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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2012 Journal of Siberian Federal University 5 (11) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН А.Г.Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Boris D. Elkonin Source and Driving Forces for Development – 1525 – Isak D. Froumin Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions – 1534 – Vasily V. Davydov Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation – 1542 – Anatoly G. Kasprzhak Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 – 1549 – Katerina N. Polivanova Problems of Learning Motivation. The age Aspect – 1560 – Boris I. Khasan Conflicts and Negotiations $ Educational Content and Conditions for the Development – 1570 – Viktor A. Bolotov Development Pedagogy $ the Crisis of the Genre? – 1583 – Tatiana I. Ustus The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence – 1593 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 23.11.2012 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 15,5. Уч.-изд. л. 15,0. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 10632. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Sergey M. Geraschenko Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Khasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Vladimir I. Suprun Liudmila V. Kulikova Olga G. Smolyaninova Nicolai N. Petro Dr. Suneel Kumar Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents, Game Preferences and Favorite Toys – 1602 – Elena Î. Smirnova Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes – 1617 – Oksana S. Ostroverkh Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities – 1628 – Larisa A. Novopashina The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment – 1639 – Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition to Independence and Responsibility. Adolescence as a Transition – 1660 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva and Elena Yu. Kozyreva Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education Quality Management – 1671 – Elena Y. Fedorenkon Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource – 1685 – Victor E. Pakhal’yan Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects – 1694 – Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova and Olga Y. Bugakova Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training – 1707 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1525-1533 ~~~ УДК 159.922.7 Source and Driving Forces for Development Boris D. Elkonin* Institute of the Russian Academy of Education the Laboratory of the Junior School Phycology оf Psychological 4 build., 9 Mohovaya st., Moscow, 125009 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 Based on the classic for the Russian children’s psychology attitudes about the contradiction of the ideal form and the level of somatic organization of a child, the idea about the causes of the development, as the question why when you reach certain key points of development, the process does not stop and does not turn into the functioning according to the already known schemes, but develops further, is researched and developed. It is alleged that the development of an action as the development of the world has two focusing and two completions. Firstly, the completion of the development in the construction of an individual action and, secondly, its completion in the construction of the combined, mutual action. The importance of realizing that mediacy – transferring samples – is not completed by the formation of the separate cultural skills, but finds its fullness by being included into the management of the nature of movement, finding its rhythm and measure – the step of development, is emphasized. Keywords: activity, the source of activity, action, subjectivity, the model, the driving forces of development. The original question The subject of the driving forces is the key subject for all the classical theories and all the periodizations of ontogeny. In Soviet psychology the key thesis about driving force, the source and the conditions of development are presented in the book by D.B. Elkonin “Child Psychology”, published in 1960. These thesis concerns leading activity as the driving force of child’s development, the environment – the medium of ideal forms (cultural norms) – as the source of development and the level of somatic organization of a child as a condition of development (Elkonin, 1960: p. 16 – 19). * 1 Later, having developed a well-known periodization of ontogeny, D.B. Elkonin added his own ideas about the driving forces of development. He stated that the driving force of the deployment of activities, and, consequently, the driving force of development is the difference (inconsistency, contradiction) of motivationalsemantic and operational-technical aspects of activity, in other words mismatch and the problematic relationship between the meaning and the mode of action (Elkonin, 1989: p. 490). The thesis about the essential contradictions of the meaning and the mode of action requires clarification of the question about the driving Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1525 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development forces of development. This question can be understood in two ways. Firstly, it is referred to the causes of appearance of the mental new developments and, consequently, the emergence of the new possibilities of action. All the representatives of Vygotsky’s school and not only them have been studying this question. Another interpretation of the same question is its understanding as the question of the causes of the development step, as the question of why when you reach a certain key point, the development process does not stop and does not turn into the operation according to the already known schemes, but develops further. The question is not answered even if you indicate to the cultural programme as the defined sequence of the growing-up stages. It is not answered if we are discussing development, but not a consistent adaptation to the externally defined patterns of behavior. I believe that the thesis about the necessary difference between the meaning and the mode of action is crucial in answering the question about the driving forces in its second interpretation, crucial to understand the way, the step of development appears. The source of personal activity The source of activity as personal activity is the situation of human involvement in creation or recreation of personal activity. In this case we should emphasize two issues: firstly, specifically involvement, as human activity is made only in the form of joint action (Elkonin, 1989) and, secondly, we mean specifically creation of personal activity, in contrast to its involvement into subjection to some kind of alien force. The situation is creation of personal activity is the situation of overcoming of an alien impact in personal activity. It is this situation that creates overcoming of personal activity and connected with it feeling of personal activity, which is represented as a feeling of our body – well-being. It appears in the rhythm of acting, during transition of efforts, it means within the limits, during effort-not effort and not efforteffort transition (Elkonin, 2010). Only at the “point” of appearance of the feeling of personal activity (in M.M. Bakhtin’s words “... the feeling of self-generating activity ...” (Bakhtin, 1975)), one becomes involved into the source of personal activity – becomes its subject. Subjectivity and the conditions of its origin – the essence of the word, which define the main direction, the axis, and the motif of the deployment of research and development practices in L.S. Vygotsky’s school. For L.S. Vygotsky mediation – creation of an attribution of a situation of behavior – is a universal form of overcoming stimulus relationship with the environment, stimulus forms of influence on a person and control of a person’s behavior, i.e., within the limit – overcoming the stimulus organization of the world. Stimulus, provocative in its nature do not leave any room for the activity, in which deeply felt corporality is being recreated and tested. For A.N. Leontiev the major transformation, that characterizes the creation of the psyche, is the transformation of a stimulus into the subject, which defi nes the transition to the sensation. It is this transformation that A.N. Leontiev recreated in his experimental work (Leontiev, 1981). For A.V. Zaporozhets the condition of creation of voluntary movement is its transformation from insensible to sensible. This transformation was also recreated experimentally (Zaporozhets, 1960). The experiments which were conducted under direction of A.N. Leontiev and A.V. Zaporozhets (conducted in-parallel the late 50’s of the last century, but never matched with each other (Zaporozhets, 1960: p. 52 – 90), (Leontiev, 1981: # 1526 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development p. 161 – 218)), revealed the two sides of the same act. A.V. Zaporozhets, studying the feeling of personal movement, modeled it, making a kind of screening of the rhythm of deep sensibility (vegetative rhythm), i.e. its visible display, and showed that the feeling of self-motion occurs in the samples of such a screening. A.N. Leontiev, not studying the feeling of selfmotion in the public, nevertheless demonstrated that, for example, pitch distinction (hearing) happens in cases where the display is being tested and recreated in a special audible voice, or even tactile intoning. Such a test and reconstruction A.N. Leontiev called the assimilation of an action to the subject. In such a way the category of objectivity was introduced. It is important that, in this case, the “object” displays, screens, and thereby objectifies and retains implicit and labile feeling. It is also important that this very “subject” is not given, but should be detected and reconstructed in specific tests. He two sides of the act which was studied are the following: a) detection and reconstruction of the externally represented internal forces (A.V. Zaporozhets) and b) the detection and reconstruction of the reflection (image), which manifests an inner force (A.N. Leontiev). The internal assimilation (playback) and externallyeffective creation of its (specifically its) image – are the two desired characteristics of the joint action, in which the subjected activity appears. The joint action should originate the situation and the space, in which corporality (well-being) and the image are in the mode of mutual testing (mutual reflection) and the game with their reversibility appears. We can say that in such spaces the reciprocity of corporality and its image are modeled. However, this space is formed not as “a main scheme” but as “a live model”, a concentrate of life events. This model is not removed from the reality of life, but vice versa, concentrates reality, revealing its hidden completeness and verity (Heidegger, 2005), (Heidegger, 1992). Ontogeny can be represented as a rhythmic shift of these models and “playgrounds” – the rhythm of the development of the Events of recreation of the Source of personal activity. In such a representation, D.B. Elkonin’s guess about the nature of the psyche is becoming clear. In his scientific diaries D.B. Elkonin wrote: “The essence, the meaning [highlighted by the author – B.E.] of the mental activity lies not in the fact that it occurs internally, but in the fact that it is the activity which carries out a specific function – the action in reality according to a model. This is the essence of the case. We should comprehend mental activity as an internal activity. This is the only way to study it” (Elkonin, 2004: p. 22). The driving forces of development – are the essential forces by which the life models are systematically reconstructed – the events of recreation of the Source of personal activity. The duality of development It was mentioned that a model in which reciprocity of well-being and its image are recreated is constructed in a special joint action. In other researches, I call this action mediation, and I believe that it has the form of a test-productive action (Elkonin, 2010). It is its development- modeling that sets the rhythm of development. However, the action in its completion can not be presented and introduced for the development. Its development involves the inclusion into its creation, being in it, in its development, not only before it. The development of such an action is taking place in the World, the creation and definition of one’s own in the World. M. Heidegger (after E. Husserl) named such development intentionality. We will clarify the structure of intentionality, and, thus, the structure of the situation of connection of well-being and the image and, thus, the structure of the Source # 1527 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development of Activity – the situation of “the beginning” of activity. In the development of an action as the development of the World, there are two focusing and two completions. Firstly, the completion of the development in the formation of an individual action and, secondly, its completion in the formation of the joint, mutual action (Elkonin, 2010: p. 211 – 215). In the different completions of the action of mediation there are different aspects of the development itself – different aspects of “one’s own”. Firstly, the action is formed as the development of a World by a person, or rather as development of the certain means (physical and external) of development of the World. Here, the World is becoming one’s own – sensible, visible and represented in words. Secondly, and this is very important, the World is being developed in a sense, that an individual becomes the part of the World, and the World admits an individual as Its Own. This second aspect of the development in the studies of l.S. Vygotsky and his followers was only assumed, but was never revealed. But the personality – a Face and a Name – appears only here, in approving someone as a source of action. For example, I could not but begin to write this work, if I had not been recognized and approved as one of the “players in the field” of cultural-historical psychology, i.e., would not have been taken into their “team”. However, when I’m writing this study and develop, or redevelop the schemes of cultural-historical psychology, I understand that the study is going to be completed, it will succeed, when it will be accepted and recognized, and my ability to be a “player” in this field, i.e. “to be in…” will be approved. The simple act of communication also has these two sides: looking at another person, as if “feeling” and becoming acquainted with the person, I am, having become acquainted with a person, at the same time, lay myself open to a person’s opinion, feel his gaze and is visible by a person. Every product and creation, including human image as a product, are dually established, directed and completed: to the development of a different by oneself and to the development of oneself by a different. This duality and never predetermined measure of reciprocity of the two sides of development taken in advance, is the intrigue of One’s own. Reciprocity of the corporality and the image is played out as a model to build the situation of connection: a) call of an action (gesture), which is aimed at oneself and b) the formation of an action “from” oneself to a different. The first one is formed as a special appeal – as a challenge of the approval of entering into the state of activity (“You are here with us”) and as a statement of its completion (“It is done”, “You can”). It is here One’s own-Different appears. The second one is formed as the introduction of the backboneslimits of activity (samples), the product of its step and rhythm (Elkonin, 2010а). At this point the sensible bearing of the personal efforts and One’s own corporality appears. The reality which D.B. Elkonin defined as the development of motivational and semantic aspect of an action has the form of a challenge of a statement of a person as the Source of one’s own activity – as its subject. A statement and a challenge is the essence of the practice of the meaning of an action (Elkoniniva, 2004), the practice of addressing to the World (the Other) as a carrier of the image-idea of an action. What was called the motive is phenomenally fulfilled as an image of impulsion, breakthrough into activity and as an image of fullness of completeness of its fragment, the completeness of what was done. The meaning and motivation are outplayed in the models of “entry” into activity (vigilance, ambition, strong-willed attitude) and are held in # 1528 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development the images of a hero (feat) or in the image of a loving person (smiles, tenderness, etc.) The essence of the presented scheme of understanding of the motivational-semantic aspect of action lies in the fact that the meaning and the motive are understood not as materialized energy – the subject of an external action, which defines its performance. They are understood practically and effectively – as images – topics (Elkonin, 2010: p. 45 – 54) and the energy of the transition field – the images of the Event. Understanding of the operational and technical aspects of an action should also be reconstructed. D.B. Elkonin himself started this reconstruction, and he included the meaning of example and the formation of the personal mode of action by a child into choosing the made of action (Elkonin, 1989: p. 130 – 141), and this reconstruction should be continued. Firstly, the mode of action is not onedimensional, it is three-dimensional and includes experience and testing of the basis, testing of the situations (the field) and testing of the direction of an action (Elkonin, 2010: p. 233 – 252), (Egorova, 2009). The transitions of the levels (between the basis, the field and the direction) determine the completeness of the mode of action. Secondly, the appearance of the new levels in the mode of action is possible only with immersion of the basic samples of acting into an element of the certain progression (e.g., the element of walking, or the element of finding the meaning in the speech) (Elkonin, 2010). Only in such an element the rhythm of action is formed. It this element, similar to the energy of an element intention appears, and this intention merges with an action itself. Thirdly, the development of the mode on the level of formation of the personal situation and the field of action, involves the separation of “my action” and “an action which was performed by me” and it involves individualization of an action and emancipation from the person, who controls an action. Here the field of personal action and the field of compatibility (often conflict) appears (Elkonin, 2010). The basis of formation of the personal field of action – the basis of the speed of its expansion – will be the subject of the next crisis. Not only procedural and technical definition of the basis of action is in conflict with its “motivational-semantic” aspect. It is in the conflict with it by situational and field mode of action – direct self-centered expansion of the field and formation of the new situations as one’s own situations. It is in this “point”, the World presented by the Others demands to reassert the “right” to action-intention, as if asking, “Who are you to try, how can you be the source of your progress?” In the analysis of the mode of action the element of motion was neglected, with the help of this element action-intention is formed and the field of action is established. In the analysis of the motivational-semantic aspect of an action, energy-efficient, and corresponding to it spatialtopical form of phenomena (intentionality) of the meaning and motive was neglected – the challenge of the confirmation of subjectivity, confi rmation of an individual as the source of action, i.e. an individual as “I am” were neglected as well. I believe that these omissions have not only “individual-mental” (“teachers could not figure out”), but the cultural and historical background. The form of culture and the form of its representation on all its levels assumed the given subordination of the already formed, and given in samples cultural patterns. In the “field of upbringing” there were supposed to be the emphasis and direct transmittance of the norms as “meanings” – the “values”, you have to fight for, but in the field of “education” there was no (and there is not) supposed to be involvement into the element of promotion and expansion # 1529 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development of the field of action. In this type of culture the development of the mode and development the meaning are parallel, and development of a place in the World has a transformed form of adaptation to the different types of regulations. D.B. Elkonin’s thesis about the meaning and the mode as connected aspects of an action and acquisition of a place in society by this action – is the beginning of the project of a new culture. The driving forces for development Specifications of understanding of the meaning and the mode of action, given in the previous section, give us an opportunity to get to the idea of the driving forces of development. Let me remind, that only those “forces”, which recreate the models of testing of the method or the point of action are considered. Let me also remind, that the “forces” which define the progress itself and the step of development are considered. The question that should be answered is the question of how the acting out of a model of one type (e.g. a model of development of the meaning) leads to the problem of the development of a model of another type. Thus, the question about the driving forces comes to the question of how one model starts the development of the other. It is important to emphasize that in this light, research and analysis should come to the “point” of transmission of one model to another, the “point” of appearance of the substance of a new action, and do not remain in the consideration of the development post festum, at the point, where a new model has already emerged and is being implemented. Another note is also important. In order to discuss the driving forces in accordance with the special requirements, it is necessary to find those functional systems, which, when started functioning, are capable of further selfdevelopment i.e., those that require development of the opportunities, rather than special formation. At this stage I can consider the transition of one model to the development of another only in two age groups – infancy and early childhood, that form the age, which D.B. Elkonin called the age of infancy. Direct emotional communication of a child and an adult in the first six month of child’s life is introduced by the widely known and discussed phenomenon. The basic phenomenon – emergence, keeping and further appearance of a smile, and later – elation when a child sees an adult. The space of emotional contact is consistently growing – the “contact” distance is increasing, appears an adult’s coming and leaving the “circle” of communication, and the angles of rotation of a child’s head and body, associated with it, are increasing. It is important to emphasize that in the reciprocity of a child and an adult, there is no and there can not be any separation of activation and movement (tonus and kinetics), i.e. differentiation of the state of activity and the activity itself (movement). There is no distinction not only because a child is small, but, and this is important, because the model of direct-emotional communication and its nature, does not distinguish between a state and a movement. In this absence of distinction a movement is manifestation of a state. Everything is a gesture. The distinction between a state and its manifestation in love or hatred at the same moment will not be love or hatred, but their theatrical training. The absence of distinction between the state of activation and movement, and, correspondingly, between a gesture and a movement, an intention and a movement are the positive characteristics of the dynamic field of the direct emotionality. In child’s corporality the supported combination of activation and movement turns into the combination of perception and movement, sensory and motor skills. A child sees an adult distantly and turns the body and the head more and # 1530 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development more, and breaks the records of these “distantly” and “more”, extending the corporal field, because of the direct sensor-motor connection. According to B.A. Arkhipov’s (Arkhipov; Arkhipov et al. 2010) experience and data, an increase in the angles of eyes’ and body’s rotation is symmetrically displayed in the other “parts” of the body and starts the formation of a new body axis, its field and body support – the functional systems of posture and movement. A child independently begins to crawl and walk, but his vision and movement are not separated, and tonic and kinetic basis in the movement are not separated as well. A child is in the element of movement, and only in the case of unpleasant incidents the elements of control are activated. These incidents are becoming the subject of special concern of an adult. The situation of communication and the type of challenge are changing. From the situation of support of a child’s activity, an adult comes to the situation of a child’s escort, i.e. to the situation of limiting of a child’s activity to a certain extend (this situation can be named “existential situation of development”, distinguishing it, thus, from the “social situation”)… It is here, in this situation – the place of development of child’s basic activities, i.e. the place of transfer of the behavioral examples to a child. It concerns action, because an example with the meaning of the limits between “allowed” and “forbidden”, “right” and “wrong” gives basics and guidelines of activity control and forms of its fragmentation and completion. As the limits, an example gives artificial basics as intensifiers of the natural ones and, thus, requires the division of a basis and a movement, and therefore – the division of an image and the way of acting, which leads to the separation of a single sensor-motor field. The separation of the sensor-motor field leads to the accentuation of the tonic-kinetic transition (in the form of basis) and to its reconstruction. The step and the rhythm of movement appear, and together with it appears the feeling of personal effort. As it was mentioned earlier, it is important that the examples are fully and meaningfully included into a child’s life, i.e. mediation becomes complete only when it is plunged into an element – the energy of development of the hidden order of movement. Being plunged, in order to open the hitherto hidden order – the rhythm of movement in relation to the composition of its space, the places of the basic orienting points of movement (Elkonin, 2010). In such a way one model (the leading activity) gradually becomes the other. It becomes, because as a by-product (Ponomarev, 1967), it starts selfdevelopment, the spontaneous formation of a different functional system. Self-development, extension of the field of “work” of this new functional system “captures” the field is its origin and sets new challenges in it, thus, leading to the appearance of a new model of activity testing. Only in the case of appearance of the element of formation of corporality within direct emotional communication it can be stated that direct emotional communication is the driving force of development. Summarizing what was said by L.S. Vygotsky, it is possible to state that only that cultural form of behavior, inside which the new natural form appears and develops, becomes the driving force of development – the new object of further modeling and development. In the given example of the development of oneself by the World – the direct emotional challenge of an adult – the resilient material for the development of the World by oneself is formed. In the formation and development of the new subject of development, the positive role of some indistinctions should be noticed and underlined: the combination of a state and manifestation that gives the directness of communication and which is reflected in the combination of sensory and motor basics of activity – in its spontaneity. # 1531 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development Another example of the age transition, interpreted as the transition of the models of subjectivity – is the transition from the tender age to pre-school age, from the development of the basics of a physical action to a role-playing game. I have already mentioned some aspects of this transition and, therefore, I will describe it briefly. Once again I will emphasize the importance of understanding, that mediation – giving examples – is not finished by the formation of the separate cultural skills, but is completed by being included in the management of the element of movement, in finding its rhythm and measure, i.e. a step. Immersiveness of the element of movement is motivation. Rhythmization of this element is recreation of intention, recreation of the personal energy of movement in one’s corporality. At the same time, an intention of a child’s movement is not separated from the image of the field of movement, is does not “live” differently than in the images of the fragments of the field, it is “inside” it. The phenomena of “inside” is called “the field behavior”. The action, that energy exists as “objective desire” – an action-intention. In this action “I want” is not yet identified, not outplayed as a special condition and is not separated from “I can”. A child lives in this “I want- I can”, i.e. lives in direct demiurgic connection with the world. It is here, in regard to the naive demiurgic action-intention incidents that put it into question arise. It may be lumbering machines, scary passers-by, a lift or an airplane, or it may be just father’ or mother’s prohibition to approach to the computer or to them when they work. Situations and events that L.S. Vygotsky called the “unrealizable tendencies” appear. Within action-intention, these situations can’t be resolved and often transform into anxieties and fears. Children role-playing game is a model of testing of the event of intention. The model of the test of intention in the form of impossible effort, i.e. in the form of a Hero and a feat. In this new model, a child initiates and tests development of oneself by others as the one who can, as the one who has the source in intentions in him/ herself. In the game intentions and wishes are developed. But what was described will not happen if the development of the examples of the corporal action will not inspire and not intensify the element of objective intention and spatial expansion. And again: mediation, overcoming of natural in cultural will become the driving force of development only in the case of generation of the new natural, new spontaneous as its byproduct. And this new spontaneous will provoke situations and tasks, which solution will require the enactment of a new model of subjectivity, and a new model of One’s own. In this case a Game as the model of the development of intentionsimpulses. References Архипов Б.А. [B.A. Arkhipov] Формирование пространства и схемы тела в онтогенезе. Рукопись. Архипов Б.А., Максимова Е.В., Семенова Н.Е. [B.A. Arkhipov, E.V. Maksimova, N.E. Semenova] Уровень тонической регуляции как основа формирования психики ребенка. Ж. «Психотерапия», №5, 2010. С. 24 – 33. Бахтин М.М. [M.M. Bakhtin] Вопросы литературы и эстетики. (М., 1975). Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Собр. соч. в 6 т. (М., 1982-1984). # 1532 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development Егорова А.А. [A.A. Egorova] Феномены построения способа действия // Культурноисторическая психология. 