determine the essence of the phenomenon and reveal the new meanings that are important for scientific research (Fig. 2). Linguistic reality (85 %), cultural rules (68 %), new knowledge (63 %), a global phenomenon (57,2 %), a widespread social phenomenon (49,9 %), socio-cultural development (47 %), an image of different life (35 %), a different person (34,5 %), different personal qualities (33,2 %), a national image (30,5 %), an ethnic outlook (28,4 %), a sign symbol of “different” ( 27,3 %), an educational sphere (25,4 %), social communication and means of unity (24.7 %), changing of individual quality (15 %), the source of knowledge about the world of art and modern culture (14.3 %) possibility of a temporary territorial movement (5,2 %), religious connection (2,3 %). # 808 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… 90% 9 8 80% 7 70% 6 60% 5 50% 4 40% 3 30% 2 20% 1 10% 0% Fig. 2 Spheres that are implicated in the minds of recipients to the process of relation to the migration phenomenon can be represented in the form of conceptual definitions: 1) Migration as a linguistic reality through which other cultural and linguistic characteristics appear (verbalise): language (languages), speech, word (words), name, accent, expression, circumlocution, understanding, misunderstanding, and judgment. 2) Migration as a culture defined as a set of communicative cultural rules while meeting with the foreign: culture, cultural, tradition, traditional, customs, behaviour, rules, norms of behaviour, etiquette, hospitality and principles. 3) Migration as motivation to learn something totally new: a new acquaintance, new sensations, ambitions, curiosity, desire, anticipation, search, perception, meeting, learning, development, innovation, representative for the culture, unique, committed, diverse, versatile, better quality, more advanced, of another style, a level higher. 4) Migration is a global phenomenon in social life: globalization, civilization, a globe, a world map, unlimited, universal, existence, dynamics, permanent, stable, modern, future. 5) Migration as a widespread social phenomenon: a state, a country (countries), a nation, a race, people, a society, a town, a village, a house (accommodation). 6) Migration is a sphere of influence on the socio-cultural processes development of contemporary reality: in politics – government, ministry, a minister, an embassy, a diplomat, a politician, law, power; in economy – manufacturing, technologies (new, high), infrastructures, capital money, investments, currency, profit, importexport, oil, gas. 7) Migration as a representative of a different way of existence: alien, unknown, unfamiliar, unexplored, unusual, beyond the limit, unstudied, exotic, outlandish. 8) Migration as a representative of a different subjective image: a citizen, a visitor, a stranger, а nomad, a non-native, different, a newcomer, interesting people (person), belonging to a foreign language, unusual appearance, foreign appearance, different appearance. # 809 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… 100% 50% 0% Positive Negative Fig. 3 9) Migration as a representative of the different human qualities: the other, different, strange, different manners, the difference of mentality, a different nationality. 10) Migration as a boundary of knowledge of the national image: a border, abroad, America, Europe, Asia, Italy, Britain, France, Germany, Ukraine, Australia, Japan and China. 11) Migration as a boundary of knowledge of ethnic outlook: Americans, Chinese, Italians, Germans, Black, French. 12) Migration as a different material image: clothes, a clothing item, jeans, trainers. 13) Migration as an important component of scientific education: a university, a teacher, a department, students, studying process, education, training. 14) Migration as a process of social communication and means of unity: an association, a society, a community, negotiation, an intercourse, exchange, communication, relationship, cooperation, mutual understanding. 15) Migration as an opportunity to change individual qualities: a mindset, mentality, a stereotype, consciousness. 16) Migration as a source of knowledge about the world of art and modern culture (in the aspect of art culture and contemporary pop culture): painting, architecture, artists, actors, music, cinematography, dancing, television, Johnny Depp, Marilyn Monroe, Michael Jackson, Alfred Hitchcock, etc. 17) Migration as a possible temporary territorial movement for the sake of having rest: travelling, an airport, an international passport, tourism, a suitcase. 18) Migration as a religious connection with existing confessions: religion, a church, a ritual, faith, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism. Thus, the fixed group-associates form a modern idea about migration as a cultural phenomenon. According to the distribution of these semantic spheres (groups) one can see the relevance of each of them by quantitative characteristics (frequent plunging of consciousness in every sphere) and define a total of meaningful content of the cultural phenomenon in the modern reality. The third group contains “positive and negative estimative characteristics of the migration phenomenon” (Fig. 3). Positive associations with the stimulus word “foreign” (77 % of 300 testees) are: impression, admiration, desired, developing, attractive, fascinating, motivating, provoking, mysterious, magical, secret, beautiful, of high quality, interesting, unusual, overseas, an interesting person, a miracle. Negative associations to the stimulus word “foreign” (15 % of the 300 testees) are: not ours, not Russian, wild, dangerous, aggression, decline, distrust, and hostility. Thus, positive associations with respect to the negative ones have a ratio 1/5, which indicates that the positive experience of the migratory phenomenon (coded in the emotional experience of the testees) is dominant in the minds of the students. This fact determines new meaning in relation to the migration not only as an important phenomenon # 810 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… of social reality, but also as an informationaleducational, communicative and well developing the human’s mindset. In calculation of the psycho-cultural experiment results the words- associations which cannot be established in connection with the stimulus word and enter any significant relevant definition area were not considered (from 5, 460 of the associations only 35 were not included in the processing of results): eight, abortion, a waterfall, silver, etc. Stage 5. Interpretation of the results. The data processing results of the applied psychocultural research allowed to determine the key aspects (associative notions), the related relevant spheres (groups of associations) and the estimative emotional perception in relation to the phenomenon of migration, and all these points led to the following conclusions. a) According to the modern ideas the essence of the migration is determined by the linguistic reality, which allows the consciousness instantly identify various signs of “different”. In the presented associative range there are key notions through which the consciousness determines “different” sign features: “speech”, “a word”, “words”, “a name”, “an accent” as the external signals for identification; “expression”, “allegory” as meaningful characteristics of “different”; “understanding/ misunderstanding” as a scheme of action with “different”, “judgment” as a way to approach various cultural and linguistic characteristics. Such an idea about migration suggests that this linguistic reality as a relevant sphere of consciousness is the only possible paradigm for mutual determination and cooperating of different language cultures and the phenomenon of migration realises this meeting. b) The migration phenomenon is determined in consciousness as a set of specific cultural rules that significantly affect the communication at both individual and social levels. Thus, students realise that the migration forms the traditions in the field of cultural behaviour, becomes a rule of etiquette and hospitality and sets out the principles and norms in daily communication. c) The migration as a cultural phenomenon is recognised as an event form, through which the development of a new quality is achieved. Most of the associations in relation to the migration are connected with the desire to learn something new, therefore, in the consciousness this phenomenon is enabled with a certain chance to meet something more perfect, better, representative, qualitative, embodied, diverse and innovative. It is worth mentioning that the associative desire to learn something totally new by means of the migration is associated with the idea of the best for the culture (which is “representative of the culture”), consequently, the migration will always be highly demanded for the development of a new cultural quality. d) Migration is understood as a global phenomenon in the modern life, which has quite certain characteristics. On the one hand, this phenomenon reflects the essence of the modern era of global transformations (a globe, globalization, civilization, art, everyday life, dynamics, unlimited). On the other hand, the migration becomes a timeless process of reality defined by means of such notions as “a world map”, “being”, “life”, “stable”, “constant” and “future”. Students do not associate the migration process with something historical, belonging to the history of forming an ethnic group, a nation, etc. Consequently, the migration phenomenon is understood as modern development that significantly affects the social unity and determines the future condition of its development. e) The students can quite clearly realise that the current migration process penetrates into the whole structure of social life, defining it by means of such notions as “a state”, “a nation”, “a country”, “a city”, “a village”. Moreover, the # 811 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… processes of politics and economics become the linking part of the social structure. In politics, the migration phenomenon shows itself at the level of government and law, and in the economy it appears at the level of manufactures, new technologies, and infrastructure and investment development. f) There is a quite abstract definition of the essence of the phenomenon (most of the associations belong to the notion “different”), but it gradually becomes deeper, more concrete, and turns into a whole set of well defined characteristics. Firstly, migration is presented as a different way of life (the associations “unknown”, “unstudied”, “bizarre”), but it has its personification in the form of a specific subject, that is, the bearer of the quality of this different existence (the associations “a stranger”, “a nomad”, “a foreigner”, “a foreign language”, “different manners”, “different nationalities”, etc.). Secondly, migration becomes a boundary of knowledge about a different (national and ethnic) image which suggests that ethnic identity has a significant influence on the consciousness and becomes the second (after linguistic) criterion for determining the future strategy of behaviour. Thirdly, the material image that represents the quality of a quite concrete materialised form is also important (the associations “clothing”, “a thing”, etc.). g) One of the significant spheres relating in the consciousness to the migration phenomenon is education. It is important that students eagerly obtain the conceptual knowledge about this phenomenon and development of a complete system of ideas about this social phenomenon in the studying process. h) Migration phenomenon affects the specific nature of social communication, and this process is directed towards unity (associates “a union”, “an association”, “a community”, “relationship”) and offers a variety of forms of interaction (“negotiations”, “exchange” , “communication”). Thus, migration can set the relationships between people and create space for social communication. i) Migration is understood in the students’ minds as an opportunity to change their own qualities, it is pointed out by the associations “mindset”, “mentality”, “a stereotype”, and “consciousness”. Despite the fact that this associative range has a lower frequency of use, students realise that migration is expanding their own (personal) mindset, affects the stereotypes and changes the consciousness. j) In the modern reality students understand migration phenomenon as a source of knowledge about the world of art and contemporary culture which is formed by means of the associative range (“artists”, “actors”, “cinematography”, “TV”, etc.) a different idea about creativity and skills in relation to their own creativity levels. k) Just a few associations represent migration as territorial movement, and the recipients refer them to the field of travelling, leisure and tourism. This fact indicates that the migration is almost not understood as an opportunity to work (temporarily or permanently). l) The religious function of migration is almost unrealised. However, it is present in the consciousness and identified by the recipients as connection with different existing confessions and an opportunity of uniting with them (associations “a church”, “a ritual”, “religion”). m) Identification of positive and negative experiences associated with the migration phenomenon, suggests that in general there are more positive emotions than negative ones. Migration phenomenon is realised as an urgent need for new knowledge in the modern reality. The major part of the positive associations (77 %) shows an active desire to discover unknown and thereby to expand the mindset. Negative characteristics (total 15 %) are associated with # 812 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… possible risks and difficulties that arise at the level of consciousness and create a border of communicational misunderstanding. These characteristics have passive cognition which rejects any possibility of learning something new. Thus, we can note that there is an urgent need for the migration phenomenon cognition, as a bearer of new knowledge, transfer of different cultural images, intersection of one’s own and other (different) qualities and obtaining a new quality of uniting during the communication process. Conclusion Based on the results of the association experiment which revealed the relevant spheres of migration phenomenon, their meanings according to the modern ideas of Krasnoyarsk culture students, we can outline the following conclusions: 1) Migration phenomenon is determined in the meaning of the different culture quality transfer (transition) into receiving environment space and formation of intercultural relations. Linguistic characteristics and ethnic identity which lead to cognition of other qualities for both sides become significant during the relation process. For example, students who geographically define the boundaries of the “foreign”, give it the characteristics of the unknown, desired, innovative, anticipated, allegorical, etc. The key notions “a language” and “a culture” are defined in the respondents’ replies as the communicative means of relation leading to the dialogue formation, and this, in its turn, demonstrates 1 the desire of cultural groups to create a common cultural integrity. 2) According to the temporal and dimensional characteristics, migration is simultaneously defined as a general timeless process and as a global phenomenon which leads to change of the socio-cultural processes. 3) Realization of the migration phenomenon as a “boundary” captures initiated identification and self-identification processes through which the future strategies of behaviour are determined (primary associations are “a community”, “a relationship””, “a unity”). In most cases, this is a positive experience which gives a real chance to learn something new. 4) Migration phenomenon ability to affect all spheres of human consciousness becomes a very important factor in the modern reality. Thus, the main influence features that appear are mindset expanding, stereotypes changing, mentality update, meeting totally different (culture, art, religion), cultural rules establishment during relations (etiquette, behaviour, hospitality), the tolerant attitude formation by offering something substantially new. 5) Education is one of the most important spheres for migration phenomenon manifestation. During the educational process, the direct cross-cultural relations are transformed into multicultural community quality. Besides, the associations connected with education go beyond the existing educational institutions, thereby expanding the possibilities for modelling intercultural relations in different conceptual education forms. These objectives completely determine the stages of the experimental study. The methodology of the psychological experiment is described in the book of R. Gottsdanker “Fundamentals of the psychological experiment” which defi nes the methods of the experiment and shows the criteria for validity of the results of its performance. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… References N.P. Koptzeva, Cultural and anthropological problem of Social engineering (Methodological Problem at Modern Applied Culture Studies)// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. Vol. 3. No. 1. – 2010. – P. 22-34. N.P. Koptzeva, N.A. Bachova, System of Culture in Krasnoyarsk Region: Main Subjects and Cultural Values// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. Vol. 3. No. 3. – 2010. – P. 344-381. N.M. Libakova, Specifics of the Category of «Gender» in the Modern Krasnoyarsk Culture: Results of the Association Experiment According to the Methodology «Thematic Associations Series»// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. Vol. 3. No. 5. – 2010. – P. 727746. A.I. Nazarov, Association and the association experiment: different fates / Nazarov A.I., Sokolov R.V.// Questions of psychology 2007. – № 4. – p. 125-138. Robert Gottsdanker. /Experimenting in psychology/. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey : PrenticeHall, Inc., 1978. J.S. Zamаraeva, Historiografic Overview of Approaches and Concepts Regarding the Issue of the Migration in International and Russian Research of the 20th Century [Text]// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. – 2010. – №3 (3). – С. 436-443. J.S. Zamаraeva, The value of applied researches from the perspective of modern culture]// Third Russian Cultural Research Congress with international participation «Creativity in the space of tradition and innovation” Thesis from reports and communication. – St Petersburg: EJDOS, 2010. – p.93. Отношение мигранта и принимающей среды как феномен современной культуры Красноярского края (результаты ассоциативного эксперимента по методике «Серийные тематические ассоциации») Ю.С. Замараева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 С позиции современной теории культуры прикладные социально-культурологические исследования востребованы в связи с острой необходимостью понимать суть происходящих процессов в глоблализирующемся мире. Одним из таких глобальных процессов на сегодняшний день является миграция, влекущая повсеместное изменение социальных процессов и социальных отношений и, как следствие, требующая новых определений социальной реальности. Изучение миграции как особого пространства межкультурного # 814 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. Relation of the Migrant and the Receiving Environment as a Phenomenon of the Krasnoyarsk… взаимодействия, возникающего при отношении мигранта и принимающей среды, востребовано не только проблематикой современных процессов миграции, но прежде всего насущной необходимостью выявления базовых принципов сосуществования различных этнических групп внутри поликультурного мирового общества. В данном прикладном исследовании представлены результаты психологически культурного исследования, направленного на получение достоверной информации о феномене миграции как современном культурном явлении и определение специфики миграционных отношений, формирующие культуру Красноярского края. Основной гипотезой исследования стало положение о том, что феномен миграции как актуальный процесс современной действительности запускает в сознании человека процессы идентификации культурных различий, осуществляет функцию трансляции культуры, определяет специфику языковой коммуникации и правила поведения при отношении мигранта и принимающей среды. В связи с этим данное прикладное исследование, проведенное методом ассоциативного эксперимента, актуально в плане возможности выявления полноты и глубины ассоциативных представлений, возникающих по отношению к культурному феномену миграции. Интерпретация результатов исследования позволяет осознать смысловое содержание феномена, а также проанализировать концептуальные представления, существующие в современном опыте, определить актуальное состояние отношения к миграционным явлениям. Ключевые слова: миграция, отношение мигранта и принимающей среды, межкультурные отношения, культурный феномен, культура Красноярского края, психологический культурный эксперимент, ассоциативный эксперимент, современные прикладные междисциплинарные методы, понятие «иностранное». Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке федеральной целевой программы “Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной России на 2009-2013 гг.” по проблеме “Культура коренных и малочисленных народов Севера в условиях глобальных трансформаций: форсайтисследование до 2050 г. на материале анализа якутского этноса”, исследование проводится в рамках мероприятия 1.2.1 “Проведение научных исследований научными группами под руководством докторов наук”. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 816-822 ~~~ УДК 349.222.2 Labour Contract Functions Svetlana P. Basalaeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The “labour contract” category as legal relation is central within this trinity of legal phenomena: a legal fact, a legal relation, and a legal document. To establish the essence (and, as consequence, a concept) of the labour contract is expedient to research features of public relations mediated by a labour contract, and features of legal relation corresponding to them . Keywords: labour contract; labour contract functions. Since Roman law times, the contract as a legal phenomenon has been viewed in three aspects: as the basis of legal relations occurrence; as a legal relation per se arisen from this basis; and as a shape which a corresponding legal relation takes (M.I. Braginsky, V.V. Vitryansky, 1998). Such multiplicity of aspects is also characteristic of “the labour contract” concept. In other words, it is possible to talk about the labour contract as of a legal fact, a labour contract, a legal relation and, finally, of a legal document. The “labour contract” category as a legal relation is central within this trinity of legal phenomena: a legal fact, a legal relation, a legal document. To establish the essence (and, as consequence, a concept) of the labour contract is expedient to research features of the public relations mediated by the labour contract, and features of the legal relation corresponding to them . The official categories for a “legal relation” category make the basis for the legal relation * 1 occurrence and its legalization. Therefore, revelation of the essence of these categories through the functions expressing their purpose and value is viewed quite natural. To talk about the functions of the labour contract as a legal relation, in our opinion, is not quite logical, it is more expedient to reveal its essence through the features of the content. Accordingly, we will consider the functions of the labour contract through its above-stated “official” categories. 1. Labour contract vs. legal fact. Being the basis of legal labour relations occurence, the labour contract carries out two functions. Firstly, the labour contract as a legal fact is the agreement between the employee and the employer. Labour legal relation arises as a result of wills of the parties’ coordination, but as a result of will of one of the parties, not as a result of will of any third party. Compulsion to a contract conclusion is not admissible (except for the cases when a duty to conclude the labour Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 816 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana P. Basalaeva. Labour Contract Functions contract is stipulated by a employer’s voluntary accepted obligation: assignment of quotas of workplaces, participation in target contract training of experts, invitation of an employee as transfer from another organisation). On the one hand, it is a sort of labour freedom provision for a worker: freedom to apply their abilities to work, exclusion of forced labour. On the other hand, for the employer, in some measure, it is a way of freedom of organisation personnel formation which is a part of economic sphere of the employer. Secondly, a labour contract as a legal fact does not only produce labour legal relation, but also makes its content as not only the fact of labour relations is defined by the will of the parties, but also working conditions, rights and duties of both parties – an employee and an employer. This reveals the regulating nature of a labour contract. However, the regulating function of a labour contract has certain features in comparison with a regulating role of others, say, civil-law contracts. We will turn to more detailed research of the function in question. The matter is that degree of parties to the contract freedom in defi nition of legal relation content in employment law considerably differs from traditional civilistic understanding of freedom of the contract in a number of positions. By the general rule, in civil-law contracts the parties independently specify the contract content. However, in some cases rules of behaviour of the parties to civil-law contracts are established by the legislator. It is carried out by means of discretionary and imperative rules. In the first case, the discretionary rule acquires an imperative nature provided that the parties have not expressed consent to deviate from it. For example, except as otherwise provided by the turnkey contract work is carried out by the expense of the customer – from his materials, his forces and means (item 1, art. 704 RF Civil code). This way of legal regulation does not limit contract freedom. In the second case, the norm is applied directly, the parties are not entitled to change it, and it represents a way of freedom of the contract restriction. Freedom of the contract is restricted to achieve the following aims: – Protection of the state and society interests. For example, item 1 of art. 1015 RF Civil code does not permit the state body or local government participation in the contract of confidential management of property. – Protection of a normal marketable title. For example, item 335 of RF Civil code establishes that only a proprietor or the one to whom the thing belongs on the right of economic competence can act as the depositor of a thing. – Protection of the weakest party. For example, according to items 1, 2 art. 504 RF Civil code at replacement of substandard goods by the goods of appropriate quality the seller is not entitled to demand compensation in the price of the goods difference while the buyer is awarded with such compensation. Under civil law these restrictions, however, have of an exception of the general rule character of item 2 art.1 RF Civil Code according to which the parties are free to establish their rights and duties. In employment law the situation is different. The labour contract cannot contain the conditions reducing level of rights and guarantees of workers, established by employment legislation (part 2 art. 9 RF Labour code). Thus, content of almost all the conditions of the labour contract are defined by legislation. Let us consider it on the example of each of the obligatory conditions itemised in art.57 RF Labour code. # 817 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana P. Basalaeva. Labour Contract Functions 1. Working hours conditions. The legislator establishes the following: – not more than 40 working hours per week (art. 91 RFLC ); – in certain cases (for minors, invalids, workers engaged in works with harmful, dangerous working conditions) working hours per day cannot exceed the established quantity of time (art. 94 RFLC); – work exceeding the normal duration of working hours cannot exceed 4 hours per day and 16 hours per week at combining jobs (art. 98 RFLC) and 4 hours within two days running and 120 hours per year at overtime work (art. 99 RFLC). As we see, the legislator limits working time duration. Thus, parties have discretion to the following: 1) reduction of its duration and 2) distribution of given working hours within a day, a week or other period, that is working conditions establishment. Though here again we observe some restrictions, for example, working conditions and working hours of transport employees, communications personnel and others, having special kinds of work, which is defined according to the order established by the Government of Russian Federation (art. 100 RFLC LC). 2. A mode of rest time. The legislator has defined it in the following way: – a worker is entitled to not less than 30 minutes of rest breaks and meal within a working day (art. 108 RFLC); – duration of weekly continuous rest cannot be less than 42 hours (art. 110 RFLC); – workers are entitled to non-working holidays according to art. 112 RFLC; – duration of annual paid holiday cannot be less than 28 calendar days (art. 115 RFLC). As we see, the legislator establishes kinds and duration of rest time. The following is left to the discretion of the parties: 1) increase in its duration and 2) an order of rest breaks provision. Though there are also some legislative restrictions with reference to a granting order. In particular, it is inadmissible not to provide a holiday within two years running (art. 124 RFLC), to substitute holiday within the limits of 28 calendar days for monetary indemnification (art. 126 RFLC), to withdraw from holiday, to substitute holiday for monetary indemnification for pregnant women, minors and workers engaged in work with harmful and dangerous working conditions (art. 125, 126 RFLC). 3. Payment conditions. Legislation establishes the following requirements: – the minimum wage rate (art. 133 RFLC); – the payment form (art. 131 RFLC); – an order, a place and terms of wages payment (art. 136 RFLC); – restriction of deduction from wages (item 137, 138 RFLC); – a work payment under conditions deviating from normal ones (art. 152 – 157 RFLC): kinds of surcharges and extra charges and their minimum size are established. So, relating to work payment parties can define: 1) the size of wages for cases, exceeding legislative minimum (including the minimum amount of surcharges) and 2) payment systems that is a way of its amount definition, including incentive payments. 4. Indemnifications and privileges to workers for work in heavy, harmful and/ or dangerous working conditions. The given condition is also defined by state standards, namely characteristics of working conditions assume attributing work to heavy, harmful or dangerous one on the basis of legislatively established lists. Indemnifications # 818 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana P. Basalaeva. Labour Contract Functions and privileges to workers for work in such conditions are defined within the limits of provisions on working hours, rest breaks, work payment. Thus, the partied are entitled with reference to the given condition: 1) to establish that work differs in special working conditions though is behind the frameworks of legislatively established lists, and to define kinds and amount of indemnifications and privileges according to these conditions; and 2) to establish the raised amounts of indemnifications or additional kinds of privileges, additional conditions of their granting in comparison with the legislation, for work in heavy, harmful and/ or dangerous working conditions. 5. Social insurance: kinds and conditions. Kinds and conditions of obligatory social insurance are defined by the state under the standard order exclusively. It is to the discretion of the parties to define kinds and conditions of voluntary additional social insurance. 6. Labour function of the worker or the name of a post, a speciality, a trade with qualification instructions. Here the parties are entitled to defi ne the character, kinds, volume of performed work, official duties of the worker. However, the freedom of the parties is not absolute in this question as well. Tariff-qualifying characteristics on various specialities, trades and posts are established by legislation. And if the legislator connects performance of this or that work with granting privileges, indemnifications or establishment of restrictions, the name of posts, trades or specialities and qualifying characteristics should correspond to qualifying directories accordingly. 7. Kinds of work: mobile, travelling, in ways, etc. This condition is defined by the parties independently, but this condition is the reflection of a certain objective characteristic of work but not the result of the parties’ will coordination. The condition of the labour contract concerning the rights and duties of the parties was excluded from article 57 RFLC by № 90-FL Federal law on 30.06.2006. It was done absolutely fairly because, according to E.B. Khokhlov, such instructions of the Code were absolutely excessive as all the conditions specified above are the very form of specification of the rights and duties of the parties of labour legal relation (C.P.Mavrina, E.b.Khokhlov, M. 2003). Thus, with the view to the obligatory conditions itemized in 57 RFLC the parties to the labour contract are free only to define the place of work, time of the work beginning and, to a certain extent, labour functions and kinds of work. It is obvious, that it is rather a small circle of possibilities as the work place is predetermined by objective conditions, and the condition concerning work beginning date does not assume a considerable quantity of options. In other cases, as we have established above, the parties possess some contractual freedom in two areas: 1) establishment of the raised level of rights and guarantees of the worker in accordance with legislation; 2) distribution of working hours and rest breaks within the limits of this or that period; establishment of amount and the payment system (taking into account restrictions specified above). Establishment of the labour contract conditions within the limits of the first area is carried out by the parties rather seldom, and the possibility of contractual freedom given by the legislator is not used as there are no objective basis for its implementation. After all, the worker is economically the weakest party to the labour contract, and consequently, there is no actual equality of the parties, and the real establishment of conditions on the basis of the contract is impossible. # 819 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana P. Basalaeva. Labour Contract Functions As for the second of the specified areas, these conditions are often not defi ned by the parties directly in the labour contract. In most cases these conditions are defi ned by the employer within the limits of their economic sphere according to the corresponding local statutory acts, and the worker only joins them, entering labour legal relations. So, freedom of the parties in the labour contract under the content of labour legal relation is essentially limited by the legislator with a view of protection of interests of the weakest party (worker). This restriction does not have an exceptional character like it does in civil law, but on the contrary, is a key rule, and even is a principle of employment legislation. Therefore, we can speak about a regulating function of the labour contract with a serious share of convention for the majority of its conditions are not developed by the parties independently in the course of the contract conclusion. But degree of freedom of the parties in the labour contract, and, as a consequence, regulating function nature depends on the degree of economic independence of the worker, and according to it can have a considerable range. The given criterion, in our opinion, should be considered at differentiation of labour contracts both in the doctrine of employment law, and in employment legislation beginning of which has already been initiated by the Labour code of the Russian Federation. Let us consider an example of the labour contract concluded with the head of the organisation. The head as the worker is in smaller economic dependence on the employer as “a stronger figure” on a labour market, as the owner of a certain “intellectual capital”. Here we can resume the possibility of more contractual freedom between the proprietor and the head. Chapter 43 of RFLC drawn up with this in view is devoted to features of the head of the organisation and members of a joint executive body of the organization work regulation. In labour relations with this category of workers the parties possess a bit more freedom under the labour contract. In particular, the parties can establish the contract term (art.275 RFLC), additional grounds for termination of the labour contract (art. 3 of item 278 RFLC), amount of indemnification for prescheduled termination of the contract (item 279 RFLC) which is inadmissible in labour contracts with the majority of workers. 2. Labour contract vs. legal document. Employment legislation establishes the obligatory written form of the labour contract (art. 67 RFLC). The purpose of the written form requirement is the exception of the very fact of legal relation existence dispute. However, in civil law the requirement of a simple written form urged to provide interests of both parties equally. In case of non-observance of the simple written form, any party is not entitled to refer to a testimony confi rming to contract existence (item 1art. 162 R FCC). In employment law (owing to unequal position of the parties in the course of labour relation mentioned above) the emphasis is made in favour of the interests of the worker. So, the duty on registration of the labour contract as a legal document lies on the employer, but on both parties (part 2 art. 67 RFLC). As a consequence, default of this duty is for the employer infringement of employment legislation that can entail administrative responsibility, as well as any other default of duties established by employment legislation. The worker in case of non-compliance with the requirement on the written form of the labour contract does not undergo legally established adverse consequences. The rules, similar to those fi xed in the RF Civil code are not established in employment legislation: the worker is entitled to refer to a witness # 820 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana P. Basalaeva. Labour Contract Functions testimony confi rming the fact of labour legal relation existence. The written form of the contract urged to provide disputes exception not only concerning the fact of labour legal relation existence, but concerning its content as well. To achieve this purpose the legislator establishes the list of conditions which the labour contract should contain. There are also considerable differences from the civil-law contracts form regulation here. Article 57 RFLC defines the list of obligatory conditions to be included in the labour contract. The “obligatory conditions” concept has replaced the “essential conditions” concept in the mentioned edition of RFLC on 30.06.2006. The primary “essential conditions of the labour contract” wording has been borrowed by the Labour code from civil law, according to the RF Labour Code requirements. However, it is the wording but not a legal construction that was borrowed. Under civil law article, 432 RFCC considers the contract to be concluded if the agreement on all essential conditions between the parties is reached. Hence, if at least one of the essential conditions is needed in the contract, the contract is not concluded. In employment legislation, the indication on consequences of non-including essential conditions in the labour contract is needed. It is not obviously possible to apply the rule of RFCC to the given situation, as even if the labour contract is not properly written, it is still considered as concluded if the worker starts to work (art.67 RFLC). In other words, the labour contract is considered as concluded at actual performance of labour duties by the worker even at full absence of the written labour contract, and consequently with one or several essential conditions missing in its text. Thus, under civil law essential conditions form contracts as a whole and their separate contractual types as well, under employment law they are not constitutive signs, and serve as a guarantee of the worker’s labour rights implementation. Therefore, it is absolutely fair that the legislator has departed from the term “essential” with reference to the labour contract conditions as it caused stable civilistic associations. The lists of these conditions testify to specificity of obligatory conditions of the labour contract in comparison with essential conditions of civil-law as well. So, art.432 RFCC establishes the subject matter of the contract as well as the conditions named in the legislation or concerning which under the statement of one of the parties the agreement should be reached as essential conditions. Along with a subject matter, the term and the contract price are also separated from legislatively established essential conditions in the literature on civil law. It is possible to conclude, that the legislative list of essential conditions in civil law is minimum, it joins the conditions immanently inherent in a concrete contract, and hence they are objectively necessary for its existence. Other essential conditions presence in the contract is defined at will of the parties owing to part 1 art. 432 RFCC. RFLC (art. 57) establishes a rather wide list of obligatory conditions of the labour contract which have been considered above. The structure of legislatively certain obligatory conditions of the labour contract comprises not only conditions which are necessary for its existence along with a work place and labour functions, but also a significant amount of other conditions. The legislator acts on the premise that the maximum possible characteristic of labour legal relations should be given in the labour contract. Thus, the labour contract as the legal document provides distinctness for labour legal relation1, and acts as a legal guarantee of the worker’s rights implementation (carries out a guaranteeing function). # 821 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana P. Basalaeva. Labour Contract Functions It is the guaranteeing function of the labour contract that stipulates the requirement of RFL to obligatory conclude an employment agreement reduced to writing (part 1 art. 67 RFLC). Otherwise, the legislator would admit an employment agreement concluding verbally, where its simplified form to acknowledge labour legal relation existence might be, for example, an order on employment. 