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136.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №4 2009

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
Journal of Siberian Federal University 2009
2 (4)
Гуманитарные науки
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН К.С.Александров
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
А.Г.Дегерменджи
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Contents / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Elena A. Kaverina
Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative
Technology
– 455 –
Oleg S. Safronov
Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First
Quarter of XX Centuries in Interpretation P.A. Kropotkin
– 464 –
Innessa N. Efremenko
Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia
– 473 –
Ludmila D. Alexandrova
Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels
in Higher Educational Institutional Corporation
– 484 –
Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova
Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on
Culture
– 491 –
Yury A. Petrushin
Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of
ХIХ – the First Quarter of ХХ Centuries (on the Example of
Krestovozdvizhenskaya Cossack Village)
– 507 –
Nataliya V. Suleneva
The «TV Stage Discourse» Definition as to TV Art Program
Director Activity
– 516 –
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Hasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgenia V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Natalia A. Kupershtoh
Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian
Branch of Ras
– 523 –
Olqa A. Karlova
Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in
Understanding Him
– 533 –
Irina P. Pavlova
The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine
Russia in the Publications of Western European and American
Historians (a review article)
– 538 –
Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva
The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the
Context of All-Russian Demographic Trends (1990th-2000th)
– 549 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук», по экономике; по
истории; по философии, социологии
и культурологии
Anastasia V. Klykova
Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature
of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
– 560 –
Natalia M. Libakova
Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in
Cultural Studies
– 580 –
Vladimir S. Luzan
Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy
– 587 –
Julia T. Chanchikova
Features of Eurasian Traditions in System of Western
Traditionalism of the First Half of Twentieth Century
– 595 –
Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh
University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment
on the Basis of e-portfolio Method
– 601 –
Pavel M. Vcherashnij
Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational
Services: Current Approaches
– 611 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 455-463
~~~
УДК 009
Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon
and a Communicative Technology
Elena A. Kaverina*
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
48 Moyka River Embankment, St. Petersburg, 191186 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
The article is devoted to the philosophic-aesthetical analysis of a «special event» phenomenon. It
reveals cultural, historical, and aesthetical basics of a celebration and its social functions. The
celebration is approached as a communicative technology. A big part of the article is devoted to the
corporate celebrations – it reveals the goals of such celebrations, principles of their organization,
and specifics of conduct. Corporate celebration is presented as a communicative technology used for
building positive relations within the internal audiences (employees) of the company, for developing
corporate culture, and forming corporate identity.
Keywords: celebration, corporate celebration, special event, aesthetics of celebration, functions of
celebration.
Introduction
Approaching the research of the phenomenon
of celebration today is very essential as
celebration is the most important component of
socio-cultural reality in XXI century. Studying
the celebration today is very interesting and
relevant in several dimensions. The first one is a
celebration as a social phenomenon. The second
one is a celebration as an aesthetic phenomenon.
And the third dimension is a celebration as a
communicative technology used to achieve certain
corporate aims. Today, the term «corporation»
is actively used in professional vocabulary and
there are multiple terms derived from this word:
«corporate culture», «corporate relations»,
«corporate space». The term «corporation» means
a company, an organization united by economic,
social, political and other interests. Most of all,
*
1
«corporation» describes a commercial structure,
however, it can also be used as a state corporation
or a public corporation (Chumikov, Bocharov,
2006, p.130).
Celebrations are used as a communicative
technology aimed at building relations with
various audiences of public. A celebration can be
initiated and organized by state, commercial or
non-profit organizations in other words by any
corporation.
A celebration organized to achieve
corporate objectives is called «a special event».
Today this term is also actively used. Special
event is an event, which specially conducted
to communicate ideas, values, messages
that represent and serve to achieve certain
philosophical, informational, reputation, image,
commercial or non-commercial goals of some
Corresponding author E-mail address: kaverina_elena@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
– 455 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology
community united by some axiological basis,
social, confessional, corporative principles and
views. Special event is a phenomenon, which
has been created by mass-media culture and has
not been studied enough.
In the modern times creating special events
is becoming a branch of professional activity –
there are specialists so called event-managers,
and there are agencies that offer wide range
of «celebration» services. Modern activities
of organizing celebrations have to base on
knowledge of cultural-historical and aesthetical
basics. Specialists who work in the field of eventactivities need to have a broad background in
humanitarian studies. It is important to understand
that while creating a celebration you have to fill
it with certain spiritual content – otherwise it
will be just profanation of celebration (Yudin,
2006). Therefore, in this article the phenomenon
of celebration is explained in three specified
significant dimensions. Close attention in the
article is paid to studying a corporate celebration
as a corporate celebration is a communicative
technology used for building positive relations
with internal target audiences (employees) of the
company, for developing corporate culture and
forming corporate identity.
Point of view
Celebration is a unique phenomenon of
culture. Historical roots of celebration date
back to the most ancient times. Celebration has
various social functions, which first of all include
forming a community, ideology, moral principles,
and aesthetical preferences. Celebration is one
of the most widely spread form to storage and
communicate socially important experience.
Being «the form of aesthetical and artistic activity
included in the material of the socio-cultural
reality» (Aesthetics: Dictionary, 1989, p.269),
celebration reflects the world view and the model
of society, in which it exists.
Celebration is always a period of time that
has a structure-forming idea. It is always an action
devoted to somebody or something. The most
critical feature of celebration is its connection
with a sacral, in other words a sacred sphere, or a
sphere that has a special meaning. Scenario and
attributes of celebration are symbols of its sacral
idea as «each celebration is connected with a
certain value, sometimes a higher level, which is
a sacrum of the celebrating group» (Zhigulskiy,
1985, p.63). The time of celebration is not
leisured – it is predestinate. Celebration assigns
roles to the participants limiting freedom of each
of them by the margin of the common idea.
Celebration is social and demonstrative as it
represents a socially meaningful idea or approves
a new social status. Celebration creates and
maintains the feeling of unity – participating in
it means to be the part of the whole, find your
identity. Ceremonial of the celebration contributes
to that idea – words, music, moves, light, and
colors, all artistically bringing the idea to life,
create a special atmosphere, in which everything
that has not got an image is saved in images. In
such way celebration builds the space of myth.
Celebration deals with people’s emotions.
The way a celebration goes is oriented on
development and even on heating the emotions –
during the celebration participants have to go
through clean, light, positive emotions that can
give him a feeling of «cleaning» of the soul. In
this perspective aesthetics and logic of celebration
development is close to the cathartic affect of
art.
Aesthetics of celebration, special form of
celebration space organization and art based
celebration scenarios come from the archaic
cultures. Mysteries used to be the only way to
explore the world, life, set the value reference
points. «Action of celebration seems to an
invalid some other world where he is carried
to and transformed by some superior powers,
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology
... celebration turns out to be both the time of
intense excitement and transformation of his
whole existence» (Kayua, 2003, p.219). Osmosis
of the truth was done by the emotional sphere
and was firmly secured in conscience. A ritual
of action, its development, audio and visually
figured construction was clear to all participants
of mysteries – it was some peculiar «parade of
sign systems».
Celebration has its features, which make
it different from other events. Celebration
creates a special universe of game. Celebration
pushes everyday life aside, «lifts a person (and
the society) up above the workdays and praises
celebratory freedom» (Mazayev, 1978, p.175).
The must have feeling of happiness, positive
emotional attitude, good mood – all that we
mean by «celebratory» is what we can call the
most important trait of celebration. This is what
differentiates celebrations from ceremonies,
because ceremonies can be devoted to some
morning occasions. Ceremonials are more
reserved and colder emotionally. Following
strict predefined scenario is more important and
ceremonials are mainly protocol events, where
participants follow certain ceremony.
Celebration publically postulates some
social idea. By using tools of celebration the new
social idea acquires legitimacy. Celebration is in
other words so called public mass approval of the
new idea. Participants, who came to celebrate,
express recognition of the idea by the fact of
participation, by coming and therefore joining
the celebration. This phenomenon is documented
in history multiple times.
Changing of historical times and political
systems is accompanied by the change of social
mythology, symbols, oftentimes the change of
chronology (calendar), and also by the change of
celebrations calendar. It can be called some sort
of creation of a «new» socio-historical time and a
new social space with its symbols and attributes.
So, for instance, the reforms of Peter the Great
were marked by the decree of 1699 about shifting
New Year’s celebration from the 1st of September
to the 1st of January. Peter by far extended the
calendar: secular celebrations appeared in
addition to religious holidays that had existed
before. We can say that the imperator Peter
conducted a grand communicative revolution: he
did not just create a concept of a new ideology but
also enrooted it; he did not just build a new image
and reputation of Russia but also created channels
of public communication. The first secular
celebrations – Assemblies, were conducted with
some didactic purpose. This range of celebrations
can be continued by ball dances, palace festivities,
masquerades, fireworks, carrousels, and street
theaters. Such diversity of variants shows that all
the special events targeted audiences of different
social level. Celebration in such circumstances is
a communicative technology for carrying out an
idea – it is a tool to incorporate a socio-political
conception.
The next significant change in the national
calendar occurred in the period of the next
high-powered socio-political crisis of 1917.
Changes in holidays in that period ware radical –
aggressive destruction of the old holiday system
and creating a new one was obvious. The state
holidays were introduced instead of religious and
secular celebrations. Sacral matter, existential
component of celebration was eliminated, and the
political concept became the point to celebrate.
In the 20s of the twentieth century, «playing in
myth begins… communism and Marxism in
Russia obtained the features of a new religion,
with no connection to the Absolute. A new neomythical complex is being created: myths about
the nation, the country, the government… all of
them are tailored in accordance with the rules of
mythology, but with an artificial content. … Party
and class replace clan and tribe» (Apinyan, 2003,
p.324). Soviet holidays are bright examples of
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
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special events in the state perspective, commonly
spread in totalitarian cultures.
State holidays, that communicate the
governing political ideology, played the most
significant role during the entire 20th century
in history of Russia. During that time period the
celebration of the change in the political system,
anniversary of the Great October Revolution,
became the main holiday. In this perspective, it
is interesting to note that revolutionary process
was considered and communicated to the
publics as a celebration. In circulation of pubic
information the main emphasis was put on heroic
pathetics. Religious and existential dominants
were substituted by ideological, political and
professional ones. That process was reflected
in creation of new holidays – Day of Soviet
Army and Navy (23 February) appeared along
with a big number of professional holidays, a
special meaning was given to Labor Day (Day
of International Laboring Solidarity – 1 May),
some holidays worshiping the leader came into
the stage, such as, for example, Anniversary of
V.I. Lenin’s birthday (22 April), and so on.
The era of Soviet Union Imperia demonstrated
an implementation of a grandiose communicative
project. And if the Imperator Peter performed
the first communicative revolution then this can
be called the second communicative revolution.
Celebrations played a titanic role there – the
grandiosity of them were meant to appoint the
enormousness of new socio-political ideas and to
confirm the feeling of nationwide happiness and
pride for the country by their spirit and general
visual entourage.
The birth of new Russia in the end of the
1990s also provides examples of inventing new
holidays. A key celebration postulating the new
paradigm of development of Russia has become
the Day of Russia celebration (12 June). An
interesting fact is that the celebration has had
different names in such a short period of existence
(the first variant of the name for this holiday was
Day of Independence of Russia). A name, which
accurately reflects the idea of the celebration,
is the most important condition of adequate
broadcasting of the key idea of the event, peculiar
positioning of the signification and meaning of
the celebration. The holiday was renamed from
Day of Independence of Russia into Day of
Russia. It is worth to mention that in order for
holiday to become truly popular, understandable
and involving for all publics, a certain amount of
time and a series of communicative events have
to take place to promote the idea and the name
of the holiday. Public understanding of what is
celebrated, why and what it is supported with is
very important (in times of economic and political
chaos, in difficult conditions, in which most
Russian citizens live in, it is hard to celebrate and
share or support the declared ideas). On the other
hand, postulating and promoting the ideas has
to go ahead and define the development course,
declare values of corporation of Russia.
Nowadays, we can observe the process of
some celebrations’ return – primarily religious
holidays. When a celebration comes back, it
becomes a symbol of reviving values. Modern
calendar of holidays is more tolerant than ever –
it provides a person with a right of individual
choice at the same time remaining to be a form
and possibility of searching human community,
a way to storage and broadcast of meaningful
ideas. In national culture celebrations have an
important meaning as Russia belongs to the type
of non-pragmatic, emotionally sensitive societies
(Malkovskaya, 2008).
These days, the process of creating
celebrations can be observed. Celebrations are
being developed and organized on purpose to
achieve certain commercial and non-commercial
goals in social, cultural, political and business
sectors. Specially organized celebrations can
serve to increase recognition of the company,
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Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology
benefit improvement of its image and reputation,
form loyalty of external and internal audiences.
Corporate celebration is a communicative
technology, which is actively used in practice
of corporate relations. Therefore, it makes
sense to examine a corporate celebration as a
communicative technology in the example.
Example
Corporate celebration is a specially
organized event for internal publics (employees) of
a company aimed at achieving a cascade of goals.
Strategic goals: transmitting a corporate myth and
strengthening traditions; developing corporate
culture; promoting corporate values; public
acknowledgment of company’s achievements by its
personnel. Motivation goals: having celebrations
to show appreciation of the personnel so that the
level of loyalty of the staff increases; developing
friendly relationships, informal relations; leisure
time for employees. Teambuilding goals: forming/
rallying the team; developing skills of team work;
finding latent professional and personal resources
of the employees; determining the informal
leaders. Format of a celebration and the pool of
creative ideas depend on goals that are prioritized
in the particular company.
Corporative celebrations have their mission
in creating the unity, transmitting corporate
philosophy and developing corporate culture of
the company. Corporative celebrations contribute
to forming corporate identity, forming loyalty,
feeling of respect for and belongingness to the
company.
A corporate celebration has communicative,
organizational and motivating resources.
Conducting a corporate celebration should be
approached as an investment into development of
corporate culture and the company in general. A
well set corporate culture is one of the factors that
makes the company stable and successful in the
competitive markets.
Corporate celebrations became an essential
part of most companies’ life regardless of the field
they operate in, professional specifics and the
number of employees. Nowadays, a calendar of
events of any company includes at least three or
four corporate celebrations: corporate New Year;
company’s birthday celebration; professional
branch holiday; «men’s» (23 February) and
«women’s» (8 March) days, which are more often
celebrated in a combined format of «23+8» these
days; Family Days (summer picnics or winter days
outside for staff members and their families).
Corporate celebration is an effective way to
exercise corporate culture. Corporate culture does
not exist by itself, out of corporate community –
it is always itemized and materialized as well as it
lives spiritually. Development of corporate culture
is not possible without corporate communication.
It is reflected in words, images, items, atmosphere.
Each employee of the company is a carrier of
corporate culture and that is why it is important
to involve him into the corporate environment.
Corporate celebration is an opportunity
for employees of the company to relax, shake
off emotional pressure and exhaustion. It is
an opportunity to bring positive emotions and
good impressions, and to create a balance of
impressions against an everyday professional
routine. Working for a company should not be
associated with pressure and stress. Corporate
celebration gives an opportunity for positive
informal socializing.
A celebration can become a good starting
point for also creating or/and development of
corporate traditions. It has certain communicative
resources for correction, improving an image of
governing persons, or structures/departments of
the company.
Corporate celebration is not yet a
communicatory matter. Employees should
be aware of all news and achievements of the
company, should feel that the company has
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an intense professional and corporate life. A
quality prepared celebration allows to achieve
a condition of corporate unity, gladness from
communication, joy of going through and feeling
the same willingness to work and pass leisure time
together; to create psychological and emotional
comfort so any person is able to open himself to
others and actualize his professional, personal
and creative potential.
In corporate culture a celebration is not a
do-nothing activity – it is full of very pragmatic
objectives. It represents a corporate idea and
friendship, sincere relations within the team of
employees turn into their materialized equivalent
because they help to achieve harmonious team
work, decrease the amount of work needed
to find solutions, increase the level of loyalty
to the company through dedication to the
team. Carnival playing body of celebration
also allows overcoming borders of procedure
rules, subordination of people in business life
and following strict principles of protocol and
etiquette. Accepting these rules of the game sets
new margins in interpersonal communication so
inducts people in it. In this perspective a corporate
celebration is identical to a «classical» one as it is
also connected to a sacral area where a conscious
building of a myth takes place following a concept
or/and a philosophy of the corporation. Moreover,
vitality of the corporate myth is regularly diagnosed,
there is a constant check for correspondence to the
current condition of business environment (both
internal and external) and its correlation depending
on changes in policies. Corporate myth should not
lose its competitive ability. More than that, it has to
provide a competitive advantage to the company.
In such manner, celebrations have a special
conceptual, informative and communicative
meaning, and are being consciously used as a
communicative technology.
Creative activity of making up a celebration
is essential for internal corporate public relations.
Creativity is necessary but it is also vital to
consider the practicability of presumptive
celebratory activities. Ideally, a corporate
celebration even being a fun event has certain
contexts, subtexts and connotations, which are
made and well-thought-out by «the insiders».
Specialists of corporate communications create
corporate mythology and put it into the language
of images, preserve it in the form of traditions
and pass it one in a «celebratory» way.
By using «celebratory» technologies a
new pragmatic result can be achieved when
necessary in everyday routine work.
Their own special principles make basis of
corporate celebrations even though general rules
of organizing a mass event still have to be taken
into account.
Basic principles of preparing a corporate
celebration:
1. Script of the celebration is what the
company is. The plot of the «play» will not be
interesting if it does not reflect specifics of the
company, if it does not coincide with it. Corporate
celebration manager’s main goal is to build up a
narrative and act out «the play» where a relative
story and style of relations in the company
would be specified and artistically presented.
A subjective author’s abstractive vision is not
important here but what helps to understand
existing roles in the company, characters, heroes,
intrigues is essential. All of that needs to be
seen, felt, recognized and formed into a play
plot. Afterwards, the play should be handled as a
drama performance – all the details of the plot and
an artistic embodiment have to be determined.
While preparing corporate celebrations authors
intentions come second– they have to originate
from the company, its style of the corporate life,
people who work there.
2. Exclusive approach. The door to each
company cannot be opened with the same key.
Something that was taken well in one company
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might not suit a different one. Some modular
aspects of spectacles certainly exist but they are
just bricks in a building of corporate celebration
as a whole.
3. The budget has to serve the fulfillment
of goals. The main objective of preparing
a celebration is not an appropriate budget
distribution but is in a search of new ideas and
tools to strengthen the corporate spirit. Quality
sound, light, actors’ play is not valuable just by
itself but they need to empower the mutual idea,
to embody the artistic concept of celebration,
depend on whether or not the machine of «self
entertainment» starts working; whether or not the
condition of corporate game is reached.
5. Celebration itself is the point of
culmination but the calendar time of celebration
has to be prolonged. Celebration has to begin a
few weeks before the official start and finish a
few days after the end of the celebration stated
in the scenario. An intrigue of the celebration
should be created so the personnel become
interested and start preparing for it all together.
This is the way a creative spirit of competition
to achieve celebratory atmosphere and sense of
corporate unity.
4. Creating an atmosphere of a common
corporate game. Organizers of the corporate
celebration should not entertain the guests but
should help them to entertain themselves. It is
very difficult and delicate to bring everybody
to the status of common game. Activeness and
action should prevail over passiveness and
meditativeness. It is difficult to make everybody
willing to participate but quite necessary since
the most interesting thing is to reveal an artistic
personal potential unexpectedly for others and
sometimes even to the person’s own surprise.
Each employee guest of the corporate celebration
is interested to watch «their people», get to know
«their stories»; to see that there are people with
their weaknesses, issues and happiness around
them and not just the hierarchy status positions.
One of the most complicated creative objectives
is to involve the maximum number of people
into the course of celebration scenario, and it
has to be done not in a passive way but on an
active level of participation. It is important to
overcome the opposition of «us» vs. «them»,
«spectators» vs. «actors» between those who
entertain and those who are being entertained.
In a corporative celebration everybody should
become «actors-spectators» at the same time. The
effect from the celebration and its effectiveness
appears along with willingness not to «fall
behind» and not to «miss out» on something
interesting. Preparation for celebration itself
is the beginning of celebration – expectation
brings a celebrative mood. If employees are
involved in the preparation process and put an
effort in it the celebration cannot let them down
because it is their conjoint affair and art. For
example, one of the companies was offered a
creative idea of «Dances with no rules». Each
of the departments was asked to come up with a
dance. The company’s management paid for the
rent of dancing rooms and coaches. Of course,
the main goal was not to put together a high class
dancing event but to create a bright event, give
the employees an opportunity to do something
they had never tried before. Two months of
practices, impassioned discussions of the project,
intriguing, interest filled with emotional and
exciting expectation and as a result – a bright
unforgettable corporative celebration and desire
of all employees to participate in and create
interesting corporate events in the future.
Effectiveness of corporate events can be
measured when commitment to the company’s
ideas becomes an individual choice and the style
of personal business and, moreover, individual
life, when a sense of belongingness to the firm
does not finish in the end of a working day, and
when productive work is not based on material
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Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology
enforcement but on a feeling of respect for the
corporation.
A feeling of involvement into the
corporation, a sense of belongingness to a
professional community gives a person an
opportunity to obtain his identity. A phrase
«This is my company» said with the pride is a
formula of completed conversation between the
company and an individuality of an employee and
it provides the means of success of working with
clients and publics.
Resume
1. The celebration today is considered to
be a communicative technology, as a technique
to consolidate different communities and a way
to communicate various social and commercial
ideas. Celebration as a communicative technology
serves to creating and enlarging the «symbolical
capital» (Bodriyar, 2000) of companies, brands,
persons. Aesthetical principles of creating a
celebration today are used as tools to influence a
person in order to turn him to the ideas and values
of a certain corporation, community.
2. In current era there is a situation of
ideological polycentrism, in which corporate
culture that forms beliefs and values and has its
rituals and traditions is turning into an alternative
to the cultures that are built on the basis of
confessional, national and socio-political idea.
In this regard, corporate celebrations are vital as
a way of socialization by person’s inclusion into
the corporate community and corporate culture.
Corporate celebration appears to be an efficient
communicative technology aimed at reaching a
whole cascade of corporate goals.
3. It is important to point out another special
feature of the modern celebratory culture. Today,
celebrations can be created. The culture of
postmodern, which has all the prerequisites of
the free artistic game, contributes to this fact.
Generating an idea for celebration becomes a
creative and even a heuristic process. Destroying
the connection between the celebratory action
and sacral sphere presents to the «creators» of
celebration an absolute freedom in choosing
the origins, plot and the variety of event in the
celebration.
4. Today, the fact of creating an artistic matter
and a plot for celebration can be acknowledged
just as well as the fact of promoting a new holiday,
using various communicative channels and
techniques to boost attention of target audiences.
After the holiday has been acknowledged and
celebrated by target audiences, a widely promoted
matter for celebration is being used for corporate
purposes. Nowadays, celebration is becoming
a tool of achieving commercial success. In this
regard the aesthetics of a celebration is no longer
measured by ontological basis but by a corporate
or marketing expediency.
5. Presently, creating a celebration is a
communicative technology and a communicative
phenomenon; it is an essential part of a sociocultural practice and with no doubt a subject of
current concern in socio-cultural knowledge.
References
Aesthetics: Dictionary, ed. by A.A. Belyayeva and others (Moscow: Politizdat, 1989), in Russian
T.A. Apinyan, Game in space of the serious (St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University, 2003),
in Russian
Zh. Bodriyar, Symbolical exchange and death (Moscow: Dobrosvet, 2000), in Russian
A.N. Chumikov, M.P. Bocharov, Public Relations: theory and practice (Moscow: Delo, 2006), in
Russian
R. Kayua, Myth and the man. The man and the sacral (Moscow: OGI, 2003), in Russian
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Elena A. Kaverina. Celebration as a Socio-Cultural Phenomenon and a Communicative Technology
I.A. Malkovskaya, Evolution of spectacles in human dimension, Sociological research, 2 (2008)
26-35., in Russian
A.I. Mazayev, Celebration as socio-artistic phenomenon (practice of historic-theoretical
research) (Moscow: Nauka, 1987), in Russian
N.L. Yudin, «Celebration and victory as social phenomena», Individual. Culture. Society. V.8, 4
(32) (2006) 264-272., in Russian
K. Zhigulskiy, Celebration and culture (Moscow: Progress, 1985), in Russian
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 464-472
~~~
УДК 940
Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter
of XX Centuries in Interpretation P.A. Kropotkin
Oleg S. Safronov*
Military Aviation Engineering University (Voronezh)
54а Old bolsheviks st., Voronezh, 394064 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
The article focuses on various discussion problems’ Russian history XIX – first quarter of the XX
centuries in interpretation ideologist anarchy-communism, outstanding scientist P.A. Kropotkin.
Noted, that ideologist anarchism appraised only positively Russia revolutions, since he seed fight
people against state in their. Explore, that opinions P.A. Kropotkin on the war transformed, and
afterwards, he began consecutive fighter behind continuation of the First World War.
Keywords: Kropotkin, anarchism, history opinions, Russia.
Introduction
Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin’s historical
sights are the important component of outlook
of this outstanding thinker. P.A.Kropotkin has
put in pawn a methodological basis of the new
revolutionary-anarchical historical concept.
Paying the basic attention to questions national
and revolutionary movement, the ideologist
of Russian anarchism or antistateism (Greek
anti – against, and from French etat – the state,
is equivalent to anarchism), has managed to give
estimations of the basic events of Russian and
general history essentially new to the time.
P.A.Kropotkin’s historical sights were an
organic part of its revolutionary -anarchical
outlook. The historical science was for the
ideologist of Russian anarchism the powerful
ideological weapon by means of which it struggled
against autocracy and the state institutes of
authority. For this reason P.A.Kropotkin was
*
1
engaged in development of the basic historical
problems not only in special historical
monographers and scientific articles, but also
in publicist works, on pages of newspapers and
magazines, in letters of business character. This
feature of a statement gives to historical sights of
the ideologist of Russian anarchism an acuteness,
irreconcilability to dominating outlook, polemic
brightness and an openness.
The scientific and political heritage of the
ideologist of the Russian anarchism draws to
itself attention as domestic (Ermashova, 1967;
Baranchenko, 1995), and foreign researchers
(Cai, 1992; Sakon, 1992) . It is necessary to note,
that basically, were studied its political (Blauberg,
1991; La Torre, 1993), philosophical (Hamilton,
1964), legal sights, and also the biographic facts
of many-sided activity of the ideologist anarchism
(Danilov, 1976; Slatter, 1994). Researchers have
analyzed a significant part of questions of the
Corresponding author E-mail address: istoruss@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries…
anarchical doctrine and the theory of revolution
of P.A.Kropotkin (Zateev, 2003), have tried to
estimate its political (Pirumova, 1989) and ethical
views (Itenberg and Sasaki, 1994; Kinna, 1995).
At the same time, the theme of history of our
country and emancipating movement in Russia
in P.A.Kropotkin’s estimation was not analyzed
at all. E.V.Starostin marking is absolutely right,
that «Clauses and books Кропоткина in which
it, anyhow, mentioned history of Russia, features
of its historical way, history of revolutionary
movement, etc., did not become a subject of close
studying» (Starostin, 2005, P. 10). Also there
were not quite opened its sights at genesis and
development of the state, and the question on
formation of historical views of the theorist of
the Russian anarchism has not been designated
at all.
As a whole, historical sights of an outstanding
thinker of anarchical ideology have not received
due
attention
from
scientists-historians.
V.A.Markin written «However not all the parties
of extensive creative heritage Kropotkin is
absolutely right are known equally» (Markin,
1993, P. 154). Meanwhile, the detailed analysis
of historical views of the ideologist Russian
anarchism will promote an intensification of
process of accumulation of historical knowledge.
In connection with the special interest shown
by a modern society to the decision of historical
problems, the objective analysis of historical
sights of P.A.Kropotkin is the ripened problem.
The point of view
History of the Russian state P.A. Kropotkin
analyzed through a prism of the anarchist theory,
that is through criticism of the state. Trusting in
broad masses, in their effective force which will
turn Russia to a victory of labors over oppressors,
it considered all Russian history, as never-ending
revolt of the unskilled workers against the state
and all estates.
P.A.Kropotkin has paid steadfast attention
to country reform of 1861. It considered, that
destruction of the serfdom in Russia has been
prepared by decembrists in 1825, petrashevchams
in 1848 and country performances in 50х
(Kropotkin, 1991).
The direct precondition of a cancelling
of the serfdom was a long number of country
performances. P.A.Kropotkin marked also that
circumstance, that a quantity of landowners
was influenced with distribution of liberal
ideas of revolutions 1793 and 1848. As a result
among landowners the idea about necessity of
a cancelling of the serfdom has extended. As
precondition Kropotkin marks also the fact of
intellectual awakening of Russia per 1857-61.
Concerning peasants’ revolts, P.A.Kropotkin
correctly spoke, that with 1850 of excitement
among peasants have increased. And to the
beginning of the Crimean war there were splashes
in peasants’ revolts. And, has occurred not only
quantitative increase in peasants’ revolts, but
also character has changed – excitements began
to get more and more severe character, and for
their suppression it was necessary to send a lot
of active armed forces. «Revolts have accepted
such terrible character, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin
about 50х years of XIX century, – that for
suppression it was necessary to send the whole
shelves’ with guns whereas before small groups
the soldier made up for horror on peasants
and stopped indignations» (Kropotkin, 1990,
P. 127).
Thus, in opinion of the ideologist of
anarchism, excitement among peasants, on
the one hand, and influence of liberal mood of
court circles, with another, needs of carrying
out of country reform have led. «These flashes,
on the one hand, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – and
deep disgust for the serfdom in that generation
which was put forward at the introduction on
Alexander’s II throne, – with another, have made
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clearing peasants by the vital issue» (Kropotkin,
1990, P. 127).
Concerning preparation of country reform
Kropotkin spoke the following. The first step
was made by Alexander II, proving necessity of
reform for the speech said in March, 1856. The
Lithuanian nobility has sent emperor the message
in which it is spoken about necessity of destruction
of the serfdom in reply to which Alexander II
has expressed intention to release peasants. In
provinces and St.-Petersburg specially selected
committees for development of the project of
clearing of peasants began to work. But for
wide discussion of projects business is not has
reached. Alexander II has charged to censorship
to not pass a material about a preparing reform.
P.A.Kropotkin considered, that on weak-willed
emperor has rendered strong influence a party
of landlords. «Landlords whispered, – wrote
P.A.Kropotkin, – that in day of clearing of
peasants general beating landowners and that
Russia will begin then waits new pugachevshina,
it is even more terrible than 1773. Alexander II
was the person flabby and listened to similar
ominous predictions» (Kropotkin, 1990, P. 128).
P.A.Kropotkin positively concerned all
displays of freedom, directed against the state
dictatorship, has unequivocally approvingly
estimated revolt of exiled of Poles 1866 on road
Krugobajkalskoj. It is necessary to note, that
P.A.Kropotkin at once has responded to revolt by
the report which has been published in Exchange
Sheets №301-303, 305, 307, 312 for 1866.
P.A.Kropotkin, as well as the majority
of revolutionaries-populists, has positively
concerned to Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878.
The ideologist of anarchism considered this war
emancipating as southslavic people were under a
turkish yoke during several centuries. In spite of
the fact that Russian tsarism aspired in the given
war to achievement of the mercenary purposes,
nevertheless, in P.A.Kropotkin’s opinion,
«oppressed Slavs will fall arms to any who will
help their struggle. Because the turkish yoke the
constancy and the cruelty surpasses everything,
that the human nature» (Kropotkin, 1877, 24 juin)
is capable to bear.
The ideologist of anarchism considered,
that oppression of tsarism is better, than double,
i.e. political and religious, operation southslavic
people.
P.A.Kropotkin’s great value gave reforms of
tsar on released from a Turkish yoke southslavic
the grounds. «Yes, a fighter and the murderer of
Poles, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin in clause «To east
question», – Alexander II becomes the liberator
Bulgarian … Tsar, this Neron socialists, …
creates establishments for expropriation violent
by turkish of or pert to a landowner the grounds
to transfer them without the repayment to the
Bulgarian peasants … Russian government
carries out revolutionary mission» (Kropotkin,
1877, 24 juin).
The beginning of XX century has brought
Russia war with militaristic Japan. P.A.Kropotkin
condemned the Russia-Japanese war 1904-1905,
including its aggressive both from imperial
Russia, and from the Japanese militarism. «The
present war is a celebration of the most low
capitalist instincts, – it wrote, – against which
any conceiving person should struggle» (Bread
and will, 1904, P. 6).
However, the ideologist of anarchism is
not agreed with Bolsheviks who wished defeat
Russian armies for the sake of the prompt approach
of revolution. It only regretted for vain human
victims and wanted only approach of the world.
The position of Bolsheviks, in its opinion, spoke
only influence of Engels and Liebknecht, «which
hated Russia, than the Bismarck» (RSALA, f.
1390, L. 11).
Defeat of Russia in the Russia-Japanese
war has served as one more factor destabilized
political conditions in the country. The social and
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economic crisis aggravated by political crisis,
promoted folding of a revolutionary situation
which has led to the First Russian revolution 19051907. In A.I.Rakutov’s opinion the ideologist of
anarchism allocated not only subjective, but also
objective factors of genesis of revolution. It wrote,
that «For preparation and make except for moral
feeling at some number of outstanding persons
and at weights many other things is necessary for
revolution still» (Rakutov, 1975, P. 71).
P.A.Kropotkin has concerned to revolution
1905-1907 positively as considered, that it could
bring clearing oppressed to people. It could not
take part personally in revolutionary events,
however, being abroad, closely watched and
actively reacted to occurring events in Russia. In
particular, P.A.Kropotkin condemned the Jewish
pogroms. A.Yassur written has absolutely fairly
paid attention to this circumstance «Kropotkin
had personal communications with Jewsanarchists, in working quarters of London and
in the United States America ideas of anarchism
have found the spreading in the environment of
the Jews run from Russia owing to an amplified
anti-Semitism and the state support of a wave
of pogroms. It has caused condemnation from
Russian intelligence, including Kropotkin, Gorki,
Tolstoy, etc.» (Yassur, 1994. P. 164).
When revolutionaries began to use actively
various terrorist means, including expropriation
the theorist of anarchism has decided to condemn
publicly in the beginning the given actions
(Mkrtichan, 1992). However, under influence of
revelry of the governmental reprisals, Russian
anarchist has solved, that during such moment
will condemn not ethically the revolutionaries
who are being the grounds of uncompromising
struggle. «When executioners of each boy, – wrote
P.A.Kropotkin in the letter to M.I.Goldsmit, –
seized on a robbery, execute in 24 hours, – we
cannot act with resolutions against robbers.
Whatever thought – we have no right and the
stone still to throw, in addition to the imperial
gallows» (SARF, f.1129, L.16).
In the beginning of 1910th there was the
complex international situation caused by struggle
of leading imperialistic powers for repartition of
the world. Attempt of Germany, together with the
allies on the Tripartite alliance to select colonies
at powers Antanty has led to the First world war.
It is necessary to note, that in P.A.Kropotkin’s
sights at war as the social phenomenon, there
was an evolution. If in 80th years of XIX century
the ideologist of anarchism condemned nationalchauvinism in any form, declaring about
readiness to protect only «France revolutionary,
bearing freedom, equality and a brotherhood»,
but in any way «small circle rich men and crowd
made destitute» (Kropotkin, 1886, № 28).
Moreover, the ideologist of anarchism called
to transform war imperialistic into war civil,
against the governments: «Dealers, exploiters,
bankers, different fools – here a contingent of the
French chauvinists. If war nevertheless will flash,
our program is known: a social revolution against
all bourgeoisies together taken» (Kropotkin,
1887, № 44).
But in 1906, during work of the London
congress of Russian anarchists, P.A.Kropotkin
has not admitted acceptance of the anti-war
resolution. «It has come out with the assumption
of an opportunity of a campaign of Germany
to Russia, – recollected I.S.Knizhnik-Vetrov, –
named Wilhelm II «the crowned gendarme» and
with great hatred spoke about its artful plans»
(Knizhnik-Vetrov, 1922, P.28-52).
Therefore in 1914 P.A.Kropotkin was already
convinced defender. It is necessary to agree with
A.A.Mkrtichan’s written opinion «That has resulted
convinced internationalist Kropotkin in camp
defenders during the first world war? Obviously,
among the reasons which have affected this
decision, there was a belief in special revolutionary
mission of France in the Europe» (Mkrtichyan,
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1991, P. 58). P.A.Kropotkin considered, that
Russia should defend from an attack of militaristic
Germany. Despite of the general humanistic
orientation of its political sights, it sometimes did
exceptions for display of violence. One of such
exceptions just also is connected with external
war. The ideologist antistateism personified
Germany and Austria-Hungary with a world
harm which tries to destroy all rudiments freedom
which have arisen in republican France. «Struggle
in the Europe goes now, – spoke P.A.Kropotkin
on meeting the soldier, – between two opposite
beginnings: national, a democratic principles and
the beginning of reaction, to which protection the
Union of Three Emperors was up in arms. One of
these three conspirators will already dethrone. It is
necessary to derthrow both two others. And this
question is solved now on fronts» (SM SPL, f. 601,
a unit storage 1245).
Therefore, it was glad, that Russia has
appeared in this war on the party of the
democratic forces struggling against imperial
spirit of Germany. Actually, the Russian
anarchist did accent not to Russia, and to France.
Russian army has been simply obliged, in its
opinion, to protect revolutionary France. «In fact
from Germany to Belgium and France, to Paris
with its revolutionary traditions there were …
soldiers, blow German nobility and capitalists,»
great-German «imperialism and adoration of the
almighty state, and there were they to destroy
a heritage of three revolutions which have been
gone through by France» (SARF,f. 1129,L.9).
It is necessary to note, that P.A.Kropotkin’s
sights at war sharply contrasted with opinion
of Bolsheviks. Owing to what, the ideologist of
anarchism has undergone to the sharp criticism
from their party. «After I have named Germans
«Huns», – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – on me began to
look as at the mean criminal who has encroached
on sacred bases of socialism» (Kropotkin, 1995,
P. 155).
In it the theorist of anarchist-communism
has kept these sights at war and at a role of Russia
during all war. February revolution in Russia only
has added to it confidence of necessity to continue
war. In fact after February revolution soldiers
needed to protect any more only revolutionary
traditions of France, but also «freedom won by
Russian people, and we who have gathered here
in the name of the maximum moral beginnings of
mankind, great slogans of freedom, a brotherhood
and equality, bless you on your feat» (SARF,f.
1129, L.69, Bask.).
P.A.Kropotkin has positively concerned
to February revolution. It is necessary to agree
with N.M.Pirumova written «Kropotkin
welcomed February revolution and in the
beginning hoped for succession of events aside
anarchist-communism» (Pirumova, 1991, P. 41).
P.A.Kropotkin understood, that the February
revolution liquidated monarchic authority, has not
solved all the collected problems. According to
the sights at revolution, it distinguished revolution
and reform. Revolution, in its representation
dared a barrier existed in the form of emperor.
But now reform which, and has been obliged to
construct economic, political, ethical bases of a
free society should enter the role. P.A.Kropotkin
so understood importance after revolution
constructions of a new life that has left hospitable
England and, after long absence, has returned
home.
In Russia the theorist of anarchistcommunism has collided with a lot of politicaleconomical problems. It vainly tried to direct
at the State Meeting antagonistic classes on the
joint decision of essential problems. It assigned
greater hopes to activity zemski societies
which were considered by it as voluntary
communities. Whether «It is impossible to find
the necessary building forces in Zemstvoes, –
asked P.A.Kropotkin at G.Е. Lvov, – and
to organize Zemski Russia for inevitable
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reorganization as it has organized Zemski the
Union for war as serious political force» (Works
of the Commission on P.A.Kropotkin's scientific
heritage, 1992, P. 158-161).
However zemstvoes have not justified hopes
anarchist. Nevertheless, it optimistically looked
ahead. «I deeply trust, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, –
that Russia will cope with present ruin»
(Kropotkin, 1991, P. 55). It well concerned to both
heads of Provisional government and as a whole
supported to their politician. «In Petersburg I
have more close got acquainted with Kerensky, –
wrote P.A.Kropotkin to S.P.Tyurin, – its position
is high-is tragic. Here often I see George
Evgenevichem (Lvov – O.S.), and we very much
have grown fond of it» (Works of the Commission
on P.A.Kropotkin's scientific heritage, 1992, P.
158-161).
P.A.Kropotkin did not expect arrival
of October revolution and a gain of political
authority Bolsheviks. However, in the beginning
it welcomed October revolution, as the certificate
of overthrow of domination of bourgeoisie and
transition to people's power in the form of Advice.
The ideologist of antiauthoritarianism allocated
the positive actions of the Bolsheviks which have
shown: in the form of socialization of the ground,
manufacture, and also barter.
But to the theorist of anarchist-communism,
the consecutive fighter with the government,
there was not on a shower a domination of
social democrats. It is necessary to agree
with A.L.Nikitin's written opinion «Russian
revolution with its civil war and dictatorship of
a party has brought disappointment all without
exception to layers of a society … Kropotkin
recognized, that revolution has gone not on
that way which we prepared it (Nikitin, 1991,
P. 92-93). «We experience revolution, – wrote
P.A.Kropotkin, – … what to do now?... It creates
horrors. It ruins all country» (Business of Work,
1927, P. 5-6).
He always criticized any form of the state,
including marxism. The ideologist of anarchistcommunism considered, that «transition from
old modes of production and trade to new … is
made by revolutionary dictatorship of a small
party. Reorganization in Russia has accepted
character yakobism dictatorships 1793-1794.
Having begun in the form of dictatorship, it
conducts to unsuccessful of all business, and in
the further to reaction and generously spilled
blood» (SARF,f. 1129, L.4). P.A.Kropotkin
considered, that Bolsheviks will struggle against
freedom of people, but secretly hoped, that the
popular initiative nevertheless will get the best.
Not accepting the Soviet authority, the ideologist
of anarchism nevertheless did not oppose it, and
tried to direct the revolutionary initiative to a
positive channel.
Not accepting the Soviet authority, the
ideologist of anarchism nevertheless did not
oppose it, and tried to direct the revolutionary
initiative to a positive channel. «First of
all for this purpose it is necessary, – wrote
P.A.Kropotkin, – that the Soviet Government
has given up the thought about management of
Russia through dictatorship of one party that it
has involved wide national forces in construction
of a national life and, certainly, has recognized
necessity for this purpose a full freedom of
speech» (Kropotkin, 1991, P. 46). The ideologist
of anarchism not only suggested to enter a
freedom of speech, but also struggled for it. «If
I have accepted above mentioned offer, – wrote
P.A.Kropotkin, – (about edition CE Committee
of products of P.A.Kropotkin. – О.S.), – it
would mean my moral approval of that the
whole country is reduced on a degree of slavish
silence as which I consider fatal, not only for
development in general ideas and lives, but also
the most Russian revolution» (Kropotkin, 1991,
P. 56). In the created conditions the ideologist
of anarchism offered the federal device, as a
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Oleg S. Safronov. Problem Questions of History of Russia XIX – the First Quarter of XX Centuries…
way leading to anarchical communism. «Unique
rescue of Russia, – P.A.Kropotkin wrote, – is – its
transformation into the close union (federation)
of free areas and people as it takes place, for
example, in the North-American United States»
(Kropotkin, 1991, P. 52).
Moreover, in complex conditions of Civil
war of P.A.Kropotkin has sharply negatively
concerned to foreign intervention. «Russia
experiences now the same deep and significant
period, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – what was
for British people the period of revolution
1639-48, and for France – 1789-94, and all the
nations should refuse that shameful role which
played the Great Britain, Prussia, Austria
and Russia during the French revolution»
(Kropotkin, 1991, P. 43). The ideologist of
anarchism considered, that Russia should solve
independently the problem questions caused
by revolution. «Under such circumstances, –
wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – military intervention of
allies in Russian business is twice undesirable»
(Kropotkin, 1991, P. 50).
Conclusion
Thus, it is necessary to note, that the
anarchist doctrine has served P.A.Kropotkin as
basis for interpretation of debatable questions of
history of Russia. Its sights at war as the social
phenomenon, have undergone change. If in the
beginning it categorically demanded development
of imperialistic war in civil in the further it only
condemned the Russia-Japanese war 19041905 as aggressive, leading only to vain human
victims. After its belief were transformed also it
became the consecutive fighter for continuation
of the First world war. The ideologist antistateism
estimated Russian revolutions only positively
as saw in them struggle of people against the
state. It is necessary to note, that only to October
revolution P.A.Kropotkin had a special opinion.
It considered, that Bolsheviks as supporters of the
state way of management, will take away from
people won by it with such greater work freedom.
However, the great humanist sincerely hoped,
that the popular initiative nevertheless can win
and lead a society to anarchical communism.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 473-483
~~~
УДК 339.7
Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia
Innessa N. Efremenko*
Rostov State Economic University «RINH»
69 B Sadovay st., Rostov-on-Don, 344002 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
Integration processes taking place in Central-Asian region are caused by global trends in the system
of international relation connected with internationalization of social life and growing necessity of the
states involved to strengthen national statehood, security and taking up global challenges of modern
life. Having chosen integration the Central-Asian region is able to turn into an independent subject of
modern geopolicy and to take a worthy place on the political map.
Keywords: economic integration; financial integration; national financial systems; globalization;
Asian Bank of Development; Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
Point of view
The final aim of regional integration is the
creation of common economic space among
countries involved. Studying of optimal forms
of economic, financial and currency integration
is the main task for monetary powers of a
number of states in the context of developing
and implementing the strategy to adjust to the
process of financial and economic globalization.
Complexity of modern development of certain
regions and world economy in general manifest
the variety of integration processes. This fact
proves the necessity and topicality of theoretical
processing of the issues discussed. However
at present some regions while developing and
introducing integration mechanisms look for
the model of integration which differs from
the European one and whose final aim is not
the transition to common currency, but the
realization of the policy of interstate economic
convergence.
*
1
Regional economic and currency integration
development is based on stable trade links and,
what is more important, on historic and cultural
contacts of the countries of the given region.
Transition from nominal to real convergence
in the region brings about harmonization
of macroeconomic policy, legal issues and
institutional architecture.
Creation of a currency union means
serious measures and great efforts connected
with coordination of the monetary policy of the
member states. Eventually these measures are
to stimulate expansion and diversification of the
financial market, to promote interregional trade
and to strengthen economic power of the member
countries of the union. The positive aspect of
the implementation of the coordinated monetary
policy together with synchronization of economic
development of the countries of the union
are: the possibility to meet several objectives
with limited number of tools for monetary
Corresponding author E-mail address: rinh_ff_2009@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia
regulation available as well as the possibility of
internalization of external effects. It is especially
important for the developing countries in the
region under consideration. Besides such form of
financial-economic integration enables monetary
authorities to manipulate with monetary tools in
the situations either of instability and uncertainty
or turbulence on the financial markets and to
make independent decisions as well. All these
meet the requirements of the current economic
development of the countries of Asian and
African regions. Asian countries are playing
more and more prominent role in global economy
consequently the question of the creation and
development of the new section of the world
financial architecture – regional economic and
exchange union of these countries – are becoming
more and more topical and are of great scientific
interest.
Economic and financial potential of the
Asian countries has grown dramatically for the
last decades. This group is becoming the new
locomotive for the growth in world economy.
Financial relations of these countries are getting
deeper and deeper every year and are becoming
more organized, and the authorities are making
efforts to strengthen them even better. The fact
that such powerful financial centers as Hong
Kong and Singapore are located in this region
makes the processes of financial integration more
active.
However in spite of the visible results
integration process in the given region is not
homogeneous. It should be mentioned that the
development on the integration model is rather
distorted: currency integration prevails over
other stages of the integration which should be
in front of the former. For example, full-scale
free trade zone and customs union have not
been established. Besides the growth of export
to the developing countries in ASEAN countries
in comparison with their GDP growth is still
much higher than the growth of trade within the
block. Being export-orientated to the developing
countries ASEAN countries differ from other
regional unions. For ASEAN countries the
aggregated turnover growth with the developing
countries for five years after the unification has
increased by 1,9 % GDP more than the turnover
within the block. In spite of the fact that the
present level of trading interconnection of Asian
countries is rather high (according to The Asian
Bank of Development the share of mutual trading
in the region is a less higher than 50 %), but it
does not stimulate neither the development of
formal integration processes in the trading sphere
nor bringing together separate national financial
systems of the Asian countries.
The process is specific due to the following
subjective factors: big territory of the region,
uneven levels of economic development of
the countries (first of all industrial), economic
potential, the number of population, different
political orientation, historical and cultural
background. That is why the degree of integration
in the region is still low.
Three key factors are to deepen integration
processes:
1. changes in behavior and preferences of the
local and foreign market participants. In particular,
investors are more focused on foreign markets due
to technological and telecommunication advance
and better information access;
2. national authorities’ efforts to reduce/
remove restrictions on capital flow and
implementing of structural reforms;
3. concentration of efforts of the whole
region.
For this decade international society has
realized that it is necessary to develop and adopt
common standards, and many countries took
active steps for coordinating and harmonization
their own legal and methodological complexes
in accordance with international standards.
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Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia
Besides, consolidation of financial contacts was
accompanied by intense trading and conducting of
investment agreements. This very fact stimulates
the processes of regional economic integration;
The European Union is a graphic example. Ten
ASEAN countries strive for closer integration to
create regional economic union in the future (by
2015).
Theoretically expansion of integration
processes of regional financial integration is
(determined) by opening of regional financial
systems for foreign capital and by removing
limits on placing residents’ capital abroad as well
as by recognition and adaptation of international
standards and codes.
Some steps of political financial
liberalization were taken in some Eastern-Asian
countries in 1980s, which became more dynamic
in the last decade of the XX century. Opening
of the financial market meant introducing of
market interest rates, allowing foreign financial
service providers to render more services on the
local market, reducing of reserve requirements,
liquidation of credit control, gradual opening of
capital market. It concerned, first of all, short-term
capital operations while capital operations with
balance of payment remained to be controlled.
Let us analyze how far the process of
financial integration in Asia has proceeded and
how strong are financial links in this region.
Example
Financial markets are known to be totally
integrated when the law of the unified price is
true, i.e. prices for assets with identical risks and
profit rates are to be approximately the same in
different countries. When the level of financial
integration is high the capital flows to the places
where the possibilities for profit are the highest,
but gradually profit rates are equalizing.
Thus, index of financial integration – absence
of connection between savings and investments
within the country. It is expressed: (Feldstein,
Horioka, 1980)
§ INV ·
¸
¨
© GDP ¹t ,t
§ SAV ·
¸ H t ,t © GDP ¹t ,t
D E¨
where i – country, t – period of time.
Coefficient β shows the ratio of changing of
the rate of the domestic savings in the country
with investment financing.
The experts of International Bank of
Development (García-Herrero, Wooldridge,
2007) analyze the data reflecting changes of the
coefficient β in 26 countries with the developing
markets (9 Asian countries, 10 European
countries, and 7 from Latin America) from 1982
to 2006 (Fig. 1).