2009. № 1. С 96–102. Запорожец А.В. [A.V. Zaporozhets] Развитие произвольных движений (М., 1960). Леонтьев А.Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Проблемы развития психики (М., 1981). Пономарев Я.А. [Y.A. Ponomarev] Психика и интуиция (М., 1967). Хайдеггер М. [M. Heidegger] Исток художественного творения (М., 2005). Хайдеггер М. [M. Heidegger] Семинар в Ле Торе, 1969 // Вопросы философии. 1992. № 10. С. 123–151. Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Опосредствование. Действие. Развитие (Ижевск, 2010) Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Пространство опосредствования и развитие // Антропопраксис, 2010. Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Детская психология (М., 1960). Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Избранные психологические труды (М., 1989). Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Выдержки из научных дневников // Вопросы психологии, 2004. № 1. С. 9–22 Эльконинова Л.И. [L.I. Elkoniniva] О единице сюжетно-ролевой игры // Вопросы психологии. 2004. №1. С. 68–79 Исток и движущие силы развития Б.Д. Эльконин Психологический институт Российской академии образования Лаборатория психологии младшего школьника Россия 125009, Москва, ул. Моховая, 9, стр. 4 Опираясь на классические для отечественной детской психологии положения о противоречии идеальной формы и уровне соматической организации ребенка, критически осмысливается и развивается идея о причинах возникновения самого шага развития как вопроса о том, почему при достижении некоей ключевой точки процесс развития не останавливается, не превращается в функционирование по уже готовым схемам, а, наоборот, развертывается дальше. Утверждается, что в освоении действия как освоении Мира есть две фокусировки и два завершения. Во-первых, завершение освоения в построении индивидуального действия и, во-вторых, его завершение в построении совместного, совокупного действия. Подчеркивается важность понимания того, что опосредствование – передача образцов – не завершается формированием отдельных культурных навыков, а обретает свою полноту, будучи включенной в управление стихией движения, в обретение ею ритма и меры, т.е. шага развития. Ключевые слова: активность, исток активности, действие, субъектность, модель, движущие силы развития. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1534-1541 ~~~ УДК 37.035 Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions Isak D. Froumin* Institute of Education Development of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics» Room 411, 4/2 Slavanskaia ploshad, Moscow, 101090 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The article deals with the features of a contemporary transition of generation to adulthood. Such issues and problems as the contribution of young people in socio-economic development are considered. The data is given in the article that the transition to adulthood, according to its structure consists of five transitions: a transition to life learning, a transition to the world of work, a transition to the creation of the family or attachment to the family life , a transition from private life to public and civilian life, and a transition from carelessness to health care. A presumption of three approaches for further work in this subject is given. Firstly, it is an accurate analysis of the situation and youth policy in Russia. Secondly, it is a question of a person’s driving forces in these transitions. What causes him to support the objective processes, or to resist them? Thirdly, it’s reassessment of the problem of education in the context of the present scheme. What potential is given to the person, who will enter the labor market, create a family and participate in politics? Keywords: education, age transition, the world of work, process maturity, resource people, development. Introduction. Why are exactly the young people? It is remarkable that we have been talking about a few “eternal” questions for a long time at the conferences on development pedagogy. There is a question among them whether school is responsible for the formation of long-term results, such as a person’s success in life, the way he will have been living in ten years after graduation, and later on in fifteen years. I intend to return to the question of the effects of school education and try to define more * 1 precisely the borders of the frame where one could assess the progress and achievement of a person. For us, as those who work in the field of education, it’s essential to estimate the outcomes of this growing and developing person, which we set in terms of his future and socio-economic development of society he lives in. And it turned out so well that the report concerning the world development, which had been prepared by the World Bank, helped me much in these reflections. In 2006 it was dedicated to young people. It’s called “Socio-economic Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1534 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions development and the next generation”. Here one should say why the leaders of the economic and social ideas turned to the problems of young people in connection with the problems of socioeconomic development. The fact of the matter is that humanity has the time now when there are much more young people than it used to be before and most likely, will be in the nearest future. It is believed that in the next 20 years the humanity will have already reached the peak of population growth and will start decreasing. It can be traced in the picture. because they get a huge human resource which is in general characterized by better health and higher qualifications. Young people in developed countries are also becoming an important resource, because in ten years an able-bodied person will have to support two members of the family who do not work: a child and an elderly person. Perhaps it’s not as dramatic in its way, but this process is going on in Russia. In this sense, the issues of productivity of young generation and its role in the socio-economic development plays a huge role. A number of countries which include Russia have already been on this peak. The figure also shows that there are countries where the growth continues, and the peak will be reached within ten or twenty years. In any case, the humanity is going through a period in which there is a huge increase in young people. The question what to do with it is not just a question of the youth policy, but it’s also the question of socio-economic policy. However, this issue is different for developed and developing countries. In the picture we observe the rise in the number of young people and working-age population in developing countries, which opens up unprecedented prospects for these countries Thus, today, economists, sociologists, cultural anthropologists refer to the problems of young people due to some reasons. Firstly, the increased number of the youth groups in developing countries is both an enormous risk and a great opportunity for the sudden growth in development, and, secondly, the lack of youth in developed countries makes this resource really valuable. Why have I jumped from the question of the role of education in socio-economic development to the issue of youth? That’s because the production of the younger generation is a major contribution to education in the socioeconomic development. Of course, there are # 1535 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions other contributions: schools collect waste paper, elections are held there, and there are scientific researches in universities. But education is exactly the area that affects the majority of young people. Besides, the number of years young people study and spend in education in developed and developing countries is increasing. Thus, a potentially important resource of socioeconomic development is created (or can be created) in the education system. Then, a question is bound to arise for us as employees of the system: how are young people turning from a potentially valuable resource into a real force in the development and what makes its contribution positive and significant. To answer this question, we must answer the question posed in the title of the 13th conference on pedagogy development: “What is the youth? Is it the peak of childhood or early adulthood?” And here I join the opinion of the authors of the World Development Report, who, in fact, give a completely unambiguous answer: the youth is the transition to adulthood. In a good way, it is a transition to a productive and happy adult life1. Then, in fact, a fundamental issue of social and economic policy is managing this transition. It’s managing the transition of a huge mass of people from childhood to adulthood. For us, it helps to raise the question of the role of education in this transition. In this case the structure of this transition sets the frame of the analysis of its remote consequences. That is, roughly speaking, if there is the transition to adulthood, the content of this transition allows us to say whether we have worked well in education. Transition to adulthood – five steps Then we make the next conceptual step that is not based on any strict theoretical reasoning, and is largely a judgment of common sense, which is not alien to economists and sociologists. This judgment is based on the observations and, in general, a normal (i.e., “right”) transition to adulthood, according to its structure, consists of five steps. They are given below. First step is a transition to lifetime learning. It is not the development within school but it’s a transition to learning, to be exact, learning not within school environment. We emphasize that this is a step away from externally imposed and self-organized learning in the construction of educational paths to develop new skills and knowledge. The second obvious transition is a transition into the world of work. Indeed, most people start # 1536 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions their career and are ether employed or unemployed at the age of 24. The next major step is a transition to the creation of a family or attachment to the family life, however teachers do not treat it serious. The fourth step is a transition from private life to public and civilian life. Deputy A.M.Kleshko in the position of the external customer talked about it at the conference mentioned above. At the other conferences, we also discussed this transition often as a matter of internal training and education, as a matter of equipping the civil competence. Indeed, this age shows whether a person will be an active citizen, indifferent man in the street, or political extremist. And finally, the last transition, which appearance in the World Development Report took me by surprise and seemed not very important and is equal to other key transitions at first. It can be formulated like this: a transition from carelessness to health care or from ruining your health to recovery. This is the period when the person begins to feel that he has the heart and other internal organs. At this age, the foundations for future health are laid down, as well as person’s attitude to health. In the transition the loss of health determines the whole future life of a person to a large extent. Thus, we deal with objective five transitions, which seem to pull along a person. situation (so far not yet a social situation of development, but simply a social situation) pulls him along these five transitions. But, again, one cannot escape from these subjective psychological processes, as their reality is objective. Thus, a complete picture of socialization in the broadest sense will be formed by meeting and correlation of external and internal processes. A list of the latter can be quite long. Theoretically, it seems to me that here one can write down all the processes described by different age periodizations. The basic processes of periodization by E. Erikson have a particularly vital context (especially the search for identity is important). The process of initiative development and one’s independence is extremely important for us in terms of our understanding of maturation. Certainly, a key role in these transitions has the process of acquiring human sexuality. And this raises an important question, and I will not give any definite answers to it, but only raise a question of the relationship of these processes. It seems to me that this is where psychologists can find a field for serious cooperation with economists and sociologists, because they, in turn, often ignore these internal processes. They do not consider the behavior of the person itself as an important resource of transition management. Transition management External transitions and internal development At our conferences we are constantly discussing the inner development of a person: his abilities, interests, energy and intellectual development (as the conferences are held by psychologists to a large extent). At the same time, we often create artificial external context in which these internal changes happen or even ignore it. The reality is much more complicated because, while we help the child develop, his external What does it mean to manage these transitions? After all, they are made objectively, and our activity (or activity of a young person) cannot cancel them as a rule. But we want to ensure that these transitions take place in a good way (here I use worldly terms). The transitions are like to be at the crossroads: which way you choose and turn that place you will find yourself. We want our children and young people to live through these five transitions so that they experience lifelong learning, find a good job, # 1537 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions be good citizens, have a good family and be healthy. Therefore, the issue of management is formulated as follows: how to influence these transitions so that they took place optimally. Traditionally, the only method of managing these transitions, which was considered appropriate, was to provide opportunities for young people. In addition, the authors of the report on world development suggest two more methods. I would add one more. But let’s start with the expansion of the real possibilities. This policy means that a person is simply provided with a large number of possibilities in a respective field. This is clearly understood in terms of the transition to work. For instance, a young man enters the labor market with some skill, and fifty jobs are offered to him. This example shows that this mechanism is a basic one to ensure a smooth transition. After all, if a young man is not able to find work, the transition has a negative scenario. The key principles in the implementation of this management mechanism are the equality and ease of use. The second most important method to ensure the transition is actually the development of human potential of these possibilities in every person. If you are faced with hundreds of ways but your legs can’t walk, these roads will not lead you anywhere. Next, let’s have a look at an example of specific transitions, how to build the capacity of implementing these features in different spheres. We can see the simplest example when we create opportunities for specialized education and children have no means of making decisions about their own path in life. This is a vivid example when there are opportunities with no potential for implementation. Where does the potential for implementation come from? As teachers we mainly consider child’s awareness in the field of school subjects as the main potential. It is clear that we need not only such awareness for life transitions, but also awareness of those spheres of life where these transitions are take place. It is necessary to have knowledge of how to apply academic knowledge that is what we call competence. For economists, the most important and obvious element of the implementation capacity is financial resources of the person. Teachers usually turn a blind eye. Recently I was struck by the sociological studies of youth in the North Caucasus that indicate tight recourses in families as the main obstacle in getting higher education. Therefore, the construction of socio-economic policy without understanding that the younger generation needs resources to realize their potential will always be wrong. There are also important components of the potential. They are linked with each other: motivation, energy and success in the previous stages. Their role is confirmed by the findings of a recent British study. They show that the enormous investment in the so-called “bad schools” (they are schools in depressed areas) in the equipment and training of teachers do not give effect, if the families and children have no motivation for a further transition and no high expectations. This aspect of the realization of potential is extremely important for me. It should be noted that the relationship of these two management mechanisms is not as trivial as it may seem from a simple scheme: more opportunities leads to more the rights of young people. This is illustrated by the transition to the labor market. Recently, for example, the French government tried to deprive young people of more labor rights, the protection of first employment, etc. However, faced with the protests of young people, the government reversed the reform. After that the magazine “Time” published an amusing article, the meaning of which was that that it would be useful to sent the French leaders of the movement, who protect the labor rights of young people, to Yekaterinburg (for some reason this city was taken as an example the situation # 1538 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions in Russia) where the young people in general do not have any labor rights. They can be fired the next day. But in general the article was very positive with regard to Russia as it said there that such a tough situation for the Russian does not form dependency (in contrast to the Frenchman) among Russian young generation but a positive aggressiveness in the sense of looking for work and activity. I think this comparison shows the complexity of the problem. Perhaps, the traditional conservative strategy that we have built since school can be very dangerous in the long run in conditions of a serious competition in the labor market. The third important principle of management transitions is practical too. This is a principle of a second chance. Indeed, our teaching strategies, as well as youth policy as a whole, do not very often suggest a second chance for a person when he has got lost or came to a dead end of the transitions. In this case, the person is actually thrown from further productive life. Especially it’s typical for young people who have been in prison and cannot return to normal life afterwards. But only in Russia these young people outnumber millions. People who have not got education are in a similar situation. Those children, who dropped out of school, cannot go back into the education system as a rule. And, therefore, the principle of second chances is crucial. But it should not be a second chance in a Soviet-style way, when a person is kept down to repeat a year. Children need to be able to find a bypass and catch up with their own generation. The issue of a second chance is closely related to the issue of the risks at the transition because the person usually needs a second chance as his behavior on these transitions is risky. And it is important to understand that risk-taking behavior as a result of which a person gets into a situation that requires a second chance, cannot and should not be regarded as entirely negative. For no particular reason did Rousseau write that someone who was not a street kid would not grow up a decent man. But the question is how to let someone who took a risk, made a mistake and took hard knocks (including negative experience as well) continue to move forward. Risks and a second chance are still being discussed in the special schools in our educational policy but not in the national curriculum. And, of course, a key step in managing transitions is the regulation of the interaction of the most objective transitions and subjective processes. The interaction between the five objective transitions mentioned above and psychological processes of formation can occur in two ways. On the one hand, the content of these transitions helps designers of educational space set the image of adulthood (here I refer to a model of educational space, proposed by B.D. Elkonin in 1993), which, from our point of view, is the major driving force of age development . Such a formulation of the problem has serious implications for gaining experience and the selection of educational content. On the other hand, the processes of maturation, as described in the different age periodizations, allow the developers of educational policy to see and understand a “small” dynamics of transitions and to estimate the internal factors of development. Transitions of cohorts and individual transitions In the building educational and youth policy a special difficulty lies in the making such massive solutions that take into account the diversity and inner complexity of the younger generation. As different groups of young people move into these transitions in different ways, when we discuss the strategies, we needed to treat them accordingly. There are several such # 1539 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions groups, which move in the transitions in a special way and concerning which we require different management strategies. First of all, they are boys and girls. Obviously, they move quite different in these transitions, especially in the transition associated with the creation of the family. In all market economies, including Russia, transitions significantly depend on the social situation (including the educational path). Young people from different ethnic groups or from migrants also have different paths of transitions. It makes a task of social and educational design extremely complicated. Transition to adulthood – Agenda for Education From my point of view, there are three areas for further work in this subject. Firstly, it is an accurate analysis of the situation and youth policy in Russia. It is shown in World Development Report how the three major social mechanism of maturation management (ability, creating the potential and a second chance) are realized for the different transitions on a global scale. It is obvious that in order to show the whole picture for Russia, we need additional research in sufficient detail. No doubt Russian youth situation has its own specifics. Secondly, it seems to me that the conceptual issues of the scheme as a whole are not completely clarified. First of all, it’s a question whether the transitions were singled out correctly. Another interesting question is whether there is a hierarchy within these transitions and which one is most important. After all, economists firmly believe that the transition to work is the most important. And what do we think? Questions, related to the opportunities and risks for various transitions, are interesting as well. And, of course, the question what are the driving forces 1 of a person in these transitions. What causes him to support the objective processes, or to resist them? Thirdly, I think that we can and should overestimate the problem of education in the context of the present scheme. What potential is given to the person, who will enter the labor market, create a family and participate in politics? Here I have to share a personal experience. Last time I visited Krasnoyarsk, I met with several school-leavers of gymnasium “Univers”. I know exactly that most of them regulate their lives well. But among those school-leavers there were two guys who used to be bright at school and studied well while getting higher education. But they seem to have left school and university with high expectations, with unrealistic ideas about what would be requested in the job market. One of them is almost 30 now and the second is 26. And they lounge about here and there and don’t have a proper job or aim. They work in a shop of spare parts, assemble rides then sit in the office and are bored. They can’t stop whining. Both of them were divorced and have not created a new family. And frankly speaking, I feel lousy as well. All I think what we have done wrong, creating the potential for these very able-bodied and not foolish young men, so that they made the right decision regarding employment. I would be harsh to say here that the whole discussion about the development of thinking, creativity and education, etc. is not worth a dime if the person ends up with no job, no family, and is sick. Our internal discussions seem to be small without this large outer frame. Serious attitude to ensure a smooth transition by means of education can be a challenge that galvanizes pupated pedagogical thought. It should be noted there, that in the work of reference the age group is from 13 to 24. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions Социально-экономическое развитие и следующее поколение: пять переходов И.Д. Фрумин Институт развития образования Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» Россия 101000, Москва, Славянская площадь, 4/2, к. 411 Обсуждаются особенности современного поколенческого перехода к взрослости. Исследуются вопросы вклада молодого поколения в социально-экономическое развитие. Приводятся данные о том, что переход к взрослости по своей структуре состоит из пяти переходов: переход к учению в течение всей жизни; переход в мир труда, работы; переход к созданию семьи или к семейности; от частной жизни к жизни общественной и гражданской; переход от беззаботности к заботе о здоровье. Выдвигается предположение, о трех направлениях дальнейшей работы в этой тематике. Во-первых, это точный анализ ситуации и молодежной политики в России. Во-вторых, вопрос о том, каковы собственные движущие силы человека в этих переходах. Что заставляет его поддерживать объективные процессы или сопротивляться им. В-третьих, переоценка задачи образования в контексте представленной схемы. Какой потенциал дается человеку, который выйдет на рынок труда, начнет создавать семью и участвовать в политике. Ключевые слова: образование, возрастной переход, мир труда, процессы взросления, ресурсы человека, развитие. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1542-1548 ~~~ УДК 159.922.7 Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation Vasily V. Davydov* Russian Academy of Education 8 Pogodinskaya st. Moscow, 119121 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The given article outlines the main features of the theory of recapitulation and discusses the importance of its provisions for the modern development pedagogy. It also discusses the regularities of the ontogenetic process and historical forms of consciousness. This article analyzes the works of foreign and domestic philosophers and psychologists about the heuristic meaning of the reduced frequency problem and the need for its theoretical disclosure. It is emphasized that renunciation of the appropriate well-known theories is often combined with the new attempts of foreign and domestic scientists to explain the actual generality of logic of consciousness development in the children and in the history of society. Keywords: theory of recapitulation, biogenetic law, development psychology, ontogenesis, phylogenesis, heredity, historical forms of consciousness, activity, development, reproducing activity. In our report at the 3rd Conference on development pedagogy in 1996 there was detection of the inner and important connection between such pedagogy with the theory of repetition (recapitulation). Here we will try to give the detailed description of the content of recapitulation, its history and show that without constant reliance on it, it is not possible to develop the modern problems of development pedagogy. The theory of recapitulation (Lat. “recapitulation” – a concise review), that is created in philosophy, psychology and pedagogy, examines the regularities of reduced reproduction (or duplication) of the historical development of human consciousness in the ontogenesis of his consciousness. The idea of such a recurrence occurred in ancient philosophy (Plato, etc.), it was * 1 presented in the philosophy of the Middle Ages and was formulated in details at the beginning of the 19th century by Hegel in his “Phenomenology of Spirit”. “A single individual – he wrote – must pass the stages of the universal spirit formation, but as the forms that are already left by spirit, as the stages of the path that is already developed and smooth” (Гегель. Соч., т.IV. М., 1959, с.15) According to Hegel, in the historical process the content of the universal spirit is transformed into its forms, that thus become the external heritage for the individual in the form of «inorganic nature». «Absorbing» it, the individual thus captures it for himself (ibid.). This provision was positively evaluated by F.Engels, who spoke about the whole «Phenomenology of Spirit» as the reflection of «individual consciousness Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1542 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation at different stages of its development, that are considered as the reduced reproduction of the stages that have historically passed by the human consciousness...» (К.Маркс и Ф.Энгельс. Соч., т.21, с.278). G.V. Plekhanov, supporting this evaluation, thought that «the mental development of every person is the summary of the development history of his ancestors» (Г.В.Плеханов. Соч., т. 8, М.: Пр.., 1923, с. 48). The problem of recurrence in the consciousness development was raised and discussed by major domestic philosopher B.M. Kedrov. He considered the provision that the development of individual consciousness to a certain extent, «repeats some of the characteristics and features ... of all its history in general» as the right one (Б.М.Кедров. О повторяемости в процессе развития. М., 1964, с.93). However B.M. Kedrov noted that such a natural repetition applied to the spiritual life and common path of the intellectual development of mankind, rather than to the stages of its socio-economical development. B.M. Kedrov connected the problem of recurrence with the question about the correlation of the logical and historical in dialectics. The logical, as you know is the abstract that is free from the fortuities and reflection of the historical development of the object. The logical in general and in its pure form expresses an internal need for the development of historical processes. In the logical there is reiteration of the historical stages of development. There is reason to believe that the logical or universal, expression of the substantial history of human consciousness is the forms of culture. Culture is inseparably linked with the sphere of the ideal that records models of people's skills to reproduce instruments, items, and their communication, that is, captures the historically developed methods of social activity, confronting the individual with his mind and will in the form of special reality. In these models (or methods) as forms of culture there are necessary moments in the history of conscious human activity. Then the assignment of forms of culture by the individual acts as the reduced reproduction in its development of history of human activity and consciousness in their essential points. Therefore, the problem of history of activity and consciousness and their ontogenesis is internally connected with the problem of the historical formation of culture and its appropriation by the individual. The connection between these problems emerges when culture and the ideal are understood as the logical and universal expression of the history of the conscious human activity. This approach to the consideration of the given issues has become possible due to the works of outstanding domestic philosopher E.V. Ilyenkov where he formulated the dialectical and materialistic conception of the ideal, its connection with the conscious human activity and their culture. It allows us to relate the concept of the ideal and culture and the concept of the logical and universal (see: Э.