1 Moreover, the legislator establishes the measure allowing to guarantee the worker to keep one of the labour contract. Part.1 art.67 RFLC says that reception of the copy of the labour contract by the worker should be proved by the signature of the worker on a copy kept at the employer. It also testifies that the labour contract as a legal document carries out a guaranteeing function. The employer is also interested in it as execution of labour duties by the worker is important for him for him , but the emphasize is, of course, made in favour of the worker’s interests. Функции трудового договора С.П. Басалаева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660130, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Категория «трудовой договор» как правоотношение центральная в этом триединстве правовых явлений: юридический факт, правоотношение, юридический документ. Для установления сущности (и, как следствие, понятия) трудового договора целесообразно исследовать особенности общественных отношений, опосредуемых трудовым договором, и соответствующие им особенности трудового правоотношения. Ключевые слова: трудовой договор, функции трудового договора. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 823-836 ~~~ УДК 314.122.66 The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade of the XXI Century Concerning the Problem of Ethnic Identification of the Khakass Ethnos Natalya N. Nevolko* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The article is devoted to the historiographic review of the Russian scientifi c literature concerning the problem of the Khakass ethnos identifi cation. The main attention is paid to the literature of the end of the XIX to the first decade of the XXI centuries period. In this precise period which the greatest research attention is observed in scientifi c substantiation of the ethnic processes taking place in the society. In the sphere of research there are scientifi c works based on the results of empirical research, analysis of primary sources, extensive archival materials, statistical data, containing the latest information concerning the national policy about conservation and development of the ethnos. In particular, in the article, concerning «State of the ethnic relations in the Khakass Republic in the estimates and conceptions on a mass mind» there are the results of the public opinion poll made in 1994, 1996 and 2005, materials of social-psychological research carried out in 2007 – 2008 in the Khakassiya, results of the study of the expeditionary project of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences «Historical memory of the ethnos and formation of the regional patriotism: the example of the nations of the Khakass Republic and Altai» made in 2006. The scientifi c works fully cover research devoted to the modern state of the Khakass ethnos, where there are the consideration of the interethnic relations of the Khakass with another ethnos, mainly with the Russians and also with the kernel elements of culture such as language and religion. Besides, the great attention is paid to the scientifi c works containing the newest conceptions connected with ethnodifferentiative factors of the ethnic identifi cation. It is suffi ciently disclosed measures proposed by the authors for the preservation and progress of the Khakass ethnos in condition of polyethnic society. As a result of the review on the emphasized problem the insuffi cient development of the problem of the Khakass ethnos consolidation in the residence condition on another territory, particularly on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region, is described in the article. It is topical and necessity to continue the broad and multifaceted research, interpretation of the historical way of formation and development of the Khakass ethnos identifi cation on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region. Keywords: assimilation, interethnic interaction, the Khakass, the Khakass ethnos, the Khakass language, ethnic identification. * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: NevolkoN@yandex.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 823 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… The work is carried out with the financial support of the federal purpose oriented programme «Scientific and scientific-pedagogic staff in innovative Russia for 2009-2013» concerning the problem «Culture of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the North in the situation of global transformations: foresight research until 2050 based on the materials of analysis of the Yakut ethnos» held within the framework of the event 1.2.1 «Scientific investigations carried out by research groups guided by doctors of science». The interest to the Khakass ethnos appeared at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries in consequence of the archaeological excavations in the Khakass-Mynousinsk hollow. Due to the complexity of the problem and classification of the empirical materials there are few published scientific papers in this period - mainly the reports of the principal archaeologists who started to study the Khakass culture. It is necessary to mention some of them: Alexander Adriaynov (1853 – 1920), Michael Graysnov (1902 – 1984), Sergei Kicelev (1905 – 1962), the author of « The Ancient History of the South Siberia» (published in 1948 and 1951), the first Khakass scientist Nicolai Katanov (1862 – 1922), who collected extensive information about the Khakass, the Tuva people, the Uigurs, the Tophalars and other Turkic people (Khakassia – 2000: Who is Who, 2000). Stepan Mainagashev (1891 – 1920) is an ethnographer and founder of the Khakass script. He made a valuable contribution to the development of the Khakass language due to his research «Reports about the tours to the Turkish people of the valley of the Abakan river in summer 1913-14», where the author describes the Khakass dialects. The scientist was one of the national leaders of his period. He suggested the common name «Khakass» for the natives of the Khakass-Mynousinsk hollow at the second congress in 1918 (Gladyshevsky, 1997). It is known that the great number of works published before 1917 had mentioned the Khakass nation. These are scientific works of A.V. Adrianov - «Sketches of the Mynousinsk’s Territory» (1904) and C.C. Shishkov’s «Historical studies» (1872), later V.E. Ogorodnikova wrote about the Khakass in «The History of the Russian Siberia», in the first part «Sketches of Siberian history before the beginning of the XIX century» (1920), N.V. Kuner was the author of «The Chinese reports about people of the Southern Siberia, the Central Asia and the Far East» (1961), etc. (Logacheva, 2009). In the second half of the XX century a lot of researches studied history of the Khakass nation. Among the ethnographers' works, who studied the ethnic processes, K. M. Patachakov's articles (Patachakov, 1958, 1982) should be mentioned. The author describes the cultural conditions of the Khakass’ life in the 60-70s, the changes in social and domestic spheres, and also religious ideas are depicted. U. A. Shebaeva's works are devoted to the study the traditional state of the Khakass’ material and spiritual culture (Shebaeva, 2008). The great attention had been paid to the study the ethnic life peculiarities of the small population groups in the North, the Far East and Siberia in the 90s of the XX century and in the first decade of the XXI century along with continuation of the systematization of the history of the Khakass nation (Koptzeva and Bakhova, 2010). In particular, the modern researchers appeal to the study of the problem of the ethnic identification such as small population of the Khakass ethnos in Southern Siberia. The attention to this problem is conditioned by the tendency of the disappearance of the national culture of small nations in connection with fast assimilation process in society from the end of the XX century up to our days. Due to this # 824 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… fact the Khakass ethnosэ has developed under the influence of two processes at the same time: on the one hand it is process of enculturation, when a member of the ethnos become familiar with his\ her ethnic culture, on the other hand it is process of acculturation when cultures of the different ethnos influence each other (Koptzeva, 2010). From the established point of view the ethnos is in a borderline position, it raises a lot of questions about how the members of the Khakass ethnos depict themselves in the up-to-date polyethnic society. Sufficient amounts of the Russian researches of the end of the XX – the first decade of the XXI century (1990s – 2010) devoted their studies to this topic. The study is covering the review of these scientific works. Doctor of History, Professor V.N. Tougougekova studied the modern ethnic processes of the Khakass people (Tougougekova, 2008). The great amount of author’s articles are devoted to some aspects of the ethnic history of the Khakass as contemporary tendencies observed in the modern Khakassia at the turn of the XX – XXI century. In the scientific research «The Khakass: ethnic processes at the second half of the XX century» (Krivonogov, 1997), the ethnographer and ethnosociologist V.P. Krivonogov give the detailed statistical analysis of the Khakass ethnos population from 1897 to 1989. He studied the spiritual and material culture of the Khakass, significance of marriage during the ethnic consolidation of the Khakass. The chronology of the monograph includes mainly 70s – beginning of the 90s of the XX century. The research works of V.N. Asochakova, N.A. Baranseva, A.P. Sheksheev describe the stages of the Khakass ethnos formation and consolidation. V.N. Asochakov’s research works covered interethnic relations of the Khakass and Russian ethnos in the cultural, religious and economic fields (Asochakova, 2008, 2010). In the article « The problem of the interethnic cooperation in the course of the Christianization of indigenous of the Khakass-Mynousinsk’s Territory: XVIII – XIX century» the attention to paid to the process of the Christianization, in author’s opinion, the «russification» (Asochakova, 2009, P.94). These problems studied more fully in another V.N. Asochakov’s article «The Christianization of the Khakass in the second quarter of the XIX century: the problem of the crisis in missionary activities» where the author describes different forms and methods of the Christianization of the Khakass, missionaries’ views on educational activity and their suggestions on reformation of the missionary activities on the Khakass-Mynousinsk’s Territory. The article is based on the analysis of the church sourcebook consistories where the author reveals dynamics of the baptism of the Khakass during 100 year (1760s – 1861) period. However, in the author’s opinion, the Christianization had a formal character and didn’t affect habitual way of the Khakass ethnos life (Asochakova, 2010a). The historical premises of the Khakass ethnos formation in the 1920s are presented in the N.A. Baranzeva’s article «The Khakasses: specifics of the ethnosocial processes in the context of the formation of the state in the 1920s». The work is based on the extensive archival materials, statistical data of the Khakass population size, sociocultural and everyday descriptions of the natives, and also analysis of their interrelations with the Russian and resettlement population. The author retraces the increase of the Khakass population from the end of the XIX century to the end of 1920th, he marks out the distinctive descriptions of the ethnos («stability of the language and conservation of the cultural and everyday peculiarities») (Baranzeva, 2009). N.A. Baranzeva pays great attention to the problem of the influence of the migration to the formation of the polyethnic population of the # 825 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… South Siberia at the end of the XIX – the first half of the XX century. The number, structure and accommodation of the polyethnic population are studied, the state of the ethnic similar and mixed marriages in this period are analyzed (Baranzeva, 2008, 2009a, 2009b). A.P. Sheksheev in the article «Hashylar: protest actions of the Khakasses (the end of 1919 – the beginning of 1930s)» examined the period of the coverage of the non-Russian areas of the Khakass-Minousinsk hollow, the political and criminal violence, manifested in the negative Khakasses attitudes to the Russian population. According to the researcher, the basis of the protest actions of the Khakasses were in the desire of the ethnic to survive and unwillingness «to live according to the other people’s rules» (Sheksheev, 2009, P.104). In our days the problem of the Khakass ethnos identification is studied by many researches. For example by L.V. Anzhiganova, M.V. Belozerova, G.V. Grosheva, E.V., Guseva, I.R. Karamchakova, T.B., Morogin, V.G. Samushkin, as well as by the leading experts – specialists on the Khakass ethnos from Abakan, Novosibirsk and Tomsk. Doctor of Philosophy, the leader of the nationalist movement, a member of the national Council, L.V. Anzhiganova in the article «The evolution of the international relations in the Khakass Republic» studies the problem of the harmonization of interethnic relations between such entities as the Russians, the indigenous people of the regions and ethnic diasporas in Russia. The Khakass Republic is not an exception in this case, and for the author it is the representative «platform» for the analysis of the interethnic cooperation. Traditionally, the atmosphere of the interethnic communication in Khakassia is defined by the relations between the Russians and the Khakass because of the numerical superiority of the Russian population. According to the author, recently the ethnic diasporas had claimed about their interests. However, the scholar holds a positive assessment towards the Chinese diaspora on the basis of its «cultural isolation». According to the survey of representatives of the Chinese diaspora they not plan their further stay in Russia. Whereas Khakassia for them is the only place of the economic benefits. The article provides a comparative analysis of the sociological survey made in 1994, 1996 and 2005 about «The state of the interethnic relations in the Khakass Republic in the assessment and reporting of the mass consciousness» to achieve the goal to study the evolution of the international relations in the Khakass Republic. The author identifies a number of the possible reasons of the international tension to achieve the goal to research the evolution of the international relations in the Khakass Republic. The reasons are the following: the deteriorating economic conditions – 44%, migration from the other states and regions of the country – 25%, activities of the central – 15,5% and Republican – 6% authorities, the political crisis – 13%, consumer nationalism and chauvinism – 13%. Moreover this analysis allowed the researcher to identify an emerging problem of the increase of the number of people who were able to participate in the international conflicts (in 1994 – 58%, in 2005 – 68%). The study proposes a number of suggestions aimed to improve the interethnic situation in the Khakass Republic. The author suggests to consider: – sociocultural, economic and ethnopolitical interests of the various ethnic groups, including the small groups; – activities directed to form and develop a single multicultural space of the Republic, founded on the principles of the political correctness and mutual interest of the national groups of the Republic; # 826 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… - measures taken to migrant adaptation on the territory, do not violate the existing balance of ethno-social interests in the region (Anzhiganova, 2007). In general, L.V. Anzhiganova, despite the fact that interethnic relations in Khakassia currently appear to be relatively stable, concludes that there are signs of the hidden forms of the national tension. Especially national tension is obviously manifested from an outsider's viewpoint by the Russians and the Khakass to «the people of the Caucasian nationality» (Anzhiganova, 2007, P.82). In the article «Ethnic statehood as a factor in the formation of the regional identity (on the example of the Khakass Republic 1990 – 2000s)», G.V. Grosheva writes about the urgency of creating a model of the regional identity as a basis for social and political stability not only for an individual region of the Russian Federation but also for the Russian society in general. The author believes that this will promote the awareness among the regional communities of belonging to a single territory and unity of interests, which, in turn, will reduce the destabilizing ethnic factor. The author gives a vivid example of the Khakass Republic where, according to the author, the ethnosocial and ethno-political stability is achieved. This became possible due to the factor of the ethnic nationhood, expressed in the idea of the republic as «one's own state», «small homeland», which became the basis of the identity not only forthe Khakass but also for other ethnic groups which live on the same territory. G.V. Grosheva uses a lot of statistical materials based on the results of a poll which reveals the importance of the awareness of the representatives of the Khakass ethnic groups to belong to their Republic and their nationality. In addition, the author attempts to detect the contradiction between the desire of the Khakasses to the isolation and theoretical awareness to integrate in the Russian community. The idea of «the integration of the multi-ethnic society of Khakassia» is supported by the local authorities (from 2005 the questions of interethnic relations are examined by the Ministry of Regional Policy RK, in 2009 – the Ministry of national and regional policy was created), which causes the negative attitude of the Khakass ethnic group representatives who regard this policy as «inattention to their national interests». The researcher also analyses the event of 1991, when Khakassia joined the Russian Federation. The article presents the various responses of the representatives of the Khakass intelligentsia on the impact of this event to the Khakass population. There are both positive and negative moments. Among the positive changes the author points out the following: – economic life improvement; – preservation of the historic territory; – development of the national culture (the formation of the national intelligence, the creation of writing, the national theater, books, the development of the music culture, media in the Khakass language) (Grosheva, 2010, P.126). The author points out the following negative moments: – loss of physical and intellectual potential of the Khakass; – loss of the position of the ethnic Khakass culture; – the restriction of the usage of the Khakass language; – transformation of the Khakass «ethnic minority» on their historical homeland; – beginning of the assimilation processes, etc. Thus, G.V. Grosheva concludes that the idea of the National Republic which has independent status is a powerful factor of the ethnic # 827 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… identification not only for the Khakass people but also for the other ethnic groups. Loss of the ethnic statehood is regarded by the respondents as the loss of the national culture. G.V. Grosheva mentioned such factors of the ethnic identification of the Khakass people as language, religion and distinctive traditional culture of the Khakass in another research, devoted to «The ethnicity in the scientific and political discourse of the modern Khakassia (the end of XX – the beginning of XXI century)». On the basis of the statistical data, the author mentions the problem of the preservation of the national culture of the Khakass ethnos. Thus, the Khakass language is listed in the Red Book of the endangered languages by UNESCO, the religious divisions in the choice of faith among the Khakass ethnic is observed. The author notes the desire of the Khakasses to join Christian sects, «especially there are a lot of them among Baptists, Jehovah’s Witnesses and members of the Charismatic Church Worship (from 30 to 50% of all believers)» (Grosheva, 2007, P.66). A large proportion of the faithful, according to researcher, are so-called «dvoevertsi» (people who have two religions). There are a lot of traditions, customs and ceremonies; but different kinds of the specific Khakass crafts had been lost. All this factors, in the author’s opinion, create a threat to the existence of the Khakass ethnos. The article proposes several ways to form the ethnic identity which, in the author’s author’s view, necessary «for the psychological security and stability of the group in terms of the ethnic processes in the new circumstances» (ibid.). The author mentions the following ways: – the revival of the Khakass culture by resorting to «the historical consciousness of the ethnicity», «the restoration of the basic ethical values, appealing to the traditional worldview» (Grosheva, 2007, P.61); – an extension of the social functions of the national language, i.e. its use in the educational system, in the area of governance, culture and mass communication; – paying attention to the shamanism religion. The author focuses on the ethnogenesis of scientists made by L.V. Kyzlasov and V.J. Butanaeva, historical overview of the ethnic identity process of the Khakasses from the I BC to a period of the politics to support the Khakass ethnic group in the 1990th . The author presents the factual material aimed to support and promote the national culture. The association of the Khakass people – «Thun», hold the congresses – Chyylyg, give lectures, have village gatherings, promote the formation of the Khakass Republic, open the headings of the «Soviet Khakassia» newspaper, have programmes referring to the revival of the Khakass ethnos. G.V. Grosheva notes the important role of the Khakass ethnicity representatives in an effort to form the ethnic identity. The results revealed in the establishment of the district councils of the oldest clans (1999), holding an ancestral celebrations (2000), the creation of the public association «Clans movement of the Khakass people» (2003). The features of ethnic transformation of the Khakass and the Russian population are studied in the article of T.B. Guseva and V.G. Morogina «Ethnic attitudes of the Russians and the Khakass in terms of the interethnic cooperation». The work has theoretical and practical value; it is based on the material obtained in the course of the sociopsychological study, done in 2007 – 2008 years in the Khakass Republic. The study includes the comparative analysis of the two concepts: «the ethnic identity» and «the ethnic attitude», where the authors make a conclusion that knowledge of the ethnic identity is a «purely personal process» which can not be thoroughly studied. Whereas # 828 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… the study of the ethnic attitudes (the formation of the social stereotypes of social behavior) is possible. Therefore, the study exclusively focuses on revelation of the ethnic attitude towards the Khakasses and the Russians on the example of the Khakass Republic. In order to estimate the ethnic attitudes a modified version of Bogardus social distance scale had been used. The article presents the statistical results of the three ethnic attitude components: the emotional, the cognitive and the behavioral. As a result, the authors concluded that the Russian ethnos shows more distance between the Khakass and the Russians almost at all the levels of socialization. The researchers explain this fact by the paucity of the Khakass ethnic group, which in these circumstances «shouldn’t to oppose itself to the other ethnic groups» (Guseva, Morogin, 2009, P.49). Moreover, the respondents (180 people) appreciate their national and cultural identity to the ethnic group. In this case, the majority of the both ethnic groups are ready to show the ethnic tolerance in the interethnic interaction. E.A. Erokhina in the article «The ethnic boundaries in the interethnic community (on the example of the Khakass Republiс)» studies the problem of determination of the zone of interaction and the zone of tension between the Russians and the Khakass. The article is based on the results of the project study by of the Siberian Branch of RAS «The historical memory of the ethnos and the formation of the regional patriotism: the example of the people of the Khakass Republic and the Altai Republic», done in 2006. The author identifies external (the shape of eyelids, the presence or absence of epicanthus’s, hair color, height) and internal boundaries (identification of the state and Orthodoxy with the Russians; of the family and tribal structures and the native land with the Khakasses) in relations of the Russians and the Khakasses on the Khakass territory. These circumstances allow the author to talk about sustainable ethnic border between Russian and Khakass. At the same time, the author focuses on the contact zones: «the Russianspeaking communicative space and interfaith dialogue». The author believes that the Russian language and the Orthodox culture contribute to the integration of the Russians and the Khakass into a single civil society (Erokhina, 2007). The modern national ideology of the Khakass ethnos was studied in a number of scientific papers by E.V. Samushkina (Samushkina, 2005, 2007, 2008). The article «The modern Khakassia: the ethnic identity in the context of ethno-political processes of the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries» deals with the consideration of the conversion to a new level of the Khakass ethnic identification. The central theme of the study is the crisis of the ethnic identity, which occurred in the Khakass Republic in the 1990’s. Followed by the activity of the Association «Thun» and the Congress of Khakass people, new aspects in the transformation of the identity of the Khakass ethnos has emerged in the mid 2000's. The author singles out such trends of the identification as the revival of the historical and cultural traditions, strengthening of the integrative trends where the dialogue serves as a basis of the multi-ethnic existing and knowledge of the tribal affiliation. The article provides a legislative confirmation of the value of the last ethnic identification. The following laws to support « the ethnic consolidation» idea had been created: «About the general principles of organization of the indigenous communities in the North of the Russian Federation, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation» dated July 20, 2000, «About territories of the traditional nature management of the indigenous minority peoples of the North of the Russian Federation, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation» dated May 7, 2001 (Samushkina, 2008, P. 372). In addition, in 2001 «The association of the clans of the Khakass # 829 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… people» was created. In author's opinion it helps to supports the the socio-economic reforms of the modern Khakassia. As the conversion «to a new level of identity» of the Khakass ethnos E.V. Samushkina calls accession of the Khakass Republic in the united Turkic space (1993) (Samushkina, 2008, P. 377). Interaction of Khakassiya with the Turkicspeaking world on the basis of belief in the common ancestors, is regarded as one of the possible ways to overcome the crisis of the ethnic identity. This international non-government organization plays a unifying role in the Turkic-speaking world, it also facilitates to the integration of the common Turkic culture into the cultural world space. In another E.V. Samushkina's research work «Ideology of the ethno-national movements in the republics of Altai and Khakassia (late XX –beginning of XXI centuries)» an overview of the main documents, aimed to support and progress the concept of the ethno-national development in the Republic of Altai and Khakassia is provided. There is «The concept of thenational schools in the Altai Republic» (1993), «Law of the historical and cultural heritage of the Altai Republic» (1994), «The concept of the national development of the Khakass people» (2001). Having based on these programs, the author identifies priority in the development of the national ideology (conversion to the traditional ethnic culture), the problems of formation of the national idea, and prospects for the development of the national ideology (Samushkina, 2007). M.V. Belozerova and I.R. Karamchakova study the national language as one of the effective ethnodifferentiative signs. The consideration of the linguistic relations of the Russians and the national languages as the basis for the creation and exacerbation of the ethnic conflicts is presented in the article by the Candidate of History M.V. Belozerova «The problem of preservation of the language of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Siberia». The author traces the process of formation of the negative attitude towards the study of the native languages in schools among indigenous representatives of the ethnic groups, which started from the 1960's, and shows the changes that have taken place in the minds of the indigenous ethnic groups of the Southern Siberia with respect to the use of the national languages by the end of XX – XXI centuries. The reasons of such a massive reorientation of the ethnos linguistic consciousness are featured in the article, the analysis of the means, offered by representatives of the indigenous ethnic groups to preserve and promote the national language is given. Among these means the author paid special attention to the consideration of the number of projects realized in the educational institutions of the Republic of Altai and Novosibirsk, considering that it is necessary to support such programmes in the other regions of the Russian Federation. The author is convinced that there is a «conflict» between «their» language as a mean to preserve the ethnic identity and identification, and the Russian language which is widely used among the ethnic groups of Southern Siberia. In the author's opinion this situation is the basis for the maintenance of the interethnic tensions in the society (Belozerova, 2008). In the work of I.R. Karamchakova «Ethnolinguistic processes in the Republic of the Southern Siberia: the typology and specificity» the dynamics of the knowledge of the native language, including monolinguals, in the period between censuses of the population in 1989 and in 2002 is represented. The article is based on the analysis of the statistical data of the intensity of the functioning of the native languages in the Republics of the Southern Siberia (for example, in the mass media), the specificity of the major ethno-linguistic processes in the Republics. The # 830 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… attitude to the representatives of the titular ethnic groups to their native language, the role of the national language in the education system at the secondary and higher educational institutions in the Republics are in sphere of the research interests. On the basis of the statistical data, I.R. Karamchakova notes that only in Tuva the Tuvan language is the language of study at schools and studied as the school subject, whereas the Altais and the Khakass use their native languages only as the academic subjects. The author believes that this situation contributes to the loss of the ethnic language. However, the researcher is convinced that under the condition of the loss of the native language by the members of the ethnic, this ethnodifferentiative sign takes «symbolic resource of the ethnic identity». In this case, it is important to realize «the native language as the language of the ethnic group» which allows to identify oneself with this or that ethnic group (Karamchakova, 2010). The work «Essays of the history of Khakassia» takes an important place in the historiography of the problem of the ethnic identification of the Khakass ethnos of the beginning of the XXI century. It is made by the scientists of archeology, ethnography and the local history department of the Khakass State University n. a. N.F. Katanov, as well as by the leading researchers of the Khakass ethnos from Tomsk and Novosibirsk. This is the first monograph where the experts have studied the ethnogenesis of the Khakasses, ethno-cultural processes throughout the historical development of the Khakass people from the ancient times till present days in details. The data of sociological studies of the mid 1990 – early 2000’s, relating to the migration of the Khakass population and the extent of the political activity in comparison with the Russiansare represented. The monograph is composed of the six major sections, every chapter is devoted to the disclosure of the certain historical period of Khakassia. The main attention of the researchers is paid to the problem of the Khakass ethnic identification; there is a section which describes the period when Khakassia was in the status of the independent Republic (1991 – 2008). This section includes paragraphs devoted to «the Khakass ethnos under condition of the political and socio-economic transformations» and «the ethnic and confessional situation» in the Khakass Republic. The work is fundamental, based on a wide range of sources of the statistical data. The authors consider various aspects of the current state of the Khakass ethos. The paper presents the basic criteria of the ethnic identity of Khakassia (dialectical differences, «the idea of the republic» as «their own state», «Little Homeland»), the causes of the acceleration of the assimilation processes of the Khakass ethos, such as 1. difficult demographic situation; 2. problems in the socio-economic sphere; 3. insufficient Khakass representation in the local government; 4. migratory movements (according to the data of the census 2002, outside the Khakassia country reside 13,5% of the Khakass from the total number in Russia) (Butanaev et al., 2008, P.567); 5. internal migrations caused by the urbanization (by 2002 the number of the Khakasses increased from 1989 to 12%) (ibid.); 6. problems of the revival of the traditional spiritual culture of the Khakasses. The researches paid the main attention to the religious problem in the Khakass Republic. The author gives a historical review of the origin of the various confessions in the area and characterizes the role of the missionary activity of the religious communities in formation of the worldview of the Khakasses. The authors notes the negative impact of the members of other religions on the Khakass’ # 831 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… consciousness which manifests in rejection of the ethnicity, the ethnic culture and the cultural value. According to the author’s opinion the existing religious pluralism in the Republic is the lack of the national religion. «And the problem of our people is that we do not have our ideology, our religion. As a result we are both orthodox and heathen. Most of our people believe in the Orthodoxy and at the same time adheres to shamanism» (Butanaev et al., 2008, P.605). The paper provides an analysis of the opinion polls where the authors define the ethnosocial development of the titular ethnic group. Among these conditions the authors identify the following: 1. accessibility of the education and employment for the young Khakass people; 2. belonging to «their» Republic and «their» nationality, i.e. preservation of the national statehood. In general, the researchers assess the stable situation in the sphere of interethnic relations in the Republic. However, the authors note the existence of the «hidden form of tension» in the international relations. The author notes the importance of the creation of the «single political-legal space and the integration of all the ethno-national communities into a single political nation – heterogeneous in its composition but unified by belonging to the State» (Butanaev et al., 2008, P.572). According to the authors, the Khakass ethnic group wants to revive the traditional culture with «the current trends of the global and national development and integration into the global cultural community» (Butanaev et al., 2008, P.573). A.S. Logacheva’s monograph «Ethnic selfconsciousness» has a great value for the problem of the ethnic identification of the Khakass. In the monograph such a phenomenon as the ethnic self-consciousness observed in the sociophilosophical terms. The author points out the subtle difference between the concepts of «the ethnic self-consciousness» and «the ethnic identification». According to A.S. Logacheva ethnic self-consciouness is a core of the ethnic identity which has two levels. The first «level of orientation, preferences and stereotypes» where the identification with the ethnic group is commonly presented. According to the concept of the researcher the second «theoreticalconceptual» level creates the social basis for the opposition to nationalism. At this level the ethnic self-consciousness is faced with the future – «it is interested in the problems of the ethnos future life, the preservation and increase of its spiritual strength ...» (Logacheva, 2009, P.135). The author notes the natural need to step over the limits of the «self-knowledge» at this level of the ethnic selfconsciousness as a condition for the prosperity of the ethnic group. The ethnic self-consciousness differs from the ethnic identity; it is defined by knowledge, education, intelligence, whereas the ethnic identity involves more emotional elements that contribute to the strengthening of the ethnic self-consciousness. The concept of the ethnic self-consciousness is researched by the author on the example of the Khakass ethnos. The main attention of A.S. Logacheva is focused on the discovery of the historical, philosophical and ethnosocial prerequisites for the processes of the development in the modern Khakassia. The process of the formation of the Khakass ethnic group is retraced, ethnodifferentiative principles of the ethnic identity such as language, culture, tradition, religion, art, style of life, ethnogenesis of the Khakasses, psychological characteristics are considered. The problem of the Khakass ethnos genesis in its ethnic and cultural interaction with the other ethnic groups is summarized in a number of # 832 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… theses in 2000’s. The main problems mentioned by the authors are: characteristic of the traditions, ceremonies, the national character of the Khakass ethnos, the interaction of the Russian immigrants with the representatives of the other Siberian ethnic groups and many others. Thus, the historiographical review of the domestic scientific literature concerning the problem of the Khakass ethnic identification gives an opportunity to make the following conclusions. 1.The problem of the ethnic self-identification of minority in the Russian Federation (in particular of the North, the Far East and Siberia) appeared acutely in the 90’s of the XX century, which found a broad response among researchers who wanted to study the ethnic processes, taking place in the society. The problem of the scientific substantiation of the self-identification processes in an ethnic group requires further study. 2. The main researchers’ attention is paid to the problem of the Khakass ethnic identification and conditioned by the necessity to analyze the reasons for the rapid rate of assimilation within the ethnic group, whereas in Khakassia there is a tendency towards the conservation and the development of the Khakass ethnos. 3. This problem is usually researched by the authors in the historical, sociological, psychological and cultural aspects. Researchers believe that the genesis of the Khakass ethnos, sociological and psychological approaches are enable to indicate the specific character of the interrelations of the Khakasses with the other nations, discover peculiarities of the emotional state of the representatives of the ethnic group under the condition of the domination of the Russian population in their native territory according to the historical approach. Based on the cultural approach, the scientists explore the role of the key national forms of the culture in the contemporary life of the ethnos. 4. Special attention is paid to the scientific literature which is devoted to the study of the following ethnic processes, which indicate the self-identification of the Khakass ethnos: – history of the formation of the Khakass ethnos (V.N. Asochakova, N.A. Barantzeva, V.Y. Butanaev, G.V. Grosheva, V.N. Tuguzhekova, A.P. Sheksheev, etc.); – interethnic interaction of the Khakasses with the other ethnic groups. The main attention of the researchers is paid to the interaction with the Russians (L.V. Anzhiganova, N.A. Barantseva, T. B. Guseva, E.A. Erokhina, V.P. Krivonogov, V.G. Morogin, A.P. Sheksheev, etc.); – the nuclear components of the culture of the Khakasses – language and religion (V.N. Asochakova, M.V. Belozerova, V.Y. Butanaev, G.V. Grosheva, I.R. Karamchakova, A.S. Logacheva, etc.). 5. Along with the traditional ethnodifferentiative markers of the ethnicity (language, religion, mythology, traditions, customs, ceremonies, etc.), the researchers suggest such factors of the ethnic identity which should be formed in the minds of the representatives of the Khakass ethnos at the present stage of the development. For example: the idea of the national Republic, «small homeland» (the ethnic state) (G.V. Grosheva), strengthening of the integrative tendencies (L.V. Anzhiganova, V.Y. Butanaev, E.A. Erokhina, G.V. Grosheva, E.V. Samushkin, etc.), expansion of the scope of the functioning of the national language (M.V. Belozerova, I.R. Karamchakova), creation of the national religion (V.Y. Butanaev, etc.), formation of the ethnic selfconsciousness (A. S. Logacheva). 