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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2013 Journal of Siberian Federal University 6 (10) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет: академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов академик РАН И.И. Гительзон академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л. Миронов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л. Пашков чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Шайдуров чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Prof. Dr. Katsuhito Inoue Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School – 1407 – Nicolai P. Parfentiev Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments of Writing XVI$XVII Centuries – 1423 – Csaba Varga Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science Considerations – 1433 – Galina A. Nelaeva The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court – 1443 – Maxim A. Butin Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality Editor-in-Chief Mikhail I. Gladyshev – 1450 – Founding Editor Vladimir I. Kolmakov Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia by the Inhabitants of European Russia in the XIX-th Century Managing Editor Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences Natalia P. Koptseva – 1461 – Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups in the Trainings of Personal Growth – 1471 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 23.10.2013 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,75. Уч.-изд. л. 12,25. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 3425. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershons Breslavs – International Institute of Applied Psychology, Latvia Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor, Novgorod State University Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk State Linguistic University Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal University Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian Federal University Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian Federal University Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor, Siberian Federal University Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Nicolai Petro – Political Science Professor, Rhode Island University, USA Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal University Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian Federal University Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy RAS, Moscow Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member RAS, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian Federal University Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor, Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior Schoolchildren with Different Temperament Trait Index – 1479 – Irina G. Malanchuk Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech and Language Information Processing, at the Oral Statement Producing – 1492 – Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin and Elena N. Belova Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories on the Basis of Serive Centers Net of Kspu Named After V.P. Astavyev is a Possibility for Business-Model œTriple SpiralB by G. Etzkowitz Realization – 1507 – Elena A. Nozdrenko Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society – 1514 – Pavel V. Klachkov Humanitarian Technology: Struggle Strategic Nonviolent – 1526 – Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva and Evgeniya V. Zander Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies in the Arctic Zone possible? – 1544 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1407-1422 ~~~ УДК 140.8(520) Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School Prof. Dr. Katsuhito Inoue* Kansai University Osaka, Japan Received 05.02.2013, received in revised form 10.06.2013, accepted 12.09.2013 The character of modernized Western thought can be thought to consist in the observational view which keeps a distance from things. In contrast, the character of even recent East Asian thought consists in standing within the pure experience in which there is not yet a subject or an object. For example, the Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitarō（西田幾多郎, 1870-1945） often uses the phrase “mono-to natte-mi, mono-to natte-hataraku,(物となって見、物となって働く)” which can be translated as, “Look/see by becoming the thing, work/do by becoming the thing.” This phrase means that one should see from within the thing by going within the thing. That is to say, in distinction from the West’s objectively logical thought, Nishida sought at the root of Eastern thought a thinking that becomes the ‘thing’ completely. In other words, to transcend the self, while standing in the existential world that envelops this self, and to stand on the realized plane wherein things come to appear to the extent that the self is made of nothing. In this sense, Nishida’s standpoint is related to what is called ”ko-wu, chih-chie”（knowledge which reaches all thngs 「格物致知」）in the “Ta-hsüeh”（Great Study『大學）. Hence, with regards to Nishida’s philosophy, we can see that it cannot be thought in terms of a self and world, subject and environment, and other such oppositionally constituted dualisms. Rather, both terms are taken to be none other than contradictory, dialectical, and relational (sōsoku-teki相即的), and are determined ‘topologically’ (basho-teki 場所的). This means that, as opposed to the modern Western way of looking at the world from the side of the self, Nishida’s philosophy tries to look at the self from the side of the world, i.e. from the side of things. To give a much earlier example of Eastern verticality, Cheng Mingdao (程顥1032-1085) advocated what he termed a ‘compassion of heaven and earth as one body（天地一体の仁）． We must pay attention to the fact that humanity is a self-awareness based not on observation but on physiological sense. Before we see the objective world, we come into contact with everything physiologically. Usually we live in pure and direct experience. There is not yet a subject or an object, and knowing and its object are completely unified. This is the most refined type of experience. Zhaolun (僧肇374-414）says in his work Zhaolun 『肇論』, “ Heaven and Earth have a common root. All being and we are one body.” And also Chuang-tzu（荘子）says in Zhuangzi 『荘子』, “Heaven and Earth live with us, everything in the universe is united with us.” Keywords: Nishida Kitarō, the pure experience, the compassion of heaven and earth as one body, NeoConfucianism, The spirit of extension of knowledge and investigation of things, the logic of “immanent transcendence”, the transcendent one, Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana, mirror that reflects itself, the absolute place of nothingness. * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1407 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School Introduction The representative of Japanese philosophy, the philosophy of Kyoto School, has a strong religious color. It has close relationship with Buddhism. In the case of Nishida Kitarō 西田幾 多郎 (1870-1945), it is related to Zen Buddhism, especially Rinzai Zen. While in the case of Tanabe Hajime 田邊 元 (1885-1962), his original thought is developed from the thinking of Dōgen 道元, the founder of Sōtō Buddhism, as well as the idea of absolute other power from Shinran of Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism. As for Nishitani Keiji 西谷啓治 (1900-1990), his position of “emptiness 空” is from Zen Buddhism. One may focus on the individual thoughts and developments of the three thinkers, but there is a common theme. In a sentence, it is the relation of substance 体 and function 用. In other words, it is the “logic of transcendence and immanence.” Precisely speaking, Nishida’s early thought of “pure experience” 純粋経験 is a logic of the transcendent oneness, which later has developed into the “self-determination of the universal” 一 般者の 自覚的限定, “place of absolute nothingness” 絶対無の場所, “absolute contradictory self identity” 絶対矛盾的自己同一 and “ inverse correspondence” 逆対応. It has its root in the logic of substance and function（t’iyung）体用の論理 in Mahayana Buddhism or Neo Confucianism. For Tanabe, his “dialectics of the absolute mediation (absolute conversion)” 絶 対媒介（絶対転換）の 弁証法 is the dynamic relationship between the absolute and the relative. It is nothing but the interpretation of the logic of substance and function in Tanabe’s unique dialectical thinking. Nishitani did not develop philosophical logic in the manner of Nishida or Tanabe, but he tried to overcome the nihilism on the fringe of absolute nothingness, and grasped the position of “emptiness” from the notion of jijimuge （事事無礙、non-obstruction of phenomena） in Kegon（Hua yan） Buddhism（ 華厳仏教,Garland Buddhism. This approach has a deep philosophical thinking, which is influential to many readers. However, the concepts of substance and function are widely discussed in Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana 『大乗起信論』. Two concepts can be traced back to Sengzhao’s 僧 肇 (374-414) analysis of “ tranquil state(寂) ” and function(用)” in his work Zhaolun『肇論』. According to Tong Yongtong 湯用彤, “From Wei Jin to Southern and Northern Dynasties, there are many disputes among Chinese scholars. Being apparently complicated, all of them refer to the concepts of substance and function.” However, it is not clear whether the concepts of substance and function are from Buddhism or Confucianism. According to Shimada Kenji 島田虔次, Christianity is a causal theory (God as the cause and the world as the effect) that the transcendent absolute personal God as the absolute other creates the world ex nihilo; while in Chinese speculative thought there is no transcendent God or Creator, and hence the only possible theory is the fundamental or potential substance and function theory as in the case of Buddhism and the Zhu Zi School 朱子学.1 In this paper, I shall grasp the essence of the philosophical thought from Kyoto School from the view point of the “logic of substance and function” or “logic of transcendent immanence” which is the very ground of Buddhism or Neo Confucianism. However, I shall begin with a brief introduction of the Zhu Zi School, the original of Chinese thinking. The reason is that Nishida Kitarō, who is the founder of Kyoto School, was born in 1870. It should be noticed that the Confucian tradition was influential to the thinkers who were born in early Meiji period and were active in late Meiji period. Confucianism was not only an element in the making of their thoughts, but was rooted in their spiritual life # 1408 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School since youth. At that time, it was not weird to see students reading ancient Chinese texts, even for those who studied in modern school established according to new education system in 1872. What is the world view of the Zhu Zi School that influenced the people in Meiji period or the beginning of Japan’s modernization? I shall explain it in the next section. 1. The Characteristic of the Zhu Zi School and the logic of substance and function (体用の論理) in Eastern metaphysics Zhu Zi School refers to a group of thinkers such as Zhou Lianxi 周濂溪(1017-1073), Cheng Mingdao 程明道 (1032-1085), Cheng Yi-chuan 程伊川 (1033-1170) and Zhu Xi 朱熹 (11301200) in Song Dynasty. It is also known as NeoConfucianism. Confucianism used to be an important element in political ethics, but it was a condemned after the death of Confucius. In Qin Dynasty, there was a period of burning of the books and burying of the scholars焚書坑儒. Later in Han Dynasty Confucianism was overpowered by Lao Zi’s and Zhuang Zi’s teaching (老荘思想), while in the Six Dynasty it was further mixed by Daoist and Buddhist thoughts. Neo Confucianism or the Song School was an attempt to revive the weakened local traditional thought in Confucianism in a systematic way. Based on the natural philosophy of I Ching 『易経』, it developed a cosmology from the theory of Yin Yang Five Elements 陰 陽五行説. It also formed a practical ethics from the Four Books, i.e., The Great Learning『大学』 （Ta-hsüeh）, The Doctrine of the Mean『中庸』 (Chung-yung), The Analects 『論語』 （Un-yü) and The Book of Mencius『孟子』(Meng Tzu). However, it also combined the popular Zen 禅 and Hua yan Buddhism 華厳教学as well as the philosophy of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, which developed into a speculative metaphysical system. The Song School emphasized the moral normative of human relationship such as the Five Virtues 五常(humanity仁 ren , justice義 xi, propriety礼 li, wisdom智 zhi, and confidence 信xin) and the Five Relationships五倫 (between ruler and subject君臣, father and son父子, elder and younger brother長幼, husband and wife夫婦, friends朋友). The foundation of this thinking lies in the idea the “Heaven and Earth are of same root, and all beings are one body.天地与我同根、 万物与我一体” . Human world and natural world are formed by the same principle, therefore the grounds of moral laws can be found in natural laws. Therefore, the ethical task for human being is to remove the greediness and desires of one self, and to become one with the Heaven and Earth. One may say the characteristic of this school is to provide ground for human ethics from the Heaven or natural law. The essence of the moral norms of human society is from the law of the Heaven. (1) An Explanation of the Diagram of the Great Ultimate In Zhu Zi School, the ultimate reality of the universe is grasped as “infinity and ultimate (Wuji er Taiji, 無極而太極),” influenced by Zhou Lianxi’s 周濂溪 An Explanation of the Diagram of the Great Ultimate『太極図説』(Taiji tushuo). In other words, the ultimate reality has no form, sound or odor. As an infinity, the taiji 太極 brings the qi 気 that makes the movement of yin 陰 and yang 陽 possible. Moreover, the self movement of qi 気 combines the five elements 五 行 (tree 木, fire 火, earth 土. metal 金 and water 水), creating all beings. Zhu Xi understands taiji as li, which is essentially different from qi. The relationship between li and qi can be rendered as “first li and then qi 理先気後 (lixian qihou),” which is an irreversible ontological relationship. This idea can be traced back to Cheng Yi-chuan’s 程伊川 philosophy of “xing ji li 性即理.” Zhu Zi School suggests a theory of life for all the beings # 1409 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School of the universe, here Zhu Xi follows Cheng Yichuan in understanding that the transcendent li is “static 静.” The mainstream of Zhu Zi School emphasizes a static li, which gives rise to “seriousness居敬（jujing）.” It is a theory about the potentiality of motion. Therefore, static is not an absence of motion; rather, it is an ultimate static that includes the motion. It can be understood as persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole empire was made tranquil and happy (平天下ping tianxia) .3 Of above the ideas, the teaching of personal cultivation, family regulation, state politics “static in motion 動中の静” or “motion in static 静中の動.” and world peace require a way restricting one’s own desires and developing concentrically into the sphere of the community. This way builds a sense of responsibility towards the public sphere for the feudal class in Japan. It should be noticed that Zhu Zi School is the origin of moral consciousness to the West introduced as “bushidō 武士道.” Japanese in Meiji Period (including Nishida himself) follows this tradition. In “The Goal of Good Conduct” (part 3, chapter 12) of Zen no Kenkyū善の研究, Nishida suggests “Personality, which is both the unifying power of consciousness and the unifying power of reality, is first actualized in individuals,” and explains the idea of “developing oneself, and hence the (2) Four Books（四書）: Emphasis on The Great Learning（『大学』） In Neo-Confucianism, The Great Learning is regarded as the Written Legacy (遺書) of Kong zi (孔子Confucius) . He says that the kernel ideas are the three principles and the eight items. What the Great Learning teaches, is to illustrate illustrious virtue明明徳（ming mingde）; to revovate the people新民（xinmin）; and to rest in the highest excellence止至善（zhi zhishan).” The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the empire, first ordered well their own States（治国zhiguo）. Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families（斉家qijia）. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons（修身xiushen）. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts（ 正心zhengxin）. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts（ 誠意chengyi）. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge（格物 gewu） lay in the investigation of things（致知 zhizhi). Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their family, the nation and the whole world” in the following way: Fundamentally, the center of the self is not limited to the interior of the individual: the self of a mother is found in her child, and the self of a loyal subject is found in the monarch. As one’s personality becomes greater, the demands of the self become increasingly social. Such social consciousness consists of various levels. The smallest and most immediate is the family, which is the first level at which one’s personality develops in society. [...] The development of social consciousness is not limited to the small group of the family. Our mental and physical life can develop in all of the various social groups. At the new level beyond the family, the nation unifies the entirety of our conscious activity and oppresses a single personality. [...] The essence of the nation is the expression of the communal # 1410 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School consciousness that constitutes the foundation of our minds. In the context of the nation, we can accomplish a great development of personality; the nation is a unified personality, and the systems and laws of the nation are expressions of the will of this communal consciousness. [...] At present, the nation is the greatest expression of unified communal consciousness. But the expression of our personality cannot stop there—it demands something greater: a social union that includes all humankind.4 This is a well known fact that in Zhu Zi School, the morality of ethics community criticizes radically the anarchical “world-renunciation 出 家主義” in Buddhism and “anti-civilizationalism 反文明主義” in the Daoist notion of “non-acting nature 無為自然（wuwei ziran）.” (3) Seriousness (居敬jujing) and ultimate Knowing (窮理qioangli) As mentioned above, the ethical principle of Neo-Confucianism begins from the Cheng Yi-chuan’s notion of “xing is li.” Hsing becomes li when it is internalized in the individual being. It has two contradictory elements, namely the nature of inborn (本然之性, Benranzhixing) and the nature of disposition (気 質之性, Qizhizhixing ). The ethical task of human being is to rectify the nature of character and to return to nature of inborn, which is the origin of the good. In other words, it is the idea of removing the desire that can be found in “manifesting the clear character” in The Great Learning, as well as the Neo-Confucian idea of respect. According to Zhu Xi, nature of inborn is in the state of “nondeveloped 未発(Weifa ).” This non-developed state can be traced back to “potentiality 未発の中 (Weifazhizhong )” in The Doctrine of the Mean. It is the absolute and static state of the mean, in which the human passion of happiness, anger, sadness and joy is not expressed. One may recall Nishida’s poem: “Inside my mind is a profound deep ground that the wave of happiness and sadness do not stir.” The deep ground or mind is nothing but the transcendent mind of the absolute static non-developed state before any passion in Neo-Confucianism and Cheng Yi-chuan. When motion beings in the non-developed state, it becomes developed, and hence one can express the passions. In other words, “Seriousness 居敬” is to suppress the mind of developed and awaken the mind of non-developed 未発. Zhu Xi tries to study the li inside each being, as he writes, “even a grass or an insect has li.” (『朱子語類』巻十 五,〔Zhuzi yulei , Classified Conversations of Master Zhu Xi〕, Vol.15) It is the idea of “seeing a thing by having a thing,” or the essence-intuition of thing before a subjective way of seeing, and to become one with the cosmic life. This way of seeing can reveal the authentic nature of the self. This is nothing but the so-called knowing or investigation of things in The Great Learning. This teaching of Zhu Xi discusses simultaneously seriousness and knowing as the way for the sage. It presupposes the ultimate unity of the li of mind and the li of thing. (4) The spirit of investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent (格物致知gewu zhizhi） The spirit of investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent lies in the inquiry of li within a thing. Zhu Xi says; The meaning of the expression, “The perfecting of knowledge depends on the investigation of things, “is this: If we wish to carry our knowledge to the utmost, we must investigate the principles of all things we come into contact with, for the intelligent mind of man is certainly formed to know, and there is not a single thing in which its principles do not inhere. But so long as all principles are not investigated, man’s knowledge is incomplete. On this account, # 1411 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School the Learning for Adults, at the outset of its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles, and pursue his investigation of them, till he reaches the extreme point. After exerting himself in this way for a long time, he will suddenly find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended, and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is called the perfection of knowledge.5 One may find that it has common ground as in modern empirical science. Theoretically, we can say that Zhu Zi School has many elements of a preparatory study of natural science based on the method of modern induction. In fact, the position of Zhu Xi ’s extension of knowledge and investigation of things brings fruitful outcomes to researches in Japan such as Kaibara Ekiken 貝原益軒(1630-1714)’s Studies of Japanese Herbs 大和本草, and Miyazaki Yasusada 宮崎安貞 (1623-1697)’s Encyclopedia of Agriculture 農学全書. The study of western th th science in Japan in 18 -19 century is based on Zhu Xi ’s extension of knowledge and investigation of things , as in the case middle Edo thinkers such as Yamagata Bantō 山片蟠 桃 (1748-1821) and Sakuma Shōzan 佐久間象山 (1811-1864). This is an important point that Zhu Zi School contributed Japan’s modernization. As is suggested by Lu Xiangshan 陸象山 (1139-1193), “All the matters in the universe are included in Confucianism.” As is mentioned above, Nishida uses expressions in his last years such as “approaching the intrinsic nature or substance of a thing 物 の真実に行く”, “Thinking and acting not from the subjective self but from the viewpoint of things 何処までも物となって 考え、物となって 行う”, “The self is lighted up by the objective things 自己が客観に照らされる.” All these expressions are related to the essence of scientific spirit. Nishida calls his position of “to become a thing” as “radical objectivism.”6 This can also be traced back to the position of “knowing and investigation of things,” which is the maxim of Zhu Zi School. In fact, Nishida quotes Zhu Xi ’s infamous commentary of The Great Learning in “Poiesis and Praxis,” collected in Philosophical Essays (vol. 4). He adds, “What I meant by 格物 is to follow Zhu Xi , that is mono ni itaru 物に格 る. ( It means that the man turns the thing itself. He regards all things and self as one body. To him there is nothing that is not himself. He recognizes all things as himself). The authentic objective action is from this starting point.”7 (5) Li-qi dualism (理先気後lixian qihou, first li then qi) and its criticism The relationship between li and qi is regarded as “first li then qi.” This is a criticism to the speculative nature of Zhu Xi’s emphasis of the transcendence of li in his “li monism.” In other words, li is not the transcendent being of all the phenomena; rather, it is only the acquiring of li 摂 理 in phenomenon（理一分殊liyi fenzhu）. It is impossible to distinguish between li and qi. This idea can be found in Lu Xiangshan’s thought , as th well as in Ming Dynasty (16 Century) thinkers such as Luo-Qinshun (羅欽順1465-1547) and Wang Yang-ming (王陽明1472-1528)’s criticism against Zhu Zi School . They do not agree the Zhu Zi’s metaphysics of li, and propose a philosophy of qi that emphasizes qi. The orthodox teaching in Tokugawa period in Japan was Zhu Zi School, but it was against a transcendent ultimate principle. In this sense, it is closer to the philosophy of qi. The original thinking of Japan in “thing-ism 即物 主義” can be traced back to this source. Wang Yang-ming was not satisfied with the doctrine of extension of knowledge and # 1412 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School investigation of things of Zhu Zi School, he followed the path of Lu Xiangshan to criticize Zhu Xi’s position of “性即理xing ji li” and proposed “心即理xin ji li.” His focus is on “conscience 良 知 (liang zhi, awareness 覚),” which is the nature of human mind. His understanding of extension of knowledge and investigation of things is no longer Zhu Zi’s investigation of things 格物, but realizing the conscience 致良知(zhi liang zhi ). While Zhu Zi emphasizes meditation by seiza 静坐（sitting- meditation）, Wang focuses on unification of knowing and action 知行合一 (zhixing heyi ) and training with things 事上磨 錬(shishang molian ). However, the position of li-monism of Zhu Zi School suggests the transcendent li is participated in all beings. It becomes the idea of “the differentiation of li as one principle 理 一分殊” that all beings can have li when their own particular self is uncovered. This can be found in the popular “Kanhua Chan 看話禅” of Sung Dynasty as well as the influential notion of “li shi wu ai理事無礙 (non-obstruction of the nouminal principle and the phenomenal aspects） and shi shi wu ai事事無礙 (non –obstruction of the each phenomenal aspects）” in Hua Yan’s teaching華厳教学. These are all related to the logic of “substance and function.” In other words, the logic of “immanent transcendence 内在的超 越” The concepts of substance and function can be traced back to Zhu Zi (『中庸章句』Zhongyong zhangju , Ch. 1 ): “The big entity is the body of the Way; the Way can be approached only through the Way.” It can also be found in the following (『朱 子語類』Zhuzi yulei , 1:1): “For yin yang(陰陽), function is in yang while substance is yin. Motion and motionless have no beginning; yin and yang have no starting point.” It is suggested that nature 性 is substance 体, feeling 情 is function 用. As mentioned, the original idea of substancefunction (or essence-function) was in Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana『大乗起信論』, which is widely discussed in Buddhist philosophy. Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana is th th said to be written by Aśvaghoṣa in 5 or 6 century, and was translated by Paramartha. The book is usually regarded as a philosophical text of Chinese Mahayana Buddhism, since the original Sanskrit text is absent. The so-called thinking of ru lai zang 如来蔵(tathāgata-garbha, the Buddhahood in a living being) is rendered as zchen yu sui yuan 真如随縁（following condition of the true Thusness or the ultimate reality）, and the relationship of substance (体,t’i) and function(用, yung) is analogically regarded as the causal relationship between water and wave. Substance is the basis and the self, while function is a derivative of substance and its action. It is a relationship between the original being and its function, substance and its phenomenon. Causal relationship is regarded as the inseparability of cause and effect, for cause and effect are like two separate things such as wind and wave. However, the relationship between substance and function is characterized as the “unity of substance and function” or “substance is nothing but function, function is nothing but substance 体即用、用即体.” Unlike wind and wave, the substance and function cannot be conceived separately. Water can have appearances such as big wave or small wave, but the water itself (or moisture 湿) maintains this self identity which transcends the form of wave. In another way, we can say that water (substance) has the function of moistening other brings. Water is no longer water when it misses the act of moistening. The self-ness of water lies in the fact that it keeps its self identity by moistening other but not moistening itself. As long as water does not moisten water, it becomes water that moistens other beings. The substance keeps the self identity as “a unifying being” that unites all the other beings. In this way, substance has # 1413 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School a relationship with function called “not one not different 非一非 異,” and it remains itself as a transcendent being. Hence, as water is not separable from wave, the transcendence is not an external transcendence 外在的超越, but an immanent transcendence. This transcendence is immanent in all phenomena, which keeps the self identity as being and self develops as function (action 働き). This is actually the systematic development of the transcendent one 超越的一なるもの. It explains why the logic of substance and function is an “immanent transcendence.” 2. Characteristic of Nishida’s Philosophy: The logic of transcendence and immanence (内在と超越の論理) The central question of Nishida’s philosophy in all phrases is the problem of the “ultimate reality 真実在.” In his maiden work The Inquiry of the Good『善の研究』 (1911), he discussed the notion of “pure experience 純粋経 験,” which is regarded as the true reality itself or the moment of approaching the true reality. By pure experience, it is the consciousness that “The moment of seeing a color or hearing a sound, for example, is prior not only to the thought that the color or sound is the activity of an external object or that one is sensing it, but also to the judgment of what the color or sound might be.” It is the consciousness of the present without subject or object: “There is not yet a subject or an object, and knowing and its object are completely unified.”8 This primary consciousness is the sole reality that develops itself from the state of the implicit to that of the explicit.9 Pure experience, with the contents of the activity of the true reality, further differentiates from the original state without subject or object 主客未分 into thinking or reflection. It is the process of deepening the pure experience, which keeps an ever-developing unity of one-ness. With the notion of pure experience, Nishida tries to account for the unity of the consciousness in direct experience, as well as the unity of intellect-emotion-will 知情意. It comes to a transcendent character in the following way: “Over time I came to realize that it is not that experience exists because there is an individual, but that an individual exists because there is experience. I thus arrived at the idea that experience is more fundamental than individual differences, and in this way I was able to avoid solipsism.”10 The idea of the systematic development of the “unifying being” with a transcendent character has its very root in Zhu Zi School that discusses li as the origin of all beings in “the differentiation of li as one principle 理一分殊,” and the Hua Yan teaching(華厳教学) of “li shi wu ai（理事無礙） and shi shi wu ai(事事無礙)” that was influential to Zhu Zi School as well as the popular “Kanhua Chan(看話禅)” in Sung Dynasty. As mentioned, the very essence of this idea is the logic of substance and function（体用,t’i-yung）, in other words, the logic of “immanent transcendence.” The idea of “systematic development of the transcendent one principle,” which is the essence of Nishida’s philosophical thinking, is based on the logic of substance and function or the logic of “immanent transcendence（内在的超越）”,in other words, “infinity inside the finite.” In this way, this is an idea covering Chinese Buddhist philosophy as well as Sung metaphysics. Through his study of Western philosophy, Nishida tried to clarify the logic of substance and function or the Eastern way of thinking. We should notice that his logic of substance and function focus on the transcendence of the “immanent transcendence.” The transcendent character of Nishida’s philosophy can be found in his philosophical position established in his early career: “the self has a self in oneself transcending the self 自己は自己を超えたものに於て自己をも # 1414 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School つ.” The most fundamental character of Nishida’s philosophy is the intentionality towards the “transcendent being 超越的な もの.” As is well known, Nishida develops the position of pure experience to the position of the self-awareness 自覚, and later comes to the position of “place of the absolute nothingness 絶対無の場所.” This process of development is related to his “logical” investigation, and he elaborates the position of the dialectical universal 弁証法的一般者 in a concrete way. Finally, the position of pure experience is directed as the idea of acting intuition 行為的直観, his final position explains life in the world of historical reality in a direct way. Nonetheless, this process of development of Nishida’s philosophy has a consistent ground in “the determination of the self awareness of the dialectical universal 弁証法的一般者の自覚的 限定.” This can be explained as the deepening of the self awareness to the reality of the real self through the media of absolute negation 絶対否 定を媒介とした実在の実在自身への 自覚の深 まり.” In other words, the world of absolute reality is seen as the radical movement of a selfawakening system that the self reflects in itself. To know the true reality, we cannot know from the outside. The infinity of the reality is the deep infinite self awakening. This is how the reality knows the reality, or the reality deepens into the infinity of the ground of the reality itself, or the self-awakence of the ultimate reality itself (実在 の実在的自覚). Following this way of thinking, Nishida realizes at the ground of the self-awakening of ．．．． the reality, there is the act of seeing 見るもの. Later, his thought is to focus on this act. This is also a deepening of the reality, which cannot be reached by mere reflection. That is to see without the seeing subject, where the self turns the “place of absolute nothingness” . In the place of nothingness an individual thing is no longer the objective hypokeimenon specialized by the subjective self. Here, each individual thing is truly as it is. Such as-it-is-ness, that is, the true Thusness is based on the place of absolute nothingness. Nishida often compares it to the “mirror” , where all things are nothing but the reflected images .11 However, the most fascinating and suggestive of Nishida’s uses of the metaphor have to do with an idea of a “ self-enlightening mirror（自 ら照らす鏡）” to probe the philosophical ground of self-illumination（自己返照）. As Nishida emphasizes, we should notice that the place of nothingness is merely the identity of the self that reflects the image of the self in itself; and the mirror is “a mirror that reflects the self.”12 In other words, all individual things are images that are reflected in the mirror, but the mirror itself is not the reflected image. Nevertheless the mirror has an action of self- reflection that reflects itself infinitely. Such an original action unfolds prior to the representation of things. In Zen-Buddhism such a mirror is dubbed “ a clear mirror 明鏡”. What is in the mind of Nishida is exactly this structure of mirror that reflects the things, where the mirror itself has an action reverting the self. Nishida uses the expression “mirror that reflects itself（自己自身を照らす鏡） ” It is not a mirror that reflects other things on itself infinitely, but a mirror that reflects itself prior to reflecting all other things on itself. In other words, the mirror deepens itself into the very ground, and always reflects itself through returning to the self. As mentioned above, the mirror is becoming clear before the representation of things. In this sense, the clear mirror as such is an active development that breaks down the static, fixed self, and returns to the focus of the continuity of an infinite reflection. This focal point is the axis to develop the self.”13 # 1415 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School Furthermore, this clear mirror remains clear by always reflecting itself and returning to the self. The returning to the mirror itself is nothing but the self determination of the absolute present, in this absolute other is the transcendent 超越的 なもの. This becomes clear when it touches the problem of religion. 3. Logic of absolute media （絶対媒介の 論理）in Tanabe Hajime(田辺元): Critique of Nishida’s philosophy which the present presents the present 現在が現 在を現在化させてゆく. The present is becoming the present 現在から現在へ, in which the flow is not a running (流動) but a vertical movement（湧 出） like a spring. Or it is compared to a whirlpool. This center is not seen, but everything springs out from the center and at the same time everything is sucked into the center. We can also say that with this reverting movement 遡及動 向 towards the invisible center, the back spring 逆流的湧出 becomes possible. While there is a continuous spring of the present, there is also the action of a never-ending hidden reversion 覆蔵 的帰滅. In this sense, the mirror which deepens On the transcendence of the notion of absolute nothingness, Tanabe Hajime radically criticizes Nishida by the position of the dialectics of absolute conversion 絶対転換. For Tanabe, Nishida’s notion of absolute nothingness returns to the absolute sphere, where the relatively limitedness of human being is neglected. The relative becomes the absolute under a continuous identity, which is a static absolute one seen by the acting medium externally. In other words, the relative is subsumed by the place or the itself into the very ground, and always reflects itself and returns to the self is, so to speak, “an eternal darkness 永遠の闇”. It follows that the mirror reflecting itself is the mirror as such. The “self identity自己同一” in Nishida’s expression of “absolutely contradictory self identity絶対矛 盾的自己同一” is the absolute hindrance of the hiding self. The total oneness of the place, where the representation of the manyness of things as manyness of things is possible, is the hidden total oneness. “One is one 一即一” or one becomes one can only be possible when it is disappearing from the one and self hiding. The disappearing qua spring 還滅即湧出 of the oneness of one, or the “non-self self identity 即非的自己同一” is what Nishida means by “seeing without seeing subject 見るものなくして見るもの” or “reflecting the self in itself with the self becomes nothingness 自ら無にして自己の中に自己を映すもの.” It is precisely the true reality of the “place of absolute nothingness 絶対無の場所.” The absolute hindrance, which is the absolute negation of self contradiction, of self identity is the “absolute other 絶対の他.” Without doubt, subsuming totality. This static one is a product of metaphysical contemplation. In order to explain all entities, Nishida’s position of the logic of soku（ 即） is nothing but a genetic mysticism, which is non-dialectical and ideological. It ends with a kind of intuitionism. Now what is the position of absolute conversion held by Tanabe? According to Tanabe, dialectical thinking is not merely the direct state of intuition that transcends logic. Rather, it is nothing but the development of negation qua affirmation 否定 即肯定 of logic as a dynamic ground. Through negation the self deepens to its ground. To return to this ground is not to return the static ground of identity, but to deepen oneself to the groundless ground 無底の根源, in which static and dynamic become one 動静一如. The self is only a relative medium. If there is a ground of identity to be reached, it is not a transcendent one, but a mere relative another one. In other words, the transcendence is based on the medium of the absolute negation（絶対否定） of the relative. For Tanabe, the absolute becomes a transcendent medium through the medium as the # 1416 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School presentation of the absolute. It is impossible for the absolute and the relative to become one body. These two consist in the inter-mediation(相互媒 介) . It does not mean making the relative as an absolute medium. The relative being preserving relative, the absolute keeps the transcendent being. The absolute is always an ultimate being. This outer realm of the medium should not be an intuited absolute. However, this relative unity of the absolute and relative can be a faith in religion. In religion, the faith in the transcendent and the proof of the internal become one in ethical conducts. It sets up the transcendence qua immanence.14 From Tanabe’s position of absolute medium 絶 対媒介の立場, Nishida’s philosophy is criticized as a non-mediated intuitionism. This criticism is, however, based on Tanabe’s misunderstanding. Tanabe would suggest Nishida’s philosophy as a logic of the unmediated “soku 即,” but this is not Nishida’s standpoint. Rather, the standpoint of Nishida is the logic of “soku-hi 即非” that focuses on absolute negation. Nishida and Tanabe have different approaches to this “soku-hi” thought. Tanabe emphasizes on the self-negating conversion of the absolute 絶対の自己否定的転 換. This can be regarded as the absoluteness of the absolute in contrast to a relative medium. In contrast with Tanabe’s dialectic thought, Nishida will suggest a discontinuous continuity of “soku( 即)” . Nishida emphasizes not the inter-mediation (相互媒介) of the absolute and the relative, but the outer-mediation, that is, the “absolute qua (soku) the absolute – qua(soku) – the relative qua(soku) the relative.” In other words, the absolute keeps itself as the infinite being, and at the same time, the relative keeps itself as the finite being, and in this way these two being are combined in unity. Nishida calls such a discontinuous continuity “the absolute contradictory self identity(絶対矛 盾的自己同一). We can regard such a self identity, so to speak, the transcendent absoluteness of the absolute as the returning movement into the itself. Nishida might have noticed Tanabe’s criticism, and he proposed the idea of “inverse correspondence（逆対応）” in his late year as a response. This notion can be found in his last essay “Logic of place and religious worldview” (1945), in which the neglected theme of religion is under investigation. Here, the “absolute contradictory self identity,” a dialectical ontological structure expressed in a rather abstract way, is rendered as an ontological relational structure hidden in the place between the absolute and the individual self. It is now freshly expressed as a logic. In short, this is the love of God that embraces the self facing away from God, and the compassion of the 如来 that receives the desires 煩悩 of the sinful self. This is the paradoxical situation, in which the isolation between the individual self and the absolute becomes one in a deep reality. This situation, as quoted by Nishida, can be found in Monk Daito’s words: “Separated by an eternity, yet not separated even an instant; face to face the whole day, yet not face even an instant 億劫相別、而須臾不離、尽日相対、而刹那不 対.”15 Nishida interprets these words as “words from mortals,” but I shall put it in the following way: They are seen from the perspective of the absolute. It means an internal direction for the absolute towards the relative in self negation, and an absolute irreversible self hindrance 絶対 に翻らぬ自己覆蔵性, which is transcendent in nature. In the case of inverse correspondence, it is not merely the relationship between the individual existence and the absolute, but in the ground of this relationship lies the reversed self of the absolute that realizes the relationship. In the analogy of the mirror, it is the movement of the self reflecting mirror. The place reflects the place itself in a return to the self, which is a radical movement of disappearing qua spring. According to Nishida, # 1417 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School As the self negation of the absolute, God is inversely correspondingly to himself and in himself including the absolute self negation. Thus, it is a being determined by himself. He is an absolute being because he is also the absolute nothingness. Being is from nothingness; he is omniscient and omnipotent.16 Here, the notion of “inverse correspondence” is merely “to oneself.” The self-spring of the absolute, in which the absolute will always be the absolute, is simultaneously, a return to the absolute self in the reverse direction of the spring. The “inverse correspondence” of the absolute self is creative action, in which the absolute becomes the relative in self-negating reversing. The expression “The Buddha is in all beings, all beings are Buddha” is an example of such logic of “inverse correspondence.” We should be aware of this multilayer structure of the logic of inverse correspondence. The reversed covering of the absolute self of the absolute is an autonomous hierarchy自体 的順序, which is prior to the self-awakening hierarchy of the individual existence. As a result, the relationship of inverse correspondence of the absolute and the individual self has the structure of “irreversible.” What is irreversible is that the immanence transcendence is a transcendent immanence; the transcendence will always be transcendent. The conflict between God and human being is an inverse correspondence. Thus, our so-called religious heart is not from ourselves, but from the calling or action of God or Buddha. It is the origin of our own selves.17 From Nishida’s words above, it shows clearly why the “inverse correspondence” is irreversible. In brief, Nishida does not have in his mind the relation of the relative as in Tanabe; rather, Nishida’s concern is on the relation of the absolute self. It is clear that in the reverse movement of the self negation of the absolute self, the absolute becomes the absolute. In other words, he focuses on sokuhi-self-identity, which is the condition of the reversing of the oneself of the absolute one, is one qua one, totality qua totality, absolute qua absolute. He reckons that this sokuhi-self-identity is the movement of the self-hindrance of the absolute. It is right to say even Tanabe sees the absolute negative turn of the absolute that is the movement of the absolute self to be called as the “revisit qua outflow” of the absolute. However, Tanabe keeps his direction to grasp it as the mediated correspondence of the relative. Nishida puts the relation of relatives into blankets, and sees the dynamic of the dimension of the absolute self isolated from the relative. If the absolute and the relative is a relationship of non-soku non-ri 不即不離, Tanabe’s absolute converse 絶対転 換 of the inter-media shows the aspect of non-ri 不離, while Nishida’s focus is on the aspect of non-soku 不即. The absolute contradictory self identity is not a inter-mediated “response 対応,” but a “reverse response逆対応. ” As seen in the quotation above, the reverse response is before the relation between the absolute and the individual self, but the relation to the absolute self of the absolute. Tanabe sees the relational reversing of the absolute and the relative, while Nishida sees both sides of the irreversible that is the reversing of the absolute self of the absolute, or the absolute hindrance of the absolute. We can say Nishida sees its ontological primacy over the reversing of the relative. For the relative (thing) to be a relative (thing), the absolute has to be absolute. The clear mirror is clear, such as that things show as they are. Nishida mentions “all being are Buddha, the Buddha is in all beings.”18 It does not mean the reversible relationship of the relative media of the beings and the Buddha, but the independent identity of the beings and the Buddha, or the absolute transcendence of the Buddha over the # 1418 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School beings. That is, beings can be beings only if the Buddha is a (transcendent) Buddha. We should bear in mind this expression of the irreversible relation 不可逆的関係. 4. “Emptiness 空” in Nishitani Keiji: Logic of jijimuge 事事無礙 based on passion 情意 I shall also mention the case of Nishitani Keiji.19 His philosophy is based on Nishida’s philosophy, but through a subjective and existential understanding he deepens the logic of “逆対 応” by associating it to kegon thought 華厳思想 （the thought of Garland）. Nishitani enlightens from his self awakening of the groundlessness of ground of existence, and from practicing Zen under the influence of Nishida. Standing on the fringe of absolute nothingness, he promotes the idea of “overcoming nihilism through nihilism.” Unlike Nishida and Tanabe, who developed their own systematic philosophies, Nishitani’s deep and insightful thinking gains support from Japan as well as in Europe. The starting point of Nishitani’s philosophy is “emptiness 空” based on Zen experience, but the logic of his philosophy is rooted in kegon philosophy. He investigates into the ground of Nishida’s logic of “逆対応,” but explains the above-mentioned non-one and nondifference 非一 非異 relation of the absolute and relative by the ideas of interpenetration 回互 and non-interpenetration 不回互, and develops kegon’s notion of “one as many, many as one,” as well as the logic of “rijimuge理事無礙” and “jijimuge事事無礙.” Kegon school has its root in hokkaiengi 法界縁起. Before dealing with Nishitani’s philosophy, we shall briefly explain the philosophy of kegon. The first monk who focuses on the hokkai 法界（Dharma- realm） of kegon is the First Patriarch Tu-Shan 杜順 (557-640), but the Fourth Patriarch Cheng Guan 澄観 (738-839) was the first one who systematized it as four hokkai（Dharma- realm）. Cheng Guan clarified the relationship between “isshin 一心（one mind）” or the self clear heart, and the real existence of all things in a systematical way. The four hokkai are: 1) jihokkai 事法界（the realm of phenomena）, 2) rihokkai 理法界（the realm of noumenal principle）, 3) rijimuge hokkai 理事無礙法界（the realm of the non-obstruction of noumenal principle and phenomenal aspects ） and 4) jijimuge hokkai 事 々無礙法界（the realm of the non-obstruction of each phenomenal aspects）. First, the ji of jihokai is the actually existence or all beings. The individual things maintain their own nature and difference. The next rihokai focuses on li 理（Principle） the opposite of ji事(phenomena). There are notions such as rihō 理法（the noumenal truth） or ritai 理体（the noumenal substance）, or rishō 理性 （the noumenal principle）. However, li should not be misunderstood as the noumenon realm opposite to the phenomenal realm, or actual realm opposite to the ideal realm. All beings with engi 縁起(pratītya-samutpāda , coming into existence by depending on other things ）are determined by the rihō (principle) of engi. They do not have the ground of their being, and hence they are mujisyō 無自性（non-self nature）. In rihokkai, the manbō 万法（all beings） is conceived as mujisyō or emptiness. Furthermore, the third “rijimuge hokkai” explains the sōsokuenyū 相即円融 （Pronounced enyū; ‘perfect and fused together’ ; said of the reality-principle established in the Tendai and Kegon sects that all existences are in themselves perfect and interfused.）relationship between the phenomena of ji （phenomena） and the shinnyo真如（the true thusness, the ultimate reality）as ritai 理体としての真如（the true ultimate reality as noumenal substance）. All causal laws are in jihokkai if seen from the position of phenomenon, and they are in rihokai if seen from the position of mujisyō or emptiness. They are not two separate worlds, but two faces of one thing. When jihokkai and rihokkai # 1419 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School are combined together as one, the individual things and emptiness become one. In the fi nal realm of “jijimuge hokkai,” things in the world are independent yet maintain a harmony. Things exist as individual entities, but they do not prevent the existence of the other. They coexist by knowing their limits. This is the unique philosophy of enyū 円融, yūzū 融通, muge 無礙 in kegon. How can we understand further this deep philosophy of the relationship of the enyū of things? In Mahāyāna Buddhism, there is a notion that “human beings and dharma are empty 人法 倶空.” I (subjective self) and dharma (objective being) are all empty. It shows that all dharma are empty. In other words, the causality that things are empty is at the same time as the emptiness awaken when the subjectivity of the subject becomes self-less 無我. It brings the following question: what is the structure of moment in the presentation of enyu, when I and the dharma are empty? The logic of engi（縁起） is not the same as the formal logic of identity. The formal logic of identity is the logic of the objective world. The logic of the world of engi is the logic that breaks down the logic of the standpoint of objectivity, or the formal logic of identity. This logic can be found in “emptiness is form; form is emptiness” or “one is many, many is one.” Why this logic is emphasized in Mahāyāna Buddhism? It is because it stands and thinks from destroying the position of subject-object dichotomy. It is a way of expression when all objective thoughts such as thing, man, self are destroyed, it comes the standpoint of a “self” cannot be objectified. Here all the beings are no longer objects 対象 or objectified thing 客体 from my perspective. Things exist as they are. We see the beings as being; we see the shinnyo 真如 directly. For example, Nishitani suggests the notion of the “realistic awakening of reality, that is, realization of ultimate reality実在の実在的自 覚.” It is the standpoint of yuishiki mukyo 唯識 無境 in Yuishiku School. In case we know our own self, it is a reflective act in which the self is objectified. It is to know thing by projecting oneself to the plane of consciousness. Here, there are the knowing I and the known I. The known I in reflection is not the I as such, but a I objectified 対象化 and ideated 観 念化. The authentic I is the I at present, a subject as such who reflects and sees the objectified I. To grasp the present I as such is not to objectify the subject and reflect on it, but to intuit the living self as such. It is to return to the state before reflection or differentiating. The differentiation of subject and object in pure experience is the “nondiscriminating wisdom 無分別智” in yuishiki唯 識(Weishi). As firstly explained by Vasubandhu 世親 in his work Vimshatika『唯識二十論』, the yui 唯of yuishiki means to negate any object 境. There is no such thing as objectified object. To know there is no such object is yuishiki. However, even in yuishiki there is a knowing subject who realizes one’s self. In this sense, knowing 識 has the nature of non-knowing 非識. To put it another way, knowing has its object in presenting oneself. It becomes one with this object in nothingness. Knowing does not objectify the object; rather, knowing becomes the object and knows the object. It is to know the object as it is, in which object has the nature of non-knowing. Becoming the object, it does not mean object is the subject facing the position, but to know the object from within the object. Alternatively, the object is known without being objectified by the subject. It is a matter of self-knowing or self-awakening of the object. Here, the object is presented as it is, and it becomes the object of “yuishiki mukyō 唯識無境.” Meanwhile, it also becomes “yuikyō mushiki 唯境無識.” That is, to see the thing as it is. Even in beings such as grass, tree, insect or fish, there is a reality of the self that cannot be # 1420 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School (ultimate reality). Emptiness, jissō and shinnyo are synonyms. In Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra『 般若経』, there is an expression of “form is emptiness（色即是空）; emptiness is form（空 即是色）.” According to the wisdom of Prajna, jisso and shinnyo are not objects. They are nothing but themselves. For such a wisdom, to know jissō and shinnyo is to know itself. A wisdom and jissō are one body. For the wisdom truth is revealed as it is. Every being becomes emptiness, while the nature is revealed as it is. This is the meaning of “Emptiness is no different from form; form is no different from emptiness 色不異空,空不異色.” Precisely speaking, “emptiness” acts by encompassing the all being of “form” in absolute nothingness, while it reveals the authentic nature of the all being of “form.” Beside, this simultaneity is a feeling of self identity arising from the place where subject and object are not differentiated. Emptiness is therefore not a mere void; rather, it is a fundamental act that all beings projected to their original place. “Emptiness” is absolute nothing is a sense that all beings are absorbed by the absolute nothingness in itself, but it is an open act that has never ends infi nitely. Here, the self identity of absorbing and opening should be to know itself is, so to speak, for the jisso to know itself. In other words, it is the “realistic self-awakening of the reality.” In Mahāyāna Buddhism, it is the “double emptiness of human being and dharma(人法二空).” Here, to know and being known is the same. Reality as the notion of soku in “Emptiness is form; form is emptiness.” Nishitani calls this position of “kū 空 and soku 即” as “free opened space 自由な開 け.” He emphasizes the openness of the world of poetic image, or “the emptiness as passion 情意 としての空”, which is before logical thinking. objectified. The wisdom of the yuishiki mukyō as yuikyō mushiki is the “hannyaharamitsu 般若波 羅密,” or the wisdom of Prajna. The notion of “emptiness” means the absence of all object 対象. Meanwhile, it refers to the wisdom of the absence of object. This wisdom is the wisdom of knowing the essence of thing without objectification, which means jissō 実相（true reality） or shinnyo 真如 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Tang, Yongtong,『漢魏兩晉南北朝佛敎史上冊』Kan-gi-ryōshin-nanbokucyō bukkyōshi jōsatsu, Zhonghua Publisher, 1955, p.333; Shimada Kenji島田虔次,「体用の歴史に寄せて(Tai-yū no rekishi ni yosete)」 『中国思想史の研 究』.Cyūgokusisōshi no kenkyū, Kyōto University Press, 2002, p. 303. Shimada Kenji,『朱子学と陽明学』Shushigaku to Yōmegaku,(The Zhu Zi School and the Wang Yang-ming School), Iwanami Shinsho, 1985, p. 5. Translation by James Legge : The Original Chinese Texts of The Work of Laou-Tsze, The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean with their Japanese Translations & Notes, 『英和双訳 老子・大学・中庸』, 二三子堂書店 , 1933 『西田幾多郎全集』第1巻, Nishida-kitarō Zensyū（NKZ）Vol. 1: 129-130. Iwanami Syoten Translation by James Legge, op.cit. NKZ 9: 19. NKZ 9: 230. NKZ 1: 9. NKZ 1: 52, 22, 48. NKZ 1: 23-24. NKZ 3: 429. Ibid. NKZ 10: 320. Tanabe Hajime,『正法眼蔵の哲学私観』 Syōbō Genzō no tetsugaku-shikan. 