В. Ильенков. Философия и культура. М., 1991). Hegel not only revealed the recurrence in the development of individual and socio-historical consciousness (universal spirit), but also suggested general methods of its interpretation. According to his views, something that in the history was the essence of the case for the spirit, is transformed for the individual into the «trace» or «shade». The individual «runs» the past of the spirit in its content that has already become forms or stages of the developed path. Concerning the processes of cognition, Hegel demonstrates that provision as follows: «... Something that in earlier times has occupied spirit of men is reduced to knowledge, exercises and even games of boyish age, and in the educational results we see the history of education of the whole world that is somehow sketched in a concise essay»(Гегель, Соч., т. IV, М., 1959, с. 15). This statement makes great # 1543 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation sense for all pedagogical sciences, and especially for development pedagogy, because it highlights their important social role: they are designed to turn historical and substantial human knowledge in such forms of culture, where complex and long process of real knowledge are performed by the children in the form of various «exercises» and even «games.» In the current «pedagogical success» you can see in a condensed form the whole history of education and development of individuals. Assignment of forms of culture by the individual is already developed way of the development of his conscious activity. The humanities are designed to determine how the content of spiritual development of mankind is becoming the content of the development of his conscious activity. The idea of parallelism between the development of the child and the development of generation in psychology in the 19th century was used by Herbart and his followers, who demanded that the stages of education should correspond to the stages of history of culture. During the last century in the field of biology a similar recurrence was formulated by German scientists Muller and Hegel in the form of the biogenetic law according to which the development of embryos briefly recapitulates the formation of all this species (ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis). This law has been moved into the psychology and extended to еру extra-uterine childhood and mental development of children. The idea of recurrence quickly became central in a number of systems of genetic psychology (S.Holl, Baldwin, Chamberlain, Kirkpatrick, etc.) This idea was formulated by analogy with the biogenetic law as the repetition of the child in his mental development of the main stages of the cultural and historical development of mankind that led to the gathering of the great volume of factual data from the child's life, covering such repetition (atavism, evolutional and cultural and historical parallels). There was the development of the appropriate theories and «formulas of repetition». Thus, the Stern «formula» distinguishes, according to this law, six phases in the childhood that correspond to the six epochs in human history: during the first six months of life, the child stands on the stage of lower mammals (predominance of reflexes and the lower functions), during the second six months the child reaches the stage of the development of higher mammals – monkeys (prehension, imitation), since the second year of life he actually enters the era of human history (vertical gait, speech), which he runs up on the steps of primitive culture (next 5 years are the age of games and fairy tales), antiquity (the first school years ), Christianity (middle school years) and modern times (puberty). L.S. Vygotsky in his article «Biogenetic law in psychology and pedagogy», that was published in the first edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (т. 6, М., 1930), outlined the main psychological theories of recurrence, developed in the late 19th century and in the first quarter of the 20th century and gave them his own assessment. Among a lot of attempts to create a scientific theory connected with the use of biogenetic law in determination of the stages of mental development of children, L.S. Vygotsky marked out four main areas: 1) The theory of recapitulation (S.Holl and his school) uses a direct analogy with the biogenetic law of Hegel and considers the development of a child as a process conditioned by hereditary causes, the flow of which is determined by the main line of evolutionary development. 2) The theory of selection (Thorndike) explains the existence of analogies between the development of the individual and generation by the activity of the same reasons that determine both processes. In phylogenesis there are two main factors – the random variation and selection of the useful that determines acquisition of # 1544 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation property, in the ontogenesis the appearance of this property at any given time is again regulated by the same factors – variation and selection. 3) The theory of correspondence (Claparede, Koffka, Blonsky) explains the parallelism of ontogenesis and phylogenesis by the similarity of both series that are based on the same process of organic development, so in both series in advance we can expect detection of the similarities that are common for both and are inherent by every process of development where there is a regular sequence of steps – from the primitive and generalized forms to the complex and differentiated forms: correspondence of two series is determined, therefore, by immanennt logic of the development process. 4) The theory of social genesis (Zalkind, Kornilov, Pinkevich) comes from the social conditionality of human biology, sees it as the main determining factor in the development of the child, denies its automatic connection with the past of mankind, and, consequently, the applicability of the biogenetic law to psychology. It points to the factual groundlessness of this application, tension and artificial explanations of such kind. While not denying the well-known correspondence between the development of the child and humanity and some of the factual material accumulated by the supporters of this law, the theory of social genesis assumes the fundamental difference between the changes of species as the basis that are measured in hundreds and tens of thousands of years and therefore commonly cut into the body and are repeated in embryonic development, and changes of the race that are measured in thousands of years, decades and even centuries, and therefore are not elaborated in the extra-uterine development of the child. In all these scientific fields, as L.S. Vygotsky considered, the most reasonable by the factual material and the most consistent with the general laws of psychology are theories No. 3 and 4. But, as L.S. Vygotsky continued, it would be mistake and unreasonable scientific one-sidedness to assign the universal value to biogenetic parallelism, as well as ignore it. The main tendencies, as described above, are arranged in a certain order, according to the development of scientific views on this issue, namely in the order of gradually decreasing meaning of the basic analogy with the biogenetic law and increasing critical limitation of this analogy, the awareness of its true location and size, or which is the same, increasing evaluation of the leading role of social factor. In this sense biogenetic law in psychology is revealed as a preliminary hypothesis that has not explanatory and practical, but mainly heuristic value, requiring a thorough collection of material and theoretical explanation. The question of the applicability of this law in psychology is relevant to the theory and practice of education. Scientists tried to use this law to give the possibility to the child to overcome animistic, religious and other phases of development, archaic forms of thinking and instincts. Thus, according to Hall, in games the child must overcome the lower instincts as the remainders of the animal and prehistoric state that resumes of long-passed stages of human development in the ontogenesis. Gross pointed out the inconsistency of this view in relation to the game, in his research of the games of animals and people he came to the conclusion that the biological significance of the game is not the overcoming of the distant past, doomed to destruction, but the preparation and practicing of functions for the future, that is, the game can be understood not in its connection with the past, but in connection with the future. Regarding pedagogical conclusions, listed above theories of application of the biogenetic law to psychology are placed in the order of decreasing and narrowing its value evaluation. In the field of practical application of the biogenetic # 1545 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation law to education, as L.S. Vygotsky wrote, we meet with the same divergence of opinions, like in the field of theory. Thus, in his article L.S. Vygotsky outlined the essence of the main theories of recurrence connected with the biogenetic law, while showing significant differences of opinions of their authors, as well as their differently directed practical conclusions. But he also carefully evaluates the scientific importance of the biogenetic law for psychology and pedagogy: this law, he believed, should neither be ignored nor be given a universal role. Conducted comparison of these theories has shown that one of them (it has been created by Soviet psychologists) has very “critical constraint” of appropriate analogy and highlights “the leading role” of social factor in the mental development of the child. In his own cultural and historical theory L.S. Vygotsky, as we know, does not use the biogenetic law as even the slightest grounds during the consideration of the regularities of human mental development – a fundamental and decisive role in this process is given to the “social partnership”, communication between the children and adults. However, during the detection of the genesis of certain mental functions of the child (e.g., attention, memory, etc.) L.S. Vygotsky used some of materials of their historical sociogenesis. In fact, he drew a parallel between ontogenesis and history, but he did not turned this sporadic analogy into detailed theory, the basis of which might be an idea of recurrence given by Hegel. But with the whole course of his thoughts L.S. Vygotsky was very close to this idea and theory. There is the following evidence: his closest student and companion A.N. Leontiev, relying on the main provisions of the concept of L.S. Vygotsky, during the creation of his own theoretical approach to the human mental development is almost directly uses the given Hegelian idea (some of his other students have also been close to it). When in the early 60s A.N. Leontiev revealed some features of the child’s development during the process of social experience appropriation, he wrote: “This is a process that has resulted in reproduction of historically formed human characteristics, abilities and methods of behavior by the individual “ (А.Н. Леонтьев. Проблемы развития психики. Изд. 4, М., 1981, с. 544). Such reproduction of abilities, activities with tools and knowledge suggests that «the child should make to them such practical and cognitive activity that is adequate (although, of course, not identical) to the human activity» (А.Н.Леонтьев. Избранные психологические произведения, т.1, М., 1983, с. 113). Due to this formulation of the problem there is a need for special consideration of connection and correlation of historical regularities of the development of practical and cognitive human activities with the children’s activity that is adequate to it. This activity reproduces historically formed capacities (in particular, the special task consists in disclosure of the meaning of «adequacy» in its contrast to the «identity «). Although A.N. Leontiev did not specifically studied this issue, but he introduced the concept of reproducing activity into the Soviet psychology and pedagogy. In his theory the child, on the one hand, gains and forms the special reproducing activity (e.g., playing, studying, etc.), and on the other hand, on this base he gains or reproduces different socio-developed skills. Since 1930s in psychology and pedagogy interest in the biogenetic law was failing. This was due to the fact that there was clear detection of the groundlessness of such variants of the theory of recurrence where the sources of mental development of children were seen in the direct evolutionary line connected with heredity, and the stages of child development themselves were compared with the specific and randomly allocated stages of social development. At the # 1546 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation same time more significance was gained by the theories of Piaget, L.S. Vygotsky, A.Vallona, and others, who had other starting points, rather than focusing on the biogenetic law. Therefore, the problem of correspondence of the development of human consciousness in the social history and in the process of the child’s ontogenesis has simply started to be ignored. However, L.S. Vygotsky was right, when he wrote in the article mentioned above about the heuristic meaning of this problem and the need for its theoretical disclosure – the refusal of the already well-known theories was often combined with the appearance of new attempts made by foreign and domestic scientists to explain the factual generality of logic of the consciousness development in the child and in the social history (E. Claparede, L.I. Bondarenko, I.G. Belyavskiy, V.A. Shkuratov etc.) At present the problem of recurrence is gaining the specific scientific sounding, but not in the context of the biogenetic law, but in connection with the general rise of cultural studies (M. Bartovskiy, C. Geertz, V.S. Bibler, etc.) and in connection with attempts to use their results in the study of the ontogenetic human development (J. Bruner, J. Engeshtrem, M. Cole, and others). Now there is increase of the interest in the philosophical and pedagogical ideas of Hegel, Herbart, and others, according to whom the development of individual consciousness reproduces its historical development in the reduced form, and stages of personal education should correspond to the stages of cultural development (the provisions made by V.S. Bibler, and others about the need for the organization of the «school of the dialogue of cultures»). When relying on the inner meaning of the ideas there is current increase of the possibility to develop a modern version of the multidisciplinary theory of recapitulation, namely multidisciplinary one. The potential of modern philosophy, logic, culture studies, psychology, pedagogy and other social sciences during the formation of the theory of recapitulation can use the system of the following initial concepts: activity, the ideal, the consciousness, the historical content of culture, “folding” of such content, forms of culture, the unity of the logical and historical, appropriation, reproducing activity, stages of the consciousness development in the history, stages of the development of individual consciousness, etc. The same concepts should be used, in our opinion, during the development of the main problems of the development pedagogy. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation Педагогика развития и теория рекапитуляции В.В. Давыдов Российская академия образования Россия 119121, Москва, ул. Погодинская, 8 Излагаются основные характеристики теории рекапитуляции и обсуждается значение ее положений для современной педагогики развития. Обсуждаются закономерности онтогенетического процесса и исторических форм сознания. Анализируются работы зарубежных и отечественных философов и психологов об эвристическом значении проблемы сокращенной повторяемости и необходимости ее теоретического раскрытия. Подчеркивается, что отказ от соответствующих уже хорошо известных теорий нередко сочетался с появлением новых попыток зарубежных и отечественных ученых так или иначе объяснить фактическую общность логики развития сознания у ребенка и в истории общества. Ключевые слова: теория рекапитуляции, биогенетический закон, психология развития, онтогенез, филогенез, наследственность, исторические формы сознания, деятельность, развитие, воспроизводящая деятельность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1549-1559 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 Anatoly G. Kasprzhak* Institute of Education Development of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics» Room 303, 11, Pokrovsky Bulvar, Moscow, 109028 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The author has attempted a detailed commentary to his own thoughts, shown in the reports at the conferences on pedagogy development dated 2001 from 2012. Such an approach seems to me to be the most productive. The author points to the limits of the possible predictions, which in education is an integral part of the daily work of each practitioner teacher. The scholar indicates the need for an urgent “uncovering” of school, to discuss its problems not only and not within the educational system, and to involve people, who have already attained success outside the school. Otherwise, there is a risk, on the one hand, to be faced with a denial of managers at all levels of need of any reforms in school, and, on the other – a significant degradation of the teachers associated with the adoption of the existing flawed way of life because of the impossibility of going beyond the school as an institution. Keywords: pedagogy of development, educational technology, the traditional school, development, socialization, education management. Interesting is life. The speech “Pedagogy of Development: What is it?” delivered in 2001 at the Eighth Conference, I thoughts to be honest, one of the most unsuccessful. I still remember the confusion of the hall, as a consequence – the friendly interest and support of colleagues. It was sick of it; still remember the feeling in detail. It took 11 years; I reread the text and ... realized that all my thoughts beginning from 2001 grew out of this text. And with respect to the mission of schools, and competence-based approach, and attempts to “see” the image of education in Russia in the very near future. This fact defined the genre of today’s work. It seemed to be interesting to me, to give comments to my own thoughts, dating * 1 back to 2001 from 2012. Such an approach seems to me to be the most productive. It will, at least, allow myself, not just one more time “to switch on” reflection, but also to see the limits of possible foresight, which in education is an inseparable part of daily work of each practitioner teacher. I hope that this intellectual exercise is going to be interesting and useful not only to me, but to the reader as well. Distinguished colleagues! Very interesting, in my opinion, is the fact that only at the eighth conference, which was called the “Pedagogy of Development”, there was a conversation about a kind of meaning that the Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1549 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 phrase has. Hypothetically, one can assume that the reason for this is the need to find the answer in our usual technological and social, rather, social and pedagogical aspects. That is that the time has come for a broader discussion of questions of not only issues of what and how do we teach school pupils, but also who and for what purpose do we teach and, finally, who does this job. Moreover, the authors of educational initiatives, heads of educational institutions, confirm that the image of the school is largely dependent, and at all times depended not only on the answer choices to one or another of the questions posed above, but also on the sequence of their production. In the past dating back to the Soviet school was simple – the army of teachers (who) taught all (whom) in the same (how) manner to be ready (why) people for thinking about the meaning of life and being obedient, to be “a builder of communism.” Meanwhile all the pedagogy was oriented to answer one question – what to study1? But still, even in those years philosophers engaged in educations were asking themselves different types of questions. The developmental education emerges, as well as author and innovative schools… Scientists, educators – practitioners have been fifteen years on the road to freedom. Very ambitious educational projects have been carried out “in metal”. There has been spirited scientific and pedagogical debate on the threshold of the next reform of education and ... a reasonable understanding of what professionals are: • humanitarian project does not work as long as its ideology is not assigned by the one who executes it; • language of teaching activity and its description are almost always inadequate; • and, most importantly, the educational reform must be prepared outside the system of education. Perhaps that is why me, a typical representative of the teacher – practitioner, who was led by the reflection of my own teaching experience to scientific thinking, will be impudent enough to try to discuss the conference phrase “pedagogy of development” not only in the conventional for me technological aspect, but also in the social – pedagogical aspect. Here, I find interesting two considerations. The first concerns the general problems of the school as an institution, the second – the Russian experience. “…We teach…” – whom, why, how and what and, finally, – who. In 2001, ratings of secondary and comprehension parts of the sentence seemed more important, today, I think we should question the phrase “we teach.” “Do we actually teach?” – You want to ask a question, making, with emphasis on the pronoun we. Do we teach, or they learn, when we, with our help. Today it is clear that the information society, in which we are rapidly drawn into, questions the place of its former importance of the teacher in the educational process. “... The new school, the teacher does not claim to possess the monopoly of knowledge, he holds the position of organizer, adviser, interpreter of the “rules of the game,” “educational network administrator, only organizes the process2”. Thus, we are now talking about changing the position of the teacher and student, and as a consequence of the nature of their relationship. In other words, today’s schools – are innovative by nature. Moreover, not only post-Soviet (second argument). Social and Pedagogical Aspect According to Hessen education (i.e. teacher action in the educational environment of school), “involves addition and preservation of the past rather than its reproduction3”. If you agree with this idea, we should recognize that only in case of an act in which there is deliberate action of the teacher, it is educational in nature. If you # 1550 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 agree with the second thought of Sergei Hessen: “... the goal of education is closely linked to the objectives of life of society. Life defines education, and vice versa – affects the formation of life. To understand the educational system of the society – is to understand its structure4”, so that one can make a draft of a logical chain of further thoughts. If we consider a holistic pedagogical space of a school that uses a particular technology and training to determine what kind of society, it orients its graduates (of current and / or tomorrow), then the correlation of this educational technology traditionally used, may allow us to identify a few distinctive features of the pedagogic development. And the “the angle of view” by which we conduct our research can be materially different from the traditional. For us, the subject of discussion is not physiological and psychological development of students, but the social mobility of the school graduates, their focus on changing of the existing socio-economic relations. It should be understood that we are talking only about those schools that are geared to socializing function. After all, as you know, “pedagogical space” can in any school (its parts) have place or not. Enriching the student’s knowledge, improving his education, so the school can build a system of relations between subjects of the educational process, that what – that a particular child, for whatever reason, just do not get into this field. His personal “pedagogical space” with it “leave” from school, move to the music studio or the sports section, for example. Consequently, school, fulfilling the function of socialization (learning), often does not claim to be a truly pedagogical activity (development), it just does not set itself such a goal. This is not good, nor bad – it’s a fact. Heterogeneity within a single school education system is a normal thing. One of them (much) focused only on reproduction – to create conditions in which the student will be able to master a certain body of knowledge and skills, giving him a right to be called modern man. The other, a small part of the school focuses its graduates for the reconstruction of the existing society, all that genuine science is questioned, does not put a sign of equity between the terms “culture” and “civilization.” Probably, this is the last part of school and engaged in a fundamental improvement of educational technology, intended to ensure that pedagogical action develops man and society. Probably for this reason great (researchers, reformers), more often, “were so flattered”, when they spoke about the school, which they had to attend. Personal qualities of these artists, scholars, reformers demanded liberal relations, the rights of freedom of movement in the educational environment of school, and not forced regimented exercise patterns. Based on these considerations, we would like to somewhat change the subject of debate and dwell on school development. That is an educational institution for which the use of pedagogy is the primary means of achieving this goal. Here, in my opinion, it’s time to make a small step aside. At a conference, Boris I. Hasan discussed the theme of “educational meetings” as a probabilistic event. How to make sure that this meeting take place? What conditions should be in a school to make its probability higher? If we add to this that the reflection of their own teaching and administrative experience suggests that to determine who needs these meetings more – the student or teacher, it becomes clear that the discussion about creating an environment in which the teacher is transformed into a traditional school teacher development, is the subject of a separate discussion. I think that this topic has several layers. This is the preparation and retraining of teachers, teaching and discussion of the nature of the meeting, which # 1551 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 “seeks,” school teacher development, etc. etc. Today, I want to mention one thing: closure of the education system, and as a consequence, the lack of support outside the school and the teacher and pupil, drastically reduce the likelihood of this encounter. This, in turn, separates from the reflective teacher’s position on the course of the educational process, the results of their labor, and thus realize the necessity of the existence of the school as an instrument of a cultural (civilized, legal) transformation of the society. There is an urgent need to “uncover” school, to discuss its problems not only and not within the education system, and to involve people, who have become successful outside the school. Otherwise, we, on the one hand, will be faced with a denial of managers at all levels – the denial of any reform of school, and, on the other – a significant degradation of the teachers associated with the adoption of the existing flawed way of life because of the impossibility of going beyond the school as an institution. However, the attempt to conduct a qualitative set of measures to upgrade the Russian system of secondary education, launched this year already, sadly, largely confirmed the hypothesis formulated above. The key, I think, here is the idea of public schools, completeness and relevance of which can be seen from 2001. In one of the discussions held in 2011, Deputy Minister of Education and Science, Igor Remorenko brought a very interesting analogy between the evolution of operating systems used in modern computers and the development of the school. “... Computer users” experienced “may recall that the first operating system – Norton Commander, popular in the late 80’s early 90-ies, programs run consecutively. To open the n, it was necessary to close the first team n-1. As in a traditional school: first math, then – history. Then came the era of Windows. There was no need to shut down one program in order to launch another. Does it remind you such innovations as the project-based learning, integration of subjects, etc. Today we started working with the operating system Android, which does not require software installation on your computer. This problem is introduced in the PC, sent to the server, processed there and returned back in the form of a solution. If we assume that the development of the school (public information) copies the evolution of operating systems, we can assume that…5”. So – the school becomes “uncovered” by acquiring fundamentally new development resources, and we were able to see this in 2001 Now we shall discuss the notion of correspondence of school to the concept of school development at various stages of history. According to L.N. Modzalevsky6, result of training in pre-Christian era, was the development of a young man (baby boys) a body of knowledge and skills that allowed him to save himself, his specimen (now I have written his self-sufficiency). The ancients meant to learn to produce food, the ancient Greeks – to become a citizen (to know the laws, to be able to take part in the debate), etc. etc. This, as you know, and was the main function of traditional school at those times. We now turn to the work of Jacques Le Goff, “Intellectuals in the Middle Ages7”. The main task of school early medieval author sees in the creation of conditions under which the clergy and people of the state will determine the difference between “religious and educational responsibilities8”. That is, the creation of conditions for the emergence of intellectuals (clerics) – “... those whose profession was teaching to think and conveying their thoughts 9…”. But the same goals (tasks) were put by the pre-Christian school of Socrates, weren`t they? Thus, the school of Socrates ahead of the traditional school of his time made a man solved the problem of the subsequent interim period. # 1552 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 We now shall try to apply the same reasoning to the scheme of educational technology (School) Komensky. Created in “... the Middle Ages, with their commitment to authority and tradition 10”, at the school on the one hand, were “restored the rights of the individual mind in reading the Bible11…”, and on the other – “Teachers conveyor” Komensky preparing citizens of industrial society. Is not it possible to treat the full name of the main things for us, his work: «The Great didactics, containing the universal art of teaching all around, or ...12”? Thus, the forward-looking school of Komensky, you can call the school of his time. Without claiming to conduct systematic analysis, we add only that Peter Shchedrovitsky, in the “Education and Society13”, gives sufficient appreciation of the Soviet school as an institution, which provides “... the reproduction and mentality that determine the meaningfulness of the execution of these types of activities and save the data structures of municipal and industrial relations, ...”