6. There is also the problem of the Khakass’ ethnic consolidation in terms of living on the other territory – on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region. Thus, the relevance and necessity to continue the broad and multidisciplinary # 833 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… research on order to understand the historical way of formation and development of the self1 identification of the Khakasses on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region is obvious. According to the All-Russian census of the population in 2002, there are 75622 members of the Khakass ethnos in the Russian Federation’s Territory whereas after the census of the population in 1989, there were 78500 people. References L.V. Anzhiganova, «The evolution of international relations in the Khakass Republic», Humanities in Siberia, 1 (2007), 78-82. V.N. Asochakova, «The Russian Orthodox Church in the Khakass-Minousinsk region under the circumstances of its settling (the 18 c. – the 1860s)», Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series: Humanities, 4 (1) (2008), 455 – 461. V.N. Asochakova, «Problem of the interethnic cooperation in the course of Christianization of indigenous of the Khakass-Mynousinsk’s Territory: XVIII – XIX», Herald of the Chelyabinsk State University, 38 (2009), 92-95. V.N. Asochakova, «Christianization of Khakass in the second quarter of the XIX century: to problem of the crisis in missionary activities», Humanities in Siberia, 1 (2010), 37-40. V.N. Asochakova, «Evolution of class structure of the population in the Khakass-Minusinsk Region in the context of the policy of Christianization (XVIII – early 60s. of the XIX c.)», Herald of the Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 9 (2010), 5-11. N.A. Barantzeva, «Problem of the migration influence to the formation of the polyethnic population of the South Siberia at the end of the XIX – the first half of the XX», Humanities in Siberia, 3 (2008), 80-84. N.A. Barantzeva, «Khakasses: specifics of the ethnosocial processes in the context of the statehood formation in the 1920s», Proceedings of the Altai State University, 3 (4) (2009), 23-28. N.A. Barantzeva, «The migration influence to the number, structure and accommodation of the polyethnic population of the Minousinsk Region of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the 1920-1940s», Herald of the Chelyabinsk State University, 4 (2009), 40-46. N.A. Barantzeva, «Migration to the Yenisei province in the second half of the XIX – early of the XX cc.: the ethno-social and demographic aspects», Herald of the Chelyabinsk State University, 38 (2009), 33-40. M.V. Belozerova, «The problem of preserving the language of the indigenous peoples of Southern Siberia», Journal of the Kemerovo State University of Culture and the Arts, 6 (2008), 12 – 15. V. Y. Butanaev, Essays of the history of Khakassia (from ancient times until today) (Abakan: Khakass State University named after N.F. Katanov, 2008), in Russian. E.A. Erokhina, «Ethnic boundaries in interethnic community (for example, the Khakass Republic)», Humanities in Siberia, 3 (2007), 100-103. A.N. Gladyshevsky, «The scientist and social activist, S.D. Maynagashev», Herald of the Khakass State University named after N.F. Katanov, 3 (3) (1997), 27-31. G.V. Grosheva, «Ethnicity in the scientific and political discourse of modern Khakassia (the end of XX – the beginning of XXI century)», Herald of the Tomsk State University, (303) (2007), 61-68. G.V. Grosheva, «Ethnic statehood as a factor in the formation of regional identity (for example, the Khakass Republic 1990 – 2000s)», Herald of the Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 9 (2010), 125-131. # 834 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… T.B. Gusev and V.G. Morogin, «Ethnic attitudes of Russian and Khakass in terms of interethnic cooperation», Journal of the Yaroslavl State University. Series: Humanities, 4 (2009), 44-51. I.R. Karamchakova, «Ethno-linguistic processes in the Republic of South Siberia: a typology and specificity», Scientific problems of humanitarian studies, 4 (2010), 203-210. Khakassia – 2000: Who is Who (Abakan: Ayas, 2000), in Russian. N.P. Koptzeva, «Indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region: concerning the question of methodology of culture studies», Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series: Humanities, 3 (4) (2010), 554-562. N.P. Koptzeva and N.A. Bakhova, «System of culture in Krasnoyarsk region: main subjects and cultural values», Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series: Humanities, 3 (30) (2010), 344381 V.P. Krivonogov, Khakasses. Ethnic processes in the second half of the XX century (Abakan: Zentaurus, 1997). A.S. Logacheva, Ethnic self-consciousness (for example, Khakass ethnos) (Abakan: Khakass publishing house, 2009), in Russian. K.M. Patachakov, Culture and life of Khakassia in the light of the historical ties with the Russian people (XVIII – XIX centuries) (Abakan: KhakSRILLH, 1958), in Russian. K.M. Patachakov, Sketches of the material culture of Khakasses (Abakan: Krasnoyarsk publishing house. Khakassia, 1982). E.V. Samushkina, «Ethnic self-consciousness of Khakasses: mythology and shamanism in the formation of modern national ideology», Humanities in Siberia, 3 (2005), 29-32. E.V. Samushkina, «Ideology of ethno-national movements in the republics of Altai and Khakassia (late XX – early XXI)», Herald of the Novosibirsk State University. Series: History, Philology, 6 (3) (2007), 284-289. E.V. Samushkina, «Modern Khakassia: ethnic identity in the context of ethno-political processes of the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries», Problems of history, philology and culture, 20 (2008), 370-379. A.P. Sheksheev, «Hashylar: protest actions of Khakasses (the end of 1919 – the beginning of 1930s)», Russian history, 2 (2009), 93-106. Y.A. Shibaev, Clothing of Khakasses (Abakan: KhakSRILLH, 2008). V.N. Tougougekova, Khakass ethnos at the turn of the century (late XX – early XXI) (Abakan: Khakass publishing house, 2008). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya N. Nevolko. The Historiographical Review of the Scientific Literature of the Late XIX to the First Decade… Историографический обзор научной литературы конца XIX – первого десятилетия XXI вв. по проблеме этнической идентификации хакасского этноса Н.Н. Неволько Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена историографическому обзору отечественной научно-исследовательской литературы по проблеме этнической идентификации хакасского этноса. Особое внимание уделено рассмотрению литературы за период конца XIX – первого десятилетия XXI веков. Именно в данный период наблюдается наибольший исследовательский интерес к научному обоснованию происходящих в обществе этнических процессов. В круг исследовательского обзора входят работы, основанные на результатах эмпирических исследований, анализе первоисточников, обширного архивного материала, статистических данных, а также содержащие новейшие сведения относительно проводимой национальной политики по сохранению и развитию этноса. В частности, в статье освещаются результаты социологического опроса, проводимого в 1994, 1996 и 2005 годах на тему «Состояние межнациональных отношений в Республике Хакасия в оценках и представлениях массового сознания», материалы социально-психологического исследования, проводимого в 2007 – 2008 годах в Республике Хакасия, результаты исследования по экспедиционному проекту Сибирского отделения РАН «Историческая память этноса и формирование регионального патриотизма: на примере народов Республики Хакассия и Республики Алтай», проводимого в 2006 году. Наиболее полно освещаются работы, посвященные исследованию современного состояния хакасского этноса, куда входит рассмотрение межэтнического взаимодействия хакасов с иными этносами, в частности с русскими, а также ядерных элементов культуры, таких как язык и религия. Кроме этого, большое значение придается работам, содержащих новейшие концепции в отношении этнодеффиринцирующих факторов этнической идентификации. Достаточно подробно раскрываются предлагаемые авторами меры по сохранению и развитию хакасского этноса в условиях полиэтничного общества. В результате проведенного обзора научно-исследовательских работ по обозначенной проблеме в статье отмечается недостаточная разработанность вопроса консолидации хакасского этноса в условиях проживания на иной территории, в частности на территории Красноярского края. Отмечается актуальность и необходимость продолжения широкого и многоаспектного исследования, осмысления исторического пути формирования и развития самоидентификации хакасского этноса на территории Красноярского края. Ключевые слова: ассимиляция, межэтническое взаимодействие, хакасы, хакасский этнос, хакасский язык, этническая идентификация. Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке федеральной целевой программы “Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной России на 2009-2013 гг.” по проблеме “Культура коренных и малочисленных народов Севера в условиях глобальных трансформаций: форсайтисследование до 2050 г. на материале анализа якутского этноса”, проводимому в рамках мероприятия 1.2.1 “Проведение научных исследований научными группами под руководством докторов наук”. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 837-845 ~~~ УДК 821.161.1 The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) Alena O. Zadorina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The article presents the motif analysis of L. Leonov’s works, except for the final novel “Pyramid”. Author’s manner was changing during the 20th century tending to different styles – avant-garde, socialist realism, postrealism. The motif of the gift was considered by Leonov from different points of view, and we attempted to examine poetics of all author’s variations of this motif focusing on its religious essence. Keywords: motif analysis; narration; character’s structure. Introduction The motif of the gift as the disclosure of an artistic right to create something new has ontological significance in the art. In the religiousmythological discourse this motif is represented by two semantic variants: talent and foresight. They are bestowed to a man from heaven marking the “person of God”. Obviously the divine gift is connected with the idea of grace. In the article “Error, God and Literature” (2005) I.P. Smirnov investigates the evolution of understanding the divine gift (talent) in the religious and philosophical doctrines starting with theories of Aristotle and Plato. Revising the ancient concepts in the early and late Christianity (St. Augustine, Nicholas of Cusa), the scientist formulates a thesis about the qualitative essence of grace. Since the “transient sensory perception cannot be relied upon” (Smirnov, p. 34, 2005), and intelligence is * 1 “subjected to the affects” (Smirnov, p. 34, 2005), then the truth is given only to the initiates: the enduring (immortalia) opens only to a believer. In the understanding of Bl. Augustine, grace is appointed by God to all people, but only those who aspire to get it (many are called, but few are chosen) will be saved. Those who perish without receiving grace are guilty themselves: God condemns a person for unwillingness to receive the bestowed salvation. The modern theological tradition links the motif of the divine gift with the motif of cognition. Grace is the supreme Dominical gift to a person, and its action opens possibility of understanding God. Materials and Methods The motif of the divine gift is embodied in the texts of both the Old and New Testaments. The gift in the sense of a talent, grace is metaphorically unfolded in the Gospel parable of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 837 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) talents (regardless the fact that the Biblical text a talent means a monetary measure). The modern etymology determines a combination of meanings in a lexeme of the talent (values of weight and the divine gift) with metaphorical re-interpretation of the New Testament parable which took place in the ancient times (Chernykh, 2002). The plot of talents is presented in three canonical gospels, but the authors make different semantic accents. We will focus on the Gospel of Luke where the metaphor of talent becomes more evident. Interesting research of the parable of talents as a sign of selectness was held by E.G. Rabinovich (through a comparison of popular evangelical version of Matthew and the forgotten one – the Gospel of Luke, through alignment of alliterative mythopoetical parallels with the images of Atlant, Tantalus). The motif analysis reveals relations of the idea of the talent with motifs of feasibility-unfeasibility, luck and perseverance of the succeeded ones, sorrow and death of a protagonist who tried to refuse the burden assigned to him and, therefore, was punished. Based on the received results the researcher tries to reconstruct the process of understanding the parable of talents as “the divine grace and free will” that accepts or does not accept duties of those who received the grace: “The talent is a metaphor for grace based on the pre-Christian tradition which being apprehended with obedience and zeal is multiplied with the efforts of the chosen one, and being rejected and “buried” it deprives the person who did not accept election not only of grace, but of God” (Rabinovich, p. 148, 1991). In the Russian literature the motif of divine inspiration of an artist was designated in the hagiographic texts, when the authorship category was irrelevant. Near to eulogy to a protagonist of hagiology at the beginning and / or at the end of text the author talks about God’s permission to work with a word. The logic of the motif development is as follows: at first, the author writes about his own mediocrity, then about the prayer and the occured grace. That is, the transition in the antinomic pair of the motifs gift – mediocrity is carried out by inclusion of the motif of miracle. We read in “Life of Theodosius Pechersky”: “... I forced myself to turn to the narration which is beyond my power and that I am unworthy of, because I am ignorant and foolish (the motif of mediocrity – A.Z.). Besides, I’m not trained in any art…” (Old Russian Legends, p. 49, 1982). The prayer about the miracle completes the prelude to the hagiographic story: “I was obsessed with grief every day and prayed to God to vouchsafe me to write hagiology of our divine Theodosius” (Old Russian Legends, p. 49, 1982). “The Kievo-Pechersky Paterik” narrates about the circumstances of occurrence of the hagiographic tradition in the First Word. The founder of the monastery St. Simon asks the “great gift” – the God’s Word (Old Russian Legends, 1982). Thus, the motif of the gift in religious discourse corresponds directly to the motif of service. D.S. Likhachev referring to the history of the issue in “Essays on the philosophy of art” connects the motif of the divine poetic gift in medieval religious culture (not only in literary practice, but also in theological perusals) with the motif of suggestion, since here “it is not the author who creates his work, but it is instilled to him from heaven” (Likhachev, p. 132, 1999). In the Old Russian literature the motif of prophecy is involved in the characterization of “God’s people” – holy fools and saints. The gift of prophecy shows special affinity of a person to God and can symbolize a spiritual personal growth and original inner purity (the images of the Blessed). This motif does not only record belonging of heroes to a certain status, but also determines the properties of the existence observed by them: for the gifted with prophecy being is transparent, to other it is turbid. # 838 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) In the Russian literature of the New Age the motif of the divine gift preserves the relevance in the theme of the poet and poetry. Aesthetics of Romanticism directly links images of an artist and a prophet defining the idea of creativity as cognition of truth and carrying it to the society. The researcher N. Buhks tracing the evolution of this motif noticed that in A.S. Pushkin’s “Prophet” (1926) the theme of divine inspiration of the poet reaches the apex, being on the verge of turning ideas into a cliché (Semiotic of Madness, 2005). In the religious philosophy of the Silver Age (V. Solovyev, S. Frank) categories of the gift and creativity are considered in a way unexpected to the European tradition. In the Renaissance a person gets to the center of the universe, due to his competition with God in the art of creating. Frank reveals this idea at a cosmological level: God endows a human with a talent, thereby suggesting that he will participate in the creation of the world. In this case, the Absolute turns out to be emerging, incomplete and “the private forms of the Absolute realized in life and knowledge of individuals become the crystallization centers, points of growth and development of unity” (Frank, p. 580, 1993). The motif of the existence transparence often follows the motif of the gift. In the utopian tradition – from V. Odojevsky to V. Nabokov and E. Zamyatin – it finds ideological connotation. Here the motif of prophecy is transformed into a motif of the mechanization of the society: the power needs the human transparency in order to control him more effectively. In the mid-twentieth century worksreflections on the essence of the talent and forms of its embodiment appear (K. Paustovsky “Golden Rose”). In Paustovsky’s work a mystical component of the gift goes to the background becoming the object of parody. According to the writer, the essence of the talent lies not in the divine grace, but in labor: inspiration is only a part of the working process. The logic of such approach fits into the world picture of socialistic realism where the mystical component is substituted by the profane one. Substitution of the sacral with the ordinary becomes even more expressive in the culture at the end of the 20th century. The images of the poet and the prophet are dissolved in mass consciousness: there are professional artists and psychics. At the same time they both are characterized with mythopoetical activity, manipulation with public ideas about art and life. In the article “Something about heart errors” E. Lebedev summarizes: “It has become more fashionable not to work, but to confess on public. Especially it was noticed in fine arts. Artists grew fond of showing sketches, composers told about how music is created, writers argued on how books are written” (Lebedev, p. 240, 1980). Generally, the motif of the gift in religious understanding appears quite seldom in the modern art: traditional prose (A. Solzhenitsyn, V. Rasputin, V. Lichutin’s and, partly, B. Yekimov’s works) became an exception (Kovtun, 2009). The special place in this line is occupied by L. Leonov’s texts. In his works the motif is presented variously, in early texts it appears not so often. In the article we consider the named motif in the following semantic limits: gift – talent, gift – prophecy, gift – treasure. The last allomotif is metaphorically coordinated with a parable of talents when the talent has been buried by one of the slaves, thereby having turning into a treasure. Results In Leonov’s stories and novels of the 1920s the divine gift is almost absent. As an exception we can name “The Notes of Some Episodes Made in the Gogulev-town by Andrey Petrovich Kovyakin” (1924) where the character-storyteller represents himself as a chronicler of our days. Researchers of early works of L. Leonov repeatedly # 839 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) mark the influence of poetics and stylistics of F. Dostoevsky on the author’s manner. Along with “The Kovyakin’s Notes” the image of the storyteller also appears in “Petushihinsky Break”, “Provincial Story”, and is considered as Leonov’s parody of “the little person” Makar Devushkin: “Thus, the development of the topic occurs in two plans: absolutely serious (the tragedy plan) and ironical (the parody plan) plan” (Isaev, p. 8, 1975). In the dissertation on the topic “Leonid Leonov’s mastery. Art of the psychological analysis in early prose” (1971) P. Philippov inclining toward the version of stylization of Dostoevsky depicts a contradictory nature of Leonov’s loanwords and creative discoveries by the example of “Kovyakin’s Notes”. Detecting the doubtless similarity of some thoughts of Kovyakin and Makar Devushkin the researcher emphasizes the specificity of the Leonov’s character: “The humiliated and offended little person did not dare to speak out of his latent qualities and did not think that he had any advantages. The “little” Kovyakin claims to be distinctive, he is assured of his significance, but life rejects him defining the real essence of this individual” (Philippov, p. 24, 1971). The character’s sense of his own significance is just connected with motif of the acquired grace: Andrey Petrovich addresses to God with a prayer to help him in his literary work, asks for patience and strength to cope with an artistic task of creation of annals of Gogulev town (Leonov, vol. 1, 1981). Similar to the authors of the Old Russian annals Kovyakin finds equivalents to a private event in the Sacred history, thereby proving the personal right to compose texts. In Initial rhymes the character addressing to God compares himself to Tsar David whose gift (playing the lyre, performance of psalms) protects him from enemies (thereby the religious analogy implies the political protection and preservation of the social status to the contemporary chronicler Kovyakin if God approves of his gift): Here is Tsar David: he played the lyre, And You destroyed his enemies. And the sounds were salutary In the mouth of David’s psalm (Leonov, vol. 1, p. 287, 1981). For this travestied character the motif of the gift becomes some kind of an equivalent unit of communication both with God and with the society surrounding Gogulev. By means of the imagined gift he strengthens the idea of his own chosenness that is not appreciable to the contemporaries but having an eternal value in the eyes of posterity. In the novel “Badgers” (1924) that describes the partisan movement the motif of gift as the innermost essence of a person manifests itself in the light of the love intrigue. A love triangle formed by the protogonists (Mishka Zhibanda, Nastya, Semyon), contradictory feelings toward each other appear as a logic problem to be solved. “The speculative” poetics of the author doesn’t offer the only true key to the riddle, since a human soul is a treasure (a treasure is buried, hidden, unknown). When Mishka got intimate with Nastya, he felt that their relationship is only external and they still remained strangers to each other. Nastya, in turn, seeking Semyon’s attention does not understand either why he is so far from her. The participants of the illocutionary drama unfolded in the novel see an obstacle in a treasure they are not destined to find: “You are not mine… – restlessly tossed Mishka, ready to strangle her. – What else do you want? – she laughed coldly (Nastja – A.Z.). – The treasure is in you. Give it to me… – Take it...” (Leonov, vol. 2, p. 254, 1982). In the novel the motif of a treasure is also connected with the motifs of mediocrity and despair: Mishka, with all the originality of his nature, does not possess a gift of penetrating # 840 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) into the essence of things, he is not given the knowledge. He tries to get to the treasure using the force (“ready to strangle”), the speed (“in search of the treasure with hasty lips he broke off fiery flowers of Nastya’s paporot’…”); it is vision that he lacks. Ya.E. Golosovker in his work “Logic of an antique myth” (1987) considers a binary opposition of motifs of vision – maintenance. These motifs appear in mythological texts concerning additional distribution when one quality forces out another one: blind Oedipus knows more then capable to see, hundred-eyed Argus does not know his fate. Thus, the motif of the gift is realized in the novel in two variants that we have determined: as a treasure (secret, essence incomprehensible for a human – “for where your treasure is, there your heart is” [Mf. 6.21] and as a foresight (in the sense of its inaccessibility to characters). In the “Thief” (1927) the theme of the treasure becomes a key one, searching for it connects all the characters of the narration. First of all, for the writer Firsov creation of a novel about the life of the society’s lower classes is realization of his creative gift. Secondly, building the structure of the characters of the future work basing on the meetings from his real life, Firsov selects a valuable material on treasure presence. Apparently, the insignificant image of singer Zinka fascinates the writer with its treasure so much that Firsov links with it the destiny of the protagonist (Mitka) and the treasure reveals: “The writer did not have to work long on the treasure: soon Zinka repented her unrequited love in his notebook crying as at the confession” (Leonov, vol. 3, p. 87, 1982). The degree of the artist’s talent is estimated by the ability to find the buried talents of others or to think them up; simultaneously discovering of someone else’s treasure is equated to its theft, therefore the author (and Firsov) makes the thief the protagonist of the narration. The theft of money and theft of spiritual mysteries require a similar talent, and here again the linkage between the primary meaning of the word (a monetary measure) and its figurative sense (a gift) is especially obvious: “Actually, I am also a thief secretly wandering through life; I bag everything that I like” (Leonov, vol. 3, p. 125, 1982), – Firsov shares his thoughts with Mitka. In the article ‘Dostoevsky and Tolstoy” L. Leonov expresses the same idea by an antonymous statement: “In terms of the great Russian literature I would designate the role of the writer as the inspector on particularly important cases of the mankind” (Leonov, vol. 10, p. 529, 1984). Differing among themselves from the point of view of their social status, the thief and the inspector have a general seme expressed by the function of searching. Self-detection of the treasure becomes a special fortune for a “spiritual thief”, i.e. the writer: “…the soul itself will offer you its sparkling” (Leonov, vol. 3, p.128, 1982). Nevertheless, all Firsov’s attempts to entice this sparkling from Agey, Mitka Vekshin and Manka Vyuga remain vain while “many are called, but few are chosen” [Mf. 22.14]. The solution about the fiasco reason lies, probably, in the author’s hints when he characterizes his romantic colleague. In the text Firsov is called a craftsman, i.e. he is deprived a blessing talent which would make his thought pathetic. The motif of mediocrity draws together the images of Firsov and a minor official, Peter Gorbidonych Chikilev. However, if the first one connects the difficulties of creativity with resistance of the “material”, the second one is keenly aware of his own lack of talent and starts to revolt against all extraordinary, talented and pure. The typical nature of the character-talenthater in Leonov’s art world is considered by L.P. Yakimova as a confi rmation of the thesis on the central role of the idea of equality for the writer (Yakimova, 2003). In the “Pyramid” # 841 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) the image of rebellious mediocrity reaches new height: Chikilev’s double, fi nancial officer Gavrilov, dreams of destruction of the genius and talent by socioeconomic repressions as “the genius is an extremely antisocial phenomenon” (Leonov, vol. 3, p. 363, 1982). In the “Pyramid” an old man Dyurso also reflects on sociopolitical significance of the talent and genius. Without claiming to destruct the talent as a driving creative force, Dyurso assumes it to be the source of the future national and global conflicts (in the context of religious symbolics for the talent for the character is the cornerstone of being rejected by constructors): “It is still only a talent, but what if suddenly is a genius in front of us? We may use such a word only for ancient dead men not to cause a dangerous fermentation for insult in workers. Genius, here is the future crizzling of the world!” (Leonov, vol. 1, p. 237, 1994). Uneasy relationship of Masha Dolomanova and Mitka Vekshin are determined by the motif of the inner treasure: feeling of lovehatred between the characters is fueled with the knowledge of a mysterious treasure preserved by everyone. Opportunity to leave and not to make each other suffer is seen by the characters only through mutual disclosing of the secret: “You have to give everything for me, and what will remain at the bottom of your soul I will take myself in addition” (Leonov, vol. 3, p. 113, 1982); “Do not tantalize me, do not covet, Mitya, take my treasure which is already great while one can neither rob it, nor extinguish it” (Leonov, vol. 3, p.128, 1982). The conflict remains unresolved while without a treasure the character cannot participate in the plot development (Firsov’s) any more. In two subsequent novels (“Skutarevsky”, “Road to the Ocean”) the motif of the talent reveals on the verge of blinking of several meanings of the word: a monetary talent and a spiritual talent. Though in “Skutarevsky”(1932) it is more fair to speak about the gift-talent theme while in the centre of narration there is a destiny of a creative person, we will consider the talent as a particular motif characterizing the image of the artist Skutarevsky, the brother of a scientist. Throughout the narration the images of brothers Skutarevsky are regularly compared: what they wanted to achieve, what they have reached as a result, by what means. On the background of his well-known brother-physicist, the artist Skutarevsky seems to be a loser: his talent having flashed at the very beginning of the way, is unexpectedly and incomprehensibly extinguishing. The artist with the lost talent, as a rich man who has forgotten where his treasure is, cannot claim on the status preservation. The hero is shown confused (searches but cannot find – having lost his way), gravitating to the archetype of the prodigal son (as images of two brothers also appear in the parable): “He woke Struff up and, shaking his shoulders, hoarsely whispered to him, semistrangled: – Where is my talent, eh? Where did you hide it? And Struff did not understand half asleep, in his dim pupils the horror of punishment was reflected: – I did not take, I did not take … you look for it yourself!” (Leonov, vol. 5, p. 167, 1983). The language game constructed on the mixture of homonyms, marks the isolation of Skutarevsky: people do not understand not only new pictures of the artist (the narrator names them coupons that hints at financial implications of thetalent), but the speech itself. In the “Road to the Ocean» (1935) the images of protagonists, Kurilov and Protoklitov, are shaded by a set of “accessory” characters, that have subsequently affected the destinies of the central characters. One of these characters, Pakhomov, appears as news from Gleb Protoklitov’s past. Pakhomov possesses a valid treasure – the knowledge of Gleb’s true origin, of his activity # 842 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) during the Civil War, and, without burying the talent, uses compromising information in his own purposes: “Without noticing, he had been living four years for percent from his secret. That time people were forgetful; it was necessary to touch the main capital more often” (Leonov, vol. 5, p. 217, 1983). Specificity of the existing relations between Protoklitov and Pakhomov is the feeling of mutual patience. If the first is compelled to be tolerant to the blackmailer not to lose the status, the second, strangely enough, also suffers: the cherished treasure does not give him rest, and he opens it, despite the observance of all conditions by the victim. Further coupling of the motifs of the treasure and patience will be manifested in the final novel “Pyramid”, when the affinity of the treasure and impossibility of its easy obtaining determine the width of the novel’s idea in the head of the narrator. Thus, in the “Road to the Ocean” there is a motif of the found treasure-talent searched for by the characters of the “Thief”, but the finding does not bring happiness to its new owner. In the “Russian woods” (1953) the motif of the talent is revealed through the opposition of the images of the artist (forester Vihrov) and the trickster (pseudo-artist) – Gratsiansky. The work of Vikhrov is directed on preservation of the woods, is constantly exposed to attacks of the former university companion Gratsiansky. During Viktorov’s creative pause, Gratsiansky is also compelled to be silent – he has nothing to tell. Gratsiansky’s lack of talent is assimilated with a fruitless fig tree which is fed with an earth juice, but returns nothing to the nature (then this metaphor appears in the “Pyramid”, in connection with the images of Sorokin and Yulia Bambalsky). Here the motif of the gift/talent is an additional to the motif of despair. Vikhrov, a gifted scientist, does not know despair: his spiritual forces are directed on creation (restoration of wood resources). His opponent Gratsiansky, indefatigably denying protective projects of Vikhrov and having become famous only at the expense of these attacks, is driven by a destructive force. Logics of the chain of the motifs gift – creation, despair – destruction, is emphasized with specific social environment of the characters. The Vikhrovs including the adopted son Serezha, has a set of acquaintances, the publication of Vihrov’s works causes a particular interest in the scientific world. Gratsiansky lives with his mother and he is infinitely lonely; in scientific circles he is known more as a critic, rather than a researcher. Thus, the following schemes are embodied in the images of the characters: gift – creation – society (Vikhrov) and despair – destruction – loneliness (Gratsiansky). If in “Skutarevsky” the motif of the lost talent participates in creating the image of the prodigal son, in the “Russian woods” the return situation is realized: Vikhrov’s happiness if in having a talent and a purpose, he does not wander through life. Conclusion The motif of the talent always marking the selected one in the general mass determines the social and cosmological status of the protagonist. Obviously, it is dependent in L. Leonov’s works. If the miracle can appear being an independent phenomenon, the talent loses its importance if it appears out of the artistic chronotope. The artist Skutarevsky does not know where his talent is and when it disappeared; Pakhomov has found his talent but he does not know where and when to apply it. The valency of the motif of the talent in L. Leonov’s fiction necessarily requires a linkage with motif of cognition (Skutarevskyphysicist, forester Vikhrov). Otherwise, we meet its antipode, the motif of mediocrity (Pakhomov, Gratsiansky, Firsov). The motifs of search and despair situations (as reaction to ineffectual movement) become frequent satellites of the talent. # 843 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) References P.Ys. Chernykh, Historical-etymological Dictionary of the Modern Russian Language, vol. 2 (Moscow: Russky yazyk, 2002), p. 226, in Russian. S.L. Frank, Subject of Knowledge. Soul of a Human, (St. Petersburg: Nauka, 1993), p. 580, in Russian. Ya.E. Golosovker, Logics of an antique myth, (Moscow: Nauka, 1987), p. 224, in Russian. G.G. Isayev, Problem of style tradition of Dostoevsky in the works of Leonid Leonov 1920-th, (Gorky, 1975), p. 8, in Russian. L.P. Yakimova, The motif structure of the novel “Pyramid” by Leonid Leonov (Novosibirsk: SB RAS, 2003), p. 250, in Russian. N.V. Kovtun, “Village fiction” in the mirror of utopia (Novosibirsk: SB RAS, 2009), p. 494, in Russian. E. Lebedev, “Something about heart errors: a variety song as a social symptom” in New World, 10 (1988), p. 240, in Russian. L.M. Leonov, Collected Works, vol. 1, (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literature (Fiction), 1981), p. 502, in Russian. L.M. Leonov, Collected Works, vol. 2, (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literature (Fiction), 1982), p. 328, in Russian. L.M. Leonov, Collected Works, vol. 3, (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literature (Fiction), 1982), p. 614, in Russian. L.M. Leonov, Collected Works, vol. 5, (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literature (Fiction), 1983), p. 320, in Russian. L.M. Leonov, Collected Works, vol. 10, (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literature (Fiction), 1984), p. 631, in Russian. L.M. Leonov, Pyramid, vol. 1, (Moscow: Golos, 1994), 237, in Russian. D.S. Likhachev, Essays on the philosophy of art, (St. Petersburg: Russian-Baltic publishing house, 1999), 132, in Russian. Old Russian Legends, (Moscow: Soviet Russia, 1982), p. 49, in Russian. P.P. Philippov, Leonid Leonov’s Skill. Art of the Psychological Analysis in Early Prose (Tashkent, 1971), p. 24, in Russian. E.G. Rabinovich, “Measured Burden”, in Noosphere and Art Creativity (Moscow: Nauka, 1991), p. 148, in Russian. I.P. Smirnov, “Error, God and Literature”, in Semiotic of Madness, ed. by N. Buhks (ParisMoscow: Europe, 2005), pp. 9-34, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alena O. Zadorina. The Motif of the Gift in the Works of Leonid Leonov (1924-1953) Мотив дара в прозе Леонида Леонова (1924-1953) А.О. Задорина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье представлен мотивный анализ на материале творчества Л. Леонова (за исключением итогового романа “Пирамида”). Авторская манера писателя менялась на протяжении ХХ века, склоняясь к различным стилевым течениям – авангарду, соцреализму, постреализму. Мотив дара также раскрывался Леоновым с разных позиций, и мы попытались исследовать поэтику всех художественных вариаций данного мотива, акцентируя внимание на его религиозной сущности. Ключевые слова: анализ мотива, персонажная структура; повествование. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 846-864 ~~~ УДК 304 Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai: 15 to 60 Years of Age Residents of Krasnoyarsk City Maria I. Ilbeykina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 In this article we shed some light upon the development of the concept of “civilizational orientation» and create the concept of analyzing the conception of the world (and thence – relationship to the world, and behavior) population of the united Krasnoyarsk Krai of 15 to 60 years of age. Methodological base supports socio-cultural design, practical and research side of which is used way of questioning of population of the region. The issue of civilizational orientation is especially important not only at the level of government, political and social action, but the level of the definition of the vector of cultural development in general, the formation of the sphere of ideals, which will cultivate generations. Civilizational orientation is defined as the elected (no matter how rationally, so at the level of archetypal empathy), the vector of development of society, a single human whole, creating and using certain means to achieve the goals of existence itself, its culture, its own sphere of ideals. The results show that the civilizational orientation is fixed by the notion of «Russian» relevant to the population of the province, multi-ethnic and multi-religious, is the space of the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk Krai (geographic) and meanings (the general mood in the desired improvements in the areas of culture, the dominant family values).The article also gives recommendations on the development and deepening of the cultural characteristics of the images of the «Russian», «Krasnoyarsk». Keywords: socio-cultural design, civilizational identity, civilizational orientation, ethnic groups of the Krasnoyarsk Krai, axiological fi xing, «Russian». The work is carried out with the financial support of the federal purpose oriented programme «Scientific and scientific-pedagogic staff in innovative Russia for 2009-2013» concerning the problem «Culture of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the North in the situation of global transformations: foresight research until 2050 based on the materials of analysis of the Yakut ethnos» held within the framework of the event 1.2.1 «Scientific investigations carried out by research groups guided by doctors of science». Point The conceptual base of the issue implies developing of the concept of «civilization», * 1 «civilization identity», contained in works by B.S. Erasov, V.A. Bachinin, D. Zamyatin, A.V. Kamenetz, A.I. Kravchenko, D.V. Pivovarov, Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 846 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… V.N. Rastorguev which is built in the development of the concept of «civilizational orientation» and created the concept of analyzed ideology (and thence – and treatments to whole world, and behavior), the combined population of Krasnoyarsk Krai of 15 to 60 years of age. Methodological base underlies the socio-cultural design, practical and research side of which used a questionnaire form for gathering information from the population of the region. The sociocultural design – is a special technology, which represents a constructive, creative activity, the essence of which is to analyze problems and identify their causes, develop goals and objectives that characterize the desired state of an object (or the scope of project activities), devising ways and means to achieve their goals. The object of sociocultural design is a complex formation including overlapping of two subsystems: society and culture. The subject of research in this context is the definition of civilizational orientation of the average adult resident of the Krasnoyarsk Krai as a kind of initial «atom» of social structures, relationships and cultural processes, media roles and cultural values. One of the most visible and visual trend in contemporary society is globalization – the process of ever-increasing impact on the social reality of individual countries, various factors of international importance: economic and political ties, cultural and information exchange, etc. Every innovation has both positive and negative sides. Certainly, the expansion of cultural contacts in the modern world, communication and knowledge bridge gaps between nations. However, the process of excessive borrowing is dangerous, because of possible loss of cultural identity. Potential loss of cultural identity lies in the growing threat of assimilation – absorption of a small culture by a larger one, in the dissolution of cultural minority in the culture of a great nation, heedless of the paternal culture with mass emigration to another country and received citizenship there. In this case, loss of cultural identity and cultural dissolution can be full and partial. On the one hand, open borders for cultural impact and increasing cultural communication can lead to the exchange of positive experiences, enriching our own culture, its rise to a higher stage of development, and on the other hand – to its cultural exhaustion due to unification and standardization, dissemination of identical cultural samples worldwide (Kravchenko, 2000). This process involves an increased intensification of communication and integration of phenomena of reality, «blurring» of separate individuality and brings them to the universal common denominator, is a kind of unification and сosmopolitization of humanity. Reduction of the national identity of man and his sense of belonging to a specific state, society and culture is fraught with a loss of value orientations in this world. In this case, nation-states lose the status of not only the «survival of the units», but also the dominant subjects of global political, economic and cultural processes, increasingly; these functions take on the military-political blocks, economic alliances, network organizations, etc. Reflection of what is happening in the humanities can make certain predictions about the emerging world order of the newest and in some cases it is possible to argue that further development of mankind will go towards reducing of the national and socio-cultural (birth, professional) variety. In this case, it`s necessary to delineate the process of globalization (this process is inevitable) and the contrary process – the process of saving their own uniqueness of a society with its distinctive traditions and lifestyles, correlating people themselves with a certain «community», a community that has a number of very specific, «their» (in a confrontation with the «other») features. In the history of cultural studies and sociology, and at the meeting of these sciences # 847 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… questions of the existence of human communities or civilizations are extensively studied. There are many definitions of civilization. In general, most dictionaries define civilization (from Lat. Civilis – civilian, government) as 1) a synonym for culture and 2) level, stage of social development, material and spiritual culture, and 3) the level of social development, next after the barbarism (L. Morgan, F . Engels), 4) in some cultural theories – an era of degradation and decline in opposition to the integrity, the organic culture (Kravchenko, 2000). In general, we can distinguish the following important feature: the «civilization» is always defined in terms of «culture» and conceived through a correlation with the more general notion of «sphere of cultivation of ideals» (on D.V. Pivovarov). Edition of «Cultural Studies. Collegiate Dictionary» proposes a defi nition of civilization, where «culture» denotes mostly the world goals of human existence, «civilization» – a world of resources that serve the achievement of goals and objectives. Together they form a common, though internally contradictory whole (Bachinin, 2005). In today’s cultural knowledge there is the concept of «civilization identity». This notion is based on an understanding of a civilization like some over-ethnic, over-national, and in general metahistorical Unity (Rastorguyev). Civilization identity is a category indicating the first individual to a particular civilization. This is the ultimate level of socio-cultural identity of individuals above which may be the identification of only a planetary scale («earthling»). Its base is used for the formation of a large ethnic community of people, long-term residents in one region, based on the unity of the collective historical destiny of various nations linked by similar cultural values, norms and ideals. At the same time with national and regional identity, civilization identity is now playing an increasingly important role in the political culture of our country (and elsewhere), facilitating the convergence of different peoples – ethnic groups and religions in a united civil society. However, the civilization identity is a priority among the other levels of identity. You can select multiple types of identity: social, professional, cultural, religious, etc. Depending on the circumstances in which an individual is, the first part extends or even dominates the one identity that is relevant. Civilization identity is a universal constant, unchanging characteristic of society as a whole, is regardless of any specific circumstances of individuals, social groups, society itself is correlated with the civilization to which they belong. In other words, a «civilization identity» – is the knowledge of who «we», «where we are». To the question of «where do we go» answered the responsible understanding of the «civilization» character or the vector of common people. Determination of civilizational orientation is valuable because of knowing of exact potential civilizational aspirations of society, so we may fix the current situation in the minds of people, visions of the future (they are connected not only with the class, religious or national characteristics, but also depend directly on the general civilization orientation) and predict ways for its further development. Appeal to the notion of «orientation» (where the «direction» refers to «striving toward a goal», «single-minded focus on anything» (Collegiate Dictionary Ozhegova), «line motion, path of development») can dissolve up to date today among cultural studies the problem of defining «civilization orientation» and «civilization identity». In other words, the question of determining the civilization orientation – a matter of definition of the objectives that produces one or another civilization, the question of searching a motion vector in the direction of those ideals that are worth cultivating. # 848 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… Humanity`s activity alters their environment, creating own culture, including both material and spiritual component –ideas, values, norms, patterns and more, and sociality, which includes the entire set of relationships with other people (economic, social and ideological political). Cultural and social form a unity, which results in a society. For any civilization is characterized by its own features, axiological install, what’s acceptable and what is not acceptable, it manifests itself everywhere, in all areas of human life – from politics to interpersonal relationships. Again, this is true in cultural planning and forecasting developments (specific applications of use). Relate the type of sociality and culture (B.S. Erasov (Blinov, 2008)): the spiritual production, which is the product, and culture are closely there with the production in general, including its material and technological base, social and political structure. In macro sociological plan accepted to provide some basic types of sociality that meet the original principle of the harmonization of the spiritual with the material production, with the corresponding social structure and political dispensation. Scientist identifies two discourses of culture, which may associate with the concepts of «the West» – «East» (Yerasov, 1997). Such division allows you to emphasize some typical features characteristic of a person that associates itself with the civilization of the West or East. Features of the west-oriented civilization: utilitarianism, optimization, and pragmatism, individualism, alienation, moral flexibility, plutocracy. Advantages of personality structure, according to studies, it is efficiency, modernity, dynamics, innovation, economic flexibility, the exchange rate, the technological rush. But they also generate and disadvantages: cynicism, egoism, individualism, utilitarianism, alienation. East-oriented Civilization is: contemplative, non- economic motivation of labor, community, the heroic scale of values, etc. As the advantages are spiritual breadth, idealism, heroism, sacrifice, community, loyalty. At the opposite – a negative level, these same qualities make: disorganization, laziness, passivity, obedience, tolerance of violence, etc. Value systems of East and West have autonomous boundary, i.e., both positive and negative criteria are disjoint. Turning the above into a simple formula, we find that the «West believes it is. East in what may be in what should be» (Zamyatin). Values and orientations of society are made indirectly, in the process of continuous interaction with other cultures, whose concepts taken either as «their», or rejected as «foreign». The choice of benchmarks depends on the specific content of the various components or forms of identity – the civil and political, ethnic, religious, class, subculture, locally-territorial, etc. The most important source of identity is the «other» – society, nation and civilization. Correlation to them is carried out during the interaction of the complex cultural factors that promote subjective perceptions and socialization mechanisms mediated these ideas in social practice. In the modern world civilization identification and civilization orientation is becoming increasingly important. Civilization identity is appear in humans for the most part when there is a need to understand any global event, when it is important to understand the differences or similarities between the civilizations, which lead to conflicts, or vice versa for calm coexistence. Civilization identity of the individual – it`s some of «passive identity», i.e. such that for the most part do not realize in their everyday life, and remains latent, dormant. If the everyday life of an individual identifies himself by sex, occupational and other characteristics («active identity»), the issue of civilization identity arises when there is a need understanding his own place, as well # 849 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… as its place of society, the country’s civilization diversity of the world, m . e. in global positioning. That`s why t research of civilization orientation is actual – it is particularly important not only at the level of government, politicians and public figures, but the level of the whole definition of a course of cultural development, formation of the sphere of ideals, which will cultivate generations. Methodological basis of determining the direction of civilization people united Krasnoyarsk Region serves socio-cultural research. Investigation method Sociocultural Studies – an emergent, new degree occurred at the boundary of sociology and cultural science. The possibility of sociocultural studies are broadly applicable in the field of learning and solving problems arising in the space of men`s social relations to the subjects of culture. In cultural studies there was a defi nite structure of sociological methods for cultural studies: thus, the method of sociological observation and subsequent interpretation of empirical data is used both Western and Soviet scientists (A. Giddens, A. Radugin) method of the sociological survey, which is the most popular and actively used in cross-cultural research is also relevant to scientists, the Europeans and their Russian colleagues (C. Osgood, A. Pease, AV Korotaev, and others), methods of processing and analysis of sociological information is actively used domestic researchers A Ya. Gurevich, EV Mareyev, ML Gaspard and others. As a method of study chosen socio-cultural research, the main method in favor of a sociological survey method that allows you to learn and appreciate the cultural needs, determine the basic and daily values, resulting in man’s relation with the existing subjects of culture. The survey is a method of collecting primary information about the objective and (or) the subjective evidence from the words of the interviewee. In social studies typically use sample surveys for public opinion research, customer demand, etc. Primary assets – questionnaires and interviews (Kravchenko, 2000). Sociological interview is a method of «direct or indirect acquisition of the primary social information through oral or written request the researcher to a certain set of people (respondents) with questions, followed by registration and statistical processing of the responses received, as well as their theoretical interpretation» (Kravchenko, 2000). But why is it becomes possible to apply these data in determining the direction of civilization? The character of the country, time and place that is home to people, most clearly reflected in the artistic culture, works of art in relation to them, to the sphere of culture as a reflection of themselves. Assessing the situation with the culture as a whole, there is plenty of room for interpretations of various aspects of the life of a society. Specificity of social and cultural studies, which was already defined by A. Akhiezer (1994), is to shift the center of gravity research society in the sphere of culture and attitudes of people in the area of interpenetration-antagonism of these processes. The essence of social phenomena is revealed through the analysis of transitions between them, which reveals itself mechanisms for transitions of thought and action between the culture in society and the specificity of cultural identity, society, and between part and whole, between the conditions, means and ends this process. This socio-cultural research is based on a model of sociological research, which appears to form a questionnaire, and subject-matter – the cultural needs and cultural leisure residents of the regional area as an area of organization and regulation of contemporary cultural policy. Questioning refers to the quantitative methods # 850 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… of sociological research. Quantitative methods are put into the center of the consideration of general rules under which the complex phenomenology of individual cases appear repetitive or common symptoms. Quantitative methods for social research aimed at the general characteristics (for analysis of data on the general grounds for subsequent typing). According to G. Bernhard (2005), «the effect of quantitative methods affects primarily in that they allow you to thoroughly and in a systematic way to discover new things». A sociological survey consists of successive stages: 1. Drafting of the questionnaire. 2. A sociological survey. 3. Collection of empirical data processing (interpretation) of the information received. 4. Formation a scientific conclusion. The structure of the questionnaire is determined by an introductory greeting, a short guide to the proposed issues. Followed logically arrayed fifty, composed according to the object and purpose of the study. Basic «building blocks» of items is determined by themes: – Planning and leisure free time; – Frequency of visits to cultural and leisure activities (for the last month, year); – Leisure activities and the need to change it (who must care about leisure residents that still need to create for your leisure, etc.); – Civilization orientation (direction, other states); – Reasons for permanent residence in the city. Thus, all the blocks of questions help you understand the values and socio-cultural needs that are encoded in the socio-economic, political, religious, educational and occupational preferences and needs. Most of the questions have «open» nature of having the string «other» that allows the respondent to give his own (personal) opinion, if it cannot arrange for an existing list of choices. Stage 1. Reasonable to choose the form of the questionnaire is the need to interview a large number of respondents in a relatively short time and opportunity to observe directly surveyed (read, think) in a printed questionnaire proposed questions and answers. Step 2. Development of sampling. In order to study socio-cultural possess objectivity and validity of the results for participation were elected 500 people. The sample was determined as follows: 100 respondents from ethnic groups (Russian, Khakases, Ukrainians, Dolgans, Germans living in the city of Krasnoyarsk). Such a ratio allows equal participation of opinion in determining the specificity of protection of cultural services at present. Sampling of ethnic groups was carried out by several criteria: – the group must have a long history of residence in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, – represents a relatively large group numerically, – are the national-cultural autonomy and have their own ethno-cultural community organizations, – a member of the Socio-Cultural Committee (createdduring the administration of Krasnoyarsk Territory) to address the joint specific socio-cultural problems; – represent the interests and needs of migrants as a city (center) and edges (periphery). In general, this sample is representative of the socio-cultural research, as selected social groups in the population are residents of the Krasnoyarsk region, autonomous, strive to preserve national identities and actively complicit in the development of intercultural relations in the city and region. # 851 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… Stage 3. A sociological survey. Sociocultural study was conducted in the period from 07/01/2010 to 09/30/2010, when the representatives of national communities have taken some time for the mass survey. Stage 4. Collection of empirical data processing (interpretation) of the information received. Findings: 500 questionnaires were collected, 100 of them were filled by representatives Khakases organization, 100 – Ukrainian, 100 – Dolgans (residing on the Krasnoyarsk Krai), 100 questionnaires filled out by representatives of the Russian ethnos, 100 – the Germans. Age category was determined by the adult population (aged 16 years and older). 4 National are Orthodox (90 to 98 % in one or another ethnic group), Germans – Catholics (56 %). «Political affiliation» – have no such majority of the respondents, only 4 % named Russian party «United Russia» as a political force, which they trust, and being connected. Ukrainians and Germans (4 and 7 % respectively) are politically active. Describing the reasons for permanent residence in the city, the Russian note the presence of jobs and high-paying job; Khakases – though the presence of any work, family and children for the Ukrainians have become the main motivating factor family and friends; of Dolgans it – family and love for the city and the edge and, fi nally, the Germans – the availability of work and family. Thus, there is predominantly introverted dominant values, material stability and family well-being. Territory is attractive for the possible synthesis of the material and spiritual life (interpersonal relationships, communication, ancestors and descendants) of representatives of several different nationalities. With regard to the prospects of moving to another city, then 83 % Russian answer to this question in the negative, the Khakases is 60 %, exactly half of the respondents Ukrainians – as a negative response, Dolgans prefer to move to another location in 90 % of the responses, as well as the Germans (57 %). 37. Would you like to move to another city in another locality? 37.1. – Yes – 254 (50,9 %) 37.2. – No – 236 (48,6 %) (Fig. 1) Further, the questionnaire offers to decide on the direction, where would like to move: the question «Would you like to live in cities and places located in the West?» finds a positive 51,50% 51,00% 50,50% 50,00% 49,50% 49,00% 48,50% 48,00% 47,50% 47,00% 37.1. Fig. 1 37.2. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% 38.1. 38.2. Fig. 2 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% 39.1. 39.2. Fig. 3 response in 61 %of Russian people, only 12 % of Khakases in 49 % of Ukrainians have, Dolgans 4 % and 52 % of Germans. Question 38. Would you like to live in cities and places located in the West? 38.1. Yes – 283 (56,7 %) 38.2. No – 217 (43,2 %) (Fig. 2) The sentence «Would you like to live in cities and places located in the East», Russian in 69 % percent answered “no», Khakases in 71 %, Ukrainians 68 %, Dolgans 85 %, Germans 66 %. In the North – all interviewed in the 9597 cases of a hundred flatly answered «no». With regard to the South, the Russian agreement to live there in 58 cases out of a hundred, Khakases – 49 Ukrainians in 68, Dolgans in 87 and the Germans – in 58. Question 39. Would you like to live in cities and places located in the East? 39.1. Yes- 207 39.2. No-283 (Fig. 3) Question 40. Would you like to live in cities and places located in the North? 40.1. Yes-158 40.2. No-342 (Fig. 4) Question 41. Would you like to live in cities and places located in the South? 41.1. Yes-206 41.2. No-294 (Fig. 5) The situation is a change of residence is a serious move, which go to residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is not at risk. It`s possible be noted some variations: for example, with some margin, the Russian would be willing to change # 853 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… 80,00% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% 40.1. 40.2. Fig. 4 55,00% 50,00% 45,00% 40,00% 41.1. 41.2. Fig. 5 their place of residence in the West, probably due to more attractive financial position, formed a generalized notion of “easier”, “more affordable” life; Dolgans make choices toward the South, which may be associated desire to live in areas with a more favorable climate. Somewhat different situation in the ability to change the city – voices of the respondents were divided, an equal number of respondents (2 out of 5 national teams willing to take this step, 2 refused, 1 in the undefined condition) are in terms of a local change of residence to be more mobile and ready for change. The most important question: «Would you like to live in another state?» gave the following results. Members of the German diaspora – the ones who only 68 % answered «no». The remaining respondents were almost entirely giving their preference to Russia (from 85 to 90 % of negative answers to the question about the possibility of living in another state). Flexibility for constructing of the questionnaire allowed to simulate two situations: one of them – a proposal to select the country where the desire to leave the respondent in that case, he had had a real opportunity; the second – the situation is an alternative, suggested meaning, what factors are important and outweigh the desire to migrate. Of all the world states for residents of the Krasnoyarsk region have the greatest appeal: to the Russian – Russia (both 85 % of respondents answered, the second most popular response – «never thought about it» chosen by 15 %), for Khakases – Russia is the most attractive 2/3 respondents (60 %), equal (20 %) votes gaining the U.S. and China (that is, in fact, being three times less popular models of ideology and state system, which ought to strive); Ukrainians see the potential country of residence as Russia(45 %), and some European countries (47 %); Dolgans in 10 cases out of 100 call to Russia, the other # 854 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% ˀ́̔1 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% Fig. 6 respondents have never thought about such questions, the Germans had expressed a preference for European countries, in most cases (49 % vs. 35 % for Russian). Question 43. What state would you choose for permanent residence, if you had a real possibility? (You can select any number of responses). 43.1. Russia – 163 43.2. European country – 298 43.3. USA – 269 43.4. Canada – 164 43.5. Australia – 107 43.6. China – 98 43.7. India – 20 43.8. Turkey – 44 43.9. Central Asian nation – 7 43.10. Latin American state – 16 43.11. Never thought about it – 0 43.12. I would not want to change anything – 173 43.13. Difficult to answer – 0 (Fig. 6) That is potentially thought about moving is considered, but what's interesting: the definition gets only an abstract geographic focus (West, South). A situation arises a certain idealization, departing from the understanding of the specificity (both pluses and minuses) of residence in another country, and hence the philosophical and psychological parties; and in general in the minds of the people live in certain myths about what «good is there where we do not» , about a certain cardinal contrasted life out «there» and «here», and when it comes to specifics, here and there are situations of «never thought about it», and priority is given to Russia. It is important to stress once again that the most representative, this feature is for living in the region Russian, Khakases and Dolgans. The main reasons that influence the desire to remain in the province, call: Russian – job availability (35 %), including the highly (20 %), family, children, parents (15 %) and study at the university (10 % ) Khakases – primarily for them is the family, children, parents (one quarter of respondents chose this answer), and any work experience after high school (16 and 15 %), as well as prospects for economic and social development of the region (13 %); Ukrainians – exclusively human relationships such as friendships (45 %) and family (40 %); Dolgans – for almost half of respondents (45 %), this love of country, land, and family (35 %) and prospects for economic and social development of the region (20 %); for the Germans leading factors are availability of jobs (30 %), family (25 %) and belief in the prospects of development of the province along # 855 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… 25,00% 20,00% 15,00% 10,00% 5,00% 0,00% Fig. 7 with arranging the material situation in terms of higher salary (15 %). Question 44: 44. If you do not want to move anywhere, or leave, what makes you stay in the Krasnoyarsk region? (You can select any number of responses) 44.1. Yenisei, taiga, the unique nature -76 44.2. Availability of jobs -21 44.3. Studying -62 44.4. Work experience after college -13 44.5. Any work -10 44.6. Only a highly paid job -18 44.7. Family, parents, children – 38 44.8. Love for their city, the edge – 18 44.9. My good friends – 98 44. 10. The effect of habit – 41 44. 11. Prospects for economic and social development of the region – 17 44. 12. Nothing makes -16 44. 13. Difficult to answer – 15 44.14. Your reply – 4 (Fig. 7) Thus, the northern indigenous peoples prefer a permanent place of residence to see Russia; Ukrainians and Germans are in «limbo» status, do not accept fully their present location as a mother, «Homeland». Thence – the direction of civilization, «Russia» is for those who is a citizen of Russia, considers himself a Russian and has definite plans, hopes to develop her and himself in it. In this case over actuality seems the problem of studying culture, it features the indigenous peoples of the North, Krasnoyarsk region, because It is they «will grow» in the near future (the union of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with Taimyr and Evenkia autonomous area, whose goal was to create a large region with an effective system of administrative management, formally, in fact, building a full-fledged interaction is not recited, at the moment there are some local motions) and research shows that the intentions of Khakases and Dolgans serious (they say as a motivational factor of faith in long-term development of economic and social spheres of the edge). Gender of respondents: almost equal ratio of men and women of every nationality, age – all nationalities mostly men from 40 to 49 (of 23 people (Ukrainians) to 45 (Dolgans)), from 26 to 39 (about 30 people in each group) and 15 people of every nationality from 19 to 25 and from 50 to 59 years. Education: Russian are specialized secondary education (35 %), incomplete higher (30 %), medium (21 %), Khakases – 45 % of respondents have finished higher, 35 % – secondary special and 10 % – secondary education; Ukrainians – 33 % with a medium-specific, 24 % with incomplete higher, and 21 % with higher education; Dolgans – 45 % of medium-specific, 23 % with a mean and 10 % for higher and tertiary education; Germans – # 856 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… 40 % with incomplete higher education, 32 with secondary special and 18 % of the average. Professional affiliation of respondents: Russian – creative professionals (18 %), science and profession of teaching profession (13 % each), students (10 %), Khakases – teaching profession (21 %), creativity (14 %) and the profession of science (12 % ), Ukrainians – technical (12 %), creativity (14 %), service sector jobs (12 %) and food trades (11 %); Dolgans – teaching profession in 38 % of the respondents, another 36 % – agricultural workers, the Germans – creative professions (17 %), science profession (14 %) and students (11 %). Thus, provided the sample of respondents is representative, covering an adult population of 5 nationalities living in the united Krasnoyarsk Territory. According to research by A.J. Shemanov (Shemanov, 2007), addresses the issues of identity of an individual (national, cultural, psychological), attempts to highlight the mechanisms of human reflection in the definition of self, there is a process of «dis-universalization» – when each person to become a cultural creature must learn to disuniversalization generalized in the forms of cultural experience. Only then will people be included in the universal experience of mankind, and his own experience acquires the characteristics of universality. The acquisition of this ability is a process that occurs throughout life, and passes its phases. But since this ability is a condition of all vital manifestations of man, so far the acquisition of this skill in favor of his basic life strategies. Cultural life is becoming pervasive condition of its activity (Shemanov, 2007). Life experience is transmitted and generally makes available to most had acquired his rights, and for other means of translating this experience in cultural forms. In this case, all those phenomena that were clearly manifest data questionnaire (the dominant family values, orientation to the residence not only in their own country but also in its region, the choice primarily educational / creative professions, etc.) suggest that serves as a universal quality of the «Russian», or – emergent which arising on the border of Western and Eastern values. According to the definition proposed in the book «Dialogue of Cultures and Civilizations», «civilization» is defined as a concept, which marks the refracted and the dynamics of deep cultural values in large systems of human living arrangement. It can be even shorter: civilization is defined as something meaningful about human unity of time, space and the sense of (Dialogue of Cultures…). Survey data confirm the idea that at this stage relevant to the population of the province, multi-ethnic and multi-religious, are the space of the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk Territory (geographic) and meanings (the general mood in the desired improvements in the areas of culture, the dominant family values). Civilizational orientation combined population of Krasnoyarsk Territory – the «Russian», the connection of Oriental (family) and Western (the belief in the prospects for social and economic development of the region, striving to get an education) values and aspirations. Results 1. The concept of «civilizational orientation» is not the same thing with the concept of «civilization identity». «Civilizational identity» is a kind of framework, support for selfdetermination of the individual in the surrounding society and the world, universal, constant society as a whole. Civilizational identity is conformal the civilization to which the individual belongs, the social group; 2. The most important problem of determining the direction of civilization – is a unified design representation of a social group about the future, the direction of motion to the # 857 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… ideals of cultivated, the ability to predict the ways of further development towards a common goal / adjustment / change it, the ability to operate the specific axiological attitudes of civilization, from politics to interpersonal relationships; 3. Civilizational orientation is an elected (both rational and at the level of archetypal empathy) vector of development of society, a single human whole, creating and using certain means to achieve the goals of existence itself, its culture, its own sphere of ideals. 4. The concept of «civilization» always refers to the concept of «culture», defi ned in terms of it, hence the relevance and presented arguments about civilizational orientation of people of the united Krasnoyarsk Krai is not only based on answers to direct questions (like «to what nationality you belong»?, «Would you like to change their place of residence in Russia to another country?», etc.), but based on respondents’ answers to questions of indirect («Who should take responsibility for organizing your cultural and leisure activities – state or private entrepreneurs?»); 5. Socio-cultural studies based on the method of questioning adult multiethnic population of the united Krasnoyarsk Krai (representatives of ethnic diasporas on the territory), can make an civilizational orientation of respondents, and by extrapolation – and civilizational orientation of the residents of the Krasnoyarsk Krai – as Russian; 6. The sphere of culture as an area of cultivation (production, cultivation and consumption of ideals) is primary in relation to existing within its civilization, the process of cultural life and social life – interpenetrating processes; 7. Questioning of 500 people (100 representatives from Khakases, Russian, Ukrainians, Germans, Dolgans at the age from 16 to 60 years) allowed us to identify the following major features of the situation civilizational orientation in the Krasnoyarsk Krai: – Dominant introverted values, material stability and family well-being. Region is attractive for possible synthesis of the material and spiritual life (interpersonal relationships, communication, ancestors and descendants) of representatives of several different nationalities; – Possible change of residence – a potentially thought about moving is considered, but the definition gets only an abstract geographic focus (West, South). There is a situation of some idealization, departing from the understanding of the specificity (both pluses and minuses) of residence in another country, philosophical and ideology sides, and when it comes to specifics, here and there are situations «never even thought of», and priority is given to Russia. The most representative, this feature is for living in the region Russian, Khakases and Dolgans; – The northern indigenous peoples prefer a permanent place of residence to see Russia. Ukrainians and Germans are in «median» status, do not accept fully their present location as a motherland, «Homeland». Thence is the direction of civilization, «Russia» is for those who is a citizen of Russia, considers himself a Russian and has definite plans, hopes to develop her and himself in it; – Over-actuality is the task of studying culture, especially indigenous peoples of the North, Krasnoyarsk Krai, because, according to the issue, Khakases and Dolgans are serious about staying in Russia and promote its development (they say as a motivational factor of faith in long-term development of economic and social spheres of the edge); # 858 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… – At this stage relevant to the population of the province, multi-ethnic and multi-religious are the space of the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk Krai (geographic) and meanings (the general mood in the desired improvements in the areas of culture, the dominant family values). Recommendations: 1. Constant work on the development needs to be done, deepening the culture as a sphere forming outlook, production areas and the cultivation of ideals (state, community, and nation) until the formation of functional, application programs. This question cannot be solved only within the culture; it should correlate with the formation of relationships that guide society in this process. This requires a search for points where the specificity of cultural changes in specific relationships, and vice versa. Since the focus of civilization residents of Krasnoyarsk Krai – the orientation toward the «Russian-ness», certain middle between the worlds of East and West, an important role in the visual representation of the possibility of their integration should be undertaken by the state. Already in force to ensure the state general social functions (maintaining order, protecting the population, the regulation of critical systems functioning of society), it is essential for the culture, without which the society is at the mercy of local forces and local interests. To date, the state acts as a «customer» and «sponsor» – it is external, organizational or financial circumstances of the cultural life and activities. State, embodies the power and influence society as a whole, to unite and protect the top, the condition of stability and order, become the subject of apology and admiration – it is the inner side, which should be developed and cultivated. 2. According to the results of questioning, irrespective of their ethnic affiliation, all 5 groups prefer to remain in Russia. In this case, the responsibility for organizing the living conditions, including and leisure activities, almost 90 % of the respondents assign to the State. Despite the significant negative response to the question of the possibility of changing the state as a place of residence, the majority of respondents in questions about the cultural component of a dominant position give it the institutions of power as a regulator of human relations and cultural entertainment. Arrange in Russia opportunities for career development, more or less acceptable material position and the presence of stable family ties (between the generations, educate future generations, friendships). Controversial issues of civilizational orientation (geographic area of potential change of residence) can be solved by more active policies of the state. However, the orientation of Russian citizens in the state does not correlate directly with their self-identification as «Russians» (not by chance every nationality distinguishes itself, self-determined). The point, apparently, that the task of constructing a modern nation-state, Russia has not yet been resolved. Thence – the uncertainty of the cultural characteristics of the image of «Russian». It is need to fill it made sense and positive values, which would be understood to mass consciousness. As for national identity, it is largely based on ideas about the development of civilization, economic resources, social, cultural and historical past. These components of identity are not contradictory. But in order for there to combine the state should build a system of relations based on mutual understanding and trust, in recognition of the rights and interests «other», i.e. create the backbone of a multicultural society. 3. The most important means of maintaining civilization identity has always supported the education system, particularly humanitarian. It is should be more intensively to develop # 859 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… courses, clubs, articles on history, art, culture, the culture of the indigenous population of the province, and spend it as soon as possible in a live mode – arranging meetings, parties, field trips, collaborative activities. 4. Strengthening the development and funding of programs for study and interaction with indigenous peoples inhabiting a particular locality. The question of Russia’s development model is open; the direction of the transformation indicates that as a reference coordinate system is chosen close cultural and economically attractive West. However, modernization is carried out with an eye to the traditionalist installations which are based retrospective positive orientation identity. 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Sukhanov, «Some aspects of the formation and functioning of regional identity in the Russian Federation of the republic of Bashkortostan», Journal of Bashkir University, 2 (2007), 101107, in Russian. Collegiate Dictionary Ozhegova, electronic resource, access http://enc-dic.com/ozhegov/ Napravlennost-17315.html G.A. Khalitova, «Globalization as a cultural phenomenon: the problem of identity», Bulletin of Bashkir University, 2 (2008), 635-638, in Russian. T.P. Hlynina, «Effect of shifting perspectives: social shocks of time in space of historical anthropology», Bulletin of the Adyghe State University, 2 (2007), network electronic scholarly publication, in Russian. # 861 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… A.N. Chumakov, Globalization. Contours of integrated world (Moscow: TC Welby, Univ Prospect, 2005), in Russian. M.A.Shevchuk, Aspects of Russian cultural identity (Moscow: Rema, 2008), in Russian. M.A. Shevchuk, European cultural identity (Moscow: Rema, 2008), in Russian. A.J. Shemanov, Human Identity and Culture (Moscow: The Academic Project, 2007), in Russian. Dialogue of Cultures and Civilizations, Civilization / Institute of World History (Moscow: Science, 1992), in Russian. I.F. Yusupov, «National art as an ethnic identity card», Bulletin of the Bashkir university, 1 (2007), 113-114, in Russian. Natalia P. Coptseva, «A.P. Chekhov as a Philosopher: «Game» Phenomenon and «Existence in the Face of Death» in his Dramas», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 1 (2008), 22-38. Natalia P.Koptzeva and Natalia A Bachova, «System of Culture in Krasnoyarsk Region: Main Subjects and Cultural Values», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 3 (2010), 344-381. Natalia P. Koptseva and Vladimir I Zhukovskiy, «The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations between a Work of Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 2 (2008), 226-234. Natalia P Koptzeva and Anna A. Makhonina, «Henrich Rickert’s Methodology and its Application for Solution of the Problem of Cultural Values in Contemporary Theory of Culture», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 6 (2009), 247-258. Natalia P Koptseva, Natalia N. Pimenova and Kseniya V. Reznikova, «Protection and Development of the Indigenous Peoples Living in Circumpolar Territories: Cultural and Anthropological Analysis», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 5 (2010), 649-666. Natalia P.Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova, «Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 4(2009), 491-506. Natalia P. Koptzeva, «Cultural and anthropological problem of Social Engineering (Methodological Problem at Modern Applied Culture Studies)», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 1 (2010), 22-34. Natalia P. Koptzeva, «Indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region: concerning the question of methodology of culture studies», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 (2010), 554-562. Natalia P. Koptzeva, «Materials of the First Session of Educational, Scientific and Methodological Seminar «Theory and Practice of Applied Culture Studies» on the Basis of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies Department, Institute of Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk. June 2nd, 2009», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 2 (2010), 194-232. Natalia P.Koptseva, «Materials of the Fifth Session of Educational, Scientific and Methodological Seminar «Theory and Practice of Applied Culture Studies» on the Basis of Art History and Cultural Studies Department, Institute for the Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk. June 17, 2010», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 5 (2010), 696-725. # 862 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… Natalia P. Koptseva, «The Creation Problem in Fundamental Ontology of Martin Heidegger and Modern Theory of Fine Arts», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 3 (2008), 338-346. Natalia P. Koptzeva, «Theory and Practice of the Innovative Educational Program on the Aesthetic Discipline Cycle at the Siberian Federal University», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 (2008), 492-499. Natalia M Libakova and Natalia P. Koptzeva, «Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth. Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophy of the Universal Unity and Works of Art in the Russian Painting», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, (2009), 67-83. Larisa S.Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva, «Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 6 (2010), 119-127. Alexandra A.Semenova and Natalia P. Koptzeva, «Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level», Journal of Siberian Federal University, Humanities & Social Sciences, 1 (2009), 31-55. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria I. Ilbeykina. Civilizational Orientation of the Population of the United Krasnoyarsk Krai… Цивилизационная направленность населения Объединенного Красноярского края: жители города Красноярска в возрасте от 15 до 60 лет М.И. Ильбейкина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В данной статье строится разработка понятия «цивилизационная направленность» и создается концепция, анализирующая мировоззрение (а отсюда – и мироотношение, и поведенияе) жителей объединенного Красноярского края в возрасте от 15 до 60 лет. Методологической базой выступает социокультурное проектирование, в практическоисследовательской части которого применен способ анкетирования населения края. Исследование цивилизационной направленности особенно важно на уровне не только государственных, политических и общественных действий, но и определения вектора культурного развития в целом, формирования той сферы идеалов, которую предстоит культивировать поколениям. Цивилизационная направленность определяется как избираемый (сколь рационально, столь и на уровне архетипического вчувствования) вектор развития общества, единого человеческого целого, создающего и использующего определенные средства по достижению целей существования самого себя, своей культуры, собственной сферы идеалов. Результаты исследования показывают, что цивилизационная направленность фиксируется понятием «российскости». Актуальными для населения края, многонационального и многорелигиозного, оказываются пространство Российской Федерации, Красноярского края (географическое) и смыслы (общий настрой в желании улучшений в области культуры, доминанта семейных ценностей). В статье также даны рекомендации по развитию и углублению культурных характеристик образов «российский», «красноярский». Ключевые слова: социокультурное проектирование, цивилизационная идентичность, цивилизационная направленность, этносы Красноярского края, аксиологические установки, «российскость». Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке федеральной целевой программы “Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной России на 2009-2013 гг.” по проблеме “Культура коренных и малочисленных народов Севера в условиях глобальных трансформаций: форсайтисследование до 2050 г. на материале анализа якутского этноса”, проводимого в рамках мероприятия 1.2.1 “Проведение научных исследований научными группами под руководством докторов наук”. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 865-873 ~~~ УДК 316:1 The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory Irina A. Zhuravleva* Irkutsk State University 3 Lenin st., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The article describes the experience of the socially philosophic consideration of the status problem and the role of knowledge in the modern information society theory. The author points out and considers a totally different research, where knowledge, as a forming factor of modern society, plays the dominant role. Keywords: post-industrial concept, information society theory, knowledge society concept, knowledge. Introduction The emphasis that was laid on the technologic advance, the growth of economic value of information activity and codification of theoretical knowledge as determinants of the formation of a new society by postindustrial ideologists caused a wide range of theories that considered those factors as formative, including the information society theory. According to the supporters of this theory, the growth of knowledge accumulation and information gathering in the 20th century (which was of an exponential character) and the pace of the development of telecommunication and information technologies show the post-industrial society transition into a new quality of information society. At first, the formation of the information society theory as a new ideologeme of the post-industrial vector of development of the * 1 modern civilization was determined by practical realization of their technicistic ideal by the developed countries (first of all by the USA and Japan). Before the post-industrial concept of Daniel Bell came out, the research of the Japanese scientists represented analytical programs of the increase of the role of information in the society, but all together they formed the “information society” concept that mainly functioned as a unique futurological image that has not yet transformed into a reasoned concept of prospects of the social development. It is necessary to emphasize that there isn’t one established concept of the information society; there is a variety of interpretations that often differ by the fragmentarity of the problem outlook, the absolute pluralism of the approaches and opinions, as well as by the use Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 865 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory of a big number of terms and concepts which are frequently not constructive at all. There are many definitions of the information society, every one of which suffers from limitation caused by the methodological weakness of the information society identification criteria. Many famous Western and Russian researchers attempted to give them definitions. Thus, Frank Webster distinguishes: “…five definitions of an “information society” each of which presents criteria for identifying the new one. These are technological, economic, occupational, spatial and cultural information society. Of course these need not be mutually exclusive, though, as we shall see, particular theorists emphasise one or other factors in presenting their particular scenarios” (Webster, 2004, p. 14). However, all the numerous supporters of the information society concept as a new type of the social organization couldn’t invent a universal, subjectivism free criterion according to which it could be possible to classify existing societies and periodization of the historical development. Webster points out that most of the information society definitions basically have quantitative characteristics (quantity of white-collars, percentage of the intangible sector in GDP, etc.), but quantitative variables themselves mean just more information – they don’t mean the formation of a new type of the social organization. According to his figurative speech: “…we now have more cars than in 1970, but no one even tries to define us as a “car society” (Webster, 2004, p. 32). of the information society theories to point out the researches that are not based on quantitative criteria, but on the qualitative ones. Those are the researches that differ from the majority a lot. According to Webster, such researches: “…do not proceed from the assumption that nowadays there is more information (it’s obvious), but from the assumption that the kind of that information has changed our lifestyle. This definition means that the theoretical knowledge underlies in our behavior…” (Webster, 2004, p.14). However, he acknowledged that there are only a few researchers who contend that the modern society doesn’t need such a deep research of the meaning of information because meaning is informative itself. For them the modern society is the society where knowledge plays the dominant role, which has never happened before. Moreover, the British professor thinks that in regard to the society that’s being formed it would’ve been better to use the term “knowledge society”. This term: “… means much more than the piled up information bits. Although the priority of the theoretical knowledge is not considered in the information society theories well enough, there are still enough reasons to think of it as a characteristic feature of the modern times” (Webster, 2005, p.37 – 38). It’s exactly those “changes of system” caused by the increase of the role of theoretical knowledge that were reflected in the works of Manuel Castells, Antony Giddens, Jean-François Lyotard, Mark Poster and others. Example Urgent problem Active discussion of the “information society” concept and of a great number of publications that represent different models of the information society don’t give us a chance to discuss all variants of interpretations of this phenomenon in one article. We state a rational and realistic problem – out of the great variety One of the leading theorists of the modern information society is Manuel Castells, who gave proof of the network logic of his baseline structure. The network society is a social structure that characterizes the information era of social development, though with a big variety of aspects depending on socially cultural and institutional specific character. The model # 866 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory presented by Castells became a synthesis of empirical studies and a huge analysis which he has been researching for 14 years in many countries, including Russia. The model was mentioned in the trilogy: “The Information age: economy, society and culture” that was published in 1996 – 1998 and in Webster’s opinion, that put him in one line with the leading researchers of the information age (Castells, 2000). Castells differentiates the famous concept of the “information society” and his own concept of the “informational society”. It’s important that, in the former, information in the society plays the defining role, but in M. Castells’s opinion, information and information exchange accompany the development of the civilization all the way along the whole human history and the term “information society” itself is of no analytical value to the definition of peculiarities of a new society. He uses the “informational capitalism” concept in which both, an adjective and a noun, have a certain meaning. The adjective emphasizes the process of expansion of information that symbolizes an absolutely new character of relations. The noun emphasizes the permanency of forms of economic relations (pursuit of profits, principles of market economy, etc.). The network society was born as a result of joining capitalism and information revolution. The dominating functions and processes of this society are organized on the basis of “networks” that connect people, universities and countries. It is necessary to acknowledge that the network form of the social organization has existed before, but the “new paradigm” of the informational capitalism that transforms the material ground of the society forms conditions for the pervasive prevalence of networks into all structures of society. Networks define a new social structure which is an extremely dynamic and open system that’s capable to interpret innovations without disturbing its balance. Networks are the effective tools for preserving and developing capitalist economy that is based on flexibility and adaptability. Using the argumentation of some theorists who reasoned the profound changes in the stratification system and pointed out new categories of workers, social groups and even classes (Robert Reich – “symbolic analysts”, Alvin Toffler – “cognitariat”, Peter Drucker – “knowledge worker”), Castells proves that informational labor is the basis of a new (network) society and that informational capitalism that is based on information labor signifies the change of era. In the mid 1990s the concept of postmodernism is being developed in the foreign sociology along with the information society theory and its attention to the technological aspects. The concept emphasizes the formation of a new personality and the place of this personality in modern society. The discourse of post-modernism that tried to interpret the most important cultural transformations of the end of millennium means a lot to the modern social theory. The problematization of changes in the world of information, communications and technologies as a productive critical dialogue with postmodernism has a great theoretical significance. The question about the status of knowledge, about the right of rationality in its enlightenment interpretation to have a claim on the main criterion and meaning of the development of human culture and society is the key to understand the postmodern condition to the most famous exponents, such as Jean-François Lyotard, Mark Poster and Jean Baudrillard. A French philosopher JeanFrançois Lyotard researches the phenomenon of post-modern in the sphere of knowledge. In his famous research “The postmodern condition” published in 1984 he studies the problem of transformation of scientific knowledge in the information society emphasizing the range of problems in one of the “sectors” of experience – in # 867 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory the world of knowledge and discursive practice – and researching virtualization as delegitimation of knowledge, model of delegitimation and post-modern era (Lyotard, 1998). The subtitle of the book “Postmodern condition: a report on knowledge” reflects the main purpose of the book which is to give a report on knowledge condition in the most developed Western countries for the Council of the universities of the government of the Province of Quebec. The postmodern idea of knowledge starts with the scepsis demonstrated by the author regarding the rule of consensus that admits that the real value of the statement between the sender and the receiver can be achieved under the condition of one universal mind. The author thinks that deep changes of the status of knowledge and information in modern society are interconnected and take place in two directions. First of all, the point is that the emphasis is transformed from the essential knowledge value into the result achievement, in other words, using the Lyotard terminology, in the direction of performativity in the organizational system. The author emphasizes: “The nature of knowledge cannot remain unchanged within this context of general transformation. It can fit into the new channels, and become operational only if learning is translated into quantities of information” (Lyotard, 1998, p. 17). The author means that reproductions and transmission of knowledge and information are determined by demand and by the possibility of operationalization and practical use. Secondly, Lyotard asserts that knowledge and information acquire properties of goods, and market mechanisms are needed in the information sphere. According to him: “The old principle that the acquisition of knowledge is indissociable from the training (Bildung) of minds or even of personality itself, is becoming obsolete and will become even more so. This attitude of the suppliers and users of knowledge to the knowledge they supply and use is now tending and will increasingly tend to assume the form already taken by the relationship of commodity producers and consumers to the commodities they produce and consume that is the form of value (fomie valeur)” (Lyotard, 1998, p. 17). The display of the stated factors brings to the beginning of the situation of post-modern in science. Science is reviewed in such terms as subjectivism and relativism that are specific to all “grand narratives”. Science itself cannot find the reason to legitimation and loses trust. The point of view of the American sociologist underlies in the traditions of postmodernism and in a new range of problems of the information society analysis. The sociologist belongs to the French intellectual tradition of structuralism and post-structuralism of Mark Poster. In the initial period of the formation of the information society ideology the value of theory and reliable information was emphasized, but in the next period there is a tendency to research unscientific information, prospects of forming the information society in connection with “loss of the privileged status of scientific discourse”. Researches of the problems of the scientific knowledge-unscientific knowledge ratio, the reliable and unreliable information ratio and information on the “true-false” scale became urgent. Theorists of post-industrialism ignored the language problem on the level of theory as well as on the level of social sphere. The concept of the “mode of information” developed by Poster is meant to “decode” the linguistic meaning of new forms of social interaction (Poster, 1990). Unlike positive and optimistic supporters of the information theory, its critics do not tend to overestimate an increase of impact of information on social development and, moreover, to judge too soon about formation of a new type of society and changes in the nature of social and economic relations. Information society is not emphasized directly in the theory heritage of one of the most # 868 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory famous English speaking representatives of the modern sociological idea Antony Giddens. Moreover, according to Frank Webster, he wasn’t interested in the range of problems of information society and he thought about this idea skeptically. Giddens believes that the role of information in modern society shouldn’t be overestimated; it has always been an “information” society and increase of information value doesn’t mean that it’s time to talk about forming a new type of society. We are observing the phenomenon that doesn’t go beyond the existing social practice which is “informatization” of social networks. Even though Giddens doesn’t acknowledge the existence of information society and doesn’t point out the formation of knowledge society, the information processes, new opportunities and risks linked to them take the key place in his theory. The reflexive modernization theory developed by Giddens is very interesting to us scientifically as its theses have something in common with ideas of the theorists of knowledge society, such as Nico Stehr, Peter Weingart, Ulrich Ufer and others. His reflexive modernization, according to Webster, is an epoch which is “characterized by heightened social- and self-reflection as the basis for constructing the ways in which we live. If it is the case that, increasingly, we make the world in which we live on the basis of reflection and decisions taken on the basis of risk assessment (rather than following the dictates of nature or tradition), then it follows that nowadays enormous weight will be placed upon theoretical knowledge to nourish our reflection” (Webster, 2004, p.40). In the book “Reflexive modernization: politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order” Giddens together with two other outstanding scientists U. Beck and S. Lash discusses how modern society, by means of reflexive modernization, transforms its basic characteristics, such as formations of class, stratum, occupations and nuclear families (Giddens, 1994). The key thesis of the reflexive modernization theory is a thesis about increasing organization of social life that gradually loses “built-in” elements. “Built-in” elements are the elements that are controlled by society, not a person. Getting freed of built-in elements gives a modern person freedom of choice; people stopped trusting implicitly to their destiny and became its masters. The increase of reflexivity underlies in the basis of the increase of choice. By reflexivity Giddens means gathering of information that lets people obtain knowledge that is necessary for a conscious choice. One of the consequences of the phenomenon of intensified reflexivity is the increase of the role of theoretical knowledge. It was described by Giddens and is of interest to us. Even though he doesn’t differentiate information and knowledge and first of all discusses abstract knowledge, he still emphasizes that the modern world is based on their accessibility and reproduction. In his opinion, the key role of knowledge becomes the indication of the forming society. The modern stage of concept development of the information society is associated with generalization of new empirical data and extrapolation of trends. The researches in the sphere of transforming post-industrial and information societies into a knowledge society in which economic and social aspects of information society play dominant roles became much more active. Most of the American and European researchers started to emphasize on the role and meaning of knowledge, and not on the role of information. That caused a range of new definitions of modern society as the knowledge society. In English speaking countries people call it “knowledge society” and “knowledgeable society”, in German speaking countries – “Wissensgesellschaft”, French researchers call it “capitalism cognitif” and “societe de la connaissance”. The concept of knowledge society as the future society became a point of # 869 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory social interest. In the beginning of 1990s the researches that discussed emancipation of the knowledge society concept from the theories of post-industrialism and information society were published. The most important works were presented by an American economist Robert Reich “The work of nations. Preparing ourselves for 21st century capitalism” (Reich, 1999), the famous American economist, one of the developers of the modern theory of management Peter Ferdinand Drucker and his work “Postcapitalist society” (Drucker, 1993), the German sociologist who was one of the leading theorists of the “knowledge society” Niko Stehr “Wissen, Arbeit, Eigentum” (Stehr, 1994). It’s important to point out that not only those works but the whole range of ideas and discussions devoted to a new and now determinative role of knowledge in economic and social organization were presented in various publications and turned out to be quite needed. This indicates a strong demand for the discourse of the knowledge society itself in the modern social theory. Those researchers who see formation and development of a new type of society as a result of social qualitative changes that were caused by theoretical knowledge support the idea expressed by the founder of post-industrialism Daniel Bell about theoretical knowledge that can be detached from quantitative factors “analytically and, possibly, essentially”. By the beginning of the 1960s a very important social change has occurred in the industrially developed countries: the number of skilled specialists and managers (“white collars”) started to increase over the number of industrial workers. In 1959 the exponent of so called “managerism” Drucker foresaw the further development of this tendency and invented the term “knowledge worker” which means a cognitive worker or a knowledge specialist. In 1969 he coined the term “knowledge society”, although only some people know that for the first time the term “knowledge society” was used by an American political scientist Robert Lane in 1966 to describe the impact of scientific knowledge on the sphere of public politics and management. However, it was Drucker who brought the new term up to date in social context and developed it in details in his latter works in the 1990s. At the same period such key concepts to modern society as “learning society” (suggested by Robert Hutchings in 1968) and “life-long learning” (introduced by Torsten Husen in 1974) came to existence. It was associated with fixation of a special role of knowledge as the main factor of social transformations in modern society in the socio-political discourse. Drucker presented his point of view on modern situation and prospects of development of the Western civilization in the aforementioned book “Post-capitalist society” published in 14 countries and translated into 8 languages. The name of its first chapter “From Capitalism to Knowledge Society” is quite significant (Drucker, 1999). According to Drucker, modern era is the era of radical changes of the basis of social structure – transformation of capitalist society into knowledge society (Drucker, 1999, p. 7071). Drucker believes that only the Renaissance era and formation of the basis of the industrial society era can be called similar in their historic meaning. He emphasizes that this process happens under the influence of radical changes in the knowledge concept itself. “At the present time knowledge is systematically and intentionally used to define what kind of knowledge is needed, whether getting such knowledge is reasonable and what’s needed to be done to provide efficiency and innovation” (Drucker, 1999, p.95). In the beginning of the 1990s some remarkable attempts to invent preliminary versions of concepts of the knowledge society as post-modern interpretation of the information society theory were made. The range of problems # 870 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory of the knowledge society becomes wide-spread in the works of German scientists Nico Stehr, Peter Weingart and Gotthard Bechmann. Nico Stehr, who is a professor at the Zeppelin University in Friedrichshafen and one of the greatest researchers of the transformation processes of modern societies into knowledge societies, developed a separate scientific and philosophical knowledge society concept. His concept is consonant with the ideas of Webster and Giddens in a way, but in his discussions he goes much further postulating that we are already in the knowledge society, main characteristic of which is the desire of a person of the 21st century to make the whole life comfortable on the basis of knowledge, but not only its separate parts. The foundation of Stehr’s concept is a wider interpretation of theoretical knowledge considered as “universal characteristic of a person”. It includes theoretical knowledge as well as all knowledge codified, abstracted away from practical application and amenable to generalization (Stehr, 1994). He points out the following knowledge forms: informative knowledge necessary for understanding; efficient knowledge that is used in production; actual knowledge used in everyday practice. Stehr gives the priority to scientific knowledge that pushes other forms of knowledge out of their traditional niches, entering all spheres of social and individually private life and even those kinds that constituted on the basis of unscientific knowledge, such as traditional, ordinary, religious and philosophical knowledge. The strengthening of the social role of knowledge and its world-wide expansion makes “absolvent action potential” for people and society, but also entails unpredicted risks and uncertainties. The German researcher Gotthard Bechmann, one of the most famous theorists, presented his interpretation of knowledge society which was rather informative and peculiar. Bechmann considers modern society on the basis of synthesis of metaphorical macromodels that reflect its essential characteristics like modern society as information society, risk society and knowledge society. For Bechmann it is the unscientific knowledge involvement that is “central dimension of a new form of knowledge production” (Bechmann, 2010, p.30). Therefore, he emphasizes socially determined processes of expansion and reproduction of scientifically invented knowledge as well as universally recognized knowledge viewing knowledge society as modern stage of information society. Resume According to this analysis, emphasis on information society as a research object holds general scientific meaning and information interactions take part in object domains of different studies and scientific fields. However, the emphasis on the increase of the role of knowledge in the society with computer and telecommunication technologies, value of scientific, theoretical knowledge and/or accurate information is common in foreign researches as well as in Russian researches in the context of ideology of information society. Summing up, it is necessary to point out that the information society theory considerably enriched the concept of the modern stage of social development, but the process of its formation and development has been and still is complex and contradictory. Various interpretations of information society that recently became public considerably differ from the interpretations of the end of the 20th century. On the one hand, theorists of information society, unlike postindustrialists, rather consciously started to research private problems of modern society, “…which cannot allow this concept to have a claim on the status of integral social doctrine” (Inozemtsev, 1999, p.61). On the other hand, one # 871 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory cannot help acknowledging that various recent interpretations of information society are notable for a great flexibility, transparency and adequacy of constantly appearing information innovations in society. Modern transformations in the considered concepts are not strictly determined in a technical and economic way; the problems of social development, politics and culture development are being researched. It’s necessary to point out that the emphasis on the increase of the role of knowledge in the society with computer and telecommunication technologies is common in foreign researches as well as in Russian researches in the context of ideology of information society. In conclusion, it should be noted that informationalization of society states challenges to the modern social theory. Multidimensional and multilevel mosaic of the forming society assumes big variability of scientific researches of this phenomenon, such as economic, social, political, legal and philosophical researches. We believe that it is indicative of changes in the structure of information society caused by the change of the role of knowledge as well as of paradigm condition of modern researches. References M. Castells, The information age: economy, society and culture / M. Castells; translation from English edited by O. I. Shkaratan; State University of Higher School of Economics. (M.: University of higher school of economics 2000), 606, in Russian. P. Drucker, Post-capitalist society/ New post-industrial wave on the west. Anthology// edited by V. L. Inozemtsev.(M.: Academia, 1999), 67-100, in Russian. A.Giddens, Beyond left and right – the future of radical politics (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994). V. Inozemtsev, Prospects of post-industrial theory in a changing world // New post-industrial wave on the west (M.: Academia, 1999), 956, in Russian. J.-F.Lyotard, The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge II Theory and history of literature. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), vol. 10. 110. M.Poster, The mode of information. Poststructuralism and social context. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 208. R.Reich, The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st Century Capitalism // New postindustrial wave on the west. Anthology / edited by V. L. Inozemtsev. (M.: Academia, 1999), 506-527, in Russian. N.Stehr, Arbeit, Eigentum und Wissen: Zur Theorie von Wissengesellschaften. (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1994), 249. F.Webster, Theories of the information society / Frank Webster; translated from English by M. V. Arapov, N. V. Malykhina; edited by E. L. Vartalova. (M.: Aspect Press, 2004), 400, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina A. Zhuravleva. The Role and Status of Knowledge in the Post-Modern Interpretation of the Information Society Theory Роль и статус знания в постсовременных интерпретациях теории информационного общества И.А. Журавлёва Иркутский государственный университет Россия 664003, Иркутск, ул. Ленина, 3 В статье представлен опыт социально-философской рефлексии проблемы статуса и роли знания в современной теории информационного общества. Из всего многообразия его интерпретаций автор выделяет и рассматривает те кардинально отличающиеся от большинства исследования, в которых доминирующую роль играет знание, выступающее системообразующим фактором современного общества. Ключевые слова: постиндустриальная концепция, теории информационного общества, концепция общества знаний, знание. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 874-883 ~~~ УДК 330.342.2 Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based Economic Development Evgeny A. Kapoguzov* Omsk State University 55 Mira, Omsk, 644077 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 In this article the topics of Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics (CNSE) are considered. The main differences between this approach and basic Schumpeterian model are discussed. Therefore the reasons of the Schumpeterian renaissance in recent studies are analysed. The 3-pillars as central elements of CNSE and empiric research about their contribution to the future-oriented innovationbased economy are considered. In conclusion the challenges of application of CNSE in Russia are discussed. Keywords: Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, economic development, innovation-based economy, economic co-evolution. From Neoclassical to Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics The crisis of neoclassical economics, caused by the inability to explain the economic crisis using the traditional economic models, has proposed more attention to alternative approaches. Despite rigorous research and analytical potential of the new (modern) institutional economics (NIE), in this article we will consider a different approach, which is able to become one of “corner stones” of the theory of innovation-based economy. There are talks about innovations-oriented (based) development at scientific and political levels. The approach, proposed by the famous German economist G. Mensh and outlined in the article published in “Journal of Economic Theory” (№ 3, 2009), suggests countries refuse to simply restore * 1 global economy and move to its renovation on the basis of innovative development (Schumpeter, 1988). The G. Mensh’s explanation of crisis is connected with the divergence between the innovations in financial sector and innovative financing and activity of bankers – focused on innovative development in real sector. Other concept, we will be discussing in this article, was developed by Professor Horst Hanusch, University of Augsburg (Germany), the president of J. Schumpeter Society (http://www.iss-evec. de) and his team. This approach was called as Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics (CNSE). During the past three decades in economic theory some approaches have appeared. They are based on ideas of J. Schumpeter, presented in “The Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 874 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… Theory of Economic Development”, and his later works “Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy” (1942), “The March into Socialism” (1950). We have noted the following most significant, in our opinion, theories: – Endogenous Growth Theories with technological progress (P.Aghion, P.Howitt, P.Romer, R.Barro e.a), that developed Schumpeter’s idea about the role of accumulation of knowledge and presented factors influencing the economic growth (investments in R&D, fundamental science; technology diffusion; protection of intellectual property rights for inventions and innovations); – Evolutionary Economics (R. Nelson, S. Winter), picked up the idea of Schumpeterian Selection of Entrepreneurs; – Approaches, focusing on the collective innovation process, development and changes. The process of learning is considered as a social and interactive process with collective innovations and heterogeneity as a source of innovation. But the question is why Schumpeterian renaissance began only seventy years later after the first edition of “Theory of Economic Development”. One of the explanations is the long success of Neo-Keynesian economic policy and later Neo-conservatism with its monetary statically focused recipes. The Keynesian approach corresponded to the time of exiting the Great Depression, when an expansion of aggregate demand was needed. The same way the monetarism and the supply-side economics offered after “energy and oil shocks” of 1970th became adequate to the changed external conditions in the situation of stagflation and raw materials shocks. At the same time, the development of “new” knowledge-based economy, IT and sharp growth of interdependent branches have required other macroeconomic recipes and other explanations of the reasons of occurrence and variants of development of the situation. The Neo-Schumpeterian approach, focused not on the financial and fiscal side of economic development, but on industrial dynamics and structural changes in real sector, looks very competitive and more attractive. Other explanation of Schumpeterian renaissance is the attempt to formalise theoretical verbal propositions of Schumpeter. Neoclassical economics has an active application of mathematical methods. It is characterised by rational individuals and the price mechanism responsible for an efficient allocation of resources within a set of constraints. NeoKeynesian Economics with demand-oriented macro approach, based primarily on short term processes occurring in non perfect markets, often used mathematical instruments. But all these approaches with their analytical stringency have failures when it comes to analysis of dynamic phenomena endogenously caused by the economic system. Avoiding the inflation in Neo-Keynesian Economics, the exogenous Solow-Swan model has given chance for Schumpeter’s “Creative Destruction” in mathematical layout. The works on physics and biology, theories of chaos and self-organisation, and synergetic theory, have reflected in the development of so-called AgentBased Modeling1. From Orthodox Neo-Schumpeterian Economics to CNSE According to Schumpeter the process of economic development is both evolutionary and revolutionary one. The revolutionary “Creative Destruction” is manifested in repeating cycles of effective monopoly and effective competition, when the previous forms of economic activity and the whole branches die away. The evolutionary # 875 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… aspect of Schumpeterian development is shown in a similar, but incremental process. Creative and innovative activities play a special role in it. They form the basic foundation of evolutionary process with its power connected with the immanent nature of attitude to capitalism and its drivers: egoism, aspiration to enrichment, selfrealisation. Thus, the economic development should be considered as active changes, caused not only by exogenous factors. The entrepreneur as a central actor in Schumpeterian development, as it is known, creates new combinations of production factors. Whether it is a product or process innovation, or new market development, or technology or raw materials development, or organizations innovation – the main driver is Smith’s animal spirit of Entrepreneurships. Profit making, a creative and risk-bearing activity, leads to destruction of the old and construction of the new. Thus, the key elements of Schumpeterian theory of economic development are: – the character of evolutionary economic development: innovations as an object of change and technological progress; – the entrepreneur, in contrast to static investor-capitalist or manageradministrator, as an active actor, is the subject and the initiator of economic development and thereby equally the creator of structures and shapes, changing them. In the 1980-s on the basis of Schumpeterian theory of economic development the so-called “Orthodox Neo-Schumpeterian Economics” (ONSE) began to develop. The founders of this concept were Ch. Freeman and G. Dosi. The key elements of ONSE are: – the entrepreneurship and technological innovation are the basic principles and they determine and they are responsible for development of economies by removing and overcoming limiting constraints; – the innovation competition instead of price competition as the coordination mechanism of interest; – true uncertainty in the sense of Frank Knight enters the scene. An important element for Neo-Schumpeterian economic development is enhancement of national innovation system. The national innovation system, consisting of various sectors of the economy, numerous public and private research organisations, as well as numerous political and administrative institutions can be regarded as a good example for synergy creating structures. Cooperation of the enterprises and networks, technology transfer centres