Speaking about the countries with
developing markets it should be mentioned that
coefficient of savings was very significant in the
1980-s. It reflected the reducing mobility of the
capital flows on the developing markets after the
long debt crisis in 1982. In the course of 1990-s
its significance dropped sharply (from 0,92 in
1987-91 to 0,37 in 1997-2001) and dropped even
more (to 0,25) in 2001-06.
The assessment of the last period manifests
the growing importance of coefficient of savings
for the countries with mature economy (i.e. not
zero), it means that both countries the developing
markets and mature economies are not integrated
in the global financial market. Among the
countries with developing markets the coefficient
of savings is the lowest in Latin America it is
nearly zero in the period under consideration;
in European countries it is 0,4 and in Asian
countries – 0,5.
As it has been mentioned above the
difference in prices for financial assets among the
markets of the region is an important index for the
financial integration. Consolidation of economic
and financial contacts makes diversification of
financial assets portfolios easier to low risks which
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Fig.1. Ration of savings to investments (García-Herrero, Wooldridge Ph, 2007)
are to promote price balancing. The analysis of
the data of the US, European and other developed
countries’ stock markets for the period of 1980-s
demonstrates that the possibilities for profit gaining
depend on the country’s specificity. However
later on – late 1990-s and the early 2000-s –
this difference was reducing, which means the
growing financial integration. But the possibilities
for profit gaining now are influenced by the
factors connected with sectors of investments.
The countries with developing markets vice verse
do not demonstrate any progress in financial
integration, and country’s specificity is still very
important for the possibilities of profit gaining.
At the same time the impact of the country’s
specificity on the prices for financial assets is
not as strong in Latin American countries as in
Asian countries. It might be connected with fact
that quite a big number of the companies in Latin
America are listed in different stock markets in
the first run in the USA.
The law of unified price appears though not
to full extend in the financial market sectors with
the fixed revenues. It means the difference in the
interest rates between to currencies is equal to
the difference between forward operation rates
and spot operations. Correspondence of interest
rates is observed in the countries which joined
the European Union in 2004, at least on money
market. However it does not happen in Latin
America as there are barriers for investors to
participate in arbitration between domestic and
foreign markets.
Substantial difference in interest rates
is observed in the Latin American countries
depending on the country where the capital is
placed. Besides at present in the Latin American
countries there are a great number of restrictions
on capital transactions. These data confirm again
that the level financial integration in the Asian
region is still very low.
It testifies that not only integration of the
countries with the developing markets (Asia)
within the region but their integration into the
international financial system is lagging behind
the regional integration of the countries with
developed economy. Consequently the Asian
countries are integrated into the international
financial system at greater extend than between
each other.
Opening national financial systems for
non-residents is the most important condition
for financial integration of the region under the
conditions of growing impact of globalization.
Having an opportunity to participate in the
processes on the national financial markets
foreign financial institutions are becoming the
channels for the country’s integration not only
into global economy but with other countries in
the region.
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Fig. 2 Inflow (right) and outflow (left) to (www.imf.org)
China the largest and the most influential
economy in the Asian region has chosen its won
way of integration into global financial system.
China’s financial system opened for foreign
investors when economic reforms started in 1978.
However at that moment foreign investors could
only cooperate through International Trust and
Investment Corporation.
Foreign financial institutions first started
their activity in China in 1980. By 1993 foreign
financial institutions had opened 302 foreign
representative offices and 98 foreign companies
on the territory of the country. In 1993 local
Chinese non-bank financial institutions were
allowed to operate with foreign currency,
in 1996 – to issue their won bonds on the
international markets. With bankruptcy of
the Chinese intermediary International Trust
and Investment Corporation in 1998 foreign
banks obtained more possibilities to work in
the country. As a result 30 foreign banks had
been represented in China by the end of 2000.
35 foreign banks including 15 Asian banks,
18 European ones and 2 American (Citibank и
Bank of America) were functioning in China in
July 2001. By the beginning of 2006 25 cities
had been opened for foreign banks and foreign
insurance companies. In 2008 China had the
biggest in the world currency reserves more than
1500 bln. US dollars due to continuous growth
of foreign investments and sustainable growth
of the international trade
Imperfect market model in the region
under consideration is the main obstacle for full
integration in the Asian countries. Differentiation
in the ways of getting profit on capital depending
on the country where the capital is located will
be preserved till corporate management in some
countries put insiders into preferable position for
obtaining the shares while foreign investors on
the contrary have difficulties in obtaining them
(Kho, Stulz, Warnock, 2006). Consequently
analyzing the level of the financial integration
it is necessary to take into account the scales of
capital flow together with the measures mentioned
above.
Meanwhile mobility of capital has never
before been so high in the Asian countries. At
present both capital inflow and capital outflow
are their record height (Fig. 2).
Such scale of capital flow to the Asian
countries resulted from the fact that in the
global economy a substantial surplus of global
liquidity has accumulated lately and international
investors placed it in this rapidly developing
region. Direct foreign investment flow to the
developing markets is increasing. However this
process is characterized by the high degree of
concentration – since 2002 China’s investment
share among all counties with developing market
is about 50 per cent. Another dangerous tendency
of concentration is massive investment in several
sectors of the economy, in particular in real estate
and their profiteering character. In the whole such
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Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia
environment gave advantages of integration into
the world economy to the most developed among
the developing countries of the region, while
most of the economies had limited access to the
foreign capital.
Capital outflow from the region is easily
explained: currently central banks of the region
possess such stock of foreign reserves that
to manage these funds effectively monetary
authorities had to include long-term American
securities, in particular the US treasury stocks,
into their management strategies. The region
also has substantial sovereign funds for wealth
accumulation which contribute much. Besides
less investment restrictions on foreign markets for
residents as well as ongoing market and industrial
integration in the region are the important facts
for increasing of capital outflow.
The processes of big capital outflow in the
Asian countries graphically demonstrate how
liberalization of the restrictions for capital export
is able to relax the situation on the currency
market and at the same time to promote further
transboarding diversification of local investors’
portfolios and integration with international
markets. For example, regulation reform made
easier for private investors to gain and keep
foreign assets (China, Southern Korea, Malaysia,
Thailand); and Thailand’s national pension funds
were allowed to invest a good part of their assets
aboard.
Last years gross capital flows in the Asian
region have been marked by rather high volatility
(Fig. 3). Growing significance of portfolio and
other kinds of investments (especially bank
crediting and operations with derived bank
instruments) explains this tendency and speaks
about the possibility of dramatic changes of
financial flows in any direction. Splashes of
capital flows (sometimes brought about by
interest arbitrage business in Yens – Yen loans
to invest in more profitable assets expressed in
Fig. 3 Gross capital flows to the Asian countries with
developing markets (www.imf.org)
foreign currencies became the main concern for
the monetary authorities.
In the context of regional financial
integration present realia of functioning of
financial markets of the region does not look
convincing. IMF emphasizes the fact that
regional financial markets, except markets САР
Hong Kong, Singapore and Tokyo, especially
bond markets are not big; and share markets are
less liquid than in the developed economies. It
makes clear why there are worries about financial
instability and improper control over the capital
transactions. Consequently further expansions of
financial markets of the Asian countries as well
as acceleration of processes of regional financial
integration are becoming more and more acute.
In her research A.A. Abalkina (Abalkina,
2007) gives the following arguments for financial
integration of the countries the region:
1. developing of the regional financial market
will make easier the access to capital,
in particular for the countries which
have limited access to the international
financial markets;
2. developing of the institution of the
financial intermediaries inside the region
will make the region less dependant on
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the world financial market and will reduce
loan costs.
3. regional financial system is more
resistible to external shocks than separate
economies however it does not defend
from financial instabilities within the
region;
4. integrated financial market makes the
region more attractive for investments
which encourages extra capital flow from
the third countries третьих стран;
5. regional cooperation will stimulate the
In 2005 at the meeting of the Ministers of
Finance of these countries in Laos the negotiations
on liberalization of the financial service market
were continued as well as it was agreed to create
АSЕАN’s interconnected equity market by 2010
was achieved (to form large integrated market
which is able to ensure bigger liquidity and a
wide range of financial instruments through
harmonizing markets standards and codes and
through assisting to the transboarding access
to the market). In the context of convergence
of national financial systems a number of
development and recovery of national
financial systems;
6. financial interaction can be an impulse
for further integration in adjoining areas.
Heavy criticism of the international
financial institutions such as IMF and the World
Bank brought about discussions of new projects
to support regional economic and currency
mechanisms and united countries’ forces to
implement these projects. Just after the 19971998 financial crisis the ideas of deepening of
the financial integration in the Asian region to
make it less dependant on global markets and
diversification of national financial systems
got second wind. Moreover the countries
strengthened their macroeconomic policy:
exchange rates became more flexible to relax
outside shocks; official gold reserves were
accumulated; and inflation goals were set
up. long-term fiscal policy was adopted; the
mechanisms enabling financial restructure in the
countries which had experienced the 1997-1998
financial crisis were introduced; normative and
prudential bases were renovated and corporative
management became stronger.
In such environment a group of countries –
АSЕАN, created in 1967 – became more active.
China, Japan and Southern Korea joined this
group and succeeded in implementation of the
ideas of financial integration.
initiatives have been realized: for example, The
Forum of АSЕАN’s capital markets, comprising
the representatives of the regulating agencies
on equity market is functioning; in 2005 the
new share index – АSЕАN share index – was
introduced.
There are three main approaches to
strengthen financial integration among Asian
countries:
1. information exchange and conducting
negotiations concerning the strategy of
the financial market development of the
region;
2. joint usage of gold and exchange currency
reserves by means swap-agreements
among central banks;
3. development and strengthening of the
regional bond market.
It should be mentioned that two last
approaches have concentrated more efforts than
the third one. It was realized in the frames of
Chiang Mai network two-sided swap lines among
central banks of Asia and in the project of the
Asian bond fund.
Chiang Mai initiative includes measures
directed to joint usage of exchange reserves of
the member-countries of the treaty. The system
of exchange swaps was developed in accordance
with which central banks of the countries
provided $ 200 mln. to finance balance of trade
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Table 1. Participation of ASEAN countries in swap-agreement
Group 1
Group 2
Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines – $ 150 mln.
Vietnam – $ 60 mln.
Myanmar – $ 20 mln.
Cambodia – $ 15 mln.
Singapore, Thailand – $ 41,5 mln.
Laos – $ 5 mln.
Source: Rana P. Monetary and Financial cooperation in East Asia: the Chiang Mai Initiative and Beyond. ADB
Working Paper. 2006. №6. February. P. 9.
deficit. Subsequently the sum was increased to $
1bln. (Table 1).
Each of these countries according to this
agreement is entitled to get loans twofold for six
months with the possibility to have it prolongated
for more six months.
Subsequently АSЕАN countries +3
developed the system of double swaps, provided
for preventing profiteering attacks on national
currencies. This system together with more
extended swap-agreement became the basis for
Chiang Mai initiative. In general only IMF’s
participation can ensure the implementation of
these swap-agreements. But the share of funds
raised according to these swap-agreements
independently from IMF program has been
increased from 10 to 20%. By the beginning of
2007 8 АSЕАN member-countries +3 completed
16 swap-agreements for $ 47,5 bln.
The development of stock market
especially bond market is getting its importance
for the development of the Asian financial
market. Despite the well-developed banking
sector of the region the necessity to diversified
development of the financial system is caused
by the number of factors especially after the
1997 crisis.
it is necessary to diversify the sources of
economy financing then impact of the crisis in
one of the segments of the financial market is less
negative for the economy in general as the capital
can be transferred to a different segment of the
stock market;
it is necessary to use more savings placed
with short-term deposits to finance longterm economic projects. Asian countries are
characterized by higher saving rates (in 2007 –
45,3% GDP, in the developed economies – 19,9%
GDP, in the world – 23,6 % GDP), in case of
shortage of the potential investment instruments
within the region the Asian savings are used to
finance other economies;
demand for funds for financing significant
infrastructural projects has increased;
shortage of the short-term securities has
reduced the number of active open market
operations by central banks.
Several groups have taken an interest in
this project. Among the most active initiatives
Asian dialogue on cooperation, Initiative on
development of APEC (Asian-Pacific Economic
Cooperation) bond regional markets, Initiative
on Asian bond markets in the format АSЕАN+3
(АSЕАН countries and Japan, China, Southern
Korea), as well as the meeting of the leaders of
the central banks of Eastern-Asian countries and
the Pacific region are to be mentioned.
The size of this segment of the financial
market, of course, cannot be compared with the
development rate of stock market of developed
economies, however in 2002 aggregated volume
of bond market was $ 800 bln and market volume,
for example, in Indonesia – $ 2 bln and $ 300 bln
in Southern Korea (Fabella, Madhur, 2003).
In 2003 central banks of the region declared
about the setting up a bond fund with the capital
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of $ 1 bln to invest in debt securities issued by
the states of this region and denominated in the
US dollars. This fund was initiated by 11 AsianPacific countries including the most developed
АSЕАN countries, China, Japan, Korea, Australia
and New Zealand.
Later on in 2004 the Asian bond fund-2 was
established, it is to invest $2 bln state and quasipublic bonds of 8 states: China, Hong Kong,
Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Malaysia,
Singapore and Thailand. Half of the funds is
distributed among 8 national funds, the second
half is transferred to Pan-Asian Index Fund set
up as a share fund listed on the Hong Kong Stock
Exchange and to be listed on the stock exchanges
of the other member countries of the meeting of
the leaders of the central banks of the East-Asian
countries and the Pacific region (Australia, Hong
Kong, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, China,
Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore,
Japan, New Zealand and Thailand) (Abalkina,
2007).
To make the Asian bond fund more efficient
a new stock exchange index was introduced –
iBox ABF Indices, comprising 490 bond
эмитированных by national governments,
international institutions and state agencies on 8
national markets.
From the investor’s point of view funds of
the Asian bond fund-2 are низкозатратное and
effective means of investing in the Asian bonds
nominated in national currencies. On the other
hand the Asian bond fund-2 as a new type of assets
together with infrastructure improvements, tax
and regulation reforms will promote bond market
expansion in the region.
The idea of the Asian bond fund is important
for gradual liberalization of the national bond
markets. For example, Pan-Asian Index Fund
was the first foreign institutional investor to get
accesses to the interbank bond market of China.
Malaysia liberalized norms of currency regulation
and opened its domestic market for issuing
bonds of many-sided banks of development and
financial institutions. At the same time investorsnon-residents started to be exempt from the tax
on yield interest earned from investments in debt
securities nominated in ringgits. Thailand did the
same while investing in Thailand national bonds
and national agencies’ bonds.
Resume
Under conditions of the development of
the Asian domestic financial markets, we think
disbalances in the development of its different
segments (bonds in comparison with banking
market, bond market, financial derivatives, etc.)
should be avoided. And the development of the
effective control system over the financial sector
is becoming more and more significant.
Considering all issues of the integration
of the Asian countries it is necessary to touch
upon the question of the potential exchange
integration. During the 1997-1998 crisis in Asia
the idea of setting up The Asian Exchange Fund
was discussed which however had never been
implemented.
Currently several projects on introducing
exchange union in the Asian countries are under
consideration. One of them proposes to develop
currency zone around and on the basis of the
Chinese Yuan. It is caused by a number of factors:
one of the main arguments is economic potential
of this country, attractiveness and stability as
well as good potential of the national currency.
At present the project of introducing of full
convertibility of Yuan is being discussed.
The more famous project of the introducing of
the unified currency – ACU– is an alternative to the
«Chinese» project. It started to be realized in 2006,
though the idea of the unified currency appeared
as long ago as in the 1970-s. The Malaysian Prime
Minister Mahathir Mohamad was one of the first
to put forward the idea of the unified currency to
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simplify trade. He was supported by the leaders of
the Philippines and Thailand. But gradually this
process slowed down.
Asian countries followed the European
way: trying to protect their economy from the
American currency fluctuations they set up their
unified currency – ACU (similar to European
ECU). It has not become the full-bodied currency
yet and is called to be a kind of regional indicator
against dollar, euro and other hard currencies.
However in the future ACU may be transformed
into the full-bodied currency which in its turn
ECU, introduced in 1970-s. It is supposed to
be a currency basket proportionally reflecting
GNP shares and the volume of the international
trade of the member countries. The Asian Bank
of Development must release all national Asian
currency rates against ACU daily.
Although it should be mentioned that Asian
economies differ among each other more than the
European states used to, consequently it will take
longer to create a real currency union. However
we are convinced that a currency union consisting
of asymmetrical economies is able to function
will be the basis of the Asian currency union.
The European Currency Union was based
on the R. Mundell’s theory of the optimal
currency zones and it has proved that unified
currency is very beneficial for a conglomerate
of the territories. First of all the prices are more
transparent and more optimal (due to removing
of the barriers for realization of the competitive
advantages), transaction costs are reducing, trade
links and labor market are developing. Besides
«integrated» currency is gainful for investors
they rely on macroeconomic stability and the
products of the invested companies will see more
customers.
On the other hand according to R. Mundell
economies of the countries within the currency
zone are at the similar stages of the cycle and
have identical structures whereas common
currency policy influence equally upon all parts.
The first difficulty has not overcome yet but if the
consensus among the countries seeking to join the
union is achieved the prospects are very good.
The Asian Bank of Development is an
initiator of this project. Thirteen countries plan to
participate in this project: Japan, China, Southern
Korea, and ten member states of the Association
of South-East Asia. In prospect Hong Kong,
Taiwan and even Kazakhstan may join this zone.
The first stage is to set up a unified currency
unit – ACU – similar to European currency
effectively and to be gainful for the participants.
Thus, according to the estimated prospects of the
currency union in Asia positive results and a wide
range of positive effects for the member states are
to be expected. Eventually all these will result in
leveling differences in the future.
Application of the idea of the currency union
should rest upon experiences available. Ratio of
national currencies to ACU should be worked
out similar to the European one. Meanwhile
the member states are to be obliged to conduct
common economic policy to reduce misbalances
in the exchange rates.
A number of measures have been already
taken to implement the project. In 2003 an
agreement on free trade zone was signed, it
involved seven states of the Association of the
regional cooperation in Southern Asia. The zone
started to operate in 2006 and comprised the
territory with the one fifth of the population of
the planet. At the same time eleven counties of
the region declared about the creation of the local
currency reserves fund consisting of $ 1bln.
Nowadays unified currency is not going
to replace Asian national currencies. ACU is to
show mutual quotation of currency units of the
region and to be used as a fluctuation indicator
against dollar and euro. It is to be the aggregated
indicator of the average currency value of the
thirteen countries (China, Southern Korea, Japan
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Innessa N. Efremenko. Specific Features of Economic and Currency Integration in Asia
and ten member states of the Association of
South-East Asia); i.e. it is an indicator showing the
economy situation in the region. Specific weight
of every national currency unit in ACU depends
on a number of factors, e.g. DDP, international
trade, currency participation in international
payments. ACU is planed to be used as a currency
fluctuation indicator in the region against dollar
and euro, and other hard currencies.
Business application of this currency unit is
likely to be nominal rather than real. It may be
applied to estimate official reserves, to calculate
is difficult economically or politically to choose
any other means of payments. ACU shares are
possible to be issued.
Notsurprisinglythattheprojectimplementation
is heavily criticized, but it should not be forgotten
that it is too early to speak about any real results.
Great heterogeneity in the economic development
in the region together with weak economic and
financial integration are still remaining the main
obstacles. For real currency integration there should
be full-scale institutional area in the region; first
of all establishing Asian Central Bank and other
tariffs or any other indicators every time when it
important financial institutions.
References
А.А. Abalkina. Financial integration as a means for domestic markets protection: East Asia
Experience. Finance and Credit, 42 (2007) – www.imf.org
A. García-Herrero, Ph Wooldridge. Global and regional financial integration: progress in emerging
markets. BIS Quarterly Review, September (2007), р. 61.
B.C. Kho, R.M. Stulz and F.E. Warnock. Financial globalisation, governance and the evolution of
the home bias, BIS Working Papers, 220 (2006).
M. Feldstein and C Y Horioka. Domestic saving and international capital flows, Economic Journal,
90 (1980), pp 314–320.
R. Fabella, S. Madhur. Bond Market Development in East Asia: Issues and Challenges. ERD
Working Paper, 35 (2003).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 484-490
~~~
УДК 12/13
Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels
in Higher Educational Institutional Corporation
Ludmila D. Alexandrova*
Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts
71«А» Komsomolsky, Chelyabinsk, 454021 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
Results of philosophical research devoted to studying of virtual communities are considered in
article. The author gives an example effective cooperation in virtual communities these are virtual
communications in scientifically-educational sphere – higher education web-sites, professional
forums, teleconferences. Studying a phenomenon of virtual communities (phylosophical position) has
allowed to reveal increasing value of this work and open participation of people in modern virtual
communications.
Keywords: virtual community, virtual reality, information environment, communications computer
network, interactivity, science and educational sphere.
Point
Nowadays the virtual world is interpreted
by researchers as a free-standing social reality
featured by special psychological, semeiotic,
normative, and managerial aspects. The key
prerequisite for investigation of any phenomenon,
not excepting the virtual communities, lies
in a phylosophical approach: laws of social
development rule not independently as abstract
forces, they become apparent through actions of
concrete individuals and principles of interaction
established in their communities. Each new
virtual community entered upon life in the virtual
medium is deemed to be not only a generalized
entity with the already established social and
cultural interactions but rather a potential territory
where new forms and relations can be formed.
It should be observed that the virtual
communities are studied from different points
*
1
of view. One investigate it as a social and
phychological phenomenon, while others study
it as a bearer of managerial problems. The
third explore the phenomenon proceeding from
dynamic characteristics of the virtual world
development. In the majority of cases we are
dealing with the applied searchings. At present
the analytical and philosophical researches that
include not only description of the phenomenon
but also the underlying reasons are uncommon.
Hence, there is no doubt that the virtual
communities should be investigated in the allinclusive manner.
The paper dwells on all-inclusiveness in
looking up a methodology or means to study the
virtual communities at the philosophical level. The
proposed level allows linking two fundamental
principles of the virtual communities world
exploration:
Corresponding author E-mail address: tulupic@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Ludmila D. Alexandrova. Virtual Community: Forming of Virtual Communication Channels…
• consider the virtuality as representation
of common cultural regularities;
• define an ability to create images of the
world and an individual permanently as
the key feature of the virtuality.
Example
The information evolution in communication
gives the floor for new forms of the social
interactions based on the compartible systems
of technological interaction. Integration of the
telecommunication and communication means
guarantee remote access and immediate exchange
for the data, sound and audio images. The new
communication medium created conditions for
establishment of the virtual relations and links
between people.
Mastering the new communication medium,
people tend to establish new collective forms of
interaction for professional, individual purposes
or the psychological comfort. It is the practice to
call «social communities appeared on the basis of
technological interaction systems» (Ivanov, 2002,
p. 205) the virtual communities. The virtual
community phenomenon lies in the possibility to
realize the intensional data exchange and to control
with the account for the global discourse into the
world of computer-mediated technologies.
Even by mid-1990-s there were ten thousands
of virtual communities all round the world. Mostly
they were formed spontaneously at the peak of
the natural interest to the new communication
technologies of remote access. And step-by-step
the stable communications have generated around
the definite interests and groups.
When formulating the definition for virtual
community, many scientists treat for it from the
position of the network communications. For
example, the virtual encyclopaedia suggests the
following interpretation: «A virtual community
is a relatively stable system of links and relations
between users of the information network
formed in the course of synergy» (Wikipedia,
2009). Let us consider one more of the commonly
used definitions. «Network communities are
groups of people with the fixed membership that
interact predominantly in the global computer
networks» (Melyukhin, 1999, p. 36). In this
case the emphasis is put on steadiness of links
and relations between members of the virtual
community.
In paper of H. Rheingoldand, a well known
American ideologist of informationalism, the
term virtual community is defined as «a selforganizing electronic network of interactive
communications integrated around common
interests or purposes» (Rheingoldand, 1998).
The definition does not contain any reference
to usual communication subjects – an
addressee or an addresser – at the same time
it is featured by the comprehensive approach.
The Rheingoldand’s definition has felicitous
combination of technological, motivational,
and corporative factors needed to describe
organizational features of the virtual community
phenomenon. H. Rheingoldand fairly denotes
the self-organizing aspect in cooperation of
different persons interests and entities using
electronic forms of communication. This does
not mean that all virtual communities can be
self-reproducted, nevertheless, as it is fairly
noted the organizational aspect is the main in
their life.
Shcherbina V. operates with the term
cybercommunicative communities. The author
prefers another way of looking into peculiarities
of the virtual communities formation, stating
that the main goal of the internet communication
«a unity of free personalities» formation.
(Shcherbina, 2001), capable to withstand pressure
against the gregarious social structures that are
built on principles of coercion and suppression
(military, political, economical, psychological or
ideological).
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Shcherbina V. emphasizes the mass
communities appeared in the network
environment – cybersocies, virtual, online,
cybercommunes (Shcherbina, 2001) – are not
socially autonomous. They should be viewed
as successors to the conventional social groups
which are built up by members of information
and analytical, commercial, science entities.
As D. Ivanov reveals, virtualization can
be applied to a community since it blends with
«context of relations typical for the virtual reality»
(Ivanov, 2002, p. 62). It gives the ground to define
the network community from the position of three
characteristics of the virtual reality:
• possibility to have active interactions
between objects and subjects of the virtual
worlds featured by conditional character
(objects are artificial and variable);
• ephemerality – freedom in entry/ exit
makes it possible to break and restore
bonds;
• immateriality of action (an image
produces effects typical for the material).
Resume
Thus, the comparative analysis of different
approaches in definition of the virtual community
phenomenon shows that the term in its chief
features corresponds to the typical characteristics
of a community (communion, commune).
The only aspect defines its new meaning. The
matter concerns methods and technologies of
communication. The virtual communities are
formed on telecommunication principles. This, in
its turn, make us assent to introduce an attribute
of deterritoriality as a requisite. The community
relations are conventionally established within a
geographically circumscribed entity of people. A
method of localization of the intragroup relations
in the virtual community is not similar. As M.
Kastels states, «in the modern society the logics
of location makes way for the network logics»
(Kastels, 2000, p. 92). The real space for those
communicating via network is annihilated at the
expense of electronic forms of remote access.
The idea about local interaction among members
of a community is altered as the modern
communication technologies ensure locality not
on a local but the global scale. Hence, the attribute
of deterritoriality serves one of the key requisite
in definition of the virtual community. After the
term features are defined and the key attributes
are marked out, we will try to reveal prerequisites
for formation of the virtual communities.
Point
A psychological capability of an individual
«to assume role of another» and to fancy how he is
perceived by a communication partner, is admitted
the most significant feature of interaction and
successful development of the social environment
within the virtual space. Interaction between
members of the virtual community becomes the
background for formation of the individual and
grouped identification system.
Many researchers pay their attention to
the fact that the virtual community is formed
as a specific method to combine professional,
educational, cognitive, research interests. The
approach is not new. It supplements and evolves
the basic principles of the theory of interests
(The theory of interests was created by scientists
R.Parry, D.Parker (the USA), F.Tennant (England)
in 1920s. The authors asserted that value of
subjects or events for a person is governed by a
subjective attitude towards them, the personal
interest. The interest is understood as a conscient
or inconscient desire, favour/aversion, proneness,
sympathy/antipathy, love/ hatred felt by people.
The main feature of such interpretation of the
social phenomena is the fact that interests are
socially conditioned by the life style). Many of its
theses can be applied to study establishment of
communications within the virtual communities.
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Example
Splitting into small groups permits us
to ignore the fixed stereotypes and pass on
to formation of local cultures on the basis of
narrow marginal aspirations and interests.
French researchers G. Delaise and F. Gvattarie
denoted the type of communities tribal cultures
(Delaise et al., 1998) that possess their own tribal
psychology and integrated at the level of the
grouped solidarity.
Many authors consider the Network as
the virtual space to realize more open and
comfortable relations between people. However,
studies of Ye. Belinskaya show that interactions
in the virtual communities are directed not
to openness but rather to reproduction of the
structural integrity on the ground of similar
wishes, interests, ideals and values. It can be
noticed that the idea of realization of an interest
in the network communication is supplemented
with a set of requirements to be met in order to
form the steady virtual community.
As it has been observed by some researchers,
communications in the virtual medium are
characterized by ephemery (fleetingness) of
relations. It is due to changes in interests of people
and their attitudes towards the psychological
peculiarities of the virtual communication. In so
doing, a question arises whether the ephemery
will be one of the key characteristics, when we
are dealing with the stable virtual unity? In
action communications between members of
separate forums, chats, teleconferences (science,
professional) can grow into the long-term and
effective relations and the members can also
maintain personal and business bonds in real
life. Experts point out that the grouped virtual
communication begets a special subspace with
its own psychological, cultural, linguistic, and
etiquette norms. It assigns some features to
interactions in real life. In this case statement
that the ephemery is one of the key attributes
in study of the virtual communication will be
unjustified.
A.Krocker and M.Weinstein pay attention
to the problem of the so called «lonely (virtual)
crowd» (Galkin, 2004). In their point of view the
technologically generated community proficiently
masks the human loneliness. The problem of
emotional poverty distinctive for the modern
culture is referred to the category of traditional
themes in the present-day humanities: P. Sorokin,
E.Dürkgame, R.Maerton, E.Fromm, etc. The
overwhelming majority of social contacts are
utilitarian, and their arguments are functional.
The deep singleness and impoverishment of the
emotional life provoke stresses. It is possible to
create a corporative resource but members of
the corporation will utilize it in the utilitarian
way, never allotting it with communicative or
interactive functions.
Communication in the virtual community
plays the compensatory role. It is most likely that
computer communications provide tools to settle
more prosaic problems like the possibility to
promote oneself or the corporative image, to keep
in touch with concrete people, to keep abreast
of the world’s news and events, to be aware of
specific information, etc.
The system possesses one more important
element. The point at hand is the necessity to cooperate by the target experience (e.g., corporative
sites of the institutes of higher education). When
studying the target purposes of users entering the
virtual community, it is customary to mark out
specific groups of purposes.
• Instrumental targets are oriented to
handle the professional, economical,
educational needs.
• Terminal targets are connected with
the communication process itself:
experimentation with a new form
of communication out of interest,
familiarization with a new identity
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and methods of self-presentation,
establishment
of
social
relations
dissimilar to others and design of new
communities.
The creative factor steps forward no
less significant for exploration of the virtual
communities formation features. The Internet
«traverses a path from particularly professional
communication medium for programmers to the
medium of frank communication, cognition and
play, bringing about wider personal interests»
(Zhichkina, 2000, p. 77). The aspect is reported
in papers of Ye. Belinskaya, A. Zhichkina, V.
Nesterova, etc. The researchers highlight that
«computer-mediated communications are close
to the well-known practice of the role training»
(Zhichkina, 2000, p. 77).
Demand for self-expression, development
of different communicative scenarios, search for
methods of self-identification are the motivational
factors in development of different forms of
the internet communication. As stated by many
scientists, when creating a virtual community,
the individual creates the virtual identity that
is manifested in real occupations of those who
ranked themselves among the community.
That is why specialists have to develop the
classification categories and detect typology of
the virtual communities by analogy with the
existing typologies or on the basis of personal
observations.
Тhere is no tried out purposive mechanism
of the virtual communities formation at different
levels. In many ways the process of their
formation passes accidentally. Nevertheless, the
fragmented programs realized in reality with
the account for possibilities of different forms of
the computer-mediated communication, give the
ground to divide separate trends for coordination
of the virtual communities activity:
• Coordination by the target purpose
(professional, educational, research,
hobby-oriented, managerial, etc.). The
following chief principle is applied
for typology: the community form is
governed by the activity form.
• Coordination of electronic funds
acquisition, collections of different
subject and specific scopes (Moshkov’s
library, program Museums of Russia,
a unity of collectors of audio and video
funds, the virtual students’ clubs, etc.).
Division in relations between members of
communication can be selected as a ground for
classification of the virtual communication. In
one case it will be people acquainted with each
other in real life or the virtual medium. Virtual
communication continues and supplements
bonds originally emerged in the traditional
communication. In other cases bonds formed in
the virtual medium are primary since people do
not know each other in real life. «In the virtual
communication a person has an opportunity to
contact with people unlikely to be met in real life.
In accordance with the conducted investigations
the number of social contacts for a person
successfully adapted to the virtual community
considerably rises» (Ignatyev et al., 2003, p. 20).
A virtual community may have any status.
The following classification can be observed as an
example of their typification under the principle
of geographic location:
1. local virtual communities;
2. regional virtual communities;
3. national virtual communities;
4. transnational
(global)
virtual
communities.
Resume
Hence, the virtual community can be defined
as a specific commonality of individuals linked
with the computer-mediated communication
featured by certain standards of steadiness and
conditioning formation of a system of the target
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collective and individual actions. Consolidation
of forces directed to handle professional, research,
educational, avocational needs and interests
in the virtual medium results in production
of a subspace with its typical technological,
psychological; and social characteristics. The
virtual communities distinguished by rules of
the interpersonal relationship, value foundings
impose more dramatic effect on real spheres of
the social interaction.
Point
Implementation of new communication
tools leads to conversion of the professional
communication channels. The newly divided
groups come out of the flexible information
technologies. New spheres of professional
exchange and cooperation come forth within
the network space. For example, web-site of
an institute of higher education constitutes the
corporative medium with common ideology,
professional standard, alike methods in
settlement of the business problems. In many
countries activity of the virtual communities
as a corporative resource is systematically
supported. Special programs to settle problems
of effective interaction of the virtual and real
communication systems are worked out. What
is the interest to the matter provoked by?
Apparently, the main advantage is connected
with a potential to widen the corporative efforts
in most different spheres.
Example
Many examples demonstrate that such a
potential really exists. It evolves owing to a more
flexible communication system in the society.
«The professional sphere is one of the main field in
which application of new tools for the information
exchange resulted in deep restructure of most of
technological processes, operations, methods»
(Patsiorski et al., 2003, p. 59).
Communications established in the virtual
communities can have formal or informal nature.
The first communication level is oriented towards
the business formalities. Here the priority is set
to the strict protocol formalities and punctual
compliance with all the requirements of the
business custom. The informal communication
permits reflecting the common human interests
and not following so strictly the accepted norms
in communication. The informal communication
gives more freedom for the human creativity
and the emotional background in discussion of a
problem. Let us consider structures and channels
of communication used to communicate in the
virtual communities of scientific and educational
sphere.
The virtual communities are formed around
three basic objects of communication: science
collections, research themes, and personnel. In
new environment competition against the science
teams, science and educational complexes
is aggravated. New forms of the grouped
cooperation are formed around the up-to-date
communication technologies. The real collective
bonds are enlarged with the virtual tools of
interaction. This causes alteration in structure of
communication channels in the field of science
and education. Free discussion of science and
educational problems leaded via the Network
forsters establishment of new collective bonds,
new forms of cooperation and interaction. The
majority of faculties, sub-faculties and laboratories
have electronic addresses that guarantee prompt
information exchange, free communication with
representatives of different entities around the
world.
Resume
Hence, the virtual and real bonds founded
within the science and educational sphere
supplement each other, broadening conditions for
active cooperation among scientists, the magistral
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staff, post-graduates, students, university entrants.
The increased interest to interdisciplinary
segments on the ground of open communication
links of the network space has been observed in
different science and educational complexes. The
informal unity of scientists makes it possible to
form a unique combination of scientists which
is no longer observable in the traditional science
and educational system. In so doing, not only
production of an innovation product, but also
the increased competitive ability is gambled on
in the «interprofessional and interdisciplinary
consolidation» (Ignatyev et al., 2003). Flexibility
of the communication bonds in these conditions
becomes one of success components. It is the most
problematic for the geographically distributed
collectives for which email, teleconferences,
forums, specialized chats are the only acceptable
forms of interaction in their joint science and
educational efforts.
References (in Russion)
Delaise G. and Gvattarie F. What is phylosophy? Institute of experimental sociology (SPb.: 1998),
280.
Galkin D. V. An individual in the virtual bunker: critical theory of the virtual culture А. Kroker.
Open learning, 3-4 (11 – 12), (2004), 100 – 115.
Ignatyev M., Nikitin A., Reshetnikova N. New technologies of contribution and communication
between people. Technologies of information community – Internet and modern society. (SPb.:
Published by Saint Petersburg institute, 2003), 17-38.
Ivanov D. Virtualization of society. (SPB.: Peterburgskoye vostokovedeniye, 2002), 224.
Kastels M. Information epoch: economics, society and culture. (M.: GU VShE, 2000), 344.
Melyukhin I. Information community: culture, origins, progress trends. М., 1999.
Patsiorski V., О’Brien D. Science and educational sites as elements of the information medium in
humanities. Technologies of information community – Internet and modern society. (SPb.: Published
by Saint Petersburg institute, 2003), 58-73.
Rheingold H. Virtual communities, 1998. Electronic resource: http://www.rheingold.com/vc/
book/
Shcherbina V.N. Network communities in the perspective of social analysis (experience of
reflexion in formation of the cybercommunicative continuum). Berdyansk. (Published by Berdyan
State Pedagogical Institute, 2001), 252.
Wikipedia. Virtual community. Electronic resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_
community
Zhichlina А.Ye. On possibilities of the psychological researches in the Internet. Journal of
psychology № 2, Т. 21. 2000, 63-85.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 491-506
~~~
УДК 316.7
Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research
on Culture
Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
Culture studies become more popular at the current stage of development of science. The object
of some researchers is theoretical development of problematics of culture; the others intend to
deal with applied investigations of new spheres of human life. But in spite of the very essence of
investigations on culture (theoretical or empirical) and its object, selection of methodological
principles remains one of the most important problems for every concrete program of research
on culture.
A brief historical survey of the problem of selection of methodological principles for research on
culture, carried out in the article, allowed us to draw a conclusion that the program of contemporary
culture studies is based on the principle of necessity for direct observation of various forms of social
correlations; and a concrete program of scientific investigations on culture is stipulated by selection
of methodology for study of social interrelations. On the one hand, selection of the basic form of social
interrelations depends on subjective intentions of a researcher carrying out his investigations on
culture; on the other hand, selection determines concrete objects and methods of culture studies based
on direct observation of people’s social life.
Consideration of the genesis of the West-European and American investigations on culture on the
base of studying of K.H. Marx’s, I.A.М.F.X. Comte’s, B.K. Malinowski’s, A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s,
and L. A. White’s conceptions allowed us to examine the process of formation of methodology of
culture studies. Its starting point was K.H. Marx’s discovery of economic relations as the only
possible foundation of social relations, according to his conception. There appeared a fork in the
further development of methodology: one of its branches still remains determined by economy and
the other is a progressive alternative of formation of methodology of culture studies initiated by
I.A.M.F.X. Comte, who had turned metaphysical speculations to positive scientific control over
social processes. B.K. Malinowski kept on with that vector of development; the step he made towards
formation of methodology of culture studies is a turn from speculative theorizing to study of social
reality in field condition.
A.R. Radcliff-Braun confirmed the methodological thesis on division of approaches of research on
culture into speculative, or ethnologic, and functional, or socio-anthropological, ones. According
to A.R. Radcliff-Braun, socio-anthropological method is of more importance, for it allows us to
deduce general functional principles of existence of culture on the base of the phenomena of social
life directly observed. L.A. White’s desert is synthesis of historical and functional methods carried out
and enriched, each taken separately.
Keywords: Culture studies, methodology, A. Comte, K.H. Marx, B.K. Malinowski, A.R. Radcliff-Braun,
L. White, social determinism
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Point
If we consider genesis of European and
American investigations on culture, we can point
out the fact that the type of scientist changes
at this sphere of science in the first third of the
20th century. The outstanding thinkers such
as Herbert Spencer, Auguste Comte, Emile
Durkheim, and even James Frazer were the
representatives of so-called «bench scientist»
type though the program they had suggested
oriented its adherents to direct observations
of social interactions. Though Auguste Comte
being recognized as a founder of positivism with
its thesis of methodological autonomy of social
sciences as such as science as a whole, he was
a model of scientist and philosopher: universal
logic of scientific construction, i.e. philosophical
logics, was of the greatest importance for him.
But the program of scientific research on
human society put forward by the great «bench
scientists» was of more importance for the
posterior human and social sciences rather than
their own style of scientific constructions. Herbert
Spencer’s and Auguste Comte’s works have a
thoroughly reasoned demand for dependence of
social studies on empirical material of the social
correlations directly observed. The fundamental
principle of necessity for direct observations
of methods and forms of social life as a base of
culture studies comes to European and American
investigations from A. Comte and H. Spencer.
Emile Durkheim worked out the first methods
of direct observation of social interactions and
simultaneously he was an outstanding theorist
who suggested genial schemes of comprehension
of the most important social facts, for instance,
that one of religion. Though his conceptions
were put to strong critique, the theory of religion
as essential social «cement» bringing along the
collective ideas fundamental for an individual
seems to be suddenly spicy and promising for
methodology.
The scientific charm of Sir James George
Frazer’s book «The Golden Bough» is difficult to
overestimate, for it is possible to correlate classical
mythology of the ancient Greeks, Romans,
Celts, and Germans with the facts concerning
social life of the traditional cultures in the 19th
century, which Frazer knew. For many years,
the outstanding representatives of British social
(cultural) anthropology had been working out the
program of field studies of the traditional cultures
starting with studying of one of many theses of
J. Frazer’s book «The Golden Bough». There are
to be mentioned Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski,
Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun, Franz Boas,
and their prominent disciples – M. Glackman, R.
Benedict, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, M. Mead, and
many other European and American scientists.
Thus, there is a change of the model of
researcher on culture at scientific activity of the
British scientists such as B.K. Malinowski, A.R.
Radcliff-Braun, American scientist Franz Boas,
and their followers. Henceforth fieldworks are
the base of profound scientific investigations.
The model of anthropologist studying culture
is a person who managed «to be dissolved»
in the space of his investigations and, first and
foremost, to become a member of the community
demonstrating the unique local culture he studies.
Such field investigations on culture have been
naturally transferred from colonial spaces to
modern cities, flats, and mini-communities. For
the first time, human sciences became sciences
of human social behaviour directly observed,
and that could not only satisfy scientists’ direct
interest, but also became a base for scientific
control of social life and for working-out of the
most humane and advanced social technologies
of «everyday» life for people.
Having worked out the model of field
investigations on culture 30-50 years ago,
today British and American scientists are to be
admired for their work, who were able to form an
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adequate program of research on culture of social
life of the traditional communities in the British
colonies, but the universal principles of social life
and so-called «civil» communities were found
out only owing to inhabitants of the Trobiand and
Andaman Islands.
For the recent years, Russian culture studies
has been under the process of self-determination,
and there are lot of discussions on the subject
of this science: if culture is something different
from social interrelations or if it is no more than
abstraction of no considerable importance for the
true researchers investigating on human society
by the way of direct observation. The authors,
who prove that there is a specific system quality
of social life, which could become a subject of
direct scientific observation, turn to Leslie White,
the possible discoverer of «culture studies» term,
in their search for support. The paradox is that
the author of «culture studies» term was rather of
the second opinion and he thought that «culture
studies» were only categorical abstraction
necessary for theoretical modeling of some social
phenomena.
Thus, resuming the brief survey of the
history of question, we can point out the
following conceptual thesis: the program of
contemporary culture studies is based on the
principle of necessity for direct observation
of different forms of social interactions; a
concrete program of scientific investigations
on culture is connected with selection of
methodology for social interactions studies.
SELECTION OF THE BASIC FORM OF
SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 1) DEPENDS
ON SUBJECTIVE INTENTIONS OF
THE
SCIENTIST
CARRYING
OUT
INVESTIGATIONS
ON
CULTURE;
2) DETERMINES CONCRETE SUBJECTS
AND METHODS OF CULTURE STUDIES
ON THE BASE OF DIRECT OBSERVATION
OF PEOPLE’S SOCIAL LIFE.
The conceptions of Karl Heinrich Marx,
Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte,
Franz Boas, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski,
and Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun are to be
considered as examples of scientific models of
the basic forms of social interactions. The choice
of these names is stipulated by their unsurpassed
role in formation of investigations on society and
culture conveyed in formation of fundamental and
acknowledged conceptions of social interactions.
Anyway, the conceptions of these thinkers are the
base of methodology of all the investigations on
culture without exceptions based on the principle
of necessity of direct observations on facts of
social life for social and human sciences.
Example
1. Absolute economic fundamentalism
of K.H. Marx’s social doctrine
Karl Heinrich Marx’s social determinism
is very well known to Russian human and social
sciences, for the very K.H. Marx’s doctrine has been
determining the universal methodological vector
of investigations for the vast majority of Russian
scientists. The scientific community expected a
lot of the ideological reorientation in 90s of the
20th century. But on the whole the miracle hasn’t
been accomplished. Being closed for any exterior
influences because of group narcissism and inner
conceptual and methodological helplessness,
Russian human and social sciences, having lost its
ideological censorship, on the contrary, were far
from being glad to the «long-awaited freedom»
and offered solid opposition to the new doctrines
and methodological capacities European human
and social sciences had stored for a hundred years
of its rapid development in the 20th century. One
has only to compare a large amount of scientific
journals published in Russia and in the world with
a number and subject-matter of special authorial
courses in human and social studies at American,
European, and Russian universities. The
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prosperity of investigations on society and culture
can be verified by both a number of the students
taking special courses and a number of magistral
programs on one or another subject. The matter is
not of content or utility, but of a NUMBER of the
research topic suggested to the public attention.
Marxism is applied as the basic
methodological precondition at human and social
sciences especially in the provinces as before.
Nevertheless Marxist ideology has profound
recognition in the world science, but without
direction to it as the only reality and universality
for all the times and nations.
If we speak on the very subject of the article,
social determinism of human and social studies is
clearly and definitely represented in K.H. Marx’s
conception:
«The preconditions we are to start with are
not optional and they are not dogma, but they are
the real preconditions which can be estranged
only in imagination. Those are real individuals
with their activity and material conditions of
their life, those ones the individuals find at hand
as well as those ones the individuals produced
in the process of their activity. Thereby those
preconditions can be found out only by empirical
way» [16, p. 3-4].
For many years all the scientists directly
or indirectly concerned in the problems of
investigations on culture as the absolute truth had
been studying the following theses:
«Consciousness, religion, and any other
thing make difference between human beings
and animals. Human beings start distinguishing
themselves from the animals only when they
start producing the means necessary for their
living – that is a step stipulated by their material
organization. People implicitly produce the very
material life by producing the means necessary
for their living.
The way people produce the means necessary
for their living depends chiefly on the qualities
of the very means of living they find ready for
reproduction» [16, p. 4].
Thus, we wouldn’t discover anything new
if we said that the specific feature of Marx’s
social determinism theory is a choice of only
economic and property relations as a base of
social interactions.
If we digress from the ideological specific
features of Marxism in Russia of the 20th century,
we should note that the British anthropologists
thoroughly discussed the potentialities of
methodology of K.H. Marx’s economic and social
determinism as a conceptual base of their applied
research. Among investigations of Marxist
anthropologists, the most interesting ones are
of Peter Worsley and Morris Bloch [18, p. 302].
A.A. Nickishenkov points out that Marxism
of the British anthropologists was displayed in
modification of the traditional structural and
functional terms: «society» word was substituted
with «formation», «structure» word with «mode
of production», «clan and lineage systems» with
«class structures» [18, p. 302]. The anthropologists
of Marxist orientation were characterized with
disputes about the essence of «relationship
system» – if it were basis or superstructure at
social system.
The researcher says that the interest in
Marxist methodology passes away almost
without any serious conceptual consequences at
the beginning of 80s of the 20th century.
«Mode of production is not to be considered
only from the point that it is a reproduction of
physical life of individuals. It is a certain way of
action of those individuals, some kind of their life
activity and modus vivendi. The individuals are
represented to be their life activity. Their essence
they represent coincides with their production –
both with what and how they produce. The essence
represented by individuals consequently
depends on the material conditions of their
production» [16, p. 5].
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The words italicized are the cornerstone
of Marxist methodology in analysis of all the
phenomena at society and culture, which is quite
characteristic of interpretation of religion.
«The base of irreligious critique is that a
human being produces religion, but religion
doesn’t produce a person. Videlicet, religion
is self-consciousness and self-sensation of an
individual who either hasn’t found himself yet or
has already lost himself again. But a human being
is not an abstract entity nestling somewhere out
of the world. A human being is his world, state,
and society. That state and society bring forth
religion, changeful world outlook, for they are
changeful world. Religion is a general theory of
that world, its encyclopaedic pantology, logics
given in a popularized form, spiritualistic point
d’honneur, enthusiasm, moral sanction, solemn
replenishment, and the universal ground for
consolation and justification. It converts a human
entity into fantastic reality, for a human entity
doesn’t have true reality. Therefore the struggle
against religion is indirectly a struggle against
the very world where religion is a spiritual
oblectation.
Religious meanness is an aspect of meanness
of reality and a protest against that meanness of
reality at the same time. Religion is a sigh of
downtrodden creature, a heart of the heartless
world like it is a spirit of heartless forms. Religion
is opium for people.
Annihilation of religion as illusive
blessedness of people is a requirement for their
real happiness. The demand for denial of illusions
about one’s state is a requirement for denial of
such state which is in need of illusions. Hence, in
its first stages, critique of religion is critique of
the life of grief and weep with religion as its holy
aureole» [17, p. 414-415].
We would like to pay attention to the passion
of Marx’s critique of religion. Kant’s calm and
dispassionate comprehension of «critique» as an
investigation turns into Marx’s critique-negation
and critique-disclosure.
It seems that the subsequent Marxists
generations were infected with the sincerity
and passion of Marx’s disclosures of the reality
contemporary with him. But that very pathos
of negation makes Marxism be an odious
doctrine, far from everyday diligent labour of
the contemporary researchers investigating on
culture, who consider direct human life under the
«microscope» of their field studies by application
of methodological taboo to discuss the past or the
possible future of the culture being under study.
The choice of economic «cell» as the only
real base of culture has led culture studies to a
certain dead-end. It is fair to say that A. Comte
and H. Spencer created an absolutely different
methodology with «social organism» and «social
aggregate» notions applied in their works in
parallel with Marx’s methodology of studies on
society from the point of some definite basis and
superstructure absolutely derivative from that
basis. The elementary level of straight meanings
of those notions pointed to the necessity for
comprehension of the whole amount of social
interactions as integrity, different elements
«grounded-in» with each other, interconditionality
of various parts of the integrated social
organization, and vital correlation of different
parts of social aggregate.
As history of science proved, this approach
has turned out to be more productive for scientific
control over social processes than that one
mentioned above.