. That is, it is best to replicate the (simulated) existing social relations, and not preparing a man capable of developing them, and doomed themselves and society that it served to die. Thus, the absence in the educational system of schools, sooner or later returns to the starting point of the society. Recent history has proved it. The reproduction ... Following Toffler, I note only that the ideology of education usually try to set “of the past” – “image of the future”, repeating the model school of archaic societies, but the situation changed in the world. Consequently, it and the school must change. At the same conference in Krasnoyarsk, already in 2003, we developed, elaborated on this point. “... A new quality of education for us is the degree of fitness – as the school system, the ground of its main tool”, a cultural form, for the solution of other than the previously popular media practice goals and objectives. In other words, if we agree that the quality of education depends on how the result fits the needs of the customer, then the definition of a “new quality”, we should point out the change of request. Society moves to a new stage in its development. For schools this means, above all, change the criteria of success. If the industrial (post-industrial) society could predict a set of characteristics of a successful person next decade, but now hardly anyone takes up the description of the “model of the graduate.” In these circumstances, “learning” begins in the market valued more than “learning.” For the same disciple to become a “man of the student,” he at least should be in school that does not discourage learning. He should understand that in order to be successful in life one should have a lifetime to learn and relearn. For this, the study should probably be different in other ways…14”. The traditional school and the school of development – two components of the education system In the first half of the 20th century, Hessen, Modzalevsky, other native teachers attempted to separate the tasks of school for training and for shaping cultural values. So Hessen, following Kant, says that “cultural values” in their very essence are inexhaustible tasks .... “Problems without any solution15”. This, in our view means that the school-oriented development, focused on the tasks that are valuable in themselves, that is precisely on cultural values. Is this why in any society, there appeared schools that were focused on the family, for whom the process of education was the value? Is it because Goff, in reference to the question of intellectual dependence on the Church in the Middle Ages, says: «Of course, along with universities, despite fierce opposition of the church, could be based secular schools, but instead give a general education, they were limited to technical education designed to # 1553 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 merchants: letters, invoices, foreign languages. Thus, began to increase the gap between general culture and special training16”. Is it our basic curriculum that the French scholar says about, that it “distributes” between the parties the possibility of the educational process? Indeed, the development has a chance to manifest itself only in the school opportunities. “... Who? If you follow the humanistic theories – students, consumers of educational services. In this case it is not difficult to guess that only all the organizers of the educational process “hanging” over the child (a teenager, young man, young man). School in their texts (concepts, programs, projects, etc.), presented in a way that it focuses on the management of the support of teaching, which, in turn, promotes self-responsible student teaching. And this verbal picture looks good. Well, it remains to tweak something somewhere and .... But if you look at what is happening a little more closely, as they say, use the naked eye, you begin to realize that the situation is somewhat more precisely – is not so. The entire hierarchical educational ladder is designed in such a manner that “... schools teach only those whose every step in the study corresponds to pre-established measures of social control ...17”. This is a reproduction of this scheme, “the reproduction of culture samples accumulated by mankind” (another cunning) for several centuries, modern arranged in regular school. But time moves forward inexorably. Joining the information society demands changes to the results and, consequently, the organization of education. Figuratively speaking, the educated man gives way to a person, who is in the process of learning ...18”. The appearance of the school of teaching (opportunities) is connected with opportunities of schools that are regulated in any country by state educational standards ....” . Let us, now, take the next step. So, if we accept that different schools may have different functions, to be focused on the priority of a solution of the problem, then we can formulate a question, the answer to that depends largely on the face of the modern Russian school: “Should the school be confused by mass resolution of these two tasks and, if so, why?”. I think that at the level of common sense answer to this question is simple – each school has to deal with these tasks in parallel. Since only a statement of the teacher in front of the “eternal questions of pedagogy,” puts it in a reflexive with respect to the position of their own actions, his work makes him interesting, and as a consequence, the school is “alive”. That is, each institution must be an element of school development. But, and this is very important, just a steady balance between the physical operation of the (non-virtual, as is customary in some socalled “innovative” schools) and development based on knowledge of the traditions and precise forecast will provide the normal forward movement. Otherwise ... However, here, in my opinion, the best result, a very modern, unfortunately today, Leo Modzolevsky quote: “Only ignorance of history and lack of respect for those it could make Don Quixote in the education business, which we had a lot lately, and sometimes, with all its noble aspirations, only to harm the proper development of teaching cases in our country19”. To make the school “live”. In achieving this task orient us to consistently poor results of Russian schoolchildren in the study. PISA. Beginning in 2000, we participate in the fourth cycle of this international study of quality of education (study carried out once every three years), showing more than modest results, significantly below the average. However, in another study, TIMSS20 purpose of which is a comparative evaluation of general (substantive, academic) training of secondary school students # 1554 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 in math and science, our students show good results. In 2009, KN Polivanov, made a very interesting comparison, imposing on each other the results of Russian students in the two studies mentioned above. It is noteworthy that in all countries except Russia, the two studies agree. This means that for students from other countries increase subject knowledge related to the success of their application, and our young people – no. One hypothesis is that the reason for this is too much academic quality of programs, their information overload, isolation of objects from each other. Relying on the stated above we may conclude that in discussing the actual teaching (technological) aspect of the school (Education) development, we must not shy away from answering the following questions: • Can the teacher science make a correct prognosis and predict those educational technologies that will bring the educational institutions of the elements of the school? • Can the school in our transition to an information society period be regarded as a unique and self-contained institution that is able to solve this function (open school)? • What resistance the modern Russian school will face in the process of modernization (development of educational technology development)? This, in our opinion, is particularly important, since with high probability it can be argued that the projected changes will cause resistance to all consumers of educational services (from the state to the child). The reason is simple – making the cost of education, they want a guaranteed result, and the school development only creates the conditions to ensure that its graduates could achieve this result (one of the main distinguishing features of the school of our time by forcing the school). Technological aspect In discussing the possible ways of developing the content of general secondary education, all agree on what should be changed. In this case all (analysts, researchers, teachers, practitioners) agree that it (the content of education) is overloaded, cannot be mastered by all students within the allotted time frame on it. But, we need only touch on the theme of object-centrism, a departure from the principle of scientific certainty and completeness in the presentation of an issue as supporters of the traditional subject-object pedagogy Komensky and, surprisingly Herbart, “stand in the rack,” and further dialogue becomes impossible. But ... life has, and the Russian education system of governance does not notice. «... Options (domestic) curriculum, suggest that the “package” of traditional academic subjects, and complete. Every student, regardless of their chosen educational program must, at all levels, study, at least in some extent, all the subjects. The result of this project is not too difficult to predict: • Students will sit in a classroom for 6-8 hours daily and, consequently, do not do their homework; • Teachers will continue to lecture (the material, then “pass” should be) and just talk about the need to develop some competence; • A parent who understands that his/her children needed more life in the modern foreign language (and, it is English) and the computer, not the ability to “cobble together a stool,” takes a tutor. And at the first lecture in a university auditorium will sound very familiar phrase: «Forget what you learned in school ....21». # 1555 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 For this reason, the task of this conference, I see the proof of the two is quite obvious to many of the provisions: • First. The need for a “school development” within each school. In my opinion this thesis, to some extent, has been proven above. • And the second one. The school of educational technology should be used with certain characteristics. And we should proceed to the discussion of this issue. I think that in this audience do not detail the proof that the basic contradiction of today’s Russian school is that the ability to work with the information, formulate a research problem, to choose the path of the solution, not always associated with a specific set of knowledge and skills, which are developed on the basis of appropriate skills. We are, traditionally, out of habit, have a linear “knowledge”, “abilities”, “skills”. For us, the need to increase the latter determines the need to increase the former. Is this true? “..After the comparative analysis of the draft federal educational standard of the national school in 200222 and materials of the Program “Key competencies 200023”, we came to the following conclusions: a. Both instruments are built in a “linear logic”. The English document shows the average path of the formation of skills of students as they move from class to class, the domestic growth – the amount of information over the same period. b. The rate increase in the amount of information (knowledge), which has a student to learn in English school on the way to the outlet of the first class is small and considerably less than the rate of change of training objectives. In national schools – the situation is totally different. That is, the main difference we see is that the strategy of the English school is to organize tasks with simple information in complex situations, domestic – complex information in standard situations ...” . Thus, the growth of knowledge is not directly connected with the growth of skills possessed by the pupil. As an indicator of “progressive” will focus on finding a way out of object-centrism as extensive, humiliating and exalts the teaching learning. That is, it looks at the child and the teacher as equal subjects of the training activities. General Conclusion In conclusion, I would like to say that the expected acceleration in the transition of school, teachers and students in the new quality is unlikely to happen in the nearest future. It, primarily, has the following reasons: • A manager is not yet ready to legalize the right of a school for independent search and to consider forecasting, not control as the basis of his/her own activity; • Pedagogic science today is not even attempting to begin to build the content of education, forms of organization of training sessions so that it could satisfy both – the present and the future (yet unknown to the customer) demands. By the way, maybe this is the reason for this overload!? • A teacher – practitioner is just beginning to understand (he is the closest to the consumer), that his main task on the one hand, is finding and testing relevant technologies, and, on the other – deliberate execution of tasks, and not work in general. And yet, I do not want to finish my statement comments in such a minor tone. One of the ideas of our approaching reform relates to what the school should give the student, # 1556 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 above all, habits of behavior in today’s dynamic and competitive environment, which requires the adoption and implementation of independent decisions, necessary skills to interact with modern institutions (financial, administrative and etc.). The results of a number of studies that we conducted last year show that nobody denies the validity of these new requirements to school. It seems to be clear to everybody, however, so far, mostly in words... P.S. The development of education and socialization of children in the future up to 2020 to discuss the materials prepared by the expert to the Government of the Russian Federation (Supervisors: A. Kasprzhak, I. Frumin)24. The Russian school is not very different from the Soviet school in terms of both content and methods, and in the management model as well25. This conservation has helped to preserve some of the strengths of the Soviet-secondary education, first of all, a fairly high level of mathematical preparation and teaching reading in elementary school. But in the society, which has radically changed over the years, and economy of the archaic school, its insufficient or inadequate adaptation to modern conditions determine the current status of the main problems and the unwillingness to answer the most important challenges of tomorrow: 1. There is a growing gap between schools in terms of the quality of education and, hence, increasing inequality in access to quality education. According to the results of research there is a clearly distinguished segment of schools (from 4-5% to 25%, depending on the region), where students are concentrated in risk groups: people from disadvantaged families and families with low incomes, showing very low educational outcomes, insufficient knowledge of the Russian language. There is a marginalization of such schools and their students. As a result, the system of secondary education ceases to function as a social elevator, and, conversely, increases social inequality. 2. There is a growing backlog of Russian school of the world’s best systems in terms of program content. Not an effective system of ongoing, evolutionary update the content of educational programs in response to the cultural and technological change. The attempts of the radical, one-time upgrade (development of a complete set of new standards) predictably fail. The most severely lagging behind of the quality of education is seen in such areas such as social studies, English language. An archaic school leads to the alienation of children, the loss of their interest in formal learning. 3. A high level of quality of individual areas of school education, which is confirmed by international surveys (mathematics and science education (TIMSS), and reading (PIRLS), the results of the participation of Russian schoolchildren in Olympiads show that the average level of Russian schoolchildren grades 4 and 8 of these subjects consistently higher than the average international rates. However, according to other international comparative studies (PISA) Russian teens lag behind their peers in most developed countries on the key for the formation of functional literacy areas, have limited abilities to apply their knowledge in practice. This data reflect the contradiction between the needs of a modern economy that requires high-level intellectual skills (summarize, analyze, predict, propose hypotheses, etc.) and the orientation of the Russian school for training as a reproduction of knowledge and application of known algorithms. 4. In Soviet times, the effectiveness of the school system was largely determined by its embeddedness in a wider system of socialization, the presence of “props”: roles and responsibilities for the upbringing and # 1557 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 socialization were distributed among family, school, further education system, territorial children’s organizations, children’s culture industry. Currently, these “props” either absent (destroyed), or do not perform in the same degree of its functions. This leads to the laying of all responsibility for the socialization and education in the education system. However, the existing personnel structure and the remaining from the Soviet school of parenting practices do not allow it to cope with this task. Today the school has lost its monopoly and the objective in the socialization of children, and a channel for information dissemination. On the contrary, public policy, while maintaining a narrow focus on school does not account for the rapid development and the possibility of non-formal education and socialization of children (including the internet, media, children’s and cultural industries). In the stagnation of the system of education and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 additional education reduces the overall culture of the younger generation, growing rates of violence, extremism, alcohol and drug abuse. 5. The conflict between modernization strategy of school “from above” on the one hand, and the growing diversity of local conditions and needs, which must meet the school. The reforms “from above” do not leave any room for real initiatives “from below”, limit the opportunities for effective and responsible solutions in the regions, municipalities and educational institutions. As a result of increasing alienation of teachers and parents from the processes of modernization of education, the reforms often have imitating nature. Citizens have a very limited capacity to influence what is happening in the schools – both as parents and as voters. This is in contradiction with the capabilities and needs of educated parents, who are the majority. In part – as equally? Информационное общество и школа: учебно-методические материалы к курсу повышения квалификации (М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия, 2008). С.И. Гессен Основы педагогики (М., Школа-пресс. 1995). ibid. Каспржак А.Г. Выпускник школы для инновационной экономики. Модернизация образования как условие устойчивого развития: материалы междунар. конф. Ярославский образовательный форум.(Ярославль: ГОАУ ЯО ИРО, 2012). Очерки истории воспитания и обучения с древнейших времен до наших дней (СПб.: Алетейя, 2000). (Долгопрудный, Аллегро-Пресс, 1997). Ibid. P. 128. Ibid. the Cover. Антология гуманистической педагогики. Коменский (Издательский дом Шалвы Амонашвилли. 1996. P. 5). Ibid. P. 6. Ibid. P. 42. П.Г. Щедровицкий. Очерки по философии образования (М.: Педагогический центр «Эксперимент», 1993). А. Каспржак, К. Митрофанов, К. Поливанова Становление ключевых компетентностей и результаты традиционного обучения: материалы конф. «Педагогика развития: становление компетентностей и результаты образования в различных подходах (Красноярск, 2004). С.И. Гессен Основы педагогики (М.: Школа-пресс, 1995. С. 33). Жак Ле Гофф. Интеллектуалы в средние века (Долгопрудный, Аллегро-Пресс, 1997. С. 127). Иллич И. Освобождение от школ. Пропорциональность и современный мир (фрагменты работ разных лет), (М.: Просвещение, 2006). Каспржак А. Информационное общество и школа: учебно-методические материалы к курсу повышения квалификации (М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия, 2008). Л.Н. Модзалевский. Очерки истории воспитания и обучения с древнейших времен до наших дней (СПб., Алетейя, 2000. С. 32). Trends in Mathematics and Science Study. Школа возможностей и возможности школы // Вопросы образования. 2009. № 3. Под редакцией Э. Днепрова и В. Шадрикова. Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations. Сборник материалов 18-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика развития» (Красноярск: ИПК СФУ, 2011). Only the collapse of the educational system can be regarded as essential changes. # 1558 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001 Педагогика развития: взгляд из 2012 – в 2001 А.Г. Каспржак Институт развития образования Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» Россия 109028, Москва, Покровский бульвар, 11, к. 303 Предпринята попытка развернутого комментария к собственным размышлениям, представленным в докладах на конференциях по педагогике развития, датированным 2001 из 2012. Именно такой ход представляется автору наиболее продуктивным. Указывается на границы возможного предвидения, которое в образовании есть неотъемлемая часть повседневной работы каждого практикующего педагога. Указывается на необходимость срочно «открывать» школу, обсуждать ее проблемы не только и не столько внутри системы образования, привлекать к работе в ней состоявшихся вне школы людей. В противном случае есть риск, с одной стороны, столкнуться с отрицанием управленцами всех уровней необходимости какого-либо реформирования школы, а с другой – деградацией значительной части педагогов, связанной с принятием существующего ущербного образа жизни из-за невозможности выхода за пределы школы как института. Ключевые слова: педагогика развития, образовательные технологии, традиционная школа, школа развития, социализация, управление образованием. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1560-1569 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Problems of Learning Motivation. The age Aspect Katerina N. Polivanova* Institute of Education Development of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics» Room 411, 4/2 Slavanskaia ploshad, Moscow, 101090 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The paper discusses the problems of learning motivation of schoolchildren. It is shown that the basis of motivation is the logic of the age development. Based on the periodization of the mental development of D.B. Elkonin two types of age were identified and the features of motivation were demonstrated. It is shown that at the younger and older school age the learning motivation is related to the distinction between a natural and artificial action. We describe the specifics of the formation of the artificial action (assignment of the action sample). The motivation of teenagers (in middle school) is related to the awareness of themselves as subjects of the action. Keywords: need, motivation, development objectives, periodization of mental development, younger school age, adolescence. The problem of learning motivation is one of the most important in the education design. In connection with the motivation or, simply stated, with the interest we see a paradoxical situation: people talk about the motivation continuously, but school and school education is increasingly fraught with compulsion. Or let’s say more cautiously: it is assumed that the child has (should have) an interest in what he is taught. Where this interest come from, how it is kept – no one talks about it as though it goes without saying. However, it is clear that the learning content is selected and filtered by adults, it is often becomes the subject of heated debates but these disputes are adults’. But why the child, for example, has to know the Ohm’s law for the * 1 circuit section – for some reason we avoid this question shyly. Is the child – a student, “a trainee” – a player on the field of educational interests? If yes, what is this interest, what is its origin, whether it is necessary to consider it, how to satisfy this interest. Basically, as applied to education, there are two sources of interest. The first one – external – captures what a person should be to be considered capable of functioning by the society (what knowledge and skills he should have). According to this position what should be transferred to the child in the form of knowledge, skills, competencies, etc is determined. And the second one – internal (subjective) – what the Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1560 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect subject itself wants, what it wants to learn. The nature of the interest problem in education is centered around the “meeting place” of these two positions – external and internal. Today, the content of education is entirely set by the first position – external one. It is society represented by specialists in the field of education that decides what we should know and be able to do. However, in this publication we try to prove the following proposition: while ignoring the interests of the growing child the elimination of education occurs, and then the interests of all the other players (government, education system, business) – a fiction. We proceed from two assumptions: • a child has his own interests that are connected to the logic of his development; • educational environment can and should be built on these basal needs of the growing child. If continue to ignore your own internal needs (motives), all the efforts, investments and political actions are in vain. Virtually, the situation is as follows: adults (society) invest substantial resources in education proceeding from their own ideas about what a child needs to learn and hoping that he will provide for their old age, but having done it badly they find the futility of their investments. The same is at the state level: investments in the education system suggesting return in the future turn out to be wasted. If we continue to build education based on a request from the external to the basic needs of the learner, we will always “miss” – our actions will get lost, sink, disappear. In addition to the above we can point on a generic feature of the education system. Traditionally, it is based on the engineering type: the functioning of the system under the assumption that the process of learning is subject to the scheme I → R (incentive – reaction), i.e. it is assumed that a given incentive (learning content) is followed by a programmed response (learning quality). This scheme is applicable to the complex, but “dead” object; the only response that can be pre-planned and designed by setting the incentive is assumed. Traditionally, the education system does not accept the presence of its own (unknown) characteristics of the object exposure. Hence, in fact, all the resulting characteristics of the education system that was once called “objective” occur. The most striking example of inadequacy of this paradigm is a teenage school built without regard to the intentions of students that today performs (in mass practice) a single function – controllable socialization. It is clear that education can be effective, i.e. one can count on the “income” only if it meets the “natural” needs of the child. The word “natural” is in quotes because a person does not have the actual natural needs. What interests of the child, and there are many of them, should be considered? Our thesis is that the space of analysis of the child needs, and it is them that set the foundation for the formation of his “interests”, is the space of the age development. And although it does not exhaust all the sources of interest in mass education it remains prevalent. To formulate the requirements for the education system resulting from the analysis of the logic of the age development we should refer to the theoretical explanations of the mechanisms of the origin and development of motivation. According to the theory of activity, motivation occurs with the “objectification of needs” (A.N. Leontiev, 1971): the original needs (biological needs) in the process of human development “find” in the world around objects of satisfaction, and these subjects become motives of activity. # 1561 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect In this logic two historical processes are singled out – phylogenetic and ontogenetic. In the history of mankind the development of means of meeting needs – objects, i.e. motives was going on. A person has original – basic, vital, basal – needs – for food, warmth, etc. Gradually the sphere of objects that meet those needs expanded, there were new items that mediated satisfaction of the needs (the field of production emerged and developed: Neolithic Revolution, scientific and technical progress). There came new needs and new motives (objects that satisfy the need). “Ideal” needs and motivations appeared. Thus, the objectification of needs, i.e. “meeting” with the object that can satisfy the need leads to two interrelated processes – expansion of objectivity and development of needs. A.N. Leontiev also described the mechanism of motives development. In the development process of activity its component actions are isolated, “grow” and become independent activities. The purpose of the action becomes the motif of a new activity. This mechanism is called a “shift of the motive to the target”. Another historical process of the development of motivational sphere is ontogenetic. A child is born in the world of deeply differentiated needs and motives. This world of needs and motives is gradually opening to the child. The more complex the organization of the world is, the more difficult the process of growing up is. So the historical development of society leads to the emergence of new ages. They are inextricably wedged in the old ones (today) forming a complex sequence of diverse ages. The current state of childhood is a difficult fixation in the socio-cultural forms of the origin history of childhood (D.B. Elkonin, 1971). A complex sequence of ages is essentially a sequence of major activities and, accordingly, of main motives. These “age” motives in general are universal and do not depend on the circumstances of growing up. Motives of the age development, unfortunately, have not been studied or barely explored. However, the very activity scheme highlighting the sequence of the change of leading activities outlines the logic of the change of motives. Establishing the leading activity leads to the formation of the motive of this activity, therefore, the “leading” motive occurs. In this logic, it should be noted that the motive appears as a new formation of the leading activity, i.e. at the end of the formation period of the leading activity, at the end of the period of the age establishment. Motivational mechanism proposed by A.N. Leontiev is substantially criticized. Let us present arguments of B.D. Elkonin (2001). He draws attention to the fact that, initially, the subject was never given in the human activity, before activity. Therefore, the main problem is the search and testing of the subject, its recreation by means of the activity, its formation as a subject. This is an important point that allows a much more adequate