『田邊元全集』第五巻, Tanabe Hajime Zenshū, Vol. 5. 筑摩書房 Chikuma Shobō, 1963. NKZ 10: 317, 325. 662. NKZ 10: 316 NKZ 10: 325 NKZ 10: 316 Nishitani’s major works include What is Religion 『宗教とは何か』and Position of Zen『禅の立場』. His collected works (26 vols.) are published by Sōbunsha 創文社. Nishitani Keiji Chosakushū, Vol. 10, & Vol. 11, Sōbunsha, 1987. 『西谷啓治著作 集』第10巻, 第11巻. In this paper, I will only introduce his philosophical thoughts instead of mentioning all his works. # 1421 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Prof. Dr..Katsuhito Inoue. Characteristics of Eastern Thought and the Philosophy of Kyoto School 20 See, Nishitani’s important paper, “空と即（Kū to Soku）”. Nishitani Keiji Chosakushū, Vol. 13, Sōbunsha, 1987.『西谷啓 治著作集』第13巻. 創文社 Восточное мировоззрение и философия школы Киото Профессор Кацухито Иноуэ Кансайский университет (Осака, Япония) Может показаться, что современное западное мышление заключается в философии наблюдения, которая характеризуется сохранением дистанции по отношению к вещам. Прямо противоположным является мировоззрение Восточной Азии, которое заключается в чистом опыте, где нет разделения на субъект и объект. Например, японский философ Нисида Китаро（西田幾多郎, 1870-1945) часто использует фразу «mono-to natte-mi, mono-to nattehataraku,(物となって見、物となって働く)», которую можно перевести как «Смотри, становясь вещью; работай, становясь вещью». Смысл фразы заключается в том, что для того, чтобы увидеть мир чужими глазами, необходимо проникнуть внутрь такого смотрящего. То есть в отличие от западного объективного логического мышления Нисида искал в основе восточной мысли философию полного становления «вещью». Другими словами, чтобы выйти за пределы своего «я», находясь в реальном мире, который окружает это «я», необходимо переместиться в реализованную плоскость, где становится понятно, что «я» сделано из ничего. В этом смысле точка зрения Нисиды связана с так называемым ”ko-wu, chihchie”(знанием, которое постигает все вещи「格物致知」) в “Ta-hsüeh”（Великое учение『大 學』）. Таким образом, ссылаясь на философию Нисиды, мы можем увидеть, что невозможно рассуждать, противопоставляя друг другу собственное «я» и мир, субъект и окружение и аналогичные противоположные друг другу дуализмы. Скорее, оба понятия рассматриваются не иначе, как противоречащие друг другу, диалектические и относительные ( sōsoku-teki相即 的) и определяются «топологически» (basho-teki 場所的). Это значит, что противоположно тому, как западный взгляд на мир рассматривает мир отдельно от личности, в философии Нисиды личность рассматривается с точки зрения мира, т.е. глазами вещей. В качестве более раннего примера, демонстрирующего восточную вертикальность, Чэн Миндао (程顥1032-1085) пропагандировал то, что он называл «небо и земля в одном теле»（天 地一体の仁）． Необходимо обратить внимание на тот факт, что осмысление человечеством себя основано не на наблюдениях, а на физиологических чувствах. Прежде чем мы смотрим на объективный мир, мы вступаем с ним в контакт физиологически. Обычно мы живем с чистым и прямым опытом. Еще нет деления на субъект и объект, а знание и его объект абсолютно едины. Это самый чистый вид опыта. Чжаолунь (僧肇374-414）в своей работе Чжаолунь 『肇論』 говорит, «Небо и Земля имеют одно происхождение. Все мы существуем и являемся частью одного целого». Так же рассуждает Чжуан-цзы（荘子）в Чжуан-цзы『荘子』, «Небо и Земля сосуществуют в нас, все, что есть во Вселенной, связано с нами». Ключевые слова: Нисида Китаро, чистый опыт, небо и земля в одном теле, неоконфуцианство, дух расширения знаний и исследования вещей, логика постоянной трансцендентности, трансцендентное, пробуждение веры в махаяну, зеркало, которое отражает себя, абсолютное место небытия. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1423-1432 ~~~ УДК 78.01 (470) Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments of Writing XVI–XVII Centuries Nicolai P. Parfentiev* Southern-Ural State University, 76 Lenin’s, Cheliabinsk, 454080 Russia Received 14.02.2013, received in revised form 02.06.2013, accepted 17.09.2013 Sources indicate that Feodor Krest’ianin was one of the most outstanding representatives of professional musical art of Russia XVI – the beginnings XVII centuries. It is no mere chance that the Russian tsars, starting from Ivan the Terrible, entrusted him with teaching and looking after their singing diaki, members of the Sovereign’s court choir. Records made by one of the singers (Anonymous Diak) can reveal the very essence of Feodor Krest’ianin’s mastery of creating his own chants and “razvods” (explanations by writing simple neumatic signs the melody lines of complicated ciphered (closely code) neuma formulae inscriptions) in terms of canonical art as well as it can allow to present some of the didascalos’ teaching techniques. Active work to create razvods of compound neumes, formulas and «the wise lines» is a special kind of creativity and the emerging theory of individual authorship. Without the restoration of a theory and its application in the analysis of author’sabout chants it is impossible to get correct conclusions about the originality of the works of leading great masters of Russian medieval music. The article describes a method of reconstruction of such theory and presenting it in the form of musical ABC of Feodor Krest’ianin. Keywords: medieval music, ancient (old) Russian musical – written chanting art, data on theory and activity of chanting masters, author’s creativity, Feodor Krest’ianin. Work is executed at financial supported The Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund, project №13-04-00077. Historical conditions in Russia of XVI century have prepared growth in a society of interest to creativity of musical – written chanting art’s masters. Ancient historical writings, musical theoretical treatises, remarks accompanying the chants in the chanting manuscripts show, that the special aura of reverence surrounded the name of Moscow master Feodor Krest’ianin. Studying of this composer’s (raspevschik’s) and teacher’s (didaskal’s) life and activity show, that he was * one of the most outstanding representatives of professional – musical art of Russia XVI – the beginnings XVII centuries (Parfentiev, 2009, 403-414). Here we will focus on consideration of his creative activity as didaskal (theorist, teacher), reflected in the old manuscripts. Among the narrative sources one cannot but mention «Foreword, from which and from what time the beginning was of eight-echoes chanting in our Russian ground». From this historical © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1423 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… writing we get to know Feodor Krest’ianin’s early life. These data can be characterized by high authenticity as far as they can be proved by other sources, even some documental ones. “The Foreword” says that Krest’ianin “told his pupils that in Novgorod the Great there were old masters Sava Rogov and his brother Vasily”. The outstanding Savva Rogov’s pupils are Feodor Krestyanin, Ivan Nos and Stephan Golysh. “Ioann Nos and priest Feodor Krest’ianin lived during Ivan the Terrible’s reign and even in his favorite village in Aleksandrova Sloboda”. The same source reads that later Krest’ianin “was here, in the reigning city of Moscow, and sang znamenny chant and taught others to do it and his work is still glorious” (RNB. Q.1.1101, 201). Feodor Krest’ianin’s entire creative life was connected with the best Russian masters of chant art – the tsar’s singing diaki. When the court moved to Moscow Krest’ianin starts his service in the Tsar’s court Blagoveschensky Cathedral. Being a priest and a chant master who had a good command of chant art he also starts teaching the tsar’s singers. During a long period he created chants for this choir and taught young singers. His authority of a singer and a didascalos was enormous among the diaki, he was called the teacher, the master. At the court his common nickname “Krest’ianin” (Peasant) was replaced by “the Christian” definition common to all Christians. The character of Feodor Krest’ianin’s activities can be traced by the extant chants and their fragments made by one of the singers (Anonymous Diak), they contain rather extensive comments. These records are in Russian State Archives of Ancient Acts (RGADA). The records date back to 1598–1607 and cover the final period of the master’s life. This work can reveal the very essence of Feodor Krest’ianin’s mastery of creating his own chants and “razvods” (explanations by writing simple signs the melody lines of complicated ciphered or so-named closely coded neuma formulae inscriptions) as well as it can allow to present some of the didascalos’ teaching techniques. The most part of their life the singing diaki were likely to spend at the court. There was existed a special “singing chamber” where the diaki stayed during their free time. In this chamber the singers had a rest and continued their work enlarging their repertoire, copying chant books and studying the chanting with their master’s help. Here they were given food and drinks, here they were preparing state chanting manuscripts (books). As far as teaching young singers of chant art is concerned it was done in a different place with the participation of the most experienced singing diaki. (Parfentiev, 1991, 103). Most probably Feodor Krest’ianin’s duties included not only teaching young singers but also assistance and guidance in various activities of the choir. For this reason the master supervised the diaki’s writing in their special copybooks (RGADA. Holding 188. Inv.1. №1573, 86, 161, 165, 220, 365, 366). Here Krest’janin worked together with the most experienced singing diak who himself could be called a master. The above mentioned records of the Anonymous Diak convey a lively atmosphere that reigned in the singing chambers. Let us have a look at some days from Krest’ianin’s life as a teacher or didascalos. November, 27, 1598. Under the direction of Feodor Krest’ianin the diaki were working at znamenny chants for mastering complicated formulae as well as special master signs, that were common in the community of the singing diaki at that time and specified the pitch of the neumatic signs (low, high, higher etc) and some nuances in the melodic development of the chant (rapidly, loudly, steadily, lightly, quietly etc). As an example the end of the doxastikon “Dushepoleznuiu sovershivshe chetverodesiatnitsu” of the eighth mode was # 1424 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… performed – the line «Prihodya vo imya Gospodne tsar Izrailevo» – with an extensive inner syllabic singing of the last word consisting of 59 neumatic signs. The Anonymous Diak quotes the master who told his pupils then: “This fita is loud-voice” (RGADA. Holding 188. Inv.1. №1576, 1). The doxastikon was usually performed on Lazarus’ Saturday, on the eve of Palm Sunday, on the sixth week of the Great Lent, – i.e. in spring. Its performance in November was done apparently for the sake of training. Close study of old chant books brings us to the conclusion that copies of the doxastikon with razvod’s appeared only in the beginning of the 17th century. Earlier chants had another fixation in the form of a sequence of concise complicated encrypted (closely coded) neuma formulas. Singing and teaching practice forced the didascaloi to impart not only oral skills of singing these difficult melodic formulae but also writing skills of copying their razvods (explanations) in chant books. The author’s peculiarities of these writing razvods were greatly appreciated not only by pupils and therefore they became one of the leading artistic principles of the “raspevshiks” (old-Russian chant composerssingers) (Parfentieva 1997: 21 et al.). The chant versions of the doxastikon which have the author’s peculiarities, various interpretations of razvods appeared in Feodor Krest’ianin’s time. Note that while the melodic content of all variants of the final line was different from the «Krest’ianin» version. This gives us reason to believe that the master showed the court singers his own formula (so-named fita) razvod. The diaki were likely to sing two gospel sticherons as well right after the singing of the doxastikon on that very day, November, 27, 1598 – the 5th and the 10th ones (the 5th and the 6th modes respectively). Both chants are recorded in great detail. It is a well-known fact that Feodor Krest’ianin is the author of one of the musical versions of “The Gospel Sticherons” stylized as the Bolshoy (Great ) Znamenny Chant (Brazhnikov, 1974). That is why there arises the question whether the singing diaki were performing Feodor Krest’ianin’s variants of sticherons. The comparative analysis of the record published by M. V. Brazhnikov (the so-called Krest’ianin’s interpretation in recording of the 17th century) with the records of the Anonymous Diak (the 5th and the 10th sticherons of 1598) shows that both variants present one and the same razvod formulae structure of the chant. Krest’ianin’s version here is characterized by unique peculiarities that variety within some formula. The nature of those differences with the earlier variant of the Anonymous Diak still points at the fact that both variants belong to the same chant school. They are likely to present different stages of the author’s version of chanting “The Gospel Hymns”. Thus, in 1598 the singing diaki practiced various formulae and specific neumes of the 5th and 6th modes on the basis of “The Gospel Hymns”, which were created with the help of Feodor Krest’ianin (otherwise – by him solely). There is another example of March 21, 1600. On this day in connection with the upcoming Easter Feodor Krest’ianin performed the Hymn to the Theotokos «Shine, shine, New Jerusalem». The Anonymous Diak recorded this chant with the comment: “Krest’ianin sang on March 21, 1600 (RGADA. Holding 188. Inv.1. №1585: 1). Unfortunately, it is not clear whether Krest’ianin performed his own version. Thus, we get the following. While preparing for the Easter celebrations Krest’ianin and the Anonymous Diak specified the chant of the Hymn to the Theotokos. For its performance they chose a complicated melismatic singing in the style of Demestvenny Chant written in usual znamenny (not demestvenny) neumatic notation. The # 1425 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… Anonymous Diak compared it with the earlier version of Krest’ianin’s chant and made one more revised variant which was to be followed by the pupils «on the advice» of the master Krest’ianin himself (Parfentjev and Parfentjeva, 2006, 108109). It should be noted that the text of the hymn to the Theotokos had numerous musical versions in different styles and notations. Such abundance of versions points at the specific attitude of the chanters to the performance of this chant on Easter and the creative freedom, as well. The Anonymous Diak’s variants are quite scarce. We can see that on the whole it is one and the same variant which was quite popular among the singing diaki and belonged to the tradition of the tsar’s choir (this fact does not exclude Feodor Krest’ianin’s authorship either who has worked here for decades under five Tsars). Thanks to the draft copies of the manual made by the Anonymous Diak we can assume that he was a professional singing diak, a true successor of Feodor Krest’ianin. His knowledge was very deep, his methods of teaching combined theory and practice. In his manual the Diak presents the razvods basing on the text edited under Krest’ianin’s direction. At the same time the Anonymous Diak acts as an artistic person and allows some deviations from the main text which results in the diversity inside the formula razvods. This slight diversity points at the vitality of singing practice and reflects the endless creative search of the musical theoretical thought. It lies in the framework of Krest’ianin’s tradition which serves the basis of the tsar’s choir activities. (Parfentjev and Parfentjeva, 2006). During his lifetime Feodor Krest’ianin was known not only as a renowned master and teacher but also as an outstanding musical theorist. Teaching the tsar’s singing diaki and mastering his art, Krest’ianin started as many other didascaloi to create and write his own lengthy musical razvods (explanations, instructions which must indicate a melodic movement) of the elaborate and compound neumatic ciphered formula inscriptions. The ability to understand the musical meaning of ciphered neumatic formulae was an obligatory requirement for the masters who teach. In exceptional cases special reference books were formed. M. V. Brazhnikov in the manuscript of the first half of the 17th century found a document “Fity razvodnye, Krest’ianin’s variant” which comprised razvods of formulae (popevkas, litsos and fitas) made by the outstanding singer for some chant books (RNB. Pogodin № 1925, 183–194; Brazhnikov, 1974). Some variants made by Feodor Krest’ianin can be found in reference sections of various chant books of the 17th century. The master’s professional erudition was based first of all on his ability to restore by heart and write by simple neumes the melody of a great amount of formulae. This formula fund made up the author’s ABC which reflected the theoretical basics of his creative work. Studying the great master’s works is impossible without mastering all the peculiarities of his formulae razvods. That is why starting to investigate Feodor Krest’ianin’s legacy one should bring together all his authorship formulae razvods found in different sources, define their peculiarities and compare them with the same formulae interpretations of other masters. These peculiarities obtained with the help of the formula analysis should be taken into account while attributing, analyzing and deciphering Feodor Krest’ianin’s chants. The author’s chanting ABC book – the collection of neumes, popevkas, litsos, fitas, etc as well as “the wise lines” – should serve the main tool of this analytical work. Feodor Krest’ianin’s ABC book of the Znamenny chant presents the most extensive collection of melodic formulae. It was restored on the basis of the 17th century manuscripts # 1426 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… –reference books, including the master’s “Fitnik” and his author versions of chants. The structure of this ABC follows the composition of the oldRussian chant references of the 17th century and is formed according to the ascending principle of theoretical knowledge — popevkas, litsos, fitas. In each part of the ABC the formulae are grouped according to their mode – “glas”. Each separate formula in ABC is given in one column in the form of the ciphered specific inscription in another – in the form of its razvod-explanation. Where it is possible the razvod is deciphered and transcribed into the modern linear notation. The ABC is accompanied by the index of sources for each of the formulae. Thus, the main collection of Feodor Krest’ianin’s “popevkas” in ABC is based on the profound theoretical treatise of the early 1670-s “Notification for those who wish to study chanting” written by Alexander Mezenets (Alexander Mezenets, 1996). A number of other “popevkas” is reconstructed on the basis of chants in the master’s variant (Parfentieva 1997: 230–234). However, besides “popevkas”, Feodor Krest’ianin created his own razvods for litsos and fitas formulae. The above-mentioned reference book “Fity rozvodnye, Krest’ianin’s interpretation” includes the fitas from the Octoechos, Festive collection of sticherons, Hirmologion, Gospel sticherons, etc. At the same time this reference book contains “litso” formulae. All in all there are 35 of them. Besides this theoretical manual the rich material on the litso formulae reconstruction of Feodor Krest’ianin’s ABC book is contained in the chant doxastikons “Vo vertepo voselilsya” and “ Davyd provosglasy” and the cycle “The Gospel Sticherons”. The method of determining the uniqueness of the formulae and complex neumes author’s razvods which with a high probability allow to consider these razvods as specific features of the creative master, whose name is indicated by work, was developed by N.V.Parfent’eva. Thus, not only theoretical reference book of Krest’anin, but his works of authorship provided material for the reconstruction of the ABC section of litso formulae. (Parfentjeva, 1997, 230-250). In accordance with the tradition of compiling old-Russian musical theoretical manuals the fita list also finishes Feodor Krest’ianin’s ABC. It is common knowledge that fita and litso formulae are similar phenomena that is why the reconstruction method can be the same. This section is supplemented by the list of fita formulae from “The Fitnik” made by Feodor Krest’ianin. The analysis of fita formulae from Feodor Krest’ianin’s “Fitnik” brought N. V. Parfentieva to the conclusion concerning the theoretical base of fita structure in general. It was proved that the razvod (interpretation) of fita was “made up of separate blocks, the chanter while writing it was working not on the separated neumes level, but on the level of block constructions”, that the compositions of all fitas under analysis are compound and that the razvods-interpretations of different fitas may coincide on the block level (Parfentieva 1 subsequently 990, 137–138; Parfentiev and Parfentieva, 1993, 239 etc.). The same results were obtained subsequently by Z. M. Gusseinova (Guseinova 2001, 144). It should be noted that this method of reconstructing the ABC as a theoretical base of the master’s creative work demands close study and precise following the verbal text of original. This circumstance is of high importance here, as it allows to define the borders of formula razvods-interpretations in a proper way and excludes all possible mistakes. It becomes even more significant during the fita reconstruction. One more technique which allows to restore and define formula borders is the comparison of these formulae razvods with analogous formulae razvods in the chants to which they refer. The sources prove that old-Russian chanters while # 1427 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… compiling their reference books took the formulae from the chants and marked the sources. In Feodor Krest’ianin’s “Fitnik” there are the names of chant books, church services and genres of chants where from the formulae were taken. However this information sometimes needs specifying. Thus, starting the contrastive analysis of the formulae in “Fitnik” and “Gospel Sticherons” in Feodor Krest’ianin’s interpretation, one should define them and single them out not only in the theoretical manual and all the 11 sticherons, but also restore the missing ciphered formula inscriptions. For the formulae under analysis one should define their stylistic peculiarities as the formula composition in the works of various styles is different. The analysis proved that the formulae in the “Fitnik” and the formulae in the “Gospel Sticherons” in Feodor Krest’ianin’s interpretation differ: one and the same hymnographic text has different neumatic inscriptions and razvodsinterpretations. Their contrastive analysis is impossible. As it turned out, Feodor Krest’ianin’s “Fitnik” contains some formulae which were taken not from his author “Gospel Sticherons” which belong to the Bolshoy (Great) Chant, but from different ones – the Small Chant. These sticherons cycles of various styles differ from each other on the structural level. (Parfentieva, 2004, 37-50). Feodor Krest’ianin’s “Fitnik” and a great amount of formulae he used in the chants point at the master’s encyclopedic erudition and extensive knowledge of the Znamenny chant theory. One more encyclopedia of the Great Chant singing is the above-mentioned cycle “Gospel Sticherons” in Krest’ianin’s interpretation. The material of this great work helped to restore 19 “popevka” formulae, 279 “litso” formulae and 80 fita formulae. Everything that was found and restored in this field made up the author’s ABC of the Znamenny style chanting which allows better deciphering and analyzing Feodor Krest’ianin’s works. The Znamenny style ABC contains 283 formulae in the form of inscriptions, their razvodsexplanations by simple neumes and deciphering in modern linear notation, 157 formulae – in the form of coded inscriptions and their razvodsexplanations by simple neumes (so far without deciphering interpretation). Thus, there are reconstructed 440 formulae referring to Feodor Krest’ianin’s creative activity (Parfentieva 1997, 230–60, 273–292). The “razvod”’s (explanations) of these formulae present his work concerning the indication a melodic content of neumatic formulae inscriptions. Undoubtedly, the master’s theoretical knowledge in the field of old-Russian art was not limited by the number of these formulae, which he could easily interpret. The available materials allow restoring Feodor Krest’ianin’s ABC of the Putevoy style chant. Among the manuscripts belonging to the tsar’s singing diaki there was found a unique document written by the Anonymous Diak who recorded “The Jordanian Troparions” in the version of the renowned master (1600). The record presents Krest’ianin’s version of the Putevoy style chant construction formed in the 1580-s. It belongs to the earliest razvod writings. Before “The Jordanian Troparions” were written in form of neumatic ciphered inscriptions. The formula razvods-interpretations are made on the level of variability inside the formulae in the Stolpovoy notation. On the base of the neumatic manuscripts it became possible to restore the formula structure of the sticherons. The restored neume coded inscriptions together with Feodor Krest’ianin’s razvods-interpretations by simple signs given in the form of the table present the restored ABC of the Putevoy chant. The ABC consists of formula inscription, its interpretation and deciphering according to the manuscripts of the second half of the 17th century which had the cinnabar # 1428 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… marks and signs. All in all the ABC contains 51 formulae. Some fitas are used several times but they have variants of inscriptions. The reference book contains 10 fitas. The rest formulae refer to the “popevka” (Parfentieva 2006, 186–197). Thus, thanks to the performed reconstruction of the Putevoy Cnant ABC one can assess the theoretical knowledge of the chanter in the field of a new, more complicated style. He could easily interpret the Putevoy chant inscriptions by means of the Stolpovoy notation, imparting his knowledge to his pupils –the tsar’s singing diaki. The new sources of Putevoy chant interpretation performed by the master will further allow to supplement this ABC. The next phenomenon in Feodor Krest’ianin’s musical and theoretical legacy is the Demesvenny ABC of chanting. The text of the chant “Da molchit vsyaka plot’” [Let any flesh keep silent] found in the chant manuscript of the late 16th – early 17th century with the mark “Krestyanin’s interpretation” serves the material for the reconstruction (GIM. Synod.-Pevch. № 1357, 23–24). In the earliest period of its existence (the 1480-s – the beginning of the 16th century) the chant “Da molchit” was usually fixed in two ways: in the form of coded neumatic formula Stolpovoy style and coded neumatic formula Demestvenniy style. Graphically both variants differ a lot but contain the same number of formulae – 32. They do not have fita formulae or any information concerning different modes. The next stage in the development of chanting takes place in the 16th century. The most stable, typical variant of this century appears on the base of the previous one in the Stolpovoy fixation (archetype). The typical chant copies are well-known due to the great number of the 16th century manuscripts. On several grounds chant is identified as demestvenny (Parfentjeva, 2007, 214-218). All in all there are 34 formulae in the Typical chant (because of trebling the Hallelujah). To sum up, the typical variant is a new graphical type of the chant record, which took the formulae of an earlier archetype. The majority of the formulae are correlated as the inscription (archetype) and the razvods-interpretation (typical variant). By the 1580-s the amount of interpretations began growing. In the 1590-s there appeared the first interpretation of the chant “Da molchit” which almost fully corresponds to Krest’ianin’s graphical variant. At the turn of the 16th – 17th centuries this interpretation variant was widely spread in the manuscripts, but the attribution mark (Krest’ianin’s interpretation) can be found only on one of them (GIM). Other texts of that time are either identical or similar to the given interpretation variant made by Feodor Krest’ianin (Parfentieva 2007, 220). Besides Krest’ianin’s interpretation at the turn of the 16th – 17th centuries there appeared numerous interpretations of the chant “Da molchit” in the other author’s versions. The special research proved that all of them came from the typical chant in the form of its graphical modification. The existence of these variants allows us to distinguish the peculiarities of Feodor Krest’ianin’s interpretation (Parfentiev and Parfentieva, 1993, 127-132). As we can see Krest’ianin’s chant appeared on the base of the typical variant which in its turn absorbed the archetype tradition. The research resulted in the reconstruction both of the inscription variant (according to the typical variant and sometimes the archetype) and formula razvods-interpretation from Feodor Krest’ianin’s chant. Consequently the reconstruction of Krest’ianin’s Demesvenny ABC was performed. There are 34 formulae in it so far, they are given in inscriptions and razvodsinterpretations. Following Alexander Mezenets’ tradition we presented Feodor Krest’ianin interpretations in juxtaposition with Stroganov’s # 1429 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… (ussol’e) masters’ razvods-interpretations of the same formulae inscriptions. Differences in these variants occur in the framework of variability inside the formula. The ABC contains the linear notation variant of interpretations made by the manuscripts of the late 17th century (Parfentieva 2007, 225–231). The reconstructed ABCs of the Znamenny, Putevoy and Demesvenny styles of chants containing such an impressive material are evidence of Feodor Krest’ianin’s own theory of music recorded in the 17th century manuscript sources. The study of Feodor Krest’ianin’s life and work as a didascal proves that the master was one of the most renowned representatives of the professional musical art in the late 16th – early 17th centuries Russia. His natural gift, deep knowledge in the field of church-singing theory gave rise to the development of his own artistic career and brought him fame and recognition among the contemporaries. It is no mere chance that the Russian tsars, starting from Ivan the Terrible, entrusted him with teaching and looking after their singing diaki. Krest’ianin’s author razvods-interpretation of the coded inscriptions of formulae not only facilitated the mastering of the singing repertoire but also formed the ABC of the master which included formulae and their interpretations in all the existing styles (Znamenny, Putevoy, Demestvenny). The restoration of this ABC allows deciphering and studying originality Feodor Krest’ianin’s works with great authenticity. It is of great importance as far as many of the master’s works are to be studied in the future. References 1. Alexander Mezenets i drugie. Izveschenie… zhelaiuschim uchit’sia peniyu. 1670. Publikatsiya, perevod i issledovanie N.P. Parfentieva; commentarii Z.M. Guseinovoi. [Alexander Mezenets and others. Notification… to those learning to sing. 1670. Published, translated and studied by N. P. Parfentiev; comments by Z. M. Guseinova]. Cheliabinsk, 1996. 584 p. 2. Brazhnikov M.V. Fedor Krest’ianin. Stikhiry [Feodor Krest’ianin. Sticherons]. Pamiatniki russkogo muzikal’nogo iskusstva. Vip. 3. [The monuments of the Russian musical art. Issue 3]. Moscow, 1974. 247 p. 3. Guseinova Z.M. Fitnik Fedora Krest’ianina [Fitnik of Feodor Krest’ianin]. St. Petersburg, 2001. 188 p. 4. Parfentiev N.P. Professional’nye muzykanty Rossiiskogo gosudarstva XVI–XVII vekov. Gosudarevy pevchie diaki i patriarshye pevchie diaki i podiaki. [Professional Russian musicians of the 16th–17th centuries. The Tsar’s singing diaki and the patriarch’s singing diaki and podiaki]. Cheliabinsk, 1991. 446 p. 5. Parfentiev N.P. About Activity of Feodor Krest’ianin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of XVI – the Beginning XVII Centuries. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. 2009. V.2 (3). P. 403–414. 6. Parfentieva N.V. О nekotorykh osobennostiakh avtorskikh razvodov fit (po pevcheskim rukopisiam XVII v.). [Some features of author’s razvods-interpretations of fitas (by chant manuscripts of the XVII century)] Muzikalnaya kultura Srednevekov’ia. Vip.1. [The musical culture of the Middle Ages. Edition 1]. Moscow,1990. P.133-140. 7. Parfentieva N.V. Tvorchestvo masterov drevnerusskogo pevcheskogo iskusstva [The masters’creative works of the old Russian chanting art]. Cheliabinsk, 1997. 340 p. # 1430 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… 8. Parfentieva N.V. О metodakh issledovaniya myzikal’no-teoreticheskikh osnov tvorchestva Fedora Krest’ianina (XVI v.) [Methods of study of the theoretical foundations of Feodor Krest’ianin’s musical creativity (XVI century)]. Traditsii i novatsii v otechestvennoy dukhovnoy culture [Traditions and innovations in the national spiritual culture]. Cheliabinsk, 2004. P.37-50. 9. Parfentieva N.V. Formul’no-intonatsionnaya azbuka moskovskogo raspevschika XVI veka Fedora Krest’ianina [Formula-intonation ABC of Moscow raspevschik –composer Feodor Krest’ianin XVI century]. Kul’tura i iskusstvo v pamiatnikakh i issledovaniiakh. Vip. 4 [Culture and art in monuments and researches. Edition 4]. Cheliabinsk, 2006. P.186-197. 10. Parfentieva N.V. K rekonstruktsii avtorskoi formulno-intonatsionnoi azbuki demestvennogo raspeva moskovskogo mastera Fedora Krest’ianina (um. ok. 1607) [The reconstruction of author’s formula-intonation ABC Demestvenniy style of Moscow master Feodor Krest’ianin )( +1607)]. Kul’tura i iskusstvo v pamiatnikakh i issledovaniyakh. Vip. 5 [Culture and art in monuments and researches. Edition 5]. Cheliabinsk, 2007. P.212-231. 11. Parfentiev N.P., Parfentieva, N.V. Usol’skaya (Stroganovskaya) shkola v russkoy muzike XVI–XVII vv. [Usolye (Stroganov) school in the Russian music of XVI-XVII centuries]. Cheliabinsk, 1993. 348 p. 12. Parfentiev N. P., Parfentieva N. V. Khronika tvorcheskoi deiatel’nosti Feodora Krest’ianina v 1598–1607 gg. [Chronicle of Feodor Krest’ianin’s creative activity in 1598-1607]. Kul’tura i iskusstvo v pamiatnikakh i issledovaniyakh. Vip. 4 [Culture and art in monuments and researches. Edition 4]. Chelyabinsk. 2006. P.100-129. GIM – Gosudarstvenniy Istoricheskiy Muzey [State Historical Museum, Moscow] RGADA – Rossiyskiy Gosudarstvenniy Arkhiv Drevnikh Aktov [Russian State Archives of Ancient Acts] RNB – Rossiyskaja Nacionalnaja Biblioteca [Russian National Library, St. Petersburg] Отражение основных направлений творческой деятельности дидаскала Федора Крестьянина в памятниках письменности XVI–XVII вв. Н.П. Парфентьев Южно-Уральский государственный университет, Россия 454080, Челябинск, Ленина, 76 Источники свидетельствуют, что Фёдор Крестьянин был одним из самых выдающихся представителей профессионально-музыкального искусства России XVI – начала XVII в. Не случайно именно ему русские цари, начиная с Ивана Грозного, доверяли обучение и воспитание своих певчих дьяков, составлявших Государев придворный хор. Записи некоего Безымянного Дьяка раскрывают применявшиеся Крестьянином как дидаскалом (учителем, теоретиком) приемы в обучении певческому делу и при разводе сложных знаков и формул нотации, # 1431 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai P. Parfentiev. Reflection of the Main Directions Didaskal Feodor Krest’ianin’s Creative Activity in Monuments… показывают суть его творческих подходов при написании собственных музыкальных произведений в условиях средневекового канонического искусства. Активная деятельность по созданию разводов к сложным знаменам, формулам и «строкам мудрым» представляет собой особый вид творчества и складывавшуюся индивидуальную теорию «мастеропения». Без восстановления данной теории и применения ее в ходе анализа авторских песнопений невозможно получить верные выводы о своеобразии произведений ведущих направлений и выдающихся мастеров русского средневекового музыкального искусства. В статье показаны пути реконструкции такой теории и представления её в виде интонационной Азбуки Федора Крестьянина. Ключевые слова: древнерусское музыкально-письменное искусство, средневековая музыка, теория и деятельность мастеров, авторское творчество, Фёдор Крестьянин. Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке Российского гуманитарного научного фонда, проект №13-04-00077. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1433-1442 ~~~ УДК 165.0 Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science Considerations Csaba Varga* Hungarian Catholic University, H-1428 Budapest 8, Postal Box 6, Hungary Received 05.02.2013, received in revised form 04.06.2013, accepted 09.09.2013 The article considers what is meant by fact, concept, as well as logic and thinking within the contrast of objectivism and subjectivism, as well as their compromise in postmodernity. Keywords: fact, concept, logic, thinking; objectivism, subjectivism. Point: The need for a change of paradigms The system of co-ordinates reflecting the potentialities of understanding brings up three blocks of thinking tradition. The first is called objectivism, the second subjectivism. The third block represents some rational search for compromise somewhere between the extreme values. This is the concept mainly spread on Anglo–American scientific areas, and is most justifiable from the perspective of so-called cognitive sciences. All in all, as a consequence some initial suspicions came to be confirmed, suggesting that (1) there are no things but processes; (2) the ‘thing’ cannot be other than an aspect or snapshot abstraction of the process; hence (3) cognition is nothing but the function of naming; therefore (4) description has to be regarded more as intellectual modelling (or presentation) than ontological reflection (or reproduction) (Varga, 1999). * Objectivism can be summarily characterised as naive realism. Its opposite, subjectivism, rather means just negation, a counter-trend. They form a false alternative to one another. The so-called modern conception is an intermediate consideration. It is more based on interdisciplinarity drawing from experiential/ experimental sources, reminiscent of natural sciences, which, for instance, cognitive sciences – psychology, linguistics, philosophy and biology, as applied to the topic – seek to form. Example 1: What are facts? According to acquired conceptual traditions, we are supposed to speak about ‘fact’ as congruent with “objective reality”. This conceptual congruence implies that when speaking of “fact” we speak of reality proper. For it is presumed that the sole thing out of consideration is that it happened to be us to establish this fact, thus being somehow personally © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1433 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… involved as part of the process. A NIETZSCHEan view, on the other hand, would suggest that facts as such are not to be found in reality at all. What we may still find there, considering them facts, are purely arbitrary human constructs at most. They are rather the extrapolations of our will aimed at power [Willen zur Macht], not more than some sort of artificial social constructs. From this perspective of the social process, at first, we invent something, then, as a result, we so to say populate the world with “facts”. Yet, this is extrapolation proper. However, “objective reality” is not inherent in facts. Facts are ultimately nothing other than relational concepts, which are recording that in our personal existence we relate to certain aspects of reality in given ways. Thus, the process of “establishing facts” purports that we have selected some part – for practical reasons, e.g., to serve our so-called “cognition” – from some relative whole that we call “reality”. By this we concomitantly give expression to the realisation that we are somehow personally involved in the process of claiming something to be a fact. Accordingly, when we say “fact” we declare our cognitive approach to some aspects of reality selected from the total whole regarded as reality (Varga, 1995, ch. 2, 25-55). According to the epistemological view that perceives the world as an aggregate of facts (this being the so-called naive realism), the world around us is composed of nothing but facts. Facts are simply present in our environment, being parts of nature. Thus, facts simply exist. They are given. FRANK once made a startling remark: “For court purposes, what the court thinks about the facts is all that matters. For actual events … happened in the past. They do not walk into the court.” (Frank, 1949, 15) What does this mean? Only an initiative to cognition can result in the establishment of some relationship with those facts. It would be in vain to cry out: “Hey, people! Some fellows are killing each other here!” What could underlie such a cry can become a fact only through the process of cognition and through the naming done within cognition. Thus, “facts” in and of themselves are not parts of any trial, unless we – only provided that we are parties to a trial at all – take them there in the proper way and form. FRANK’s expression also involves that facts do not “exist” in the sense that we might ascertain whether they prevail or not by simply observing their existence. Hence, facts do not “exist”. However, we can make statements about facts, in relation to facts, on their prevalence as facts, and so on. Therefore, from statements like “it has been established as a fact that…” we can definitely learn that (1) there is something with which we have entered a cognitive relationship, and (2) we have posited it as an element of cognition. The mere fact is that we make statements about states of affairs. More precisely, the fact lies exclusively in the way and by the force of which we establish this. So, facts are a result by the force of which we can establish that we have entered into a relationship with the existence of a thing, or with the accomplishment of an event – that is, with something the accomplishment of which is not in the least necessary. This is a relational concept. Hence, to be able to talk about facts presupposes the existence and prevalence of our establishing a cognitive relationship with them. One of the further preconditions is to posit them as the subject of our cognition. Thus, when we speak of facts, we speak of something purely objective as well as of our subjective relationship to it. Properly speaking, establishing a relationship between the two actually leads to the stating of its prevalence as a fact. What is the meaning of the extensive and intensive infinity of the world as termed by the philosophy of nature? The idea surveyed above # 1434 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… suggests the following option: the totality is one total entity. That is, the totality is totally interrelated and the separation of ‘construction’ from ‘operation’ within this totality can only be artificial, a purposefully invented purely mental construct. No such duality exists in “reality”, their discretely distinct qualities being merely human hypostases. Such a distinction can be made only on analytical grounds, for the sake and within the framework of our own explanation (Varga, 1995, 93, 113 & 152). In reality conceived like this, the number and configurations of aspects, relations and potentialities are infinite. And, as a matter of fact, material reality does not have any “aspects” whatsoever. “Things” of the world – objects – simply exist and prevail. It is merely an additional aspect that we humans eventually exist and occasionally establish some relationship with certain things. However, in order to establish a cognitive relationship with things, we must endow them with certain characteristics and aspects. We must pick out a characteristic only selected by us from the total context of the total whole, isolate it as an independent bearer of some feature(s), and then name it as such. In order to be able to “reasonably” relate to two items we must create some kind of “analogy” between them by means of abstraction. Seeking such analogies is not fictitious in the sense that the characteristics or aspects serving as bases to an analogy are indeed to be prevalent regardless of our actions. But it is man-made and artificial in the sense that the characteristic concerned is identified by a creative human initiative through isolating those objects from the total whole, shedding light on and naming them. The number of feasible relations between two stones the world is infinite, and so is the number of possibly relevant aspects. Social conventions, presuppositions and paradigms undoubtedly play a role in the processes of appropriating reality. For example, let us take an elementary situation: what can a human do to his partner? Within the European civilisation we believe that there is no magic any more, and even the description of nature can be achieved, to the extent possible, through its “own” terms (not presuming the direct intervention of God). The world becomes “reasonable” due to such – and not other – presuppositions and paradigms. The primary consequence of this is that we at least feel comfortable somewhere and this is in our own culture. When in contact with another culture, we necessarily lose the thread of interpretation and the bases of understanding.1 For example, in a culture of magic the actors must deal with entirely different conditions. In the once British Commonwealth former colonisers met plenty of situations in the tribal cultures ruled by the principles of English law, when the natives realised that an evil eye was cast upon them and they were bound to defend themselves. Since the evil eye is deadly, its threat must be just as deadly. So, it is not by mere chance that the defence wielded against these threats might cause the injury of those casting the evil eye, perhaps even (and justifiably) their death. However, the natives had to defend themselves because if they had not done so, they would have endangered not only their lives but the chances of their afterlives as well. The British regarded such similar considerations as blank superstition, which they considered to be against the minimum conditions of civilisation, and since it qualified as a threat to life it deserved unconditioned punishment (Seidman, 1966; Saltman, 1991). In sum, it is our cultural dependence that selects the conceivable aspects of fundamental human relations, thus, among other things, what “can” qualify as facts. Inasmuch as the world is infinite both extensively and intensively, the total whole is also wholly correlated at any given time. Totality is totally one, that is, totally interrelated. Consequently, the way we explain the construction and operation of the world, and what elements we # 1435 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… can use and in what configuration within it, will, in principle, be of infinite variety. In any kind of representation and reproduction, the variability of elements as well as the sets of arrangements and the configurations thereof will also be infinite. It is our practical interests towards and our practical relationship to the world that will select what we elevate (isolate, identify and name) from among these. The Greek concept of ‘truth’ involves precisely such a connection. Tālethes in the original sense means that we elevate, pick up and hold something to the light (Kendal, 1980, especially 2, 3, 12 & 21-22). This already presumes some relationship. We can only elevate, pick up and hold something to the light if leaving everything else in its environment in the shadow. By pronouncing tālethes we confess that there is an agent in operation, and this is us, subjects who want to cognise by elevating something and shedding light on it. This agent draws something into the range of its inquiry, but by doing so overshadows everything else. Thus, the classical Greek understanding of the truth already implies, at least on an intuitive level, the recognition that truth is based on selection. By declaring something to be the truth we deny the truth (taken in the same sense) of everything else. That is to say, numerous other considerations could also be regarded as truths, but we selected exactly the one we needed in the given context. Obviously, the story here is not at all about us being hopelessly subjective. Conversely, what it speaks about is that humans create their social world through their practice, and they do so in a manner continuously fed back by the results of the same practice. Or, “social scientific theories … are based on pretheoretical suppositions. … They are normative assumptions about the nature of man, the nature of society, and the relationship between man and society.” (Israel, 1978, 63) In consequence, what we regard as selfevident in a given context also depends on our cultural presuppositions. We think that water is simply composed of two units of hydrogen and one unit of oxygen. Although, closer analysis may reveal that in practice we know as many kinds of water as there are various cultural uses for it. So ‘water’ does not depend on its concept and chemical composition, but on its practical uses and recognised human utility as sea-water, riverwater, lake-water, brook-water, rain-water, the water from melted ice, or the humidity gained from collecting morning dew (etc.). In other words, it is the social interpretation of vital (geographical, meteorological, and further on) conditions that determines the types of water we distinguish and name in language. Some languages apply dozens of distinctions to specify what the clouds, rain, snow and ice are like, or what the water is like in a ditch or a brook. Hence, we can by no means state that ‘water’ just “exists”. For it is not the socalled ‘water’ that exists with such self-evident unambiguity, but the aggregate of culturally defined relations within the frameworks of which water is perceived by us, actors, who share its curses and blessings in our practice (Balekjian, 1984). Example 2: What are notions? The objectivist trend claims about notions that they (1) reflect reality; (2) have clear-cut boundaries; and (3) “objectively” correspond with reality, (4) providing a neutral, objective, and true perspective on reality. The subjectivist trend claims that notions (1) can only reflect themselves, (2) are arbitrary, (3) rely on historically incidental social conventionalisation, and (4) build on the continued actualisation of the respective social practice by re-conventionalising conventions. Let us have a look at what the so-called naive realism says on the tenets of the objectivist trend. # 1436 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… Ad (1): Is the notion a reflection? For a naive realist, we have reality on the one hand, and our thinking capacity on the other, and we reflect the former on the latter, while mentally processing the former through the instrumentality of language. Needless to say, we make use of our thinking capacity through language in order to mentally reconstruct reality: we reflect it, or at least model it, even if somewhat transforming its form. Patterns, however, always differ from the patterned to some extent, but are still the same concerning certain relevant and determinant features. They are not mechanical or photographic mirrors, but something to which we have also contributed in the process of their selection and creation. Ad (2): Do notions have clear-cut boundaries? For a naive realist, notions are reflections of reality with boundaries defined by nature. By means of rational reconstruction, science must strive to draw the boundaries of notions as accurately as possible. So, what we achieve through cognition is the reflection of what has already been inherent in the thing. Ad (3): Do notions “objectively” correspond with reality? When cognising, we only pattern the construction, organisation and stratification of reality on a conceptual plane, and, accordingly, our notions on reality will be nothing other than the reflections of the structure of reality. Ad (4): Do notions provide a neutral, objective and true perspective on reality? This assumption suggests we should apparently be able to cognise without having our existence (human and social perspectives) reflected in the process of cognition in one way or another. What does subjectivism suggest from the opposite positions? And, how can the contradiction between the two extreme views be converged into one synthetic cognitive view? Ad (1): In philosophy, NIETZSCHE started arguing that man – nolens volens – always speaks of himself, projecting his own desires onto theses of cosmic dimensions even when engaged in theory-construction. Although we may be able to reveal some agreement-like congruencies between people, these still do not reflect reality but our most intimate desires at most. This apparent extremism of subjectivism does not lack all truth, as far as its critical directions are concerned. LUKÁCS once used in his Ontology of the Social Being a rather appropriate expression when, assessing the ontological correspondences of cognitive images of reality, he referred to “tendential unity”.2 There is a school of language philosophy, which claims that language is of metaphorical origin and nature (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). From among the pioneering opinions, VAIHINGER’s doctrine of fictions claimed that we always act in a way as if doing something else: for instance, when we refer to a norm we actually pattern the desirable order of reality (Vaihinger, 1911). Accordingly, we do not (and cannot) know what reality is, but we nevertheless make certain kind(s) of propositions(s) about it. It is plainly enough for us to make it conscious that we thereby merely give expression to our belief that it would be satisfactory if reality were like this, because it will be enough for the successful continuation of our practice to posit only this much about reality. Hence, our system of concepts is by no means a mechanical mirror linked to certain aspects of reality either arbitrarily or exhaustively, but an image which is concomitantly an aspect and conceptual projection of our human relations upon reality. Ad (2): Since notions cannot be found in reality, it is ourselves who treat the realm of notions as if they had (could have) any boundaries at all. “The ‘reality’ which we apprehend in perception and direct intuition presents itself to us as a whole in which there are no abrupt separations.” (Cassirer, 1961, 141)3 # 1437 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… All of this by no means implies that our notions lack boundaries or limitations. It only means that when we debate and eventually misunderstand each other, one of the reasons for this may be that we use notions in different ways. In such a case, we must clarify with ourselves and between each other that we can only continue our debate reasonably insofar as we conceptually distinguish these differently understood notions. For instance, equality