2. Positivistic scientific sociologic
determinism of Isidore Auguste Marie
Francois Xavier Comte
Marx’s notions «mode of production»,
«social and economic structure», and «basis and
superstructure» were thoroughly described by
Russian scientists. It seems that K.H. Marx as
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a sociologist was concerned with searching for
«the only» true basis of social relations. Then
social control is added up to regular influence
on that basis. We can expect total changes in the
whole social structure according to the form and
content of political influence on the economic
basis. Here, K.H. Marx is remarkably traditional
in the statement of the ONLY and CENTRAL
base. There wasn’t any real revolution at human
and social sciences and Marx’s works. It happened
very close and, first of all, it consisted of almost
imperceptible methodological change: «The true
cause of the world and fundamental consequences
of following the way of Buddha («Is that one, who
has seen the truth, immortal? Or is he mortal and
immortal all at the same time? Or is he neither
mortal nor immortal all at the same time?», –
Buddha keeps silence).
I.A.M.F.X. Comte calls this methodological
position «positive» and substantiates the radical
need in it for studies on society: «The fundamental
nature of positive philosophy is in acknowledgement
that all the phenomena are subordinated to the
constant natural laws» [4, p. 6].
positivistic mind is mainly a substitution of study
of the primary or final causes of phenomena for
study of their fundamental laws; in other words,
it is a change of «why» for «how» [3, p. 81].
That is exactly the way of the change at
European natural science, which took place
in the 16th – 17th centuries. Isaac Newton put
methodological taboo in science. He started with
the statement «There are the forces in action in
nature» and simultaneously «refused» to solve
the problem of the source and nature of those
forces having kept «metaphysical» questions of
the origin of philosophy and theology.
Immanuel Kant made methodological
discovery of the absolutely same form in regard
to epistemology in the 18th century. In his great
«Critiques», he researched the very human
cognition without raising and solution of the
question of the nature of cognition. Human
thinking is to be considered in its immediate
reality and described as some Here and Now
in action. This very philosophical method was
called «Critique» by I. Kant – that is research on
the real reason.
We can find out this position at religion,
philosophy, and psychology of Buddhism as one
of the world religions. There are various versions
of the number of questions in the famous list
of questions Buddha doesn’t answer. First and
foremost, those are the questions of the prime
Comte considered investigations on society
to be the end of natural science. The object
of social studies is reorganization of social
reality according to the requirements of reason,
regulation of the most sophisticated sphere of
reality – that is of human and social life, – and
direct action upon history from the point of the
principles fixed by reason.
Comte simultaneously brings into effect a
number of methodological preconditions of the
greatest importance for the further human and
social investigations: 1) the necessity of direct
observations on social correlations for a scientist;
2) methodological «levelling» of individual
aspects of a human being in favour of social ones;
3) on the one hand, distinction of social functioning
as «static» state of society «Here and Now», on
the other hand – fixation of permanent social
progress submitted to the universal panhuman
objective laws and «dynamic» development of
social aggregation on the basis of permanent selfenrichment, development and amplification of
human knowledge.
It is difficult to overestimate the importance
of methodological change made by Isidore
Auguste Marie Francois Xavier Comte at social
and human studies. Even his apparently naïve ideas
of the necessity for conscious implementation
of positivistic religion as a cult of social system
embodied in the «Absolute Essence» mark a
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new era at scientific research on religion as an
attributive function of social order in contrast to
chaos and regress.
Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski is an English
ethnologist and sociologist recognized as one of
the founders and leaders of the English functional
school at British anthropology. He considered
culture as integral and coordinated system with
be explored only in documents and reports. Only
that one, who personally worked with all the
three spheres forming modification of … culture,
can reckon on true knowledge about the sense of
cultural modification and its real nature» [13, p.
379-380].
Having carried out field studies in the Mayil
(1914), the Trobdians Islands (1915-1918) and
Oachaka state in Mexico (studies on the sapothecs
in 1940-1941), B.K. Malinowski constantly
returned to the collected material to confirm the
hypotheses arising on the way to discovery of the
its parts tightly connected with each other, and
a single phenomenon of culture and its aspect is
to be considered only from the point of the whole
and as a component of a system, and qualities
of every separate component are predetermined
by the whole. B.K. Malinowski demanded every
aspect of culture to be considered not merely as
a component of a system, but as a functioning
part of the cultural context. Therefore the main
object of the investigations carried out by B.K.
Malinowski and his disciples is comprehension of
mechanism of culture and its function displayed
in functioning of every concrete institution.
According to B.K. Malinowski, institutions are
the forms of mechanisms of culture sensuously
represented; moreover, those mechanisms cannot
be represented without institutions, for this
reason, the researches investigating on sphere of
culture should take field studies as a base. And
B.K. Malinowski insisted on the fact that, as
far as mechanism of culture can be represented
by no any other way than institutions, scientific
hypotheses about those mechanisms requiring
practical verification are to be advanced by that
very field. It is worth mentioning Bronislaw Kasper
Malinowski’s merits as the change of cabinet kind
of investigations for field studies and investigation
on impoderabilia of real life at history of culture
studies. «There is no any real process including
the process of cultural modification, which can
maximally universal principle and mechanism
of culture. And, according to Bronislaw Kasper
Malinowski, such maximally general principle of
culture is the statement that culture is an apparatus
for satisfaction of human wants. «In its essence,
culture is a tool apparatus due to which a man
is able to manage with those concrete problems
he comes across in the process of satisfaction of
his wants in natural environment» [14, p. 142].
Hence we may assert that Bronislaw Kasper
Malinowski’s conception is cultural determinism
conception.
According to B.K. Malinowski, the
necessities are to be divided into three basic
forms: primary («every culture is to satisfy the
system of biological requirements determined
by metastasis, reproduction, physiological
temperature conditions, the need in protection
from wet and wind, and direct adverse effect of
climatic and weather conditions as well as from
dangerous animals and other people» [14, p.
158]), derivative (requirements of organization,
order and harmony), and integrative (spiritual
requirements: science, religion, ethics, and
art) necessities. The kinds of the necessities
represented here are hierarchized: first of all,
human activity is directed to satisfaction of
the basic or biological needs, and after they
are satisfied, one can attend to the secondary
ones. This idea characteristic of not only
3. The change at methodology
of culture studies:
Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski
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Bronislav Kaspar Malinowski’s view was
concretized by American psychologist and the
founder of humanistic psychology Abraham
Harold Maslow in his famous Human Wants
Diagram.
A human being is to be subjected to the
principle of cultural determinism not only as
some entity but as a group: «The activities,
points, and objects organized by the vital
aims form such institutes as family, clan, local
community, tribe, and also give birth to some
organized groups integrated by economic
cooperation and political, legal and educational
activities» [14; p. 142]. Having summarized the
results of various field investigations, Bronislaw
Kasper Malinowski draws a conclusion that the
ways of satisfaction of needs can be different,
firstly, in different cultures and, secondly, at
different stages of their development, and that
is to be taken into consideration while different
cultures are in contact with each other. Having
concretized this proposition, B.K. Malinowski
asserts: «The statement that the tribal Africans
are submitted to their own special cultural
determinism means that there can be simply
arisen a conflict and disorganization when we
intend to inculcate some new gastronomic
habits, agriculture methods or status and laws,
and if that process is out of consideration of the
existing forces, for we inevitably try to substitute
some cultural realia. The persecutions of voodoo
and unreasoned conversion to Christianity;
the urge to inculcate education in the Africans
without preliminary consideration of the things
education would destroy and consequences for
the nationality and potentialities; the attitude
towards lobola as «a savage custom of brideselling» – these are the examples of neglect of
the principle of African cultural determinism in
practice» [13, p. 376].
Culture forms a system in the process of
satisfaction of human needs, and each part of
that system has its own predetermined place,
and the system is so hierarchized and wellorganized that the whole functional balance
would be disharmonized and the whole system
would be destroyed if one of its elements,
which doesn’t seem to have any important
connection with the system, were removed. As
for an example for such situation, Bronislaw
Kasper Malinowski told of the «headhunt»
held on the Initiation Day in one of the islands
of New Guinea and put under a ban by the
English. The aboriginal society found itself on
the brink of complete destruction very soon
after the ban: the elders lost their authority, the
invalids were refused to be given any help, the
fields and granaries were unkept, because the
people left their home place. As it turned out,
the «headhunt» was some kind of guarantee
of responsibility for agricultural work keeping
the cohesion of the families responsible for the
stores of rice. But the whole system of cultural
and agricultural connections was brought to a
standstill after the «headhunt» ban. Moreover,
the «headhunt» was an indispensable part of
the very Initiation rite, the rite of consecration
to the adult life; hence the «headhunt» ban
disorganized hierarchical structure of the
society. This principle when every object or
idea has its vital function inside the organic
whole is called universal fundamentalism.
Thus, if Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s
ideas of culture as an apparatus of satisfaction
of human needs and the ideas of hierarchical
system of needs can be criticized, the
methodological way put forward and tested by
B.K. Malinowski is undoubtedly positive; that
is a change from desk study on culture to field
investigations on imponderabilia of real life.
Field investigations are to guide a researcher
and they are to be material for verification
of the scientific hypotheses advanced by a
researcher.
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4. Structural fundamentalism methodology
at Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun’s
investigations on culture
Alfred Reginald Radcliff-Braun, a British
anthropologist and a founder of structuralfunctional
approach
at
anthropology,
differentiates such two sciences as ethnology
and social anthropology in his works («Methods
at ethnology and social anthropology»,
«Comparative method at social anthropology»,
«Historical and functional interpretation of
culture and practical use of anthropology for
control over the aborigines»). The main criterion
for the differentiation is the basic method applied
to the investigations carried out by ethnologists
and social anthropologists.
A.R. Radcliff-Braun suggests that the basic
method applied by ethnologists is appropriate
to be called historical method. Its main point
is that the method applied in practice allows a
researcher to interpret some concrete institution
of a society, to observe its formation, to reveal
the factors which have influence on the changes
the institution has undergone. As a matter of fact,
A.R. Radcliff-Braun asserts that ethnologists
observe temporal causality of some concrete
institution by application of historical method. «A
concrete element or a state of culture is explained
by its origin to another element tracing back to the
third one and so on until we are not able to retrace
anything. The method can reveal real temporal
connections between some concrete institutions,
events or states of a civilization» [23, p. 605].
A.R. Radcliff-Braun points at complete or
partial lack of the empirical data necessary for
research as the general problem ethnologists
have to deal with. In the first place, at the time
of A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s scientific activity,
the main object of study both for ethnologists
and anthropologists was «traditional societies»
which couldn’t be studied without basing on
any authentic material concerning the history
of those societies. Hence there wasn’t to be
mentioned objectivity of the process of gradual
determination of some social institutions restored
by scientists, and the investigations had pure
hypothetic nature. A.R. Radcliff-Braun says of it
as follows: «The thing usually called ethnology
is generally a sum of hypothetic reconstructions,
i.e. hypothetic history» [23, p. 605].
Having found out subjectivity of historical
method, A.R. Radcliff-Braun turns to social
anthropology and its functional approach with
induction laid in the base. «Logical induction is
based on the postulate that all the phenomena
are subjected to the natural law and whereupon
general laws could be discovered and proved;
the general laws (with more or less degree of
generality) are the statements, every one is to be
attributed to a certain sort of facts or events», i.e.
application of this method allows a general law
to be discovered; its particular case would be a
concrete institution being under consideration.
Having pointed out the object of social
anthropology, A.R. Radcliff-Braun returns
to ethnology seeking to give some sense to
construction of hypothetic histories of origin of
many concrete cultural phenomena, which seems
to be useless from scientific point of view. The
pointlessness of application of purely historical
method consists of two main aspects: firstly, it is
the impossibility of observation of the chain of
the determinants of every cultural phenomenon
because of the endless number of those
phenomena; secondly, it is the uselessness of the
established stages of development of some certain
institutions taken out of their connection with the
stages of development of other institutions, and,
as a matter of fact, it is construction of hypothetic
history for the very hypothetic history. Just
functional method, which allows us to discover
functional laws of culture and society as a whole,
is to have an efficient function at ethnology
studies, and «it will be possible to conceive those
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gradual stages of development properly only
when we find out the laws bringing them about»
[23, p. 608].
Thereby A.R. Radcliff-Braun doesn’t deny
ethnology to have its own right to exist, on the
contrary, he admits that it is essential but only
in connection with social anthropology, and
he claims that correctness of every step of the
process of discovering of a general law carried
out by logical induction is to be empirically
verified, i.e. by historical method of ethnology.
It means that A.R. Radcliff-Braun thinks that
communities, for «we will be able to predict the
results of any premeditated and unpremeditated
influence on culture if we comprehend culture as
a functioning system. … Hence, if anthropology
is about to give any assistance in solution of
the practical problems at administration and
education, it is to refuse the tries to divine
historical past and it is to be devoted to functional
approach of culture studies» [22, p. 635].
scientifically the process of ideal is a constant
interchange of functional and historical methods
for the advanced hypotheses could be mutually
corroborated. If we turn to A.R. Radcliff-Braun’s
theoretical working-out applied in practice and
represented in his work «Historical and functional
interpretations of culture and practical appliance
of anthropology at control over the aborigines»,
we can find out its implicit concordance with the
principle of statistic determinism lying in the fact
that there is a possibility of various effects for one
and the same reason within the possible limits;
and nevertheless it is seen from the fact that we
can discover general laws of the system when
we consider cultural phenomena not very much
identical with each other (we mean the relations
between the phratries based on the principle
«falcon – crow» or «White cockatoo – Black
cockatoo»).
According to A.R. Radcliff-Braun, neither
deduction of stadial development of a concrete
phenomenon of culture nor the striving for
discovery of functional laws explaining a concrete
element of one or another culture is the final cause
of science. The results of a research work applied
in practice are of great value for A.R. RadcliffBraun, in particular, he thinks that the topical
sphere of appliance of social and anthropological
knowledge is scientifically grounded control
over a group of phenomena in non-European
As Leslie Alvin White, one of the leading
American anthropologists, believed, culture
is a complex extrasomatic mechanism used
by a human being in his struggle for existence
and passed over another man through social
mechanisms, not with biological means; «culture
can be called a form of social heredity» [31; p.
388]. According to Leslie Alvin White, culture
consisting of interactive elements – tools,
utensils, amulets, beliefs, actions realized in
symbolic context – is an integrated system with its
subsystems inside. In particular, he distinguishes
three important subsystems: technological,
social, and ideological. «The technological
subsystem consists of material, mechanic,
physical, and chemical tools with technology,
which allows a human being as a representative
of the animal kingdom to get into contact with
the environment. … The social system consists of
interpersonal relations conveyed in collective or
individual patterns of behavior. …The ideological
system consists of ideas, beliefs, and knowledge,
expressed by articulate speech or some other
symbolic form» [31, p. 388-389].
L.A. White thinks that the subsystems
of culture are hierarchized: the technological
subsystem is the most important and, as a matter
of fact, determinative of the other two ones.
Leslie Alvin White’s position can be named
technological determinism. It is necessary to
5. Synthetic evolutional determinism
of Leslie Alvin White
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mention that, thinking of the technological aspect
of culture to be the base and foundation of the
structure of culture as a whole, L.A. White doesn’t
deny the possibility of the other two aspects to
have influence on each other, but he notes that
to influence and to determine are absolutely
different ways. «The technological system plays
the leading part. … And there is no any other
way. A human being as a biological species
and the whole culture accordingly depend on
material things and mechanic ways of adaptation
to the natural environment. Social systems really
in living material systems: the organization is
being strengthened, and the energy is being
concentrated. Life is a constructive process. But
living organisms have to take free energy from
inorganic systems and use it in order they could
maintain their life and resist the cosmic stream.
From this point of view, life is a struggle for
free energy». And culture is to extract energy
and use it for the humankind’s good; at this
idea, L.A. White comprehended culture as a
complex mechanical thermodynamic system; its
technological aspect is the most important for its
have secondary and auxiliary nature regarding
technological systems. Roughly speaking, social
system can be defined as organized people’s
efforts bent to the use of means of subsistence,
shelter, defence and attack. The social system is a
function of the technological system. Ideological
or philosophical systems are an organization of
beliefs interpreting human experience. But both
experience and its interpretation are considerably
stipulated by technology. Every kind of technology
corresponds to a certain philosophical model…
Thus, technological factor is a determinant of
cultural system as a whole. It determines the
form of social systems, and technology together
with society determine content and trend of
philosophy» [31, p. 390-391].
Leslie Alvin White took the point of view of
natural science for consideration of the problems
of culture. And if he, first of all, considered a
human being as a biological species in the passage
mentioned above, on the whole, his ideas are not
a stranger to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and
thermodynamic laws he applies to explain the
processes taking place in the space of culture.
Thus, «according to the second thermodynamic
principle, Cosmos as its whole is being destroyed,
and organization of the system is being brought
to destruction more and more, and diffusion of
the energy is increasing. But there is another
process in the tiny sectors of Cosmos, namely
functioning while the other two aspects are just
its supplement and reflection.
According to L.A. White’s view, the energy
is a factor determining development of culture.
But he notes that, in substance, the pure energy
existing in the Universe is not concerned with
culture at all. Only the energy a human being
involves in his life is important, as well as degree
of perfection of the technology used in that
involving and volume of cultural products, which
is possible to produce by involving some energy
and using it by means of the technology available
at a certain stage. L.A. White distinguishes three
factors of any cultural system on the base of this
conclusion: «(1) quantity of the energy consumed
per head a year; (2) effectiveness of the technology
used for extraction of the energy and giving it to a
human being; (3) volume of products and services
produced for satisfaction of human wants» [28,
p. 393]. L.A. White scientifically conveys the
correlation of the mentioned factors in the formula
ExT → C (E – quantity of the energy consumed
per head a year; T – degree of effectiveness of the
tools used; C – level of development of culture).
The next step Leslie Alvin White made was
formulation of the law of cultural evolution which
runs as follows: «other things being equal, culture
is in progress as quantity of the energy consumed
per head a year is increased or as effectiveness of
the tools involved in consumption of the energy
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grows» [31, p. 394]. In order to prove the efficiency
of his law, L.A. White considers development of
the humankind’s culture from its start up to date
distinguishing three principal stages: agricultural,
fuel, and atomic or nuclear; first and foremost, the
root of differences between them is a sort of the
energy consumed and the ways of its involvement
in the human existence. Thus, Leslie Alvin White
finds deductive verification of his technological
determinism law in the history of development of
the humankind’s culture.
Thereby Leslie Alvin White can be
considered as a continuer of the traditions
brought in culture studies by K.H. Marx:
the technological component is selected as
determinative of development of culture.
And if following K.H. Marx’s theory implies
investigations on some concrete cultures from
the point of economic connections of the
cultures considered, L.A. White’s methodology
presupposes the necessity of analysis of
concrete cultures in order the present stage
of evolution of culture to be defined, which is
developed by leaps and bounds according to
L.A. White: qualitative change – discovery of
a new source of energy, quantitative change –
development of technology for consumption of
energy, and there is a stage of qualitative leap
again after a long stage of quantitative change;
the other object of the research based on L.A.
White’s methodology can be a prognostic object
concerning the further development of culture.
Carrying out his investigations in the period,
when nuclear working-out was at its elementary
stages, L.A. White couldn’t accurately surmise
the consequences for culture brought about
by that. It will be either total and complete
collapse of human culture or a solution leading
to succeeding unprecedented active restoration
of culture and even overwhelm the present level
of development. Critique of law of cultural
evolution advanced by L.A. White and proved
through history of the humankind’s development
can be based on the fact that White levels specific
characters of some concrete cultures for the sake
of general tendencies of evolution of culture.
But after we criticize some of L.A. White’s
ideas, we should specify the positive character
of his approach to culture studies. In particular,
L.A. White bechanced to make a very productive
step at working out of methodology of culture
studies as an effort to combine two different
approaches. So L.A. White distinguishes
historical and functional methods in previous and
contemporary research works; the first method
studies time process, the second one is formaland-functional. The first method is applied in
investigations on history of customs and ideas;
the second one is for study of social structure and
functions. L.A. White insisted on combination
of these two methods in one evolutional method
oriented to formal-and-temporal process and
applied in study of evolution of cultural features,
institutions, and culture as a whole.
According to L.A. White, the very
evolutionistic method is to eliminate the
contradictions arisen among the researchers
dealing with culture studies; the contradictions
are connected with differentiation between
cabinet and field researchers, for L.A. White
claimed that true results are unachievable if only
one method is applied; both the methods are to be
integrated. «The thesis that «field studies shattered
and refuted theory of evolution of culture» has
been a perfect base for antievolutionists for many
decades. …Theory of evolution was represented as
a pure speculation bordering on fancy. And then
field research work came, and so did empiricism
and facts, facts, and facts… Of course, there is
no any incompatibility of theory and practice; a
fact is dead and pointless without theory; theory
is a breath of life in science. …As far as we are
concerned, there is no any of adherents of the
thesis on field studies and theory of evolution
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who has pointed at any example of the fact how
field studies would refute theory of evolution;
they were used just as pretext. Now there are
some signs of the fact that antievolutionistic
period is up to its end at cultural anthropology. …
The precious time has been wasted in opposition
to that fruitful scientific conception, but theory
of evolution will take its place again and prove
its significance at cultural anthropology as it has
already happened at other spheres of science»
[34, p. 555].
It should be mentioned in conclusion that,
if L.A. White’s deductions reached through his
particular investigations can be criticized, then
the methodological ways suggested by him are
of apparent value. It turned out that he had to
synthesize two approaches dominating in culture
studies: pure theoretical method practiced by
«bench» scientists and field studies method. L.A.
White made an attempt to integrate historical and
functional approaches.
Resume
The study of conceptions of social
determinism of K.H. Marx, I.A.M.F.X. Comte,
K.B. Malinowski, A.R. Radcliff-Braun, and L.A.
White, which specify methods of applied cultural
investigations, allows us to observe the process
of formation of methodology of culture studies.
The starting point of the process K.H. Marx’s
discovery of the only possible foundation of
society; from his point of view, that is economic
and property relations, and if there is an influence
on them, it is possible to modify the whole social
structure. There is a fork further on the way of
development of methodology; one of its branches
held by the Soviet researchers in culture and
continued by the scientists of post Soviet space
is purely Marxist and determined by economics;
the dead state of this branch is displayed very well
in comparison with the second and progressive
variant of formation of methodology of culture
studies. It is possible to point out the main
milestones of that formation.
The foundation of development of
methodology of culture studies was laid by
I.A.M.F.X. Comte, who made a turn from
metaphysical speculations on the possibility to
change society through influence on its basis to
positive scientific control over social processes.
The possibility of such turn is caused by
comprehension of a sum of social interactions
as an integrated wholeness akin to that one of a
living organism, in which interrelations of the
parts are of vital importance.
The vector of development preset by
I.A.M.F.X. Comte was prolonged by B.K.
Malinowski, who conceived culture as an
integrated and homeostatic system with its
parts studied only as components of the system,
moreover, as functioning ones. That is why the
chief object of the investigations carried out by B.K.
Malinowski and his disciples was comprehension
of mechanism of culture and mechanism of its
functioning revealed in functioning of every
concrete institution taking its certain place as an
object of study at culture studies starting from
B.K. Malinowski’s time. Thus, the step on the
way of formation methodology of culture studies
made by B.K. Malinowski can be fixed as a turn
from purely hypothetic construction of theories
carried out by bench scientists to direct study of
concrete social reality in the field environment.
A.R. Radcliff-Braun admitted that the
turn in methodology of culture studies made
by B.K. Malinowski is productive. In point of
fact, he stated and cemented the methodological
position on differentiation between hypothetic,
or ethnological, and functional, or social and
anthropological, approaches to culture. And as far
as ethnological method of culture studies is not
always effective because of the lack of necessary
historical materials, social-and anthropological
method is more important according to A.R.
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Radcliff-Braun, for it is possible to draw general
functional laws of existence of culture from
phenomena of social life being under direct
observation. The topicality of discovery of those
general laws lies in application of them in control
over non-European communities. Later on, when
there was a change of the object of study and
when attention was switched over from so-called
traditional societies to study of subcultures of the
society a researcher was living in, there was no any
levelling of topicality of the approach advanced
by A.R. Radcliff-Braun, but then discovery of
general laws became necessary for harmonious
intercourse not between some concrete nations,
but between some concrete social strata.
L.A. White’s merit is synthesizing of
historical and functional methods, which
were separately worked out and enriched after
methodological turn made by B.K. Malinowski.
L.A. White insisted on the necessity of
integration of theoretical speculations,
hypothetic ideas and facts discovered in field
studies. Thus, starting from B.K. Malinowski,
the formation of methodology of culture
studies passed through analytical period with
its point as extension of efficient individual
characteristics of each method taken in their
particularity; and it was replaced by synthetic
period when separate approaches worked out
in their particularity were integrated in the
only one; its efficiency turned out to be higher
than that one of syncretic method, which had
been existing in its indivisibility before B.K.
Malinowski.
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P. 184-231.
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W. Stocking. – Wisconsin: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1986. – 266 р.
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30. Triandis, H. C. Culture and Social Behavior/ Н.С. Triandis. – NY, 1994.
31. White, L. The energy and evolution of culture.// White, L. Science of culture: selectas. – Moscow,
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Natalia P. Koptzeva and Kseniya V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture
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theories // Bulletin published in Vyatka State Human University. – 2009. – №1. – P. 25-31.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 507-515
~~~
УДК 357.1(571.53)(091)
Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle
of ХIХ – the First Quarter of ХХ Centuries
(on the Example of Krestovozdvizhenskaya Cossack Village)
Yury A. Petrushin*
Irkutsk State University,
1 Karl Marx st., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
The given article considers the Cossack life style of Irkutsk Cossack Army on the example of
Krestovozdvizhenskaya community. The author analyses the educational process in Cossack villages,
Cossack day-to-day life and military service. The author presents the main stages of Cossack
participation in the Revolution and the Civil war in Siberia. The process of turning Cossacks into
peasants is also revealed. The article also contains a brief description of modern state of Cossack
villages.
Keywords: Cossacks, Cossack life style, Cossack villages, an allotment system, military duties, moral
education, Cossack Revolutionary Committee, repression measures.
Problem Relevance. In the rich history of
Irkutsk region there is an interesting and unique
page. It is closely linked to Cossacks history.
Cossacks are known to have played an active
role in the process of exploring the Angara
region. They used the Russian waterways in
a proper way. The Oka river, flowing on the
territory of Nizhneudinsk district, was the
connecting element for developing new lands.
Settlers-farmers followed Cossacks. At the
beginning of the ХVIII century they became the
first inhabitants of Kuytun volost communities:
Kuytunskoe, Tulinskoe, Barlukskoe and
Khaikhtskoe.
By the beginning of the XIX century
Cossacks were scattered over towns, factories,
transit camps and Russia-Mongolia border
territory. Under the regulations of 1st of July, 1822
*
1
they were formed into the Second Irkutsk fifehundredth regiment.
With the population number growing and
Eastern Siberia exploration developing, Cossacks
had more obligations vested by the government.
Under the regulations of 4th of January, 1851 an
Irkutsk fife-hundredth regiment was transformed
into an Irkutsk six-hundredth cavalry.
Headquarters of each sotnia were located in more
populated Cossack villages.
To reinforce a new Cossack regiment there
was taken a decision to recruit soldiers from
European part of Russia and turn them into
Cossacks. Among those were penalized persons.
Thus, they came to our region. Some of them
were given a land of a Kuytun free land fund. In
this place there were Cossacks land allotments
at the beginning of 50-s of the XIX century.
Corresponding author E-mail address: serg_petr@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter…
Besides, Cossacks got a part of ploughed fields.
Within this surveyed fields there was established
the Krestovozdvizhenskaya Community (land lot
13) comprising of five Cossacks villages.
Newly established Cossack settlements
were named after famous Russian dukes and
holy tides. At first, these settlements belonged
to Kimilteyskaya volost (Nizhneudinsk district,
Kuytun part of Irkutsk region). Later they became
a part of Kuytun volost.
Research Task. In the article the task to
study the day-to-day life of Cossacks belonged to
the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community is posed.
Considering day-to-day microhistory advances
accumulating new actual knowledge for this
subject matter to be scientifically generalized.
Methodology of scientific cognition is
comparative historical and ideographic methods.
Materials. If we look at the pre-revolutionary
map of Irkutsk region we’ll find out that Cossack
settlements were situated as follows. From West to
East toward the Moscow road, Alexander Nevsky
village was located in a distance of 181 versts
from Nizhneudinsk. Pokrovskaya settlement
was established in 3 versts (184 versts from the
district), Krestovozdvizhenskaya (188 versts),
Petropavlovskaya (189 versts), Preobrazhenskaya
(205 versts form the district)1.
Cossack settlements were located in the
forest places alternated with steps along the Ili
banks flowed from the Maloy hills and replenished
with non-frozen springs. The Ili flows into the
Kimiltey river, which, in its turn, goes to the
Oka. The right bank of the Kimiltey was settled
by the buryats of Ashekhabat kin of Balagan
okrug. Cossack villages bordered on them. To the
South there were Prisayanye bogs with no large
settlements. To the West there were also available
lands.
1
SAIR, Fund 39, Register 1, Doc. 154, List 52. A map according to the data of district police at Irkutsk region Direction and public administration of Irkutsk Cossacks.
Geographical and climate conditions
disposed to farming and cattle-raising. Vegetables
grew ripe. Trapping and fishing were also a great
help. Cossacks-settlers had no need in building
materials. Taiga provided them with timber of
a good quality. Clay and sand were in plenty.
Charcoal favoured smithcraft.
Old Cossacks estates have been preserved
to the current period. If only they were able to
speak they would talk a lot of interesting things
concerning day-to-day life of the Cossacks. At
the end of winter timber mainly form larch was
laid in; later it was transported from taiga by
horse-drawn vehicles. It was sandpapered, cut
up, split on the lath for the houses to be built.
Houses usually were of four or five walls with a
mud room. Deep cellars were dug under the floor
to keep potato, vegetables, salted food, and jams.
Stoves were wide for children to make themselves
comfortable. Every autumn crops were dried.
In stoves bread was baked, tasty cabbage soup,
cereals, milk were stewed. Among outbuildings
there was a granary, a stable, and a shed. On the
backyard there were usually baths. The entire
farm was enclosed with a high and strong fence.
The village community was engaged in making
the places to pasture, a smithy, dug wells. All
the structures were built thoroughly. At the same
time it was necessary to think of day-to-day life
and military service.
Cossacks placed a special position within a
social structure of the XIX century. On the one
hand, they were militants, on the other hand, they
were farmers handled many crafts and skills.
Land surveying for Kuytun Cossacks (former
soldiers) was carried out in conformity with
laws being in force. First of all, men were given
a land. An allotment could be of lands to farm
and inconvenient ones (forest, bushes, swamps
lands). For military service men were endowed
with 30 dessiatinas (convenient and inconvenient
lots) for life. Actually, farming map of 1850-s,
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when Cossack settlements were formed, was
the following. Each male Cossack from Kuytun
district was endowed with approximately 1
dessiatina and 588 sazhens of ploughed field,
1 dessiatina and 63 sazhens of hayfield, steppe
lands including places of 5 dessiatinas and 328
sazhens to pasture cattle, and 26 dessiatinas and
50 sazhens of forest. Thus, there was the need to
develop forest and steppe lands. If any Cossack
family managed to cultivate extra forest or swamp
parts, this land regardless of its size was granted
to this family. A land lot of Cossack’s widows
was of 15 dessiatinas, while orphans got a right
to 30 dessiatinas. Reserve lands were forest
places1. Therefore, Cossacks had to work a lot in
order to develop such land parts. In 25-30 years
Cossack settlements were made comfortable to
live in and there were enough ploughed lands.
But some Cossacks especially those lived on the
Kimeltey river banks had difficulty developing
and managing lands. In this connection, it is
interesting to consider the following fact. On the
13th of September, 1880 in the name of Anuchin
–a general-governor of Eastern Siberia – there
was a petition of aldermen Cossacks Ephim,
Andrey and Ermolay Ogloblins living in
Nizhneudinsk district, Kimelteyskaya volost,
Preobrazhenskaya village. They wrote that the
souvereign provided them with 30 dessiatinas to
plough for military service in 1845. But their lots
were of tundra kind. The Ili river was supposed
to have rust and musty waters. It was not possible
to use this water especially during wintertime.
They reported that they had own families, were
engaged in smithcraft, built up houses and
estates. They asked authority to grant more
convenient lands pointing to infringement of
their rights. «We are ordinary dwellers of Siberia.
We are oppressed by peasants, who do not allow
us to mow grass for horses». Simultaneously
1
SAIR, Fund 41, Register.1, Doc.80, List 147.
they complained on the volost clerk of Kimeltey
village making abuses.
At the end of September 1880 Cossacks got
the answer from Bunin, a junior land surveyor.
He wrote that there was no opportunity to endow
the Ogloblins with a land as it would be necessary
to cut the lands of settled native people of
Balagansk department at Karymskoe settlement.
These arguments were supported by a collegiate
councilor Makhov – the head of Cossacks survey
land-mark department. Thus, an official refusal in
the name of the general-governor provided with
arguments was sent. The arguments were that
there was no approval of native people to allot
and such an allotment system was impossible
without the agreement of their community. That
contradicted the authority and state intentions
to unite Cossack population. «The person who
wanted to buy a land lot should write a petition to
be turned into a peasant social category».
But the Ogloblins demonstrated persistence
and had no idea of stepping back. In 1883 they
wrote an ordinary petition to Irkutsk region
administration but had a refusal again. Zealous
dwellers directed the petition in the name of
State Property Minister. However, this attempt
also failed. Authorities were not intended both
to break the compactness of Cossack territory
and sharpen the relations with native people.
Cossacks were proposed to persuade peasants to
change land lots or rent free lands2.
Thus, land problem was triggered. This
obstacle also resulted from tenseness of free lands
when mass resettlement of peasants to Siberia
started at the end of the XIX century and at the
beginning of the XX century, and a railroad was
built up. Close to Cossack villages new settlements
of Kunduy, Karazey, Tagan, Amur emerged.
Cossacks had to be more occupied with measures
to improve fertility, purchase modern agricultural
2
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Yury A. Petrushin. Cossack Life Style of Irkutsk Cossack Army in the Middle of ХIХ – the First Quarter…
implements, and apply to agronomics. And they
managed to succeed. Archive sources help to
reproduce the common picture of crop capacity
within those years. Cossacks sowed mainly rye
and oats. According to figures of 1884 in the
farmsteads of Nizhneudinsk district including
the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community the
crops equaled to 3(5) quarters per a dessiatina. (It
is about 8 metric centners per a hectare). Given
the climate conditions and weeds, it is considered
to be a good result. At the end of the XIX – the
beginning of the XX centuries the crops rose up
to 8 quarters (12 metric centners per a hectare)1.
Cossacks sowed pea, buckwheat, vegetables. They
jarred cucumbers and mushrooms for winter. In
summer women and children picked strawberry
in birch forests, they dried it to make kissel or
broth in winter. In taiga and cool places there
were bushes of bird cherry trees and currants.
The great attention was paid to breading
horses. Almost every farmstead had own
horses. Horses had a lot of functions to do, as
they being the main draught power. The horse
was the major Cossack fellow traveler within
military service. Cossacks’ children spent time
looking after horses. Kids pastured them, led to
horse pond, and took part in procuring forage.
In 1884-1885 Cossacks of Nizhneudinsk district
had 545 horses, 484 heads of cattle, 617 goats and
sheep, 186 pigs22. By 1917 according to aldermen
memories there were well-to-do Cossacks
having tens of horses and cows in villages of our
community. The first settlers of Kunduy applied
for work at Cossacks farmsteads, bought cattle
and horses.
Trapping and hunting were a great help. In
autumn and winter Cossacks hunted goats and
wolves annoying cattle-breeders. In small weirs
at watermills they set up large earthenware pots
to fish crucians and galyans.
1
2
SAIR, Fund 24, Register 8, Doc.14, List 5.
the same
In spring the song of birds of passage filled
all over. In May the unique songs of crested larks
could be heard over the ploughed fields. At the
same time at the side of gardens cuckoo clinks
were resounded from forest. According to ancient
Russian superstitions the cuckoo could predict
the life-time. Some people tend to believe in it,
while others ignore. Nor did Cossacks realize that
through 50 years their stable life would come to
an end. Impetuous events would alter their dayto-day life, sow discord and torment to their souls
and fates.
FROM LIBERTIES TO MILITARY
DUTIES. In the memory of the Russian
nation, Cossacks are associated with liberty,
independence and freedom. That is why, one can
say that a Cossack is a free person. However,
Cossacks were gradually subordinated to
autocracy press losing former freedom traits.
With Siberia being explored and economic ties
enlarged, the autocracy established the control
over Cossacks. Authorities were inclined to think
Cossacks to be a point of rest while upholding
special relations with this category of citizens.
Persons endowed with a Cossack status had to
carry out compulsory service and bear all the
burdens and privations of this service according
to the Military Charter.
At the middle of 1850-s village settlers
were turned from soldiers into Cossacks in
conformity with the regulations adopted on the
1st of July, 1822. The regulations made provisions
for young Cossacks at the age of 16 to be called
for service. As to service terms there was a
provision «Sergeants and ordinary Cossacks
should conduct duties in the way it is within other
irregular military forces till they are able». Thus,
Cossacks were given a hard fate to pass all their
active life being in service.
There was one more feature concerning
Cossack military service. They had to carry out
service duties being ahorse and worn own uniform
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and accoutrement. To feed a horse, forage was
given from the community treasury for 7 months.
To lay in hay, meadows were allotted. Cossacks
could get money for hay from the community
treasury. Oats were given only in proportion of
1 peck per a day. The necessary condition was
line of duty. Being at home they kept a horse at
own costs.
New military regulations were adopted on
the 4th of January, 1851. Many points concerning
military service were not changed but there were
introduced some differences. Thus, a service
term was modified. Through a certain period
of service any Cossack could get a leave for 1
year and return to his settlement to keep house.
The overage term of service for officers was 25
years, for ordinary ones – 30 years. In whole,
Cossacks spent 25 years for external and 5 years
for internal service. Then Cossacks had the right
to get a passport. Cossacks should have own
uniform, accoutrement and a horse. A norm of
provision for horses and bread allowance was
increased. The matter was that land lots given
to Cossacks were also widened to the size of
30 dessiatinas of ploughed land (in comparison
with 15 dessiatinas of convenient lands given
before). Officers could count on 60 dessiatinas.
The regulations provided our settlers with a
number of obligations. Cossacks had to be on the
guard within towns and factories to help internal
guards, be involved in night mounted patrols
in towns, pickets and patrols close to factories
and plants, catch runaway people in the place of
dislocation. They also should dispatch prisoners
in collaboration with inner guards, protect salty
lakes, escort state transport, exercise border
service as well as service in places determined by
the chief staff. The important thing was to draw
Cossacks mainly in internal protection service
not to any unusual duties.
An annual service order was made by a
regiment chief under the schedule, according to
sequence. Such orders were directed to the villages
of the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community.
Substitution of sequence was inadmissible. An
exception to the rule was allowed only in cases
when a father wanted to carry out a military
service instead of his son and otherwise, when a
brother wanted to serve instead of own brother.
But they should be service Cossacks. Out of turn
the duty obligations were applied to Cossacks
pleaded guilty in the crimes by the Tribunal.
Such offences included hard drinking, rudeness
and theft.
REORGANIZATION of service was
determined on the 19th of May, 1871 when
new regulations were signed by Alexander II.
The Irkutsk Cossacks cavalry was abolished
and all villages except ordinary Cossacks and
sergeants settlements (enrolled according to the
regulations of 1851 from Cossacks of former
regiments located in towns and Tunkynsky
division of former border army) turned to be
controlled by a civil department. What was the
impact of the regulations upon dwellers of the
Krestovozdvizhenskaya community? Ordinary
Cossacks and sergeants with their families
enlisted from peasants-settlers to the Irkutsk
Cossacks cavalry in 1851 were again given a status
of peasants. Moved to Eastern Siberia grass-root
soldiers of former garrison battalions, which were
granted a Cossack status in 1851 and land, were
also turned into peasants. The number of such
people was equal to 164 in An-Stanitsa, 145 in
Pokrovskaya, 142 in Krestovozdvizhenskaya, 142
in Preobrazhenskaya, 143 in Petropavlovaskaya
including children. The total number was 736
persons1. Thus, the preponderance of village
dwellers was deprived of a Cossacks status and
turned into peasants. In accordance with the
regulations of 1871, former Cossacks turned into
peasants were granted land lots of 15 dessiatinas
1
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per a man. They also reserved the rights to their
farmsteads. The regulations prescribed the
persons possessing 30-dessiatinas of land with
a stable farm (it should be guaranteed by the
public judgment) and having cultivated more
than 15 dessiatinas to be proposed the extra land
of 15-30 dessiatinas. Authorities did not stint
Cossacks turned into peasants. The Russian state
was interested in fortifying and settling Siberian
territory of reliable citizens, which would be the
strategic basis within the East direction.
One more innovation should be noted. In five
moment of marriage. Widows were supposed
to receive 15 dessiatinas, girls-orphans – 7,5
dessiatinas. Those lands were doled out from
special land funds of Cossacks. Gradually that
fund belittled and the lots of forest and bush were
the greater part. That causes discontent among
Cossacks and even lawsuits.
After the reorganization the term of Cossack
military service was determined in the following
manner. A field service equaled 15 years, as to
domestic one it was 7 years. Cossacks by turns
carried out service duties for a year and then they
settlements 439 persons of 736 dwellers – former
Cossacks turned into peasants – had a record of
their service to the time of the regulations (1871).
As we found out they were transferred from
soldiers to our region. That means they had a long
service as soldiers. The long service as soldiers
was added to Cossacks service. That is why such
people (439 persons) had rights of retired soldiers
that let them reserve all the rights to land lots of
30 dessiatinas per every man.
Within a Cossacks estate according to the
regulations of 1871 there were native Cossacks
which were considered to belong to former
Irkutsk town regiment even before the regulations
of 1871. The overall number of Cossacks and
sergeants with young children amounted to 113.
Demised land lots of 30 dessiatinas were retained
for native Cossacks and aldermen.
In the archive it is possible to find out the
names of widows and orphans. They were not set
adrift. Thus, in Krestovozdvizhenskaya village a
Cossack widow Anicya Bakulina lived in 1876. A
widow of died Cossack sergeant G.Fedorov lived
with children there. At the time of regulations
adoption the whole number of widows living in
the settlements of that time was equivalent to 40.
The number of girls-orphans was 21. According
to the regulations of 1871 the widows of ordinary
Cossacks and sergeants as well as girls-orphans
were granted a land from special lots till the
had a privilege to stay at own village no less than
for 2 years.
Being of 19 years old, all young Cossacks
were included in the regular lists. But within a
year they were not engaged in the service. They
were involved in the initial military trainings. At
the age of 21 they were brought to the military
service of sotnya for 5 terms. Being at age of 35
they were transferred to domestic service. The
age of 42 was the age of resignation. Being at
privilege position in the village, Cossacks obeyed
civil administration. The privileged Cossacks
could be called up for military service only under
the Tsar will.
The special concern of a young Cossack
and his family was purchasing a uniform (an
overcoat, a service cap, a horse harness). In
February, 1856 to allay the trouble, under the
order of Irkutsk Cavalry chief the special store
was opened. Village dwellers could buy a
uniform and an accoutrement by cash or in credit
at the expense of allowances and guarantees of
the local community. Under the Order of the
regiment chief the impoverished and needy
Cossacks could be given free of charge uniform.
To this purpose it was necessary to present the
petition of the village community signed by
the general-governor of the region. Cossacks
were armed with sabers and rifles. Officers had
private weapons.
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At service chiefs kept a watchful eye on
moral state and clothes of Cossacks. In the cases
of violating the service Cossacks sergeants could
be reduced to the ranks. A tribunal conducted
trials on substantial violations. Offences were
considered in civil public places. The Cossacks
circle appeared to be the form of education and
punishment.
MORAL education was carried out by a
church before the Revolution. In collaboration
with Cossacks chieftains it paid much more
attention to keep up Christian beliefs among
and Saint Ioann Ustyuzhsky from Ilimsk to the
Irkutsk chapel of Cossack sotnya. Our settlers
welcomed this event.
The majority of population in Russia and
Siberia was illiterate. Cossacks took a better
position. Even among Cossacks of mentioned
villages there were literate people (able to read
and write). In accordance to the High Edict of
1851 the school for Cossacks children was opened
at the cavalry. The compulsory subjects were the
Law, grammar of Russian language, arithmetic
(till the rule of three). To teach these subjects,
Cossacks. Churches were opened in the places of
Cossack settlements. In 1871 there was taken a
decision to grant the clergy of parishes at Irkutsk
and Eniseysk regiments with 300 dessiatinas of
convenient land. This fostered Christian beliefs
among state soldiers1.
After abolishment of Irkutsk regiment in
1871 and its transforming into sotnya, according
to the viewpoint of the military minister in a
mutual agreement with the Sinod Chief Procurator
and the Finance Ministry, the State Council
let the Treasury Ministry grant money to build
village churches. At the beginning of the XX
century new parishes worked in An-Stanitsa and
Krestovozdvizhenskaya villages. Unfortunately,
at the middle of 1950-s these parishes were closed
and later destroyed.
Moreover, within the village administrations
there were special icon shelves. In Cossacks houses
the necessary things were an icon-lamp, the Bible
and the Gospel. Religious and moral norms of life
were complied with a great zealousness.
In 1904 in accordance with a petition of
Irkutsk Cossacks Division chief supported by
authority and church, there was a transfer of an
ancient Cossack sacred thing of the Sudarium
gonfalon (a symbol of Siberia conquering) as
well as icons of Kazan Madonna, Saint Varlaam
except the Law, literate Cossacks sergeants of a
decent morality were enlisted. At the beginning of
the ХХ century in An-Stanitsa there was opened
a parish school with only one class. In 1913 there
were 2 teachers of the Law, 18 boys and 12 girls.
In the neighbor school of Krestovozdvizhenskaya
village 14 boys and 2 girls studied. Until village
schools were built up the peasant children had
also attended schools for Cossacks kids.
As we noted, Cossacks families paid
decent attention to morals. Moral education was
linked to virtue deeds and actions. The sense of
patriotism, loyalty to the state, zealousness was of
a high value. Cossacks chiefs were forced to keep
vigilant watch on the ranks behavior and their
housekeeping activity. Negligence, misbehavior
and drunken state were condemned. Cossacks
chieftains were prescribed to check householding
activity and farming diligence as often as possible.
They were proposed to check Cossacks returned
from earnings. While there was an archaic form
of punishment humiliating human being dignity.
By the beginning of the ХХ century
the
population
of
villages
increased.
By 1900 in An-Stanitsa there were 109
persons, in Krestovozdvizhenskaya – 63, in
Preobrazhenskaya – 34 persons belonged
to Cossacks. At the same time the whole
Nizhneudinsk district was actively being settled.
New settler parts emerged in Kuytun volost. A part
1
SAIR, Fund 24, Register 8, Doc.5, L. 63, 64, 65.
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of migrants was hired by Cossacks. They bought
cattle and horses in the villages. Thus, prosperous
Cossacks used relatively cheep migrants-peasants
hands. The process of interinfluence of cultural
heritage as well as Cossacks assimilation took
place.
During the Russo-Japanese War of 19041905 the significance of Irkutsk Cossacks rose
again. The Cossacks sotnya was transformed
into a battalion. There were plans to develop and
strengthen Cossacks within the territory of the
Angara. But the Revolution of 1917 changed the
regular march of events including the Cossacks
history.
The Soviet power abolished social estates.
As to Cossacks it meant the cancellation of a
former military service and a compulsory settled
way of life. The establishment of the Soviet
authorities in Kuytun volost brought about
changes in the villages life. In spring of 1918
the fire of the civil war broke out in Siberia. The
fire induced Cossacks to participate in. Some
Cossacks supported a new power others were
against Councils. The civil war undermined
the united Cossack structure. It turned out to
be a great tragedy for people. Under attacks of
the Red Army, the White Army, kolchakovtsy,
retreated to East toward Irkutsk since autumn
of 1919. With the White army several Cossacks
left these places. Their way led to the territory of
Transbaikalie, Harbin. After that they emigrated.
Their traces were lost within the world abyss (this
theme is worth exploring). The Soviet authority
took root, with the Red Army coming.
On the 30th of December, 1919 the First
Russian Congress of Working Cossacks was
opened in Moscow. The position of new
authorities was declared. Cossacks were granted
an amnesty. Actually Bolsheviks followed
another way. Cossacks are known to have caused
suspicion among people in power. According to
Congress decisions a new decree of Sovnarcom
(the Council of Peoples Commissars) «About
Building Soviet Power in Cossack Territories»
was adopted on the 25th of March, 1920. Local
governing and Cossacks trusted these decisions.
In summer of 1920 Nizhneudinsk district
revolutionary committee adopted a decision to
form the Cossacks revolutionary committee in AnStanitse. Delegates to Congress were elected from
each 10th farmstead. The population of all five
Cossacks villages equaled to 1234 persons. There
was taken a decision to establish an independent
Cossack village and inform Nizhneudinsk
district Revcom (the Revolutionary Committee).
However, the Soviet authority had no intention to
vest independence to local Cossacks. The Center
position was also changed. Authorities did not
let Cossacks institute the Revcom. This could be
considered the last attempt of Cossacks to defend
its independence and originality1. (8)
By winter of 1920 there were held elections
to Local Councils in Nizhneudinsk. On the 5th
of December, 1920 The First District Congress
of Councils was assembled in Nizhneudinsk. It
is interesting that one of its participants from
Krestovozdvizhenskaya village was a householder
I.Vakulin. He was the representative of the middle
class owning 8 dessiatinas of ploughed field, 3
horses and 2 cows. The Congress proclaimed
reforming district Councils. Thus, the Soviet
power strengthened its positions in the region.
The former life of Cossack villages went by.
During 1920 –1930 Cossacks moved for other
places. Collectivization and forming collective
farms (kolkhoz) and state farms (sovkhoz) cut
up the past and the present of Cossacks left here.
Repressive measures taken by the Soviet power
of 1930-s resulted in Cossacks moving away.
In 1950-1960-s it was possible to meet aged
persons in Cossack service caps and Cossacks
estate of a good quality. Only three villages of
1
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five were preserved. They were renamed. Former
Krestovozdvizhenskaya was renamed as the third
village. Former Petropavlovskaya became the fifth
settlement. Only An-Stanitsa kept its name. They
became parts of kolkhozs and sovkhozs located
in Kuytun district. At present, there is different
form of economy in these places. But the history
of these villages has not been forgotten. Cossack
history of Kuytun district of Irkutsk region needs
grateful researchers.
Conclusion.
Climate,
geographical,
geopolitical and social and cultural factors had
the decisive influence on forming the image of
the Baikal region Cossack life as well as those
of the Krestovozdvizhenskaya community taken
as a typical object to explore the problem. The
reforming of Cossack estate was carried out with
respect to mentioned conditions.