presentation of the situation in the formation of the motive. In fact B.D. Elkonin says about the mutual representation in one activity and needs and its subject, about their mutual testing when the need tests the subject and the subject tests the need. Both A.N. Leontiev and B.D. Elkonin discuss the mechanism of a relationship between the need and its given (according to A.N. Leontiev) or stated, i.e. only potentially possible (according to B.D. Elkonin). Nevertheless, the most painful question, which is where the need really comes from, remains unanswered. What is the need that finds directly (or finds it in the process of permanent testing and thus creates it) its own subject. The basis for understanding of the agerelated development in the Russian psychological tradition is the periodization of psychological development in childhood proposed by # 1562 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect D.B. Elkonin (1971). This periodization is based on the hypothesis saying that each of the children ages that were socially and culturally formed has its own meaning and purpose in the overall logic of ontogeny. According to this periodization, childhood (0 to 18 years) is divided into three periods: early childhood, childhood and adolescence. Each epoch consists of two different types of periods: the epoch begins with a period in the “child is a social adult” system and ends with a period in the “child is a social subject” system. During the first period, a motivational aspect of activity is primarily developed, and during the second period – the operational and technical aspect. In this context we are interested in the epochs and the periods covered by the system of public education: childhood (3 to 11 years) and adolescence (11 to 18 years). As we said, each epoch consists of two periods. First comes the period of the pre-emptive development of the sphere of relationships and experiences; it is a period from 3 to 7 years (preschool age) and from 11 to 15 years (younger teenagers). The second period in each of the epochs is the period of preemptive development of methods of actions; and this is primary school age (from 6-7 to 11 years) and older teens (15 to 18 years). Thus, the ages of two types were defined – the first one when the need-motivational sphere predominantly develops, and the second one when the operational-technical sphere predominantly develops. It is belonging of the period to the first or the second type that sets the quality of motivation and its contents. During periods of the first type a child is most motivated in activities that allow him to discover the sphere of relationships with others, get to know himself, experience and learn the scope of his feelings and states. The periods of the second type are characterized by a focus on the acquisition of new ways of activity – abilities, knowledge and skills. Now we can speak about how well the public education system is responding to the “challenges” of the age development. It is clear that society has succeeded well in the organization of education for children living in the periods of the second type (primary school and older teens), but the education of children living in the periods of the first type suffers a permanent failure. In this article we want to specifically identify the causes of this situation by defining the objective of development in certain periods. At first we consider the “successes” of the education system – ages of the second type: primary school and senior school (adolescence). Here are the illustrations based on the material of the primary school age as much better described in psychology. We can present many illustrations, evidence that schooling accurately corresponds to an internal request of the child, his motivation. What is the request, what is the subject of the need (motive)? It is known that children of primary school age (especially at the beginning of studying) play games with rules with passion (“hopscotch”, rhymes, “rubber band” game, bouncer, etc.). What is it? This is a recreation of a situation of artificial (unnatural) action. What are these games? The artificial, unnatural action is appreciated in them. The same thing happens in education: children acquire the skills of acting by artificial means. Artificial action is an action that is based on specific laws in school, as a rule, it is presented to a child as an example. How we can recreate, reproduce the example. At first glance, it simply must be repeated. However, it is not as obvious as it seems at first glance. For example, a first-grader learns to write letters by means of samples. The child should copy the samples. How does it work? The sample cannot be copied i.e. “photographed”. To reproduce a sample means to build your action so that the # 1563 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect image appears on the paper as close to the sample as possible. Thus, it is not the letter or the sample itself that is copied, reproduced, but the action according to its structure. But the sample of this action is not given (a sample of the result is given). A sample of the action is built by the child himself by trying different ways of writing. About forty years ago, when children learnt to write with ink pens, when teaching to write the action itself was drawn attention to – a teacher dictated: “press – a hair”. The teacher did not just show what the perfect letter looks like, but also paid attention to how it occurs: the pressure increases on the parts of the picture elements and on other parts it is weakened (the line was like “as a hair”). This facilitated the construction of the action, which, when executed, led to the creation of the desired image. If you change teaching techniques (in particular, with the advent of ballpoint pens), this part of the training disappeared. Requirements for handwriting decreased, letters written by the child ceased to be so perfect. But not only has the perfection of written letters (calligraphy) gone, but also a sample of the action has disappeared, leaving only a sample of result. Another example is from learning music. They show to a child how to “play a note”. They pay attention to the sound of it, show how a finger should push the button. But again, neither the sound of music, nor the trajectory of the finger provides adequate performance. There is a need to recreate (with your own hand, not with the hand of the teacher) the whole score of the micromotion of the shoulder, forearm, hand and finger. No matter how skilled the teacher is, this score is recreated by the hand, the body of the child. Apparently, a more talented child grasps this inner picture of the motion and reproduces it easier, but a less talented child needs something more. For example, the teacher asks the child to put his hand under his elbow to feel the “heaviness” that occurs in the elbow when he hit a key. This is an attempt to give the child a feel for what kind of feeling should arise in him when he plays a note as required. And then the child should feel the difference between a note taken with the “light” and “heavy” elbow. Feeling the difference is the time of partition of the natural action into his “own” natural and his own “other” artificial. Or: your past (real) and your present (ideal). Let us stress: the artificial action is constructed from the natural. The most important is the distinction between your own (natural) and another (artificial). These examples draw us to the process of assigning a sample. The sample of the action is not given initially, no matter how many examples of the proper execution are cited. The result of the action is given in the example. But it is not and cannot be a sample. The sample can occur when a child feels, perceives the difference between his original (natural, spontaneous), and his own but different – exemplary – way of action. You can help this feeling arise helping to build your own exemplary action by supporting the child’s hand giving verbal instructions, stopping the wrong moves. Hence, the term “formation” that is shaping the initially formless (natural, spontaneous, organismic). But it is impossible to impose, “put” this sample on the child. So, in this example of the formation of the subject-instrumental action the artificial action is formed from the natural that becomes the material for another artificial. At a time when the child discovers (not reflexively, but by the fact of changing his actions) his (yet operationally natural) action for the first time, it ceases to be natural, is broken up into his own and not his own, and the discrepancy between the two poles becomes a matter of need. It is important to stress that the motive is not actually an artificial action, not the sample as such, not the mode of action as such, but the “gap” between his own and the other, real and ideal. # 1564 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect The time of their differentiation – the emergence of this “gap” is the moment of learning. Next the artificial is automated. This is the stage of training, development, exercise – the transformation of the newly established artificial action into a skill. Education in elementary school, thus, should be designed as retention (gain, recreation) of the distinction between the natural and the artificial. In the traditional school the artificial (cultural and social mode of action) is given ready-made; in developing education systems it is built by the children themselves in response to the problem that cannot be solved by a “natural way”. But the essence is the same: the retention of distinction as such. This retention sets motivation for educational activity. Thus, the primary school age that is operationally technical in its main purpose, “accurately” matches the formation of the ways of action that children acquires in school. Let us emphasize that to a child it is not important what system he is studying in – a traditional or developing one. It is important for those subjects of the education system that invest own resources in it. Then we can already put the question of what artificial must be presented as the standard of education, the child does not care. Further efforts are successful, if the training falls into this gap: natural – artificial. Now let us consider the periods of the first type. These, as we already mentioned, are the preschool age and adolescence. We know that they are the most difficult for the “direct formation”. It is most clearly seen in adolescence, but when trying to organize the training of preschool children the same problems occur. It is known that the leading activity of preschool age is a game. It develops the motivational sphere in a child, the scope of his personality. According to our records, regardless of the program having effect in a preschool institution (“Origins”, “Development”, “From childhood to adolescence”, Sample Program), the main focus in a preparatory group is on training for the school. If we compare this with data of E.O. Smirnova on reducing the level of formation arbitrariness till the end of the pre-school age, it will become clear that the introduction of direct learning (working very well, as we just saw in the primary school age) leads to the actual destruction of the age, it stops solving its own problem of the age. What is the mechanism of motivation, what is its subject at a preschool age or adolescence? Let us consider the most troubled school age – adolescence. It is described by different authors in different ways, its leading activity is also determined in different ways – intimate-personal communication, social-useful activity, project activity. But nearly all agree in recognizing that the core of the age is the formation of identity which is the establishment of your own holistic Self. Formally, the term “identity” was introduced to the academic community by E. Ericson (1996). His theory is called social psychoanalysis. But now another fact is more important – regardless of the scientific paradigm most researchers agree in recognizing the structure-determining role of the process self-determination to understand the content of adolescence. Thus, the theoretical development of Freud’s ideas leads to determining adolescence as a period of release from the power of the parents: “separation mourning”; according to A. Freyd, the resumption of the conflict between It and Super-Self provoked by increasing the physiological changes can potentially be resolved by building their own behavior criteria, i.e. through individualization. E. Ericson believed adolescence was a “normative crisis of identity”, i.e. the period of the most intensive search for their own integrity and identity. Partial, fragmentation self-identification (I am a schoolchild, I am a son) is subject to a review and # 1565 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect critique, a new integral Self is constructed. In the development of thinking (intelligent structures), according to Piaget, in adolescence there is a stage of formal operations like maneuvering between reality and the possibility. The most important characteristic of the stage of formal operations is the ability to project yourself into the future, to distinguish the real from the possible and think about how it could be. Formal operations are characterized by four features: introspective thinking (a thought of a thought), abstract thinking (leaving the bounds of the real to the possible), logical thinking (the ability to take into account all relevant facts and ideas and make meaningful conclusions out of them, such as establishing cause-effect relationships), hypothetical thinking (the formulation of a hypothesis and its proving, taking into account many variables). Thus, leaving behind the specifics and peculiarities of individual conceptual approaches, a teenager appears as the person building the connection between his action and the field of possibilities. We can call this the objective of the age differently, by a popular term “Positioning”. The teenager position himself in the world, implementing, according to B.D. Elkonin, the ontological decentration. Thus, in particular, the phenomena of the imaginary audience and a personal myth are described. Teens appreciate their own place, position, opinion, appearance the most acting based on the assumption of their exclusivity (personal myth) and the interest of others in their actions and deeds (imaginary audience). Features of the age and, therefore, the objectives of the age hidden behind them are linked with the problem of positing your own personality in the world. Myself, my place in the world, the world and my Self – these are the main relationships that are explored and tested in adolescence. The experiment with your Self is a form of objectification of the age need for the development, i.e. the motive. Adolescence, therefore, is a period of searching for space of satisfaction in the sphere of positing yourself (through your action) in the space of possibilities for its implementation. These global problems of the age set the general vector of motivation. The need for selfidentification can get objectified in the space of the learning action, find the means of your satisfaction in school. Then the direction of education and the direction of self-construction will be unidirectional, education will become a space to meet the basic need of the age. If education is organized differently, in particular, on the grounds of the passive “learning” or even the formation of generalized modes of action, as in developmental education, if it implements the logic of deployment of training objectivity, rather than the logic of constructing yourself, education is doomed to remain unmotivated. What is the mechanism of teenage testing, and how does it relate to motivation? Firstly, it is necessary to identify the action committed and the space it finds itself in. Secondly, it is necessary to show the possible forms of detection, and, finally, describe the screen on which this finding may be a “seen”. Teenagers go through a stage when they attribute the unlimited power to their own thoughts so the dreams of a bright future or to change the world through ideas (even if this idealism takes the materialistic form) seem to be not only fantasies, but effective actions that are changing the world themselves (Piaget, Inelder, 2003). So, the idea (idea, hypothesis) can lead to changes in the outside world, i.e. it is an action for a teenager. : The world” that will be changed by the idea is a space that will show the action, the changed world will become a screen of the action, the change will confirm the action, make it real. Thus, for a teenager the situation is motivated when there is # 1566 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect the action of the teenager, there is a change in the situation through action, there is a space (screen) on which the acting sees how the action links with the change in the situation. The situation of the action should provide an opportunity to experiment on the action – its consequences. It is distinction and mutual representation of the action and its outcome (consequences) that is the subject of motivation. Fantasy formation indicated by Piaget and Inelder is not the most unproductive way to find your identity. Another, much more dangerous way is antisocial behavior. Clearly, the society prescribing forms of behavior “does not notice” actions fit into the usual, reasonable limits. But if the action is committed against the accepted norms and forms, it is noticed, discussed and judged, becomes the subject of retaliatory action. Antisocial behavior in such a way is a form of objectification of the need in self-discovery, selfidentification, and therefore a simple suppression of it is counterproductive. Thus, we state the following. Motivation typical of adolescence requires the construction of a situation characterized by the following features: • it potentially allows performing a lot of different actions; • it has a screen that reflects the result of actions; • there is no reference, initially given, “correct” action with a prescribed reference result. In the process of taking action the relation action-form of the result is built rather than the result itself (as in the situation of mastering instrumental action). We call this activity project. Unfortunately, what today is called the project activity in the primary or high school can hardly be regarded as such. This is creative assignments, perhaps appealing to a teenager, but in its inner nature they rarely provide a genuine interest. Adolescents need unexpectedness, the real unpredictability of the outcome, an event of their own actions is required. In fact, discussing motivation in learning situations, we pay attention to the fact that it is really important not only to become an adult (graduate), but also to grow up (learn). Limiting with the context of preparation for anything, for the future professional or social success of today’s student, we ignore the objectives of the age development. Consequently, the age objectives are not being solved, the age is not being lived; the normal logic of growing up is interfered. We accept the limitations of the health of school children, but allow ourselves to grossly violate the requirements of child psychology. This is objective age requirements for the content of education and forms in which it occurs. If they are ignored the destruction of the learning situation and the following is happening: education is provided, but the educational product does not occur. Then education becomes fictitious. For example, in elementary school children mostly have to master the generalized methods of actions on the material of a variety of cultural subjects, and educational product should be measured as the sum of these modes of actions mastered by the child. In the primary school the objective of self-determination goes to the forefront, and schooling becomes a material for it. Accordingly, the maximum amount of content and learning time should be taken by the humanities and experimental natural science courses, and the educational product should be expressed at the level and type of texts (products) that can be produced by the student. Skills and formal knowledge are minimized. In high school, from this point of view, the situation is better – the age objective of the professional self-determination can be solved based on the school material, the prospects for # 1567 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect further education or taking a job set a social inquiry for studying, and that is why the situation is relatively favorable. The key to solving the age objective is the possibility of a pre-professional test that (at least in intention) is solved by the vocational school. Thus, we fix the considerable source of interests in education – the logic of the age development and the form to satisfy this interest, the organization of the age-oriented education. This interest is not formed, it is not understood, but its failure to satisfy manifests itself in the processes of formalizing training: nominally a student learns, but really – does not receive education and in the future will not be the holder of the educational product. However, the educational service is paid for (at least the taxes paid by parents). Moreover, the student and his family in the learning process or later face the problems of poor quality of education and/or are forced to compensate with their own means – as much as possible. References Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotskiy] Педология подростка // Собр. соч. в 6 т. Т. 4. Детская психология / под ред. Д. Б. Эльконина. (М.: Педагогика 1984). 432 с. Леонтьев А.Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Деятельность, сознание, личность. (М.: Политиздат, 1975). 304 с.. Леонтьев А. Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Потребности, мотивы и эмоции. (М.: МГУ, 1971). 369 с. Пиаже Ж., Инельдер Б. [J. Piaget, B. Inelder] Психология ребенка (18-е издание). (Спб.: Питер, 2003). 160 с. Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Проектная деятельность школьников. (М.: Просвещение. 2007). 196 с. Эльконин Б. Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Психология развития: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб. заведений. (М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2001). 144 с. Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] К проблеме периодизации психического развития в детском возрасте // Вопросы психологии. 1971. № 4. С. 29-41. Эриксон Э. [E. Ericson] Идентичность: юность и кризис. (М.: Прогресс, 1996). 338 с. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect Проблемы мотивация учения. Возрастной аспект К.Н. Поливанова Институт развития образования Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» Россия 101000, Москва, Славянская площадь, 4/2, к. 411 В статье обсуждаются проблемы мотивации учения школьников. Показано, что основой мотивации является логика возрастного развития. На основании периодизации психического развития Д.Б. Эльконина выделены два типа возрастов и продемонстрированы особенности мотивации. Показано, что в младшем и старшем школьных возрастах мотивация учения связана с различением естественного и искусственного действия. Описана специфика формирования искусственного действия (присвоения образца действия). В подростковом возрасте (в основной школе) мотивация связана с осознанием себя субъектом действия. Ключевые слова: потребность, мотивация, задачи развития, периодизация психического развития, младший школьный возраст, подростковый возраст. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1570-1582 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development Boris I. Khasan* Institute of Psychology and Development Pedagogy Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 Conflict competence acts as one of the most important educational outcomes. Opportunities to form abilities to solve the conflicts that are need in education can be already implemented in developmental education at primary school age. However, generated background of the conflict competence will be the real age-related new formation, provided specially organized educational environment. Such environment includes practice of conflict settlement in education in the negotiation processes of all interested parties, including students. It is important to form this kind of negotiation institution, taking into account the real risks that have their own specifics in different subjects of educational relations. Keywords: conflict, constructive negotiation processes, productive conflict settlement, educational interests, age-related new formation, conflict competence. No one likes the taste of yeast in the dough - And yet it has risen only because of it. Stanisław Jerzy Lec I. Correlation of conflict and subject competences The question of the possibility to contribute to the establishment of conflict competence, in our opinion, can be responsibly raised already in the second half of primary school, when according to the concept of developmental education and during the implementation of appropriate educational technologies, we expect the first effects of educational self-sufficiency from students. * 1 At the same time in the studies devoted to the establishment of conflict competence in school, there is a question about the correlation of the activity on the development of ability to productively settle the conflicts, and activity aimed at the proper training of school subjects. This is the question that has been raised by us in the context of the correlation of subject and meta-subject education. In this context, conflict competence acts as an effect of meta-subject education, but its formation, of course, requires the special material, Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1570 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development that can be reasonably considered as the learning and subject material, but that is organized as a specially discontinuous, problematic material – task, problem. Our research aims in this respect are rather coordinated with the organization of educational tasks of the developmental education system. At the same time, we believe that it is possible to check the appearance of such an effect as conflict competence just on the basis of subject-indifferent material and thus to detect or not detect the ability to transfer skills and use it in the non-standardized situations. Speaking about the competence, we understand it (according to J. Ravenna, 2002) as a personal effectiveness within the given limits of the activity. The necessary condition for the display and perhaps the appearance of competence is the personal significance of activity: “It is important for me to cope with the task, to succeed in activity, so I make every effort and show my competence”. If it does not matter or it is not needed, competence is out of the question. That is, we just do not know whether it exists or not, because failure to achieve the given result can be explained not by the lack of skills, and the lack of motivation for the solution. For education, it means that competence as the given, imposed with respect to age or academic year one, has to correspond to or be consistent with the claims of the child. That is, these claims – “I want to know, to be able, to overcome” – have become personal “I can” in education and only then can we talk about competence. It should be emphasized that, according to Ravenna and other authors (see also (J. Christiansen, 1991, A.K. Markova, 1996) being competent and not knowing about it at the same time is not possible. That provision is the place for questions about the subject of study and ability formation. Is that thing that is formed by teachers, and then measured and happily discovered, the competence (or at least ability) of the student or is it the reflected effect of activities of the composer and measurer? For the formation of the research program and design of the usage of obtained results, we formulate several key points. 1. Thereby, for the formation of competence it is necessary for the child to notice, to detect own progress and fix these transitions from “I can’t” to “I can”. In fact, these “I can” should be necessarily in demand not only in an artificial frame of the subject. This subject from the studying stage should become something that will be applied or work. And it must be discovered by the child as a working and applicable thing. In our opinion, it is the normal logic of the subject education that is not self-sufficient, but serves the purposes of development. From the mastering of the subject as a subject for the mastering to detect it as a resource tool for working with another subject (see B.I. Khasan, 2003). 2. What is the conflict competence? It is the complex of abilities that allows to effectively settle conflicts. In this case it is important for us that when we say “allow”, we do not mean the finality of actions, their completeness. For us, the most important thing is procedural characteristics of productive oriented action with contradiction and its conflicts. If you follow our definition of the conflict as a special organization of activities, as the form in which contradiction is retained in the process of settlement, so the conflict-competent person is the one who has mastered this form and distinguished it among others. And, most importantly, this person is able to detect the contradiction and knows the ways of its retention. We believe, and it is the basic assumption, that this kind of ability has its own line of # 1571 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development development that can be built in accordance with age. This means that at each age stage there is a problem (imputation!) of the formation of conflict competence of the specified level. 3. Variants of the correlation of the formation dynamics of comflict competence with the subject education are rather not variants, but some scenarios of the correlation of aims and ways to achieve them: – “Even if you tech something, it will grown by itself (If we teach well, good things will grow, if we teach bad, not very good things will grow”) – it is the natural scenario; – “It is necessary to teach specifically and separately, and it doesn’t matter whether you teach during the others lessons or the same” – it is the subject scenario. – Special organization of the subject education where there will be formation of connections between different lines (according to the type “aim – means to achieve”, and in inverse ratio, when something that has been the aim yesterday is becoming the means to achieve a new goal today) – it is the meta-subject scenario. If we understand the connection between actions transforming educational and subject material and actions, skills, defining conflict competencies – we will understand how to provide its establishment and achievement of new “I can” by the students. 