136.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №4 2009код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Журнал Сибирского федерального университета Journal of Siberian Federal University 2009 2 (4) Гуманитарные науки Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН К.С.Александров академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.С. Соколов Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Kirill S. Alexandrov Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Veniamin S. Sokolov Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Contents / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Elena A. Kaverina Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology – 455 – Oleg S. Safronov Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries in Interpretation P.A. Kropotkin – 464 – Innessa N. Efremenko Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia – 473 – Ludmila D. Alexandrova Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels in Higher Educational Institutional Corporation – 484 – Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture – 491 – Yury A. Petrushin Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter of ХХ Centuries (on the Example of Krestovozdvizhenskaya Cossack Village) – 507 – Nataliya V. Suleneva The «TV Stage Discourse» Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity – 516 – Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 20.11.2009 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,9. Уч.-изд. л. 12,4. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 1/114. Отпечатано в ИПК СФУ. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Hasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgenia V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Natalia A. Kupershtoh Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras – 523 – Olqa A. Karlova Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him – 533 – Irina P. Pavlova The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia in the Publications of Western European and American Historians (a review article) – 538 – Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context of All-Russian Demographic Trends (1990th-2000th) – 549 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук», по экономике; по истории; по философии, социологии и культурологии Anastasia V. Klykova Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» – 560 – Natalia M. Libakova Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies – 580 – Vladimir S. Luzan Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy – 587 – Julia T. Chanchikova Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half of Twentieth Century – 595 – Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment on the Basis of e-portfolio Method – 601 – Pavel M. Vcherashnij Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches – 611 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 455-463 ~~~ УДК 009 Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology Elena A. Kaverina* Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia 48 Moyka River Embankment, St. Petersburg, 191186 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 The article is devoted to the philosophic-aesthetical analysis of a «special event» phenomenon. It reveals cultural, historical, and aesthetical basics of a celebration and its social functions. The celebration is approached as a communicative technology. A big part of the article is devoted to the corporate celebrations – it reveals the goals of such celebrations, principles of their organization, and specifics of conduct. Corporate celebration is presented as a communicative technology used for building positive relations within the internal audiences (employees) of the company, for developing corporate culture, and forming corporate identity. Keywords: celebration, corporate celebration, special event, aesthetics of celebration, functions of celebration. Introduction Approaching the research of the phenomenon of celebration today is very essential as celebration is the most important component of socio-cultural reality in XXI century. Studying the celebration today is very interesting and relevant in several dimensions. The first one is a celebration as a social phenomenon. The second one is a celebration as an aesthetic phenomenon. And the third dimension is a celebration as a communicative technology used to achieve certain corporate aims. Today, the term «corporation» is actively used in professional vocabulary and there are multiple terms derived from this word: «corporate culture», «corporate relations», «corporate space». The term «corporation» means a company, an organization united by economic, social, political and other interests. Most of all, * 1 «corporation» describes a commercial structure, however, it can also be used as a state corporation or a public corporation (Chumikov, Bocharov, 2006, p.130). Celebrations are used as a communicative technology aimed at building relations with various audiences of public. A celebration can be initiated and organized by state, commercial or non-profit organizations in other words by any corporation. A celebration organized to achieve corporate objectives is called «a special event». Today this term is also actively used. Special event is an event, which specially conducted to communicate ideas, values, messages that represent and serve to achieve certain philosophical, informational, reputation, image, commercial or non-commercial goals of some Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 455 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology community united by some axiological basis, social, confessional, corporative principles and views. Special event is a phenomenon, which has been created by mass-media culture and has not been studied enough. In the modern times creating special events is becoming a branch of professional activity – there are specialists so called event-managers, and there are agencies that offer wide range of «celebration» services. Modern activities of organizing celebrations have to base on knowledge of cultural-historical and aesthetical basics. Specialists who work in the field of eventactivities need to have a broad background in humanitarian studies. It is important to understand that while creating a celebration you have to fill it with certain spiritual content – otherwise it will be just profanation of celebration (Yudin, 2006). Therefore, in this article the phenomenon of celebration is explained in three specified significant dimensions. Close attention in the article is paid to studying a corporate celebration as a corporate celebration is a communicative technology used for building positive relations with internal target audiences (employees) of the company, for developing corporate culture and forming corporate identity. Point of view Celebration is a unique phenomenon of culture. Historical roots of celebration date back to the most ancient times. Celebration has various social functions, which first of all include forming a community, ideology, moral principles, and aesthetical preferences. Celebration is one of the most widely spread form to storage and communicate socially important experience. Being «the form of aesthetical and artistic activity included in the material of the socio-cultural reality» (Aesthetics: Dictionary, 1989, p.269), celebration reflects the world view and the model of society, in which it exists. Celebration is always a period of time that has a structure-forming idea. It is always an action devoted to somebody or something. The most critical feature of celebration is its connection with a sacral, in other words a sacred sphere, or a sphere that has a special meaning. Scenario and attributes of celebration are symbols of its sacral idea as «each celebration is connected with a certain value, sometimes a higher level, which is a sacrum of the celebrating group» (Zhigulskiy, 1985, p.63). The time of celebration is not leisured – it is predestinate. Celebration assigns roles to the participants limiting freedom of each of them by the margin of the common idea. Celebration is social and demonstrative as it represents a socially meaningful idea or approves a new social status. Celebration creates and maintains the feeling of unity – participating in it means to be the part of the whole, find your identity. Ceremonial of the celebration contributes to that idea – words, music, moves, light, and colors, all artistically bringing the idea to life, create a special atmosphere, in which everything that has not got an image is saved in images. In such way celebration builds the space of myth. Celebration deals with people’s emotions. The way a celebration goes is oriented on development and even on heating the emotions – during the celebration participants have to go through clean, light, positive emotions that can give him a feeling of «cleaning» of the soul. In this perspective aesthetics and logic of celebration development is close to the cathartic affect of art. Aesthetics of celebration, special form of celebration space organization and art based celebration scenarios come from the archaic cultures. Mysteries used to be the only way to explore the world, life, set the value reference points. «Action of celebration seems to an invalid some other world where he is carried to and transformed by some superior powers, – 456 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology ... celebration turns out to be both the time of intense excitement and transformation of his whole existence» (Kayua, 2003, p.219). Osmosis of the truth was done by the emotional sphere and was firmly secured in conscience. A ritual of action, its development, audio and visually figured construction was clear to all participants of mysteries – it was some peculiar «parade of sign systems». Celebration has its features, which make it different from other events. Celebration creates a special universe of game. Celebration pushes everyday life aside, «lifts a person (and the society) up above the workdays and praises celebratory freedom» (Mazayev, 1978, p.175). The must have feeling of happiness, positive emotional attitude, good mood – all that we mean by «celebratory» is what we can call the most important trait of celebration. This is what differentiates celebrations from ceremonies, because ceremonies can be devoted to some morning occasions. Ceremonials are more reserved and colder emotionally. Following strict predefined scenario is more important and ceremonials are mainly protocol events, where participants follow certain ceremony. Celebration publically postulates some social idea. By using tools of celebration the new social idea acquires legitimacy. Celebration is in other words so called public mass approval of the new idea. Participants, who came to celebrate, express recognition of the idea by the fact of participation, by coming and therefore joining the celebration. This phenomenon is documented in history multiple times. Changing of historical times and political systems is accompanied by the change of social mythology, symbols, oftentimes the change of chronology (calendar), and also by the change of celebrations calendar. It can be called some sort of creation of a «new» socio-historical time and a new social space with its symbols and attributes. So, for instance, the reforms of Peter the Great were marked by the decree of 1699 about shifting New Year’s celebration from the 1st of September to the 1st of January. Peter by far extended the calendar: secular celebrations appeared in addition to religious holidays that had existed before. We can say that the imperator Peter conducted a grand communicative revolution: he did not just create a concept of a new ideology but also enrooted it; he did not just build a new image and reputation of Russia but also created channels of public communication. The first secular celebrations – Assemblies, were conducted with some didactic purpose. This range of celebrations can be continued by ball dances, palace festivities, masquerades, fireworks, carrousels, and street theaters. Such diversity of variants shows that all the special events targeted audiences of different social level. Celebration in such circumstances is a communicative technology for carrying out an idea – it is a tool to incorporate a socio-political conception. The next significant change in the national calendar occurred in the period of the next high-powered socio-political crisis of 1917. Changes in holidays in that period ware radical – aggressive destruction of the old holiday system and creating a new one was obvious. The state holidays were introduced instead of religious and secular celebrations. Sacral matter, existential component of celebration was eliminated, and the political concept became the point to celebrate. In the 20s of the twentieth century, «playing in myth begins… communism and Marxism in Russia obtained the features of a new religion, with no connection to the Absolute. A new neomythical complex is being created: myths about the nation, the country, the government… all of them are tailored in accordance with the rules of mythology, but with an artificial content. … Party and class replace clan and tribe» (Apinyan, 2003, p.324). Soviet holidays are bright examples of – 457 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology special events in the state perspective, commonly spread in totalitarian cultures. State holidays, that communicate the governing political ideology, played the most significant role during the entire 20th century in history of Russia. During that time period the celebration of the change in the political system, anniversary of the Great October Revolution, became the main holiday. In this perspective, it is interesting to note that revolutionary process was considered and communicated to the publics as a celebration. In circulation of pubic information the main emphasis was put on heroic pathetics. Religious and existential dominants were substituted by ideological, political and professional ones. That process was reflected in creation of new holidays – Day of Soviet Army and Navy (23 February) appeared along with a big number of professional holidays, a special meaning was given to Labor Day (Day of International Laboring Solidarity – 1 May), some holidays worshiping the leader came into the stage, such as, for example, Anniversary of V.I. Lenin’s birthday (22 April), and so on. The era of Soviet Union Imperia demonstrated an implementation of a grandiose communicative project. And if the Imperator Peter performed the first communicative revolution then this can be called the second communicative revolution. Celebrations played a titanic role there – the grandiosity of them were meant to appoint the enormousness of new socio-political ideas and to confirm the feeling of nationwide happiness and pride for the country by their spirit and general visual entourage. The birth of new Russia in the end of the 1990s also provides examples of inventing new holidays. A key celebration postulating the new paradigm of development of Russia has become the Day of Russia celebration (12 June). An interesting fact is that the celebration has had different names in such a short period of existence (the first variant of the name for this holiday was Day of Independence of Russia). A name, which accurately reflects the idea of the celebration, is the most important condition of adequate broadcasting of the key idea of the event, peculiar positioning of the signification and meaning of the celebration. The holiday was renamed from Day of Independence of Russia into Day of Russia. It is worth to mention that in order for holiday to become truly popular, understandable and involving for all publics, a certain amount of time and a series of communicative events have to take place to promote the idea and the name of the holiday. Public understanding of what is celebrated, why and what it is supported with is very important (in times of economic and political chaos, in difficult conditions, in which most Russian citizens live in, it is hard to celebrate and share or support the declared ideas). On the other hand, postulating and promoting the ideas has to go ahead and define the development course, declare values of corporation of Russia. Nowadays, we can observe the process of some celebrations’ return – primarily religious holidays. When a celebration comes back, it becomes a symbol of reviving values. Modern calendar of holidays is more tolerant than ever – it provides a person with a right of individual choice at the same time remaining to be a form and possibility of searching human community, a way to storage and broadcast of meaningful ideas. In national culture celebrations have an important meaning as Russia belongs to the type of non-pragmatic, emotionally sensitive societies (Malkovskaya, 2008). These days, the process of creating celebrations can be observed. Celebrations are being developed and organized on purpose to achieve certain commercial and non-commercial goals in social, cultural, political and business sectors. Specially organized celebrations can serve to increase recognition of the company, – 458 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology benefit improvement of its image and reputation, form loyalty of external and internal audiences. Corporate celebration is a communicative technology, which is actively used in practice of corporate relations. Therefore, it makes sense to examine a corporate celebration as a communicative technology in the example. Example Corporate celebration is a specially organized event for internal publics (employees) of a company aimed at achieving a cascade of goals. Strategic goals: transmitting a corporate myth and strengthening traditions; developing corporate culture; promoting corporate values; public acknowledgment of company’s achievements by its personnel. Motivation goals: having celebrations to show appreciation of the personnel so that the level of loyalty of the staff increases; developing friendly relationships, informal relations; leisure time for employees. Teambuilding goals: forming/ rallying the team; developing skills of team work; finding latent professional and personal resources of the employees; determining the informal leaders. Format of a celebration and the pool of creative ideas depend on goals that are prioritized in the particular company. Corporative celebrations have their mission in creating the unity, transmitting corporate philosophy and developing corporate culture of the company. Corporative celebrations contribute to forming corporate identity, forming loyalty, feeling of respect for and belongingness to the company. A corporate celebration has communicative, organizational and motivating resources. Conducting a corporate celebration should be approached as an investment into development of corporate culture and the company in general. A well set corporate culture is one of the factors that makes the company stable and successful in the competitive markets. Corporate celebrations became an essential part of most companies’ life regardless of the field they operate in, professional specifics and the number of employees. Nowadays, a calendar of events of any company includes at least three or four corporate celebrations: corporate New Year; company’s birthday celebration; professional branch holiday; «men’s» (23 February) and «women’s» (8 March) days, which are more often celebrated in a combined format of «23+8» these days; Family Days (summer picnics or winter days outside for staff members and their families). Corporate celebration is an effective way to exercise corporate culture. Corporate culture does not exist by itself, out of corporate community – it is always itemized and materialized as well as it lives spiritually. Development of corporate culture is not possible without corporate communication. It is reflected in words, images, items, atmosphere. Each employee of the company is a carrier of corporate culture and that is why it is important to involve him into the corporate environment. Corporate celebration is an opportunity for employees of the company to relax, shake off emotional pressure and exhaustion. It is an opportunity to bring positive emotions and good impressions, and to create a balance of impressions against an everyday professional routine. Working for a company should not be associated with pressure and stress. Corporate celebration gives an opportunity for positive informal socializing. A celebration can become a good starting point for also creating or/and development of corporate traditions. It has certain communicative resources for correction, improving an image of governing persons, or structures/departments of the company. Corporate celebration is not yet a communicatory matter. Employees should be aware of all news and achievements of the company, should feel that the company has – 459 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology an intense professional and corporate life. A quality prepared celebration allows to achieve a condition of corporate unity, gladness from communication, joy of going through and feeling the same willingness to work and pass leisure time together; to create psychological and emotional comfort so any person is able to open himself to others and actualize his professional, personal and creative potential. In corporate culture a celebration is not a do-nothing activity – it is full of very pragmatic objectives. It represents a corporate idea and friendship, sincere relations within the team of employees turn into their materialized equivalent because they help to achieve harmonious team work, decrease the amount of work needed to find solutions, increase the level of loyalty to the company through dedication to the team. Carnival playing body of celebration also allows overcoming borders of procedure rules, subordination of people in business life and following strict principles of protocol and etiquette. Accepting these rules of the game sets new margins in interpersonal communication so inducts people in it. In this perspective a corporate celebration is identical to a «classical» one as it is also connected to a sacral area where a conscious building of a myth takes place following a concept or/and a philosophy of the corporation. Moreover, vitality of the corporate myth is regularly diagnosed, there is a constant check for correspondence to the current condition of business environment (both internal and external) and its correlation depending on changes in policies. Corporate myth should not lose its competitive ability. More than that, it has to provide a competitive advantage to the company. In such manner, celebrations have a special conceptual, informative and communicative meaning, and are being consciously used as a communicative technology. Creative activity of making up a celebration is essential for internal corporate public relations. Creativity is necessary but it is also vital to consider the practicability of presumptive celebratory activities. Ideally, a corporate celebration even being a fun event has certain contexts, subtexts and connotations, which are made and well-thought-out by «the insiders». Specialists of corporate communications create corporate mythology and put it into the language of images, preserve it in the form of traditions and pass it one in a «celebratory» way. By using «celebratory» technologies a new pragmatic result can be achieved when necessary in everyday routine work. Their own special principles make basis of corporate celebrations even though general rules of organizing a mass event still have to be taken into account. Basic principles of preparing a corporate celebration: 1. Script of the celebration is what the company is. The plot of the «play» will not be interesting if it does not reflect specifics of the company, if it does not coincide with it. Corporate celebration manager’s main goal is to build up a narrative and act out «the play» where a relative story and style of relations in the company would be specified and artistically presented. A subjective author’s abstractive vision is not important here but what helps to understand existing roles in the company, characters, heroes, intrigues is essential. All of that needs to be seen, felt, recognized and formed into a play plot. Afterwards, the play should be handled as a drama performance – all the details of the plot and an artistic embodiment have to be determined. While preparing corporate celebrations authors intentions come second– they have to originate from the company, its style of the corporate life, people who work there. 2. Exclusive approach. The door to each company cannot be opened with the same key. Something that was taken well in one company – 460 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology might not suit a different one. Some modular aspects of spectacles certainly exist but they are just bricks in a building of corporate celebration as a whole. 3. The budget has to serve the fulfillment of goals. The main objective of preparing a celebration is not an appropriate budget distribution but is in a search of new ideas and tools to strengthen the corporate spirit. Quality sound, light, actors’ play is not valuable just by itself but they need to empower the mutual idea, to embody the artistic concept of celebration, depend on whether or not the machine of «self entertainment» starts working; whether or not the condition of corporate game is reached. 5. Celebration itself is the point of culmination but the calendar time of celebration has to be prolonged. Celebration has to begin a few weeks before the official start and finish a few days after the end of the celebration stated in the scenario. An intrigue of the celebration should be created so the personnel become interested and start preparing for it all together. This is the way a creative spirit of competition to achieve celebratory atmosphere and sense of corporate unity. 4. Creating an atmosphere of a common corporate game. Organizers of the corporate celebration should not entertain the guests but should help them to entertain themselves. It is very difficult and delicate to bring everybody to the status of common game. Activeness and action should prevail over passiveness and meditativeness. It is difficult to make everybody willing to participate but quite necessary since the most interesting thing is to reveal an artistic personal potential unexpectedly for others and sometimes even to the person’s own surprise. Each employee guest of the corporate celebration is interested to watch «their people», get to know «their stories»; to see that there are people with their weaknesses, issues and happiness around them and not just the hierarchy status positions. One of the most complicated creative objectives is to involve the maximum number of people into the course of celebration scenario, and it has to be done not in a passive way but on an active level of participation. It is important to overcome the opposition of «us» vs. «them», «spectators» vs. «actors» between those who entertain and those who are being entertained. In a corporative celebration everybody should become «actors-spectators» at the same time. The effect from the celebration and its effectiveness appears along with willingness not to «fall behind» and not to «miss out» on something interesting. Preparation for celebration itself is the beginning of celebration – expectation brings a celebrative mood. If employees are involved in the preparation process and put an effort in it the celebration cannot let them down because it is their conjoint affair and art. For example, one of the companies was offered a creative idea of «Dances with no rules». Each of the departments was asked to come up with a dance. The company’s management paid for the rent of dancing rooms and coaches. Of course, the main goal was not to put together a high class dancing event but to create a bright event, give the employees an opportunity to do something they had never tried before. Two months of practices, impassioned discussions of the project, intriguing, interest filled with emotional and exciting expectation and as a result – a bright unforgettable corporative celebration and desire of all employees to participate in and create interesting corporate events in the future. Effectiveness of corporate events can be measured when commitment to the company’s ideas becomes an individual choice and the style of personal business and, moreover, individual life, when a sense of belongingness to the firm does not finish in the end of a working day, and when productive work is not based on material – 461 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology enforcement but on a feeling of respect for the corporation. A feeling of involvement into the corporation, a sense of belongingness to a professional community gives a person an opportunity to obtain his identity. A phrase «This is my company» said with the pride is a formula of completed conversation between the company and an individuality of an employee and it provides the means of success of working with clients and publics. Resume 1. The celebration today is considered to be a communicative technology, as a technique to consolidate different communities and a way to communicate various social and commercial ideas. Celebration as a communicative technology serves to creating and enlarging the «symbolical capital» (Bodriyar, 2000) of companies, brands, persons. Aesthetical principles of creating a celebration today are used as tools to influence a person in order to turn him to the ideas and values of a certain corporation, community. 2. In current era there is a situation of ideological polycentrism, in which corporate culture that forms beliefs and values and has its rituals and traditions is turning into an alternative to the cultures that are built on the basis of confessional, national and socio-political idea. In this regard, corporate celebrations are vital as a way of socialization by person’s inclusion into the corporate community and corporate culture. Corporate celebration appears to be an efficient communicative technology aimed at reaching a whole cascade of corporate goals. 3. It is important to point out another special feature of the modern celebratory culture. Today, celebrations can be created. The culture of postmodern, which has all the prerequisites of the free artistic game, contributes to this fact. Generating an idea for celebration becomes a creative and even a heuristic process. Destroying the connection between the celebratory action and sacral sphere presents to the «creators» of celebration an absolute freedom in choosing the origins, plot and the variety of event in the celebration. 4. Today, the fact of creating an artistic matter and a plot for celebration can be acknowledged just as well as the fact of promoting a new holiday, using various communicative channels and techniques to boost attention of target audiences. After the holiday has been acknowledged and celebrated by target audiences, a widely promoted matter for celebration is being used for corporate purposes. Nowadays, celebration is becoming a tool of achieving commercial success. In this regard the aesthetics of a celebration is no longer measured by ontological basis but by a corporate or marketing expediency. 5. Presently, creating a celebration is a communicative technology and a communicative phenomenon; it is an essential part of a sociocultural practice and with no doubt a subject of current concern in socio-cultural knowledge. References Aesthetics: Dictionary, ed. by A.A. Belyayeva and others (Moscow: Politizdat, 1989), in Russian T.A. Apinyan, Game in space of the serious (St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University, 2003), in Russian Zh. Bodriyar, Symbolical exchange and death (Moscow: Dobrosvet, 2000), in Russian A.N. Chumikov, M.P. Bocharov, Public Relations: theory and practice (Moscow: Delo, 2006), in Russian R. Kayua, Myth and the man. The man and the sacral (Moscow: OGI, 2003), in Russian – 462 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology I.A. Malkovskaya, Evolution of spectacles in human dimension, Sociological research, 2 (2008) 26-35., in Russian A.I. Mazayev, Celebration as socio-artistic phenomenon (practice of historic-theoretical research) (Moscow: Nauka, 1987), in Russian N.L. Yudin, «Celebration and victory as social phenomena», Individual. Culture. Society. V.8, 4 (32) (2006) 264-272., in Russian K. Zhigulskiy, Celebration and culture (Moscow: Progress, 1985), in Russian Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 464-472 ~~~ УДК 940 Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries in Interpretation P.A. Kropotkin Oleg S. Safronov* Military Aviation Engineering University (Voronezh) 54а Old bolsheviks st., Voronezh, 394064 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 The article focuses on various discussion problems’ Russian history XIX – first quarter of the XX centuries in interpretation ideologist anarchy-communism, outstanding scientist P.A. Kropotkin. Noted, that ideologist anarchism appraised only positively Russia revolutions, since he seed fight people against state in their. Explore, that opinions P.A. Kropotkin on the war transformed, and afterwards, he began consecutive fighter behind continuation of the First World War. Keywords: Kropotkin, anarchism, history opinions, Russia. Introduction Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin’s historical sights are the important component of outlook of this outstanding thinker. P.A.Kropotkin has put in pawn a methodological basis of the new revolutionary-anarchical historical concept. Paying the basic attention to questions national and revolutionary movement, the ideologist of Russian anarchism or antistateism (Greek anti – against, and from French etat – the state, is equivalent to anarchism), has managed to give estimations of the basic events of Russian and general history essentially new to the time. P.A.Kropotkin’s historical sights were an organic part of its revolutionary -anarchical outlook. The historical science was for the ideologist of Russian anarchism the powerful ideological weapon by means of which it struggled against autocracy and the state institutes of authority. For this reason P.A.Kropotkin was * 1 engaged in development of the basic historical problems not only in special historical monographers and scientific articles, but also in publicist works, on pages of newspapers and magazines, in letters of business character. This feature of a statement gives to historical sights of the ideologist of Russian anarchism an acuteness, irreconcilability to dominating outlook, polemic brightness and an openness. The scientific and political heritage of the ideologist of the Russian anarchism draws to itself attention as domestic (Ermashova, 1967; Baranchenko, 1995), and foreign researchers (Cai, 1992; Sakon, 1992) . It is necessary to note, that basically, were studied its political (Blauberg, 1991; La Torre, 1993), philosophical (Hamilton, 1964), legal sights, and also the biographic facts of many-sided activity of the ideologist anarchism (Danilov, 1976; Slatter, 1994). Researchers have analyzed a significant part of questions of the Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 464 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries… anarchical doctrine and the theory of revolution of P.A.Kropotkin (Zateev, 2003), have tried to estimate its political (Pirumova, 1989) and ethical views (Itenberg and Sasaki, 1994; Kinna, 1995). At the same time, the theme of history of our country and emancipating movement in Russia in P.A.Kropotkin’s estimation was not analyzed at all. E.V.Starostin marking is absolutely right, that «Clauses and books Кропоткина in which it, anyhow, mentioned history of Russia, features of its historical way, history of revolutionary movement, etc., did not become a subject of close studying» (Starostin, 2005, P. 10). Also there were not quite opened its sights at genesis and development of the state, and the question on formation of historical views of the theorist of the Russian anarchism has not been designated at all. As a whole, historical sights of an outstanding thinker of anarchical ideology have not received due attention from scientists-historians. V.A.Markin written «However not all the parties of extensive creative heritage Kropotkin is absolutely right are known equally» (Markin, 1993, P. 154). Meanwhile, the detailed analysis of historical views of the ideologist Russian anarchism will promote an intensification of process of accumulation of historical knowledge. In connection with the special interest shown by a modern society to the decision of historical problems, the objective analysis of historical sights of P.A.Kropotkin is the ripened problem. The point of view History of the Russian state P.A. Kropotkin analyzed through a prism of the anarchist theory, that is through criticism of the state. Trusting in broad masses, in their effective force which will turn Russia to a victory of labors over oppressors, it considered all Russian history, as never-ending revolt of the unskilled workers against the state and all estates. P.A.Kropotkin has paid steadfast attention to country reform of 1861. It considered, that destruction of the serfdom in Russia has been prepared by decembrists in 1825, petrashevchams in 1848 and country performances in 50х (Kropotkin, 1991). The direct precondition of a cancelling of the serfdom was a long number of country performances. P.A.Kropotkin marked also that circumstance, that a quantity of landowners was influenced with distribution of liberal ideas of revolutions 1793 and 1848. As a result among landowners the idea about necessity of a cancelling of the serfdom has extended. As precondition Kropotkin marks also the fact of intellectual awakening of Russia per 1857-61. Concerning peasants’ revolts, P.A.Kropotkin correctly spoke, that with 1850 of excitement among peasants have increased. And to the beginning of the Crimean war there were splashes in peasants’ revolts. And, has occurred not only quantitative increase in peasants’ revolts, but also character has changed – excitements began to get more and more severe character, and for their suppression it was necessary to send a lot of active armed forces. «Revolts have accepted such terrible character, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin about 50х years of XIX century, – that for suppression it was necessary to send the whole shelves’ with guns whereas before small groups the soldier made up for horror on peasants and stopped indignations» (Kropotkin, 1990, P. 127). Thus, in opinion of the ideologist of anarchism, excitement among peasants, on the one hand, and influence of liberal mood of court circles, with another, needs of carrying out of country reform have led. «These flashes, on the one hand, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – and deep disgust for the serfdom in that generation which was put forward at the introduction on Alexander’s II throne, – with another, have made – 465 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries… clearing peasants by the vital issue» (Kropotkin, 1990, P. 127). Concerning preparation of country reform Kropotkin spoke the following. The first step was made by Alexander II, proving necessity of reform for the speech said in March, 1856. The Lithuanian nobility has sent emperor the message in which it is spoken about necessity of destruction of the serfdom in reply to which Alexander II has expressed intention to release peasants. In provinces and St.-Petersburg specially selected committees for development of the project of clearing of peasants began to work. But for wide discussion of projects business is not has reached. Alexander II has charged to censorship to not pass a material about a preparing reform. P.A.Kropotkin considered, that on weak-willed emperor has rendered strong influence a party of landlords. «Landlords whispered, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – that in day of clearing of peasants general beating landowners and that Russia will begin then waits new pugachevshina, it is even more terrible than 1773. Alexander II was the person flabby and listened to similar ominous predictions» (Kropotkin, 1990, P. 128). P.A.Kropotkin positively concerned all displays of freedom, directed against the state dictatorship, has unequivocally approvingly estimated revolt of exiled of Poles 1866 on road Krugobajkalskoj. It is necessary to note, that P.A.Kropotkin at once has responded to revolt by the report which has been published in Exchange Sheets №301-303, 305, 307, 312 for 1866. P.A.Kropotkin, as well as the majority of revolutionaries-populists, has positively concerned to Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878. The ideologist of anarchism considered this war emancipating as southslavic people were under a turkish yoke during several centuries. In spite of the fact that Russian tsarism aspired in the given war to achievement of the mercenary purposes, nevertheless, in P.A.Kropotkin’s opinion, «oppressed Slavs will fall arms to any who will help their struggle. Because the turkish yoke the constancy and the cruelty surpasses everything, that the human nature» (Kropotkin, 1877, 24 juin) is capable to bear. The ideologist of anarchism considered, that oppression of tsarism is better, than double, i.e. political and religious, operation southslavic people. P.A.Kropotkin’s great value gave reforms of tsar on released from a Turkish yoke southslavic the grounds. «Yes, a fighter and the murderer of Poles, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin in clause «To east question», – Alexander II becomes the liberator Bulgarian … Tsar, this Neron socialists, … creates establishments for expropriation violent by turkish of or pert to a landowner the grounds to transfer them without the repayment to the Bulgarian peasants … Russian government carries out revolutionary mission» (Kropotkin, 1877, 24 juin). The beginning of XX century has brought Russia war with militaristic Japan. P.A.Kropotkin condemned the Russia-Japanese war 1904-1905, including its aggressive both from imperial Russia, and from the Japanese militarism. «The present war is a celebration of the most low capitalist instincts, – it wrote, – against which any conceiving person should struggle» (Bread and will, 1904, P. 6). However, the ideologist of anarchism is not agreed with Bolsheviks who wished defeat Russian armies for the sake of the prompt approach of revolution. It only regretted for vain human victims and wanted only approach of the world. The position of Bolsheviks, in its opinion, spoke only influence of Engels and Liebknecht, «which hated Russia, than the Bismarck» (RSALA, f. 1390, L. 11). Defeat of Russia in the Russia-Japanese war has served as one more factor destabilized political conditions in the country. The social and – 466 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries… economic crisis aggravated by political crisis, promoted folding of a revolutionary situation which has led to the First Russian revolution 19051907. In A.I.Rakutov’s opinion the ideologist of anarchism allocated not only subjective, but also objective factors of genesis of revolution. It wrote, that «For preparation and make except for moral feeling at some number of outstanding persons and at weights many other things is necessary for revolution still» (Rakutov, 1975, P. 71). P.A.Kropotkin has concerned to revolution 1905-1907 positively as considered, that it could bring clearing oppressed to people. It could not take part personally in revolutionary events, however, being abroad, closely watched and actively reacted to occurring events in Russia. In particular, P.A.Kropotkin condemned the Jewish pogroms. A.Yassur written has absolutely fairly paid attention to this circumstance «Kropotkin had personal communications with Jewsanarchists, in working quarters of London and in the United States America ideas of anarchism have found the spreading in the environment of the Jews run from Russia owing to an amplified anti-Semitism and the state support of a wave of pogroms. It has caused condemnation from Russian intelligence, including Kropotkin, Gorki, Tolstoy, etc.» (Yassur, 1994. P. 164). When revolutionaries began to use actively various terrorist means, including expropriation the theorist of anarchism has decided to condemn publicly in the beginning the given actions (Mkrtichan, 1992). However, under influence of revelry of the governmental reprisals, Russian anarchist has solved, that during such moment will condemn not ethically the revolutionaries who are being the grounds of uncompromising struggle. «When executioners of each boy, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin in the letter to M.I.Goldsmit, – seized on a robbery, execute in 24 hours, – we cannot act with resolutions against robbers. Whatever thought – we have no right and the stone still to throw, in addition to the imperial gallows» (SARF, f.1129, L.16). In the beginning of 1910th there was the complex international situation caused by struggle of leading imperialistic powers for repartition of the world. Attempt of Germany, together with the allies on the Tripartite alliance to select colonies at powers Antanty has led to the First world war. It is necessary to note, that in P.A.Kropotkin’s sights at war as the social phenomenon, there was an evolution. If in 80th years of XIX century the ideologist of anarchism condemned nationalchauvinism in any form, declaring about readiness to protect only «France revolutionary, bearing freedom, equality and a brotherhood», but in any way «small circle rich men and crowd made destitute» (Kropotkin, 1886, № 28). Moreover, the ideologist of anarchism called to transform war imperialistic into war civil, against the governments: «Dealers, exploiters, bankers, different fools – here a contingent of the French chauvinists. If war nevertheless will flash, our program is known: a social revolution against all bourgeoisies together taken» (Kropotkin, 1887, № 44). But in 1906, during work of the London congress of Russian anarchists, P.A.Kropotkin has not admitted acceptance of the anti-war resolution. «It has come out with the assumption of an opportunity of a campaign of Germany to Russia, – recollected I.S.Knizhnik-Vetrov, – named Wilhelm II «the crowned gendarme» and with great hatred spoke about its artful plans» (Knizhnik-Vetrov, 1922, P.28-52). Therefore in 1914 P.A.Kropotkin was already convinced defender. It is necessary to agree with A.A.Mkrtichan’s written opinion «That has resulted convinced internationalist Kropotkin in camp defenders during the first world war? Obviously, among the reasons which have affected this decision, there was a belief in special revolutionary mission of France in the Europe» (Mkrtichyan, – 467 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries… 1991, P. 58). P.A.Kropotkin considered, that Russia should defend from an attack of militaristic Germany. Despite of the general humanistic orientation of its political sights, it sometimes did exceptions for display of violence. One of such exceptions just also is connected with external war. The ideologist antistateism personified Germany and Austria-Hungary with a world harm which tries to destroy all rudiments freedom which have arisen in republican France. «Struggle in the Europe goes now, – spoke P.A.Kropotkin on meeting the soldier, – between two opposite beginnings: national, a democratic principles and the beginning of reaction, to which protection the Union of Three Emperors was up in arms. One of these three conspirators will already dethrone. It is necessary to derthrow both two others. And this question is solved now on fronts» (SM SPL, f. 601, a unit storage 1245). Therefore, it was glad, that Russia has appeared in this war on the party of the democratic forces struggling against imperial spirit of Germany. Actually, the Russian anarchist did accent not to Russia, and to France. Russian army has been simply obliged, in its opinion, to protect revolutionary France. «In fact from Germany to Belgium and France, to Paris with its revolutionary traditions there were … soldiers, blow German nobility and capitalists,» great-German «imperialism and adoration of the almighty state, and there were they to destroy a heritage of three revolutions which have been gone through by France» (SARF,f. 1129,L.9). It is necessary to note, that P.A.Kropotkin’s sights at war sharply contrasted with opinion of Bolsheviks. Owing to what, the ideologist of anarchism has undergone to the sharp criticism from their party. «After I have named Germans «Huns», – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – on me began to look as at the mean criminal who has encroached on sacred bases of socialism» (Kropotkin, 1995, P. 155). In it the theorist of anarchist-communism has kept these sights at war and at a role of Russia during all war. February revolution in Russia only has added to it confidence of necessity to continue war. In fact after February revolution soldiers needed to protect any more only revolutionary traditions of France, but also «freedom won by Russian people, and we who have gathered here in the name of the maximum moral beginnings of mankind, great slogans of freedom, a brotherhood and equality, bless you on your feat» (SARF,f. 1129, L.69, Bask.). P.A.Kropotkin has positively concerned to February revolution. It is necessary to agree with N.M.Pirumova written «Kropotkin welcomed February revolution and in the beginning hoped for succession of events aside anarchist-communism» (Pirumova, 1991, P. 41). P.A.Kropotkin understood, that the February revolution liquidated monarchic authority, has not solved all the collected problems. According to the sights at revolution, it distinguished revolution and reform. Revolution, in its representation dared a barrier existed in the form of emperor. But now reform which, and has been obliged to construct economic, political, ethical bases of a free society should enter the role. P.A.Kropotkin so understood importance after revolution constructions of a new life that has left hospitable England and, after long absence, has returned home. In Russia the theorist of anarchistcommunism has collided with a lot of politicaleconomical problems. It vainly tried to direct at the State Meeting antagonistic classes on the joint decision of essential problems. It assigned greater hopes to activity zemski societies which were considered by it as voluntary communities. Whether «It is impossible to find the necessary building forces in Zemstvoes, – asked P.A.Kropotkin at G.Е. Lvov, – and to organize Zemski Russia for inevitable – 468 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries… reorganization as it has organized Zemski the Union for war as serious political force» (Works of the Commission on P.A.Kropotkin's scientific heritage, 1992, P. 158-161). However zemstvoes have not justified hopes anarchist. Nevertheless, it optimistically looked ahead. «I deeply trust, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – that Russia will cope with present ruin» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 55). It well concerned to both heads of Provisional government and as a whole supported to their politician. «In Petersburg I have more close got acquainted with Kerensky, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin to S.P.Tyurin, – its position is high-is tragic. Here often I see George Evgenevichem (Lvov – O.S.), and we very much have grown fond of it» (Works of the Commission on P.A.Kropotkin's scientific heritage, 1992, P. 158-161). P.A.Kropotkin did not expect arrival of October revolution and a gain of political authority Bolsheviks. However, in the beginning it welcomed October revolution, as the certificate of overthrow of domination of bourgeoisie and transition to people's power in the form of Advice. The ideologist of antiauthoritarianism allocated the positive actions of the Bolsheviks which have shown: in the form of socialization of the ground, manufacture, and also barter. But to the theorist of anarchist-communism, the consecutive fighter with the government, there was not on a shower a domination of social democrats. It is necessary to agree with A.L.Nikitin's written opinion «Russian revolution with its civil war and dictatorship of a party has brought disappointment all without exception to layers of a society … Kropotkin recognized, that revolution has gone not on that way which we prepared it (Nikitin, 1991, P. 92-93). «We experience revolution, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – … what to do now?... It creates horrors. It ruins all country» (Business of Work, 1927, P. 5-6). He always criticized any form of the state, including marxism. The ideologist of anarchistcommunism considered, that «transition from old modes of production and trade to new … is made by revolutionary dictatorship of a small party. Reorganization in Russia has accepted character yakobism dictatorships 1793-1794. Having begun in the form of dictatorship, it conducts to unsuccessful of all business, and in the further to reaction and generously spilled blood» (SARF,f. 1129, L.4). P.A.Kropotkin considered, that Bolsheviks will struggle against freedom of people, but secretly hoped, that the popular initiative nevertheless will get the best. Not accepting the Soviet authority, the ideologist of anarchism nevertheless did not oppose it, and tried to direct the revolutionary initiative to a positive channel. Not accepting the Soviet authority, the ideologist of anarchism nevertheless did not oppose it, and tried to direct the revolutionary initiative to a positive channel. «First of all for this purpose it is necessary, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – that the Soviet Government has given up the thought about management of Russia through dictatorship of one party that it has involved wide national forces in construction of a national life and, certainly, has recognized necessity for this purpose a full freedom of speech» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 46). The ideologist of anarchism not only suggested to enter a freedom of speech, but also struggled for it. «If I have accepted above mentioned offer, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – (about edition CE Committee of products of P.A.Kropotkin. – О.S.), – it would mean my moral approval of that the whole country is reduced on a degree of slavish silence as which I consider fatal, not only for development in general ideas and lives, but also the most Russian revolution» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 56). In the created conditions the ideologist of anarchism offered the federal device, as a – 469 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries… way leading to anarchical communism. «Unique rescue of Russia, – P.A.Kropotkin wrote, – is – its transformation into the close union (federation) of free areas and people as it takes place, for example, in the North-American United States» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 52). Moreover, in complex conditions of Civil war of P.A.Kropotkin has sharply negatively concerned to foreign intervention. «Russia experiences now the same deep and significant period, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – what was for British people the period of revolution 1639-48, and for France – 1789-94, and all the nations should refuse that shameful role which played the Great Britain, Prussia, Austria and Russia during the French revolution» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 43). The ideologist of anarchism considered, that Russia should solve independently the problem questions caused by revolution. «Under such circumstances, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – military intervention of allies in Russian business is twice undesirable» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 50). Conclusion Thus, it is necessary to note, that the anarchist doctrine has served P.A.Kropotkin as basis for interpretation of debatable questions of history of Russia. Its sights at war as the social phenomenon, have undergone change. If in the beginning it categorically demanded development of imperialistic war in civil in the further it only condemned the Russia-Japanese war 19041905 as aggressive, leading only to vain human victims. After its belief were transformed also it became the consecutive fighter for continuation of the First world war. The ideologist antistateism estimated Russian revolutions only positively as saw in them struggle of people against the state. It is necessary to note, that only to October revolution P.A.Kropotkin had a special opinion. It considered, that Bolsheviks as supporters of the state way of management, will take away from people won by it with such greater work freedom. However, the great humanist sincerely hoped, that the popular initiative nevertheless can win and lead a society to anarchical communism. References Baranchenko V.E. Death and P.A.Kropotkin’s funeral // Questions of history. 1995. N3. P. 149154, in Russian. Blauberg I.I. «The Choice – in your hands...» // Questions of Philosophies., 1991. N11. P. 64-71, in Russian. Bread and will. 1904. №8. P. 6, in Russian. Business of Work. 1927. № 20/21. P. 5-6, in Russian. Cai Yingtian. Some cognitive problems upon the relation between science and production // Чжэсюе яньцзю = Philos. research. Pekin, 1992. N1. Danilov V.N. A.A.Kropotkin – the Russian scientist and the public figure // Philosophies Sciences. 1976. N4. P. 154-156, in Russian. Ermashova M. 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SARF, f. 1129, inventory2, a unit storage 47. L.16, in Russian. SARF, f. 1129, inventory2, a unit storage 185. L.16, in Russian. SARF, f. 1129, inventory1, a unit storage 390. L.69. About, in Russian. SARF, f. 1129, inventory1, a unit storage 777. L.4, in Russian. Slatter S. The correspondence of P.A.Кropotkin as historical source material // Slavonic a. East Europ. rev. L., 1994. Vol. 72, N2. P.277-288. SM SPL, f. 601, a unit storage 1245, in Russian. S.P.Tyurin’s of P.A.Kropotkin’s letter from September, 4th 1917 г. // Works of the Commission on P.A.Kropotkin's scientific heritage. Issue 1., 1992. P. 158-161, in Russian. Starostin Е.V. P.A.Kropotkin – the historian of Russia // Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin and problems of modelling of historical and cultural development of a civilization: materials international scientific conference /compiler P.I.Thalerov. SPb., 2005. P. 10-18, in Russian. «The literary track record» of P.A.Kropotkin // Works of the commission on P.A.Kropotkin's scientific heritage. Issue 2. 1992. P. 155-175, in Russian. Yassur A. Ideas of Kropotkin and the Jewish cooperative movement // Questions of philosophy. 1994. №4. P. 164-168, in Russian. Zateev V.I. M.A.Bakunin and P.A.Kropotkin as founders and theorists of Russian anarchism // The Bulletin Buryat university. Sulfurs. 5, philosophy, sociology, political science, cultural science. Ulan-Ude, 2003. Issue 7. P. 153-169, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 473-483 ~~~ УДК 339.7 Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia Innessa N. Efremenko* Rostov State Economic University «RINH» 69 B Sadovay st., Rostov-on-Don, 344002 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 Integration processes taking place in Central-Asian region are caused by global trends in the system of international relation connected with internationalization of social life and growing necessity of the states involved to strengthen national statehood, security and taking up global challenges of modern life. Having chosen integration the Central-Asian region is able to turn into an independent subject of modern geopolicy and to take a worthy place on the political map. Keywords: economic integration; financial integration; national financial systems; globalization; Asian Bank of Development; Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Point of view The final aim of regional integration is the creation of common economic space among countries involved. Studying of optimal forms of economic, financial and currency integration is the main task for monetary powers of a number of states in the context of developing and implementing the strategy to adjust to the process of financial and economic globalization. Complexity of modern development of certain regions and world economy in general manifest the variety of integration processes. This fact proves the necessity and topicality of theoretical processing of the issues discussed. However at present some regions while developing and introducing integration mechanisms look for the model of integration which differs from the European one and whose final aim is not the transition to common currency, but the realization of the policy of interstate economic convergence. * 1 Regional economic and currency integration development is based on stable trade links and, what is more important, on historic and cultural contacts of the countries of the given region. Transition from nominal to real convergence in the region brings about harmonization of macroeconomic policy, legal issues and institutional architecture. Creation of a currency union means serious measures and great efforts connected with coordination of the monetary policy of the member states. Eventually these measures are to stimulate expansion and diversification of the financial market, to promote interregional trade and to strengthen economic power of the member countries of the union. The positive aspect of the implementation of the coordinated monetary policy together with synchronization of economic development of the countries of the union are: the possibility to meet several objectives with limited number of tools for monetary Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 473 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia regulation available as well as the possibility of internalization of external effects. It is especially important for the developing countries in the region under consideration. Besides such form of financial-economic integration enables monetary authorities to manipulate with monetary tools in the situations either of instability and uncertainty or turbulence on the financial markets and to make independent decisions as well. All these meet the requirements of the current economic development of the countries of Asian and African regions. Asian countries are playing more and more prominent role in global economy consequently the question of the creation and development of the new section of the world financial architecture – regional economic and exchange union of these countries – are becoming more and more topical and are of great scientific interest. Economic and financial potential of the Asian countries has grown dramatically for the last decades. This group is becoming the new locomotive for the growth in world economy. Financial relations of these countries are getting deeper and deeper every year and are becoming more organized, and the authorities are making efforts to strengthen them even better. The fact that such powerful financial centers as Hong Kong and Singapore are located in this region makes the processes of financial integration more active. However in spite of the visible results integration process in the given region is not homogeneous. It should be mentioned that the development on the integration model is rather distorted: currency integration prevails over other stages of the integration which should be in front of the former. For example, full-scale free trade zone and customs union have not been established. Besides the growth of export to the developing countries in ASEAN countries in comparison with their GDP growth is still much higher than the growth of trade within the block. Being export-orientated to the developing countries ASEAN countries differ from other regional unions. For ASEAN countries the aggregated turnover growth with the developing countries for five years after the unification has increased by 1,9 % GDP more than the turnover within the block. In spite of the fact that the present level of trading interconnection of Asian countries is rather high (according to The Asian Bank of Development the share of mutual trading in the region is a less higher than 50 %), but it does not stimulate neither the development of formal integration processes in the trading sphere nor bringing together separate national financial systems of the Asian countries. The process is specific due to the following subjective factors: big territory of the region, uneven levels of economic development of the countries (first of all industrial), economic potential, the number of population, different political orientation, historical and cultural background. That is why the degree of integration in the region is still low. Three key factors are to deepen integration processes: 1. changes in behavior and preferences of the local and foreign market participants. In particular, investors are more focused on foreign markets due to technological and telecommunication advance and better information access; 2. national authorities’ efforts to reduce/ remove restrictions on capital flow and implementing of structural reforms; 3. concentration of efforts of the whole region. For this decade international society has realized that it is necessary to develop and adopt common standards, and many countries took active steps for coordinating and harmonization their own legal and methodological complexes in accordance with international standards. – 474 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia Besides, consolidation of financial contacts was accompanied by intense trading and conducting of investment agreements. This very fact stimulates the processes of regional economic integration; The European Union is a graphic example. Ten ASEAN countries strive for closer integration to create regional economic union in the future (by 2015). Theoretically expansion of integration processes of regional financial integration is (determined) by opening of regional financial systems for foreign capital and by removing limits on placing residents’ capital abroad as well as by recognition and adaptation of international standards and codes. Some steps of political financial liberalization were taken in some Eastern-Asian countries in 1980s, which became more dynamic in the last decade of the XX century. Opening of the financial market meant introducing of market interest rates, allowing foreign financial service providers to render more services on the local market, reducing of reserve requirements, liquidation of credit control, gradual opening of capital market. It concerned, first of all, short-term capital operations while capital operations with balance of payment remained to be controlled. Let us analyze how far the process of financial integration in Asia has proceeded and how strong are financial links in this region. Example Financial markets are known to be totally integrated when the law of the unified price is true, i.e. prices for assets with identical risks and profit rates are to be approximately the same in different countries. When the level of financial integration is high the capital flows to the places where the possibilities for profit are the highest, but gradually profit rates are equalizing. Thus, index of financial integration – absence of connection between savings and investments within the country. It is expressed: (Feldstein, Horioka, 1980) § INV · ¸ ¨ © GDP ¹t ,t § SAV · ¸ H t ,t © GDP ¹t ,t D E¨ where i – country, t – period of time. Coefficient β shows the ratio of changing of the rate of the domestic savings in the country with investment financing. The experts of International Bank of Development (García-Herrero, Wooldridge, 2007) analyze the data reflecting changes of the coefficient β in 26 countries with the developing markets (9 Asian countries, 10 European countries, and 7 from Latin America) from 1982 to 2006 (Fig. 1). Speaking about the countries with developing markets it should be mentioned that coefficient of savings was very significant in the 1980-s. It reflected the reducing mobility of the capital flows on the developing markets after the long debt crisis in 1982. In the course of 1990-s its significance dropped sharply (from 0,92 in 1987-91 to 0,37 in 1997-2001) and dropped even more (to 0,25) in 2001-06. The assessment of the last period manifests the growing importance of coefficient of savings for the countries with mature economy (i.e. not zero), it means that both countries the developing markets and mature economies are not integrated in the global financial market. Among the countries with developing markets the coefficient of savings is the lowest in Latin America it is nearly zero in the period under consideration; in European countries it is 0,4 and in Asian countries – 0,5. As it has been mentioned above the difference in prices for financial assets among the markets of the region is an important index for the financial integration. Consolidation of economic and financial contacts makes diversification of financial assets portfolios easier to low risks which – 475 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia Fig.1. Ration of savings to investments (García-Herrero, Wooldridge Ph, 2007) are to promote price balancing. The analysis of the data of the US, European and other developed countries’ stock markets for the period of 1980-s demonstrates that the possibilities for profit gaining depend on the country’s specificity. However later on – late 1990-s and the early 2000-s – this difference was reducing, which means the growing financial integration. But the possibilities for profit gaining now are influenced by the factors connected with sectors of investments. The countries with developing markets vice verse do not demonstrate any progress in financial integration, and country’s specificity is still very important for the possibilities of profit gaining. At the same time the impact of the country’s specificity on the prices for financial assets is not as strong in Latin American countries as in Asian countries. It might be connected with fact that quite a big number of the companies in Latin America are listed in different stock markets in the first run in the USA. The law of unified price appears though not to full extend in the financial market sectors with the fixed revenues. It means the difference in the interest rates between to currencies is equal to the difference between forward operation rates and spot operations. Correspondence of interest rates is observed in the countries which joined the European Union in 2004, at least on money market. However it does not happen in Latin America as there are barriers for investors to participate in arbitration between domestic and foreign markets. Substantial difference in interest rates is observed in the Latin American countries depending on the country where the capital is placed. Besides at present in the Latin American countries there are a great number of restrictions on capital transactions. These data confirm again that the level financial integration in the Asian region is still very low. It testifies that not only integration of the countries with the developing markets (Asia) within the region but their integration into the international financial system is lagging behind the regional integration of the countries with developed economy. Consequently the Asian countries are integrated into the international financial system at greater extend than between each other. Opening national financial systems for non-residents is the most important condition for financial integration of the region under the conditions of growing impact of globalization. Having an opportunity to participate in the processes on the national financial markets foreign financial institutions are becoming the channels for the country’s integration not only into global economy but with other countries in the region. – 476 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia Fig. 2 Inflow (right) and outflow (left) to (www.imf.org) China the largest and the most influential economy in the Asian region has chosen its won way of integration into global financial system. China’s financial system opened for foreign investors when economic reforms started in 1978. However at that moment foreign investors could only cooperate through International Trust and Investment Corporation. Foreign financial institutions first started their activity in China in 1980. By 1993 foreign financial institutions had opened 302 foreign representative offices and 98 foreign companies on the territory of the country. In 1993 local Chinese non-bank financial institutions were allowed to operate with foreign currency, in 1996 – to issue their won bonds on the international markets. With bankruptcy of the Chinese intermediary International Trust and Investment Corporation in 1998 foreign banks obtained more possibilities to work in the country. As a result 30 foreign banks had been represented in China by the end of 2000. 