The first stage of reforms took place at
the first half of the XIX century (regulations
of 1822 and 1851). The stage was conducted
as developing lands ( frontier, i.e. non-violent
developing), holding positions and defending new
territories of Siberia and Far East. The Cossack
population size saw increase in number, their
structure evolved along with the military duty
tasks. The process of turning peasants, native
people, soldiers, including penalized ones, into
Cossacks widened. The ban to leave Cossack
estate, isolation and subordination to Ministry of
Interior had the impact on Cossack life style. The
contradictions with the peasant world became
stronger. Conservatism of internal life of Cossack
image was almost the main their trait.
The second stage of reforming Cossack estate
occurred during the period of reforms from 1861
till 1917. The stage could be characterized with
the contradictory policy conducted by Russian
authorities. On the one hand, Cossacks were
included into civilized process of modernizing
the country and regions, and solving geopolitical
tasks within Far East territory. The tendencies
to intensify the economical activity as well as to
strengthen the unified type of static population
(military peasants) were on the rise. On the other
hand, the conservation of land market in Siberia
hampered the integration processes in the regions,
maintained corporative way of Cossack life style
and extensive character of their economical
activity.
Since 1917 a final period of life and activity
of Cossacks obtained more independence started.
Cossacks turned to be the subject of interest for
opposing forces seeking for power. The Soviet
authorities did not let the Cossacks institute own
autonomy, moreover, the Soviet rule turned the
Cossacks into an ordinary class and abolished
estates, Cossack villages and settlements.
List of Abbreviations
SAIR – State Archive of Irkutsk Region
References
Shuldyakov V. The Fall of Siberian Cossack Army (Moscow: Centrpoligraf, 2004) Vol.1: 19171920, Vol 2: 1920-1922
Sunderland W. Peasant pioneering: Russian peasant settlers describe colonization and the eastern
frontier, 1880s-1910s, J. Soc. History. Vol. 34, № 4. (2001), 895 – 922.
Witzenrath C. Cossacks and the Russian Empire, 1598-1725: manipulation, rebellion and expansion
into Siberia (London: New York, Routledge, 2007).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 516-522
~~~
УДК 7.096/097
The «TV Stage Discourse» Definition as to TV Art Program
Director Activity
Nataliya V. Suleneva*
Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts,
36-a Ordjonikidze st., Chelyabinsk, 454091 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
Hermeneutic-discourse type of art director’s creative activity was analyzed in the article. Examining
literature material, the TV stage discourse was shown as visual-symbolic structure of art text on TV
within indirect communication with spectator in the format of complete program concept.
Keywords: TV stage discourse, TV art program director, indirect communication, audio-visual
image.
Introduction
Investigation of traditions for art text work of
directors in theatre, cinema and TV demonstrates
a problem that has been appeared within origin
definition of author and director presence limits
in stage or screen interpretation of art text.
While inserting literature text into TV program,
translating this text from verbal into audiovisual language, the director offers TV spectator
an equivalent of art work expressed by special
means of television. Director’s work describes
the result of hermeneutically-discursive activity
for creative person analyzing literature material
and allows to judge professional competence of its
creator. As an author of the TV work, TV director
is responsible in full for TV text interpretation,
therefore in the program all literature material
can’t be embraced, represent diversity of heroes,
nuances of psychology, vital searching.
Classical model of interaction for addresser
with audience assumes normative reflection of
*
1
work on screen as to orientation on social ideal,
which exists in a certain period of history, and
simultaneous transformation extra-art reality into
art image, as the product of director’s creativity.
Especially, word phonation layer turns out to be
poetically specified not exhaustively, but roughly
and tone by which words and word combinations
are pronounced and circumstance concerned
with expression of psychological component and
functions for the speaker, reveal profound text
sense and enable transformation of written text
into speech.
Certainly, tone designation for phrase sense
expression is just approximate and it leaves opened
substantial range of acceptable way pronunciation
for words and word combinations. However,
projecting director’s intention on TV version,
the director predicts choice of the performer,
who is voicing the text, exposes peculiarity of
the sounding speech even at the primary stage of
development, nevertheless it is very important.
Corresponding author E-mail address: nsuleneva@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity
Sounding layer of the work, which is filled with
heterogeneous points of incomplete determinacy,
supposes communicative aspect entailed with
dynamically changing human interrelation.
Speech of the performer, who is assigning
author’s text, contains purposeful word action
with an aim to immerse audience in the author’s
world and to carry on the dialog. Communicative
principle of text structuring into sounding space of
TV program becomes sign-speech combination,
which carries value senses for speech culture of
addresser. In this case peculiarity of director’s
artifacts becomes direct presence of the performer
for art act realization.
Interpretating text on the basis of permanent
«dialog» with hypothetic TV spectator, the
director of TV art programs forecasts process
of indirect communication with addressee.
Projection of spectator’s reaction promotes
choosing the key to recode director’s sign text
meanings and this operation is simultaneously
carried on aimed interpretation action.
It is considered, that activity of art program
TV director reveals spiritually-esthetic efficiency
in the author’s life, his original view of the world,
and thereby it makes sense of the whole program
peerless. Referring to poetical researches of art
texts (N. A. Veselovsky, V. V. Vinogradov, V.
Y. Propp, B. V. Tomashevsky and others), we
consider, that author’s word perception process
by TV director is based on scientific, professional
cognition of literature material (according to
abstraction as basic stage for future penetration
in subject of studying).
Materials and methods of research
The research is focused on procedure of art
text transmutation into sounding word of TV
work by the reflection of author’s individual world
picture, which is realized into the stage discourse
by TV director. Communicative adequacy of
TV director’s interpretative actions promotes
defining of text objects and choosing «model of
communication with spectator» (Pobereznikova,
2004).
It is possible to bring the definition «stage
discourse» in at this stage of TV director’s work
with text. Our aim is not comprehensive critical
analysis of stockpiled diversity for definitions
of this phenomenon. We are to concentrate our
attention just on several definitions that could
be fundamental for connotation of the definition
«stage discourse».
Creating TV screen version of literature
material, we are not interested in such denotative
meaning of expression, but reading of these
meanings, which are implied, nevertheless are
kept unexpressed, unvoiced, and are masked as
«have already been read». Exactly, in our research
we are interested in «unexpressed» of the text,
which is shaped according to orientation of TV
director to active and dominant direction of TV
action – TV communicator, that is sounding
author’s text.
In modern traditions of domestic and foreign
science (N. D. Arutyunova, V. G. Borotko, T. A.
Dein Van, M. R. Makarov, E. V. Paducheva, K. F.
Sedov, V. N. Stepanov, etc.) discourse is considered
as «holistic speech behavior in diversity of its
cognitive-communicative functions» (Sedov,
2004, p.7), where speech action is considered as
mechanism of interrelationship between people,
that is dialogue.
According to abovementioned, we are to
focus our attention to phenomenological approach
as to discourse definition for studying of speech
ideation ontogenesis (M. L. Makarov, K. F. Sedov,
O. B. Sirotinina, etc.). These researchers interpret
discourse as socially significant interrelationship
of people, which is accompanied with verbal-sign
structure of communication, where expression is
organized in unordinary manner. In our opinion,
discourse ideation has that artist, who reviews
not only the way of deduction, argumentation,
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but he can also value these arguments. Advanced
discourse ideation enables TV director to
work over material according to his creative
imagination.
In the context of our researching it is
necessary to analyze application of «discourse»
definition in the means of mass information from
the psycholinguistic-hermeneutic point of view
(A. A. Brudniy, A. A. Zalevskaya, V. N. Stepanov,
I. A. Sternin, etc.). In this case, the key-definition
becomes «provocative discourse», which «includes
communicative expectations of the partner and
exceeds them, herewith gives multiple choices
to often radical opposite interpretations under
its complex semantic structure and realization
of indirect communication strategy within
single construction» (Stepanov, 2005, p.11). It
is considered, that the most important moment
of purpose functioning for TV director work as
addresser: to advertise psychological condition
of the performer- TV communicative person
with the aim to determine identical sensation of
hypothetic addressee – TV spectator.
In the communicative approach discourse
is interpreted as verbal communication (K. V.
Kiuru, S. V. Menshenina, Yu. V. Tsherbinina, etc.),
dialogue, conversation, that is type of dialogical
ideation. Reverse virtual reactions, which
appear in this case, are saturated emotionally,
continuously, strongly and communicative
adequate.
Special attention deserves the definition
«discourse of staging» (O. Ducrot, A. Ubersfeld,
P. Pavis, etc.) in stage direction, which comes
from linguistic methodology, supposes presence
of addresser and addressee and exists in
verbal and visual dimension, and so it reflects
construction of director’s imagination. As to the
abovementioned it is appropriate to use definition
«director’s discourse» in the director’s analysis of
work for implementation on TV screen. Hereby,
we have been studying the stage discourse as one
of the aspects for director’s concept projecting
art programs, in other words – work with art
texts, and in high importance – voicing text by
performer.
It could be doubtful, whether the definition
«stage discourse» and «discourse of staging» are
identical. Unconditionally, the stage discourse and
discourse of staging have several contact points:
they are dialectic by its nature; they are depended
on dramatic conflict and means of its settlement;
they are dialogically-formed; they lead to text code
revealing, that profoundly codified by the author.
According to this argumentation, we are going to
analyze priory words in these definitions that will
enable to separate the abovementioned notions.
Sense of the word combination «discourse of
staging» tends to the second word: discourse of
STAGING, as a noun in the genitive case is the
main in word combination according to speech
logic law. Correspondently, this word combination
reflects creative process of director’s sense
origination, includes all diversity of performance
creation, reflects specific manner of usage for
all theatre’s expressive means. It is possible to
affirm, that discourse of staging provokes active
unification of word space and nonverbal space of
stage. Brining the definition «stage discourse»
into our research work, we focus our attention on
the word DISCOURSE, and apply this notion not
to the whole TV program, but only to director’s
analyses of literature text, which is not heard form
TV screen, but gradually becomes the «enliven
word».
In the context of our researching we consider
sounding literature text on the TV screen taken in
event aspect of the whole program and sounded
by the performer as purposeful word action, as
connecting component of interaction between
hero and TV spectator. It is called «verbalized
text» (Kiuru, 2005, p.3) and it is fixed by the TV
director parsing art text with an aim to make its
sounding TV analogue.
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The most persuading patterns of the stage
discourse creation are such TV forms of programs
as literature theatre, solo performance, reading
from screen («I was poet on the earth» about
poet V. Sokolov, director A. Shuvikov; «More
than love» about O. Mendelshtam and O. Vaksel,
director T. Malova; «The soul keeps» about poet
N. Rubtsov, director D. Chernetsov; «The islands»
about Zabolotskiy, author A. Morozov, etc.).
The author’s text is represented in full in them,
thou speech score of the stage discourse does
not always reflect all gorgeousness of literature
basis. It takes us to the opinion that author’s texts
of literature-dramatic programs are peripheryplaced on television.
Unlike philological analysis of art text,
dialogue communication with hypothetic
spectator is arranged in literature consciousness of
literature work (G. V. Artobolevskiy, S. S. Klitin,
A. N. Petrova, etc.). It enables to reveal undoubted
similarity of the stage discourse with the discourse
of staging and the provocative discourse, in which
discourse ideation of the addresser possesses
performative power and detects on the sphere of
his rhetoric, presuppositions and expressions.
The most vivid examples are TV programs,
in which director’s position reveals not just in
author’s biography telling, and also in texts of
author. For example, in the program «Orliontana»
(State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2006)
director V. Tkachev represents verses of D.
Andreev as cosmic signs; in the program
«Monologue stretching life» (State TV Radio
Channel «Culture», 2006, director Y. Nazarov)
verses of S. Lipkin sound in the ambience
of stretched string and appears strain from
consciousness that poet’s creativity is so fragile
and it could be easily lost by contemporaries;
in solo performance «Iron rider» (State TV
Radio Channel «Culture», 2008, director L.
Khmelnitskaya) image of Pushkin’s Peter I is
made by M. Kazakov as image of Mephistopheles
in «Faust» J. Goethe. Solo model of TV voicing,
which is inherent to such programs, owing to
discourse character of work with author’s text,
likely «destroys» screen limits and foregrounds
interaction of TV communicator (performer of
literature works) with TV spectator.
The director recreates new sounding reality
while interacts the text as to future concept of
work. This reality embraces potential culture,
which is in the text and is implemented in the
TV director’s consciousness. In turn, this culture
is transformed into new stratum of the speech
culture.
Hermeneutic adoption of art work space by
the TV director, or reading-culture according
to definition E. Dubnova, I. Tikhomirova, A.
Urban reveals new vector of professional activity.
This activity is not informative-stereotyped as
to art text; it is creative and assures emotional
involvement and veritable freedom of the
director’s creativity: assists his interest to speech
application of text and determines subjective
aspect of performer’s speech.
Suggestive factor of television becomes
leading factor modeling speech score of the
stage discourse by TV director. Viewpoint of
TV suggestion depends on role functions of
the addressee (spectator) and the addresser
(performer), which is programmed by TV
director while making the TV work. In this case,
method of correlation between the source and the
supplier of information, according to our point of
view, is made on the basis of transact analysis,
which is primordially stipulated by director’s
idea of printed word transformation into verbal
speech, when it becomes the reason for TV
communication.
The aim of our researching is not profound
and broad investigation of definition «transactive
analysis», thou its key-point toward speech score
creation is necessary. The choice of Ego-condition
of the addressee and Ego-condition of addresser,
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Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity
according to suggestions of American scientist E.
Bern, is formed by definition of Ego-conditions,
choice of which simplifies direction of speech
action by addresser and enables to contact with
addressee.
In this case the director should focus his
attention on transact incentive table of E. Bern
(Bern, 1996) for choosing the right «mask» of
the performer, voicing literature text, and for the
spectator perceiving this incentive with certain
response. In researches of R. Schmidt, E. Bern
is asserted that Adult «I» is directed on objective
assessment of reality, common behavior of
communicative participants excels liberated,
attentive, interested attitude of addresser to
addressee.
Studying TV art programs, we noticed, that
performer B. Plotnikov presents extracts from
literature works in the condition of «Adult»
addresser. His deep, even intonation, pauses
intended for communicator’s response, whether it
is program about N. Rubtsov, or I. Shmelev, and
K. Batyushkov, set the ambience of philosophic
conversation with communicatively equal
partner – TV spectator.
The condition «I’m parent», at out point of
view, is intrinsic to A. Demidova as the performer
of A. Akmatova, O. Bergolts verses cycle
(program «Melody of Verse», State TV Radio
Channel «Culture», 2008). Hers lyrical hero likely
gives us its protection, speaks about high morals,
and sometimes hers intonations includes element
of criticism toward the addressee. According to
E. Bern’ theory, addresser in this Ego-condition
aspires to leadership, care for the addressee,
right to solve any problems independently, and
didactively educates communicator.
At last, the «I’m child» condition is
subjective assessment of situation and addressee,
provocation to spontaneous creativity. Favorite
of fortune S. Bezrukov is such performer as to
S. Esenin verses (program «Melody of Verse»,
State TV Radio Channel «Culture», 2008). S.
Bezrukov’s lyrical hero affords frolicsome,
rebellious condition, doesn’t care about reaction
of audience and tends to impact his mood to the
TV spectator immediately.
Each Ego-condition of author’s text
performer has its own advantages. The director,
as the author of program, precisely formulates
Ego-condition to his future performers and plans
speech score of the stage discourse, which is
conformed to arranged transact. So, in future
the director is able to control the Ego-condition
of addressee. In cases, when the matter is
master of speech genres, the director finds the
performer with certain manner of chosen works’
implementation.
Transactive analysis, according to E. Bern,
as «a unit of communication… emerges from
annoyance called incentive (I)… and reaction
(R) between two appointed Ego-conditions» (E.
Bern, 1996, p. 19), could be used in art television
direction as external, relative form of supposed
communication. Correspondently, creating speech
score of the stage discourse, the TV director is
able to construct only a part of transact applied to
the performer’s «mask» and to predict reaction o
hypothetical TV audience upon proposed transact
in speech score of the stage discourse.
Undoubtedly, trying to achieve total
understanding of TV audience, the director projects
«parallel transact» working on art text. Certain
transact implements factual (contact-set) function
of communication, because this ego-condition
becomes the source of reaction. The parallel
transact hasn’t disagreement in interrelationship
between communicators, and so communication
is able to be in progress «infinitely». Thus, if the
TV director translates incentive (I) of Adult-toAdult Ego-condition, then he expects Adult-toAdult response reaction. That is role identification
of communicators has happened and is accepted
both by the addressee and the addresser.
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The director as an artistic elocutionist
contacts with literature on the TV screen, and
thereby expands opportunities of spectator’s
adjoining to literature. Study of human nature
as the main aspect of TV performance enlarges
space of speech score for the stage discourse at
the expense of expansion of spectator’s categories
by social, age-specific, sexual and professional
factors as well as role distribution upon transact
analysis.
Constructions of the role interrelations
promote «mask» creation of the performer,
effective work under art text embodiment,
precisely predict interaction with hypothetical
TV spectator.
So, from communicative viewpoint, it is
interesting director’s experience of author’s text
reality creation in the program’s cycle of Child
broadcasting «Results of Education. Motherland
and Fates» (LLC «Actual projects» production,
under TV Channel «Culture», State TV Radio
Channel «Culture», 2007 ). In these programs art
text sounds rather emotionally, slightly didactic as
Parents try to cultivate love of audience to works
of outstanding writers. However, in the program
about Belyaev’s family (director M. Katushkin)
fragments of works are taken in the form of short
citation attracting by mystery and vagueness.
So, it makes a perception that limited group of
admires are let into writer’s secrets. Such text
interpretation, on our point of view, is relied on
interaction within Parent-Parent.
The program about Nabokov’s fates (director
S. Gelver) is flavored by nostalgia of high senses
and fine interrelations. Its percept is rather fragile
as to mutual understanding of modern people, as
if lyric hero gets lost and doesn’t know his own
way. We consider that transact Parent-Adult is
also assists at performer’s reading work.
The story about Tutchev and his relatives
(director M. Katushkin) carries on in other key.
Poet’s works are iridescent, they don’t puzzle
the spectator, and they amuse taking him into
wonderland. Considerate communicator (ParentChild transact) leads the spectator through
small fragments of works hoping to intrigue and
fascinate the audience.
The
abovementioned
models
of
communication are close by natural interpersonal
attitudes, and director’s TV version of these
relationships imparts much voluminous scale and
strengthens influence toward the audience.
Conclusion
Thus, the discourse research of literature
basis stirs up the director’s imagination, excites
interest for literature source, discovers new
reading dimensions. We are to underline that the
problem of TV verbal analogue creation instead
of literature source is the problem that primarily
applies to professional reproduction of art text by
potential performer creating sense of the whole
program.
Making speech basis of sounding text
in solo model of TV program, the problem of
director’s motivation appealing to TV audience,
correct distribution of role interrelations between
communicators of indirect TV conversation
acutely arises. Transact analysis promotes correct
consciousness of the own «I» by the performer of
director’s concept, and choice of necessary status
of communicative partner – spectator.
The author of this article innovates the
definition «TV stage discourse» on the assumption
of research for literature work representation onto
screen in art programs. The TV stage discourse is
verbally- signed director’s construction of art text
possessing hermeneutically-performative strength
of expression within indirect communication
with spectator in the context of director’s concept
creation for art program on television.
The director of art program does actively
imagine making model of speech score
for the TV stage discourse. It is based on
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Nataliya V. Suleneva. The “TV Stage Discourse” Definition as to TV Art Program Director Activity
rational cognition and sensitive experience.
Simultaneously, determined interaction with
art text is implemented by constructing the
dialogue with potential addressee – spectator.
The abovementioned mechanism of the TV stage
discourse formation enables the TV director to
solve creative problems making speech score for
the performer of art work within TV program.
References
Bern E. Games, in which play people. People, who play games. / E. Bern; translated by editor PhD
М. S. Matskovskiy. – SPb.; М.: АСТ «Universitetskaya kniga», 1996, 339 p.
Кiuru K.V. Public communication: discourse practices and codes / K. Кiuru, S. V. Меnshenina, Е.
N. Peskova, Е. V.Ponomareva, Е. P.Sokolova. -Chelyabinsk: South-Ur. Univ., 2005, 160 p.
Pobereznikova E.V. TV communication: interactive communication field / Pobereznikova E.V.  –
М.: Аspect Press, 2004, 222 p. ISBN 5-7567-0353-5
Sedov K. Discourse and personality: evolution of communicative competence / Sedov K.
М.:Labirint., 2004, 320 p. ISBN 5-87604-031-2
Stepanov V. Provocative discourse of mass communication [Electr. Res.]: (Diss. …PhD :
10.01.10. – М.: RGB, 2005).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 523-532
~~~
УДК 006.12 (471)
Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre
of Siberian Branch of Ras
Natalia A. Kupershtokh*
Institute of History SB RAS
8 Academician Nickolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
The article is devoted to academician L.V. Kirenskyi’s (1909-1969) work on organization of the first
academic institute in Krasnoyarsk – Institute of Physics, which laid the foundation of development of
the system of scientific institutions eventually united in Krasnoyarsk scientific centre (KSC) of SB RAS.
Today Krasnoyarsk scientists’ achievements have become known to the whole world, and Krasnoyarsk
scientific centre is an integral part of scientific and educational potential not only of the region but
also of Russia as a whole.
Keywords: Full member of the Academy of Science L.V. Kirenskyi, Institute of Physics, Krasnoyarsk
scientific centre of SB RAS, regional scientific centers, scientific institutes, scientific schools.
Introduction
For the last years, the problem of
formation of regional scientific centers has
attracted researchers’ attention in the context of
identification of general and specific features in
their development, attribution of various models
of regional centers for the purpose of their
effective operation and development, research on
cooperation of the centers according to different
grounds: capital – region, region – region, etc. At
the same time, there is an increase of interest in
the founders of academic scientific institutions,
who gave some impulse for development of
academic science in regions.
One of such founders is a full member of
the Academy of Science Leonid Vasilyevich
Kirenskyi (1909-1969). The scientific community
celebrates the centenary of his birthday this
year. Owing to L.V. Kirenskyi’s efforts, the first
*
1
institute of academic type, that is Institute of
Physics, had appeared in Krasnoyarsk in 1956
before adoption of the decree on organization of
the first territorial department of the Academy
of Science of the USSR in the east part of the
country. Academic potential of the region began
to increase more actively in Siberian Branch from
1957.
Results of investigation
L.V. Kirenskyi’s biography is a bright example
of whole-hearted devotion to science. Having
been born in a small town Amga in Yakutia, he
came to Krasnoyarsk in 1940 and headed the chair
of physics at Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ Training
Institute after he had graduated Moscow State
University and postgraduate course at Moscow
State University, and after he had defended his
thesis. Kirenskyi founded Magnetic laboratory
Corresponding author E-mail address: nataly.kuper@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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which was involved in carrying out of the
works on military defence at once in 1943. The
laboratory was reinforced both by researchers
from a local area and by personnel among the
evacuated specialists with scientific degree.
Postgraduate course was set up in the institute
after the war, and its students were engaged in
their research work supervised by L.V. Kirenskyi.
The results of Magnetic laboratory’s research
work started being published in the main scientific
journals and reports of All-Soviet Union and
regional conferences from the end of 1940s. L.V.
Kirenskyi defended his PhD thesis in 1950 and
set himself the task of establishment of Institute
of Physics and Technology in Krasnoyarsk.
At that time, scientific investigations were
being carried out in other institutes of higher
education in Krasnoyarsk: Medical Institute
investigated biophysics and Institute of Wood
and Technique Studies dealt with spectroscopy
(Chistyakov and others, 1981). Their consolidation
within the walls of the academic institute might
signify development of many scientific branches.
L.V. Kirenskyi raised the question of
formation of a branch of the Academy of Science
in Krasnoyarsk as far back as 1952. He supposed
that Western Siberian (Novosibirsk) and Eastern
Siberian (Irkutsk) branches of AS USSR «are
concerned with the territorial problems, therefore
those don’t and can’t be of any practical help to the
development of productive forces of Krasnoyarsk
region» (Chistyakov and others, 1981). The
scientist’s initiative was supported by the regional
authorities, which, owing to their channels,
substantiated the necessity of development of the
complex of academic institutes.
Professor
Kirenskyi
directed
the
substantiation of the necessity of formation
of the first scientific research institute to the
supreme Party authorities and Presidium of
AS USSR. The response was negative, but that
fact didn’t influence the rates and quality of
the performance of the Magnetic laboratory’s
collective. By the middle of 1950s, Krasnoyarsk
became the third scientific centre of research on
physics of magnetic phenomena after Moscow
and Sverdlovsk. The collective of specialists in
physics and magnetic phenomena was formed
owing to Kirenskyi’s efforts. This group became
later a base for establishment of the first academic
institute1.
For the first time, Krasnoyarsk physicists
headed by L.V. Kirenskyi took part in the
international Conference on magnetism in
Moscow in 1956. The conference convinced
Kirenskyi of topicality of the subjects worked out
by his collective much more, and again it gave
a cause to appeal to the Presidium of AS USSR
with the request for formation of an academic
laboratory unless an institute. At the meeting
with academician-secretary of the Department
of Physical and Mathematical Sciences M.A.
Lavrentyev, Kirenskyi emphasized that the matter
is of the official registration of the laboratory of
magnetics, which had been existing at the chair
of physics of Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ Training
Institute for a long time. After Kirenskyi’s
report presented for the department’s bureau,
its members adopted a resolution on formation
of an independent institute, but not an academic
laboratory (Chistyakov and others, 1981).
However, the realization of the new project wasn’t
taken positively by everybody. The opponents,
among them were both Moscow and Siberian
scientists, were skeptical about the possibility
of establishment of the institute, which would
be able to carry out fundamental research in the
provinces.
That attitude was overwhelmed owing to the
constant support of full member of the Academy
of Science M.A. Lavrentyev, and Presidium of
the Academy of Science of the USSR passed
1
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KRRO. Backlog 2272. List 1. File 1. S. 23.
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a resolution on establishment of Institute of
Physics of AS USSR in Krasnoyarsk on the
October 12, 1956. One of its first members of
staff, a full member of the Academy of Science,
I.I. Gitelzon said: «It’s important to note that
the institute had been opened half a year earlier
than the establishment of Siberian Department
of the Academy of Science, and it means that
the institute didn’t appear merely on the tide
of advancement of science to the east, but it
demanded enormous efforts» (Gitelzon, 1999). At
first, three laboratories formed its base: physics of
magnetic phenomena (L.V. Kirenskyi), biophysics
(I.A. Terskov), and molecular spectroscopy (A.V.
Korshunov). The laboratory of crystallophysics
(K.S. Alexandrov) was established two years later.
Those departments determined the institute’s
research trend for many years.
The first staff of the institute was formed
mainly by the graduates of Krasnoyarsk
colleges. L.V. Kirenskyi’s former post-graduate
students A.M. Rodichev, M.K. Savchenko,
D.A. Laptey, I.F. Dyagterev and others came
from the Teachers’ Training Institute. When it
became known of the institute’s establishment
outside Krasnoyarsk, several graduates came
from Tomsk, Rostov-on-Don, Moscow, and
Leningrad. For example, one of them was
Kirill Sergeevich Alexandrov, a graduate of
Leningrad Institute of Electrical Engineering and
a future full member of the Academy of Science.
Having gone down post-graduate course at the
Institute of Crystallography, he has connected
his scientific life with Krasnoyarsk from 1958.
According to the scientist’s recollections, he had
some variants for a job after his post-graduate
course, but he preferred Institute of Physics
rather than something other, because Kirenskyi
had promised him an absolute creative freedom
(Alexandrov, 1991).
In the middle of 1950s, the scientific
community of the country was actively discussing
the project of full members of AS USSR M.A.
Lavrentyev, S.L. Sobolev, and S.A. Christianovich
on the necessity of science’s advancement to the
east. At the general meeting of the Academy of
Science of the USSR held in 1957, the director
of Institution of Physics professor L.V. Kirenskyi
was recognized as an outstanding expert in
magnetism and one of those on whom the
leaders of the future regional department of the
Academy of Science of the USSR were going to
rely in Eastern Siberia. At the conference held in
Moscow on the 4th of May, 1957, L.V. Kirenskyi
proved the necessity of siting of an academic
scientific centre consisting of several institutes
and a university in Krasnoyarsk. «Sometimes
people say: why should you establish a university
in Krasnoyarsk while there is the university
nearby in Irkutsk. However, that «nearby» is
the same as the distance from Moscow to the
Crimea» – he remarked in his speech1.
The establishment of Siberian Branch of
AS USSR gave hope of active development of
scientific potential in Krasnoyarsk region. In
1957, Krasnoyarsk region committee of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, taking into
consideration the perspectives of economic and
cultural development of the region, appealed to
provide Krasnoyarsk for three scientific-research
institutes of Siberian Branch: Nuclear physics,
Non-ferrous metals, and Natural compounds. The
response of Siberian department’s leaders was
reduced to the fact that «it will be very difficult
to establish three institutes in Krasnoyarsk
simultaneously with 13 institutes in Novosibirsk
in the next two or three years»2.
Nevertheless, inclusion of Institute of
Physics in Siberian department had positive
results for the dynamics of its development. The
Presidium of SB AS approved a new structure of
1
2
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Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science: establishment (1957-1961). Document collection. Ed. E.G.
Vodichev. Novosibirsk, 2007. P. 47-48, 155.
RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 14. S. 31, 33.
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the institute consisting of nine laboratories and
determined its scientific fields in 1957: physics
of solid body, biophysics, spectroscopy; it also
provided development of scientific investigations
with supplementary means, enlarged staff of
researchers and amount of means for industrial
buildings and apartment buildings for research
workers1.
The academic potential of the city was
increased by formation of new scientificresearch institutes. Besides Institute of Physics,
there appeared Institute of Wood transferred
from Moscow, and there were established
laboratories of Novosibirsk of Institutes of
Geology, Geophysics, and Economics and
organization of industrial production. The
regional authorities gave a supplementary
ground for industrial buildings and apartment
buildings in the Aphontovo Mountain area in
1960. In 1961, the whole number of research
workers of the city’s academic institutions was
800 people, among them 15 doctors and over 50
candidates of science2. Institute of Physics had
a function of basic institution under Kirenskyi,
which made the administrative and economic
services of Krasnoyarsk academic complex
functionate.
In the course of building in the Aphontovo
Mountain area, more than once, Kirenskyi
had to defend his positions and the reasons of
the building’s disposition outside the city. The
scientist proved his point of view proceeding
from the region’s powerful industrial potential
and perspectives of development of science in
Krasnoyarsk. He believed that Institute of Physics
is only the first sign of the long-term programme
on formation of the academic complex in the
region, for that reason the disposition of the
future scientific-research institute was in need of
territorial space.
1
2
RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 14. S. 33-34.
RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 87. S. 38.
The commission of State Planning
Committee and State Building Committee of
the USSR working in the end of 1950s pointed at
erroneous character of the building’s disposition
in the suburban rest zone (Academic town is
situated in that place now – N.K.). The municipal
authorities thought that the institute’s buildings
situated within the city’s precincts would bring to
economy of the planned value, and there wouldn’t
be any necessity of building the communications.
In 1960, P.G. Safronov, the chairman of
Krasnoyarsk Executive Committee of the City
Soviet, made a complaint to Presidium of Siberian
Branch accusing Kirenskyi of «worthless waste»
and appealed to take measures restricting his
wastefulness3.
After some other agreements and
arrangements in all the instances, with support
of director of the second academic Institute of
Wood and Timber A.B. Zhukov, L.V. Kirenskyi
managed to prove that the ground selected for
the building was the most appropriate place for
disposition of the future academic town. More
than once Kirenskyi reproached the leaders of SB
AS USSR for insufficient support of his initiative
and said that «Siberian department is not very
active at development of the scientific complex in
Krasnoyarsk»4.
Two laboratory buildings, a biological station
and two apartment buildings for research workers
had been built for the institute by the end of 1962.
The personnel consisted of over 320 employees
including 5 doctors and 13 candidates of science.
Training of specialists at post-graduate course
began. Investigations of the seven laboratories
were carried out on 35 subjects. The institute
grew into an important scientific establishment
and developed its scientific research in physics of
magnetic phenomena, biophysics, molecular and
emissive spectroscopy, and crystallophysics. The
3
4
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KADMHKRC. Backlog 26. List 13. File 12. S. 39-41.
KADMHKRC. Backlog 5986. List 1. File 39. S. 40.
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investigations on cosmic biology were of special
importance1.
In spite of scientific achievements, the
institute was put under observation by the Party
organs. The Party inspectors, who had checked the
collective body’s work, warned that some young
research workers of the institute «are arrogant
and think themselves to be great theorists being
politically indifferent at judgements and solution
of problems». The activities of the city scientists’
Club initiated by K.S. Aleksandrov and opened
in 1962 was put under suspicion2.
The institute’s functioning was checked up
by the commission of the Academy of Science
headed by corresponding member of AS USSR
S.V. Vonsovskyi, which came to conclusion that
the institute was a large and efficient scientific
organization of research in physics of solid body
and biophysics. At the same time, the commission
pointed to «insignificance of subject» and lack
of the common subject matter in the institute3.
Eventually, «insignificance of subject» has turned
out to be an advantage for the development of
academic science in Krasnoyarsk. The Institute
of Physics became «an incubator» of the future
scientific-research institute in biophysics,
mathematical and chemical specializations.
Having taken part in the activities of XXIII
congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union in 1964, Kirenskyi, being inspired,
returned to Krasnoyarsk, and at his public speech
he emphasized that the great tasks taken upon the
region had brought to the problem of establishment
of a scientific centre put on the agenda, and it
«wouldn’t duplicate, but reasonably supplement
the program of investigations of Novosibirsk
scientific centre» (Chistyakov and others, 1981).
He thought it would be possible to organize six
new scientific-research institutes, design bureau
3
1
2
RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 87. S. 38.
KADMHKRC. Backlog 26. List 35. File 139. S. 81-82.
KADMHKRC. Backlog 5986. List 1. File 39. S. 8, 1920.
of special biological instrument-making industry,
and a university in the nearest years. But those
plans were corrected hard in reality.
One of Kirenskyi’s schemes was an effort
to organize an independent institute on the
base of A.V. Korshunov’s department of optics
and spectroscopy at Institute of Physics. AS
USSR committee on spectroscopy passed an
affirmative resolution on that question on May,
1967. But chairman of SB AS USSR academician
M.A. Lavrentyev explained to the secretary of
regional committee of CPSU A.A. Kokarev in
his answer that «the poor quality of the building
of Institute of Physics and incredibly prolonged
building of the road to Academic town hardly
promotes the organization of another institute in
Krasnoyarsk»4.
The new scientific fields of Institute of
Physics were in great need of specialists. The
solution of the staff problem took several courses.
Owing to the active assistance of professor P.G.
Kontorovich, a group of mathematicians came
from Sverdlovsk in 1964. The young candidates
of science V.M. Busarkin, Y.M. Gorchakov, L.A.
Ayzenberg, A.P. Yuzhakov became a main staff
of the mathematical laboratories at Institute of
Physics and simultaneously took active part in
functioning of the branch of Novosibirsk State
University in Krasnoyarsk established in 1963
(Chistyakov and others, 1981).
Kirenskyi believed that «first of all, a
good institute is to have an influx of young
forces, and such an influx can be given only by
a university»5. The first Krasnoyarsk University
as well as the first academic institute appeared in
the city owing to Kirenskyi’s consistent policy.
The branch of NSU started training specialists
in physics of solid body, biophysics, computer
science, and computational mathematics. Later
on, after reorganization of the branch of NSU into
4
5
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RRONH. Backlog 5. List 37. File 87. S. 38.
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Krasnoyarsk State University (1969), new chairs
and faculties were established regulating training
specialists in theoretical physics, chemistry, and
biology.
By the end of 1960s, Institute of Physics was
multi-field scientific-research institute, where
investigations on magnetism, physics of solid
body, and biophysics were being carried out
almost in twenty laboratories. The recognition
of L.V. Kirenskyi’s scientific and organizational
merits was his election as a corresponding
member (1964) and then as a full member of the
among them 212 research workers, including 2
full members of the Academy of Science of the
USSR, 14 doctors and 96 candidates of science2.
The corresponding member and then full
member of the Academy of Science of the
USSR K.S. Alexandrov, a famous expert in
crystallophysics and a founder of a new field,
acoustic crystallophysics, was a director of the
institute since 19813. He initiated the organization
of Special Experimental Design Bureau
«Science» for the closer connection of science
and production in 1986. K.S. Alexandrov was
Academy of Science of the USSR (1968).
According to a full member of AS I.I.
Gitelzon’s recollections, there was to be a meeting
of the chairman of SB AS a full member of the
Academy of Science Lavrentyev, the secretary
of Krasnoyarsk regional committee of CPSU
V.I. Dolgih and director of Institute of Physics
academician Kirenskyi they could discuss the
problem of organization of Krasnoyarsk scientific
centre. The sudden decease of Kirenskyi delayed
the solution for many years (Gitelzon, 1999).
After Kirenskyi’s decease, the institute
was headed by one of his closest associates Ivan
Alexandrovich Terskov1. Being a graduate of
Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ Training Institute, a frontline soldier, he was one of those who had formed
scientific subjects of the first academic institute.
I.A. Terskov was elected as a corresponding
member of the Academy of Science of the USSR
in 1968. Institute of Physics was one of the
successful scientific-research institutes, where,
besides theoretical investigations, the works
on economic contracts were carried out, which
considerably filled up the institute’s budget.
The annual volume of such works exceeded 1
million roubles in the midst of 1970s. More than
600 employees worked in the institute in 1975,
awarded the State Prize for the works on research
of new materials and production of new devices
on their basis in 1989.
Under the direct guidance of the scientist,
there was worked out a new approach to description
of large families of crystals, including materials
of high laser technique and optoelectronics
and high-temperature superconductors. Those
investigations are being actively developed within
the academic and international cooperative
system at Institute of Physics with its scientific
centres in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Spain, France,
and many other countries.
The heaviest years of development of
Russian science fell upon the time of K.S.
Alexandrov’s directorship. One of the most
powerful Krasnoyarsk institutes didn’t avoid the
loss of potential of personnel in 1990s. The whole
number of personnel was reduced approximately
twice and there remained only one third of
research workers. Concerning the situation in
the institute, Alexandrov emphasizes that «the
middle group is not very well in the present
conditions. In general, the matter is of candidates
of science. If their laboratories don’t find several
study grant programmes in a year, the scientists
draw only regular salary absolutely insufficient
2
1
Terskov Ivan Alexandrovich // Russian Academy of Science. Siberian Branch. Personnel staff. Ed. V.M. Fomin.
Novosibirsk: Science, 2007. P. 14-15.
3
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Alexandrov Kirill Sergeevich // Russian Academy of
Science. Siberian Branch. Personnel staff. Ed. V.M. Fomin. Novosibirsk: Science, 2007. P. 14-15.
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for the living with a family. So there is a necessity
of looking for some new ways of their support: by
means of lectureship, contracts …» (Alexandrov,
2001).
The basic trend of the institute’s fundamental
research under Alexandrov was formed as
physics of magnetic phenomena and materials,
physics of condensed media, and materials of
electronic technology. Krasnoyarsk physicists’
research works on structure and phase changes of
crystals, study of physical characteristics of new
materials and establishment of their connection
scientific contacts laid by the first director
Kirenskyi and developed under his successors.
The traditional partners of Institute of Physics
under Alexandrov were national laboratories in
the USA, scientific centres in Switzerland, France,
Germany, Spain, Poland, Slovenia, Korea, and
other countries.
The research workers of the institute carried
out research works on several projects of federal
programs in 2000. Institute of Physics became
a leading organization of one of the greatest
projects of «Integration» federal program and,
with microscopic characteristics of matter, and
theoretical physics became widely recognized.
The carrying out of fundamental research had
experimental base as the unique complex of
installations for research of physical characteristics
of solid bodies in super-powerful (up to 15 Tesla)
stationary and impulsive magnetic fields. The
institute was the only scientific centre in Eastern
Siberia where the investigations on materials
were carried out at helium temperatures.
Among applied research works of the second
half of 1990s, the results of research on processes
of spreading of UHF fields in irregular microstrip
resonators of irregular shape turned out to be
demanded. They became the base of workingout and setup of the optimal constructions of
multilevel devices of UHF electronics, an expert
system of projecting of UHF filters with the
given characteristics, a set of electromagnetic
transducers for UHF diapason and measuring
devices based on them. There were also found new
principles of magnetic separation of rocks, which
allow the components to be effectively separated
from the similar magnetic characteristics
(Vtyurin, 1998).
Having checked the work at Institute of
Physics in 2000, the members of Presidium SB
RAS noted high scientific level of its fundamental
research and applied projects. That high level had
been considerably supported by the international
together with technical institutes, it took part in
establishment of Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of
high technologies oriented to training specialists
of higher qualification at high materials studies.
The institute was headed by full member
of RAS Vasilyi Philippovich Shabanov in 20031.
Having graduated Omsk Teachers’ Training
Institute, he started his work as a trainee at
A.V. Korshunov’s laboratory of molecular
spectroscopy at Institute of Physics and he became
an outstanding specialist in physics of condensed
molecular media and a founder of the scientific
school on spectroscopy of anisotropic media.
A new field of science exploring
characteristics of photonic crystals was formed in
the institute for the period of 2000-2005 – that is
characteristics of structured media with dielectric
nature periodically changed in one, two or three
dimensions with their characteristic spatial scale
of order of optical wavelength. The important
results on crystallophysics and physics of photonic
crystals were obtained. For the first time, there
were synthesized and explored porous ceramics
on the base of high-temperature superconductors
with foam microstructure. As it turned out, those
perspective materials can find their wide use
in practice. There has been worked out a high
1
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of science. Siberian Branch. Personnel staff. Ed. V.M.
Fomin. Novosibirsk: Science, 2007. P. 276-277.
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efficient method of producing of fullerenes and
their derivatives under laboratory conditions.
Fundamental investigations are carried
out on powerful experimental base. Many
unique experimental installations of a level
of the world standards have been set up in the
institute. The complex of equipment set used at
oscillatory spectroscopy of condensed bodies
is applied within the multi-access centre in the
institute. Institute of Physics has a cryogenic
station supplying KSC SB RAS institutes with
liquid helium and nitrogen. The experimental
installations have been equipped with modern
facilities for the last few years owing to the means
provided by Presidium SB RAS. The institute is
the only scientific centre in Eastern Siberia where
the researches in material science are carried out
at helium temperatures. The research works on
creating a new stationary magnet up to 30 tesla
are being carried out together with Kurchatov’s
scientific centre.
The research workers activated the
work on receiving patents for inventions and
making contracts for carrying out of research
investigations with different organizations in
2000s. The commission of Presidium SB RAS
observed the volume of contracts increased by
four times as a positive fact in the activity of
Institute of Physics, and that made the share of
the brought means be increased almost by half in
the institute’s budget in 2005.
Institute of Physics has become a frequent
initiator of scientific events for the last few
years. More than 140 representatives of the
leading academic institutes, large institutes of
higher education, scientific centres, and Russian,
Byelorussian, Kazakhstan and German industrial
enterprises took part in the third Russian
conference on growth of crystals and silicic films
and research on their physical characteristics and
structural perfection («Silicon-2006») held in
Krasnoyarsk in 2006.
The chairman of steering committee a
full member of RAS A.L. Aseev noted that
Krasnoyarsk had not been selected for the place
of holding of such an important forum by chance:
there were not only development of works on
production of high-technological equipment for
obtaining and processing of silicon at the region’s
industrial enterprises, but, what is more important,
the elaboration of competitive automated systems
of measuring of the main parameters of plates of
monocrystalline silicon had been carried out by
forces of the scientists of Krasnoyarsk scientific
centre SB RAS.
The traditional trend of the institute’s research
works on measuring of parameters of rocks
has found its new development: there has been
started the exploration of granite massifs in the
areas of the supposed disposal of nuclear wastes
in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region together
with Scientific-research Physical and Technical
Institute of Krasnoyarsk State University. There
were found out new ecologically pure methods of
minerals processing implemented at mining and
metallurgical enterprises in Siberia (Churilov,
2006).
16 laboratories and auxiliary scientific
subunits were active at Institute of Physics
named after L.V. Kirenskyi in 2007. The number
of staff was more than 300 employees including
132 research workers, among them two full
members of RAS, 29 doctors and 87 candidates
of science1. There has been traced a positive
dynamics of the personnel’s age characteristics:
more than one third of the collective is the part
of specialists under 40 years old, and that is the
result of successful work of post-graduate course
on training young personnel for the institute’s
laboratories.
Scientific-research institute co-operates
with almost all the institutes of higher education
1
���������������������������������������������������������
Counted according to the data of Staff Office of Presidium of SB RAS.
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Natalia A. Kupershtokh. Pages of History of Krasnoyarsk Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of Ras
in Krasnoyarsk on training of specialists. The
experience on long-term integration of science
and institutes of higher education is of a special
importance in connection with the establishment
of Siberian Federal University.
Institute of Physics celebrated its fiftieth
anniversary in October, 2006. The works of
Krasnoyarsk physics at research on structure
and phase changes in crystals, studies on
physical characteristics of new materials
and determination of their connection with
microscopic characteristics of materials, and
other fields of scientific knowledge have become
recognized worldwide for the last decades.
The significance of L.V. Kirenskyi as
an organizer and first director was especially
accentuated at celebration days of the fiftieth
anniversary of Institute of Physics. The institute
became the very «cornerstone» that was laid in
the base of contemporary Academic town.
At first, the organizing status of scientific
centre as a branch of SB AS USSR was got by
the group of Krasnoyarsk institutes in 1978, and
then as Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of SB AS
USSR in 1988. Academician L.V. Kirenskyi’s
dream has come true. KSC SB RAS consists
of five scientific-research institutes at present:
Institute of Physics named after L.V. Kirenskyi,
Institute of Biophysics, Institute of Computing
Modelling, Institute of Wood named after
V.N. Sukachyov, Institute of Chemistry and
Chemical Technologies; Special Experimental
Design Bureau «Science»; three international
centers; several departments and sectors at
Presidium of KSC; regional geo-information
centre; regional multi-access centre SB RAS;
Central scientific library. KSC takes the fourth
place at number of scientific personnel SB RAS
(about 2000 employees including 600 research
workers) and represents the formed scientific
centre of Siberia with its unique scientific
research branches.
The formation of scientific body in
Krasnoyarsk city had many specific features
(Kupershtoh, 2006). On the one hand, there
appeared a number of institutes only owing
to Krasnoyarsk people’s initiative with the
support of the local forces and some separate
experts who came from other cities (physics
and biophysics). On the other hand, a number of
institutes were formed owing to the initiative of
not only Krasnoyarsk scientists but also those
ones from Novosibirsk (Computing modelling,
Chemistry and chemical technologies). In
this case, at the first stage, the personnel main
body was formed by scientific «landings» from
Novosibirsk institutes and also by the specialists
invited from other cities, which gradually
acquired the specialists trained at Krasnoyarsk
institutes of higher education. In conclusion,
Institute of Wood transferred from Moscow also
had its special historical way.
Today directors of Krasnoyarsk institutes
are graduates of the institutes of higher education
in Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, and
Petropavlovsk. The scientific schools of the level
of world standards, formed by L.V. Kirenskyi,
K.S. Alexandrov, V.Ph. Shabanov, I.A. Terskov,
I.I. Gitelzon, A.G. Degermendzhy, A.B. Zhukov,
A.S. Isaev, E.A. Vaganov, V.G. Dulov, Y.I. Shokin,
V.V. Shaidurov, A.I. Holkin, G.L. Pashkov, and
other scientists, have appeared and have been
developed in Krasnoyarsk.
Resume
Today Krasnoyarsk scientific centre of
SB RAS including Institute of Physics, with
their sources of formation initiated by L.V.
Kirenskyi, are being dynamically developed
owing to the main principles laid in their base:
development of fundamental investigations
of the world standards level, appliance of
investigations in industry and reinforcement of
the regional innovative potential, integration of
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science and education with the aim of training
personnel for the perspective fields of science,
education, knowledge-intensive industry, and
business.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Russian
Humanitarian Scientific Foundation (grant
No. 07-01-00432).
References
Alexandrov, K. I appreciate independence most of all. // Science in Siberia, 1991. № 7.
Alexandrov, K. We can see where we are to go. // Science in Siberia, 2001. № 2.
Chistyakov, N.S., Smolin, R.P. Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi. Moscow: Science edition, 1981. –
168 p.
Churilov, S. At peak of achievements. // Science in Siberia, 2006. № 41.
Gitelzon, I. 90 years from academician Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi’s birthday. // Science in
Siberia, 1999. № 17.
Kupershtokh, N.A. Scientific centers of Siberian Branch of RAS. Novosibirsk: «Geo» Academic
edition, 2006. – 441 p.
Leonid Vasilyevich Kirenskyi. // Ed. V.Ph. Shabanov. Novosibirsk: Publishing House of SB RAS,
2009. – 368 p.
Vtyurin, A. At Krasnoyarsk physicists’ place. // Science in Siberia, 1998. № 19.
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~~~
УДК 101.9
Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions»
in Understanding Him
Olqa A. Karlova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
The article raises the problem of stereotypic understanding of Nickolay Gogol’s works in traditional
literature studies, suggests a new approach to the works of the great Russian classic writer in
philosophical, cultural and stylistic aspects.
Keywords: Gogol’s creativity, romantism of the XIX century, Russian school of naturalism, mysterious
fiction of the XIX century, pan-Russian imperial culture of the XVIII-XIX century, public education of
the first half of the XVIII-XIX century, religious aspect of the literary classic of the XIX century.
Since times of Gogol’s contemporaries
discussion of contradictions in his works and life
has become, on the one hand, anthological and,
on the other hand, extremely theorized. There is
a well-known story told by Pushkin about typesetters dropping and mixing the type while they
were setting up a play of Gogol’s. The more we
read Gogol’s works nowadays the more we feel
that like the type-setters literary critics of the
XX century dropped and mixed all Gogol’s texts
together.
N.V. Gogol was, without a shadow of doubt,
put on the list of revolutionary liberal-western
intelligencia and V.G. Bellinsky thought him to
be one of the founders of realism and ‘natural
school’. Thus Gogol is presented in anthologies
as a satirist and a critic of autocracy and regime.
Unfoundedness of this approach to Gogol’s
works was vividly revealed by Dostoevsky,
Rosanov, Merezhkovsky, Brussov. However, the
voice of revolutionary democracy sounded much
*
1
louder in Soviet Russia than the voices of those
who considered Gogol a philosopher or a great
fantast-mystic. At present there appear works
of modern Russian scientists such as I. Ilyin, I.
Vinogradov, I. Zolotussky, M. Menshikov and
others who are discovering an unknown Gogol
for us.