and business incubators, technopolices etc. can be attributed to national innovation system. This idea of collective evolutionary process is the subject of Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics (CNSE). It is defined as “an approach dealing with dynamic processes and corresponding coevolutionary processes. The dynamic process cause qualitative transformations of economies driven by introduction of various innovations (technological, institutional, organisational, social dimensions)” (Rosmainsky). According to Schumpeterian approach, knowledge and technological innovations are the drivers of economic development. At the same time, technological innovations are not developed in vacuum. In a greater degree, “development” should be defined as a complex phenomenon, supported by the real sector as a pillar, but taking into account the influence of financial and public sectors. If earlier Neo-Schumpeterian researches were focused on studying the transformation processes in real sector, then recently the understanding of difficult interconnections has appeared and CNSE is used for their analysis and explanation. # 876 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… Three Pillars of Neo-Schumpeterian Development The given approach has normative and positive perspectives. From a normative perspective there are three basic pillars of economy: real, financial and public sectors (Fig. 1). The basic elements of Neo-Schumpeterian approach are innovations and as a result orientation of all the actors of economics towards the future. The orientation towards the future means the necessity, ability and readiness to address the uncertainty and overcome it using new ways and approaches. The process of overcoming the uncertainty is connected with going beyond the borders of set conditions. It concerns both the spheres of the existing limited resources and creations of new various economic opportunities. Going beyond the borders means progress and changes of the current situation. The progress and changes occur in all the spheres of public life though first of all technological progress defines the situation in real sector of economy. Its dynamics assumes accompanying equally oriented towards the future processes of changes in financial and public sectors. Thus we can talk about Neo-Schumpeterian co-evolutionary processes. Its innovation drivers are based on intention and readiness of all the agents involved. The stronger the national and global economy shows up such attitude of economic agents, the clearer you can identify the connection of Neo-Schumpeterian system with Smith’s principles of market economy. At the same time Neo-Schumpeterian approach demonstrates a new normative paradigm. A situation is defined not by a shortterm profit maximisation and allocative efficiency of prices, but agents orientated towards the future, acting innovatively within co-evolutionary process of economic and social dynamics, carrying out changes and progress, and facing the uncertainty. The uncertainty is a key element of positiveempirical analysis of Neo-Schumpeterian economics. The pace of real sector economic development can slow down or accelerate. This process can be explained by both cyclical nature of economic development and the theory of long waves in particular. At the same time, it is possible to observe co-evolutionary process in other spheres: financial and public sectors. Insufficient orientation of financial sector toward future, including low readiness to provide liquidity and venture capital, finally influences the real sector Fig. 1. The three pillars of Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economic Development (Hanusch, Pyka, 2007) # 877 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… and has negative impact on innovation activity of enterprise. Insufficient orientation of public sector toward future is shown in low budget spending for Health care, Education, R&D and deficient intention to modernise, reform social and political structures and institutes. It ultimately has a negative influence on economic dynamics in real sector. The economic development depends strongly on situation in these three sectors. The periods of depression can occur between the periods of rapid growth and recession. This typical Schumpeterian development of economy is the basis of the concepts of a Neo-Schumpeterian corridor (Fig. 2). Far-reaching Neo-Schumpeterian development takes place in a narrow corridor between the extremes of uncontrolled growth and exploding bubbles, on the one hand, and stationarity, in other words, zero growth and stagnancy, on the other. The desirable process is the one that keeps the system in an upside potential including both overheating-protection, i.e., from macro-level bubble explosions and from micro-level insane explosive growth, and downside protection, i.e., from macro-level stagnation and from micro-level bankruptcy. The economic history of the 20th century illustrates that the two threats – overheating and bubble explosion on the one side and stagnation on other side – shape economic development. The examples of such development are Japan, Germany and the USA. After World War II both Japan and Germany were within the Neo-Schumpeterian corridor and the USA were below its borders. But further the USA returned, and Japan and Germany in 1990s years dropped out of the corridor. What had happened? In both countries growth-friendly institutional arrangements were generated. In particular, it concerned the financial sector and its close interaction with the real sector on the basis of joint risk-taking in the middle- and long-term economic development (“Keiretsu” in Japan, “Rhine Capitalism” in Germany). These countries were focused on the development of each of elements of the economic system; the system of interdependence of all participants Fig. 2. The Neo-Schumpeterian Corridor (Hanusch, Pyka, 2005) # 878 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… (stakeholders) was generated. In the USA, where the financial sector was focused on the short-term interests, the similar structures did not develop. To the end of the 1970s the German “Economic Wonder” began to disappear and “Wohlfahrtstaat” could not cope with the new challenges, globalization and IT-revolution, in particular. In fact, Germany overslept the first stage of knowledge-based economy in all the three pillars. Only after the crisis of 2007-2009, due to weak euro and technological innovations, Germany drifted upwards from the stagnation sector. In the 1980s Japan reached the peak of its economic development. But later moved to the decade of depression and near-zero growth, caused by huge bubbles in financial and the real estate markets, which lead to enrichment of some agents, but after their bursting, affected the whole economy. By contrast, the USA in the 1990s transformed from depression economy into the one of the OECD-leaders. It was connected with the rate of creation of firms in IT-sphere, managed and financed by venture funds, combined with intention of private and public sector to invest in R&D. The role of financial sector, bank sector in particular, in Neo-Schumpeterian sustainable growth is very important. Schumpeter himself in his “Theory of Economic Development” (1912) strongly emphasised the role of both the creative entrepreneur and the risk-friendly banker. Bankers and industrial entrepreneurs should be considered in a symbiotic relationship. The major task for financial sector should be seen in the acquisition and supply of capital for firm actors. So such a cautious and prudent banker as J.P. Morgan did not play only the banker’s role, but became the largest investor of American railroads. The main driver for development in the financial sector during the last decade was the use of pension and insurance funds, first of all private, aspiring to a high risk level. Thanks to profit aspiration there were investment banks and similar structures actively involved in all the spheres including mergers and absorptions. Socalled “venture capital funds”, aspiring to high profits from invested in the enterprises capital, give a chance even to financial losers to earn on their investments. If all goes smoothly, it becomes a wonderful symbiosis of Schumpeterian real and financial sectors, which not only meets the requirements of the economic dynamics of the time, but also appears to be a valuable recipe for success and growth of modern economy. It could be seen most clearly in the US economy in the 1990s. But it was also one of the main reasons of the current global financial crisis. The future orientation of Neo-Schumpeterian approach makes it necessary to rethink the role of monetary policy and central banks. In Monetarism and Neoclassical approach, this role is defined the following way: control of inflation and stability of national currency exchange rate. The real sector, thus, is playing a secondary role. From a Neo-Schumpeterian perspective the central bank has the task of supporting the policy focused on Schumpeterian growth and providing the enterprises with necessary liquidity. The other task is to prevent the speculative fluctuations in the financial market. It is necessary to supplement traditional monetary policy with psychological influence on expectations of economic subjects, and direct intervention in chains of communication between real and financial sectors, where there can be a regulation of Schumpeterian symbiosis. Increasing Role of Public Sector In orthodox Neo-Schumpeterian Economics public sector played very humble role. The Neoclassical approach has an advanced and diversified theory of public sector, built on the theory of the public goods and paradigms of welfare economics. But NSE does not answer # 879 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… the question about normative and positive justifications of the state actions and their comparison with the market. Of course, within the Neo-Schumpeterian approach the public sector is analysed from positions of future orientation and uncertainty. Innovations, future orientation and uncertainty reflect the starting points of Neo-Schumpeterian theory of public sector. The ideas about uncertainty, as a reason of origin of a state, are reflected in the idea of social contract in the area of income redistribution. The uncertainty of the future, the aspiration of a society to mitigate the consequences of loss of incomes, creates a basis for social policy, and displays the actual foundation of the state as an organisation, authorised to provide realisation and monitoring of contractual conditions. A good insurance from uncertainty can be a social contract with a fixed duty of society to finance science and education and provide social security. It concerns both the infrastructural and educational organisations, such as kindergartens, schools, universities and academies on the one hand and social services on the other. Both coordination and organisation of these actions can be transferred to the state. Thus, Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics is characterized by the following key theses: – the emphasis on qualitative, innovation driven development; – the connection between all three pillars of development – industry (real), finance and public sector – that distinguishes it from orthodox Schumpeterian Economics, focusing on real sector development; – innovations and uncertainty as connected factors of economic development and ubiquitous phenomena, characteristic for each of the three pillars and intrinsically interrelated; – interrelation and interaction (co-evolution) between the sectors; – the necessity to guide a national economy within Schumpeterian corridor for sustainable and dynamic development. The inter-relationship between these three sectors occurs in the spheres connected with development, while each of them plays its significant role. The state creates institutions as the rules of the game, provides infrastructure development, and also invests in fundamental science. Development of the international and interregional competition for capitals provides inflow of investments, and they are directed to countries and regions with the most attractive investment climate. One more form of interrelationship is a public-private partnership in R&D. It can be realised by creation of business-incubators, and special taxation regime. The interaction of real and financial sectors is demonstrated in creation of hi-tech firms with venture capital and financing start-up projects. Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics Potential: Empirical Data There is a question that follows: how such theoretical approach as CNSE can be applied to analysis of modern trends of economic development? Here are two cases to consider. As it has already been mentioned above, a long period of stagnation in Japan in the 1990s was caused by shifting from the top (exponential growth) of Neo-Schumpeterian corridor to the bottom (stagnation) because of rapidly increased gap between profitableness of investment in the financial and real estate markets and profitableness of the real sector. After the bursting of the bubble in the given markets, Japanese economy moved into a long period of stagnation, which is still affecting it. The other bubble appeared in the world financial markets of hi-tech firms in 2000, # 880 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… bursting together with “Enron” and “WorldCom” scandals. The latter became possible because of the absence of interaction between three pillars of economic development, and also because the American system of the financial markets had nothing in common with the difficult system of interaction between the stakeholders, existing in models of bank financing of Japan and Germany. The other case is connected with development of “new” economy in Europe, Japan and the USA and roles of three sectors in their development. The analysis of 18 European countries, Japan and the USA accomplished using the data for the period 1996-2000, various indicators, characterising the situation with future orientation of these countries, allowed to come to the conclusion that the following countries are above the Schumpeterian corridor: Ireland, the USA and Finland corridor, while Italy, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are in a stagnation zone. The various indicators used included indicators of technological development, private and state sectors expenditures on research and development (in particular BERD (Business Expenditure on R&D), level of interest rates, etc. Generally 24 indicators on real sector, 35 on public and 10 on financial were used (Mensch, 2009). As for the influence of separate sectors on results of concrete countries they are: Germany is on the second place within its group in public and real sector and on the fifth in financial sector. The similar situation is in Denmark: it is on the third place in the group in public and real sector and on the ninth in financial sector. Great Britain shows good results in financial sector (second and third place accordingly), but only the fifth on real sector indicators. The most advanced country on all three sectors is the Netherlands, while Italy is the outsider. Conclusion This approach to the analysis of economic development allows us to consider, in our opinion, the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics could be a possible alternative to Neoclassical model when giving a theoretical justification of national innovative economic system. The future orientation and analysis of interaction between the sectors responsible for innovative development can serve as a starting point for application of the approach for crosscountry and inter-regional analysis of innovative process. At the same time, the application of the given approach has restrictions connected with the following patterns of institutional environment of Russian innovation business: – low level of protection of the property rights; – short-term orientation of economic agents and consequent “investment shortsightedness” (Hanusch et al., 2007); – lower appeal of investments into the social capital in comparison with investments into the human capital; – the absence of working mechanism of transformation of inventions into innovation products and well-functioning institutions of commercialization of ideas. The overcome of these burdens, in our opinion, is a necessary condition for transition to Schumpeterian type of corporate capitalism with innovation system as a self-development mechanism. But both in the Schumpeter’s approach and in NSE, the development is impossible without an actor – an initiative, free from “bound hand and foot wit red tapes” and shortage in liquidity entrepreneur. It is obvious that growth of innovation development institutes should start from a collective innovation action problem, in which all stakeholders (entrepreneurs, bankers, and officials) are involved. In this regard, the discussion about modernisation of economic system should start from a change of basic institutes of development, but with an active # 881 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… state policy in the spheres of science, education and infrastructure. Otherwise, it will be very difficult for Russia to get out from negative of 1 Global Innovation Index (GII), despite billion expenditures for development programmes, financed by the state budget. Pyka A., Fagiolo G., Agent-based-Modelling: A Methodology for neo-Schumpeterian Economics, in: Hanusch, H., Pyka, A. (Ed.) Elgar Companion to Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, p. 467-487 References V.E. Demetiev, Economic Bubbles in Long-Wave Dynamics: Avoid or Dose Out. Part 1, Economics of Contemporary Russia, 2 (2009), 7-19, in Russian. I.E. Frolov and I.G. Chaplygina, Contemporary Problems of Scientific and Technological Development Models construction, Economics of Contemporary Russia, 1 (2009), 7-24, in Russian. H. Hanusch, Zur Bedeutung Schumpeters und der Schumpeterianischen Okonomik am Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts, Unternehmergeist/Unternehmertum in Anknupfung an Joseph A. Schumpeter (Zürich, 2007), 11-12. H. Hanusch and A. Pyka, Manifesto for Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, History of Economic Ideas, 15 (2007), 11-29. H. Hanusch and A. Pyka, Principles of Neo-Schumpeterian Economics, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31 (2007), 275-289. G. Mensch, Schumpeterian Solution to the Current Crisis, The Journal on Economic Theory, 3 (2009), 170-175 I.V. Rosmainsky, Why Do the Androgenic Growth Patterns Not Work in Post-Soviet Russia?, Institutional Transformation of Economics in Post-Soviet States, Proceedings of International Conference “Institutional Transformation: Federal and Regional Levels”, ed. by S.N. Levin, 32-36, in Russian. J. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, (Moscow: Economika, 1995), in Russian. J.A. Schumpeter, Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, (Munchen und Leipzig: Duncker&Humblot, Reprint 1988), The Theory of Economic Development, (Moscow: Progress, 1982), in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny A. Kapoguzov. Opportunities of the Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics for Innovation-Based… Потенциал комплексной неошумпетерианской экономической теории для инновационной экономики Е.А. Капогузов Омский государственный университет Россия 644077, Омск, пр. Мира, 55 В статье рассматриваются ключевые элементы комплексной нео-шумпетерианской экономической теории как теоретического фундамента экономического развития инновационного типа. Анализируются интеллектуальные предпосылки данного подхода и его отличия от ортодоксального шумпетерианства. Приводится концепция «трех столпов экономического развития» и обсуждаются эмпирические данные тестирования данной модели на макроуровне. Анализируются возможности применения данного подхода как альтернативе неоклассике при теоретческом обосновании инновационного типа развития. Ключевые слова: неошумпетерианство, экономическое развитие, инновационная экономика, экономическая коэволюция. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 884-893 ~~~ УДК 347.78.025 The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) Natalia Yu. Rychkova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 In the article a personal non-property right to authorship is argued to be a supplementary direct object of a crime, specified in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. It does not allow to provide proper defense of rights of a person by the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Thus, the provisions of Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation require revising. Keywords: criminal law, object of a crime, plagiarism. Point of View. The opinion existing in the criminal science that a personal non-property right to authorship is the main direct object of the crime as it is described in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation 1 is debatable. This opinion is based not on the description of actus reus of this crime. On the contrary, while analyzing it we can come to the conclusion that the personal non-property right to authorship plays the role of the supplementary direct object. But it does not correspond to the true value of the right to authorship, therefore no proper defense of the rights of the person can be provided by the Criminal Code of the RF. Thus, the provisions of Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF require revising. Example. Plagiarism if it has inflicted great damage to an author or any other right holder is a criminal offence under Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF. Some criminal * 1 scientists notice that the main object of this crime is social relations arising in connection with realization of the right for freedom to create literary, artistic, scientific, technical or other kinds of works (Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (by paragraphs), 2010: 544; Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, ed. by V.T. Tomin and V.V. Sverchkov, 2010). But this right for freedom to create cannot be the object of plagiarism, as creation of a work or performance means that this right has not been violated. Creation of a work or performance results in different property and non-property rights. But these rights appear as a result, and not in connection with the realization of this right for freedom to create. Thus, it is more correct to consider a copyright and neighboring rights defended and guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Art. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 884 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) 44, Part 1) as the direct object (Criminal law…, 2006: 434; Criminal law of Russia…, 2007: 400; Criminal law of Russia…, 2008: 260; Bondarev, 2008: 11; see also: Machkovsky, 2005а: 62-63). The obvious merit of this standpoint consists in refusing to consider this right for freedom to create as the direct object of plagiarism, though the frame of rights referred to the direct object is unjustifiably wide. Let us turn to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation1. According to Art. 1226 of the Civil Code of the RF a range of intellectual rights emerges as a result of creating a work or performing. These rights include a right to authorship, a right to indicate author’s name, a right to maintain identity, a right to make the work public, a right to have an opportunity to realize a right of an art work 3 reproduction, an exclusive right to a work or performance and some other rights (Art. 1255, 1315 of the Civil Code of the RF). Not all these rights can be considered the direct object of plagiarism. Only the right to authorship, the right to indicate the author’s name that belong to personal nonproperty rights and the property4 exclusive right can play “the role” of the direct object of plagiarism. There is another opinion in the law literature on this issue: “As the right to authorship is a personal non-property right, plagiarism should be considered a violation of personal nonproperty rights” (Fedoskina, 2007: 119). Basing on this statement we can consider a personal nonproperty right to authorship as the main direct object of the crime described in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF. Despite the differences between the two approaches to the notion of the direct object of plagiarism mentioned above, the right to authorship is believed to be either a part of the main direct object of this crime or its main direct object. But if we agree with this statement, it means that this right has to correspond to all the attributes of such an object. According to the opinion of D.I. Aminov and I. I. Bryka “…the main direct object of the crime is the most valuable social benefit from the point of view of social interests (italicized by the author) among those which are damaged by this crime. Moreover, this object should be determinative both for qualifying (italicized by the author) the action and choosing a certain place of the criminal rule in the general legislative system” (Criminal law of Russia…, 2009). Formally, recognition of the right to authorship as the main direct object of plagiarism should result from the position of Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF in the structure of the Criminal Code of the RF, from its position in the chapter in which crimes against constitutional rights and freedoms are described and should be confi rmed by the name of the article and description of the punishable offence. (Lopatin and Doroshkov, 2010). Nevertheless, the analysis of the description of the crime’s objective part given in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF puts us in doubt that the personal non-property right to authorship is really the main one and not the supplementary direct object of the crime. Art. 146, part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF prohibits plagiarism. The definition of the notion “plagiarism” is described neither in criminal, nor in civil law. The legal science interprets it in different ways, for example, as “using the works of other authors in one’s own work without referring to their names, publishing somebody else’s work under one’s own name or publishing a work created in co-authorship without reference to the name of the co-author ...” (Serebrennikova, 2006), “distributing to the public somebody else’s work or a part of it and representing it as one’s own, publishing a work created in co-authorship without referring to the co-author ...” (Commentary on the Criminal Code # 885 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) of the Russian Federation, 2007), “publishing somebody else’s work under one’s own name or publishing a work created in co-authorship without referring to the co-author etc.” (Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, ed. by V.M. Lebedev, 2010). The resolution No. 14 of the Plenum of the Russian Federation Supreme Court “About the practice of criminal cases trial on the infringement of copyright, neighboring, inventor’s and patent rights and about illegal use of a trademark” of 26th April 2007 says that if the fact of plagiarism which infringes the copyright under Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF has been established, the court should bear in mind that this wrongful action can be expressed in particular in presenting oneself as an author of somebody else’s work, in distributing to the public somebody else’s work or a part of it under one’s own name, in publishing a work created in co-authorship without referring to the names of co-authors. It is impossible, of course, to plagiarize the authorship as a personal immaterial benefit, thus plagiarism is usually expressed in giving somebody else’s work or a performance recording as one’s own, and there are various ways of doing that. The most common way is using a work (Khokhlov, 2007) or a performance recording that belong to another person without reference to the author’s name, for example, when a plagiarist copies a title, some phrases or paragraphs of somebody’s work and includes them in his own work, when he publishes someone’s whole work or some parts of it under his own name. Illegal use can affect any element of the form of the work or recording of the performance defended by the law: the text as a whole, some sentences, the title of the work. The next way is less popular: an author does not name his co-authors without their consent, or a person claims oneself to be an author of someone else’s work. All these actions misrepresent a true creator. Using someone else’s work (wholly or partially) and representing it as one’s own leads to violation of not only the authorship right, but of the exclusive right as well. Irrespective of the illegally used volume of the work it always means the infringement of the exclusive right, i.e. the right to use scientific, literary or artistic work at one’s own discretion in any legal way. It is provided by Art. 1229, 1270, 1274 of the Civil Code of the RF. According to Art. 1229, 1270 of the Civil Code of the RF the author has the right to use scientific, literary or artistic work at his own discretion in any legal way, including its reproduction. Other people cannot use this work without the author’s consent, except for the cases provided by the law. Art. 1274 of the Civil Code of the RF enumerates such cases of free use of the work provided that the name of the author whose work is used (cited) and the source used is referred to with due acknowledgement. Thus, plagiarism is aimed at two objects at once, both of them claim to be the main direct object of encroachment. This conclusion is also fair when the performance recording is illegally used (Art. 1306 of the Civil Code of the RF). Unlawful presentation of oneself as a single author of a co-work (a performance recording) or announcing oneself as an author of somebody else’s work does not always cause infringement of the exclusive right to the work. It can be violated indirectly: as a result of violation of the personal non-property right to authorship. If a person just presents himself as an author, but does not intend to publish the work and get fees for it, the exclusive right is not infringed. On the contrary, if he uses the work and gets money for the illegal use, the exclusive right is violated. Plagiarism also results in breach of the right to authorship only, for instance, when the protection period of the authors’ exclusive right is over, and the work or recording of the performance can be used by any person. # 886 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) Despite the fact that the right to authorship is always an independent direct object of the crime, and the exclusive right is not always infringed, the right to authorship is a fundamental right which results in realization of all other author’s rights including the exclusive right; infringement of the right to authorship without violation of the exclusive right is not a crime. This follows from the description of Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF in which heavy damage inflicted to the author or any other right holder is an obligatory element of actus reus. There are different opinions in the law literature what kinds of criminal consequences are covered by the notion of heavy damage. According to one of the opinions these consequences are of immaterial character, and therefore some scholars suggest taking into account “the degree of constitutional rights violation, detriment to the business reputation as a result of uncontrollable distribution of counterfeit copies with bad quality recordings etc” (Voshchinsky, 2003: 61). Another point provides for that heavy damage may include not only material but also moral harm (Russian criminal law…, 2009: 140-141; Serebrennikova, 2006; Smirnova, 2007: 95). According to the third opinion, it includes only material damage (Mordvinov, 2004: 42). The Plenum of the Russian Federation Supreme Court in its resolution No. 14 claims that heavy damage described in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF is the real damage and loss of profit only; a victim can claim for moral damages by a civil lawsuit in a criminal trial. The question is what property consequences of this crime refer to the damage. Detriment of the authorship can inflict directly only moral damage, but indirectly any other harm, including material harm. Thus, feeling anxious and uncomfortable, a person has to apply for medical care, and therefore bear the expenses to recover his health. Thus, we have to find out whether these expenses that arise as a result of this distress, should be considered as the damage of the crime. But there is no direct correlation between such property damage and plagiarism. It is obvious that an indirect intention which usually accompanies plagiarism does not cover this property loss, while the probability of its emergence is abstract and uncertain. So property damage that arises as a result of inflicted moral damage should not be considered as the damage of this crime. The damage may cover only those property damages which are caused by infringement of the exclusive right to the work or performance recording. No matter how it was violated the material damage caused had been embraced by the criminal intent of the offender. So, moral damage is not taken into account when criminal proceedings are instituted, only the amount of property damage is important in such cases. But illegal use of a work or a performance recording not always cause heavy damage. For instance, using some pieces of someone else’s work can hardly result in significant material damage, so this action does not constitute the body of the crime. It means that despite the fact of breaking the right to authorship, this object is not defended by the Criminal Code of the RF. Refusal to defend this right means that it is not considered to be the social benefit which is the most valuable from the point of view of social interests. On the contrary, this social benefit is of minor importance like the supplementary object of the crime. The legal rule fixed in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF is primarily aimed at protection of the author’s exclusive right; it is definitely confirmed by the circle of victims described there. Among the victims mentioned in this Article we can see not only authors, but # 887 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) other right holders as well. In accordance with the current civil law only individuals are entitled to authorship, the right to authorship is inalienable, that is why if this right is broken only the author can suffer moral damage. The property damage is always inflicted on the exclusive right holder: the author or any other right holder under the law or contract. Therefore, a publisher having an exclusive right to reproduce the work, can claim the initiation of criminal proceedings, if this work being the object of the exclusive right has been reproduced by another person without reference to the creator’s name. Thus, only in case of property damage there is a sufficient ground to initiate criminal proceedings against a wrongdoer. Unwillingness of the legislator to give a personal non-property right to authorship the significance of the main direct object of the crime is also seen when we compare the kinds of penalties specified in Art. 146, Part 1 and Part 2 of the Criminal Code of the RF. Plagiarism unlike the illegal use of the work (performance recording) does not result in sentencing to imprisonment. Thus, the encroachment on the two objects at once – the right to authorship and the exclusive right – does not impose punishment as heavy as the punishment provided for violation of only one object – the exclusive right. It should be noted that in comparison with the current Criminal Code of the RF the pre-revolutionary Regulations of Criminal and Correctional Penalties of 1845 provided that a person who encroached on two objects at once, i.e. the right to authorship and the exclusive right, could be sentenced to more serious punishment. The Regulations of Criminal and Correctional Penalties of 1845 described two bodies of crime: forgery of the authorship (an intentional illegal reproducing of someone else’s work under one’s own name; now it is a kind of plagiarism) and counterfeiting (unlawful reproducing of someone’s whole work; now it is a kind of the illegal use of a work). While committing a forgery of the authorship was punished by deprivation of all special rights and imprisonment up to 16 months, the penalty for counterfeiting was only deprivation of freedom for a term from 3 months to a year. We can look at the problem from another point of view: low-level legislative value of the personal non-property right to authorship and inefficiency of the defense caused by it, are clearly seen through an extremely high imbalance of the criminal defense of the property right holders. The Criminal Code of the RF in Art. 146, Part 1 and Part 2 provides two bodies of crimes the main direct object of which is the exclusive right. The difference in qualifying a committed act depends on the fact whether it was only the exclusive right that was violated or at the same time the right to authorship was neglected. For example, if someone else’s work was illegitimately reproduced under one’s own name, it is qualified under Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF, but if it was illegally reproduced under the name of the author, this action should be qualified under Art. 146, Part 2 of the Criminal Code of the RF. Institution of criminal proceedings under Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF results in greater difficulties as the body of this crime belongs to result crimes. While institution of criminal proceedings under Art. 146, Part 2 of the Criminal Code of the RF is much easier than the previous one, as the body of this crime belongs to conduct crimes. The type of punishment fi xed in Art. 146, Part 2 of the Criminal Code of RF is more serious in comparison with the one that may be imposed on a person who committed an offence described in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF. Thus, the publisher whose exclusive right was violated as a result of publication and distribution of the # 888 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) counterfeit copies of the work is always in a more advantageous position than the publisher whose rights are defended under Art 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF. Meanwhile violation of the exclusive right in both examples is equally dangerous for the community, but entails different penalties. It appears that the kind and the size of the penalty specified in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF is insufficient even to defend the exclusive right, and speaking about the reality of the defense of the personal non-property right to authorship does not seem to be possible. Including heavy damage as a criminalizing feature indicates that the right to authorship in the body of the crime specified in Art 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF occupies the position of a supplementary, but not the main object. However, the genuine meaning of the authorship right does not conform to the “role” assigned to it. The right to authorship is a personal nonproperty right (Art. 150 of the Civil Code of the RF). Therefore, infringing on this right within the framework of classification of crimes against constitutional rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen used in the criminal law should be referred not to crimes that infringe social and economic rights and freedoms (Russian criminal law…, 2009: 133) or economic rights and freedoms (Criminal law of Russia …, 2008: 260), but to crimes that violate personal rights and freedoms. The actual reason of the contemporary description of plagiarism in Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF is the priority of authors’ property rights over personal non-property rights in the civil law. As the intellectual property is considered, fi rst of all, as a product, so the right to authorship is used to name the author in the trade turnover; that is why it is valued as an obligatory condition to enter other, as a rule, property relations. Maintaining a normal trade turnover of the intellectual property is an important, but not the only task of the personal non-property right to authorship. Its fi rst aim is to guarantee recognition of an original author or a performer and to give him a proper recognition. Thus, an effective protection of the personal non-property right to authorship means comprehensive defense of the person’s interests; so this right must “occupy the place” of the main direct object of plagiarism. It can be achieved in various ways. Firstly, the interpretation of the notion “damage” can be changed determining only its immaterial consequences. Secondly, the description of Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF can be changed in such a way, when immaterial character of the harm caused by plagiarism becomes obvious to everyone. For this purpose some authors in criminal science suggest, fi rst of all, using an attribute of serious violation of rights and lawful interests instead of heavy damage (Oreshkin, 2006: 7); secondly, refusing to name a right holder as a potential victim (Glukhova, 2004: 9; Oreshkin, 2006: 7). But we cannot agree with the fi rst way of solving the problem as it does not correspond to the rule of law and we cannot support the second one because it can violate the principle of fairness. Plagiarism, fi rst of all, causes moral damage. According to Art. 151 of the Civil Code of the RF, moral damage is defi ned as physical and moral sufferings. Therefore, if the author suffers because of plagiarism it would become a prerequisite for imposing criminal liability on the wrongdoer. But it is very difficult to fi nd out whether a person really suffers from an offence even in civil trials. There is no single opinion in science and practice about the right way of solving this problem now. Very often different courts pass contradictory judgments though the circumstances and facts of the cases are rather similar. But it is even much more difficult for # 889 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) a court to determine the gravity of sufferings. So, the defi nition of moral damage given in the Civil Code of the RF does not allow us to provide uncontroversial civil court practice and, consequently, it should not be used while deciding if a person is criminally liable or not. Moreover, it is difficult to speak about the direct intention of the offender to cause moral sufferings as a necessary element of the body of the crime because different people react to plagiarism in different ways: one author may become furious, the other remains indifferent. For this reason it is necessary to refuse including the attribute of consequences of committing a crime in the body of plagiarism. This proposal also corresponds to the true value of authorship as a personal immaterial benefit. We should support L. G. Machkovsky who said: “The criminal liability for a plagiarism of copyright and neighboring rights objects should not be connected with the necessity of establishing the fact of damage, its amount, and assessment of this amount as heavy damage. These actions encroach on fundamental human values and that is why they are very dangerous for the society irrespective of the consequences they have caused” (Machkovsky, 2005b: 46). The scholar reasonably offers to exclude the words “if this action caused great damage to an author 1 2 3 or any other right holder” from the description of Art 146, Ppart 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF (Machkovsky, 2005b: 46). Finally, making up the body of plagiarism as a conduct crime is one of the world trends in the criminal protection of authorship. Criminal Codes of some states, i.e. the Netherlands and Sweden (Dvoryankin, 2003: 18), Spain (The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Spain, 1998: 87), Byelorussia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Georgia (Podshibikhin, 2006: 56), Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan (only for computer programmes, databases and some other objects) do not include the consequences of committing a crime in the body of this crime. So, excluding the attribute of heavy damage from Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF also corresponds to contemporary tendencies of the criminal law development. Resume. The personal non-property right to authorship will become the main direct object of the crime provided that the attribute of heavy damage is excluded from the description of Art. 146, Part 1 of the Criminal Code of the RF, and this description will be made up as “Plagiarism”, so plagiarism will become a conduct crime. It will help to eliminate all contradictions and provide efficient protection of the right to authorship. Hereinafter referred to as the “Criminal Code of RF”. That is paintings, sculptures, graphic art, designs, graphic stories, comic books and some other works, applied arts, architecture and park and garden designs are not included (art. 1259 of the Civil Code of the RF). In the opinion of the legislator an exclusive right is a property right (art.1226 of the Civil Code of the RF). References M. Yu. Bondarev, Criminal law protection of intellectual rights, thesis abstract prepared the degree of candidate in law (Ph.D.) (Moscow, 2008), in Russian. Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (by paragraphs), ed. by A.V. Brilliantov (Moscow: Prospect, 2010), in Russian. Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, electronic resources, ed. by V.M. Lebedev (Moscow: Norma, 2007), in Russian. Available at the database “Garant”. Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, electronic resources, ed. by V.M. Lebedev (Moscow: Publishing house Yurait, 2010), in Russian. Available at the database “Garant”. # 890 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) Commentary on the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, electronic resources, ed. by V.T. Tomin and V.V. Sverchkov (Moscow: Yurait-Izdat, 2010), in Russian. Available at the database “Garant”. Criminal law of Russia. Parts General and Special, lecture course, ed. by A.I. Rarog (Moscow: TK Velbi, Publishing house Prospect, 2008), in Russian. 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Khokhlov, “Practical issues of applying the rules of compensation as a result of exclusive rights infringement”, electronic resources, Zakon, 10 (2007), in Russian. Available at the database “Konsultant plus”. V. N. Lopatin and V.V. Doroshkov, Defense of intellectual property. Pressing problems of theory and practice, vol. 3, electronic resources, ed. by V. N. Lopatin (Moscow: Publishing house Yurait, 2010), in Russian. Available at the database “Garant”. L.G. Machkovsky, “Intellectual property: criminal law protection”, Zakonodatelstvo, 11 (2005), 61-68, in Russian. L.G. Machkovsky, Crimes against constitutional rights of a person and a citizen: problems of theory and practice of legal regulation, thesis abstract prepared to get the degree of doctor in law (Moscow, 2005), in Russian. A. Mordvinov, “Defense of intellectual property right”, Zakonnost, 11(2004), 41-42, in Russian. M.I. 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Serebrennikova, “On the question of the necessity of the improvement of article 146 of the RF Criminal Code”, electronic resources, Sovremennoye pravo, 10 (2006), in Russian. Available at the database “Konsultant plus”. # 891 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) E.A. Smirnova, Methodology for investigating of violation of a copyright to computer programs and databases (Saint-Petersburg: Saint-Petersburg law institute of Prosecutor General office), 2007, in Russian. The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Spain, ed. by and with the preface of N.F. Kuznetsova and F. M. Reshetnikov (Moscow: Publishing house Zertsalo, 1998), in Russian. The Criminal Code of the Republic of Byelorussia, personal site of V.S. Levonevsky (URL:http:// pravo.levonevsky.org/kodeksby/uk/20100505/str7.htm, 2006-2010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). The Criminal Code of the Republic of Byelorussia, site of OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (URL:http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14100/preview, 2004-2010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). The Criminal Code of the Republic of Tajikistan, site of OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (URL:http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14346/preview, 2004-2010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). The Criminal Code of Kyrgyz Republic, site of OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (URL:http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14305/preview, 2004-2010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). “The Criminal Code of Republic of Georgia”, Zakon: web-journal of the Association of lawyers of Primorye (URL:http://law.vl.ru/comments/show_article.php?art_id=489&sec_id=61&law_ id=12&law_name=%CC%E5%E6%E4%F3%ED%E0%F0%EE%E4%ED%FB%E5+%EE%F2%ED %EE%F8%E5&sec_name=%D3%E3%EE%EB%EE%E2%ED%FB%E5+%EA%EE%E4%E5%EA% F1%FB+&art_name=%D3%E3%EE%EB%EE%E2%ED%FB%E9+%EA%EE%E4%E5%EA&page= 46, 1999-2010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). The Criminal Code of Republic of Uzbekistan, site of OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (URL:http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14405/ preview2004-2010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). The Criminal Code of Turkmenistan, site of OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (URL:http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/15853/preview, 20042010), in Russian, (the date of visiting: 30.07.2010). M. Voshchinsky, “Criminal liability for infringement of a copyright and neighboring rights according to the new edition of article 146 of the Criminal Code”, Rossiskaya yustitsiya, 6 (2003), 6163, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia Yu. Rychkova. The Object of Criminal Appropriation of Authorship (Plagiarism) Объект преступного присвоения авторства (плагиата) Н.Ю. Рычкова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье обосновывается, что личное неимущественное право авторства является дополнительным непосредственным объектом преступления, предусмотренного ч. 1 ст. 146 Уголовного кодекса РФ. Это не позволяет обеспечить полноценную уголовно-правовую охрану прав личности, и, следовательно, диспозиция указанной нормы требует изменения. Ключевые слова: уголовное право, объект преступления, присвоение авторства, плагиат. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 894-901 ~~~ УДК 821.111 “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge “According to Queeney” Tatyana A. Poluektova* Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V. P. Astafiev, 89 Ady Lebedevoi St., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 In this article the correlation between fi ctional and documentary origins in the novel “According to Queeney” by Beryl Bainbridge is analysed. This novel belongs to the genre of biographical novel. The researcher analyses the peculiarities of this correlation in epistolary part of novel, which occupies one of the main parts in the narrative texture of the novel. Bainbridge, describing the life of the character, relies on authentic facts, and herewith interprets them according to her vision. Keywords: contemporary British literature, biographical novel, fact, fi ction, non fi ction, faction, letter(s), a variety of interpretation, S. Johnson, B. Bainbridge. Point The correlation between fact and fiction in a literary work is one of the topical problems of modern literary criticism, both in Russia and western countries. For modern literature, especially English one, the process of substitution of the literature by fact-fiction literature is typical. There are several reasons for it and in this article we will name only some of them. A. Livergant believes that “nowadays the fact appears more fascinating than something existing in the imagination …, fiction is perceived by many as rather “frivolous”, light-minded, and entertaining occupation than important and responsible one as it has been considered before” (Livergant, 2008). * 1 Professor Marina Balina, Illinois Wesleyan University, USA explains the increased interest to “the fact literature” by “postmodernism influence that helped this literature to become independent from a well-known linearity of the narration, the “patchy” nature of the memory … reflects the modern survival with its instability and fragmentariness in the best possible way. <…> the freedom of new literary memoirs, its accessibility to adjacent genres (philological research, essay, review, anecdote, and travel sketch) gives huge possibilities for any literary experiment” (Balina, 2003). The introduction of letters in a novel or the creation of a novel in the form of correspondence becomes especially popular Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 894 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… in the 18th – the beginning of the 19th centuries “…in the 18th century it was a world in which personal communication, both private and public, aristocratic and low, was a diligently cultivated activity. A world in which paper and pen, calligraphy, letters and signs of punctuation carried a huge emotional load, and displayed, to those who could read them well, an immense reservoir of hidden aspirations and memories, bodily pleasures, and subconscious ghosts”, – Professor Pia Brînzeu, University of Timişoara, Romania tells in the book review of “EighteenthCentury Letters and British Culture” (2006) by Clare Brant (Brînzeu, 2009). Classical epistolary novels were written by S. Richardson, J-J. Russo, etc. “The epistolary form of a novel … reflects the initial but very important stage in the development of the genre form. The shift from fact to fiction begins with the record of events and incidents” (Solovieva, 2008). In the known glossaries, both Russian and English, the fact is based on a real event or phenomena; the fiction is usually based on something imaginary, fictitious.1 These are two key notions and definitions for this article. N.A. Bugrina singles out four types of fiction: 1) imagery, i.e. the use of vivid language to represent an object, action or idea and create an image: the biographer creates not events or facts, but that environment in which these events and facts exist, that is actually the art fabric of the novel; the author can imagine surroundings, landscape, location, he can change the appearance of the character, his behaviour, speech or inner monologues, but he should base his narration on a document; 2) plot creating: the biographer adds some fictional characters and events, but they exist only in the background of real historical events; 3) the documentary-fiction: the document thought up by the author presents a certain episode, some local event and produces an impression of the real evidence; 4) fiction-hypothesis: with its help the author does not reveal or supplement the facts of the original biography of the character, but explains them; it is an assumption, a version of the writer which does not affect the reality (Bugrina, 1986). When the writer starts to describe the life of a person he changes the available documentary sources and that always results in “radical transformation of individuality, re-comprehension of the empirically established fact” (Ushakova, 2001). In this vein the point of view of Y. Andreev is correct: “fictional biography is not a chronological enumeration of the facts of life, but it is a narration with some elements of fiction, which help to reveal the image of historical personality and epoch” (Andreev, 1962). It is obvious that “in English literature – unlike, perhaps, any other literature – there are first class writers, who became famous by writing not “fiction”, but so-called “non-fiction” (Livergant, 2008). “Non-fiction” is considered as the term for biographies, travel sketches, letters, etc. in spite of the fact that this English term is not translated today. Example The works by Beryl Bainbridge (1934-2010) have one of outstanding places in the history of modern English literature. The novel “According to Queeney” (2001) by Beryl Bainbridge is one of her latest novels about real people and real facts in the British history. Markus Hiltl considers these novels, including “According to Queeney”, can be defined as “faction”, “a term composed of the two words “fact” and “fiction”, is more appropriate to her specific style of historical writing as it is less focused on understanding historical processes and the realistic painting of a historical picture and more inclined to use historical facts and # 895 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… persons as a background for the expression of universal themes, such as the human folly, the impossibility of communication or the cruelty of human relations” (Hiltl, 2006). In the western literary criticism the term “faction” describes the literature which is based on the fact, but interpreted rather freely. “According to Queeney”, which can be called a biographical novel (biographie romancée), shows “a private” life of a historical person of the 18th century – Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) – who was a poet, biographer, lexicographer, essayist, editor and reviewer. We should point out that nowadays there exists a demand for the biographical genre in Great Britain in spite of the fact that it has an old tradition. According to A.G. Bakanov “a modern person enjoys the possibility to get closer to some well-known historical personalities and feel the peculiarity of the inner world of the past”, but for him “the originality of the plot created by the author is also important” (Bakanov, 1987). From lots of well-known facts of his life B. Bainbridge chooses the least known one, that is his complicated and ambiguous relations with Hester Lynch Thrale,2 the wife of a well-known brewer of that time Henry Thrale. In official sources there is little information about the Johnson’s acquaintance with the Thrales in January 1765. When Johnson became almost like a member of their family, Streatham Park became the place where intellectual evenings took place. Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774), David Garrick (1717-1779), James Boswell (17401795), Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) and others were regular visitors of these evenings. Later to show the respect for Johnson, Henry Thrale built the library, containing books, bought on his recommendations, as well as portraits of his well-known friends, painted by Reynolds: “Its design, Sam”, he had said, “will be mine but I depend on you to choose the books on its shelves” (Bainbridge, 2002, 33). Richard Bernstein thought that Bainbridge “has devised a plot in which the history is solid and yet the truth is subjective or, to put it differently, in which the characters experience separate realities” (Bernstein, 2007). The fact of this acquaintance can be considered as biographical since “it did not influence upon his popularity at all, but it was important for his private life, since in their circle he had the brightest and the happiest part of his life” (Scherbakova, 2001). The criterion of the selection of the biographical material, according to G.O. Vinokur, is the following: “to become a biographical fact the historical fact (the event, etc.) must be experienced (italics added) by the person” (Vinokur, 2007). The acquaintance of Johnson with Hester Thrale is a historically recognised fact while close relations are not mentioned anywhere. Writing this biographical novel Bainbridge turned this fact into the biographical. At this point from the novel we choose the correlation of fact-fiction in the epistolary part of the novel. It is well known that introduction of letters in the text of a biographical novel was popular in the 18th century. The most well-known example is a letter in “The Life of Samuel Johnson” (1791) by Boswell. In the genre of “new biography” the document remains the main (and, sometimes, the only) means of creating authenticity and polyphony. L. Ginzburg pointed out that “there is a constant connection among fiction and history, memoirs and biography – so called “human documents” (Ginzburg, 1971). In one of the interview B. Bainbridge confessed that one of the reasons of writing a novel was Queeney’s letter (daughter of Hester Thrale), which she cited in the novel and which ran “our mother’s original and persevering # 896 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… dislike of her children arose from a hatred of our father” (Bainbridge, 2002, 202). Exactly this fact is a reason of the strange relations between Johnson and Hester Thrale. Moreover, according to the novel, Henry Thrale is rather fond of other women. In “According to Queeney” the document (both fictional and authentic) is a part of artistic texture of the novel. On the basis of the novel there are invented by Bainbridge so-called texts “like the document” – letters, written by Hester Thrale’s elder daughter Queeney3 and constantly appearing on pages of the novel with full information about the address, date, the author: “to Miss Laetitia Hawkins, Sion Row, Twickenham, Sept. 21st, 1807 – from H.М. Thrale”, “To Madame d’Arblay, 54 rue Basse, Passe, France, August 4th, 1810 – from H.М. Keith”, etc. The total number of the chapters – seven, the number of letters, written by Queeney, – the same. They are: six letters are correspondence with Miss Laetitia Hawkins 4, one – with Fanny Burney5. Queeney got acquainted with Fanny at one of the parties, given by Doctor Burney. The understanding appeared quickly: “Fanny Burney took an instant liking to Queeney, who, though only fourteen years of age to her twenty-five, appeared quite able to converse on equal terms” (Bainbridge, 198). Miss Hawkins, who wants to become a writer and supposes that “Johnson Circle” written by her, will be popular with the public, begins this correspondence. She tries as hard as possible to get information from Queeney about Johnson’s personality and his milieu. The information given in the letter is of a private nature. So, for instance, in the first letter Queeney recalls “Dr. Johnson dropping to his knees to have a better look on Miss Reynolds’s new shoes” (Bainbridge, 22), and also that he had a hen called Socrates. There is information that his watch, which he left under the pillow, “cost seventeen guineas and was encased in tortoiseshell” (Bainbridge, 133). Queeney writes about Johnson as a remarkable swimmer, which while swimming waves his arms and heaves the waves, and even speaks of particularity of his indigestion: “His preoccupation with orange peel was due to persistent indigestion, a malady brought on by his irregular eating habits; he either fasted or gorged himself” (Bainbridge, 169). From the letter included in the penultimate chapter of the novel which was written by Queeney to Fanny Burney, we learn that Ms. Hawkins asked Burney to recollect the time spent with Johnson. Queeney’s letter is an answer to the letter written by F. Burney, telling that Miss Hawkins asked her to recall time, spent with Johnson. In the letter to Miss Hawkins Queeney’s unwillingness to answer can be felt: “Over the years her letters to me have rained down like autumn leaves, and neither evading her many questions, not a few of them of an impertinent nature, nor ignoring her correspondence has procured the desired result, namely that she let matters rest” (Bainbridge, 200). Answering L. Hawkins to comment on the relations between her mother and Johnson, Queeney gives only one phrase: “ … she needed an audience and he a home” (Bainbridge, 168). Queeney’s correspondence allows us to see, who Johnson was for “others”. The reader sees the reality through Queeney’s subjective perception. It is proved by the fact that often the version of the events recollected by Queeney, contradicts the version given in the previous chapter. In the structure of the novel the letters allow us to see, from a different angle, the Johnson’s character and his inner world, and also serve as the means of the reconstruction Johnson’s psychological portrait (or image) through Queeney’s personal memories. # 897 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… Bainbridge plays with the reader. The created letters give the impression of the authenticity of the correspondence. In the novel, besides made-up letters, there is also a real document – S. Johnson’s letter to H. Thrale. It just the case when “the biographer can use as a subject of a biographical narration only those realities which are definitely (even indirectly) designated, named or testified” (Valevsky, 1995, 38). In the novel that is the correspondence of Johnson with H. Thrale. The suppressed feelings can be seen in the letter (existing letter), written in rough tone, because of her coming marriage. We give both variants of the letter for comparison: the original letter (I) and letter, presented in the novel (II): I Madam: July 2, 1784 If I interpret your letter right, You are ignominiously married, if it is yet undone, let us once talk together. If You have abandoned your children and your religion, God forgive your wickedness; if you have forfeited your Fame, and your country, may your folly do no further mischief. If the last act is yet to do, I, who have loved you, esteemed you, reverenced you, and served you, I who long thought you the first of human kind, entreat that before your fate is irrevocable, I may once more see You. I was, I once was, Madam, most truly yours, SAM. JOHNSON I will come down if you permit it. (emphasis added – T.P.) [The letters of Samuel Johnson, 338]. As we can see there is no significant difference between the letters, but they are not identical. In the letter given in the novel there is no exact date though it is placed in chapter 1780-4. The exact date of the letter is July, 2 (Friday), 1784. There are differences in form of address: in the original letter when writing about H. Thrale he spells the pronoun “You” with small letter while in the second letter it is written with a capital one. This, probably, can be explained, on the one hand, by the grand style of the letter, on the other – by the respect to the addressee. This is also true about the noun “fame”, written in the first letter with small letter, in the second – with a capital one. II Madam, if I interpret your letter right, you are ignominiously married; if it is yet undone, let us once talk together. If you have abandoned your children and your religion, God forgive your wickedness; if you have forfeited your fame and your country, may your folly do no further mischief. If the last act is yet to do, I, who have loved you, esteemed you, reverenced you and served you, I who long thought you the first of human kind, entreat that before your fate is irrevocable, I may once more see you. [Bainbridge, 234 – 235]. There are some reasons to consider that this very letter inspired B. Bainbridge to write a novel, based on Johnson’s relationship with H. Thrale. In our opinion, A.L. Valevsky’s statement here is perfectly relevant. He states that, “the life should become presented in the form of the text (historical evidence, memoirs, some document, archive files, etc.) and then it becomes the subject of the attention of a biographer” (Valevsky, 1995, 39). Also in the second letter two sentences, given in the first one, are missing: “I was, I once was, Madam, most truly yours, SAM. JOHNSON” and “I will come down if you permit it”. This can be explained by the personal will of the writer, who selected authentic material for the novel. Also it can be said that Bainbridge’s novel is neither a scientific, nor academic biography, which demands the scrupulous observation of facts and accuracy of the interpretation. While # 898 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… fictional biography is free from the scientific accuracy (it does not contradict the facts or turns it to fiction). Starting from this very letter, written several months before Johnson’s death, Hester Thrale began a new life and that was the end of her friendship with Johnson. He realised that he had lost the dearest person, and understood how much she had meant to him. This very moment he felt suffering and solitude. This letter is, probably, the only evidence of any relations between Johnson and H. Thrale. It is real. So the peculiarity is the variations of interpretation of this document. D. Zhukov considers that “fiction is justified only in case when there are no other sources of the information, but it must not disagree with the logic of the image” (Zhukov, 1980). So B. Bainbridge does not simply state the fact of their ambiguous relations, but searches for psychological reasons of the behaviour of the character in the first place. Resume Thus, the epistolary part of the novel “According to Queeney” is based on such type of fiction, as “documentary-fiction” (according to classification by N.A. Bugrina). It is illustrated by Queeney’s letters made up by B. Bainbridge to create the impression of their absolute authenticity. The introduction of Johnson’s real letter in the imitation of Queeney’s correspondence strengthens this impression. The letters, especially written by Queeney, enable us to see not only the events of Johnson’s private life, but also to get into his inner world. Thanks to them, we can see entirely different Johnson – in his house, household surroundings, with his drawbacks. The fiction, presented in them, is used by B. Bainbridge to “portray the inner and emotional life of the writer, as his well-known (factual) biography does not always reflect the emotional and psychological life of the person” (Kazantseva, 2004). In the genre of fictional biography the document or the reference to some documentary source is very important. The novel “According to Queeney” is based on real facts and authentic documents, concerning relations between S. Johnson and H. Thrale, not mentioned in the official sources. The document, given above, confirms the fact of these relations and gives authenticity to the narrative. Introducing letters, B. Bainbridge extends the right of the document into the space of artistic text. In this genre some suggestions are possible but they should not be claimed the historical facts. B. Bainbridge “added” relations, connecting two people for twenty years. We think that L. Ginzburg is right stating that: “factual digressions cancel neither authenticity as a structural principle of a novel, nor its cognitive and emotional possibilities. This principle makes the documentary literature documentary; and the aesthetical structure makes it literature (italics supplied). For aesthetic value the selection and creative combination of elements, reflected and transformed are obligatory” (Ginzburg, 1970). In the novel “According to Queeney” B. Bainbridge adds the documentary facts to the real facts with a considerable part of the author’s imagination which is close to reality, subjective, unauthentic. Reconstructing relations of the characters, B. Bainbridge tries to reveal that possible past, which remained unknown on paper. But this past is unknown. Thereby, in the novel “According to Queeney”, B. Bainbridge fills blanks (or “gaps” – a definition by an American researcher P. Kendall) in relations between Johnson and H. Thrale, because there are no documents about some periods. There are some moments in the # 899 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… relationship between Johnson and H. Thrale which are not proved by any documents. In biographies there is always some invention and B. Bainbridge has reconstructed the possible variant of the image of S. Johnson. The harmonious combination of documentary sources with artistic fiction is a bright, genreforming sign in the novel “According to Queeney” by B. Bainbridge, comprising the peculiarities of both fiction and fact literature. The novel “According to Queeney” belongs to a genre of the biographical novel; it is one of the bright examples of modern literary process which V.V. Strukov describes the following way, “the vanishing of the borders between literature 1 2 3 4 5 6 and history. Historical knowledge in the end of the 20th century influences genre features of works of fiction: historical accuracy loses its importance and appeal for postmodernists, it is replaced by imagination» (Strukov, 2000). Liza Picard in The Daily Mail marks that in this novel “Bainbridge is brilliant at combining established fact and compelling fiction, the one deftly underpinning the other”6. Publishing this novel B. Bainbridge again proved that she “is one of the most skilled of contemporary novelists – ruthlessly unsentimental, darkly funny and possessing her own unique vision of the variety and vanity of human nature” (Rennison, 2005). Ref. The Dictionary of the Russian language by S. Ozhegov and Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary on the English Language. Hester Lynch Thrale (born Hester Lynch Salusbury and after her second marriage, Hester Lynch Piozzi) (1741-1821). She has some articles, such as «Anecdotes of the late Samuel Johnson», 1786. Hester Maria Thrale (1764-1857), but then H.M. Keith, after 1808. Laetitia Matilda Hawkins (1760-1835) – John Hawkin’s daughter, who was wtitten biography of S. Johnson (1787). Fanny Burney (then madame d’Arblay) (1752-1840) – doctor Burney’s daughter, author of novels and plays. On the back of the cover. References Y.А. Andreev, “Russian Soviet historical novel (20-30- years)” (Moscow-Leningrad, 1962), 8, in Russian. B. Bainbridge, “According to Queeney” (London: Abacus, 2002). A.G. Bakanov, “English historical novel. Some ideological art problems” in The Literature of England. The 20th century (Kiev: Vishcha school, 1987), 45, in Russian. M. Balina, “Nonfiction Literature: imagination and reality”, Znamya, 1 (2003), 194-195, in Russian. R. Bernstein, “Using Solid Historical Fact to Show Truth’s Fancy», The New York Times, Saturday, September 29, (2001). http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/08/books/books-of-the-times-using-solidhistorical-fact-to-show-truth-s-fancy.html N.A. Bugrina, “Soviet historical prose. Questions of history, typology, poetics”, Synopsis of thesis (Gorkiy, 1986), 10-15, in Russian. M. Hiltl, “According to Queeney”, The Literary Encyclopedia 13 March 2006 http://www.litencyc. com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=12015 L.YA. Ginzburg, “About psychological prose” (Leningrad, 1971), 6, in Russian. L.YA. Ginzburg, “About documental prose and principles of character construction”, Literature questions, 7 (1970), 63-64, in Russian. Pia Brînzeu, “Clare Brant “Eighteenth-Century Letters and British Culture”, The European English Messenger, Vol. 18.1 Spring (2009), 69. # 900 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana A. Poluektova. “Fact-Fiction” as an Epistolary Forming Component of the Novel by B. Bainbridge… A. Livergant, “National prejudice”, Fact or fiction? The anthology: essays, diaries, letters, memoirs, aphorisms of English writers (Мoscow: B.S. G. – Press, 2008), 13, in Russian. N. Rennison, “Beryl Bainbridge”, Contemporary British Novelists (London, New York, 2005), 17. N.А. Solovieva, “England of the 18th century: sense and feeling in artistic mind of the epoch” (Moscow: Formula prava, 2008), 46, in Russian. V.V. Strukov, “Artistic originality of the novels by Peter Ackroyd: (about the problem of the British postmodernism)” (Voronezh, 2000), 25, in Russian. T.V. Scherbakova, “Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) – a writer and literary critic”, Synopsis of thesis (N. Novgorod, 2001), 11, in Russian. The letters of Samuel Johnson. Volume IV. 1782-1784, ed. by Bruce Redford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994). V.Е. Ushakova, “Literary biography as a genre in the works by P. Ackroyd”, Synopsis of thesis (М., 2001), in Russian. A.L. Valevsky, “Biography writing as an art discipline”, People: Biographical almanac, 6 (1995), in Russian. G.О. Vinokur, “Biography and culture”, foreword by V.A. Vinogradov, second edition, corr. and edd. (Moscow, 2007), 37, in Russian. D.А. Zhukov, “Biography of biography: Reflection about genre” (Moscow: Sov. Russia, 1980), in Russian. G.V. Kazantseva, “Biographical novels “Pushkin” and “Lermontov” by V.P. Avenarius: history, theory, genre poetics”, Thesis (Ioshkar Ola, 2004), 33, in Russian. «Факт-вымысел» (fact-fiction) как основа эпистолярной составляющей романа Берил Бейнбридж «Согласно Куини» Т.А. Полуэктова Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 В статье анализируется соотношение вымышленного и документального начал в романе Берил Бейнбридж «Согласно Куини», представляющем собой жанр романизированной биографии. Исследователь анализирует особенности этого соотношения в эпистолярной части романа, занимающей одно из главных мест в повествовательной ткани произведения. Бейнбридж, описывая жизнь героя, опирается на подлинные факты и при этом интерпретирует их согласно своему, авторскому, видению. Ключевые слова: современная английская литература, роман-биография, факт, вымысел, письмо, вариативность истолкования (интерпретация), С. Джонсон, Б. Бейнбридж. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 6 (2011 4) 902-915 ~~~ УДК 13:572 The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov* Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 90 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1 Received 3.06.2011, received in revised form 11.06.2011, accepted 17.06.2011 The article deals with the essence of a person from the point of view of dialectical methodology. The essence is regarded as a unity of three components: biological, social and spiritual. The greatest attention is devoted to the spiritual component of human nature. This is due to the fact that modern humanity is in a state of acute spiritual crisis, to overcome which it is necessary to study properly a phenomenon of spirituality in all its manifestations. The second reason is that from the spiritual side of his/her nature the person influences himself/herself, society and the surrounding. Keywords: human existence, spirituality, individuality, personality, categories, opposition, essence, phenomenon. Objectives: To consider the essence and nature of a person, personality – as a set of social and spiritual, and the essence – as a combination of biological, social and spiritual qualities. Tasks: To analyze the philosophical, psychological and other approaches to understanding and studying personality, to develop a generalized (philosophical and psychological) approach, to show the person’s essence as a complex, dynamic system which consists of three major subsystems, as well as a variety of relationships and connections between them. Methodology: the dialectical method is used, in particular, in the identification and analysis of the conflicting parties and trends (the unity and struggle of the opposites) when considering the bipolar scientific categories. * 1 Discussion: Consideration of the person’s nature as the interaction of not two but three constituent parties does not contradict the dialectical and materialist methodology. It may seem that the categories interrelation scheme in the dialectical tradition must contain only paired categories acting in a contradictory unity with each other. Indeed, in Marxist philosophy it is usual to oppose the following pairs:the individual – the social, the spiritual – the corporal, and the ideal – the material. The second and the third pairs are sometimes identified with each other. However, it should be noted, that the identification of solid and tangible in this case is improperly. The material should be understood as the biosocial, as the social is also the material, as well as the natural. And then contrasting the material – the Corresponding author E-mail address: ATuman-Nikiforov@yandex.