35 foreign banks including 15 Asian banks, 18 European ones and 2 American (Citibank и Bank of America) were functioning in China in July 2001. By the beginning of 2006 25 cities had been opened for foreign banks and foreign insurance companies. In 2008 China had the biggest in the world currency reserves more than 1500 bln. US dollars due to continuous growth of foreign investments and sustainable growth of the international trade Imperfect market model in the region under consideration is the main obstacle for full integration in the Asian countries. Differentiation in the ways of getting profit on capital depending on the country where the capital is located will be preserved till corporate management in some countries put insiders into preferable position for obtaining the shares while foreign investors on the contrary have difficulties in obtaining them (Kho, Stulz, Warnock, 2006). Consequently analyzing the level of the financial integration it is necessary to take into account the scales of capital flow together with the measures mentioned above. Meanwhile mobility of capital has never before been so high in the Asian countries. At present both capital inflow and capital outflow are their record height (Fig. 2). Such scale of capital flow to the Asian countries resulted from the fact that in the global economy a substantial surplus of global liquidity has accumulated lately and international investors placed it in this rapidly developing region. Direct foreign investment flow to the developing markets is increasing. However this process is characterized by the high degree of concentration – since 2002 China’s investment share among all counties with developing market is about 50 per cent. Another dangerous tendency of concentration is massive investment in several sectors of the economy, in particular in real estate and their profiteering character. In the whole such – 477 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia environment gave advantages of integration into the world economy to the most developed among the developing countries of the region, while most of the economies had limited access to the foreign capital. Capital outflow from the region is easily explained: currently central banks of the region possess such stock of foreign reserves that to manage these funds effectively monetary authorities had to include long-term American securities, in particular the US treasury stocks, into their management strategies. The region also has substantial sovereign funds for wealth accumulation which contribute much. Besides less investment restrictions on foreign markets for residents as well as ongoing market and industrial integration in the region are the important facts for increasing of capital outflow. The processes of big capital outflow in the Asian countries graphically demonstrate how liberalization of the restrictions for capital export is able to relax the situation on the currency market and at the same time to promote further transboarding diversification of local investors’ portfolios and integration with international markets. For example, regulation reform made easier for private investors to gain and keep foreign assets (China, Southern Korea, Malaysia, Thailand); and Thailand’s national pension funds were allowed to invest a good part of their assets aboard. Last years gross capital flows in the Asian region have been marked by rather high volatility (Fig. 3). Growing significance of portfolio and other kinds of investments (especially bank crediting and operations with derived bank instruments) explains this tendency and speaks about the possibility of dramatic changes of financial flows in any direction. Splashes of capital flows (sometimes brought about by interest arbitrage business in Yens – Yen loans to invest in more profitable assets expressed in Fig. 3 Gross capital flows to the Asian countries with developing markets (www.imf.org) foreign currencies became the main concern for the monetary authorities. In the context of regional financial integration present realia of functioning of financial markets of the region does not look convincing. IMF emphasizes the fact that regional financial markets, except markets САР Hong Kong, Singapore and Tokyo, especially bond markets are not big; and share markets are less liquid than in the developed economies. It makes clear why there are worries about financial instability and improper control over the capital transactions. Consequently further expansions of financial markets of the Asian countries as well as acceleration of processes of regional financial integration are becoming more and more acute. In her research A.A. Abalkina (Abalkina, 2007) gives the following arguments for financial integration of the countries the region: 1. developing of the regional financial market will make easier the access to capital, in particular for the countries which have limited access to the international financial markets; 2. developing of the institution of the financial intermediaries inside the region will make the region less dependant on – 478 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia the world financial market and will reduce loan costs. 3. regional financial system is more resistible to external shocks than separate economies however it does not defend from financial instabilities within the region; 4. integrated financial market makes the region more attractive for investments which encourages extra capital flow from the third countries третьих стран; 5. regional cooperation will stimulate the In 2005 at the meeting of the Ministers of Finance of these countries in Laos the negotiations on liberalization of the financial service market were continued as well as it was agreed to create АSЕАN’s interconnected equity market by 2010 was achieved (to form large integrated market which is able to ensure bigger liquidity and a wide range of financial instruments through harmonizing markets standards and codes and through assisting to the transboarding access to the market). In the context of convergence of national financial systems a number of development and recovery of national financial systems; 6. financial interaction can be an impulse for further integration in adjoining areas. Heavy criticism of the international financial institutions such as IMF and the World Bank brought about discussions of new projects to support regional economic and currency mechanisms and united countries’ forces to implement these projects. Just after the 19971998 financial crisis the ideas of deepening of the financial integration in the Asian region to make it less dependant on global markets and diversification of national financial systems got second wind. Moreover the countries strengthened their macroeconomic policy: exchange rates became more flexible to relax outside shocks; official gold reserves were accumulated; and inflation goals were set up. long-term fiscal policy was adopted; the mechanisms enabling financial restructure in the countries which had experienced the 1997-1998 financial crisis were introduced; normative and prudential bases were renovated and corporative management became stronger. In such environment a group of countries – АSЕАN, created in 1967 – became more active. China, Japan and Southern Korea joined this group and succeeded in implementation of the ideas of financial integration. initiatives have been realized: for example, The Forum of АSЕАN’s capital markets, comprising the representatives of the regulating agencies on equity market is functioning; in 2005 the new share index – АSЕАN share index – was introduced. There are three main approaches to strengthen financial integration among Asian countries: 1. information exchange and conducting negotiations concerning the strategy of the financial market development of the region; 2. joint usage of gold and exchange currency reserves by means swap-agreements among central banks; 3. development and strengthening of the regional bond market. It should be mentioned that two last approaches have concentrated more efforts than the third one. It was realized in the frames of Chiang Mai network two-sided swap lines among central banks of Asia and in the project of the Asian bond fund. Chiang Mai initiative includes measures directed to joint usage of exchange reserves of the member-countries of the treaty. The system of exchange swaps was developed in accordance with which central banks of the countries provided $ 200 mln. to finance balance of trade – 479 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia Table 1. Participation of ASEAN countries in swap-agreement Group 1 Group 2 Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines – $ 150 mln. Vietnam – $ 60 mln. Myanmar – $ 20 mln. Cambodia – $ 15 mln. Singapore, Thailand – $ 41,5 mln. Laos – $ 5 mln. Source: Rana P. Monetary and Financial cooperation in East Asia: the Chiang Mai Initiative and Beyond. ADB Working Paper. 2006. №6. February. P. 9. deficit. Subsequently the sum was increased to $ 1bln. (Table 1). Each of these countries according to this agreement is entitled to get loans twofold for six months with the possibility to have it prolongated for more six months. Subsequently АSЕАN countries +3 developed the system of double swaps, provided for preventing profiteering attacks on national currencies. This system together with more extended swap-agreement became the basis for Chiang Mai initiative. In general only IMF’s participation can ensure the implementation of these swap-agreements. But the share of funds raised according to these swap-agreements independently from IMF program has been increased from 10 to 20%. By the beginning of 2007 8 АSЕАN member-countries +3 completed 16 swap-agreements for $ 47,5 bln. The development of stock market especially bond market is getting its importance for the development of the Asian financial market. Despite the well-developed banking sector of the region the necessity to diversified development of the financial system is caused by the number of factors especially after the 1997 crisis. it is necessary to diversify the sources of economy financing then impact of the crisis in one of the segments of the financial market is less negative for the economy in general as the capital can be transferred to a different segment of the stock market; it is necessary to use more savings placed with short-term deposits to finance longterm economic projects. Asian countries are characterized by higher saving rates (in 2007 – 45,3% GDP, in the developed economies – 19,9% GDP, in the world – 23,6 % GDP), in case of shortage of the potential investment instruments within the region the Asian savings are used to finance other economies; demand for funds for financing significant infrastructural projects has increased; shortage of the short-term securities has reduced the number of active open market operations by central banks. Several groups have taken an interest in this project. Among the most active initiatives Asian dialogue on cooperation, Initiative on development of APEC (Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation) bond regional markets, Initiative on Asian bond markets in the format АSЕАN+3 (АSЕАН countries and Japan, China, Southern Korea), as well as the meeting of the leaders of the central banks of Eastern-Asian countries and the Pacific region are to be mentioned. The size of this segment of the financial market, of course, cannot be compared with the development rate of stock market of developed economies, however in 2002 aggregated volume of bond market was $ 800 bln and market volume, for example, in Indonesia – $ 2 bln and $ 300 bln in Southern Korea (Fabella, Madhur, 2003). In 2003 central banks of the region declared about the setting up a bond fund with the capital – 480 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia of $ 1 bln to invest in debt securities issued by the states of this region and denominated in the US dollars. This fund was initiated by 11 AsianPacific countries including the most developed АSЕАN countries, China, Japan, Korea, Australia and New Zealand. Later on in 2004 the Asian bond fund-2 was established, it is to invest $2 bln state and quasipublic bonds of 8 states: China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Half of the funds is distributed among 8 national funds, the second half is transferred to Pan-Asian Index Fund set up as a share fund listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and to be listed on the stock exchanges of the other member countries of the meeting of the leaders of the central banks of the East-Asian countries and the Pacific region (Australia, Hong Kong, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, China, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Japan, New Zealand and Thailand) (Abalkina, 2007). To make the Asian bond fund more efficient a new stock exchange index was introduced – iBox ABF Indices, comprising 490 bond эмитированных by national governments, international institutions and state agencies on 8 national markets. From the investor’s point of view funds of the Asian bond fund-2 are низкозатратное and effective means of investing in the Asian bonds nominated in national currencies. On the other hand the Asian bond fund-2 as a new type of assets together with infrastructure improvements, tax and regulation reforms will promote bond market expansion in the region. The idea of the Asian bond fund is important for gradual liberalization of the national bond markets. For example, Pan-Asian Index Fund was the first foreign institutional investor to get accesses to the interbank bond market of China. Malaysia liberalized norms of currency regulation and opened its domestic market for issuing bonds of many-sided banks of development and financial institutions. At the same time investorsnon-residents started to be exempt from the tax on yield interest earned from investments in debt securities nominated in ringgits. Thailand did the same while investing in Thailand national bonds and national agencies’ bonds. Resume Under conditions of the development of the Asian domestic financial markets, we think disbalances in the development of its different segments (bonds in comparison with banking market, bond market, financial derivatives, etc.) should be avoided. And the development of the effective control system over the financial sector is becoming more and more significant. Considering all issues of the integration of the Asian countries it is necessary to touch upon the question of the potential exchange integration. During the 1997-1998 crisis in Asia the idea of setting up The Asian Exchange Fund was discussed which however had never been implemented. Currently several projects on introducing exchange union in the Asian countries are under consideration. One of them proposes to develop currency zone around and on the basis of the Chinese Yuan. It is caused by a number of factors: one of the main arguments is economic potential of this country, attractiveness and stability as well as good potential of the national currency. At present the project of introducing of full convertibility of Yuan is being discussed. The more famous project of the introducing of the unified currency – ACU– is an alternative to the «Chinese» project. It started to be realized in 2006, though the idea of the unified currency appeared as long ago as in the 1970-s. The Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad was one of the first to put forward the idea of the unified currency to – 481 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia simplify trade. He was supported by the leaders of the Philippines and Thailand. But gradually this process slowed down. Asian countries followed the European way: trying to protect their economy from the American currency fluctuations they set up their unified currency – ACU (similar to European ECU). It has not become the full-bodied currency yet and is called to be a kind of regional indicator against dollar, euro and other hard currencies. However in the future ACU may be transformed into the full-bodied currency which in its turn ECU, introduced in 1970-s. It is supposed to be a currency basket proportionally reflecting GNP shares and the volume of the international trade of the member countries. The Asian Bank of Development must release all national Asian currency rates against ACU daily. Although it should be mentioned that Asian economies differ among each other more than the European states used to, consequently it will take longer to create a real currency union. However we are convinced that a currency union consisting of asymmetrical economies is able to function will be the basis of the Asian currency union. The European Currency Union was based on the R. Mundell’s theory of the optimal currency zones and it has proved that unified currency is very beneficial for a conglomerate of the territories. First of all the prices are more transparent and more optimal (due to removing of the barriers for realization of the competitive advantages), transaction costs are reducing, trade links and labor market are developing. Besides «integrated» currency is gainful for investors they rely on macroeconomic stability and the products of the invested companies will see more customers. On the other hand according to R. Mundell economies of the countries within the currency zone are at the similar stages of the cycle and have identical structures whereas common currency policy influence equally upon all parts. The first difficulty has not overcome yet but if the consensus among the countries seeking to join the union is achieved the prospects are very good. The Asian Bank of Development is an initiator of this project. Thirteen countries plan to participate in this project: Japan, China, Southern Korea, and ten member states of the Association of South-East Asia. In prospect Hong Kong, Taiwan and even Kazakhstan may join this zone. The first stage is to set up a unified currency unit – ACU – similar to European currency effectively and to be gainful for the participants. Thus, according to the estimated prospects of the currency union in Asia positive results and a wide range of positive effects for the member states are to be expected. Eventually all these will result in leveling differences in the future. Application of the idea of the currency union should rest upon experiences available. Ratio of national currencies to ACU should be worked out similar to the European one. Meanwhile the member states are to be obliged to conduct common economic policy to reduce misbalances in the exchange rates. A number of measures have been already taken to implement the project. In 2003 an agreement on free trade zone was signed, it involved seven states of the Association of the regional cooperation in Southern Asia. The zone started to operate in 2006 and comprised the territory with the one fifth of the population of the planet. At the same time eleven counties of the region declared about the creation of the local currency reserves fund consisting of $ 1bln. Nowadays unified currency is not going to replace Asian national currencies. ACU is to show mutual quotation of currency units of the region and to be used as a fluctuation indicator against dollar and euro. It is to be the aggregated indicator of the average currency value of the thirteen countries (China, Southern Korea, Japan – 482 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia and ten member states of the Association of South-East Asia); i.e. it is an indicator showing the economy situation in the region. Specific weight of every national currency unit in ACU depends on a number of factors, e.g. DDP, international trade, currency participation in international payments. ACU is planed to be used as a currency fluctuation indicator in the region against dollar and euro, and other hard currencies. Business application of this currency unit is likely to be nominal rather than real. It may be applied to estimate official reserves, to calculate is difficult economically or politically to choose any other means of payments. ACU shares are possible to be issued. Notsurprisinglythattheprojectimplementation is heavily criticized, but it should not be forgotten that it is too early to speak about any real results. Great heterogeneity in the economic development in the region together with weak economic and financial integration are still remaining the main obstacles. For real currency integration there should be full-scale institutional area in the region; first of all establishing Asian Central Bank and other tariffs or any other indicators every time when it important financial institutions. References А.А. Abalkina. Financial integration as a means for domestic markets protection: East Asia Experience. Finance and Credit, 42 (2007) – www.imf.org A. García-Herrero, Ph Wooldridge. Global and regional financial integration: progress in emerging markets. BIS Quarterly Review, September (2007), р. 61. B.C. Kho, R.M. Stulz and F.E. Warnock. Financial globalisation, governance and the evolution of the home bias, BIS Working Papers, 220 (2006). M. Feldstein and C Y Horioka. Domestic saving and international capital flows, Economic Journal, 90 (1980), pp 314–320. R. Fabella, S. Madhur. Bond Market Development in East Asia: Issues and Challenges. ERD Working Paper, 35 (2003). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 484-490 ~~~ УДК 12/13 Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels in Higher Educational Institutional Corporation Ludmila D. Alexandrova* Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts 71«А» Komsomolsky, Chelyabinsk, 454021 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 Results of philosophical research devoted to studying of virtual communities are considered in article. The author gives an example effective cooperation in virtual communities these are virtual communications in scientifically-educational sphere – higher education web-sites, professional forums, teleconferences. Studying a phenomenon of virtual communities (phylosophical position) has allowed to reveal increasing value of this work and open participation of people in modern virtual communications. Keywords: virtual community, virtual reality, information environment, communications computer network, interactivity, science and educational sphere. Point Nowadays the virtual world is interpreted by researchers as a free-standing social reality featured by special psychological, semeiotic, normative, and managerial aspects. The key prerequisite for investigation of any phenomenon, not excepting the virtual communities, lies in a phylosophical approach: laws of social development rule not independently as abstract forces, they become apparent through actions of concrete individuals and principles of interaction established in their communities. Each new virtual community entered upon life in the virtual medium is deemed to be not only a generalized entity with the already established social and cultural interactions but rather a potential territory where new forms and relations can be formed. It should be observed that the virtual communities are studied from different points * 1 of view. One investigate it as a social and phychological phenomenon, while others study it as a bearer of managerial problems. The third explore the phenomenon proceeding from dynamic characteristics of the virtual world development. In the majority of cases we are dealing with the applied searchings. At present the analytical and philosophical researches that include not only description of the phenomenon but also the underlying reasons are uncommon. Hence, there is no doubt that the virtual communities should be investigated in the allinclusive manner. The paper dwells on all-inclusiveness in looking up a methodology or means to study the virtual communities at the philosophical level. The proposed level allows linking two fundamental principles of the virtual communities world exploration: Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 484 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels… • consider the virtuality as representation of common cultural regularities; • define an ability to create images of the world and an individual permanently as the key feature of the virtuality. Example The information evolution in communication gives the floor for new forms of the social interactions based on the compartible systems of technological interaction. Integration of the telecommunication and communication means guarantee remote access and immediate exchange for the data, sound and audio images. The new communication medium created conditions for establishment of the virtual relations and links between people. Mastering the new communication medium, people tend to establish new collective forms of interaction for professional, individual purposes or the psychological comfort. It is the practice to call «social communities appeared on the basis of technological interaction systems» (Ivanov, 2002, p. 205) the virtual communities. The virtual community phenomenon lies in the possibility to realize the intensional data exchange and to control with the account for the global discourse into the world of computer-mediated technologies. Even by mid-1990-s there were ten thousands of virtual communities all round the world. Mostly they were formed spontaneously at the peak of the natural interest to the new communication technologies of remote access. And step-by-step the stable communications have generated around the definite interests and groups. When formulating the definition for virtual community, many scientists treat for it from the position of the network communications. For example, the virtual encyclopaedia suggests the following interpretation: «A virtual community is a relatively stable system of links and relations between users of the information network formed in the course of synergy» (Wikipedia, 2009). Let us consider one more of the commonly used definitions. «Network communities are groups of people with the fixed membership that interact predominantly in the global computer networks» (Melyukhin, 1999, p. 36). In this case the emphasis is put on steadiness of links and relations between members of the virtual community. In paper of H. Rheingoldand, a well known American ideologist of informationalism, the term virtual community is defined as «a selforganizing electronic network of interactive communications integrated around common interests or purposes» (Rheingoldand, 1998). The definition does not contain any reference to usual communication subjects – an addressee or an addresser – at the same time it is featured by the comprehensive approach. The Rheingoldand’s definition has felicitous combination of technological, motivational, and corporative factors needed to describe organizational features of the virtual community phenomenon. H. Rheingoldand fairly denotes the self-organizing aspect in cooperation of different persons interests and entities using electronic forms of communication. This does not mean that all virtual communities can be self-reproducted, nevertheless, as it is fairly noted the organizational aspect is the main in their life. Shcherbina V. operates with the term cybercommunicative communities. The author prefers another way of looking into peculiarities of the virtual communities formation, stating that the main goal of the internet communication «a unity of free personalities» formation. (Shcherbina, 2001), capable to withstand pressure against the gregarious social structures that are built on principles of coercion and suppression (military, political, economical, psychological or ideological). – 485 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels… Shcherbina V. emphasizes the mass communities appeared in the network environment – cybersocies, virtual, online, cybercommunes (Shcherbina, 2001) – are not socially autonomous. They should be viewed as successors to the conventional social groups which are built up by members of information and analytical, commercial, science entities. As D. Ivanov reveals, virtualization can be applied to a community since it blends with «context of relations typical for the virtual reality» (Ivanov, 2002, p. 62). It gives the ground to define the network community from the position of three characteristics of the virtual reality: • possibility to have active interactions between objects and subjects of the virtual worlds featured by conditional character (objects are artificial and variable); • ephemerality – freedom in entry/ exit makes it possible to break and restore bonds; • immateriality of action (an image produces effects typical for the material). Resume Thus, the comparative analysis of different approaches in definition of the virtual community phenomenon shows that the term in its chief features corresponds to the typical characteristics of a community (communion, commune). The only aspect defines its new meaning. The matter concerns methods and technologies of communication. The virtual communities are formed on telecommunication principles. This, in its turn, make us assent to introduce an attribute of deterritoriality as a requisite. The community relations are conventionally established within a geographically circumscribed entity of people. A method of localization of the intragroup relations in the virtual community is not similar. As M. Kastels states, «in the modern society the logics of location makes way for the network logics» (Kastels, 2000, p. 92). The real space for those communicating via network is annihilated at the expense of electronic forms of remote access. The idea about local interaction among members of a community is altered as the modern communication technologies ensure locality not on a local but the global scale. Hence, the attribute of deterritoriality serves one of the key requisite in definition of the virtual community. After the term features are defined and the key attributes are marked out, we will try to reveal prerequisites for formation of the virtual communities. Point A psychological capability of an individual «to assume role of another» and to fancy how he is perceived by a communication partner, is admitted the most significant feature of interaction and successful development of the social environment within the virtual space. Interaction between members of the virtual community becomes the background for formation of the individual and grouped identification system. Many researchers pay their attention to the fact that the virtual community is formed as a specific method to combine professional, educational, cognitive, research interests. The approach is not new. It supplements and evolves the basic principles of the theory of interests (The theory of interests was created by scientists R.Parry, D.Parker (the USA), F.Tennant (England) in 1920s. The authors asserted that value of subjects or events for a person is governed by a subjective attitude towards them, the personal interest. The interest is understood as a conscient or inconscient desire, favour/aversion, proneness, sympathy/antipathy, love/ hatred felt by people. The main feature of such interpretation of the social phenomena is the fact that interests are socially conditioned by the life style). Many of its theses can be applied to study establishment of communications within the virtual communities. – 486 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels… Example Splitting into small groups permits us to ignore the fixed stereotypes and pass on to formation of local cultures on the basis of narrow marginal aspirations and interests. French researchers G. Delaise and F. Gvattarie denoted the type of communities tribal cultures (Delaise et al., 1998) that possess their own tribal psychology and integrated at the level of the grouped solidarity. Many authors consider the Network as the virtual space to realize more open and comfortable relations between people. However, studies of Ye. Belinskaya show that interactions in the virtual communities are directed not to openness but rather to reproduction of the structural integrity on the ground of similar wishes, interests, ideals and values. It can be noticed that the idea of realization of an interest in the network communication is supplemented with a set of requirements to be met in order to form the steady virtual community. As it has been observed by some researchers, communications in the virtual medium are characterized by ephemery (fleetingness) of relations. It is due to changes in interests of people and their attitudes towards the psychological peculiarities of the virtual communication. In so doing, a question arises whether the ephemery will be one of the key characteristics, when we are dealing with the stable virtual unity? In action communications between members of separate forums, chats, teleconferences (science, professional) can grow into the long-term and effective relations and the members can also maintain personal and business bonds in real life. Experts point out that the grouped virtual communication begets a special subspace with its own psychological, cultural, linguistic, and etiquette norms. It assigns some features to interactions in real life. In this case statement that the ephemery is one of the key attributes in study of the virtual communication will be unjustified. A.Krocker and M.Weinstein pay attention to the problem of the so called «lonely (virtual) crowd» (Galkin, 2004). In their point of view the technologically generated community proficiently masks the human loneliness. The problem of emotional poverty distinctive for the modern culture is referred to the category of traditional themes in the present-day humanities: P. Sorokin, E.Dürkgame, R.Maerton, E.Fromm, etc. The overwhelming majority of social contacts are utilitarian, and their arguments are functional. The deep singleness and impoverishment of the emotional life provoke stresses. It is possible to create a corporative resource but members of the corporation will utilize it in the utilitarian way, never allotting it with communicative or interactive functions. Communication in the virtual community plays the compensatory role. It is most likely that computer communications provide tools to settle more prosaic problems like the possibility to promote oneself or the corporative image, to keep in touch with concrete people, to keep abreast of the world’s news and events, to be aware of specific information, etc. The system possesses one more important element. The point at hand is the necessity to cooperate by the target experience (e.g., corporative sites of the institutes of higher education). When studying the target purposes of users entering the virtual community, it is customary to mark out specific groups of purposes. • Instrumental targets are oriented to handle the professional, economical, educational needs. • Terminal targets are connected with the communication process itself: experimentation with a new form of communication out of interest, familiarization with a new identity – 487 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels… and methods of self-presentation, establishment of social relations dissimilar to others and design of new communities. The creative factor steps forward no less significant for exploration of the virtual communities formation features. The Internet «traverses a path from particularly professional communication medium for programmers to the medium of frank communication, cognition and play, bringing about wider personal interests» (Zhichkina, 2000, p. 77). The aspect is reported in papers of Ye. Belinskaya, A. Zhichkina, V. Nesterova, etc. The researchers highlight that «computer-mediated communications are close to the well-known practice of the role training» (Zhichkina, 2000, p. 77). Demand for self-expression, development of different communicative scenarios, search for methods of self-identification are the motivational factors in development of different forms of the internet communication. As stated by many scientists, when creating a virtual community, the individual creates the virtual identity that is manifested in real occupations of those who ranked themselves among the community. That is why specialists have to develop the classification categories and detect typology of the virtual communities by analogy with the existing typologies or on the basis of personal observations. Тhere is no tried out purposive mechanism of the virtual communities formation at different levels. In many ways the process of their formation passes accidentally. Nevertheless, the fragmented programs realized in reality with the account for possibilities of different forms of the computer-mediated communication, give the ground to divide separate trends for coordination of the virtual communities activity: • Coordination by the target purpose (professional, educational, research, hobby-oriented, managerial, etc.). The following chief principle is applied for typology: the community form is governed by the activity form. • Coordination of electronic funds acquisition, collections of different subject and specific scopes (Moshkov’s library, program Museums of Russia, a unity of collectors of audio and video funds, the virtual students’ clubs, etc.). Division in relations between members of communication can be selected as a ground for classification of the virtual communication. In one case it will be people acquainted with each other in real life or the virtual medium. Virtual communication continues and supplements bonds originally emerged in the traditional communication. In other cases bonds formed in the virtual medium are primary since people do not know each other in real life. «In the virtual communication a person has an opportunity to contact with people unlikely to be met in real life. In accordance with the conducted investigations the number of social contacts for a person successfully adapted to the virtual community considerably rises» (Ignatyev et al., 2003, p. 20). A virtual community may have any status. The following classification can be observed as an example of their typification under the principle of geographic location: 1. local virtual communities; 2. regional virtual communities; 3. national virtual communities; 4. transnational (global) virtual communities. Resume Hence, the virtual community can be defined as a specific commonality of individuals linked with the computer-mediated communication featured by certain standards of steadiness and conditioning formation of a system of the target – 488 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels… collective and individual actions. Consolidation of forces directed to handle professional, research, educational, avocational needs and interests in the virtual medium results in production of a subspace with its typical technological, psychological; and social characteristics. The virtual communities distinguished by rules of the interpersonal relationship, value foundings impose more dramatic effect on real spheres of the social interaction. Point Implementation of new communication tools leads to conversion of the professional communication channels. The newly divided groups come out of the flexible information technologies. New spheres of professional exchange and cooperation come forth within the network space. For example, web-site of an institute of higher education constitutes the corporative medium with common ideology, professional standard, alike methods in settlement of the business problems. In many countries activity of the virtual communities as a corporative resource is systematically supported. Special programs to settle problems of effective interaction of the virtual and real communication systems are worked out. What is the interest to the matter provoked by? Apparently, the main advantage is connected with a potential to widen the corporative efforts in most different spheres. Example Many examples demonstrate that such a potential really exists. It evolves owing to a more flexible communication system in the society. «The professional sphere is one of the main field in which application of new tools for the information exchange resulted in deep restructure of most of technological processes, operations, methods» (Patsiorski et al., 2003, p. 59). Communications established in the virtual communities can have formal or informal nature. The first communication level is oriented towards the business formalities. Here the priority is set to the strict protocol formalities and punctual compliance with all the requirements of the business custom. The informal communication permits reflecting the common human interests and not following so strictly the accepted norms in communication. The informal communication gives more freedom for the human creativity and the emotional background in discussion of a problem. Let us consider structures and channels of communication used to communicate in the virtual communities of scientific and educational sphere. The virtual communities are formed around three basic objects of communication: science collections, research themes, and personnel. In new environment competition against the science teams, science and educational complexes is aggravated. New forms of the grouped cooperation are formed around the up-to-date communication technologies. The real collective bonds are enlarged with the virtual tools of interaction. This causes alteration in structure of communication channels in the field of science and education. Free discussion of science and educational problems leaded via the Network forsters establishment of new collective bonds, new forms of cooperation and interaction. The majority of faculties, sub-faculties and laboratories have electronic addresses that guarantee prompt information exchange, free communication with representatives of different entities around the world. Resume Hence, the virtual and real bonds founded within the science and educational sphere supplement each other, broadening conditions for active cooperation among scientists, the magistral – 489 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels… staff, post-graduates, students, university entrants. The increased interest to interdisciplinary segments on the ground of open communication links of the network space has been observed in different science and educational complexes. The informal unity of scientists makes it possible to form a unique combination of scientists which is no longer observable in the traditional science and educational system. In so doing, not only production of an innovation product, but also the increased competitive ability is gambled on in the «interprofessional and interdisciplinary consolidation» (Ignatyev et al., 2003). Flexibility of the communication bonds in these conditions becomes one of success components. It is the most problematic for the geographically distributed collectives for which email, teleconferences, forums, specialized chats are the only acceptable forms of interaction in their joint science and educational efforts. References (in Russion) Delaise G. and Gvattarie F. What is phylosophy? Institute of experimental sociology (SPb.: 1998), 280. Galkin D. V. An individual in the virtual bunker: critical theory of the virtual culture А. Kroker. Open learning, 3-4 (11 – 12), (2004), 100 – 115. Ignatyev M., Nikitin A., Reshetnikova N. New technologies of contribution and communication between people. Technologies of information community – Internet and modern society. (SPb.: Published by Saint Petersburg institute, 2003), 17-38. Ivanov D. Virtualization of society. (SPB.: Peterburgskoye vostokovedeniye, 2002), 224. Kastels M. Information epoch: economics, society and culture. (M.: GU VShE, 2000), 344. Melyukhin I. Information community: culture, origins, progress trends. М., 1999. Patsiorski V., О’Brien D. Science and educational sites as elements of the information medium in humanities. Technologies of information community – Internet and modern society. (SPb.: Published by Saint Petersburg institute, 2003), 58-73. Rheingold H. Virtual communities, 1998. Electronic resource: http://www.rheingold.com/vc/ book/ Shcherbina V.N. Network communities in the perspective of social analysis (experience of reflexion in formation of the cybercommunicative continuum). Berdyansk. (Published by Berdyan State Pedagogical Institute, 2001), 252. Wikipedia. Virtual community. Electronic resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_ community Zhichlina А.Ye. On possibilities of the psychological researches in the Internet. Journal of psychology № 2, Т. 21. 2000, 63-85. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 491-506 ~~~ УДК 316.7 Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 Culture studies become more popular at the current stage of development of science. The object of some researchers is theoretical development of problematics of culture; the others intend to deal with applied investigations of new spheres of human life. But in spite of the very essence of investigations on culture (theoretical or empirical) and its object, selection of methodological principles remains one of the most important problems for every concrete program of research on culture. A brief historical survey of the problem of selection of methodological principles for research on culture, carried out in the article, allowed us to draw a conclusion that the program of contemporary culture studies is based on the principle of necessity for direct observation of various forms of social correlations; and a concrete program of scientific investigations on culture is stipulated by selection of methodology for study of social interrelations. On the one hand, selection of the basic form of social interrelations depends on subjective intentions of a researcher carrying out his investigations on culture; on the other hand, selection determines concrete objects and methods of culture studies based on direct observation of people’s social life. Consideration of the genesis of the West-European and American investigations on culture on the base of studying of K.H. Marx’s, I.A.М.F.X. Comte’s, B.K. Malinowski’s, A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s, and L. A. White’s conceptions allowed us to examine the process of formation of methodology of culture studies. Its starting point was K.H. Marx’s discovery of economic relations as the only possible foundation of social relations, according to his conception. There appeared a fork in the further development of methodology: one of its branches still remains determined by economy and the other is a progressive alternative of formation of methodology of culture studies initiated by I.A.M.F.X. Comte, who had turned metaphysical speculations to positive scientific control over social processes. B.K. Malinowski kept on with that vector of development; the step he made towards formation of methodology of culture studies is a turn from speculative theorizing to study of social reality in field condition. A.R. Radcliff-Braun confirmed the methodological thesis on division of approaches of research on culture into speculative, or ethnologic, and functional, or socio-anthropological, ones. According to A.R. Radcliff-Braun, socio-anthropological method is of more importance, for it allows us to deduce general functional principles of existence of culture on the base of the phenomena of social life directly observed. L.A. White’s desert is synthesis of historical and functional methods carried out and enriched, each taken separately. Keywords: Culture studies, methodology, A. Comte, K.H. Marx, B.K. Malinowski, A.R. Radcliff-Braun, L. White, social determinism * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 491 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture Point If we consider genesis of European and American investigations on culture, we can point out the fact that the type of scientist changes at this sphere of science in the first third of the 20th century. The outstanding thinkers such as Herbert Spencer, Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and even James Frazer were the representatives of so-called «bench scientist» type though the program they had suggested oriented its adherents to direct observations of social interactions. Though Auguste Comte being recognized as a founder of positivism with its thesis of methodological autonomy of social sciences as such as science as a whole, he was a model of scientist and philosopher: universal logic of scientific construction, i.e. philosophical logics, was of the greatest importance for him. But the program of scientific research on human society put forward by the great «bench scientists» was of more importance for the posterior human and social sciences rather than their own style of scientific constructions. Herbert Spencer’s and Auguste Comte’s works have a thoroughly reasoned demand for dependence of social studies on empirical material of the social correlations directly observed. The fundamental principle of necessity for direct observations of methods and forms of social life as a base of culture studies comes to European and American investigations from A. Comte and H. Spencer. Emile Durkheim worked out the first methods of direct observation of social interactions and simultaneously he was an outstanding theorist who suggested genial schemes of comprehension of the most important social facts, for instance, that one of religion. Though his conceptions were put to strong critique, the theory of religion as essential social «cement» bringing along the collective ideas fundamental for an individual seems to be suddenly spicy and promising for methodology. The scientific charm of Sir James George Frazer’s book «The Golden Bough» is difficult to overestimate, for it is possible to correlate classical mythology of the ancient Greeks, Romans, Celts, and Germans with the facts concerning social life of the traditional cultures in the 19th century, which Frazer knew. For many years, the outstanding representatives of British social (cultural) anthropology had been working out the program of field studies of the traditional cultures starting with studying of one of many theses of J. Frazer’s book «The Golden Bough». There are to be mentioned Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun, Franz Boas, and their prominent disciples – M. Glackman, R. Benedict, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, M. Mead, and many other European and American scientists. Thus, there is a change of the model of researcher on culture at scientific activity of the British scientists such as B.K. Malinowski, A.R. Radcliff-Braun, American scientist Franz Boas, and their followers. Henceforth fieldworks are the base of profound scientific investigations. The model of anthropologist studying culture is a person who managed «to be dissolved» in the space of his investigations and, first and foremost, to become a member of the community demonstrating the unique local culture he studies. Such field investigations on culture have been naturally transferred from colonial spaces to modern cities, flats, and mini-communities. For the first time, human sciences became sciences of human social behaviour directly observed, and that could not only satisfy scientists’ direct interest, but also became a base for scientific control of social life and for working-out of the most humane and advanced social technologies of «everyday» life for people. Having worked out the model of field investigations on culture 30-50 years ago, today British and American scientists are to be admired for their work, who were able to form an – 492 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture adequate program of research on culture of social life of the traditional communities in the British colonies, but the universal principles of social life and so-called «civil» communities were found out only owing to inhabitants of the Trobiand and Andaman Islands. For the recent years, Russian culture studies has been under the process of self-determination, and there are lot of discussions on the subject of this science: if culture is something different from social interrelations or if it is no more than abstraction of no considerable importance for the true researchers investigating on human society by the way of direct observation. The authors, who prove that there is a specific system quality of social life, which could become a subject of direct scientific observation, turn to Leslie White, the possible discoverer of «culture studies» term, in their search for support. The paradox is that the author of «culture studies» term was rather of the second opinion and he thought that «culture studies» were only categorical abstraction necessary for theoretical modeling of some social phenomena. Thus, resuming the brief survey of the history of question, we can point out the following conceptual thesis: the program of contemporary culture studies is based on the principle of necessity for direct observation of different forms of social interactions; a concrete program of scientific investigations on culture is connected with selection of methodology for social interactions studies. SELECTION OF THE BASIC FORM OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 1) DEPENDS ON SUBJECTIVE INTENTIONS OF THE SCIENTIST CARRYING OUT INVESTIGATIONS ON CULTURE; 2) DETERMINES CONCRETE SUBJECTS AND METHODS OF CULTURE STUDIES ON THE BASE OF DIRECT OBSERVATION OF PEOPLE’S SOCIAL LIFE. The conceptions of Karl Heinrich Marx, Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte, Franz Boas, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, and Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun are to be considered as examples of scientific models of the basic forms of social interactions. The choice of these names is stipulated by their unsurpassed role in formation of investigations on society and culture conveyed in formation of fundamental and acknowledged conceptions of social interactions. Anyway, the conceptions of these thinkers are the base of methodology of all the investigations on culture without exceptions based on the principle of necessity of direct observations on facts of social life for social and human sciences. Example 1. Absolute economic fundamentalism of K.H. Marx’s social doctrine Karl Heinrich Marx’s social determinism is very well known to Russian human and social sciences, for the very K.H. Marx’s doctrine has been determining the universal methodological vector of investigations for the vast majority of Russian scientists. The scientific community expected a lot of the ideological reorientation in 90s of the 20th century. But on the whole the miracle hasn’t been accomplished. Being closed for any exterior influences because of group narcissism and inner conceptual and methodological helplessness, Russian human and social sciences, having lost its ideological censorship, on the contrary, were far from being glad to the «long-awaited freedom» and offered solid opposition to the new doctrines and methodological capacities European human and social sciences had stored for a hundred years of its rapid development in the 20th century. One has only to compare a large amount of scientific journals published in Russia and in the world with a number and subject-matter of special authorial courses in human and social studies at American, European, and Russian universities. The – 493 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture prosperity of investigations on society and culture can be verified by both a number of the students taking special courses and a number of magistral programs on one or another subject. The matter is not of content or utility, but of a NUMBER of the research topic suggested to the public attention. Marxism is applied as the basic methodological precondition at human and social sciences especially in the provinces as before. Nevertheless Marxist ideology has profound recognition in the world science, but without direction to it as the only reality and universality for all the times and nations. If we speak on the very subject of the article, social determinism of human and social studies is clearly and definitely represented in K.H. Marx’s conception: «The preconditions we are to start with are not optional and they are not dogma, but they are the real preconditions which can be estranged only in imagination. Those are real individuals with their activity and material conditions of their life, those ones the individuals find at hand as well as those ones the individuals produced in the process of their activity. Thereby those preconditions can be found out only by empirical way» [16, p. 3-4]. For many years all the scientists directly or indirectly concerned in the problems of investigations on culture as the absolute truth had been studying the following theses: «Consciousness, religion, and any other thing make difference between human beings and animals. Human beings start distinguishing themselves from the animals only when they start producing the means necessary for their living – that is a step stipulated by their material organization. People implicitly produce the very material life by producing the means necessary for their living. The way people produce the means necessary for their living depends chiefly on the qualities of the very means of living they find ready for reproduction» [16, p. 4]. Thus, we wouldn’t discover anything new if we said that the specific feature of Marx’s social determinism theory is a choice of only economic and property relations as a base of social interactions. If we digress from the ideological specific features of Marxism in Russia of the 20th century, we should note that the British anthropologists thoroughly discussed the potentialities of methodology of K.H. Marx’s economic and social determinism as a conceptual base of their applied research. Among investigations of Marxist anthropologists, the most interesting ones are of Peter Worsley and Morris Bloch [18, p. 302]. A.A. Nickishenkov points out that Marxism of the British anthropologists was displayed in modification of the traditional structural and functional terms: «society» word was substituted with «formation», «structure» word with «mode of production», «clan and lineage systems» with «class structures» [18, p. 302]. The anthropologists of Marxist orientation were characterized with disputes about the essence of «relationship system» – if it were basis or superstructure at social system. The researcher says that the interest in Marxist methodology passes away almost without any serious conceptual consequences at the beginning of 80s of the 20th century. «Mode of production is not to be considered only from the point that it is a reproduction of physical life of individuals. It is a certain way of action of those individuals, some kind of their life activity and modus vivendi. The individuals are represented to be their life activity. Their essence they represent coincides with their production – both with what and how they produce. The essence represented by individuals consequently depends on the material conditions of their production» [16, p. 5]. – 494 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture The words italicized are the cornerstone of Marxist methodology in analysis of all the phenomena at society and culture, which is quite characteristic of interpretation of religion. «The base of irreligious critique is that a human being produces religion, but religion doesn’t produce a person. Videlicet, religion is self-consciousness and self-sensation of an individual who either hasn’t found himself yet or has already lost himself again. But a human being is not an abstract entity nestling somewhere out of the world. A human being is his world, state, and society. That state and society bring forth religion, changeful world outlook, for they are changeful world. Religion is a general theory of that world, its encyclopaedic pantology, logics given in a popularized form, spiritualistic point d’honneur, enthusiasm, moral sanction, solemn replenishment, and the universal ground for consolation and justification. It converts a human entity into fantastic reality, for a human entity doesn’t have true reality. Therefore the struggle against religion is indirectly a struggle against the very world where religion is a spiritual oblectation. Religious meanness is an aspect of meanness of reality and a protest against that meanness of reality at the same time. Religion is a sigh of downtrodden creature, a heart of the heartless world like it is a spirit of heartless forms. Religion is opium for people. Annihilation of religion as illusive blessedness of people is a requirement for their real happiness. The demand for denial of illusions about one’s state is a requirement for denial of such state which is in need of illusions. Hence, in its first stages, critique of religion is critique of the life of grief and weep with religion as its holy aureole» [17, p. 414-415]. We would like to pay attention to the passion of Marx’s critique of religion. Kant’s calm and dispassionate comprehension of «critique» as an investigation turns into Marx’s critique-negation and critique-disclosure. It seems that the subsequent Marxists generations were infected with the sincerity and passion of Marx’s disclosures of the reality contemporary with him. But that very pathos of negation makes Marxism be an odious doctrine, far from everyday diligent labour of the contemporary researchers investigating on culture, who consider direct human life under the «microscope» of their field studies by application of methodological taboo to discuss the past or the possible future of the culture being under study. The choice of economic «cell» as the only real base of culture has led culture studies to a certain dead-end. It is fair to say that A. Comte and H. Spencer created an absolutely different methodology with «social organism» and «social aggregate» notions applied in their works in parallel with Marx’s methodology of studies on society from the point of some definite basis and superstructure absolutely derivative from that basis. The elementary level of straight meanings of those notions pointed to the necessity for comprehension of the whole amount of social interactions as integrity, different elements «grounded-in» with each other, interconditionality of various parts of the integrated social organization, and vital correlation of different parts of social aggregate. As history of science proved, this approach has turned out to be more productive for scientific control over social processes than that one mentioned above. 