After his second publication in 1831-32 – a
short story collection «Evenings on a Farm Near
Dikanka» – Gogol was recognized as a leading
literary man in Russia. The Russian public was
struck by the inimitableness and originality
of «Evenings» due to which the book gained
its reputation of a bright literary phenomenon
having no analogies. But in the letter of April 20,
1829 Gogol lamented to the mother «Everyone
here is amused by anything Malorossian…»
Thus Gogol himself defined the first error of
his contemporaries – treating Gogol’s works as
popular ethnographical stories. However, Gogol’s
Ukrainophilism was not «a thing never heard
Corresponding author E-mail address: marina_b@krskstate.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him
of». Actually it developed the world’s tradition
of romanticism, so, not for nothing Ukraine was
called Ancient Rome of Slavonic Peoples in N.
Nadezhdin’s review.
On discussing «Evenings» the second error
was articulated – a stereotypic idea or Gogol’s
early works uniting Russian and Ukrainian culture
together and his late works belonging purely to
Russian culture. This stereotype considerably
distorts the cultural background of Gogol’s epoch
and completely ignores the question of so-called
«Pan-Russian» culture.
New universal imperial culture of Russia was
built up by the authorities as state culture on the
analogy of Byzantine and ancient Roman cultures.
In the second half of the XVII century Ukrainian
(in other words, Ukrainian-Byelorussian, or
south-western Russian) culture was chosen the
basis of the new culture. Its priority recognized
by the official authorities was explained by
two facts – firstly, it was highly developed and,
secondly, up to 1686 the Ukrainian Orthodox
Church was under jurisdiction of Patriarch of
Constantinople, thus the Moscow kingdom was
symbolically connected to historical Byzantium
through Ukraine. One can come across a great
number of images of «Pan-Russian» political
conscience in Gogol’s works: «Russian land»
for which Kazaks die, «Russ – a bird-troika»
in «Dead Souls» and «Russia» in «Selected
Passages». Cultural-philosophical significance of
these images is not in the description of matters
of everyday life or the usage of folklore but in
Gogol’s attempt to build up the great national
«Pan-Russian» utopia.
The author of «Evenings» was undoubtedly
attributed to the few with a comical talent. The
success of the literary work was explained by
the author’s joviality and the brightness of the
national colouring, whereas such definitely
romantic features as tensity, dramatic effects,
conflict, a sense of concealed tension that make
the work adequate to the high standards of the
world’s romantic literature were just mentioned,
but, as a matter of fact, those were the features that
defined Gogol’s style and the dramatic colouring
of his laughter. During all his creative period
Gogol stuck to the style that could be defined
as philosophical mythosymbolism sprinkled
with logics of wonder and compatibility of
mismatches, grotesque, hyperbole and paradoxes
of values. Exactly here, in the third circle of
misunderstandings lies the source of the three
Gogols – the Gogol of «Evenings» (1832), the
Gogol of «Dead Souls» (1842), the Gogol of
«Selected Passages from Correspondence with
his Friends» (1847).
To understand the essence of Gogol’s position
it is necessary to learn about the events taking
place in 1832, when in Russia there were declared
the principles of Orthodoxy, Autocracy and
National character. The person who announced
them was S.S. Uvarov. Gogol became one of his
first employees. Gogol’s «Curriculum of History
of World’s Civilizations» was published in the
second issue of the journal. He wrote, «My aim
is to educate the hearts of young students…so
that… they couldn’t betray their duty, their Belief,
their noble honour and their oath to be devoted
to the Motherland and the Sovereign» (note:
the quotation is translated by the author of the
article). The fourth misunderstanding of Gogol is
the denial to admit that these words reveal not only
the core of the educational activity of the writer
but also the ideology of his works. «Taras Bulba»
and later «The Inspector-General» and «Dead
Souls» raised the question of fruit of Western
debauchery flourishing on Russian ground,
to fight which the Programme of Orthodoxy,
Autocracy and National character was worked
out. Gogol intended to make his comedy «The
Inspector-General» a deep moral-philosophical
work. The symbolic meaning of the play was
revealed in «The Denouement of «The Inspector-
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Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him
General»»: «Needless to say, the Inspector to fear
mostly is awaiting us after death. Can’t you guess
who he is? Why pretend? The Inspector-General
is our awakened conscience that will make us
suddenly stare at ourselves» (note: the quotation
is translated by the author of the article).
Since the autumn of 1835 Gogol is busy
with writing of «Dead Souls». That was the
only literary work that Gogol thought to be
worthy of recognition by the world’s literature.
He considered the correlation between «Dead
Souls» and the rest of his works to be the same
as between «Don Quixote» and the other novels
by the great Spaniard. The dramatic collision in
«The Inspector-General» is replaced by the epic
one in «Dead Souls». Later Gogol will say that
the work is finished if there is not only a thing
to laugh at. Gogol refused from the genre of
novel that he first wanted to follow and switched
over to the epic poem where he could feel free
to practice dialectics of different approaches and
create the peculiar uniqueness of the work. The
poem, which presents a consequence of satirical
characters and situations on the surface, was to
show a way to raise the fallen soul.
At the beginning of June in 1842, right
after the publication of the first volume of «Dead
Souls», Gogol went abroad and took to reading
religious books. In «The Author’s Confession»
Gogol wrote about that period of his life: «I put
aside my studies of everything contemporary
for a time, I concentrated on those eternal laws
that Man and the humanity follow. Anything that
dealt with the studies of people and the human
soul drew my attention, and following this
road without any sense, hardly knowing how, I
managed to come to Christ, in Him seeing the
key to the human soul» (note: the quotation is
translated by the author of the article).
He cannot think of writing the continuation
of the poem without preliminary upbringing
of his own soul. In summer in 1845 he wrote a
testament that later was contributed to «Selected
Passages from Correspondence with his Friends»
and he burnt the second volume of the poem.
The death-disease, the mystery of the burnt
manuscript and Christian decease resulted in one
more misunderstanding of Gogol and a number
of paraliterary and even medical hypotheses.
However, the key to the understanding – the
religious core of his personality – is still closed
to us, as I.A. Ilyin stated, the main reason of this
being our absolute ignorance of the problems that
were actual for Gogol. His creative activity is still
interpreted in social terms only.
It is necessary to take into consideration
that ascetic aspirations and monastic ideal of late
Gogol are not completely religious by nature but
civic as well. He considered the rank of monk
the highest of all and dreamed of wearing a plain
black chasuble and regretted that one couldn’t
do it without God’s summons. Calling Russia a
cloister, he urged everyone to put on an imaginary
chasuble and, having done away with selves, to
serve Motherland.
Today it is a great time to look right into
the essence of misunderstandings of the writer’s
personality and his creativity. In particular, the
grossest is the literary stereotype of Gogol being
«the founder of Russian prose». If this be true,
any poet of Gogol’s time could be announced
a founder of prose in Moliere’s definition, i.e.
anything that is not a poem.
Let’s think what kind of prose is meant here.
In the introduction to the poetic novel «Eugene
Onegin» by Pushkin:
«My uncle – high ideals inspire him;
but when past joking he fell sick,
he really forced one to admire him –
and never played a shrewder trick.» (1)
there is more prose by far than in so-called prosaic
lines of Gogol’s:
«The farther they penetrated the steppe,
the more beautiful it became. Then all the
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Olqa A. Karlova. Integrality of Gogol’s Works and «Screaming Contradictions» in Understanding Him
South, all that region which now constitutes
New Russia, even as far as the Black Sea, was
a green, virgin wilderness. No plough had ever
passed over the immeasurable waves of wild
growth; horses alone, hidden in it as in a forest,
trod it down. Nothing in nature could be finer.
The whole surface resembled a golden-green
ocean, upon which were sprinkled millions of
different flowers. Through the tall, slender stems
of the grass peeped light-blue, dark-blue, and
lilac star-thistles; the yellow broom thrust up its
pyramidal head; the parasol-shaped white flower
of the false flax shimmered on high. A wheatear, brought God knows whence, was filling out
to ripening. Amongst the roots of this luxuriant
vegetation ran partridges withutstretched necks.
The air was filled with the notes of a thousand
different birds. On high hovered the hawks, their
wings outspread, and their eyes fixed intently
on the grass. The cries of a flock of wild ducks,
ascending from one side, were echoed from God
knows what distant lake. From the grass arose,
with measured sweep, a gull, and skimmed
wantonly through blue waves of air. And now she
has vanished on high, and appears only as a black
dot: now she has turned her wings, and shines in
the sunlight. Oh, steppes, how beautiful you are!»
(2)
Is the plain, though pleasant, landscape of
Malorossia is actually being described in this
passage? What realistic prose do we come across
in this fantastically romantic and utterly poetic
description?
Gogol certainly worked much collecting
material for his works. But his formidable pen
transfigured the collected material so much that
it became hard to recognize, one side being
exaggerated to become «dazzlingly beautiful» or
to present «the excess of meanness». As Rosanov
said, reality changed in Gogol’s works like the
sorcerer starting his practice in «A Terrible
Vengeance»: «The nose protruded and hung
over the lips, the mouth spread to the ears in no
minute, out of the mouth a tooth sprang» (note:
the quotation is translated by the author of the
article).
Could Gogol know Russian people as much
as Guilarovsky knew back streets, small shops
and taverns of Moscow? Probably he didn’t, but
in his world of dreams and fantasy he managed
to learn about us something that is still working
to make a projection of Russian reality, today’s
reality, the reality of the third millennium, while
the literary works of the «natural school» of the
XIX century describing everyday life were sent
to the cultural archives long ago.
The national character of Gogol’s works
is completely different from that one which
was fought for by his revolutionary democratic
contemporaries. Folklore provided Gogol’s
work’s with the mytho-symbolical basis where
the routine life is not separated from fantasies and
dialectics of what is possible or impossible is not
questioned. While writing of the national character
Gogol consistently presents ideals of the people.
Chichikov’s travels in Hades of Russian life were
more successfully described by Gogol than its
Purgatory or hypothetical Paradise. Why so?
Like Servantes Gogol vividly felt the difference
between the norm, which is centered in cultures
of most European countries, and the ideal. The
denominator of the novel «Don Quixote» – the
latter being very important for Gogol – was the
great national ideal, through which a person
looks at the world and with which he measures
everything. Every minor thing depicted in the
novel is to the ideal as the numerator is to the
denominator. This fraction presents the great
philosophical scale of the narration, provides
the range necessary for grotesque, the ground
and justification of mystical searches for God
in the soul and the world. The relation between
Gogol’s and Servantes’ creativity has not yet been
studied, since the tradition to consider Gogol to
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be a philosopher has not been established in the
national literary school.
The middle-aged generation is still under the
influence of ideological simplification, delusive
easiness and understandability of Gogol’s literary
inheritance. Besides these clear stereotypes of
readers there is one more course of «beating
about Gogol» – the stereotypic public opinion
tending to condemn something and to worship
oppositions. We think the truth is being born in
argument, when everybody argue themselves
hoarse, but not as a result of a long spiritual way
of doubt and discoveries.
When asked what he drew his inspiration
from, Gogol answered: «From smoke. I write and
burn.» The author’s dissatisfaction with his work
certainly proves his endless spiritual searches.
N.V. Berg witnesses that Gogol once said,
«Only after the eighth rewriting, obligatory with
your own hand, the work becomes artistically
finished». Perhaps thanks to this Gogol, the
loneliest of all geniuses of the great epoch of
romantic Solitude, was so fruitful in discoveries
of style and genre, could survive Pushkin and
Lermontov in a sense of creativity, giving a push
to Dostoevsky, Goncharov, Saltykov-Shchadrin,
Nabokov, Bulgakov, Zoshchenko.
All things considered, one must admit
that Gogol’s contradictions were resulted
from the public’s misunderstandings of the
writer’s position and his works. Those were not
Gogol’s contradictions but contradictions in
understanding him. He himself would highlight
the integrity of his life and inner world. In «The
Author’s Confession» Gogol wrote: «I’ve never
deviated from my way. I’ve been following the
same way…and have come to Him Who Is The
Source Of Life» (note: the quotation is translated
by the author of the article). The same ideas are
found in his letter to S.T. Aksakov (May 16,1844)
in which Gogol said that inwardly he had never
changed his main grounds, always followed «the
same road», «never hesitated or doubted his main
ideas», «probably since the age of 12».
The writer’s works that were written in
tortures of creation and that have so many editions
are worth reading and re-reading again.
References
1.
A.S.Pushkin. Eugene Onegin (tr.Ch.Johnston). Penguin Books Ltd, Hannondsworth, Middlesex,
England. Published with minor revisions and an Introduction in Penguin Classics 1979.
2. Project Gutenberg's Taras Bulba and Other Tales, by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol // www.gutenberg.
org
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 538-548
~~~
УДК 340 (09) (4|9)
The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia
in the Publications of Western European and American Historians
(a review article)
Irina P. Pavlova*
Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University
90 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
In the article in the way of common analysis they observe the works of European and American
historians-lawyers, dedicated to the Old Russian (pre-Petrine) law (over 60 works). The process of
recognition of the Old Russian (Russian) law features had already begun by the Europeans-travelers,
and then was continued by scientists-foreigners, who worked in Russia in XVIII-XIX centuries. Author
comes to conclusion that the process of scientific mastering of the law and legal procedure history,
begun in XX century, was developing steadily, but depended on current political and historical
situation, translations and publications of the Russian law relics. Important role of the calling interest
to the problem was played by Russian historians-emigrants. The historiography development was
going at the line of researching basic specific categories, particular plots of the marking common
problems out. To begin with 1980s researching of the Russian law became rather intensive. The
articles of those problems was regularly printed in the main journals about questions of the eastEuropean history, appeared monographs. The most actively are used the problems of the state history,
anticriminal legislation, court organization, possessions development, serfdom. Author expresses
wish that the article materials will help Russian researchers to learn and use the experience of the
foreign colleagues more actively.
Keywords: history of law, court, Pre-Petrine Russia, foreign historiography
Point. The law formation in Russia from
medieval times until the last reforms of the legal
system at the beginning of the 21st century attracted
the attention of historians from the United States,
Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy and other
countries. Russian researchers of the law history
of Russia too rarely take into consideration
these foreign sources. However some outside
viewpoints allow us to imagine some processes
of our own law history development more fully.
This requires a comparative approach.
*
1
This article attempts to define the main
periods and directions in the western historian’s
researches on problems of Old Russian law
regulation history (before 1700).
Example. The first foreign traveler’s notes
with first descriptions of Russian law regulation
and thoughts of Russian judicial practice appeared
in the 16th century. The most substantial notes on
juridical matters were notes written by Sigismund
von Herberstein, Gilles Fletcher, an unknown
author signed by «J.F», Adam Olearius, Jacques
Corresponding author E-mail address: iripa@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Irina P. Pavlova. The History of Law and Judicial Proceeding of Pre-Petrine Russia…
Margeret and others. Some analyses of such notes
and recollections were undertaken in the articles
of William E. Butler, State University Professor
Emeritus of Comparative Law in the University
of London and Gabriele Scheidegger, a Swiss
researcher (Butler, 1996; Scheidegger, 2003).
The authors of these articles judged
contemporary witnesses of the Russian system
of law and legal proceeding formation somewhat
variably. The remarks of foreigners mostly showed
their seemingly superior attitude to the barbarian
character of the legal customs in Russia.
It were some historians from Western Europe
working at Russian universities and the Russian
Academy of Sciences in the 18th and 19th centuries
who first got interested in the history of Russian
legislation. In his «Discourse sur l’origine et
les changements des lois russiennes» Strube
de Piermont supposed the law of the Rus’ was
founded on Scandinavian law (Юшков, 2005:
356). Johann Philipp Gustav Ewers, a professor
of Dorpat University asserted a common origin
of the Russian and Scandinavian law by which
he meant the German law (Evers, 1826). These
were the pioneering publications in the German
language. In the mid-19th century (1843–1844)
substantial materials on Old Russia judicatory
were published under the editorship of E. von
Tobien also at the Dorpat University (von Tobien,
1846).
First scientific publications on Russian law
history in Germany appeared at the close of the
19th century. An article on Russian law history by
M.F. Vladimirsky-Budanov was first published in
1900 followed by the articles on Old Russian law
history and pre-Mongol Rus’ church jurisdiction
by Leopold Carl Goetz, a professor of Hamburg
University (Goetz, 1912, 1913). The «Russkaya
pravda» translated by Goetz himself became
the main basis for his papers mentioned above.
The medieval German-Russian trade agreements
were attractive for Goetz as a researcher. He
detailed the dating of some of the agreements
(Goetz, 1916). His last article was published just
at the height of World War I.
Interest of western researchers to Russian
law history during the 20th century was
fluctuating. Judging from scientific publications
chronology this interest was linked with the
cardinal political changes in our country (e.g.
the October revolution, perestroika), with a more
active role of the USSR in the international sphere
(post-World War II period) and others. Evidently
the publications of the Russian legal documents
in foreign languages had significant influence on
the research intensity of western historians too.
For example, Karl Fritzler’s publications on
Old Russian law appeared after World War I. The
first part of his studies was dedicated to the Church
Statutes issued by Kievan Prince Yaroslav known
as Yaroslav Mudryi (the Wise). Fritzler identified
them as the Russian-German law documents. The
second part of Fritzler’s studies was dedicated
to the princely succession (knyazheskoe pravo)
in Old Russia (Fritzler, 1923). His papers are
interesting by comparing the law of medieval
Rus’ with German, Byzantine and Scandinavian
law. Some acts of legislation were included in the
appendixes to the papers.
After World War II the studies of Russian
emigré historians who worked at West-European
and American Universities were influential to
attract western historians to the field of Russian
law formation. An article in German by Victor
Leontovitsch was published in 1947. It was
dedicated to the law and ideology of the period
of Ivan the Terrible. Leontovitsch suggested the
idea of a law upheaval which happened at the
times of the first Russian Tsar. This upheaval was
the appearance of the subjective law beginning
from the times of Ivan the Terrible instead of
the common law and old customs of pre-Ivan
IV law basis. The Tsar himself became the legal
authority of this law (Leontovitsch, 1947: 8–9,
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22). The same year Georgy Vernadsky in the
USA attracted significant interest to the matter
of Russian juridical legal documents (Vernadsky,
1947). Studies of the emigré historians continued
the research guidelines of the famous prerevolution Russian juridical historians. These
authors explained their point of view at some
important events in medieval Russian history so
their studies were also an intermediary basis for
the analysis of the law development in Russia.
The intention of the historians to present the
law history of their motherland vividly was
occasionally the reason of some critical concept
appearance, e.g., the term of «the law revolution»,
etc.
Intense interest of the western historians to
the USSR had given new publications on Russian
law history. Lothar Schulz, a professor of the
University of Goettingen had published a review
of the full Russian law history from the very
beginning to the present (Schulz, 1951). Schulz
specified Russian law history as a young science.
He had written his book in a traditional neutral
reference approach. His estimations of Russian
justice did not differ substantially from those
of the text-books for the Soviet Higher School
level. At the 1950s and into the 1970s the law
historians had given attention to the process of
the development of the concrete and specific for
Russia legal notions and events. These analyses of
literature and legal documents may be considered
as attempts of abstraction of the development
tendencies of the legal customs and the legal
changing in the Russian law. The publications of
V.I. Sergeevich, a Russian law classic historian,
were reprinted in Holland in 1967: «Lectures to
the Russian Law History» (1883) and «Russian
Law Antiquity». The digest of the papers on
medieval Russian law translated into English by
G.V.Vernadsky (Vernadsky, 1965) was published
in New York. The «Russkaya pravda» code
was also translated into English. In 1963 it was
translated into French by M. Sheftel. The western
historians studied other Russian historical legal
documents too. P.L. Žužek had published his
article of the «Kormchaya kniga» and the text of
the document (Žužek, 1964). Ann Kleimola from
the University of Nebraska used Russian legal
documents of 15th – 16thcenturies and the «Zakon
Sudnyj Lyudem» for her researches (Kleimola,
1975, 1976). William Butler edited the Catalog on
Russian and Soviet law (Butler, 1976).
Since that the articles on matters of the
law history were published in magazines and
periodicals regularly. These were: «CanadianAmerican Slavic Studies», «The Russian Review»,
«Russian History», «Oxford Slavonic Papers»,
«Readings in Russian History», «Zeitschrift für
osteuropäische Geschichte», «Jahrbücher für
Geschiche Osteuropas» and others.
Horace W. Dewey, the University of
Michigan, wrote the article series on the 1497
Sudebnik and the 1550 Sudebnik subjects. Dewey
described the meaning of some important notions
for the Muscovy: «pravezh» (collection of arrears),
«yabenichestvo» («sneakage»), «beschestie»
(dishonor) (Dewey, 1966-1967; 1968). On his
point of view the analyzed items reflected two
historical events: the growing of influence of the
Russian State and the traditional legal conception
of different groups of the Russian society.
Horace W. Dewey and Ann Kleimola studied
the «krestnoe celovanye» practice («Old Russian
Cross-kissing») in the judicial proceedings and
political life of Muscovy (Dewey and Kleimola,
1968). Osvald Backus, an American historian,
(the University of Kansas) described the legal
notions changes and the growing of the feudal
departure into treachery persecuted by criminal
law (Backus, 1962; 1970; 1972).
In the discussions on Muscovian
administration activity or peasant exploitation
some historians wrote about arbitrariness and
despotic character of the rules in Muscovy. H.
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Dewey and A. Kleimola inquired into a question
of the financial supply guarantees from those
persons, who didn’t want to pay the taxes. The
authors considered the «pravezh» as a one of the
ways to get taxes. This method to wring taxes
out was used actively by the bribable chiefs,
petitioner innocents, lawyers and priests. In the
authors’ opinion the «pravezh» was a kind of
a public theatre and at the same time it might
often be an unlawful practice used by the State
and the feudal lords (Dewey and Kleimola, 1975:
167). Scott Seregny (a professor of the Russian
history of) Indiana University), studied the
practice of the court production in the terms of
the rights and duties of a defaulter. He pointed
out the rise of Muscovy needed in an effective
lawful administration that could act on behalf
of the monarch. The nedelschiks were the first
representatives of the regime in the courts, as key
figures of the Muscovite government. They had
become the main clerks for political and social
control of the Muscovy’s central administration.
And such a system was reliable enough (Seregny,
1975). Jack Culpepper (Columbia University)
studied the forming of legislation of the serfage.
It is one of the main themes of the law history of
the Muscovite State social relations (Culpepper,
1969). Thus the historiography of Russian law
history of the 1950s-and into the 1970s may be
considered as a period of study of its terms and
the most significant social and legal phenomena.
Then historians marked out the main
questions and characteristics of significant
periods in Rus’ and Russia State history and
law history. Thesaurus on the history of the
political institutes of the Russian State in 11th –
13th centuries was published in France (Eeckaute,
1986). In the 1980s Daniel Kaiser actively studied
Old Russian law (Grinnell-college, Iowa). He
became the author of the first individual study
on the Medieval Russian law (Kaiser, 1980). He
viewed the problem of the development of the
concept of crimes and punishments in Kievan
Rus’. D. Kaiser considered the Orthodox Church
and the Prince attitude to the wergild collection
and to the death penalty. He showed that the
custom of revenge didn’t concede for a long time
(Kaiser, 1980: 285). The author also showed the
wergild was applied until the 16th century as a
kind of almost regular payment to the Prince.
In 1992 under the editorship of Kaiser a pool
of the early legal documents of Old Russia was
published («Russkaya pravda», sudnye gramoty
of Novgorod and Pskov, the charters of the Prince
for the church, the agreement between Novgorod
Republic and Tver’ and other). Although the
disputable translation of many concepts was a
subject to criticism (Poppe, 1995: 565), the edition
significance was large.
The origin and development of the concept
of property as scientific problems are very
interesting for the law historians. And it is relevant
until now in connection with uncultivated feeling
for law and order just in the property area of the
Russians. Carsten Goehrke (the University of
Zurich) described and analyzed the legal order of
the organization of the land and landed property
usage (Goehrke, 1987). Richard Pipes in his
article «Was there Private Property in Muscovite
Russia?» also in other his universal historical
studies denied the concept of private property
in Muscovy because of the right of the Tsar to
confiscate all property of a person (Pipes, 1994).
George Weickhardt (a professional lawyer, San
Francisco, the author of many publications on
Russian law history) didn’t support this idea. He
thinks the Tsar had the right on confiscation if
the force of the law had arisen in consequence
of charge of treason. But private property existed
de facto. The court ruling showed its predictable
character and constancy regarding the property
aspects (Weickhardt, 1993). Nancy Kollmann,
a professor of Stanford University noted this
discussion in her translated into Russian book on
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society and state in Russia of early modern time
(the 16th – the 17th century) (Kollmann, 2001:
41). A researcher of the questions of ownership
controversies between noblemen being in the
neighborhood, Nancy Kollmann, studied the
questions of honor and dishonor («chest’ and
beschestie») in Muscovite Russia (Kollmann,
1992). It is the author opinion that the contest
«chest’» and its ensuring were the last means
to achieve the social legal «uniformity». The
contest of honor («cest’») was very complicated.
Wounded honor could play its important role in
admission of the crime behavior of a man.
For good reason the historians placed high
emphasis on the Sobornoe Ulozhenie. In his
monograph devoted to the Ulozhenie, Arkady G.
Mankoff says about differences in accentuation
at analyses of the legal document in the end of the
1960s and into the beginning of the 1970s. On his
opinion Danuta Cherskaya (Poland) being guided
by the Soviet sources gave attention to the feudal
landed property and social-economic processes
of that time, while V. Glotzner (FRG) depended
on pre-Soviet historiography had performed a
«formal juridical» examination of the criminal
terminology (Man’kov: 2003, 16). In our opinion,
however, the «class» alternative versions were
only the aspects in the law history selected by the
historians. We suppose both of these aspects were
important.
The Ulozhenie was translated into German
and published in 1985 (Das Sobornoe Uloženie,
1985). There were elaborated some legal subjects
in terms on this document. Hans Hecker depending
on the «war» chapters of the Ulozhenie described
the legal basis of ransom of the prisoners of war.
There was no real war law in the Ulozhenie as
he thought, but some single assets reflected
the interests of the definite population groups
including the prisoners of war. (Hecker, 1986:
156. In the 1988–1989s Richard Halley translated
the Ulozhenie into English. The version of the
Ulozhenie from the Complete Code of laws was
published as a paginal translation with some short
comments1. The choice of such a variant of the
text from the Complete Code of laws by Halley
was put in doubt by historians (Schmidt, 1995:
567). But Halley had prepared detailed comments
to the Ulozhenie and they were edited in different
magazines («Russian History», «CanadianAmerican Slavic Studies»). Defining the law and
government in Russia in the mid – 17th century
the editor says of the slavery of people and the
hypertrophied government. However he notes the
high level of legality in Muscovy. The rules of the
laws were clear and non-contradictory, the laws
had been published and widely available.
In Post-Perestroika times western historians
have been active participant of scientific
conferences together with Russian historians.
The papers of the western scientists have
been translated into Russian and published in
joint collections. Since the 1990s Russian law
history study has been bringing up to a new
level. Bibliographic papers, detailed articles of
conceptual character, and above all, monographs
are edited against a background of more
availability of foreign researcher’s publications.
So, it means a new cycle of law history science
development. Foreign scientists study problems
of fundamental character and the issues that can
deeply characterize the government-law-society
relations.
Daniel Kaiser considers some aspects of
meddling of the government into private lives
and the treaties of marriage of pre-Petrine
period (Kaiser, 2001; Kaiser, 2003). He shows
the government counteractions in cases of a
patriarchal family cruelty in the courts ruling
in the 16th – 17th centuries. He notes the Russian
family of the early modern period wasn’t an
exception at the overview of a European family.
A historian from Birmingham University Morin
Patricia Perrie explores corruption and the
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ways of struggle with corruption in the light of
people monarchism in the Muscovite reign. By
the concrete examples of cases she reveals that
the faith in an equitable Tsar was founded on
different and sometimes cruel methods of the
fight with bribes (Perrie, 2000).
George Weickhardt raised a problem of
correlation of two different events of the Sobornoe
Ulozhenie and in other laws of Muscovy. He
meant a tendency to develop the research formal
process and its usage not only in the crime
process but also in the civil process as well as
the declaration of the principle of equality of law
for everybody. He concluded that the western
and the Soviet historians were mistaken on
especial authoritarianity and the class nature of
the Ulozhenie. In many respects their estimates
were founded on the descriptions of travelers and
diplomats mentioned above. He supported the
opinion of the pre-revolutionary Russian historians
that the law in Russia since the Sudebnik of 1497
had been developing as a variant of realization of
the principle nullum crimen sine lege (no crime
exists without a corresponding asset in the Code
of laws). He believed the Ulozhenie had become
the conceptual basis of the modern system of the
legislation inclusive the Juridical Reform of 1864
since it developed the idea of equal and regular
justice (Weickhardt, 1992: 465, 480).
Some several law development guidelines of
pre-Petrine period are described in monographs
elaborated upon the subject. Aer Anneli, Finnish
historian, had analyzed the history of the Russian
patent legislation origin since the Muscovite reign
when the first trade privilege appeared (Aer, 1995).
Martin Aust (the University of Kiel) examined
the judicial contest practice on the medieval
civil cases between noblemen landowners. He
had come to the conclusion that until the end
of the 17th century the government couldn’t
propose a lawful basis for such legal precedents
(Aust, 2003: 193). Peter Braun published a very
important work on the forming of administrative
law in Russia. He marked out six categories of
the institutionalization of the administrative
regulations in the Ulozhenie of 1649 (Brown,
2002: 5-6) and made a conclusion on existence
of a quite mature and law ensured administrative
system in pre-Petrine Russia.
Christoph Schmidt (Cologne University)
studied historical aspects of criminality, justice
and law for many years. He choused an unusual
chronological interval for his researches: since
Ivan the Terrible reign until Catherine II period.
The Russian historians don’t consider it as
indivisible period of time. His study was devoted
to the split of the legal culture in Russian history
and to the new foundations in Russian law history
of the 16th – 18th centuries. The conclusions of
this work moved into the level of conceptual
generalization. Schmidt wrote about five main ways
of the Russian law development in this interval
of time. Firstly, the Tsar Reign and autocracy
were legalized; secondly, the administrative
bureaucracy was formed and relations of the
center and periphery had been regulated on the
law levels; thirdly, the first Code of law, the
Sobornoe Ulozhenie was created. As the author
wrote, the Ulozhenie had become the basis of the
Code of Law of the Russian Empire. Also it was
rated highly as the «Zakon Dvenadtsaty Tablits»
(the Law of Twelve Tables»). In the fourth place
there was government regulation of private life of
its citizens in gradually steps; fifthly, the serfdom
law formation t was the reason of failure of the
public law development undoubtedly. That is why
the Russian positive law could develop only in a
bounded lawful area for a long time (Schmidt,
1995: 483). As the historian thinks, the legal split
in Russia meant deep divergence of opinions of
the State and the society.
Christoph Schmidt wrote a monograph
on the social control in Moscow of 1649 –1785.
In this case the «social control» means matters
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linked with justice formation on the basis of the
Sobornoe Ulozhenie, an analysis of the criminal
situation in Moscow and the serfdom system
functioning. Ch. Schmidt supposes the Soviet
historiography didn’t consider the crime situation
of that time practically.
The popular uprisings were considered in
the view of class struggle: highway robbers were
compared to social «partisans» (Schmidt, 1996:
11). The first chapter on law and the juridical
control system before 1700, Ch. Schmidt viewed
some important aspects: the origin of the Sobornoe
subjects to study were aspects of the Russian law
history. For the book series on the legal history
(«Rechtshistorische Reihe») Gunter Baranowski
(Frankfurt-on-Main), composed and prepared
the first full commented volumes of the main
law history documents of Old Russia: «Russkaya
Pravda» («The Russian True») and «Pskovskaja
sudnaja gramota» (a document of the Pskov Court
Office) in German (Baranowski, 2005, 2008).
These considerable volumes include commented
clause-by-clause translations, the review of
the publications on the subject and glossaries.
Ulozhenie, authority activity (Boyarskaya Duma,
prikazy (boards), voevody, gubnye starosty) and
others.
In Vienne Angela Rustemeyer defended a
doctoral (professorial) thesis
(Rustemeyer, 2006) on crimes against the
monarch and the reign in Russia, 1600-1800. In
2006 her thesis was published as a monograph
(Rustemeyer, 2006). A. Rustemeyer analyzed
legal basis documents of the Roman-Germanic
laws by the subject. She used some materials
on the history of monarchy of France, England,
Poland, Lithuania and Russia. In the monograph
there is a system of the crimes against monarchs,
the forming of the concept of treachery and the
sacral monarch idea were analyzed. Also the legal
delimitation of the monarch court and the church
jurisdiction were considered by the author. The
second part of the monograph describes protest
movements against monarchs and different
verbal insults. Problem of antimonarchical crimes
includes such important subjects as behavior
of a person at wars, a throne seizure, boundary
aspects, etc. Escapes of noblemen into Poland
and Lithuania and back were studied separately.
On the whole the monograph was decided
interestingly with statement of the problems in
reasoned and adjusted pen.
Last years some new scientific centers
were opened in Germany. Among their main
Russian law has been studied in Cologne for
many years. Russian historians knows the
monograph by Martin Avenarius «Римское
право в России»(«Roman Law in Russia»),
(Avenarius, 2008, in Russian) with analyses
of the Roman legal traditions penetrated into
Russia during the 1800 – the 1922nd, the Roman
law reception through Byzantium, Old Russian
law and others. The «Jahrbücher für Geschichte
Osteuropas» scientific magazine («Yearbooks
of Eastern Europe history») publishes some
discussion articles on the content and evolution
of the concept of the «spravedlivost». By the
way the meaning of the concept in translation
into Russian is «justice». The beginning of
the discussion belongs to N. Pecherskaya (St.
Petersburg). She described the evolution of this
concept within self-consciousness of the Russian
population since antiquity (Pecherskaya, 2005).
Continuing the discussion Ch. Schmidt showed
some variants of the concept realization of the
11th – 14th centuries: through the «pole» («a field»),
«krestnoe celovanie» («cross-kissing»), ordalii
(Schmidt, 2005: 568).
Resume. The adduced characteristics
of the legal development in Rus’-Russia
are evidence of no difference in principle
between the conclusions of western historians
specialized in Russian history and that of the
Russian historical legal science. It may be
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noted western estimates are more critically
and the western notions are not so stable and
unambiguous. In prevailing view of the cited
authors the development of the legal area is
closely linked with the idea of predominant
role of the authoritarian Russian State. But for
all that the State functioning was at the stage
of «not-prescribing» with breakdowns. Legal
situation of the population wasn’t secured
legislatively. The split between «de jure» and
«de facto in Russia was especially deep in the
cited author’s opinions. Leaving out the split the
because of better knowledge of foreign and old
languages in the Western Countries. We found
one more advantage of the executed tendency of
these studies. These are not only analyses of the
law texts but also analyses of the law enforcement
and realizable practice of judicial proceedings.
Principal subjects to study for western historians
include the State and law aspects, procedural law
and others. The formation of the Russian civil law
and canon law development are studied less. Our
foreign colleagues follow the works of the Russian
law historians attentively. They regularly publish
government created a central law (unilateral or
monological) and suppressed other conceptions
of laws (non-Moscovian) (Schmidt, 1995: 491).
For many years the Russian criminal-penalty
law had been studying more thoroughly than the
Russian civil law. This tendency was typical for
20th century not only for Russian historiography
(USSR) but for western historiography too.
The analysis of publications of western
historians shows the increasing interest to the
Russian law history. Starting with the law and
nation development reviews law historians had
come to comprehending of some specific Russian
conceptions, some peculiar legal notions, social
and economic phenomena. As for the source
basis and historiography basis it may be noticed
the western historians are good at thoroughness
of the pre-revolutionary studies in Russia (the
treatises of F.M. Dmitriev, M.F. VladimirskyBudanov, V.I. Sergievich, B.N. Chicherin and
others), studies of Russian Soviet historians and
the notes of travelers. In our opinion text reception
in western schools of thought is more augmented
their comments on the monograph editions as
well as publications of old law document texts and
transactions. Russian researchers need to study
their colleagues experience more actively and, as
I hope, the researchers will notice the problem.
The most new special literature edited
last year shows rising interest to the Russian
law history. Some conferences on the Russian
law history are conducted even in Japan (the
Slavic Research Center in Sapporo, Hokkaido
University) (Law and Society, 2008). Such a
conference on the Russian law history of 2008
was devoted to the 1200s – 1500s period. The
papers of the conference were edited in Japanese.
An article of Ferdinand Feldbrrugge «Law in
Medieval Russia» was published in Holland.
These articles are subjects to the next analytical
historiography study.
The next development of law historical
science expects from Russian historians insistently
ongoing studies of foreign colleague’s researches,
regular experience exchanges and other kinds of
scientific activity coordination.
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Nachbarschaftsverhältnisse 1676-1796 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003).
M. Avenarius, Rimskoe pravo v Rossii (Moskva: Akademiya, 2008) in Russian.
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Richard Hellie. (Irvine, CA, 1988-89).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 549-559
~~~
УДК 947(571) + 314
The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory
in the Context of All-Russian Demographic Trends (1990th-2000th)
Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva*
The Krasnoyarsk State Teachers’ Training University
Named after V.P. Astafjev,
89 Lebedeva st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
In the article the main trends of the birth rate development in post-soviet period in Russia are considered
on example of the town population Krasnoyarsk territory, we also try to give characteristics of the
changes in the fertility behavior of the townsfolk and to find out the answer to the question – how much
the reproductive standards of the western countries get implanted in Russian society. In the article
all territorial processes is shown in all-Russian context. The search is based on the census data and
current demographic and social statistics.
Keywords: renewal of population, displacement of generations, modernization of birth rate, birth
rate, reproductive process, aging of fertility, fertility behaviour, second demographic transition, «
contraceptive revolution», illegitimate birth rate, common-law marriages.
Introduction
The Attempts of Russia in 1990-2000 to
move to the west model of the development
put a question – how much the west standards
spread in a base sphere of Russian society –
in a reproductive one. There isn’t a faithful
representation about it although the problems to
birth rate in modern Russia have found extensive
coverage in literature. However many of them
were not considered fully or were not studied
at all. Thus for answering to this question it’s
necessary to analyze both the dynamics of allRussian characteristics and differentiations at the
different groups of population and in different
territories of the country so far as it’s known that
in Russia there is a great regional difference of
the demographic development. The choice of the
*
1
article’s subject is caused its poorly readiness
in all-Russian scale and at the level of separate
regions, needs in overcoming of misrepresentation
in its interpretation which were made under the
influence of the political conjuncture, as well as
there is necessity of the objective elucidation of
the processes of fertility for forming adequate
view about modern society and warning against
mistake in case of designing the social and
demographic policy for the territory.
This work is about the analysis of fertility
in the towns of Krasnoyarsk territory. We choose
urban population as an object for search because
on the one hand the townsfolk amount to three
fourth of Krasnoyarsk territory population and in
this case they define the situation in this sphere.
On the other hand processes of fertility in the
Corresponding author E-mail address: 200146@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
cities are needed in special studying because they
have differences in comparison with countryside’s one. The lower temporary border of the
study – a border of 1980th-1990th – is the time of
the ending of soviet period and the beginning of a
new history epoch and the upper border – 20062007 – is the time of activations of state policy to
stimulate the fertility. In this period the fertility
sphere developed in terms of internal stimulus
mainly and was left of state interference in it.
The aim of the article is to determine the main
trends and particularities of the development
of fertility in the towns of the Krasnoyarsk
territory, to analyze the character of changes in
fertility behavior in new history conditions and
to understand the degree of the assimilation of
western reproductive standards.
main features are: 1) fertility declines in early
ages – before 25 years - in the first place because
women before 20 years begin their sexual life
early and increasing of the contribution 30-40year mothers in the general birth rate; 2) the
interval between marriage and childbearing and
following birth increases, it is possible by reason
of using perfect contraceptives and planning
family; 3) the average age of mothers for the firstbirths also increases; 4) widening of marriage’s
scope and quick growing a number of children
to be born in not registered marriage; 5) growing
number of never given birth women at age senior
35 years that is connected with increased infertility
and, the main, with spreading conscious refusal
of parenthood. The statistics allows to check this
standpoint on example of Krasnoyarsk’s citizens.
Material and methods
Reproductive potential
The source of the information in the work is
the census data and current statistics published
in «Demographic yearbook» of Russia and
Krasnoyarsk territory. Unfortunately we have not
data of the fertility behaviour of townsfolk except
the results of the 1994 population microcensus.
Such research was not held and these questions
were struck off an all-Russia population census
2002 program. Therefore we estimate the results
of reproductive views, motives and people’s plans
in terms of population census data and current
fertility statistics. The nature of the sources makes
for the choice of the demographer-statistical
methods as main.
of urban population on the epochs’ border
Points
It is logical to expect that parameters of
the fertility process changed in a new historical
condition as far as fertility behavior of Russian
had to reform according to those models of birth
rate realization which in the last one third of XX
age in industrial developed country has got the
name of the second demographic transition. Its
The sources show that main trends of the
fertility development in cities of Krasnoyarsk
territory in XX century were the same like
in another Russian cities and the having
particularities played the secondary role. Like all
Russian citizens during the century Krasnoyarsk
population adopted to the modernization
reproductive standards and following to
inhabitant of the western countries realized
the demographic transition to modern type of
reproduction of population. The first sign of
fertility modernization became the reduction of
its level which as far back as the soviet period
lowered below borders of simple substitution of
generations in cities. They use the total fertility
rate (TFR) of a population is the average number
of children that would be born to a woman over
her lifetime if she were to experience the exact
current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs)
through her lifetime, and she were to survive from
birth through the end of her reproductive life. In
1991 TFR was 1,505 children in Krasnoyarsk
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
cities against 1,531 in Russian one1. It means
that the substitution of generations was ensured
70 per cent only as far as for the replacement
of generation needs women are to born 2,122,15 children. The net reproduction rate (NRR)
means that each generation of mothers is having
exactly enough daughters to replace itself in
the population, it was also below 1 – the border
of renewal of population – and in 1990 it was
0,781 for Krasnoyarsk’s cities (against 0,866 in
Russia)2.
Stages of the fertility development
in the post-soviet period
There are two stages of the birth rate process
in the cities of the territory in post-soviet period.
The first – 1990-2000 years – was marked by
stable fertility decline and the second – 2001 –
up-to-day – is marked by the rotation of its rise
and decline (Table 1).
Russia has entered in the post-soviet period
on the wave of the fertility decline which in
Krasnoyarsk cities began in 1987 when TFR
was equal 2,0163. In 1991 it was lowered a
quarter and continued to decline. Its changes,
in percent to previous year, was following:
1991 – (-13,0); 1992 – (-13,0); 1993 – (-10,7);
1994 – (+10,0); 1995 – (-4,5); 1996 – (-5,9);
1997 – (-5,4); 1998 – (+2,3); 1999 – (-6,2) (is
calculated according data of tabl. 1). It’s seen the
beginning of reforms in 1992 has not caused the
shock in the reproductive sphere. There was not
a collapse fertility decline in 1993, when were
born children planned in previous year. In 1994
the birth rate increased and reached the 1992
level. The decline of fertility continued in 19951997 at a slower pace than at the beginning of
the decade. Probably townsfolk adapted to the
1
2
3
The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory.
2007. Krasnoyarsk, 2007. P. 43.
Ibid. P. 44.
About demographic processes in Krasnoyarsk territory.
Krasnoyarsk, 1988. P. 62.
changers and reproductive process returned in
the natural development.
The reaction to the 1998 crisis of Krasnoyarsk
townsmen was rather soft. Fertility decline in 1999
was intensified by its unexpected growth during
previous year. So we can state a fact that social
and economical crisis wasn’t the sole reason of
fertility decline but it became a accelerant of the
process only. In Krasnoyarsk territory the birth
rate was the lowest in post-soviet period and the
process of fertility decline progressed slower than
in Russia. From 1991 till 1999 the intensity of
birth lowered a 30,3 % (against 31,7 % in Russia)4
and it cut by half from 1987.
The short period of the birth rate growing
began in 2000. By 2003 TFR increased 18 % in
comparison with 1999 but then it began to lower.
All in all since 1991to 2006 the birth rate reduced
22,3 % in Krasnoyarsk against 21,7 % in Russia5.
In 2006 when government brisk the demography
policy up and there were pro-natality national
projects which stimulate the fertility the birth
rate of the cities of Krasnoyarsk territory ensured
the displacement of generations with 55,2 % only
(56,6 % in Russia). It was lower than in developed
countries including western countries where the
cumulative rate was from 1,3 (in Japan) to 2,0-2,1
(in France and the USA) 6.
Main factors of the fertility’s development
in new condition
It is well-known that the birth rate is primary
provided with the reproductive (procreative)
behaviour of the population which changes under
the influence of the complex of factors. According
to opinion of some scientist (Zaharov, Ivanova:
75) in demographic sphere of the Russia in 1990th
there were three «powers» caused changes of
4
5
6
– 551 –
Calculated by: The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 43
Calculated by: Ibid.
The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. M., 2008. P.
549 - 550
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
Table 1. The trends of the fertility rates in Krasnoyarsk cities (1991-2007)
Year
Fertility rate
TFR
NRR
Year
1991
11,6
1,505
…
2000
1992
10,0
1,309
…
1993
8,9
1,169
0,557
1994
9,8
1,286
1995
9,5
1,228
1996
9,1
1997
8,7
1998
1999
Fertility rate
TFR
NRR
8,9
1,072
0,502
2001
9,7
1,136
0,535
2002
10,6
1,218
0,585
0,603
2003
10,9
1,238
0,581
0,578
2004
10,9
1,218
0,572
1,155
0,549
2005
10,6
1,166
0,555
1,093
0,504
2006
10,7
1,170
0,551
9,0
1,118
0,529
2007
11,4
1,235
0,588
8,6
1,049
0,490
The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. Р. 28, 43, 44.
statistical indicators of the birth rate: a) the results
of permanent trend; b) the medium-term effects
of surging in 1980th; c) the forming of the new
image of the demographic behaviour as a result of
the adapting people to changed social conditions.
The Action these «powers» distinctly appeared
in Krasnoyarsk’s cities. Long before the end of
the soviet period the specific model of a family
with one child or rarely two children was formed
there. It seemed this process flew like in Europe
where one or two-children families prevailed.
But the trends were different. In the west from
the end of 1960th there was process of the fertility
displacement from early ages to older one while
in Russia and in Krasnoyarsk territory there was
inverse process. In 1981 the state interference in
reproductive process led to deformation in this
sphere there was a displacement in birth timing
when parents gave birth earlier planning time but
they didn’t want to give birth more than one or
two children. All in all the baby-boom of the first
part of 1980th changed to fertility decline at the
beginning of 1990th.
After USSR collapse there was the third
force – the adaptations people to new living
conditions led the decline of birth rate. It was
proved that the transformation of basic principles
when a family and children lose their firstpriority position is the main cause of fertility
decline. Russian population began to show it in
soviet period when the value to have children was
excluded by another values. In post-soviet period
radical changes in economy and social sphere
incited the process of review living principles
and strategies of procreative behavior. The
government stopped to fulfil obligations - the
benefits and family allowances were reduced,
commercialization of social infrastructure
reduced to cutback of free services’ volume,
young families lost possibility to receive help
from parents which were in difficult economical
situation. Decline of guarantee of labor and social
protectability, uncertainty in future and appears
of new perspectives for self-actualization led
to the situation when youth began to develop
their human and social funds but the family
and children needs were moved away. Thus
the evolution of procreative behaviours of the
population first of all youth started to define the
reduction of well-being, on the one hand, and
growing of the life claims on another. Growing
of tension in household relations and marriage
dissatisfactions, the deterioration of reproductive
health of the women and men, connected with
complex of the reasons, typical for connecting
period promoted the reduction of the children’s
number in families. The huge role in adjustment
of sexual and reproductive behaviour of the
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
population played contraceptives which were
wide spread that time.
Reproductive attitudes of townsfolk
and their realization
Microcensus of the populations in 1994 has
fixed reproductive «preferences» and plans of
Krasnoyarsk women entered in new life, which
has taken into account the number of given
birth, desired and expected children by women
at age 18-44. It has shown that 30,6 % women
gave birth to one child, 36,2 % - two and only
14,7 % - three and more children1. So each of
polled women averagely gave birth to 1,561 child.
These data were a resume of the reproductive
activities of townsfolk at soviet period. For us it
is more interesting to research data of desired and
expected children 2 because it is an indicator of
demography future of Russia. First rate showed
needs in children at all and the second one told
on real reproductive plans updated with provision
for the individual possibilities of their execution.
Microcensus data has also shown that
social-economical cataclysm didn’t influence
to reproductive sphere. Each town family had
children. The number of married women which
didn’t give birth – 8,4 % - was up-to-date of the
physiological sterility (3-7 % as it is estimated)3.
In future only 3,9 % women didn’t expect to have
a child (Table 2). Thus Krasnoyarsk territory
differed from western countries much where
women hadn’t children voluntarily – there were
about 20 % of women under 35 years old which
hadn’t children while there were only 2,6 % of
such women in our territory. At the same time
the data fixed rather modest reproductive plans
(1,4-1,7 child) that promised depopulation in
10-15 years. It is well known that for simple
1
2
3
Marriage status and fertility in Russia (according to microcensus 1994). M.,1995. P. 132.
There are already born children in the category of expected children.
Marriage status … P. 145.
reproduction of population it is necessary more
than a half of families must have 3 children. In
our cities only 3-4 % of women under 18-30
years old expected to have three children and
less than 1,0 % wanted to have four and more
children.
Thus procreative plans of Krasnoyarsk
women differed from their reproductive ideals
a little. In ideal conditions women wanted to
have 1,834 child but expected 1,666 one. This
difference is shown that there was a chance to
raise birth rate with help of arrangements of
social policy. But the size of the difference (0,20,3 child) showed that first of all there was a
little opportunity to rise fertility by traditional
methods and it was a fact that the material factor
(living conditions) little influence to realization
of needs in children.
In 1990th townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk
territory realized their reproductive plans
fixed in microcensus 1994. The resume of their
reproductive activities was fixed by All-Russia
Population Census 2002. Comparison of the
number planned in 1994 children and received
result in 2002 is obstructed because between
two censuses passed only 8 years and to use the
method of replacement of ages (five-year cohorts)
isn’t correct. Therefore using it shows the average
number of planned children in 1994 was rather
similar to average their fact number in 2002 (Table
2,3) so the majority of women even in difficult
conditions gave birth to planned children. Been
going to give birth at the average on 1,386 child
18-19-year girls in 1994, which were in 2002 in
group of 25-29-year, had 0,943 child, 30-34-year
townsfolk gave birth to 1,311 child except of 1,418
planned 8 years ago. But they must give birth to
children in future. 35-39-year women have given
birth to 1,600 children instead of expected 1,565,
40-44-year women - 1,776 instead of 1,740. The
census also showed that each cohort of women
which were born after 1932 did not provide the
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
Table 2. Age group and number of planned and desired children distributions of the women in cities of Krasnoyarsk
territory, according to microcensus 1994
average number
of children
From 1000 of women expect children
Women’s
age, years
none
one
two
three
four
five and more
planned
desired 39
382
486
75
11
7
1666
1834
18-19
91
480
394
31
2
2
1386
1648
20-24
52
518
404
22
2
2
1418
1692
25-29
31
450
464
45
6
4
1565
1793
18-44
including
30-34
27
343
525
87
11
7
1740
1904
35-39
26
282
548
117
17
10
1855
1938
40-44
36
301
521
109
20
13
1824
1904
Marriage status … P. 253; Borisov: 41.