4. In the model of the subject under study it is important to distinguish three layers in the logic of the competence formation. ● Educational and subject transformations (the layer of the science and subject logic and its didactic structure). This layer forms the skill of specific regulatory transformation and, thus, there is mastering of norms of organization and transformations in the certain subject culture. ● Conflict (the layer of the activities organization during the detection of the gaps in own abilities to make transformation when they are needed, search and establishment of forms for conflict settlement). ● General state (the layer where there is an actual formation of connection between two other layers, due to the transition from the «It is needed» to «I want-but I can’t» and then to «I can» with the securing of what I exactly can and how it has became possible and will be possible in the future). Abilities are always discovered in the situation of overcoming, but they are fixed as abilities and then as personal competence when their application does not require special efforts and becomes the irreversible thing that is not possible to lose. Thus, conflict competence, in our opinion, can not be regarded as an independent separate purpose and result of any special education process, and also not as the random effect (bonus) of subject education. It is developed together with the subject competence and is the condition for the effectiveness of the latter. That is, if we really want to achieve sustained and portable effects of subject education and the same result of the behavior in conflict as meta-ability (one of the key competencies), it is important for us to look in educational technology for the connection of these lines in the ratio of «aim-material- means of transformation». At the same time there is also the negative assumption that only due to complication and strengthening of the subject line it is impossible to increase effectiveness in the subject and even more in the parallel multiplication of these subject lines. # 1572 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development II. Experimental study of the connection between the conflict and subject competences1 Thus, the components of conflict competence are the following: 1. Willingness to overcome difficulties 2. Ability to detect the contradiction that lies at the heart of the conflict 3. Proficiency in the ways of resolving various types of contradictions. Reflection is the main means for conflict settlement allows you to transfer the situation of uncertainty in the form of the task, that is to form “circumstances” of the person in the construction – conflict which settlement will be the settlement of the conflict. At the finish of primary school, according to the age-related goals and implementation of educational programs, students can reach such level of conflict competence that allows them to: 1. Effectively settle the conflicts of extracurricular subject in group work. (through the formulation of the problem and development of educational cooperation) 2. Distinguish and hold in the settlement two types of transformations: subject and organizational. Thus, the problem and contribution of primary school age in the formation of conflict competence consist in the following: 1) appearance of the ability to distinguish subjects of transformation (that is the basic ability to effective conflict settlement and lies in the basis of distinguishing between the subject and the conflict material, then the interests and goals of the parties) and 2) detection of the interaction as a resource for settlement. In our opinion, the condition for the formation of these abilities is the treatment of the school subject by the teacher as means of activity, not just as an object for the development and study. This, in turn, is possible only with the special lesson organization of such children’s interaction, when the school subject is only the reason for cooperation and its subsequent reflection. We have conducted an experiment and attempted to: - Create the situation of uncertainty with the need to overcome it (the situation of personal significance for the participants) - Discover the phenomena of distinguishing different types of material in the group work - Compare according to these criteria students in classes where various pedagogical strategies have been implemented in the organization of educational cooperation. The experimental procedure was constructed as follows. Within the school-wide campaign “Remember your class”, the supervising teacher introduces to the class adults who will shoot the picture shot about their classroom. In order to do this, they will choose a team of four people who will be the screenwriters and presenters. In order to select the best team there will be the game, and the winners will be the smartest students who are able to work together. Rules of the game are the following: Presenter thinks of a word that denotes an object in this classroom. Task for the teams is to guess the word. They should guess this word according to the rules. The team asks the presenter questions that can only be answered “yes” or “no.” The teams play by turn. The first team has 15 attempts, that is, they can ask just 15 questions. If during this time they can’t guess the word, then the move is going to the next team. They have 13 questions in total. If they also can’t recognize the word, then the move is going to the third team and this team has just 11 questions. The winner is the team that guess the word. This team gets 1 point. There are three rounds in total, # 1573 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development the order of play is changing in every round. The winner will be the team with the greatest number of points. There are notes on the board about the number of questions. The whole procedure is recorded on video, the groups include observers who are recording the minutes of discussion. After the first round, students were given the time to discuss progress of the game in teams, there were no any specific objectives for this discussion. This game was carried out in three 4th academic year classes in the middle of the school year. In total, the experiment was attended by 36 people. The classes were distinguished by the system of education and system of pedagogical activities for the organization of educational cooperation. The first group was represented by the class with the traditional system of education and the teacher did not set any tasks of mastering the skills of cooperation (hereinafter referred to as TE – traditional education). The second group was the class of developmental education, where the teacher actively used the group and pair forms of work, but only as a form of work that contribute to effective mastering of subject material. The cooperation did not act as the separate subject of the activity of the teacher and class (hereinafter referred to as DE – developmental education). The third group was the students of class, where within the developmental education the teacher intentionally and systematically used the educational co-operation and implemented an entire program for the transfer of the skills of cooperation to the students. The cooperation itself was discussed in the educational process as an independent subject (hereinafter referred to as DE+ – developmental education +). In the experimental situation we were interested in the following: 1. Do the students in these classes differ in the selection of settlement strategies? 2. Is it possible to identify differences in the forms of cooperation and ways of its organization? 3. Do the students at the end of primary school mark subject material and cooperation about it as the different subjects of activity? The analysis of questions to the presenter allowed identifying questions of strategic search and chaotic search. We labeled the question as strategic, if the answer to it would determine the future actions of the team (if the answer is “yes”, then we’ll ask about ...; and if the answer is “no”, then ...). The next question within the strategy is always connected with the previous one. Chaotic search is reflected in the questions that are the enumeration of subjects without system and special intention to clarify any property or get certain information. Typically, this type of search is accompanied by an active examination of the class, “search with the eyes”. Participants try to guess the word, and often the answer “no” does not carry any information other than “we have not guessed”. We should also mention such questions that have pseudo-reflexive character. By the form the question refers to the group of subjects and finds out its indicator, but by the content it refers to the concrete subject. For example, the group asks the question “Is it for shooting?” referring to the video camera, or “Is it used for writing on the blackboard?” referring to the chalk, etc. We have to mention that any prohibitions or restrictions on the naming of the subject in the instruction were not introduced. Only in one case, such questions have been the result of an erroneous understanding of instructions by one of the respondents. The cases of pseudo-reflexive statements are recorded in all classes, and in some groups they were even dominant. For us, this phenomenon means the # 1574 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development attempt of external compliance with the “correct” way of acting, without the reflexive attitude toward it. Intuitively feeling how to do it “right”, the students act almost like this, but do not implement the method of strategic search. We fix stereotyped activity upon the pattern of reflexive operations that are not mastered as a method. The percentage of different types of statements said by fourth-graders is presented in the table. The following analysis results refer to the dynamics of the search methods throughout the game. It will be recalled that the game procedure consisted of three rounds. It was important for us to compare the methods of solution used in different rounds. In order to do this, we compared the percentage of statements of strategic search in all grades from first to the third round. The results of the comparison are presented in the graph (Table 1). It is evident from the graph that only in the DE+ class dynamics of strategic statements is positive. With almost equal results in the first round that represents for us the spontaneous activity of children, in the third round there are significant differences. These quantitative indicators have forced us to turn to the analysis of phenomenal data. It was found that the first round has the nature of the tentative one, when there is an understanding of the problem conditions and performance of the tests of spontaneous actions (chaotic search). The pause before the second round helps to make difficulty and suggest methods of effective activity. In the second round they are implemented. Effective implementation is related to the distribution of functions in the group (organization of cooperation), and the discussion of the solution strategy throughout the entire round (subject transformation). In this case, in the third round the strategy has become dominant and the percentage of chaotic statements is significantly reduced. If the orientation in the problem conditions in the first round was not successful and the discussion of methods had formal character, after increase of the percentage of strategic statements in the second round, in the third one, it would be again reduced to the initial level. The reason for this we see in the failure of the implementation of agreements in the team. For us, it is an indicator that students know “how it should be done”, they try, but do not hold it in their own activities. We dare say that in the presence of the teacher and his organizing work, this strategies would have found its continuation. Thus, students in the class of DE may find difficulties and make attempts to form it, but they are not able to keep the reflective position in the group cooperation. We have also found significant differences in the forms of cooperation in different classes. And again in the first round, almost all groups demonstrated the direct cooperation “individual members – presenter” and the group does not work like organization. Then, after the redetermination of conditions and development of the method of solution in the DE classes there is appearance other forms. In the first of them there is domination of cooperation “individual Table 1. Ratio of the respondents’ statements by the method of search Type of statements Class: Strategic search, % Chaotic search,% Pseudo-reflection,% TE DE DE+ 3.5 58 34 6 56 45 14 43 24 # 1575 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development members – leader – presenter” and this form is maintained until the end of the game. Thus, there is some sort of organization of work and questions are not asked in chaotic way. That is, according to the formal signs, the group is structured and the method of action is developed. However, this method is not consistent with the content of the subject transformation (although the group is organized, this organization does not serve the task of the development of search method). In the DE+ class this stage is practically not observed; after the individual actions in the first round in the group there is discussion of the settlement strategy that then determines the form of cooperation. Then the group as a whole discusses and makes the decision about which question should be asked. It allows us to conclude that the distinction between two types of material (cooperation and subject transformation) in this experiment is the key factor to effectiveness. And we see the phenomena of this distinction in the activity of respondents from the DE+ class. It means that at the end of primary school it is possible to distinguish the retention of two layers of educational cooperation by students. And it does not require the organization of special subjects or meta-subjects – the appropriate level of competence is the effect of full implementation of educational activities. With the special organization of “discontinuity” of the subject by the teacher, positioning it as the means for other activities, students at the end of primary school are the most effective in overcoming the situation of uncertainty and group settlement of the conflict. In order to make the received educational result as the basis of the age-related new form, it requires such social context where constructive procedural characteristics of the cooperation are demanded in the obvious for the character way. We consider the retention of the conflict as constructive when it is formed as the negotiation process. In turn, the productive outcome of such process is an agreement that has been reached during the negotiations and that satisfies the interests of the negotiating parties, and therefore will be implemented by them voluntarily and without coercion. (Khasan, 2003) It is extremely important, in our opinion that this context by itself should be presented in the form of a general-purpose institution, i.e. including all the positions that are interested in education and not being designed by adults exclusively for the children. This circumstance opens up the problem of needed and possible agreements with a relatively high social status. III. Conflicts and negotiations in the educational relations Efficiently solvable conflicts imply a clear representation of the interests of the involved parties and matching of the subject and material of the conflict. If the reality of relations is framed not in such a way, we deal with the so-called “conflict monster” when one party wants one thing, the other one wants another thing. Such actions can be called crossing actions, but they can hardly be discussed as the cooperation that according to the classical theory of conflict is an attribute of the conflict (Christiansen, 1991, p. 49), and least of all they can match the characteristic of consistency. And, despite the fact that their actions really interfere with each other, because they are simultaneously deployed in a limited space and are in a real interdependence, this type of cooperation can’t be productive. Usually there is escalation of the tension followed by attempts to increase the effort from all sides. It is followed by mutual negative qualification, threats, etc. For the professional work with such a situation it is necessary to identify the real interests of the parties, determine the essence of # 1576 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development their inconsistent or consistent character, and try to align interests. Special feature of the educational relations, quite clearly presented in a great number of psychological and educational literature was rather clearly schematized by L.S. Vygotskiy (Vygotskiy, 1996, p.373-391), and then was almost painted by G.P. Shchedrovitskiy as a process of the cultural transmission where there is cooperation of special cultural positions, and their activity is mediated by the social situation of development and by the usage of special (corresponding to the cultural material) methods of transformation (Shchedrovitskiy, 1993, p. 3842). Just the development and appropriation of the cultural transformation methods forms the semantic characteristics of educational relations. And it is this understanding of the educational relations that gives us reason to consider them as developing and as a condition of the development of the collective or individual subject participating in them. In turn, it means that along with the clear characteristics that define the cultural forms of subjects under study and mean of their transformation, we “see” in these relationships rather high uncertainty in the field of individual and collective achievements. Does it mean that educational relations are conflict, have a high degree of uncertainty and, therefore, are always risky to the extent of their dynamic? The nature of the risks to the parties that are participants of the educational relations is determined by their interests and expectations, as well as their contributions to the educational process. For what the parties – members of educational relations count on? What risks are they trying to minimize during the implementation of their own interests? Conducting our research, we focused on two institutions that were members of educational relations. It is the Institute for Education and Institute for Family. It was important for us to apply to the direct participants with such kind of analysis, although of course we understand that the main and common subject of such relations is the Institute of State. This member stands behind the Institute of Education, but the latter, of course, over the last few hundred years, has acquired its own specific interests that do not always coincide with the interests of the state. We have conducted dozens of focus groups with representatives of educational institutions and families. It was important to find out what interests in education activity may be claimed by these groups and how they are specified, as well as ideas about their own contributions to education. The question about the risks has arisen in connection with the need to analyze the seriousness, reality and the status of interests in education, their place among the other interests of the respective institutions. The fact is that the declarations about the importance of education, its priorities have become a commonplace in various discussions and seriously have had journalism features that are far away from the real situation. It is possible to check sufficient seriousness of relations in the particular area, in our opinion, if you understand what contributions and under what guarantees people are willing to make, or in other words, to what extent they are willing to risk than in order to achieve their goals. That is, the conscious willingness to take risk is the measure of the seriousness of interests. For one of the more clearly represented positions interest is formed lapidary and supposedly pragmatic. In fact, the household, in accordance with the exact expression of Evgeny F. Saburov, sends the child to school, setting oneself free and giving the responsibility to another party, with hopes for a good result in the distant future. At the same time attempts to control # 1577 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development the flow of the process in the desired direction are made on the basis of own memories and impressions, as well as relying on the inconsistent standards. The latter is very important because in fact it is an appeal to some “social contract”, the content of which is interpreted by the parties rather arbitrarily, but in full confidence that there are generally accepted, well-known and obvious norms. In strong formulations, it looks like this: “We have given you our children, you owe us, so do it”. IV. Conflicts of adults – the context of maturation conflicts When such concentrated and shaped interests are represented to the parties – participants of education, their contradictory character becomes apparent, since in these representations there is no any agreement on the common field of activity and its results, but the interdependence and mutual claims and expectations are clearly visible. For us as people specializing in the field of conflict analysis and conflict settlement, such a “picture” means that in principle such concordance is possible, if it is showed and structured, and the ground of the party interests are consecutively opened and formed, and the possibilities to satisfy them are discussed. In reality, nothing happens. More specifically, attempts that are, in our opinion, poorly and randomly organized are made at the level of conversations about education policy, and mostly in journalistic terms. If we talk about the psychological projections of these relations in the field of education, we will see at once hopes, expectations, requirements, and distrust, suspicion, resentment. And we are constantly confronted with this “picture” in the descriptions of relations between the parties regarding education. And course of this conference clearly shows it, because hardly anyone speaks on his behalf about his way of understanding of the situation, about his intentions, and what exactly he wants to address to the partners or opponents. Basically, there are still domination of some of the common fixations and appeals. At best, the representatives of the parties insist that their interests should be taken into account (please, note – taken into account, but not coordinated). At the same time, even these interests are poorly articulated and not thorough enough. Psychological characteristic of such kind of established relations, of course, leads us to conclusion about their inefficiency, because the simultaneous ambivalence of “trust-distrust” seems rather strange. We will emphasize once again that both parties considered by us are forced to “trust” each other (another variant is simply not given), and both suspect each other of at least partial compliance, and procedural characteristics (correctness of actions) and, even more in the field of the results. For all that, as it is shown by our analysis, it is not just tolerable situation, but even comfortable. Why is it comfortable for education? Today the question about the responsibility of educational institutions for the poor results is raised, and every time the tension in this regard is strengthened, and there are conversations that the contributions are growing, but the quality is falling and frustration is growing. History shows that society has never been satisfied with modern institutions of education and symmetrically there have never been education systems that would have been pleased with the attitude of the society and the state towards them. This provision allows the institutions of education to actually explain their own inefficiency, without making the radical self-transformation. Why is it comfortable for the institution of the family? In fact, there are the same reasons, because it allows discussing the ineffectiveness of education and as a derivative of it, many social misfortunes not as a consequence of own actions, but as imperfections and errors of the other # 1578 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development party. In other words, this situation keeps its own irresponsibility. So we fix the stable mutual dissatisfaction at all levels, and at the same time we say that we must negotiate. So what is the condition when our parties will be facing each other? And this is that social “soup” in which it is necessary to “cook” the conflict competence! Education as an institution is certainly responsible for the results, responsible for the fact that it does not meet the requirements and expectations. But the peculiarities of the mutual dissatisfaction can be explained theoretically by the fact that the parties seriously disagree on the identification definition of each other. One party considers itself as realizing the mission, and requires recognition and support, while the other party assigns her the status of service provider, while declaring the recognition of the mission. Apparently, the description of educational relations within the service agreement that is well-known in the law is the normal, but not comprehensive “picture” of these relations. Moreover, we believe and propose to consider suck kind of relations as required, but complementary, not basic one. That is, the situation is literally such that today a much more complex content “hides” in the form of service relations. From our point of view, any attempts to build education relations, constituted exclusively by such ideas, are in fact hopeless, because from the beginning they are considered not as civil but as interpersonal. Everybody understands, especially people who act like a customer, that the attempt of a civilized settlement or arising disagreements (conflicts) endangers that person who is actually of such “agreements”, who is naturally included in the educational process. In other words, relations include such people, whose behavior in most direct and essential way affects the conditions and the results of the educational process. It’s not just the material of transformation, in respect of which the parties can contract an agreement, it is the participant whose behavior is influenced in one way or another by both sides. Moreover, it is important, that during the discussion of the educational process, we do not always see its boundaries with reasonable certainty and therefore we can hardly identify the content, conditions and results of the actions of one of the parties participating in the cooperation. It turns out that the one who acts, relatively speaking, as the customer has rather obvious and certain contribution to education – the child, and expects to receive some educational result (?). We do not discuss other types of contributions. Another party is also making a contribution with the help of own financial, technological or other resources, but the level of their certainty is much lower than the first party has. The question about risks arises precisely in those cases when the parties are dissatisfied with the course or process or its results. Moreover, typically such a conversation (topic) is already has the grounds in such cases, when at least one party is not satisfied. In our case, we see the situation of mutual dissatisfaction. And how the risks are distributed? It turns out that, in accordance with the contributions, everybody risks everything that have been contributed. But there is one significant feature in the risk of that party that stands, relatively speaking, as “the producer of educational services”. The fact is that, since the contributions of this party are poorly personified in contrast to the contributions of another party, its main risk is connected with its failure to satisfy the interest that is pursued by activity. Then it turns out that the party runs the risk of low status (or it’s better to say it will not get high status). But in fact this party has already had this status, regardless of how the activities will be carried out, and what results it will bring. Society and state with their current relations takes its responsibility, deliberately fixing the low status # 1579 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development with the well-known attributes. But the other side bears full responsibility. It runs the risk of all his contributions, moreover, all the costs (not received knowledge, time, material costs, health and others) are practically irreversible and irretrievable, and at best are only compensated. The peculiarity of the risks of this party is that the detection of possible losses is significantly postponed in time from the reality of the educational process, and all the time there is some hope that it is possible to fix something, and only at the end we fix the result that nothing can be changed. The statement said by M.M. Zhvanetskiy describes this situation very well: “Life is a one-way street”. Probably, it would be wise not to dramatize the situation so hard. Of course, the discovery of some deficiencies of education, as it is showed by practice, can be filled or compensated. But it requires additional and significant expenditure of resources of those people who actually need this kind of filling. This is a real responsibility and such additional expenditures actually show who and what runs risk of in the situation of uncertainty in the educational relations. If it is not easy just to fix the situation, but also to qualify it, it seems important to draw attention once again to the fact that those relations that have developed in education, are analyzed every time not as a joint activity of all interested parties in the overall result with the distribution and balanced variant of responsibility both at micro – and macro levels. The conversation almost every time is psychologically pointless: separately about the interests of parents, separately about the state’s interests, separately about some social interest. And somehow it has turned out that the interest of people maturing in this space is almost not represented. They are, at best, participate in simulations, which decorative nature is already understand in the secondary school, especially if it has become possible in the primary school to establish the grounds for conflict competence. Such kind of qualification proposes the answer about what to do: to align interests, rather than oppose them, that is to negotiate. But when we are talking about contracts, we also, in turn, run the risk of actualization of the almost ready stereotypes, and thus of the loss of the real subject of discussion. We can be answered immediately from the both parties that the contracts have already concluded, that schools have concluded agreements with the parents about the conditions of education, about the size and the frequency of parental contributions to the educational activity of educational institutions and the conditions and peculiarities of the expenditure of such contributions, about the accountability, etc. And there is such a practice indeed, though it has a weak resemblance to the civilized one. The only thing is that majority of the contracts of this kind are the contracts of accession, that is, you do not discuss anything. You are offered to sign that you agree with the certain and already established terms and conditions. If you do not like such a contract, so do not sign it, and therefore do not enter into this relations and take your child to another school. The same kind of “contracts” are becoming widespread in the high school. In this situation the party if the students themselves. The fact is that psychologically (it is not less important for us than legally) such a contract releases the parties from personal personified liability. It is automatically attributed by the very contract form, but it is not necessarily assigned by the participants. It turns out that this kind of contract does not insure the participants against the risks that we have been discussing here. Figuratively speaking: “Well, it doesn’t matter that the patient has died, we have treated him right”. It occurs because this version of the contract does not imply participation of the parties in the process of formation and execution of the agreement, i.e. it does not imply any joint activity. # 1580 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development We see the future in education contracts exactly about the joint activity. Such a contract should appear as the result of the negotiation process. It will certainly be the long and difficult process, for sure, especially at the beginning of attempts to practice such negotiations, it will be quite cost-based process of approval. But in this negotiation process the parties will be forced to form their own interests, to formulate clear and verifiable objectives, to fi x 1 the dynamics of their achievements, to estimate the conditions and contributions, to imagine the real responsibility of participants. This practice exactly will allow, in our opinion, to establish the educational relations in a truly civilized manner. Apparently, this perspective has another aspect – the negotiation processes in education are the real and sufficiently mass practice of civil relations, but it’s a topic for another discussion. This part of work is conducted in cooperation with T.I. Yustus. References Равен Дж. [John Raven] Компетентность в современном обществе. Выявление, развитие и реализация (М., Когито-центр, 2002). Кристиансен Ж. [J. Christiansen] Профессия инженера по человеческим факторам. В кн.: Человеческий фактор / под ред. Г. Салвенди (М., Мир, 1991). Т. 1. Маркова А.