2. Positivistic scientific sociologic determinism of Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Xavier Comte Marx’s notions «mode of production», «social and economic structure», and «basis and superstructure» were thoroughly described by Russian scientists. It seems that K.H. Marx as – 495 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture a sociologist was concerned with searching for «the only» true basis of social relations. Then social control is added up to regular influence on that basis. We can expect total changes in the whole social structure according to the form and content of political influence on the economic basis. Here, K.H. Marx is remarkably traditional in the statement of the ONLY and CENTRAL base. There wasn’t any real revolution at human and social sciences and Marx’s works. It happened very close and, first of all, it consisted of almost imperceptible methodological change: «The true cause of the world and fundamental consequences of following the way of Buddha («Is that one, who has seen the truth, immortal? Or is he mortal and immortal all at the same time? Or is he neither mortal nor immortal all at the same time?», – Buddha keeps silence). I.A.M.F.X. Comte calls this methodological position «positive» and substantiates the radical need in it for studies on society: «The fundamental nature of positive philosophy is in acknowledgement that all the phenomena are subordinated to the constant natural laws» [4, p. 6]. positivistic mind is mainly a substitution of study of the primary or final causes of phenomena for study of their fundamental laws; in other words, it is a change of «why» for «how» [3, p. 81]. That is exactly the way of the change at European natural science, which took place in the 16th – 17th centuries. Isaac Newton put methodological taboo in science. He started with the statement «There are the forces in action in nature» and simultaneously «refused» to solve the problem of the source and nature of those forces having kept «metaphysical» questions of the origin of philosophy and theology. Immanuel Kant made methodological discovery of the absolutely same form in regard to epistemology in the 18th century. In his great «Critiques», he researched the very human cognition without raising and solution of the question of the nature of cognition. Human thinking is to be considered in its immediate reality and described as some Here and Now in action. This very philosophical method was called «Critique» by I. Kant – that is research on the real reason. We can find out this position at religion, philosophy, and psychology of Buddhism as one of the world religions. There are various versions of the number of questions in the famous list of questions Buddha doesn’t answer. First and foremost, those are the questions of the prime Comte considered investigations on society to be the end of natural science. The object of social studies is reorganization of social reality according to the requirements of reason, regulation of the most sophisticated sphere of reality – that is of human and social life, – and direct action upon history from the point of the principles fixed by reason. Comte simultaneously brings into effect a number of methodological preconditions of the greatest importance for the further human and social investigations: 1) the necessity of direct observations on social correlations for a scientist; 2) methodological «levelling» of individual aspects of a human being in favour of social ones; 3) on the one hand, distinction of social functioning as «static» state of society «Here and Now», on the other hand – fixation of permanent social progress submitted to the universal panhuman objective laws and «dynamic» development of social aggregation on the basis of permanent selfenrichment, development and amplification of human knowledge. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of methodological change made by Isidore Auguste Marie Francois Xavier Comte at social and human studies. Even his apparently naïve ideas of the necessity for conscious implementation of positivistic religion as a cult of social system embodied in the «Absolute Essence» mark a – 496 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture new era at scientific research on religion as an attributive function of social order in contrast to chaos and regress. Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski is an English ethnologist and sociologist recognized as one of the founders and leaders of the English functional school at British anthropology. He considered culture as integral and coordinated system with be explored only in documents and reports. Only that one, who personally worked with all the three spheres forming modification of … culture, can reckon on true knowledge about the sense of cultural modification and its real nature» [13, p. 379-380]. Having carried out field studies in the Mayil (1914), the Trobdians Islands (1915-1918) and Oachaka state in Mexico (studies on the sapothecs in 1940-1941), B.K. Malinowski constantly returned to the collected material to confirm the hypotheses arising on the way to discovery of the its parts tightly connected with each other, and a single phenomenon of culture and its aspect is to be considered only from the point of the whole and as a component of a system, and qualities of every separate component are predetermined by the whole. B.K. Malinowski demanded every aspect of culture to be considered not merely as a component of a system, but as a functioning part of the cultural context. Therefore the main object of the investigations carried out by B.K. Malinowski and his disciples is comprehension of mechanism of culture and its function displayed in functioning of every concrete institution. According to B.K. Malinowski, institutions are the forms of mechanisms of culture sensuously represented; moreover, those mechanisms cannot be represented without institutions, for this reason, the researches investigating on sphere of culture should take field studies as a base. And B.K. Malinowski insisted on the fact that, as far as mechanism of culture can be represented by no any other way than institutions, scientific hypotheses about those mechanisms requiring practical verification are to be advanced by that very field. It is worth mentioning Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s merits as the change of cabinet kind of investigations for field studies and investigation on impoderabilia of real life at history of culture studies. «There is no any real process including the process of cultural modification, which can maximally universal principle and mechanism of culture. And, according to Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, such maximally general principle of culture is the statement that culture is an apparatus for satisfaction of human wants. «In its essence, culture is a tool apparatus due to which a man is able to manage with those concrete problems he comes across in the process of satisfaction of his wants in natural environment» [14, p. 142]. Hence we may assert that Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s conception is cultural determinism conception. According to B.K. Malinowski, the necessities are to be divided into three basic forms: primary («every culture is to satisfy the system of biological requirements determined by metastasis, reproduction, physiological temperature conditions, the need in protection from wet and wind, and direct adverse effect of climatic and weather conditions as well as from dangerous animals and other people» [14, p. 158]), derivative (requirements of organization, order and harmony), and integrative (spiritual requirements: science, religion, ethics, and art) necessities. The kinds of the necessities represented here are hierarchized: first of all, human activity is directed to satisfaction of the basic or biological needs, and after they are satisfied, one can attend to the secondary ones. This idea characteristic of not only 3. The change at methodology of culture studies: Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski – 497 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture Bronislav Kaspar Malinowski’s view was concretized by American psychologist and the founder of humanistic psychology Abraham Harold Maslow in his famous Human Wants Diagram. A human being is to be subjected to the principle of cultural determinism not only as some entity but as a group: «The activities, points, and objects organized by the vital aims form such institutes as family, clan, local community, tribe, and also give birth to some organized groups integrated by economic cooperation and political, legal and educational activities» [14; p. 142]. Having summarized the results of various field investigations, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski draws a conclusion that the ways of satisfaction of needs can be different, firstly, in different cultures and, secondly, at different stages of their development, and that is to be taken into consideration while different cultures are in contact with each other. Having concretized this proposition, B.K. Malinowski asserts: «The statement that the tribal Africans are submitted to their own special cultural determinism means that there can be simply arisen a conflict and disorganization when we intend to inculcate some new gastronomic habits, agriculture methods or status and laws, and if that process is out of consideration of the existing forces, for we inevitably try to substitute some cultural realia. The persecutions of voodoo and unreasoned conversion to Christianity; the urge to inculcate education in the Africans without preliminary consideration of the things education would destroy and consequences for the nationality and potentialities; the attitude towards lobola as «a savage custom of brideselling» – these are the examples of neglect of the principle of African cultural determinism in practice» [13, p. 376]. Culture forms a system in the process of satisfaction of human needs, and each part of that system has its own predetermined place, and the system is so hierarchized and wellorganized that the whole functional balance would be disharmonized and the whole system would be destroyed if one of its elements, which doesn’t seem to have any important connection with the system, were removed. As for an example for such situation, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski told of the «headhunt» held on the Initiation Day in one of the islands of New Guinea and put under a ban by the English. The aboriginal society found itself on the brink of complete destruction very soon after the ban: the elders lost their authority, the invalids were refused to be given any help, the fields and granaries were unkept, because the people left their home place. As it turned out, the «headhunt» was some kind of guarantee of responsibility for agricultural work keeping the cohesion of the families responsible for the stores of rice. But the whole system of cultural and agricultural connections was brought to a standstill after the «headhunt» ban. Moreover, the «headhunt» was an indispensable part of the very Initiation rite, the rite of consecration to the adult life; hence the «headhunt» ban disorganized hierarchical structure of the society. This principle when every object or idea has its vital function inside the organic whole is called universal fundamentalism. Thus, if Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s ideas of culture as an apparatus of satisfaction of human needs and the ideas of hierarchical system of needs can be criticized, the methodological way put forward and tested by B.K. Malinowski is undoubtedly positive; that is a change from desk study on culture to field investigations on imponderabilia of real life. Field investigations are to guide a researcher and they are to be material for verification of the scientific hypotheses advanced by a researcher. – 498 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture 4. Structural fundamentalism methodology at Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun’s investigations on culture Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun, a British anthropologist and a founder of structuralfunctional approach at anthropology, differentiates such two sciences as ethnology and social anthropology in his works («Methods at ethnology and social anthropology», «Comparative method at social anthropology», «Historical and functional interpretation of culture and practical use of anthropology for control over the aborigines»). The main criterion for the differentiation is the basic method applied to the investigations carried out by ethnologists and social anthropologists. A.R. Radcliff-Braun suggests that the basic method applied by ethnologists is appropriate to be called historical method. Its main point is that the method applied in practice allows a researcher to interpret some concrete institution of a society, to observe its formation, to reveal the factors which have influence on the changes the institution has undergone. As a matter of fact, A.R. Radcliff-Braun asserts that ethnologists observe temporal causality of some concrete institution by application of historical method. «A concrete element or a state of culture is explained by its origin to another element tracing back to the third one and so on until we are not able to retrace anything. The method can reveal real temporal connections between some concrete institutions, events or states of a civilization» [23, p. 605]. A.R. Radcliff-Braun points at complete or partial lack of the empirical data necessary for research as the general problem ethnologists have to deal with. In the first place, at the time of A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s scientific activity, the main object of study both for ethnologists and anthropologists was «traditional societies» which couldn’t be studied without basing on any authentic material concerning the history of those societies. Hence there wasn’t to be mentioned objectivity of the process of gradual determination of some social institutions restored by scientists, and the investigations had pure hypothetic nature. A.R. Radcliff-Braun says of it as follows: «The thing usually called ethnology is generally a sum of hypothetic reconstructions, i.e. hypothetic history» [23, p. 605]. Having found out subjectivity of historical method, A.R. Radcliff-Braun turns to social anthropology and its functional approach with induction laid in the base. «Logical induction is based on the postulate that all the phenomena are subjected to the natural law and whereupon general laws could be discovered and proved; the general laws (with more or less degree of generality) are the statements, every one is to be attributed to a certain sort of facts or events», i.e. application of this method allows a general law to be discovered; its particular case would be a concrete institution being under consideration. Having pointed out the object of social anthropology, A.R. Radcliff-Braun returns to ethnology seeking to give some sense to construction of hypothetic histories of origin of many concrete cultural phenomena, which seems to be useless from scientific point of view. The pointlessness of application of purely historical method consists of two main aspects: firstly, it is the impossibility of observation of the chain of the determinants of every cultural phenomenon because of the endless number of those phenomena; secondly, it is the uselessness of the established stages of development of some certain institutions taken out of their connection with the stages of development of other institutions, and, as a matter of fact, it is construction of hypothetic history for the very hypothetic history. Just functional method, which allows us to discover functional laws of culture and society as a whole, is to have an efficient function at ethnology studies, and «it will be possible to conceive those – 499 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture gradual stages of development properly only when we find out the laws bringing them about» [23, p. 608]. Thereby A.R. Radcliff-Braun doesn’t deny ethnology to have its own right to exist, on the contrary, he admits that it is essential but only in connection with social anthropology, and he claims that correctness of every step of the process of discovering of a general law carried out by logical induction is to be empirically verified, i.e. by historical method of ethnology. It means that A.R. Radcliff-Braun thinks that communities, for «we will be able to predict the results of any premeditated and unpremeditated influence on culture if we comprehend culture as a functioning system. … Hence, if anthropology is about to give any assistance in solution of the practical problems at administration and education, it is to refuse the tries to divine historical past and it is to be devoted to functional approach of culture studies» [22, p. 635]. scientifically the process of ideal is a constant interchange of functional and historical methods for the advanced hypotheses could be mutually corroborated. If we turn to A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s theoretical working-out applied in practice and represented in his work «Historical and functional interpretations of culture and practical appliance of anthropology at control over the aborigines», we can find out its implicit concordance with the principle of statistic determinism lying in the fact that there is a possibility of various effects for one and the same reason within the possible limits; and nevertheless it is seen from the fact that we can discover general laws of the system when we consider cultural phenomena not very much identical with each other (we mean the relations between the phratries based on the principle «falcon – crow» or «White cockatoo – Black cockatoo»). According to A.R. Radcliff-Braun, neither deduction of stadial development of a concrete phenomenon of culture nor the striving for discovery of functional laws explaining a concrete element of one or another culture is the final cause of science. The results of a research work applied in practice are of great value for A.R. RadcliffBraun, in particular, he thinks that the topical sphere of appliance of social and anthropological knowledge is scientifically grounded control over a group of phenomena in non-European As Leslie Alvin White, one of the leading American anthropologists, believed, culture is a complex extrasomatic mechanism used by a human being in his struggle for existence and passed over another man through social mechanisms, not with biological means; «culture can be called a form of social heredity» [31; p. 388]. According to Leslie Alvin White, culture consisting of interactive elements – tools, utensils, amulets, beliefs, actions realized in symbolic context – is an integrated system with its subsystems inside. In particular, he distinguishes three important subsystems: technological, social, and ideological. «The technological subsystem consists of material, mechanic, physical, and chemical tools with technology, which allows a human being as a representative of the animal kingdom to get into contact with the environment. … The social system consists of interpersonal relations conveyed in collective or individual patterns of behavior. …The ideological system consists of ideas, beliefs, and knowledge, expressed by articulate speech or some other symbolic form» [31, p. 388-389]. L.A. White thinks that the subsystems of culture are hierarchized: the technological subsystem is the most important and, as a matter of fact, determinative of the other two ones. Leslie Alvin White’s position can be named technological determinism. It is necessary to 5. Synthetic evolutional determinism of Leslie Alvin White – 500 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture mention that, thinking of the technological aspect of culture to be the base and foundation of the structure of culture as a whole, L.A. White doesn’t deny the possibility of the other two aspects to have influence on each other, but he notes that to influence and to determine are absolutely different ways. «The technological system plays the leading part. … And there is no any other way. A human being as a biological species and the whole culture accordingly depend on material things and mechanic ways of adaptation to the natural environment. Social systems really in living material systems: the organization is being strengthened, and the energy is being concentrated. Life is a constructive process. But living organisms have to take free energy from inorganic systems and use it in order they could maintain their life and resist the cosmic stream. From this point of view, life is a struggle for free energy». And culture is to extract energy and use it for the humankind’s good; at this idea, L.A. White comprehended culture as a complex mechanical thermodynamic system; its technological aspect is the most important for its have secondary and auxiliary nature regarding technological systems. Roughly speaking, social system can be defined as organized people’s efforts bent to the use of means of subsistence, shelter, defence and attack. The social system is a function of the technological system. Ideological or philosophical systems are an organization of beliefs interpreting human experience. But both experience and its interpretation are considerably stipulated by technology. Every kind of technology corresponds to a certain philosophical model… Thus, technological factor is a determinant of cultural system as a whole. It determines the form of social systems, and technology together with society determine content and trend of philosophy» [31, p. 390-391]. Leslie Alvin White took the point of view of natural science for consideration of the problems of culture. And if he, first of all, considered a human being as a biological species in the passage mentioned above, on the whole, his ideas are not a stranger to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and thermodynamic laws he applies to explain the processes taking place in the space of culture. Thus, «according to the second thermodynamic principle, Cosmos as its whole is being destroyed, and organization of the system is being brought to destruction more and more, and diffusion of the energy is increasing. But there is another process in the tiny sectors of Cosmos, namely functioning while the other two aspects are just its supplement and reflection. According to L.A. White’s view, the energy is a factor determining development of culture. But he notes that, in substance, the pure energy existing in the Universe is not concerned with culture at all. Only the energy a human being involves in his life is important, as well as degree of perfection of the technology used in that involving and volume of cultural products, which is possible to produce by involving some energy and using it by means of the technology available at a certain stage. L.A. White distinguishes three factors of any cultural system on the base of this conclusion: «(1) quantity of the energy consumed per head a year; (2) effectiveness of the technology used for extraction of the energy and giving it to a human being; (3) volume of products and services produced for satisfaction of human wants» [28, p. 393]. L.A. White scientifically conveys the correlation of the mentioned factors in the formula ExT → C (E – quantity of the energy consumed per head a year; T – degree of effectiveness of the tools used; C – level of development of culture). The next step Leslie Alvin White made was formulation of the law of cultural evolution which runs as follows: «other things being equal, culture is in progress as quantity of the energy consumed per head a year is increased or as effectiveness of the tools involved in consumption of the energy – 501 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture grows» [31, p. 394]. In order to prove the efficiency of his law, L.A. White considers development of the humankind’s culture from its start up to date distinguishing three principal stages: agricultural, fuel, and atomic or nuclear; first and foremost, the root of differences between them is a sort of the energy consumed and the ways of its involvement in the human existence. Thus, Leslie Alvin White finds deductive verification of his technological determinism law in the history of development of the humankind’s culture. Thereby Leslie Alvin White can be considered as a continuer of the traditions brought in culture studies by K.H. Marx: the technological component is selected as determinative of development of culture. And if following K.H. Marx’s theory implies investigations on some concrete cultures from the point of economic connections of the cultures considered, L.A. White’s methodology presupposes the necessity of analysis of concrete cultures in order the present stage of evolution of culture to be defined, which is developed by leaps and bounds according to L.A. White: qualitative change – discovery of a new source of energy, quantitative change – development of technology for consumption of energy, and there is a stage of qualitative leap again after a long stage of quantitative change; the other object of the research based on L.A. White’s methodology can be a prognostic object concerning the further development of culture. Carrying out his investigations in the period, when nuclear working-out was at its elementary stages, L.A. White couldn’t accurately surmise the consequences for culture brought about by that. It will be either total and complete collapse of human culture or a solution leading to succeeding unprecedented active restoration of culture and even overwhelm the present level of development. Critique of law of cultural evolution advanced by L.A. White and proved through history of the humankind’s development can be based on the fact that White levels specific characters of some concrete cultures for the sake of general tendencies of evolution of culture. But after we criticize some of L.A. White’s ideas, we should specify the positive character of his approach to culture studies. In particular, L.A. White bechanced to make a very productive step at working out of methodology of culture studies as an effort to combine two different approaches. So L.A. White distinguishes historical and functional methods in previous and contemporary research works; the first method studies time process, the second one is formaland-functional. The first method is applied in investigations on history of customs and ideas; the second one is for study of social structure and functions. L.A. White insisted on combination of these two methods in one evolutional method oriented to formal-and-temporal process and applied in study of evolution of cultural features, institutions, and culture as a whole. According to L.A. White, the very evolutionistic method is to eliminate the contradictions arisen among the researchers dealing with culture studies; the contradictions are connected with differentiation between cabinet and field researchers, for L.A. White claimed that true results are unachievable if only one method is applied; both the methods are to be integrated. «The thesis that «field studies shattered and refuted theory of evolution of culture» has been a perfect base for antievolutionists for many decades. …Theory of evolution was represented as a pure speculation bordering on fancy. And then field research work came, and so did empiricism and facts, facts, and facts… Of course, there is no any incompatibility of theory and practice; a fact is dead and pointless without theory; theory is a breath of life in science. …As far as we are concerned, there is no any of adherents of the thesis on field studies and theory of evolution – 502 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture who has pointed at any example of the fact how field studies would refute theory of evolution; they were used just as pretext. Now there are some signs of the fact that antievolutionistic period is up to its end at cultural anthropology. … The precious time has been wasted in opposition to that fruitful scientific conception, but theory of evolution will take its place again and prove its significance at cultural anthropology as it has already happened at other spheres of science» [34, p. 555]. It should be mentioned in conclusion that, if L.A. White’s deductions reached through his particular investigations can be criticized, then the methodological ways suggested by him are of apparent value. It turned out that he had to synthesize two approaches dominating in culture studies: pure theoretical method practiced by «bench» scientists and field studies method. L.A. White made an attempt to integrate historical and functional approaches. Resume The study of conceptions of social determinism of K.H. Marx, I.A.M.F.X. Comte, K.B. Malinowski, A.R. Radcliff-Braun, and L.A. White, which specify methods of applied cultural investigations, allows us to observe the process of formation of methodology of culture studies. The starting point of the process K.H. Marx’s discovery of the only possible foundation of society; from his point of view, that is economic and property relations, and if there is an influence on them, it is possible to modify the whole social structure. There is a fork further on the way of development of methodology; one of its branches held by the Soviet researchers in culture and continued by the scientists of post Soviet space is purely Marxist and determined by economics; the dead state of this branch is displayed very well in comparison with the second and progressive variant of formation of methodology of culture studies. It is possible to point out the main milestones of that formation. The foundation of development of methodology of culture studies was laid by I.A.M.F.X. Comte, who made a turn from metaphysical speculations on the possibility to change society through influence on its basis to positive scientific control over social processes. The possibility of such turn is caused by comprehension of a sum of social interactions as an integrated wholeness akin to that one of a living organism, in which interrelations of the parts are of vital importance. The vector of development preset by I.A.M.F.X. Comte was prolonged by B.K. Malinowski, who conceived culture as an integrated and homeostatic system with its parts studied only as components of the system, moreover, as functioning ones. That is why the chief object of the investigations carried out by B.K. Malinowski and his disciples was comprehension of mechanism of culture and mechanism of its functioning revealed in functioning of every concrete institution taking its certain place as an object of study at culture studies starting from B.K. Malinowski’s time. Thus, the step on the way of formation methodology of culture studies made by B.K. Malinowski can be fixed as a turn from purely hypothetic construction of theories carried out by bench scientists to direct study of concrete social reality in the field environment. A.R. Radcliff-Braun admitted that the turn in methodology of culture studies made by B.K. Malinowski is productive. In point of fact, he stated and cemented the methodological position on differentiation between hypothetic, or ethnological, and functional, or social and anthropological, approaches to culture. And as far as ethnological method of culture studies is not always effective because of the lack of necessary historical materials, social-and anthropological method is more important according to A.R. – 503 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture Radcliff-Braun, for it is possible to draw general functional laws of existence of culture from phenomena of social life being under direct observation. The topicality of discovery of those general laws lies in application of them in control over non-European communities. Later on, when there was a change of the object of study and when attention was switched over from so-called traditional societies to study of subcultures of the society a researcher was living in, there was no any levelling of topicality of the approach advanced by A.R. Radcliff-Braun, but then discovery of general laws became necessary for harmonious intercourse not between some concrete nations, but between some concrete social strata. L.A. White’s merit is synthesizing of historical and functional methods, which were separately worked out and enriched after methodological turn made by B.K. Malinowski. L.A. White insisted on the necessity of integration of theoretical speculations, hypothetic ideas and facts discovered in field studies. Thus, starting from B.K. Malinowski, the formation of methodology of culture studies passed through analytical period with its point as extension of efficient individual characteristics of each method taken in their particularity; and it was replaced by synthetic period when separate approaches worked out in their particularity were integrated in the only one; its efficiency turned out to be higher than that one of syncretic method, which had been existing in its indivisibility before B.K. Malinowski. 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Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture 15. Marchenko, V.V. Conceptions of individuality in history of socio-philosophical thought: anthropoor sociocentrism? // Povolzhye Postgraduate Bulletin. – 2008. – № 5-6. – P. 50-53. 16. Marx, K. Feuerbach // Selected works in 3 volumes. – Vol. 1. – Moscow, 1970. – P. 3-4. 17. Marx, K. To critique of Hegel’s philosophy of law. – P. 414-415. 18. Nikishenkov, A.A. A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s structural and functional methods. // A.R. RadcliffBraun. Structure and function in the primitive society. Essays and lectures. – Moscow, 2001. – P. 258-303. 19. Oyzermann, T.I. Ambivalence of socialist (communist) Marxist theory. – Philosophical questions. – 2008. – №11. – P. 32-44. 20. Podol, R.Y. Economic determinism in Russian social studies at the beginning of the 20 th century. // Moscow State University Bulletin. «Philosophical science» series. – 2009. – №1. – P. 145153. 21. Podvoyskyi, D.G. Objective and methodological self-determination of a new science of human society: Auguste Comte and his theory // RUFN Bulletin. «Social studies» series. – 2002. – №1. 22. Radcliff-Braun, A. Historical and functional interpretation of culture and practical use of anthropology for control over the aborigines. // The corpus of culture studies. Vol. 1. Interpretation of culture. – St. Petersburg, 1997. – P. 633-635. 23. Radcliff-Braun, A. Methods at ethnology and social anthropology. – The corpus of culture studies. Vol. 1. Interpretation of culture. – St. Petersburg, 1997. – P. 603-632. 24. Radcliff-Braun, A. Method at social anthropology. – Moscow, 2001. – 414 p. 25. Radcliff-Braun, A.R. Structure and Functions in Primitive Society. – Moscow, 2001. – 304 p. 26. Shapinskaya, E.N. Investigations on culture and their place at culture studies (analytical survey) // Individuality. Culture. Society. – 2008. – Issue 1. – P. 206-220. 27. Stepanov, B.E. Teaching methods of culture studies and communicatory potential of culture studies. // Communicatory strategies of culture and human technologies. – St. Petersburg, 2007. – P. 184-231. 28. Stocking, G.W. Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict and Others: Essays on Culture and Personality/ G. W. Stocking. – Wisconsin: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1986. – 266 р. 29. The corpus of culture studies. Vol. 1. Interpretation of culture. – St. Petersburg, 1997. – 728 p. 30. Triandis, H. C. Culture and Social Behavior/ Н.С. Triandis. – NY, 1994. 31. White, L. The energy and evolution of culture.// White, L. Science of culture: selectas. – Moscow, 2004. – P. 388-420. 32. White, L. The evolution of culture. // White, L. Science of culture: selectas. – Moscow, 2004. – 1062 p. 33. White, L. The science of culture: selectas. – Moscow, 2004. – 959 p. 34. White, L. Theory of evolution at cultural anthropology. // The corpus of culture studies. Vol. 1. 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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 507-515 ~~~ УДК 357.1(571.53)(091) Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter of ХХ Centuries (on the Example of Krestovozdvizhenskaya Cossack Village) Yury A. Petrushin* Irkutsk State University, 1 Karl Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 The given article considers the Cossack life style of Irkutsk Cossack Army on the example of Krestovozdvizhenskaya community. The author analyses the educational process in Cossack villages, Cossack day-to-day life and military service. The author presents the main stages of Cossack participation in the Revolution and the Civil war in Siberia. The process of turning Cossacks into peasants is also revealed. The article also contains a brief description of modern state of Cossack villages. Keywords: Cossacks, Cossack life style, Cossack villages, an allotment system, military duties, moral education, Cossack Revolutionary Committee, repression measures. Problem Relevance. In the rich history of Irkutsk region there is an interesting and unique page. It is closely linked to Cossacks history. Cossacks are known to have played an active role in the process of exploring the Angara region. They used the Russian waterways in a proper way. The Oka river, flowing on the territory of Nizhneudinsk district, was the connecting element for developing new lands. Settlers-farmers followed Cossacks. At the beginning of the ХVIII century they became the first inhabitants of Kuytun volost communities: Kuytunskoe, Tulinskoe, Barlukskoe and Khaikhtskoe. By the beginning of the XIX century Cossacks were scattered over towns, factories, transit camps and Russia-Mongolia border territory. Under the regulations of 1st of July, 1822 * 1 they were formed into the Second Irkutsk fifehundredth regiment. With the population number growing and Eastern Siberia exploration developing, Cossacks had more obligations vested by the government. Under the regulations of 4th of January, 1851 an Irkutsk fife-hundredth regiment was transformed into an Irkutsk six-hundredth cavalry. Headquarters of each sotnia were located in more populated Cossack villages. To reinforce a new Cossack regiment there was taken a decision to recruit soldiers from European part of Russia and turn them into Cossacks. Among those were penalized persons. Thus, they came to our region. Some of them were given a land of a Kuytun free land fund. In this place there were Cossacks land allotments at the beginning of 50-s of the XIX century. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 507 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… Besides, Cossacks got a part of ploughed fields. Within this surveyed fields there was established the Krestovozdvizhenskaya Community (land lot 13) comprising of five Cossacks villages. Newly established Cossack settlements were named after famous Russian dukes and holy tides. At first, these settlements belonged to Kimilteyskaya volost (Nizhneudinsk district, Kuytun part of Irkutsk region). Later they became a part of Kuytun volost. Research Task. In the article the task to study the day-to-day life of Cossacks belonged to the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community is posed. Considering day-to-day microhistory advances accumulating new actual knowledge for this subject matter to be scientifically generalized. Methodology of scientific cognition is comparative historical and ideographic methods. Materials. If we look at the pre-revolutionary map of Irkutsk region we’ll find out that Cossack settlements were situated as follows. From West to East toward the Moscow road, Alexander Nevsky village was located in a distance of 181 versts from Nizhneudinsk. Pokrovskaya settlement was established in 3 versts (184 versts from the district), Krestovozdvizhenskaya (188 versts), Petropavlovskaya (189 versts), Preobrazhenskaya (205 versts form the district)1. Cossack settlements were located in the forest places alternated with steps along the Ili banks flowed from the Maloy hills and replenished with non-frozen springs. The Ili flows into the Kimiltey river, which, in its turn, goes to the Oka. The right bank of the Kimiltey was settled by the buryats of Ashekhabat kin of Balagan okrug. Cossack villages bordered on them. To the South there were Prisayanye bogs with no large settlements. To the West there were also available lands. 1 SAIR, Fund 39, Register 1, Doc. 154, List 52. A map according to the data of district police at Irkutsk region Direction and public administration of Irkutsk Cossacks. Geographical and climate conditions disposed to farming and cattle-raising. Vegetables grew ripe. Trapping and fishing were also a great help. Cossacks-settlers had no need in building materials. Taiga provided them with timber of a good quality. Clay and sand were in plenty. Charcoal favoured smithcraft. Old Cossacks estates have been preserved to the current period. If only they were able to speak they would talk a lot of interesting things concerning day-to-day life of the Cossacks. At the end of winter timber mainly form larch was laid in; later it was transported from taiga by horse-drawn vehicles. It was sandpapered, cut up, split on the lath for the houses to be built. Houses usually were of four or five walls with a mud room. Deep cellars were dug under the floor to keep potato, vegetables, salted food, and jams. Stoves were wide for children to make themselves comfortable. Every autumn crops were dried. In stoves bread was baked, tasty cabbage soup, cereals, milk were stewed. Among outbuildings there was a granary, a stable, and a shed. On the backyard there were usually baths. The entire farm was enclosed with a high and strong fence. The village community was engaged in making the places to pasture, a smithy, dug wells. All the structures were built thoroughly. At the same time it was necessary to think of day-to-day life and military service. Cossacks placed a special position within a social structure of the XIX century. On the one hand, they were militants, on the other hand, they were farmers handled many crafts and skills. Land surveying for Kuytun Cossacks (former soldiers) was carried out in conformity with laws being in force. First of all, men were given a land. An allotment could be of lands to farm and inconvenient ones (forest, bushes, swamps lands). For military service men were endowed with 30 dessiatinas (convenient and inconvenient lots) for life. Actually, farming map of 1850-s, – 508 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… when Cossack settlements were formed, was the following. Each male Cossack from Kuytun district was endowed with approximately 1 dessiatina and 588 sazhens of ploughed field, 1 dessiatina and 63 sazhens of hayfield, steppe lands including places of 5 dessiatinas and 328 sazhens to pasture cattle, and 26 dessiatinas and 50 sazhens of forest. Thus, there was the need to develop forest and steppe lands. If any Cossack family managed to cultivate extra forest or swamp parts, this land regardless of its size was granted to this family. A land lot of Cossack’s widows was of 15 dessiatinas, while orphans got a right to 30 dessiatinas. Reserve lands were forest places1. Therefore, Cossacks had to work a lot in order to develop such land parts. In 25-30 years Cossack settlements were made comfortable to live in and there were enough ploughed lands. But some Cossacks especially those lived on the Kimeltey river banks had difficulty developing and managing lands. In this connection, it is interesting to consider the following fact. On the 13th of September, 1880 in the name of Anuchin –a general-governor of Eastern Siberia – there was a petition of aldermen Cossacks Ephim, Andrey and Ermolay Ogloblins living in Nizhneudinsk district, Kimelteyskaya volost, Preobrazhenskaya village. They wrote that the souvereign provided them with 30 dessiatinas to plough for military service in 1845. But their lots were of tundra kind. The Ili river was supposed to have rust and musty waters. It was not possible to use this water especially during wintertime. They reported that they had own families, were engaged in smithcraft, built up houses and estates. They asked authority to grant more convenient lands pointing to infringement of their rights. «We are ordinary dwellers of Siberia. We are oppressed by peasants, who do not allow us to mow grass for horses». Simultaneously 1 SAIR, Fund 41, Register.1, Doc.80, List 147. they complained on the volost clerk of Kimeltey village making abuses. At the end of September 1880 Cossacks got the answer from Bunin, a junior land surveyor. He wrote that there was no opportunity to endow the Ogloblins with a land as it would be necessary to cut the lands of settled native people of Balagansk department at Karymskoe settlement. These arguments were supported by a collegiate councilor Makhov – the head of Cossacks survey land-mark department. Thus, an official refusal in the name of the general-governor provided with arguments was sent. The arguments were that there was no approval of native people to allot and such an allotment system was impossible without the agreement of their community. That contradicted the authority and state intentions to unite Cossack population. «The person who wanted to buy a land lot should write a petition to be turned into a peasant social category». But the Ogloblins demonstrated persistence and had no idea of stepping back. In 1883 they wrote an ordinary petition to Irkutsk region administration but had a refusal again. Zealous dwellers directed the petition in the name of State Property Minister. However, this attempt also failed. Authorities were not intended both to break the compactness of Cossack territory and sharpen the relations with native people. Cossacks were proposed to persuade peasants to change land lots or rent free lands2. Thus, land problem was triggered. This obstacle also resulted from tenseness of free lands when mass resettlement of peasants to Siberia started at the end of the XIX century and at the beginning of the XX century, and a railroad was built up. Close to Cossack villages new settlements of Kunduy, Karazey, Tagan, Amur emerged. Cossacks had to be more occupied with measures to improve fertility, purchase modern agricultural 2 – 509 – SAIR, Fund 41, Register.1, Doc. 65. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… implements, and apply to agronomics. And they managed to succeed. Archive sources help to reproduce the common picture of crop capacity within those years. Cossacks sowed mainly rye and oats. According to figures of 1884 in the farmsteads of Nizhneudinsk district including the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community the crops equaled to 3(5) quarters per a dessiatina. (It is about 8 metric centners per a hectare). Given the climate conditions and weeds, it is considered to be a good result. At the end of the XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries the crops rose up to 8 quarters (12 metric centners per a hectare)1. Cossacks sowed pea, buckwheat, vegetables. They jarred cucumbers and mushrooms for winter. In summer women and children picked strawberry in birch forests, they dried it to make kissel or broth in winter. In taiga and cool places there were bushes of bird cherry trees and currants. The great attention was paid to breading horses. Almost every farmstead had own horses. Horses had a lot of functions to do, as they being the main draught power. The horse was the major Cossack fellow traveler within military service. Cossacks’ children spent time looking after horses. Kids pastured them, led to horse pond, and took part in procuring forage. In 1884-1885 Cossacks of Nizhneudinsk district had 545 horses, 484 heads of cattle, 617 goats and sheep, 186 pigs22. By 1917 according to aldermen memories there were well-to-do Cossacks having tens of horses and cows in villages of our community. The first settlers of Kunduy applied for work at Cossacks farmsteads, bought cattle and horses. Trapping and hunting were a great help. In autumn and winter Cossacks hunted goats and wolves annoying cattle-breeders. In small weirs at watermills they set up large earthenware pots to fish crucians and galyans. 1 2 SAIR, Fund 24, Register 8, Doc.14, List 5. the same In spring the song of birds of passage filled all over. In May the unique songs of crested larks could be heard over the ploughed fields. At the same time at the side of gardens cuckoo clinks were resounded from forest. According to ancient Russian superstitions the cuckoo could predict the life-time. Some people tend to believe in it, while others ignore. Nor did Cossacks realize that through 50 years their stable life would come to an end. Impetuous events would alter their dayto-day life, sow discord and torment to their souls and fates. FROM LIBERTIES TO MILITARY DUTIES. In the memory of the Russian nation, Cossacks are associated with liberty, independence and freedom. That is why, one can say that a Cossack is a free person. However, Cossacks were gradually subordinated to autocracy press losing former freedom traits. With Siberia being explored and economic ties enlarged, the autocracy established the control over Cossacks. Authorities were inclined to think Cossacks to be a point of rest while upholding special relations with this category of citizens. Persons endowed with a Cossack status had to carry out compulsory service and bear all the burdens and privations of this service according to the Military Charter. At the middle of 1850-s village settlers were turned from soldiers into Cossacks in conformity with the regulations adopted on the 1st of July, 1822. The regulations made provisions for young Cossacks at the age of 16 to be called for service. As to service terms there was a provision «Sergeants and ordinary Cossacks should conduct duties in the way it is within other irregular military forces till they are able». Thus, Cossacks were given a hard fate to pass all their active life being in service. There was one more feature concerning Cossack military service. They had to carry out service duties being ahorse and worn own uniform – 510 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… and accoutrement. To feed a horse, forage was given from the community treasury for 7 months. To lay in hay, meadows were allotted. Cossacks could get money for hay from the community treasury. Oats were given only in proportion of 1 peck per a day. The necessary condition was line of duty. Being at home they kept a horse at own costs. New military regulations were adopted on the 4th of January, 1851. Many points concerning military service were not changed but there were introduced some differences. Thus, a service term was modified. Through a certain period of service any Cossack could get a leave for 1 year and return to his settlement to keep house. The overage term of service for officers was 25 years, for ordinary ones – 30 years. In whole, Cossacks spent 25 years for external and 5 years for internal service. Then Cossacks had the right to get a passport. Cossacks should have own uniform, accoutrement and a horse. A norm of provision for horses and bread allowance was increased. The matter was that land lots given to Cossacks were also widened to the size of 30 dessiatinas of ploughed land (in comparison with 15 dessiatinas of convenient lands given before). Officers could count on 60 dessiatinas. The regulations provided our settlers with a number of obligations. Cossacks had to be on the guard within towns and factories to help internal guards, be involved in night mounted patrols in towns, pickets and patrols close to factories and plants, catch runaway people in the place of dislocation. They also should dispatch prisoners in collaboration with inner guards, protect salty lakes, escort state transport, exercise border service as well as service in places determined by the chief staff. The important thing was to draw Cossacks mainly in internal protection service not to any unusual duties. An annual service order was made by a regiment chief under the schedule, according to sequence. Such orders were directed to the villages of the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community. Substitution of sequence was inadmissible. An exception to the rule was allowed only in cases when a father wanted to carry out a military service instead of his son and otherwise, when a brother wanted to serve instead of own brother. But they should be service Cossacks. Out of turn the duty obligations were applied to Cossacks pleaded guilty in the crimes by the Tribunal. Such offences included hard drinking, rudeness and theft. REORGANIZATION of service was determined on the 19th of May, 1871 when new regulations were signed by Alexander II. The Irkutsk Cossacks cavalry was abolished and all villages except ordinary Cossacks and sergeants settlements (enrolled according to the regulations of 1851 from Cossacks of former regiments located in towns and Tunkynsky division of former border army) turned to be controlled by a civil department. What was the impact of the regulations upon dwellers of the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community? Ordinary Cossacks and sergeants with their families enlisted from peasants-settlers to the Irkutsk Cossacks cavalry in 1851 were again given a status of peasants. Moved to Eastern Siberia grass-root soldiers of former garrison battalions, which were granted a Cossack status in 1851 and land, were also turned into peasants. The number of such people was equal to 164 in An-Stanitsa, 145 in Pokrovskaya, 142 in Krestovozdvizhenskaya, 142 in Preobrazhenskaya, 143 in Petropavlovaskaya including children. The total number was 736 persons1. Thus, the preponderance of village dwellers was deprived of a Cossacks status and turned into peasants. In accordance with the regulations of 1871, former Cossacks turned into peasants were granted land lots of 15 dessiatinas 1 – 511 – SAIR, Fund 41, Register. 1, Doc. 80, 81,82, 83, 84,85101. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… per a man. They also reserved the rights to their farmsteads. The regulations prescribed the persons possessing 30-dessiatinas of land with a stable farm (it should be guaranteed by the public judgment) and having cultivated more than 15 dessiatinas to be proposed the extra land of 15-30 dessiatinas. Authorities did not stint Cossacks turned into peasants. The Russian state was interested in fortifying and settling Siberian territory of reliable citizens, which would be the strategic basis within the East direction. One more innovation should be noted. In five moment of marriage. Widows were supposed to receive 15 dessiatinas, girls-orphans – 7,5 dessiatinas. Those lands were doled out from special land funds of Cossacks. Gradually that fund belittled and the lots of forest and bush were the greater part. That causes discontent among Cossacks and even lawsuits. After the reorganization the term of Cossack military service was determined in the following manner. A field service equaled 15 years, as to domestic one it was 7 years. Cossacks by turns carried out service duties for a year and then they settlements 439 persons of 736 dwellers – former Cossacks turned into peasants – had a record of their service to the time of the regulations (1871). As we found out they were transferred from soldiers to our region. That means they had a long service as soldiers. The long service as soldiers was added to Cossacks service. That is why such people (439 persons) had rights of retired soldiers that let them reserve all the rights to land lots of 30 dessiatinas per every man. Within a Cossacks estate according to the regulations of 1871 there were native Cossacks which were considered to belong to former Irkutsk town regiment even before the regulations of 1871. The overall number of Cossacks and sergeants with young children amounted to 113. Demised land lots of 30 dessiatinas were retained for native Cossacks and aldermen. In the archive it is possible to find out the names of widows and orphans. They were not set adrift. Thus, in Krestovozdvizhenskaya village a Cossack widow Anicya Bakulina lived in 1876. A widow of died Cossack sergeant G.Fedorov lived with children there. At the time of regulations adoption the whole number of widows living in the settlements of that time was equivalent to 40. The number of girls-orphans was 21. According to the regulations of 1871 the widows of ordinary Cossacks and sergeants as well as girls-orphans were granted a land from special lots till the had a privilege to stay at own village no less than for 2 years. Being of 19 years old, all young Cossacks were included in the regular lists. But within a year they were not engaged in the service. They were involved in the initial military trainings. At the age of 21 they were brought to the military service of sotnya for 5 terms. Being at age of 35 they were transferred to domestic service. The age of 42 was the age of resignation. Being at privilege position in the village, Cossacks obeyed civil administration. The privileged Cossacks could be called up for military service only under the Tsar will. The special concern of a young Cossack and his family was purchasing a uniform (an overcoat, a service cap, a horse harness). In February, 1856 to allay the trouble, under the order of Irkutsk Cavalry chief the special store was opened. Village dwellers could buy a uniform and an accoutrement by cash or in credit at the expense of allowances and guarantees of the local community. Under the Order of the regiment chief the impoverished and needy Cossacks could be given free of charge uniform. To this purpose it was necessary to present the petition of the village community signed by the general-governor of the region. Cossacks were armed with sabers and rifles. Officers had private weapons. – 512 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… At service chiefs kept a watchful eye on moral state and clothes of Cossacks. In the cases of violating the service Cossacks sergeants could be reduced to the ranks. A tribunal conducted trials on substantial violations. Offences were considered in civil public places. The Cossacks circle appeared to be the form of education and punishment. MORAL education was carried out by a church before the Revolution. In collaboration with Cossacks chieftains it paid much more attention to keep up Christian beliefs among and Saint Ioann Ustyuzhsky from Ilimsk to the Irkutsk chapel of Cossack sotnya. Our settlers welcomed this event. The majority of population in Russia and Siberia was illiterate. Cossacks took a better position. Even among Cossacks of mentioned villages there were literate people (able to read and write). In accordance to the High Edict of 1851 the school for Cossacks children was opened at the cavalry. The compulsory subjects were the Law, grammar of Russian language, arithmetic (till the rule of three). To teach these subjects, Cossacks. Churches were opened in the places of Cossack settlements. In 1871 there was taken a decision to grant the clergy of parishes at Irkutsk and Eniseysk regiments with 300 dessiatinas of convenient land. This fostered Christian beliefs among state soldiers1. After abolishment of Irkutsk regiment in 1871 and its transforming into sotnya, according to the viewpoint of the military minister in a mutual agreement with the Sinod Chief Procurator and the Finance Ministry, the State Council let the Treasury Ministry grant money to build village churches. At the beginning of the XX century new parishes worked in An-Stanitsa and Krestovozdvizhenskaya villages. Unfortunately, at the middle of 1950-s these parishes were closed and later destroyed. Moreover, within the village administrations there were special icon shelves. In Cossacks houses the necessary things were an icon-lamp, the Bible and the Gospel. Religious and moral norms of life were complied with a great zealousness. In 1904 in accordance with a petition of Irkutsk Cossacks Division chief supported by authority and church, there was a transfer of an ancient Cossack sacred thing of the Sudarium gonfalon (a symbol of Siberia conquering) as well as icons of Kazan Madonna, Saint Varlaam except the Law, literate Cossacks sergeants of a decent morality were enlisted. At the beginning of the ХХ century in An-Stanitsa there was opened a parish school with only one class. In 1913 there were 2 teachers of the Law, 18 boys and 12 girls. In the neighbor school of Krestovozdvizhenskaya village 14 boys and 2 girls studied. Until village schools were built up the peasant children had also attended schools for Cossacks kids. As we noted, Cossacks families paid decent attention to morals. Moral education was linked to virtue deeds and actions. The sense of patriotism, loyalty to the state, zealousness was of a high value. Cossacks chiefs were forced to keep vigilant watch on the ranks behavior and their housekeeping activity. Negligence, misbehavior and drunken state were condemned. Cossacks chieftains were prescribed to check householding activity and farming diligence as often as possible. They were proposed to check Cossacks returned from earnings. While there was an archaic form of punishment humiliating human being dignity. By the beginning of the ХХ century the population of villages increased. By 1900 in An-Stanitsa there were 109 persons, in Krestovozdvizhenskaya – 63, in Preobrazhenskaya – 34 persons belonged to Cossacks. At the same time the whole Nizhneudinsk district was actively being settled. New settler parts emerged in Kuytun volost. A part 1 SAIR, Fund 24, Register 8, Doc.5, L. 63, 64, 65. – 513 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… of migrants was hired by Cossacks. They bought cattle and horses in the villages. Thus, prosperous Cossacks used relatively cheep migrants-peasants hands. The process of interinfluence of cultural heritage as well as Cossacks assimilation took place. During the Russo-Japanese War of 19041905 the significance of Irkutsk Cossacks rose again. The Cossacks sotnya was transformed into a battalion. There were plans to develop and strengthen Cossacks within the territory of the Angara. But the Revolution of 1917 changed the regular march of events including the Cossacks history. The Soviet power abolished social estates. As to Cossacks it meant the cancellation of a former military service and a compulsory settled way of life. The establishment of the Soviet authorities in Kuytun volost brought about changes in the villages life. In spring of 1918 the fire of the civil war broke out in Siberia. The fire induced Cossacks to participate in. Some Cossacks supported a new power others were against Councils. The civil war undermined the united Cossack structure. It turned out to be a great tragedy for people. Under attacks of the Red Army, the White Army, kolchakovtsy, retreated to East toward Irkutsk since autumn of 1919. With the White army several Cossacks left these places. Their way led to the territory of Transbaikalie, Harbin. After that they emigrated. Their traces were lost within the world abyss (this theme is worth exploring). The Soviet authority took root, with the Red Army coming. On the 30th of December, 1919 the First Russian Congress of Working Cossacks was opened in Moscow. The position of new authorities was declared. Cossacks were granted an amnesty. Actually Bolsheviks followed another way. Cossacks are known to have caused suspicion among people in power. According to Congress decisions a new decree of Sovnarcom (the Council of Peoples Commissars) «About Building Soviet Power in Cossack Territories» was adopted on the 25th of March, 1920. Local governing and Cossacks trusted these decisions. In summer of 1920 Nizhneudinsk district revolutionary committee adopted a decision to form the Cossacks revolutionary committee in AnStanitse. Delegates to Congress were elected from each 10th farmstead. The population of all five Cossacks villages equaled to 1234 persons. There was taken a decision to establish an independent Cossack village and inform Nizhneudinsk district Revcom (the Revolutionary Committee). However, the Soviet authority had no intention to vest independence to local Cossacks. The Center position was also changed. Authorities did not let Cossacks institute the Revcom. This could be considered the last attempt of Cossacks to defend its independence and originality1. (8) By winter of 1920 there were held elections to Local Councils in Nizhneudinsk. On the 5th of December, 1920 The First District Congress of Councils was assembled in Nizhneudinsk. It is interesting that one of its participants from Krestovozdvizhenskaya village was a householder I.Vakulin. He was the representative of the middle class owning 8 dessiatinas of ploughed field, 3 horses and 2 cows. The Congress proclaimed reforming district Councils. Thus, the Soviet power strengthened its positions in the region. The former life of Cossack villages went by. During 1920 –1930 Cossacks moved for other places. Collectivization and forming collective farms (kolkhoz) and state farms (sovkhoz) cut up the past and the present of Cossacks left here. Repressive measures taken by the Soviet power of 1930-s resulted in Cossacks moving away. In 1950-1960-s it was possible to meet aged persons in Cossack service caps and Cossacks estate of a good quality. Only three villages of 1 – 514 – SAIR, Fund 467, Register 1, Doc.52, List 2,4 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter… five were preserved. They were renamed. Former Krestovozdvizhenskaya was renamed as the third village. Former Petropavlovskaya became the fifth settlement. Only An-Stanitsa kept its name. They became parts of kolkhozs and sovkhozs located in Kuytun district. At present, there is different form of economy in these places. But the history of these villages has not been forgotten. Cossack history of Kuytun district of Irkutsk region needs grateful researchers. Conclusion. Climate, geographical, geopolitical and social and cultural factors had the decisive influence on forming the image of the Baikal region Cossack life as well as those of the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community taken as a typical object to explore the problem. The reforming of Cossack estate was carried out with respect to mentioned conditions. The first stage of reforms took place at the first half of the XIX century (regulations of 1822 and 1851). The stage was conducted as developing lands ( frontier, i.e. non-violent developing), holding positions and defending new territories of Siberia and Far East. The Cossack population size saw increase in number, their structure evolved along with the military duty tasks. The process of turning peasants, native people, soldiers, including penalized ones, into Cossacks widened. The ban to leave Cossack estate, isolation and subordination to Ministry of Interior had the impact on Cossack life style. The contradictions with the peasant world became stronger. Conservatism of internal life of Cossack image was almost the main their trait. The second stage of reforming Cossack estate occurred during the period of reforms from 1861 till 1917. The stage could be characterized with the contradictory policy conducted by Russian authorities. On the one hand, Cossacks were included into civilized process of modernizing the country and regions, and solving geopolitical tasks within Far East territory. The tendencies to intensify the economical activity as well as to strengthen the unified type of static population (military peasants) were on the rise. On the other hand, the conservation of land market in Siberia hampered the integration processes in the regions, maintained corporative way of Cossack life style and extensive character of their economical activity. Since 1917 a final period of life and activity of Cossacks obtained more independence started. Cossacks turned to be the subject of interest for opposing forces seeking for power. The Soviet authorities did not let the Cossacks institute own autonomy, moreover, the Soviet rule turned the Cossacks into an ordinary class and abolished estates, Cossack villages and settlements. List of Abbreviations SAIR – State Archive of Irkutsk Region References Shuldyakov V. The Fall of Siberian Cossack Army (Moscow: Centrpoligraf, 2004) Vol.1: 19171920, Vol 2: 1920-1922 Sunderland W. Peasant pioneering: Russian peasant settlers describe colonization and the eastern frontier, 1880s-1910s, J. Soc. History. Vol. 34, № 4. (2001), 895 – 922. Witzenrath C. Cossacks and the Russian Empire, 1598-1725: manipulation, rebellion and expansion into Siberia (London: New York, Routledge, 2007). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 516-522 ~~~ УДК 7.096/097 The «TV Stage Discourse» Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity Nataliya V. Suleneva* Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts, 36-a Ordjonikidze st., Chelyabinsk, 454091 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 Hermeneutic-discourse type of art director’s creative activity was analyzed in the article. Examining literature material, the TV stage discourse was shown as visual-symbolic structure of art text on TV within indirect communication with spectator in the format of complete program concept. Keywords: TV stage discourse, TV art program director, indirect communication, audio-visual image. Introduction Investigation of traditions for art text work of directors in theatre, cinema and TV demonstrates a problem that has been appeared within origin definition of author and director presence limits in stage or screen interpretation of art text. While inserting literature text into TV program, translating this text from verbal into audiovisual language, the director offers TV spectator an equivalent of art work expressed by special means of television. Director’s work describes the result of hermeneutically-discursive activity for creative person analyzing literature material and allows to judge professional competence of its creator. As an author of the TV work, TV director is responsible in full for TV text interpretation, therefore in the program all literature material can’t be embraced, represent diversity of heroes, nuances of psychology, vital searching. Classical model of interaction for addresser with audience assumes normative reflection of * 1 work on screen as to orientation on social ideal, which exists in a certain period of history, and simultaneous transformation extra-art reality into art image, as the product of director’s creativity. Especially, word phonation layer turns out to be poetically specified not exhaustively, but roughly and tone by which words and word combinations are pronounced and circumstance concerned with expression of psychological component and functions for the speaker, reveal profound text sense and enable transformation of written text into speech. Certainly, tone designation for phrase sense expression is just approximate and it leaves opened substantial range of acceptable way pronunciation for words and word combinations. However, projecting director’s intention on TV version, the director predicts choice of the performer, who is voicing the text, exposes peculiarity of the sounding speech even at the primary stage of development, nevertheless it is very important. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 516 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity Sounding layer of the work, which is filled with heterogeneous points of incomplete determinacy, supposes communicative aspect entailed with dynamically changing human interrelation. Speech of the performer, who is assigning author’s text, contains purposeful word action with an aim to immerse audience in the author’s world and to carry on the dialog. Communicative principle of text structuring into sounding space of TV program becomes sign-speech combination, which carries value senses for speech culture of addresser. In this case peculiarity of director’s artifacts becomes direct presence of the performer for art act realization. Interpretating text on the basis of permanent «dialog» with hypothetic TV spectator, the director of TV art programs forecasts process of indirect communication with addressee. Projection of spectator’s reaction promotes choosing the key to recode director’s sign text meanings and this operation is simultaneously carried on aimed interpretation action. It is considered, that activity of art program TV director reveals spiritually-esthetic efficiency in the author’s life, his original view of the world, and thereby it makes sense of the whole program peerless. Referring to poetical researches of art texts (N. A. Veselovsky, V. V. Vinogradov, V. Y. Propp, B. V. Tomashevsky and others), we consider, that author’s word perception process by TV director is based on scientific, professional cognition of literature material (according to abstraction as basic stage for future penetration in subject of studying). Materials and methods of research The research is focused on procedure of art text transmutation into sounding word of TV work by the reflection of author’s individual world picture, which is realized into the stage discourse by TV director. Communicative adequacy of TV director’s interpretative actions promotes defining of text objects and choosing «model of communication with spectator» (Pobereznikova, 2004). It is possible to bring the definition «stage discourse» in at this stage of TV director’s work with text. Our aim is not comprehensive critical analysis of stockpiled diversity for definitions of this phenomenon. We are to concentrate our attention just on several definitions that could be fundamental for connotation of the definition «stage discourse». Creating TV screen version of literature material, we are not interested in such denotative meaning of expression, but reading of these meanings, which are implied, nevertheless are kept unexpressed, unvoiced, and are masked as «have already been read». Exactly, in our research we are interested in «unexpressed» of the text, which is shaped according to orientation of TV director to active and dominant direction of TV action – TV communicator, that is sounding author’s text. In modern traditions of domestic and foreign science (N. D. Arutyunova, V. G. Borotko, T. A. Dein Van, M. R. Makarov, E. V. Paducheva, K. F. Sedov, V. N. Stepanov, etc.) discourse is considered as «holistic speech behavior in diversity of its cognitive-communicative functions» (Sedov, 2004, p.7), where speech action is considered as mechanism of interrelationship between people, that is dialogue. According to abovementioned, we are to focus our attention to phenomenological approach as to discourse definition for studying of speech ideation ontogenesis (M. L. Makarov, K. F. Sedov, O. B. Sirotinina, etc.). These researchers interpret discourse as socially significant interrelationship of people, which is accompanied with verbal-sign structure of communication, where expression is organized in unordinary manner. In our opinion, discourse ideation has that artist, who reviews not only the way of deduction, argumentation, – 517 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity but he can also value these arguments. Advanced discourse ideation enables TV director to work over material according to his creative imagination. In the context of our researching it is necessary to analyze application of «discourse» definition in the means of mass information from the psycholinguistic-hermeneutic point of view (A. A. Brudniy, A. A. Zalevskaya, V. N. Stepanov, I. A. Sternin, etc.). In this case, the key-definition becomes «provocative discourse», which «includes communicative expectations of the partner and exceeds them, herewith gives multiple choices to often radical opposite interpretations under its complex semantic structure and realization of indirect communication strategy within single construction» (Stepanov, 2005, p.11). It is considered, that the most important moment of purpose functioning for TV director work as addresser: to advertise psychological condition of the performer- TV communicative person with the aim to determine identical sensation of hypothetic addressee – TV spectator. In the communicative approach discourse is interpreted as verbal communication (K. V. Kiuru, S. V. Menshenina, Yu. V. Tsherbinina, etc.), dialogue, conversation, that is type of dialogical ideation. Reverse virtual reactions, which appear in this case, are saturated emotionally, continuously, strongly and communicative adequate. Special attention deserves the definition «discourse of staging» (O. Ducrot, A. Ubersfeld, P. Pavis, etc.) in stage direction, which comes from linguistic methodology, supposes presence of addresser and addressee and exists in verbal and visual dimension, and so it reflects construction of director’s imagination. As to the abovementioned it is appropriate to use definition «director’s discourse» in the director’s analysis of work for implementation on TV screen. Hereby, we have been studying the stage discourse as one of the aspects for director’s concept projecting art programs, in other words – work with art texts, and in high importance – voicing text by performer. It could be doubtful, whether the definition «stage discourse» and «discourse of staging» are identical. Unconditionally, the stage discourse and discourse of staging have several contact points: they are dialectic by its nature; they are depended on dramatic conflict and means of its settlement; they are dialogically-formed; they lead to text code revealing, that profoundly codified by the author. According to this argumentation, we are going to analyze priory words in these definitions that will enable to separate the abovementioned notions. Sense of the word combination «discourse of staging» tends to the second word: discourse of STAGING, as a noun in the genitive case is the main in word combination according to speech logic law. Correspondently, this word combination reflects creative process of director’s sense origination, includes all diversity of performance creation, reflects specific manner of usage for all theatre’s expressive means. It is possible to affirm, that discourse of staging provokes active unification of word space and nonverbal space of stage. Brining the definition «stage discourse» into our research work, we focus our attention on the word DISCOURSE, and apply this notion not to the whole TV program, but only to director’s analyses of literature text, which is not heard form TV screen, but gradually becomes the «enliven word». In the context of our researching we consider sounding literature text on the TV screen taken in event aspect of the whole program and sounded by the performer as purposeful word action, as connecting component of interaction between hero and TV spectator. It is called «verbalized text» (Kiuru, 2005, p.3) and it is fixed by the TV director parsing art text with an aim to make its sounding TV analogue. – 518 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity The most persuading patterns of the stage discourse creation are such TV forms of programs as literature theatre, solo performance, reading from screen («I was poet on the earth» about poet V. Sokolov, director A. Shuvikov; «More than love» about O. Mendelshtam and O. Vaksel, director T. Malova; «The soul keeps» about poet N. Rubtsov, director D. Chernetsov; «The islands» about Zabolotskiy, author A. Morozov, etc.). The author’s text is represented in full in them, thou speech score of the stage discourse does not always reflect all gorgeousness of literature basis. It takes us to the opinion that author’s texts of literature-dramatic programs are peripheryplaced on television. Unlike philological analysis of art text, dialogue communication with hypothetic spectator is arranged in literature consciousness of literature work (G. V. Artobolevskiy, S. S. Klitin, A. N. Petrova, etc.). It enables to reveal undoubted similarity of the stage discourse with the discourse of staging and the provocative discourse, in which discourse ideation of the addresser possesses performative power and detects on the sphere of his rhetoric, presuppositions and expressions. The most vivid examples are TV programs, in which director’s position reveals not just in author’s biography telling, and also in texts of author. For example, in the program «Orliontana» (State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2006) director V. Tkachev represents verses of D. Andreev as cosmic signs; in the program «Monologue stretching life» (State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2006, director Y. Nazarov) verses of S. Lipkin sound in the ambience of stretched string and appears strain from consciousness that poet’s creativity is so fragile and it could be easily lost by contemporaries; in solo performance «Iron rider» (State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2008, director L. Khmelnitskaya) image of Pushkin’s Peter I is made by M. Kazakov as image of Mephistopheles in «Faust» J. Goethe. Solo model of TV voicing, which is inherent to such programs, owing to discourse character of work with author’s text, likely «destroys» screen limits and foregrounds interaction of TV communicator (performer of literature works) with TV spectator. The director recreates new sounding reality while interacts the text as to future concept of work. This reality embraces potential culture, which is in the text and is implemented in the TV director’s consciousness. In turn, this culture is transformed into new stratum of the speech culture. Hermeneutic adoption of art work space by the TV director, or reading-culture according to definition E. Dubnova, I. Tikhomirova, A. Urban reveals new vector of professional activity. This activity is not informative-stereotyped as to art text; it is creative and assures emotional involvement and veritable freedom of the director’s creativity: assists his interest to speech application of text and determines subjective aspect of performer’s speech. Suggestive factor of television becomes leading factor modeling speech score of the stage discourse by TV director. Viewpoint of TV suggestion depends on role functions of the addressee (spectator) and the addresser (performer), which is programmed by TV director while making the TV work. In this case, method of correlation between the source and the supplier of information, according to our point of view, is made on the basis of transact analysis, which is primordially stipulated by director’s idea of printed word transformation into verbal speech, when it becomes the reason for TV communication. The aim of our researching is not profound and broad investigation of definition «transactive analysis», thou its key-point toward speech score creation is necessary. The choice of Ego-condition of the addressee and Ego-condition of addresser, – 519 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity according to suggestions of American scientist E. Bern, is formed by definition of Ego-conditions, choice of which simplifies direction of speech action by addresser and enables to contact with addressee. In this case the director should focus his attention on transact incentive table of E. Bern (Bern, 1996) for choosing the right «mask» of the performer, voicing literature text, and for the spectator perceiving this incentive with certain response. In researches of R. Schmidt, E. Bern is asserted that Adult «I» is directed on objective assessment of reality, common behavior of communicative participants excels liberated, attentive, interested attitude of addresser to addressee. Studying TV art programs, we noticed, that performer B. Plotnikov presents extracts from literature works in the condition of «Adult» addresser. His deep, even intonation, pauses intended for communicator’s response, whether it is program about N. Rubtsov, or I. Shmelev, and K. Batyushkov, set the ambience of philosophic conversation with communicatively equal partner – TV spectator. The condition «I’m parent», at out point of view, is intrinsic to A. Demidova as the performer of A. Akmatova, O. Bergolts verses cycle (program «Melody of Verse», State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2008). Hers lyrical hero likely gives us its protection, speaks about high morals, and sometimes hers intonations includes element of criticism toward the addressee. According to E. Bern’ theory, addresser in this Ego-condition aspires to leadership, care for the addressee, right to solve any problems independently, and didactively educates communicator. At last, the «I’m child» condition is subjective assessment of situation and addressee, provocation to spontaneous creativity. Favorite of fortune S. Bezrukov is such performer as to S. Esenin verses (program «Melody of Verse», State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2008). S. Bezrukov’s lyrical hero affords frolicsome, rebellious condition, doesn’t care about reaction of audience and tends to impact his mood to the TV spectator immediately. Each Ego-condition of author’s text performer has its own advantages. The director, as the author of program, precisely formulates Ego-condition to his future performers and plans speech score of the stage discourse, which is conformed to arranged transact. So, in future the director is able to control the Ego-condition of addressee. In cases, when the matter is master of speech genres, the director finds the performer with certain manner of chosen works’ implementation. Transactive analysis, according to E. Bern, as «a unit of communication… emerges from annoyance called incentive (I)… and reaction (R) between two appointed Ego-conditions» (E. Bern, 1996, p. 19), could be used in art television direction as external, relative form of supposed communication. Correspondently, creating speech score of the stage discourse, the TV director is able to construct only a part of transact applied to the performer’s «mask» and to predict reaction o hypothetical TV audience upon proposed transact in speech score of the stage discourse. Undoubtedly, trying to achieve total understanding of TV audience, the director projects «parallel transact» working on art text. Certain transact implements factual (contact-set) function of communication, because this ego-condition becomes the source of reaction. The parallel transact hasn’t disagreement in interrelationship between communicators, and so communication is able to be in progress «infinitely». Thus, if the TV director translates incentive (I) of Adult-toAdult Ego-condition, then he expects Adult-toAdult response reaction. That is role identification of communicators has happened and is accepted both by the addressee and the addresser. – 520 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity The director as an artistic elocutionist contacts with literature on the TV screen, and thereby expands opportunities of spectator’s adjoining to literature. Study of human nature as the main aspect of TV performance enlarges space of speech score for the stage discourse at the expense of expansion of spectator’s categories by social, age-specific, sexual and professional factors as well as role distribution upon transact analysis. Constructions of the role interrelations promote «mask» creation of the performer, effective work under art text embodiment, precisely predict interaction with hypothetical TV spectator. So, from communicative viewpoint, it is interesting director’s experience of author’s text reality creation in the program’s cycle of Child broadcasting «Results of Education. Motherland and Fates» (LLC «Actual projects» production, under TV Channel «Culture», State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2007 ). In these programs art text sounds rather emotionally, slightly didactic as Parents try to cultivate love of audience to works of outstanding writers. However, in the program about Belyaev’s family (director M. Katushkin) fragments of works are taken in the form of short citation attracting by mystery and vagueness. So, it makes a perception that limited group of admires are let into writer’s secrets. Such text interpretation, on our point of view, is relied on interaction within Parent-Parent. The program about Nabokov’s fates (director S. Gelver) is flavored by nostalgia of high senses and fine interrelations. Its percept is rather fragile as to mutual understanding of modern people, as if lyric hero gets lost and doesn’t know his own way. We consider that transact Parent-Adult is also assists at performer’s reading work. The story about Tutchev and his relatives (director M. Katushkin) carries on in other key. Poet’s works are iridescent, they don’t puzzle the spectator, and they amuse taking him into wonderland. Considerate communicator (ParentChild transact) leads the spectator through small fragments of works hoping to intrigue and fascinate the audience. The abovementioned models of communication are close by natural interpersonal attitudes, and director’s TV version of these relationships imparts much voluminous scale and strengthens influence toward the audience. Conclusion Thus, the discourse research of literature basis stirs up the director’s imagination, excites interest for literature source, discovers new reading dimensions. We are to underline that the problem of TV verbal analogue creation instead of literature source is the problem that primarily applies to professional reproduction of art text by potential performer creating sense of the whole program. Making speech basis of sounding text in solo model of TV program, the problem of director’s motivation appealing to TV audience, correct distribution of role interrelations between communicators of indirect TV conversation acutely arises. Transact analysis promotes correct consciousness of the own «I» by the performer of director’s concept, and choice of necessary status of communicative partner – spectator. The author of this article innovates the definition «TV stage discourse» on the assumption of research for literature work representation onto screen in art programs. The TV stage discourse is verbally- signed director’s construction of art text possessing hermeneutically-performative strength of expression within indirect communication with spectator in the context of director’s concept creation for art program on television. The director of art program does actively imagine making model of speech score for the TV stage discourse. It is based on – 521 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity rational cognition and sensitive experience. Simultaneously, determined interaction with art text is implemented by constructing the dialogue with potential addressee – spectator. The abovementioned mechanism of the TV stage discourse formation enables the TV director to solve creative problems making speech score for the performer of art work within TV program. References Bern E. Games, in which play people. People, who play games. / E. Bern; translated by editor PhD М. S. Matskovskiy. – SPb.; М.: АСТ «Universitetskaya kniga», 1996, 339 p. Кiuru K.V. Public communication: discourse practices and codes / K. Кiuru, S. V. Меnshenina, Е. N. Peskova, Е. V.Ponomareva, Е. P.Sokolova. -Chelyabinsk: South-Ur. Univ., 2005, 160 p. Pobereznikova E.V. TV communication: interactive communication field / Pobereznikova E.V. – М.: Аspect Press, 2004, 222 p. ISBN 5-7567-0353-5 Sedov K. Discourse and personality: evolution of communicative competence / Sedov K. М.:Labirint., 2004, 320 p. ISBN 5-87604-031-2 Stepanov V. Provocative discourse of mass communication [Electr. Res.]: (Diss. …PhD : 10.01.10. – М.: RGB, 2005). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 523-532 ~~~ УДК 006.12 (471) Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras Natalia A. Kupershtokh* Institute of History SB RAS 8 Academician Nickolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 The article is devoted to academician L.V. Kirenskyi’s (1909-1969) work on organization of the first academic institute in Krasnoyarsk – Institute of Physics, which laid the foundation of development of the system of scientific institutions eventually united in Krasnoyarsk scientific centre (KSC) of SB RAS. Today Krasnoyarsk scientists’ achievements have become known to the whole world, and Krasnoyarsk scientific centre is an integral part of scientific and educational potential not only of the region but also of Russia as a whole. Keywords: Full member of the Academy of Science L.V. Kirenskyi, Institute of Physics, Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of SB RAS, regional scientific centers, scientific institutes, scientific schools. Introduction For the last years, the problem of formation of regional scientific centers has attracted researchers’ attention in the context of identification of general and specific features in their development, attribution of various models of regional centers for the purpose of their effective operation and development, research on cooperation of the centers according to different grounds: capital – region, region – region, etc. At the same time, there is an increase of interest in the founders of academic scientific institutions, who gave some impulse for development of academic science in regions. One of such founders is a full member of the Academy of Science Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi (1909-1969). The scientific community celebrates the centenary of his birthday this year. Owing to L.V. Kirenskyi’s efforts, the first * 1 institute of academic type, that is Institute of Physics, had appeared in Krasnoyarsk in 1956 before adoption of the decree on organization of the first territorial department of the Academy of Science of the USSR in the east part of the country. Academic potential of the region began to increase more actively in Siberian Branch from 1957. Results of investigation L.V. Kirenskyi’s biography is a bright example of whole-hearted devotion to science. Having been born in a small town Amga in Yakutia, he came to Krasnoyarsk in 1940 and headed the chair of physics at Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ Training Institute after he had graduated Moscow State University and postgraduate course at Moscow State University, and after he had defended his thesis. Kirenskyi founded Magnetic laboratory Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 523 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras which was involved in carrying out of the works on military defence at once in 1943. The laboratory was reinforced both by researchers from a local area and by personnel among the evacuated specialists with scientific degree. Postgraduate course was set up in the institute after the war, and its students were engaged in their research work supervised by L.V. Kirenskyi. The results of Magnetic laboratory’s research work started being published in the main scientific journals and reports of All-Soviet Union and regional conferences from the end of 1940s. L.V. Kirenskyi defended his PhD thesis in 1950 and set himself the task of establishment of Institute of Physics and Technology in Krasnoyarsk. At that time, scientific investigations were being carried out in other institutes of higher education in Krasnoyarsk: Medical Institute investigated biophysics and Institute of Wood and Technique Studies dealt with spectroscopy (Chistyakov and others, 1981). Their consolidation within the walls of the academic institute might signify development of many scientific branches. L.V. Kirenskyi raised the question of formation of a branch of the Academy of Science in Krasnoyarsk as far back as 1952. He supposed that Western Siberian (Novosibirsk) and Eastern Siberian (Irkutsk) branches of AS USSR «are concerned with the territorial problems, therefore those don’t and can’t be of any practical help to the development of productive forces of Krasnoyarsk region» (Chistyakov and others, 1981). The scientist’s initiative was supported by the regional authorities, which, owing to their channels, substantiated the necessity of development of the complex of academic institutes. Professor Kirenskyi directed the substantiation of the necessity of formation of the first scientific research institute to the supreme Party authorities and Presidium of AS USSR. The response was negative, but that fact didn’t influence the rates and quality of the performance of the Magnetic laboratory’s collective. By the middle of 1950s, Krasnoyarsk became the third scientific centre of research on physics of magnetic phenomena after Moscow and Sverdlovsk. The collective of specialists in physics and magnetic phenomena was formed owing to Kirenskyi’s efforts. This group became later a base for establishment of the first academic institute1. For the first time, Krasnoyarsk physicists headed by L.V. Kirenskyi took part in the international Conference on magnetism in Moscow in 1956. The conference convinced Kirenskyi of topicality of the subjects worked out by his collective much more, and again it gave a cause to appeal to the Presidium of AS USSR with the request for formation of an academic laboratory unless an institute. At the meeting with academician-secretary of the Department of Physical and Mathematical Sciences M.A. Lavrentyev, Kirenskyi emphasized that the matter is of the official registration of the laboratory of magnetics, which had been existing at the chair of physics of Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ Training Institute for a long time. After Kirenskyi’s report presented for the department’s bureau, its members adopted a resolution on formation of an independent institute, but not an academic laboratory (Chistyakov and others, 1981). However, the realization of the new project wasn’t taken positively by everybody. The opponents, among them were both Moscow and Siberian scientists, were skeptical about the possibility of establishment of the institute, which would be able to carry out fundamental research in the provinces. That attitude was overwhelmed owing to the constant support of full member of the Academy of Science M.A. Lavrentyev, and Presidium of the Academy of Science of the USSR passed 1 – 524 – KRRO. Backlog 2272. List 1. File 1. S. 23. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras a resolution on establishment of Institute of Physics of AS USSR in Krasnoyarsk on the October 12, 1956. One of its first members of staff, a full member of the Academy of Science, I.I. Gitelzon said: «It’s important to note that the institute had been opened half a year earlier than the establishment of Siberian Department of the Academy of Science, and it means that the institute didn’t appear merely on the tide of advancement of science to the east, but it demanded enormous efforts» (Gitelzon, 1999). At first, three laboratories formed its base: physics of magnetic phenomena (L.V. Kirenskyi), biophysics (I.A. Terskov), and molecular spectroscopy (A.V. Korshunov). The laboratory of crystallophysics (K.S. Alexandrov) was established two years later. Those departments determined the institute’s research trend for many years. The first staff of the institute was formed mainly by the graduates of Krasnoyarsk colleges. L.V. Kirenskyi’s former post-graduate students A.M. Rodichev, M.K. Savchenko, D.A. Laptey, I.F. Dyagterev and others came from the Teachers’ Training Institute. When it became known of the institute’s establishment outside Krasnoyarsk, several graduates came from Tomsk, Rostov-on-Don, Moscow, and Leningrad. For example, one of them was Kirill Sergeevich Alexandrov, a graduate of Leningrad Institute of Electrical Engineering and a future full member of the Academy of Science. Having gone down post-graduate course at the Institute of Crystallography, he has connected his scientific life with Krasnoyarsk from 1958. According to the scientist’s recollections, he had some variants for a job after his post-graduate course, but he preferred Institute of Physics rather than something other, because Kirenskyi had promised him an absolute creative freedom (Alexandrov, 1991). In the middle of 1950s, the scientific community of the country was actively discussing the project of full members of AS USSR M.A. Lavrentyev, S.L. Sobolev, and S.A. Christianovich on the necessity of science’s advancement to the east. At the general meeting of the Academy of Science of the USSR held in 1957, the director of Institution of Physics professor L.V. Kirenskyi was recognized as an outstanding expert in magnetism and one of those on whom the leaders of the future regional department of the Academy of Science of the USSR were going to rely in Eastern Siberia. At the conference held in Moscow on the 4th of May, 1957, L.V. Kirenskyi proved the necessity of siting of an academic scientific centre consisting of several institutes and a university in Krasnoyarsk. «Sometimes people say: why should you establish a university in Krasnoyarsk while there is the university nearby in Irkutsk. However, that «nearby» is the same as the distance from Moscow to the Crimea» – he remarked in his speech1. The establishment of Siberian Branch of AS USSR gave hope of active development of scientific potential in Krasnoyarsk region. In 1957, Krasnoyarsk region committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, taking into consideration the perspectives of economic and cultural development of the region, appealed to provide Krasnoyarsk for three scientific-research institutes of Siberian Branch: Nuclear physics, Non-ferrous metals, and Natural compounds. The response of Siberian department’s leaders was reduced to the fact that «it will be very difficult to establish three institutes in Krasnoyarsk simultaneously with 13 institutes in Novosibirsk in the next two or three years»2. Nevertheless, inclusion of Institute of Physics in Siberian department had positive results for the dynamics of its development. The Presidium of SB AS approved a new structure of 1 2 – 525 – Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science: establishment (1957-1961). Document collection. Ed. E.G. Vodichev. Novosibirsk, 2007. P. 47-48, 155. RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 14. S. 31, 33. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras the institute consisting of nine laboratories and determined its scientific fields in 1957: physics of solid body, biophysics, spectroscopy; it also provided development of scientific investigations with supplementary means, enlarged staff of researchers and amount of means for industrial buildings and apartment buildings for research workers1. The academic potential of the city was increased by formation of new scientificresearch institutes. Besides Institute of Physics, there appeared Institute of Wood transferred from Moscow, and there were established laboratories of Novosibirsk of Institutes of Geology, Geophysics, and Economics and organization of industrial production. The regional authorities gave a supplementary ground for industrial buildings and apartment buildings in the Aphontovo Mountain area in 1960. In 1961, the whole number of research workers of the city’s academic institutions was 800 people, among them 15 doctors and over 50 candidates of science2. Institute of Physics had a function of basic institution under Kirenskyi, which made the administrative and economic services of Krasnoyarsk academic complex functionate. In the course of building in the Aphontovo Mountain area, more than once, Kirenskyi had to defend his positions and the reasons of the building’s disposition outside the city. The scientist proved his point of view proceeding from the region’s powerful industrial potential and perspectives of development of science in Krasnoyarsk. He believed that Institute of Physics is only the first sign of the long-term programme on formation of the academic complex in the region, for that reason the disposition of the future scientific-research institute was in need of territorial space. 1 2 RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 14. S. 33-34. RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 87. S. 38. The commission of State Planning Committee and State Building Committee of the USSR working in the end of 1950s pointed at erroneous character of the building’s disposition in the suburban rest zone (Academic town is situated in that place now – N.K.). The municipal authorities thought that the institute’s buildings situated within the city’s precincts would bring to economy of the planned value, and there wouldn’t be any necessity of building the communications. In 1960, P.G. Safronov, the chairman of Krasnoyarsk Executive Committee of the City Soviet, made a complaint to Presidium of Siberian Branch accusing Kirenskyi of «worthless waste» and appealed to take measures restricting his wastefulness3. After some other agreements and arrangements in all the instances, with support of director of the second academic Institute of Wood and Timber A.B. Zhukov, L.V. Kirenskyi managed to prove that the ground selected for the building was the most appropriate place for disposition of the future academic town. More than once Kirenskyi reproached the leaders of SB AS USSR for insufficient support of his initiative and said that «Siberian department is not very active at development of the scientific complex in Krasnoyarsk»4. Two laboratory buildings, a biological station and two apartment buildings for research workers had been built for the institute by the end of 1962. The personnel consisted of over 320 employees including 5 doctors and 13 candidates of science. Training of specialists at post-graduate course began. Investigations of the seven laboratories were carried out on 35 subjects. The institute grew into an important scientific establishment and developed its scientific research in physics of magnetic phenomena, biophysics, molecular and emissive spectroscopy, and crystallophysics. The 3 4 – 526 – KADMHKRC. Backlog 26. List 13. File 12. S. 39-41. KADMHKRC. Backlog 5986. List 1. File 39. S. 40. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras investigations on cosmic biology were of special importance1. In spite of scientific achievements, the institute was put under observation by the Party organs. The Party inspectors, who had checked the collective body’s work, warned that some young research workers of the institute «are arrogant and think themselves to be great theorists being politically indifferent at judgements and solution of problems». The activities of the city scientists’ Club initiated by K.S. Aleksandrov and opened in 1962 was put under suspicion2. The institute’s functioning was checked up by the commission of the Academy of Science headed by corresponding member of AS USSR S.V. Vonsovskyi, which came to conclusion that the institute was a large and efficient scientific organization of research in physics of solid body and biophysics. At the same time, the commission pointed to «insignificance of subject» and lack of the common subject matter in the institute3. Eventually, «insignificance of subject» has turned out to be an advantage for the development of academic science in Krasnoyarsk. The Institute of Physics became «an incubator» of the future scientific-research institute in biophysics, mathematical and chemical specializations. Having taken part in the activities of XXIII congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1964, Kirenskyi, being inspired, returned to Krasnoyarsk, and at his public speech he emphasized that the great tasks taken upon the region had brought to the problem of establishment of a scientific centre put on the agenda, and it «wouldn’t duplicate, but reasonably supplement the program of investigations of Novosibirsk scientific centre» (Chistyakov and others, 1981). He thought it would be possible to organize six new scientific-research institutes, design bureau 3 1 2 RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 87. S. 38. KADMHKRC. Backlog 26. List 35. File 139. S. 81-82. KADMHKRC. Backlog 5986. List 1. File 39. S. 8, 1920. of special biological instrument-making industry, and a university in the nearest years. But those plans were corrected hard in reality. One of Kirenskyi’s schemes was an effort to organize an independent institute on the base of A.V. Korshunov’s department of optics and spectroscopy at Institute of Physics. AS USSR committee on spectroscopy passed an affirmative resolution on that question on May, 1967. But chairman of SB AS USSR academician M.A. Lavrentyev explained to the secretary of regional committee of CPSU A.A. Kokarev in his answer that «the poor quality of the building of Institute of Physics and incredibly prolonged building of the road to Academic town hardly promotes the organization of another institute in Krasnoyarsk»4. The new scientific fields of Institute of Physics were in great need of specialists. The solution of the staff problem took several courses. Owing to the active assistance of professor P.G. Kontorovich, a group of mathematicians came from Sverdlovsk in 1964. The young candidates of science V.M. Busarkin, Y.M. Gorchakov, L.A. Ayzenberg, A.P. Yuzhakov became a main staff of the mathematical laboratories at Institute of Physics and simultaneously took active part in functioning of the branch of Novosibirsk State University in Krasnoyarsk established in 1963 (Chistyakov and others, 1981). Kirenskyi believed that «first of all, a good institute is to have an influx of young forces, and such an influx can be given only by a university»5. The first Krasnoyarsk University as well as the first academic institute appeared in the city owing to Kirenskyi’s consistent policy. The branch of NSU started training specialists in physics of solid body, biophysics, computer science, and computational mathematics. Later on, after reorganization of the branch of NSU into 4 5 – 527 – KADMHKRC. Backlog. 26. List 38. File 55. S. 132-133. RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 87. S. 38. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras Krasnoyarsk State University (1969), new chairs and faculties were established regulating training specialists in theoretical physics, chemistry, and biology. By the end of 1960s, Institute of Physics was multi-field scientific-research institute, where investigations on magnetism, physics of solid body, and biophysics were being carried out almost in twenty laboratories. The recognition of L.V. Kirenskyi’s scientific and organizational merits was his election as a corresponding member (1964) and then as a full member of the among them 212 research workers, including 2 full members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 14 doctors and 96 candidates of science2. The corresponding member and then full member of the Academy of Science of the USSR K.S. Alexandrov, a famous expert in crystallophysics and a founder of a new field, acoustic crystallophysics, was a director of the institute since 19813. He initiated the organization of Special Experimental Design Bureau «Science» for the closer connection of science and production in 1986. K.S. Alexandrov was Academy of Science of the USSR (1968). According to a full member of AS I.I. Gitelzon’s recollections, there was to be a meeting of the chairman of SB AS a full member of the Academy of Science Lavrentyev, the secretary of Krasnoyarsk regional committee of CPSU V.I. Dolgih and director of Institute of Physics academician Kirenskyi they could discuss the problem of organization of Krasnoyarsk scientific centre. The sudden decease of Kirenskyi delayed the solution for many years (Gitelzon, 1999). After Kirenskyi’s decease, the institute was headed by one of his closest associates Ivan Alexandrovich Terskov1. Being a graduate of Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ Training Institute, a frontline soldier, he was one of those who had formed scientific subjects of the first academic institute. I.A. Terskov was elected as a corresponding member of the Academy of Science of the USSR in 1968. Institute of Physics was one of the successful scientific-research institutes, where, besides theoretical investigations, the works on economic contracts were carried out, which considerably filled up the institute’s budget. The annual volume of such works exceeded 1 million roubles in the midst of 1970s. More than 600 employees worked in the institute in 1975, awarded the State Prize for the works on research of new materials and production of new devices on their basis in 1989. Under the direct guidance of the scientist, there was worked out a new approach to description of large families of crystals, including materials of high laser technique and optoelectronics and high-temperature superconductors. Those investigations are being actively developed within the academic and international cooperative system at Institute of Physics with its scientific centres in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Spain, France, and many other countries. The heaviest years of development of Russian science fell upon the time of K.S. Alexandrov’s directorship. One of the most powerful Krasnoyarsk institutes didn’t avoid the loss of potential of personnel in 1990s. The whole number of personnel was reduced approximately twice and there remained only one third of research workers. Concerning the situation in the institute, Alexandrov emphasizes that «the middle group is not very well in the present conditions. In general, the matter is of candidates of science. If their laboratories don’t find several study grant programmes in a year, the scientists draw only regular salary absolutely insufficient 2 1 Terskov Ivan Alexandrovich // Russian Academy of Science. Siberian Branch. Personnel staff. Ed. V.M. Fomin. Novosibirsk: Science, 2007. P. 14-15. 3 – 528 – RRONH. Backlog 5. List 69. File 524. S. 31. Alexandrov Kirill Sergeevich // Russian Academy of Science. Siberian Branch. Personnel staff. Ed. V.M. Fomin. Novosibirsk: Science, 2007. P. 14-15. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras for the living with a family. So there is a necessity of looking for some new ways of their support: by means of lectureship, contracts …» (Alexandrov, 2001). The basic trend of the institute’s fundamental research under Alexandrov was formed as physics of magnetic phenomena and materials, physics of condensed media, and materials of electronic technology. Krasnoyarsk physicists’ research works on structure and phase changes of crystals, study of physical characteristics of new materials and establishment of their connection scientific contacts laid by the first director Kirenskyi and developed under his successors. The traditional partners of Institute of Physics under Alexandrov were national laboratories in the USA, scientific centres in Switzerland, France, Germany, Spain, Poland, Slovenia, Korea, and other countries. The research workers of the institute carried out research works on several projects of federal programs in 2000. Institute of Physics became a leading organization of one of the greatest projects of «Integration» federal program and, with microscopic characteristics of matter, and theoretical physics became widely recognized. The carrying out of fundamental research had experimental base as the unique complex of installations for research of physical characteristics of solid bodies in super-powerful (up to 15 Tesla) stationary and impulsive magnetic fields. The institute was the only scientific centre in Eastern Siberia where the investigations on materials were carried out at helium temperatures. Among applied research works of the second half of 1990s, the results of research on processes of spreading of UHF fields in irregular microstrip resonators of irregular shape turned out to be demanded. They became the base of workingout and setup of the optimal constructions of multilevel devices of UHF electronics, an expert system of projecting of UHF filters with the given characteristics, a set of electromagnetic transducers for UHF diapason and measuring devices based on them. There were also found new principles of magnetic separation of rocks, which allow the components to be effectively separated from the similar magnetic characteristics (Vtyurin, 1998). Having checked the work at Institute of Physics in 2000, the members of Presidium SB RAS noted high scientific level of its fundamental research and applied projects. That high level had been considerably supported by the international together with technical institutes, it took part in establishment of Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of high technologies oriented to training specialists of higher qualification at high materials studies. The institute was headed by full member of RAS Vasilyi Philippovich Shabanov in 20031. Having graduated Omsk Teachers’ Training Institute, he started his work as a trainee at A.V. Korshunov’s laboratory of molecular spectroscopy at Institute of Physics and he became an outstanding specialist in physics of condensed molecular media and a founder of the scientific school on spectroscopy of anisotropic media. A new field of science exploring characteristics of photonic crystals was formed in the institute for the period of 2000-2005 – that is characteristics of structured media with dielectric nature periodically changed in one, two or three dimensions with their characteristic spatial scale of order of optical wavelength. The important results on crystallophysics and physics of photonic crystals were obtained. For the first time, there were synthesized and explored porous ceramics on the base of high-temperature superconductors with foam microstructure. As it turned out, those perspective materials can find their wide use in practice. There has been worked out a high 1 – 529 – Shabanov Vasilyi Philippovich. // The Russian academic of science. Siberian Branch. Personnel staff. Ed. V.M. Fomin. Novosibirsk: Science, 2007. P. 276-277. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras efficient method of producing of fullerenes and their derivatives under laboratory conditions. Fundamental investigations are carried out on powerful experimental base. Many unique experimental installations of a level of the world standards have been set up in the institute. The complex of equipment set used at oscillatory spectroscopy of condensed bodies is applied within the multi-access centre in the institute. Institute of Physics has a cryogenic station supplying KSC SB RAS institutes with liquid helium and nitrogen. The experimental installations have been equipped with modern facilities for the last few years owing to the means provided by Presidium SB RAS. The institute is the only scientific centre in Eastern Siberia where the researches in material science are carried out at helium temperatures. The research works on creating a new stationary magnet up to 30 tesla are being carried out together with Kurchatov’s scientific centre. The research workers activated the work on receiving patents for inventions and making contracts for carrying out of research investigations with different organizations in 2000s. The commission of Presidium SB RAS observed the volume of contracts increased by four times as a positive fact in the activity of Institute of Physics, and that made the share of the brought means be increased almost by half in the institute’s budget in 2005. Institute of Physics has become a frequent initiator of scientific events for the last few years. More than 140 representatives of the leading academic institutes, large institutes of higher education, scientific centres, and Russian, Byelorussian, Kazakhstan and German industrial enterprises took part in the third Russian conference on growth of crystals and silicic films and research on their physical characteristics and structural perfection («Silicon-2006») held in Krasnoyarsk in 2006. The chairman of steering committee a full member of RAS A.L. Aseev noted that Krasnoyarsk had not been selected for the place of holding of such an important forum by chance: there were not only development of works on production of high-technological equipment for obtaining and processing of silicon at the region’s industrial enterprises, but, what is more important, the elaboration of competitive automated systems of measuring of the main parameters of plates of monocrystalline silicon had been carried out by forces of the scientists of Krasnoyarsk scientific centre SB RAS. The traditional trend of the institute’s research works on measuring of parameters of rocks has found its new development: there has been started the exploration of granite massifs in the areas of the supposed disposal of nuclear wastes in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region together with Scientific-research Physical and Technical Institute of Krasnoyarsk State University. There were found out new ecologically pure methods of minerals processing implemented at mining and metallurgical enterprises in Siberia (Churilov, 2006). 16 laboratories and auxiliary scientific subunits were active at Institute of Physics named after L.V. Kirenskyi in 2007. The number of staff was more than 300 employees including 132 research workers, among them two full members of RAS, 29 doctors and 87 candidates of science1. There has been traced a positive dynamics of the personnel’s age characteristics: more than one third of the collective is the part of specialists under 40 years old, and that is the result of successful work of post-graduate course on training young personnel for the institute’s laboratories. Scientific-research institute co-operates with almost all the institutes of higher education 1 ��������������������������������������������������������� Counted according to the data of Staff Office of Presidium of SB RAS. – 530 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras in Krasnoyarsk on training of specialists. The experience on long-term integration of science and institutes of higher education is of a special importance in connection with the establishment of Siberian Federal University. Institute of Physics celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in October, 2006. The works of Krasnoyarsk physics at research on structure and phase changes in crystals, studies on physical characteristics of new materials and determination of their connection with microscopic characteristics of materials, and other fields of scientific knowledge have become recognized worldwide for the last decades. The significance of L.V. Kirenskyi as an organizer and first director was especially accentuated at celebration days of the fiftieth anniversary of Institute of Physics. The institute became the very «cornerstone» that was laid in the base of contemporary Academic town. At first, the organizing status of scientific centre as a branch of SB AS USSR was got by the group of Krasnoyarsk institutes in 1978, and then as Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of SB AS USSR in 1988. Academician L.V. Kirenskyi’s dream has come true. KSC SB RAS consists of five scientific-research institutes at present: Institute of Physics named after L.V. Kirenskyi, Institute of Biophysics, Institute of Computing Modelling, Institute of Wood named after V.N. Sukachyov, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies; Special Experimental Design Bureau «Science»; three international centers; several departments and sectors at Presidium of KSC; regional geo-information centre; regional multi-access centre SB RAS; Central scientific library. KSC takes the fourth place at number of scientific personnel SB RAS (about 2000 employees including 600 research workers) and represents the formed scientific centre of Siberia with its unique scientific research branches. The formation of scientific body in Krasnoyarsk city had many specific features (Kupershtoh, 2006). On the one hand, there appeared a number of institutes only owing to Krasnoyarsk people’s initiative with the support of the local forces and some separate experts who came from other cities (physics and biophysics). On the other hand, a number of institutes were formed owing to the initiative of not only Krasnoyarsk scientists but also those ones from Novosibirsk (Computing modelling, Chemistry and chemical technologies). In this case, at the first stage, the personnel main body was formed by scientific «landings» from Novosibirsk institutes and also by the specialists invited from other cities, which gradually acquired the specialists trained at Krasnoyarsk institutes of higher education. In conclusion, Institute of Wood transferred from Moscow also had its special historical way. Today directors of Krasnoyarsk institutes are graduates of the institutes of higher education in Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Petropavlovsk. The scientific schools of the level of world standards, formed by L.V. Kirenskyi, K.S. Alexandrov, V.Ph. Shabanov, I.A. Terskov, I.I. Gitelzon, A.G. Degermendzhy, A.B. Zhukov, A.S. Isaev, E.A. Vaganov, V.G. Dulov, Y.I. Shokin, V.V. Shaidurov, A.I. Holkin, G.L. Pashkov, and other scientists, have appeared and have been developed in Krasnoyarsk. Resume Today Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of SB RAS including Institute of Physics, with their sources of formation initiated by L.V. Kirenskyi, are being dynamically developed owing to the main principles laid in their base: development of fundamental investigations of the world standards level, appliance of investigations in industry and reinforcement of the regional innovative potential, integration of – 531 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras science and education with the aim of training personnel for the perspective fields of science, education, knowledge-intensive industry, and business. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation (grant No. 07-01-00432). References Alexandrov, K. I appreciate independence most of all. // Science in Siberia, 1991. № 7. Alexandrov, K. We can see where we are to go. // Science in Siberia, 2001. № 2. Chistyakov, N.S., Smolin, R.P. Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi. Moscow: Science edition, 1981. – 168 p. Churilov, S. At peak of achievements. // Science in Siberia, 2006. № 41. Gitelzon, I. 90 years from academician Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi’s birthday. // Science in Siberia, 1999. № 17. Kupershtokh, N.A. Scientific centers of Siberian Branch of RAS. Novosibirsk: «Geo» Academic edition, 2006. – 441 p. Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi. // Ed. V.Ph. Shabanov. Novosibirsk: Publishing House of SB RAS, 2009. – 368 p. Vtyurin, A. At Krasnoyarsk physicists’ place. // Science in Siberia, 1998. № 19. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 533-537 ~~~ УДК 101.9 Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him Olqa A. Karlova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 The article raises the problem of stereotypic understanding of Nickolay Gogol’s works in traditional literature studies, suggests a new approach to the works of the great Russian classic writer in philosophical, cultural and stylistic aspects. Keywords: Gogol’s creativity, romantism of the XIX century, Russian school of naturalism, mysterious fiction of the XIX century, pan-Russian imperial culture of the XVIII-XIX century, public education of the first half of the XVIII-XIX century, religious aspect of the literary classic of the XIX century. Since times of Gogol’s contemporaries discussion of contradictions in his works and life has become, on the one hand, anthological and, on the other hand, extremely theorized. There is a well-known story told by Pushkin about typesetters dropping and mixing the type while they were setting up a play of Gogol’s. The more we read Gogol’s works nowadays the more we feel that like the type-setters literary critics of the XX century dropped and mixed all Gogol’s texts together. N.V. Gogol was, without a shadow of doubt, put on the list of revolutionary liberal-western intelligencia and V.G. Bellinsky thought him to be one of the founders of realism and ‘natural school’. Thus Gogol is presented in anthologies as a satirist and a critic of autocracy and regime. Unfoundedness of this approach to Gogol’s works was vividly revealed by Dostoevsky, Rosanov, Merezhkovsky, Brussov. However, the voice of revolutionary democracy sounded much * 1 louder in Soviet Russia than the voices of those who considered Gogol a philosopher or a great fantast-mystic. At present there appear works of modern Russian scientists such as I. Ilyin, I. Vinogradov, I. Zolotussky, M. Menshikov and others who are discovering an unknown Gogol for us. After his second publication in 1831-32 – a short story collection «Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka» – Gogol was recognized as a leading literary man in Russia. The Russian public was struck by the inimitableness and originality of «Evenings» due to which the book gained its reputation of a bright literary phenomenon having no analogies. But in the letter of April 20, 1829 Gogol lamented to the mother «Everyone here is amused by anything Malorossian…» Thus Gogol himself defined the first error of his contemporaries – treating Gogol’s works as popular ethnographical stories. However, Gogol’s Ukrainophilism was not «a thing never heard Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 533 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him of». Actually it developed the world’s tradition of romanticism, so, not for nothing Ukraine was called Ancient Rome of Slavonic Peoples in N. Nadezhdin’s review. On discussing «Evenings» the second error was articulated – a stereotypic idea or Gogol’s early works uniting Russian and Ukrainian culture together and his late works belonging purely to Russian culture. This stereotype considerably distorts the cultural background of Gogol’s epoch and completely ignores the question of so-called «Pan-Russian» culture. New universal imperial culture of Russia was built up by the authorities as state culture on the analogy of Byzantine and ancient Roman cultures. In the second half of the XVII century Ukrainian (in other words, Ukrainian-Byelorussian, or south-western Russian) culture was chosen the basis of the new culture. Its priority recognized by the official authorities was explained by two facts – firstly, it was highly developed and, secondly, up to 1686 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church was under jurisdiction of Patriarch of Constantinople, thus the Moscow kingdom was symbolically connected to historical Byzantium through Ukraine. One can come across a great number of images of «Pan-Russian» political conscience in Gogol’s works: «Russian land» for which Kazaks die, «Russ – a bird-troika» in «Dead Souls» and «Russia» in «Selected Passages». Cultural-philosophical significance of these images is not in the description of matters of everyday life or the usage of folklore but in Gogol’s attempt to build up the great national «Pan-Russian» utopia. The author of «Evenings» was undoubtedly attributed to the few with a comical talent. The success of the literary work was explained by the author’s joviality and the brightness of the national colouring, whereas such definitely romantic features as tensity, dramatic effects, conflict, a sense of concealed tension that make the work adequate to the high standards of the world’s romantic literature were just mentioned, but, as a matter of fact, those were the features that defined Gogol’s style and the dramatic colouring of his laughter. During all his creative period Gogol stuck to the style that could be defined as philosophical mythosymbolism sprinkled with logics of wonder and compatibility of mismatches, grotesque, hyperbole and paradoxes of values. Exactly here, in the third circle of misunderstandings lies the source of the three Gogols – the Gogol of «Evenings» (1832), the Gogol of «Dead Souls» (1842), the Gogol of «Selected Passages from Correspondence with his Friends» (1847). To understand the essence of Gogol’s position it is necessary to learn about the events taking place in 1832, when in Russia there were declared the principles of Orthodoxy, Autocracy and National character. The person who announced them was S.S. Uvarov. Gogol became one of his first employees. Gogol’s «Curriculum of History of World’s Civilizations» was published in the second issue of the journal. He wrote, «My aim is to educate the hearts of young students…so that… they couldn’t betray their duty, their Belief, their noble honour and their oath to be devoted to the Motherland and the Sovereign» (note: the quotation is translated by the author of the article). The fourth misunderstanding of Gogol is the denial to admit that these words reveal not only the core of the educational activity of the writer but also the ideology of his works. «Taras Bulba» and later «The Inspector-General» and «Dead Souls» raised the question of fruit of Western debauchery flourishing on Russian ground, to fight which the Programme of Orthodoxy, Autocracy and National character was worked out. Gogol intended to make his comedy «The Inspector-General» a deep moral-philosophical work. The symbolic meaning of the play was revealed in «The Denouement of «The Inspector- – 534 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him General»»: «Needless to say, the Inspector to fear mostly is awaiting us after death. Can’t you guess who he is? Why pretend? The Inspector-General is our awakened conscience that will make us suddenly stare at ourselves» (note: the quotation is translated by the author of the article). Since the autumn of 1835 Gogol is busy with writing of «Dead Souls». That was the only literary work that Gogol thought to be worthy of recognition by the world’s literature. He considered the correlation between «Dead Souls» and the rest of his works to be the same as between «Don Quixote» and the other novels by the great Spaniard. The dramatic collision in «The Inspector-General» is replaced by the epic one in «Dead Souls». Later Gogol will say that the work is finished if there is not only a thing to laugh at. Gogol refused from the genre of novel that he first wanted to follow and switched over to the epic poem where he could feel free to practice dialectics of different approaches and create the peculiar uniqueness of the work. The poem, which presents a consequence of satirical characters and situations on the surface, was to show a way to raise the fallen soul. At the beginning of June in 1842, right after the publication of the first volume of «Dead Souls», Gogol went abroad and took to reading religious books. In «The Author’s Confession» Gogol wrote about that period of his life: «I put aside my studies of everything contemporary for a time, I concentrated on those eternal laws that Man and the humanity follow. Anything that dealt with the studies of people and the human soul drew my attention, and following this road without any sense, hardly knowing how, I managed to come to Christ, in Him seeing the key to the human soul» (note: the quotation is translated by the author of the article). He cannot think of writing the continuation of the poem without preliminary upbringing of his own soul. In summer in 1845 he wrote a testament that later was contributed to «Selected Passages from Correspondence with his Friends» and he burnt the second volume of the poem. The death-disease, the mystery of the burnt manuscript and Christian decease resulted in one more misunderstanding of Gogol and a number of paraliterary and even medical hypotheses. However, the key to the understanding – the religious core of his personality – is still closed to us, as I.A. Ilyin stated, the main reason of this being our absolute ignorance of the problems that were actual for Gogol. His creative activity is still interpreted in social terms only. It is necessary to take into consideration that ascetic aspirations and monastic ideal of late Gogol are not completely religious by nature but civic as well. He considered the rank of monk the highest of all and dreamed of wearing a plain black chasuble and regretted that one couldn’t do it without God’s summons. Calling Russia a cloister, he urged everyone to put on an imaginary chasuble and, having done away with selves, to serve Motherland. Today it is a great time to look right into the essence of misunderstandings of the writer’s personality and his creativity. In particular, the grossest is the literary stereotype of Gogol being «the founder of Russian prose». If this be true, any poet of Gogol’s time could be announced a founder of prose in Moliere’s definition, i.e. anything that is not a poem. Let’s think what kind of prose is meant here. In the introduction to the poetic novel «Eugene Onegin» by Pushkin: «My uncle – high ideals inspire him; but when past joking he fell sick, he really forced one to admire him – and never played a shrewder trick.» (1) there is more prose by far than in so-called prosaic lines of Gogol’s: «The farther they penetrated the steppe, the more beautiful it became. Then all the – 535 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him South, all that region which now constitutes New Russia, even as far as the Black Sea, was a green, virgin wilderness. No plough had ever passed over the immeasurable waves of wild growth; horses alone, hidden in it as in a forest, trod it down. Nothing in nature could be finer. The whole surface resembled a golden-green ocean, upon which were sprinkled millions of different flowers. Through the tall, slender stems of the grass peeped light-blue, dark-blue, and lilac star-thistles; the yellow broom thrust up its pyramidal head; the parasol-shaped white flower of the false flax shimmered on high. A wheatear, brought God knows whence, was filling out to ripening. Amongst the roots of this luxuriant vegetation ran partridges withutstretched necks. The air was filled with the notes of a thousand different birds. On high hovered the hawks, their wings outspread, and their eyes fixed intently on the grass. The cries of a flock of wild ducks, ascending from one side, were echoed from God knows what distant lake. From the grass arose, with measured sweep, a gull, and skimmed wantonly through blue waves of air. And now she has vanished on high, and appears only as a black dot: now she has turned her wings, and shines in the sunlight. Oh, steppes, how beautiful you are!» (2) Is the plain, though pleasant, landscape of Malorossia is actually being described in this passage? What realistic prose do we come across in this fantastically romantic and utterly poetic description? Gogol certainly worked much collecting material for his works. But his formidable pen transfigured the collected material so much that it became hard to recognize, one side being exaggerated to become «dazzlingly beautiful» or to present «the excess of meanness». As Rosanov said, reality changed in Gogol’s works like the sorcerer starting his practice in «A Terrible Vengeance»: «The nose protruded and hung over the lips, the mouth spread to the ears in no minute, out of the mouth a tooth sprang» (note: the quotation is translated by the author of the article). Could Gogol know Russian people as much as Guilarovsky knew back streets, small shops and taverns of Moscow? Probably he didn’t, but in his world of dreams and fantasy he managed to learn about us something that is still working to make a projection of Russian reality, today’s reality, the reality of the third millennium, while the literary works of the «natural school» of the XIX century describing everyday life were sent to the cultural archives long ago. The national character of Gogol’s works is completely different from that one which was fought for by his revolutionary democratic contemporaries. Folklore provided Gogol’s work’s with the mytho-symbolical basis where the routine life is not separated from fantasies and dialectics of what is possible or impossible is not questioned. While writing of the national character Gogol consistently presents ideals of the people. Chichikov’s travels in Hades of Russian life were more successfully described by Gogol than its Purgatory or hypothetical Paradise. Why so? Like Servantes Gogol vividly felt the difference between the norm, which is centered in cultures of most European countries, and the ideal. The denominator of the novel «Don Quixote» – the latter being very important for Gogol – was the great national ideal, through which a person looks at the world and with which he measures everything. Every minor thing depicted in the novel is to the ideal as the numerator is to the denominator. This fraction presents the great philosophical scale of the narration, provides the range necessary for grotesque, the ground and justification of mystical searches for God in the soul and the world. The relation between Gogol’s and Servantes’ creativity has not yet been studied, since the tradition to consider Gogol to – 536 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him be a philosopher has not been established in the national literary school. The middle-aged generation is still under the influence of ideological simplification, delusive easiness and understandability of Gogol’s literary inheritance. Besides these clear stereotypes of readers there is one more course of «beating about Gogol» – the stereotypic public opinion tending to condemn something and to worship oppositions. We think the truth is being born in argument, when everybody argue themselves hoarse, but not as a result of a long spiritual way of doubt and discoveries. When asked what he drew his inspiration from, Gogol answered: «From smoke. I write and burn.» The author’s dissatisfaction with his work certainly proves his endless spiritual searches. N.V. Berg witnesses that Gogol once said, «Only after the eighth rewriting, obligatory with your own hand, the work becomes artistically finished». Perhaps thanks to this Gogol, the loneliest of all geniuses of the great epoch of romantic Solitude, was so fruitful in discoveries of style and genre, could survive Pushkin and Lermontov in a sense of creativity, giving a push to Dostoevsky, Goncharov, Saltykov-Shchadrin, Nabokov, Bulgakov, Zoshchenko. All things considered, one must admit that Gogol’s contradictions were resulted from the public’s misunderstandings of the writer’s position and his works. Those were not Gogol’s contradictions but contradictions in understanding him. He himself would highlight the integrity of his life and inner world. In «The Author’s Confession» Gogol wrote: «I’ve never deviated from my way. I’ve been following the same way…and have come to Him Who Is The Source Of Life» (note: the quotation is translated by the author of the article). The same ideas are found in his letter to S.T. Aksakov (May 16,1844) in which Gogol said that inwardly he had never changed his main grounds, always followed «the same road», «never hesitated or doubted his main ideas», «probably since the age of 12». The writer’s works that were written in tortures of creation and that have so many editions are worth reading and re-reading again. References 1. A.S.Pushkin. Eugene Onegin (tr.Ch.Johnston). Penguin Books Ltd, Hannondsworth, Middlesex, England. Published with minor revisions and an Introduction in Penguin Classics 1979. 2. Project Gutenberg's Taras Bulba and Other Tales, by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol // www.gutenberg. org Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 538-548 ~~~ УДК 340 (09) (4|9) The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia in the Publications of Western European and American Historians (a review article) Irina P. Pavlova* Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University 90 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 In the article in the way of common analysis they observe the works of European and American historians-lawyers, dedicated to the Old Russian (pre-Petrine) law (over 60 works). The process of recognition of the Old Russian (Russian) law features had already begun by the Europeans-travelers, and then was continued by scientists-foreigners, who worked in Russia in XVIII-XIX centuries. Author comes to conclusion that the process of scientific mastering of the law and legal procedure history, begun in XX century, was developing steadily, but depended on current political and historical situation, translations and publications of the Russian law relics. Important role of the calling interest to the problem was played by Russian historians-emigrants. The historiography development was going at the line of researching basic specific categories, particular plots of the marking common problems out. To begin with 1980s researching of the Russian law became rather intensive. The articles of those problems was regularly printed in the main journals about questions of the eastEuropean history, appeared monographs. The most actively are used the problems of the state history, anticriminal legislation, court organization, possessions development, serfdom. Author expresses wish that the article materials will help Russian researchers to learn and use the experience of the foreign colleagues more actively. Keywords: history of law, court, Pre-Petrine Russia, foreign historiography Point. The law formation in Russia from medieval times until the last reforms of the legal system at the beginning of the 21st century attracted the attention of historians from the United States, Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy and other countries. Russian researchers of the law history of Russia too rarely take into consideration these foreign sources. However some outside viewpoints allow us to imagine some processes of our own law history development more fully. This requires a comparative approach. * 1 This article attempts to define the main periods and directions in the western historian’s researches on problems of Old Russian law regulation history (before 1700). Example. The first foreign traveler’s notes with first descriptions of Russian law regulation and thoughts of Russian judicial practice appeared in the 16th century. The most substantial notes on juridical matters were notes written by Sigismund von Herberstein, Gilles Fletcher, an unknown author signed by «J.F», Adam Olearius, Jacques Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 538 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… Margeret and others. Some analyses of such notes and recollections were undertaken in the articles of William E. Butler, State University Professor Emeritus of Comparative Law in the University of London and Gabriele Scheidegger, a Swiss researcher (Butler, 1996; Scheidegger, 2003). The authors of these articles judged contemporary witnesses of the Russian system of law and legal proceeding formation somewhat variably. The remarks of foreigners mostly showed their seemingly superior attitude to the barbarian character of the legal customs in Russia. It were some historians from Western Europe working at Russian universities and the Russian Academy of Sciences in the 18th and 19th centuries who first got interested in the history of Russian legislation. In his «Discourse sur l’origine et les changements des lois russiennes» Strube de Piermont supposed the law of the Rus’ was founded on Scandinavian law (Юшков, 2005: 356). Johann Philipp Gustav Ewers, a professor of Dorpat University asserted a common origin of the Russian and Scandinavian law by which he meant the German law (Evers, 1826). These were the pioneering publications in the German language. In the mid-19th century (1843–1844) substantial materials on Old Russia judicatory were published under the editorship of E. von Tobien also at the Dorpat University (von Tobien, 1846). First scientific publications on Russian law history in Germany appeared at the close of the 19th century. An article on Russian law history by M.F. Vladimirsky-Budanov was first published in 1900 followed by the articles on Old Russian law history and pre-Mongol Rus’ church jurisdiction by Leopold Carl Goetz, a professor of Hamburg University (Goetz, 1912, 1913). The «Russkaya pravda» translated by Goetz himself became the main basis for his papers mentioned above. The medieval German-Russian trade agreements were attractive for Goetz as a researcher. He detailed the dating of some of the agreements (Goetz, 1916). His last article was published just at the height of World War I. Interest of western researchers to Russian law history during the 20th century was fluctuating. Judging from scientific publications chronology this interest was linked with the cardinal political changes in our country (e.g. the October revolution, perestroika), with a more active role of the USSR in the international sphere (post-World War II period) and others. Evidently the publications of the Russian legal documents in foreign languages had significant influence on the research intensity of western historians too. For example, Karl Fritzler’s publications on Old Russian law appeared after World War I. The first part of his studies was dedicated to the Church Statutes issued by Kievan Prince Yaroslav known as Yaroslav Mudryi (the Wise). Fritzler identified them as the Russian-German law documents. The second part of Fritzler’s studies was dedicated to the princely succession (knyazheskoe pravo) in Old Russia (Fritzler, 1923). His papers are interesting by comparing the law of medieval Rus’ with German, Byzantine and Scandinavian law. Some acts of legislation were included in the appendixes to the papers. After World War II the studies of Russian emigré historians who worked at West-European and American Universities were influential to attract western historians to the field of Russian law formation. An article in German by Victor Leontovitsch was published in 1947. It was dedicated to the law and ideology of the period of Ivan the Terrible. Leontovitsch suggested the idea of a law upheaval which happened at the times of the first Russian Tsar. This upheaval was the appearance of the subjective law beginning from the times of Ivan the Terrible instead of the common law and old customs of pre-Ivan IV law basis. The Tsar himself became the legal authority of this law (Leontovitsch, 1947: 8–9, – 539 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… 22). The same year Georgy Vernadsky in the USA attracted significant interest to the matter of Russian juridical legal documents (Vernadsky, 1947). Studies of the emigré historians continued the research guidelines of the famous prerevolution Russian juridical historians. These authors explained their point of view at some important events in medieval Russian history so their studies were also an intermediary basis for the analysis of the law development in Russia. The intention of the historians to present the law history of their motherland vividly was occasionally the reason of some critical concept appearance, e.g., the term of «the law revolution», etc. Intense interest of the western historians to the USSR had given new publications on Russian law history. Lothar Schulz, a professor of the University of Goettingen had published a review of the full Russian law history from the very beginning to the present (Schulz, 1951). Schulz specified Russian law history as a young science. He had written his book in a traditional neutral reference approach. His estimations of Russian justice did not differ substantially from those of the text-books for the Soviet Higher School level. At the 1950s and into the 1970s the law historians had given attention to the process of the development of the concrete and specific for Russia legal notions and events. These analyses of literature and legal documents may be considered as attempts of abstraction of the development tendencies of the legal customs and the legal changing in the Russian law. The publications of V.I. Sergeevich, a Russian law classic historian, were reprinted in Holland in 1967: «Lectures to the Russian Law History» (1883) and «Russian Law Antiquity». The digest of the papers on medieval Russian law translated into English by G.V.Vernadsky (Vernadsky, 1965) was published in New York. The «Russkaya pravda» code was also translated into English. In 1963 it was translated into French by M. Sheftel. The western historians studied other Russian historical legal documents too. P.L. Žužek had published his article of the «Kormchaya kniga» and the text of the document (Žužek, 1964). Ann Kleimola from the University of Nebraska used Russian legal documents of 15th – 16thcenturies and the «Zakon Sudnyj Lyudem» for her researches (Kleimola, 1975, 1976). William Butler edited the Catalog on Russian and Soviet law (Butler, 1976). Since that the articles on matters of the law history were published in magazines and periodicals regularly. These were: «CanadianAmerican Slavic Studies», «The Russian Review», «Russian History», «Oxford Slavonic Papers», «Readings in Russian History», «Zeitschrift für osteuropäische Geschichte», «Jahrbücher für Geschiche Osteuropas» and others. Horace W. Dewey, the University of Michigan, wrote the article series on the 1497 Sudebnik and the 1550 Sudebnik subjects. Dewey described the meaning of some important notions for the Muscovy: «pravezh» (collection of arrears), «yabenichestvo» («sneakage»), «beschestie» (dishonor) (Dewey, 1966-1967; 1968). On his point of view the analyzed items reflected two historical events: the growing of influence of the Russian State and the traditional legal conception of different groups of the Russian society. Horace W. Dewey and Ann Kleimola studied the «krestnoe celovanye» practice («Old Russian Cross-kissing») in the judicial proceedings and political life of Muscovy (Dewey and Kleimola, 1968). Osvald Backus, an American historian, (the University of Kansas) described the legal notions changes and the growing of the feudal departure into treachery persecuted by criminal law (Backus, 1962; 1970; 1972). In the discussions on Muscovian administration activity or peasant exploitation some historians wrote about arbitrariness and despotic character of the rules in Muscovy. H. – 540 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… Dewey and A. Kleimola inquired into a question of the financial supply guarantees from those persons, who didn’t want to pay the taxes. The authors considered the «pravezh» as a one of the ways to get taxes. This method to wring taxes out was used actively by the bribable chiefs, petitioner innocents, lawyers and priests. In the authors’ opinion the «pravezh» was a kind of a public theatre and at the same time it might often be an unlawful practice used by the State and the feudal lords (Dewey and Kleimola, 1975: 167). Scott Seregny (a professor of the Russian history of) Indiana University), studied the practice of the court production in the terms of the rights and duties of a defaulter. He pointed out the rise of Muscovy needed in an effective lawful administration that could act on behalf of the monarch. The nedelschiks were the first representatives of the regime in the courts, as key figures of the Muscovite government. They had become the main clerks for political and social control of the Muscovy’s central administration. And such a system was reliable enough (Seregny, 1975). Jack Culpepper (Columbia University) studied the forming of legislation of the serfage. It is one of the main themes of the law history of the Muscovite State social relations (Culpepper, 1969). Thus the historiography of Russian law history of the 1950s-and into the 1970s may be considered as a period of study of its terms and the most significant social and legal phenomena. Then historians marked out the main questions and characteristics of significant periods in Rus’ and Russia State history and law history. Thesaurus on the history of the political institutes of the Russian State in 11th – 13th centuries was published in France (Eeckaute, 1986). In the 1980s Daniel Kaiser actively studied Old Russian law (Grinnell-college, Iowa). He became the author of the first individual study on the Medieval Russian law (Kaiser, 1980). He viewed the problem of the development of the concept of crimes and punishments in Kievan Rus’. D. Kaiser considered the Orthodox Church and the Prince attitude to the wergild collection and to the death penalty. He showed that the custom of revenge didn’t concede for a long time (Kaiser, 1980: 285). The author also showed the wergild was applied until the 16th century as a kind of almost regular payment to the Prince. In 1992 under the editorship of Kaiser a pool of the early legal documents of Old Russia was published («Russkaya pravda», sudnye gramoty of Novgorod and Pskov, the charters of the Prince for the church, the agreement between Novgorod Republic and Tver’ and other). Although the disputable translation of many concepts was a subject to criticism (Poppe, 1995: 565), the edition significance was large. The origin and development of the concept of property as scientific problems are very interesting for the law historians. And it is relevant until now in connection with uncultivated feeling for law and order just in the property area of the Russians. Carsten Goehrke (the University of Zurich) described and analyzed the legal order of the organization of the land and landed property usage (Goehrke, 1987). Richard Pipes in his article «Was there Private Property in Muscovite Russia?» also in other his universal historical studies denied the concept of private property in Muscovy because of the right of the Tsar to confiscate all property of a person (Pipes, 1994). George Weickhardt (a professional lawyer, San Francisco, the author of many publications on Russian law history) didn’t support this idea. He thinks the Tsar had the right on confiscation if the force of the law had arisen in consequence of charge of treason. But private property existed de facto. The court ruling showed its predictable character and constancy regarding the property aspects (Weickhardt, 1993). Nancy Kollmann, a professor of Stanford University noted this discussion in her translated into Russian book on – 541 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… society and state in Russia of early modern time (the 16th – the 17th century) (Kollmann, 2001: 41). A researcher of the questions of ownership controversies between noblemen being in the neighborhood, Nancy Kollmann, studied the questions of honor and dishonor («chest’ and beschestie») in Muscovite Russia (Kollmann, 1992). It is the author opinion that the contest «chest’» and its ensuring were the last means to achieve the social legal «uniformity». The contest of honor («cest’») was very complicated. Wounded honor could play its important role in admission of the crime behavior of a man. For good reason the historians placed high emphasis on the Sobornoe Ulozhenie. In his monograph devoted to the Ulozhenie, Arkady G. Mankoff says about differences in accentuation at analyses of the legal document in the end of the 1960s and into the beginning of the 1970s. On his opinion Danuta Cherskaya (Poland) being guided by the Soviet sources gave attention to the feudal landed property and social-economic processes of that time, while V. Glotzner (FRG) depended on pre-Soviet historiography had performed a «formal juridical» examination of the criminal terminology (Man’kov: 2003, 16). In our opinion, however, the «class» alternative versions were only the aspects in the law history selected by the historians. We suppose both of these aspects were important. The Ulozhenie was translated into German and published in 1985 (Das Sobornoe Uloženie, 1985). There were elaborated some legal subjects in terms on this document. Hans Hecker depending on the «war» chapters of the Ulozhenie described the legal basis of ransom of the prisoners of war. There was no real war law in the Ulozhenie as he thought, but some single assets reflected the interests of the definite population groups including the prisoners of war. (Hecker, 1986: 156. In the 1988–1989s Richard Halley translated the Ulozhenie into English. The version of the Ulozhenie from the Complete Code of laws was published as a paginal translation with some short comments1. The choice of such a variant of the text from the Complete Code of laws by Halley was put in doubt by historians (Schmidt, 1995: 567). But Halley had prepared detailed comments to the Ulozhenie and they were edited in different magazines («Russian History», «CanadianAmerican Slavic Studies»). Defining the law and government in Russia in the mid – 17th century the editor says of the slavery of people and the hypertrophied government. However he notes the high level of legality in Muscovy. The rules of the laws were clear and non-contradictory, the laws had been published and widely available. In Post-Perestroika times western historians have been active participant of scientific conferences together with Russian historians. The papers of the western scientists have been translated into Russian and published in joint collections. Since the 1990s Russian law history study has been bringing up to a new level. Bibliographic papers, detailed articles of conceptual character, and above all, monographs are edited against a background of more availability of foreign researcher’s publications. So, it means a new cycle of law history science development. Foreign scientists study problems of fundamental character and the issues that can deeply characterize the government-law-society relations. Daniel Kaiser considers some aspects of meddling of the government into private lives and the treaties of marriage of pre-Petrine period (Kaiser, 2001; Kaiser, 2003). He shows the government counteractions in cases of a patriarchal family cruelty in the courts ruling in the 16th – 17th centuries. He notes the Russian family of the early modern period wasn’t an exception at the overview of a European family. A historian from Birmingham University Morin Patricia Perrie explores corruption and the – 542 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… ways of struggle with corruption in the light of people monarchism in the Muscovite reign. By the concrete examples of cases she reveals that the faith in an equitable Tsar was founded on different and sometimes cruel methods of the fight with bribes (Perrie, 2000). George Weickhardt raised a problem of correlation of two different events of the Sobornoe Ulozhenie and in other laws of Muscovy. He meant a tendency to develop the research formal process and its usage not only in the crime process but also in the civil process as well as the declaration of the principle of equality of law for everybody. He concluded that the western and the Soviet historians were mistaken on especial authoritarianity and the class nature of the Ulozhenie. In many respects their estimates were founded on the descriptions of travelers and diplomats mentioned above. He supported the opinion of the pre-revolutionary Russian historians that the law in Russia since the Sudebnik of 1497 had been developing as a variant of realization of the principle nullum crimen sine lege (no crime exists without a corresponding asset in the Code of laws). He believed the Ulozhenie had become the conceptual basis of the modern system of the legislation inclusive the Juridical Reform of 1864 since it developed the idea of equal and regular justice (Weickhardt, 1992: 465, 480). Some several law development guidelines of pre-Petrine period are described in monographs elaborated upon the subject. Aer Anneli, Finnish historian, had analyzed the history of the Russian patent legislation origin since the Muscovite reign when the first trade privilege appeared (Aer, 1995). Martin Aust (the University of Kiel) examined the judicial contest practice on the medieval civil cases between noblemen landowners. He had come to the conclusion that until the end of the 17th century the government couldn’t propose a lawful basis for such legal precedents (Aust, 2003: 193). Peter Braun published a very important work on the forming of administrative law in Russia. He marked out six categories of the institutionalization of the administrative regulations in the Ulozhenie of 1649 (Brown, 2002: 5-6) and made a conclusion on existence of a quite mature and law ensured administrative system in pre-Petrine Russia. Christoph Schmidt (Cologne University) studied historical aspects of criminality, justice and law for many years. He choused an unusual chronological interval for his researches: since Ivan the Terrible reign until Catherine II period. The Russian historians don’t consider it as indivisible period of time. His study was devoted to the split of the legal culture in Russian history and to the new foundations in Russian law history of the 16th – 18th centuries. The conclusions of this work moved into the level of conceptual generalization. Schmidt wrote about five main ways of the Russian law development in this interval of time. Firstly, the Tsar Reign and autocracy were legalized; secondly, the administrative bureaucracy was formed and relations of the center and periphery had been regulated on the law levels; thirdly, the first Code of law, the Sobornoe Ulozhenie was created. As the author wrote, the Ulozhenie had become the basis of the Code of Law of the Russian Empire. Also it was rated highly as the «Zakon Dvenadtsaty Tablits» (the Law of Twelve Tables»). In the fourth place there was government regulation of private life of its citizens in gradually steps; fifthly, the serfdom law formation t was the reason of failure of the public law development undoubtedly. That is why the Russian positive law could develop only in a bounded lawful area for a long time (Schmidt, 1995: 483). As the historian thinks, the legal split in Russia meant deep divergence of opinions of the State and the society. Christoph Schmidt wrote a monograph on the social control in Moscow of 1649 –1785. In this case the «social control» means matters – 543 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… linked with justice formation on the basis of the Sobornoe Ulozhenie, an analysis of the criminal situation in Moscow and the serfdom system functioning. Ch. Schmidt supposes the Soviet historiography didn’t consider the crime situation of that time practically. The popular uprisings were considered in the view of class struggle: highway robbers were compared to social «partisans» (Schmidt, 1996: 11). The first chapter on law and the juridical control system before 1700, Ch. Schmidt viewed some important aspects: the origin of the Sobornoe subjects to study were aspects of the Russian law history. For the book series on the legal history («Rechtshistorische Reihe») Gunter Baranowski (Frankfurt-on-Main), composed and prepared the first full commented volumes of the main law history documents of Old Russia: «Russkaya Pravda» («The Russian True») and «Pskovskaja sudnaja gramota» (a document of the Pskov Court Office) in German (Baranowski, 2005, 2008). These considerable volumes include commented clause-by-clause translations, the review of the publications on the subject and glossaries. Ulozhenie, authority activity (Boyarskaya Duma, prikazy (boards), voevody, gubnye starosty) and others. In Vienne Angela Rustemeyer defended a doctoral (professorial) thesis (Rustemeyer, 2006) on crimes against the monarch and the reign in Russia, 1600-1800. In 2006 her thesis was published as a monograph (Rustemeyer, 2006). A. Rustemeyer analyzed legal basis documents of the Roman-Germanic laws by the subject. She used some materials on the history of monarchy of France, England, Poland, Lithuania and Russia. In the monograph there is a system of the crimes against monarchs, the forming of the concept of treachery and the sacral monarch idea were analyzed. Also the legal delimitation of the monarch court and the church jurisdiction were considered by the author. The second part of the monograph describes protest movements against monarchs and different verbal insults. Problem of antimonarchical crimes includes such important subjects as behavior of a person at wars, a throne seizure, boundary aspects, etc. Escapes of noblemen into Poland and Lithuania and back were studied separately. On the whole the monograph was decided interestingly with statement of the problems in reasoned and adjusted pen. Last years some new scientific centers were opened in Germany. Among their main Russian law has been studied in Cologne for many years. Russian historians knows the monograph by Martin Avenarius «Римское право в России»(«Roman Law in Russia»), (Avenarius, 2008, in Russian) with analyses of the Roman legal traditions penetrated into Russia during the 1800 – the 1922nd, the Roman law reception through Byzantium, Old Russian law and others. The «Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas» scientific magazine («Yearbooks of Eastern Europe history») publishes some discussion articles on the content and evolution of the concept of the «spravedlivost». By the way the meaning of the concept in translation into Russian is «justice». The beginning of the discussion belongs to N. Pecherskaya (St. Petersburg). She described the evolution of this concept within self-consciousness of the Russian population since antiquity (Pecherskaya, 2005). Continuing the discussion Ch. Schmidt showed some variants of the concept realization of the 11th – 14th centuries: through the «pole» («a field»), «krestnoe celovanie» («cross-kissing»), ordalii (Schmidt, 2005: 568). Resume. The adduced characteristics of the legal development in Rus’-Russia are evidence of no difference in principle between the conclusions of western historians specialized in Russian history and that of the Russian historical legal science. It may be – 544 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… noted western estimates are more critically and the western notions are not so stable and unambiguous. In prevailing view of the cited authors the development of the legal area is closely linked with the idea of predominant role of the authoritarian Russian State. But for all that the State functioning was at the stage of «not-prescribing» with breakdowns. Legal situation of the population wasn’t secured legislatively. The split between «de jure» and «de facto in Russia was especially deep in the cited author’s opinions. Leaving out the split the because of better knowledge of foreign and old languages in the Western Countries. We found one more advantage of the executed tendency of these studies. These are not only analyses of the law texts but also analyses of the law enforcement and realizable practice of judicial proceedings. Principal subjects to study for western historians include the State and law aspects, procedural law and others. The formation of the Russian civil law and canon law development are studied less. Our foreign colleagues follow the works of the Russian law historians attentively. They regularly publish government created a central law (unilateral or monological) and suppressed other conceptions of laws (non-Moscovian) (Schmidt, 1995: 491). For many years the Russian criminal-penalty law had been studying more thoroughly than the Russian civil law. This tendency was typical for 20th century not only for Russian historiography (USSR) but for western historiography too. The analysis of publications of western historians shows the increasing interest to the Russian law history. Starting with the law and nation development reviews law historians had come to comprehending of some specific Russian conceptions, some peculiar legal notions, social and economic phenomena. As for the source basis and historiography basis it may be noticed the western historians are good at thoroughness of the pre-revolutionary studies in Russia (the treatises of F.M. Dmitriev, M.F. VladimirskyBudanov, V.I. Sergievich, B.N. Chicherin and others), studies of Russian Soviet historians and the notes of travelers. In our opinion text reception in western schools of thought is more augmented their comments on the monograph editions as well as publications of old law document texts and transactions. Russian researchers need to study their colleagues experience more actively and, as I hope, the researchers will notice the problem. The most new special literature edited last year shows rising interest to the Russian law history. Some conferences on the Russian law history are conducted even in Japan (the Slavic Research Center in Sapporo, Hokkaido University) (Law and Society, 2008). Such a conference on the Russian law history of 2008 was devoted to the 1200s – 1500s period. The papers of the conference were edited in Japanese. An article of Ferdinand Feldbrrugge «Law in Medieval Russia» was published in Holland. These articles are subjects to the next analytical historiography study. 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Leontovitsch, Die rechtsumwälzung unter Iwan dem Schrechlichen und die Ideologie der rusischen Selbstherrschaft. (Stuttgart, K.F. Koehler Verlag, 1947). – 547 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia… N. Pecherskaya. «Spravedlivist’ [justice]: the origins and transformation of the concept in Russian culture», Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. 53 (2005), 545-564. R. Pipes, «Was there Private Property in Moscovite Russia?», Slavic Review, 53 (1994), 524-530. A. Poppe. «Rezension zu The Laws of Rus’ – Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries. Translated by Daniel H. Keiser. Jt. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1992», Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 43 (1995), 564566. A. Rustemeyer, Dissens und Ehre: Maestätsverbrechen in Russland (1600-1800). (Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006). G. Scheidegger, «Zu streng oder zu milde. Die altrussische Justiz in den Augen abendländischer Beobachter» // От Древней Руси к России нового времени. Сб. статей. М., Наука, 2003. С. 490501. S. Seregny, «The Nedel’shchik: Law and Order in Muscovite Russia», Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 9, (2) (1975), 168-178. Ch. Schmidt. Sozialkontrolle in Moskau: Justiz, Kriminalität und Leibeigenschaft 1949-1785. Stuttgart, 1996. Ch. Schmidt. «Spaltung der Rechtskultur? Neueansätze zur Erforschung der russischen Rechtsgeschichte (16. bis 18. Jahrhundert)», Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. 4. 1995. Ch. Schmidt. «Von Gottes und Rechts wegen oder zu einigen harakteristika von Gerechtigkeit in Ruβland. Ein Kommentar», Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 53 (2005). 565-568. L. Schultz. Russische Rechtsgeschichte: von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart einschließlich des Rechtes der Sowjetunion. (Verlag von Moritz Schauenburg in Lahr, 1951). E.S. Tobien v (Hrsg). Die ältesten Gerichtsordnungen Russlands. Dorpat, 1846. G. Vernadski, Medieval Russian Laws (New-York, 1947). G. G. Weickhardt, «Due Process and Equal Justice in the Muscovite Codes», The Russian Review, 51 (1992). 465-480. G.,G. Weickhardt, «The Pre-Petrine Law of Property», Slavic Review, 52 (4) (1993), 663-679. P.L. Žužek, Kormchaja kniga. Studies on the Chief Code of Russian Canon Law. Rom, 1964. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 549-559 ~~~ УДК 947(571) + 314 The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context of All-Russian Demographic Trends (1990th-2000th) Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva* The Krasnoyarsk State Teachers’ Training University Named after V.P. Astafjev, 89 Lebedeva st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 In the article the main trends of the birth rate development in post-soviet period in Russia are considered on example of the town population Krasnoyarsk territory, we also try to give characteristics of the changes in the fertility behavior of the townsfolk and to find out the answer to the question – how much the reproductive standards of the western countries get implanted in Russian society. In the article all territorial processes is shown in all-Russian context. The search is based on the census data and current demographic and social statistics. Keywords: renewal of population, displacement of generations, modernization of birth rate, birth rate, reproductive process, aging of fertility, fertility behaviour, second demographic transition, « contraceptive revolution», illegitimate birth rate, common-law marriages. Introduction The Attempts of Russia in 1990-2000 to move to the west model of the development put a question – how much the west standards spread in a base sphere of Russian society – in a reproductive one. There isn’t a faithful representation about it although the problems to birth rate in modern Russia have found extensive coverage in literature. However many of them were not considered fully or were not studied at all. Thus for answering to this question it’s necessary to analyze both the dynamics of allRussian characteristics and differentiations at the different groups of population and in different territories of the country so far as it’s known that in Russia there is a great regional difference of the demographic development. The choice of the * 1 article’s subject is caused its poorly readiness in all-Russian scale and at the level of separate regions, needs in overcoming of misrepresentation in its interpretation which were made under the influence of the political conjuncture, as well as there is necessity of the objective elucidation of the processes of fertility for forming adequate view about modern society and warning against mistake in case of designing the social and demographic policy for the territory. This work is about the analysis of fertility in the towns of Krasnoyarsk territory. We choose urban population as an object for search because on the one hand the townsfolk amount to three fourth of Krasnoyarsk territory population and in this case they define the situation in this sphere. On the other hand processes of fertility in the Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 549 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… cities are needed in special studying because they have differences in comparison with countryside’s one. The lower temporary border of the study – a border of 1980th-1990th – is the time of the ending of soviet period and the beginning of a new history epoch and the upper border – 20062007 – is the time of activations of state policy to stimulate the fertility. In this period the fertility sphere developed in terms of internal stimulus mainly and was left of state interference in it. The aim of the article is to determine the main trends and particularities of the development of fertility in the towns of the Krasnoyarsk territory, to analyze the character of changes in fertility behavior in new history conditions and to understand the degree of the assimilation of western reproductive standards. main features are: 1) fertility declines in early ages – before 25 years - in the first place because women before 20 years begin their sexual life early and increasing of the contribution 30-40year mothers in the general birth rate; 2) the interval between marriage and childbearing and following birth increases, it is possible by reason of using perfect contraceptives and planning family; 3) the average age of mothers for the firstbirths also increases; 4) widening of marriage’s scope and quick growing a number of children to be born in not registered marriage; 5) growing number of never given birth women at age senior 35 years that is connected with increased infertility and, the main, with spreading conscious refusal of parenthood. The statistics allows to check this standpoint on example of Krasnoyarsk’s citizens. Material and methods Reproductive potential The source of the information in the work is the census data and current statistics published in «Demographic yearbook» of Russia and Krasnoyarsk territory. Unfortunately we have not data of the fertility behaviour of townsfolk except the results of the 1994 population microcensus. Such research was not held and these questions were struck off an all-Russia population census 2002 program. Therefore we estimate the results of reproductive views, motives and people’s plans in terms of population census data and current fertility statistics. The nature of the sources makes for the choice of the demographer-statistical methods as main. of urban population on the epochs’ border Points It is logical to expect that parameters of the fertility process changed in a new historical condition as far as fertility behavior of Russian had to reform according to those models of birth rate realization which in the last one third of XX age in industrial developed country has got the name of the second demographic transition. Its The sources show that main trends of the fertility development in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory in XX century were the same like in another Russian cities and the having particularities played the secondary role. Like all Russian citizens during the century Krasnoyarsk population adopted to the modernization reproductive standards and following to inhabitant of the western countries realized the demographic transition to modern type of reproduction of population. The first sign of fertility modernization became the reduction of its level which as far back as the soviet period lowered below borders of simple substitution of generations in cities. They use the total fertility rate (TFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime, and she were to survive from birth through the end of her reproductive life. In 1991 TFR was 1,505 children in Krasnoyarsk – 550 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… cities against 1,531 in Russian one1. It means that the substitution of generations was ensured 70 per cent only as far as for the replacement of generation needs women are to born 2,122,15 children. The net reproduction rate (NRR) means that each generation of mothers is having exactly enough daughters to replace itself in the population, it was also below 1 – the border of renewal of population – and in 1990 it was 0,781 for Krasnoyarsk’s cities (against 0,866 in Russia)2. Stages of the fertility development in the post-soviet period There are two stages of the birth rate process in the cities of the territory in post-soviet period. The first – 1990-2000 years – was marked by stable fertility decline and the second – 2001 – up-to-day – is marked by the rotation of its rise and decline (Table 1). Russia has entered in the post-soviet period on the wave of the fertility decline which in Krasnoyarsk cities began in 1987 when TFR was equal 2,0163. In 1991 it was lowered a quarter and continued to decline. Its changes, in percent to previous year, was following: 1991 – (-13,0); 1992 – (-13,0); 1993 – (-10,7); 1994 – (+10,0); 1995 – (-4,5); 1996 – (-5,9); 1997 – (-5,4); 1998 – (+2,3); 1999 – (-6,2) (is calculated according data of tabl. 1). It’s seen the beginning of reforms in 1992 has not caused the shock in the reproductive sphere. There was not a collapse fertility decline in 1993, when were born children planned in previous year. In 1994 the birth rate increased and reached the 1992 level. The decline of fertility continued in 19951997 at a slower pace than at the beginning of the decade. Probably townsfolk adapted to the 1 2 3 The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. Krasnoyarsk, 2007. P. 43. Ibid. P. 44. About demographic processes in Krasnoyarsk territory. Krasnoyarsk, 1988. P. 62. changers and reproductive process returned in the natural development. The reaction to the 1998 crisis of Krasnoyarsk townsmen was rather soft. Fertility decline in 1999 was intensified by its unexpected growth during previous year. So we can state a fact that social and economical crisis wasn’t the sole reason of fertility decline but it became a accelerant of the process only. In Krasnoyarsk territory the birth rate was the lowest in post-soviet period and the process of fertility decline progressed slower than in Russia. From 1991 till 1999 the intensity of birth lowered a 30,3 % (against 31,7 % in Russia)4 and it cut by half from 1987. The short period of the birth rate growing began in 2000. By 2003 TFR increased 18 % in comparison with 1999 but then it began to lower. All in all since 1991to 2006 the birth rate reduced 22,3 % in Krasnoyarsk against 21,7 % in Russia5. In 2006 when government brisk the demography policy up and there were pro-natality national projects which stimulate the fertility the birth rate of the cities of Krasnoyarsk territory ensured the displacement of generations with 55,2 % only (56,6 % in Russia). It was lower than in developed countries including western countries where the cumulative rate was from 1,3 (in Japan) to 2,0-2,1 (in France and the USA) 6. Main factors of the fertility’s development in new condition It is well-known that the birth rate is primary provided with the reproductive (procreative) behaviour of the population which changes under the influence of the complex of factors. According to opinion of some scientist (Zaharov, Ivanova: 75) in demographic sphere of the Russia in 1990th there were three «powers» caused changes of 4 5 6 – 551 – Calculated by: The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 43 Calculated by: Ibid. The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. M., 2008. P. 549 - 550 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… Table 1. The trends of the fertility rates in Krasnoyarsk cities (1991-2007) Year Fertility rate TFR NRR Year 1991 11,6 1,505 … 2000 1992 10,0 1,309 … 1993 8,9 1,169 0,557 1994 9,8 1,286 1995 9,5 1,228 1996 9,1 1997 8,7 1998 1999 Fertility rate TFR NRR 8,9 1,072 0,502 2001 9,7 1,136 0,535 2002 10,6 1,218 0,585 0,603 2003 10,9 1,238 0,581 0,578 2004 10,9 1,218 0,572 1,155 0,549 2005 10,6 1,166 0,555 1,093 0,504 2006 10,7 1,170 0,551 9,0 1,118 0,529 2007 11,4 1,235 0,588 8,6 1,049 0,490 The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. Р. 28, 43, 44. statistical indicators of the birth rate: a) the results of permanent trend; b) the medium-term effects of surging in 1980th; c) the forming of the new image of the demographic behaviour as a result of the adapting people to changed social conditions. The Action these «powers» distinctly appeared in Krasnoyarsk’s cities. Long before the end of the soviet period the specific model of a family with one child or rarely two children was formed there. It seemed this process flew like in Europe where one or two-children families prevailed. But the trends were different. In the west from the end of 1960th there was process of the fertility displacement from early ages to older one while in Russia and in Krasnoyarsk territory there was inverse process. In 1981 the state interference in reproductive process led to deformation in this sphere there was a displacement in birth timing when parents gave birth earlier planning time but they didn’t want to give birth more than one or two children. All in all the baby-boom of the first part of 1980th changed to fertility decline at the beginning of 1990th. After USSR collapse there was the third force – the adaptations people to new living conditions led the decline of birth rate. It was proved that the transformation of basic principles when a family and children lose their firstpriority position is the main cause of fertility decline. Russian population began to show it in soviet period when the value to have children was excluded by another values. In post-soviet period radical changes in economy and social sphere incited the process of review living principles and strategies of procreative behavior. The government stopped to fulfil obligations - the benefits and family allowances were reduced, commercialization of social infrastructure reduced to cutback of free services’ volume, young families lost possibility to receive help from parents which were in difficult economical situation. Decline of guarantee of labor and social protectability, uncertainty in future and appears of new perspectives for self-actualization led to the situation when youth began to develop their human and social funds but the family and children needs were moved away. Thus the evolution of procreative behaviours of the population first of all youth started to define the reduction of well-being, on the one hand, and growing of the life claims on another. Growing of tension in household relations and marriage dissatisfactions, the deterioration of reproductive health of the women and men, connected with complex of the reasons, typical for connecting period promoted the reduction of the children’s number in families. The huge role in adjustment of sexual and reproductive behaviour of the – 552 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… population played contraceptives which were wide spread that time. Reproductive attitudes of townsfolk and their realization Microcensus of the populations in 1994 has fixed reproductive «preferences» and plans of Krasnoyarsk women entered in new life, which has taken into account the number of given birth, desired and expected children by women at age 18-44. It has shown that 30,6 % women gave birth to one child, 36,2 % - two and only 14,7 % - three and more children1. So each of polled women averagely gave birth to 1,561 child. These data were a resume of the reproductive activities of townsfolk at soviet period. For us it is more interesting to research data of desired and expected children 2 because it is an indicator of demography future of Russia. First rate showed needs in children at all and the second one told on real reproductive plans updated with provision for the individual possibilities of their execution. Microcensus data has also shown that social-economical cataclysm didn’t influence to reproductive sphere. Each town family had children. The number of married women which didn’t give birth – 8,4 % - was up-to-date of the physiological sterility (3-7 % as it is estimated)3. In future only 3,9 % women didn’t expect to have a child (Table 2). Thus Krasnoyarsk territory differed from western countries much where women hadn’t children voluntarily – there were about 20 % of women under 35 years old which hadn’t children while there were only 2,6 % of such women in our territory. At the same time the data fixed rather modest reproductive plans (1,4-1,7 child) that promised depopulation in 10-15 years. It is well known that for simple 1 2 3 Marriage status and fertility in Russia (according to microcensus 1994). M.,1995. P. 132. There are already born children in the category of expected children. Marriage status … P. 145. reproduction of population it is necessary more than a half of families must have 3 children. In our cities only 3-4 % of women under 18-30 years old expected to have three children and less than 1,0 % wanted to have four and more children. Thus procreative plans of Krasnoyarsk women differed from their reproductive ideals a little. In ideal conditions women wanted to have 1,834 child but expected 1,666 one. This difference is shown that there was a chance to raise birth rate with help of arrangements of social policy. But the size of the difference (0,20,3 child) showed that first of all there was a little opportunity to rise fertility by traditional methods and it was a fact that the material factor (living conditions) little influence to realization of needs in children. In 1990th townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk territory realized their reproductive plans fixed in microcensus 1994. The resume of their reproductive activities was fixed by All-Russia Population Census 2002. Comparison of the number planned in 1994 children and received result in 2002 is obstructed because between two censuses passed only 8 years and to use the method of replacement of ages (five-year cohorts) isn’t correct. Therefore using it shows the average number of planned children in 1994 was rather similar to average their fact number in 2002 (Table 2,3) so the majority of women even in difficult conditions gave birth to planned children. Been going to give birth at the average on 1,386 child 18-19-year girls in 1994, which were in 2002 in group of 25-29-year, had 0,943 child, 30-34-year townsfolk gave birth to 1,311 child except of 1,418 planned 8 years ago. But they must give birth to children in future. 35-39-year women have given birth to 1,600 children instead of expected 1,565, 40-44-year women - 1,776 instead of 1,740. The census also showed that each cohort of women which were born after 1932 did not provide the – 553 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… Table 2. Age group and number of planned and desired children distributions of the women in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory, according to microcensus 1994 average number of children From 1000 of women expect children Women’s age, years none one two three four five and more planned desired 39 382 486 75 11 7 1666 1834 18-19 91 480 394 31 2 2 1386 1648 20-24 52 518 404 22 2 2 1418 1692 25-29 31 450 464 45 6 4 1565 1793 18-44 including 30-34 27 343 525 87 11 7 1740 1904 35-39 26 282 548 117 17 10 1855 1938 40-44 36 301 521 109 20 13 1824 1904 Marriage status … P. 253; Borisov: 41. Table 3. Age group and number of born children distributions of the women in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory and Russia according to All-Russia population census 2002 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70 and older 404 943 1311 1600 1776 1847 1810 1759 1830 1924 2297 16 71 383 901 1263 1524 1685 1733 1697 1636 1676 1736 1950 25-29 74 20-24 35-39 Krasnoyarsk territory Russia 18-19 15 15-17 30-34 Number of born children to 1000 women at age, years Fertility. The resume of All-Russia population census 2002. Vol.12. M., 2005. P. 6-7, 140-141. displacement of generations in town population of the territory. Change the age patterns of childbearing The dynamic of age-specific birth rates gives the most exact notion about changers in reproductive behavior of women in cities (Table 4). The different velocity of the reduction (and growing) factors in different women cohort is evidence of significant change in the age patterns of childbearing this period. It is important to define which attributes we can interpret as a sings of «west direction» in fertility transform and which ones – as their absence. Countries where the second demographic transition was the changes began from the decline of intensity of birth of girls at 15-19 years old. In Krasnoyarsk territory this trend began in 1992 and ended in 2000th. The cause of such dynamic is clear. In 1960th-1980th the rise of fertility at this cohort of women was connected with sexual revolution and contraceptive illiteracy. But now we can see the process of soul-searching. It means that now young girls choose the number of children they want to have and plan the time of child-bearing. The reduction of birth rate among young townsfolk marked the aging of reproductive process. There was the same dynamic at the 2024 years-old women. The birth rate of this cohort was rather stable last decade of soviet period (in 1959-149,3, in 1986-1987 – 151,91). But in 19871999 it decline to 45,1 %, in 2000 th – 10,0 % and finally it was reduced in 1,7 in 1991-2006. 1 – 554 – About demography process in Krasnoyarsk territory. P. 62. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… Table 4. Age-specific birth rate in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory 1986-2007 Years 1986-1987 Live births per 1000 women at age, years 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 49,4 151,9 104,8 64,7 35-39 26,8 40-44 5,5 45-49 0,1 15-49 64,5 1991 51,0 125,2 70,7 36,8 14,9 2,7 0,2 43,0 1992 46,0 110,1 60,2 30,5 12,4 3,1 0,2 36,9 1993 45,2 100,1 52,3 24,8 9,6 2,2 0,1 32,4 1999 27,2 83,9 57,7 28,9 10,2 1,7 0,1 29,2 2000 24,1 85,2 61,0 31,9 10,2 2,0 0,1 30,0 2003 24,4 89,6 74,9 42,8 14,8 2,2 0,1 36,2 2004 24,6 85,2 75,4 42,0 15,0 2,6 - 36,2 2005 24,7 78,0 71,1 42,7 16,4 2,4 0,1 35,2 2006 24,7 75,5 74,3 43,2 16,7 2,4 0,1 35,9 2007 23,7 75,7 78,7 49,9 19,5 3,2 0,1 38,3 1999 by 1991, % 53,3 67,0 81,6 78,5 68,5 63,0 50,0 67,9 2006 by 1999, % 90,8 90,0 128,8 149,5 163,7 141,2 100,0 122,9 2006 by 1991, % 48,4 60,3 105,1 117,4 112,1 88,9 50,0 89,1 The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 70. We dare say that there are two causes of the decline. Firstly it was a conscious reorientation to western standards but it also was a reaction to bad living conditions. Although the living conditions were better in 2000 th the birth rate didn’t rise. So we can interpret it as the aging of fertility. There was the same dynamic at other age groups in 2000th. At cohort of 25-29 year-old townsfolk the fertility declined less than at others ages and in 2000th it even rise to 5,1 %. Due to aging of fertility the birth rate in the 20-24 and 25-29 groups became equal whereas in 1991 there was a difference (1,8). The indicators of birth rate among 30 and even 40-year-old townsfolk show the moving of births to medium and senior ages. In 1990th the fertility of these cohorts declined but in 2000th it rose in 1.4-1.6 points. It’s difficult to predict the stability of this trend. It was cause with forcemajeure – in 2000th the townsfolk used the last chance to realize delayed child-bearing. But due to women older 25 the birth rate began to increase in the cities of our territory and the mothers’ average age of childbearing rose to 26,73 years1. This item is less than in Russia – 27,0 years2. As far as Russia began the second demographic transition late the fertility in Russia is younger than in industrial countries. Due to aging of reproductive process the contribution to total fertility by women of different ages changed. Although the women of young ages carried the main reproductive load there is the rise contribution of 30-40-year-old women: in 2000 17,9 % of mothers were under 30 years old but in 2006 – 23,0 %3. This process depends on structure factor (drop in strength of cohort). Thus in 2000th the rise of contribution of 30-40-year-old women was stopped by numerous 20-24 year-old girls were born after 1981 (there was a baby-boom) which gave a birth more than one third of newborns (35,8 %)4 and it helped to create illusion of fertility increase last years. 