of rights is violated by both positive and negative discrimination amongst ones supposed to be otherwise equal. The intervention of legal policy narrowing the equality of otherwise equal parties may in such cases weaken the principles of the legal order through its practical constraints, to fundamentalise it so as to become chaotic. That is, in such a practical case tertium datur on the fi nal analysis. Since between the two extreme values – i.e., the conceptually divided and unconditional self-identifying affi rmation, on the one hand, and the unconditional refusing negation (as, for instance, affi rmative action and negative discrimination, standing for inclusion and exclusion, respectively) – both neutrality and well-intentioned indifference may be wedged in. Our presupposition that usually follows such a clarification suggests that the boundaries of notions have now been truly set by definitions given this way or by some tacit means. So from now on it appears as if notions had boundaries indeed. Yet, the history of human discourse proves the exact opposite, and this is one decisive lesson of linguistic reconstruction: questions of boundaries arise again and again, the more unclear the notional relations which describe things, the more often. The final outcome is even more troublesome. As we may know from historical experience, social and moral issues cannot be settled once and for all. And this is so not because humans cannot recall past events due to their feebleness or because being natural-born trouble-makers they even destroy their own past as if driven by bad instincts. On the contrary: it is a basic fact of socio-ontological importance that in historical dimensions and in an overall social context man never does anything in vain, and whatever he ends up doing he does because he feels that he must – on the basis of his usual deliberations, sober reflexion and responsible choice. Let us elucidate the issue with an example from legal history. After completing his investigations on the driving forces of Roman legal development, the Scottish historian of private law WATSON launched another comparative inquiry (Watson, 1974). He proved that we can hardly speak of legal development proper. Man is one of the ugliest and laziest creatures on planet Earth: he does not create anything unless bare necessity forces him to. And if he finally ventures anything, he does it with minimum effort. So, if there is any chance, he follows beaten paths, works with ready tools, and always uses – by adapting – the ones at hand. Therefore, he invents something only when there is no idea or thing available in his environment to shape further or re-adapt. So necessity urges him to be creative, to consider making his own move, or even to invent something. WATSON’s historical justification steps from a trivial example. Namely, on the territory of the Fertile Crescent (in ancient Mesopotamia), the goring of an ox proved to be a deadly danger. It happened very often, so the question of who was liable for the damage and what compensation was due had to be regulated by law. Well, in this civilisation extending over an immense territory, all the autochtonously evolving cultures used the same construct, the normative wording of which (although in different local languages) was even the same (Finkelstein, 1973; Jackson, # 1438 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… 1974). Looking for further proof, WATSON found a similar example in JUSTINIAN’s codification. For the conceptual distinctions and classification applied in JUSTINIAN’s Institutiones – its structure and breaking down not being self-evident or even the sole alternative in the context of the late Roman historical development – have in fact become the standard pattern for internal systematisation especially of the civil law on the European continent. Accordingly, our entire legal culture seems to rely on inveterate conceptual incidentalities, random improvisations, findings, moreover, sometimes even gross errors and misunderstandings. For we are accustomed to taking every ready or half-ready tool and conceptual initiative from the treasury of the past and simply re-adapting it if we so need, often without any genuine critical reconsideration, unless some strange and rather exceptional reason forces us to act differently. So, all phenomena, situations and events are of infi nite variety. Human interest approaches them in various ways, differentiating and naming almost randomly selected correlations from among them as aspects, to build them back later into the phenomenon, situation or event in question in the course of their theoretical reconstruction. This is the reason why human cognition is claismed to be reflective and constructive at the same time. In the final analysis, boundaries of notions are in function of the discourse (situation or context) to a certain extent. Every discourse questions and challenges these boundaries recurrently, because each discourse is in principle a new discourse: it differs from the previous one as it requests an answer for a situation somewhat modified since then in some of its aspects. In the same way, in English law, the hundreds, thousands or even millions of cases embodied in and by the body of precedents accumulated do not add up to an exhaustive system, for it is by far not necessary that the new situations emerging at any given time require an answer along the same path taken once by a past individual decision. The judge may recourse to novation in any phase of the procedure, by presenting – with reference to equity, justice, or to other pleas and exceptions, as well as measures and steps to take – the decision he suggests as providing a relatively new answer to an entirely or partially new situation, or to newly conceptualised facts that may constitute a case in law, that is, a different answer reacting more sensitively and suitably to the issue, in followance from the deliberation of those principles that may come into account. As a general theoretical conclusion, in principle, notions are open because their closure cannot be but casual: done artificially, exclusively in given direction(s) and context(s), with validity for the given discourse(s) only. The availability of a notion in and of itself, with boundaries marked within and for the given discourse, never anticipates future boundaries. Each discourse has to face a new situation with new contextual potentialities, therefore it has a chance to resolve or question any kind of earlier closure by modifying and re-actualising these notional boundaries (with the prospect of re-conventionalisation). Ad (3): This is the framework within which the question of whether notions can “objectively correspond” with reality can be raised at all. Well, we usually prefer those sets of notions which display more potential in justifiability and less in falsifiability. We want to maximise justification and minimise falsification at the same time. We are also bound to realise that we can only justify or falsify a theory by means of another theory, since we do not have any direct media or instruments of control at our disposal. Within a given world-view and set of underlying paradigms, one accepts that theory as true, proven or at least provable, which corresponds the most to given methodical # 1439 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… principles of the scientific methodology accepted by the relevant community at a given time. Only that theory must be accepted and preferred to other feasible alternatives, which displays the strongest explanatory force with the least exposition to attack. objectivism fact ‘objective reality’: the thing itself system of reflection of reality concepts logic objectively corresponds with reality neutral and objective, providing true perspectives on reality the thing itself: the course, interconnection and sequence of things; aspects and necessity thereof thinking builds upon the paradigm of distinguishing between the essence and the phenomenon value-indifferent, objective, which relies on logical rules progresses from the general to the concrete 1 2 3 Summary The respective trends can be characterised as summed up in the table below (Lakoff, 1989): The progress achieved within the last decades from the standing positions stabilised in the past century is striking (Varga, 2011). subjectivism arbitrary social construct reflection of itself relies on arbitrary social convention modern conception cognitive relationship selected by man and supported by his interest covered by realistic features of reality, but concomitantly shaped by man’s interests towards reality its openness in a given direction can only be closed down artificially built upon the reconventionalisation of conventions never detachable from the prevailing world-view, tradition and cultural presuppositions external web, applicable or non-applicable at discretion the mathematics of descriptive propositions: claims that insofar as we make propositions within the same context and in the same time, and link these propositions conceptually, then, once a premise or conclusion is accepted as true or false, we thereby establish a deductive relationship between its truth or falsity there is no metaphysics of things: only the practical relationship of man to things selects and names the things everything is arbitrary builds upon personal conviction its direction is arbitrary For instance, under the conditions of the standardisation of health procedures globalised, the feasibility of a culturespecific interpretation has as well to appear as a scientific problem (Landy, ed., 1977; MacLeod & Milton, ed., 1988). “In one way or another, these subjects are from the beginning confronted (eventually: short of perishing) with the scope of action given to them in the total process at any time. Accordingly, a certain tendential unity will assert itself on every domain, without lending a kind of absolute unity to the process (in the sense of the old materialism or as a logical consequence following from HEGEL’s logic).” (Lukács, 1971, 296) As to the use of concepts all this notwithstanding, logic separates so-called class-concepts deciding on inclusion from so-called order-concepts suitable only for characterisation (Hempel & Oppenheim, 1936). References 1. W.H. Balekjian, “The Concept of Fact in the Physical Sciences and in Law”, in Theory of Legal Science, ed. by A. Peczenik et al. (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984), 183–188. # 1440 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… 2. E. Cassirer, The Logic of the Humanities [Logik der Kulturwissenschaften] (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961). 3. J.J. Finkelstein, “The Goring Ox”, Temple Law Review, 46 (1973), 169-290. 4. J. Frank, Courts on Trial: Myth and Reality in American Justice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949). 5. C.G. Hempel & P. Oppenheim, Der Typusbegriff im Licht der neuen Logik (Leiden: Sijthoff, 1936). 6. J. Israel, “Remarks Concerning Epistemological Problems of Objectivity in the Social Sciences”, in Research in Sociology of Knowledge, Sciences and Art, vol. I, ed. by R.A. Jones (Greenwich [Connecticut]: Jai Press, 1978), 63-80. 7. B.S. Jackson, “The Goring Ox again”, Journal of Juristic Papyrology, 18 (1974), 55-93. 8. G.H. Kendal, Facts (Toronto: Butterworths, 1980). 9. G. Lakoff, Cognitive Science and the Law (New Haven [Connecticut], Yale Law School Legal Theory Workshop, 1989) [manuscript]. 10. G. Lakoff & M. Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980). 11. D. Landy, ed. Culture, Disease, and Healing: Studies in Medical Anthropology (New York: Macmillan, 1977). 12. Gy. Lukács, A társadalmi lét ontológiájáról [Zur Ontologie des gesellschaftlichen Seins], vol. III (Budapest: Gondolat, 1971). 13. R. MacLeod & L. Milton, ed. Disease, Medicine, and Empire: Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of Colonial Expansion (London: Routledge, 1988). 14. M. Saltman, The Demise of the »Reasonable Man«: A Cross-cultural Study for a Legal Concept (New Brunswick & London: Transaction, 1991). 15. R.B. Seidman, “Mens Rea and the Reasonable African: The Pre-scientific World-view and Mistake of Fact”, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 15 (1966), 1137-1156. 16. Cs. Varga, Theory of the Judicial Process: The Establishment of Facts (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1995). 17. Cs. Varga, Lectures on the Paradigms of Legal Thinking (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1999). 18. Cs. Varga, Theory & Philosophy of Law: Norm, Logic, System, Doctrine & Technique in Legal Processes, with Appendix on European Law (Budapest: Szent István Társulat, 2011). 19. H. Vaihinger, Die Philosophie des Als-Ob: System der theoretischen, praktischen und religiösen Fiktionen der Menschheit auf Grund eines idealistischen Positivismus (Berlin: Reuther & Reichard, 1911). 20. A. Watson, Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1974). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Csaba Varga. Paradigmatic Assumptions of Thinking in Law: Philosophy of Science and Methodology of Science… Парадигмальные предположения мышления в праве: философия науки и методология научного суждения Чаба Варга Венгерский Католический университет H-1428 Будапешт 8, А/Я 6, Венгрия В статье рассматривается, что на самом деле означает концепция, а также логика и мышление в контрасте объективизма и субъективизма, а также их компромисс в постмодернизме. Ключевые слова: факт, концепция, логика, мышление, объективизм, субъективизм. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1443-1449 ~~~ УДК 343.197 (664) The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court Galina A. Nelaeva* Tyumen State University, 10 Semakova Str., Tyumen, 625003 Russian Received 15.10.2012, received in revised form 06.06.2013, accepted 10.09.2013 Out of all quasi-international tribunals established in the 1990-2000 by the international community the Sierra Leone Special Court stands out when it comes to prosecution of rape and sexual crimes committed during the civil war in the country. The court, which combines both international and national elements, was established by the United Nations upon request from the Sierra Leonean government in 2002. The article looks at the background surrounding the establishment of the tribunal as well as factors that enabled prosecution of wartime rape and sexual assaults within that tribunal. Keywords: wartime rape, international criminal tribunals, Sierra Leone Special Court. Background: wartime rape in the Sierra Leonean context The nine-year civil war in Sierra Leone was fought between the Sierra Leone Army and the government-aligned Civil Defense Force against Revolutionary United Front (RUF), which aimed to overthrow the government. RUF was notorious for its atrocities committed against civilian population, including rape, mutilations and the kidnapping of children. On 7 July 1999, the Lomé Peace Agreement officially ended the war by offering amnesty to RUF and a powersharing arrangement with the rebels. In the period 1991-1999, between 1 to 2 million people became refugees, 50 000 died, 5000-10 000 became amputees, 5000-10 000 were raped and 10 000 children were forcibly recruited to fight (Beigbeder, 2002:179). Physicians for Human Rights conducted a survey on the issue of sexual * violence, and found that 89 % of the respondents (in four locales) reported to have been raped, 33 %-gang raped. Most of the victims were raped by RUF soldiers. Rape was often accompanied by mutilations or sexual slavery. The level of pregnancy was high. Women believed to have been virgins were specifically targeted for abuse. Sexual violence against men was also widespread (Amowitz, 2002: 513-521). The Human Rights Watch report also highlighted that women were often abducted by the rebels, virgins were often singled out, though not necessarily.1 It has to be noted that the Sierra Leone conflict (and rape, in particular) did not receive much international coverage. According to B. Nowrojee, “throughout the decade of conflict, most journalists paid little or no attention (and subsequently failed to publicize) the widespread and ongoing attacks directed against women and © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1443 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina A. Nelaeva. The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court girls. Sexual violence was Sierra Leone’s invisible war crime” (Nowrojee, 2005: 87). Unlike the conflicts in Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the conflict in Sierra Leone never involved the targeting of a specific group (which is why it was impossible to agree on the inclusion of genocide within the subject-matter jurisdiction). However, because of images of amputations and mutilations during “Operation No Living Thing” undertaken by paramilitaries and later on, the violations of the Lomé Peace Accords that talk of involvement in the conflict began in the Security Council (Fritz and Smith, 2001: 394). In June 1998, the UN Observer Mission was established in Sierra Leone by the Security Council. The UNOMSIL team, in cooperation with the ECOMOG (Military Observer Group of the Economic Community of West African States) began investigations into human rights abuses. The fighting and atrocities did not stop with the signing of Lomé Peace Agreement, however. They continued into 2000 and 2001. The continuation of atrocities challenged the legitimacy of the amnesty, and Sierra Leone government accordingly requested the United Nations to create a special tribunal. The President of Sierra Leone, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, in his letter to the United Nations asked assistance in bringing to justice those responsible for the atrocities committed during the country’s civil war. The country had no resources to initiate criminal investigations, but it had a strong determination to do so. Establishing the Special Court for Sierra Leone Security Council Resolution 1315 (August 14, 2000) called on the Secretary-General to start negotiations with Sierra Leone on the issue of creating the Court. A formal agreement on the project was reached in January 2002 in Freetown. The Court became operational in July 2002. The Parliament of the country ratified the agreement and enacted implementing legislation. The question may be posed as to why a quasi-international tribunal, rather than a truly international one, was established. One of the reasons might be a lack of political support for creating another expensive international tribunal (the so-called “Tribunal fatigue” of the Security Council). Establishment of the court was the result of joint efforts by the Security Council and the government of Sierra Leone. In accounting for Sierra Leone’s interests in creating the tribunal, one has to consider the issue of amnesty granted by Lomé Agreement signed on 8 July 1999. Security Council passed a resolution on 20 August 1999, in which it welcomed the signing of the peace agreement, even though it meant impunity for human rights violators. The UN Secretary General’s special representative to Sierra Leone objected to the validity of amnesty, arguing that those who committed war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide shouldn’t be granted amnesty (McDonald, 2002: 123). Combatants of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) failed to observe the peace agreement provisions and continued to attack civilians. In May 2000, they captured 500 UN peace-keepers. On 14 August 2000, the Security Council passed Resolution 1315 (2000), which called for bringing criminals to justice, in the light of “very serious crimes committed within the territory of Sierra Leone against the people of Sierra Leone and United Nations and associated personnel and at the prevailing situation of impunity.”2 With the government calling for the establishment of a tribunal (which already held some suspects in custody) and the U.S. and the U.K. expressing their support for prosecutions, the plan for a hybrid tribunal came into being. The date of 30 November 1996 was selected as the beginning of rationae temporis jurisdiction # 1444 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina A. Nelaeva. The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court (to begin at the outbreak of hostilities in 1991 was deemed to have been too heavy a burden on the Court). On 30 November 1996, the parties sought a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In any case, the period from 1996 was believed to encompass the most serious crimes. One of the three trial judges and two of the five appeal judges were appointed by the Sierra Leone government. Subject-matter jurisdiction was a combination of crimes prohibited both internationally and nationally. They included crimes against humanity, violations of common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol II, as well as crimes against peace-keepers and the recruitment of children. Sexual offenses against 13-14 year-old girls were included as part of domestic law.3 In general, the Court was designed to prosecute only those who “bear greater responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity.” Genocide was not included in the subject-matter jurisdiction, since there was no consensus that crimes committed in the course of the conflict amounted to genocide.4 Generally, the Statute extends the ICTY and ICTR reference to rape as a crime against humanity by explicitly including other categories of crime, such as forced pregnancy, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution and other forms of sexual assault.5 The Statute also calls for an appointment of staff with experience in gender-related crimes (Article 15.4). Rules of procedure and evidence contain witness-friendly provisions (related to consent, for instance).6 In general, there has been a number of problems outlined by scholars, which could impede effective prosecution of rape and sexual violence, such as no express provision prohibiting the questioning of prior or subsequent sexual conduct of the victim. The first indictments, issued on 7 March 2003, were followed by a number of arrests. Despite fears that the difficulties in the Statute might impede investigations and prosecutions of rape, out of 13 original indictments, 10 contained charges of rape (it is worth noting that these charges were included in the indictments from the beginning, rather than later, by way of amending an indictment, as was the case in the ICTR)7 Ten of the accused were apprehended. One of the indictments was issued against Charles Taylor, then the President of Liberia (charging him, inter alia, with rape), but Taylor obtained asylum in Nigeria in August 2003.8 Ex-corporal Foday Sankoh, leader of the RUF died in custody, Sam Bockarie was reported dead in Liberia and Johnny Paul Koroma went into hiding. The first trials began in June 2004. One of the defendants was Sam Hinga Norman, the deputy defense minister, a controversial figure with considerable popularity. The defendants were charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity and violations of international humanitarian law, including murder, rape, looting, burning, attacks on peacekeepers, and so on. OTP’s Investigation Section was charged with collecting information. The number of indictments containing rape and sexual violence is quite striking. It has to be born in mind that the Court has a limited time frame and limited resources (it has to complete the trials by the end of 2006 and is financed by voluntary contributions). Given these time constraints, the Chief Prosecutor has to make strategic choices as to what indictments to file. The Prosecutor’s office was willing to include rape and sexual violence among the charges. The role of David Crane, the former Chief Prosecutor, is often emphasized: “The original Chief Prosecutor, David M. Crane, was very active in bringing charges on crimes of rape, sexual slavery and – a new count under “other inhumane acts” – forced marriage.”9 Crane has made a considerable effort to investigate and prosecute for sexual violence. He “spearheaded a prosecution strategy that incorporated sexual violence crimes # 1445 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina A. Nelaeva. The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court from the outset, which was consistently followed by the staff on a daily basis. The work of the Special Court has repeatedly demonstrated that, even with extreme constraints, the political will of the prosecutor and his senior staff can shift the balance toward justice for victims of sexual crimes” (Nowrojee, 2005: 99).10 Crane appointed experienced female investigators to deal with this kind of crime. Chief of Prosecutions, Luc Cote, “followed through to ensure inclusion of this evidence in the courtroom and has dedicated a trial attorney to the prosecution plan for the sexual violence crimes” (Nowrojee, 2005 : 100). The role of non-judicial mechanisms in addressing wartime rape and sexual violence A Truth Commission was established by Sierra Leone Parliament at approximately the same time and was operating parallel to the Court.11 The UN High Commissioner on Human Rights provided substantial assistance to the government in drafting the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Act in 2000. The Commission itself was housed as a project of the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva. One of the most controversial aspects of the Sierra Leone Special Court was the prosecution of minors. In the course of the conflict, a large number of atrocities were committed by child soldiers, who themselves had been abducted, forced to take drugs and induced to commit crimes. An important issue was how to reintegrate child offenders into society. Thus, the Security Council noted that, “the Truth and Reconciliation Commission will have a major role to play in the case of juvenile offenders, and the members of the Security Council encourage the Government of Sierra Leone and the United Nations to develop suitable institutions, including specific provisions, related to children, to this end”[UN Doc.S/2000/1234]. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission became an important actor in addressing crimes committed by children. This non-judicial mechanism was also crucial in hearing testimonies from victims (if the victim agreed to give a deposition). Since the Court was designed to prosecute only high-ranking officials, the Truth Commission provided the opportunity for the victims to come forward with their stories. Priscilla Hayner in the ICTJ report notes that a significant number of perpetrators came forward to the Truth Commission, “more than 13 percent of the 8000 individual statements are directly from the perpetrators, and approximately a third of those who appeared in the hearings admitted to their own wrongs, often in front of the TRC during its initial hearings, but after seeing that there was no reaction from the Special Court for those that did testify, many clamored for the opportunity to speak” [ICTJ: 4]. The Sierra Leonean TC “developed a methodology to uncover accounts of sexual violence. The Commission decided that women should make their statements to women statement-takers trained to deal with accounts involving rape and sexual violence. In addition, Commissioners and staff held public ‘town hall’ meetings and reached out to many women’s groups and agencies dealing with women, educating them about the goals of the TRC. The Commissioners also accepted suggestions and aid from these organizations.”12 National and international NGOs cooperated with the government, the Truth Commission and the Special Court. They organized marches demonstrating solidarity with rape victims. Women’s organizations were frequently contacted by the Truth Commission to encourage them to participate in the hearings. The Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs, as well as policewomen from Family Support Units also attended the hearings. Trainings for women’s organizations were often held by UNIFEM. One of the Organizations actively working in Sierra # 1446 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina A. Nelaeva. The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court Conclusion seems to have been the most effective. It was able to bring to trial a number of important defendants. Efforts were also made to disseminate information about the proceedings to the public, there were no apparent fi nancial complications. A reason for the comparative success in serving justice is, fi rst of all, the government’s willingness to cooperate with the Court and, importantly, international support-particularly that of the United States--in providing fi nancial help and professionals. Commitment on the part of the Prosecutor and his office (as well as the Truth Commission staff) was instrumental in making sure that rape and sexual violence were recognized as one of the most serious crimes committed in the conflict. “The work of the Special Court has repeatedly demonstrated that, To date, out of the four quasi-international tribunals, the Sierra Leone Special Court, although criticized for its use of selective justice (it was meant to prosecute only senior officials), even with extreme constraints, the political will of the Prosecutor and his senior staff can shift the balance toward justice for victims of sexual crimes” (Nowrojee, 2005: 99). Leone was Physicians for Human Rights. They collected evidence of abuses and provided direct help to survivors. Human Rights Watch was also involved in documenting abuses. Workshops on gender crimes have been held by the Court, with the participation of Sierra Leonean women’s groups. “The Outreach Section has liaised with a broad range of Civil Society groups, including a number of women’s groups, prominent Sierra Leonean women, and so on.”13 Sierra Leone Special Court sought not only to investigate and prosecute these crimes, but also to expand the scope of international humanitarian law to include “forced marriage” as a crime against humanity. 14 1 “We’’ll Kill You if You Cry”. Sexual Violence in the Sierra Leonean Conflict. Human Rights Watch. January 2003. Available at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/sierraleone/sierleon0103.pdf. 2 SC Res.1315 (2000). Available at: http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=S/RES/1315 %20 (2000)&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC. Article 5 (crimes under Sierra Leonean law): “The Special Court shall have the power to prosecute the persons who have committed the following crimes under Sierra Leonean law : a. Offenses relating to the abuse of girls under the Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act 1926…i. Abusing a girl under 13 years of age, contrary to section 6 ; ii. Abusing a girl between 13 and 14 years of age, contrary to section 7 ; iii. Abduction of a girl for immoral purposes, contrary to section 12.” Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Available at: http://www.sc-sl.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=uClnd1MJeEw %3D&. Articles 2-5 of the Statute list the crimes that can be prosecuted. Article 2 covers crimes against humanity. Article 3 covers violations of Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol II (law applicable in an internal armed conflict). Article 4 lists “other serious violations of international humanitarian law”, and Article 5-“crimes under Sierra Leonean law”. Ibid. See Article 2: “The Special Court shall have the power to prosecute persons who committed the following crimes as part of a widespread or systematic attach against any civilian population:…c. Enslavement…f. Torture; g. Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy and any other form of sexual violence; h. Persecution on political, racial, ethnic or religious groups; i. Other inhumane acts.” Article 3: “The Special Court shall have the power to prosecute persons who committed or ordered the commission of serious violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions…and of Additional Protocol II…These violations shall include: a. Violence to life, health and physical and mental well-being of persons, in particular, murder as well as cruel treatment such as torture, mutilation or any form of corporal punishment…c. Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, rape, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault…h. Threats to commit any of the foregoing acts.” Ibid. Rule 96 (i)-(iii). Available at: http://www.sc-sl.org/DOCUMENTS/tabid/176/Default.aspx. See Prosecutor v.Charles Ghankay Taylor, Case No. SCSL-2003-01 (Indictment), 3 March 2003; Prosecutor v. Foday Saybana Sankoh, Case No. SCSL-2003-02 (Indictment), 3 March 2003; Prosecutor v. Johnny Paul Koroma, Case No. SCSL-2003-03 (Indictment), 3 March 2003; Prosecutor v. Sam Bocharie, Case No. 3 4 5 6 7 # 1447 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina A. Nelaeva. The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 SCSL-2003-04 (Indictment), 3 March 2003; Prosecutor v. Issa Hassan Sesay, Case No. SCSL-2004-15-PT (Indictment), 5 February 2004; Prosecutor v. Alex Tamba Brima, Case No. CSL-2004- 016-PT (Indictment), 5 February 2004; Prosecutor v. Morris Kallon, Case No. SCSL-2004-15-PT (Indictment), 5 February 2004; Prosecutor v. Augustine Gbao, Case No. SCSL-2004-15-PT (Indictment), 5 February 2004; Prosecutor v. Brima Bazzy Kamara, Case No. SCSL-2004-016-PT (Indictment), 5 February 2004; and Prosecutor v. Santigie Borbor Kanu, Case No. SCSL-1004-016-PT (Indictment), 5 February 2004. Available at: www.sc-sl.org. Shaoli Sarkar mentioned, for instance, that in the AFRC and RUF trials, “sexual violence formed a critical part of the charges against accused persons for both of these cases. Counts 6 through 9 of the amended indictments for the AFRC and RUF trials include charges of sexual violence. Of the 59 AFRC and 98 RUF witnesses, 11 AFRC and 16 RUF witnesses testified about an act of sexual violence inflicted upon their persons. ” E-mail from Shaoli Sarkar, OTP, May 5, 2006. On file with the author. Charles Taylor was apprehended and handed over to the Special Court on 29 March 2006 following pressure exercised on Nigeria by the U.S. government. Taylor made his fi rst appearance before the Court on 3 April 2006, and pleaded not guilty to all the 11 counts of the indictment (which include war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other serious violations of international humanitarian law, including sexual slavery and mutilations). However, for fear that his trial might disrupt peace in the country, requests were made to try Taylor in the International Criminal Court in the Hague. For more, see, for example: Charles Taylor’s Initial Appearance // U.C.B. War Crimes Studies Center, Sierra Leone Trial Monitoring Project Special Report. April 3, 2006. Available at: http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~warcrime/documents/Taylor-Specialreport_001.pdf. E-mail from a SLSC official, April 28, 2006. On file with the author. The importance of the political will of the prosecutor and his staff was also mentioned by Patricia Sellers, gender advisor at the ICTY, who added that the Special Court staff had meetings with the ICTY team, and it was emphasized that crimes of rape and sexual violence should not be overlooked in the Special Court. Interview with Patricia Sellers. ICTY. May 3, 2006. On file with the author. The Truth Commission was established to promote reconciliation and was mandated to “pay special attention to the subject of sexual abuse.” The Truth and Reconciliation Commission Act (Sierra Leone). Available at: http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2000-4.pdf. The TC functioned from mid-2002 until 2004. It produced its final report and recommendations in 2004. E-mail from Shaoli Sarkar, OTP. May 5, 2006. On file with the author. E-mail from a SLSC official, April 28, 2006. On file with the author. “The Prosecutor has creatively used the section of “other inhumane acts” under crimes against humanity-a seriousness to the enumerated crimes-to expand legal recognition for the types of sexual violence that women endure in conflict” (Nowrojee, 2005: 101). As noted above, the Statute itself is more expansive than those of the ICTY and the ICTR. References 1. Amowitz, L. et al. (2002). Prevalence of War-Related Sexual Violence and Other Human Rights Abuses Among Internally Displaced Persons in Sierra Leone. Journal of American Medical Association, 287 (4), 513-521. 2. Beigbeder Y. (2002). Judging Criminal Leaders: the Slow Erosion of Impunity. Mass.: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 3. Fritz N, Smith A. (2001). Current Apathy for Coming Anarchy: Building the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Fordham International Law Journal, 25, 391-412. 4. Hayner P. (2004). The Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Reviewing the First Year. Case-study series. International Center for Transitional Justice. January 2004. Available at http://ictj.org/publication/sierra-leone-truth-and-reconciliation-commission-reviewing-fi rstyear 5. McDonald, A. (2002). Sierra Leone’s Shoestring Special Court. ICRC Review, 84, 121-143. 6. Nowrojee B. (2005). Making the Invisible War Crimes Visible: Post-Conflict Justice for Sierra Leone’s Rape Victims. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 18, 85-107. # 1448 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina A. Nelaeva. The Politics of Wartime Rape Prosecutions in Sierra Leone Special Court Политические аспекты рассмотрения изнасилований в Специальном суде Сьерра-Леоне Г.А. Нелаева Тюменский государственный университет Россия 625003, Тюмень, ул. Семакова, 10 Девятилетняя гражданская война в Сьерра-Леоне велась между армией страны и проправительственными Гражданскими оборонными силами (Civil Defense Force) против Революционного объединенного фронта (Revolutionary United Front). Среди преступлений, совершенных в ходе конфликта, были изнасилования и насильственные действия сексуального характера, нередко сопровождавшиеся увечьями или сексуальным рабством. Военные столкновения и преступления не закончились с подписанием мирных соглашений в Ломе и продолжались в 2000 и 2001 годах. Таким образом, правительство страны приняло решение обратиться к ООН с просьбой создать специальный трибунал для осуществления правосудия над лицами, ответственными за преступления, совершенные во время гражданской войны. В статье рассматривается политика Специального суда Сьерра-Леоне в области уголовного преследования индивидов за совершение изнасилований в ходе вооруженного конфликта, так как несмотря на ограниченные временные рамки, ограниченные финансовые возможности и другие проблемы практического характера, Суд сумел разработать определенную стратегию рассмотрения данных преступлений. Ключевые слова: Специальный суд Сьерра-Леоне, международные трибуналы, изнасилование. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1450-1460 ~~~ УДК 101.9 Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality Maxim A. Butin* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 18.11.2012, received in revised form 24.02.2013, accepted 02.09.2013 There has been modeled a structure of personality of Aleksey Fedorovich Losev, a Russian philosopher. We have tried to apply Losev’s developments on theory of personality and myth to the author of this theory and critically consider to what extent the real personality corresponds to his own research on personality. Keywords: russian philosophy, A. F. Losev, Plato, personality, face (person), subject, object, intellegentia, eidos, mind (nous), spirit, matter, body (corpus), myth, miracle. To the 120th anniversary of Aleksey Fedorovich Losev Copyright holder – Aza Alibekovna Takho-Godi * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1450 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality 1 It is difficult to write about A. F. Losev. He is an infinite value beyond all the rational speculations. The authors, who write about A. F. Losev, should particularly keenly realize the incommensurability and the subsequent dramatic interrelations between them as authors and the man they write about. One should spiritually correspond and feel the destination to such writer’s work. Though this is true to any kind of work but a matter of understanding culture and such precious and unique crystals of spirit as A. F. Losev arising from its ground requires such mental attitude and spiritual power that are unique and exclusive themselves. To tell in such a way does not mean that one should refuse from one or another methodology of study and rational clarity as a result of its use. But the point is out of any use of some methods and complex of methods in the sphere considered, a sphere of the highest achievements of society, i.e. culture. If it is true that a method is “a form of movement of the very substance” (G. W. F. Hegel), an instrument for study, a method for unique subject matters should be made anew every time. That is why A. F. Losev, to use A. I. Herzen’s word, can be measured neither by English, nor by French measure, nor by German philosophy’s measure even for an inch. We need a special measure here – Losev’s one. But we could also retort here: for every phenomenon and every person are unique in their ultimate reality, hence one should treat them according to their merits. All this is true but not every person or phenomenon deserve close attention. And nowadays just reason in its positivistic expansion without any restraint proclaims a formula of depletion of actuality through reflection. No, reflection is always incomplete, and if it occurs, it always follows actuality. After all, it is a fact of actuality, and if it really pretended to deplete actuality, it should also include the products of its own enlightenment in the sphere of reflexive analysis; it should venture at reflection of reflection and so on and hopelessly so on up to the point of formation of “ephemerae of ephemerae” and writing “diaries of ephemeral butterflies” (Jean Paul). Denying so “perspective” pastime, one may come to the thought that mind is given to a human not for exercises in subtle reflective affectation but for solution of real problems of life and real problems of being. And the experience of solutions of these problems and questions by geniuses of the humankind, and hence by A. F. Losev, is beneficial: it not only deserves but requires study and comprehension. There are no reasonable alternatives to history of culture in general and history of philosophy in particular. 2 But the unreasonable alternative here is to present the point that history of culture and philosophy is an end in itself. Such an idea deprives the mentioned history of self-consciousness but nourishes it with illusions. History of philosophy, the Russian history of philosophy at least, except for A. F. Losev and two or three names, is entirely like this, with self-consciousness almost docked. So it would be quite unreasonable to ask lots of questions from lots of authors of lots of books on history and philosophy impressive by their optional character of judgments; their judgments are even often true concerning factual matters but they completely exclude connection with an author’s personality and actuality. Such books (not their authors) raise a question of sense of their own existence at the readers. They ask not an author but a reader: as for you, why do you need all these “necessity and chance” given in these pages in front of you? Then there come some “interesting interpretations”, “new approaches”, “original reviews”, and “fresh views” – generally, # 1451 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality the answers do not go beyond these. But all these are nothing but a trick and a wrapping for platitude often aware itself as that platitude. It is as if the problem is solved! It is as if one needs just a fresh view to embrace the entirety and bring it to alive and proximate end! The books raising such questions and people giving such answers directly point at the fact that platitude and unreason may affect even scientia and homo sapiens. And then intensive and even exhausting work of mind may turn out to be a form of unreason and avoidance of cursed and very often damned questions of life. Give up all your misty words, Hypothetic lie, To the questions damned and cursed, Give us straight reply.1 The orientation to the world, individuality, society in its history and, as a consequence, denial of “simple hypotheses” can bring anyone (even those ones who study at universities) to the conviction that least of all history of culture and philosophy should be a toy for the mind which can possibly be refined and sophisticated in itself but socially infantile, hence infantile in its sophistication and fastidiousness. The thing it chooses as its toy unambiguously displays the extent of its infantility. 3 Reason should be serious and high-spirited even in its games and jokes; otherwise it is not reason at all. A. F. Losev writes: “Time is pain of history”. But a relief of pain means a relief of history. A historian’s mind is to be courageous, serious and fearless for a historian gives his heart to time – otherwise he is not a historian. Death and Time reign in the world. You should not call them lords…2 But this “reign” of Time and Death can be overcome only by draining the cup of suffering to the lees gathering times in eternity. S. S. Averintsev writes about his teacher A. F. Losev: “It seems that since Vasily Rozanov and Pavel Florensky there has not appeared anyone who dared speak about the subject matters, which are customary to call the abstract ones, with such ultimate frankness. Each word is thick and ponderable; each word has its scent and taste, and, by the way, it is a very strong prose not despite of but due to its angularity and roughness. It is difficult to forget such passages as the description of internal atmosphere around the New-European representation of Cosmos in “The Dialectics of Myth”; they sink into the mind and worries imagination. The emotional tone is apropos here for Losev’s matter is history of philosophy not as a painless “filiation of ideas” but as a tragedy. His point is a tragic history of philosophy, not some other one”3. I would let me to give one of such passages about the tragedy of philosophy and philosopher here. A. F. Losev writes in his “Essays on Ancient Symbolism and Mythology” (1930): “But now let us speak out the other idea – here it is about not the logical content of dialectics but about its extra-logical value. Suppose we have admitted the fact that its antinomics is logically justified. But is it justified in life or at least widely philosophically? What is the explanation of this laughing and behaving rather outrageously self-contradiction of being and everything thinkable? We should think here as follows. The strangeness and queerness of deductions of dialectics entirely depends on that we, who wish to deal with dialectics, indeed, have got into a very strange and extraordinary area. Such area is an area of pure reason. Look at the life. Where can you fi nd pure reason, pure sense, and perfect consciousness here? Everything flies, changes, and becomes opaque, clarified and opaque again. A whole thought is permeated by casual sensations and images. Eidoses of things are so often beclouded by # 1452 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality various external additions. If it is not Plato’s “Cave”, anyway, it is not anything better in point of clarity and lucidity. Everything is fuzzy and turbid; everything yearns, suffers, and acts; everything is blind, aimless, and irresponsible. Certainly, life is also full of sense, meaning, clarity, light, and purpose. But, in general, being is an indissoluble mass of passions and reason, joys and pains, light and dark. But we have suddenly come to a want to become dialecticians. What does to be a dialectician mean? To be a dialectician means to see all the entirety of life as something undivided. To be a dialectician is to be able to derive every particular and hardly distinguishable moment from that entirety and to be able to bring it back to that entirety. To be a dialectician means to be able to see not only with eyes but with mind, to be pure in mind. Let dialectics also comprise everything out of reason. All the same, it comprises by reason in a mind and for a mind. But where and when do we use pure reason in our life? Where and when are we able to see? Where and when is our thought a pure mirror of being and its inner life pulse? It almost never occurs to us in our life, and we have suddenly come to a wish to become dialecticians. Hereupon, how can it be surprising that our fi ndings in such an “unvital” sphere will appear to be strange, weird, and puzzling? Is not it puzzling to try to live in reason and to speak by reason? Is it not a tightrope-walking to balance in the height of pure reason trying to move away from the brink of abyss as far as possible? Yes, dialectics is puzzling because it is a mind, nous. Philosophy is an acrobatic art for one have to be an equilibrist in life in order to fence oneself off that very “life” and “reality” and in order to make one’s thoughts pull together and live their own life. Thus, dialectics is eccentric not more than a philosopher nowadays (in Plato’s time, too). And its conclusions are not stranger than a desire to live by one’s reason in reason while life rages and bears malice against every reason and meaning. But dialectics becomes apprehensible in its antinomic substance. We could see that dialectical propositions are completely antinomic and selfcontradictory. Why? Because we retreated from life experience and habits of everyday life and took exclusively ideas of reason. A purely idea of reason is to be contradictory, i.e. to sublate (Aufheben) itself, since we have already sublated it from life and being. It is like a creature able to live only in water, and when it is withdrawn out to the air, it pants and flutters in a desire to return to its home element as soon as possible. It is like a bird caught and put in a narrow cage. A creature born for freedom but put into a jail shivers, struggles and cannot wait until he is able to fly freely in the boundless sunny dome of the sky. And pure ideas of dialectics are those living creatures withdrawn from the element of free air and put into the cage of systematic differentiation. They cannot wait until the moment they are able to plunge into the ocean of life again and live in the absolute unity with it. This is the vital nerve of dialectical contradictory nature – it lies in deficiency of life and abstractness of philosophy. But what should we do? Here is the sense and tragedy of a philosopher. A philosopher “loves wisdom” and wants to understand life. But life is not only understanding. Therefore, in order to understand life, i.e. as if in order to become closer to it, a philosopher has to go away from it at some distance, sometimes very far and sometimes he has to retreat from it at all. One cannot understand life without living and creating life, otherwise what should a philosopher understand? But one cannot understand life without retreating from it and retirement into eremitical “contemplation of ideas”, otherwise when and how can one find time to understand life? This contradiction is an essence of a philosopher. And it is also his # 1453 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality tragedy. It becomes clear, profoundly clear the condition of thought when an affirmation is equal to a negation, for philosophical life is like that and the very life is like that. Certainly, this is a tragedy of culture in general for culture is, first of all, creation of understanding of life. It is unnatural and awry to dwell in the sphere of abstract ideas and their dialectics, for life is not an idea and it is not only dialectics. But it cannot be helped. Of course, it would be better not to suffer and die. But what can we do?! If a human is destined to live like that so it could be a pure idea and think like that so it could be a completeness of every life aspiration, it cannot be helped. So let us not reproach dialectics because of philosophy of contradiction. In general, philosophy in its essence and life in its essence are like that”4. 4 We would make an inexcusable mistake if we thought that A. F. Losev, who wrote this about philosophy and a philosopher and about life and culture in such a way, made an exception for himself and did not consider his life to be a tragic one, and regarded himself as one of philosophers out of that tragedy of philosophy, the philosophers “who saw a joyful life and laughed at the very death”. But the tragedy with all its possible breadth, and even universal breadth, always has some definite inevitability, vastness, and omnipotence of chance realized post factum as suddenness. Therefore every philosopher will always find some contradictions even in simply logical terms of mistakes, mess, and absurdity, etc. whether he realizes or does not realize the tragedy of being: he cannot evade inevitability and in awaiting suddenness he cannot be prepared for it and give a clearly logical and worthy answer. Otherwise it is not inevitability and suddenness and therefore life is not a tragedy at all. However if we have decided to push through into life, come from philosophy to society and history with philosophy, reach a personality, such “contradictions” should also find social and historical explanation and should be absolutely solved in a progression of unbroken thought. But this is elementary. However A. F. Losev’s tragedy of his philosophical existence in its specific nature was formed not only as a process of various reactions to various influences of life, i.e. excess of pace of destructive influences over the pace of adequate reactions when life, as they call it, “has dabbed”. A. F. Losev’s tragedy is rather static, stiffened once and for all, combined with a full realization of a tragic personality unable to put up with such a life, an essentially invariable but essentially disgusting life. This almost quarter-century public silence alone speaks about this constancy in life. And what about the manuscripts which were written in 1918 and could not find their publisher until the philosopher’s end of life in May, 1988? And what about the Areopagite’s corpus twice translated from Greek and twice lost for a Russian reader? And what about three library disasters happened to A. F. Losev? Twice the library was robbed and looted and once it was even entombed in the bottom of the crater from direct hit of a demolition bomb fallen on the house where A. F. Losev’s apartment was. A. F. Losev wrote about his second disaster: “The last hope of return to scientific work has died, for who am I without the library? It would be similar as if Chaliapin lost his voice or Rachmaninoff were without his grand piano. What shall I do, a musician, who has lost his instrument, which can be restored by no means?” But the most important feature of constancy and hard fixedness of life influences on A. F. Losev was that A. F. Losev had to make creation of understanding of life all alone in cultural vacuum. But this life, this physical life in about ninety-five years, is not like that it could allow A. F. Losev to # 1454 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality form his own school of philosophy. And in this case, this is obvious: the greater philosopher and the longer his life – the deeper and more acute its tragedy. Yet A. F. Losev had disciples. But either his or their impossibility to speak aloud or to write in public excluded them from the diurnal consciousness of culture. And we do not have to mention the arrangements of life on reasonable basis and active participation in the raise of reason degree of actuality (one never can say that this degree is too high) in the scope corresponding to A. F. Losev’s capabilities of mind. Finally, here are these two senseless alternatives of being of mind emerged for A. F. Losev: either to fold his hands completely or to come to social consciousness in its inevitably transformed forms. A. F. Losev mind could not be inactive and it was also impossible for him to be indifferent to the society. So he consciously had to teeter on the brink of truth and fallacy since 1953 (the year of break of silence in public starting from 1930) until the end of his life. A. F. Losev decided on “deception exalting us” in full awareness of this deception and the fact that it does not exalt his own Losev’s mind and personality, – on the contrary, it humiliates them. And afterwards there would certainly appear some “smart alecks” reproaching him for retreat from pure truth, pure mind and for other sins like these. Such pseudo-guardians of truth should be asked: what have they done? And what were they doing when A. F. Losev was bringing the truth in such inevitably distorted forms to the public? Because there is merely no one who can be on a par with the author of eight-volume “The History of Classical Aesthetics” in Russian history of culture and philosophy. And that is true not just for the Russian antiquity studies but also for all the works in all fields and periods of spiritual culture. 