Table 3. Age group and number of born children distributions of the women in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory and
Russia according to All-Russia population census 2002
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
older
404
943
1311
1600
1776
1847
1810
1759
1830
1924
2297
16
71
383
901
1263
1524
1685
1733
1697
1636
1676
1736
1950
25-29
74
20-24
35-39
Krasnoyarsk
territory
Russia
18-19
15
15-17
30-34
Number of born children to 1000 women at age, years
Fertility. The resume of All-Russia population census 2002. Vol.12. M., 2005. P. 6-7, 140-141.
displacement of generations in town population
of the territory.
Change the age patterns of childbearing
The dynamic of age-specific birth rates
gives the most exact notion about changers in
reproductive behavior of women in cities (Table
4). The different velocity of the reduction (and
growing) factors in different women cohort is
evidence of significant change in the age patterns
of childbearing this period. It is important to
define which attributes we can interpret as a
sings of «west direction» in fertility transform
and which ones – as their absence.
Countries where the second demographic
transition was the changes began from the decline
of intensity of birth of girls at 15-19 years old. In
Krasnoyarsk territory this trend began in 1992
and ended in 2000th. The cause of such dynamic
is clear. In 1960th-1980th the rise of fertility at
this cohort of women was connected with sexual
revolution and contraceptive illiteracy. But now
we can see the process of soul-searching. It
means that now young girls choose the number
of children they want to have and plan the time of
child-bearing.
The reduction of birth rate among young
townsfolk marked the aging of reproductive
process. There was the same dynamic at the 2024 years-old women. The birth rate of this cohort
was rather stable last decade of soviet period (in
1959-149,3, in 1986-1987 – 151,91). But in 19871999 it decline to 45,1 %, in 2000 th – 10,0 %
and finally it was reduced in 1,7 in 1991-2006.
1
– 554 –
About demography process in Krasnoyarsk territory.
P. 62.
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Table 4. Age-specific birth rate in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory 1986-2007
Years
1986-1987
Live births per 1000 women at age, years
15-19
20-24
25-29
30-34
49,4
151,9
104,8
64,7
35-39
26,8
40-44
5,5
45-49
0,1
15-49
64,5
1991
51,0
125,2
70,7
36,8
14,9
2,7
0,2
43,0
1992
46,0
110,1
60,2
30,5
12,4
3,1
0,2
36,9
1993
45,2
100,1
52,3
24,8
9,6
2,2
0,1
32,4
1999
27,2
83,9
57,7
28,9
10,2
1,7
0,1
29,2
2000
24,1
85,2
61,0
31,9
10,2
2,0
0,1
30,0
2003
24,4
89,6
74,9
42,8
14,8
2,2
0,1
36,2
2004
24,6
85,2
75,4
42,0
15,0
2,6
-
36,2
2005
24,7
78,0
71,1
42,7
16,4
2,4
0,1
35,2
2006
24,7
75,5
74,3
43,2
16,7
2,4
0,1
35,9
2007
23,7
75,7
78,7
49,9
19,5
3,2
0,1
38,3
1999 by 1991, %
53,3
67,0
81,6
78,5
68,5
63,0
50,0
67,9
2006 by 1999, %
90,8
90,0
128,8
149,5
163,7
141,2
100,0
122,9
2006 by 1991, %
48,4
60,3
105,1
117,4
112,1
88,9
50,0
89,1
The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 70.
We dare say that there are two causes of the
decline. Firstly it was a conscious reorientation
to western standards but it also was a reaction
to bad living conditions. Although the living
conditions were better in 2000 th the birth rate
didn’t rise. So we can interpret it as the aging
of fertility.
There was the same dynamic at other age
groups in 2000th. At cohort of 25-29 year-old
townsfolk the fertility declined less than at others
ages and in 2000th it even rise to 5,1 %. Due to
aging of fertility the birth rate in the 20-24 and
25-29 groups became equal whereas in 1991 there
was a difference (1,8).
The indicators of birth rate among 30 and
even 40-year-old townsfolk show the moving of
births to medium and senior ages. In 1990th the
fertility of these cohorts declined but in 2000th it
rose in 1.4-1.6 points. It’s difficult to predict the
stability of this trend. It was cause with forcemajeure – in 2000th the townsfolk used the last
chance to realize delayed child-bearing. But due
to women older 25 the birth rate began to increase
in the cities of our territory and the mothers’
average age of childbearing rose to 26,73 years1.
This item is less than in Russia – 27,0 years2.
As far as Russia began the second demographic
transition late the fertility in Russia is younger
than in industrial countries.
Due to aging of reproductive process
the contribution to total fertility by women of
different ages changed. Although the women of
young ages carried the main reproductive load
there is the rise contribution of 30-40-year-old
women: in 2000 17,9 % of mothers were under
30 years old but in 2006 – 23,0 %3. This process
depends on structure factor (drop in strength of
cohort). Thus in 2000th the rise of contribution of
30-40-year-old women was stopped by numerous
20-24 year-old girls were born after 1981 (there
was a baby-boom) which gave a birth more than
one third of newborns (35,8 %)4 and it helped to
create illusion of fertility increase last years.
1
2
3
4
– 555 –
The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory.
2007. P. 75.
The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 169.
Calculated by: The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2000. Krasnoyarsk, 2001. P. 60; Ibid.
2007. P. 79.
Calculated by: Ibid.
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
The attribute of western reproductive
process is the increase of the mean age of women
at childbearing for first orders. In western
countries the childbearing period usually began
at 25 but Siberian women first gave a birth at
early ages as in soviet period. There is a moving
to western standards now: in 2000 – 31,2 % of
firstborns were born by women under 25, in
2006 – 37,9 %1.
Changers in reproductive views of young
and using contraceptives fluctuated the basic
Russian custom – don’t use contraceptives in
family before the birth of the first child. The fact
is the level of marriage quantity among young
townsfolk is rather high but the birth rate is
rather low. It means that spouses postpone the
birth of first children and they don’t hurry with
the second one. The Census of 2002 fixed this
phenomenon. According to census 39,1 % of
townsfolk under 20- 24 years old didn’t give a
birth any children; 53,8 % of them had one child;
6,4 % had two children and only 0,7 % had three
and more children. Among women at 25-29 years
old 15,3 % hadn’t any child, 61,5 % gave a birth to
one child, 20,9 % had two children. But there isn’t
a sign of spreading the voluntary childlessness.
6,9 % women under 35-39 years old (including
3,6 % married women) hadn’t children (in Russia
8,2 % and 4 % respectively)2.
Due to the fertility decline and the retention
of overall of having children the percentage of
firstborns increase. In this way our citizen differ
from citizen of western countries: in the USA
the relative density of firstborns was about 40 %
at the beginning of 2000th, in Sweden – 45 %,
in Russia – about 60 % (by Vishnevsky: 2). In
1991 in Krasnoyarsk territory the relative density
of firstborns was 55,6 % and in 2006 – 61,9 %.
The relative density of second children was
2
1
Calculated by: Ibid.
Calculated by: The Fertility. P. 6-7, 140-141, 180-181,
314-315.
low – 30-32 % and the relative density of third
children declined from 12,5 % in 1991 to 8 % in
20063. Thus third and fourth births stop to play
substantial role in forming birth rate in cities.
Non-marital fertility
If the ageing of cities fertility was a result
of post-soviet development the non-marital births
as the second sign of the second demographic
transition was inherited from earlier epoch
(Table 5). There is considerable difficulty in
identifying this trend. There are a lot of questions.
What was a cause of this boom in post-soviet
period? Why its level in Krasnoyarsk cities
was higher than in countryside and in Russia?
Why its growth stopped in 2000th? What are
the demographic and social consequences of
non-marital births? This phenomenon has not
studied yet but it shows the deepest changers in
people life. Ex facte the increase of non-marital
births looks like the results of the «stretching of
marriage borders», family modernization and
forming of the model of social liberalism as a
type of marriage (Rimashevskaya: 13-14).
Non-marital fertility of Krasnoyarsk
townsfolk isn’t a western fashion trend. During
the second half of XX century it exceeded AllRussia level and in new conditions saved its
trend. On the contrary the proportion of nonmarital births among townsfolk increased in 1.7
items and reached 30 % as in Europe.
It’s hard to identify how many children were
born as a result of «sexual freedom» of their
mothers and who was born in real (not registered)
marriage which were widespread among
Krasnoyarsk citizen. According to microcensus
1994 9,3 % of women living in cities were in real
marriage against of 5,8 % in Russia4. In 2002 this
3
4
– 556 –
The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory.
1996. Krasnoyarsk,1997. P. 79; Ibid. 2006. Krasnoyarsk,
2006. P. 79.
The marriage status… P. 46-47.
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
Table 5. Proportion of births by unmarried women in cities of Krasnoyarsk territory and Russia in 19602007, %
Proportion of children were born in not registered marriage in total births, in year
Krasnoyarsk
territory
Russia
1960
1970
1975
1980
1985
1991
1999
2005
2006
2007
16,8
12,1
13,9
12,8
15,0
18,6
31,5
33,4
31,8
31,8
11,5
9,6
9,3
9,6
11,3
15,5
27,3
28,4
27,5
26,5
Calculated by: Population size, composition and moving in RSFSR. M.,1990. P. 157; The demographic yearbook
of Russia. 2008. P. 171; The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2007. P. 79
Table 6. The dynamics of abortion in Krasnoyarsk territory and in Russia (1990-2006).
Abortions number
Territory
1990
1995
2000
2005
2006
Per 1000 women at 15-49 Krasnoyarsk territory
years old
Russia
126,6
94,3
71
59
56
113,9
72,8
54
44
41
Per 100 births
Krasnoyarsk territory
220,1
259,6
214
158
147
Russia
205,9
169
169
121
107
The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 179, 181; The economy of Krasnoyarsk territory in 1999 (statistic
yearbook). Krasnoyarsk, 2000. P.168.
percentage increased to 15,6 % in our territory
against 9,0 % in Russia1.
Data about the children were registered by
declaration of mother (means non-marital birth)
and by mutual declaration of parents (means real
marriage) help to identify the both categories.
But it doesn’t mean that every child of the second
category is a result of real marriages. Some fathers
avouched their children having another family.
Though in 2006 only 52,0 % of such children
were registered by mutual declaration of parents2.
Others were real non-marital born.
method of birth control and has also played a role
in concentrating women’s reproductive activity
because contraceptives have been unavailable.
Only in recent years, as the availability of effective
contraceptives has increased and the negative
effects of abortion have been openly reported by
the media, has the number of abortions begun to
decline. But so far Russia is the only industrial
country where the number of abortion exceeds
the number of birth. Krasnoyarsk territory is
distinguished by higher level of abortion and
slower speed of its decline (Table 6).
Methods of birth control
Discussions
Clarifying the common and the particular in
reproductive behavior of Krasnoyarsk townsfolk
it’s necessary to notice the fact of the overuse of
abortion for fertility regulation. The incidence of
abortion in Russia is the world’s highest. In soviet
period the abortion has become Russia’s main
The analysis of changing in main trends of
fertility follows to the conclusion.
Though in this period there is no
regulation of reproductive processes by federal
government the fertility of Krasnoyarsk
territory continued to develop in All-Russia
trends like in the soviet period. The dynamic
of reproductive process was changeable.
Although there are positive tendency in
2000 th the fertility rates of Krasnoyarsk cities
1
2
Calculated by: Population by age groups and marriages.
The resumes of All-Russia census 2002. Vol.2. M., 2004.
P. 303, 385.
Calculated by: The demographic yearbook of Krasnoyarsk territory. 2006. P. 83.
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
remain lower than in Russia and the lowest
than it’s necessary for simple reproduction of
population. The birth rate in Krasnoyarsk cities
(1,235) and in Russia (1,283)1 in 2007 ensured
only a half of displacement of generations
(58,2 and 60,5 % respectively).
Adapting to new reality townsfolk
of Krasnoyarsk territory corrected their
reproductive behavior according to western
standards. It is difficult to say either it is a result
of modernization or westernization (copying of
another’s experience). Though the outward signs
of 2007 confirm this fact when there were the
first resumes of national project «Demography»
which had to stimulate the second births. The
youngest women and 20-24 years old townsfolk
didn’t respond to this policy. But there were a
positive reaction by women under 25-44 years
old. Due to this cohort the TFR increased to
5,6 % in 2007 (against 7,0 % in Russia) and
number of newborns increased from 54,4 to
57,82.
of changing in townsfolk reproductive sphere
correspond to our concept. In 2000th there
is a second demographic transition. Its main
signs are a low level of birth rate, wide spread
occurrence of real marriages, increase of nonmarital births, ageing of reproductive process.
The pronatality policy of the government
strengthened this trend. The ageing of fertility is
interpreted as the welfare as far as young have to
decide other tasks besides childbearing. There
are negative trends of developing of reproductive
sphere such as a great number of firstborns but
scarcity of second and follow births and high
rate of abortion. The positive trend is almost
each family has children.
The procreative behavior of townsfolk
in Krasnoyarsk and Russia rather flexible
responds to changing living conditions and
pronatality policy of the government. The totals
The research shows that reproductive
behavior of townsfolk under 20 years old
was not stable and still depended on external
conditions. There is a chance to increase the
birth rate in cities when the living conditions
are better and the beginning of realization
of national demographic project fixed it. The
changing of age-specific birth rates gives
recommendations for those who design the
demographic policy. Now it is clear that the
supporting of young families and incentives
of their reproductive activities are not
determinant factor of increasing of fertility in
cities. However the fluctuation of reproductive
behavior of townsfolk complicates any
prognosis of further development and obliges
to watch over all changes as far as to know
new trends of fertility and its factors facilitates
successful pronatality policy.
1
The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. P. 98.
Conclusions
2
Ibid. P. 95, 101.
References
Borisov V.A. The desired number of children in Russian families on data microcensus 1994.
Vestnik MSU. Set 18 Social and political science, 2 (1997). p.30-64.
Vishnevsky A.G. Specific of Russian fertility. Population and society, 100 (2006). p.1-4.
Zaharov S.V., Ivanova E.I. Fertility and nuptiality in Russia. Social Reseach, 7 (1997), №7. p.75.
Zaharov S.V. Fertility outlook in Russia: the second demographic transition. Domestic notes, 3
(2005), 13-20.
Rimashevskaya N.M. Family in demographic processes. Population, 4 (2008), 9-19.
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Ludmila N. Slavina and Anna V. Tolmacheva. The Birth Rate of the Townsfolk of Krasnoyarsk Territory in the Context…
Resources
Russian demography internet-weekly Demoskope-weekly http://demoscope.ru
The demographic yearbook of Russia. 2008. M., 2008. http://demoscope.ru
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 560-579
~~~
УДК 75(44)(092)
Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece
«Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
Anastasia V. Klykova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
«…I am a great artist, and I know it…I’ve got a target,
and I am constantly striving for it, collecting material.
Though, every year brings some transformations, but all of
them are flowing in one channel»
Paul Gauguin, a letter to Mette Gauguin, March 1892
Iconographic research of Paul Gauguin’s graphical work «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
presents by itself a new methodological technique in art-historian analysis of work of arts. The given
method allows not only attributing a concrete work of art within the oeuvre of an artist, basing only
upon a detailed research of its graphical surface, but fully revealing its content as well.
Here, we present as the technique of iconographic research itself (usage of concrete general scientific
methods in compliance with the specifics of analysis stages), so its results, being methodically fixed on
every separate stage of analysis.
Keywords: iconography, research of a work of pictorial art, methods of art-historian analysis, Paul
Gauguin’s creative work
Introduction
To the shared vision of all art-historians,
creative work of Paul Gauguin, the greatest French
artist of the end of XIX century, outstands by its
unique consistency in artistic target achievement.
«One’s own closed world outlook or artistic world
view becomes the result of any great master’s
art creativity, though imaginary universe is far
from being as consciously created, as it was done
by Gauguin» (Kochik, 1991, p. 7). But, in such
a case, why only few art-historical works are
*
1
dedicated to the content disclosure of the artist’s
graphic works, in comparison with his picturesque
canvases? Why do not the researchers include the
series of Gauguin’s graphic caricatures into one
whole context of his oeuvre, using them only as
an illustrative material to the artist’s vivid life in
Tahiti? If the artist himself underlines that, his
every work of art is a step in the achievement of
the global artistic target, so it is quite logical to
suppose that, there is some content-rich depth
in his graphic caricatures, the depth, which
Corresponding author E-mail address: kistochka7@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
make them a harmonious part of Paul Gauguin’s
oeuvre.
The analysis of one of the most popular
caricatures, taken for an illustration, –
«Caricature Of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
(Fig.) may help to make a conclusion of the
caricature pieces place in the context of all
Gauguin’s creative work and to answer the
question: if Paul Gauguin was really stuck to the
point and was consistently solving one and the
same artistic problem in his every work or his
«serious» picturesque creative works present the
central, but an independent line of his oeuvre,
being separate from less «serious» graphic
caricatures? Here the methodology of such a
research is very important. How to analyze the
piece, which research has never been done by
anybody, and when even the possibility of such
an action seems to be doubtful?
Methods
The given research is based on the following
theories and methods:
1) The conceptual postulates of the Theory of
Pictorial Art by V. Zhukovskij and N.Kopceva.
2) The main principals of the synthetic
conception of the ideal by D. Pivovarov.
3) The basic categories of the reflexion
concept by Hegel, delivered in his work «the
Science of Logics».
4) The main principals of iconography and
iconology by E. Panofskij.
5) The key statements of the art-historian
conception of expertizm (a movement in Arthistory, which aim is to define the real value
of a supposed masterpiece and to find out new
artistic works with a help of attribution) by Marks
Friedlander.
6) The general and local scientific theoretical
art-historian methods: observation, measuring,
analysis, synthesis, interpretation, idealization,
formalization, analogy.
Results and discussion
In traditional Art-history there is a notion
of iconography, having been developed by the
researcher Erwin Panofsky as a description and
an image classification («icon» is an image,
«graphy» is to write, to describe), i.e. as the piece
research initial stage, which allows to collect and
to systematize all the material qualities data of the
piece as of the product of a certain painter’s artistic
activity under concrete historical circumstances
(Panofskij, 1999, 2004; Limanskaja, 2004;
Arslanov, 2005; Shpet, 2007). On one hand,
traditional understanding of iconography may
help to introduce a certain work of art into the
oeuvre context of a concrete painter. On the other
hand, iconography, as an auxiliary and initial
research stage, is not able to estimate the piece
implied depth. If we stick to traditional point of
view, then just only iconography is not enough
for salvation of the raised problem. It is necessary
to perform a complete analysis up to a full
disclosure of the painting underlying content, and
only afterwards it becomes possible to estimate
the given piece value for the whole creative work
of the master.
But there is one more way possible, if we try
to reveal the iconography notion in the tideway
of the artistic image dialogue conception, when
the artistic image is conceived as a result of thespectator-and-the-piece dialogue. According to
this conception any work of art can be disclosed
by the iconography as a result and the process of
interaction of the master and the artistic material,
and that allows not only to define the author of the
piece (i.e. to include it into the general panorama
of the painter’s oeuvre), but also to estimate its
implied depth during the-researcher-and-thepiece dialogue (Zhukovskij et al., 2004, 2006,
2008; Koptseva et al., 2008; Koptseva, 2008).
Let us try to full fill an iconographic research
of Paul Gauguin’s graphical work «Caricature
of Tahiti Governor Lacascade» from the point
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
Fig. Paul Gauguin. Caricature of Tahiti governor Lacascade
of view of the artistic image dialogue nature,
according to which the-researcher-and-the-piece
dialogue is going through several stages, each
of them forming an artistic image of a certain
quality. These stages are material, index, iconic
(summative and integral) and symbolic levels.
These levels correspond to material, index,
summative iconic, integral iconic and symbolic
artistic image statuses. These artistic images
are different and simultaneously it is a process
of one whole artistic image development during
the-researcher-and-the-piece dialogue. As far as
the target of iconography is a work of art in the
form of a documental evidence, testifying the
process of its creation, so, iconographic research
pays attention to an iconic artistic image, which
is able to represent the result of the-painter-andthe-artistic-material interaction at full volume
and to give a notion about the piece potential
underlying depth (Zhukovskij et al., 2004, 2006,
2008; Koptseva et al., 2008; Koptseva, 2008).
So, what does the piece suggest to the
researcher? And how does the researcher work
with it? As far as, according to the dialogue
conception, it is precisely the work of art, which
presents the part, initiating the dialogue. And the
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
researcher, in his turn, makes a counter move,
finding a correspondence to the piece suggestion
among the general scientific research methods
(Fig.).
At the material level the work of art
suggests to consider itself as a sort of material
surface, produced in the result of interaction of
the painter and the artistic material. In a graphical
work the main artistic materials, forming visual
qualities of the artistic surface, are paper and ink.
Their interaction has brought to the appearance
of a unique graphical surface. Iconographistresearcher finds a correspondence to the
suggestion – the method of observation, which
allows fixing the main qualities of ink, paper
and of their interaction, and at the same time not
involving into the artistic sphere. In the result one
gets a verbalized description of qualities of ink,
paper and also of their interaction peculiarities.
Qualities of the paper are revealed in irregular
ink tinting of the list surface. Light zones frame
dark stains and lines, showing the natural paper
quality to absorb water-diluted ink differently,
and at the same time, the contours of dark stains,
lines and strokes become clearer because of the
appearing contrast of dark and light. Thus, one
can single out a large fragment, not tinted with
ink, at the left edge of the work of art, which is
surrounded by dark lines – a contour and being
connected with a bigger dark stain.
Qualities of the ink are revealed by the
variety of strokes, lines, by tintages and by the
deepness of stains. Thus, along with a casual
tintage in the centre of the painting, when
one can see some separate chaotically placed
strokes (in the bottom part of the tintage), in the
right part of the presentment there is a group of
contrast stains (light and dark), united by the one
expressive contour, which is formed by almost
uninterrupted lines, drawn with a help of a pen.
The group, outlined by the contour at the left edge
of the piece, where dark, light and gray stains
of different kinds of tones being united by one
contour, is the most variable by its tone and the
form of lines, strokes and stains.
In the course of description some groups
of stains have been already singled out. Why
has it happened so? The graphical surface is
organized in such a way, that its most meaningful
fragments begin to stand out particularly already
during a detailed and thorough observation.
And the next move, the painting suggests to the
researcher, is to mark out the main elements of
the graphical surface and to find out the degree of
their relatedness with each other. The researcher
defines this suggestion as a necessity to use the
method of measuring, which allows relating
the elements and choosing the main and the
secondary ones. The result of it is the following
qualitative description of the main elements and
their methods of interaction.
In the graphical surface one can distinguish
a group of stains, united by a common contour and
consisting of a white outlined stain, conjugated
with a black outlined stain and connected with
a contiguous contoured stain of gray tone. The
gray stain contains lines and strokes of various
forms and also stains different by their tones
and partially contoured. This group of stains is
situated in the left edge of the work and occupies
almost a half of the presentment. So, according
to the scale principle this group is the main one
and it divides the image into two vertical halves.
Thus, the main characteristics of the group of
stains are an organizing function (it divides the
graphical surface into two vertical almost equal
halves) and dominating in the left part of the
presentment (it occupies almost all the surface
of the left part).
In the second part, in the centre, closer to
the bottom of the piece there is a group of stains,
united by a common contour and consisting of a
dark stain, which prevails over a light one, and
of small fragments, filled by gray tone. This
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
group is smaller than the first one, but it differs
by its stronger contrast and its greater laconism,
that allows defining it as a secondary one (in
comparison with the bigger group), but also
as the main group (in comparison with other
elements, placed in the same part of the work).
Thus, the main characteristic of this group of
stains is its dominating role in the right part of
the presentment.
More over, there are roundish lines and
strokes in the right part, which do not form
any common contour, and also there is a group
of tinted strokes conjugated with the contoured
group of stains. According to the scale principle
and the principle of entity these elements have
a secondary meaning in relation to the integral
contrast group of stains in the centre of the right
part of the work of art and they are of subordinate
character.
In the middle, there is an irregularly tinted
stain of a large size of gray tone between the
main group of stains in the presentment left part
and the contrast group of stains in the work right
part. According to its size, it is correlated to the
contrast group of stains in the centre of the piece
right part; according to the painting technique
(the tintage), it should be related to the group of
tinted circular strokes. According to the contour
entity principle this stain takes the very last place
among other elements of the presentment. That is,
this element cannot be categorically defined at the
given research stage, as far as neither the method
of observation, nor the method of measuring is
able to interpret the data, acquired in the result
of the research.
Thus, the artistic image of material status,
already possessing the verbal quality, has been
generated with a help of two main dialogue
operations, which have been defined by the
researcher as the usage of methods of observation
and measuring together with formalization,
analysis and synthesis following them.
The material status artistic image of
the graphical work «Caricature of Tahiti
Governor Lacascade» by Paul Gauguin is the
result of interaction of the paper and the ink,
which proper qualities are revealed in all the
variety in different parts of the presentment.
During their interaction the following elements
have been formed in the piece substance: 1) the
biggest group at the work left edge, consisting
of variously toned stains (white, gray, dark) and
dividing the list into two equal parts, inside the
group there are lines and strokes of various forms
and intensity; 2) the contrast group of stains
(light, dark) in the centre of the right part, which
possesses the most contour completeness; 3) the
group of separate circular lines and stokes in the
right top part of the list, which is of secondary
meaning in correlation to the dominating contrast
group of stains; 4) the group of tinted circular
strokes between the contrast group of stains and
the piece right edge, which is also of secondary
meaning; 5) the tined stain, which is lack of
contour and can be compared by its size with the
contrast group in the central right part of the list;
such position can be defined as a middle one.
And already on the material level the painting
has suggested to single out a general scheme in
these elements disposition. The graphical surface
consists of two vertical parts: in the first (left)
one the surface is occupied by a large group of
stains (the integration of the clean list, of the dark
stain and of differently toned gray stains); in the
second part the contrast integral group of stains
is the dominating one, upwards and aside from
it (on the right) there are two groups of separate
strokes (the group of circled lines and the group
of tinted lines); right in the middle between these
graphical vertical spheres there is an irregularly
tinted stain of a large size, which on the following
stage could be defined as the one, occupying the
median position between these two graphical
spheres.
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
On the index level the work of art is
presented as various forms and a background.
Grouped stains, lines and stokes, having been
distinguished on the material level as the results
of the main elements interaction of the artistic
image material status, transform into the forms
and the background on the index level. And
again the work of art suggests the researcher to
consider the main qualities of the forms and the
background, and also their interaction character.
The researcher, in his turn, again addresses to
the method of observation, but now he uses a
selective observation with the elements of
analysis, which allows to base on the results
of observation and measuring, having been
performed on the material level, and to make
preliminary conclusions right in the process. The
result of it is a description of the main qualities of
the painting significant elements, such as forms, a
background and their interaction character.
Thus, the main element, dividing the
presentment into two vertical parts, is a form of a
humane figure, cut by the boarders of the image
from the right edge and from below. This form
contour is complex and not always completed (in
the bottom part it is blurred by tinting), that is
why it does not give a clear characteristic of the
form on the index level. Only the upper part of
the form - the profile, turned to the right, is easily
read. The median part presents a body, turned
lightly to the left. The bottom part of the form is
not picked in at all; its boarder is being built along
the boarder of separate strokes.
Inside the contour is filled by variously
toned stains. More over, the form contains an
inscription, placed on the light background in
three horizontal rows and inclined to the right,
approximately 45 degrees with respect to the
vertical axis. The inscription is presented in such
a way, that it could be read: the dark letters are
written on the light background, each letter being
separate from the other and readable; the size
of the inscription exceeds the author’s signature
traditional size, and the inscription is placed on
the painting median horizontal axis, near by the
work geometrical centre. This way, the inscription
is the only holistic element of the form.
On the whole, this form can be defined as
a fragmental one. Such definition is suggested
by the piece itself. This form is presented as a
fragment of a humane figure. Its contour gives
a clear vision only of the upper fragment of the
whole form – of the profile. Inside the form there
are only separate elemental fragments, being
outlined by the contour. The only holistic element
of the form is the inscription, which makes the
element be very significant for this form.
Thus, the main element of the graphical
presentment possesses the following characteristic
features on the form level: fragmentarity along with
the quite large work size, the profile accentuation
and the complexity of the turn towards the body,
and admittance of the inscription as a significant
form element.
For the more detailed and full form
characteristics the researcher needs some
additional information, and the work of art
itself suggests him to address some other works
of Gouging, where the master uses the same
principles of the form building. In this case the
researcher addresses the method of idealization,
which allows to distract from a concrete painting
and to single out its separate element as an
independent one, and also to address some other
masterpieces of the painter.
The presentment of profiles is characteristic
of the portraits («The outcasts» (Self-portrait),
1888) and of the narrative paintings of Gouging
as of Pont-Aven period («Vision after the Sermon;
Jacob Wrestling with the Angel», 1888), so of the
first Tahiti creative period («Are you jealous?»,
1892; «Her name is Vairaumati», 1892). For
depiction of peculiarities Gouging uses most
often the aspect angle of three quarters or the
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
profile. The profile is also often used by the
master for comparison («The outcasts», 1888;
«Jacob Wrestling with the Angel», 1888; «Her
name is Vairaumati», 1892).
The complex head turn toward the body is
also illustrative of Gouging. Such a touch is often
used by the painter for the foreground figures
depiction («Are you jealous?», 1892; «Her name
is Vairaumati», 1892; «Woman with a Mango»,
1892).
The biggest figure fragmentarity in the
presentment is also a peculiar touch of Gouging,
The first (left) sphere is characterized by the
background presence in the form of a small
irregularly tinted fragment in the list upper
part, while the other space is occupied by a
«fragmentary» form with a complex contour
and filling, by the accentuated profile, and by the
meaningful inscription as its significant element.
And as far as the inscription is used as the main
foreground personage element, and it serves a
caricature touch, so then one may say about the
caricature principle of the whole presentment
organization.
used in the complex narrative paintings of PontAven period – «Night Café at Arles» 1888 and
«Vision after the Sermon; Jacob Wrestling with
the Angel» 1888, where all the large foreground
figures are cut by the boarders of the painting.
Inscription usage is typical for the works of
Tahiti period, when the inscription is not made
within the form, but below the presentment and
more often on a separate background, near by
the signature. It is of much smaller size, then
the main presentment details, and it testifies
that the inscription is not used as an element
of the painting, but as a signature. Inscription
placement within the form is characteristic only
of the caricatures of 1898 – 1901, and it points out
that the personal and the actual-historical aspects
prevail in the work.
After idealization has been done, the
researcher needs to use the method of analysis
with the elements of formalization and
interpretation, as far as the piece requires
naming more precisely the main characteristics
of significant forms.
Thus, such a presentment (large size +
fragmentarity, complex aspect angle) is mainly
typical for the foreground figures of Gouging’s
narrative paintings, i.e. the given form is the
main foreground personage, who performs the
presentment partition into two spheres of the
interaction of the forms and the background.
Just the same steps are suggested to be done
by the piece in regards to other elements.
The second, by its significance, form, taking
the central position in the piece right part, is
presented in the form of a humane figure, turned
to the right by its profile. The figure’s contour is
simple and laconic and it gives a vision of the
aspect angle and the form boarders. The contour
filling is built on the contrast correlation of dark
and light stains (the dark is upwards, on the left,
the light is downwards, on the right). The boarder
of these stains is defined by clear and accurate
lines.
Peculiarities of this form are the figure
presentment profility and the filling contrast.
Profile depiction, as it has been said earlier, is
typical for Paul Gouging’s oeuvre. But similar
aspect angle of the whole figure is more often
used by the master for figures depiction of
the second and the third grounds, while the
foreground figures are more often painted under
more complex angles (the head is in profile + the
body is direct + the legs are in profile and so on.).
The form filling contrast is the artist’s peculiar
method in his picturesque works – «Night Café
at Arles», «Jacob Wrestling with the Angel»,
especially in the works of Tahiti period, which
are often built on colour contrasts («Are you
jealous?», 1892; «The Spirit of the Dead Keep
Watch», 1892). It means the form possesses the
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
features of a background personage (simple
aspect angle) and the features of a foreground
personage (profile, contrast).
Thus, on one hand, the form can be
characterized as oppositional to the first one: 1)
laconic holistic contour – complex incomplete
contour; 2) holistic presentation of the entire
figure – figure fragmental presentation; 3)
contrast principle of the form filling – a variety
of tone rendition from the clear list up to the dark
stain of ink; 4) the from is almost twice as little
by its size as the first one.
More over, they are positioned along the edges of
the presentment – in the upper right part and a bit
lower, at the piece right edge.
The largest background element is «the
image of nature» - two forms of trees and
a row of circular forms between them; the
earth surface is specified by several lines. The
second background element is a triangle form,
directed by its peak upwards, and there could
be seen a humane figure form of a rather small
size at its basement. This form is specified by
several tinted strokes, and that is why, it looses
But, on the other hand, these two forms
can be compared because of their profiles are
presented, as far as they are turned to one and the
same side and because of both forms containing
contrast proportions of light and dark. More
over, the form can be considered as the main
personage because of its holistic presentation. All
other forms, including the first one, are cut by the
boarder of the presentment and do not possess
the quality of form integrity. The only element,
the form can be compared with according to the
principle of integrity, is the inscription, and that
allows fixing its ambiguous status. The inscription
is the element of «fragmental» form and, at the
same time, it is an independent image element.
As it has been said earlier, such a feature is
typical for caricature principle of the presentment
organization.
Obviously, the opposition and the
comparison of two main forms, performed by the
researcher, are fully based on the peculiarities of
the researched piece graphical surface and the
possibility of such moves is accentuated by the
work of art itself.
The rest image elements, singled out on
the material level and placed on the piece right
part, may be defined as a background, as far as
they do not possess integrity, presenting separate
elements, not outlined by the single contour, but
just shaped by characteristic lines and strokes.
its clear outlines. Though, its upward direction
is accentuated and supported by the outbreak
of lines, denoting the surface, whereon the
trees are growing, and it is precisely above
the triangular from top. Further, this vertical
visually melts into the vertical of lines, forming
the tree trunk and gradually is transforming into
the coma. Thus, the background elements in the
presentment right part are interconnected and
continue one another: the humane figure melts
with the triangle form, which is prolonged by
the tree trunks, transforming into the coma.
So, the background elements in the
presentment right part require their further
elaboration on the iconic level and are of
fragmentary character in relation to the
dominating «integral» form. On this base, the
second (right) sphere of interaction of the forms
and the background can be characterized as a
sphere of the-central-and-the-only-«holistic»form domination over the background fragmentary
elements, visually connected with each other by
the common bottom-up movement character.
The only thing, having been left unspecified
from the point of view of the from, is the stain
of tintage between the main two figures, marked
on the material level as the one possessing the
median position and special characteristics: by its
size it can be compared with the central figure of
the piece right part, by its integrity and its contour
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
concretization it gives way even the triangle form
of tinted stokes at the right edge of the work.
The usage of strange form stains, being
especially singled out on the material level,
could not be in vain, as it is not typical for Paul
Gouging’s oeuvre, in whose works everything
elusive is an inkling of something greater. On
the index level the meaning of the element is not
still clear, as far as these two spheres connection
function is fulfilled by the correlated profiles and
the «fragmentary» form complex contour, which
also forms the boarder of these two spheres and
specifies the active character of their interaction.
Such a position of the given background element
makes the researcher address to iconic level, in
order to define its meaning.
Thus, the work of art does not let the
researcher linger about the index level, gradually
making him comprehend that there is not enough
information on this level for complete and clear
definition of all the piece elements.
In the result of the steps, performed towards
each other by the researcher and the work of art,
the following index status artistic image has been
generated.
Index status artistic image is the result of
interaction of the forms and the background. Two
spheres – the left and the right have appeared
because of this interaction. In the left sphere
almost all the space is occupied by the large
«fragmentary» form, with the complex contour
and filling, while the background takes a small
piece upwards and has a neutral character. This
sphere can be defined as one form sphere, which
qualities become the qualities of the whole sphere
- fragmentarity, boarders’ complexity and filling
variety, the inscription as an independent and, at
the same time, a subordinate element. In the right
sphere the background is specified in the form of
two main fragmentary elements, interconnected
by the image character. The only form is placed
in the centre and is holistic. It dominates over
the background, structures and centers the right
part of the work. This sphere can be defined as
a sphere of the «holistic» form dominating over
the specified fragmentary background. These
spheres interaction is performed by means of the
«fragmentary» form complex contour, and also
by means of two main personages’ correlation.
The «fragmentary» form specification let us
define the presentment spatial organization as the
one possessing the caricature principle – the usage
of the inscription as the background element,
which is able to become an independent image
element and to connect two main personages –
the «fragmentary» and the «holistic» forms, and
also to connect the left and the right parts of the
presentment.
Iconic status artistic image has two stages
in its development – summative and integral.
At the iconic summative level the work of art
appears as a sum of elements in the form of
certain personages and certain space. On this
level the masterpiece requires a thorough study
of the independent content of marked elements
both personages and a background, in order to
give them a fine definition. Correspondently,
the researcher has to address such methods
as analysis and formalization, which allow
adequately disclosing the content of every
element and naming it precisely. In the result of
it the researcher gets the general scheme of the
things, occurring in the work narrative space,
when all the personages and the space are defined
as independent elements, and their interrelation
is also named.
So, the main left sphere personage on the index
level has been specified as a «fragmentary» form
with an accentuated profile and the inscription
with the complex contour and the filling. On the
iconic level he presents a humane-like figure.
The head, turned to the left, has a profile of a
monkey, a humane hair style with a bald pate
and a humane ear; there is some whiskers-like
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
indumentum on his face, specified by dark tinted
strokes, and also with a help of several lines there
is depicted a circled brow, raised in surprise,
and a round eye, looking nowhere. The humanelike body, turned a little to the right relatively to
the head, is dressed in a frock coat and a white
waistcoat (a contrast combination of the clear list
and the dark stain, marked on the material level),
but without a front and a sleeve. Laterally, from
under the coat-tail there can be seen a fob-chain,
which gradually looses its shape, because of the
tintage at the presentment bottom edge. The left
arm, bent in the elbow, is depicted with prominent
muscles and covered with hair, beginning from
the elbow and up to the middle of the forearm.
The hand is long, with a shot thumb (a monkey
feature) with detailed other three fingers (the little
finger is specified neither by a contour, nor by a
stain). The left hand supports something, flung
over the left shoulder, consisting of two parts.
The upper dark part consists of the shoulders,
the elbow, the first and the head, seen behind the
shoulders and denoted by several lines of hair, a
brow and an eye. The lower light part resembles
by its form a sack with an inscription in French:
«Magot de la Guadeloupe» - «treasure/monkey of
Guadeloupe». The main element of the inscription
is the word «magot», which has two meanings–
«treasure/monkey».
Thus, the figure has the humane body,
elements of clothes, the humane hair style and the
ear, but monkey’s profile, the hand and the hair on
his forearm and his face. More over, there is one
more figure situated on his shoulder and consisting
of two different parts, though outlined by one
common contour: the upper one is a generalized
image of a man; the lower part is the sack with the
inscription of dual quality, now turning by its one
meaning, then by the other one.
Obviously, the main personage’s features
are: 1) fragmentarity: all the figure is a
set of unfinished elements, being not fully
completed – the frock coat is without a sleeve
and a front, the low part of the figure is not
depicted thoroughly, there are only four fingers
on the hand and only a part of the fob-chain
is presented. These elements perform a role of
indexes, indicating the features of a humane
being (the frock coat, the chain, the hair style);
2) duality: features of both a man and a monkey;
shouldered figure – features of both a man and
a thing (the sack); the inscription, which key
element has dual meaning; 3) importance of
the element, containing the inscription, as the
only holistic form element, being marked out
on the index level. As far as the word «magot»
now turns out to be «a treasure», then to be «a
monkey», the whole element, containing the
inscription, assumes the feature of turning now
to be a thing (the sack), then to be a man.
Though, monkey’s qualities prevail in this
image, as far as the profile, marked out as the
main sign already on the index level, has clearcut monkey’s features. This way, the personage
can be defined as «the fragmentary image»,
possessing dual quality (monkey- man) with
monkey dominating, and containing the element,
possessing werewolf quality («magot» - «treasure/
monkey», the whole element –sack /man).
Here, the work of art again suggests
distracting from the specifics and addressing the
master’s oeuvre in order to detail certain qualities
of the personage. The researcher uses the method
of idealization and then interpretation.
The combination of humane and animal
qualities in separate elements of one and the same
image is not typical of picturesque creativity of
Gouging and, possibly, it serves as a caricature
touch. The usage of words for an element quality
disclosure is also not characteristic of the master’s
oeuvre, as far as the master counted that, «in the
masterpiece the most essential, elevated and nonmaterial is the thing, which is not expressed, it is
sort of implied between the lines – without any
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
colour or words, - but it is not built up materially
by them».
Such image peculiarities, not typical for the
master’s serious works, are apparently the results
of the caricature character of the presentment,
when the inscription acquires the main meaning
and becomes a means of the presentment features
disclosure, and combination of the features
of a monkey and a man in one personage is a
character of the proclaiming comparison. But full
and precise personage’s definition is not possible
on the basis of the personage himself. Firstly,
in a black cylinder, with a hair style, resembling
the one of the first personage, and black whiskers.
There is a brow and an eye depicted with a help
of two lines on his face. The man is dressed in a
frock coat with a white front and white trousers
with a broad belt. He holds a walking-stick in his
right arm. He is bare foot. The feet are with long
toes.
This personage’s figure is somewhat strange
for a man. A long arm, below the knee, short
legs and long toes – all these are the features
of a monkey. More over, the man’s clothes are
the full meaning of the inscription is not clear
«Magot de la Guadeloupe» - «Treasure/monkey
of Guadeloupe». Why precisely of Guadeloupe?
And what kind of treasure is it spoken about?
And the main question – who is exactly the
monkey? Secondly, the figure, being flung across
the shoulder and containing the inscription, is
not distinct. On one hand, it is a «thing», which
belongs to the personage; on the other hand, it is
a personage, who is actively intruding into the
second sphere of the presentment. Such active
striving for another sphere, and also the profile
turning to the same side allow suggesting that, the
given personage is a «fragmentary image» and
is defined through the comparison with the main
personage of the presentment right sphere and,
apparently, he specifies the first main personage
in his turn.
So, the work of art gives the researcher a
possibility to compare two main personages, and,
besides, it raises some new questions, defining
the researcher’s interest directionality. The
same sort of moves is suggested to be done by
the work of art towards the other elements of the
presentment.
On the index level the second personage
(the main in the presentment right part) has been
characterized as a «holistic» form in the shape of a
humane half-faced figure with contrast filling. On
the iconic level he represents an image of a man
also strange. The cylinder, the frock coat, the
walking-stick are evidently fashionable clothes
of European type, add here bare feet and light
trousers, girt with a broad belt – the clothes of
lower-class and, obviously, southern.
Thus, the main feature of the figure, apart
from the wholeness, is the contrast of the
combinations: man’s image and monkey’s figure;
European type, fashionable clothes and simple,
southern type of garment (light girt trousers and
bare feet). That is the personage can be defined
as a «holistic image» with the dominant of the
humane, but with elements of a monkey, dressed
in half-fashionable European half-simple southern
clothes. It is important to note, that the personage
somewhat resembles the «fragmentary image»:
he is also dressed the frock coat, the hair style is
similar, the whiskers, the eyes and the brow are
depicted the same way, as of the figure, flung over
the shoulder, again with monkey’s figure. But in
comparison with the first personage, this one has
an additional characteristic – the combination of
two styles’ elements in his clothes (fashionable
European and simple southern). It is impossible
to define more precisely the type of southern
clothes, basing on the figure itself, and that allows
paying attention to the background, surrounding
«the holistic image».
The background is of fragmentary character,
it is scarcely depicted. Its main element is
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
trees with magnificent coma and fruit, which
some part (closer to the centre) is depicted
over the precipice. We should underline, that
the presentment of the fruit-bearing trees with
gross heads is characteristic of the first Tahiti
creative period of Paul Gouging («Ave Maria»,
1891), when the magnificent fruit-bearing trees
are the visualization of Tahiti’s lands fertility.
The row of circular forms between the utmost
trees, sometimes connected by abrupt lines, is
impossible to be defined as a complete iconic
sign, as for that there is not enough depiction on
Artistic image of iconic summative level
represents a sort of general scheme, where all
the elements and all their interconnections are
separately defined.
The first element – «the fragmentary image»
has the following features: 1) it organizes the space
of all the work of art: its contour is the boarder of
two spheres; 2) it occupies almost all the space
of its own sphere, what allows defining it as a
sphere of the form; 3) it possesses the caricature
features: the inscription and the combination of
the elements of a man and a monkey, what gives
the list. But we may suppose that, the following
element carries a decorative character.
The triangle form background element
resembles the image of Tahitian bamboo huts
with the roofs of the shapes similar to those,
Gouging depicted in the works of Tahiti period.
A humane figure with dark long hair, clothed in
a long garment, which starts from his waist, and
standing at the hut basement, can be identified
as the presentment of Tahiti aborigine, what is
typical of Gouging’s works of Tahiti period.
The last background element is the stain of
tintage between two main personages and it cannot
be also defined as an iconic sign, possessing a
certain meaning. Thus, the background contains
two elements, which do not have any conceptual
charge in the system of iconic signs, and which are
just indicators of personages’ special interaction
in the artistic image material status, which results
have remained useless for the painter in the plot
concretization.
On the whole, the background carries an
indicative, explanatory character and presents
Tahiti as a scene of action with a help of specific
elements: the native person nearby the Tahitian
hut, the magnificent fruit-bearing trees – the
fertile nature of Tahiti.
So, a certain artistic image of iconic
summative level has been formed in the result of
the abovementioned mutual moves performance.
a possibility to carry this principle over the whole
presentment; 4) it «possesses» the figure, which
presents by itself a semi-person and a semithing and contains the inscription on itself; 5) it
contains the inscription on itself, which appears
to be its constituent and an independent element;
6) it is turned into the second sphere on account of
its profile, of the figure on its shoulder and of the
inscription, and it means that, it could be defined
during the comparison with the main element of
the right part of the work of art.
The inscription is singled out as a relatively
independent element, and it has the following
features: 1) it is presented in such a way, that
it could be easily read and understood; 2) it
is in French → the knowledge of the French
language is obligatory, in order to comprehend
the meaning; 3) the main word is «magot», it has
dual meaning – «treasure/monkey», what gives
the whole phrase the possibility to transfigure one
meaning into the other; 4) it contains the element,
denoting the concrete geographical place «Magot
de la Guadeloupe» - «treasure/monkey of
Guadeloupe» → preliminary knowledge of such
a place as Guadeloupe is necessary, in order to
understand, why it is needed for the master as
the holistic phrase element; 5) as it is the only
holistic element of the presentment left part, so
it can be compared with the main element of the
right part.
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The second main element – «the holistic
image» has the following features: 1) it organizes
the right sphere space, being its centre and
dominating over the background; 2) it contains
the contrast of clothes elements of fashionable
European and simple southern; 3) it possesses the
caricature features: the humane image, but with
monkey’s figure, the combination of incompatible
elements of clothes; 4) let’s compare it with «the
fragmentary image»: the profile, the hair style,
the whiskers, the frock coat, monkey’s features
(the figure, the foot); 5) it is almost fully specified
by itself, the only thing, which is left undefined,
is the type of southern clothes, which could
be detailed through the comparison with the
background.
The background of the presentment right
part can be also singled out as a general element
(the Tahitian hut with the aborigine at the
basement and the Tahitian fruit-bearing trees),
and it has the following features: 1) an indicative
role: notwithstanding with the fragmentary
presentation
and
general
interpretation,
nevertheless, it is possible to understand that, the
hut is Tahitian, the humane figure at the basement
is an image of a native person of Tahiti, the trees
with magnificent heads and fruit is a presentment
of Tahitian fertile nature; 2)the explanatory
function towards the dominating figure, and the
background dependence as a separate element.
One also singles out the element, excluded
of the iconic signs system and unimportant for
the plot disclosure – the stain of careless tintage
between two main personages.
These elements have the following
interconnections. The main personage is «the
holistic image», as far as it is specified through
the background, which explains it. At the same
time, «the fragmentary image» is defined only
through the comparison with it. The presentment
format verticality, primacy of one figure, which is
simply depicted in the landscape, and the image
features of duality and ambiguity – all these
points at the combining of elements of portraiture
and caricature genres in the given masterpiece.
We may suppose that, the given work represents
a caricature portrait, where the depicted person is
shown as «the holistic image», and his accusatory
essence is depicted as «the fragmentary image».
In order to prove the supposition, the researcher
should imagine all the presentment elements in
their interaction, and this is the target, the work
of art itself is striving for on the iconic integral
level.
On the iconic integral level the masterpiece
wishes to be disclosed as some integrity, as far as
all the elements and their interconnections have
been already discretely defined; and in order the
plot level could acquire an emotional quality, it
is necessary to find out the correlation between
separate parts of the whole and to define a new
quality of the formed emotional ensemble. This
new quality will be the holistic artistic image
of the iconic status. In this case, the researcher
addresses, first of all, those methods, which work
for fixing interrelations among the elements and
for finding the relations which could be indicated
by the work of art itself. In the case with the
graphical work of Gouging, such methods are
synthesis and analogy. The researcher chooses
synthesis as a method, allowing putting together
the parts of the integrity, having been split in the
course of its analysis and enriching the knowledge
of the integrity due to the knowledge of its parts
independent content. And the method of analogy
suggests using of the painting itself, already
on the material level accenting the attention on
two parts of the work of art, the parts which are
different, but have some similar features. And
the definition of similarity, of resemblance of
subjects, which are generally different - is the
essence of analogy.
More over, the work of art defines the order
of elements interconnection, it builds up the logic
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of gradual interconnection firstly of separate
elements, then of spheres and then of the whole
integrity. In this case the process consists of three
stages: 1) connection of the main figure with the
background in the presentment right sphere and
a later definition of the acquired new quality; 2)
connection of the right sphere main figure with
the left sphere main figure of the presentment
and a later specification of new qualities of both
personages, and then of two spatial spheres; 3)
connection of two spatial spheres and a later
specification of the acquired new quality – the
integrity of the whole scene.
1. Connection of the main figure with the
background in the presentment right sphere
is necessary for the quality definition of the
southern type of clothes of «the holistic image».
Thus, one should draw an analogy between
the background, as an integral element (object
А), and the element of clothes, which must be
specified (object В).