1 2 3 4 – 555 – The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 75. The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 169. Calculated by: The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2000. Krasnoyarsk, 2001. P. 60; Ibid. 2007. P. 79. Calculated by: Ibid. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… The attribute of western reproductive process is the increase of the mean age of women at childbearing for first orders. In western countries the childbearing period usually began at 25 but Siberian women first gave a birth at early ages as in soviet period. There is a moving to western standards now: in 2000 – 31,2 % of firstborns were born by women under 25, in 2006 – 37,9 %1. Changers in reproductive views of young and using contraceptives fluctuated the basic Russian custom – don’t use contraceptives in family before the birth of the first child. The fact is the level of marriage quantity among young townsfolk is rather high but the birth rate is rather low. It means that spouses postpone the birth of first children and they don’t hurry with the second one. The Census of 2002 fixed this phenomenon. According to census 39,1 % of townsfolk under 20- 24 years old didn’t give a birth any children; 53,8 % of them had one child; 6,4 % had two children and only 0,7 % had three and more children. Among women at 25-29 years old 15,3 % hadn’t any child, 61,5 % gave a birth to one child, 20,9 % had two children. But there isn’t a sign of spreading the voluntary childlessness. 6,9 % women under 35-39 years old (including 3,6 % married women) hadn’t children (in Russia 8,2 % and 4 % respectively)2. Due to the fertility decline and the retention of overall of having children the percentage of firstborns increase. In this way our citizen differ from citizen of western countries: in the USA the relative density of firstborns was about 40 % at the beginning of 2000th, in Sweden – 45 %, in Russia – about 60 % (by Vishnevsky: 2). In 1991 in Krasnoyarsk territory the relative density of firstborns was 55,6 % and in 2006 – 61,9 %. The relative density of second children was 2 1 Calculated by: Ibid. Calculated by: The Fertility. P. 6-7, 140-141, 180-181, 314-315. low – 30-32 % and the relative density of third children declined from 12,5 % in 1991 to 8 % in 20063. Thus third and fourth births stop to play substantial role in forming birth rate in cities. Non-marital fertility If the ageing of cities fertility was a result of post-soviet development the non-marital births as the second sign of the second demographic transition was inherited from earlier epoch (Table 5). There is considerable difficulty in identifying this trend. There are a lot of questions. What was a cause of this boom in post-soviet period? Why its level in Krasnoyarsk cities was higher than in countryside and in Russia? Why its growth stopped in 2000th? What are the demographic and social consequences of non-marital births? This phenomenon has not studied yet but it shows the deepest changers in people life. Ex facte the increase of non-marital births looks like the results of the «stretching of marriage borders», family modernization and forming of the model of social liberalism as a type of marriage (Rimashevskaya: 13-14). Non-marital fertility of Krasnoyarsk townsfolk isn’t a western fashion trend. During the second half of XX century it exceeded AllRussia level and in new conditions saved its trend. On the contrary the proportion of nonmarital births among townsfolk increased in 1.7 items and reached 30 % as in Europe. It’s hard to identify how many children were born as a result of «sexual freedom» of their mothers and who was born in real (not registered) marriage which were widespread among Krasnoyarsk citizen. According to microcensus 1994 9,3 % of women living in cities were in real marriage against of 5,8 % in Russia4. In 2002 this 3 4 – 556 – The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 1996. Krasnoyarsk,1997. P. 79; Ibid. 2006. Krasnoyarsk, 2006. P. 79. The marriage status… P. 46-47. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… Table 5. Proportion of births by unmarried women in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory and Russia in 19602007, % Proportion of children were born in not registered marriage in total births, in year Krasnoyarsk territory Russia 1960 1970 1975 1980 1985 1991 1999 2005 2006 2007 16,8 12,1 13,9 12,8 15,0 18,6 31,5 33,4 31,8 31,8 11,5 9,6 9,3 9,6 11,3 15,5 27,3 28,4 27,5 26,5 Calculated by: Population size, composition and moving in RSFSR. M.,1990. P. 157; The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 171; The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 79 Table 6. The dynamics of abortion in Krasnoyarsk territory and in Russia (1990-2006). Abortions number Territory 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 Per 1000 women at 15-49 Krasnoyarsk territory years old Russia 126,6 94,3 71 59 56 113,9 72,8 54 44 41 Per 100 births Krasnoyarsk territory 220,1 259,6 214 158 147 Russia 205,9 169 169 121 107 The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 179, 181; The economy of Krasnoyarsk territory in 1999 (statistic yearbook). Krasnoyarsk, 2000. P.168. percentage increased to 15,6 % in our territory against 9,0 % in Russia1. Data about the children were registered by declaration of mother (means non-marital birth) and by mutual declaration of parents (means real marriage) help to identify the both categories. But it doesn’t mean that every child of the second category is a result of real marriages. Some fathers avouched their children having another family. Though in 2006 only 52,0 % of such children were registered by mutual declaration of parents2. Others were real non-marital born. method of birth control and has also played a role in concentrating women’s reproductive activity because contraceptives have been unavailable. Only in recent years, as the availability of effective contraceptives has increased and the negative effects of abortion have been openly reported by the media, has the number of abortions begun to decline. But so far Russia is the only industrial country where the number of abortion exceeds the number of birth. Krasnoyarsk territory is distinguished by higher level of abortion and slower speed of its decline (Table 6). Methods of birth control Discussions Clarifying the common and the particular in reproductive behavior of Krasnoyarsk townsfolk it’s necessary to notice the fact of the overuse of abortion for fertility regulation. The incidence of abortion in Russia is the world’s highest. In soviet period the abortion has become Russia’s main The analysis of changing in main trends of fertility follows to the conclusion. Though in this period there is no regulation of reproductive processes by federal government the fertility of Krasnoyarsk territory continued to develop in All-Russia trends like in the soviet period. The dynamic of reproductive process was changeable. Although there are positive tendency in 2000 th the fertility rates of Krasnoyarsk cities 1 2 Calculated by: Population by age groups and marriages. The resumes of All-Russia census 2002. Vol.2. M., 2004. P. 303, 385. Calculated by: The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2006. P. 83. – 557 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… remain lower than in Russia and the lowest than it’s necessary for simple reproduction of population. The birth rate in Krasnoyarsk cities (1,235) and in Russia (1,283)1 in 2007 ensured only a half of displacement of generations (58,2 and 60,5 % respectively). Adapting to new reality townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk territory corrected their reproductive behavior according to western standards. It is difficult to say either it is a result of modernization or westernization (copying of another’s experience). Though the outward signs of 2007 confirm this fact when there were the first resumes of national project «Demography» which had to stimulate the second births. The youngest women and 20-24 years old townsfolk didn’t respond to this policy. But there were a positive reaction by women under 25-44 years old. Due to this cohort the TFR increased to 5,6 % in 2007 (against 7,0 % in Russia) and number of newborns increased from 54,4 to 57,82. of changing in townsfolk reproductive sphere correspond to our concept. In 2000th there is a second demographic transition. Its main signs are a low level of birth rate, wide spread occurrence of real marriages, increase of nonmarital births, ageing of reproductive process. The pronatality policy of the government strengthened this trend. The ageing of fertility is interpreted as the welfare as far as young have to decide other tasks besides childbearing. There are negative trends of developing of reproductive sphere such as a great number of firstborns but scarcity of second and follow births and high rate of abortion. The positive trend is almost each family has children. The procreative behavior of townsfolk in Krasnoyarsk and Russia rather flexible responds to changing living conditions and pronatality policy of the government. The totals The research shows that reproductive behavior of townsfolk under 20 years old was not stable and still depended on external conditions. There is a chance to increase the birth rate in cities when the living conditions are better and the beginning of realization of national demographic project fixed it. The changing of age-specific birth rates gives recommendations for those who design the demographic policy. Now it is clear that the supporting of young families and incentives of their reproductive activities are not determinant factor of increasing of fertility in cities. However the fluctuation of reproductive behavior of townsfolk complicates any prognosis of further development and obliges to watch over all changes as far as to know new trends of fertility and its factors facilitates successful pronatality policy. 1 The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 98. Conclusions 2 Ibid. P. 95, 101. References Borisov V.A. The desired number of children in Russian families on data microcensus 1994. Vestnik MSU. Set 18 Social and political science, 2 (1997). p.30-64. Vishnevsky A.G. Specific of Russian fertility. Population and society, 100 (2006). p.1-4. Zaharov S.V., Ivanova E.I. Fertility and nuptiality in Russia. Social Reseach, 7 (1997), №7. p.75. Zaharov S.V. Fertility outlook in Russia: the second demographic transition. Domestic notes, 3 (2005), 13-20. Rimashevskaya N.M. Family in demographic processes. Population, 4 (2008), 9-19. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context… Resources Russian demography internet-weekly Demoskope-weekly http://demoscope.ru The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. M., 2008. http://demoscope.ru Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 560-579 ~~~ УДК 75(44)(092) Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» Anastasia V. Klykova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 «…I am a great artist, and I know it…I’ve got a target, and I am constantly striving for it, collecting material. Though, every year brings some transformations, but all of them are flowing in one channel» Paul Gauguin, a letter to Mette Gauguin, March 1892 Iconographic research of Paul Gauguin’s graphical work «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» presents by itself a new methodological technique in art-historian analysis of work of arts. The given method allows not only attributing a concrete work of art within the oeuvre of an artist, basing only upon a detailed research of its graphical surface, but fully revealing its content as well. Here, we present as the technique of iconographic research itself (usage of concrete general scientific methods in compliance with the specifics of analysis stages), so its results, being methodically fixed on every separate stage of analysis. Keywords: iconography, research of a work of pictorial art, methods of art-historian analysis, Paul Gauguin’s creative work Introduction To the shared vision of all art-historians, creative work of Paul Gauguin, the greatest French artist of the end of XIX century, outstands by its unique consistency in artistic target achievement. «One’s own closed world outlook or artistic world view becomes the result of any great master’s art creativity, though imaginary universe is far from being as consciously created, as it was done by Gauguin» (Kochik, 1991, p. 7). But, in such a case, why only few art-historical works are * 1 dedicated to the content disclosure of the artist’s graphic works, in comparison with his picturesque canvases? Why do not the researchers include the series of Gauguin’s graphic caricatures into one whole context of his oeuvre, using them only as an illustrative material to the artist’s vivid life in Tahiti? If the artist himself underlines that, his every work of art is a step in the achievement of the global artistic target, so it is quite logical to suppose that, there is some content-rich depth in his graphic caricatures, the depth, which Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 560 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» make them a harmonious part of Paul Gauguin’s oeuvre. The analysis of one of the most popular caricatures, taken for an illustration, – «Caricature Of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» (Fig.) may help to make a conclusion of the caricature pieces place in the context of all Gauguin’s creative work and to answer the question: if Paul Gauguin was really stuck to the point and was consistently solving one and the same artistic problem in his every work or his «serious» picturesque creative works present the central, but an independent line of his oeuvre, being separate from less «serious» graphic caricatures? Here the methodology of such a research is very important. How to analyze the piece, which research has never been done by anybody, and when even the possibility of such an action seems to be doubtful? Methods The given research is based on the following theories and methods: 1) The conceptual postulates of the Theory of Pictorial Art by V. Zhukovskij and N.Kopceva. 2) The main principals of the synthetic conception of the ideal by D. Pivovarov. 3) The basic categories of the reflexion concept by Hegel, delivered in his work «the Science of Logics». 4) The main principals of iconography and iconology by E. Panofskij. 5) The key statements of the art-historian conception of expertizm (a movement in Arthistory, which aim is to define the real value of a supposed masterpiece and to find out new artistic works with a help of attribution) by Marks Friedlander. 6) The general and local scientific theoretical art-historian methods: observation, measuring, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, idealization, formalization, analogy. Results and discussion In traditional Art-history there is a notion of iconography, having been developed by the researcher Erwin Panofsky as a description and an image classification («icon» is an image, «graphy» is to write, to describe), i.e. as the piece research initial stage, which allows to collect and to systematize all the material qualities data of the piece as of the product of a certain painter’s artistic activity under concrete historical circumstances (Panofskij, 1999, 2004; Limanskaja, 2004; Arslanov, 2005; Shpet, 2007). On one hand, traditional understanding of iconography may help to introduce a certain work of art into the oeuvre context of a concrete painter. On the other hand, iconography, as an auxiliary and initial research stage, is not able to estimate the piece implied depth. If we stick to traditional point of view, then just only iconography is not enough for salvation of the raised problem. It is necessary to perform a complete analysis up to a full disclosure of the painting underlying content, and only afterwards it becomes possible to estimate the given piece value for the whole creative work of the master. But there is one more way possible, if we try to reveal the iconography notion in the tideway of the artistic image dialogue conception, when the artistic image is conceived as a result of thespectator-and-the-piece dialogue. According to this conception any work of art can be disclosed by the iconography as a result and the process of interaction of the master and the artistic material, and that allows not only to define the author of the piece (i.e. to include it into the general panorama of the painter’s oeuvre), but also to estimate its implied depth during the-researcher-and-thepiece dialogue (Zhukovskij et al., 2004, 2006, 2008; Koptseva et al., 2008; Koptseva, 2008). Let us try to full fill an iconographic research of Paul Gauguin’s graphical work «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» from the point – 561 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» Fig. Paul Gauguin. Caricature of Tahiti governor Lacascade of view of the artistic image dialogue nature, according to which the-researcher-and-the-piece dialogue is going through several stages, each of them forming an artistic image of a certain quality. These stages are material, index, iconic (summative and integral) and symbolic levels. These levels correspond to material, index, summative iconic, integral iconic and symbolic artistic image statuses. These artistic images are different and simultaneously it is a process of one whole artistic image development during the-researcher-and-the-piece dialogue. As far as the target of iconography is a work of art in the form of a documental evidence, testifying the process of its creation, so, iconographic research pays attention to an iconic artistic image, which is able to represent the result of the-painter-andthe-artistic-material interaction at full volume and to give a notion about the piece potential underlying depth (Zhukovskij et al., 2004, 2006, 2008; Koptseva et al., 2008; Koptseva, 2008). So, what does the piece suggest to the researcher? And how does the researcher work with it? As far as, according to the dialogue conception, it is precisely the work of art, which presents the part, initiating the dialogue. And the – 562 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» researcher, in his turn, makes a counter move, finding a correspondence to the piece suggestion among the general scientific research methods (Fig.). At the material level the work of art suggests to consider itself as a sort of material surface, produced in the result of interaction of the painter and the artistic material. In a graphical work the main artistic materials, forming visual qualities of the artistic surface, are paper and ink. Their interaction has brought to the appearance of a unique graphical surface. Iconographistresearcher finds a correspondence to the suggestion – the method of observation, which allows fixing the main qualities of ink, paper and of their interaction, and at the same time not involving into the artistic sphere. In the result one gets a verbalized description of qualities of ink, paper and also of their interaction peculiarities. Qualities of the paper are revealed in irregular ink tinting of the list surface. Light zones frame dark stains and lines, showing the natural paper quality to absorb water-diluted ink differently, and at the same time, the contours of dark stains, lines and strokes become clearer because of the appearing contrast of dark and light. Thus, one can single out a large fragment, not tinted with ink, at the left edge of the work of art, which is surrounded by dark lines – a contour and being connected with a bigger dark stain. Qualities of the ink are revealed by the variety of strokes, lines, by tintages and by the deepness of stains. Thus, along with a casual tintage in the centre of the painting, when one can see some separate chaotically placed strokes (in the bottom part of the tintage), in the right part of the presentment there is a group of contrast stains (light and dark), united by the one expressive contour, which is formed by almost uninterrupted lines, drawn with a help of a pen. The group, outlined by the contour at the left edge of the piece, where dark, light and gray stains of different kinds of tones being united by one contour, is the most variable by its tone and the form of lines, strokes and stains. In the course of description some groups of stains have been already singled out. Why has it happened so? The graphical surface is organized in such a way, that its most meaningful fragments begin to stand out particularly already during a detailed and thorough observation. And the next move, the painting suggests to the researcher, is to mark out the main elements of the graphical surface and to find out the degree of their relatedness with each other. The researcher defines this suggestion as a necessity to use the method of measuring, which allows relating the elements and choosing the main and the secondary ones. The result of it is the following qualitative description of the main elements and their methods of interaction. In the graphical surface one can distinguish a group of stains, united by a common contour and consisting of a white outlined stain, conjugated with a black outlined stain and connected with a contiguous contoured stain of gray tone. The gray stain contains lines and strokes of various forms and also stains different by their tones and partially contoured. This group of stains is situated in the left edge of the work and occupies almost a half of the presentment. So, according to the scale principle this group is the main one and it divides the image into two vertical halves. Thus, the main characteristics of the group of stains are an organizing function (it divides the graphical surface into two vertical almost equal halves) and dominating in the left part of the presentment (it occupies almost all the surface of the left part). In the second part, in the centre, closer to the bottom of the piece there is a group of stains, united by a common contour and consisting of a dark stain, which prevails over a light one, and of small fragments, filled by gray tone. This – 563 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» group is smaller than the first one, but it differs by its stronger contrast and its greater laconism, that allows defining it as a secondary one (in comparison with the bigger group), but also as the main group (in comparison with other elements, placed in the same part of the work). Thus, the main characteristic of this group of stains is its dominating role in the right part of the presentment. More over, there are roundish lines and strokes in the right part, which do not form any common contour, and also there is a group of tinted strokes conjugated with the contoured group of stains. According to the scale principle and the principle of entity these elements have a secondary meaning in relation to the integral contrast group of stains in the centre of the right part of the work of art and they are of subordinate character. In the middle, there is an irregularly tinted stain of a large size of gray tone between the main group of stains in the presentment left part and the contrast group of stains in the work right part. According to its size, it is correlated to the contrast group of stains in the centre of the piece right part; according to the painting technique (the tintage), it should be related to the group of tinted circular strokes. According to the contour entity principle this stain takes the very last place among other elements of the presentment. That is, this element cannot be categorically defined at the given research stage, as far as neither the method of observation, nor the method of measuring is able to interpret the data, acquired in the result of the research. Thus, the artistic image of material status, already possessing the verbal quality, has been generated with a help of two main dialogue operations, which have been defined by the researcher as the usage of methods of observation and measuring together with formalization, analysis and synthesis following them. The material status artistic image of the graphical work «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» by Paul Gauguin is the result of interaction of the paper and the ink, which proper qualities are revealed in all the variety in different parts of the presentment. During their interaction the following elements have been formed in the piece substance: 1) the biggest group at the work left edge, consisting of variously toned stains (white, gray, dark) and dividing the list into two equal parts, inside the group there are lines and strokes of various forms and intensity; 2) the contrast group of stains (light, dark) in the centre of the right part, which possesses the most contour completeness; 3) the group of separate circular lines and stokes in the right top part of the list, which is of secondary meaning in correlation to the dominating contrast group of stains; 4) the group of tinted circular strokes between the contrast group of stains and the piece right edge, which is also of secondary meaning; 5) the tined stain, which is lack of contour and can be compared by its size with the contrast group in the central right part of the list; such position can be defined as a middle one. And already on the material level the painting has suggested to single out a general scheme in these elements disposition. The graphical surface consists of two vertical parts: in the first (left) one the surface is occupied by a large group of stains (the integration of the clean list, of the dark stain and of differently toned gray stains); in the second part the contrast integral group of stains is the dominating one, upwards and aside from it (on the right) there are two groups of separate strokes (the group of circled lines and the group of tinted lines); right in the middle between these graphical vertical spheres there is an irregularly tinted stain of a large size, which on the following stage could be defined as the one, occupying the median position between these two graphical spheres. – 564 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» On the index level the work of art is presented as various forms and a background. Grouped stains, lines and stokes, having been distinguished on the material level as the results of the main elements interaction of the artistic image material status, transform into the forms and the background on the index level. And again the work of art suggests the researcher to consider the main qualities of the forms and the background, and also their interaction character. The researcher, in his turn, again addresses to the method of observation, but now he uses a selective observation with the elements of analysis, which allows to base on the results of observation and measuring, having been performed on the material level, and to make preliminary conclusions right in the process. The result of it is a description of the main qualities of the painting significant elements, such as forms, a background and their interaction character. Thus, the main element, dividing the presentment into two vertical parts, is a form of a humane figure, cut by the boarders of the image from the right edge and from below. This form contour is complex and not always completed (in the bottom part it is blurred by tinting), that is why it does not give a clear characteristic of the form on the index level. Only the upper part of the form - the profile, turned to the right, is easily read. The median part presents a body, turned lightly to the left. The bottom part of the form is not picked in at all; its boarder is being built along the boarder of separate strokes. Inside the contour is filled by variously toned stains. More over, the form contains an inscription, placed on the light background in three horizontal rows and inclined to the right, approximately 45 degrees with respect to the vertical axis. The inscription is presented in such a way, that it could be read: the dark letters are written on the light background, each letter being separate from the other and readable; the size of the inscription exceeds the author’s signature traditional size, and the inscription is placed on the painting median horizontal axis, near by the work geometrical centre. This way, the inscription is the only holistic element of the form. On the whole, this form can be defined as a fragmental one. Such definition is suggested by the piece itself. This form is presented as a fragment of a humane figure. Its contour gives a clear vision only of the upper fragment of the whole form – of the profile. Inside the form there are only separate elemental fragments, being outlined by the contour. The only holistic element of the form is the inscription, which makes the element be very significant for this form. Thus, the main element of the graphical presentment possesses the following characteristic features on the form level: fragmentarity along with the quite large work size, the profile accentuation and the complexity of the turn towards the body, and admittance of the inscription as a significant form element. For the more detailed and full form characteristics the researcher needs some additional information, and the work of art itself suggests him to address some other works of Gouging, where the master uses the same principles of the form building. In this case the researcher addresses the method of idealization, which allows to distract from a concrete painting and to single out its separate element as an independent one, and also to address some other masterpieces of the painter. The presentment of profiles is characteristic of the portraits («The outcasts» (Self-portrait), 1888) and of the narrative paintings of Gouging as of Pont-Aven period («Vision after the Sermon; Jacob Wrestling with the Angel», 1888), so of the first Tahiti creative period («Are you jealous?», 1892; «Her name is Vairaumati», 1892). For depiction of peculiarities Gouging uses most often the aspect angle of three quarters or the – 565 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» profile. The profile is also often used by the master for comparison («The outcasts», 1888; «Jacob Wrestling with the Angel», 1888; «Her name is Vairaumati», 1892). The complex head turn toward the body is also illustrative of Gouging. Such a touch is often used by the painter for the foreground figures depiction («Are you jealous?», 1892; «Her name is Vairaumati», 1892; «Woman with a Mango», 1892). The biggest figure fragmentarity in the presentment is also a peculiar touch of Gouging, The first (left) sphere is characterized by the background presence in the form of a small irregularly tinted fragment in the list upper part, while the other space is occupied by a «fragmentary» form with a complex contour and filling, by the accentuated profile, and by the meaningful inscription as its significant element. And as far as the inscription is used as the main foreground personage element, and it serves a caricature touch, so then one may say about the caricature principle of the whole presentment organization. used in the complex narrative paintings of PontAven period – «Night Café at Arles» 1888 and «Vision after the Sermon; Jacob Wrestling with the Angel» 1888, where all the large foreground figures are cut by the boarders of the painting. Inscription usage is typical for the works of Tahiti period, when the inscription is not made within the form, but below the presentment and more often on a separate background, near by the signature. It is of much smaller size, then the main presentment details, and it testifies that the inscription is not used as an element of the painting, but as a signature. Inscription placement within the form is characteristic only of the caricatures of 1898 – 1901, and it points out that the personal and the actual-historical aspects prevail in the work. After idealization has been done, the researcher needs to use the method of analysis with the elements of formalization and interpretation, as far as the piece requires naming more precisely the main characteristics of significant forms. Thus, such a presentment (large size + fragmentarity, complex aspect angle) is mainly typical for the foreground figures of Gouging’s narrative paintings, i.e. the given form is the main foreground personage, who performs the presentment partition into two spheres of the interaction of the forms and the background. Just the same steps are suggested to be done by the piece in regards to other elements. The second, by its significance, form, taking the central position in the piece right part, is presented in the form of a humane figure, turned to the right by its profile. The figure’s contour is simple and laconic and it gives a vision of the aspect angle and the form boarders. The contour filling is built on the contrast correlation of dark and light stains (the dark is upwards, on the left, the light is downwards, on the right). The boarder of these stains is defined by clear and accurate lines. Peculiarities of this form are the figure presentment profility and the filling contrast. Profile depiction, as it has been said earlier, is typical for Paul Gouging’s oeuvre. But similar aspect angle of the whole figure is more often used by the master for figures depiction of the second and the third grounds, while the foreground figures are more often painted under more complex angles (the head is in profile + the body is direct + the legs are in profile and so on.). The form filling contrast is the artist’s peculiar method in his picturesque works – «Night Café at Arles», «Jacob Wrestling with the Angel», especially in the works of Tahiti period, which are often built on colour contrasts («Are you jealous?», 1892; «The Spirit of the Dead Keep Watch», 1892). It means the form possesses the – 566 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» features of a background personage (simple aspect angle) and the features of a foreground personage (profile, contrast). Thus, on one hand, the form can be characterized as oppositional to the first one: 1) laconic holistic contour – complex incomplete contour; 2) holistic presentation of the entire figure – figure fragmental presentation; 3) contrast principle of the form filling – a variety of tone rendition from the clear list up to the dark stain of ink; 4) the from is almost twice as little by its size as the first one. More over, they are positioned along the edges of the presentment – in the upper right part and a bit lower, at the piece right edge. The largest background element is «the image of nature» - two forms of trees and a row of circular forms between them; the earth surface is specified by several lines. The second background element is a triangle form, directed by its peak upwards, and there could be seen a humane figure form of a rather small size at its basement. This form is specified by several tinted strokes, and that is why, it looses But, on the other hand, these two forms can be compared because of their profiles are presented, as far as they are turned to one and the same side and because of both forms containing contrast proportions of light and dark. More over, the form can be considered as the main personage because of its holistic presentation. All other forms, including the first one, are cut by the boarder of the presentment and do not possess the quality of form integrity. The only element, the form can be compared with according to the principle of integrity, is the inscription, and that allows fixing its ambiguous status. The inscription is the element of «fragmental» form and, at the same time, it is an independent image element. As it has been said earlier, such a feature is typical for caricature principle of the presentment organization. Obviously, the opposition and the comparison of two main forms, performed by the researcher, are fully based on the peculiarities of the researched piece graphical surface and the possibility of such moves is accentuated by the work of art itself. The rest image elements, singled out on the material level and placed on the piece right part, may be defined as a background, as far as they do not possess integrity, presenting separate elements, not outlined by the single contour, but just shaped by characteristic lines and strokes. its clear outlines. Though, its upward direction is accentuated and supported by the outbreak of lines, denoting the surface, whereon the trees are growing, and it is precisely above the triangular from top. Further, this vertical visually melts into the vertical of lines, forming the tree trunk and gradually is transforming into the coma. Thus, the background elements in the presentment right part are interconnected and continue one another: the humane figure melts with the triangle form, which is prolonged by the tree trunks, transforming into the coma. So, the background elements in the presentment right part require their further elaboration on the iconic level and are of fragmentary character in relation to the dominating «integral» form. On this base, the second (right) sphere of interaction of the forms and the background can be characterized as a sphere of the-central-and-the-only-«holistic»form domination over the background fragmentary elements, visually connected with each other by the common bottom-up movement character. The only thing, having been left unspecified from the point of view of the from, is the stain of tintage between the main two figures, marked on the material level as the one possessing the median position and special characteristics: by its size it can be compared with the central figure of the piece right part, by its integrity and its contour – 567 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» concretization it gives way even the triangle form of tinted stokes at the right edge of the work. The usage of strange form stains, being especially singled out on the material level, could not be in vain, as it is not typical for Paul Gouging’s oeuvre, in whose works everything elusive is an inkling of something greater. On the index level the meaning of the element is not still clear, as far as these two spheres connection function is fulfilled by the correlated profiles and the «fragmentary» form complex contour, which also forms the boarder of these two spheres and specifies the active character of their interaction. Such a position of the given background element makes the researcher address to iconic level, in order to define its meaning. Thus, the work of art does not let the researcher linger about the index level, gradually making him comprehend that there is not enough information on this level for complete and clear definition of all the piece elements. In the result of the steps, performed towards each other by the researcher and the work of art, the following index status artistic image has been generated. Index status artistic image is the result of interaction of the forms and the background. Two spheres – the left and the right have appeared because of this interaction. In the left sphere almost all the space is occupied by the large «fragmentary» form, with the complex contour and filling, while the background takes a small piece upwards and has a neutral character. This sphere can be defined as one form sphere, which qualities become the qualities of the whole sphere - fragmentarity, boarders’ complexity and filling variety, the inscription as an independent and, at the same time, a subordinate element. In the right sphere the background is specified in the form of two main fragmentary elements, interconnected by the image character. The only form is placed in the centre and is holistic. It dominates over the background, structures and centers the right part of the work. This sphere can be defined as a sphere of the «holistic» form dominating over the specified fragmentary background. These spheres interaction is performed by means of the «fragmentary» form complex contour, and also by means of two main personages’ correlation. The «fragmentary» form specification let us define the presentment spatial organization as the one possessing the caricature principle – the usage of the inscription as the background element, which is able to become an independent image element and to connect two main personages – the «fragmentary» and the «holistic» forms, and also to connect the left and the right parts of the presentment. Iconic status artistic image has two stages in its development – summative and integral. At the iconic summative level the work of art appears as a sum of elements in the form of certain personages and certain space. On this level the masterpiece requires a thorough study of the independent content of marked elements both personages and a background, in order to give them a fine definition. Correspondently, the researcher has to address such methods as analysis and formalization, which allow adequately disclosing the content of every element and naming it precisely. In the result of it the researcher gets the general scheme of the things, occurring in the work narrative space, when all the personages and the space are defined as independent elements, and their interrelation is also named. So, the main left sphere personage on the index level has been specified as a «fragmentary» form with an accentuated profile and the inscription with the complex contour and the filling. On the iconic level he presents a humane-like figure. The head, turned to the left, has a profile of a monkey, a humane hair style with a bald pate and a humane ear; there is some whiskers-like – 568 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» indumentum on his face, specified by dark tinted strokes, and also with a help of several lines there is depicted a circled brow, raised in surprise, and a round eye, looking nowhere. The humanelike body, turned a little to the right relatively to the head, is dressed in a frock coat and a white waistcoat (a contrast combination of the clear list and the dark stain, marked on the material level), but without a front and a sleeve. Laterally, from under the coat-tail there can be seen a fob-chain, which gradually looses its shape, because of the tintage at the presentment bottom edge. The left arm, bent in the elbow, is depicted with prominent muscles and covered with hair, beginning from the elbow and up to the middle of the forearm. The hand is long, with a shot thumb (a monkey feature) with detailed other three fingers (the little finger is specified neither by a contour, nor by a stain). The left hand supports something, flung over the left shoulder, consisting of two parts. The upper dark part consists of the shoulders, the elbow, the first and the head, seen behind the shoulders and denoted by several lines of hair, a brow and an eye. The lower light part resembles by its form a sack with an inscription in French: «Magot de la Guadeloupe» - «treasure/monkey of Guadeloupe». The main element of the inscription is the word «magot», which has two meanings– «treasure/monkey». Thus, the figure has the humane body, elements of clothes, the humane hair style and the ear, but monkey’s profile, the hand and the hair on his forearm and his face. More over, there is one more figure situated on his shoulder and consisting of two different parts, though outlined by one common contour: the upper one is a generalized image of a man; the lower part is the sack with the inscription of dual quality, now turning by its one meaning, then by the other one. Obviously, the main personage’s features are: 1) fragmentarity: all the figure is a set of unfinished elements, being not fully completed – the frock coat is without a sleeve and a front, the low part of the figure is not depicted thoroughly, there are only four fingers on the hand and only a part of the fob-chain is presented. These elements perform a role of indexes, indicating the features of a humane being (the frock coat, the chain, the hair style); 2) duality: features of both a man and a monkey; shouldered figure – features of both a man and a thing (the sack); the inscription, which key element has dual meaning; 3) importance of the element, containing the inscription, as the only holistic form element, being marked out on the index level. As far as the word «magot» now turns out to be «a treasure», then to be «a monkey», the whole element, containing the inscription, assumes the feature of turning now to be a thing (the sack), then to be a man. Though, monkey’s qualities prevail in this image, as far as the profile, marked out as the main sign already on the index level, has clearcut monkey’s features. This way, the personage can be defined as «the fragmentary image», possessing dual quality (monkey- man) with monkey dominating, and containing the element, possessing werewolf quality («magot» - «treasure/ monkey», the whole element –sack /man). Here, the work of art again suggests distracting from the specifics and addressing the master’s oeuvre in order to detail certain qualities of the personage. The researcher uses the method of idealization and then interpretation. The combination of humane and animal qualities in separate elements of one and the same image is not typical of picturesque creativity of Gouging and, possibly, it serves as a caricature touch. The usage of words for an element quality disclosure is also not characteristic of the master’s oeuvre, as far as the master counted that, «in the masterpiece the most essential, elevated and nonmaterial is the thing, which is not expressed, it is sort of implied between the lines – without any – 569 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» colour or words, - but it is not built up materially by them». Such image peculiarities, not typical for the master’s serious works, are apparently the results of the caricature character of the presentment, when the inscription acquires the main meaning and becomes a means of the presentment features disclosure, and combination of the features of a monkey and a man in one personage is a character of the proclaiming comparison. But full and precise personage’s definition is not possible on the basis of the personage himself. Firstly, in a black cylinder, with a hair style, resembling the one of the first personage, and black whiskers. There is a brow and an eye depicted with a help of two lines on his face. The man is dressed in a frock coat with a white front and white trousers with a broad belt. He holds a walking-stick in his right arm. He is bare foot. The feet are with long toes. This personage’s figure is somewhat strange for a man. A long arm, below the knee, short legs and long toes – all these are the features of a monkey. More over, the man’s clothes are the full meaning of the inscription is not clear «Magot de la Guadeloupe» - «Treasure/monkey of Guadeloupe». Why precisely of Guadeloupe? And what kind of treasure is it spoken about? And the main question – who is exactly the monkey? Secondly, the figure, being flung across the shoulder and containing the inscription, is not distinct. On one hand, it is a «thing», which belongs to the personage; on the other hand, it is a personage, who is actively intruding into the second sphere of the presentment. Such active striving for another sphere, and also the profile turning to the same side allow suggesting that, the given personage is a «fragmentary image» and is defined through the comparison with the main personage of the presentment right sphere and, apparently, he specifies the first main personage in his turn. So, the work of art gives the researcher a possibility to compare two main personages, and, besides, it raises some new questions, defining the researcher’s interest directionality. The same sort of moves is suggested to be done by the work of art towards the other elements of the presentment. On the index level the second personage (the main in the presentment right part) has been characterized as a «holistic» form in the shape of a humane half-faced figure with contrast filling. On the iconic level he represents an image of a man also strange. The cylinder, the frock coat, the walking-stick are evidently fashionable clothes of European type, add here bare feet and light trousers, girt with a broad belt – the clothes of lower-class and, obviously, southern. Thus, the main feature of the figure, apart from the wholeness, is the contrast of the combinations: man’s image and monkey’s figure; European type, fashionable clothes and simple, southern type of garment (light girt trousers and bare feet). That is the personage can be defined as a «holistic image» with the dominant of the humane, but with elements of a monkey, dressed in half-fashionable European half-simple southern clothes. It is important to note, that the personage somewhat resembles the «fragmentary image»: he is also dressed the frock coat, the hair style is similar, the whiskers, the eyes and the brow are depicted the same way, as of the figure, flung over the shoulder, again with monkey’s figure. But in comparison with the first personage, this one has an additional characteristic – the combination of two styles’ elements in his clothes (fashionable European and simple southern). It is impossible to define more precisely the type of southern clothes, basing on the figure itself, and that allows paying attention to the background, surrounding «the holistic image». The background is of fragmentary character, it is scarcely depicted. Its main element is – 570 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» trees with magnificent coma and fruit, which some part (closer to the centre) is depicted over the precipice. We should underline, that the presentment of the fruit-bearing trees with gross heads is characteristic of the first Tahiti creative period of Paul Gouging («Ave Maria», 1891), when the magnificent fruit-bearing trees are the visualization of Tahiti’s lands fertility. The row of circular forms between the utmost trees, sometimes connected by abrupt lines, is impossible to be defined as a complete iconic sign, as for that there is not enough depiction on Artistic image of iconic summative level represents a sort of general scheme, where all the elements and all their interconnections are separately defined. The first element – «the fragmentary image» has the following features: 1) it organizes the space of all the work of art: its contour is the boarder of two spheres; 2) it occupies almost all the space of its own sphere, what allows defining it as a sphere of the form; 3) it possesses the caricature features: the inscription and the combination of the elements of a man and a monkey, what gives the list. But we may suppose that, the following element carries a decorative character. The triangle form background element resembles the image of Tahitian bamboo huts with the roofs of the shapes similar to those, Gouging depicted in the works of Tahiti period. A humane figure with dark long hair, clothed in a long garment, which starts from his waist, and standing at the hut basement, can be identified as the presentment of Tahiti aborigine, what is typical of Gouging’s works of Tahiti period. The last background element is the stain of tintage between two main personages and it cannot be also defined as an iconic sign, possessing a certain meaning. Thus, the background contains two elements, which do not have any conceptual charge in the system of iconic signs, and which are just indicators of personages’ special interaction in the artistic image material status, which results have remained useless for the painter in the plot concretization. On the whole, the background carries an indicative, explanatory character and presents Tahiti as a scene of action with a help of specific elements: the native person nearby the Tahitian hut, the magnificent fruit-bearing trees – the fertile nature of Tahiti. So, a certain artistic image of iconic summative level has been formed in the result of the abovementioned mutual moves performance. a possibility to carry this principle over the whole presentment; 4) it «possesses» the figure, which presents by itself a semi-person and a semithing and contains the inscription on itself; 5) it contains the inscription on itself, which appears to be its constituent and an independent element; 6) it is turned into the second sphere on account of its profile, of the figure on its shoulder and of the inscription, and it means that, it could be defined during the comparison with the main element of the right part of the work of art. The inscription is singled out as a relatively independent element, and it has the following features: 1) it is presented in such a way, that it could be easily read and understood; 2) it is in French → the knowledge of the French language is obligatory, in order to comprehend the meaning; 3) the main word is «magot», it has dual meaning – «treasure/monkey», what gives the whole phrase the possibility to transfigure one meaning into the other; 4) it contains the element, denoting the concrete geographical place «Magot de la Guadeloupe» - «treasure/monkey of Guadeloupe» → preliminary knowledge of such a place as Guadeloupe is necessary, in order to understand, why it is needed for the master as the holistic phrase element; 5) as it is the only holistic element of the presentment left part, so it can be compared with the main element of the right part. – 571 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» The second main element – «the holistic image» has the following features: 1) it organizes the right sphere space, being its centre and dominating over the background; 2) it contains the contrast of clothes elements of fashionable European and simple southern; 3) it possesses the caricature features: the humane image, but with monkey’s figure, the combination of incompatible elements of clothes; 4) let’s compare it with «the fragmentary image»: the profile, the hair style, the whiskers, the frock coat, monkey’s features (the figure, the foot); 5) it is almost fully specified by itself, the only thing, which is left undefined, is the type of southern clothes, which could be detailed through the comparison with the background. The background of the presentment right part can be also singled out as a general element (the Tahitian hut with the aborigine at the basement and the Tahitian fruit-bearing trees), and it has the following features: 1) an indicative role: notwithstanding with the fragmentary presentation and general interpretation, nevertheless, it is possible to understand that, the hut is Tahitian, the humane figure at the basement is an image of a native person of Tahiti, the trees with magnificent heads and fruit is a presentment of Tahitian fertile nature; 2)the explanatory function towards the dominating figure, and the background dependence as a separate element. One also singles out the element, excluded of the iconic signs system and unimportant for the plot disclosure – the stain of careless tintage between two main personages. These elements have the following interconnections. The main personage is «the holistic image», as far as it is specified through the background, which explains it. At the same time, «the fragmentary image» is defined only through the comparison with it. The presentment format verticality, primacy of one figure, which is simply depicted in the landscape, and the image features of duality and ambiguity – all these points at the combining of elements of portraiture and caricature genres in the given masterpiece. We may suppose that, the given work represents a caricature portrait, where the depicted person is shown as «the holistic image», and his accusatory essence is depicted as «the fragmentary image». In order to prove the supposition, the researcher should imagine all the presentment elements in their interaction, and this is the target, the work of art itself is striving for on the iconic integral level. On the iconic integral level the masterpiece wishes to be disclosed as some integrity, as far as all the elements and their interconnections have been already discretely defined; and in order the plot level could acquire an emotional quality, it is necessary to find out the correlation between separate parts of the whole and to define a new quality of the formed emotional ensemble. This new quality will be the holistic artistic image of the iconic status. In this case, the researcher addresses, first of all, those methods, which work for fixing interrelations among the elements and for finding the relations which could be indicated by the work of art itself. In the case with the graphical work of Gouging, such methods are synthesis and analogy. The researcher chooses synthesis as a method, allowing putting together the parts of the integrity, having been split in the course of its analysis and enriching the knowledge of the integrity due to the knowledge of its parts independent content. And the method of analogy suggests using of the painting itself, already on the material level accenting the attention on two parts of the work of art, the parts which are different, but have some similar features. And the definition of similarity, of resemblance of subjects, which are generally different - is the essence of analogy. More over, the work of art defines the order of elements interconnection, it builds up the logic – 572 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» of gradual interconnection firstly of separate elements, then of spheres and then of the whole integrity. In this case the process consists of three stages: 1) connection of the main figure with the background in the presentment right sphere and a later definition of the acquired new quality; 2) connection of the right sphere main figure with the left sphere main figure of the presentment and a later specification of new qualities of both personages, and then of two spatial spheres; 3) connection of two spatial spheres and a later specification of the acquired new quality – the integrity of the whole scene. 1. Connection of the main figure with the background in the presentment right sphere is necessary for the quality definition of the southern type of clothes of «the holistic image». Thus, one should draw an analogy between the background, as an integral element (object А), and the element of clothes, which must be specified (object В). Object А possesses the following qualities: N1is of dependant character, as an element, carrying the indicative function - dependence; N2 is subordinated as an explanatory element to the right sphere main figure– subordination to the main figure; N3 – depiction of elements has a strongly marked southern character; N4 – the image of Tahiti nature – Tahitian quality. Object В possesses the following qualities: N1 has a dependant character as a holistic form element – dependence; N2 is subordinated to the right sphere main figure as a secondary element of its form, as far as the dominating element is European type of clothes – subordination to the main figure; N3 – this element presentment is of strongly marked southern character. Thus, objects А and В have three similar qualities, and, consequently, one may come to a conclusion of their similarity and carry an additional feature N4 over object В, i.e. southern type of clothes possesses Tahitian quality. After the analogy has been drawn and two elements interaction character has been defined, the work of art suggests interpreting the interrelation from the master’s oeuvre point of view, in order to disclose the essence of the interrelation and its necessity for the painter in the given piece. That is why the researcher may use the methods of idealization and interpretation. If we address to the punditry’s base, then we know that, such type of clothes was instituted as obligatory and official by French government for the native people of Tahiti. It was an attempt to inoculate them the norms of civilized society, at the same time not so strongly infringing their national qualities. During his first visit to Tahiti, Gouging met such a mergence of European civilization elements with Tahitian culture everywhere. This way, the main feature of the main personage, apart from the form integrity and the combination of humane and monkey’s elements, is the contrast combination of two types of clothes – fashionable European and simple Tahitian. The striving to merge the best qualities of «decaying» European culture with pure and primeval Tahitian culture is on the whole typical for Gouging’s oeuvre: «the West has rotten at present time, but all, what there is mighty in it, can, as Antaeus, acquire new powers, by touching the lands of the East» (Gouging, 2001, p. 122). Gouging calls Tahiti «a barbarism», which is «rejuvenation» for him (Gouging, 2001, p. 165): «Yes, the savage has taught much the old civilized man, he was taught a lot by these ignoramus – the science of living and the art of being happy» (Gouging, 2001, p. 430). Synthesis of European and Tahitian cultures is as rejuvenation and freeing from «the perversion, dreaming on the bottoms of all the souls and generated by the decadent civilization» (Gouging, 2001, p. 370), so, beginning from 1890-s, such synthesis was the main creative target of the master. – 573 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» Nevertheless, the master points out the absurdity of the combination of European civilization and Tahitian culture in his letters and articles about colonial government’s attempts «to refine» Tahitian barbarism: «The life in Papeete has soon become a burden to me. It is Europe – the Europe, I has been thinking to get rid of, - but still worsen by colonial snobbishness, childish and caricature-absurd imitation. Not for that have I arrived from so afar » (Gouging, 2001, p. 344). Thus, the contrast combination of fashionable European and official Tahitian clothes can be interpreted as an absurdity visualization of colonial government’s attempt to merge outwardly European civilization and Tahitian culture (as far as we are speaking only about the clothes), and «the holistic image» - as a representative of colonial administration. It is important to note the interaction character of the figure, combining in him the elements of European civilization and Tahitian culture, with the background, presenting Tahiti as a fertile and peculiar land. The figure dominates over the background and interacts with it only through the similarity of the only element of clothes. Thus, the combination of the figure and the background is also of external character– there is no any essential interaction between them, they exist as if by themselves, though being connected by the hierarchic structure of dominating and subordinating elements. The background appears as the base for the figure’s portrait, specifying the clothes detail, but it is not an equal acting person, creating the characteristics of the portrayed. So, the entire right sphere can be called a portrait of the representative of colonial administration on the background of Tahitian nature, where the background just specifies the clothes detail (the trousers and the belt). Though, the holistic characteristics of the portrayed cannot be acquired without the comparison with the left sphere personage. After the separate element interpretation is over, the researcher, being guided by the work of art, addresses to formalization, which allows fixing the acquired qualities as some features, forming a notion of this element as integrity. So, the central personage of the piece right part and the main personage of the whole presentment possesses the following main qualities: 1) it dominates over the background, which specifies only one detail of his clothes; 2) it depicts a man, but with the body resembling a monkey; 3) it visualizes the absurdity of the outer superficial combination of European civilization and Tahitian culture on the part of colonial administration; 4) it depicts the representative of Tahiti colonial administration; 5) it must be compared with the personage of the presentment left sphere. Then, in correspondence to the masterpiece logic, the process of interconnection passes on to a new stage, when the researcher again uses idealization, interpretation and formalization. 2. Connecting of the main personage with the left sphere figure is already accentuated on the material level and can be done by the researcher with the help of the method of analogy, when the compared objects will be the central personage of the piece right part (object А) and the main personage of the presentment left sphere (object В). Object А possesses the following qualities: N1 – the presentment of the humane figure in a frock; N2 – accentuation of the profile; N3 – half-long hair style of triangle form is marked on his head; N4 – are the elements of monkey (the constitution, the foot); N5 – is the representative of Tahitian colonial administration. Object B possesses the following qualities: N1 – the presentment of the humane figure in a frock; N2 – accentuation of the profile; N3 – halflong hair style of the same form, as on the object’s – 574 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» A head, is marked; N4 – the presence of monkey’s features (the profile, the hand). Thus, objects А and В have four similar features, what allows making a conclusion about their resemblance and carrying an additional feature N5 from object А over object В, i.e. «the fragmentary image» is also an image of the representative of Tahitian colonial administration. This way, the main personage of the left sphere discloses the following qualities of the representative of Tahitian colonial administration. Only external fragmentary attributes have been left from his humane shape, such as elements of a frock coat (the front part with the waistcoat and the coat tail), a part of the fob-chain, the humane hair style and the ear; there is only a general impression of the humane shape, more accurately, a part of the shape, as far as the figure is not whole. More over, the pattern of transfiguration, turninginto, which is in the figure on the shoulder and the inscription, together with the incompleteness and image fragmentarity testify that the transfiguration process is not over. Comparison with the right sphere personage shows the direction of the process – a transfiguration from a man into a monkey. And the result of the process is presented by the inscription, when the word «magot» appears in the meaning of «monkey». «Monkey of Guadeloupe» is the inscription on the humane-like «sack», and all together they express the essence of what is going on with the representative of colonial administration. Though, the reason of such a transfiguration is left unclear. Probably, the inscription can explain it. The second meaning of the word «magot» is «treasure». And if we have a look from this point of view at the humane-like figure on the shoulder, then it is presented as a man turning into a thing (sack) with the inscription «Treasure of Guadeloupe». The possessor and the owner of the sack is the representative of Tahitian colonial administration, for whom it does not at all matter whether it is a man or a thing, for him it is just a burden, flung across the shoulder and being a treasure. Here, a treasure is in the meaning of a valuable thing, the thing, being able to enrich. Thus, we may suppose, that the representative of colonial administration is losing his humane shape, turning into a monkey, because he treats the animate as things, contributing his enrichment. Nevertheless, the second part of the phrase is still left unclear, the part mentioning the concrete geographical place – Guadeloupe, and also the personage’s active turning to the right part of the presentment is still incomprehensible. The figure itself is bent to the right, and the humane-like figure on the shoulder is simply intruding into the right sphere by its first and its head, what gives quite an aggressive tone from the left sphere side to the interaction of two spheres. Apparently, the comparison of two spheres presentments will answer all the questions – this is precisely the way, the masterpiece attracts the main attention of the researcher to the third stage of the piece elements interrelation. 