5 For instance, refer to the works by such greatly authoritative historian of the Old Russian literature and culture as Dmitry Sergeyevich Likhachov. Academician D. S. Likhachov is a head of the whole school in Russian cultural studies and history and criticism of literature. He is an author of lots of works and a founder of his own school in Russian studies. However all these could not serve as the base of the works even remotely similar to “The History of Ancient Aesthetics” by A. F. Losev in profoundness, detailed elaborations and global comprehension. But Losev had one and a half thousand years of tradition of antiquity studies which is not the same for history of Russian culture and literature. But we should not forget that A. F. Losev worked alone while academic institutes were not able to organize their potential for something similar to what one man was doing. Meaning is not a function of time though it can be mixed with matter and thus it gets temporal being hence it has its history. Therefore one cannot say that detailed and fundamental, that is perfect works will appear by themselves after fifty or hundred years. Where from will these “works” appear without thinking and labour? In terms of resources, manpower, libraries and other things, the academic science was in a much better position than A. F. Losev. Nobody prevented it from making up for lost time and matching research traditions of antiquity studies as well as history of Russian culture according to the accumulated potential. But one has to condole with the academic science because it has lost socialist competition, the competition under socialism, to A. F. Losev. Undoubtedly, “The History of Classical Aesthetics” has enlarged the difference between meaning potential of antiquity studies and that one of history of Russian culture. However it seems that I contradict myself – I demand impossible from the academic science # 1455 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality and try to compare what is impossible to be compared and then I lament that the comparison is not worth a row of pins. Still less I would like to reproach the academic science in general and one of its best, sagest, noblest, and most honorable representatives – D. S. Likhachov, in particular. Indeed, it is impossible to demand impossible things. But this shows (now it is a comparison again…) what A. F. Losev is capable of. This fetches out the dazzling light of the meaningful substance represented in his “The History of Ancient Aesthetics”. 6 From this point of view, “The History of Classical Aesthetics”, like all the other A. F. Losev’s works published after 1953, most of all needs not lamentation or laugh, admiration or dislike (one cannot go without them but they should not be senseless and precede realization), but social and historical comprehension. This work should be considered to be merely primary and elementary in historical and philosophical study even if there are various possible individually psychological and other difficulties of just comprehension of what is written and difficulties of reflexive following the author’s thought by a reader’s one. Unfortunately, history of philosophy is often substituted by formation of some kind of synthesis from the elements of that comprehended thing, which becomes unique in its marketplace spontaneity and narrow-minded optionality. And then all these things are sent to a printing press. The subsequent comparison with an original is almost always not in favour of that so called research. Why should one write about Plato in obscure, approximate and rough was when we can publish Plato himself and read him directly? But this means that a historical and philosophical research must not be limited by one or another summary of an original read, for a summary is always poorer than the original epitomized. Why should we be content with the worst? In a historical and philosophical research, though a reconstruction of meaning is indispensable, it should be exactly a reconstruction, i.e. it should not be as direct and immediate as the very meaning under reconstruction. Therefore, a reconstruction is to define a heart of meaning of an original as well as methods of shift from this focus of meaning to its periphery, i.e. the methods of comprehension of that periphery by that meaning. But a work of philosophy does not exist in vacuum. It is imprinted in the tradition of meaning, enveloped by that tradition, continues it and thus negates it in its former mode. Accordingly, a historian of philosophy should take pains of comprehension of interaction of the tradition of meaning and a work of philosophy under study. As well, this tradition of meaning is not the ultimate reality on the ground of which one or other masterpieces of philosophy took root, grew, and flourished. Tradition is made by men and society existing within times. So we should take the context of the whole social and cultural actuality in which one or another spiritual tradition arises and exists. We can keep to various views on the relation between spiritual tradition and social and historical actuality. For instance, we can think that one or the other of them is primary and determinative in that relation; one of them can be the part of the other and vice versa. But, perhaps, nowadays, at the end of the 20th century, it is impossible to think of them as absolutely autonomous, irrelative and never associated with each other. But if it is so, the features of influence of social and historical actuality on one or another work of philosophy are to be brought to light. According to A. F. Losev, social and historical explanation should be definitive explanation of a # 1456 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality work of philosophy. But then A. F. Losev himself deserves such explanation most of all. Did critics of A. F. Losev muse upon the sources of his turn to Antiquity? Why does that person have to preach Plato, a thinker who lived twenty-four centuries ago, to venture on disguise in literature and nevertheless to risk his own well-being and life? Why should he get into trouble because of Plato? Well, let Plato endure troubles! Here is one of specific features of social and historical actuality which gave birth to A. F Losev and befell him. A. F. Losev, a son of his 20th century, turns to 5 century B. C. and pays his exploratory attention to Plato though he definitely knows about the future enmity of actuality to him, A. F. Losev, because of that Plato. Therefore it is important to understand social and historical actuality in its contradiction: it needs comprehension of the previous ages which gives birth to the men who are willing to meet this need of actuality before the deed of self-sacrifice. And that actuality is willing to send the precious crystals of spirit under grindstone, which it has grown with such labours and dedication. Thus, according to A. F. Losev’s methodology, it will be right and adequate to study his creative life and personality as a specific phenomenon of social and historical actuality. And it is silly to reprove a person for one or other kind of mistakes. It is important to understand them as mistakes of the very actuality when a person making mistakes is a part of the whole in that actuality. It is important to realize those mistakes as a consequence of inability of that actuality to contain really pure light of truth inside and thus content only with one or another cloudy and obscured view of that truth, “meonized eidos”. And, by the way, it is also important to understand that A. F. Losev made certain efforts so that a thoughtful reader could find a way to the full light and pure shine even in that meonized face. Deliberateness and contradictory character of many Losev’s statements leave no doubt about entire and adequate Losev’s awareness of what comes in a contradictory, cloudy, and deliberate form here. 7 Every person is given to us and important for us (as well as for himself) foremost because of his actuality, i.e. not because of his ruined opportunities and dreams that have not come true, but because of his opportunities and dreams that have come true. This is an old thought spoken out by N. A. Dobrolyubov in relation to works of literature: “The things that an author wanted to tell us are not as important to us as the things that have been brought out by him, even if they it was involuntary and as a consequence of a truthful representation of life facts”5. But the emphases I would like to put on this problem are considerably different and even opposite to those ones of N. A. Dobrolyubov. N. A. Dobrolyubov grounds his right to judge about actuality on a work of literature without any particular reckoning of some subjective mood, desires, and motives of an author of a work of literature. If an artist is really great, he cannot help conveying actuality in its essence. And N. A. Dobrolyubov is still quite profound to deny author’s “volitions” completely, and thus he comes to objective positions. But those “volitions” have their own importance, though secondary ones. N. A. Dobrolyubov orients himself according actuality as “life facts” and he judges about life and facts by a work of literature. But I would like to turn backward – to judge an author’s personality from a work of literature. And though such reorientation brings about some kind of increase of the significance of author’s intentions, dreams, hopes, and so on, however, in this case, they are in the background. A work # 1457 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality of literature, a fact of literature is a result of a person’s objectification. So we shall not repel a personality from an object, and, moreover, according to A. F. Losev, a personality is an identity and a synthesis of subject and object. And if a work of literature contains a sense of one or another fragment of actuality or the whole actuality, it means that a sense is to be involved in identification of a personality and be included in his entire identification. Once I was bluntly amazed by ontological capacity and breadth of one short note by N.A. Berdyaev, who was not deep as a writer because of his unsystematic character of writing, and sometimes he was even didactic and banal, but, perhaps, he was with some spark of genius due to that unsystematic character of writing. Namely, once, it seems that it was in his “Selfcognition”, Berdyaev quoted something from F. M. Dostoyevsky’s “Demons” and added that despite the phrase belonged to Shigalev but still it did not matter. A reader may say: “What nonsense! How can one inscribe F. M. Dostoyevsky’s thoughts in long-eared Shigalev’s notebook?” What should we say to that? We should not identify Shigalev with Dostoyevsky but we should include Shigalev’s thoughts and Shaiglevism into F. M. Dostoyevsky’s world outlook. And, perhaps, it is time to refuse from the ill positivistic manner to esteem only one or other abstract principles directly thrown out of actuality with its unscraped remnants for a world view. Who said that a world view must surely be abstract and theoretical one and have a formal record and any record at all? There is no such thing in life. The elements of a world view under investigation, which form that world view and mingles with each other, are badly perceived or are not realized by subjects of a world view; these elements may be brought to their pure essence on purpose of reasonable clarity. But, fi rstly, it is important to realize that it is we who bring that world view to its most possible clarity, not a subject; secondly, when the most possible limit of clarity and pure bases of a world view are achieved, we should defi ne what consequences of those bases are brought about by a subject of a world view and what area a subject could elicit with a part of light given to him according to the bases of his world outlook; videlicet, we should defi ne how and to what extent pure ideas mingled with matter and what “things” have come from that mixing and what matter has been transformed and converted per sample of those ideas. Hence, it appears that if an author’s subject were not completely equal to one or another outlying object and if an author’s personality did not go beyond such objectivity which makes an author’s body given by Mother Nature, i.e. by father and mother, no writer’s work as well, as any other kind of work, would be possible to accomplish. N. V. Gogol, that very genius and all-time N. V. Gogol, declared very explicitly that he could fi nd every vice of his characters in his own soul. For vice depiction requires not only an abstract ability of abstract and notional reflection. An artist needs to feel and pass through the singularity of a depicted thing and to give it, at least, specific touch of life. Though here the artistic quality of a work of art appears to be problematic, and the way of artist’s attitude to a depicted thing in moral terms is quite a different question; that is a question of author’s conscience which is, by the way, alive and it is not a calculating machine. But it is clear that in order to represent some filth and outrage truly, even though to condemn and defeat those filth and outrage, it is absolutely necessary to gaze into them, to open one’s mind and soul for them and to let filth and outrage in oneself. And here we should raise a question about specificity of one or another person’s world # 1458 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality outlook. Why did F.M. Dostoyevsky exactly produce the consequences out of the bases of his world view causing the prototypes of men killing old women and to prototypes like Pyotr Verkhovensky, the Stavrogins, Versilov, Myshkin or the Karamazovs? Why did the principles of his world outlook in interaction with the actuality lead to such results? While L. N. Tolstoy writing at the same time the results of interaction of world outlook bases with actuality were considerably different. Apparently, every ordinary man as a man of the largest caliber, a genius, is ontologically limited both in his intellection and in his practical activities (in a less degree – in his caprices and claims, although, in the long run it is not without them): he is able to be neither the abstract mind nor the absolute doer. The nature of initial and primary premises in a personality structure and the kind of field it could turn to the consequences of intellective and subject-practical terms characterizes it as a specific and distinctive from other personalities. 8 Now we will try to approach closer to A. F. Losev. In his time, too, many people did many things: dug deep to the most useful minerals, bandaged the paws of wounded dogs, drank “the bitter”, wrote greeting cards, and rode 1 2 3 4 5 home-made scooters devised of planks, nails, and big ball-bearings. Well, we can say: they were alive!.. It is obvious that even if A. F. Losev ever bandaged dog’s paws and even if he wrote greeting cards to them – those affairs were not of the principal kind determining his life and giving meaning and sense to it. The main thing determining A. F. Losev’s life should be sought in his works, for they most essentially filled his life. Herewith, it is not so important how A. F. Losev wanted to appear and speak out as how he has spoken out. It is not so important that because of some reasons, A. F. Losev failed to accomplish the conceived things but the most important thing is what has been done and created by him, though it might be without any special intention to create or it was a respond to very unpleasant and even destructive impact from the outside. Works of a man or any other field of substantial appearances of a personality to the world and people is an essence and the ultimate reality of a person. If a person has a field of being most adequate to that person, we can ascend or descend to that field through that field of reality only, not through another. There is merely no any other field, and we can judge the personality only by his displays, but to judge essentially means to judge from essential manifestations which are to be somehow set apart from all others. By H. Heine („Zur Lazarus“). By Vl. S. Soloviyov. Averintsev, S. S. In Memory of Teacher. – Context – 1990. Moscow, 1990. – P.4. Losev, A. F. Essays on Ancient Symbolism and Mythology. – Vol. 1. – Moscow, 1930. – Pp. 539-541. Dobrolyubov, N. A. When Will a True Day Come? (“On the Eve”, I. Turgenev’s novel “The Russian Herald”, №1, 1860.) – Dobrolyubov, N. A. Works (in 9 volumes). – Vol. 6. – Moscow, 1963. – P. 97. References 1. Averintsev, S. S. In Memory of Teacher. Context 1990. Moscow, 1990. 2. Around Losev: Three philosophical and practical meetings. 3. Gogotishvili, L. A. Early Losev. Questions of Philosophy, № 7, 1989. 4. Dobrolyubov, N. A. When Will a True Day Come? (“On the Eve”, I. Turgenev’s novel “The Russian Herald”, № 1, 1860.) Dobrolyubov, N.A. Works (in 9 volumes). Vol. 6. Moscow, 1963. # 1459 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maxim A. Butin. Rival to the Time: a Search for Specific Features of A. F. Losev’s Personality 5. Erofeev, V. The Last Classical Thinker. Losev A. F. A Passion for Dialectics: Philosopher’s Contemplation on Literature. Moscow, 1990. 6. Losev, A. F. Vladimir Solovyov. Moscow, 1983. 7. Losev A. F. One of the Greatest Pleasures in Life… Bibliophile’s Almanac. Issue № 14. Moscow, 1983. P. 28. 8. Losev, A. F. Essays on Ancient Symbolism and Mythology. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1930. Pp. 539541. 9. Proclus. Elements of Theology. Losev A. F. The History of Ancient Aesthetics. Vol. 3: High Classical Period. Moscow, 1974. 10. Rostovtsev, Y. A. Midnight Vigils. Around Losev: Three philosophical and practical meetings. 11. Spirkin, A. G. About meetings and conversations with A. F. Losev. Ancient culture and Modern Science. Moscow, 1985. 12. Shpet G. G. An Essay on Development of Russian Philosophy. Part 1. Moscow, 1990. Соперник времени: в поисках специфики личности А.Ф. Лосева М.А. Бутин Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье теоретически выстраивается структура личности русского философа Алексея Фёдоровича Лосева. Осуществлена попытка применить лосевские наработки по теории личности и мифу к самому автору этих теорий и критически осмыслить, насколько соответствует реальная личность её собственным исследованиям о личности. Ключевые слова: русская философия, А.Ф. Лосев, Платон, личность, лик, субъект, объект, интеллигенция, эйдос, ум, дух, материя, тело, миф, чудо. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1461-1470 ~~~ УДК 94 (47) : 94 (571) Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia by the Inhabitants of European Russia in the XIX-th Century Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 30.01.2013, received in revised form 02.02.2013, accepted 06.06.2013 The paper deals with the formation of perception stereotypes of Siberia by the population of the European part of Russia, shows the influence of stereotypes on the establishment of social and psychological relationships between different social groups. These issues are analyzed on the example of V.G. Korolenko, whose works most clearly reflected in figurative Siberia stereotype of the author and the people who surrounded him during his political exile at the end of XIX century. Keywords: exile, culture, Russia, Siberia, the stereotypes, V.G Korolenko. The history of development of communication links between the European part of Russia and Siberian region has represented a great interest for researchers. Relying on “the norms of ethics, morality, and rectitude and implementing within the standard rules of etiquette”, the communication helped to identify distinctive and unique features of interacted cultures, influenced the forms of their mutual stereotype perception. (Remizov, 2011: 31). A diversity of specific features in its development has made Siberia attractive as a special social and cultural aspect. It used to have an aura of unpredictability and incomprehensibility, the monumental might and vigour. This has a special impact on how Siberia was stereotyped in the cultural and psychological aspects, and it formed an image perception of the region in the minds of the Russian European part inhabitants. Lack of awareness about the lifestyle * of Siberia its dissimilitude and difference from traditional knowledge available about the region led to a cultural and psychological gap between the inhabitants of the central part Russia and Siberia. Formation of this distance was facilitated not only by the differences in lifestyle, but also by different religious consciousness of region inhabitants. As it has been noted by a number of researchers, if Siberian people was slightly religious and had “their own particular outlook on life”, the settlers from the Russian provinces “had the higher religious and moral consciousness” (Lityagina, 2006: 120). Immigrants from Central Russia to Siberia were mostly peasants, “basic characteristic of whom was the deep religiosity. It reflected the world outlook and views of peasants to life... moral norms that are passed on from generation to generation” (Sinyakina, 2011: 99). © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1461 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… And if geographically Russia and Siberia were considered an organic whole in cultural and psychological terms they kept identifying “friendor-foe”. For a visitor travelling into Siberia, the territory up to the Urals border was identified as a “friend territory” whereas the territory behind the Urals was recognized as alien, unfamiliar, “foe” territory. G. Kennan, an American traveller, who visited Siberia in the 80s of the XIX-th century describes his experience. “A quadrangular pillar, built of brick, with the coat of arms of a European province Perm fixed on the one side and that of the Siberian province of Tobolsk fixed on the opposite side of it was seen as the boundary; the “Siberian Boundary Stone”. G. Kennan writes that “no other territory in Russia had invoked so much curiosity in a traveller, as this little forest glade, with the stone pillar, consecrated with grief and human misery. No other border pillar in the whole world had witnessed so much grief, such severe hardship as this one, the countless brokenhearted creatures had passed it …one were completely fraught with sorrow, others -seeking consonance in tears; the third prostrating biting the dust of their motherland and kissing the cold stone pillar, as if it was the symbol of all the most dearest, that they had left once...” Having crossed the border, people “had to part with the Motherland, and with love” (Kennan, 1906: 32). Emotionally-coloured stereotypical perception destructive philosophy of thinking often proved to be much stronger than logical reasoning. However, being a part of Russia, Siberia was naturally involved in a nationwide cultural interaction. The cultural interaction between the center and the region was carried out by people who due to various life circumstances found themselves into Siberia. Among them were those who came voluntarily to work in a province, but the vast majority were criminals and those convicted for political reasons. Only in the Yenisei province the total number of convicts as on January 1, 1908 amounted to 50,163 (Statistical Review, 1908: 78). Study of the process of crosscultural interaction, “arising during the relations of the migrant and the host country”, reveals the principles of co-existence of different ethnic and social groups. During the migratory movement in the human mind there is the start of the process of identification of cultural differences, the function of culture translation, definitions of the rules of behavior between migrants and the host cultural environment (Zamaraeva, 2011: 815). Depending on the reasons and purposes of these people stay in Siberia formed their perceptions and stereotypes of the region, shaped their strong opinion on the lifestyle of local inhabitants. These stereotypes, in turn, determined the behavioural style, influencing the relations between people. The existing stereotypes facilitated to explain and understand the new conditions of existence the people were compelled to. The problem was only in the extent to which these patterns reflected an objective reality, as they were mostly generated by those whom Siberia turned to become a confined destination. And then, the stereotypes though consciously or subconsciously, generated a negative perceptions of the region as a whole. Thus, the stereotype of appearance, as a subliminal message, affected interpersonal relations. The prisoners were surrounded by gendarmes, people with low moral culture, and often unattractive look, so as they were attributed all the vices and weaknesses, contributing to firm negative personal perception. The existing significant differences between the regions had added to the core principle of the stereotyping. The information about these people reached the central Russia through the publications in the newspapers and the personal impressions and experiences of those who visited Siberia. In these cases the formation of the social stereotype was conducted through psycho-semantic approach, implemented through the paradigm of subjective # 1462 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… understanding, that is, all the knowledge, all the information about something was obtained through an intermediary-recipient. Such obtained information carried the experience of the spiritual life of another person. The reconstruction of being was carried out through the construction of subjective semantic spaces. (Petrenko, 2006: 56) However, such sources of information may not always be objective, and thus, the stereotypes formed on the basis of the sources were not always true and accurate. N. Yadrintsev in one of his essays writes that “the exiled and exilic poetry receives the impression of a subjective sensation, transmits a picture of the country based on single experiences, the country for exile is drawn entirely other guess, he was always elegizing, whining and venting spleen in his hatred upon the destination of the exile. His sympathies in another country. Under these conditions, the country cannot inspire a singer whereas a poet will forever remain alien to it “(Kolosov, 1906: 217). Regionalists also noted that the existing cultural and historical differences have contributed to the development of relations between the regions. The inhabitants of European Russia had the stereotype perception of Siberia as a raw material market and a culturally and economically weak region. It reflected, in their opinion, the model of the “relations of European conquistadors to the aborigines”, the conquistadors “deprived them of humanity, fully identifying with the flora and fauna”, that “gave them the right to act against them on the basis of the presumption of complete moral freedom to satisfy their own interests” (Emelyanov-Lukyanchikov, 2004: 124). N. Yadrintsev’s conviction in the existence of special Siberian regional anthropological and culturalpsychological type laid in the basis of his idea about cultural identity of Siberia. Regionalists acknowledged that the Siberian issue could be resolved only with the change of relations between regions that in turn was directly related to the change of stereotype perception of Siberia by whole Russia (Asoyan, 2012: 30). Coming to Siberia with definite world outlook, the exiled got what they had expected to see. People tend to easily generalize isolated facts, and translate them to the status of laws. Moreover, such generalization leads to the fact that even insignificant differences are tremendously exaggerated. The information that proves the stereotype contributes to its sustainability, while some inconsistency is often ignored. Some single examples of inconsistencies with the stereotype can co-exist, even contributing to its stability. Stereotypes affect the human mentality, behaviour, interpretation of events, and thereby acquire a social meaning. In determining a human behaviour, stereotypes attribute this behaviour by certain factors and reasons. From this point of view, some facts from the biography of V.G.Korolenko who refused to take an “oath of allegiance” to the new tsar, and in 1881 was exiled to Yakutia may stir a great interest. Having crossed the whole Siberia as the exiled, V.G. Korolenko was closely interacted with the convicts both vagabonds and political. The main characters of his stories were real living people, that definitely contribute to confidence and true of the described experiences from these meetings. A talented writer V.G. Korolenko was able to create an image of Siberia in his stories, which reflected the awareness of the author and its stereotypical perception by the people who surrounded the writer. The social significance of creative activity of V.G.Korolenko for Siberia is truly invaluable. Having worked for more than 20 years in the magazine “Russkoye Bogatstvo” (Russian Wealth), in St. Petersburg he gave coverage to diversity aspects of Siberian life. The magazine published various scientific, political, and literary materials. The exiled sent materials to the editor about the conditions of stay in exile, the magazine # 1463 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… assisted with fundraising for the needs of Siberia, for the benefit of the unemployed, the exiled and prisoners. Contributions came from Kurgan, Chita, Krasnoyarsk, Minusinsk. Performing communication functions, the magazine has been one of a few informative sources, through which the inhabitants of the central Russia formed their own perception of Siberia, that is, the magazine promoted the creation of a realistic stereotypical image of the region. Siberia, in turn, thanks to the magazine could express their needs, share problems in hope to be heard by the Russian public and the authorities. Importance of the press, journalism and literature as a tool of social influence can not be underestimated during exploration of the problems of the Russian society. Press greatly helped to increase its liberalization, encouraging the government to be imbued with the public interests (Hevrolina, 2004: 167). Realizing the great importance of the magazine for the cultural life of the region, the Siberians were actively involved in its publishing destiny. When in 1904, a member of the editorial board of “Russkoye Bogatstvo” (Russian Wealth) N.K. Michailovsky had died , the letters and telegrams of sympathy poured in from Siberia together with donations for a memorial to him. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary V.G.Korolenko received a cordial welcome from the editions of “Sibirskaya Zhisn”(Siberian Life), “Sibirskiy Vestnik” (Siberian Gazette) from the readers of Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Chita. Such a close relationship and support to the magazine from the Siberians showed their confidence in the editorial staff, the agreeing with the position of the magazine in highlighting the issues and problems regarding the life of Siberia. Therefore we can assume that the materials published on the pages of publications had greatly contributed to the formation of the objective image of Siberia and the influence on the formation of stereotypes of the region of the readers of the European part of Russia. It was also promoted by the range of the aspects that were covered on its pages. They were related to public education, land-planning and management, the issues of justice, the destiny of native minorities of Siberia, exile and migration. Journalistic publications and fiction had also greatly contributed to realistic image of Siberia in readers. The authors were often the Siberians, who knew the insight of the life of Siberia. For them Siberia was a part of their life so were their works with almost no romance but essay of everyday life. On the pages of the “ Russkoye Bogatstvo “ published Siberian poets G. Vyatkin, P. Jakubowicz, writers S. Elpatievsky, W. TanBogoraz, and it was V.G.Korolenko who did the review of those works, thereby contributing to the qualitative development of the Siberian fiction. The magazine had also encouraged the writers who had learned Siberian through their exile experience e.g. S. Shvetsov, N. Ann. C. Chudnovsky, who was exiled to the Yenisei province, wrote about the need for judicial reform in Siberia, as there was virtually no justice. W. Aref wrote about the school education that dramatically fell behind time, as church schools were only sponsored by the local population. The stereotypical image of Siberia was formed just by hearsay. We can trace the story thanks to the article of S. Florovsky “To the chronicle the migrant movement in Siberia for the last few years.” published in 1901 in a magazine. The author reports that annually 11-18% migrants move back from Siberia i.e. three out of ten thousand families. He wrote: “The returnees look so depressed... They share the most incredible horror of stories about Siberian edge, and no surprising that those migrants to Siberia, having heard that horrible stories, give up and come back out of the way” (Siberian Page), 1987: 47). Thus, we may conclude that one of the sources of the stereotypical understanding of # 1464 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… Siberia were the mass media publications in the magazines that gave the coverage of the life of the region. However, you just cannot deny the role of hearsays in forming the perception of the stereotypical image of Siberia, the corrosive effects of which enhanced by implicit faith had an immense impact and spread. The territorial remoteness and long prison terms had also affected the perception of Siberia as a death-trap destination to get back from which was virtually impossible. In his diary V.G. Korolenko writes about an officer who reported that he had seen many people to Siberia but had not met them back from that destination. The destiny of Jacob Freezer is noteworthy in this respect. The son of the Jew exiled to Siberia, he became the major goldminer, “distinguished by wealth”, patron, philanthropist, was well-known outside of Siberia. But when Ya. Freezer, being 10 years in the first guild merchant class, submitted the application for the right to live everywhere in the empire, it was refused because he belonged to the category of exiles (Kalmina, 2006: 144). N.M Astyrev, a researcher and a journalist in his book “Na Tagiezhnykh Progalinakh” (On Taiga Clearings) about the Siberian peasants adds more evidence to generic nature of Siberia perception as a place of complete or partial neglect . He was also in correspondence with V. G. Korolenko. As Siberia had attracted his attention, therefore, taking the advantage of the invite from the GovernorGeneral of Eastern Siberia, N.M Astyrev in 1887, arrived in Irkutsk, where he headed the Statistical Committee. By participating in expeditions to the eastern Siberia, he had been collecting material for his books, which encompassed information on statistics, sociology, ethnography and folklore. N. M. Astyrev is closely associated with the exiled in Irkutsk, and thus his perception of Siberia may well have been very typical of them. In his letters to V.G. Korolenko, he writes: “So beautiful may Siberia be, it is the destination of obscurity. Woe had lost in its taiga, tundra and steppes! ... Too soon their beloved who stayed of the other side of “the Stone” forget them. Further, N. M.Astyrev writes that he does not even speak of himself, but “ broadly generalizes,” although he could be a particular example to prove the general rule for these things” (an issue of “Sibirskie Stranitsy”(Siberian Pages), 1987: 97). Despair, hopelessness and fear capture a human mind and even a possibility of being exiled to Siberia, could not but come true when meeting it. The existence of the perception stereotype formed an emotional state of persistent depression and had led to grave results. The author of the article “Rysskaya Ssylka “ (Russian Exile) C. Dizhur published in the journal “Russkoye Bogatstvo”(Russian Wealth), writes that “high mortality rate in Siberia is due to huge mortality rate exclusively among the exiled (in 1892 the mortality rate in European part of Russia was thirty –eight deceased of one thousand inhabitants verses the forty-four decease in Siberia) (Dizhur, 1900). V.G. Korolenko’s perception of Siberia can be considered typical for many exiled. Having crossed virtually all the Siberian region as a part of the prisoner transport the writer had the opportunity to closely interact with fellow prisoners. In his works, diaries, and letters the talented writer conveys their impressions to the readers. V.G.Korolenko recalls that the exiled in Irkutsk literally pounced on him with questions, and listened eagerly to everything he said. People when isolated from public life, were so excited to learn at least some pieces of information about what is going on outside of their detention. The writer describes his emotional state in the story “Sokolivets.” He writes about a state of mind “when all the grief so powerfully captured the heart, when the “strange land “ is so hostile and blows all its gloom and chill on you, when all these mountains, forests and endless steppes crushingly dominate with menacingly anxious imagination # 1465 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… immeasurably, irresistible space , which lays between you and all the beloved, distant, lost, that so relentlessly attracts ... And the suppressed grief raises its head among dead calmness and in the darkness, whispering so clearly that terrible fateful words: “ forever… in the grave, forever ...” (Korolenko, 1953-1956, Vol. 1: 131-132). Such an emotional state depended on a human, on his attitude to the reality that surrounded him. Without changing his attitude to surrounding environment and perception of reality, which became stereotypic, made it impossible to get out of the impasse. Many were never able to overcome it. The state of chronic depression often pushed the people to an inadequate acts. In his “Istoriya Moego Sovremennica (A Story of My Contemporaries),” Korolenko writes that they literally was thunderstruck by the rumor that the exiled Bagin strangled his wife, and then poisoned himself. The exiled A. Pavlov committed suicide, having left note, “died of grief and idleness (Krotov, 1925: 43). The writer considered himself guilty in this death, since was not able to understand the mood of a fellow victim, and provided no moral support . In “Stories of My Contemporary” V.G. Korolenko tells how desperate the Polish rebels were “having lost all contacts and support of their homeland.” Strife and squabbles were growing while the moral principles of the Polish convicts were overturning (Korolenko, 1985: 288). The rejection of another way of life, reluctance to adapt to local conditions, led to depression, emotional breakdowns. V.G. Korolenko himself was a businesslike man, with a steady system of values and beliefs, but even he experienced a period of discouragement. The poem “Za Dveriyu”(Behind the door) written in Tobolsk prison reflected the desperate mood of the writer. Work saved him from the depression of “idleness “ during his residence at a penal colony settlement. He writes to his brother Illarion to city Glasov, that in the winter he sews boots, and in the summer he is engaged in agriculture. “So – I learned to ploy, harrow, mow and even press ... I have a horse. In addition to these ...we are hunting hairs in the the forest “(Korolenko, 1935: 171173). The writer was also involved in teaching activities, teaching boys of a local resident Afanasieva to read and write, he also collected and wrote down the Yakut native songs, kept a diary , he kept records for each postal station, which he passed, collecting statistics about its population, its property and the state payroll, was an active correspondence with Russian magazines. The hope to come back to Russia, the desire to understand the local lifestyle, an attempt to attract the attention of the Russian public to the problems of Siberia, the awareness in this the importance of his activities, kept V.G. Korolenko going by giving his a chance to overcome the stereotypes and find the positives sides in this situation. Total cultural and psychological perception of Siberia by people, who by the will of fate found themselves at this remoteness destination, can be understood by tracing the fate of the characters in the V.G. Korolenko’s works. The writer often focuses on the psychological details of the behaviour of his characters. Common to them is the change of perception of the world around that occurs to them when crossing the border with Siberia. This is due, first of all with a sense of cultural and psychological distance, which is manifested in alienation, in the rejection of everything “strange”. This antagonistic commonality and utter disbelief in a possibility of reasonable changes for the better programmed the basics of behaviour of these people. Humility, resignation to fate loss of faith – these features are embodied in the image of Makar, the character created by the writer in the story “Makar’s Dream.” He was a host of the yurt, where the writer Zahar a Russian # 1466 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… immigrant who adopted Yakut manners lived. Resignation, the feeling that he has no choice and chance to change the life, as everybody has the same life, ground Makar to total savagery and complete abandonment. By creating a construct of a settler, V.G. Korolenko was able to show the dreadful habit to this dark and dirty life. People got used to it and they thought it was forever. The desire of the writer to go into the details of better understanding of life processes, sparked a strong interest in him in the human psyche. The stereotypical setting out in a human that he has no choice, deprives indeed a human of the right to choose, and the power of tradition creates a psychological basis for passive obedience to the established lifestyle in the mind the conviction that it is forever. V.G. Korolenko shows that even honest people in such circumstances, are doomed to gradually and imperceptibly lose the sense of foulness that is happening around. Another his short story “The Feudal Lords,” tells us a story of some public officers who came from the central Russia to Siberia to execute certain state duties, though in fact, arranged their own private matters. The full tragedy of the same degeneration of the human mind, which the writer experiences personally, he describes in his story “Iskushenie” (Temptation).” “I clearly realized that I, Vladimir Korolenko is now dying. I will be really dead, or rather transform into a midcult ignorant creature Ivan Ivanov, prosecuted, angry, doomed to drag out a miserable existence, full of unknown adventure and mystery. And I felt that it would be no me any more. My fate will lead me the road, which is alien to me and unpleasant “(Korolenko, 1980: 170). The tragedy of this transformation was that just revenge was left for the embittered human The revenge for everything that has killed the human in him that made him a philistine Ivanov. The mindset that nothing can be changed and everything that happens – is forever that completely ruins and maims the souls. Luckily, V.G.Korolenko, being a man of strong will, was able to survive this hardships preserving his personal ego, but many failed. Speaking of his meeting with an employee Stepan (his story “Marusiya’s Zaimka” (Marusya’s Lodge), who lived in Siberia for 15 years, the writer underlined how terrified he was with all this hopelessness, having lost even its sorrow” that he felt in Stephan’s response to the question, why he did not leave Siberia”. In a conversation with a ploughman Timokha, V.G. Korolenko asked him if he receives a letter from Russia. Timokha replies: “No letter can reach this neck of wood! Too far, bro! Chased we were and driven, ooh, my God! What letters!”.The perceptions of Siberia as something alien and hostile, made the people’s lives there intolerably difficult, and the realization that is forever, deprived it of its meaning. For the Siberian Russia was also strange and foreign. In the story “Ubivets” (Murderer) V.G. Korolenko tells the story of his meeting at a postal station with the superintendent Vasily Ivanovich, who for his free-thinking philosophical thoughts was downgraded the carrier ladder. When in due time he was offered a “decent place in Russia,” he replied, “No, sir, thank you, I can not ... I cannot, sir! What can I do there? All is foreign my interests. «Siberians way of thinking and understanding was different and this perception served the basis for the formation of the stereotype “friend or for” and it does not matter, which social group they represent. And if Siberian people had their own concept of native land with positive treats, the “image of Siberia in the Russian mass consciousness possessed the stable stereotypes: “Siberia is a colony”, “raw materials appendage”, “place of penal servitude and exiles” (Vinokurova, 2012: 224) .In the story “Sokolinets” V.G.Korolenko described his acquaintance with Basil hobo, who tells him how to hit in Siberia. When the gang was solving what Vasily should do , the old man, a member of the # 1467 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… farm said: “Hey you punks, you don’t think out way! You judge in raseyske (the way of thinking and lifestyle in the central Russia), and I’m in the local. I know the local orders ...” And even the Siberian landscape described in the story “At-Davan,” that had to conquer the minds with it s grandeur and beauty, produces a depressing effect. Describing his journey along the Lena River, V.G. Korolenko wrote that it “completely slopes are dotted with dense wood carrion. The closest you can see the corpses of trees covered with snow, with torn from the ground, frantically twisted roots. “Only the plain wood “is a long, dark, funereal border” (V.G. Korolenko, 1980: 176). We believe that such comparisons can shape only in the imagination of a human being in a certain emotional mood. The formed social stereotypes created a belief in a human, which is often stronger than his will. Consciousness is the part of a creative force. Thinking can be both creative or destructive, we can pull towards what we want or vice versa what really do not want to. The stereotype of perception of Siberia, based on the destructive thinking, deprived a human of moral power. Broken-hearted people had fallen into line with failures, losers and suicides, insane. The laws of psychology, being as objective as the laws of physics and mathematics are the evidence for that the mental attitude to something created by a belief in the stereotype defines the behaviour of people. Impact of social stereotypes of Siberia on the people who were came to Siberia against their good will discussed in this paper in the context of the analysis of creative activity V.G. Korolenko, who has always paid attention to the psychological state of his characters, confirms the correctness of the conclusions reached. References 1. Asoian, Yu.A. (2012). “The composer of original cultures?” (The idea of culture in the Siberian regionalism of N.M. Yadrintsev [“Sochinitel‘ samobytnykh kul‘tur ?” (Ideia kul‘tur v sibirskom oblastnichestve N.M. Yadrintseva]. Kul‘turologiia (Cultural Studies), 1, 29-40. 2. Bialyi, G.A. V.G. Korolenko [V.G. Korolenko]. Leningrad, Khudozhestvennaya Literatura, 1983. 350 p. 3. Emel‘ianov-Luk‘ianchikov, M.A. (2004). Concept of “tribalism” of K.N. Leontiev in the civilization historiosophy of the XIX – XX centuries [Kontseptsiia “plemenizma” K.N. Leont‘eva v tsivilizatsionnoi istoriosofi i XIX – XX vekov]. Voprosy istorii (Questions of history), 9. 120-132. 4. Hevrolina, V.M. (2004). Review of the monograph “Grosul V.Ya. Russian Society of the XVIII – XIX centuries. Traditions and innovations [Retsenziia na monografiiu “Grosul V.Ya. 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[Collected editions in 10 vol.]. Moscow, 19531956. 10. Korolenko, V.G. Dnevnik. 1893 – 1994 [Dairy 1893-1894]. Vol.2. Kiev, State Editing House of Ukrain, 1926. 285 p. 11. Korolenko, V.G. Pis‘ma iz tiurem i ssylok. 1879-1885 [Letters from jails and exile. 1879-1885]. Gor‘kii,1935. 322 p. 12. Korolenko, V.G. Sibirskie rasskazy i ocherki [Siberian Stories and essays]. Moscow, Khudozhestvennaya Literatura,1980. 319 p. 13. Krotov, M.A. Iakutskaia ssylka 70-80 godov [Yakut Exile 70-80s.]. Moscow,1925. 342 p. 14. Lityagina A.V. (2006). Level of religiosity in Western Siberia (1801 – 1917) [Uroven‘ religioznosti naseleniia Zapadnoi Sibiri (1801-1917)]. Voprosy istorii (Questions of history). 9. 117-124. 15. Negretov, P.I. V.G. Korolenko: Letopis‘ zhizni i tvorchestva. 1917-1921 [V.G. Korolenko. Chronicle of life and work.1917-1921]. Moscow, Kniga,1990. 287 p. 16. Petrenko, V.F., Sapsoleva, O.N. 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Korolenko in recollections of the contemporaries (Introduction and text edition and notes T.G. Morozova)]. Moscow,1962. 365 p. 22. Vinokurova, U.A. (2012). Post-Soviet Siberian person: the transformation of values [Postsovetskii sibiriak: transformatsiia tsennostei]. Kul‘turologiia (Cultural Studies), 3. 222-225. 23. Zamaraeva, Yu.S. (2011). Relations of the migrants and the host environment as a phenomenon of the modern culture of Krasnoyarsk Territory (the results of the association experiment on the methodology of “serial thematic association” [Otnoshenie migranta i prinimaiushchei sredy kak fenomen sovremennoi kul‘tury Krasnoiarskogo kraia (rezul‘taty assotsiativnogo eksperimenta po metodike “seriinye tematicheskie assotsiatsii”]. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Series: Humanities. 4. 805-815. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatyana V. Gryaznuhina and Alexander G. Gryaznuhin. Impact of Social Stereotypes on the Perception of Siberia… Влияние социальных стереотипов на восприятие Сибири жителями Европейской России в XIX в. Т.В. Грязнухина, А.Г. Грязнухин Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье рассмотрены вопросы формирования стереотипов восприятия Сибири жителями Европейской части России, показано влияние этих стереотипов на установление социальнопсихологических связей между различными социальными группами. Данные проблемы анализируются на примере творчества В.Г. Короленко, в произведениях которого наиболее ярко отразилось образно-стереотипное восприятие Сибири самого автора и людьми, которые окружали его во время политической ссылки конца XIX века. Ключевые слова: В.Г. Короленко, культура, Россия, Сибирь, стереотипы, ссылка. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1471-1478 ~~~ УДК 159.923:378.178 Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups in the Trainings of Personal Growth Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova* Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University them. VP Astafeva 89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia Received 22.07.2013, received in revised form 24.07.2013, accepted 31.07.2013 The present study examines changes of self-knowledge and self-attitude of students – future psychologists from the first to the fi fth year. The trainings of the personal growth are the most effective way for the development of these processes. Therefore, these trainings are often included in the curriculum of Psychological faculties. Annually the research examined the effectiveness of the personal growth training for students – future psychologists of educational (stable) groups. The study tested selfknowledge and self-attitude of students using self-reports, “Twenty statements of self-attitude TestKuhn M., McPartland T.”, and projective drawing technique before and after the training. The result revealed that the values of self-knowledge and self-attitude of stable educational students groups at the social level were much higher than the values of these parameters at the physical and reflexive levels. At the same time the physical level of self-consciousness correlates with the reflexive level and inversely correlates with the social level. Consequently, the fi xation on the social images of selfcauses defense mechanisms and prevents the experience of physical and reflexive images of Myself. Thus, personal growth trainings in stable educational groups have inhibitory effects on the personal and professional development of students as they block the growth of their self-knowledge and selfattitude. Keywords: self-knowledge, self-attitude, personal growth training, physical, social and reflexive levels of self-consciousness, stable educational groups of students. From the point of view of psychological analysis self-knowledge is a process and a product (Rubenstein, 2003; Stolin, 1983; Chesnokova, 1977). The greater attention of the researches is focused on the study of self-knowledge and selfattitude. Self-knowledge is defined as complex long in time process the product of which is quite rigid images of Myself. According to I.I. Chesnokova * (Chesnokova, 1997) self-knowledge is the mechanism to study oneself leading from elementary self-feelings firstly organic, to selfperceptions, self-beliefs, viewpoints and notions about oneself. In this way I.I. Chesnokova describes development as a complex process individually long in time and divided into two basic levels. At the first level self-knowledge is fulfilled through different forms of correlation of © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1471 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… oneself with other people. At this level of selfknowledge isolated images of oneself and one self’s behavior are combined as if they are tied to certain situation, certain communication, some relatively stable sides of notions of Myself are formed, but there is no yet a complete true understanding of oneself connected with the notion of self being. For the second level it is typically that self-correlation of knowledge about oneself is fulfilled not in the frames of “Myself and Another Person” but in the frames of “Myself – Myself” when a person operates with ready knowledge about himself, in some extent with former received in different times in different situations. Thus, I.I. Chesnokova defines two levels of self-knowledge in self-consciousness. Meanwhile, self-consciousness according to known in psychology definition has threelevel structure (James, 1991; Kon, 1978; Stolin, 1983). I.I. Chesnokova describes psychological peculiarities of images not only “social Myself” and “spiritual Myself” but also “Physical myself” it means, in fact she also emphasizes three levels of self-consciousness structure but she reviews self-knowledge only at social and personal levels of a person’s activity. At the same time as it was mentioned above this author asserts that selfconsciousness starts with the stage of elementary self-feelings at the beginning of organic ones. Such characteristic of self-consciousness is out of the frames defined by the author for this process. It seems that besides two levels of selfconsciousness (self-consciousness in the system of “Myself and Another one” and “Myself – Myself” i.e. in the system of correlation of oneself with others and in the system of correlation of oneself with oneself), developed by I.I. Chesnokova there is also elementary level of self-knowledge, at it a person learns himself at a physical level of activity. At this level self-knowledge is also in the system of correlation relations of oneself with oneself, i.e. in the system of relations “subject – subject”, and the tool of self-knowledge is elementary self-feeling. Domestic cultural and historical tradition in psychology and psychic study left aside of its researches the problem of the body. V.P. Zinchenko (Zinchenko, 1994) wrote that L.S. Vyigotskiy was mainly busy with the problem of spiritual Myself. From the point of view of general psychology the extension of problem of consciousness and self- consciousness that is used by psychologists practitioners is interesting in the highest extent. Tight unity of emotional experience and image of Myself was shown by Z. Freud emphasising the most important role of body like psycological object in development of egostructure. More concrete the problem of Myself connection with the body was researched in the work of R.Lang (Lang, 1995), who devided people into “embodied” and “not embodied” depending on how they feel themselves “submerged” into their bodies and find themselves apart from their bodies in some extent. Thus and individual as a starting point has the feeling of his body as a base on which he can be a personality together with other people. Separating Myself from the body prevents from direct participating of not embodied Myself in any aspect of life in this world that is mediated only thanks to corporal perception, feelings and actions (means of expressiveness, gests,words, actions and so on). Not embodied Myself becoms hyperconsciousness. It tries to postulate its own imago (in psychoanalysis imago is unconsciousness image of objects, in this very case it is unconsciousness images of a personal body). It develops relations with itself and the body that can become quite complex (Lang, 1995: 87-88). Following R. Lang and I.I. Nalchadzhan (Nalchadzhan, 1988) we consider that corporal image of Myself (“physical Myself”) is the basis on which further development of Myself-concept takes place. According to this understanding of the # 1472 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… body scheme we cannot agree with V.V. Stolin’s thought that body scheme and the way the person feels are not in the Myself structure because “they are integrated directly into the psychic system of the organism”. Body scheme and the way the person feels (as emotional experience of actual perception of a personal body and its factual state) are not “analogues of Myself at the level of organism” (Stolin, 1983) but full-fledged “component cells” or substructure of Myselfconcept (A.A. Nalchadzhian, 1988). The image of the body is relatively stable substructure of Myself-concept. Ungeneratedness of self-identity can play dramatically deformating role in a person’s self- consciousness formation. In the whole the analysis of the literature showed that self-knowledge is made at all three levels of self- consciousness and at the level of “social Myself” self-knowledge is made in the system of “Myself and Another one” but at the levels of “physical Myself” and “spiritual Myself” it is in the system of “Myself – Myself”. Many-step complex process of selfknowledge is necessarily joined with self-attitude. Being an aspect of self-organization, self-attitude as well as self-knowledge is fulfilled like a process and its product. In this research after I.I. Chesnokova we understand self-attitude like personal emotional experience and estimation of that a person learns, understands and “reveals” inside himself. If in the course of self-knowledge study in the literature analysis it was quite easy to define its procedural characteristic and its product (image of Myself) then it occurred to be a difficult business for self-attitude. As S.R. Pantileev mentions (Pantileev, 1991) it is possible to separate out self-appraisal in self-description and even to isolate it from word self-description but it is extremely hard to separate knowledge out the estimation. Connection of self-knowledge and self-attitude in Myself-conception is so high that in some researches (Schavelzon, R) self-attitude loses its theoretical status to be a special object of psychological analysis. In the given research we follow the point according to which the separation of the processes of self-knowledge and selfattitude has the great meaning for understanding of the content and the functions of self-attitude in self- consciousness. We review self-attitude like an aspect of self- consciousness that has its own content and functions. Having reconsidered existing in western literature basic notions about the structure of generalized self-attitude and connected to it problems, S.R. Pantileev (Pantileev, 1991) developed five basic approaches to understanding of global self-appraisal and its structure. In these approaches two positions that are taken into consideration by the researches can be separated out: firstly, there is some generalization of self-attitude (self-respect and self-appraisal) that are integral, one-dimensional and universal formations expressing the degree of positivity of individual’s attitude to his own viewpoint of himself; secondly, this generalized self-attitude integrates somehow from private self-appraisals. Yet it is necessary to mention that in one of the approaches (in the fifth one) self-attitude is reviewed not like a product (selfappraisal) but like a process, i.e. like an emotional experience. Following by K. Rogers (Rogers, 2000) in this research self-appraisal from the point of view of emotional experience is understood in the form of notions about oneself and selfattitude is understood like some universal and stable feeling of self-respect – like self-appraisal (Bern, 1986). The most distinctively this position is shown in K Rogers’s works (Rogers, 2000), he separates out two aspects in self-appraisal: selfappraisal and emotional. Self-appraisal attitude leads to formation of self-appraisal of oneself like a bearer of certain features and merits; emotional attitude leads to self-acceptance in the # 1473 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… whole not depending on one’s own features and merits or, on the contrary, to self- unacceptance. The mechanism of formation of these selfattitude sides is absolutely diverse. Self-appraisal according to any feature is more often based on comparison of self-progresses with progresses of other people. Self-acceptance is not only appraisal but also a general life guideline that is formed in the process of ontogenesis and also thanks to consciousness efforts. A complex structural composition of selfattitude can become the basis for inner conflict when immediate emotional experience of oneself, liking for oneself, emotional acceptance of oneself, one’s aspiration for self-realization do not coincide with self-appraisal. We fi nd the statement that self-appraisal defends oneself actively with different authors (V.V. Stolin, 1983; K. Rogers, 2000). This is connected to the use of mechanisms of psychological defense by an individual that are necessary to overcome dissonance between his immediate emotional experience and appraisal of the image of Myself. Reacting on the state of this dissonance like a threat arising because of emotional experience contradicting Myself-conception and individual uses one of the two defense mechanisms – distortion or negation. The fi rst one is used to change the personal importance of emotional experience, the second one somehow removes the fact of emotional experience itself. The source of arising in the result of it disadaptation is in potential conflict between guidelines, appraisal of personal Myself and appraisals coming from other people and interiorized by individual (Rogers, 2000; Chesnokova, 1977). At the same time there is data according to which mismatch of two components of selfattitude may lead to personal growth (Adler, 1997). All these indicate that self-attitude has a level structure. According to the notion that is being developed in this research, self-attitude is fulfilled at physical and reflexive levels of selfconsciousness. First of all, we’ll mention that in psychological literature this problem hasn’t been worked out enough. The majority of researches are devoted to the problem of self-attitude development in ontogenesis both emotional experience of oneself and self-appraisal (Chesnokova, 1977). At the same time these works are important for our research as just they contain the analysis of self-attitude peculiarities at different levels of recognition – from vague and diffusive emotional reactions with indistinct appraisal of the motivation of one’s own behavior, its results to clear and fully conscious emotional and appraisal attitude to one self-attitude self. The analysis of the literature showed that selfattitude at physical level of self- consciousness is attitude to one’s own body like a part of entire personality in the field of “organism – environment”. Even so both emotional process and estimation of this process are presented in self-attitude. Mismatch of emotional (inner) experience and self-appraisal that is worked out according to adopted by the society norm may lead both to initiation of inner conflicts and to personal growth. Self-attitude at the social level of selfconsciousness is studied, firstly, in the frames of the problem of correlation of self-knowledge category and N.I. Sardzhveladze’s self-attitude (Sardzhveladze, 1989), secondly supporting and defense of self-attitude by the personality (V.V. Stolin, 1983; A.A. Nalchadzhian, 1988). Even so self-attitude supports its stability often at the cost of exclusion of negative attitude to some concrete image of Myself. Then the personality negatively estimating some of his images of Myself can treat himself with liking in the whole simultaneously. At the same time such complex structure of self-attitude can become the basis for inner conflict then immediate emotional # 1474 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… experience of oneself, liking to oneself, emotional understanding of oneself and self-aspiration to self-realization make oneself known quite strongly but contradict self-appraisal that is formed to a great or less extent in correlation to socially developed norms and values. The inner conflict becomes stronger because of the fact that defense mechanisms do not allow creation of actual direction of self-attitude. This leads to strong emotional tension. Self-attitude at the reflexive level of self- consciousness is researched mainly in humanistic and existential psychology (Perls, 1995; Rogers, 2000 and others). For example F. Perls supposes (Perls, 1995) that for understanding one’s own problem an individual must go out of perception frames of its separate concrete details. Even so a person opens something new inside of himself and experiences himself in a new way. K Rogers writes (K. Rogers, 2000) that this can happen if one help the person express his feelings and emotionally colored impulses connected to his confl icts to give him possibility to free from emotions without any barriers. This is a gradual way of self-knowledge and self-acceptance when an individual can see interconnection between his personal Myself like he used to imagine and some not very worthy, less acceptable motives. The simpliest and accessible way to create such conditions is a personal training. For the last ten years the trainings of personal growth has been included into psychological faculties curriculum for the development of self-development. By the way how it influences on changes of future psychologist’ self-knowledge and self-attitude in reality hasn’t been studied. Until recently the trainings of personal growth at every year of education of future psychologists have been conducted in Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev. We have made the research of changes in self-knowledge and self-attitude of the students of stable groups during all years of their education. In personal growth trainings future psychologists – students of stable student groups of the Pedagogical University, academic years I to V took part. Content part of the trainings was unchangeable: creation of conditions for development and dynamics of self-knowledge and self-attitude at all three levels of selfconsciousness: physical Myself, social Myself and reflexive Myself. For researches of selfknowledge and self-attitude peculiarities the following methodics were used: self-reports; projective drawings of real Myself and ideal Myself images; test of “Twenty statements of self-attitude” (M Kuhn, T. McPartland) before and after each training for all the academic years. Thus changes of self-knowledge and selfattitude of every student in stable group have been recorded during all five years of University study. Study of stability and integrity of selfknowledge and self-attitude changes were made a year later the training with the use of the method of self-reports. Generalized analysis of the dynamics of students’ self- consciousness in this longitude research was made by E.V. Cherepanova (Cherepanova, 2010). What concerns this article we analyzed only changes happened in self-knowledge and self-attitude of the students in stable groups. The analysis of the research results showed the following peculiarities of self-knowledge and self-attitude of future psychologists. In stable students groups in all the years selfknowledge dominates self-attitude meanwhile value of the indices of self-knowledge low from the year I to V. Changes of self-attitude of future psychologists are ambiguous: in junior years the growth of positive attitude to oneself (self-acceptance) is observed, in the fourth year between trainings negative self-attitude # 1475 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… dominates, in the fifth academic year attitude to oneself is positive again. Value of the indices of self-attitude between trainings sharply lows. Irregularity of self-knowledge and selfattitude changes were revealed like structural components of self-consciousness: during of all years of education indices of self-knowledge and self-attitude at the level of social Myself of stable groups students exceed these indices at the levels of Physical Myself and reflexive Myself. In all the student groups all the components of self-consciousness find interlevel correlation, i.e. they correlate to each other inside each level of self-consciousness. However the physical level is in direct correlation to the reflexive one and in inverse correlation to the social level. It can be supposed that fixation on social images of Myself stipulates switching on the defense mechanisms and prevents from emotional experience of physical and reflexive Myself, i.e. blocking of the development of Physical Myself do not provide with basis for development of self-knowledge and self-attitude at the level of reflexive Myself. Domination of self-knowledge at the level of social Myself of the students limits their body expression as the result of focus on appraisal of own physical Myself to the prejudice of other people of selfattitude – emotional experience. In other words focus on other components supposes denial of one’s dissimilarity, individuality and denial of oneself (E. Formm) through the adaptation to the norms and rules of mutual relations with them. Unlike the majority of students in this research there were some students who in the course of the training revealed themselves freely without the fear of other students’ estimation and who found a rather high level of self-knowledge of physical myself and reflexive Myself. These students managed to advance in reflexive growth while participating in trainings and the period between the trainings, to rise at the higher level of development of self-consciousness and self- attitude. The majority of the students’ forming mechanism of reflection was still weak and in natural environment (stable group) some kinds of “supports” to help develop this ability are absent. It should be mentioned that the students of stable groups communicate, cooperate not only during the trainings but during lectures and seminars when they can be in the situation of competitiveness and it means they appraise each other. The trainings of personal growth has a necessary effect of group unity. In the development of the stable group we see an arising effect when the training both makes conditions for self-revealing and improvement of relations inside the group and initiates fi xation of social roles in the group, interpersonal relations, appraisals, certain group norms. Directed to the development of reflection in stable students groups such trainings in reality block this process and achieve a reverse result – fi x socially built relations and lead to domination of students’ social level of self- consciousness as far as their interpersonal relations are burdened by the fear of being unaccepted, negatively appraised by their group mates. Fixation on intergroup relations leads to the fact that the students and at the time of the trainings of personal growth are closed for new emotional experience, their processes of self-attitude are fi rstly oriented to self-appraisal connected to the group norms but not to real, emotional experience of themselves as entire personality. This is seen in domination of the processes of self-knowledge when the knowledge of oneself is selective, isn’t saturated emotionally and undesirable images are forced out. Thus, disharmonious functioning of selfconsciousness components is expressed not only in the fact that self-knowledge dominates to the prejudice of self-attitude but also in the fact that self-knowledge develops itself defectively because of undeveloped self-attitude. # 1476 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… Based on the results of the analysis of the research it can be asserted that the trainings of personal growth included into Psychological faculty curriculum as an obligatory subject in every academic year will have retarding influence on professional formation of students because they block the development of selfknowledge and self-attitude that are among the main conditions of professional growth of a psychologist. References 1. Adler, A. O nervicheskom kharactere [About the Nervous Nature]. Saint Petersburg (Russia): Universitetskaia kniga, 1997. 388 p. 2. Burns, R. B. Razvitie Ia-kontseptsii i vospitanie [Self-Concept Development and Education]. Moscow: Progress, 1986. 416 p. 3. James, W. Psikhologiia [Psychology]. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1991. 369 p. 4. Zinchenko, V.P. Chelovek razvivaiushchiisia [Man Developing]. Moscow: Trivola, 1994. 300 p. 5. Kon, I.S. Psikhologiia rannei iunosti [The Psychology of the Early Youth]. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1989. 255 p. 6. Leing, R. Raskolotoe Ia [The Divided Self]. Saint Petersburg (Russia), 1995. 352 p. 7. Nalchadzhian, A.A. Sotsial‘no-psikhicheskaia agaptatsiia lichnosti [Social-Psychic Adaptation of Personality]. Erevan, 1988. 263 p. 8. Pantileev, S.R. Samootnoshenie kak emotsional‘no-otsenochnaia sistema [Self-Attitude as Emotionally-Evaluating System]. Moscow: MGU, 1991. 108 p. 9. Perls, F. Vnutri i vne pomoinogo vedra [In and Out of the Garbage Pail]. Saint Petersburg (Russia): XXI century, 1995. 448 p. 10. Rogers, C. Konsul‘tirovanie i psikhoterapiia Noveishie podkhody v oblasti prakticheskoi raboty [Counseling and Psychotherapy. Newer Concepts in Practice]. Moscow: EKSMO-Press, 2000. 464 p. 11. Rubenstein, S.L. Bytie i soznanie. Chelovek i mir [Being and Consciousness. Man and the world]. Saint Petersburg (Russia): Piter, 2003. 512 p. 12. Sargzhveladze, N.I. Lichnost‘ i ee vzaimodeistvie s sotsial‘noi sredoi [Personality and Its Interaction with the Social Environment]. Tbilisi, 1989. 204 p. 13. Stolin, V.V. Samosoznanie lichnosti [Self-Consciousness of Personality]. Moscow: MGU, 1983. 284 p. 14. Cherepanova, E.V. (2010). Dinamika samosoznaniia studentov-budushchikh psikhologov, uchastvuiushchikh v treningakh lichnostnogo rosta [Self-Consciousness` Dynamics of Students – Future Psychologists Taking Part in Personal Growth Trainings] Vestnik Krasnoiarskogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. V.P, Astaf‘eva. 2010(1), 130–140. 15. Chesnokova, I.I. Problema samosoznaniia v psikhologii [The Problem of Self-Consciousness in Psychology]. Moscow: Nauka, 1977. 144 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga M. Miller and Elena V. Cherepanova. Self-Knowledge and Self-Attitude of Educational Students Groups… Самопознание и самоотношение студентов учебных групп в тренингах личностного роста О.М. Миллер, Е.В. Черепанова Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 В настоящей статье рассмотрены изменения самопознания и самоотношения студентов – будущих психологов с первого по пятый год их обучения. Тренинги личностного роста являются наиболее эффективным способом для развития этих процессов, поэтому такие тренинги часто включаются в учебные программы психологических факультетов. Исследование включало ежегодное изучение эффективности использования тренингов личностного роста для студентов – будущих психологов стабильных учебных групп. Самопознание и самоотношение студентов изучалось до и после проведения тренингов с помощью самоотчетов, теста 20 утверждений на самоотношение М. Куна, Т. Макпартленда и рисуночных проективных методик. В результате выяснилось, что значения параметров самопознания и самоотношения студентов стабильных учебных групп на социальном уровне были намного выше, чем значения этих параметров на уровне физического и рефлексивного уровней самосознания. В то же время физический уровень прямо пропорционально коррелирует с рефлексивным уровнем и обратно пропорционально коррелирует с социальным уровнем самосознания. Следовательно, фиксация на социальном образе Я «включает» защитные механизмы личности и препятствует переживанию Я физического и Я рефлексивного. Таким образом, тренинги личностного роста в стабильных учебных группах тормозят личностное и профессиональное развитие студентов, так как они блокируют рост их самопознания и самоотношения. Ключевые слова: самопознание, самоотношение, тренинг личностного роста, физический, социальный и рефлексивный уровни самосознания, стабильная учебная группа студентов. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1479-1491 ~~~ УДК 159.99:612.821 Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior Schoolchildren with Different Temperament Trait Index Yaroslavna V. Bardetskayaa* and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsynab Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University them. VP Astafeva 89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia b Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after Prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky, 1 P. Zheleznyaka str., Krasnoyarsk, 660022 Russia a Received 02.08.2013, received in revised form 05.08.2013, accepted 04.09.2013 The close relationship of temperament with basic biological processes, peculiarities of the physiology of nervous system, the state of physical health of man is the reason for seeking a deeper connection between bodily and mental functions. This indicates the importance of studies of physiological bases of psychosomatic relations, and hence the mechanisms that explain the features of adaptive responses of healthy people’ organisms, especially of junior schoolchildren with different temperament trait index. On this basis, we have carried out an integrative health assessment with measurement of the indices of santiveness and pativeness, studied heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory function of junior schoolchildren with temperament trait typological differences. It was found out that children in midchildhood with varying index of temperament behaviors have different nature of dominance of autonomic nervous regulatory influences and the standard of individual health. Junior pupils, whose temperament is characterized by a low intensity of behavioral symptoms, have a greater potential of health with predominant parasympathetic influence in the regulation of heart rate, which is accompanied by a higher functional reserve of cardio-respiratory system compared with those children whose temperament is characterized by high behavioral activity. The results of the study demonstrate the relationship of personality temperament traits with the standard and reserve of health, identify the mechanisms underlying psychosomatic relations in midchildhood. Keywords: temperament, psychosomatic relations, standard of health, junior schoolchildren. According to statistics and research results, the last decade in the Russian Federation has been remarked by significant adverse changes in the health condition of children (Kuchma V.R., Zvezdina I.V., Zhigareva N.S., 2008; Baranov A.A., Kuchma V.R., Rapoport I.K., 2011). They are characterized by the increasing * prevalence of functional disorders and chronic diseases, which are especially pronounced during the period of schooling (Igisheva L.N., 2008; Baranov A.A., Kuchma V.R., Sukhareva L.M., 2009). Health problems of senior pupils are largely determined by the influence of behavioral risk factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1479 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… low physical activity, etc. (Chekalova S.A., Bogomolova E.S., Leonov A.V., Kuzmichev Yu.G., Chekalova N.G., Nazarov M.M., 2009; Mayorov R.V., 2012; Slobodskaya E.R., Akhmetova O.A., Kuznetsova V.B., Rippinen T.S., 2012; Varshal A.V., Slobodskaya E.R., 2013). At the same time, the high frequency variations in the health of junior school children is currently defi ning the need to study the psychomedical and sociomedical aspects of its formation during the period of primary school (Savilov E.D., Ilyina S.V., 2012; Kondakova O.E., Gezalova N.V., Shilov S.N., Kozhevnikov V.N., 2013). The beginning of school is a powerful stress factor that changes the way of life of the child, his order of the day, timetable of lessons and recreation (Chekalova N.G., Silkin Yu.R., Shaposhnikova M.V., Chekalova S.A., Bogomolova E.S., Glushenkova D.A., Scherbaneva M.S., 2009; Dzyatkovskaya E.N., 2011). The change of the dynamic stereotype leads to stress of adaptation mechanisms and reduction of functionality of schoolchildren’s organisms, worsened by the influence of unfavorable factors, including lifestyle related. Thus the main factor, causing the disorder of mechanisms of self-regulation of individual functional systems of junior schoolchildren with the subsequent development of chronic diseases, is often a psycho-emotional stress (Slobodskaya H.R., Akhmetova O.A., 2010; Ilyuhina V.A., 2011; Verkhoturova N.Yu., 2012 , Ilyina I.V., 2012). At present, the ideas of temperament traits are explained by differences in the excitability of the brain systems that integrate the behavior of the individual, his emotions and autonomic functions (Potylitsyna V.Yu., 2008; Petrosyan E.Yu., Savchenkov Yu.I., 2009; Ryasik Yu.V., Tsirkin V.I., Trukhina S.I., 2010; Khabarova I.V., Shilov S.N., 2012). Both cause autonomic mobilization (Savchenkov Yu.I., Soldatova O.G., Shilov S.N., 2013), which largely, in our opinion, explains the adaptive role of temperament. Circulatory and respiratory systems have a leading role in the adaptive responses of the body when it is exposed to the influence of a variety of factors, ensuring the necessary level of energy and metabolic processes. Cardio-respiratory system is one of the first to get involved in the process of adaptation of the organism to changing environmental conditions and its changing settings may serve as criteria for the effectiveness of adaptive responses (Shlyk N.I., Sapozhnikova E.N., Kirillova T.G., Semenov V.G., 2009; Mikhailov N.A., 2011; Kushnir S.M., Struchkova I.V., Makarova I.I., Antonova L.K., 2012; Ushakov I.B., Orlov O.I., Bayevsky R.M., Bersenev E.Yu., Chernikova A.G., 2013). Therefore the question about the features of the functional state of breathing, heart rate regulation and the standard of individual health of junior schoolchildren with different index of temperament traits is of an undoubted scientific interest. The aim of our research is to identify psychosomatic characteristics and to carry out a quantitative evaluation of individual health of junior schoolchildren with different index of temperament traits. Almost healthy children of 7-10 years old (273 girls and 240 boys) were tested to determine the type of temperament by means of a parental questionnaire DOTS-R (The Revised Of Temperament Survey) adapted for Russia. This technique presents the possibility of accurate quantification of 9 temperament traits of children. The identification of temperament types was conducted by the behavior index (BI), which includes such temperament features as activity, sensitivity (threshold), mood and intensity, and by the behavior stereotype strength index (BSSI), which is the sum of quantitative indices of rhythm and adoptability (Petrosyan E.Yu., Savchenkov # 1480 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… Yu.I., Domracheva M.Ya., Domrachev A.A. Patent of the Russian Federation IPC 7A 61 in 5/16; Petrosyan E.Yu., Savchenkov Yu.I., 2009). All the children were divided into groups on BI; into “intense” (In), “adequate” (Ad) and “quiet” (Q) and on BSSI: into “rigid”, “plastic” and “labile”, respectively, with high, middle and low index values. All the children were tested on the following indices: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), vital capacity (VC), hand power; veloergometry cardiointervalography (by the diagnostic complex “VALENTA”), Stange’s test (test of timed inspiratory capacity), Rufe’s test (heart rate recovery time after dosed physical load). The obtained data was processed by a computer program “HELMI-test of 7-10 year-old children”, developed on the instructions of the Ministry of Education of Russia (Kulikov V.P., Bezmaternykh L.E., Kozlov S.D.) and was presented in the form of opinions on the index of santiveness – health potential that determines its probable quantity and quality (PS) and pativenesses – the probability of the disease, limitation of viability (PP). Heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory function were studied by a hardware-programmed complex “VALENTA”. The following indices of heart rate were recorded and evaluated: heart rate (HR), tension index of regulatory systems (stress index, TI), Mo – mode, AMo – mode amplitude, the average value of the power of spectrum of a high-frequency component of heart rate variability (BV), the average value of the power of spectrum of a low-frequency component of heart rate variability (SV-2) and of a very lowfrequency component of heart rate variability (SV-1), the number of pairs of cardio intervals with a difference of more than 50 ms in % to the total number of cardio intervals in the array (pNN50), and also the centralization index (CI) in rest and in a clinoorthostatic test. In order to assess a respiratory function such indices as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV ), peak volume rate (PVR), forced expiratory rate at 25-75 % of forced vital capacity (VR 25 – 75 %), minute ventilation (MV), respiratory rate (RR), maximum ventilation (MV), Tiffeneau index were recorded. According to different indices of behavioral responses 51 % of the surveyed children showed the average values. «Intense» and «quiet» children were identified in equal numbers. On the strength of stereotypes formed 50 % of the children were included in the group of «plastic», the other kids in almost equal parts were included in the groups of «labile» (25.7 %) and «rigid» (23.8 %). The analysis of the integrative index of health established that the tested junior schoolchildren on the average had an index of santiveness that did not exceed 60 %. This indicates a moderate reserve of their health, a rather high probability of disease development. At the same time «quiet» children, both boys and girls, had an index of santiveness higher than «adequate» and «intense» groups, which proves a greater reserve of their health and adaptive capacity in comparison with other groups of the children tested (Soldatova O.G., Shilov S.N., Potylitsyna V.Yu., 2008). The «quiet» children had a moderate index of reliable negative correlations (correlation coefficient from 0.38 to 0.48) of the index of santiveness with temperament traits characterizing behavioral activity and approach. The index of santiveness of “intense» junior pupils had reliable negative correlations with rhythm, attention and, what is interesting, the behavior index. Our studies of integrated health indices show that junior schoolchildren have low reserves of health, and therefore a significant probability of disease development. It is important that the reserves of health may be provided not only by the functional capacity of cardio-respiratoty and other systems of the body, but also by the intensity # 1481 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… of the child's personality temperament traits, especially of those that characterize behavioral activity. Health reserve depends on the index of the child's personality temperament traits, especially those that characterize behavioral activity. The children whose temperament is characterized by a low behavior index(«quiet») have a more favorable level of the body’s functioning. Their health potential is higher than that of the «intense» children with distinct temperament traits that characterize the activity of conduct. In this case, the strength index of behavioral stereotypes in the characteristic of temperament traits of the child’s personality in the studied age period, are apparently still not fully formed, so they have only a small influence on the adaptive capacity of the organism, as well as on the quantitative parameters of health. The analysis of the main hemodynamic indices in the groups of children with different temperament trait indices characterizing the activity of the behavior revealed a reliably higher initial autonomic level for boys and girls with high BI compared to «quiet» and «adequate» children. In the groups of children with different plasticity of behavior we did not detect any differences in the basic hemodynamic indices. In the analysis of heart rate variability at rest we found that there were some differences in the studied indices in the groups of the children that differ in BI. Thus, the «quiet» children had a lower mode amplitude and stress index, reduced power of SV-1, more pairs of cardio intervals with difference of more than 50 ms in % of the total number of cardio intervals in the array and a bigger power of BV and SV-2 compared with the «intense» children. The findings indicate the prevalence of a parasympathetic component of autonomic regulation in the children with a «quiet» temperament type. As the dominance of a parasympathetic component of the regulation indicates a more efficient and effective level of functioning of the body and adaptation processes (Kulikov V.P., Doronina N.L., Gatalsky K.K., 2008; Khuraskina N.V., Aleksandrova L.A., ChemerovaL.F.,2010;KolpakovV.V,BespalovaT.V., Tomilova E.A., Larkina N.Yu., Mamchits E.V., Chernogrivova M.O., Kopytov A.A., 2011), we can say that children with a low index of behaviors are characterized by a more favorable functional capacity of the cardiovascular system. There were no significant differences in heart rate variability at rest in children with different plasticity of behavior. It is well known that children and adolescents, regardless of age, sex, place of residence, have individual typological features at the level of maturity of regulatory systems, especially of the cardiovascular system. We identified 4 groups with reliable quantitative and qualitative differences in the indices of heart rate variability, characterizing different degrees of tension and interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, autonomous and central control loops of the heart rhythm. The fi rst group, according to the authors (Sapozhnikova E.N., Shlyk N.I., Shumikhina I.I., Kirillova T.G., 2012) are the children with high activity of a sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system and the central levels of regulation, the second group consists of the children with high activity of a sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system and a low degree of tension of the central levels of control, the third group includes the children with high activity of a sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, increased activity of the central regulatory systems and low activity of a sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, the fourth group are those with high activity of a parasympathetic part and low activity of a sympathetic part and central structures of heart rate regulation. The # 1482 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… most optimal ratio between the autonomous and the central regulation of heart rate is observed in children of the third group; exactly these children have the highest functional reserves of the system of regulation of blood circulation. The fi rst group with predominance of the central mechanisms of control was attributed by the authors to an unfavorable rate. During the dividing of the examined children into the groups with quantitative and qualitative differences in the indices of heart rate variability we found that the highest percentage of the children of the third, optimal, group of autonomic regulation of heart rate fall into the category of «quiet» boys and girls while the least percentage of the same children are among the «intensive» (Fig. 1). In the groups of the children that differ in the index of strength of developed behavior stereotypes the occurrence of an optimal balance between autonomous and the central regulation of heart rate is almost the same. In assessing autonomic reactivity it was revealed that the “quiet” children with a low index of behaviors in a reliably greater percentage of the cases have initial vagotony and hypersympathicotonic reaction during functional load (Table 1). The children, who belong to the “intense”, have a hypersympathicotonic reaction recorded in a smaller percentage of cases, which indicates a high initial tonus of the sympathetic nervous system, and as a consequence the absence of its additional activation during the transition to a vertical position. In the groups of children, varying in the strength index of developed behavior stereotypes, the differences in autonomic reactivity were not revealed. The correlation analysis of the relationship of the indices of heart rate variability and the 50 50 45 45 40 40 35 35 30 % % 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 ɋɩ Ⱥɞ 0 ɂɧ ɋɩ Ⱥɞ ɂɧ Fig. 1. Occurrence of the groups with the characteristics of regulation of heart rate in the groups of “quiet” (Cп), «adequate» (Ад) and «intensive» (Ин) boys and girls; – high activity of a sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system and a low degree of tension of the central levels of control, – children with high activity of a parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, increased activity of the central regulatory systems and the low activity of a sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system – children with high activity of a parasympathetic part and low activity of a sympathetic part and central structures of heart rate regulation # 1483 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… Table 1. Autonomic reactivity of children with different index of behavior manifestations in a clinoorthostatic test Groups n Autonomic reactivity (incidence, %) Asympathicotonic Normal Hypersympathicotonic 39,8 56,1 Boys Сп («quiet») 55 4,1 Ад («adequate») 128 14,5* 36,4 49,1 Ин («intense») 57 32,1*,# 40,9 27,0*,# Сп («quiet») 66 4,9 36,8 59,2 Ад («adequate») 140 11,2* 37,3 51* Ин («intense») 67 32,9 32,1 34,9*,# Girls Note: difference is reliable at p <0,05: * – from the group of «quiet», # – from the group of «adequate» children Table 2. Correlation coefficients of heart rate variability and index of temperament traits of junior schoolchildren (p <0.05) Temperament trait Activity Rhythm Mood Attention Group on BI BV SV-2 SV-1 TI Сп -0,56 Ин 0,61 Сп -0,63 Ин 0,56 Сп 0,53 Ин -0,62 Сп 0,64 Ин -0,56 index of temperament traits revealed their lack in «adequate» children, while there are reliable correlations between the indices of heart rate variability and the index of temperament traits in the case of the «intense» and «quiet» junior schoolchildren (Table 2). The significant (p <0.05) correlations (0,5 <r> 0,7) of the index of temperament traits with the indices of heart rate variability (TI, SV-1, BV, SV-2) in children with different plasticity of behavior were identified only in the group of «labile» children; in the case of the boys in this group, these correlations have such features of temperament as threshold, mood and approach, 0,55 0,65 0,46 -0,54 -0,66 0,64 0,56 -0,7 -0,7 0,66 while the girls’ correlations have mood, attention and distractibility (Potylitsyna V.Yu., Bardetskaya Ya.V., 2013). In the analysis of the indices of respiratory function in groups of junior schoolchildren with different temperament traits indices some differences were also identified. Thus, the respiratory rate of the «quiet» children is less than that of the «intensive», while the minute ventilation and the maximum ventilation rate are reliably higher than that of the children of «intensive» type. In the groups of children with different strength of developed stereotypes the «plastic» children # 1484 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… are characterized by more optimal indices of the respiratory function. The obtained results show a more optimal functioning of ventilation of junior schoolchildren whose behavior is characterized by a low index of behaviors – the «quiet» children and the «plastic» children, whose temperament is characterized by the average values of the strength index of developed behaviors. What is the mechanism and physiological significance of the detected patterns of relationship between temperament traits of the child's personality, individual health and functional indices of cardio-respiratory system? The existing concept of «the range of adaptation» comes from evaluation of the ability of functional systems to change their characteristics to provide homeostasis in the implementation of adaptive mechanisms, including the way through the change of behavior regimes. In this regard, our results confi rm the recent series of assumptions that temperament refers to individual differences in the excitability of behavioral and physiological systems, as well as in behavioral and neural mechanisms of reactivity modulation (Karavayeva E.N., Soldatova O.G., Pats Yu.S., Savchenkov Yu.I., 2011). Thus, our study suggests that «quiet» children, whose temperament is characterized by a low behavior index, are marked by the domination of a parasympathetic part of heart rate regulation at rest, the most optimal ratio between autonomic and central heart rate regulation, the higher functional indices of external respiration. This is the factor that contributes to a more economical and effective level of body functioning, adaptive processes and the state of individual health in children of junior school age with a low behavior index. The results of our study revealed that the physiological mechanisms of psychosomatic relations of children with different temperament traits are also the factors, which along with others determine the quantitative levels and reserves of health of junior schoolchildren. References 1. Alexandrov, Yu.I. Psihofiziologija: uchebnik dlja vuzov 3-e izd., dop. i pererab. (Psychophysiology: a textbook for high schools 3rd ed., ext. and rev.). St. Petersburg.: Peter, 2011. 464 p. 2. Allakhverdov, V.M., Bogdanova, S.I., Krylov, A.A. Psihologija: uchebnik 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. (Psychology: a textbook 2nd ed., rev. and ext.). M.: Prospect, 2011. 752 p. 3. Baranov, A.A., Kuchma, V.R., Rapoport, I.K. 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Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… [Osobennosti biojelektricheskoj aktivnosti golovnogo mozga i serdechnogo ritma u lic s razlichnoj stepen’ ju povedencheskoj aktivnosti i jemocional’nosti. Vestnik Juzhno-Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija: Obrazovanie, zdravoohranenie, fizicheskaja kul’tura] Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series: Education, health, physical education, 2011. No 20 (237). Pp. 18-21. 16. Khabarova, I.V., Shilov, S.N. Features of activation processes of the frontal cortex of the brain and temperament traits of junior schoolchildren with mental retardation [Osobennosti aktivacionnyh processov lobnoj kory golovnogo mozga i temperamental’nyh harakteristik u mladshih shkol’nikov s zaderzhkoj psihicheskogo razvitija. Defektologija] Defectology, 2012. No 3. Pp. 52-59. 17. Khuraskina, N.V., Alexandrova, L.A., Chemerova, L.F. 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Autonomic regulation condition of heart rate in healthy children at different periods of childhood [Sostojanie vegetativnoj # 1487 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… reguljacii serdechnogo ritma u zdorovyh detej v razlichnye periody detstva. Nauchnye vedomosti Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija: Estestvennye nauki] Scientific statements of Belgorod State University. Series: Natural Sciences, 2012. Vol. 18. No 3. Pp. 161-165. 26. Manchuk, V.T., Soldatova, O.G., Potylitsyna, V.Yu. Features of functional condition and regulation of the cardio-respiratory system of children with different temperament traits indices [Osobennosti funkcional’nogo sostojanija i reguljacii kardiorespiratornoj sistemy u detej s raznymi VP-tipami temperamenta. 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Compensation method of heart rate variability in sphygmogram analysis [Metod kompensacii variabel’nosti serdechnogo ritma pri analize sfigmogrammy. Medicinskaja tehnika] Medical equipment, 2008. No 6. Pp. 7-9. 30. Petrosyan, E.Yu., Savchenkov, Yu.I. Comparative characteristics of general and specific types of temperament [Sravnitel’naja harakteristika obshhih i chastnyh tipov temperamenta. Sibirskoe medicinskoe obozrenie: ezhekvartal’nyj medicinskij zhurnal] Siberian Medical Review: Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 2009 b. Vol. 58. No 4. Pp. 20-24. 31. Petrosyan, E.Yu., Savchenkov, Yu.I. Method of determining particular temperament traits index types based on the results of research of its features according to A. Thomas [Metod opredelenija chastnyh VP-tipov temperamenta po rezul’tatam issledovanija ego chert po A. Tomasu. Sibirskoe medicinskoe obozrenie: ezhekvartal’nyj medicinskij zhurnal] Siberian Medical Review: Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 2009 a. Vol. 50. No 5. Pp. 35-38. 32. Petrosyan, E.Yu., Savchenkov, Yu.I. Types of age dynamics of some features of temperament [Tipy vozrastnoj dinamiki nekotoryh chert temperamenta. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta] Bulletin of Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 2009. No 4. Pp. 6570. 33. Petrosyan, E.Yu., Savchenkov, Yu.I., Domrachava, M.Ya., Domrachev, A.A. Pat. The Russian Federation IPC 7A 61 5/16. The method of ADC-typing of temperament traits. publ. 20.12.2005 [Pat. Rossijskaja Federacija MPK 7A 61 v 5/16. Sposob ACP-tipirovanija chert temperamenta. opubl. 20.12.2005]. 34. Potylitsyna, V.Yu. Influence of temperament traits on clinical and physiological measures of functional systems of junior schoolchildren [Vlijanie chert temperamenta na kliniko-fiziologicheskie pokazateli funkcional’nyh sistem detej mladshego shkol’nogo vozrasta: avtoref. dis. … kand. med. nauk] Doctor of medical sciences’ abstract. Krasnoyarsk, 2008. 35. Potylitsyna, V.Yu., Bardetskaya, Ya.V. Functional state and regulation of the cardio-respiratory system of junior schoolchildren with different typological temperament traits [Funkcional’noe # 1488 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… sostojanie i reguljacii kardiorespiratornoj sistemy u detej mladshego shkol’nogo vozrasta s raznymi tipologicheskimi osobennostjami temperamenta. Sibirskij vestnik special’nogo obrazovanija. Krasnojar. gos. ped. un-t im. V.P. Astaf’eva № gos. registracii 0421200160] Siberian Journal of Special Education. Krasnoyarsk. State. Ped. Univ. named after V.P. Astafiev. No of state. registration 0421200160. Krasnoyarsk, 2013. No 1 (9). Pp. 103-117. URL: http:// sibsedu.kspu.ru 36. Pshennikova, M.G. Role of genetic characteristics of the organism in resistance to damaging effects and in protective effects of adaptation [Rol’ geneticheskih osobennostej organizma v ustojchivosti k povrezhdajushhim vozdejstvijam i v zashhitnyh jeffektah adaptacii. Patologicheskaja fiziologija i jeksperimental’naja terapija] Pathological Physiology and Experimental Therapy, 2011. No 4. Pp. 7-16. 37. Ryasik, Yu.V., Tsirkin, V.I., Trukhina, S.I. Gender features of autonomic nervous system state of junior schoolchildren with regard to the kind of functional asymmetry of hemispheres and presence of autonomic disorders [Polovye osobennosti sostojanija vegetativnoj nervnoj sistemy u mladshih shkol’nikov s uchetom vida funkcional’noj asimmetrii polusharij i nalichija vegetativnyh narushenij. Vjatskij medicinskij vestnik] Vyatka Medical Bulletin, 2010. No 2. Pp. 36-41. 38. Sapozhnikova, E.N., Shlyk, N.I., Shumikhina, I.I., Kirillova, T.G. Typological features of heart rate variability of 7-11–year-old schoolchildren at rest and at exercise [Tipologicheskie osobennosti variabel’nosti serdechnogo ritma u shkol’nikov 7-11 let v pokoe i pri zanjatijah sportom. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta] Bulletin of Udmurt University, 2012. No 6-2. Pp. 79-88. 39. Savchenkov, Yu.I., Petrosyan, E.Yu. On the plasticity of temperament traits [K voprosu o plastichnosti svojstv temperamenta. Sibirskij psihologicheskij zhurnal] Siberian psychological journal, 2009. No 32. Pp. 46-51. 40. Savchenkov, Yu.I., Soldatova, O.G., Shilov, S.N. Vozrastnaja fiziologija (fiziologicheskie osobennosti detej i podrostkov): ucheb. posobie dlja stud. ped. vuzov (Age physiology (physiological characteristics of children and adolescents): textbook for the students of ped. Universities). M. VLADOS, 2013. 143 p. 41. Savilov, E.D., Ilyina, S.V. Features of infectious diseases of child population in terms of man-made environmental pollution [Osobennosti infekcionnoj patologii detskogo naselenija v uslovijah tehnogennogo zagrjaznenija okruzhajushhej sredy. Jepidemiologija i vakcinoprofilaktika] Epidemiology and vaccination, 2012. No 1. Pp. 58-63. 42. Shlyk, N.I., Sapozhnikova, E.N. On the question of methodological approaches to analysis of heart rate variability [K voprosu o metodicheskih podhodah k analizu variabel’nosti serdechnogo ritma. Pedagogiko-psihologicheskie i mediko-biologicheskie problemy fizicheskoj kul’tury i sporta] Pedagogical-psychological and medical-biological problems of physical culture and sports. Naberezhnye Chelny, 2008. Vol. 1. No 6. Pp. 33-40. 43. Shlyk, N.I., Sapozhnikova, E.N., Kirillova, T.G., Semenov, V.G. Typological characteristics of the functional state of regulatory systems in schoolchildren and young athletes (according to heart rate variability data). Human Physiology, 2009, 35 (6), Pp. 730-738. 44. Slobodskaya, E.R., Akhmetova, O.A. Kuznetsova, V.B., Rippinen, T.O. Interaction of sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors of well-being of children and adolescents [Vzaimodejstvie chuvstvitel’nosti k podkrepleniju i semejnyh faktorov blagopoluchija detej i podrostkov. Psihologicheskij zhurnal] Psychological Journal, 2012. Vol. 33. No 4. Pp. 60-69. # 1489 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… 45. Slobodskaya, E.R., Akhmetova, O.A. Personality development and problem behavior in Russian children and adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2010, 34 (5), Pp. 441-451. 46. Soldatova, O.G., Pats, Yu.S., Savchenkov, Yu.I. Non-specific resistance of the body and power of slow wave oscillation processes of persons with early intensity of temperament traits [Nespecificheskaja rezistentnost’ organizma i moshhnost’ medlenno volnovyh kolebatel’nyh processov u lic s ranoj vyrazhennost’ ju chert temperamenta. Sibirskoe medicinskoe obozrenie] Siberian medical review, 2010. Vol. 65. No 5. Pp. 37-42. 47. Soldatova, O.G., Pats, Yu.S., Savchenkov, Yu.I., Medvedev, V.S. The ratio of temperament traits with indicators of functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract [Sootnoshenie svojstv temperamenta s pokazateljami funkcional’noj aktivnosti zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta. Sibirskoe medicinskoe obozrenie] Siberian medical review, 2012. Vol. 75. No 3. S. 54-56. 48. Soldatova, O.G., Shilov, S.N., Potylitsyna, V.Yu. Relationship of temperament characteristics with non-specific resistance of organism and standard of health [Vzaimosvjaz’ osobennostej temperamenta s nespecificheskoj rezistentnost’ ju organizma i urovnem zdorov’ ja. Nevrologicheskij vestnik (Zhurnal im. V.M. Behtereva)] Journal of Neurology (Journal named after V.M. Bekhterev), 2008. Vol. XL. No 1. Pp. 10-13. 49. Ushakov, I.B., Orlov, O.I., Bayevsky, R.M., Bersenev, E.Yu., Chernikova, A.G. New health assessment technologies for almost healthy people [Novye tehnologii ocenki zdorov’ ja u prakticheski zdorovyh ljudej. Rossijskij fiziologicheskij zhurnal im. I.M. Sechenova] Russian Journal of Physiology named after I.M. Sechenov, 2013. Vol. 99. No 3. Pp. 313-319. 50. Varshal, A.V., Slobodskaya, E.R. 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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yaroslavna V. Bardetskaya and Vasilina Yu. Potylitsyna… Psychosomatic Features and Standard of Health of Junior… Психосоматические особенности и уровень здоровья у детей младшего школьного возраста с разной выраженностью темпераментальных черт Я.В. Бардецкаяа, В.Ю. Потылицинаб Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 б Красноярский государственный медицинский университет им. проф. В.Ф. Войно-Ясенецкого, Россия 660022, Красноярск, ул. Партизана Железняка, 1 а Тесная связь темперамента с основными биологическими процессами, особенностями физиологии нервной системы, состоянием физического здоровья человека является причиной поисков более глубокой связи между телесными и психическими функциями. Это указывает на важность исследований физиологических основ психосоматических соотношений, а значит, и механизмов, обусловливающих особенности адаптивных реакций организма здоровых людей, в первую очередь детей младшего школьного возраста, с различными темпераментальными свойствами личности. Исходя из этого нами проведена интегративная оценка здоровья с определением показателей сантивности и пативности, исследованы вариабельность сердечного ритма (ВРС) и функция внешнего дыхания у детей младшего школьного возраста с различными типологическими особенностями темперамента. Установлено, что дети младшего школьного возраста с различной выраженностью поведенческих проявлений темперамента имеют разный характер доминирования вегетативных нервных регуляторных влияний и уровень индивидуального здоровья. У младших школьников, темперамент которых характеризуется низкой выраженностью поведенческих проявлений, больший потенциал здоровья, преобладает парасимпатическое влияние в регуляции сердечного ритма, что сопровождается более высоким функциональным резервом кардиореспираторной системы у этих лиц по сравнению с детьми, чей темперамент характеризуется высокой поведенческой активностью. Результаты исследования доказывают взаимосвязь темпераментальных свойств личности с уровнем и резервом здоровья, выявляют механизмы, обусловливающие психосоматические отношения у детей младшего школьного возраста. Ключевые слова: темперамент, психосоматические отношения, уровень здоровья, дети младшего школьного возраста. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1492-1506 ~~~ УДК 159.922.736.3:81`233 Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech and Language Information Processing, at the Oral Statement Producing Irina G. Malanchuk* Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University them. VP Astafeva 89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia Received 08.08.2013, received in revised form 24.08.2013, accepted 02.09.2013 Statement producing process is the traditional problem of psychology, linguistics, psycholinguistics. This problems discussions are carried out as a rule from the view point of processing by a humanpotential speaker of the language information; pragmatic conditions impact on the statement verbal making up; voice representation of the psychological, psychophysical, social features of the speaker; the speech process psycho-physiological aspect is focused on. However, the science hasn’t till now developed the clear understanding of speech and language systems differentiation, their mutual integration possibilities – basic knowledge in relation to the statement generation process. The essential contribution to the problem development was made in the second half of the XX-th century in the framework of the linguistic pragmatics, speech acts and speech genres theories as well as by individual neural research. The article represents and empirically proves the author’s concept of speech and language differentiation, describes the speech form psychological content as communicative means, being the integrator of the communicative significant information: intentional complexes and goals of a speaker, speech actualization social conditions, social representation structure, including addressee and author images, the communicants’ emotionality. It discusses the children’ speech multidisciplinary research results, done on the basis of 7268 speech units analysis by the 37 given analysis parameters in result of which, in particular, in communicative cognition structure there have been separated the functional units, providing the socio-pragmatic, speech, language information processing at oral statement producing at the early stage of ontogenesis. The developed notions are significant for the notion “speech” and speech production process clarification, genetic and neural physiological speech and language research organization, the society communicative culture formation and development speech practices organization, for children’ development practice with psychic and psycho-social development disorders, in the process of foreign languages teaching outside the natural language environment socio-cultural conditions. Keywords: oral statement producing, infancy, statement structure, speech form (speech genre), speech form image, speech intentionality, speech pragmatic semantics, language, communicative consciousness, functional structures, multidisciplinary research. * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1492 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… Introduction Statement producing process by human research remains the big scientific problem. It has been researched in various aspects during the whole ХХ-th century by linguists, psycholinguists of England, America, Australia, Germany, Russia and other countries in many directions and schools in neural physiology and neural psychology, anthropology, genetics. The special role in this problem development belongs to the linguistic pragmatics, dating from philosophy of language of L. Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein,1921). In the framework of pragmatics there has been offered the linguistic signs study (from a lexeme to syntactical construction) in the communication process, developed the understanding of statement as action or description, described the speech act structure, linguistic and non-linguistic conventions (Austin, 1950, 1961, 1979; Strawson, 1950, 1959, 1971, 1974), offered the speech act typologies (Austin, 1961, 1971; Searle, Vanderveken, 1985), described the intentional states nature and their representation in speech act (Searle, 1983; Strawson, 1986), introduced the concepts of implicature as the statement understanding basis, of communicative principles and maxims as the requirements for statement producing in dialog (Grice, 1957, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1975, 1981). These research as well as speech and language study in the traditions of the Russian linguistics, language psychology and consciousness contributed to the works intensification for communicative acts repertory identification (Goffman 1981; Gumperz 1982; Nofsinger 1991; Wierzbicka, 1987; speech genres, 1997-2012; et al.) and communication rules (Shmeleva, 1983; Goodwin, 1981; Sacks, Schegloff, Jefferson, 1974; Poyatos, 1983; Psathas, 1995; Wierzbicka, 1991; et al.), for statement intentionality problem (Arutyunova, 1999; Zaliznyak Anna, 1983; Kobozeva, 2011; Kobozeva, Laufer, 1974; Logical analysis,… 1989; Dennett, 1987; Lyons, 1995; et al.), for the speech producing models development with account of the “contexts” and levels of the processes constituting it, however beyond the clear question posing about speech and language systems differentiation (Akhutina, 1989; Akhutina, Zasypkina, Romanova, 2012; Dobrovich, 1984; Zhinkin, 1982; Kibrik, 1983; Kobozeva, 2002; Koyt, Yim, 1985; Luriya, 1979, 2002; Narinyani, 1985); speech producing models review (cf.: Leontiev, 1969, 2003; Ushakova, Pavlova, Tseptsov, 1990); there has occurred the convergence of pragmatics and discourseanalysis and discursive paradigm formation (Boden, Zimmerman, 1991; Brown, 1995; Brown, Yule,1983; Dijk, 1977, 1981; Dijk, Kintsch, 1983; Fairclough, 1989; 1992; Franke, 1990; Fritz, 1982, 1994; Wodak, 1996 et. al.). Language communication ontogenetic research in the child’s cognitive development aspects, speech act conditions and features, intentionality, statement grammar are represented in works (Bates, 1979; Bruner,1975; Сlark, 1977; Greenfield, 1978; Leontiev, 1975; Negnevitskaya, Shakhnarovich, 1981; Ushakova, Barteneva, 2000; Lyakso, 2005; Sergienko, 2008; et. al.). Speech problem in its own phenomenology, differentiation from the language forms (means) and system has become urgent in the last 30 years in connection with “speech genres” study (Bakhtin, 1979) in the Russian linguistics and speech study first of all in academic schools of T.V. Shmeleva (Krasnoyarsk, Veliky Novgorod) (Shmeleva, 1988, 1990, 1995, 1997; Osetrova, 2003; Speranskaya, 1999; Tarasenko, 1999 et al.), К.F. Sedov (Saratov) (Sedov, 1999; Dementiev, 2002; Dolinin, 1999), with some other researchers (Baranov, 2006; Bogin, 1997; Matveeva, 1995; Fedosyuk, 1997). But linguo-centric approach remains dominant in speech genres research as well: genre is defined as the standard speech form of the typified content transfer (Karasik, 1992, # 1493 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… p. 22); “verbal arrangement of social interaction typical situation” (Sedov, 1999, p. 15). Speech and language systems differentiation makes it possible to reach essentially bigger exactitude of statement producing integrative process understanding, including qualitative, time and space characteristics of separate processes, its constituents. For example these are language information processing and translation, social signals identification and translation processes and many others. The complexity level increases and with traditional, llinguo-centric paradigm there increases mess as well. Thus in plenty of works, including the newest ones, terms speech and language are synonymies (refer to: Demyankov, 2000; Levontina, 2000; Shatunovsky 2001), the question about heterochronism and speech and language processes genesis is not posed. The speech producing process reconsideration from the viewpoint of speech processes contribution and language information processing processes is up- to-date. Theoretical framework For the developed speech concept the evolutionary–genetic approach to the speech analysis is essential making it possible to consider the human speech among the animals’ vocal, communicative signals systems and to generalize these systems (Malanchuk, 2009). Ontogenetic speech analysis in this approach context makes to consider speech as inborn psychic function, which makes it possible to treat the early child’s vocalizations as facts of “natural” speech (“vocalspeech” forms (Frolova, 2008)). Speech and language differentiation dates back to the concept of F. de Saussure, with the important and almost not developed idea of “speech linguistics” (Saussure, 1916, 1922, 2006), to ideas of М.М. Bakhtin about the speech genres nature and phenomenon (Bakhtin, 1979, 2000) and modern Russian speech genres theory in its early linguo-centrism overcoming ideas (Shmeleva, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1997), the speech genre description related to the social interaction is important for speech psychological concept construction (Demyanov, 1998; Karasik, 1992; Sedov, 1999). For the speech forms psychic essence analysis there are significant the notions of L.M. Vekker about the psychic processes of integrative character, psychic images structure (Vekker, 2000). The speech forms (speech genres) in their own speech-communicative phenomenology require the pronunciation aspect discussion. Here, of importance are ideas of A.M. Peshkovsky about the correlation of speech genre and statement intonation (see: Bakhtin, 1997, 244– 245); G. Dore about the formation in speech ontogenesis pre-verbal period of the “prosodic envelope” in the phonological samples imitative assimilation process (Doore, 1975). The close are the two-channel model of V.P. Morozov (Morozov, 2003) and intonation model as multi-parameter combinatory system (Kodzasov, 1996). The significant for our concept “speech vs. language” confirmation and indirectly for speech generation processes analysis are neural physiological data about mismatch of human perception of the statement syntactical and prosodic constructions (Steinhauer, Alter, Friederici, 1999). Statement of the problem The speech psychology fundamental theoretical issue is speech forms and language means differentiation, first of all in their psychic essence aspect: it is necessary to analyse speech form image content and structure in human psychic space. The speech research built on this basis (in our case – child’s speech) with speech forms parameters analysis, related to socio-pragmatic, speech, language aspects makes it possible to # 1494 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… reconstruct the communicative consciousness functional structures, more or less specialized at statement producing. Perhaps, empirically our theoretical postulate will be proved about the necessity of speech systems distinction and language as the specific sign systems. Methods Theoretical analysis, synthesis, generalization have been applied by us earlier in relation to speech phenomenon data, known speech and language concepts, linguo-centric approach to the statement analysis (Malanchuk, 2007, 2009). The statement segmentation procedure was applied to the infant speech material for segments identification as speech genres. Speech genres identification during the analysis was done by expert estimation method. Speech forms database (speech genres) made up more than 7268 units, the analysis was done by 37 parameters (see below). The received data underwent cluster analysis (single link method; full link method). Discussion The developed by us speech concept as system and psychic process includes the following ideas: Speech is the specific system of the human ordered vocal signals, made up of such units as vocalization (from natural infantile to the acquired socio-cultural forms), verbal statements vocal (prosodic) structures independently on their complexity degree, as well as 0-speech – semantically and communicatively significant silence forms. These are “speech signs” constituted by sound pronunciation pitch, intensity and temporal features. In case of verbal statement the multi-parameter prosodic system affects the statement interpretation from the viewpoint of the partners’ social relations. Thus, we confirm the initially extra-lingual, but sign speech character as the aggregate of speech (“vocal-speech”) units and the inborn speech character. The term “speech genre” (about the limitation of the notions “speech genre” and “speech act”, see: Kozhina, 1999; Malanchuk, 1995; Fedosyuk, 1997), used in the modern Russian genres science, may be accepted as then term reflecting speech forms structural-semantic differentiation from the oral every-day statements up to the written literary ones. The communicative consciousness has the “natural habit” to differentiate the speech forms, as we suppose, by prosody as the genetically initial genre forming factor and in the language use process identifies them with the language nomination aid, e.g. demand, request, advice, gratitude, etc. We should distinguish the psychic processes – “speech” and “language”: speech is the specific psychic process, which operand and result is the speech form image. The speech genre has the speech form image as its psychic correlate the complexly structured psychic construction, where there are integrated audio (vocal) content, including its emotional component as derivative from pitch movement character; the interlocutors’ socio-communicative interaction visual image, including face emotional expression characteristics, visual contact, space behavior, the partners’ intentional states images; tactile interaction image (that in early ontogenesis may make up the essential part of speech image content); potentially – the statement language content image. All speech form image components are of dynamical character, that is the integral speech form image implicitly includes the images of the preceding and following situations, developing the complexity level, important for communication control (see.: Malanchuk, 2009). A statement has the speech-genre segmentation what is important for intentional complexes analysis of speech units motivators, speech genres syntagmatic relations identification # 1495 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… in discourses of various types, the rules studying of speech and language structures integration. On the basis of these ideas we conducted the speech genres empirical research in infancy dynamics (1—7,5 years). The analysis has been done in relation to the statement segments identified as these or those speech genres (7268 units). There have been set 37 analysis parameters: age (on the diagrams below ВОЗРАСТ (age); hereinafter in the brackets there have been pointed out the parameters designations on diagrams); sex (ПОЛ); the speaker’s communicative status (КОМ_СТАТ); the addressee social role (АДРЕСАТ (addressee)); is actualized in 16 positions, identified in children’s texts: Child, Mother, Father, Grandmother, Grandfather, Governor, Other adults, <speaking > to oneself (self- communication), Toy, Animal, others); pragmatic situation type in interaction aspect of author and addressee of a certain typespecific/potential and others. (ПРАГМ_СИТ) (pragmatic situation); social interaction form (natural communication/ play; СИТУАЦИЯ (SITUATION)); speech genre (ЖАНР); genre types 1, 2 and 3 (imperative /informative / evaluative / performative / expressive; responsive / initiative; direct / indirect – designations on the diagram.: ТИП_Ж1, ТИП_Ж2, ТИП_Ж3); the communicative related needs types (11 identified by us needs types from children’s texts. Designated by symbols П1–П11, their content is explained further at interacting speech motivators analysis, full list of needs see: [Malanchuk, 2007, 2009]); reflection types: automatism / automatism absence at statement actualization (R0); language reflection (phonetic, lexical, word-building, syntactical, grammatical – R1– R5 correspondingly); speech reflection (identified availability / absence of speech reflection in relation to the speech strategy, apprehension of speech form and speech communicative rules usage features – R6–R8); content reflection transferred by verbal means (R9); verbal text linkage levels – pragmatic, communicative, semantic, as well as the features («mistakes») of the linkage (СВЯЗ_ОШ1 – СВЯЗ_ОШ3); finally “mistakes – language, speech, logic (content mistakes) as compared with the speech –language norm (ЯЗЫК_ОШ, РЕЧ_ОШ, СОД_ОШ). Thus there has been described the speech intentional content, the speech interaction and speech form social-psychological reality, speech and language reflection. The cluster analysis by single link method or the nearest neighbor, undertaken by us in relation to the whole data bulk (see Fig. 1), shows that one of the clusters is made up – with the increasing link distance in it by parameters, reflecting the statement pragmatic semantic constituent: and namely: genre type 2 (initiative/ responsive statement), genre type 3 (direct/ indirect), situation (natural communication or play), pragmatic situation (identified by us through the addressee type, as well as the need 9 (to express the own state, thought), the speaker communicative status (in comparison with the addressee high or low), and finally the speaker sex. This, to our mind, means that at the statement producing these integral communicative speech situation factors, most probably determine the following statement unfolding program (from 0-speech forms, vocalizations to the complex verbal statements structure) and predetermine the actualized statement correlation with them. This proves the fact that by the given type analysis results, all reflection kinds are “drawn up” to the second cluster, represented by parameters R0–R9 and П1–П8, П10–П11, as well as parameters of “errors”, characterizing the speech-language actualization features from the statement adequacy viewpoint to the pragmatic situation conditions and characteristics as well as the expressed content (intention in the broadest sense of the word and not only intention in relation to # 1496 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… the communication partner, which is expressed first of all by means and certain characteristics of speech). Most probably related to П9 data (the need to express oneself, the own state) composing the other cluster, mean that social entity existence or quasi-social object as the potential statement addressee turns on the speech mechanism as, in the first turn, the opportunity to express oneself at the specific intention formation directed at the other. This proves our theoretical postulate: the expressive speech is actualized in the situation of the other presence in space, subjectively defined as communicative one. One may suppose that the certain genres types actualize the first initiative or responsive as well as direct or indirect, characterizing the partners’ communicative roles reality, their “psychological weight” in speech interaction arrangement. The received results show as well that the two discussed clusters are united by the addressee factor important for potential statement actualization as the specific person or specific object and further by the factor “genre type 1” (with its potential to actualize the specific “corrected” speaker’s intention to the addressee). This can mean that’s these two parameters that are statement characteristics and structure integrators, urgent at the stage preceding sound producing motor action and the statement motor actualization generalized factors when the statement may be qualified as the specific speech genre. The latter is reflected in dendrogram structure: parameter “genre” reflecting the statement genre specifics not already from view point of its adherence to this or that type but in the delicately differentiated genre semantics unites, alongside with the age parameter, all consequently emerged clusters. The above said makes it possible to suppose that the plentitude of the hierarchically arranged senses of the potential statement “fill” or arrange the speech-genre statement form – in its specific content correlated to the author’s general intention (of imperative, evaluative, informative, performative, affective – expressive character). That’s why the important, related to the article topic is that such statement parameters reveal the close link as П8 (the need to change the situation, attracting the speech partner, including changing the interaction character with partner), П1 (need in the social creature), R9 (the expressed statement reflection), R8 (speech reflection on the subject of the communicative rules), parameter П3 (need in positioning), forming a group with R6 (speech strategy reflection) and through П2 (need in attention) and П10 (need in cooperation)- with the pragmatic-semantic cluster. Thus the speech situation factors reveal close link, determining 1) speech actualization opportunity 2) with specific communicative intention. Let’s note here, that speech strategy both theoretically and empirically correlate to speech genre notion and phenomenon, and reflection emergence on the subject of speech strategy (both specific and generative means that a child estimates consequently the presented integral statement fragments from viewpoint of adequacy to his general communicative Intention). The presented data reveal as well the typical speech structure specific link (“genre type 1”) and its actualization in specific genre (“genre”) with child’s age (see Fig. 1). Cluster analysis by complete linkage or the remote neighbor method (see Fig. 2) gives very important results, proving the above said: one of the clusters is also made up of the statement minimal fragments pragmatic-semantic characteristics (primary speech genres in our treatment)- genres types 2, 3 (initiative/responsive and direct/indirect genres correspondingly), situation (natural communication/play), pragmatic situation (set by addressee type), which reveal the close link with П9 (the need to express the state, thought) and further – with subgroup sex – speaker’s # 1497 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tree Diagram for 37 Variables Single Linkage Percent disagreement 1,0 0,8 Linkage Distance 0,6 0,4 0,2 ɀȺɇɊ Ɍɂɉ_ɀ1 ɉ10 ɉ2 R8 ɉ3 R6 R9 ɉ1 ɉ8 R2 ɉ4 R4 ɋȼəɁ_Ɉɒ3 ɉ7 əɁɕɄ_Ɉɒ ɉ6 ɋȼəɁ_Ɉɒ2 ɉ5 Ɋȿɑ_Ɉɒ ɉ11 ɋɈȾ_Ɉɒ R3 ɋȼəɁ_Ɉɒ1 R7 R5 R1 R0 ɉɈɅ ɄɈɆ_ɋɌȺɌ ɉ9 Ɍɂɉ_ɀ3 Ɍɂɉ_ɀ2 ɋɂɌɍȺɐɂ ɉɊȺȽɆ_ɋɂ ȺȾɊȿɋȺɌ ȼɈɁɊȺɋɌ 0,0 Fig. 1. Data bulk cluster analysis dendrogram by single linkage method Tree Diagram for 37 Variables Complete Linkage Percent disagreement 1,0 0,8 Linkage Distance 0,6 0,4 0,2 ɉ10 R8 ɉ2 ɉ8 ɉ3 R6 R9 ɉ4 ɉ1 ɋȼəɁ_Ɉɒ3 əɁɕɄ_Ɉɒ R4 R2 ɉ7 ɉ6 ɋȼəɁ_Ɉɒ2 ɉ5 ɉ11 Ɋȿɑ_Ɉɒ R3 ɋɈȾ_Ɉɒ ɋȼəɁ_Ɉɒ1 R7 R5 R1 R0 Ɍɂɉ_ɀ1 ɉɈɅ ɄɈɆ_ɋɌȺɌ ɉ9 Ɍɂɉ_ɀ3 Ɍɂɉ_ɀ2 ɋɂɌɍȺɐɂ ɉɊȺȽɆ_ɋɂ ȺȾɊȿɋȺɌ ɀȺɇɊ ȼɈɁɊȺɋɌ 0,0 Fig. 2. Data bulk cluster analysis dendrogram by complete linkage method Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… communicative status in relation to the addressee. The given cluster is formed by the named factors link with the addressee factor (a specific addressee is meant) and genre type 1 (imperative/ informative/evaluative, etc.). Thus, if we discuss the statement producing and the speech act motor part in their basis there lie the potential author and the potential addressee interaction factors in their characteristics, the potential author’s need to express his state, thoughts as well as speech forms choice in their typical characteristics, making it possible for a child to make the primary speech form rough “guess” to pragmatic situation characteristics The described cluster close link is fixed with such statement characteristics as genre and age. The less close link “pragmatic-semantic cluster”genre – age is revealed with other complexly arranged cluster. It is made up by a number of subgroups: R1 (phonetic reflection) – R5 (grammatical reflection) – R7 (genre reflection – statement form) – communication error 1 (con-situation – text link) – content error – R0 (statement actualization automatism or its breach fact) – R3 (word-building reflection). This group is linked through speech error with П11 (need in identification) – П5 (need in material object) and further through communication error 2 (communicative mistake) – with subgroup П6 (the need to prevent the potential damage) – П7 (need to change its emotional state); 1. the linked between each other subgroups are made up by factors R2 – R4 (lexical and syntactical reflections correspondingly) and language error – communication error 3 (semantic), by which means the subgroup 1 is connected with П1 (need in social creature) – П4 (need in information) and further with R9 (content reflection); 2. group П3 (need in positioning) – R6 (speech strategy reflection) by means of link with П8 (need to change situation including the communicative one) and П2 (need in attention) is connected with cluster, made up by subgroups 1 and 2; 3. cluster formation is completed by subgroup П10 (need in cooperation) – R8 (communicative rules reflection); its link with subgroups 3 and 1–2 presets the cluster link with the pragmatic-semantic cluster as well as with genre and age. Conclusion Cluster analysis results give the opportunity to discuss in structure of factors (and processes) of speech generation several groups: 1) characterizing the pragmatic situation as demanding speech link between the potential author and addressee and interaction types corresponding to it (on the speech level – speech genres types), when the statement starts to be simulated in the most general, basic characteristics of deep order; 2) reflecting the author’s speech reflection on the subject of these or those needs expression, 3) reflecting the the speech reflection from viewpoint of the used speech strategies efficiency and communicative rules and connected in particular with the language means use; herewith the statement multi-aspect content reflection R9 and communicative rules correspondence or their breach reflection R8 predetermine the link of cluster 2 with cluster 1, formed by genre semantic parameters. So, the data obtained prove the existence of several functional blocks in the communicative consciousness structure, ensuring the pragmatic speech information processing and in differentiation from it and in integrative links with it, of speech order information. That is the pragmatic situation in its structure, the social communication intentional basis, speech, language are in the communicative consciousness various, but integrated and integrating systems. The presented data make it possible to intensify both theoretical and applied research # 1499 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… in the area of psychology and neural physiology of speech. 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Speech as information conductor [Rech kak provodnik informatsii], Moscow, Nauka. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina G. Malanchuk. Functional Structures of Communicative Consciousness at Infancy: Sociopragmatic Speech… Функциональные структуры коммуникативного сознания в детском возрасте: обработка социопрагматической, речевой и языковой информации при продуцировании устного высказывания И.Г. Маланчук Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 Традиционной проблемой психологии, лингвистики, психолингвистики является процесс производства высказывания. Обсуждения этой проблемы ведутся, как правило, с точки зрения обработки человеком – потенциальным говорящим – языковой информации; влияния прагматических условий на вербальное оформление высказывания; голосовой репрезентации психологических, психофизических, социальных характеристик говорящего; акцентируется психофизиологический аспект процесса говорения. Однако до сих пор в науке не выработано четкого представления о дифференциации систем речи и языка, возможностях их взаимной интеграции – основополагающем знании в отношении процесса порождения высказывания. Существенный вклад в разработку проблемы сделан во второй половине XX века в рамках лингвистической прагматики, теориях речевых актов и речевых жанров, а также отдельными нейроисследованиями. В статье представлена и эмпирически подтверждена авторская концепция дифференциации речи и языка, описано психологическое содержание формы речи как коммуникативного средства, являющегося интегратором коммуникативно значимой информации: интенциональных комплексов и целей говорящего, социальных условий реализации речи, структуры социального представления, включающей образы автора и адресата, эмоциональность коммуникантов. Обсуждаются результаты мультидисциплинарного исследования детской речи, проведенного на основе анализа 7268 речевых единиц по 37 заданным параметрам анализа, в результате которого, в частности, в структуре коммуникативного сознания, выделены функциональные блоки, обеспечивающие обработку социопрагматической, речевой, языковой информации при продуцировании устного высказывания уже на раннем этапе онтогенеза. Выработанные представления значимы для уточнения понятия «речь» и процесса речепроизводства, организации генетических и нейрофизиологических исследований речи и языка, организации речевых практик формирования и развития коммуникативной культуры общества, для практики развития детей, имеющих нарушения в психическом и психосоциальном развитии, в процессе обучения иностранным языкам вне социокультурных условий естественной языковой среды. Ключевые слова: производство устного высказывания, детский возраст, структура высказывания, форма речи (речевой жанр), образ формы речи, интенциональность речи, прагмасемантика речи, язык, коммуникативное сознание, функциональные структуры, мультидисциплинарное исследование. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1507-1513 ~~~ УДК 005.342(571.51) Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories on the Basis of Serive Centers Net of Kspu Named After V.P. Astavyev is a Possibility for Business-Model “Triple Spiral” by G. Etzkowitz Realization Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin and Elena N. Belova* Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University them. VP Astafeva 89 Ada Lebedeva Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660060 Russia Received 06.08.2013, received in revised form 08.08.2013, accepted 12.09.2013 In connection with Universities’ affiliates closure in different towns of Krasnoyarsk region in the nearest time extreme deficit of qualified specialists of different specialties and different education levels is forecast. Especially this problem will be felt in North districts of Krasnoyarsk region where investment flow is directed to because of new field development of mineral wealth and the development of the North seaway. The only form to train and retrain the staff is distance education through specially developed resource centers. In this work the experience of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev in creation of its own net of resource centers is reviewed. Keywords: distance education, specialized resource centers. At present the continuation of intensive adoption of north and Arctic territories of Krasnoyarsk region, Siberia and Far East has begun that was started in Soviet time . The last was connected with new field development of mineral wealth, development of infrastructure providing transport highways of the Arctic Ocean and transport freight and passenger aviation traffic , creation of large hydroelectric (Boguchanskaya hydroelectric power station), * metallurgical (Boguchanskiy plant) and timberprocessing complexes . Thereupon the growth of needs in qualified personnel, specialists with specialized secondary and high education is predicted. Even now industrial reclamation of north territories of the region by such companies as the public corporation “Vankorneft”, the public corporation “Polus Zoloto”, the public corporation “Rusgidro” and others is mainly © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1507 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin… Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories… arranged as a shift work, the disadvantage of it is high employee turnover which is practically 30 % of staff personnel a year. In Krasnoyarsk region there are 67 institutions of specialized primary education (SPE) (16 (24 %) in Krasnoyarsk) and 29 educational institutions of specialized secondary education (SSE) ). This number is not enough for more than 1.3 million of population captured by the economics. This deficit is clearer seen when taking into account the size of the region territory – the second large region of the country. The main scientific and educational potential is concentrated in southern districts in the cities of Krasnoyarsk, Kansk, Achinsk and Minusinsk whereas the basic investment activity and industrial development are in northern ones. In this work  it is shown that according to the Federal Service of State Statistics since 1990 till 2005 the number of pre-school and general secondary school institutions in northern districts of Krasnoyarsk region, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and Far East Federal County has practically two times reduced, that is explained by migration outflow of the population because of low living level in the North and impossibility to fi nd a job in the territory or the lack of professional education. opportunity to get high professional education in the North is reducing because of the Universities affiliates closure (in Norilsk there is only one high educational institution – Norilsk Industrial Institute and there are some universities affiliates of other cities that are closing now by the example of Norilsk affiliate of KSPU named after V.P. Astafyev). Personnel hunger in the north of the region will grow. Universities’ disappearance from the territories contradicts G. Etzkowitz’s business model  (“Triple Spiral”) which supposes that their most favourable development of the territories will happen when there are conditions of reciprocal interests of the universities, territory administrations and business. And the priority component (locomotive) is the University that must participate actively in all life spheres of the territories . In the works [8-9] the mechanism of innovative development of administrativeterritory establishments by creation of university together with their authorities and ventures of innovative development centers of the territories (business incubator) that would become catalysts of innovative development is suggested. Supposed mechanism would allow the University not only taking active part in social and economic development of the territories but also influencing political, social and cultural complicated processes connected with religious and ethnic diversity and comparatively unstable social and economic situation. According to a “road map”  in Russia in 2014 it is supposed to start creation of multifunctional centers of applied qualification (MCAQ) in the territories. They must form conditions for dynamic reaction to the labour market and population’s needs enquiries. Under the condition of extreme deficit of educational staff the use of modern informational technologies and distance education is becoming urgent. It will allow the territories of the region with small size and density of population, lack of competent specialists and limited financial resources using possibilities of city educational structures and knowledge of highly qualified specialists. Especially it concerns locally situated detached settlements with native smaller peoples who are busy with traditional crafts. At present education of children of senior school is held at boarding schools (Nosok settlement of Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal Area, Farkovo settlement of Turukhansk Municipal Area and Baikit settlement of Evenki Municipal Area). The main disadvantage of this # 1508 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin… Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories… kind of education is that children are isolated from their environment and parents and not always can adopt under such conditions. Furthermore they cannot always get enough knowledge for successful taking of Unified State Exam and entering high educational institutions. The effective solution of this problem could be suggested by the authors  development of “High North School” under Siberian Federal University (SFU). This is a new structure of SFU the aim of which is “active adaptation (social adaptation) of youth of northern native smaller peoples to social environment of a modern city in the form of accelerated preparation for entering an educational institution (specialized primary, specialized secondary or high professional)”. Urgency of distance education is becoming more important from year to year as it provides all groups of population with prospects for education without isolation from usual environment and their activity. Researches made in 2010-2012 when working with grants [12-13] showed that practically in every northern settlement there is no widebane Internet (Uyar town, Nosok settlement of Dolgan-Nenets Municipal Area, Surinda and Yessey settlements of Evenki Municipal Area, Sovetskaya Rechka settlement of Turukhansk Municipal Area and so on). In this sense the development of informational structures of the North of Krasnoyarsk region is substantially behind the structure of Arkhangelsk territory and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area . This fact doesn’t allow organizing distance education, rendering consulting and informational services to the population of the territories. In the network of the program of development initiated by Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev (KSPU) in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region resource centers have been and are being created that further could be reorganized into MCAQ and be reviewed as future business incubators of the territory. The map of Krasnoyarsk region with location of functioning and supposed to creation resource centers of KSPU are shown in Fig. 1. Even now the resource centers are equipped with wide-band Internet or individual satellite communication and also with computer classrooms where the educational process has already started. In Fig. 2 there are pictures of the resource centers of KSPU named after V.P. Astafyev in Shushenskoe urban settlement (a) and Borodino town (b). The resource centers involve practically all towns and large settlements of Krasnoyarsk region. Direct satellite communication with Tomsk is put into practice. Created and being created resource centers allow making educational processes: − individual in telecommunication On-line regime; − for groups of students in telecommunication On-line regime; − individual or group in the regime of TV record playing of lectures for an individual student (or videodisk); − trainings; − computer literacy and the Internet work teaching; − master-classes; − consultations (law, medical, technological and so on). Besides they can provide all educational and scientific institutions of Krasnoyarsk region with the possibility to realize their educational and consulting services through the structure of the resource center (high educational institutions, colleges and so on). The main consumers of the resource centers services are supposed to be: # 1509 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin… Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories… Fig. 1 − enterprises and institutions located in the territories; − people with limited abilities who by any reason cannot be trained at regional or district centers (military, juveniles’ mothers, students with limited financial or physical abilities and pensioners); − all categories of specialists (engineers, clerks, workers, teachers, schoolchildren and kindergarten teachers) willing to have professional retraining or advanced training with getting an appropriate diploma or certificate of the State Standard; − all categories of citizens willing to have consultations with highly qualified specialists; − educational and scientific institutions willing to realize their educational and consulting programs in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region. Conclusions: Under the conditions of growing investment intensity in the North of Krasnoyarsk region growth of extreme deficit in qualified specialists and workers is predicted. Closure of educational institutions affiliates in the North will lead to the deficit reinforcement in personnel and to possibility limitation of innovative development of locally situated detached settlements. The way out from the situation could be formation of the net of multifunctional centers of # 1510 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin… Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories… Fig. 2 applied qualification on the basis of the resource centers of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafyev in the territories. References 1. Adrianov V.A. Formirovanie transportnoi infrastruktury Rossiiskogo sektora Arktiki v 21 veke [Formation of transport infrastructure of Russian sector of Arctic in the 21 century] Arktika i Sever, (9). 2012. pp. 118-139. 2. Grant FTsP (Federal Purpose Program) Razrabotka nauchnykh osnov formirivaniia struktury regional’noi innovatsionnoi platformy i mekhanizmov ee sozdaniia na osnove vzaimodeistviia avtonomnykh obrazovatel’nykh ucherezhdenii s tettitorial’no-administrativnymi obrazovaniiami (na primere Krasnoiarskogo kraiia i Sibirskogo federal’nogo universisteta) [Development of scientific basis for formation of the structure of innovative platform and mechanisms of its creation on the basis of interaction of autonomous educational institutions with territorial-administrative establishments (by the example of Krasnoyarsk region and Siberian Federal University)]. 2010-2012. Scientific supervisor is doctor of physics and mathematics sciences, professor V.I. Kirko. 3. Grant of Krasnoyarsk regional fund of science and scientific activity Formirovanie struktury regional’nogo innovatsionnogo klastera i mekhanizmov ee sozdaniia na osnove vzaimodeistviia avtonomnykh obrazovatel’nykh ucherezhdenii s ТАО (na primere Krasnoiarskogo kraiia i Sibirskogo federal’nogo universisteta) [Formation of the structure of regional innovative cluster and mechanisms of its creation on the basis of interaction of autonomous educational institutions with territorial-administrative establishments (by the example of Krasnoyarsk region and Siberian Federal University)]. 2010-2012. Scientific supervisor is doctor of physics and mathematics sciences, professor V.I. Kirko. 4. Henry Etzkowitz. Troinaia spiral’. Universitety – predpriiatiia – gosudarstvo. Innovatsii v deistvii [Triple spiral. Universities – enterprises – state. Innovations in action] Tomsk: Tomskii gosudarstvennyi universitet sistem upravleniia i radioelectroniki Pupl., 2010. 238p. 5. Karlova O.A., Koptseva N.P. Novoe budushchee Sibiri: ozhidaniia, vyzovy, resheniia [New future of Siberia: expectations, challenges, and decisions] Krasnoyarsk: SFU, 2013. 6. Kirko V.I. Sozdanie severnogo biznes-inkubatora s uchetom sotsiokul’turnykh osobennostei territirii [Creation of north business incubator taking into account social and cultural peculiarities of the territories]. Innovatsii, №12(158), 2011, pp. 101-102. # 1511 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin… Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories… 7. Moskvich U.N. Novaia rol’ universitetov v razvitii regionov i novykh otraslei [New university role in development of regions and new branches]. Krasnoyarsk: Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta V.P. Astaf’eva, №1(23). 2013, pp. 20-24. 8. Nozdrenko E.A. Adaptatsiia indigennoi molodezhi severnykh territirii k obucheniiu v Sibirskom federal’nom universitete [Adaptation of indigent youth of northern territories to education in Siberian Federal University]. Pis’ma v Emissia Offline, 2012. ISSN: 1997-8588 9. Pimenova N.N. Problemy obrazovaniia detei korennykh malochislennykh narodov Sibiri i Severa v Krasnoiarskom krae [Problems of children’s education of native smaller peoples of Siberia and the North in Krasnoyarsk region] Innovatsii v nepreryvnom obrazovanii, (5). 2012, pp. 12-19. 10. Raspotiazhenie Pravitel’stva RF № 2620_r ot 30 dekabria 2012 goda [RF Governmental Decree № 2620_p from 30 December 2012]. 11. Timoshenko A.I. Proekti territirial’no-proixvodstvennykh kompleksov v Arktike:sovetskii opyt i sovremennost [Projects of territory-industrial complexes in Arctic: soviet experience and the present] Arktika i Sever, (9). 2012. pp. 140-152. 12. Urkov D.V. Upravlenie regional’noi informatizatsiei [Administration of regional informatization] Arktika i Sever, (8). 2012. pp. 77. 13. Verhovets S.V. Rol’ federal’nykh universitetov v formirovanii regional’noi innovatsionnoi infrastruktury (na primere Sibirskogo frderal’nogo universiteta) [Federal universities role in formation of regional innovative infrastructure (by the example of Siberian Federal University)] Innovatsii, №10(144), 2010, pp.1-5. 14. http://www.krao.ru/rb-topic_t_301.htm. 15. www.yamal-spb.ru/32. 16. The research was realized under financial support of Krasnoyarsk fund of science and scientific-technical activity support. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Kirko, Valeriy V. Beloshapkin… Innovative Development of Krasnoyarsk Region Territories… Инновационное развитие территорий Красноярского края на базе сети сервисных центров КГПУ им. В.П. Астафьева – возможность реализации бизнес-модели «Тройной спирали» Г. Ицковича В.И. Кирко, В.В. Белошапкин, Е.Н. Белова Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660060, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 С закрытием филиалов университетов в различных городах Красноярского края в ближайшее время прогнозируется острый дефицит квалифицированных специалистов различного профиля и различного уровня образования. Особенно остро ощутят проблему северные районы Красноярского края, куда в основном направлен инвестиционный поток в связи с разработкой новых месторождений полезных ископаемых и развитием Северного морского пути. Единственной формой подготовки и переподготовки кадров становится дистанционное обучение через специально созданные ресурсные центры. В статье рассмотрен опыт Красноярского педагогического университета им. В.П. Астафьева в создании собственной сети ресурсных центров. Ключевые слова: дистанционное образование, специализированные ресурсные центры. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1514-1525 ~~~ УДК 659.1: 316,7: 316,346 Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society Elena A. Nozdrenko* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 15.07.2013, received in revised form 28.08.2013, accepted 04.09.2013 The current phenomenon of our time are stereotypes, that, on the one hand, simplify the process of communication, as they empower the members of society with a number of characteristics in advance, but on the other hand, create additional problems in the process of interaction, for example, form preconceptions. The increased level of competition makes the creators of promotional product resort to unusual elements of its attractiveness. However, advertisement should not only be interesting and eye-catching, but also understandable and relevant to the target audience. Carrying out this task, the advertising business refers to such concept as “social stereotype” that helps to include a certain set of symbols, containing the necessary and relevant for the consumer information into the advertisement message. Stereotype is a derivative of the modern society. The fact that stereotypes affect not only human relationships, but also formation of the public opinion is important. People mostly think in images – stereotypes, and this is an effective tool for an advertisement creator. But we must not forget that its primary task is to “hook” the potential customers with the help of competent motivation, in other words, to create an image that will stand out from the products by competitors and attract attention. However, advertising producer must remember that the border, where interesting and unusual advertisement becomes repulsive and unpleasant is very thin, and it creates the need for highly skilled approach to the use and formation of stereotypes when creating an advertisement message. Advertising, as the meaning-making element of culture can not only change social stereotypes, opinions and ideas that exist in society, but also create new ones. Keywords: advertisement, stereotype, social and cultural activities, gender, advertising communication, ethnic stereotype, gender stereotype, culture. Modern society is a complex, multi-level system, and hence, the interaction of elements within a given society has a number of specific features. Modern scholars have repeatedly emphasized this complexity (Koptseva N.P., 2012, Nozdrenko E.A., 2013). It is necessary to determine the factors that influence the formation of such a * unique phenomenon as stereotyping. In addition, an important issue is the role of stereotypes in the modern society, as well as possibility of their use in advertising communication. According to Niklas Luhmann, communication should be understood as “a kind of historically-specific process, a context-dependent © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1514 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society event”, a specific operation, which characterizes only social systems, in the process of which redistribution of knowledge and ignorance, rather than communication or transmission of information or transfer of “semantic” content from one psychic system that pocess them to another takes place (Luhmann, H, 2005). According to Baxter, as well as Sillars and Vangelisti, communication is a mean with a help of which people develop and maintain their relationships (Nazarchuk A.V., 2009). This definition suggests that nowadays communication is a global process covering the whole world. Communication represents not only relashionships between people, but also interaction of society, various social groups, etc. In this research we are interested in mass advertising communication. Mass communication is a process of systematic dissemination of institutional information, as well as transfer of specially prepared messages with the help of different technical means to large, anonymous and dispersed audiences; it is a regulator of the dynamic processes of social consciousness, integrator of mass attitudes, and a powerful tool to influence over a person and groups (Andrianov M.S., 2007). It is the concept that we have included in our study, as the fi nal product in terms of advertising communication can be not only information, but already formed sustainable knowledge, such as stereotypes about any object, phenomenon, etc. In the modern society a lot of stereotypes are associated with different areas of human activity. The system of stereotypes is a social reality. A modern society is based on stereotypes, relationships in the society happen according to a certain list of the formed images. For example, the stereotype is that women are “the weaker sex”; so a woman, who, according to the stereotypes, determines so-called “male” professions, such as police officer or fi re fighter, can be discussed and sometimes even judged by the public. According to Lippmann, stereotypes are ordered, determined by culture “worldviews” in human mind, which, firstly, save human efforts in the perception of complex social objects and, secondly, protect human values, attitudes and rights (Lippmann, W., 2004). This thesis brings us to the conclusion that nowadays relationships in society are built with the help of present, prepared patterns. Thus, on the one hand, the process of communication is getting much easier; on the other – the social function of advertising – formation of the new “worldviews” that are socially relevant and necessary at the moment for a given culture appears. I.S. Kon writes: “stereotyping lies in the fact that complex individual phenomenon is mechanically associated with a simple formula or an image that characterizes the class of such phenomena” (Kon, I.S., 1999). It should be noted that this definition suggests that in the modern society stereotypes have simplified the process of comprehension. When a person sees an image of a subject and an object, he\she already has a number of paradigms about its features in mind. The existence of stereotypes in the mechanism of knowledge is ambiguous and contradictory. On the one hand stereotypes simplify the processes of cognition and creativity, allowing extensive use of existing knowledge and skills, which are represented by a complex set of stereotypes, and on the other hand – limit the ability to get new knowledge that go beyond the usual concepts or contradict them. H. Tajfel identified two social functions of stereotyping: a) explanation of the existing relations between the groups, including the search for the reasons of complex and, “as a rule, sad” social events, and b) justification of the existing inter-group relations, such as acts, committed or planned in relation to other groups (Yakovlev, I.P., # 1515 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society 2006). Thus, stereotypes form the relation of a person to an object, which is associated with the certain features that were already formed in mind. So, stereotypes can partly be an element that forms public opinion. For example, such phenomena as racism and national discrimination are particularly associated with the ethnic stereotypes that currently exist in the human society. The problems of ethnic stereotypes Ethnic stereotypes are associated with perception of one nation, ethnic group or cultural group by another group. Relevance of this group of stereotypes is associated with acute, at the moment, situation which is reflected in emergence of such concepts as racism, Nazism, racial inequality, etc. According to the paper by V.B. Kashkin and E.M. Smolentseva “Taboo Topics and Ethnic Stereotypes in Intercultural Communication” ethnic stereotype is historically established rules of conduct and evaluation of a particular ethnic group (Kashkin, V.B., 2000). In this case the concept of stereotype can be compared with the concept of “evaluation” or “characteristic”, as perception of ethnic group, race, etc. depends on them. Ethnic stereotypes do not appear “out of nothing”, a number of factors, more often connected with a particular historical event, contribute to the emergence of a certain stereotype. It should be noted that ethnic stereotypes have dual nature, as they may come from a representative of an ethnic group, and from another source. Most often, it is this fact that gives rise to such a problem as ethnic conflicts, as ethnic representation of one ethnic group (the ethnic image) may not coincide with the opinion of another ethnic group. For example, in Russia the opinion about visitors from the former Soviet republics is stereotyped, a person, who does not understand ethnic and national differences, may assimilate all the visitors to such a concept as “migrant worker” that can also have an insulting form. Many researchers recognise the role of ethnic stereotypes in the formation of specific, and, in particular, negative attitude to different ethnic groups. For example, T. Pettegrew believes that the basis for the formation of social stereotypes in general and ethnic stereotypes in particular, is conformism as unconditional submission to the prevailing social norms. J. Watson showed that anti-Semitism of the new immigrants increases in a short period of time in the case when they settle in areas where anti-Semitism is quite typical, that is, immigrants who did not have antiSemitic stereotype before coming to the United States, got it as a result of communication and under influence of the new social environment (Yakovlev, I.P., 2006). With the course of time, every ethnic group, nation or race forms a definite number of specific features, the stereotypes, that separate them from others. Thus, it is possible to say that stereotype is an element of culture of an ethnic group, the element that helps to identify it among the others. Such words as “German”, “Russian”, “American”, “Chechen”, etc. have (i.e. encode) more meaning than just names of representatives of a certain territorial area or representatives of a certain nation. They imply some specific features of appearance connected with racial characteristics, traits of character, temperament, belonging to a particular religious denomination, etc. Thus, it is easy to see that ethnic image is a complex element of ethnic consciousness, as a particular physical type of a person summarizes territorial, social, historical and cultural features of life of a whole ethnic group. In other words, in a particular ethnic image stereotype personification of both the people and the country where people live takes place. A type of limitation of headstrong impulses of an individual is important for the ethnic # 1516 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society image formation. It refers to non-standard, nonstereotyped manifestations of temperament and mental conditions: the condition of love, hatred, jealousy, etc. This socially limited manifestation of temperament is a method to control the biopsychic reactions. It plays a special role in formation of a typical ethnic image: prim Englishman, light-minded Frenchman, proud Spaniard, etc. Therefore, an ethnic image serves as a kind of standard, according to which a person motivates his\her behavior and expects a certain type of behavior from the real ethnic prototypes (Arutunyan U.V., 2009). Thus, ethnic stereotypes are stereotypical characteristics of the certain ethnic groups, nations and peoples. These characteristics can have both positive and negative evaluation. And their use in advertising depends on the goals of advertising campaign. The problem of stereotypes and prejudices, as well as dealing with them is very important in the contemporary world. Formed stereotypes result in the fact that a person, who doesn’t face something in practice, already has the given image which can often have different emotional evaluation. This image is formed under the influence of public that forms its own assessment or classification of different groups of people. A kind of generalized attitude that concentrates on the evaluative attitude to all the members of a particular ethnic group, regardless of their personality is formed in a society. This attitude is stereotype. Irrationality of prejudice lies not only in the fact that it can exist independently of personal experience. For example, a person who has never met the gypsies knows perfectly well that they are the “other” people who personify evil, theft and crimes. When people explain their hostility to any ethnic group, they usually refer to definite negative traits, typical, in their opinion, to the group. However, the same traits, taken regardless to this ethnic group, cannot even cause negative evaluation or can be evaluated in a more tolerant manner. The origins of negative attitudes toward people of another ethnic group are rooted in the ancient times. In primitive society, the sphere of human communication was limited by a clan or a tribe. A man was only a tribesman. People from other tribes, when it happened to meet them, were perceived as alien, hostile force, as a kind of devils and demons. It could not have been otherwise: after all, such a meeting promised death to one of the parties. An alien meant an enemy. The cause of appearance of ethnic images lies in differences between people, and these differences are not only in appearance but also in relation to the cultural component, perception of each other, etc. Ethnic stereotype is not generalization of the real features of a nation, but a product and a symptom of a definite social situation in which personal qualities of a person are deliberately repressed by a general one-sided stereotype. And prejudice is a negative attitude to a group or its individual members, which is characterized by stereotyped beliefs. Ethnic prejudices have the most poisonous influence on their victims and on those who believe in them, they limit communication between the members of different ethnic groups, cause suspicion from both sides, prevent the establishment of close, intimate human relationships. Alienation, in turn, complicates communication and gives rise to new misunderstandings. It is noteworthy that such stereotypes with different prejudices often become elements for shocking advertisement. Use of ethnic images and stereotypes in advertisement can often have negative evaluation. For example, advertisement of the computer game (Fig. 1) uses a scene of violence as a stopper. It also uses element of racial inequality, which is associated with the existing in the society stereotype of a lower status of the black race. # 1517 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society However, use of ethnic stereotypes can have a positive role, the result depends on quality of the produced goods. For example, when stereotype does not depend on use of an ethnic image, but distinctive characteristics of the certain nation are used. So, a distinctive feature of Russian people is stereotypical love of traditions and history. Therefore, many Russian advertising campaigns use the indication that the promoted products were made according to the traditional methods and recipes. A remarkable example is the slogan of the advertising campaign by “Vorontsovskie crackers”, “we care about the traditions, just for fun”. Advertisement often uses stereotypes about interaction of humans and animals, for example print advertising, according to which the public organization “The Portuguese League for Animal Rights” asks people do not support, and do not go to a circus with animal shows. The slogan of this message is “Animals are not clowns!” (Fig. 2) This advertisement message Fig. 1. Advertisement of computer games with ethnic images Fig. 2. Social advertising against the use of animals in circuses # 1518 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society destroys the stereotype which is now wellestablished in society and suggests that animals should serve for people’s benefit: be their food, clothing, entertainment, etc. Advertising campaigns can often break stereotypes connected with religion, cultural component, etc. For example, the famous advertising by Benetton (Fig. 3), clothing manufacturer, advertising of English ice-cream with the slogan: “Give in to the temptation!” (Fig. 4), advertisement of «AXE» deodorant (Fig. 5). These examples break the traditional stereotypes about the Church, which ministers do not have any temptations. About gender stereotypes in modern advertisement Gender stereotypes imply descriptive qualities and characteristics of men and women and contain normative behavior patterns of each Fig. 3. Advertisement of “Benetton” Fig. 4. Coffee advertisement with religious images Fig. 5. «AXE» deodorant advertisement # 1519 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society sex. From the advertising practice’s point of view it is important that gender stereotypes reflect generalized opinion, judgments and people’s ideas about the differences between men and women in a particular culture. This means that gender stereotypes depend on the cultural context and environment where they are used. The examples of the use of gender stereotypes (Fig. 6, 7, 8) confirm the statements that the traditional gender roles limit and constrain development of not only women but also men. It is noteworthy that modern researches don’t only study certain stereotypes, but also develop a kind of “portraits” of modern men and women. Thus, for example, D. Buchan’s point of view became very popular: men were considered “active” (doing something, solving problems, aggressive), and women – “communicative” (passive, emotional, interested not in business but in relationships between individuals). . Fig. 6. BMW cars advertisement Fig. 7. Drug addiction treatment centers advertisement # 1520 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society The factors of stereotypes formation The study of the problems of use and formation of stereotypes in the modern advertising communication allowed identifying the factors that contribute to the formation of a stereotype in a society: 1. Historical factor presents in connection with the development of society, and as a consequence, development of public relations. In Fig. 8. «Diesel» clothing advertisement As consequences of generalization, gender stereotypes form our expectations concerning men’s and women’s behavior. Using such an approach advertisement should not only effectively use these expectations of its audience, but also, if it is necessary, form new expectations. Consequently, advertisement that does not confi rm the stereotype, but denies it becomes the most interesting. Such advertisement becomes the most original, and at that the use of stereotypes can be regarded as an essential tool in creating a promotional product. fact, this factor is fundamental. 