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 902 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual spiritual (in this case it just may be identified with the ideal, as the owner of the spirituality is “an ideal subject”, who is by himself in the subject-object relations), we can understand the person’s essence just as a unity of the material and the spiritual, and the material can be treated as a combination of the biological and the social. Then the person’s essence consists in the unity of the biological, the social and the spiritual. But what does the biological mean? What is the social? What is the spiritual? What should be taken as biological aspect of human? Is it possible to equate biological aspect to natural? “Nature” is a really polysemantic word. If human “nature” is considered as conditions, sufficient for his existence and development, it means that in this case, nature should be identified not with biological but with biosocial (spiritual aspects are also involved in human essence, but it is doubtful that spiritual could be referred to natural). However, if “nature” is regarded as: environment (or geographical environment at planet’s scale); complex of natural conditions (social conditions are to be considered as artificial); aggregate object of natural science; as an existence pattern (opposed to social), it means that natural could be equated to biological. In this context, nature should be considered primarily as a complex of physical and chemical reactions. As far as physical and chemical in living forms transform to biological, natural (from the viewpoint of natural science) can be qualified as biological. Biological aspect of human essence involves: biological body, which specifies human’s objective (labor) activity by its design; mortality, dependence on external environment – temperature, air pressure; oxygen concentration; dietary; muscular load, landscape, regimen, susceptability to diseases; biological necessities like energy, oxygen, essential nutrients, water, rest, comfort temperature, desire for having children, protection from external hazards and hostile environment, areal comfort and activity; biological level of human’s mind – irritability, reflexes, instincts, sexuality. All these factors compose biological aspect and every social and mental activity implies these circumstances. What should be referred to social aspect of human and his personality? This question merits detailed consideration because supporters of biosocial interpretation tend to affiliate with social aspect some factors that are going to be included in spiritual aspect. It is rather difficult to separate social from mental just because spirituality as well as personality are forming and developing during the processes of sociogenesis (spirituality of patrimonial man) and socialization (spirituality of individual). Let us recall that interdetermination doesn’t mean equality. Therefore, while analyzing human it is essential to distinguish social and spiritual. From social point of view, human primarily is a member of society that is included in the system of social relations. The social aspect implies many factors like human’s inability to live segregated from society, participation in system of social relations, social correlation with collective actions of individuals as well as community spirit, mutual support, cooperativeness, self-denial, attempts to rebuild society, to eliminate social drawbacks and to create righteous society. In the context of social aspect human acts as a citizen – a member of society. How does the peculiarity of a citizen as an individual with sociality come out? Firstly, a human is presented as a subjected of social relations, which cannot be actualize without becoming a matter of human’s activity by interacting with other members of society. The analysis of relationship among categories as well as human’s role in it is connected with scheme of society analysis. # 903 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual So, social aspect, as opposed to spiritual, means a variety of different social forms of interaction that are shaped into social relations and can finally coincide with a scheme of society. Social man is a sum of social relations, which can be present or former, material or ideal. From this point of view, every socialized individual is a citizen, who exhibits particular characteristics of sociality. Social aspect is manifested in the fact that formation and development of personality is impossible without processes of antroposociogenesis (personality as patrimonial trait) and socialization (individual personality) It is also obvious that personality cannot exist without society, because it is implied in social relations and capable of mutual support, selfdenial, trying to eliminate social drawbacks and to create righteous society. Thus, personality is formed by society and depends on it and its deterministic influence, on the one hand, and on the other hand, it has an impact on society, forms and rebuilds it, makes society dependent on collective actions of individuals. Spiritual aspect is not only an extension (or application) of social aspect, but its dialectical opposition, which has self-sufficient content, importance and value and is equal to any other aspect. What is the difference between social and spiritual in a human? The distinguishing criterion is the following: social features (like sociability or asociality, collectivity or egoism, morality or immorality and so on) could be realized on a desert island as contrasted to spiritual features like rationality , optimism, courage, diligence, creativity, will. What should be referred to spiritual aspect of human personality? Does this spiritual aspect exist apart from social aspect? Or is it right to consider personality as only a social characteristic of individual, as a system of his social relations and roles, which are represented during the process of working activity as well as to regard spiritual as automatic manifestation (continuance, addition) of social aspect? Word “spirituality” also has different meanings. From Christian and Islamic point of view, spirituality means intimacy with the Lord, a permanent correlation between Commandments and human’s deeds and thoughts, an attention and preparation to the afterlife. Hindus and Buddhists believe that spirituality implies observance of different spiritual disciplines, primarily meditative disciplines like Yoga. Religionists would be in doubt about “spirituality of atheists”. However, this word is used by materialistic philosophy. In this context, spirituality is connected with ideal “interior” of a person, including mental characteristics and psychological constitutions. D.S. Tsyvanyuk defines spirituality as “the highest level of personality development and self-supervision, which consideres superior human values as main motivational and conceptual controllers”(Tsyvanyuk, 2009: 334). I.A. Shulgina believes that the most notable definition of spirituality sounds like “Spirituality is a complex of fundamental characteristics of person’s mentality (his soul), which expresses ethic, esthetic, intellectual, cognitive and ecological content that maintains genuinely human in person (principles of humanity) and also helps to overcome earthliness in worldview and culture; the essence of spirituality is made up of Faith, Hope and Charity, Sophia (the Holy Wisdom), Beauty, Justice, Harmony” (Kosichev, Platonov, 1998: 17). From this definition, I. A. Shulgina drew the conclusion that “it is mistake to equate spiritual and rational (in its Scientist interpretation). That is not the same. At the turn of the Millennium, spiritual and rational should be considered as oppositions (Shulgina, 2004: 344). I don’t agree with this point of view. Spiritual and rational (conscious) are not identical, but there is no opposition between this aspects. Rational is a part of spirituality (in # 904 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual a general sense). And spirituality in a narrow sense (implying active, creative, volitional part of human’s mind) is much similar (but not opposed) to rationality and soulness as a part of spirituality. Of course, all this manifestation like creativity, will and so on could also be irrational. However, there is a bond between consciousness and spirit, rational and spiritual. In addition to it, Shulgina notices that “the basis of new spirituality is Love as attitude” (Shulgina, 2004: 344). I can admit that it is true if we use “spirituality” in the widest sense. Love is one of the acmes of soulfulness as an emotional attitude to world, as a reaction (Hate could also be a reaction, but Love is much more productive) to the outside world, other people, respond to himself, to society and nature, Universe and Existence. If this reaction is represented in the form of Love, it could become a basis of Soulfulness as well as Spirituality, just because Soulfulness is a part of Spirituality. E.V. Sennitskaya supposes that spirituality in general terms is an ability to go through different states (Sennitskaya, 2003: 259). In my opinion, this definition is better suited to soulfulness. And spirituality in narrow sense could be described as an ability to exhibit activity and creativity, and in general sense (as a segment of personality) –a person’s inner world, an anthropic, over-bestial elements of mentality, a mental phenomena and processes that couldn’t be traced to biosocial aspects. This definition of “spirituality” is in accordance with the framework of materialism, which interprets “spirituality” in the same way. The only thing that raises doubts is an idea of regarding spiritual as a consequence, a manifestation and a part of social aspect, which is typical of Marxism and different materialistic trends. From my point of view, spirituality is of importance to personality structure and even to its essence, which is completely irreducible to biological and social aspects. Spirituality can be divided to individual and collective. Collective spirituality is connected with a spiritual sphere of social life as well as with unifying spiritual activity, oriented to production of nonmaterial benefits and values of intellectual culture. Individual spirituality is involved with a self talk, a discourse as well as with processes of reflection and self-consciousness, when “a person leaves himself to himself” (Polezhaev, 2004). Spirituality is regarded as the highest, humanistic levels of human’s mind that set it apart from animal’s psychology. It is supposed that there are three levels: perception of reality, emotional response to it and a level of creative activity (connected with creative transformation of reality). First level is associated with consciousness, the second –with a soul and the third one – with spirit. I figure that there are no other levels that distinguish (compose spiritual aspect) human’s mind apart from animal’s psychology and make it (mind) unique. That is why spiritual aspect is revealed as a complex of consciousness, soul and spirit or perception of reality, emotional response to it and dynamic actions towards it. As a follower of dialectic materialism, I don’t want to become suspected of idealism or religiosity while speaking about soul and spirit. However, I think that these two words are not indicative of idealism and religiosity and don’t have only idealistic connotation. According to P.V. Smirnov: “Even if we don’t share religious and mystical concepts of soul, it is still impossible to avoid such concepts as soulfulness or indifference, spiritual riches or soullessness, spiritual culture, enlargement of mind and spirit, spiritual needs. From a perspective of information need’s approach to mental and behavioral analysis, soul and spirituality are realities of human’s inner world, which could be explained by materialism” (Smirnov, 1989: 68). Soviet philosophy tended to refer spirituality to consciousness as well as to consider the # 905 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual latter as social characteristics. “The fact of classifying a concept of spirituality as a part of consciousness has become really specific for the past decades in our country” (Minasyan, 2004: 183). “Consciousness is the highest level of mental activity of human as a social subject” (PED, 1983: 622). From sociological point of view, consciousness is considered as spiritual life of society including all forms like science, philosophy, art, morality, religion, legal awareness, social psychology” (PE, 1970: 43). Confirming relations between social and spiritual characteristics and dependence of spiritual characteristics on processes of socialization (in the context of ontogeny) and sociogenesis (in the terms of phylogeny), I also consider this kind of characteristics not as only invariant of social characteristics (as it is supposed by biosocial conception), but as a dialectic breakthrough, a completely new phenomenon, which, in spite of its connections with social and biological, is completely different from both. Therefore, I consider human essence as an inseparable integration of three aspects: biological, social and spiritual. Spiritual aspect, in its turn, can be regarded as dialectic unity of consciousness, soul and spirit. There were different models of human’s integrity (consisting of three parts) during the history of philosophic thought. Plato believed that human is a controversial unity of body, mind and soul. Christianity (especially Paulicians and Gnostics) distinguished body (flesh, soma, biota), soul (psyche) and spirit (pneumatics). According to L. Feuerbach human is a unity of material, sensual and spiritual (rational and moral) existence. However, the model represented in my study is different from all these models. It is especially different form the second one, my model is extremely materialistic, not idealistic regardless of using traditional idealistic concepts like “soul” and “spirit”. This model is close to biosocial conception, but there is one big difference. Spiritual characteristics are not regarded as invariant of social characteristics, but are believed to be special aspect of human existence. From my point of view, mind (consciousness), soul and spirit that were pointed out by ancient and Christian thoughts are elements of spiritual aspect, which in turn is revealed as a part of human essence. Body (biological aspect) is its second part. But social part as one of the most important aspects wasn’t pointed out by ancient and Christian tradition. Although, Aristotle defined a human as a “political animal”, he didn’t developed this conception. However, the idea was amplified by philosophy of Marxism that pays a lot of attention to analysis of relations between human and social world. N.N. Chomutova wrote: “The ratio of two levels of the human existence – the individual and the social – always brings the researchers to the analysis of the human relationships with the social world”. (Chomutova, 2004: 558). We can agree with this but only with the significant reservations. The juxtaposition of the individual and the social, although it is often found at the philosophical literature – wrongly, as it opposed to the spiritual and the corporal. The corporal should be contrasted with the uncorporal (which can be understood as a set of energy and information flows which are not clearly defined, or physicality. This definition of the uncorporal does not contradict the understanding of the materialist tradition, while the abstract opposition of the spiritual to the corporal has obvious tone of idealism), organic corporeality can be opposed to the inorganic. The individual confronts the collective, but not the social because the latter is a broader concept and is not limited only by the collective of people, but also includes other diverse qualitative manifestations, in particular the individual social (V.V. Mironov, calls it # 906 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual as “the individual properties of the sociality” (Mironov, 2005), A.S. Panarin writes about the social and representational functions of the individual (Panarin, 2002)). Firstly, it is “the society, reflected in a person”, and, secondly, the role and the place of a person in society. In ontological terms of social counters the natural, as a qualitatively different structure of the essence, in socio-axiological terms – antisocial, as the destructive processes and phenomena that lead to the destabilization of the society, to its destruction and death, but in anthropological terms – the spiritual, as the individual inner essence opposed to its external (social) essence. Thus, the human essence has not two but three levels – biological (natural), social and spiritual essence, as well as two sides – individual and collective essence. The analysis of the human relationships with the social researchers world displays, firstly, the ratio of two sides of human existence – individual and collective, and, secondly, the ratio of two levels – spiritual and social human being. The latter is especial because the individual does not fully enters into various relationships with the social, natural world, namely the spiritual aspect of his/her personality, his/her individual consciousness, the individual soul (emotional perception and emotional contact), individual spirit (the creative impact on the surrounding (including the social) world, but is also inextricably linked with willful exposure). In the same source N.N. Chomutov notes that genuine human existence that reflects his uniqueness, his thoughts and feelings – this is the individual being. In my opinion, “an individual being, reflecting the uniqueness of each, his thoughts and feelings” (by N.N. Chomutova) is not necessarily true, just as the collective is not necessarily untrue. The first indicators are quite applicable to A. Hitler and many others (smaller) evildoers, and the second to millions of ordinary Soviet (and not Soviet) people, together with those who built socialism, were involved in industrialization, collectivization, who fought against Adolf Hitler, etc. It is hardly legitimate to recognize the essence of the former as more authentic than the essence of the second. Authenticity or non authenticity of life and human essence is defined not by the individuality or collectivity, uniqueness or typicality, but it is defined by it’s all consistent with what an individual is, what it is for him is “be himself”. For some people it is individualism and even selfishness, and for other people, on the contrary, it is collectivism and altruism. Some tend “to live for themselves” and others, on the contrary, for other people, for society, some tend to stand out, to emphasize their uniqueness, and for other people it is more important “to be like everyone and not to stand out”. When a person realizes in his life what he actually is and that he is close to, it can be characterized as his “true” essence, but when, due to some reasons, he is forced to adapt and conceal “his true face”, it can be characterized as “not true” essence. However, his thoughts and feelings are really important because while pretending to have their words and deeds in his mind he is still “himself”. But here another aspect appears. “True” and “not true” existence can be understood in two senses, and “true” and “not true” being in one more. Every time when we think about the person’s humanity and inhumanity, when we ask: “Is he a person?” or ascertain: “This couldn’t be done by normal people”, – we mean truly human existence as person’s tribute existence, corresponding to how, from our point of view, the person’s behavior and existence should be. Then the existence and activities of Adolf Hitler and alike cannot be called as a truly human existence. However, from this point of view, the person’s true and non true behavior and existence must be determined, again, not by individuality or # 907 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual collectivity, uniqueness or typicality, but how they conform to their fullest expression and disclosure of the nature and person’s essence. The person’s essence should be disclosed in his existence. True person’s existence implies optimal realization of his biological, social and spiritual qualities. And at the same time his thoughts and feelings are very important, not in themselves, but as a manifestation of his spiritual component, without which there cannot be truly human (in the axiological sense) existence. However, spirituality can be multidirectional. Not every spirituality has a direct relationship to a truly human existence, but only the positive oriented spirituality, which carries the strong positive charge, aiming to serve the ideals of goodness, justice, truth, love and beauty, and even more broadly directed for good, not evil deeds, to serve not only his individual goals and interests, but the goals and interests of society and mankind as a whole. Thoughts and feelings (emotions) of a true person as well as his character and will, his activity-creative expression and his biological and social skills should be directed to it. On the one hand the social in a person can be combined with a biological concept of a united term “material in person”. But at the same time, the social and spiritual can be combined to define the unity by the term “personality”. It should be said that the term “personality” was established in philosophy, sociology, psychology and other sciences long ago, but the first thing that immediately catches the eye and wary when you start to get acquainted with the relevant literature on personality – a variety of definitions, with different, sometimes significantly different positions, treating the content of this notion. Here are just some of them (Tuman-Nikiforov, TumanNikiforova, 2008). 1. “Personality – the human individual as a product of social development, the subject of labor, communication and cognition, determined the specific historical conditions of society”, and at the same source: “the concept of personality represents the whole man in the unity of his individual abilities and social functions (roles) carried by him”. 2. “Personality is an everyday and scientific term for the human individual as the subject of relationships and conscious activities (face, in the broadest sense) or a stable system of socially significant features that characterize the individual as a member of a society or community. Although these two concepts as the integrity of the person (Latin persona) and the personality as his social and psychological image (Latin personalitas) – terminology are quite distinguishable, they are sometimes used as synonyms”, and at the same source: “... in general psychology personality often means a core integrating principle which binds various mental processes of the individual that inform his behavior with the necessary consistency and stability.” 3. “Personality – a human being with a multitude of social instincts, the social responsible individual.” 4. “Personality – is the partner of the historical process, one of the five billion people living on the planet Earth (I wonder who is it? It seems, 4999999999 people are not personalities), the holder of the identity”. 5. “Personality – individual focus and expression of social relations, and functions of people, the subject of knowledge and transform of the world, the rights and responsibilities, ethical, aesthetic, and all other social norms”. 6. “Personality – a person taken in their certain aspect as a member of a particular social group”. 7. “Personality – is not just a carrier of specific historical social relations, but the person who has an active influence on them according to their individual abilities and inclinations, # 908 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual consciousness and organized nature, labour and socio-political activity”. 8. “Personality – a multi-dimensional and multi-level system of psychological characteristics that provide the individuality, the temporal and situational stability of the person’s behavior”. 9. “The person acts as a consolidated set of related internal conditions through which all external influences are refracted (these internal conditions also include psychic phenomena – mental properties and states of the personality. The most important psychological component of these internal conditions is the properties of the central nervous system)”. 10. “Focus – the system forming factor of the personality structure”. B.S. Bratus represents the personality as a systematic education, existing in levels, reflecting in each of them in a special way: “the level of existence” – is the level of activities changing each other, “the level of culture” – a level of the values system, “the level of meanings” – it’s a level of dynamical consciousness systems which include the person’s relation to reality (Bratus, 1998). As you can see, there isn’t even a rough consensus in this area. Maybe the personality – is not a scientific term? But in the philosophic encyclopedic dictionary it is clearly indicated that the personality is an“everyday and scientific term” (PED, 1983: 314). Maybe the fact is that, as it is written by L. H’ell D. Ziegler: “The conceptual meaning of the personality is multifaceted – it covers a wide range of internal mental processes which reason features of the person’s behavior in various situations. In dealing with such a complex concept, it is impossible to imagine any of its simple conceptual definition” (H’ell, Ziegler, 1999: 22). The concept “personality” is very complex and broad, it is difficult to define it. However, while the researchers have not found a more or less clear and unambiguous definition which adequately reflects the essence of the personality as a phenomenon and its essence and inner content, it is impossible to continue the research in the direction associated with the personality and his manifestations. The second thing that catches your eye when you begin to study the personality’s problems, the lack of certain integration between different aspects of its study, primarily between the philosophical and social sciences on the one hand and the psychological on the other. In PED the first definition of the term is “everyday and scientific”, but much lower, there is what is meant by a personality in psychology, thereby implicitly separating the psychological concept of personality from scientific (PED, 1983: 314315). In PE the first subsection is “personality in philosophy and sociology”, and then subsection “a personality in psychology” (PE, 1964: 196201, 201-202). Any phenomenon must be studied from different sides, but obviously there must be a synthesis of different approaches, generalization, integration. Philosophy should just act as a link between the sociological, psychological and other aspects of the personality study. There should not be a separate philosophy or the personality philosophical notion. It is good idea to consider a personality from the different aspects, but it should also be understood as something united in the sense of the phenomenon, essence, concepts (definitions). Philosophy is to combine different aspects to consider and study the personality and, hence, these aspects may be relatively independent of each other, but should not be separated from philosophy, from a philosophical approach to the study of personality. But in practice it is not so. In fact, philosophy and sociology are combined into a single philosophical and sociological approach which studies the personality as a social individual in the unity of his social qualities, properties, links, etc., and the psychological approach # 909 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual exists in isolation and interacts weakly with the philosophical and sociological approaches. This suggests one of the following explanations for this: 1) the philosophy, sociology and psychology study some different (minimum two) phenomenon, the term personality is used by them in different meanings and in reference to different phenomena, 2) psychology deals with (at best case) some minor and insignificant researches in this area, the main researches are limited by the philosophical and sociological directions. The first conclusion is in fact confirmed if we look at the first seven of the above definitions, taken from philosophical literature and the last three, taken from the psychological. In psychology, a personality means an integrating principle linking different mental processes of the individual and informing his behavior the necessary stability and in philosophy and sociology – human individual as a subject of public relations and conscious activities, such as social quality of the individual. Integrating understanding of the personality, combining philosophical, sociological and psychological approaches have not been occurred by me. This situation cannot be considered normal. Definition of the personality should reveal the meaning and content of this notion, to emphasize the qualitative differences of personality from all the rest (of the non-personality), the differences which form the personality as it is rather than other phenomena. Most of the above mentioned definitions do not meet these criteria. They list the characteristics inherent to this phenomenon, fix facts reflecting how the personality may appear in certain specific conditions, the result (product) of which it is, on which it depends, etc. But all these facts only characterize one or the other side of the personality, but not the whole personality, not the meaning and content of the concept. Moreover, the meaning and content, must obviously be disclosed with some common positions rather than in isolation from its social and its internal characteristics. If we turn to the personality understanding in modern psychological science and psychological theories of the personality, so there is not any discernible unity in understanding and interpretation of what is the personality and, especially, in understanding and interpretation of the reasons according to which the personality theory must be formed. The same L. H’ell and D. Ziegler separate fifteen directions of the modern personality theory. If even in psychological science there is no common understanding and interpretation of the personality, then, is it possible to find a common understanding by synthesizing philosophical, sociological, psychological and other aspects of its research? Or should we agree that each time speaking about the person, we will definitely specify what one of its numerous meanings we have in mind? One more problem to solve – whether each person is a personality? Some people believe that not, the others claim otherwise. From my point of view, the personality is every person, and since the personality of one person is not identical to the personality of another, complementary concepts that stress this distinction must be understood – “personal identity” and “individual inherent personality”. Thus – “a person in general” should be understood as something general, that is inherent in absolutely all people (and perhaps not only them, if we admit the possible existence of other individuals in space or other dimensions) independently on their individual (including individual- personality) differences; individual (personal) inherent personality (individual personality) – as a single manifestation of general, occurring in a single unique copy only of the individual, personal identity – as a special personality, as a measure of dissimilarity of one person to another. The category of “personal identity” is a “person in # 910 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual general” in its actual, individual embodiment and at the same time, “personal identity” in its unity with the common, i.e., in comparison with other personal personalities. The personal identity includes not only individual manifestations (like individual personality), but also the personality individual features, what exactly stands it out among the other personal personalities and how it is separated. A comparison is possible in both quantitative (smarter, kinder, more active), and qualitative (good – bad, great – not great (void)) aspects. “Nobody is born a personality, a person becomes a personality during the complex process of development, socialization and selfactualization” (Vinogradova, Kazanova, 2004: 133), i.e., in the process of social (socialization) and spiritual (self-actualization) development. G.F. Nikiforova raises the important problem of the uniqueness and the personality universality (Nikiforova, 2004). This problem is solved as follows: the personality universality is that a personality (a set of social and spiritual qualities) is every adult, mentally normal person, in this sense, a personality is a universal, essential quality of a person closely associated not only with the individual, but with “a man in general”; but, at the same time, every individual is a unique personality, different from the personality of other individuals, a unique individual combination of social and spiritual qualities. That is the uniqueness of each individual. The term “personality” itself emphasizes its universality, but in order to emphasize its uniqueness, it is desirable and feasible to introduce some additional terms: “individual personality”, “personal identity”, “personal individual”. The personality is universal, but its concrete, individual embodiment – personal uniqueness (personal identity) – is always unique. However, what makes the personality of each person, and what exactly not have those who cannot be considered a person (children “Mowgli”, for example)? It seems that at the turn of philosophy, sociology and psychology in the psychological and philosophical areas of research a person and his personality, the following understanding of the personality can be formed: the personality – the unity of the two closely related but distinct aspects – the social and spiritual (relatively independent sphere of the spirit, psyche, which does not always fully manifest externally (in public relations, relationships, activities, actions), and has its own mental-emotional being) on the material basis of the biological. The unity of the social and spiritual (just in the person’s personality) is that spirituality is not possible without the processes of socialization, and socially is impossible without social consciousness (which in turn is impossible without individual), and the difference is that social – is social relationships and spirituality – is higher, human layers of the psyche. The social and spiritual divorce as follows: social – is external – the set of links and relationships with other people, society, and spirituality – is inner – the mental-emotional being of the individual. What is traditionally called a personality in philosophy and sociology more correspond the term “citizen”, and what is called personality in psychology – the term “individuality”, a personality in this sense is a combination of both of them. The combination of the citizen and individuality is a set of general and special. The citizen – a combination of all social relations, individuality – is, first and foremost, man’s inner world through which refracts the combination of all external influences (and hence the combination of all social relations). As a result each time it turns out the personal response to them. The phrase “a good citizen” refers to the relationship of the spiritual and social. Conscientiousness refers to spirituality, but if a person consciously strives to be a citizen, his citizenship is formed faster, better and more positive. # 911 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual Generalization of philosophical, sociological and psychological approaches to the study of personality must include the study of the social transition to the level of spiritual (psychological) and spiritual transition to the level of social, their mutual interdependence and determinism. Reduction of the spiritual to the social which is common to certain philosophical trends, including Marxism, lead to random theories of backwardness (by virtue of their social status), the believer, religious peasants and non-believers, anti-religious, conscious (again by virtue of their social status) proletariat. Actually it is not so simple and just social status does not explain the spiritual features of the individual or the whole class, social group, layer, their religion or atheism, belief or unbelief. It should be emphasized that to identify a personality with an individuality and analyze them as the internal, mental-emotional being of the individual, as a set of internal conditions through which all the external influences on an individual are refracted, is common to the modern psychological science. I analyze the personality as a measure of dissimilarity of one individual to another, and this individuality may appear in any of the three aspects of human nature – biological, social and spiritual. It is an inner, spiritual, mental and emotional being of an individual which I term as “intellectual”, “intelligence”. So, the meaning and content of the concept “personality” are disclosed by the understanding of the personality as a unity of “external” (outside social image, social status, social roles and qualities of the individual) and “internal” (what the individual is in fact, an internal “something” (the latter is defined by me as the spirituality), determining the nature of the human interactions with the world). The sociality and spirituality are united in the sense that spirituality does not arise out of the sociality processes, regardless of sociogenesis (the spirituality of the ancestral person) and the processes of socialization and enculturation (the spirituality of the individual), but the sociality is impossible without the social and individual consciousness, without the spiritual spheres of the society, the society itself is impossible without its spiritual component and without consciousness as it is. But the sociality and the spirituality differ in the sense that the sociality – is the “external world” of a man, his relationships with other people, his social properties and relations, and spirituality – is the “inner world” of a man, his thoughts, emotions, desires, etc. (all of them have their own mentalemotional being, not always fully realized and manifested outwardly, in public relations and communications). “Mowgli” children have neither one nor the other, but they are, in our perception, not full human beings not only because they are not included in our society and have no social qualities, but primarily because they do not have spirituality, inward, higher, actually human psyche layers. Of course, their lack of spirituality is explained by the fact that they have not passed the process of socialization, and this once again confirms the idea that the man’s sociality and spirituality exist not separately and not together, but “joint-separated”, i.e. there are two distinct sides, aspects of one phenomenon – the personality. In the man’s nature the biological is in unity with the social and spiritual, and personality – a combination of social and spiritual, biological and it is not at all. Indicating that the biological is the material basis of personality, we draw attention to the fact that personality, at least, the person’s identity is not possible outside the biological body, while at the same time, the foundation is not in the nature and content of the individual, the body belongs to the essence rights, but does not apply to his personality, his citizenship and intelligence. And speaking specifically about the person, we should recognize that a personality # 912 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual as a special phenomenon is one for everybody (no reservations are relevant as long as the term “personality” is used. It does not contain direct reference neither to the person’s personality, nor even to the personality of an individual), but if you want to specify the differences, we should say, firstly, the person’s personality, the alien’s personality, the humanoid’s personality, etc., and, secondly, if you need to identify the individual personality differences of different people, personal differences of the individuals, you can use one of the following terms: “the personality of the individual”, “personal individual”, “individually peculiar personality”, “personal personality”, “personal individuality”, etc. In addition, stressing that the personality is constructed on the basis of biological material, I mean, first of all, it is the person’s personality, which is not possible in isolation from its biological body, but, nevertheless, the body is not a part of the person’s personality, the person’s personality – it is his sociality and spirituality. With regard to the aliens’ personality, it can be constructed on the material basis of not biological, but something else (and even if the biological, this biological may differ significantly from the person’s biological body), but there cannot be the absence of the material basis of the personality, otherwise we will have to acknowledge the correctness not of the materialistic, but of the idealistic and religious understanding of the personality. However, the differences between the material basis point just to the difference of the humans and aliens essence, the personality is identical (if not identical, then it is not a personality but a qualitatively different phenomenon needed to by called by a special term). Thus, a person’s personality is based on the biological, and the spirituality – on the material (biosocial), but just as the biological is not included in the structure of the personality, the same way the biosocial is not a part of the spirituality, as well as the spiritual is not included in the structure of the biosocial (as the supporters of the person’s biosocial conception believe), and has its own mental-emotional being. Results: All the qualities and properties of a person are considered by us as a system consisted of three major subsystems, as well as various relationships and connections between them. When studying a person, it is necessary to consider all these subsystems both individually and in combination, their mutual influence on each other. The greatest attention should be paid to the study of the spiritual component of the person’s nature. This is due to the fact that modern humanity is in a state of the acute spiritual crisis. To overcome the crisis it is necessary to study a phenomenon of the spirituality in all its manifestations and the fact that it is the spiritual side which influences the person himself, society and the surrounding world as a whole. It should be understood how a spiritual component of person influences him, society and the world as a whole (understand that a person as a free acting being can and should make of himself (and not only of himself) himself) in order to optimize this influence to achieve its maximum effectiveness and positivity. References B.S. Bratus, Anomalies of the personality (Moscow: Mysl,1988), in Russian. N.N. Chomutova, ““The true being” of the individual – the social base” in The man in the modern philosophical concepts: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Volgograd, 14-17 September, 2004: in 2 volumes, Vol. 1. (Volgograd: Print, 2004), 558-562, in Russian. L. H’ell and D. Ziegler, Theories of the Personality (The main provisions, research and application) (SPb.: Publishing house “Piter”, 1999), in Russian. # 913 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual A.D. Kosichev and G.V. Platonov, Problem of spirituality in personality, Bulletin of MU. Series 7. Philosophy. 3 (1998). 15-19. L.A. Minasyan, ““Anthropologic arguments” as a part of philosophy fundamental issue solution” in The man in the modern philosophical concepts: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Volgograd, 14-17 September, 2004: in 2 volumes, Vol. 2. (Volgograd: Print, 2004), 180-184, in Russian. V.V. Mironov, Philosophy and metaphysics of the culture (Moscow: Publishing house “Modern notebooks”, 2005), in Russian. G.F. Nikiforova, “Human truth search in the religious philosophy” in The man in the modern philosophical concepts: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Volgograd, 14-17 September, 2004: in 2 volumes, Vol. 2. (Volgograd: Print, 2004), 570-574, in Russian. A.S. Panarin, Temptation be the globalism (Moscow: Press-Eksmo, 2002), in Russian. Philosophic Encyclopedia, Ed. F.V. Konstantinova. Vol. 3. (Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1964), in Russian. Philosophic Encyclopedia, Ed. F.V. Konstantinova. Vol. 5. (Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1970), in Russian. Philosophic Encyclopedic Dictionary, Editor L.F. Il’icheva (Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1983), in Russian. D.V. Polejaev, “Mentality of personality: axiological conceptualization” in The man in the modern philosophical concepts: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Volgograd, 14-17 September, 2004: in 2 volumes, Vol. 2. (Volgograd: Print, 2004), 336-341, in Russian I.A. Shulgina, “Searching for the point of life for modern person and problem of spirituality at the turn of Millennium” in The man in the modern philosophical concepts: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Volgograd, 14-17 September, 2004: in 2 volumes, Vol. 2. (Volgograd: Print, 2004), 342-346, in Russian. P.V. Simonov, “Interdisciplinary conception of human: requiring and informational approach” in Human in scientific paradigm. (Moscow : Science, 1989), 58-73, in Russian. D.S. Tsivanyouk, “Spiritual development as a way of conscious transformation” in Krasnoyarsk territory: yesterday, today and tomorrow: Proceedings of International conference dedicated to 75th anniversary of Krasnoyarsk territory, Krasnoyarsk, 19-21 Novembe, 2009: in 2 volumes, Vol. 2. (Krasnoyarsk: publishing house of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafiev, 2009), 333-335, in Russian. A.A. Tuman-Nikiforov and I.O. Tuman-Nikiforova, Nature and essence of a man (Krasnoyarsk: Publishing house of the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Economics and Trade, 2008), in Russian. N.L.Vinogradova and N.V. Kazanova, “The personality socialization in the gaming communication”, in The man in the modern philosophical concepts: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, Volgograd, 14-17 September, 2004: in 2 volumes, Vol. 2. (Volgograd: Print, 2004), 133-137, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Arkadiy A. Tuman-Nikiforov. The Essence of a Person as the Interaction of Three Components: Biological, Social, Spiritual Сущность человека как взаимодействие трех составляющих: биологической, социальной, духовной А.А. Туман-Никифоров Красноярский государственный аграрный университет Россия 660049, Красноярск, ул. Мира, 90 Статья посвящена рассмотрению сущности человека с позиций диалектической методологии. Сущность рассматривается как единство трёх составляющих: биологической, социальной и духовной. Наибольшее внимание уделяется изучению духовной составляющей сущности человека. Это связано и с тем, что современное человечество находится в состоянии острого духовного кризиса, для преодоления которого необходимо как следует познать феномен духовности во всех её проявлениях, и с тем, что духовной стороной своей сущности человек воздействует на себя самого, на общество и окружающий мир. Ключевые слова: сущность человека, духовность, индивидуальность, категории, противоречие, сущность, феномен.