3. Connecting of two spheres presentments, where the main elements are similar, can be performed with a help of analogy, where the left sphere will present object A, and the right sphere - object B. Object А possesses the following qualities: N1 – is a vertical half of the presentment, where the form dominates over the background; N2 – is the main personage – the representative of Tahitian colonial administration; N3 – the main personage possesses features of both a man and a monkey; N4 – beside the main personage, there is a secondary holistic element, consisting of two elements – of the animate and inanimate; N5 – the secondary element performs an explanatory function towards the main personage; N6 – the main personage is not any how related towards what is going inside the secondary element; – 575 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» N7 – the secondary element has a status of «a treasure»; N8 – the main personage has a status of «the treasure» possessor; N9 – «the treasure» is something animate, transfiguring into a thing; N10 – the main personage, enriching on the account of the animate transfiguring into a thing, loses his humane shape. Object B possesses the following qualities: N1 – is a vertical half of the presentment, where the form dominates over the background; N2 – is the main personage – the representative of Tahitian colonial administration; N3 – the main inanimate, into a thing, which is possessed by the main personage and he is enriching on its account; 4) the main personage, enriching on the account of the animate transfiguring into a thing, loses his humane shape. All the transferred features are of interpretational character. They widen the content of the presentment right sphere and add up some fragments (for example, the relation character of the main personage and the background). But there are no structural changes. In the given case, after the analogy has personage possesses features of both a man and a monkey; N4 – beside the main personage, there is a secondary holistic element, consisting of two elements – of the animate and inanimate (the background); N5 – the secondary element performs an explanatory function towards the main personage; N6 – the main personage is not any how related towards what is going inside the secondary element. From the abovementioned we may make a conclusion, that the given objects are similar in six features. As far as the first object has four more additional features, it is necessary to ascertain that the similar features are substantial. All of them present the main formal elements and their formal connections, i.e. give a notion of formal system of both spheres organization in the presentment, and it is of great importance. Conclusion by analogy contains the resemblance of two spheres in six substantial features and allows carrying the additional features of the left sphere over the right one: 1) the secondary element of the right sphere has also a status of «a treasure» - the background, presenting the fertile Nature of Tahiti, has a status of a treasure; 2) the main personage of the right sphere has also a status of «the treasure» possessor; 3) «the treasure» for the main personage is something animate, transfiguring into a thing, - the living Nature of Tahiti transfigures into been carried on, the work of art does not direct the researcher to the methods of idealization and interpretation, but, first of all, to the method of formalization, which allows structuring the acquired integral picture of what is going on in the spheres. After the analogy has been carried on, two parts of the presentment form into a single scene, where the right part presents a holistic structure of the scene, and the left part is its fragmentary meaningful filling. Actually, one part is a formal model, while the other is its interpretation, of course, not the complete one, as far as the main significant moments are already in the right part, but the left part explains and completes them to a large extent. Thus, two parts complete each other up to the one integrity, but they are not equal, as far as the main structure is integrally preset by the right part, presented in the form of the portrait genre. The second (left) part is only a contensive fragment of the first one, taken out of it limits and actively striving back; it carries in itself the main caricature touch – accusatory comparison, the motive of transfiguration of the man into a monkey, which basis is hidden in the wordplay of the word «magot». Now, the researcher needs the interpretation of the acquired formal model, in order to fill the form by the masterpiece concrete content. – 576 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» So, the main personage, depicted as the portrayed - the representative of Tahitian colonial administration is fasten a nickname «Monkey of Guadeloupe». If we pay attention to the portrait features, which are noted by all the researchers of Gouging’s oeuvre, we can specify the given image as the caricature portrait of Tahiti governor Lacascade. The geographical name «Guadeloupe» points at the governor’s native land - Guadeloupe island, which main population was Negroes. It is known from Gouging’s letters, that governor’s origin was well-known and for Gouging himself European civilization and Tahitian culture. Thus, if we join these two main features, then we may come to a conclusion, that Gouging implied deep personal meaning into the caricature. The problem of just external merging of European civilization and Tahitian culture disturbed the painter during all his life on Tahiti, because the target of his creative work was contensive synthesis, not mortifying both sides, but giving a new life. His social position on Tahiti was of the artist’s special torment, as far as he considered himself to be a great painter, but he it was of significant importance as Lacascade’s essential characteristic. While mentioning Lacascade in his letters, Gouging always called him «Negro Lacascade», in spite of the fact that Lacascade was a Frenchman. This way, the given image is the caricature portrait of Lacascade, and it is proved not only by the similarity, but also by the inscription, containing the name of the island, where he was born. In the work of art the governor is presented loosing his humane shape, because of his relation towards the animate nature of Tahiti as to the means of enrichment. We must say that, such a viewpoint about the governor was rather well-spread at that time in Papeete. And the caricature had a rather actual meaning for the inhabitants of Tahitian colonies: «…Our patience is being exhausted, we have suffered enough. As it has been wittily noted by one of our friends: palm bugs, caterpillars, cockroaches, wasps, rats, mice, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes and Cyclops – all these disasters do not happen to us annually, while stupid administration is an everyday trouble, which threatens to devastate the colony and at the end of ends to kill us the poor» (Danielson, 1969, p. 113). But, beside his humane shape loosing because of transfiguring of the living, the animate into a thing, able to enrich, the presentment possesses one more characteristic – external merging of had to ask the powers that be, having lost their humane shape, for a favor: «…I could not stop feeling ashamed while thinking that, I was going to ask such a pitiful and contemptible person to do me a favor. (Why should we depend upon contemptible persons?)» (Danielson, 1969, p. 86), who, showing the intensions «to ennoble» the savages, but, in fact, were just battening on their natural paradise, open to everyone, and were killing it: «…Tahitian land is becoming French and by and by all the old state of things will disappear. Our missioners have already brought here a lot of protestant hypocrisy and have destroyed some part of the poetry » (Danielson, 1969, p. 133). This way, Paul Gouging expressed his personal view point about a concrete man in the given work, the man, who was trying to merge just formally European civilization and Tahitian culture by only one reason – to enrich on the account of the later. Such a person deserves only the name of «Monkey of Guadeloupe», as far as he totally looses his human shape in the artist’s eyes. So, the integral artistic image of iconic status is the caricature portrait of Tahiti governor Lacascade, presenting his true image of «Monkey of Guadeloupe», which, demonstrating an absurd attempt to merge just formally, externally European civilization and Tahitian culture in – 577 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» elements of his clothes, he has, actually, only one target – enrichment on the account of Tahiti. Such behavior of governor Lacascade has brought him to his humane shape degradation in the eyes of the colony inhabitants and, first of all, of Paul Gouging himself. In the result of iconographic analysis the dialogue of the researcher and the piece has come to its logical ending – formation of the integral artistic image of iconic status, which possesses the quality of completeness. In this case, it is obvious, that the main elements of the presentment work proves that the given piece belongs to Paul Gouging’s oeuvre, and precisely to the period of the first visit to Tahiti. The iconographic analysis has also proved that there is an implied content in the caricature work. During creation of this piece, Gouging appeared exactly as a great master, he continued salving the main problem of his creativity – the problem of the possibilities searching of contensive synthesis of the West and the East. This very conclusion lets to consider Gouging’s caricature inheritance as an obligatory part of the are full of implied actual-historical and personal content, and that requires from the researcher and the spectator the corresponding knowledge of Paul Gouging’s life on Tahiti, of his relations with governor Lacascade, of dual translation of the French word «magot». The iconographic research has proved that the work of art represents the main Gouging’s creative methods, being used on the given stage of his creativity; just the same methods are typical of his «serious» picturesque works. One of the leading methods is the compositional partition of the image into two interactive and intercompleting parts; one of them is given by large fragmentary figures, and the other – by holistic figures of smaller sizes. These parts correlation is most often built up on the comparison of characteristic elements – aspect angles («Night Café at Arles », 1888), profiles («Her name is Vairaumati», 1892), contrast colours and tints («Vision after the Sermon», 1888). This artistic touch was developed by the artist in his first independent period of creative work in PontAven and Arles, and also it was used by him in complicated narrative works of the first Tahitian period. Presence of these features in the caricature artist’s oeuvre. Conclusion Thus, the iconography notion disclosure, as the image outlining in accordance of the artistic image dialogue conception, actually allows defining, outlining, contouring, describing the work of art as a graphic text – a material evidence, testifying the process and the quality of its creation. The result of such an iconographic research is an integral artistic image of iconic status, being able to attribute the work of art, i.e. to introduce it into the author’s oeuvre context, and to disclose all the implied depth of the masterpiece. Acknowledgements The research has been supported by an individual grant for young scientists of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Scientific Fond in 2007, and also by the grants for young scientists’ researches, supported by SFU in 2007 and 2008 years. The author expresses her gratitude to Professor Vladimir Zhukovskij and to Professor Natal’ja Koptseva. References V. Arslanov, Western Art-History of XX Century (Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt, Tradicija, 2005). – 578 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» B. Danielson, Gouging in Polynesia (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1969). P.Gouging, Noa Noa. Letters. Essays. Articles (St. Petersburg: Azbuka-klassika, 2001). O. Kochik, The world of Gouging (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1991). N. Koptseva, «The Creation Problem in Fundamental Ontology of Martin Heidegger and Modern Theory of Fine Arts», Journal of Siberian Federal University: Humanities and social, 3 (2008), 338346. N. Koptseva, V. Zhukovskiy, «The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations between a Work of Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator», Journal of Siberian Federal University: Humanities and social, 2 (2008), 226-244. L. Limanskaja, Verbalities and Visuality in the Context of Iconological Interpretation of Art, Vestnik of Moscow State University of Culture and Art, 4 (2004), 23- 46. E. Panofskij, Meaning and Interpretation of Fine Art (St. Petersburg: Akademicheskij proekt, 1999). E. Panofskij, Perspective as a «Symbolic Form» (St. Petersburg: Azbuka-klassika, 2004). G. Shpet, Art as an Aspect of Knowledge: Selection of Philosophical and Cultural Works (Moscow: Rosspjen, 2007). Val’ter, Paul Gauguin (Moscow: Art-Rodnik, 2007). V. Zhukovskij, N. Koptseva, Propositions of the Theory of Pictorial Art: Education guidance (Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2004). V. Zhukovskij, N. Koptseva, D. Pivovarov. Visual Essence of Religion (Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2006). V. Zhukovskiy, D. Pivovarov, «The Nature of Visual Thinking», Journal of Siberian Federal University: Humanities and social, 1 (2008), 149-158. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 580-586 ~~~ УДК 396.1 Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies Natalia M. Libakova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 This article is about the urgent modern problems of the interaction cultural studies and gender theory. Separation of gender category and initiation of gender theory provided new opportunities for cultural and social studies. It is the author’s opinion that modern Russian humanitarian science only starts to study gender methodology. There are two parallel trends in the Russian humanitarian science: study of the western experience and creation of Russian theories and fields of application for the gender approach. The book «Epistemology of the closet» by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky can be offered as example of the effectiveness of gender methodology applied to the study of cultural phenomena which is absolutely essential for the understanding of the specific character of modern diversified culture. Keywords: «women’s studies»; «cultural studies»; gender; «gender studies»; women’s language; «queer identity»; Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky; «Epistemology of the closet» Point of view. Modern development of research trends in the world and, in particular, Russian humanitarian science is mostly accounted for by changes caused by the so-called «anthropologic turn» which is characterized by a turn to the complex study of a human being and culture in their integrity. Changes in the scientific perception of a human being caused by the «anthropologic turn» appeared as an attempt to find the way out of a complicated situation identified by the great minds of the world as «the human crisis», «anthropological catastrophe», «death of culture» and «end of history». «An integral individual» has been out of the scientific analysis for a long time. There has been no place for him/her in the system of social sciences and the humanities. Until recently even anthropology * 1 was considered a science focusing only on natural dependence of a human being. «The anthropologic turn» has affected all spheres of anthropology, changed the research trends and made the problem of a human being the central point and the main subject for scientific research, thus marking the transit from sociocentrism to anthropocentrism. The following anthropologic trends appeared in the sphere of socio-humanitarian research: phenomenology, personalism, existentialism, structuralism, hermeneutics, and cultural anthropology. One shall particularly note «cultural Studies» based on the idea that modern world is a total multiplicity: class, racial, ethnic and cultural (principle of «multiculturalism»). Within the frameworks of cultural studies this research Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 580 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies trend considers a great number of objects and phenomena that have not been studied before as they were considered marginal. These are such cultural phenomena as ethnic and sexual minorities, pop music, various types of sexual behavior, identity etc. While «cultural studies» are focused on urgent modern problems, «culture» in the Russian science is the subject of culturology traditionally based on logicism originating from G.W.F. Gegel’s philosophy, and very much theorized and apart from practical research, the study of phenomena from real cultural environment. Here Russian science shall follow the world trends of scientific development caused by «the anthropologic turn». Covering a wide range of phenomena in modern cultural environment, «cultural studies» develop in the same way as gender studies formed on the basis of «women’s studies». «Women’s studies» are the result of a powerful social women’s movement called «feminism» – which is a women’s movement on behalf of their rights in various spheres, opportunity to actively manifest women’s spiritual creativity. Separation of gender category and initiation of gender studies provided new opportunities for cultural and social studies. Gender is constructed and considered as a stratification category interconnected with other categories such as race, ethnos, class, and age. Gender studies initially appeared and developed in American science and education sphere (1960-1970). Later on, in 1980’s such research programs appeared in West-European science. In the 90’s of the XX-th century gender studies became wide-spread all over the world. The prevailing traditionally men’s discourse is criticized within the frameworks of gender studies (Yu. Kristeva, H. Cixous and L. Irigaray’s concepts)1 with all the researched phenomena, 1 Gertrude Postl, With Freud and without Freud /Sex. Gender. Culture. German and Russian studies, M.: Russian State Humanities University, 2003. regardless of their natural original properties and qualities, being fixed in the language and transferred into strict logical intelligible systems. Women’s style of scientific research and women’s expressive language is developing in response to that. H. Cixous calls utopian expressive language «women’s writing» as contrasted to «men’s» rational writing. L. Prigarey speaks about a principal change in symbolism – from monosemantic «phallic» to polysemantic «vaginal». The diversity of terms accentuates in different ways new specific understanding of the language with no central terms forming the basis of hierarchy. Yu. Kristeva believes that marginal feminist writing can change the existing «colonial» pattern. Thus, scientific style of presentation is being developed fixing static- and monosemanticdefinitions-rejecting approach to the world. New «milticoloured» vivid women’s language free of rigid patterns of strict logic is formed and firmly established in opposition to the traditional men’s discourse based on strict logic where all phenomena receive a fixed monosemantic assessment such as «black» or «white». Example. In the last decade of the XXth century Russian human studies were characterized by the so-called «culturological boom», an increased interest in various western theories and studies in the sphere of philosophy, culture and other disciplines. Gender studies were also involved into this process, but it is an objective fact that Russian science was falling behind in this sphere. On cannot ignore certain achievements in the study of the conceptual field of gender studies (Gender Studies Centres work in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara, Tver and Saratov, research carried out, scientific works being published) but still modern Russian science sometimes considers such research as marginal2. 2 – 581 – Gender Studies in Russian and the CIS. Who is who. Reference book. – Compiling editor Zoya Khotkina.M.: Documentation Centre Women’s archive, 2000. – 160 p Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies E.g. Analyzing «Epistemology of the closet» by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky, a famous feminist, O.V. Timofeeva1, Russian philosopher, asserts that the topic of homosexual identity Kosofski’s work is devoted to is absolutely irrelevant for the Russian scientific environment. Timofeeva called her review «Mysteries of an empty closet», thus emphasizing that «Epistemology of the closet» in her opinion is absolutely senseless «empty» work. As for the Russian higher education, only few universities offer courses connected to gender studies trends. Gender theory is present in the university curriculum mostly as author’s or elective courses. Russian researches point out that modern Russian humanitarian science only starts to study gender methodology. The open situation has given rise to two parallel trends in the Russian humanitarian science: study of the western experience and creation of Russian theories and fields of application for the gender approach. Another peculiarity of gender studies understanding in the Russian science is also worth mentioning. Gender theory is surely connected to the women’s studies and feminist theory, but these theories are not identical, each having its own specific features. However, the fact that gender theory in Russia has developed on the basis of the feminist theory is very important and urgent, because feminist theory in Russia is still a theory and has not caused any significant changes in a traditionally patriarchal Russian culture. Following the trend of women’s studies gender studies give an opportunity to analyze various directions of women’s activity and their importance in all spheres of social life as well as make certain issues that have been out of scientific research, concealed or ignored urgent: racial, ethnical and sexual minorities’ problems. Feminist and gender studies are one 1 Timofeeva, O.V., Mysteries of an empty closet //New Literary Review, 2003 – No. 64 way or another connected to the issue of identity identification, analysis of social inequality and personality identity connection, social status dependence upon the person’s gender and sexual identity. The expanding research field of gender studies is covering new edges of identity which results in appearance of new terms. The term «queer identity»2 was first introduced by Tereza de Lauretis meaning «odd» and «eccentric» identity in order to define a complicated concept of women’s homosexuality. This term became widely used in feminist theory in order to define «odd» and «eccentric» identities, not only homosexual but all modern identities that are out of the frameworks of the traditional gender dichotomy. The term «queer identity» appeared due to the development of the feminist theory, transfer to post feminism and further establishment of gender theory the subject of which is not restricted to one sex – female or male («women’s studies», «man’s studies»), or two sexes, but is restricted to minimum five sexes: female, male, heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual. Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky is one of the most influential and prominent theorist of the modern feminism (T. de Lauretis, J. Butler, E. Grosz)3 who dared to outrage the society by extraordinary and queer topics of her research and extraordinary approaches. Modern female-thinkers are turning to the study of real cultural phenomena, address urgent issues connected to sexual and gender identity. The book «Epistemology of the closet»4 by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky was published in 1990 and translated into Russian in early 2000’s. Researchers assess «Epistemology of the closet» 2 3 4 – 582 – The term «queer» (English queer – odd, strange, other) throws back to gay and lesbian studies which appeared and were spread in the West in 1970-1980’s. I. Zherebkina Feminist theory of the 1990’s: problematization of women’s subjectiveness/Introduction to gender studies / SPb.: Aletheia. – 2001 Eve Sedgwik Kosofsky, Epistemology of the closet /M.: Idea-Press, 2002 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies as a very important step in the development of gay-theory facilitating the establishment of queertheory and negotiation of dead-end of ideological and political pseudo-neutrality in the vast sphere of humanitarian sciences. Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky defined modern culture as homophobe and on the basis of this axiomatic statement considers the definition of male homosexuality to be one of the major problems of the XX-th century in «Epistemology of the closet». The author refers to literary works, analyzes them, distinguishes and articulates homosexual discourse in the sphere of western culture. Kosofski specifies two approaches to the definition of importance for the problem of homo/heterosexual characteristics: minoritizing and universalizing. The first approach treats a problem as a problem of a certain minority, whereas the second approach treats the same problem as inevitably important for all people. Problem consideration on the basis of these two approaches can also be extrapolated to the understanding of other problems regarding not only sexuality. The analysis of literary works (by Wilde, Nietzsche, Melville, Proust and Henry James) is based on the objective axiomatic facts appealing to which Kosofski gives grounds and proves her point-of view. It is an objective fact that people differ from each other. On the one hand this fact is not denied and is confirmed, but on the other hand a number of problems and complicated issues arise here, including those regarding cultural, social and self-identification, as well as the absence of a clear system of criteria and features on the basis of which one could define and classify these differences. The most widelyused principle to distinguish the peculiarities of human–beings is as follows: «naturally occuringcultural», «natural-unnatural». Analyzing such binary combinations Kosofski calls into question binarisms established in the western culture and proves their invalidity. She criticizes the widespread understanding of everything cultural as «only cultural», as contrasted to natural, biological, supposedly easy to change and amend in the necessary «right» way. Kosofski analyzes gender inequality problem as typical for the human culture, that is unnatural quality with no biological foundation and thus changeable. By this statement widespread among many researchersfeminists Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky criticizes the careless attitude to culture as flexible and easy to change. Studying such dichotomous pairs as culture—nature, activity – passivity, sense – feelings, spirituality – corporeity Kosofski defines the peculiarities of perception of these oppositions and their role in culture. She is interested in the fact that the content of these dichotomies is compared with the content of «man-woman» dichotomy. In this case culture, activity, sense, and spirituality are considered «men’s» elements, and nature, passivity, feelings, and corporeity are considered «women’s» elements correspondingly. Kosofski proves that firstly, the abovementioned dichotomies considered as a matter-of-course truth are formed under the pressure of ideals and values of the traditional patriarchal culture. Secondly, the researcher points out that the comparison of the above-mentioned dichotomies and the «man-woman» dichotomy can lead to a wrong understanding of the components of these dichotomies. Within the frameworks of the problem under consideration Kosofski does not consider the following oppositions as equal: natural-unnatural, heterosexual – homosexual, normal – abnormal. Here she calls in question the established «equalities»: natural = heterosexual = normal and unnatural = homosexual = abnormal. The author believes that such an approach dividing people’s identities into «right» – «wrong» and «natural» – «unnatural» is unacceptable and is a violation of human’s rights as it violates the right of a person to be as he/she is. In this respect – 583 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies Kosofski touches upon the problem of tolerance in modern society consisting of many different individuals and being a synthesis of the variety of cultures, subcultures etc. «Epistemology of the closet» reveals a clear anti-homophobe approach. The author emphasizes that it is unacceptable to depress people because of their «unnatural» sexual identity as well as on the basis of gender, race, nationality, age, physical defects etc. Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky also touches upon such a problem as terminological tension urgent for the whole gender theory. The researcher differentiates between sex, gender, sexuality and sexual intercourse1. She also makes distinction between feminist, gender, gay/lesbian and antihomophobe studies. Gender is considered an analytical core of feminist gender study, and sexuality is an analytical core of gay/lesbian antihomophobe studies.2 The central categories in Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky’s research are «the closet» and «coming out». The author reviews the meaning of the term «closet» in all its complexity and multiple aspects, analyzes all the possible meanings of «the closet» in culture starting from a secret room and treasure house to a wild animal’s den and sewerage. Such a polysemantic concept reflects to the full extent all the inconsistency and complexity of the problem under research. Kosofski treats «the closet», first of all, as a space for some secret, any secret connected to self-identification (gender, race, ethnos, religion, sexuality etc). Such generalization of «the closet» polysemy gives great opportunities for understanding of the homophobe problem of modern culture and definition to homo/heterosexuality. The uniqueness of human identity and ego shall be considered as a personal secret problem or as a 1 2 Eve Sedgwik Kosofsky, Epistemology of the closet /M.: Idea-Press, 2002 The same p. 38 value or treasure. The author sees the solution in «the coming out» – the exit from the closet, that is through recognition of the right of a human being for self-determination and freedom in understanding of his/her identity. However it does not require taking all mysteries and secrets out of the closet. It is enough to recognize the right of each individual to expressly demonstrate his/her identity, on the one hand. On the other hand, a person needs to transfer his/her «closet» mentality and become free of «the closet» and all mysteries and secrets connected to it. Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky proves that «the closet» exists due to cultural values and ideals and «the coming out» is a bold and strong move in culture development that implies the review of traditional generally established standards and mechanism for personal identification and prevailing right of a human being (but not social and cultural pressure) for self-determination. It is worth mentioning that «the closet» category is not a notion or term in the usual sense of a definite form for certain complete knowledge. «The closet» is more likely a developing image, vivid and dynamic which can be changed and filled with various shades of meaning and all possible sense nuances. It is a perfect example of the new scientific language developing within the frameworks of women’s studies as opposed to the traditional discourse formed by the patriarchal culture on the basis of rationality and logics. Women’s studies, in particular Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky’s work, show that there are such phenomena the study of which requires introducing amendments into the scientific language. The author insists that it is impossible to express all knowledge about the diversified, dynamic and procedural reality with the help of strictly fixed schemes of rational notions and logical categories. Women’s studies establish the principles of modern science that make account of not only men’s but also women’s – 584 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies experience and idea of the world as well as form a new discourse covering rationality, sense and intuition. Conclusions. Thus, women’s studies solve a philosophic problem regarding the ways and genuineness of cognition with the help of sense or feelings, suggest a mixture of approaches and simultaneous rational and sensual study. In general, the importance of «Epistemology of the closet» by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky is not restricted to the contribution to the study of social homophoby and definition of male homosexuality. The research conducted by the author demonstrates the effectiveness of gender methodology applied to the study of cultural phenomena which is absolutely essential for the understanding of the specific character of modern diversified culture. Methodology worked out by gender researches provides all necessary tools for the study of identities’ variety which, in its turn, allows to understand and recognize the variety of equal components and to reach mutual respect between men and women as well as develop tolerance in relations of various races, ethnoses, religious confessions and sexual minorities. Taking into account the peculiarities of the Russian situation, gender approach and methodology is essential for understanding of the specific character of modern Russian cultural phenomena. References Alchuk, A. The woman and visual signs. – М.: Idea-Press. – 2000. – 280p. (in Russian) Andrew S. Jacobs The Cultural Turn in Late Ancient Studies: Gender, Asceticism, and Historiography// Edited by Dale B. Martin and Patricia Cox Miller J Am Acad Relig, March 2007; 75: P. 185 – 188. – http://services.oxfordjournals.org Bredihina, L.M., Dipuel, K., The Gender theory and art. The anthology: 1970 – 2000. – М: «The Russian political encyclopedia», 2005. – 592p. (in Russian) Culture and culture studies: dictionary. / Ed. A.I. Kravchenko. – Moscow, Catherineburg, 2003. – 928 p.(in Russian) Culture Studies. Encyclopedia in 2 volumes. Vol. 1. – Moscow, 2007. – 1392 p.(in Russian) Eve Sedgwik Kosofsky, Epistemology of the closet / University of California Press, 1990. – 258p. Eve Sedgwik Kosofsky, Epistemology of the closet /M.: Idea-Press, 2002. – 272p. (in Russian) Gender and language / Ed. A.V. Kirilina. – М: Language of slavic culture, 2005. – 624p. (in Russian) Gender and Material Culture in Historical perspective / Ed. Moira Donald and Linda Hurcombe. – N.Y., 2000. – 216p. Gender and society in history / Ed. L.P.Repin, A.V.Stoganova, A.G.Suprjanovich. – SPb.: Aletheia, 2007. – 696p. (in Russian) Gender in Research. Research in Gender / The Coordination for Gender Studies in Denmark. – Copenhagen, 2003. – 72p. Gender Studies in Russian and the CIS. Who is who. Reference book. – Compiling editor Z. Khotkina. M.: Documentation Centre Women’s archive, 2000. – 160 p (in Russian) Gertrude Postl, With Freud and without Freud // Sex. Gender. Culture. German and Russian studies, M.: Russian State Humanities University, 2003. – P.33 – 76 (in Russian) Introduction into Gender Studies. Part 1. A Reader. // ed. by I. Zherebkina. Kharkiv: KCGS; Sankt Petersburg: Aletheia, 2001. – 708 p. (book series Gender Studies, in Russian). – 585 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies Introduction into Gender Studies. Part 2. A Reader. // ed. by S. Zherebkin. Kharkiv: KCGS, Sankt Petersburg: Aletheia, 2001. – 991 p. (book series Gender Studies, in Russian). Introduction into Gender Studies. Part 3. Sillabi of North American and West European Universities.// ed. by S. Zherebkin. Kharkiv: KCGS, 2001. – 412 p. (book series Gender Studies, in Russian). Katz, K. Gender, wages and discrimination in the USSR: a study of a Russian industrial town // Camb. J. Econ., July 1997; 21: p. 431 – 452. – http://services.oxfordjournals.org Lewis Jill. Gendering Prevention Practices. – Oslo, 2003. – 51p. Lindsey L.L. Gender Roles. A Sociological Perspective. – New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. – 491p. Marriott, D. 15 Black Cultural Studies // Years Work Crit Cult Theory, 2006; 75: p. 274 – 282. – http://services.oxfordjournals.org Oakley Ann. Gender on Planet Earth. – Cambridge.: «Polity», 2002. – 291p. Timofeeva, O.V., Mysteries of an empty closet //New Literary Review, 2003 – No. 64 Usmanova, A. Gender problematics in the culture theory // Introduction into gender researches (part 1). – Kharkov, SPb: Aletheia. – 200 – 708p. (in Russian) Werndly, A. Cultural Studies: General // Years Work Crit Cult Theory, 2001; 8: p.35 – 41. – http:// services.oxfordjournals.org Yingling, T. Sexual Preference/ Cultural Reference: The Predicament of Gay Culture Studies // Am Lit Hist, 1991; 3: p.184 –197. – http://services.oxfordjournals.org Zdravomyslova E., Temkina A. Institutionalization of Gender Studies in Russia: Issues and Strategies // Gender in Teaching and Didactics / Frankfurt: Perelang, 2003. P. 161-176. Zherebkina, I. Subjectivity and gender: the gender theory of the subject in modern philosophical anthropology. – SPb.: Aletheia, 2007. – 312p. (in Russian) Zherebkina, I. «Read My Desire…» Postmodernism. Psychoanalysis. Feminism. – M.: IdeiaPress, 2000. – 256 p. (in Russian). Zherebkina, I. Feminist theory of the 1990’s: problematization of women’s subjectiveness/ Introduction into gender studies / SPb.: Aletheia. – 2001 (in Russian) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 587-594 ~~~ УДК 008 (47+57) Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy Vladimir S. Luzan* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 In the modern world, the fact that in the basis of all the «dead ends» of Russia there is only one main fundamental question – the question of individual and collective self-identification, which has become topical in the result of the loss of axiological markers by the modern, becomes more and more obvious. And economics cannot answer this question. In connection with the mentioned, the society comes to understanding that the way out of the given situation will be found only in case the Culture becomes the most important national priority of the country development. It is the author’s opinion that main contradiction, which interferes with the becoming of culture as a main factor of the Russian State recovery, is its narrow-minded understanding by the modern politicians, officials and by the main part of the country population as a sphere of leisure and entertainment, but not as a historically formed self-developing and self-regulating system, which obeys objective laws, generates values, norms and traditions, being a treasurer of the nation’s spiritual experience, and the way of nation’s self-conscious formation. Speaking about realization of the creative potential of culture, the author focus on the a separate type – the type of cultural policy – in the general policy of the State, within which frames one should clearly differentiate a proper cultural policy and an operative management over the current culturecreative processes as two different levels of strategy and tactics of management activity. In the article cultural policy is perceived as a complex of scientifically based view points and measures for provision of an exhaustive socio-cultural modernization of the society and structural reforms of all the system of the culture-producing institutions; as a system of new principles of proportioning of the state and social components in social and cultural life; as a complex of measures for provision of an anticipatory formation of scientific and educational support of these principles, for provision of a goal-oriented personnel training for competent regulation of future socio-cultural processes, and what is the main – as a conscious correction of the general content of the native culture. In the end of the article there is a realization of the defined priorities of the cultural policy becomes the matter of not only a narrow, limited set of people, being professionally connected with the sphere of culture, but of a wide range of specialists, being responsible for public management of socio-economical and socio-political processes. The process of realization must have a regulating influence on mass media activity, publicity, and industry of leisure and show business, which now become sectors of the economical process, using the cultural product as a means of financial profit deriving. Stating of a new paradigm and imperatives of the modern cultural policy, contributing to departmental closeness overcoming, can and must influence the life of the Russian society. Keywords: Culture, Cultural policy, Cultural processes, Cultural sphere. * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 587 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy Point In the modern world, the fact that in the basis of all the «dead ends» of Russia there is only one main fundamental question – the question of individual and collective self-identification, which has become topical in the result of the loss of axiological markers by the modern, becomes more and more obvious. And economics cannot answer this question. In connection with the mentioned, the society comes to understanding that the way out of the given situation will be found only in case the Culture becomes the most important national priority of the country development. Understanding of this fact explains the increased interest, having appeared during last decades, towards the multi-level and polysemantic phenomenon of culture, which has been stimulated not so by the problems of theoretical development, as by the objective demands of practice. «In the modern world, the growing interest towards existing cultural variety preservation, towards rich cultural traditions of different nations, awareness of cultural unification danger in the result of globalization, intercultural problems and conflicts turn out to be one snowball in the problems of international security, peaceful coexistence, cultures’ dialogue and their integration within the world society».  Culture has become a strategic priority of the economy of developed countries. It is connected with the fact that culture has managed to generate in itself a wide sector of creative industries. Precisely the culture accumulates positive effects in various spheres by means of cooperation of cultural organizations with other social subjects and thus developing tourism, attracting investments, contributing to salvation of social-economical problems, this way, making weak points become strong ones. The main contradiction, which interferes with the becoming of culture as a main factor of the Russian State recovery, is its narrow-minded understanding by the modern politicians, officials and by the main part of the country population as a sphere of leisure and entertainment, but not as a historically formed self-developing and self-regulating system, which obeys objective laws, generates values, norms and traditions, being a treasurer of the nation’s spiritual experience, and the way of nation’s self-conscious formation. Beside the main contradiction, there is a whole row of reasons within the cultural sphere itself, which prevent a full-rate development of the civil society. For-example: 1) finiteness of forms and methods, being practiced in the process of activity of cultural institutions of all the levels; 2) orientation to separate social groups, mainly to children, youth and retired people. Economically active grown-up population, first of all people of middle age, is almost excluded from the view point of cultural institutions’ activity; 3) lack of control over the cultural policy subjects’ activity, absence of methodological support of the process; 4) existence of alternative institutions, providing cultural services to the population for the purpose of commercial profit deriving. For example, shopping and entertainment malls, pubs, cafes, and various youth centers. A special place among the new-comers of the cultural activity field belongs to the modern cinema-theatres, which use one of the most popular genres of the modern art – cinema. Salvation of the underlined problems is possible only on condition that there is a separate type – the type of cultural policy – in the general policy of the State, within which frames one should clearly differentiate a proper cultural policy and an operative management over the current culture-creative processes as two different levels of strategy and tactics of management activity. – 588 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy The proper cultural policy is perceived as «a complex of scientifically based view points and measures for provision of an exhaustive socio-cultural modernization of the society and structural reforms of all the system of the culture-producing institutions; as a system of new principles of proportioning of the state and social components in social and cultural life; as a complex of measures for provision of an anticipatory formation of scientific and educational support of these principles, for provision of a goal-oriented personnel training for competent regulation of future socio-cultural processes, and what is the main – as a conscious correction of the general content of the native culture».  Law of the Russian Federation «Fundamental Principles of the Russian Federation Concerning Culture» defines the State Cultural Policy (the policy of the State in the sphere of cultural development) as «a complex of principles and norms, the State being governed by in its activity, concerning culture preservation, development and expansion, and also the State’s activity itself in the sphere of culture».  On the level of modern scientific notions of the essence of culture, what-ever global approaches (in particular – definition of the top goals and tasks of cultural policy) concerning cultural problems are impossible without correlation of culture with the main tendencies of civilization development as in the pan-human scale, so in a local one. If under civilization we understand «a special, historically formed method of existence of a large social community of people, its specific form of self-organization and regulation of its collective life-sustaining activity processes» , then within this civilization system its culture plays a role of a mechanism, performing the following main functions as: – generalization of historical experience of the society existence; – accumulation of this experience in the form of a system of axiological orientations; – presentation of the given orientations in different languages of social communication and realization of these socio-communicative contacts; – regulation of society’s practical vital activity by means of socio-cultural norms of collective and individual existence; – revelation and apprehension of characteristics and features of one’s own specifics in the form of identity images (i.e. society’s subjective notions concerning itself, concerning peculiarities of the society’s fate and its historical «mission») and their purposeful reproduction in technologies and products of various types of activity. It is testified by historical experience that the objective law concerning the increasing role of culture, as a cultural policy’s object in social development, is acting. And it is caused by the following factors: – Humane factor. Culture is developing together with the human world. That is why culture’s condition and its fate is immediately dependant on the person’s social position. Culture is growing, when people achieve their rights, freedoms and favorable conditions of their life activity are being observed in the given society; when democracy triumphs and every citizen gets a possibility of self-perfection and to continue his potentials’ development. It takes place far not in every country, but the leading tendency is the following: people’s acquiring freedom forms necessary preconditions for cultural progress. In this sense, a democratic state must not only take care of creating conditions for its citizens’ happy life, but of their personal development as well. Under such a type of state world order, a man becomes spiritually rich, treats his life in – 589 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy a creative way and is socially active. There is also a purely practical sense in an up-brining of such miscellaneous persons: precisely such type of creators is «the locomotives» of the progress, and, finally, they influence on the prosperity of the State. In Russian realities there are comparatively few creative people, being spiritually rich, successfully fulfilling their social roles as in their own life, so in the industrial and social sphere of Russia. According to the data, given in the report of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation «The Culture and the Future of Russia. A New Vision» , there are 13% of such people in large cities (regional centers), and 9-10% in (comparatively small) towns of regional subordination and villages. The increase of spiritually developed, creative and socially active people number is the main target of the State. – Social factor. In a wide sense, society embraces in itself all the social life being the basis of the pyramid, while culture being its top. The top cannot be steady and fruitful, if it rests on a weak foundation. What-ever significant could be some cultural achievements, existing in our days in an undeveloped social surrounding, they cannot define by themselves the level of culture on the whole. On order culture’s advanced position in comparison with all the other social spheres could be long lasting, steady and financially efficient, it must be based on the progress of all the society. In historical scale, such a progress is obvious and culture acquires additional impulses for its progressive and successive development. – Scientific-informative factor. Its meaning has gone beyond the limits of culture itself and national communities on the whole; it has acquired a global character. There are certain reasonable judgments, concerning the fact that science and informatization become the leading preconditions of society’s post-industrial development, of its progress in such spheres as social mobility and stratification, way of life, education, qualification, up-brining, leisure and so on. High rates of modern scientific-technical and informational development have strong influence on the rising of culture, in particular on the rising of its intellectual and heuristic values. – General civilizational factor. Modern civilization has unprecedented achievements in various spheres. They cannot be compared with anything, what was created in the past. At the same time, today’s industrial civilization experiences a profound crisis. In some directions it is approaching the limits of its growth, where one can vividly observe dead ended motion vectors of the ecological sphere. These ambiguous contradictory civilizational phenomena and processes have a serious influence on culture. We observe a significant reaggregation of the structural elements of culture, which takes place to the prejudice of public morality and high aesthetics. Consequently, we are firstly and by all means to raise the level of those components, which are referred to the man’s socialization and to expansion of his general cultural (first of all, intellectual and moral) horizon. Relevant contradictions will surely remain, but all the real sources and possibilities in a man, in the society and in the culture itself should be used for optimal and authentically humanistic development of the social being. Example Being characteristic to the modern socialcultural sphere, culture universalization is dialectically connected to the variety of its forms and content. Regional «mottling» of Russia makes this connection still deeper and more important. «Region is a spiritual potential of the country, is a source of its cultural axiological variety, which supports its entirety, preserves and enriches the culture of the country».  – 590 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy Being a cultural potential of Russia, its region can realize its values only on condition that it is in an equitable dialogue with other regional parts of the Russian culture. Regional culture is a polysemantic notion. It is a peculiar world, which is, on one hand, characterized by solitude, closeness, circularity on the daily routine, striving to preserve certain immunity from innovations. Sometimes, it is rather inhospitable to some innovations, to foreign values, and sticks to a peculiar changing of other axiological systems. On the other hand, it is an open culture, striving outwards, to the dialogue with other cultures, to constant accession of new axiological treasures. Regional culture is faced as inwardly, so outwardly as well. The hope for possibility of Russian culture renewal by means of regional cultures’ values cannot fail to combine with the anxiety that for the long period of monopolistic approach towards the regional culture, it has been deprived of most of its created values. One should not forget that the region can serve as a cultural reservoir of the country, but at the same time it can have also a negative influence on its culture. In this sense, one should take special measures in order to preserve the regional heritage and originality. We can consider the problem of formation of regional culture policy on the example of the Krasnoyarsk region. Today, the region takes the second place among all the Subjects of the Russian Federation according to the area of its territory. The Krasnoyarsk region is very cosmopolitan and differs by its high variety of nations, being the result of complex ethno-cultural, demographic and political processes. Serious changes in the regional national contingent took place in 1990-s and were accompanied by tough reforms in political and socio-economical spheres, by the boom of national self-consciousness and formation of new sovereign states on the postsoviet territory, by a high migration activity of its population and the demographic development crisis. Data analysis of the All-Russia population count in 2002 as at present ethnographic situation in the Krasnoyarsk region has proved that the list of nationalities, inhabiting the territory of the region, has been extended from 124 to 137. One of the main reasons of the fact is the boom of national self-consciousness in 1990-s and liberalization of the matter of ethnic self-identification. Being under the influence of actual sociocultural tendencies, the Krasnoyarsk region synthesizes two models of cultural policy, where the main role is played by the State. The first one is «a state-investor», which presupposes, that the state purposefully invests organization of the net of territorial centers of advanced cultural growth and development and production of cultural values, new senses and treasures. The second one is «a state-engineer», which provides the sphere of culture with new technologies, technical means and a powerful infrastructure and constructs a multi-layered cultural space. Formation of the Krasnoyarsk region cultural space has passed several stages. The given process has been influenced by various factors. Uniqueness of its geographical position, its natural conditions, the culture of its native peoples, amateur and folk arts, life and traditions of its cosmopolitan population, which have inhabited its territory voluntary and by force, have played not the last role in the mentioned process. Having been historically formed, the Krasnoyarsk region cultural space changed its geographical borders in 1991, after the Khakass Autonomous Region and the Taimyr (DolganoNenets) and the Evenki Autonomous Areas had actually withdrawn from the Region, what naturally influenced the organization of its sociocultural activity. Here, intensive processes of society’s democratization played a certain role. – 591 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy «One should understand that, though being very advantageous for the social life, democratization carries some elements of simplification, elements of mass and commercialized culture in to the cultural life. Market is far from being a troublefree sphere, which contributes to a cultural explosion».  The modern cultural process of the Krasnoyarsk region is realized in accordance with the Main strategic strands of the cultural policy of the Krasnoyarsk region, having been developed and authorized for the period of 2009- also by realization of the project «Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration Complex Development up to 2020». By 2020 realization of the State policy highpriority targets in the sphere of culture will allow optimizing and modernizing the activity of the Krasnoyarsk region cultural institutions, of the existing net of state and municipal institutions, will allow creating the conditions, which will provide an equal and free access of population to all the specter of benefits of culture and high-quality services in this sphere, developing 2020. According to these strands the strategic target of the cultural policy is a formation of an integral socio-cultural space, which will provide development of creative initiatives, as a basis of a steady and dynamic growth of the Region. Achievement of the cultural policy target is fulfilled in the main directions, within which frames the following complex of tasks is formulated: 1. Identity. Formation of regional cultural self-identification of the region’s population. 2. Integration. Inclusion of the Krasnoyarsk region culture into the All-Russian and the world cultural space. 3. Innovation. Promotion of appearance of innovative models of thinking and development of the Krasnoyarsk region creative potential. 4. Institutions. Preservation, development and modernization of the net of culture institutions. 5. Industry. Creative economy development support. Cultural policy strategy of the Krasnoyarsk region has been worked out in accordance with the constitutional rights of its citizens and culturalhistorical peculiarities of the Region. The main vectors of the cultural policy presuppose formation of a new paradigm of thinking of all the subjects of the cultural activity, being caused by socioeconomical and agglomeration processes and creative potential of the native people, achieving drastic changes in the economical situation of the given branch, will contribute to further integration of the Region and to formation of its positive image in the Russian and the world cultural space. Results The main part of various processes of the society’s cultural being goes on spontaneously, being ruled only by the underlying laws of social self-organization of people in their collective life activity. But, at the same time, some components of this complex process are subject to a rational and target-oriented regulation, to stimulation of some tendencies and stoppage of others, being performed from the position of a certain vision and understanding of the strategic ways, which the given civilization is moving along. Thus, the complex of measures, concerning artificial regulation of development tendencies of spiritualaxiological aspects of the social being, can be called «a cultural policy». The most important principle of definition of cultural policy targets and tasks is concluded in comprehension of culture ambivalence and polysemanticism of its senses and contents. And it determines a special complexity of management strategy and tactics in the sphere of culture and a necessity of a multi-level – 592 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy approach towards regulation of socio-cultural processes. In connection with the mentioned, cultural policy must: firstly, be an integral part of all the strands of the State policy without any exceptions, reflecting its spiritual-axiological and moral-normative aspects; secondly, become the most important component of the social policy, which can be only complex, i.e. socialcultural-educative under the modern conditions, and it becomes possible only under condition of organization of interagency interaction; thirdly, it must form cultural policy as such, as b) preservation and development of multinational heritage of peoples of Russia; c) preservation of the native system of artistic education; d) integration into the world cultural process and formation of Russia’s positive image abroad. Realization of the defined priorities of the cultural policy becomes the matter of not only a narrow, limited set of people, being professionally connected with the sphere of culture, but of a wide range of specialists, being responsible for public management of socio- a special line of state and state-regulated social activity, being directed to stimulation of socially admissible and preferable spiritual-axiological and social-normative manifestations of a man, forms and contents of his social and individual being. Thus, we can define the following priorities of the Russian Federation cultural policy for the nearest future: a) preservation and development of the integral and informational space of Russia; economical and socio-political processes. The process of realization must have a regulating influence on mass media activity, publicity, and industry of leisure and show business, which now become sectors of the economical process, using the cultural product as a means of financial profit deriving. Stating of a new paradigm and imperatives of the modern cultural policy, contributing to departmental closeness overcoming, can and must influence the life of the Russian society. References 1. Alternative culture: Encyclopedia / D. Desyaterik. Yekaterinburg: Ultra. Culture, 2005. 2. Arnoldov A.I. Culture and horizons XXI centuries / A.I. Arnoldov // M.:MGUCI. – 2003. – № 1. – P. 9-18. 3. Bespalov U.М. West-Siberian region in space of the Russian culture // Culture and economy of region: Tyumen: ТGU, 2000. – P. 6-10. 4. Bryndin E.G. Spiritual evolution. Novosibirsk – Pyatigorsk: PGLU, 2007. – 234 p. 5. Bryndin E.G. Movement of harmony from natural to social by harmonization of the person and a society. Novosibirsk: NGTU, 2007. – 228 p. 6. Culture. New philosophy encyclopedia: in 4 volumes. V 2. M., 2001. 7. Culturology: Chrestomathy/ complier P.S. Gurevich. M., 2000. 8. Flier A.Y. Culturology for culturologists. – M.: Academic project, 2000. 9. Fundamental problems of cultural science: In 4 v. Volume 1: The theory of culture / Red. D.L. Spivak. – SPb.: Aletey, 2008. – 432 p. 10. Fundamental problems of cultural science: In 4 v. Volume 4: The cultural policy / Red. D.L. Spivak. – SPb.: Aletey, 2008. – 424 p. 11. Gnedovskiy M. The cultural policy, for what country [the Electronic resource] / Gnedovskiy M. // http://www.cpolicy.ru/analytics/110.html – 593 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy 12. Jidkov V. Century Culture as «a genetic code» humanity / Jidkov V. // Society and economy. – 2001. – № 9. – P. 74-92. 13. Jidkov V. The cultural policy of Russia / V. Jidkov, V. Sokolov – М.: Publishing service, 2001. 14. Kiselyova T.G. Globalization of a society and the modern cultural policy / T.G. Kiselyova // МGUKI. – 2003. – № 1. – P. 19-26. 15. Kopceva N.P. The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations between a Work of Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator// Scientific review SFU. Series of human sciences. V.1, number 2. Krasnoyarsk, 2008. 16. Kopceva N.P. The Creation Problem in Fundamental Ontology of Martin Heidegger and Modern Theory of Fine Arts// Scientific review SFU. Series of human sciences. V.1, number 3. Krasnoyarsk, 2008. 17. Kopceva N.P. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level // Scientific review SFU. Series of human sciences. V.2, number 1. Krasnoyarsk, 2008. 18. Kravchenko A.I. Culturology. M.: Academic project, 2000. 19. Mamedova E.V. Culture policy/ E.V. Mamedova // Philosophic sciences. – 2000. – № 1. – P. 163-171. 20. National-cultural policy in Russian Federation // Culture policy objectives. Informational issue. – M.: GIVC MC RF, 2003. – № 1. 21. Ovcharov A.A., Zolotukhin V.M., Kazakov Е.F., Chirun S.N., Vostrikov K.V. Inquisitiones et meditationes. Experiences of philosophy and social (cultural) anthropology of Russia. The monography – Kemerovo: KuzGTU, 2005. – 198 p. 22. Parsons T. About structure of social action. M., 2000. 23. Popov V.V., Popova, F.X. Cultural activity in a context of scientific research: the monography. – Tyumen, publishing house TGU, 2004. – P. 46-60. 24. Ruksha G.L. Bas of the state cultural policy: studies. The grant / G.L. Ruksha (hands. avtor. collective), S.V. Andreeva, I.N. Krykov; V.I. Tislyankova, Y.A. Shubin; KrasGU. – Krasnoyarsk, 2006. 