2. Public relations as a system of social activities. For example, formation of ethnic stereotypes is connected with the quality of relationships between different ethnic groups, in particular, ethnic conflicts. 3. Social roles. It is known that social roles are the main factor in stereotypes formation. In this case a stereotype is subjected to transformation with the change of semantic characteristics of a social role. 4. Public policy, which supposes participation of citizens in its formation and implementation by the civil institutions. This factor is aimed at solving social problems, and one of the most important tools in this process is formation of the actual stereotypes broadcasted by mass media and used in advertisement. Thus, the modern society is characterized by a tendency of stereotyping, that is, the presence of certain paradigms in relation to certain objects and phenomena. This fact bears evidence of creation of a society that thinks in images and it is very convenient for advertisement. In the modern society stereotypes made the process of comprehension easier, and, therefore, effective. On the one hand stereotypes greatly simplify the process of studying and creativity, allowing the extensive use of existing knowledge and skills, which represent a complex set of stereotypes, and on the other hand they limit the ability of getting new knowledge, knowledge that goes beyond the usual concepts or contradict them. # 1521 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society It should be noted that there are certain types of stereotypes (gender, ethnic stereotypes) which depend on an object this stereotype is associated with. A number of factors, most often associated with a particular historical event (first of all, it concerns ethnic stereotypes) contribute formation of a certain stereotype. With the course of time, every ethnic group, nation or race forms a number of characteristics, the stereotypes that define them from the others. Thus, we can say that stereotype is an element of the cultural component of an ethnic group, the element that helps to define it from many others. The topical problem of the modern society is existence of such a phenomenon as prejudice. We should also mention that there are positive (an elderly person is wise and reasonable due to the extensive life experience) and negative stereotypes (women can’t drive a car, as it is men’s job). The problem of negative stereotypes use is quite relevant nowadays, as consequences can be expressed in the form of dissatisfaction of a certain group of people or in the form of a major conflict (for example, different ethnic conflicts). Thus, clever use of stereotypes can create conditions necessary for the public opinion formation. Advertisement often uses common social stereotypes to form the desired image of the promoted product. It is noteworthy that use of stereotypes can often be a source of dissatisfaction with advertising products by a group of people, which is opposed to the existing public opinion. Often, a stereotype can take a form of insult, thus, humiliating a part of society, which it devoted to. This situation is often connected with ethnic stereotypes due to inter-ethnic conflicts that often develop in the society. Nowadays stereotypes concern almost all the aspects of human life and advertising practice uses many of them (Table 1). The issue of stereotypes’ use in advertisement is undoubtedly topical in the moment. It is obvious that advertisement is a phenomenon and an important communicative element of the modern culture, it can influence public opinion formation. Advertisement can be understood as a catalyst Table 1. Analysis of the stereotypes use in advertisement Type of stereotype 1 Ethnic stereotypes Analysis of stereotypes use in advertising practice Context for advertising practice 2 3 The call for respect to the “others”, unity of Such stereotypes are effective in social various ethnic groups and tolerance. advertisement, which aims to attract attention to the problems of ethnic tolerance that exist in society. In the modern world the problem of ethnic conflict is acute, so advertisement with its product should not worsen the existing situation, but try to ease it, to encourage people to be tolerant, to have positive attitude towards people of other ethnic origins. Thus, the objective of such an advertisement is to change consumer behavior, which is manifested either in ethnic tolerance or in the correct study of the cultural component of the ethnic group representatives, but not in the abusive use of ethnic images, built on stereotypes associated with the represented ethnic group. # 1522 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society Continued Table 1 2 3 Gender stereotypes 1 One of the most commonly used stereotypes is an image of an attractive girl, quite often immodest and sometimes even vulgar. Thus, a creator of such an advertising message should understand that a woman can be displayed as a sex object, but this image must be reserved, otherwise such an advertisement may cause public discontent. In addition, the use of such stereotypes as ethnic stereotypes is acceptable in social advertisement, which shows current problems of a society. Ideas about personality traits and behavioral roles of men and women are topical at the present time and in the cultural context. “The construction of gender” is formation of certain expectations about what kind of people we should be and what we should do to comply with the modern ideas about our environment. Age stereotypes Use of this stereotype is possible from different positions, so a creator of an advertisement message should take into account a number of factors, including the target audience, which a creator is going to work with. For example, advertisement of a product for young people can use gender stereotypes that are relevant only for representatives of the young generation. Inclusion of age characteristics always contains an element of unconscious projection. For example, social advertisement of the rehabilitation center Focus 12 Rehab Centre, for some people may seem too bold and provocative, for others – outrageous and disrespectful to the elderly people, and some people may even say that it is hilarious (Fig. 7). But we should admit that its creators have achieved the main goal – people were affected by it. The text on the print is as follows: “There’s no such thing as an old junkie, Take back your future. Call Focus 12 Rehab”. It should be noted that this advertisement not only directly used people of a certain age group, but also used the social stereotype that is associated with these people, what was specified in the slogan. Other forms of social stereotypes Any public stereotype can be both used and contradicted in an advertisement message. In this case a stereotype violation creates more original and unusual advertising, but such a technique is not always appropriate, as the target audience may not accept the modified stereotype. Advertisement can both create and break the existing social stereotypes. The example of stereotypes violation is a series of promotional prints by “Diesel” (Fig. 8), which broke the stereotype that it is necessary to be a prudent person. The promotional messages had different meanings: “Smart listens to the head, stupid listens to the heart”, “Smart may have the brains, but stupid has the ball,” “Smart has the plans, stupid has the stories”, etc. The campaign is intended to renovate the core values of Diesel brand – boldness and originality, encouraging people not to grumble, but live and take risks. for the process of change in consumer behavior. Today, advertisement should be perceived not only as a process of providing consumer with the information about a product, but as a way to influence a person, change a person’s point of view on an issue, as a kind of meaning- and ideal- forming element. Therefore, advertisement must correctly interact with all the meanings and ideals that already exist in a society. Thus, the role of advertisement is to form an image desired and understandable for the target audience. Advertisement as the meaning-forming # 1523 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society element can not only change social stereotypes, opinions and ideas that exist in society, but also create new ones. In turn, advertisement producer can both use topical social stereotypes and destroy them, creating new stereotypes, which are more relevant for the modern society. References 1. Adrianov M.S. Neverbalnaya communicatsiya: psihologiya i pravo. М.: Institut Obshegumanitarnih Issledovanii, 2007, p. 10. 2. Arutunyan Y.V. Etnosiciologia: Uchebnik dlya vusov / Y.V. Arutunyan, L.M. Drobizheva, А.А. Susolokov, М.: Infra-М, 1999. – 573 p. 3. Ilin E.P. 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Provedenie eksperementalnogo prikladnogo kulturnogo issledovania mezhkulturnoi kommunikatsii: fokus-gruppi, lichnoe interviu, anketirovanie, poluchenie ekspertnogo mnenya (na materiale issledovania Krasnoyarskogo Kraya). Sovremennie problemi nauki i obrazovaniya, (3), 410-410. 10. Koptseva N.P. (2012). Kulturologicheskaya baza formirovaniya obsherossiiskoi natsionalnoi identichnosti v Sibirskih regionah Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seria 7. Filosofia, sociologia i socialnie technologii, (3), 11-15. 11. Koptseva N.P., Nevolko N.N. (2012). Visualisatsia etnicheskih traditsii v zhivopisnih I graficheskih proizvedeniah hakasskih masterov. Iskusstvo I orazovanie, (1), 27. 12. Koptseva N.P., Libakova N.M. (2013). Productivnost gendernogo podhoda dlya gumanitarnih issledovanii. Sovremennie problemi nauki I obrazovania, (1), 400. 13. Koptseva N.P. (2007). Teoria I praktika innovatsionnoi obrazovatelnoi programmi po esteticheskomu tsiklu disciplin. Visshee obrazovanie segodnya, (12), 9-13 14. Koptseva N.P., Bahova N.A., Zamaraeva Y.S., Kirko V.I. (2012). Problema sociokulturnih issledovanii v sovremennoi gumanitarnoi nauke. Sovremennie problemi nauki I obrazovania, (3), 323. 15. Koptseva N.P., Nozdrenko E.A. Etnopedagogicheskie podhodi v Sibirskom Federalnom Universitete: idea severnoi shkoli dlya korennih narodov Severa, Sibiri I Dalnego Vostoka //Innovatsii v neprerivnom obrazavanii. – 2012. № 5. – P. 005-011. 16. Lippmann W. Public Opinion. М.: Institut Fonda “Obshestvennoe mnenie” 2004. # 1524 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Advertisement as Meaning-Making Element of Stereotypes Formation in the Modern Society 17. Luhmann N. Realnost massmadia / Per. s nem. А. Аntonovskogo. М.: Praksis, 2005. – referat A.F. Filippova. 18. Nazarchuk A.V. Teoria kommunikatsii v sovremennoi filosofii. М.: progress-Traditsia, 2009, p. 18. 19. Nozdrenko Е.А. (2010). Kreativnoe mishlenie v reklamnoi kommunikatsii: kulturologicheskii aspect. Journal Sibirskogo federalnogo universiteta. Gumanitarnie nauki, 3 (4). 20. Nozdrenko Е.А. (2006). Samomenedzhment v organizatsii obuchenia studentov // Sovremennie problemi nauki I obrazovania. – 2006. – № 1. – P. 81-82. 21. Nozdrenko Е.А., Chetvernya О.А. (2012). Rol reklami v processe formirovania tsennostno orientirovannih modelei povedenia detei. Reklama: teoria I praktika, (6), 366-377. 22. Yakovlev I.P. Kluchi k obsheniu. Osnovi teorii kommunikatsii. SPb.: “Avalon” 2006, p. 87. Реклама как смыслообразующий элемент формирования стереотипов в современном обществе Е.А. Ноздренко Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Актуальным явлением современности являются стереотипы, которые, с одной стороны, упрощают процесс коммуникации, так как заранее наделяют членов общества рядом характеристик, но, с другой стороны, создают дополнительные проблемы в процессе взаимодействия, например образуют предубеждения. Повышенный уровень конкуренции вызывает у создателей рекламного продукта необходимость прибегать к необычным элементам его привлекательности. Однако реклама должна быть не только интересной, привлекающей внимание, но и понятной, актуальной для целевой аудитории. Осуществляя данную задачу, рекламный бизнес обращается к такому понятию, как «общественный стереотип», который поможет заложить в рекламное сообщение определенный набор символов, содержащих необходимую и актуальную для потребителя информацию. Стереотип является производной современного общества. Важен тот факт, что стереотипы влияют не только на человеческие взаимоотношения, но и на формирование общественного мнения. Люди преимущественно мыслят образами – стереотипами, а это и есть тот эффективный инструмент для создателя рекламы. Однако нельзя забывать, что его первоначальная задача – через грамотную мотивацию «зацепить» своего потенциального потребителя, другими словами, создать такой образ, который будет выбиваться из конкурентного ряда и привлекать внимание. Однако рекламопроизводителю необходимо помнить о том, что грань, за которой интересная и необычная реклама становится отталкивающей и неприятной, очень тонка, что создаёт необходимость высококвалифицированного подхода к процессу применения и формирования стереотипов при создании рекламного сообщения. Реклама как смыслообразующий элемент культуры может не только изменять существующие в социуме общественные стереотипы, мнения и идеи, но и создавать новые. Ключевые слова: реклама, стереотип, социально-культурная деятельность, гендер, рекламная коммуникация, этнический стереотип, гендерный стереотип, культура. # 1525 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1526-1543 ~~~ УДК 323.25+323.272 Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle Pavel V. Klachkov* Department of Expertise and Analytics of the Governour of the Krasnoyarsk Territory 110 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660009 Russia Received 12.06.2013, received in revised form 10.08.2013, accepted 15.09.2013 This article considers strategic nonviolent struggle as a complex humanitarian technology aimed at ensuring the change of state power by weakening the structural, functional and genetic integrity of the state mainly by conviction and psychological manipulations. The author comes to the conclusion that a complete answer to this challenge includes not only opposition to destructive entities, but also strengthening of the integrity of the state by uniting three abovementioned types of the latter. Keywords: strategic nonviolent struggle, strategic nonviolence, soft power, colour revolutions, humanitarian technologies. W. Casey, who is considered to be the most powerful director of the CIA in the history of the organization, wrote in his book: “In our time it is especially important to understand how necessary intelligence, covert operations and organized resistance movements are ... In the future, in crisis situations, these methods can be more productive than missiles and satellites. Their success tells us to use dissidents against the powerful centers and totalitarian governments”1. Both complex character and high relevance of the “color revolutions” in the past decade in the Ukraine, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan count in favor of careful consideration of these methods. The founder of the humanitarian technology2 of “strategic nonviolent struggle” that underlies “color revolutions” is G. Sharp. At the beginning of his career he was researching the teachings of * civil disobedience of G.D. Toro and M.K. Gandhi. He devoted a separate monograph to the ideas and practices of the latter3. Of course, G. Sharp was familiar with the works of many thinkers. In particular, he was close in his views were close to the views of the 16th century French philosopher Etienne de la Boétie. The latter asserted the following: “If they (the tyrants) are not provided with anything, if they are not being obeyed, without fighting, without opposition, they remain naked and broken, and there is nothing they can afford, as a sprout, which dries up and dies, if the root has no soil”4. However, the particular importance of the Gandhism is clear based upon the fact that the founder of the latter, as well as the American political researcher, was not only a theoretician, but also a practicing politician. The views of the Indian thinker was reflected in the © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1526 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle work of the follower and colleague of G. Sharp, a retired colonel, R.L. Helvey: Gandhi appears there in the chapter devoted to the political thinkers, most significant for strategic nonviolent struggle (in a non-trivial company with N. Machiavelli and C. Clausewitz)5. Thus, a certain relation of the technology of nonviolent revolutions with the doctrine of Satyagraha (perseverance in the truth) is beyond any doubt. According to the theory of M.K. Gandhi, violence only breeds violence, while nonviolence breaks this vicious spiral. Satyagraha is based on the desire to influence the judgment and conscience of the opponent through non-violence (ahimsa), and the willingness to endure pain and suffering. An important element of this teaching is to avoid interaction with the authorities in the forms prescribed by the sovereign. The followers of M.K. Gandhi refused to buy British goods, receive government titles and awards, to be on the civil and military service, boycotted schools and administrative offices, while creating alternative social structures. The example was Mahatma himself, who in 1920 returned the rewards for his participation in the wars in South Africa to the King6, and four years later, protested against his early release from prison, not wanting favorsfrom the government7. “The rights also entail obligations to the state”, young M.K. Gandhi thought once started his legal practice in South Africa8. He faced the arbitrariness of British colonial officials and came to the conclusion that, by refusing to meet the state face to face, the citizens thereby make the latter inoperative. Among the most successful examples of such policies is refusal of the Bardoli District to pay the land tax (resulting in tax reduction)9, as well as demonstrative and widespread violation of the salt monopoly of the government (400 km trip to the seacoast)10. There were fires with British goods all over India11. It got to the point that the Indians ignored the visit of the Crown Prince of Wales. The streets of the cities along the route of the Prince seemed dead at the time of his presence12. And in 1946, after the Indian National Congress adopted the anti-British resolution “Get out of India!”, Gandhi said: “Each of us from now on should consider him-/herself a free man or a woman and act as if we had already got free of imperialism”13. The symbol of Satyagraha was Charkha, a traditional Indian spinning wheel. The followers of this teaching did not buy British textile products, preferring their own homespun goods14. M.K. Gandhi demanded from his followers to work personally on a manual spinning wheel. He reasoned it this way: “Why do I, who does not have to work to be fed, also need to spin? Because I eat something that does not belong to me. I live by the labor of my fellow citizens”15. Thus, spinning was not only a symbol, but a way of ensuring the socio-cultural integrity of the highly fragmented Indian society. Breaking the ties that bound his country with England, Mahatma simultaneously spun threads to unite India itself. It is a paradox that decades before this “jewel of the British Empire” got it’s independence. M.K. Gandhi spent most of his efforts not to fight the mother country, but to consolidate India. To do this, he worked on the reconciliation of the supporters of Hinduism and Islam16, as well as on the integration of “untouchable” into the Indian society”17. The tactics of the Indian political strategist that met both objective geopolitical and geoeconomic realities and traditions of the Indian society, proved to be extremely effective. It is worth noting that it is deeply rooted in the Indian spiritual tradition18. It is known that the true followers of Satyagraha were supposed to make a vow of truth, non-violence or love, innocence, refusal from property, etc. (by the way M.K. Gandhi was influenced in his views by ideas of L.N. Tolstoy)19. An important component # 1527 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle of the movement was voluntary acceptance of a martyred mission by its participants20. However, the great Hindu called himself a “practical idealist” and intended his theory of non-violence not for angels or saints, but for ordinary people21. Moreover, Mahatma said that he “would rather prefer that India resorted to arms to defend its honor, than it became a helpless victim of its own dishonor because of its cowardice...”22. The fi nal chapter of G. Sharp’s monograph “Gandhi as a Political Strategist” is called “Non-violence: a moral principle or a political technology?” The author tends to dispose of the widespread opinion that the use of nonviolent means in India was determined by spiritual, religious or psychological features of the Hindus23. He also drops a thought about the difference between non-violence as ethics and nonviolent acts as a practical technology24. To prove it he uses quotations from the works of M.K. Gandhi, in particular from the letter dated July 1943, where he wrote: “I admit that there are many of those, who totally follow my theory of non-violence. Nevertheless, one should not forget my other words: for my movement it is not necessary that all its participants are the followers of this theory, to some extent or totally. It is enough if people simply follow the rules of nonviolent acts” 25. G. Sharp and his followers went the way of universalisation and instrumentalization of the teaching of nonviolent struggle. They decided to bring this teaching to the level of a technology, providing the application of the humanitarian arms of the East against itself. As noted by G. Sharp himself in conversation with R.L. Helvey, “strategic nonviolent struggle deals with mastering of the political power and depriving it of others. It has no relation to pacifism, moral or religious beliefs”26. If M.K. Gandhi considered the idea “to seek one’s rescue looking for the external forces and the help from other countries” to be dangerous, the followers of G. Sharp used the latter without any doubt. As MGIMO professor M.A. Khrustalev notes, before the presidency of R. Reagan the traditional foreign policy of the United States was the support of the military dictatorships (especially in Latin America). After this, the line had changed and, leaving his post, this head of the United States said that during his rule forty dictatorships were deprived27. Such a change in the foreign policy claimed the theory and practice of “peaceful revolutions”. In 1983, G. Sharp created a programme of nonviolent actions at the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. His first research was focused on the possibilities of applying the tactics of civil disobedience by the population of Eastern Europe in the event of invasion of armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization. In parallel, this political expert organized the Albert Einstein Institute of Boston 28, which started active practical activities since late 1980s29. The first major “client” was the Democratic Alliance of Burma. In this country, now called the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, technologists of nonviolent struggle worked for years. This is where R.L. Helvey joined them. Moreover, the members of the Institute worked with the progressive party of Taiwan and with the supporters of Dalai Lama, took part in the overthrow of M. Noriega in Panama. Two weeks before the beginning of the infamous Tiananmen Square incident G. Sharp and B. Jenkins arrived in Beijing 30. One of the most successful projects of the Albert Einstein Institute was the support of the separatist movements in the Soviet Baltic31. As stated in the work by G. Sharp, his book “Civil Defense: the Post-war Weapon System” was actively spread in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and the author himself, along with his associate B. Jenkins worked in these republics in November- # 1528 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle December 1991. Later this book was published in Latvia with forewords of the former and current ministers of defense of this republic32. According to the apologetic articles in the European mass media, the organization of G. Sharp was involved in the recent events of the Arab Spring33. The official website of the Institute has versions not only in Chinese, Arabic and Burma languages, but also in Serbian, Kyrgyz, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and, of course, Russian. 34. The Albert Einstein Institute is not a monopolist. The International Centre for Nonviolent Conflicts headed by Dr. Ackerman and former military J. DuVall, also “promotes and encourages the use of nonviolent civil strategy with a view to establish and protect democracy and human rights around the world ... and provides assistance in training and sending field instructors to deepen the theoretical knowledge and practical skills to use nonviolent methods in conflicts around the world”35. R.L. Helvey determines the mass disobedience as “nonviolent struggle (protest, non-cooperation), strongly and actively applied for political purposes”36. According to G. Sharp, the term is intended to distinguish nonviolent struggle against pacifism and moral or religious non-resistance. It is a deliberate challenge to the authorities, a refusal to obey. This technology is used in the political sphere, it’s purpose is the political power. The term is used to denote actions that help to intercept the control of dictatorship over state institutions37. G. Sharp considers that “after all, political power is based on social cooperation and actions of the masses, but not on violence”38. He asserts: “When nonviolent actions are performed by many people and the main social institutes, they are able to paralyze and even destroy what they were aimed at39. It seems that peaceful movement should be interested in achieving consensus with the authorities by negotiations, but G. Sharp doubts this way of solving conflicts. He concedes negotiations only as a tactic means: “If Democrats agree to stop resistance in response to stop repressions, they may be disappointed. This happens seldom”40. It is worth noting that even though M.K. Gandhi abandoned negotiations (in particular, with Lord Reading in 1919)41, he often held them successfully finding mutual compromises with the colonial authorities (for example, Deli Pact of 1931)42. In general, Mahatma thought that Satyagraha requires not saving efforts to achieve worthy agreements with opponents43. R.L. Helvey in his characteristics of strategic nonviolent struggle uses a typical military analogue: “Military victory is achieved by destruction of the potential of the opponent and (or) his/her will to continue the fight. In this respect nonviolent struggle is different from an armed conflict only in the systems of weapons”44. He also writes: “Like artillery changed the nature of war in the times of Machiavelli, the technology gave us opportunities to change the way of conducting nonviolent conflicts. Computers, Internet access, mobile and satellite phones, coding programmes, television and radio are the main weapons of nonviolent struggle”45. G. Sharp asserts that the beginning of nonviolent struggle requires solving of four firstpriority tasks: “to strengthen resolution, selfbelief and ability to struggle in the depressed people; to strengthen independent social groups and institutes of the depressed people; to create strong internal resistance; to prepare a reasonable strategic plan and put it into practice” 46. He also names “three key factors that determine to which extent the power of the government will remain uncontrolled: 1) relative desire of the population to limit its power; 2) relative power of independent organizations and institutes that aim at shutting off the sources of such power; 3) relative ability # 1529 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle of the population to refuse the authorities in agreement and support”47. Strategic nonviolent struggle is not an extemporaneous creativity of the masses48. As R.L. Helvey underlines “It is not a happening, but a well planned and realized strategy of destructing the dictatorship”49. Struggle involves development and successive implementation of a general strategy, which is specified in strategy, tactics and methods. First of all, strategists should answer some questions: “What prevents from achieving freedom? What may help to achieve it? What aspects of the dictatorship are particularly strong? What are its weaknesses? How vulnerable is the source of its power? What are the strengths of the Democrats and the population as a whole? What are the weaknesses of the democratic forces, and how they may be overcome? What is the status of third parties indirectly involved in the conflict, which help or could help either the dictatorship or the democratic movement?”50. military officers get to know the structure, tactics, logic, ammunition, geographical features, etc.; in the same way, developing a plan of nonviolent struggle, it is necessary to understand the nature and the strategic principles of nonviolent struggle. However, knowledge alone will not create the strategy. To formulate the strategy of the fight, we need information and creative spirit”54. “The inefficiency of template approaches and stereotyped solutions is due to the fact that “the conflict, where political defiance is applied is a constantly changing battlefield of action and reaction”55. If Machiavelli appeals to the wise sovereign “to take measures to ensure that citizens always and under all circumstances have the need for the sovereign and the state”56, G. Sharp offers “the fighters against the dictatorship to achieve exactly the opposite: “development of autonomous (social, economic, political and cultural) institutions is consistently expanding the democratic space and narrowing the control of the dictatorship”57. Strategic planning “requires deep understanding of the whole situation of the conflict, including physical, historical, government, military, cultural, social, political, psychological, economic, and international factors. Strategies can be developed only in the context of a particular struggle and its background”51. That is why it is impossible” to create a general strategic plan, which can fit all liberation movements. Each struggle for the overthrow of the dictatorship and establishment of democracy will be different in a way”52. As noted by G.W.F. Hegel, every nation “has such special circumstances, every era happens to be such an individual condition that ... it is necessary and possible to make only those decisions that are derived from this very condition”53. Talking about the qualities the strategists require, G. Sharp himself turns to the military analogy: “In order to prepare a military strategy, In some cases, he finds it possible to develop a “parallel” (alternative) government, which citizens and civil institutions will be ready to obey. “Then the dictatorship will gradually but with an increasing speed get deprived of the properties of the government”58 If French students rioted in 1968 with the slogan “Be realistic: demand the impossible!”59, the “strategic nonviolent struggle” avoids such an approach. G. Sharp urges the opposition not to overestimate its strengths (in particular, to avoid the repetition of the events of 1989 in the Tiananmen Square). If the “frontal attack” at this stage of the struggle does not lead to the desired result, the political analyst recommends to resort to “selective strategies of resistance”. They suggest the concentration of forces “on specific issues: social, economic or political. They should be chosen in such a way, that a part of the social and political system remains beyond the control # 1530 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle of dictators or gets out of it, and also that the plans of the authorities are hindered”. Such a campaign should strike “at the vulnerabilities of the dictatorship”60. G. Sharp emphasizes that the opposition should use “weaknesses” of the authorities. Among them he names the following typical features: “The system can be inert, that is less able to adapt quickly to new situations”, “being afraid of angering the chiefs, subordinates may give inaccurate or incomplete information, which prevents the dictators from taking appropriate decisions”, “ineptitude and ignorance of the bureaucratic apparatus or excessive control can extremely reduce the functioning of the system”61. Generally speaking, the political analyst states, that “despite its apparent strengths, all dictatorships have weaknesses: internal inefficiency, institutional inefficiency, personal feuds and conflicts between organizations and departments”62. Therefore, it is appropriate to recall on a general pattern determined by A. Toffler: “Every system ... can only operate at a certain speed. Too slow –and it gets disintegrated, too fast –and it shatters. All systems are composed of subsystems that operate in a similar manner only within the certain velocity amplitude”63. Imposing a higher rate of a combat, the opposition could gain an advantage if the authorities are not ready for such a mode. As pointed out by V. Shved, in 1990, the Lithuanian “Są jūdis” responded to all the statements of Moscow within a day or two, while it took Moscow up to two months or more to respond. In fact, the Centre responded when the urgency of the problem has already been exhausted64. G. Sharp also recommends to use the sharpening of class, cultural or ethnic conflicts65. The researcher notes that both in Georgia and the Ukraine “real social problems and stress were used to launch the revolutionary flywheel”66. Indeed, as A. Toffler wrote, “... when the system is highly unstable, non-linear effects are multiplied. Great efforts of the authorities can give small results. Slight circumstances may initiate the collapse of the regime. Like an overtoasted slice of bread may lead to divorce”67. R.L. Helvey recommends to turn to the involvement of all the forces of the civil society into the struggle. He points out that almost all organizations “contain the sources of power, and provide a framework for collective actions”68. This is quite logical because, as noted by V.V. Iliin and A. Panarin the communities “have inherent behavioural features and forms that are not typical for individuals: they are formed not in the process of an individual life, but during the collective mutual development, interaction (multiplication of the merger of personal energies, combinative reflexes, imitation, suggestion”69. Talking about the organizational structure of the nonviolent movements, R.L. Helvey notes that a hierarchy is not typical for it. “The general way to get together different interests, abilities and personalities, or opposition groups is to develop an “umbrella” organization for the purpose of struggling. The other way is, when the latter develops its own “headquarters core”, which represents all or some of the members. Initially, it may be better to combine the participating organizations around the issues rather than trying to create a unified organization”70. However, towards the end of the book R.L. Helvey determines “the opinion that the struggle for democracy requires democratic organizational structures for the management of the conflict as erroneous. This is a nonviolent, but, nevertheless, war. It requires leadership and strict discipline”71. “As in any war, decision-making by a committee is inappropriate. Ideally, at the strategic level, someone must be responsible for deciding when and where the campaign will be carried out, while other individuals should # 1531 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle be responsible for carrying out these fights and campaigns. At each level within the movement, the task should not be set without specifying the person responsible for its implementation. The responsibility is always individual”72. Herewith, the author mentions, that one-man management does not deny broad participation in preparation and presentation of recommendations for the decision-making person73. working in the genre of special propaganda, should imagine him-/herself as a politician. All his/her efforts should be aimed only at “condemning the opponent with all the facts that have an effect on the population and indicate what to do to solve the problem (and, unsurprisingly, political changes will always be an outcome)”81. R.L. Helvey also gives some specific recommendations on working with foreign mass media82. R.L. Helvey frankly writes about the suitability of foreign experts’ participation in “nonviolent struggle”, who have a wealth of knowledge and skills74. Answering the tough questions of the opponents in this respect, the role of foreigners should be positioned as “necessary technical assistance, which has no governing authority and is strictly accountable”75. It is worth noting, that during training and consulting of new generations of “freedom fighters” he advises to attract “veterans of nonviolent conflicts” having proved themselves useful in other countries”76. Speaking about the role of propaganda, it is appropriate to recall that after World War I, military theorists almost unanimously acknowledged: promotion is a part of the art of war. The Englishman P.G. Warburton said: “In our time, the main objective of the war is not to destruct the enemy forces, as it was before, but to undermine the morale of the population of the enemy country as a whole to such an extent that it would bring its government to make peace” 83. A. Butkevicius, a Lithuanian student of G. Sharp, emphasizes: “In the Soviet Union in the military environment there were no designed psychological operations, everybody acted using a single, very primitive scheme”77. As noted by D. Fraser, propaganda is “an activity or art that makes people behave the way they would not have behaved without it”. In the opinion of this author, the initial target of propaganda is not the mind, but such emotions as fear, pride, greed, ambition, etc.78 R.L. Helvey agrees with J. Ellul, who defines propaganda as “an expression of opinions or actions taken by individuals or groups to influence the opinions and actions of other individuals or groups with predefined objectives and through psychological manipulation”79.Herewith, a retired U.S. Army colonel reasonably observes: “Contrary to the popular belief that the facts speak for themselves, in reality, the facts have a meaning only in a context”80. He also emphasizes that a journalist It is noteworthy that modern propaganda uses not so much primitive stamps, but complex, thoroughly elaborated strategies. J.S. Nye Jr. emphasizes that primitive “brainwashing” can cause the opposite effect. He writes: “The information perceived as propaganda, can be met not only with disdain, but also become counterproductive, if it undermines the credibility of the country”84. A fertile field to handle the public opinion is television. The psychology of a viewer is that he/ she takes someone else’s opinion as his/her own, resulting in the situation that television does not reflect the reality, but mythologically interprets it”85. However, the development of social networks and blogging communities offer in this respect new, not yet fully investigated possibilities. Technologists of “nonviolent struggle” prepare in advance for the situation that their actions will cause a negative reaction of the authorities. As R.L. Helvey notes, “nonviolent actions against a repressive regime would often # 1532 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle meet violence. One can expect beatings, torture, imprisonment and other sanctions (violent, economic and social). However, when the government reacts in such a way, wide popularity of such acts can often be used by the opposition to gain public support for the democratic movement”86. To reduce the effectiveness of repression, the strategists of “nonviolent actions” use the following measures. Firstly, they seek to win the policemen and other officials over to their side. R.L. Helvey suggests that the policemen should be influenced through their friends and family, bringing to them the idea that the opposition does not consider the policemen to be enemies if they are willing to contribute to the resistance87. It is most difficult to establish contact with the army, because the army units are often located far from the residence of soldiers, and in the army environment, patriotism and conservatism are prevailing. However, the author does not consider this task impossible, citing as an example the refusal of Serbian army to act in defense of Slobodan Milosevic88. R.L. Helvey does not write directly about the work carried out in the security services, however, as K.D. Chivers notes, the a defection of state security officers to the opposition played the leading role in the victory of the “orange revolution” in the Ukraine89. R.L. Helvey considers a particularly important task to be “recruiting of friends and family of the key officials supporting the tyrant to the democratic opposition… The tyrant shall face the problem of preserving the loyalty to him/ her of those who have to arrest, intimidate and subject to cruel treatment the members of their own families”90. The work of civil and public officials is considered quite important. They may be useful for the movement, if they simply sabotage the work. Of course, they will bring even greater benefits to the opposition if they present the insider information. Analyzing the “color revolutions” that took place in a number of the CIS countries, the Russian researcher A. Chadaev expressed an interesting opinion: “A cardboard hero needs a cardboard villain as a pair: and such a villain is always found in the face of the authorities and always turns out to be cardboard”91. The concern is that there is nothing more profitable for the organizers of “nonviolent struggle”, than the opposition threatening in words, but ineffective in practice. It does not matter here, if such behaviour is explained by incompetence and corruption of the law enforcement structure or purposeful work of the “agents of influence”. This is the case when stupidity is not better than cheating. Another aspect of the anti-repression actions is to raise the morale of the participants of the movement. According to R.L. Helvey, “obedience is mainly a combination of habits, fear and interests. Habits and interests may be changed, and fear can be driven away”92. Speaking about the organization of meetings, he demands: “Have a good plan, make sure that the participants know it, and have leaders who will ensure its implementation... If there is no leader in the front ranks of the demonstration, he/she should explain to the people why he/she was not there and where he/she would be. Leaders shall ... discuss measures that will not let the people feel alone. At public events, such as demonstrations, people need to keep close enough to each other to touch, shake hands and communicate (chant, sing and talk) ...Wearing similar clothing and symbols is a psychological support, which provides a visual association with others, who share the same values and beliefs”93. “Placing posters in front of the protesters and at a height that does not allow the demonstrators to see the ranks of the police, reduces fear”94. Speaking about the importance of the unity of the movement’s participants, R.L. Helvey notes: “Contrary to the patriotic rhetorics... very little brave actions are done out # 1533 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle of love for freedom, democracy and the rule of law. Most of the acts of heroism are inspired by loyalty and devotion to the comrades”95. It should be emphasized that conflicts with the police for current social extremists are not unwanted trouble, but a natural element of the struggle, which they tend to use in accordance with their scenario. Strict, but ill-planned actions of law enforcement bodies may play into the hands of extremists. For example, one of the experts in the organization of “orange revolutions” gives the following advice: “If the demonstration is more likely to end with collisions, place young girls in white blouses in the front ranks. And wait for the police to attack. The effect is guaranteed: after a few strokes there will be a bit of blood on white blouses (or a lot, unfortunately). There will be excellent pictures that will spread on the screens all over the world... And the regime will be discredited”96. It is especially dangerous when at first the police gets susceptible of provocation by committing acts of violence that have the opposite effect, and then, under the impact of the agents of influence or for other reasons, it just ‘plays back’ as mindlessly. A few cycles of this kind can significantly strengthen the positions of extremists97. A separate section of R.L. Helvey’s work is dedicated to the phenomenon of leadership and training of leaders for strategic nonviolent struggle98. Attention is paid to such qualities as the ability to lead by example, knowledge of people and their problems (“for the leader of the local level, each person must have a name and a face”), as well as knowledge of the enemy, loyalty of the organization of “resistance”, the ability to take responsibility, support the success of other participants (and not to stick out their own role), learn from mistakes, develop useful skills of subordinates, etc. Different leadership styles are considered. The author points out that the importance of the abovementioned qualities may vary depending on the situation, and the choice of a particular leadership style is less important than the competence99. R.L. Helvey specifically points out: it is necessary to involve religious leaders in the movement. If this is not possible, it is necessary to neutralize their impact100. Herewith, specific attention should be paid to certain events that take place in modern Russia. In January 2012 it was reported that the Patriarch Kirill will not respond to a provocative letter of B.A. Berezovsky, who called him to join the “non-system opposition”101. Thereafter a massive campaign began to discredit the head of the Russian Orthodox Church in the media and in the Internet. The apotheosis was the performance of the feminist group Pussy Riot on February 21 at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, which was actively discussed in the media. What is happening suggests that the campaign is performed in accordance with the logic of strategic nonviolent resistance”102. However, it should be noted that in this case, the “technologists” obtained rather the opposite result, which was confi rmed both by processions and other acts held by Orthodox Christians to protest against these actions and the results of public opinion polls103. Already in 1960s intelligentsia and young people of the “target countries” became an important object of the U.S. psychological war operations. In particular, the programmes were implemented that would allow the United States to rely on the “elite” of the local intelligentsia and future political leaders in Africa104. R.L. Helvey writes: “raw materials for nonviolent struggle are people: organized, trained and skillfully led”105. He also notes: “In nonviolent conflicts, as in war, young people are in the front lines”106. At the same time, he mentions that for youth organizations the discipline is particularly important, their members must follow a strict “code of conduct”107. It is also # 1534 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle useful to engage the business community and the working class in nonviolent struggle (especially the workers of the transport and related fields to ensure the transportation of people, goods and services)108. At the end of 1960s, the Australian psychologist F. Emery studied the specific behaviour of young people at rock festivals (particularly at the famous Woodstock). As the result of long-term research, the researcher came to the conclusion that this activity reminds of swarming bees. The researcher also introduced a special term, “teenage swarm” and determined a relationship between this phenomenon and the so-called “hysteria of revolt”. Moreover, he concluded that such a “swarm” can be effectively managed for political purposes, including the organization of coups d’état109. A few decades later, the results of F. Emery’s research complemented by achievements in the field of communications were used by the organizers of the so-called colour revolutions. Using social networks and mobile communications (in particular, for sending messages) the experienced coordinators manage revolutionary masses, guiding them in the right direction, quickly correcting the behaviour of different groups and thereby ensuring coherence of actions110. Anti-globalists use modern methods of rapid alert during their actions. These technologies are also the basis of the recently appeared practice of flash mobs: spontaneous and usually meaningless mass performances. Reports of the time, place and scenarios of the latter are transmitted by their participants through the Internet or mobile phones111. A. Butkevicius, a Lithuanian student of G. Sharp, had repeatedly admitted that the victims of the events that occurred in January 1991 in Vilnius, were originally planned to pay “little blood” for the freedom of Lithuania112. V. Landsbergis in his interview with the British journalist D. Price-Jones also explicitly stated that blood and heroes were needed for the freedom113. The activities to consolidate the activists are accompanied by the efforts to alienate the supporters of the current government. R.L. Helvey emphasizes: “Keep in mind that the pressure of one circle works both ways, and can be used as a useful tool for changing behaviour patterns”114. As researchers note, “average people are imposed the fear of not being “with us”... The number of those “being with us” is growing like a snowball. A group of people, which has recently been a marginal sect of the opposition, rapidly acquires a mass of followers and supporters”115. Herewith, the process of discrediting and defamation of the supporters of the integrity of the state goes on, declaring them “the servants of the regime”. A real psychological war takes place here. Describing how the latter was carried out in the late 1980s in the Baltic, the writer V. Petkevicius noted: Stalinism in Lithuania was fought using Beria methods116. G. Sharp himself admits: “Sometimes violence is inevitably limited. Anger and hatred for the regime may cause an explosion. Moreover, some groups may continue acts of violence, recognizing the importance of nonviolent struggle. In such cases, there is no need to give up political disobedience, but it is necessary to separate violent and nonviolent acts as much as possible”117. The