Object А possesses the following qualities:
N1is of dependant character, as an element,
carrying the indicative function - dependence;
N2 is subordinated as an explanatory element to
the right sphere main figure– subordination to
the main figure; N3 – depiction of elements has
a strongly marked southern character; N4 – the
image of Tahiti nature – Tahitian quality.
Object В possesses the following qualities:
N1 has a dependant character as a holistic form
element – dependence; N2 is subordinated to the
right sphere main figure as a secondary element
of its form, as far as the dominating element is
European type of clothes – subordination to the
main figure; N3 – this element presentment is of
strongly marked southern character.
Thus, objects А and В have three similar
qualities, and, consequently, one may come
to a conclusion of their similarity and carry an
additional feature N4 over object В, i.e. southern
type of clothes possesses Tahitian quality.
After the analogy has been drawn and two
elements interaction character has been defined, the
work of art suggests interpreting the interrelation
from the master’s oeuvre point of view, in order
to disclose the essence of the interrelation and its
necessity for the painter in the given piece. That
is why the researcher may use the methods of
idealization and interpretation.
If we address to the punditry’s base, then
we know that, such type of clothes was instituted
as obligatory and official by French government
for the native people of Tahiti. It was an attempt
to inoculate them the norms of civilized society,
at the same time not so strongly infringing their
national qualities. During his first visit to Tahiti,
Gouging met such a mergence of European
civilization elements with Tahitian culture
everywhere.
This way, the main feature of the main
personage, apart from the form integrity and the
combination of humane and monkey’s elements, is
the contrast combination of two types of clothes –
fashionable European and simple Tahitian.
The striving to merge the best qualities of
«decaying» European culture with pure and
primeval Tahitian culture is on the whole typical
for Gouging’s oeuvre: «the West has rotten at
present time, but all, what there is mighty in it,
can, as Antaeus, acquire new powers, by touching
the lands of the East» (Gouging, 2001, p. 122).
Gouging calls Tahiti «a barbarism», which is
«rejuvenation» for him (Gouging, 2001, p. 165):
«Yes, the savage has taught much the old civilized
man, he was taught a lot by these ignoramus –
the science of living and the art of being happy»
(Gouging, 2001, p. 430). Synthesis of European
and Tahitian cultures is as rejuvenation and
freeing from «the perversion, dreaming on the
bottoms of all the souls and generated by the
decadent civilization» (Gouging, 2001, p. 370),
so, beginning from 1890-s, such synthesis was
the main creative target of the master.
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Nevertheless, the master points out the
absurdity of the combination of European
civilization and Tahitian culture in his letters and
articles about colonial government’s attempts «to
refine» Tahitian barbarism: «The life in Papeete
has soon become a burden to me. It is Europe –
the Europe, I has been thinking to get rid of, - but
still worsen by colonial snobbishness, childish
and caricature-absurd imitation. Not for that have
I arrived from so afar » (Gouging, 2001, p. 344).
Thus, the contrast combination of fashionable
European and official Tahitian clothes can be
interpreted as an absurdity visualization of
colonial government’s attempt to merge outwardly
European civilization and Tahitian culture (as
far as we are speaking only about the clothes),
and «the holistic image» - as a representative of
colonial administration.
It is important to note the interaction
character of the figure, combining in him the
elements of European civilization and Tahitian
culture, with the background, presenting Tahiti as
a fertile and peculiar land. The figure dominates
over the background and interacts with it only
through the similarity of the only element of
clothes. Thus, the combination of the figure and
the background is also of external character– there
is no any essential interaction between them, they
exist as if by themselves, though being connected
by the hierarchic structure of dominating and
subordinating elements. The background appears
as the base for the figure’s portrait, specifying the
clothes detail, but it is not an equal acting person,
creating the characteristics of the portrayed.
So, the entire right sphere can be called
a portrait of the representative of colonial
administration on the background of Tahitian
nature, where the background just specifies the
clothes detail (the trousers and the belt). Though,
the holistic characteristics of the portrayed cannot
be acquired without the comparison with the left
sphere personage.
After the separate element interpretation
is over, the researcher, being guided by the
work of art, addresses to formalization, which
allows fixing the acquired qualities as some
features, forming a notion of this element as
integrity.
So, the central personage of the piece
right part and the main personage of the whole
presentment possesses the following main
qualities: 1) it dominates over the background,
which specifies only one detail of his clothes; 2) it
depicts a man, but with the body resembling a
monkey; 3) it visualizes the absurdity of the outer
superficial combination of European civilization
and Tahitian culture on the part of colonial
administration; 4) it depicts the representative
of Tahiti colonial administration; 5) it must be
compared with the personage of the presentment
left sphere. Then, in correspondence to the
masterpiece logic, the process of interconnection
passes on to a new stage, when the researcher
again uses idealization, interpretation and
formalization.
2. Connecting of the main personage with
the left sphere figure is already accentuated
on the material level and can be done by the
researcher with the help of the method of
analogy, when the compared objects will be the
central personage of the piece right part (object
А) and the main personage of the presentment
left sphere (object В).
Object А possesses the following qualities:
N1 – the presentment of the humane figure in
a frock; N2 – accentuation of the profile; N3 –
half-long hair style of triangle form is marked on
his head; N4 – are the elements of monkey (the
constitution, the foot); N5 – is the representative
of Tahitian colonial administration.
Object B possesses the following qualities:
N1 – the presentment of the humane figure in a
frock; N2 – accentuation of the profile; N3 – halflong hair style of the same form, as on the object’s
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A head, is marked; N4 – the presence of monkey’s
features (the profile, the hand).
Thus, objects А and В have four similar
features, what allows making a conclusion about
their resemblance and carrying an additional
feature N5 from object А over object В, i.e.
«the fragmentary image» is also an image
of the representative of Tahitian colonial
administration.
This way, the main personage of the left
sphere discloses the following qualities of the
representative of Tahitian colonial administration.
Only external fragmentary attributes have been
left from his humane shape, such as elements of
a frock coat (the front part with the waistcoat and
the coat tail), a part of the fob-chain, the humane
hair style and the ear; there is only a general
impression of the humane shape, more accurately,
a part of the shape, as far as the figure is not whole.
More over, the pattern of transfiguration, turninginto, which is in the figure on the shoulder and
the inscription, together with the incompleteness
and image fragmentarity testify that the
transfiguration process is not over. Comparison
with the right sphere personage shows the
direction of the process – a transfiguration from a
man into a monkey. And the result of the process
is presented by the inscription, when the word
«magot» appears in the meaning of «monkey».
«Monkey of Guadeloupe» is the inscription on
the humane-like «sack», and all together they
express the essence of what is going on with the
representative of colonial administration. Though,
the reason of such a transfiguration is left unclear.
Probably, the inscription can explain it.
The second meaning of the word «magot»
is «treasure». And if we have a look from this
point of view at the humane-like figure on the
shoulder, then it is presented as a man turning
into a thing (sack) with the inscription «Treasure
of Guadeloupe». The possessor and the owner of
the sack is the representative of Tahitian colonial
administration, for whom it does not at all matter
whether it is a man or a thing, for him it is just
a burden, flung across the shoulder and being a
treasure. Here, a treasure is in the meaning of a
valuable thing, the thing, being able to enrich.
Thus, we may suppose, that the representative
of colonial administration is losing his humane
shape, turning into a monkey, because he treats the
animate as things, contributing his enrichment.
Nevertheless, the second part of the phrase is
still left unclear, the part mentioning the concrete
geographical place – Guadeloupe, and also the
personage’s active turning to the right part of the
presentment is still incomprehensible. The figure
itself is bent to the right, and the humane-like
figure on the shoulder is simply intruding into the
right sphere by its first and its head, what gives
quite an aggressive tone from the left sphere side
to the interaction of two spheres. Apparently, the
comparison of two spheres presentments will
answer all the questions – this is precisely the
way, the masterpiece attracts the main attention
of the researcher to the third stage of the piece
elements interrelation.
3. Connecting of two spheres presentments,
where the main elements are similar, can be
performed with a help of analogy, where the left
sphere will present object A, and the right sphere
- object B.
Object А possesses the following qualities:
N1 – is a vertical half of the presentment, where
the form dominates over the background; N2 –
is the main personage – the representative of
Tahitian colonial administration; N3 – the main
personage possesses features of both a man and
a monkey; N4 – beside the main personage, there
is a secondary holistic element, consisting of two
elements – of the animate and inanimate; N5 –
the secondary element performs an explanatory
function towards the main personage; N6 – the
main personage is not any how related towards
what is going inside the secondary element;
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N7 – the secondary element has a status of «a
treasure»; N8 – the main personage has a status
of «the treasure» possessor; N9 – «the treasure»
is something animate, transfiguring into a thing;
N10 – the main personage, enriching on the
account of the animate transfiguring into a thing,
loses his humane shape.
Object B possesses the following qualities:
N1 – is a vertical half of the presentment, where
the form dominates over the background; N2 –
is the main personage – the representative of
Tahitian colonial administration; N3 – the main
inanimate, into a thing, which is possessed by
the main personage and he is enriching on its
account; 4) the main personage, enriching on the
account of the animate transfiguring into a thing,
loses his humane shape.
All the transferred features are of
interpretational character. They widen the content
of the presentment right sphere and add up some
fragments (for example, the relation character of
the main personage and the background). But
there are no structural changes.
In the given case, after the analogy has
personage possesses features of both a man and
a monkey; N4 – beside the main personage,
there is a secondary holistic element, consisting
of two elements – of the animate and inanimate
(the background); N5 – the secondary element
performs an explanatory function towards the
main personage; N6 – the main personage is not
any how related towards what is going inside the
secondary element.
From the abovementioned we may make
a conclusion, that the given objects are similar
in six features. As far as the first object has
four more additional features, it is necessary to
ascertain that the similar features are substantial.
All of them present the main formal elements
and their formal connections, i.e. give a notion of
formal system of both spheres organization in the
presentment, and it is of great importance.
Conclusion by analogy contains the
resemblance of two spheres in six substantial
features and allows carrying the additional
features of the left sphere over the right one: 1)
the secondary element of the right sphere has
also a status of «a treasure» - the background,
presenting the fertile Nature of Tahiti, has a
status of a treasure; 2) the main personage of the
right sphere has also a status of «the treasure»
possessor; 3) «the treasure» for the main personage
is something animate, transfiguring into a thing,
- the living Nature of Tahiti transfigures into
been carried on, the work of art does not direct
the researcher to the methods of idealization and
interpretation, but, first of all, to the method
of formalization, which allows structuring the
acquired integral picture of what is going on in
the spheres.
After the analogy has been carried on, two
parts of the presentment form into a single scene,
where the right part presents a holistic structure
of the scene, and the left part is its fragmentary
meaningful filling. Actually, one part is a formal
model, while the other is its interpretation, of
course, not the complete one, as far as the main
significant moments are already in the right part,
but the left part explains and completes them to
a large extent.
Thus, two parts complete each other up to
the one integrity, but they are not equal, as far
as the main structure is integrally preset by the
right part, presented in the form of the portrait
genre. The second (left) part is only a contensive
fragment of the first one, taken out of it limits
and actively striving back; it carries in itself the
main caricature touch – accusatory comparison,
the motive of transfiguration of the man into a
monkey, which basis is hidden in the wordplay of
the word «magot».
Now, the researcher needs the interpretation
of the acquired formal model, in order to fill the
form by the masterpiece concrete content.
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So, the main personage, depicted as the
portrayed - the representative of Tahitian colonial
administration is fasten a nickname «Monkey of
Guadeloupe». If we pay attention to the portrait
features, which are noted by all the researchers
of Gouging’s oeuvre, we can specify the given
image as the caricature portrait of Tahiti governor
Lacascade. The geographical name «Guadeloupe»
points at the governor’s native land - Guadeloupe
island, which main population was Negroes. It is
known from Gouging’s letters, that governor’s
origin was well-known and for Gouging himself
European civilization and Tahitian culture. Thus,
if we join these two main features, then we may
come to a conclusion, that Gouging implied deep
personal meaning into the caricature.
The problem of just external merging of
European civilization and Tahitian culture
disturbed the painter during all his life on Tahiti,
because the target of his creative work was
contensive synthesis, not mortifying both sides,
but giving a new life. His social position on Tahiti
was of the artist’s special torment, as far as he
considered himself to be a great painter, but he
it was of significant importance as Lacascade’s
essential characteristic. While mentioning
Lacascade in his letters, Gouging always called
him «Negro Lacascade», in spite of the fact that
Lacascade was a Frenchman. This way, the given
image is the caricature portrait of Lacascade, and
it is proved not only by the similarity, but also by
the inscription, containing the name of the island,
where he was born.
In the work of art the governor is presented
loosing his humane shape, because of his
relation towards the animate nature of Tahiti
as to the means of enrichment. We must say
that, such a viewpoint about the governor was
rather well-spread at that time in Papeete. And
the caricature had a rather actual meaning for
the inhabitants of Tahitian colonies: «…Our
patience is being exhausted, we have suffered
enough. As it has been wittily noted by one of our
friends: palm bugs, caterpillars, cockroaches,
wasps, rats, mice, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes
and Cyclops – all these disasters do not happen
to us annually, while stupid administration is an
everyday trouble, which threatens to devastate
the colony and at the end of ends to kill us the
poor» (Danielson, 1969, p. 113).
But, beside his humane shape loosing because
of transfiguring of the living, the animate into a
thing, able to enrich, the presentment possesses
one more characteristic – external merging of
had to ask the powers that be, having lost their
humane shape, for a favor: «…I could not stop
feeling ashamed while thinking that, I was going
to ask such a pitiful and contemptible person to
do me a favor. (Why should we depend upon
contemptible persons?)» (Danielson, 1969, p. 86),
who, showing the intensions «to ennoble» the
savages, but, in fact, were just battening on their
natural paradise, open to everyone, and were
killing it: «…Tahitian land is becoming French
and by and by all the old state of things will
disappear. Our missioners have already brought
here a lot of protestant hypocrisy and have
destroyed some part of the poetry » (Danielson,
1969, p. 133).
This way, Paul Gouging expressed his
personal view point about a concrete man in the
given work, the man, who was trying to merge
just formally European civilization and Tahitian
culture by only one reason – to enrich on the
account of the later. Such a person deserves only
the name of «Monkey of Guadeloupe», as far as
he totally looses his human shape in the artist’s
eyes.
So, the integral artistic image of iconic
status is the caricature portrait of Tahiti governor
Lacascade, presenting his true image of «Monkey
of Guadeloupe», which, demonstrating an absurd
attempt to merge just formally, externally
European civilization and Tahitian culture in
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elements of his clothes, he has, actually, only one
target – enrichment on the account of Tahiti. Such
behavior of governor Lacascade has brought him
to his humane shape degradation in the eyes of
the colony inhabitants and, first of all, of Paul
Gouging himself.
In the result of iconographic analysis the
dialogue of the researcher and the piece has come
to its logical ending – formation of the integral
artistic image of iconic status, which possesses
the quality of completeness. In this case, it is
obvious, that the main elements of the presentment
work proves that the given piece belongs to Paul
Gouging’s oeuvre, and precisely to the period of
the first visit to Tahiti.
The iconographic analysis has also proved
that there is an implied content in the caricature
work. During creation of this piece, Gouging
appeared exactly as a great master, he continued
salving the main problem of his creativity –
the problem of the possibilities searching of
contensive synthesis of the West and the East.
This very conclusion lets to consider Gouging’s
caricature inheritance as an obligatory part of the
are full of implied actual-historical and personal
content, and that requires from the researcher
and the spectator the corresponding knowledge
of Paul Gouging’s life on Tahiti, of his relations
with governor Lacascade, of dual translation of
the French word «magot».
The iconographic research has proved that
the work of art represents the main Gouging’s
creative methods, being used on the given stage
of his creativity; just the same methods are typical
of his «serious» picturesque works. One of the
leading methods is the compositional partition
of the image into two interactive and intercompleting parts; one of them is given by large
fragmentary figures, and the other – by holistic
figures of smaller sizes. These parts correlation
is most often built up on the comparison of
characteristic elements – aspect angles («Night
Café at Arles », 1888), profiles («Her name is
Vairaumati», 1892), contrast colours and tints
(«Vision after the Sermon», 1888). This artistic
touch was developed by the artist in his first
independent period of creative work in PontAven and Arles, and also it was used by him in
complicated narrative works of the first Tahitian
period. Presence of these features in the caricature
artist’s oeuvre.
Conclusion
Thus, the iconography notion disclosure, as
the image outlining in accordance of the artistic
image dialogue conception, actually allows
defining, outlining, contouring, describing
the work of art as a graphic text – a material
evidence, testifying the process and the quality
of its creation. The result of such an iconographic
research is an integral artistic image of iconic
status, being able to attribute the work of art, i.e.
to introduce it into the author’s oeuvre context,
and to disclose all the implied depth of the
masterpiece.
Acknowledgements
The research has been supported by an
individual grant for young scientists of the
Krasnoyarsk Regional Scientific Fond in 2007,
and also by the grants for young scientists’
researches, supported by SFU in 2007 and 2008
years.
The author expresses her gratitude to
Professor Vladimir Zhukovskij and to Professor
Natal’ja Koptseva.
References
V. Arslanov, Western Art-History of XX Century (Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt, Tradicija,
2005).
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Anastasia V. Klykova. Iconographic Research of Paul Gauguin’s Masterpiece «Caricature of Tahiti Governor Lacascade»
B. Danielson, Gouging in Polynesia (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1969).
P.Gouging, Noa Noa. Letters. Essays. Articles (St. Petersburg: Azbuka-klassika, 2001).
O. Kochik, The world of Gouging (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1991).
N. Koptseva, «The Creation Problem in Fundamental Ontology of Martin Heidegger and Modern
Theory of Fine Arts», Journal of Siberian Federal University: Humanities and social, 3 (2008), 338346.
N. Koptseva, V. Zhukovskiy, «The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations
between a Work of Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator», Journal of Siberian Federal University:
Humanities and social, 2 (2008), 226-244.
L. Limanskaja, Verbalities and Visuality in the Context of Iconological Interpretation of Art,
Vestnik of Moscow State University of Culture and Art, 4 (2004), 23- 46.
E. Panofskij, Meaning and Interpretation of Fine Art (St. Petersburg: Akademicheskij proekt,
1999).
E. Panofskij, Perspective as a «Symbolic Form» (St. Petersburg: Azbuka-klassika, 2004).
G. Shpet, Art as an Aspect of Knowledge: Selection of Philosophical and Cultural Works (Moscow:
Rosspjen, 2007).
Val’ter, Paul Gauguin (Moscow: Art-Rodnik, 2007).
V. Zhukovskij, N. Koptseva, Propositions of the Theory of Pictorial Art: Education guidance
(Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2004).
V. Zhukovskij, N. Koptseva, D. Pivovarov. Visual Essence of Religion (Krasnoyarsk: KSU,
2006).
V. Zhukovskiy, D. Pivovarov, «The Nature of Visual Thinking», Journal of Siberian Federal
University: Humanities and social, 1 (2008), 149-158.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 580-586
~~~
УДК 396.1
Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory
in Cultural Studies
Natalia M. Libakova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
This article is about the urgent modern problems of the interaction cultural studies and gender theory.
Separation of gender category and initiation of gender theory provided new opportunities for cultural
and social studies. It is the author’s opinion that modern Russian humanitarian science only starts
to study gender methodology. There are two parallel trends in the Russian humanitarian science:
study of the western experience and creation of Russian theories and fields of application for the
gender approach. The book «Epistemology of the closet» by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky can be offered as
example of the effectiveness of gender methodology applied to the study of cultural phenomena which
is absolutely essential for the understanding of the specific character of modern diversified culture.
Keywords: «women’s studies»; «cultural studies»; gender; «gender studies»; women’s language;
«queer identity»; Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky; «Epistemology of the closet»
Point of view. Modern development of
research trends in the world and, in particular,
Russian humanitarian science is mostly
accounted for by changes caused by the so-called
«anthropologic turn» which is characterized by
a turn to the complex study of a human being
and culture in their integrity. Changes in the
scientific perception of a human being caused by
the «anthropologic turn» appeared as an attempt
to find the way out of a complicated situation
identified by the great minds of the world as «the
human crisis», «anthropological catastrophe»,
«death of culture» and «end of history». «An
integral individual» has been out of the scientific
analysis for a long time. There has been no place
for him/her in the system of social sciences and
the humanities. Until recently even anthropology
*
1
was considered a science focusing only on natural
dependence of a human being. «The anthropologic
turn» has affected all spheres of anthropology,
changed the research trends and made the problem
of a human being the central point and the main
subject for scientific research, thus marking the
transit from sociocentrism to anthropocentrism.
The following anthropologic trends appeared
in the sphere of socio-humanitarian research:
phenomenology, personalism, existentialism,
structuralism, hermeneutics, and cultural
anthropology.
One shall particularly note «cultural
Studies» based on the idea that modern world
is a total multiplicity: class, racial, ethnic and
cultural (principle of «multiculturalism»). Within
the frameworks of cultural studies this research
Corresponding author E-mail address: trognonulia@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies
trend considers a great number of objects and
phenomena that have not been studied before
as they were considered marginal. These are
such cultural phenomena as ethnic and sexual
minorities, pop music, various types of sexual
behavior, identity etc.
While «cultural studies» are focused on
urgent modern problems, «culture» in the Russian
science is the subject of culturology traditionally
based on logicism originating from G.W.F. Gegel’s
philosophy, and very much theorized and apart
from practical research, the study of phenomena
from real cultural environment. Here Russian
science shall follow the world trends of scientific
development caused by «the anthropologic turn».
Covering a wide range of phenomena in modern
cultural environment, «cultural studies» develop
in the same way as gender studies formed on the
basis of «women’s studies». «Women’s studies»
are the result of a powerful social women’s
movement called «feminism» – which is a
women’s movement on behalf of their rights in
various spheres, opportunity to actively manifest
women’s spiritual creativity. Separation of gender
category and initiation of gender studies provided
new opportunities for cultural and social studies.
Gender is constructed and considered as a
stratification category interconnected with other
categories such as race, ethnos, class, and age.
Gender studies initially appeared and
developed in American science and education
sphere (1960-1970). Later on, in 1980’s such
research programs appeared in West-European
science. In the 90’s of the XX-th century gender
studies became wide-spread all over the world.
The prevailing traditionally men’s discourse
is criticized within the frameworks of gender
studies (Yu. Kristeva, H. Cixous and L. Irigaray’s
concepts)1 with all the researched phenomena,
1
Gertrude Postl, With Freud and without Freud /Sex.
Gender. Culture. German and Russian studies, M.: Russian State Humanities University, 2003.
regardless of their natural original properties
and qualities, being fixed in the language and
transferred into strict logical intelligible systems.
Women’s style of scientific research and women’s
expressive language is developing in response
to that. H. Cixous calls utopian expressive
language «women’s writing» as contrasted to
«men’s» rational writing. L. Prigarey speaks
about a principal change in symbolism – from
monosemantic «phallic» to polysemantic
«vaginal». The diversity of terms accentuates in
different ways new specific understanding of the
language with no central terms forming the basis
of hierarchy. Yu. Kristeva believes that marginal
feminist writing can change the existing «colonial»
pattern. Thus, scientific style of presentation is
being developed fixing static- and monosemanticdefinitions-rejecting approach to the world. New
«milticoloured» vivid women’s language free of
rigid patterns of strict logic is formed and firmly
established in opposition to the traditional men’s
discourse based on strict logic where all phenomena
receive a fixed monosemantic assessment such as
«black» or «white».
Example. In the last decade of the XXth century Russian human studies were
characterized by the so-called «culturological
boom», an increased interest in various western
theories and studies in the sphere of philosophy,
culture and other disciplines. Gender studies
were also involved into this process, but it is an
objective fact that Russian science was falling
behind in this sphere. On cannot ignore certain
achievements in the study of the conceptual field
of gender studies (Gender Studies Centres work
in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara, Tver and
Saratov, research carried out, scientific works
being published) but still modern Russian science
sometimes considers such research as marginal2.
2
– 581 –
Gender Studies in Russian and the CIS. Who is who.
Reference book. – Compiling editor Zoya Khotkina.M.:
Documentation Centre Women’s archive, 2000. – 160 p
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Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies
E.g. Analyzing «Epistemology of the closet»
by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky, a famous feminist,
O.V. Timofeeva1, Russian philosopher, asserts
that the topic of homosexual identity Kosofski’s
work is devoted to is absolutely irrelevant for the
Russian scientific environment. Timofeeva called
her review «Mysteries of an empty closet», thus
emphasizing that «Epistemology of the closet»
in her opinion is absolutely senseless «empty»
work.
As for the Russian higher education, only
few universities offer courses connected to
gender studies trends. Gender theory is present
in the university curriculum mostly as author’s
or elective courses. Russian researches point out
that modern Russian humanitarian science only
starts to study gender methodology. The open
situation has given rise to two parallel trends
in the Russian humanitarian science: study of
the western experience and creation of Russian
theories and fields of application for the gender
approach. Another peculiarity of gender studies
understanding in the Russian science is also worth
mentioning. Gender theory is surely connected
to the women’s studies and feminist theory, but
these theories are not identical, each having its
own specific features. However, the fact that
gender theory in Russia has developed on the
basis of the feminist theory is very important and
urgent, because feminist theory in Russia is still a
theory and has not caused any significant changes
in a traditionally patriarchal Russian culture.
Following the trend of women’s studies
gender studies give an opportunity to analyze
various directions of women’s activity and
their importance in all spheres of social life as
well as make certain issues that have been out
of scientific research, concealed or ignored
urgent: racial, ethnical and sexual minorities’
problems. Feminist and gender studies are one
1
Timofeeva, O.V., Mysteries of an empty closet //New Literary Review, 2003 – No. 64
way or another connected to the issue of identity
identification, analysis of social inequality and
personality identity connection, social status
dependence upon the person’s gender and sexual
identity.
The expanding research field of gender
studies is covering new edges of identity which
results in appearance of new terms. The term
«queer identity»2 was first introduced by Tereza
de Lauretis meaning «odd» and «eccentric»
identity in order to define a complicated concept of
women’s homosexuality. This term became widely
used in feminist theory in order to define «odd»
and «eccentric» identities, not only homosexual
but all modern identities that are out of the
frameworks of the traditional gender dichotomy.
The term «queer identity» appeared due to the
development of the feminist theory, transfer
to post feminism and further establishment of
gender theory the subject of which is not restricted
to one sex – female or male («women’s studies»,
«man’s studies»), or two sexes, but is restricted to
minimum five sexes: female, male, heterosexual,
homosexual, and transsexual.
Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky is one of the most
influential and prominent theorist of the modern
feminism (T. de Lauretis, J. Butler, E. Grosz)3 who
dared to outrage the society by extraordinary and
queer topics of her research and extraordinary
approaches. Modern female-thinkers are turning
to the study of real cultural phenomena, address
urgent issues connected to sexual and gender
identity. The book «Epistemology of the closet»4
by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky was published in
1990 and translated into Russian in early 2000’s.
Researchers assess «Epistemology of the closet»
2
3
4
– 582 –
The term «queer» (English queer – odd, strange, other)
throws back to gay and lesbian studies which appeared
and were spread in the West in 1970-1980’s.
I. Zherebkina Feminist theory of the 1990’s: problematization of women’s subjectiveness/Introduction to gender
studies / SPb.: Aletheia. – 2001
Eve Sedgwik Kosofsky, Epistemology of the closet /M.:
Idea-Press, 2002
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Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies
as a very important step in the development of
gay-theory facilitating the establishment of queertheory and negotiation of dead-end of ideological
and political pseudo-neutrality in the vast sphere
of humanitarian sciences.
Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky defined modern
culture as homophobe and on the basis of this
axiomatic statement considers the definition
of male homosexuality to be one of the major
problems of the XX-th century in «Epistemology
of the closet». The author refers to literary works,
analyzes them, distinguishes and articulates
homosexual discourse in the sphere of western
culture. Kosofski specifies two approaches to
the definition of importance for the problem of
homo/heterosexual characteristics: minoritizing
and universalizing. The first approach treats
a problem as a problem of a certain minority,
whereas the second approach treats the same
problem as inevitably important for all people.
Problem consideration on the basis of these
two approaches can also be extrapolated to the
understanding of other problems regarding not
only sexuality. The analysis of literary works (by
Wilde, Nietzsche, Melville, Proust and Henry
James) is based on the objective axiomatic facts
appealing to which Kosofski gives grounds and
proves her point-of view.
It is an objective fact that people differ
from each other. On the one hand this fact is
not denied and is confirmed, but on the other
hand a number of problems and complicated
issues arise here, including those regarding
cultural, social and self-identification, as well
as the absence of a clear system of criteria and
features on the basis of which one could define
and classify these differences. The most widelyused principle to distinguish the peculiarities of
human–beings is as follows: «naturally occuringcultural», «natural-unnatural». Analyzing such
binary combinations Kosofski calls into question
binarisms established in the western culture and
proves their invalidity. She criticizes the widespread understanding of everything cultural
as «only cultural», as contrasted to natural,
biological, supposedly easy to change and amend
in the necessary «right» way. Kosofski analyzes
gender inequality problem as typical for the
human culture, that is unnatural quality with no
biological foundation and thus changeable. By this
statement widespread among many researchersfeminists Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky criticizes the
careless attitude to culture as flexible and easy
to change. Studying such dichotomous pairs as
culture—nature, activity – passivity, sense –
feelings, spirituality – corporeity Kosofski defines
the peculiarities of perception of these oppositions
and their role in culture. She is interested in
the fact that the content of these dichotomies is
compared with the content of «man-woman»
dichotomy. In this case culture, activity, sense,
and spirituality are considered «men’s» elements,
and nature, passivity, feelings, and corporeity are
considered «women’s» elements correspondingly.
Kosofski proves that firstly, the abovementioned
dichotomies considered as a matter-of-course
truth are formed under the pressure of ideals
and values of the traditional patriarchal culture.
Secondly, the researcher points out that the
comparison of the above-mentioned dichotomies
and the «man-woman» dichotomy can lead to
a wrong understanding of the components of
these dichotomies. Within the frameworks of
the problem under consideration Kosofski does
not consider the following oppositions as equal:
natural-unnatural, heterosexual – homosexual,
normal – abnormal. Here she calls in question the
established «equalities»: natural = heterosexual =
normal and unnatural = homosexual = abnormal.
The author believes that such an approach dividing
people’s identities into «right» – «wrong» and
«natural» – «unnatural» is unacceptable and is
a violation of human’s rights as it violates the
right of a person to be as he/she is. In this respect
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Kosofski touches upon the problem of tolerance
in modern society consisting of many different
individuals and being a synthesis of the variety
of cultures, subcultures etc. «Epistemology of the
closet» reveals a clear anti-homophobe approach.
The author emphasizes that it is unacceptable
to depress people because of their «unnatural»
sexual identity as well as on the basis of gender,
race, nationality, age, physical defects etc.
Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky also touches upon
such a problem as terminological tension urgent
for the whole gender theory. The researcher
differentiates between sex, gender, sexuality and
sexual intercourse1. She also makes distinction
between feminist, gender, gay/lesbian and antihomophobe studies. Gender is considered an
analytical core of feminist gender study, and
sexuality is an analytical core of gay/lesbian antihomophobe studies.2
The central categories in Eve Sedgwick
Kosofsky’s research are «the closet» and
«coming out». The author reviews the meaning
of the term «closet» in all its complexity and
multiple aspects, analyzes all the possible
meanings of «the closet» in culture starting
from a secret room and treasure house to
a wild animal’s den and sewerage. Such a
polysemantic concept reflects to the full extent
all the inconsistency and complexity of the
problem under research. Kosofski treats «the
closet», first of all, as a space for some secret,
any secret connected to self-identification
(gender, race, ethnos, religion, sexuality etc).
Such generalization of «the closet» polysemy
gives great opportunities for understanding
of the homophobe problem of modern culture
and definition to homo/heterosexuality. The
uniqueness of human identity and ego shall be
considered as a personal secret problem or as a
1
2
Eve Sedgwik Kosofsky, Epistemology of the closet /M.:
Idea-Press, 2002
The same p. 38
value or treasure. The author sees the solution in
«the coming out» – the exit from the closet, that
is through recognition of the right of a human
being for self-determination and freedom in
understanding of his/her identity. However it
does not require taking all mysteries and secrets
out of the closet. It is enough to recognize the
right of each individual to expressly demonstrate
his/her identity, on the one hand. On the other
hand, a person needs to transfer his/her «closet»
mentality and become free of «the closet» and
all mysteries and secrets connected to it. Eve
Sedgwick Kosofsky proves that «the closet»
exists due to cultural values and ideals and
«the coming out» is a bold and strong move
in culture development that implies the review
of traditional generally established standards
and mechanism for personal identification and
prevailing right of a human being (but not social
and cultural pressure) for self-determination. It
is worth mentioning that «the closet» category
is not a notion or term in the usual sense of a
definite form for certain complete knowledge.
«The closet» is more likely a developing image,
vivid and dynamic which can be changed and
filled with various shades of meaning and all
possible sense nuances. It is a perfect example
of the new scientific language developing
within the frameworks of women’s studies as
opposed to the traditional discourse formed by
the patriarchal culture on the basis of rationality
and logics. Women’s studies, in particular Eve
Sedgwick Kosofsky’s work, show that there are
such phenomena the study of which requires
introducing amendments into the scientific
language. The author insists that it is impossible
to express all knowledge about the diversified,
dynamic and procedural reality with the help
of strictly fixed schemes of rational notions and
logical categories. Women’s studies establish
the principles of modern science that make
account of not only men’s but also women’s
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Natalia M. Libakova. Specific Nature and Applied Methodology of Gender Theory in Cultural Studies
experience and idea of the world as well as form
a new discourse covering rationality, sense and
intuition.
Conclusions. Thus, women’s studies solve
a philosophic problem regarding the ways and
genuineness of cognition with the help of sense
or feelings, suggest a mixture of approaches
and simultaneous rational and sensual study.
In general, the importance of «Epistemology
of the closet» by Eve Sedgwick Kosofsky is
not restricted to the contribution to the study
of social homophoby and definition of male
homosexuality. The research conducted by the
author demonstrates the effectiveness of gender
methodology applied to the study of cultural
phenomena which is absolutely essential for the
understanding of the specific character of modern
diversified culture.
Methodology worked out by gender
researches provides all necessary tools for the
study of identities’ variety which, in its turn, allows
to understand and recognize the variety of equal
components and to reach mutual respect between
men and women as well as develop tolerance in
relations of various races, ethnoses, religious
confessions and sexual minorities. Taking into
account the peculiarities of the Russian situation,
gender approach and methodology is essential for
understanding of the specific character of modern
Russian cultural phenomena.
References
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 587-594
~~~
УДК 008 (47+57)
Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy
Vladimir S. Luzan*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
In the modern world, the fact that in the basis of all the «dead ends» of Russia there is only one main
fundamental question – the question of individual and collective self-identification, which has become
topical in the result of the loss of axiological markers by the modern, becomes more and more obvious.
And economics cannot answer this question. In connection with the mentioned, the society comes to
understanding that the way out of the given situation will be found only in case the Culture becomes
the most important national priority of the country development.
It is the author’s opinion that main contradiction, which interferes with the becoming of culture as a main
factor of the Russian State recovery, is its narrow-minded understanding by the modern politicians,
officials and by the main part of the country population as a sphere of leisure and entertainment, but
not as a historically formed self-developing and self-regulating system, which obeys objective laws,
generates values, norms and traditions, being a treasurer of the nation’s spiritual experience, and the
way of nation’s self-conscious formation.
Speaking about realization of the creative potential of culture, the author focus on the a separate
type – the type of cultural policy – in the general policy of the State, within which frames one should
clearly differentiate a proper cultural policy and an operative management over the current culturecreative processes as two different levels of strategy and tactics of management activity.
In the article cultural policy is perceived as a complex of scientifically based view points and
measures for provision of an exhaustive socio-cultural modernization of the society and structural
reforms of all the system of the culture-producing institutions; as a system of new principles of
proportioning of the state and social components in social and cultural life; as a complex of
measures for provision of an anticipatory formation of scientific and educational support of these
principles, for provision of a goal-oriented personnel training for competent regulation of future
socio-cultural processes, and what is the main – as a conscious correction of the general content
of the native culture.
In the end of the article there is a realization of the defined priorities of the cultural policy
becomes the matter of not only a narrow, limited set of people, being professionally connected
with the sphere of culture, but of a wide range of specialists, being responsible for public
management of socio-economical and socio-political processes. The process of realization must
have a regulating influence on mass media activity, publicity, and industry of leisure and show
business, which now become sectors of the economical process, using the cultural product as
a means of financial profit deriving. Stating of a new paradigm and imperatives of the modern
cultural policy, contributing to departmental closeness overcoming, can and must influence the
life of the Russian society.
Keywords: Culture, Cultural policy, Cultural processes, Cultural sphere.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: luzan84@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Point
In the modern world, the fact that in the
basis of all the «dead ends» of Russia there is only
one main fundamental question – the question
of individual and collective self-identification,
which has become topical in the result of the loss
of axiological markers by the modern, becomes
more and more obvious. And economics cannot
answer this question. In connection with the
mentioned, the society comes to understanding
that the way out of the given situation will be
found only in case the Culture becomes the
most important national priority of the country
development.
Understanding of this fact explains the
increased interest, having appeared during last
decades, towards the multi-level and polysemantic
phenomenon of culture, which has been stimulated
not so by the problems of theoretical development,
as by the objective demands of practice. «In the
modern world, the growing interest towards
existing cultural variety preservation, towards rich
cultural traditions of different nations, awareness
of cultural unification danger in the result of
globalization, intercultural problems and conflicts
turn out to be one snowball in the problems of
international security, peaceful coexistence,
cultures’ dialogue and their integration within the
world society». [23]
Culture has become a strategic priority
of the economy of developed countries. It is
connected with the fact that culture has managed
to generate in itself a wide sector of creative
industries. Precisely the culture accumulates
positive effects in various spheres by means of
cooperation of cultural organizations with other
social subjects and thus developing tourism,
attracting investments, contributing to salvation
of social-economical problems, this way, making
weak points become strong ones.
The main contradiction, which interferes
with the becoming of culture as a main
factor of the Russian State recovery, is its
narrow-minded understanding by the modern
politicians, officials and by the main part of the
country population as a sphere of leisure and
entertainment, but not as a historically formed
self-developing and self-regulating system,
which obeys objective laws, generates values,
norms and traditions, being a treasurer of the
nation’s spiritual experience, and the way of
nation’s self-conscious formation.
Beside the main contradiction, there is a
whole row of reasons within the cultural sphere
itself, which prevent a full-rate development of
the civil society. For-example:
1) finiteness of forms and methods, being
practiced in the process of activity of cultural
institutions of all the levels;
2) orientation to separate social groups,
mainly to children, youth and retired people.
Economically active grown-up population, first of
all people of middle age, is almost excluded from
the view point of cultural institutions’ activity;
3) lack of control over the cultural policy
subjects’ activity, absence of methodological
support of the process;
4) existence of alternative institutions,
providing cultural services to the population for
the purpose of commercial profit deriving. For
example, shopping and entertainment malls, pubs,
cafes, and various youth centers. A special place
among the new-comers of the cultural activity
field belongs to the modern cinema-theatres,
which use one of the most popular genres of the
modern art – cinema.
Salvation of the underlined problems is
possible only on condition that there is a separate
type – the type of cultural policy – in the general
policy of the State, within which frames one
should clearly differentiate a proper cultural policy
and an operative management over the current
culture-creative processes as two different levels
of strategy and tactics of management activity.
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The proper cultural policy is perceived as
«a complex of scientifically based view points
and measures for provision of an exhaustive
socio-cultural modernization of the society
and structural reforms of all the system of the
culture-producing institutions; as a system of
new principles of proportioning of the state
and social components in social and cultural
life; as a complex of measures for provision
of an anticipatory formation of scientific and
educational support of these principles, for
provision of a goal-oriented personnel training
for competent regulation of future socio-cultural
processes, and what is the main – as a conscious
correction of the general content of the native
culture». [24]
Law of the Russian Federation «Fundamental
Principles of the Russian Federation Concerning
Culture» defines the State Cultural Policy (the
policy of the State in the sphere of cultural
development) as «a complex of principles and
norms, the State being governed by in its activity,
concerning culture preservation, development
and expansion, and also the State’s activity itself
in the sphere of culture». [9]
On the level of modern scientific notions of the
essence of culture, what-ever global approaches
(in particular – definition of the top goals and
tasks of cultural policy) concerning cultural
problems are impossible without correlation of
culture with the main tendencies of civilization
development as in the pan-human scale, so in a
local one. If under civilization we understand «a
special, historically formed method of existence
of a large social community of people, its specific
form of self-organization and regulation of its
collective life-sustaining activity processes»
[24], then within this civilization system its
culture plays a role of a mechanism, performing
the following main functions as:
– generalization of historical experience of
the society existence;
– accumulation of this experience in
the form of a system of axiological
orientations;
– presentation of the given orientations
in different languages of social
communication and realization of these
socio-communicative contacts;
– regulation of society’s practical vital
activity by means of socio-cultural norms
of collective and individual existence;
– revelation
and
apprehension
of
characteristics and features of one’s own
specifics in the form of identity images (i.e.
society’s subjective notions concerning
itself, concerning peculiarities of the
society’s fate and its historical «mission»)
and their purposeful reproduction in
technologies and products of various
types of activity.
It is testified by historical experience that
the objective law concerning the increasing role
of culture, as a cultural policy’s object in social
development, is acting. And it is caused by the
following factors:
– Humane factor. Culture is developing
together with the human world. That is why
culture’s condition and its fate is immediately
dependant on the person’s social position. Culture
is growing, when people achieve their rights,
freedoms and favorable conditions of their life
activity are being observed in the given society;
when democracy triumphs and every citizen gets
a possibility of self-perfection and to continue
his potentials’ development. It takes place far
not in every country, but the leading tendency is
the following: people’s acquiring freedom forms
necessary preconditions for cultural progress.
In this sense, a democratic state must not only
take care of creating conditions for its citizens’
happy life, but of their personal development as
well. Under such a type of state world order, a
man becomes spiritually rich, treats his life in
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a creative way and is socially active. There is
also a purely practical sense in an up-brining of
such miscellaneous persons: precisely such type
of creators is «the locomotives» of the progress,
and, finally, they influence on the prosperity of
the State.
In Russian realities there are comparatively
few creative people, being spiritually rich,
successfully fulfilling their social roles as in
their own life, so in the industrial and social
sphere of Russia. According to the data, given
in the report of the Public Chamber of the
Russian Federation «The Culture and the Future
of Russia. A New Vision» [7], there are 13% of
such people in large cities (regional centers), and
9-10% in (comparatively small) towns of regional
subordination and villages. The increase of
spiritually developed, creative and socially active
people number is the main target of the State.
– Social factor. In a wide sense, society
embraces in itself all the social life being the
basis of the pyramid, while culture being its top.
The top cannot be steady and fruitful, if it rests on
a weak foundation. What-ever significant could
be some cultural achievements, existing in our
days in an undeveloped social surrounding, they
cannot define by themselves the level of culture on
the whole. On order culture’s advanced position
in comparison with all the other social spheres
could be long lasting, steady and financially
efficient, it must be based on the progress of all
the society. In historical scale, such a progress is
obvious and culture acquires additional impulses
for its progressive and successive development.
– Scientific-informative factor. Its
meaning has gone beyond the limits of culture
itself and national communities on the whole;
it has acquired a global character. There are
certain reasonable judgments, concerning the
fact that science and informatization become the
leading preconditions of society’s post-industrial
development, of its progress in such spheres as
social mobility and stratification, way of life,
education, qualification, up-brining, leisure and
so on. High rates of modern scientific-technical
and informational development have strong
influence on the rising of culture, in particular on
the rising of its intellectual and heuristic values.
– General civilizational factor. Modern
civilization has unprecedented achievements
in various spheres. They cannot be compared
with anything, what was created in the past. At
the same time, today’s industrial civilization
experiences a profound crisis. In some directions
it is approaching the limits of its growth, where
one can vividly observe dead ended motion
vectors of the ecological sphere. These ambiguous
contradictory civilizational phenomena and
processes have a serious influence on culture.
We observe a significant reaggregation of the
structural elements of culture, which takes place
to the prejudice of public morality and high
aesthetics.
Consequently, we are firstly and by all
means to raise the level of those components,
which are referred to the man’s socialization
and to expansion of his general cultural (first
of all, intellectual and moral) horizon. Relevant
contradictions will surely remain, but all the real
sources and possibilities in a man, in the society
and in the culture itself should be used for optimal
and authentically humanistic development of the
social being.
Example
Being characteristic to the modern socialcultural sphere, culture universalization is
dialectically connected to the variety of its forms
and content. Regional «mottling» of Russia makes
this connection still deeper and more important.
«Region is a spiritual potential of the
country, is a source of its cultural axiological
variety, which supports its entirety, preserves
and enriches the culture of the country». [19]
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Being a cultural potential of Russia, its region
can realize its values only on condition that it is
in an equitable dialogue with other regional parts
of the Russian culture.
Regional culture is a polysemantic notion.
It is a peculiar world, which is, on one hand,
characterized by solitude, closeness, circularity
on the daily routine, striving to preserve certain
immunity from innovations. Sometimes, it is
rather inhospitable to some innovations, to foreign
values, and sticks to a peculiar changing of other
axiological systems. On the other hand, it is an
open culture, striving outwards, to the dialogue
with other cultures, to constant accession of new
axiological treasures. Regional culture is faced as
inwardly, so outwardly as well.
The hope for possibility of Russian culture
renewal by means of regional cultures’ values
cannot fail to combine with the anxiety that for
the long period of monopolistic approach towards
the regional culture, it has been deprived of most
of its created values. One should not forget that
the region can serve as a cultural reservoir of the
country, but at the same time it can have also a
negative influence on its culture. In this sense, one
should take special measures in order to preserve
the regional heritage and originality.
We can consider the problem of formation
of regional culture policy on the example of the
Krasnoyarsk region. Today, the region takes the
second place among all the Subjects of the Russian
Federation according to the area of its territory.
The Krasnoyarsk region is very cosmopolitan and
differs by its high variety of nations, being the
result of complex ethno-cultural, demographic
and political processes. Serious changes in
the regional national contingent took place in
1990-s and were accompanied by tough reforms
in political and socio-economical spheres, by
the boom of national self-consciousness and
formation of new sovereign states on the postsoviet territory, by a high migration activity of
its population and the demographic development
crisis.
Data analysis of the All-Russia population
count in 2002 as at present ethnographic situation
in the Krasnoyarsk region has proved that the list
of nationalities, inhabiting the territory of the
region, has been extended from 124 to 137. One of
the main reasons of the fact is the boom of national
self-consciousness in 1990-s and liberalization of
the matter of ethnic self-identification.
Being under the influence of actual sociocultural tendencies, the Krasnoyarsk region
synthesizes two models of cultural policy, where
the main role is played by the State. The first one
is «a state-investor», which presupposes, that the
state purposefully invests organization of the net
of territorial centers of advanced cultural growth
and development and production of cultural
values, new senses and treasures. The second one
is «a state-engineer», which provides the sphere
of culture with new technologies, technical means
and a powerful infrastructure and constructs a
multi-layered cultural space.
Formation of the Krasnoyarsk region
cultural space has passed several stages. The
given process has been influenced by various
factors. Uniqueness of its geographical position,
its natural conditions, the culture of its native
peoples, amateur and folk arts, life and traditions
of its cosmopolitan population, which have
inhabited its territory voluntary and by force,
have played not the last role in the mentioned
process.
Having been historically formed, the
Krasnoyarsk region cultural space changed its
geographical borders in 1991, after the Khakass
Autonomous Region and the Taimyr (DolganoNenets) and the Evenki Autonomous Areas
had actually withdrawn from the Region, what
naturally influenced the organization of its sociocultural activity. Here, intensive processes of
society’s democratization played a certain role.
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«One should understand that, though being very
advantageous for the social life, democratization
carries some elements of simplification, elements
of mass and commercialized culture in to the
cultural life. Market is far from being a troublefree sphere, which contributes to a cultural
explosion». [22]
The modern cultural process of the
Krasnoyarsk region is realized in accordance
with the Main strategic strands of the cultural
policy of the Krasnoyarsk region, having been
developed and authorized for the period of 2009-
also by realization of the project «Krasnoyarsk
Agglomeration Complex Development up to
2020».
By 2020 realization of the State policy highpriority targets in the sphere of culture will allow
optimizing and modernizing the activity of the
Krasnoyarsk region cultural institutions, of the
existing net of state and municipal institutions,
will allow creating the conditions, which will
provide an equal and free access of population
to all the specter of benefits of culture and
high-quality services in this sphere, developing
2020. According to these strands the strategic
target of the cultural policy is a formation of an
integral socio-cultural space, which will provide
development of creative initiatives, as a basis of a
steady and dynamic growth of the Region.
Achievement of the cultural policy target
is fulfilled in the main directions, within
which frames the following complex of tasks is
formulated:
1. Identity. Formation of regional cultural
self-identification of the region’s population.
2. Integration. Inclusion of the Krasnoyarsk
region culture into the All-Russian and the world
cultural space.
3. Innovation. Promotion of appearance of
innovative models of thinking and development
of the Krasnoyarsk region creative potential.
4. Institutions. Preservation, development
and modernization of the net of culture
institutions.
5. Industry. Creative economy development
support.
Cultural policy strategy of the Krasnoyarsk
region has been worked out in accordance with the
constitutional rights of its citizens and culturalhistorical peculiarities of the Region. The main
vectors of the cultural policy presuppose formation
of a new paradigm of thinking of all the subjects
of the cultural activity, being caused by socioeconomical and agglomeration processes and
creative potential of the native people, achieving
drastic changes in the economical situation of
the given branch, will contribute to further
integration of the Region and to formation of
its positive image in the Russian and the world
cultural space.
Results
The main part of various processes of the
society’s cultural being goes on spontaneously,
being ruled only by the underlying laws of social
self-organization of people in their collective life
activity. But, at the same time, some components
of this complex process are subject to a rational
and target-oriented regulation, to stimulation of
some tendencies and stoppage of others, being
performed from the position of a certain vision
and understanding of the strategic ways, which
the given civilization is moving along. Thus,
the complex of measures, concerning artificial
regulation of development tendencies of spiritualaxiological aspects of the social being, can be
called «a cultural policy».
The most important principle of definition
of cultural policy targets and tasks is concluded
in comprehension of culture ambivalence and
polysemanticism of its senses and contents.