25. Surmanidze L.D. Culture: modern research tendencies // The Person: a parity national and universal. Materials of the international symposium. Release 2 / Under red. V.V. Partsvaniya. SPb.: the St.-Petersburg philosophical society, 2004. – P. 225-238. 26. The report of Public chamber of the Russian Federation «Culture and the future of Russia. A new sight» at plenary session of Public chamber of the Russian Federation from November, 24th, 2007 [the Electronic resource] // http://www. dokladoprfcultura.ru 27. The law of the Russian Federation «Bases of the legislation of the Russian Federation about culture» from 09.10.1992 № 3612-1 [Text] // the Russian culture in legislative and normative acts. – M., 1998. 28. Tsukerman V.S. Cultural space as an integrating category culture / V.S. Tsukerman // Culture on a threshold of the third millenium in a view of culture knowledge: material interregion conference – Chelyabinsk: CnGAKI, 2001. 29. Tsukerman V.S. Culture of region as object social-culturology analysis / V.S.Tsukerman // Culture and economy of region: material interregion conference – Tyumen: TGU, 2000. – 594 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 595-600 ~~~ УДК 130.2 Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half of Twentieth Century Julia T. Chanchikova* Krasnoyarsk Administration, 93 Marx st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 In the article author suggests version about presence of own set of traditions in classical Eurasian project. Notions of «traditionalism» and «conservatism» are considered in it. Short review of western traditionalism of the first half of the century and also comparative analysis of features of Eurasianism and western traditionalism are presented. In result of it conclusion about singularity of Eurasian traditionalism and its falling out from general context is made. In the article author is based on works of Eurasianists of classical period and Neo- Eurasianists and also on investigations of European and Russian scientists in area of traditionalism. Keywords: Eurasianism, Neo-Eurasianism, tradition, traditionalism, conservatism, «conservative revolution», symphonic person, Eurasia, place-development, geopolitics, conciliarism, Eastern Orthodox Church, church, sacral, patriotism, religion, ideology, culture, neo-traditionalism, neoconservatism, truth, primordial true, Idea-Ruler. Recently interest to classical Eurasian project from scientists, politicians, writers and philologists is observed. At the same time system explanation of Eurasian phenomena is absent. Eurasian project which has caused wide polemic since the moment of its appearance is still «inconvenient» for scientists who want to include works of Eurasianists into certain limits. Eurasianism is not confined in limits of liberalism, national patriotism, Marxism and any models social development. Nevertheless possibility of Eurasianism considering in limits of traditionalistic contour exists so far as traditionalism is enough wide philosophical notion included large range of ideas. * 1 In generally accepted interpretation the traditionalism is world outlook and social and philosophical direction which upholds keeping of cultural, social, historical and religious traditions. In the turn Eurasianism has been considered philosophical current. Eurasianists considered themselves «intellectual movement». Traditionalism as religious and philosophical current had appeared in France. In its sources members of Roman Catholic theology of nineteenth century – J. de Maistre, L. de Bonald, F. de Olivier, F. de Chateaubriand had stood. This generation of traditionalists had influenced on establishment of European culture and mattered for Russian thought very much. Undoubtedly Eurasianism occupies smaller place in the history Corresponding author E-mail address: Julia@admkrsk.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 595 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia T. Chanchikova. Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half… by time and has numbered about century since beginning of its appearance. As for classical Eurasian project its activity lasted ten years. Ideas of traditionalists in nineteenth century had had wide social perception due to conservative romantics. Romanticism had not been completely traditionalistic oriented ideology. However according to E. Troeltsch «turn to idea of organism and tradition» (Averyanov, 2003:123) had become prevailing tendency inside romanticism especially German one. Namely conservative romantics had created classical European conservatism which had influenced on formation of Russian one of nineteenth century. As Russian conservatism of nineteenth century had found reflection in classical Eurasian project the connection between European traditionalistic world outlook base and Russian Eurasian thought are traced. Traditionalism and conservatism are close notions. Nevertheless there is set of efficiently separating differences. Conservatism as opposed to traditionalism, which is system of philosophical and world outlook ideas, is difficult and multifaceted social phenomena. It can be considered in few dimensions: as the whole set of physical qualities of individual, as political ideology and finally as social and political movement. While Mannheim wrote «traditionalism is general physiological position which expresses of different individuals as tendency to hold the past and avoid innovations» (Mannheim, 1994:597). Traditionalism is usually considers like wider notions and that Mannheim called «conservatism» is understood one of variety of traditionalism. According to A. Dasnoy typology it should be distinguished integral and ideological traditionalism. Integral traditionalism reproduces initial paradigms of activity as a rule they are given by initializing way through initiation and sacral rites. It is peculiar to traditional society and closely connects with lifestyle of traditional society. As Dasnoy considers the ideological traditionalism as opposed to integral one is «world outlook of post-revolutionary epoch and appears only in society which cannot already be called traditional» (Kara-Murza et al., 1995:97). It is conscious traditionalism, ideology which defends certain spiritual, political and social principles. Such dual reading of traditionalism as on the one hand «before responsive» social self-organization and on the other hand ideological reaction of society on invasion of allogenic, heterogeneous or radically changing world order factor has established among majority of modern thinkers. Following Dasnoy typology the classical Eurasian project can be referred to variety of ideological traditionalism because Eurasianism is not in limits of traditional society. On the contrary the project developed in conditions of geographical remoteness from country which became impulse for creative thought of philosophers. Eurasianists glorified Eurasia and consciously cultivated traditional lifestyle of mythical state-continent. The second stage of scientific interest to problem of «tradition» on West was in the first half of twentieth century and became wellknown as social and philosophical direction neotraditionalism. Neo-traditionalism in twentieth century developed under the sign of deep studying of non-European sacral traditions. It often led scientists to the most radical conclusions. Present state of human civilization was imagined by neotraditionalists wittingly distorted and depraved, without sacral traditional base. The feature of neo-traditionalists of twentieth century was uncompromising stand in respect to modern world. It dramatically distinguished from traditionalists of previous century who had expected to a large extent on success of their ideology through conservative politics of «restoration» and «reconstruction». If line of restoration had been characteristic for traditionalists-classics then in situation of triumphing modernism of twentieth century neo-traditionalism could mean only – 596 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia T. Chanchikova. Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half… complete rupture with prevalent ideological tendency – uncompromising «conservative revolution». In some part it can be found features of neo-traditionalism in Eurasianism. Philisophers-Eurasianists also deeply penetrated into century layers in search of answered on modern urgent questions and easily found parallel between Eastern Orthodox Church, Hinduism and Islam, between Moscow state and steppe imperia of Genghis Khan. Meanwhile revolutionary character of Eurasianism has been less radical. Eurasianism has been full of amazing, unusual for neo-traditionalism, optimistic belief in spiritual renewal both of the whole society and each separate individual. In Eurasianists opinion their idea was endowed with strong constructive power which transformed internal and external worlds. In the same time Eurasianists has not already been satisfied by conservative course of «restoration» and «reconstruction» and craved for renewal through conversion to Eurasian truths. As ideas of neo-traditionalists and neoconservatives which proclaimed «conservative revolution» the doctrine of philosopherseurasianists in USSR was closed for mass studying for a long time. Eurasianism was not mentioned even in polemic articles which condemned alien world outlook ideas. One of the reasons of such blind isolation was reflection of «conservative revolution» on Eurasian project. Actually superficial comparison can direct on some community of German neo-traditionalists and Eurasian scientists. First of all it is interest to East. However if neo-conservatives searched superpower on Tibet then Eurasiantists searched corroboration of generality of Asian and Russian. It gave reason for formation of state-continent Eurasia. In that point neo-traditionalists were much closer to French philosopher-mystic René Guénon then to Eurasianists who has never searched secrets of sacral practices and created their doctrine as open for all bliss. Philosophical direction of traditionalism connected with activity of Rene Guenon and his followers is not accepted to distinguish into some separate stage of development of understanding of «tradition» problem. However ideas of the philosopher influenced much on traditionalists’ discourse of both western scientists and Russian ones. So his school can be considered the third, special stage of development of traditionalism ideas in twentieth century. Premordial tradition namely sacred knowledge the source of which was the Creator became special interest of philosopher-esoterist Rene Guenon. The author said «all ‘esoteric traditions have one origin and essentially can not contradict each other» (Guenon, 2000:240). Thus it is possible to talk that numbered two centuries of existence traditionalism developed within three principal stages and always was stimulus for research thought and also for appearance new ideological and political currents. A lot of variants and wide outline of limits of traditionalism allowed joining different and at times discrepant members of philosophical schools and currents. In spite of tradition and traditionalism have been studied by both Russian and foreign scientists enough we do not find examples of examination of Eurasianism within European traditionalism. It can be supposed that the reason of it became some isolation of Eurasianism of the first half of twentieth century in general traditionalists’ line, its brightly expressed individuality and Eurasianism which based on key notion «placedevelopment». However referring of Eurasianism to traditional brunch is possible in connection with that the theme of tradition takes special place in Eurasian project. Eurasianists based on Slavonic ideas in lots of points considered Eastern Orthodox traditions the point of meeting of Eurasian community. In their opinion ideas of Russian Orthodox Church unlike Catholicism – 597 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia T. Chanchikova. Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half… and especially Protestantism were not abstract and ascetic in the sense of negation of world and activity. And the most important was that bases of true ideology which held life examine came from true Russian Orthodox faith. According to Eurasianists way from idea to life completely coincided with way from faith to life. Postulating Eastern Orthodox Church as supreme and singe in its rightness confessing of Christianity Eurasianists also did not follow orthodoxies and reject wholly other Christian directions and other confessions. One of the important methodological statements of Eurasianists was conclusion that different religious positions could be differently realized by different nations. Here Eurasians reached thought about primitivity of different nations in taking one or another bases. Latter must correspond to culture, mentality and historical fate of the nations. The main principle of Eurasianists was conciliarism and simphonism. In their opinion the way to Eastern Orthodox Church opened for all people. Return in lap of Eastern Orthodox Church happened through free self-opening of individuals in Christ. Thus they did not deny even individualism which characterized Catholicism and Protestantism since it was put into all-embracing scheme of simphonism. According to Eurasian version individualism of bright participants of general symphony was leveled by generality of action. If for Eurasians chatholics and protestants were capable through sufferings of Christ to come to Eastern Orthodox Church then Buddhism and Islam were closer in their interpretation to Orthodox Christianity. They were similar in world outlook approaches. Eurasianists considered that Islam and Buddhism as well as Orthodox Church had idea of world transfiguration but not change one world by another (pagan world by Christian one). They found the similarity between Orthodox ideas of self-sacrifice, humility, submissiveness to god’s will and Asian teaching about karma and fate. Only with one Eurasianists did not agree sharply and raised an objection to; it was proclaiming certain kind of religion as single true, as some ecumenical religion which pretended on the role of base for building all-human culture. Eurasianists were far from reading of Primordial tradition by traditionalists. They did not consider that any world initial Truth, united for all nations, lay in the base of their teaching. Moreover Eurasianists tried to formulate own original initial Truth, personal Primordial tradition. It was Eurasian postulate about IdeaRuler. It consisted in special role of Russia which was enough for to live and sacrifice for good of Russia-Eurasia. The notion of «Russia-Eurasia» became for Eurasianists their initial, authentic traditions, point of development and its final purpose. It became Eurasian Universe. On base of their view of initial tradition Eurasianists succeeded in formation of own set of traditions. They got the name «Eurasian traditions». Elements of it varied both in the time and of different its followers. At the same time following statements were its components: explanation of identity of Russia-Eurasia as special cultural, historical, geographical world; renunciation of Europocentrism and express interest to cults of East as closer to spirit of Russian civilization, but not identical to it; inclusion into Russian civilization side by side with Slavonic nations «Turanid» ones as rightful and active element of its historical establishment and development; idea of particular historical way and mission of Russia; proclaiming of Eastern Orthodox Church by pivot of Russian identity and base of its revival; ideocratical conception of state which included idea about state of «social justice and truth» subordinate to supreme idea-ruler, idea of conciliarism and symphonic person; studying of geopolitical Russian features as Eurasia and – 598 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia T. Chanchikova. Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half… imposition of new category «place-development». Whether does the set of «Eurasian traditions» contradict to Eastern Orthodox tradition? But its proclaiming as pivot of Russian identity could turn out extremely declarative or Eastern Orthodox tradition could transform in the course of formation of original Eurasian model of traditions. Eastern religious tradition united all areas of Eurasian project. About the half of article in collection «Outcome to East» covered religious questions. The same proportion was in following collections. Eurasianists emphasized more than once that it was not true to accent geographical aspect connected with introduced by them notions «Eurasia» and «place-development» in their teaching. Following to Eastern Orthodox tradition was clearly emphasized by Eurasianists in collection «Russia and Latinism» (1923). It became reaction on Vatican ingratiating with Soviet Russia. Considering burning questions of relations of two Christian Churches Eurasianists polemicized with V. Solovyev and set of his ideas against their «Outcome to East». In Eurasian conception Russian Orthodox Church was recognized dominate and connecting origin of Russian culture. And namely it had to become base of building of new Russia which Eurasianists considered rightly to name Eurasia. From these thoughts the third feature of Eurasians understanding of Eastern Orthodox tradition followed. It was idea about special nearness of Eastern Orthodox Church to Eastern religions. The main argument of this point was that Eurasiansts referred Eastern regions to pagan. N. Trubetskoy wrote: «Since the paganism is not deliberate and stubborn renunciation of Eastern Orthodox Church and haughty staying in its separatism; the paganism yields to Orthodox call sooner and easier then Western Christian world and does not treat to Orthodox Church with same hostility» (Pashyenko, 2003:69). That is the paganism was considered as «potential» Orthodox Church by Eurasianists. Eurasians traditions can be built in certain closed structure. Initial point is Russia-Eurasia. There is further consideration of Russia-Eurasia from the point of view of Eurasian teaching about individual, symphonic and conciliar persons, according of which Russia-Eurasia was considered as symphonic person. For Eurasians clear hierarchy determined by functional completeness and specificity of activity one or another person existed in system of symphonic persons. Christian culture as symphonic person realized itself in line of the lowest symphonic persons – in different cultures. In its turn the culture realized itself in nations. The nations actualized in the culture, Christianity, moved to highest point of conciliarism existence and perfected on good of Russia-Eurasia. The conciliarism united social persons and helped them to rush to common spiritual center which was Eurasian primordial tradition, Russia-Eurasia. Common purposes and ways of their achievement, solidarity and serving to neighbor, priority of conciliar whole of higher order and finally sacrificiality became the main principle of unity of social persons. According to Eurasianists common spiritual center was Eastern Orthodox Church. But it was the same as Russia-Eurasia because of both identification and actualization of Russia-Eurasia happened with Eastern Orthodox Church and following to Orthodox traditions. Except conversion to Orthodox traditions and reading them in own original context Eurasianists became successors of Russian geopolitical traditions. After many Russian rulers, travelers, scientists, commanders, state officials Eurasianists admitted special role of Siberia in Russian development. Moreover namely geography, national and cultural features of Siberia became for Eurasianists one of confirmation of truth of their basic statements. – 599 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia T. Chanchikova. Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western Traditionalism of the First Half… Worked out historical conception of Eurasianism G. V. Vernadskiy considered that «all history of Eurasia is consecutive set of attempts of creation of common all-Eurasian state» (Sonicheva, 1991:49). In developing of Siberia Eurasianists saw national and cultural regularity. N. S. Trubetskoy noted some whole of Eurasia in anthropological, national and psychological aspects. He wrote: «Population of this part of the world is dissimilar and belong to different races. Difference between Russians from one side and Buryats or clarity and calm were characteristic. Moreover Eurasianists saw in consolidation of Siberia in Russia one of stages of «gathering of separated parts of Eurasian ulus of Empire of Genghis Khan» (Lavrov, 1999:51). Thus it is possible to talk about formation of own original set of Eurasian traditions which formally integrated into West European model of traditionalism and in fact was isolated «product» of philosophical thought based on Eastern Orthodox tradition and tradition of Russian philosophical thought. Impulses of Eurasianism we find in woks Samoyeds from other one is very big. But it is typical that uninterrupted chain of intermediate and transitional links exists between these extreme points» (Trubetskoy, 1995:219). Trubetskoy distinguished general for Eurasian nations elements Turanid psychology for which inability to detach the faith from way of life, soul of K. Leontyev, philosophers of Slavophil group, regionalists, in Russian literature of nineteenth and beginning of twentieth centuries. Developed and intelligent by Eurasianists Russian political traditions connecting with geopolitical rush of the country and ideas of Russian statehood were part of the set of Eurasian traditions. References Averyanov V. Nature of Russian expansion/ V. Averyanov. – M.: Lepta-Press, 2003. Averyanov V. Tradition and traditionalism in scientific and social thought of Russia// Magic mountain. – 2005. – N.4. Bernstein B. Tradition and social and cultural strucrures// Soviet ethnography. – 1981. – N 2. Chistov K. Folklore. Text. Tradition. – M., 2005. Conservative idea – purifying from illusions. Ideal platform of conservative analytics club// Gold lion. – 2000. – N 11-12. Dugin A. Sacral patriotism/ A. Dugin. – M., 2000. Guenon R. Essays about tradition and metaphysics/ R. Guenon. – SPb.: Azbuka-klassika, 2000. Kara-Murza A., Panarin A., Pantin I. Spiritual and ideological situation in modern Russia// Political investigations. – 1995. – N 4. Karsavin L. Religious and philosophical compositions/ L. Karsavin. – M., 1992. Lavrov S. Eurasianism: modernity of conception// Conciliar Moscow. – 1999. – N.10. Limonov E. Holy monsters. – M.: Marginerm, 2003. Livshits M. Crisis of outrageous/ M. Livshits. – M., 1968. Mannheim K. Diagnosis of our time/ K. Mannheim. – M., 1994. Pashyenko V. Social nature of Eurasianism/ V. Pashyenko. – M., 2003. Sonicheva N. Philosophy of Eurasianists in conception of G. Vernadsky// Phenomena of Eurasianism. – M., 1991. Trubetskoy N. History. Culture. Language// N. Trubetskoy. – M., 1995. Trubetskoy N. View on Russia not from West but from East// Elements. – 2000. – N 1-2. – 600 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 601-610 ~~~ УДК 378.1 University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment on the Basis of E-portfolio Method Olga G. Smolyaninova* and Ruslan S. Glukhikh Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 In conditions of Russian higher education system modernization it is very important to use new objective technologies in university teaching staff assessment scheme. It is connected with the direct higher education quality dependence on the education resources. Teacher e-portfolio will allow to make an electronic folder of scientific and teaching professorships achievements, to include not only university administration but also professional community in assessment scheme, to make teacher assessment procedure open and objective. We consider approaches to modern university teacher activity assessment scheme directed to professional development and career planning. The base of assessment scheme perfection is a personal teacher electronic portfolio which shows his achievements to wide professional community and it is a professional development and career planning tool, also it gives an opportunity to university administration to assess activity and success evolution of a certain worker on the basis of various objective data. By means of electronic portfolio data it can provide development monitoring of teachers and departments, and make activity correction. University administration can use teacher e-portfolio monitoring results for objectification and assessment of artifacts in stimulating bonuses and motivation system. The results stated in the paper have been presented and discussed at projective seminar by grant IREX UASP № FY09-UASP-Smolyaninova09 in July 2009, which was passed under Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU in Krasnoyarsk. Keywords: professional development, reflection, electronic portfolio, assessment, competence. Introduction The quality of modern university staff security is a determinative condition of specialists training quality. The quality of student’s education, university effectiveness and prestige directly depends on university teaching staff qualification, scientific and educational competence, work environment, moral and culture. Modern social and economic conditions allow to introduce new mechanisms of teachers * 1 labor wages and stimulation, that requires realization of new assessment mechanisms. The teacher work is difficult and many sided, highly intellectual and multifarious. How to make teacher work quality assessment scheme motivating him to further development? How to involve a teacher in continuous system of self-rating and new achievements planning, their effective presentation and professional development? How to create effective transparent labor wages and stimulation mechanisms at the Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 601 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… expense of differential approach to teacher salary on the basis of assessment scheme? The authors suggest new mechanisms of teacher prolonged assessment on the basis of e-portfolio method. This technology is directed to progress and perspective, it is based on electronic scientific and educational space using and information-oriented society general strategy development and during the whole life education. Development of Siberian Federal University doesn’t require momentary operations but it requires teacher-university staff stimulation which is orientated to long perspective and long-term work motivation of teacher staff. Therefore it is rational to use prolonged developing forms of teacher objective individual data collecting, their changing and developing. Teacher electronic portfolio could be able to function on long-term motivation of qualitative performance and objective assessment and selfrating of activity which is aimed to high personal achievements and general objects of University as a corporation. During two last years at Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU electronic portfolio method is actively used in education process. On the website of Institute one can look throw e-portfolio of pedagogy masters and bachelors (www.ipps.institute.sfu-kras.ru). Student electronic portfolio is used in education process for information-communicative competences assessment first of all in the sphere of ICT disciplines, for individual achievements presentation and leadership qualities demonstration, and for organization of reflexive processes of difficulties, educational resource and personal deficiency rating for obtaining professional and individual objectives by pedagogy masters and bachelors (Smolyaninova, 2008). At 2008-2009 at Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU young teachers started to create electronic portfolios within professional training program “Teacher of higher school” and additional qualification “Teacher”. The idea of e-portfolio method using in teacher assessment scheme appeared while researching resources and facilities of e-portfolio as a personal development method which is connected with career planning and reflection, as the method which is motivated to personal achievements presentation, collecting different artifacts in electronic form, which could be catalogued and sorted for analysis. The idea has been widely discussed by academic community of Institute at methodological seminars, Academic Senate, and projective seminar under IREX project. For analysis e-portfolio technology potential at SFU teachers assessment scheme the public opinion poll was carried out among educational experiment participants at Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU. The poll has shown readiness of Institute teaching staff to stepby-step introduction of e-portfolio technology in assessment scheme and professional achievements presentation system of IPPS SFU teaching staff. Materials and methods From our point of view there can be singled out the next kinds of activity that can be included in e-portfolio: 1. Educational 2. Scientific 3. Professional 4. Public 5. Personal The model of e-portfolio structure can be introduced by the following parts: 1. Professionally made resume. 2. The part of educational achievements which includes justificative documents and results of education such as diploma, papers and other kinds of independent activities, and also teacher’s links. – 602 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… Fig. 1. Teacher electronic portfolio structure and its basic elements 3. The part of scientific achievements which includes information about scientific interests, gained competitions and grants, research papers, monographs and etc. 4. The part of professional achievements which includes information about: • teaching activity (discipline programmes, educational methodological discipline complexes, textbooks, workbooks, and etc.); • professional activity (realized projects, contracts copies, and etc.); • other labor activities. 5. The reflection part which contains discription of career potential and readiness, author’s concept of teaching activity, assessment of work quality by student’s training results. 6. The part of pastime which includes information about interests, personal achievements (sport, hobby, etc.). 7. Multimedia gallery which includes photos and videos of different activities. 8. Useful links for colleagues and students. 9. Feedback presented by contacts or forum. The electronic portfolio structure is presented in Fig.1. In Fig.1 we see that any teacher activity can be proved by artifacts. It gives an opportunity to assess quality of different teacher activities. E-portfolio basic elements in preference must be directed to professional assessment of a teacher. For assessing person it is important to assess scientific, professional and educational activities and teacher readiness for further development. Other elements of e-portfolio are necessary for teacher general portrait making and also they are auxiliary for assessing persons. Teacher scientific activity can be estimated according to following directions: • Thesis theme. • Publications. • Patents. • Author’s certificate. • Conference attending. • Won contests. • Gained grants. • Postgraduate students supervision. • Students supervision. – 603 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… Fig. 2. Structure of teacher scientific activity assessment In each group it is necessary to single out criteria which we can use to assess teacher. This way research study issue must be conformed to teacher specialty. The publications can be assessed by the following criteria: • general number of papers, monographs, textbooks; • number of papers in journal recommended by higher assessment committee (HAC); • number of papers in impact-factor journal; • number of monograps, textbooks in central publications; • general number of pages in papers, monographs, textbooks; • average number of pages per one paper, monograph, textbook; • citation index. The result of scientific work also depends on obtained patents and author’s certificates. And its implementation has a great importance and says about invention utility. Conference participation is an integral part of scientist activity. To assess a person it is important to take into account the number of conferences and their level (local, national, international). With respect to contests and grants it is important to know teacher participations and number of won contests and gained grants. In order to trace postgraduate students training quality it is necessary to know proportion of the whole number of students and those who defended their thesis. By supervising students scientific work we must know the amount of students or students groups, who gained grants, awards, certificates, etc. The essential requirement is that any criteria must be confirmed by artifacts. The structure of teacher scientific activity assessment is shown in Fig.2. – 604 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… Fig. 3. The structure of teaching activity assessment Professional activity is presented by teaching and occupational activity. Teaching activity can be assessed by the following directions: • Lessons. • Textbooks, educational supplies, course programs publishing. • Information technologies (IT) using. • Gained titles. Each group has criteria which we can use to assess teacher. During the accounting period teacher must give practical studies, laboratory works and lectures on one or several disciplines in depend on his academic loading. The continuity of teaching course is also taken into account. Thus assessing person must know how many lessons have been given by each discipline and their conformation to the planned loading. Special place is devoted to lectures which have been given by teacher in other universities of his native country or abroad. It tells about his acceptance in professional community. The quality of giving discipline depends on course supplies for laboratory works and practical training. It is necessary to know general number of textbooks, educational supplies, and course programmes and so on, which have been published over accounting period, and its number per one discipline, and the level of publications. Teacher information technologies using in educational processes can be observed by assessing persons lesson attendance. Videos and photos of lessons can be presented in electronic portfolio. Teacher development can be proved by given titles, for example “Teacher of the year”, at different levels (local, regional, federal). The structure of teaching activity assessment is shown in Fig.3. Teacher occupational activity can be assessed by the next directions: • Employment history. • Participation in temporary work by contract. – 605 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… Fig. 4. Structure of teacher occupational activity assessment Before or during teaching activity teacher • teacher’s links. as a rule has work experience in the professional Professional training must be confirmed sphere on his specialty. Therefore his experience by diplomas or certificates. The periodicity and is important not only in theoretical aspect but his level (home University, home city, region city practical knowledge is significant as well. So the or abroad) of courses have great importance. positions which teacher has held and different The results of training and teachers links are rewards such as letter of commendation or necessary to be presented. appreciation have importance too. The structure of teacher educational activity The participation in temporary work assessment is shown in Fig.5. contracts can be confirmed by its copies and Reflection, perhaps, is the most difficult results of realization. element for assessment. It doesn’t have The structure of teacher occupational any artifacts and express inner attitude of activity assessment is shown in Fig.4. teacher to himself, his achievements, failures, Teacher educational activity can be assessed perspectives. by the next directions: On the base of reflection assessing person • Education. can determine teacher adequacy by comparison • Professional training. of achieved objects with his self-rating. So if In each group it is necessary to single out after assessment the person hasn’t reached even criteria which we can use to assess teacher. average stage during the accounting period, but The education of teacher must be confirmed considers himself an outstanding and promising to specialization of given disciplines. specialist this can tell us about his wrong self The level of teacher education is to be assessed appraisal. in accordnance with his higher education. Also it Electronic portfolio artifacts are produced is necessary to present: separately for each activity and confirm its • education results (papers, course projects, presence and quality. Nevertheless we can divide diploma projects, etc.); artifacts into three groups: • education achievements (awards, prises, 1. Confirming teacher achievements certificates, etc.); (resume, certificates, contracts, etc.) – 606 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… Fig. 5. Structure of teacher educational activity assessment Fig. 6. Types of artifacts in e-portfolio 2. Confirming achievements quality (course and diploma projects, education results, scientific papers); 3. Multimedia materials (lectures, seminars, conferences, cultural events, academic missions, laboratory, etc. photography and video recordings). There we can notice that multimedia materials confirm teacher achievements and their quality but absolutely in another format. Artifacts from the first and the second paragraph make it only in documentary (text) form. The types of artifacts are shown in Fig.6. If there are basic elements of e-portfolio so the question of their assessment appears. This question is sufficiently difficult and requires discussion within another paper, but we can make some remarks. Teacher activity assessment criteria on the base of e-portfolio method are sufficiently various. The rating of his importance, influence and other characteristics must be different. We suggest three assessment ways: • by quantitative measure; • by qualitative measure; • by expert opinion. – 607 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… Besides there must be defined different levels, achieved by teacher under assessment, what make it possible to assess him positively or negatively and realize his current level status. There must be established the concrete values for each position. The influence of different teacher achievements and activities among others must be determined and established by experts according to the professional sphere of a teacher. Electronic portfolio additional resources for teacher assessment go beyond the scope of the traditional procedure. These resources are presented by the following elements: • Multimedia gallery. • Contacts. • Pastime. Multimedia gallery gives an opportunity to confirm teacher educational, scientific, professional activity and pastime by photography, video and audio recordings. So the scientific activity can be demonstrated by conference and defense of dissertation photos and videos. One of the assessment terms is an open lesson, but they haven’t been given recently. Owing to the lectures video recording we can see not only one teacher lessons and they will become open for everybody. Contacts part is the only part of e-portfolio which provides feedback with the teacher. It can be presented by list of contacts (telephone number, e-mail, address, and website) and by forum where special sections for students, colleagues, administration can exist. Pastime part. Many teachers are all-round developed personalities. They have interests and hobbies. That can be presented in this part of electronic portfolio. Pastime part can be useful for assessing persons, colleagues and students. Assessing persons can see that with achievements in education, science and professional activity teacher is developing and in the cultural side. Colleagues can find common interests and start to communicate more closely. And students can see a teacher as an ordinary person with common hobbies and interests. Owing to this relations between student and teacher can become stronger. And besides on the teacher example students will strive for their own elf-development. Network interaction norms must be based on teacher interests and modern informational and computer technologies. Under wide e-portfolio method development by teachers in corporate network culture there can be applied the following technical feasibilities: • restricted access to e-portfolio; • teacher rating automatical calculation; • on-line e-portfolio data content changing; • simplified and uniform system data entry. Restricted access to e-portfolio. It is known that people are different and not everybody is ready to give information about him to open access. Therefore teacher can optionally restrict access to his e-portfolio or its elements for wide users group and choose who can attend his page. It can be realized through the ordinary registration procedure. Teacher rating automatical calculation. Using e-portfolio in corporate network we can give additional facilities for authorized users. Such facility can be on-line teacher concerning voting or test. Under such voting and tests the rating of a teacher among students or colleagues can be made automatically. On-line e-portfolio data content changing is necessary for e-portfolio demonstration for different audience (students, colleagues, administration, employers, etc.). The content of e-portfolio must be different for each group of people. Elements which are interesting for one group can be indifferent for another or – 608 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… lead to negative effect. In any way we can set restriction beforehand and people will see what they want. Simplified and uniform system data entry. There are no opportunity to make their own electronic portfolio for many teachers because of different reasons. This problem can be solved by unified form simplified system of data entry when a teacher must only write headings, values or choose right alternative. • teacher informational competence development; • feedback with students, colleagues, administration; • teacher personal achievements monitoring; • potential for qualitative assessment and teachers qualification rating; • generation of scientific and educational general resource; • development of corporate network culture; • teacher-students and teacher-colleagues communication barrier taking down. Results High education renovation in Russian Federation is connected with the higher requirements to university teachers by reason of international education space entering. Only on the base of open effective demonstration of personal achievements at teacher scientific activity his professional and personality recognition by students and position forming is available. To our opinion electronic portfolio in assessment scheme is an effective teacher assessment method and it has advantages for teachers and university too. We defined the main advantages electronic portfolio in assessment scheme: • demonstration of educational, professional and personal achievements: • compactness; • reflection of teacher pedagogical practice by himself and by other experts; • presentation of artifacts of any activity; Conclusion In current conditions of a competitive labourmarket it is necessary to normalize such teacher work forms as self-presentation of creative, researching projects in electronic space, self and experts rating of professionalism and readiness to work in a project team. It will allow students to find a person holding the same views in his scientific work, and a teacher to choose the most talented students for cooperation in research. Demonstration of pedagogical principles at teacher personal e-portfolio makes it possible for students to understand assessment criteria, pedagogical positions, requirements, directives of some teachers. Thus the tendency for harmonization of students and teachers aims and positions will be realized. References T. N. Makarova, “Portfolio presentation as alternative form of teacher assessment”, Methodological journal of school deputy director, 3 (2005), 73-80. – (in Russian). Regulations of university teacher staff one-time stimulating bonuses 2009 project. – http://sfukras.ru/files/reglament.pdf E. Yu. Vasilieva, “Approaches to assessment of teacher activity”, University management, 2 (2006), 74-78. – (in Russian). V. N. Pecherica, “Recent approaches to teacher work assessment”, Innovative technologies in education quality development, vol. 3 (2006), 140-141. – (in Russian). – 609 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment… A. V. Mosina and O. S. Leshchenko, “E-portfolio as a form of teacher activity internet support in the graduate school”, (2003). – http://www.ito.su/2003/II/3/II-3-3306.html B. E. Andyusev, “About portfolio using in pedagogical university teachers and students assessment”, Education management in modern university, (2006), 119-121. – (in Russian). O. G. Smolyaninova, “Foreign universities experience of e-portfolio method using”, Informatics and education, 11 (2008), 99-110. – (in Russian). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 611-617 ~~~ УДК 338.4 Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches Pavel M. Vcherashnij* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1 Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009 Issues considered in the article are related to the evaluation of efficiency and quality of education at a large-scale level. For this kind of evaluation the author suggests employing a concept of outcome/result-focused budgeting. In addition, one can use methods of monitoring and surveying target population’s satisfaction. It is suggested that the obtained data can be used for producing an evaluation summary of compliance between the quality of education and educational standards. A proposed approach which can make it possible to employ the above mentioned methods is clustering secondary level educational institutions. Clustering is based on the criterion of efficiency and performance success. The employment of the clustering approach will contribute to the development of a more effective financial policy and based on it managerial decisions. Keywords: educational services, system of education, result-focused budgeting, clusters, monitoring, social survey, evaluation summary of educational services quality, educational efficiency, performance success. Educational reforms during the stage of implementation necessitate not only the evaluation of budgeting effectiveness, they may also create a need in a new budgeting concept which considers the use multiple sources for financing an educational institution. From the literature about the evaluation of effectiveness of educational services one can sense that there have not been developed clear indicators of correlation between a style of managing financial resources and efficiency of services of an educational institution; there is also a notable lack of agreement in approaches to creating an effective budgeting system in education, to developing reliable measurement tools for evaluation * 1 of economic and financial achievements of educational institutions. Research papers of Russian and oversees authors dwell on a number of issues in education, such as: financial resources management, effectiveness of budget allocations, evaluation of achievements in middle-term planning and programme-driven budgeting, the use of modern management technologies. However, these papers do not discuss a systematic approach to effective financial management; there is little information about the influence of the result-focused budgeting on social and economic performance of educational institutions. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 611 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches While planning a result-focused budget one should consider the following articles 1. costs; 2. performance results (the amount of delivered services); 3. effectiveness of performance (end-users’ satisfaction); this article reflects tactical goals; 4. the quality of delivered services; 5. the level of achievement of the planned goals; 6. the effectiveness in social and economic performance. One should mention that educational services differ from other services by their nature. These differences have to be considered in evaluation of the effectiveness and performance achievements of educational institutions. There is a number of specific features which are characteristic of educational services. Firstly, educational services are difficult to measure. Lectures, seminars and workshops which are delivered by teachers can not be turned into a tangible product. Thus in order to attract customers educational institutions familiarise them with their licences, certificates, letters of state accreditation. Prospect customers can learn about institutional curricular, offered degree courses and a variety of teaching approaches and techniques practiced by the institution. Secondly, the processes of service delivery and service receiving in education take place simultaneously. Thirdly, like any other kind of service, an educational service is an integral part of its provider, that is, of an individual who is responsible for a service delivery. However, there may be specific features. For example, some tertiary level educational institutions can boast their own original methods, unique courses, delivered exclusively by their tutors and available only for their students, they can have strong scientific schools. Fourthly, as any service, an educational service can be subject to variations in a quality level. An educational service depends largely on a professional level of a teacher, their responsibility and diligence, their health level and morale. Besides, an educational service is also influenced by the resources base. Current degree standards give a range of choices in subjects to be taught to educational institutions, which can not but influence the quality level of delivered services. A professional level of graduates from different educational institutions will be different although they may have a similar qualification and similar grades in their official transcripts. Fifthly, educational services cannot be stored; nevertheless they have certain specificity. As it has been mentioned above one can not produce an educational service and store it till selling, but one can think of a service concept in advance; it is possible to develop a syllabus, course outline and teaching materials, traditional and ICT. Still information which a student learns is a rather perishable product, a student may forget it and it may become out-dated. Thus, there emerges a necessity in continuous professional development, it training courses which update a specialist and inform them of the latest achievements in their area. Educational services differ from other non-material services by their consumer properties (consumer costs): they satisfy needs in moral and intellectual development of endusers; as well as providing for a customer an opportunity in gaining a sought qualification. Educational services can be characterised by the following: • the level of a service intake depends on a customer’s background and learning experience, on their capability and willingness to receive a service; • receiving a service can lead to a further improvement of the quality of workforce – 612 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches • for a customer educational services’ benefits are always suspended; • educational services, as a rule, are more costly that other services, this is a result of an educational service provider’s high qualification; • Educational services are beneficial not only for an individual receiving a service but effectively for the society in general. The necessity of introduction of a resultfocused budgeting system is proved by practices of its implementation in education of highly developed countries. Australia, Canada, Finland and Sweden have been using the system of evaluation of social services effectiveness, alongside with the effectiveness of their planning, since 1980s. In all these countries there functions a management and quality control system for educational services, which provides necessary data for the evaluation of efficiency of educational services. However, one can notice different approaches not only in methodology of developing planning and budgeting systems, but also in interpreting the efficiency of educational services. If one takes Australia, Denmark and France, these countries base their interpretations on both qualitative and quantitative data. Canada, Sweden and Great Britain, on the other hand, opt for quantitative data for evaluation of educational institutions efficiency. Whereas in Finland they use quantitative data only if qualitative methods can not be implemented. The majority of countries who have reformed their systems of budget monitoring obtain their data for evaluation from customer surveys. These surveys serve as barometers for customer satisfaction and for identifying the inadequate quality of educational programmes. The major directions of methodology development in the Russian Federation are the following: 1. improvement of the quality of education (of educational service delivery), improvement of efficiency of educational institutions 2. making education more accessible (abiding by constitutionally guaranteed rights for citizens) 3. increasing the efficiency of financing in education (maximizing results within budget limitations) 4. increasing the transparency of budget allocation Goals are expected to be achieved with the following: • dividing budget authorisation – introduction of subventions to support the implementations of major educational programmes; • budget planning based on per capita principle; • introducing the norm of meeting educational standards as a required minimum for budget effectiveness; • considering individual learners’ needs as a tool for improving the quality of an educational service; • Developing a system of reliable indicators for monitoring the efficiency, accessibility and quality in education. For successful development of the budget system an increase in the efficiency of educational services is one of the crucial factors for the country’s social and economic development. Economic gains from delivering efficient educational services depend also on the scale of their accessibility in educational institutions. An efficient educational service is an important factor in social satisfaction and effective functioning of the budget system. After the Presidents’ Decree of 28.06.07 # 825 “Performance evaluation of the local executive bodies in the Russian Federation” there has started a process of developing a system of quality evaluation of different educational models – 613 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches employed at a regional level. Quality evaluation systems in question are expected to be used for measuring outcomes of complex educational projects aimed at modernizing local educational systems. The aim of the suggested by the author approach is development of mechanisms for evaluation of the executive bodies’ performance efficiency. The points of evaluation are effective budget expenditure, dynamic in indicators for education quality change, the level of implementation of new management principles and approaches which provide for more efficient regional management models, including those in education. Evaluation results, according to the approach, will allow identifying problem areas requiring urgent addressing by regional and municipal authorities. They will also provide data for making a specific action plan aimed at increasing the efficiency of regional executive bodies performance, namely they will allow identifying ineffective budget expenditures; in addition it will be possible to identify unused resources (financial, material, technical, human, etc) in order to use them for educational staff pay rise, for increasing the quality and range of services. Data required for efficiency evaluation are taken from official governmental reports, from governmental statistic and business statistic, and also from population surveys. In the Krasnoyarsk Territory there exist standards about the quality of educational services in primary, secondary, upper secondary and commercial education. The mentioned standards are aimed at providing proper service delivery and thus securing citizens’ rights for quality primary, secondary, upper secondary and commercial education. In order to maintain a proper level of the delivered services in the Krasnoyarsk Territory evaluations are carried out to check that factual educational services correspond to the level prescribed by the standards1. The main goals in evaluation of the compliance between quality of educational services and the quality standards are the following: • Systematic analysis and evaluation of the gathered information about the quality of delivered services and about their correspondence to the quality prescribed by the standards; • Providing the information about the quality of educational services to the Territorial executive bodies and population of the Territory. The evaluation of the compliance between educational services quality and the standards is held by the educational agency on a quarterly basis. The evaluation is held with the use of the following mechanisms: 1. Monitoring of the services quality against the standards. 2. Surveying the population in order to find out the level of their satisfaction with the quality of delivered educational services. The following are the criteria for holding regular monitoring procedures: • Categories of end-users; • Operational model of educational institution • The range of provided services; • Transparency and accessibility of information for customers before requesting a service and while a delivery stage; • Period of services delivery; • Customers’ complaints. 1 – 614 – Decree of the Territory Administration of 27.06.2007 #258-п “Towards establishing evaluation procedure in checking the correspondence of delivered educational services to prescribed quality standards and considering the obtained results in the prospective budget planning”. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches Table 1. Compliance of educational services quality informed by monitoring procedures Significant value Value interpretation (OC1) No divergences discovered as a result of 1,0 Provided services comply with the monitoring procedures quality standards Sporadic divergences from the standard 0,5 On the whole provided services comply requirements with the quality standards Numerous divergences (more than 5) discovered 0 Provided services do not comply with as a result of monitoring procedures, failure to the quality standards eliminate a number of divergences discovered during previously held monitoring Criteria OC1 – a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by monitoring procedures of a separate educational service. Table 2. Compliance of educational services quality informed by population surveying Criteria More than 70% of surveyed population in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are satisfied with the quality of provided educational services 50-70% of surveyed population in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are satisfied with the quality of provided educational services Less than 50% of surveyed population in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are satisfied with the quality of provided educational services Significant value Value interpretation (OC2) 1,0 Provided services comply with the quality standards 0,5 0 On the whole provided services comply with the quality standards Provided services do not comply with the quality standards OC2 – a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by surveying population about a separate educational service. Below are the evaluation criteria for monitoring the compliance of educational services quality to the educational standards: Criteria of compliance of educational services quality with quality standards informed by population surveying include the following: Both of the above presented weight parameters are later used for making an evaluation summary of compliance between educational services quality and the quality standards Below is the formula for calculation an evaluation summary value based on the both weight parameters, monitoring procedures and population surveying: Meanings: OC (summary) - evaluation summary value of compliance between educational services quality and the quality standards; OC1 - a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by monitoring procedures of a separate educational service. OC2 – a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by population surveying. If an evaluation summary is based on the weight parameters of monitoring procedures, the suggested formula is the following: OC (summary) = 0.5 x OC1 + 0.5 x OC2 (1) – 615 – OC (summary) = OC1 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches Table 3. Evaluation summary values of compliance between educational services quality and the quality standards Values Value interpretation OC summary=1 provided services are in full compliance with the quality standards 0.5<= OC summary<1 on the whole provided services are in compliance with the quality standards OC summary<0.5 provided services fail to comply with the quality standards Table 4. Correlation between parameter groups and institutional aims Parameter groups 1. Quality of education 2. Professional qualification of staff Aim to achieve provision of quality education to population in order to guarantee social mobility and to promote lowering social and economic stratification increasing the level of staff professional qualification and the quality of tutorials development of individual’s creativity 3. Development of extracurricular educational services 4. A system of graduates appointment increasing students employability, preparing them for further education 5. Participation of students and staff in conferences, contests, olympiads 6. Using a budget network providing staff and students with opportunities for self-development, increasing institutional transparency efficient use of available resources 7. Financial resources improving financial management and decreasing inefficient institutional expenditure Meanings: evaluation summary value of compliance between educational services quality and the quality standards for a separate educational service; OC1 - a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by monitoring procedures. Table 3 below offers a range of evaluation summary values and their interpretations. Evaluation results of compliance between educational services quality and the quality standards are considered in the following situations: • Producing a budget report of the Krasnoyarsk Territory; • Planning a prospect year budget of the Krasnoyarsk Territory; • Proposing changes to a range of educational services, quality standards; • Project proposals for educational services for a prospect financial year While developing a methodological approach one should identify basic criteria for measuring efficiency and performance success of an educational institution. A set of tools for measuring efficiency and performance success of an educational institution should be referred to as information system of efficiency evaluation (‘information system’ hereafter). One parameter can correlate only with one activity aspect (e.g. academic progress, payment expenditure, etc); the whole system may provide a broader picture of various activity aspects (in the aggregate). Basic requirements towards the information system are the following: 1. it should reflect priorities in educational institutions’ activity and reflect their aims and objectives. – 616 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches 2. it should communicate its accessibility and effectiveness to potential users. 3. it should communicate the idea of correlation between aims and objectives and major directions in institution’s activity. 4. the system in question should be integrated into institutional activities, where if forms a part of planning and management processes. 5. cost efficiency: resources used for gathering information in order to hold evaluation should be paid back by the results of the Educational institutions monitoring has been developed with the idea of optimising cost effectiveness in mind. Every group of parameters correlates with an institutional aim, which, in its turn, decides on specific parameters belonging to each group. There are three stages of educational institution monitoring: First stage – evaluation of an institution is held in order to find out the level of compliance between the institutional main parameters and executive body requirements to educational evaluation. Parameters of institutional efficiency and performance success can be classified into groups which reflect task achievement in each group. Grouping the parameters provides a wider information data about achievement in concrete directions of institutional activity. It also correlates with the above mentioned requirements to an information system, such as reflecting priorities, accessibility and effectiveness, and correlation between aims and major directions. This grouping accounts for the fact that different users may be interested in different parameters. services quality. Second stage – efficiency evaluation of each institution is held in order to find out top achievers among institutions in each parameter. Third stage – summary evaluation is produced in order to rank the institutions on the basis of their efficiency and performance results. The obtained ranking serves as a basis matrix development. For the purposes of effective strategic management and financial stimulation of educational institutions it is proposed to group them according to the results included into the matrix. References Anisimov P.F., Demin V.M., Oleynikova O.N. Financing professional education abroad. Moscow, 2001. 2. Balykhin G.A. Managing development in education:organisational and economic aspects. – Moscow, 2004. 3. Nikitin M.V. Modernizing management in educational institutions development. Monograph – Moscow, 2001 4. Lapushinskaya G.K. Forming a planning system for development regional professional education in conditions of social network transformation. St. Petersburg, 2004 5. Khudoliy N.G. Integration processes in a regional system of professional development. Moscow, 2002. 1.