student of G. Sharp A. Butkevicius expressly stated that he supported “combined resistance”, which combined nonviolent and armed components118. If G. Sharp just slightly mentions international assistance that could be provided to the democratic movements in case of “strong internal resistance” (thus the author supposes that “countries abroad” are ready to help them, but they have to prove their competency), R.L. Helvey directly writes: international intervention can # 1535 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle weaken the regime and accelerate the collapse of the latter. However, a clear strategic plan is required, the implementation of which will not allow local authorities to use the “siege mentality” to unite the citizens. The main role here is given to propaganda aimed at undermining the sources of power: it must be applied before the invasion begins119. The outcome of the tense political struggle is always predictable only in part. Not everything is defi ned by resources, a lot depends on the will and determination of the opposing parties. As noted by G. Sharp, “the success of nonviolent actions depends on a number of factors”. These include “the amount and the proportion of noncooperating and resisting people, the courage of the latter under the threat of repressions, maintaining the nonviolent discipline, and sometimes the pressure of the third parties. In some situations it is also important how open is the disobedience; rejection to cooperate undermines the credibility and legitimacy of the authorities, their eligibility to apply sanctions and penalties. It is also extremely important how active the existing or newly emerging institutions of the society become in the nonviolent struggle”120. The strategists of nonviolent struggle have high hopes for the phenomenon, they call “political jiu-jitsu”. It is a special process, “which can be carried out in the course of nonviolent struggle, changing the balance of powers. The negative reactions to violent repressions of the nonviolently resisting citizens are politically turned against the opponents, weakening their positions of power and strengthening the nonviolent resistance. This may work only when violence meets nonviolent disobedience, and not violence and rejection to fight”. In this case, repressions of the opponents appear in the worst light, boomeranging the public opinion against them in the country and abroad121. Frankness with which R.L. Helvey writes about how the potential leaders of democratic movements can find support abroad is quite noteworthy. He recommends to hold negotiations with foreign governments “in terms of common interests”. As one of the arguments that can convince these people to support the nonviolent struggle, he names the promise to provide airspace for military flights, to ensure cooperation of intelligence services as soon as a favorable investment climate is set, and , “perhaps even provide space for the disposal of external forces, if mutual interests would be violated”122. According to the author, a convenient platform to announce the requirements of “nonviolent movements” is the hearings of the U.S. Congress123. Since interaction with governments requires special skills and capabilities, R.L. Helvey also recommends to cooperate with nongovernmental organizations. At the same time, however, it should be understood that the support of nonviolent struggle is not “charity, where no one expects return. Those receiving help should consider the grant support provided as a contract. The contract means that in return the recipient must report to the donor about the number of members, establishment of the system of notification, courses, production and distribution of printed materials or other indicators that are important to achieve the objectives of the grant ... In the field of non-governmental organizations, there are much more requests for support than resources available”124. In order to induce people to commit acts irrational and destructive in their nature, “eversors” can pass knowingly false information through the mass media and the Internet, start panic rumors. In some cases, the purpose of the latter may be a “withdrawal” of psychological barriers to the use of violence. Studies of ethnographers and folklorists show that “the tradition only authorizes violence that is performed in the interest and on # 1536 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle the signal from the procreative sphere”125, i.e., for the protection of women and children. It is logical to assume that the most cynical manipulators will distribute chilling news of violence against the most vulnerable. Only few people may critically evaluate such reports in the periods of high emotional intensity. In December 1989, the reporters of the world media reported about the massacre, which allegedly took place in the Romanian city of Timisoara. They reported about thousands of victims. The apotheosis was the message that the Ceausescu cutthroats allegedly broke into the maternity hospital and ripped the bellies of the pregnant women open. The reports had photos attached. After the power went to the opposition, and the Ceausescu were shot, it turned out that the women died during childbirth, and the cuts appeared as the result of dissection. Thus, a monstrous pretence was organized with an understandable political orientation126. The incident in Timisoara was not the only one of its kind. V.N. Shved refers to the testimony of the citizens in the files of the case incited in connection with the events at the Vilnius television tower in January 1991. The citizens claimed to have seen dead bodies lying on the ground before the arrival of Soviet troops127. M. Collon gives evidence of such manipulation in the course of Yugoslavia events128. Thinking about the “prospects” of such manipulations, it should be noted that the extremely favorable conditions for them are created by the Internet network, especially by social networks and blogging communities. Sensational reports emanating from the alleged “eyewitnesses” are distributed with extreme ease. Of course, nothing contributes better to the spread of false information and beginning of panic rumors as the atmosphere of uncertainty and mistrust of the population for the official sources of information and the inefficiency of state information policy129. Speaking of the technology aimed at destabilizing social and political situation, it is important to mention the paradigm of modern strategic studies known as the chaos theory. As S. Mann points out, the latter is used for the study of dynamical systems, which include a variety of components –chaotic at the first glance, but easily organized by insignificant but verified effects130. It should be noted that the issues of the system behaviour under turbulent conditions and the emergence of order out of chaos have long attracted the attention of researchers. It was J. Schumpeter who said that “creative destruction” was often necessary to move forward131. However, the concept of S. Mann mainly deals with the instrumental use of the technology of chaos to undermine unfriendly regimes. One of the key concepts of his theory is “self-organized criticality”, i.e. the situation when even minor events can trigger a chain reaction that leads to a disaster132. A. Toffler writes, “when the environment becomes too tumultuous, the systems cease to be linear, thus providing ample opportunities for small groups ... A chance, help from outside and the snowball effect (created with the active participation of the media –Author’s note): these are the factors that help to explain why throughout the history of mass democracy, extremist cults, revolutionary cliques and underground organizations ascended during the tumultuous confusion, why a previously insignificant small group may suddenly become decisive”133. An even more favorable situation for the radicals is formed in the conditions of “mosaic democracy”, with no unified majority134. G. Sharp offers certain steps for transition after the overthrow of the dictatorship to stable functioning democracy135, R.L. Helvey advises not to let criticism of the current government # 1537 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle flow in the anarchist direction, not to abuse the incitement of such strong emotions as hatred and prejudice. Though he mentions that if the latter “are on the surface, they should be directed against the system, which gives rise to tyranny and not against the groups that benefit from it. And by limiting the concept of “enemy” to one person or a group at the height of power, destructive passions will contribute to death, exile or imprisonment of the leader”136. Despite all good intentions, in practice, the victory of nonviolent revolutions often plunges the country where it occurred into chaos. As the Russian-Ukrainian team of researchers notes, “assuming the conquest of power by the crowd, which relies on external support, the country is trapped. After all, the crowd, as opposed to the elite set up during the revolution, is dissipated, and the power gets directly related to the hegemon, which has supported it137. Assessing the events of the Arab Spring, the analysts of the international fund Experimental Creative Center came to the conclusion that “the general plan, under which these “revolutions” have been initiated is the dismantling of Modernity. Or, in other words, the globalization of nondevelopment”138. After describing the technology of strategic nonviolent struggle, it is logical to give characteristics to its essence, i.e. the “inner content of the subject, which is expressed in the unity of diverse and contradictory forms of its existence”139. In connection herewith, it is relevant to recall that social philosophy identifies three types of the integrity of the state: structural, functional, and genetic. The first one is defined by a unified structure of relations between the elements or parts of a whole, the second one, by correlation of various functions performed by various elements of the system and the third one, by the presence of a generating element or structure140. Application of the analyzed technology impacts, first of all, the functional aspect of the integrity of the state. If the “rules of the game” traditionally adopted in the latter prescribe to treat the police or civil servants only as “screws” of the state apparatus that performs certain responsibilities, then G. Sharp and R.L. Helvey offer to engage these people into the network of public relations organized for the benefit of the opposition. Formally retaining their positions, the officials actually become the elements of the socio-cultural system. An important place is given also to undermining of the genetic integrity of the state, which, as pointed out by B.S. Ebzeev and his co-authors, is a traditional priority for our country141. According to the fair remark of V.A. Lisichkin, “the historical past of the people is the basis of an integrated community”. There is a number of the humanitarian technologies aimed at the destruction of this foundation. Among them the substitution of the present problems by the references to the biasedly interpreted historical facts, projection of modern conflicts on the wars of the past (to characterize this method the expression «wars of memory” is used) and purposeful “debunking” of heroes and famous people, the pride of the nation. To occupy the places of the latter alternative figures may be nominated, but the practice of total defamation of the nation’s history is also known142. A. Tsuladze states, “as a result of “exposure” of the old myths Russia remained without history. There is a set of different myths about Russia’s past, from the left to the right, but there is no national, i.e. generally accepted myth”143. As a result, as V. Polosin correctly observes, “along with the history the outlines of the whole mythological historical space of the nation are lost, and the historical events become a chain of random facts pertaining not to one, but different historical subjects... The # 1538 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle people is like a child looking for his/her mother and father in the crowd, whose faces he/she has never seen”144. In the European mass media it has been repeatedly announced that the result of the Ukrainian orange revolution was to be the emergence of the government with a new, not the post-Soviet source of legitimacy. They also discussed the birth of the “new nation”145. From the destruction of functional and genetic integrity there is a direct way to undermine the structural integrity of the state, the most important component of which is the territorial integrity146. If the system of the state turned into a simple set of people formally occupying certain positions, and actually acting in anti1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 state interests, if historical ideas motivating self-sacrifice are destroyed, it is not difficult to eliminate the integrity of the territory, which is an inherent feature of the state147. Based on the above, we can conclude that strategic nonviolent struggle is a complex humanitarian technology aimed at ensuring the change of state power by weakening the structural, functional and genetic integrity of the state mainly by conviction and psychological manipulations. A complete answer to this challenge includes not only opposition to destructive entities, but also strengthening of the integrity of the state by uniting three abovementioned types of the latter. Cited by P. Schweizer. The Secret Strategy that Hastened the Collapse of the Soviet Union / Peter Schweizer; [trans. from Polish by L. Philimonova] –Moscow: Eksmo: Algoritm, 2010, P. 27. In his other work, the author of this article offers a terminology system according to which “Technology is a system of methods of some kind of activity aimed to achieve a certain result more efficiently. The technologies aimed to produce a target effect on social structures and social processes are called social. The humanitarian technologies are interpreted as a type of social technologies based on predominating use of soft methods such as persuasion and psychological manipulation instead of enforcement, orders or rewards”. Klachkov P.V. Ponyatie gumanitarnykh tekhnologii v sisteme sotsialnofilosofskikh kategorii [The Concept of the Humanitarian Technologies in the System of Social and Philosophical Categories] // Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya [Modern Problems of Science and Education]– 2012. –No. 3; available at: www.science-education.ru/103-6452 (date of submission: 19.06.2012). Sharp G. Gandhi as a Political Strategist. –Boston: Extending Horizons Books: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1979. Cit. by: Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 96. See: Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 87-88. See: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. P. 106. Ibid. P. 158. Cit. by: Ibid. P. 36. Ibid. P. 189. Ibid. P. 202. Ibid. P. 196. Sukharev A. Mir bez nasiliya Makhatmy Gandi [The World Without Violence of Mahatma Gandhi] // available at http:// www.manwb.ru/articles/persons/EarstPeople/Gandi_Suharev/ Cited by: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. P. 325. As A.I. Fet notes that appearance of modern capitalism was connected with the coincidence of three historical facts in time. Along with the technical progress there was an excess of poor people in European countries and the demand for industrial goods from the metropoly in colonies. See: Fet A.I. Instinkt i sotsial’noe povedenie [Instinct and Social Behaviour] –Novosibirsk: Publishing House “Sova”, 2005. –P. 361. Therefore, rejection to buy British goods stroke one of the supports of the colonial capitalist system. Cited by: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. P. 115. See: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. PP. 163, 308. Ibid. Pp. 158-159. As M.K. Gandhi argued himself, “I want the wind of the cultures of different countries to blow free in front of my house. But I don’t want it to knock me down. Cited by: Gorev A.V. Specified Works. P. 113. See: Rakesh Raman Jha. Sociology of Peace and Nonviolence. –New Delhi: Northern book centre, 2003. –P. 6 // http:// books.google.ru/books?id=F4iaqtkvq-UC&printsec=frontcover&hl=ru&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false . In Chechnya there is a stable point of view that the formation of L.V. Tolstoy’s theory of non-violence was influenced by the views of the Sufi sheikh K.-Kh. –ishiev. See: Delimkhanov A. Kunta-Khadzhi Kishiev byl velikim gumanistom i religioznym deyatelem [Kunta-Hadji Kishiev Was a Great Humanist and Religious Figure]// available at http://chechnya.gov.ru/page. php?id=6613&r=126 See: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. P. 142. See: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. P. 74. # 1539 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 See: Gorev A.V. Op. cit. P. 7. See: Sharp G. Gandhi as a Political Strategist. P. 280. See: Ibid. P. 275, passim. Cit. by: Ibid. P. 279. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 12. See: Khrustalev M.A. Metodologiya prikladnogo politicheskogo analiza:uchebnoe posobie [Methodology of Applied Political Analysis: Course Materials] –Moscow: Prospekt, 2011. –pp. 11-12. N. Chomsky outlines the support of a number of violent and corrupted dictators by the United States: Mobutu, Trujillo, Somoza, Marcos, Duvalier, Suharto, etc. See: Chomsky N. Deterring Democracy. –NY: Hill and Wang. A division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1992. –P. 14. Meisan T. Institut Alberta Einshteina: otkaz ot primeneniya nasil’stvennykh metodov v versii TSRU [The Institute of Albert Einstein: Rejection to Use Violent Methods in the CIA] // http://www.voltairenet.org/Institut-Al-berta-Ejnshtejnaotkaz Of course, the famous physicist who died in 1955 did not participate in the development of the technologies of G. Sharp. Nevertheless, the latter used his text as a foreword to his fi rst book published in 1960. See Ibid. Herewith, it should be mentioned that A. Einstein treated Mahatma Gandhi with great respect. See: Gorev A.V. Op.cit. P. 226. Ibid. See: Sharp G. Ot diktatury k demokratii:strategiya i taktika osvobozhdeniya [From Dictatorship to Democracy: Strategy and Tactics of Liberation] / Translated from English by N. Kozlovaskaya –Moscow: Novoe Izdatel’stvo, 2005. –P. 8. See also: Shved V.N. Kak razvalit’ Rossiyu? Litovskii variant [How to Ruin Russia? The Lithuanian Version] / Vladislav Shved. –Moscow: Algoritm, 2012. –Pp. . 215-230. See: Sharp G. Waging Nonviolent Struggle. 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential / By Gene Sharp with the collaboration of Joshua Poulson and the assistance of Cristopher A. Miller and Hardy Merriman. –Boston: Extending Horizons Books: Porter Sargent Publishers, Inc, 2005. P. 280. See: Kuttner R. Gandhi in East Boston // The American Prospect. –2011. –February 17. –http://prospect.org/article/gandhi-east-boston-0 See: http://www.aeinstein.org/ From the note at the website of the Centre. Cited by: Kara-Murza S.G. Oranzhevaya mina [The Orange Mine] P. 30. See: Sharp G. Ot diktatury k demokratii:strategiya i taktika osvobozhdeniya [From Dictatorship to Democracy: Strategy and Tactics of Liberation] / Translated from English by N. Kozlovaskaya –Moscow: Novoe Izdatel’stvo, 2005. –P.10. Ibid. Sharp G. Nenasil’stvennaya bor’ba: luchshee sredstvo resheniya ostrykh politicheskikh i etnicheskikh konfliktov? [Nonviolent Struggle: the Best Way to Solve Acute Political and Ethnic Conflicts?]// Filosofskie nauki [Philosophic Sciences] –1990. –No.11. –P. 83. Ibid. P. 81. Sharp G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. P. 21-22. See: Gorev A.V. Op.cit. P. 150. Ibid. Pp. 219-221. Ibid. Pp. 302. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. xi. Ibid. P. 89. Sharp G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. P. 16. Ibid. Pp. 27-28. Moreover, G. Sharp warns about the temptation to deviate from strategic plans by concentrating on insignificant problems and giving way to spontaneous emotions. See: Sharp G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. P. 58. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 137. Ibid. P. 50. Ibid. P. 49. Ibid. P. 53. Cited by: Iliin V.V., Panarin A.S. Op.cit. P. 13. Sharp G. Op.cit. P. 54. Ibid. P. 38. Cited by: Mamut L.S. Op. cit. P. 135. Sharp G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. P. 67. Ibid. P. 68. See: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Майские_события_во_Франции_1968_года Sharp G. Op.cit. P. 60. Ibid. P. 31. Ibid. P. 32. Toffler E. Op.cit. P. 281. See: Shved V.N. Op.cit. P. 81. See: Sharp G. Op.cit. P. 50. Kholmogorov E.S. Problema 2005 // Spetsnaz Rossii [Problem 2005 // Special Forces of Russia] –2005. –No. 1 (100). Toffler E. Metamorfozy vlasti: Znanie, bogatstvo i sila na poroge XXI veka [Metamorphoses of the Power: Knowledge, Wealth and Power on the Brink of the 21st Century] (translated from English) / Elvin Toffler –Moscow: AST: AST MOSKVA, 2009. –P. 576. # 1540 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 Ibid. P. 18. Iliin V.V., Panarin A.S. Op. cit. P. 18. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 50. Ibid. P. 137. Ibid. P. 122. Ibid. P. 72. Ibid. P. 121. Ibid. P. 120. Ibid. P. 138. Cited by: Shved V.N. Op. cit. P. 222. See: Zhiveynov N.I. Op.cit. P. 23. Cit. by: Ibid. P. 78. Ibid. Ibid. See: Ibid. P. 128-132. Cited by: Iz istorii psikhologicheskoi voiny // Problemy voennoi psikhologii: Khrestomatiya [From the History of Psychological War // Problems of War Psychology: Reader’s Book] / Selchenok K.V.; general edit. Taras A.E. –Mn: Kharvest, 2003, P. 383. See: Nye J.S., Jr. The Future of Power. P. 104. See: Tsuladze A. Op.cit. P. 262. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 34. See: Ibid. P. 10. See: Ibid. P. 11-12. See: Kara-Murza S.G. The Orange Mine. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 74. Cited by: Kara-Murza S.G. The Orange Mine.P. 182. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 60. Ibid. P. 104-105. Ibid. P. 106. Ibid. Cited by: Jover V. Tvortsy revolyutsii [Creators of Revolutions] available at: http://ruska-pravda.org/index. php/2011122015868/stat-i/nit-vremeni/2011-12-17-16-40-38.html It is noteworthy, that R.L. Helvey in his work published a little earlier, wrote about the use of white bandages by demonstrators for the same purposes. See: Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 105. One can ascertain that the technologies of nonviolent struggle continuously develop. A.E. Gapich and D.A. Lushnikov are of the same opinion. They note that for the opposition “the regime demonstrating the absence of internal unity and weakness and not capable of making repressions” is optimal. Nevertheless, unconformity of positions of its representative and spontaneous actions of the juniors lead to local demonstration of power, which causes its delegitimization in the eyes of the society. What can be better for the opposition if in the course of a local uncoordinated act of violence the “revolution heroes” appear.” Gapich A.E., Lushnikov D.A. Op. cit. P. 57. Nye J. determines the leaders as the people who “help the group to create and achieve the aims they share”. (Nye, J.S. Jr. The Powers to Lead. –NY: Oxford University Press, 2008. –P. 9). In his opinion, leadership is “a power to direct and mobilize others [to achieve] some purpose” (Ibid. P. 19). The demand for leaders is explained by the fact, that “for the human group they fulfill the function of creating meaning and aims, strengthening the group identity and unity, maintaining order and mobilizing collective work” (Ibid. P. 19-20). See: Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 107-115. Ibid. P. 16-17. The Patriarch Kirill Will Not Respond to the Open Letter of Berezovsky // available at http://www.newizv.ru/lenta/201201-16/157556-patriarh-kirill-ne-budet-otvechat-na-otkrytoe-pismo-berezovskogo.html See: Maksimenko S., Smirnov A. Pussy Riot: Protracted Performance // available at http://rus.ruvr.ru/2012_08_02/PussyRiot-zatjanuvshijsja-performans/ See: Ibid. See: Zhiveynov N.I. Op. cit. P. 150. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 93. Ibid. P. 137. See: Ibid. P. 15. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 17. See: Engdal U.F. Stoletie voiny. Anglo-amerikanskaya neftyanaya politika i Novyi Mirovoi Poryadok [The Centenary of the War. English-American Oil Policy and New World Order] // available at: http://lib.rus.ec/b/163663/read See: Sorokin N. “Eksport revolutsii v sovremennom mire. Istoricheskie paralleli, tekhnologii I mery protivodeistviya [“Export” of Revolution in the Modern World. Historical Parallels, Technologies and Counter-Measures] // available at: http://mitupov.viperson.ru/wind.php?ID=436487&soch=1 As Nye J. writes, “Internet provides easier organization of the protests by free amorphous groups, than by hierarchical organizations. In the era of Vietnam planning of a protest required weeks and months of pamphlets, posters and telephone calls and took four years until the number of protesting people grew from 25,000 to one million in 1969. Unlike 800 thou- # 1541 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 sand people in the U.S. and 1.5 million people in Europe cooperated during one weekend in February 2003”. Nye, J.S., Jr. Soft Power. The Means to Success in World Politics. P. 28. See: Shved V.N. Op. cit. P. 154. See: Ibid. P. 202-203. Ibid. P. 21. Kara-Murza S.G. The Orange Mine. P. 140. See: Shved V.N. Op. cit. P. 92. Sharp G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. P. 36. See: Shved V.N. Op. cit. P. 229. See: Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 40. Sharp G. Nonviolent Struggle: the Best Way to Solve Acute Political and Ethnic Conflicts? // P. 81. Sharp G. There Are Realistic Alternatives. P. 36. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 125-126. Ibid. P. 126. Ibid. P. 128. Dym A. Nasilie.ru [Violence.ru] –Moscow: Kislorod, 2008. –P. 25. Verbin A. The Code of Honour of Liars // available at: http://iran.ru/rus/news_iran.php?act=news_by_id&news_id=63 See: Shved V.N. Op.cit. Pp. 157, 163. See: Kollon M. Neft’, PR, voina. Global’nyi kontrol’ nad resursami planety. [Oil, PR, War. Global Control Over the Planet Resources]. Moscow: Krymsky most-9D, 2002. –Pp. 53-79. Here is an eloquent statement of E.P. Puchol, the chief of the Spanish group of forensic pathologists having worked in Kosovo: “We were told to be ready to make 2,000 dissections and work till the end of November. We found only 187 bodies buried in individual graves, mainly located in the direction to Mekka, which confi rms observance of religious standards. We did not fi nd any signs of torture on the bodies of the buried, 80% died naturally”. Cited by: Ibid. P. 69-70. For more details about eversor’s technologies of managing rumours see: Gapich A.E., Lushnikov D.A. Op. cit. Pp. 126130. See: Mann, Steven R. Chaos Theory and Strategic Thought // Parameters. Autumn 1992. –P. 58. See: Toffler E. Op. cit. P. 109. See: Mann S. Op. cit. P. 60. See also: Arshin K. Adventures of the Theory of “Managed Chaos” // available at http://www. rodon.org/society-110921132256 See: Toffler E. Op. cit. Pp. 302-303. See: Ibid. P. 303. See Sharp G. From Dictatorship to Democracy. P. 69-70. Helvey R.L. Op. cit. P. 85. Kara-Murza S.G. Op. cit. P. 129. Politicheskoe tsunami. Analitika sobytii v Severnoi Afrike i na Blizhnem Vostoke [Political Tsunami. Analysis of Events in the Northern Africa and the Middle East] / Edit. Kurginyan S.E. –Moscow: MOF ETS, 2011. –P. 272. Philosophy Encyclopedic Dictionary. P. 665. See: Ebzeev B.S. Op. cit. Pp. 35-36. According to Goethe the truly integrated is only what comes from the common forming principle and can be thought of as born from it. See: Vasilenko I.A. Politicheskaya filosofiya [Political Philosophy] Course Materials –2nd edition, revised –Moscow: INFRA-M, 2009. –P. 281. See: Ebzeev B.S. Op. cit. P. 57. See: Lisichkin V.A. Printsip virusa v psikhologicheskoi voine // Problemy voennoi psikhologii: Khrestomatiya [The Principle of Virus in the Psychological War // Problems of War Psychology: Reader’s Book] Selchenok K.V.; general edit. Taras A.E. –Mn: Kharvest, 2003, Pp. 441-443. Tsuladze A. Op. cit. P. 287. Cited by: Ibid. See: Kara-Murza S.G. The Orange Mine. P. 152. See: Ebzeev B.S. Op. cit. Pp.36-37. See: Emtsov G.N. Op. cit. P. 23. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Klachkov. Humanitarian Technology: Strategic Nonviolent Struggle Гуманитарная технология «стратегического ненасильственного сопротивления» (strategic nonviolent struggle) П.В. Клачков Экспертно-аналитическое управление Губернатора Красноярского края Россия 660009, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 110 Автор рассматривает «стратегическое ненасильственное сопротивление» как комплексную гуманитарную технологию, направленную на обеспечение смены государственной власти путем ослабления структурной, функциональной и генетической целостности государства посредством, главным образом, убеждения и психологических манипуляций. Исследователь приходит к выводу, что полноценный ответ на этот вызов включает не только противодействие деструктивным субъектам, но и укрепление целостности государства в единстве трех названных выше типов последней. Ключевые слова: гуманитарные технологии, «мягкая сила», стратегическое ненасильственное сопротивление, «цветные революции». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2013 6) 1544-1552 ~~~ УДК 332.13 Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies in the Arctic Zone possible? Anton I. Pyzhev*, Yulia I. Pyzheva and Evgeniya V. Zander Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 25.06.2013, received in revised form 12.09.2013, accepted 03.10.2013 We study the history and the current state of relationship between small-numbered indigenous people living in the Arctic Zone and the resource extraction companies with respect to the common land areas. The experience of the USA, Canada, Nordic Countries and the Russian North is considered. Our analysis shows that the large-scale industrial development of the Arctic Zone have drastically affected social, economic and ecological environment of indigenous people. The behavior of local governments towards protection of indigenous peoples’ rights differs depending on the lobbying force of resource extraction companies. If the establishment of native indigenous peoples titles doesn’t threaten the interests of nature management companies, the governments are trying to strictly maintain a fair institutional framework of interaction with the indigenous communities. Otherwise, the nature managers do what they want and the government follows their needs. Keywords:indigenous people, Arctic Zone, resource extraction companies, traditional livelihood, nature management. The publication was prepared within the framework of the project no. 13-12-24007 supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities and Krasnoyarsk Krai Foundation for Support of Scientific and Technical Activity. Introduction As natural resources situated in the most advantageous climatic conditions are developed, the civilization has to look for new livelihood for its industry far away from the places where the major part of the Earth population lives. At the end of the 19th century Europe has faced the problem of depletion of the main kinds of natural resources. Nowadays the economy of European countries requires much more fuel and energy * resources than it could produce itself. The United States of America import the same amount of the petrol as it produces inside the country. The lack of resources in the locations of major economic activity leads the mankind to look for new resources in the hard-to-reach areas with quite a severe climate conditions. Only small-numbered communities of the indigenous people populated these areas: hunting and fishery. Nowadays the interests of the indigenous people and the © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1544 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… transnational economic machine are intersected, therefore the modern society should answer the question: how to harmonize the existence of natural resource management and small settlement of the people who hunt and fish since many centuries and don’t want to be assimilated into civilized world? The same issue arises in different countries throughout the world. In the past decades this problem became important in Russia, since the extensive use of its North has been started after discovering of the rich deposits of oil, gas and non-ferrous metals (Kryukov, Tokarev, 2005; Karakin, Buldakova, 2010). However, the literature studying this issue in Russia is not as comprehensive and the local policy-makers usually suffer from lack of understanding of how to manage the interaction between indigenous people and resource extraction companies. We hold that the fi rst step of filling this gap is to give the overview of international best practices in this area. So, we put the main focus of our study on the literature review on managing the relationship between indigenous people and resource extraction companies in the Arctic area. Our main aim is to give an answer to the question stated in the title of the paper: is it possible to establish a good-neighborly relationship between indigenous people living their traditional lifestyle and the big federal companies holding the resource extraction activity on the same territories? 1. American Indians and Alaska Natives Indigenous peoples reside on all the continents of the Earth. In absolute terms the largest population of indigenous peoples, about 4.1 mln people, live in the United States of America (Cooke et al., 2007). It is a common knowledge that the first Europeans came to the territory of the modern United States of America in 1492. Since that time one could start the chronicle of the relationship between indigenous people of the North America (American Indians) and European colonizers. A comprehensive review revealing the history of their relationshiphas been made by H. R. Isakson and Sproles S. A. (2008). According to the archeological and anthropological studies, indigenous Americans had private ownership of goods before Columbus, but land was in common use: the density of population was low, therefore land was not a limited resource. Undoubtedly, periodically the land conflicts between different tribes occurred, but this was not sufficient to cover the transactional costs of creating the system of private ownership on land, in contrast to Europe, where all the free land areas were already occupied by that moment (Ibid, p. 66). First conflicts involving the issues of land distribution between indigenous people and European colonizers were solved amicably. First, the Indians held the negotiations with French, English and Spanish governments through their representatives. The results of such negotiations were mostly oral agreements. After the Unites States of America have been established, at least 332 written agreements have been concluded. All the contradictions which were beyond the statements of theses agreements, solved amicably by concluding extra agreements, because both parties had no exact information about the military power of each other. In such conditions, it was reasonable to maintain good-neighborly relations and trade: the Europeans offered the production of their highly developed civilization, and the Indians could sell their furs and food. As the American continent was colonized, the Europeans have figured out that they excel indigenous people both in number and technological level, so they could win almost all the military battles and get all the resources with the brutal force. Therefore, # 1545 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… the written agreements between indigenous people and colonizers have become useless (Ibid, p. 68). Under pressure of necessity to seize the lands of indigenous people, the Unites States have introduced The General Allotment Act of 1887 also known as The Dawes Act. This law gave to the President the right to allot the lands owned by Indians in exchange for other smaller plots of land and the citizenship of the USA. Actually, this policy has created well-known reservations for Indians. The consequences of passing the Dawes Act were that the overall area of the Indians’ land has decreased from 147 million acresin 1887 to 55 million acres in 1934. This was the most considerable change of the state of indigenous Americans on their native land, because although the laws passed in 20th century formally stopped the process of land allotment, they did not concern the already reallocated areas (Ibid, p. 70–72). The result of the policy described above was that the Indians were resettled into reservations, remote territories far away from the civilization, which are not appropriate for the traditional economics of the indigenous people. As one or another land area became the point of interest for some resource extraction company, or the casino investor, this area was seized from indigenous people and they were resettled to another area. Despite this practice has been cancelled, nowadays most of the Indians live poorly and can’t maintain their traditional lifestyle. In fact, the indigenous people of the USA are deprived of their rights on the land that historically was their ownership according to the fi rst settler’s rule. By some assessment, the Native people live on Alaska since 10,000 years (Kraus, Buffler, 1979). Their history of contact with non-Native people differs from that of American Indians. Alaska Natives have never been lived on reservations, but instead have continued to occupy their traditional lands. However, they did not manage to keep their traditional lifestyle: in the last 100 years the Natives have moved from a full-time subsistence hunting and fishing mode of life to part-time participation in the wage economy (Ibid, pp. 112–113). The active phase of interaction between Alaska Natives and the United States of America has started in 1960s when the plan of creating a harbor between Kivalina and Point Hope by exploding an atomic bomb has been developed (O’Neill, 1994). This plan had not been implemented, but the menace of survival forced indigenous people to express their public claim for protection of their rights. Then some oil deposits have been discovered on Alaska, and the oil companies started the construction of Trans-Alaska Pipeline that caused a disturbance to the traditional livelihood of the indigenous people living nearby (Flanders, 1998). The indigenous people claims movement leaded the U. S. Congress to pass the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (Public Law 93-203 or ANCSA). The land under the Act were allotted to the for-profit corporations of which Alaska Natives would be shareholders (Arnold et al., 1978). The shares could be sold to anyone after 1991. According to the Act, 44 million acres of the indigenous peoples’ landwere passed to the corporations in exchange for 962.5 million U. S. dollars. Actually, this was a unique experience of creating a kind of a joint-stock company involving the land and subsoil resources as a capital. Thus, the indigenous people became the owners of a very attractive investment. However, it is obvious that all these effortsand compromises cannot change the main idea of the process expressedby Don Foote, a demographer: “no industrial development could replacehunting and fishing as the basic # 1546 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… component of the village economies” (Flanders, 1998). 2. First Nations of Canada The Constitution of Canada officially recognizes and guarantees the special rights for the representatives of the three ethnos of indigenous people: Indians, Inuits and Métis. The group of Indians tribes is usually called First Nations.According to the Constitution, different groups of small-numbered indigenous people of Canada have different kinds of rights (Booth, Skelton, 2010). The rights of the Canadian indigenous people are being extensively violated. Despite the accumulated court practice including the suits of indigenous people representative against Canada, its province British Columbia and industrial companies, the maintenance of indigenous people rights still remains formal: the court recognize the rights of indigenous communities on their land and traditional economic activity, but doesn’t hinder from intensive industrial development of the involved area. The business profits by “reticence” of the indigenous people and, of course, their low level of social and economic development that doesn’t allow them to efficiently right themselves (Ibid). Section 35 of the Canadian Constitution guarantees the right on hunting, fishing and gathering on their areas of traditional livelihood (Booth, Skelton, 2011). There is also a more important document that regulates the relationship between the government and indigenous people, the so-called Treaty 8, made on June 21 1899 between the British Crown and the representatives of some First Nations. Under this treaty, the Crown provided the maintenance of the rights to hold the same mode of life, as it would be if they never accepted this agreement to the West Moberly First Nations and the Halfway First Nations. The results of a survey showed that the representatives of the indigenous people are very worried about observance of their rights. They think that Treaty 8 is not being accomplished by the government (Booth, Skelton, 2011, p. 691). Moreover, the representatives mention that the federal authorities are keeping from solving of their problems passing this function on the regional level (Ibid). Despite the problem of their rights’ maintenance on traditional livelihood, the indigenous people are also worried about the increasing impact of industrial development on the surrounding environment. It is important to mention that this issue has different aspects: ecological, economic and social. From the ecological point-of-view, extermination of the specific species of plants and animals causes damage to the sustainable development of the whole ecosystem: disturbance of food chains, reduction of the biodiversity etc. Economic damage lies in deprivation of the natural source of trade with non-aboriginal population. Social damage includes the devastation of the traditional culture of indigenous people. The representatives of indigenous people point fish, caribou, bear as the most influenced species. Despite in 2010 the West Moberly First Nations were successful in action against the government of British Columbia concerning the protection of a Burnt Pine caribou nerd being destroyed by a coal-mining company, this decision was almost ignored in practice. If the caribou is depopulated, the indigenous people are forced to eat the meat of a moose that is much less valuable food. By the assessment of indigenous people, such a substitution will lead to the decreasing of their life span. However, despite such a large list of problems, the representatives of the Canadian First Nations consider the land under Treaty 8 to be not fully deteriorated by the industrial development. If the government will listen to # 1547 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… the attitude of the indigenous people and will start the optimization of their interaction, than it would be possible to achieve the maintenance of interests of all the participants of this process. Meanwhile, since 1970s, when the problem of Treaty 8 became the important part of current agenda, the representatives of indigenous people don’t see any significant changes in the behavior of the government and business towards the maintenance of the indigenous people rights (Ibid, p. 697). According to the indigenous people, their oppressed state is caused by the economic disability and the fact that the nonaboriginal population of Canada practicing traditional values of the post-industrial Western society doesn’t understand and accept the culture and lifestyle of the small-numbered indigenous people (Ibid). So, by the example of Canada we see that the formal establishment of a legislation regulating the issues of protecting the rights of indigenous people did not guaranteed its maintenance in practice. 3. Nordic countries The indigenous people of Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden and Finland) are presented by the Sami. Their total population is estimated as 60,000 people, 2,000 of them live in Russia. Historically, thenomadic Sami lived on their native territory called the Sampi, which is located within the modern borders of Norway, Sweden and Finland. These borders were simply ignored by the Sami until 1852, when the legislation of the Scandinavian countries have prohibited free migration of the people and reindeer through the legally established borders. The settled Sami have being assimilated into the continental culture through the system of mandatory school and religious education and the program of support for their agriculture (Sandberg, 2006). In contrast to other Arctic countries, the indigenous people of Scandinavia have their own parliaments that are the integrated part of national parliaments (Niemczak, Jutras, 2008). The rules of their functioning differ from one country to another, but this fact underlines that the indigenous people of Nordic countries are well acknowledged by the government. In 1997 the government of Norway has passed the Finnmark Act stating that the land of historical livelihood of indigenous people should belong to them. According to the Act, the Sami became the owners of 45,000 sq. meters in Finnmark region (Riseth, 2007).The Sami have exclusive title to deer farming, but the rights for hunting and fishing are shared with any person who pays a fee (Sandberg, 2006). In our opinion, such a generous behavior of the government may be explained with a fact that the presence of the Sami on the Norwegian North doesn’t pose a threat to some resource extraction companies. In such cases, the governments usually prefer to maintain social interests of the communities. The Sweden Act on deer farming states that a title to hold deer farming exclusively belongs to the Sami indigenous people (Josefsen, 2003). However, the land right is owned by the government, as determined by the Supreme court of Sweden in 1981. The Sami rights on their native land are restricted to the usage only (Ibid). Finland is the less advanced Scandinavian countrywith respect to indigenous people rights. Due to the powerful lobbying of forest sector companies, three major tryouts to pass the laws protecting the rights of indigenous people on their land in 1952, 1973, 1990 have failed (Lawrence and Raitio, 2006). Since that the Sami of Finland still have no either special rights on deer farming, or a title to their native land. The experience of Finland shows that when indigenous people constitute a real menace to # 1548 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… some nature management company, they usually lose. 4. The Russian North The indigenous people of Russia are officially titled as the Indigenous smallnumbered peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East. This community counts around 50,000 members and comprises 45 indigenous peoples according to the official register (Kryukov, Tokarev, 2005). The biological and physical features of the Russian North and Arctic Alaska are quite similar, but the history and the current state of relationship between resource extraction companies and indigenous people are different. The rights of indigenous people are formally protected by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Art. 69, 72). Unfortunately, the practical implementation of these statements is embarrassed due to many reasons. The chronology of large-scale intervention of the oil and gas industry to the North of Russia is the same as it was in the USA: it started in 1970s, when the large stocks of hydrocarbon resources have been discovered mostly in Western Siberia. In contrast to the USA and Canada, there are no examples of the written agreements between resource extraction companies and indigenous community concerning a common land use and keeping the traditional livelihood. Since the economy of Russia is highly depending on the oil and gas incomes (Gaddy, Ickes, 2005), the ignoring of the indigenous peoples’ interests may be treated asa reverse side of the country’s economic policy. It is also important to mention that the management of such issues is the responsibility of political decision-makers and corporate industrial chiefs residing in distant lands, so they are not interested in social and economic development of the native population (Chance, Andreeva, 1995). They only need to extract as more natural resource from these lands as they could get and pay the minimal costs for that. The consequences of this policy may be illustrated with the results of a survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA) held in 2009 both in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of Russia and three sub-regions of Alaska pointing out that livelihood systems in Chukotka have a substantially lower level of sustainability than in Northwest Alaska due to high prevalence of vulnerable households (West, 2010). Due to financial difficulties, the authors of the cited paper haven’t managed to hold the survey on other Northern territories of Russia, but it is possible to suppose that the situation would be similar in Siberia. As a result, we could say that the state of the small-numbered indigenous peoples in Russia is much poorer than in neighbor Alaska and other countries of the Arctic Zone. Conclusion We considered various experience of solving the contradictions between the industrial resource extraction and keeping the traditional livelihood of the native indigenous people in the northern territories of Arctic Zone countries. We found that the most harmonic relationship between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal population could be found in Nordic countries. The governments of Norway, Sweden and Finland have established the local indigenous parliaments (so-called Sami parliaments). However, the rights of the indigenous people are also restricted to the common usage of hunting and fishing resources. Both is the USA and Canada the government formally acknowledges the rights of indigenous people, but in practice roughly ignores their interests, when there is a need to build just another oil pipeline. # 1549 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… The most suppressed indigenous people could be found on the Russian North. The indigenous people rights legislation is still in embryo state due to the lobbying of the oil and gas companies, which produces 50 % of Russian budget’s incomes. Our analysis shows that the behavior of local governments towards protection of indigenous peoples’ rights differs depending on the lobbying force of resource extraction companies. If the establishment of native indigenous peoples titles doesn’t threaten the interests of nature management companies, the governments are trying to strictly maintain a fair institutional framework of interaction with the indigenous communities. Otherwise, the businessmen do what they want and the government follows their needs. Finally, we point out that even though the business and the government design effective mechanisms of compensation of the damage they produce to the indigenous people, it cannot help keeping their traditional lifestyle, culture and economic activities. References 1. Arnold R. D., Archibald J., Bauman M., Davis N. Y., Frederick R. A., Gaskin P., Havelock J. Holthaus G., McNeil C., Richards T., Jr., Rock. H., and Worl R. Alaska Native Land Claims (1978) Alaska Native Foundation, Anchorage. 2. Karakin V. P., Buldakova V. G. Traditional nature resource management in the Russian Far East [Traditsionnoye prirodopolzovaniye na Rossiyskom Dal’nem Vostoke] (2010) Russia and the Pacific Rim, 3, pp. 102–115. 3. Kryukov V. A., Tokarev A. N. Institutional framework of long-run economical interests providing for small indigenous peoples of the North during the implementation of the nature resource management projects [Institutsional’nye ramki obespecheniya dolgosrochnykh ekonomicheskikh interesov korennykh malochislennykh narodov Severa pri realizatsii proektov v sfere prirodopol’zovaniya] (2005) Region: economics and sociology [Region: ekonomika i sociologia], 2, pp. 206–227. 4. Booth A., Skelton N. W. First Nations’ access and rights to resources(2010) In B. Mitchell (Ed.), Uncertainty and conflict: Resource and environmental management in Canada. Toronto, Oxford University Press, pp. 80–103. 5. Booth A. L., Skelton N. W. “You spoil everything!” Indigenous peoples and the consequences of industrial development in British Columbia (2011) Environment, Development and Sustainability, 4, Vol. 13, pp. 685–702. 6. Chance N.A., Andreeva E.N. Sustainability, equity, and natural resource development in Northwest Siberia and Arctic Alaska (1995) Human Ecology, 2,Vol. 23,pp. 217–240. 7. Cooke M., Mitrou F., Lawrence D., Guimond E., Beavon D. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States (2007) BMC Int Health Hum Rights, Vol. 7. 8. Dixon S., Maré D. C. Understanding changes in Māori incomes and income inequality 1997– 2003 (2007) Journal of Population Economics, 20, pp. 571–598. 9. Flanders N.E. Native American Sovereignty and Natural Resource Management (1998) Human Ecology, 3, Vol. 26,pp. 425–449. # 1550 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… 10. Gaddy, C. G., Ickes, B. W. Resource Rents and the Russian Economy (2005) Eurasian Geography and Economics, 8, Vol. 46, pp. 559–583. 11. Isakson H. R., Sproles S. A. Brief History of Native American Land Ownership (2008) In R. A. Simons et al. (eds.) Indigenous Peoples and Real Estate Valuation. 12. Josefsen E. Saami Landrights, Norwegian legislation and administration (2003) Resource Centre for the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Kautokeino. 13. Kraus R.F., Buffler P.A. Sociocultural stress and the american native in Alaska: An analysis of changing patterns of psychiatric illness and alcohol abuse among Alaska natives (1979) Cult Med Psych., 2, Vol. 3, pp. 111–151. 14. Lawrence R., Raitio K. Forestry Conflicts in Finnish Sápmi: Local, National and Global Linkes (2006) In Indigenous Affairs IWGIA Newslatter, pp. 36–43. 15. Niemczak P., Jutras C.Aboriginal political representation: A review of several jurisdictions (2008) Parliamentary Information Research Services. Background Paper BP-359E. Canada. 16. O’Neill, D. T. The Firecracker Boys (1994) St. Martin’s Press, New York. 17. Riseth J. Å. An Indigenous Perspective on National Parks and Sámi Reindeer Management in Norway (2007) Geographical Research, 2, Vol. 45, pp. 177–185. 18. Sandberg A. Collective rights in a modernizing North–on institutionalizing Sámi and local rights to land and water in northern Norway (2008) International Journal of the Commons, 2(2), pp. 269–287. 19. West C.T. The survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA): A comparative sustainable livelihoods assessment (2010) Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1, Vol. 13,pp. 217–235. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva… Is the Coexistence of Indigenous People with Resource Extraction Companies… Возможно ли сосуществование коренных малочисленных народов и компаний-недропользователей в Арктике? А.И. Пыжев, Ю.И. Пыжева, Е.В. Зандер Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр-т Свободный, 79 Мы изучаем историю и текущее состояние отношений по поводу использования общих территорий между коренными малочисленными народами Арктики и компаниями, осуществляющими недропользование.Рассматривается опыт США, Канады, Скандинавских стран и Российского Севера.Анализ показывает, что масштабное освоение Арктики радикально изменило социальное, экономическое и экологическое окружение коренных народов. Поведение правительств по отношению к защите прав коренных народов различается в зависимости от лоббистской силы компаний-недропользователей. Если установление естественных прав коренных народов на их земли и традиционное природопользование не угрожает интересам компаний, то правительства стремятся утверждать законодательство, справедливое в отношении коренных народов. В противном случае бизнес осуществляет свои проекты, а государство встает на их сторону. Ключевые слова: коренные народы, Арктика, компаниия-недропользователь, традиционное природопользование. Публикация подготовлена в рамках поддержанного РГНФ и КГАУ «Красноярский краевой фонд поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности» научного проекта № 13-12-24007 «Разработка механизмов компенсации ущерба, наносимого компаниями-недропользователями коренным малочисленным народам Красноярского края».