And it determines a special complexity of
management strategy and tactics in the sphere
of culture and a necessity of a multi-level
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approach towards regulation of socio-cultural
processes. In connection with the mentioned,
cultural policy must: firstly, be an integral part
of all the strands of the State policy without any
exceptions, reflecting its spiritual-axiological
and moral-normative aspects; secondly, become
the most important component of the social
policy, which can be only complex, i.e. socialcultural-educative under the modern conditions,
and it becomes possible only under condition
of organization of interagency interaction;
thirdly, it must form cultural policy as such, as
b) preservation and development of multinational heritage of peoples of Russia;
c) preservation of the native system of
artistic education;
d) integration into the world cultural process
and formation of Russia’s positive image abroad.
Realization of the defined priorities of
the cultural policy becomes the matter of not
only a narrow, limited set of people, being
professionally connected with the sphere of
culture, but of a wide range of specialists, being
responsible for public management of socio-
a special line of state and state-regulated social
activity, being directed to stimulation of socially
admissible and preferable spiritual-axiological
and social-normative manifestations of a man,
forms and contents of his social and individual
being.
Thus, we can define the following priorities
of the Russian Federation cultural policy for the
nearest future:
a) preservation and development of the
integral and informational space of Russia;
economical and socio-political processes. The
process of realization must have a regulating
influence on mass media activity, publicity,
and industry of leisure and show business,
which now become sectors of the economical
process, using the cultural product as a means
of financial profit deriving. Stating of a new
paradigm and imperatives of the modern
cultural policy, contributing to departmental
closeness overcoming, can and must influence
the life of the Russian society.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 595-600
~~~
УДК 130.2
Features of Eurasian Traditions in System
of Western Traditionalism of the First Half of Twentieth Century
Julia T. Chanchikova*
Krasnoyarsk Administration,
93 Marx st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
In the article author suggests version about presence of own set of traditions in classical Eurasian
project. Notions of «traditionalism» and «conservatism» are considered in it. Short review of western
traditionalism of the first half of the century and also comparative analysis of features of Eurasianism
and western traditionalism are presented. In result of it conclusion about singularity of Eurasian
traditionalism and its falling out from general context is made. In the article author is based on works
of Eurasianists of classical period and Neo- Eurasianists and also on investigations of European and
Russian scientists in area of traditionalism.
Keywords: Eurasianism, Neo-Eurasianism, tradition, traditionalism, conservatism, «conservative
revolution», symphonic person, Eurasia, place-development, geopolitics, conciliarism, Eastern
Orthodox Church, church, sacral, patriotism, religion, ideology, culture, neo-traditionalism, neoconservatism, truth, primordial true, Idea-Ruler.
Recently interest to classical Eurasian
project from scientists, politicians, writers
and philologists is observed. At the same time
system explanation of Eurasian phenomena is
absent. Eurasian project which has caused wide
polemic since the moment of its appearance
is still «inconvenient» for scientists who want
to include works of Eurasianists into certain
limits. Eurasianism is not confined in limits of
liberalism, national patriotism, Marxism and any
models social development.
Nevertheless possibility of Eurasianism
considering in limits of traditionalistic contour
exists so far as traditionalism is enough wide
philosophical notion included large range of
ideas.
*
1
In generally accepted interpretation the
traditionalism is world outlook and social and
philosophical direction which upholds keeping of
cultural, social, historical and religious traditions.
In the turn Eurasianism has been considered
philosophical current. Eurasianists considered
themselves «intellectual movement».
Traditionalism as religious and philosophical
current had appeared in France. In its sources
members of Roman Catholic theology of
nineteenth century – J. de Maistre, L. de Bonald,
F. de Olivier, F. de Chateaubriand had stood. This
generation of traditionalists had influenced on
establishment of European culture and mattered
for Russian thought very much. Undoubtedly
Eurasianism occupies smaller place in the history
Corresponding author E-mail address: Julia@admkrsk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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by time and has numbered about century since
beginning of its appearance. As for classical
Eurasian project its activity lasted ten years.
Ideas of traditionalists in nineteenth century
had had wide social perception due to conservative
romantics. Romanticism had not been completely
traditionalistic oriented ideology. However
according to E. Troeltsch «turn to idea of organism
and tradition» (Averyanov, 2003:123) had become
prevailing tendency inside romanticism especially
German one. Namely conservative romantics had
created classical European conservatism which
had influenced on formation of Russian one of
nineteenth century. As Russian conservatism
of nineteenth century had found reflection in
classical Eurasian project the connection between
European traditionalistic world outlook base and
Russian Eurasian thought are traced.
Traditionalism and conservatism are close
notions. Nevertheless there is set of efficiently
separating differences. Conservatism as opposed
to traditionalism, which is system of philosophical
and world outlook ideas, is difficult and multifaceted
social phenomena. It can be considered in few
dimensions: as the whole set of physical qualities
of individual, as political ideology and finally as
social and political movement.
While Mannheim wrote «traditionalism is
general physiological position which expresses of
different individuals as tendency to hold the past
and avoid innovations» (Mannheim, 1994:597).
Traditionalism is usually considers like wider
notions and that Mannheim called «conservatism»
is understood one of variety of traditionalism.
According to A. Dasnoy typology it
should be distinguished integral and ideological
traditionalism. Integral traditionalism reproduces
initial paradigms of activity as a rule they are
given by initializing way through initiation and
sacral rites. It is peculiar to traditional society
and closely connects with lifestyle of traditional
society. As Dasnoy considers the ideological
traditionalism as opposed to integral one is «world
outlook of post-revolutionary epoch and appears
only in society which cannot already be called
traditional» (Kara-Murza et al., 1995:97). It is
conscious traditionalism, ideology which defends
certain spiritual, political and social principles.
Such dual reading of traditionalism as on the one
hand «before responsive» social self-organization
and on the other hand ideological reaction of
society on invasion of allogenic, heterogeneous
or radically changing world order factor has
established among majority of modern thinkers.
Following Dasnoy typology the classical Eurasian
project can be referred to variety of ideological
traditionalism because Eurasianism is not in
limits of traditional society. On the contrary the
project developed in conditions of geographical
remoteness from country which became impulse
for creative thought of philosophers. Eurasianists
glorified Eurasia and consciously cultivated
traditional lifestyle of mythical state-continent.
The second stage of scientific interest to
problem of «tradition» on West was in the first
half of twentieth century and became wellknown as social and philosophical direction neotraditionalism. Neo-traditionalism in twentieth
century developed under the sign of deep studying
of non-European sacral traditions. It often led
scientists to the most radical conclusions. Present
state of human civilization was imagined by neotraditionalists wittingly distorted and depraved,
without sacral traditional base. The feature of
neo-traditionalists of twentieth century was
uncompromising stand in respect to modern world.
It dramatically distinguished from traditionalists
of previous century who had expected to a large
extent on success of their ideology through
conservative politics of «restoration» and
«reconstruction». If line of restoration had been
characteristic for traditionalists-classics then in
situation of triumphing modernism of twentieth
century neo-traditionalism could mean only
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complete rupture with prevalent ideological
tendency – uncompromising «conservative
revolution». In some part it can be found
features of neo-traditionalism in Eurasianism.
Philisophers-Eurasianists also deeply penetrated
into century layers in search of answered on
modern urgent questions and easily found parallel
between Eastern Orthodox Church, Hinduism and
Islam, between Moscow state and steppe imperia
of Genghis Khan. Meanwhile revolutionary
character of Eurasianism has been less radical.
Eurasianism has been full of amazing, unusual
for neo-traditionalism, optimistic belief in
spiritual renewal both of the whole society and
each separate individual. In Eurasianists opinion
their idea was endowed with strong constructive
power which transformed internal and external
worlds. In the same time Eurasianists has not
already been satisfied by conservative course of
«restoration» and «reconstruction» and craved for
renewal through conversion to Eurasian truths.
As ideas of neo-traditionalists and neoconservatives which proclaimed «conservative
revolution» the doctrine of philosopherseurasianists in USSR was closed for mass studying
for a long time. Eurasianism was not mentioned
even in polemic articles which condemned alien
world outlook ideas. One of the reasons of such
blind isolation was reflection of «conservative
revolution» on Eurasian project.
Actually superficial comparison can direct on
some community of German neo-traditionalists
and Eurasian scientists. First of all it is interest
to East. However if neo-conservatives searched
superpower on Tibet then Eurasiantists searched
corroboration of generality of Asian and Russian.
It gave reason for formation of state-continent
Eurasia. In that point neo-traditionalists were
much closer to French philosopher-mystic René
Guénon then to Eurasianists who has never
searched secrets of sacral practices and created
their doctrine as open for all bliss.
Philosophical direction of traditionalism
connected with activity of Rene Guenon and his
followers is not accepted to distinguish into some
separate stage of development of understanding
of «tradition» problem. However ideas of the
philosopher influenced much on traditionalists’
discourse of both western scientists and Russian
ones. So his school can be considered the third,
special stage of development of traditionalism
ideas in twentieth century.
Premordial tradition namely sacred
knowledge the source of which was the Creator
became special interest of philosopher-esoterist
Rene Guenon. The author said «all ‘esoteric
traditions have one origin and essentially can not
contradict each other» (Guenon, 2000:240).
Thus it is possible to talk that numbered
two centuries of existence traditionalism
developed within three principal stages and
always was stimulus for research thought and
also for appearance new ideological and political
currents. A lot of variants and wide outline of
limits of traditionalism allowed joining different
and at times discrepant members of philosophical
schools and currents.
In spite of tradition and traditionalism have
been studied by both Russian and foreign scientists
enough we do not find examples of examination
of Eurasianism within European traditionalism.
It can be supposed that the reason of it became
some isolation of Eurasianism of the first half
of twentieth century in general traditionalists’
line, its brightly expressed individuality and
Eurasianism which based on key notion «placedevelopment». However referring of Eurasianism
to traditional brunch is possible in connection
with that the theme of tradition takes special
place in Eurasian project. Eurasianists based
on Slavonic ideas in lots of points considered
Eastern Orthodox traditions the point of meeting
of Eurasian community. In their opinion ideas
of Russian Orthodox Church unlike Catholicism
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and especially Protestantism were not abstract
and ascetic in the sense of negation of world and
activity. And the most important was that bases
of true ideology which held life examine came
from true Russian Orthodox faith. According
to Eurasianists way from idea to life completely
coincided with way from faith to life.
Postulating Eastern Orthodox Church as
supreme and singe in its rightness confessing
of Christianity Eurasianists also did not follow
orthodoxies and reject wholly other Christian
directions and other confessions. One of
the important methodological statements of
Eurasianists was conclusion that different
religious positions could be differently realized
by different nations. Here Eurasians reached
thought about primitivity of different nations
in taking one or another bases. Latter must
correspond to culture, mentality and historical
fate of the nations.
The main principle of Eurasianists was
conciliarism and simphonism. In their opinion
the way to Eastern Orthodox Church opened for
all people. Return in lap of Eastern Orthodox
Church happened through free self-opening
of individuals in Christ. Thus they did not
deny even individualism which characterized
Catholicism and Protestantism since it was
put into all-embracing scheme of simphonism.
According to Eurasian version individualism
of bright participants of general symphony was
leveled by generality of action. If for Eurasians
chatholics and protestants were capable through
sufferings of Christ to come to Eastern Orthodox
Church then Buddhism and Islam were closer
in their interpretation to Orthodox Christianity.
They were similar in world outlook approaches.
Eurasianists considered that Islam and Buddhism
as well as Orthodox Church had idea of world
transfiguration but not change one world by
another (pagan world by Christian one). They
found the similarity between Orthodox ideas of
self-sacrifice, humility, submissiveness to god’s
will and Asian teaching about karma and fate.
Only with one Eurasianists did not agree
sharply and raised an objection to; it was
proclaiming certain kind of religion as single true,
as some ecumenical religion which pretended on
the role of base for building all-human culture.
Eurasianists were far from reading of
Primordial tradition by traditionalists. They did
not consider that any world initial Truth, united
for all nations, lay in the base of their teaching.
Moreover Eurasianists tried to formulate own
original initial Truth, personal Primordial
tradition. It was Eurasian postulate about IdeaRuler. It consisted in special role of Russia which
was enough for to live and sacrifice for good of
Russia-Eurasia. The notion of «Russia-Eurasia»
became for Eurasianists their initial, authentic
traditions, point of development and its final
purpose. It became Eurasian Universe. On base
of their view of initial tradition Eurasianists
succeeded in formation of own set of traditions.
They got the name «Eurasian traditions».
Elements of it varied both in the time and of
different its followers. At the same time following
statements were its components: explanation of
identity of Russia-Eurasia as special cultural,
historical, geographical world; renunciation of
Europocentrism and express interest to cults of
East as closer to spirit of Russian civilization,
but not identical to it; inclusion into Russian
civilization side by side with Slavonic nations
«Turanid» ones as rightful and active element
of its historical establishment and development;
idea of particular historical way and mission
of Russia; proclaiming of Eastern Orthodox
Church by pivot of Russian identity and base of
its revival; ideocratical conception of state which
included idea about state of «social justice and
truth» subordinate to supreme idea-ruler, idea
of conciliarism and symphonic person; studying
of geopolitical Russian features as Eurasia and
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imposition of new category «place-development».
Whether does the set of «Eurasian traditions»
contradict to Eastern Orthodox tradition? But
its proclaiming as pivot of Russian identity
could turn out extremely declarative or Eastern
Orthodox tradition could transform in the course
of formation of original Eurasian model of
traditions.
Eastern religious tradition united all areas
of Eurasian project. About the half of article in
collection «Outcome to East» covered religious
questions. The same proportion was in following
collections. Eurasianists emphasized more than
once that it was not true to accent geographical
aspect connected with introduced by them
notions «Eurasia» and «place-development» in
their teaching.
Following to Eastern Orthodox tradition was
clearly emphasized by Eurasianists in collection
«Russia and Latinism» (1923). It became reaction
on Vatican ingratiating with Soviet Russia.
Considering burning questions of relations of
two Christian Churches Eurasianists polemicized
with V. Solovyev and set of his ideas against their
«Outcome to East».
In Eurasian conception Russian Orthodox
Church was recognized dominate and connecting
origin of Russian culture. And namely it had to
become base of building of new Russia which
Eurasianists considered rightly to name Eurasia.
From these thoughts the third feature of Eurasians
understanding of Eastern Orthodox tradition
followed. It was idea about special nearness of
Eastern Orthodox Church to Eastern religions.
The main argument of this point was that
Eurasiansts referred Eastern regions to pagan.
N. Trubetskoy wrote: «Since the paganism is not
deliberate and stubborn renunciation of Eastern
Orthodox Church and haughty staying in its
separatism; the paganism yields to Orthodox
call sooner and easier then Western Christian
world and does not treat to Orthodox Church
with same hostility» (Pashyenko, 2003:69). That
is the paganism was considered as «potential»
Orthodox Church by Eurasianists. Eurasians
traditions can be built in certain closed structure.
Initial point is Russia-Eurasia. There is further
consideration of Russia-Eurasia from the point
of view of Eurasian teaching about individual,
symphonic and conciliar persons, according
of which Russia-Eurasia was considered as
symphonic person. For Eurasians clear hierarchy
determined by functional completeness and
specificity of activity one or another person
existed in system of symphonic persons.
Christian culture as symphonic person realized
itself in line of the lowest symphonic persons – in
different cultures. In its turn the culture realized
itself in nations. The nations actualized in the
culture, Christianity, moved to highest point of
conciliarism existence and perfected on good of
Russia-Eurasia. The conciliarism united social
persons and helped them to rush to common
spiritual center which was Eurasian primordial
tradition, Russia-Eurasia. Common purposes and
ways of their achievement, solidarity and serving
to neighbor, priority of conciliar whole of higher
order and finally sacrificiality became the main
principle of unity of social persons. According
to Eurasianists common spiritual center was
Eastern Orthodox Church. But it was the same
as Russia-Eurasia because of both identification
and actualization of Russia-Eurasia happened
with Eastern Orthodox Church and following
to Orthodox traditions. Except conversion to
Orthodox traditions and reading them in own
original context Eurasianists became successors
of Russian geopolitical traditions. After many
Russian rulers, travelers, scientists, commanders,
state officials Eurasianists admitted special role
of Siberia in Russian development. Moreover
namely geography, national and cultural features
of Siberia became for Eurasianists one of
confirmation of truth of their basic statements.
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Worked out historical conception of Eurasianism
G. V. Vernadskiy considered that «all history of
Eurasia is consecutive set of attempts of creation
of common all-Eurasian state» (Sonicheva,
1991:49).
In developing of Siberia Eurasianists saw
national and cultural regularity. N. S. Trubetskoy
noted some whole of Eurasia in anthropological,
national and psychological aspects. He wrote:
«Population of this part of the world is dissimilar
and belong to different races. Difference
between Russians from one side and Buryats or
clarity and calm were characteristic. Moreover
Eurasianists saw in consolidation of Siberia in
Russia one of stages of «gathering of separated
parts of Eurasian ulus of Empire of Genghis
Khan» (Lavrov, 1999:51).
Thus it is possible to talk about formation
of own original set of Eurasian traditions which
formally integrated into West European model of
traditionalism and in fact was isolated «product» of
philosophical thought based on Eastern Orthodox
tradition and tradition of Russian philosophical
thought. Impulses of Eurasianism we find in woks
Samoyeds from other one is very big. But it is
typical that uninterrupted chain of intermediate
and transitional links exists between these
extreme points» (Trubetskoy, 1995:219).
Trubetskoy distinguished general for Eurasian
nations elements Turanid psychology for which
inability to detach the faith from way of life, soul
of K. Leontyev, philosophers of Slavophil group,
regionalists, in Russian literature of nineteenth
and beginning of twentieth centuries. Developed
and intelligent by Eurasianists Russian political
traditions connecting with geopolitical rush of
the country and ideas of Russian statehood were
part of the set of Eurasian traditions.
References
Averyanov V. Nature of Russian expansion/ V. Averyanov. – M.: Lepta-Press, 2003.
Averyanov V. Tradition and traditionalism in scientific and social thought of Russia// Magic
mountain. – 2005. – N.4.
Bernstein B. Tradition and social and cultural strucrures// Soviet ethnography. – 1981. – N 2.
Chistov K. Folklore. Text. Tradition. – M., 2005.
Conservative idea – purifying from illusions. Ideal platform of conservative analytics club// Gold
lion. – 2000. – N 11-12.
Dugin A. Sacral patriotism/ A. Dugin. – M., 2000.
Guenon R. Essays about tradition and metaphysics/ R. Guenon. – SPb.: Azbuka-klassika, 2000.
Kara-Murza A., Panarin A., Pantin I. Spiritual and ideological situation in modern Russia//
Political investigations. – 1995. – N 4.
Karsavin L. Religious and philosophical compositions/ L. Karsavin. – M., 1992.
Lavrov S. Eurasianism: modernity of conception// Conciliar Moscow. – 1999. – N.10.
Limonov E. Holy monsters. – M.: Marginerm, 2003.
Livshits M. Crisis of outrageous/ M. Livshits. – M., 1968.
Mannheim K. Diagnosis of our time/ K. Mannheim. – M., 1994.
Pashyenko V. Social nature of Eurasianism/ V. Pashyenko. – M., 2003.
Sonicheva N. Philosophy of Eurasianists in conception of G. Vernadsky// Phenomena of
Eurasianism. – M., 1991.
Trubetskoy N. History. Culture. Language// N. Trubetskoy. – M., 1995.
Trubetskoy N. View on Russia not from West but from East// Elements. – 2000. – N 1-2.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 601-610
~~~
УДК 378.1
University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment
on the Basis of E-portfolio Method
Olga G. Smolyaninova* and Ruslan S. Glukhikh
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
In conditions of Russian higher education system modernization it is very important to use new
objective technologies in university teaching staff assessment scheme. It is connected with the direct
higher education quality dependence on the education resources. Teacher e-portfolio will allow to
make an electronic folder of scientific and teaching professorships achievements, to include not only
university administration but also professional community in assessment scheme, to make teacher
assessment procedure open and objective. We consider approaches to modern university teacher
activity assessment scheme directed to professional development and career planning. The base of
assessment scheme perfection is a personal teacher electronic portfolio which shows his achievements
to wide professional community and it is a professional development and career planning tool, also it
gives an opportunity to university administration to assess activity and success evolution of a certain
worker on the basis of various objective data. By means of electronic portfolio data it can provide
development monitoring of teachers and departments, and make activity correction. University
administration can use teacher e-portfolio monitoring results for objectification and assessment of
artifacts in stimulating bonuses and motivation system. The results stated in the paper have been
presented and discussed at projective seminar by grant IREX UASP № FY09-UASP-Smolyaninova09 in July 2009, which was passed under Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU in
Krasnoyarsk.
Keywords: professional development, reflection, electronic portfolio, assessment, competence.
Introduction
The quality of modern university staff
security is a determinative condition of
specialists training quality. The quality of
student’s education, university effectiveness and
prestige directly depends on university teaching
staff qualification, scientific and educational
competence, work environment, moral and
culture.
Modern social and economic conditions
allow to introduce new mechanisms of teachers
*
1
labor wages and stimulation, that requires
realization of new assessment mechanisms.
The teacher work is difficult and many sided,
highly intellectual and multifarious. How to
make teacher work quality assessment scheme
motivating him to further development? How
to involve a teacher in continuous system of
self-rating and new achievements planning,
their effective presentation and professional
development? How to create effective transparent
labor wages and stimulation mechanisms at the
Corresponding author E-mail address: smololga@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment…
expense of differential approach to teacher salary
on the basis of assessment scheme?
The authors suggest new mechanisms
of teacher prolonged assessment on the basis
of e-portfolio method. This technology is
directed to progress and perspective, it is based
on electronic scientific and educational space
using and information-oriented society general
strategy development and during the whole life
education.
Development of Siberian Federal University
doesn’t require momentary operations but it
requires teacher-university staff stimulation
which is orientated to long perspective and
long-term work motivation of teacher staff.
Therefore it is rational to use prolonged
developing forms of teacher objective individual
data collecting, their changing and developing.
Teacher electronic portfolio could be able to
function on long-term motivation of qualitative
performance and objective assessment and selfrating of activity which is aimed to high personal
achievements and general objects of University
as a corporation.
During two last years at Institute of
Education, Psychology and Sociology of SFU
electronic portfolio method is actively used in
education process. On the website of Institute one
can look throw e-portfolio of pedagogy masters
and bachelors (www.ipps.institute.sfu-kras.ru).
Student electronic portfolio is used in education
process
for
information-communicative
competences assessment first of all in the sphere
of ICT disciplines, for individual achievements
presentation
and
leadership
qualities
demonstration, and for organization of reflexive
processes of difficulties, educational resource
and personal deficiency rating for obtaining
professional and individual objectives by pedagogy
masters and bachelors (Smolyaninova, 2008). At
2008-2009 at Institute of Education, Psychology
and Sociology of SFU young teachers started to
create electronic portfolios within professional
training program “Teacher of higher school” and
additional qualification “Teacher”. The idea of
e-portfolio method using in teacher assessment
scheme appeared while researching resources and
facilities of e-portfolio as a personal development
method which is connected with career planning
and reflection, as the method which is motivated
to personal achievements presentation, collecting
different artifacts in electronic form, which could
be catalogued and sorted for analysis.
The idea has been widely discussed
by academic community of Institute at
methodological seminars, Academic Senate, and
projective seminar under IREX project.
For analysis e-portfolio technology potential
at SFU teachers assessment scheme the public
opinion poll was carried out among educational
experiment participants at Institute of Education,
Psychology and Sociology of SFU. The poll has
shown readiness of Institute teaching staff to stepby-step introduction of e-portfolio technology in
assessment scheme and professional achievements
presentation system of IPPS SFU teaching staff.
Materials and methods
From our point of view there can be singled
out the next kinds of activity that can be included
in e-portfolio:
1. Educational
2. Scientific
3. Professional
4. Public
5. Personal
The model of e-portfolio structure can be
introduced by the following parts:
1. Professionally made resume.
2. The part of educational achievements
which includes justificative documents and
results of education such as diploma, papers and
other kinds of independent activities, and also
teacher’s links.
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Fig. 1. Teacher electronic portfolio structure and its basic elements
3. The part of scientific achievements which
includes information about scientific interests,
gained competitions and grants, research papers,
monographs and etc.
4. The part of professional achievements
which includes information about:
• teaching activity (discipline programmes,
educational methodological discipline
complexes, textbooks, workbooks, and
etc.);
• professional activity (realized projects,
contracts copies, and etc.);
• other labor activities.
5. The reflection part which contains
discription of career potential and readiness,
author’s concept of teaching activity, assessment
of work quality by student’s training results.
6. The part of pastime which includes
information about interests, personal achievements
(sport, hobby, etc.).
7. Multimedia gallery which includes
photos and videos of different activities.
8. Useful links for colleagues and
students.
9. Feedback presented by contacts or
forum.
The electronic portfolio structure is
presented in Fig.1.
In Fig.1 we see that any teacher activity can
be proved by artifacts. It gives an opportunity to
assess quality of different teacher activities.
E-portfolio basic elements in preference
must be directed to professional assessment of a
teacher.
For assessing person it is important to
assess scientific, professional and educational
activities and teacher readiness for further
development.
Other elements of e-portfolio are necessary
for teacher general portrait making and also they
are auxiliary for assessing persons.
Teacher scientific activity can be estimated
according to following directions:
• Thesis theme.
• Publications.
• Patents.
• Author’s certificate.
• Conference attending.
• Won contests.
• Gained grants.
• Postgraduate students supervision.
• Students supervision.
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Fig. 2. Structure of teacher scientific activity assessment
In each group it is necessary to single out
criteria which we can use to assess teacher.
This way research study issue must be
conformed to teacher specialty.
The publications can be assessed by the
following criteria:
• general number of papers, monographs,
textbooks;
• number of papers in journal recommended
by higher assessment committee (HAC);
• number of papers in impact-factor
journal;
• number of monograps, textbooks in
central publications;
• general number of pages in papers,
monographs, textbooks;
• average number of pages per one paper,
monograph, textbook;
• citation index.
The result of scientific work also depends on
obtained patents and author’s certificates. And its
implementation has a great importance and says
about invention utility.
Conference participation is an integral part of
scientist activity. To assess a person it is important
to take into account the number of conferences and
their level (local, national, international).
With respect to contests and grants it is
important to know teacher participations and
number of won contests and gained grants.
In order to trace postgraduate students
training quality it is necessary to know proportion
of the whole number of students and those who
defended their thesis.
By supervising students scientific work we
must know the amount of students or students
groups, who gained grants, awards, certificates,
etc.
The essential requirement is that any criteria
must be confirmed by artifacts.
The structure of teacher scientific activity
assessment is shown in Fig.2.
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Fig. 3. The structure of teaching activity assessment
Professional activity is presented by
teaching and occupational activity.
Teaching activity can be assessed by the
following directions:
• Lessons.
• Textbooks, educational supplies, course
programs publishing.
• Information technologies (IT) using.
• Gained titles.
Each group has criteria which we can use to
assess teacher.
During the accounting period teacher must
give practical studies, laboratory works and
lectures on one or several disciplines in depend on
his academic loading. The continuity of teaching
course is also taken into account.
Thus assessing person must know how many
lessons have been given by each discipline and
their conformation
to the planned loading.
Special place is devoted to lectures which
have been given by teacher in other universities
of his native country or abroad. It tells about his
acceptance in professional community.
The quality of giving discipline depends
on course supplies for laboratory works and
practical training. It is necessary to know
general number of textbooks, educational
supplies, and course programmes and so on,
which have been published over accounting
period, and its number per one discipline, and
the level of publications.
Teacher information technologies using
in educational processes can be observed by
assessing persons lesson attendance. Videos and
photos of lessons can be presented in electronic
portfolio.
Teacher development can be proved by
given titles, for example “Teacher of the year”, at
different levels (local, regional, federal).
The structure of teaching activity assessment
is shown in Fig.3.
Teacher occupational activity can be
assessed by the next directions:
• Employment history.
• Participation in temporary work by
contract.
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Fig. 4. Structure of teacher occupational activity assessment
Before or during teaching activity teacher
• teacher’s links.
as a rule has work experience in the professional
Professional training must be confirmed
sphere on his specialty. Therefore his experience by diplomas or certificates. The periodicity and
is important not only in theoretical aspect but his level (home University, home city, region city
practical knowledge is significant as well. So the or abroad) of courses have great importance.
positions which teacher has held and different The results of training and teachers links are
rewards such as letter of commendation or necessary to be presented.
appreciation have importance too.
The structure of teacher educational activity
The participation in temporary work assessment is shown in Fig.5.
contracts can be confirmed by its copies and
Reflection, perhaps, is the most difficult
results of realization.
element for assessment. It doesn’t have
The structure of teacher occupational any artifacts and express inner attitude of
activity assessment is shown in Fig.4.
teacher to himself, his achievements, failures,
Teacher educational activity can be assessed perspectives.
by the next directions:
On the base of reflection assessing person
• Education.
can determine teacher adequacy by comparison
• Professional training.
of achieved objects with his self-rating. So if
In each group it is necessary to single out after assessment the person hasn’t reached even
criteria which we can use to assess teacher.
average stage during the accounting period, but
The education of teacher must be confirmed considers himself an outstanding and promising
to specialization of given disciplines.
specialist this can tell us about his wrong self
The level of teacher education is to be assessed appraisal.
in accordnance with his higher education. Also it
Electronic portfolio artifacts are produced
is necessary to present:
separately for each activity and confirm its
• education results (papers, course projects, presence and quality. Nevertheless we can divide
diploma projects, etc.);
artifacts into three groups:
• education achievements (awards, prises,
1. Confirming
teacher
achievements
certificates, etc.);
(resume, certificates, contracts, etc.)
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Fig. 5. Structure of teacher educational activity assessment
Fig. 6. Types of artifacts in e-portfolio
2. Confirming achievements quality (course
and diploma projects, education results,
scientific papers);
3. Multimedia materials (lectures, seminars,
conferences, cultural events, academic
missions, laboratory, etc. photography
and video recordings).
There we can notice that multimedia
materials confirm teacher achievements and their
quality but absolutely in another format. Artifacts
from the first and the second paragraph make it
only in documentary (text) form.
The types of artifacts are shown in Fig.6.
If there are basic elements of e-portfolio so
the question of their assessment appears. This
question is sufficiently difficult and requires
discussion within another paper, but we can make
some remarks.
Teacher activity assessment criteria on
the base of e-portfolio method are sufficiently
various. The rating of his importance, influence
and other characteristics must be different. We
suggest three assessment ways:
• by quantitative
measure;
• by qualitative measure;
• by expert opinion.
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Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment…
Besides there must be defined different
levels, achieved by teacher under assessment,
what make it possible to assess him positively
or negatively and realize his current level status.
There must be established the concrete values for
each position. The influence of different teacher
achievements and activities among others must be
determined and established by experts according
to the professional sphere of a teacher.
Electronic portfolio additional resources
for teacher assessment go beyond the scope of
the traditional procedure. These resources are
presented by the following elements:
• Multimedia gallery.
• Contacts.
• Pastime.
Multimedia gallery gives an opportunity
to confirm teacher educational, scientific,
professional activity and pastime by photography,
video and audio recordings.
So the scientific activity can be demonstrated
by conference and defense of dissertation photos
and videos.
One of the assessment terms is an open
lesson, but they haven’t been given recently.
Owing to the lectures video recording we can see
not only one teacher lessons and they will become
open for everybody.
Contacts part is the only part of e-portfolio
which provides feedback with the teacher. It can
be presented by list of contacts (telephone number,
e-mail, address, and website) and by forum
where special sections for students, colleagues,
administration can exist.
Pastime part. Many teachers are all-round
developed personalities. They have interests and
hobbies. That can be presented in this part of
electronic portfolio.
Pastime part can be useful for assessing
persons, colleagues and students. Assessing
persons can see that with achievements in
education, science and professional activity
teacher is developing and in the cultural side.
Colleagues can find common interests and start
to communicate more closely. And students can
see a teacher as an ordinary person with common
hobbies and interests. Owing to this relations
between student and teacher can become stronger.
And besides on the teacher example students will
strive for their own elf-development.
Network interaction norms must be based
on teacher interests and modern informational
and computer technologies.
Under wide e-portfolio method development
by teachers in corporate network culture there can
be applied the following technical feasibilities:
• restricted access to e-portfolio;
• teacher rating automatical calculation;
• on-line
e-portfolio
data
content
changing;
• simplified and uniform system data
entry.
Restricted access to e-portfolio. It is known
that people are different and not everybody is
ready to give information about him to open
access. Therefore teacher can optionally restrict
access to his e-portfolio or its elements for wide
users group and choose who can attend his page. It
can be realized through the ordinary registration
procedure.
Teacher rating automatical calculation.
Using e-portfolio in corporate network we can
give additional facilities for authorized users.
Such facility can be on-line teacher concerning
voting or test. Under such voting and tests the
rating of a teacher among students or colleagues
can be made automatically.
On-line e-portfolio data content changing
is necessary for e-portfolio demonstration
for different audience (students, colleagues,
administration, employers, etc.). The content
of e-portfolio must be different for each group
of people. Elements which are interesting for
one group can be indifferent for another or
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Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment…
lead to negative effect. In any way we can set
restriction beforehand and people will see what
they want.
Simplified and uniform system data entry.
There are no opportunity to make their own
electronic portfolio for many teachers because
of different reasons. This problem can be solved
by unified form simplified system of data entry
when a teacher must only write headings, values
or choose right alternative.
• teacher
informational
competence
development;
• feedback with students, colleagues,
administration;
• teacher
personal
achievements
monitoring;
• potential for qualitative assessment and
teachers qualification rating;
• generation of scientific and educational
general resource;
• development of corporate network
culture;
• teacher-students and teacher-colleagues
communication barrier taking down.
Results
High education renovation in Russian
Federation is connected with the higher
requirements to university teachers by reason
of international education space entering. Only
on the base of open effective demonstration of
personal achievements at teacher scientific activity
his professional and personality recognition by
students and position forming is available.
To our opinion electronic portfolio in
assessment scheme is an effective teacher
assessment method and it has advantages for
teachers and university too.
We defined the main advantages electronic
portfolio in assessment scheme:
• demonstration of educational, professional
and personal achievements:
• compactness;
• reflection of teacher pedagogical practice
by himself and by other experts;
• presentation of artifacts of any activity;
Conclusion
In current conditions of a competitive labourmarket it is necessary to normalize such teacher
work forms as self-presentation of creative,
researching projects in electronic space, self and
experts rating of professionalism and readiness
to work in a project team. It will allow students
to find a person holding the same views in his
scientific work, and a teacher to choose the most
talented students for cooperation in research.
Demonstration of pedagogical principles
at teacher personal e-portfolio makes it possible
for students to understand assessment criteria,
pedagogical positions, requirements, directives
of some teachers. Thus the tendency for
harmonization of students and teachers aims and
positions will be realized.
References
T. N. Makarova, “Portfolio presentation as alternative form of teacher assessment”, Methodological
journal of school deputy director, 3 (2005), 73-80. – (in Russian).
Regulations of university teacher staff one-time stimulating bonuses 2009 project. – http://sfukras.ru/files/reglament.pdf
E. Yu. Vasilieva, “Approaches to assessment of teacher activity”, University management, 2
(2006), 74-78. – (in Russian).
V. N. Pecherica, “Recent approaches to teacher work assessment”, Innovative technologies in
education quality development, vol. 3 (2006), 140-141. – (in Russian).
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Olga G. Smolyaninova and Ruslan S. Glukhikh. University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment…
A. V. Mosina and O. S. Leshchenko, “E-portfolio as a form of teacher activity internet support in
the graduate school”, (2003). – http://www.ito.su/2003/II/3/II-3-3306.html
B. E. Andyusev, “About portfolio using in pedagogical university teachers and students
assessment”, Education management in modern university, (2006), 119-121. – (in Russian).
O. G. Smolyaninova, “Foreign universities experience of e-portfolio method using”, Informatics
and education, 11 (2008), 99-110. – (in Russian).
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2) 611-617
~~~
УДК 338.4
Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality
of Educational Services: Current Approaches
Pavel M. Vcherashnij*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1
Received 6.11.2009, received in revised form 13.11.2009, accepted 20.11.2009
Issues considered in the article are related to the evaluation of efficiency and quality of education at
a large-scale level.
For this kind of evaluation the author suggests employing a concept of outcome/result-focused budgeting.
In addition, one can use methods of monitoring and surveying target population’s satisfaction. It is
suggested that the obtained data can be used for producing an evaluation summary of compliance
between the quality of education and educational standards. A proposed approach which can make it
possible to employ the above mentioned methods is clustering secondary level educational institutions.
Clustering is based on the criterion of efficiency and performance success. The employment of the
clustering approach will contribute to the development of a more effective financial policy and based
on it managerial decisions.
Keywords: educational services, system of education, result-focused budgeting, clusters, monitoring,
social survey, evaluation summary of educational services quality, educational efficiency, performance
success.
Educational reforms during the stage
of implementation necessitate not only the
evaluation of budgeting effectiveness, they may
also create a need in a new budgeting concept
which considers the use multiple sources for
financing an educational institution. From the
literature about the evaluation of effectiveness of
educational services one can sense that there have
not been developed clear indicators of correlation
between a style of managing financial resources
and efficiency of services of an educational
institution; there is also a notable lack of
agreement in approaches to creating an effective
budgeting system in education, to developing
reliable measurement tools for evaluation
*
1
of economic and financial achievements of
educational institutions.
Research papers of Russian and oversees
authors dwell on a number of issues in education,
such as: financial resources management,
effectiveness of budget allocations, evaluation
of achievements in middle-term planning and
programme-driven budgeting, the use of modern
management technologies.
However, these papers do not discuss
a systematic approach to effective financial
management; there is little information about
the influence of the result-focused budgeting on
social and economic performance of educational
institutions.
Corresponding author E-mail address: info@sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches
While planning a result-focused budget one
should consider the following articles
1. costs;
2. performance results (the amount of delivered
services);
3. effectiveness of performance (end-users’
satisfaction); this article reflects tactical
goals;
4. the quality of delivered services;
5. the level of achievement of the planned goals;
6. the effectiveness in social and economic
performance.
One should mention that educational services
differ from other services by their nature. These
differences have to be considered in evaluation of
the effectiveness and performance achievements
of educational institutions. There is a number
of specific features which are characteristic of
educational services.
Firstly, educational services are difficult
to measure. Lectures, seminars and workshops
which are delivered by teachers can not be turned
into a tangible product. Thus in order to attract
customers educational institutions familiarise
them with their licences, certificates, letters of
state accreditation. Prospect customers can learn
about institutional curricular, offered degree
courses and a variety of teaching approaches and
techniques practiced by the institution.
Secondly, the processes of service delivery
and service receiving in education take place
simultaneously.
Thirdly, like any other kind of service,
an educational service is an integral part of
its provider, that is, of an individual who is
responsible for a service delivery. However, there
may be specific features. For example, some
tertiary level educational institutions can boast
their own original methods, unique courses,
delivered exclusively by their tutors and available
only for their students, they can have strong
scientific schools.
Fourthly, as any service, an educational
service can be subject to variations in a quality
level. An educational service depends largely on a
professional level of a teacher, their responsibility
and diligence, their health level and morale.
Besides, an educational service is also influenced
by the resources base. Current degree standards
give a range of choices in subjects to be taught
to educational institutions, which can not but
influence the quality level of delivered services.
A professional level of graduates from different
educational institutions will be different although
they may have a similar qualification and similar
grades in their official transcripts.
Fifthly, educational services cannot be stored;
nevertheless they have certain specificity. As it
has been mentioned above one can not produce
an educational service and store it till selling, but
one can think of a service concept in advance; it
is possible to develop a syllabus, course outline
and teaching materials, traditional and ICT. Still
information which a student learns is a rather
perishable product, a student may forget it and
it may become out-dated. Thus, there emerges a
necessity in continuous professional development,
it training courses which update a specialist and
inform them of the latest achievements in their
area.
Educational services differ from other
non-material services by their consumer
properties (consumer costs): they satisfy needs
in moral and intellectual development of endusers; as well as providing for a customer an
opportunity in gaining a sought qualification.
Educational services can be characterised by
the following:
• the level of a service intake depends on
a customer’s background and learning
experience, on their capability and willingness
to receive a service;
• receiving a service can lead to a further
improvement of the quality of workforce
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches
• for a customer educational services’ benefits
are always suspended;
• educational services, as a rule, are more
costly that other services, this is a result
of an educational service provider’s high
qualification;
• Educational services are beneficial not only
for an individual receiving a service but
effectively for the society in general.
The necessity of introduction of a resultfocused budgeting system is proved by practices
of its implementation in education of highly
developed countries.
Australia, Canada, Finland and Sweden
have been using the system of evaluation of
social services effectiveness, alongside with the
effectiveness of their planning, since 1980s. In
all these countries there functions a management
and quality control system for educational
services, which provides necessary data for the
evaluation of efficiency of educational services.
However, one can notice different approaches not
only in methodology of developing planning and
budgeting systems, but also in interpreting the
efficiency of educational services. If one takes
Australia, Denmark and France, these countries
base their interpretations on both qualitative and
quantitative data. Canada, Sweden and Great
Britain, on the other hand, opt for quantitative
data for evaluation of educational institutions
efficiency. Whereas in Finland they use
quantitative data only if qualitative methods can
not be implemented. The majority of countries
who have reformed their systems of budget
monitoring obtain their data for evaluation
from customer surveys. These surveys serve
as barometers for customer satisfaction and for
identifying the inadequate quality of educational
programmes.
The major directions of methodology
development in the Russian Federation are the
following:
1. improvement of the quality of education (of
educational service delivery), improvement of
efficiency of educational institutions
2. making education more accessible (abiding
by constitutionally guaranteed rights for
citizens)
3. increasing the efficiency of financing in
education (maximizing results within budget
limitations)
4. increasing the transparency of budget
allocation
Goals are expected to be achieved with the
following:
• dividing budget authorisation – introduction
of subventions to support the implementations
of major educational programmes;
• budget planning based on per capita
principle;
• introducing the norm of meeting educational
standards as a required minimum for budget
effectiveness;
• considering individual learners’ needs as a tool
for improving the quality of an educational
service;
• Developing a system of reliable indicators for
monitoring the efficiency, accessibility and
quality in education.
For successful development of the budget
system an increase in the efficiency of educational
services is one of the crucial factors for the
country’s social and economic development.
Economic gains from delivering efficient
educational services depend also on the scale of
their accessibility in educational institutions. An
efficient educational service is an important factor
in social satisfaction and effective functioning of
the budget system.
After the Presidents’ Decree of 28.06.07
# 825 “Performance evaluation of the local
executive bodies in the Russian Federation” there
has started a process of developing a system of
quality evaluation of different educational models
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches
employed at a regional level. Quality evaluation
systems in question are expected to be used for
measuring outcomes of complex educational
projects aimed at modernizing local educational
systems.
The aim of the suggested by the author
approach is development of mechanisms for
evaluation of the executive bodies’ performance
efficiency. The points of evaluation are effective
budget expenditure, dynamic in indicators
for education quality change, the level of
implementation of new management principles
and approaches which provide for more efficient
regional management models, including those in
education.
Evaluation results, according to the approach,
will allow identifying problem areas requiring
urgent addressing by regional and municipal
authorities. They will also provide data for
making a specific action plan aimed at increasing
the efficiency of regional executive bodies
performance, namely they will allow identifying
ineffective budget expenditures; in addition it will
be possible to identify unused resources (financial,
material, technical, human, etc) in order to use
them for educational staff pay rise, for increasing
the quality and range of services.
Data required for efficiency evaluation are
taken from official governmental reports, from
governmental statistic and business statistic, and
also from population surveys.
In the Krasnoyarsk Territory there exist
standards about the quality of educational
services in primary, secondary, upper secondary
and commercial education.
The mentioned standards are aimed at
providing proper service delivery and thus
securing citizens’ rights for quality primary,
secondary, upper secondary and commercial
education.
In order to maintain a proper level of the
delivered services in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
evaluations are carried out to check that factual
educational services correspond to the level
prescribed by the standards1.
The main goals in evaluation of the
compliance between quality of educational
services and the quality standards are the
following:
• Systematic analysis and evaluation of the
gathered information about the quality
of delivered services and about their
correspondence to the quality prescribed by
the standards;
• Providing the information about the quality
of educational services to the Territorial
executive bodies and population of the
Territory.
The evaluation of the compliance between
educational services quality and the standards
is held by the educational agency on a quarterly
basis. The evaluation is held with the use of the
following mechanisms:
1. Monitoring of the services quality against the
standards.
2. Surveying the population in order to find out
the level of their satisfaction with the quality
of delivered educational services.
The following are the criteria for holding
regular monitoring procedures:
• Categories of end-users;
• Operational model of educational institution
• The range of provided services;
• Transparency and accessibility of information
for customers before requesting a service and
while a delivery stage;
• Period of services delivery;
• Customers’ complaints.
1
– 614 –
Decree of the Territory Administration of 27.06.2007
#258-п “Towards establishing evaluation procedure in
checking the correspondence of delivered educational
services to prescribed quality standards and considering the obtained results in the prospective budget planning”.
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches
Table 1. Compliance of educational services quality informed by monitoring procedures
Significant value
Value interpretation
(OC1)
No divergences discovered as a result of
1,0
Provided services comply with the
monitoring procedures
quality standards
Sporadic divergences from the standard
0,5
On the whole provided services comply
requirements
with the quality standards
Numerous divergences (more than 5) discovered
0
Provided services do not comply with
as a result of monitoring procedures, failure to
the quality standards
eliminate a number of divergences discovered
during previously held monitoring
Criteria
OC1 – a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by monitoring
procedures of a separate educational service.
Table 2. Compliance of educational services quality informed by population surveying
Criteria
More than 70% of surveyed population in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory are satisfied with the
quality of provided educational services
50-70% of surveyed population in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory are satisfied with the
quality of provided educational services
Less than 50% of surveyed population in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory are satisfied with the
quality of provided educational services
Significant value
Value interpretation
(OC2)
1,0
Provided services comply with the
quality standards
0,5
0
On the whole provided services comply
with the quality standards
Provided services do not comply with
the quality standards
OC2 – a weight parameter of compliance between educational services quality and standards quality informed by surveying
population about a separate educational service.
Below are the evaluation criteria for
monitoring the compliance of educational
services quality to the educational standards:
Criteria of compliance of educational
services quality with quality standards
informed by population surveying include the
following:
Both of the above presented weight
parameters are later used for making an evaluation
summary of compliance between educational
services quality and the quality standards
Below is the formula for calculation an
evaluation summary value based on the both
weight parameters, monitoring procedures and
population surveying:
Meanings: OC (summary) - evaluation
summary value of compliance between
educational services quality and the quality
standards;
OC1 - a weight parameter of compliance
between educational services quality and
standards quality informed by monitoring
procedures of a separate educational service.
OC2 – a weight parameter of compliance
between educational services quality and
standards quality informed by population
surveying.
If an evaluation summary is based on the
weight parameters of monitoring procedures, the
suggested formula is the following:
OC (summary) = 0.5 x OC1 + 0.5 x OC2 (1)
– 615 –
OC (summary) = OC1
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches
Table 3. Evaluation summary values of compliance between educational services quality and the quality
standards
Values
Value interpretation
OC summary=1
provided services are in full compliance with the quality standards
0.5<= OC summary<1
on the whole provided services are in compliance with the quality standards
OC summary<0.5
provided services fail to comply with the quality standards
Table 4. Correlation between parameter groups and institutional aims
Parameter groups
1. Quality of education
2. Professional qualification of staff
Aim to achieve
provision of quality education to population in order to guarantee social
mobility and to promote lowering social and economic stratification
increasing the level of staff professional qualification and the quality of
tutorials
development of individual’s creativity
3. Development of extracurricular
educational services
4. A system of graduates appointment increasing students employability, preparing them for further education
5. Participation of students and staff
in conferences, contests, olympiads
6. Using a budget network
providing staff and students with opportunities for self-development,
increasing institutional transparency
efficient use of available resources
7. Financial resources
improving financial management and decreasing inefficient
institutional expenditure
Meanings: evaluation summary value
of compliance between educational services
quality and the quality standards for a separate
educational service;
OC1 - a weight parameter of compliance
between educational services quality and
standards quality informed by monitoring
procedures.
Table 3 below offers a range of evaluation
summary values and their interpretations.
Evaluation results of compliance between
educational services quality and the quality
standards are considered in the following
situations:
• Producing a budget report of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory;
• Planning a prospect year budget of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory;
• Proposing changes to a range of educational
services, quality standards;
• Project proposals for educational services for
a prospect financial year
While developing a methodological
approach one should identify basic criteria for
measuring efficiency and performance success of
an educational institution.
A set of tools for measuring efficiency and
performance success of an educational institution
should be referred to as information system
of efficiency evaluation (‘information system’
hereafter). One parameter can correlate only
with one activity aspect (e.g. academic progress,
payment expenditure, etc); the whole system
may provide a broader picture of various activity
aspects (in the aggregate).
Basic requirements towards the information
system are the following:
1. it should reflect priorities in educational
institutions’ activity and reflect their aims and
objectives.
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Pavel M. Vcherashnij. Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches
2. it should communicate its accessibility and
effectiveness to potential users.
3. it should communicate the idea of correlation
between aims and objectives and major
directions in institution’s activity.
4. the system in question should be integrated
into institutional activities, where if
forms a part of planning and management
processes.
5. cost efficiency: resources used for gathering
information in order to hold evaluation
should be paid back by the results of the
Educational institutions monitoring has
been developed with the idea of optimising cost
effectiveness in mind. Every group of parameters
correlates with an institutional aim, which, in its
turn, decides on specific parameters belonging to
each group.
There are three stages of educational
institution monitoring:
First stage – evaluation of an institution is
held in order to find out the level of compliance
between the institutional main parameters and
executive body requirements to educational
evaluation.
Parameters of institutional efficiency and
performance success can be classified into
groups which reflect task achievement in each
group. Grouping the parameters provides a
wider information data about achievement in
concrete directions of institutional activity.
It also correlates with the above mentioned
requirements to an information system, such
as reflecting priorities, accessibility and
effectiveness, and correlation between aims and
major directions. This grouping accounts for
the fact that different users may be interested in
different parameters.
services quality.
Second stage – efficiency evaluation of each
institution is held in order to find out top achievers
among institutions in each parameter.
Third stage – summary evaluation is
produced in order to rank the institutions on the
basis of their efficiency and performance results.
The obtained ranking serves as a basis matrix
development.
For the purposes of effective strategic
management and financial stimulation of
educational institutions it is proposed to group
them according to the results included into the
matrix.
References
Anisimov P.F., Demin V.M., Oleynikova O.N. Financing professional education abroad. Moscow,
2001.
2. Balykhin G.A. Managing development in education:organisational and economic aspects. –
Moscow, 2004.
3. Nikitin M.V. Modernizing management in educational institutions development. Monograph –
Moscow, 2001
4. Lapushinskaya G.K. Forming a planning system for development regional professional education
in conditions of social network transformation. St. Petersburg, 2004
5. Khudoliy N.G. Integration processes in a regional system of professional development. Moscow,
2002.
1.
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