К. [A.K. Markova] Психология профессионализма (М.: Знание, 1996). Хасан Б.И. [B.I. Khasan] Границы компетенций: педагогические вменения и возрастные притязания // Педагогика развития: ключевые компетентности и их становление: материалы 9-й науч.-практ. конф. (Красноярск, 2003). Хасан Б.И. [B.I. Khasan] Конструктивная психология конфликта (СПб.: Питер, 2003). Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotskiy] О педологическом анализе педагогического процесса // Педагогическая психология (М., Педагогика-Пресс, 1996). Козер Л. [L. Kozer] Функции социального конфликта (М.: Идея-Пресс, 2000). Щедровицкий Г.П. [G.P. Shchedrovitskiy] Система педагогических исследований (Методологический анализ) // Педагогика и логика (М., Касталь, 1993). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development Конфликты и переговоры – содержание и условия образования для развития Б.И. Хасан Институт психологии и педагогики развития, Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Конфликтная компетентность выступает как один из важнейших образовательных результатов. Возможности формирования способностей к удержанию конфликтов, с необходимостью возникающих в обучении, могут быть реализованы в развивающем обучении уже в младшем школьном возрасте. Однако сформированные предпосылки конфликтной компетентности станут реальным возрастным новообразованием при условии специально организованных образовательных условий. К таким относится практика разрешения конфликтов в образовании в переговорных процессах всех заинтересованных сторон, включая учащихся. Такого рода институт переговоров важно выстраивать с учетом реальных рисков, которые у различных субъектов образовательных отношений имеют свою специфику. Ключевые слова: конфликт, конструктивные переговорные процессы, продуктивное разрешение конфликтов, образовательные интересы, возрастные новообразования, конфликтная компетентность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1583-1592 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? Viktor A. Bolotov* Russian Academy of Education 8, Pogodinskaya str., Moscow, 119121 Russia1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 This article analyzes the situation in the Russian practice of developmental education. The aim is to develop the new didactics, capable of providing mass school with technology that meets the challenges of tomorrow – to learn how to live and work in a rapidly changing world. This article grounds the necessity of formation of the education quality assessment system and gives the characteristics of its sub-systems: an external assessment of the individual achievements of the students, assessment of the effectiveness of educational institutions activity, assessment of the effectiveness of educational systems activity, the organization of assessment within the school. Keywords: development pedagogy, new didactics, education quality assessment. The problem of development has always been recognized as one of the key problems in pedagogy. At various stages of history the formulation of the problem itself and, consequently, its solution have been changing. This is due, primarily, to the changes of socio-cultural context, the requirements of production and economy, as well as new interpretations of the understanding of the essence of personal development and learning process itself. This topic is also relevant to pedagogy nowadays. Since the late 1980s in Russia the word “development” has become the most fashionable. In recent years it has acquired not only the specific meaning in the educational environment, but also become some kind of a distinguishing mark “one’s own” – “foreign.” Everyone is talking about developmental education, there is an establishment of a large * 1 number of special educational and methodical complexes that “guarantee” the student’s development, and, probably, in the vast territory of our country it is very easy to find a school where at least one teacher can say – I’m working according to the methods of development education. But when we try to evaluate the real results of this great educational revolution, it turns out that they are more than modest. In particular, it can be proved by comparison of the results of the PISA international study in 2000 and 2009. Slightly exaggerating the situation, we can say that almost the only trophy in the victorious blitzkrieg of “developmental education” with the so-called traditional one is the implementation of several new terms (which are also interpreted in different ways by various groups of teachers and researchers), and arrogant and condescending Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1583 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? attitude toward any kind of shabby archaic: knowledge, abilities, skills. So today the researches that in one conceptual space compare views of different pedagogical and psychological schools about the student’s development would be highly relevant. There also will be need for the analysis of technologies that are offered by certain science school and that provide this development. Unfortunately, before the conduction of these studies it should be necessary to admit that many provisions of the pedagogical and psychological theories in attempts to use them in educational practices are unsustainable. This is due, primarily, to the fact that the purpose and object of development are determined mainly on the level of ideologemes, the result is very vague, and the mechanisms and technologies of implementation do not stand school practice. “It’s easy to build bridges in dreams, because there are no laws of gravity” – C. Boyden wrote. Unfortunately, for many pedagogical (and psychological) schools creation of the ideal models that do not need to take the “inert” reality into consideration, it becomes an end in itself. From my point of view, the only possible way to solve the problem of development today is to describe the present state of affairs and form ideas about the needs of the future (society, government, economics, etc.). In this connection it is worth remembering several examples of the establishment of new approaches to school education. It is believed that our school came out of “The Great Didactic” by Comenius. It is worth remembering the full name of this really brilliant work, “The Great didactic, the whole art of teaching all things to all men, and indeed of teaching them with certainty, so that the result cannot fail to follow; further, of teaching them pleasantly, that is to say, without annoyance or aversion on the part of the teacher or the pupil, but rather with the greatest enjoyment for both; further of teaching them thoroughly, not superficially and showily, but in such a manner as to lead to true knowledge, purity in morals and innermost devotion”(author’s highlighting). If you recall the historical context, it becomes clear how important was the supertask that had been solving by Johann Amos Comenius. This supertask arose from the situation with Lutheranism: the person should be able to communicate with God without the church and the priest. And it’s necessary to teach people how to read. It can be assumed that Comenius’ didactic, in general, has been linked to morality in the first place. The second wind was gained by Comenius’ Didactic one century later during the Industrial Revolution, when it was necessary to have a great number of rather competent executors. There is another well known example of didactic that has radically changed the existing school. It is the didactic by Dewey. In his book “Democracy and education” he suggested quite different organization principles of school and school space comparing to the class-lesson system, providing education of the citizen of the United States. This was due to the fact that at the beginning of last century the United States of America had serious problems with a sharp increase of the stratification of society on the racial, ethnic and religious basis. And Dewey’s didactics did not appear as the fruit of scholastic reasoning, but as a response to the challenges facing society. The American school, using these didactic principles, has made success: in response to the question “Who are you?”, the majority of the U.S. citizens say “I’m American” and only then they can specify their nationality and religion. It should be noted that solving the problem of the citizen education, the American school lost in the # 1584 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? traditionally understood quality of education, and it’s not the chance that for decades it has been facing the task of improvement of the student’s educational level. It is worth remembering that after the October Revolution of 1917 to address there have been made numerous attempts to reform the traditional school in order to solve the problem of educating the citizens of the new Russia. But because the state in the fi rst place needed executors, class-lesson system won. But the problem of ideological education were solving through extracurricular work and the activities of the Pioneer and Komsomol organizations. However, during the last decades of the Soviet Union there was appearance of scientific schools that designed the new educational system, proceeding not from the concept of training of ideologically competent executors, but from some theoretical ideas about a modern person. As an example we can name scientific schools of V.V. Davydov, L.V. Zankov, V.S. Bibler, Sh.A. Amonashvili, V.K. Dyachenko. Representatives of the scientific schools designed a new practice, new pedagogical paradigm, proceeding from their philosophical, psychological and pedagogical ideas about the modern education. But since neither the Soviet society, nor the Soviet state were not interested in these approaches in general, then the Soviet mass school was not affected by these works. For me, everything mentioned above means that if today any group of scientists and practitioners really raises the problem of establishment of the New school, at first they have to understand what are the things that do not satisfy them in the existing system of education not in terms of today, but in terms of tomorrow, and what challenges of tomorrow should be met by their new school. It is obvious that different groups of researchers can have own idea about the proper future, but, in my opinion, there are several invariant positions for any such idea. First of all, how the goals of any approach to the construction of the new school are related to the fundamental educational objectives that are formulated in UNESCO documents, – to learn to acquire knowledge (to learn how to learn); to learn to work and earn (learning for labor); to learn to live (learning for life); to learn to live together (learning for life together). Secondly, as noted by many experts, it is time to quickly update the knowledge and change the technologies. If earlier education was given for the whole life and it was enough to conduct professional activities in the chosen field until one’s death, so today this situation has changed. According to researchers, the volume of scientific knowledge is doubling every 8-10 years, and it means that the content of education that is acquired by students is aging rapidly in many ways. The volume of new knowledge increases exponentially. So trying to take into account all the latest achievements in the compulsory school curriculum is just hopeless. The best way to solve this problem is the transition from the knowledgecentered school to the culture conformable school that provides the basic concepts of the relevant culture and helps to master methods of work with them. Such a transition should lead, at first, to the realization that future depends not only on the volume of students’ knowledge, but on the level of development of the universal ways of thinking and working, the ability to develop new technologies. In this situation, the new school is facing the problem of not the transfer of existing knowledge and existing technologies (as required by the Great Didactic), but of the formation of abilities to find and develop new skills and master new technologies. It is important to take in consideration that different scientific schools can give their # 1585 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? own interpretations of the concepts of “ways of thinking,” “ways of working” and create their own original techniques. In connection with it, any textbook nowadays also needs to be fundamentally different. Today, despite a huge amount of books, textbooks do not differ from each other. All of them are twinbrothers: the information necessary for the student to solve a significant number of problems given in the textbook dominates in it. The modern school textbook should, in my opinion, take into account the realities of current time. And above all, this fact regards working with information. In modern informational world, people very often enter the bifurcation points, uncertain situations, when his behavior at any given moment determines the future. And basically there is solution of the problems that do not have sufficient information. There are no authorities to tell how to act, every person has to start activity by himself. Therefore, the most important task of the textbook is to learn how to use additional sources of information. In places where there is the Internet, where there are computers – it is of course, the usage of information and communication technologies, and in places where there are not such things, teachers should consider the usage of additional library resources. The development of interpersonal skills, group interaction, that are so called-for in modern society, is favoured by the usage of interactive and project forms of education organization. Apart from the fact that these forms allow students to develop the skills listed above, every student is given the space to express own views (even if it’s wrong, it’s a good reason for the discussion!). And once again, different scientific schools can have their own vision of the solution of the problems mentioned above. But if we admit the possibility (and for me the necessity!) of the presence of various theories and practices of development in education, there is a question about the comparison of the effectiveness of any particular approach. In other words, there is a problem of assessment of the education quality that is given by practice. It is also a matter of principle that the assessment should not only be internal (as a rule, “it” is done according to one’s own criteria and assessment procedures, and people also argue that this approach “works” very well), but also external – according to the generally accepted indicators and procedures. Only in the presence of an external assessment it is possible to organize a real dialogue between the different scientific schools and practices, the real design of education development. However, everything that is introduced as an external assessment of education quality in some regions, requires a serious discussion. On the one hand, measuring materials that are used there, as a rule, do not correspond testological canons, on the other side – and it is more important, in my opinion, “regional” understanding of the term “quality of education” does not often stand any factful critics. In this article, I will not delve into the discussion of the very definition of the “quality of education”, because various scientific schools may have (and they have!) their own definitions of quality. The author’s position on this issue was presented at the conference “Development pedagogy” in Krasnoyarsk in 2008 (1) and described in many publications, in particular, in the journal “Issues of education” (2). In this article I will only note that today the most discussed and popular are three main approaches to the assessment of the quality of education. The first approach is the compliance of education with normative documents, and first of all with standards. It is necessary to understand that not all formulations of normative documents are the basis for the creation of monitoring and test materials. For example, in the standards the objectives of education are often described as a designation of the direction of the motion vector # 1586 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? (“Our goal is the education of comprehensively developed personality”), and it is impossible to measure the achievements of every student, we can only assess the state of the school environment whether it contributes to approaching to the goal-ideal or not. If the aims of education are formulated specifically and operationally (students in the school will study any rules and master ways of solving any problems), it can be possible to measure knowledge and abilities of every student in accordance with the stated requirements. Thus, in the second case, the aims will be the basis for the development of the necessary measuring materials and procedures. As for the first example, when we speak about some goals-ideals, then there can’t be any measuring materials to evaluate, for example, the student’s level of love for the motherland. The second approach is the compliance of educational results with the social expectations. They are not the same in different strata of the population. In my opinion, this is the space for the target self-determination of various scientific and educational schools. The third approach to the quality of education is the compliance with personal expectations. In this case, the variety of different pedagogical practices is possible and needed. Thus, when it comes to the quality of education, people should carefully sort out who (government, society, personality, or any scientific and pedagogical school) is talking about what kind of quality of education. In my opinion, the discussion of various schools about the advantages of any system should begin with a justification of their own ideas about the education of high quality and check methods of this quality. This article will focus on the problem of the external quality assessment. Unfortunately, at the present moment the situation with the organization of external assessment in Russia worries people – in fact, except for the Unified State Examination (USE), the State Final Examination-9 (SFE9) (that mostly check the level of proficiency in school subjects), there are not any other various international monitoring activities at the federal level. If we consider this problem in a broader context, it is necessary to formulate a number of research tasks related to the organization of external quality assessment. Today, the questions about the quality of education and thus its assessment are one of the central questions when discussing the state of affairs not only in education but in society as a whole. Understanding of the fact that human resource has become a key factor in the provision of the development, forces society to give more attention to this issue in the world and in Russia. For example, the countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are actively discussing the results of the international researches PIRLS, TIMSS and PISA, reflecting the problems of the quality of general education. In Russia, the education quality assessment in recent years is one of the most pressing topics for discussions in the professional educational community – more and more teachers and managers understand that speaking about the education quality management without any real assessment of the state of affairs is impossible. It should be also noted that the effectiveness of educational system activity begin to be increasingly taken into account during the assessment of the efficiency of activity of the executive authorities at regional and municipal levels, and during the introduction of a new system of teacher payments, and during the certification of teachers and heads of educational institutions, and in public reports about the state of affairs in education. Noting the practical importance of the current scientific researches in the field of education quality assessment, we must # 1587 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? acknowledge that the conceptual framework of researches on a number of direction of education quality assessment is not worked properly, in particular, in the approaches to the assessment procedures, criteria and indicators of the educational effectiveness (that is not limited just by the assessment of the proficiency level), there are few researches related to the improvement of the current verification and intra-class (intraschool) assessment of educational achievements of students, with the prospects of transition to the new systems of assessment, including the usage of portfolios. In this connection it is reasonable to describe the tasks according to the strategic areas of development of education quality assessment: external assessment of the individual achievements of students, assessment of the effectiveness of educational institutions activity, assessment of the effectiveness of educational systems activity, the systems of assessment within the school. In the matter of the external assessment of individual achievements of the students one important moment is correlation of this assessment with the requirements of the state and the demands of society. At present the main areas of research for the improvement of the content of the state final examination (USE and SFE) are connected with the development of the common approaches to the mandatory final examinations (in the Russian language and mathematics). One of such approaches might be the application of the specially designed two-level system of assessment of educational achievements in these subjects. The validity of the statement of this question derives from the analysis of the USE results in the schools for the humanities and schools with the evening mode of study. For mathematics: the first level is the control of functional competence, the second one is both the control of functional competence and the control of the level of proficiency in mathematical concepts and methods of reasoning to the extent that is necessary for study in the field of engineering and natural science at the university. For the Russian language: the first level is the Russian language as the official language of the Russian Federation (qualifying evaluation for the full school course with regard for the multiethnic composition of the country), the Russian language for the university entrants (with regard for two levels – basic and profile). The exam can be presented in the format of one examination work, and in the form of two independent works. This approach gives an opportunity to partially solve the problem of possible discrimination of graduates on ethnic grounds. There is much to do in connection of different stages of the state attestation, development of the continuity of requirements that are raise to the graduates of the secondary and high schools. This problem is particularly important for the language subjects, where the control of some communication skills can be shared between the secondary and high schools. In this case there is no doubt about the need for researches connected with the usage of the results of SFE-9 for the formation of individual educational trajectories of students in the high school. It becomes especially important during the transition to the high profile school. To ensure management decisions aimed at the improvement of the quality of education in high school, there is a need for researches that will allow comparing the results of examinations within SFE-9 and USE. The complication of this problem solution is connected with the fact that at present the structures of tasks in specific subjects in the USE and SFE-9 are often not coordinated, there are different methods of scaling and different procedures. However, today in several regions the comparison of the results of the USE and SFE-9 within the same cohort of students is # 1588 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? used for the assessment of the effectiveness of the teachers of the highest level of secondary school. At the present stage it is reasonable to consider issues related to the introduction of tasks into the examination materials that check the functional competence of the students, in particular, tasks that contain excessive or, on the contrary, lack of information for the task. And in this regard it is necessary to talk about overcoming of the narrow subjectcentricity in the approaches to the proficiency quality assessment. I will illustrate it with a simple example. Proceedings of the numerous researches show that students have difficulties in the solution of mathematical problems, conditions of which are the detailed text. The reason for it should be found in the lack of understanding of the problem text that has a lot of complex causeeffect relations between different parts and in the inability to interpret it. It is clear that the search for solutions to these problems is not possible within mathematics or the Russian language. Consequently, the object of study is not the content of educational material on mathematics, but the presence of certain qualities (system of qualities) of the student, providing the possibility to solve text problems. And this is the basis for the construction of measuring materials that are outside the boundaries outlined by the subject of any educational discipline. In this sense, many tasks from PISA and PIRLS are of interest. I want to emphasize that the actual content of the state final certification after the graduation from the secondary and high school can’t depend on the views of the particular scientific and pedagogical school. However it is legitimate to raise the question about the impact of work on the base of particular set of training materials, prepared by the representatives of different scientific and pedagogical schools, on the results of the USE and SFE-9. In order to solve this problem people now usually use just statistical methods. Obviously, that without regard to other factors, including the qualification of teachers, it is impossible to make definite conclusions about the impact of training materials. It is necessary to conduct additional researches in order to investigate the factors affecting the success of the final examination. In contrast to the secondary and high school, graduation from the primary school is not connected with the state final attestation, but it does not preclude the introduction of the independent (in this case, independent not of the school, but of the particular teacher) diagnostic of mastering of the “academic proficiency” that is necessary for the successful study in the secondary school. The term “academic proficiency” is used in order to avoid in this text comparison of the terms “universal academic activities” that are introduced in the new standard of the primary school, “academic activity” according to D.B. Elkonin – V.V. Davydov and L.V. Zankov, “proficiency” that is checked in the international studies PIRLS and TIMSS; the terms “metasubject or sub-subject competences” that are widely used in the educational community, but often with a different interpretation of these terms, etc. The comparison of skills, abilities and competencies that stand either explicitly or implicitly behind these concepts and terms requires a separate study. It is essential that this diagnostic should check not the level of mastering of any subject taught in the primary school, but the level of readiness for the successful study in the secondary school. Diagnostic of the level in “academic proficiency” is necessary not for the qualification (disqualification) of the children, but for the development of individual study paths that allow to eliminate student’s deficiencies that interfere with the successful study in the secondary school, and the development of appropriate recommendations for teachers, students and their # 1589 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? parents. Although certain studies in this area have been already conducted, it is impossible to talk about the final solution of this problem. Again, there is the statement of a question about the development of indicators and procedures to be adopted by the representatives of different scientific schools. Researches related to the assessment of extracurricular and extra-subject achievements of the students (often referred to as “portfolio”) that are widely discussed in recent years in the pedagogical community, in fact, should reflect progress and personal achievements of the student, apart from the level of proficiency in various school subjects that is evaluated during the USE and the SFE-9. Despite many years of empirical practice in the introduction of intraschool portfolio, scientific and methodological researches in this area are almost absent. At the same time it is legitimate to raise the question about the assessment of any specific personality traits that are developed during the implementation of the relevant scientific and pedagogical approach, i.e. it should be noted again that the concept of “personal development” for different scientific schools can mean different things. There are also some invariants that are recognized almost by everyone – it is the results of Olympiads, contests and competitions held by the organizations external to the concrete school. However, closer examination of this topic shows the need for additional researches in order to determine the list of skills and competences of the students being tested in these Olympiads, contests and competitions. At the same time there are alarming suggestions given by some scientific and pedagogical schools about the organization of an external assessment of the level of politeness and socialization of the students, their patriotism, tolerance, etc. It is obvious that any “frontal” measure of the presence of certain human values and personal characteristics can only lead to profanity, and without any serious scientific works it is even harmful to enter any external assessment of the “achievements” of the schoolchildren in this area. Researches related to the state accreditation of educational institutions can be seen in the course of the previous topic about the absence of any valid methods for the mass assessment of personal characteristics of the students. It can be argued that the question about the creation of conditions for the formation (growth) of the personal qualities in a particular student should be raised during the state accreditation of schools. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct scientific researches in order to identify new indicators of the state accreditation of educational institutions, including, in addition to the assessment of educational achievements, the indicators providing the assessment of the effectiveness of the school activity in the socialization and education of the students. Considerable importance should be gained by the indicators of school activities on improvement of the health of students. Particular importance is gained by the problem of the development of new indicators of the state accreditation due to the introduction of the new generation of educational standards, that are largely focused not only on the academic achievements of the students, but also on the establishment of the conditions for personal and cognitive development of the students. In assessing the statу of affairs with the study of specific subjects at the school it is appropriate to expand the program of scientific research on the usage of the results obtained in the course of the state accreditation of schools. Twenty percent of all schools should every year pass this procedure, and with the appropriate preparation of measuring materials, compliance with the relevant procedures and well-organized list of schools it is possible to make well-founded conclusions about # 1590 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? the level of teaching of all school subjects in the given educational system. Similar works can be deployed for the assessment of the state of affairs with the formation of meta-subject competencies and comparison of the effectiveness of various scientific and pedagogical schools. Introduction of new standards, as it has been already noted above, raises particular challenges for the establishment of modern intra-school assessment systems. First of all, it is related to the assessment of the development of cognitive abilities and personal characteristics of the students. It should be noted that, despite the recent series of works, this task, in general, is far from being solved. It is necessary to continue researches related to the measurement of the individual student’s progress and development of the appropriate methodical recommendations for teachers and students. The task of introduction of the formative assessment techniques into schools has remained urgent. There is also a large field for the activity of various scientific and pedagogical schools. As noted above, in many countries around the world the results of the international monitoring programs PIRLS, TIMSS and PISA are actively used for the assessment of the effectiveness of educational systems. Russia is one of the few countries that regularly takes part in these studies. The results of the studies are used in order to develop suggestions about the correction of the content of educational programs. However, deeper meaningful interpretation of the results of PIRLS, TIMSS, PISA requires the repeated analysis of the performance of certain test tasks or questions, the usage of new methods for data analysis, the introduction of new variables for the analysis of tendencies, inclusion of additional samples of students into the study (e.g., separately 4th and 5th, 9th and 10th grades, certain regions), the usage of additional tools, including advanced forms for teachers and parents. And although some work in this area is already underway (see, for example, (3)), for the control of the quality of education it is necessary to develop appropriate methods for the secondary schools, municipal and regional education systems. It is also necessary to expand the work on comparing the results of the studies PIRLS, TIMSS, PISA in order to clarify the dynamics of development of different kinds of proficiency in the basic school. It would be extremely important to compare how students who were engaged in some methodical system, perform tasks that were used in various international studies. In conclusion, I would like to point out that if we will talk about the development pedagogy seriously, then we can say with certainty that there is no any scientific and pedagogical system that can guarantee the development of students without the organization of cooperation with the social partners, and above all – the sensible work with parents as the main social partner for the school is still a family. Today despite the variety of interpretations of the concept of “development” none of the existing scientific and pedagogical schools seriously considers the parents and the individual strata of society as equal partners (and schools even do not raise such a problem!). But a lot of things, in my opinion, just depend on whether the school and pedagogical science be able to go beyond its borders or not, whether it will develop as a part of the whole social and public system or it will be just the part of the industry state system. At present, in our country there is a discussion about the law of the Russian Federation “On education”. The draft law has absorbed a lot of the latest developments in the field of education, it contains a lot of new and progressive ideas. From the analysis of the requirements of the draft law to the content of education it follows that the basic requirements are aimed at the personal development. The # 1591 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viktor A. Bolotov. Development Pedagogy – the Crisis of the Genre? new educational standards are also aimed at this idea. Will the scientific schools involved in the development pedagogy be able to respond to the challenges of the time, or there will be just two realities in our school: one is the sphere of beautiful ideologemes and the other is the everyday educational practice, where there are the same problems that many years ago? References Болотов В.А. [V.A. Bolotov] Оценка качества образования и институциональные переходы. Педагогика развития: институциональные переходы в сфере образования: материалы 14-й науч.-практ. конф. (Красноярск: ИПК СФУ, 2008). Болотов В.А. [V.A. Bolotov] О построении общероссийской системы оценки качества образования // Вопросы образования. 2005. № 1. Тюменева Ю.А. [Yu.A. Tyumeneva] Читательская грамотность 15-летних школьников: значимость семейных, индивидуальных и школьных характеристик // Вопросы образования. 2011. № 3. Педагогика развития – кризис жанра? В.А. Болотов Российская академия образования Россия 119121, Москва, ул. Погодинская, 8 В статье анализируется ситуация с российской практикой развивающего обучения. Ставится задача по разработке новой дидактики, способной обеспечить массовую школу технологиями, адекватными вызовам завтрашнего дня – научить жить и действовать в быстроменяющемся мире. Обосновывается необходимость построения системы оценки качества образования и даются характеристики её подсистем: внешней оценке индивидуальных достижений школьников; оценке эффективности деятельности общеобразовательных учреждений; оценке эффективности деятельности образовательных систем; организации внутришкольного оценивания. Ключевые слова: педагогика развития, новая дидактика, оценка качества образования. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1593-1601 ~~~ УДК 371.255 The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence Tatiana I. Ustus* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The question of the genesis of conflict competence is a key aspect both for theorists of developmental psychology, conflict resolution studies and for practicing pedagogues. The research attempts to identify the key contribution of the primary school age and the age of adolescence in the development of the skill to resolve conflicts effectively. The results of the described experimental procedures show which educational conditions are necessary for the formation of the appropriate skills and which conditions are lacks for the effective use of the potential of every age. For example, in elementary school full-fledged implementation of the training activities in students’ group work is enough for the formation of the required skills. In the process of transition into another age group, special conditions for the transferal of the learning skills to other areas of life should be made. Keywords: conflict competence, age new development, educational effects, primary school age, age of adolescence, reflection, organization of interaction. 1. Hypothetical model of conflict competence formation Conflict competence as the ability to hold contradiction in its resolution is understood as an integral personal new development. Effectiveness in resolution of a particular conflict is provided by a number of diverse abilities, skills, knowledge and orientations. Is structuring of all these skills into a single model possible? The study of the genesis of conflict competence is indeed necessary. A hypothetical model was proposed by us to study the formation of conflict competence in the primary school age (Hassan, Privalihina, 2004) and included: * 1 1. Willingness to overcome difficulties in activities (when faced with difficulties in activities and relationships a person does not refuse to solve them and is looking for ways to overcome them). 2. The ability to identify the subject of transformation correctly (in a conflict situation a person is able to define the differences in positions of the participants, and that requires changes and coordination). 3. Knowledge of the means of transformation of the certain type of material (a person knows how to act in a definite situation and knows how to do it). These three areas are the development plan of conflict competence at the school ages, and Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1593 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence research task is to identify the unique contribution of each age in its content. We believe that at each age stage happens something (or should happen according to the age norms) that provides a certain level of competence development. The reasons for constructing a model of such a development should be found in the main principles of developmental psychology. Each age is specific and unique from the point of view of the formation of mental abilities and has a specific task (E. Erikson, Y.Shvantsara, L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, etc.). According to the cultural-historical conception, each age is characterized by the unique social situation of development (specific to each stage the system of relations between a child and an adult), which defi nes the new developments that develop in a child. The ways the problems will be solved depend on the way child’s interaction with the cultural environment is built and how this interaction corresponds to the age problems. New development of a certain age is not simply transferred to the next age stage, but goes there as a pattern. And this transition (which is specially made) takes a special place at the age development and proceeds as a crisis. K.N. Polivanova found out that the crisis is opening a new ideal form, the rejection of the old one and the testing of the new development of the previous period in the new space (Polivanova, 2000). In the critical period new skills and new relationships are revealed to a child, and a child tries to use them on purpose in another activity and in a different situation. Thus, fi rstly, the source of creation of a new development is educational space in which a child is placed and, secondly, the special transfer is needed, it should be specially organized detachment of a new development from the activities in which it was formed. These principles give basis for speculations about the formation of conflict competence at the school age. In elementary school, the sphere of real conflict extends from the conflicts within the family and role conflicts (typical for the preschool age) to the subject-content conflicts and conflicts of conformance to the status requirements. The central one, on the basis of the social situation of development, becomes a conflict between “I-know” – “I-don’t-know”, “I-amable,” – “I-am-not-able,” every time this conflict is represented as a learning activity. This learning activity is, in fact, the activity which changes “I-am-not-able” to “I-am-able”. The students should learn to detect their shortage of resources to solve the problem and fi nd ways to eliminate the shortage. This composes the ability to study as new development of an age. The certain level of reflection is considered as an ability, which allows to determine the type of conflict and resource, necessary for its resolution. The developed methods of work with the object and methods of organization of educational interaction are resources for conflict resolution. Conflict competence in the primary school age is formed in a situation of mutual activities of students in the process of resolution of educational tasks. Initially, an adult organizes and develops a conflict for a child, fi nds lack of resources and shows how to fill them, thus, giving resolution of conflicts. Then, these actions are internalized. We assume that internalization occurs in stages and in the reverse sequence to unfolding a conflict. It means that in the beginning a child learns to attract well known, but missing resources. Then, a child determines the type of the missing resources and attracts them. And fi nally, a child considers difficult situation as a learning task, determines the type and attracts the missing resource. # 1594 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence 2. The content of conflict of competence when finishing primary school What we discussed above, gives us an opportunity to develop a hypothesis about the content of conflict competence in elementary school. When finishing primary school, students are able to resolve the educational conflicts efficiently in the situation of group interaction, especially by organizing reflection in a group. In the individual work reflection is organized by a child on purpose when resolving only educational conflicts. Productive conflict resolution of different content is possible only with the help of an adult who models a conflict situation and controls it. At the phenomenal level, it means that when finishing primary school in the educational conflict students initially additionally define the conditions (model a conflict situation) and then apply the appropriate ways of converting the material. They are also capable of collaboration with the other participants of the situation, which would be adequate to the task given. Confirmation of this was obtained in the process of observation and experimental studies. The observation was carried out during Mathematics and the Russian language lessons in the 1, 2, 3 forms where students study according to the program of developmental education by D.B. Elkonin – V.V. Davydova (hereafter – DE). Additional monitoring was conducted at the Krasnoyarsk regional competition of students who study according to the program of developmental education. In the result of observations phenomenal confirmation of the model of educational conflict resolution was obtained. In addition, the observation allowed to make additional conclusions: - the stage of “finding difficulties” can be identified as a separate stage in the resolution of educational conflicts, but formation of the ability to detect the gap requires special pedagogical work . - the stages of reflection formation in the early school years are emphasized by the criterion of the organizer of reflection. - at the primary school age the reflective functions are given by a teacher to a group of students, and then to the other individual students. - we can assume that when finishing the primary school the open reflection in the solution of educational tasks is found only in group work. At the individual action only partial functioning of the reflection can be observed. It means that in order to form conflict competence, when finishing the primary school students should be able to detect errors and to find the object of transformation in the educational material. Besides, students should also be able to organize group work in order to make the effective transformation. And this requires the distinction between the material of the task and the situation of interaction regarding this problem. In itself, the appearance of such a distinction is the most important effect of educational activity. The task of the next experimental research was the discovery of the factors of the educational space, which define the formation of the skills of educational interaction. We assumed that the methods of organization of interaction of the younger students with each other will be developed by the students differently, depending on the direction of the teacher’s actions. Therefore, for the research we have chosen the classes, where the students studied according to the program of developmental education, and teachers actively used the forms of group work in class. However, the methods of their actions differed by systematic criterion and forms of # 1595 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence interaction. We tried to detect the effects of usage of different forms. The study was conducted at the experimental sites of the primary school of The Krasnoyarsk State University School “Univers” № 1 in the period from 2000 up to 2003. As a result of the preliminary part of the research, four systems of pedagogical actions or strategies aimed at transferring the methods of organization of the educational interaction to children were described (Gallyamova, Privalihina, 2004). Later, the experiment, based on the methodology “Mittens” (G.A.Tsukerman) was carried out with the students of the 2 and 4 forms. The modification of the methodology was to exclude the possibility of appeal to an adultexperimenter, but to include their classmate – a consultant, which was represented to the students as a person who managed to cope with the task successfully. When the work was finished, the students were interviewed. Speech acts of children in the process of work and such fragments as appeals to the consultants and responses to the interview questions were analyzed. As a result of correlation of the selected systems of pedagogical actions with the effects in organization by children interaction with each other, which were discovered during the experiment, the relationship between the actions of the teacher in the classroom and ways of organizing by children interactions of this kind was revealed. In the classroom, where the teacher’s actions are focused on achieving results for each student individually even in collaboration with the others, where asking each other is not encouraged in the process of work and consultations are conducted according to the scheme “teacher – student”, the children by the end of fourth grade, do not talk or consult with each other while performing a task, and do not ask consultants in case of difficulty. In case if the students are allowed to talk to each other in the process of work, where there are additional conditions for the academic cooperation without a teacher (“desks of assistants’”, small blackboards, “Reference Notebooks”), the majority of children in the experimental situation are able to organize interaction with each other and use the resource of another child in case of difficulty. However, when the actions of a teacher are mainly aimed at organizing the analysis of the process of interaction and understanding the structure of such a process, a third of the test subjects demonstrated qualitative interaction. The facts, founded in the study let us to make a conclusion that the development of educational interaction does not occur automatically because of the particular type of content of the material, but requires special organization in the teachingstudying situations. Certain teaching strategies are especially important for the formation of the interactional skills in the primary school children and therefore require special attention of the developmental psychologists and education planners. Experimental data show that even selection and retention of the two plans of the educational process – the subjective and organizational ones are not available to the students and they do not hold them as serving each other. Fragments of the ceasing of unproductive actions and spontaneous transition from one plane to another are found in the behavior of our test subjects as unique, and only in those children where a teacher set and consistently implemented the task of teaching the skills of interaction. Thus, the results of this experiment suggest the following conclusions. – The level of development of skills of interaction is determined, first of all, by the strategy of teachers in organizing group work in class. # 1596 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence – The usage of the forms of group work (even systematic) on the lessons, by itself is not a sufficient criterion for the developments of the skills group work in students. – They are formed most effectively when teaching the skills of interaction is an independent subject of the pedagogical activity. 3. “The ability to learn” and the transition to the age of adolescence What happens to these abilities at the next age stage? In theory, in the process of the transition to the juvenile stage, there should be separation of the new developments from the educational task. And they should work as a tool; it means that they should be consciously and specially applied to solve other tasks. What kind of tasks? According to the concept of the age of adolescence – the task of building relationships with other people, and search of their place in the social systems. We were interested in the question whether those new developments which provide adequate age conflict competence in primary school children would be found when you switch to a different age stage and solve other tasks. For several years we have conducted experiments to answer this question. We will try to summarize their results. It is worth mentioning that all the test subjects studied in elementary school according to the programme by ElkoninDavydova and expert estimation give evidence of good implementation of the programs in these classes. The first small experiment was conducted by A.N. Batina with the students of the 5th forms in two stages. At the first stage the students were asked to solve the Olympiad-type mathematical task, at the second stage in the same pair – to play the game “Faces.” The core of the game is in overcoming situations that require cooperation, but it was built as a competition1. This game requires organization of interaction, without association with any educational material. The subject of our study is the differences in activities in solving these two problems. Criteria for observation and the results at each stage are shown in Table 1. The solving of the first task gives evidence of the formation of the new developments at the primary school age and in the test subjects, whose work was interpreted, were included only (1), those, whose skills were confirmed experimentally, and (2) those, who really took part in the resolution of the conflict, were motivated to solve both problems. There were 14 test subjects. Table 1. The results of the criterion-oriented observation in the process of solving the tasks of different type Criterion Включенность The quantity of test subjects completing mathematical tasks 14 The quantity of test subjects playing the game 14 Correct identification of the subject of transformation Organization of interaction relevant to the task 11 4 12 4 Orientation to co-decision 13 14 Retention of the conflict in its resolution 6 1 # 1597 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence Thus, almost all the teenagers demonstrate the distinction between the two types of work with mathematical task and the ability to build effective collaboration to complete it, but only a small number of students (28 % of the test subjects) are able to do the same on the basis of different material, although they are oriented on co-decision and try to resolve the conflict. As a result of this work it became evident that there the transfer of skills from the educational to non-educational situation does not happen. A.N. Batina continued (quite successfully) this work searching for the pedagogical conditions that contribute to the transfer. However, this is not to be discussed in this research (ref. Frolova, 2006). We need to focus on the detection of the “traces” of contribution of the primary school age to conflict competence. The next experimental situation concerned the task to hold the two plans – the object of activity and interaction on its behalf. Another classical procedure to the study conflicts – “externalization of the internal conflict” corresponds to these requirements. The experiment was conducted by T. Mamenko on the material of “Shipwreck” 2. Assuming, that some abilities cannot be detected, as they are in the zone of the nearest but not actual development, we modified the method and included an adult into some groups, as a possible assistant in the organization of interaction. The experiment proved to be very informative for the study of group work and the way of thinking of teenagers; as for this research, the key issues for the analysis were: whether preteens use the same plan for completing the task and the plan of the organization of their activities, including joint activities with their peers? Which components of the theoretical thinking are transferred to the material of organization of their activities? How is it manifested? 51 teenagers took part in the experiment. 18 of them are students of the 5th forms and и 33 – are students of the 7th forms. In the process of observation, we distinguished between two plans: 1. work with the content – the choice of subjects, seasoning of the selection and resolution of conflicts related to discontinuity and resistance of the material; 2. organizational activities – statement of the purpose, planning the actions to achieve it, the control of performance and results, organization of the group work. We analyzed qualitative indicators – presence \ absence of the certain actions in group work and quantitative indicators – the number of statements concerning the subject of observation. The results of the analysis: There were no qualitative differences in the behavior of the 5th- and 7th-graders in the process of resolution of the game conflict. Consequently, further we present data about all the test subjects. 1. When the task is given, we can see such new developments as reflection, analysis and planning. The teens could explain the choice of subjects, were interested in the reasons of selecting items by other student (both at the stage of group work, and at the stage of the work of the team leaders) – 36 % of all the statements. 2. Such methods as selection and discussion of the tactics of their actions, orientation and following the selected tactics in further work, asking other people’s opinions about the proposals that were made were episodic in the replicas of the students – 3 % of the statements. But they are not used as methods of group work, the students do not use the prompts an adult. Consequently, these methods of actions, typical for the conflict-competent behavior, are not subjective. 3. Such a method as emphasizing of other people’s activities, and their evaluation as the actions, which can influence the winning / losing # 1598 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence situation does not take place – 1 statement which was not perceived by the team. 4. The manifestation of reflection on the basis of organization of their activities were statements, made by some students, about the answer, which is supposed to be correct, about the choice of the team leader, and fixation, that other student tries to make the better list for the team – less than 2 % of the statements. Identification of the team leaders’ aim as “advocating their lists”. But these components were not used in group work. It was noted, that the team leaders in the work of the expert council did not consider their teams as a resource in negotiations, the teams also didn’t consider the possibility of their participation at the stage of making general list. 5. There was organization of a check of the list in one of the teams and preparation of the general list at the stage of the two team leaders’ work only after the prompt of an adult. In the zone of nearest development we also noticed such modes of actions as taking into account the reasons for the actions of another person, organization of the checks of own activities, organization of group work with the help of the means of external organization (general list, scheme, plan). Thus, we can conclude that the plan of organization of work and interaction in the team is not identified by the teenagers as an object of transformation. The abilities, which were manifested in the work with the content, are not used in the organization of interaction. If an adult makes the plan of actions and represents it as a separate task – the teenagers are capable of reflexive actions for the effective organization of interaction according to the problem to be solved. Our expectations, regarding the dynamics of the abilities according to the age, were not proved. It appears, at least for this group of the test subjects, that the abilities, which were formed in the primary school, did not develop at the next age stage, are kept as a ready tool, and become actual only in the context, which is recognized as adequate to this set of abilities -namely, the educational task. For us, it means that the distinction between the two plans of actions does not automatically become “personal” skill, and ability to organize interaction, adequate to the task given, doesn’t go beyond the educational situation. Resume The stages of detection difficulties, finding contradictions and use of the appropriate ways to transform the material are necessary and important in conflict resolution. At the stage of the primary school age conflict competence is determined by the willingness to overcome the difficulties, the ability to find a gap in the material and organize interaction, according to the transformational tasks. The key factors in the educational process, which determine the development of this level of competence are the content of the educational process (it should be made in the form of completion and construction of the educational tasks) and pedagogical activities of the teachers aimed at organization of the educational cooperation (organization of interaction should be a separate subject for the students and the subject of purposeful formation for a teacher). However, the ability to study, providing a certain level of conflict competence, when finishing the primary school, is not “involved” in the sphere of resolution of a new type of conflict, and provides only educational activity of teenagers. At goes without saying, that the age of adolescence, makes its contribution to the development of the competence, but if we want such a valuable “baggage” to be in demand and become the resource for the development of the new skills, the separate pedagogical work, devoted to the transfer, is required. The core # 1599 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence of this work, in our opinion, is presentation of the sphere of interaction and communication 1 2 as a separate subject of activity, significant and important for the students in the wider context. There are strips on the table in front of the test subjects with the elements of “faces” – eyes, nose and mouth. The faces are made by moving the strips. In the middle the strips are parted by a screen, giving each player the equal number of details. The screen doesn’t give an opportunity to see the playing area of the second player. It is technically impossible to make the equal number of faces. The instruction to the test subjects: “You see the table game, where your task is to make as many faces as possible at your playing area. Now they are separated and collected in a wrong way. Your partner will do the same at his/her side of the playing area, you can’t talk to him/her or do something together. The game lasts about 10-15 minutes, but you can fi nish it earlier if both players want to do this”. The test subjects are divided into teams. There are 3 members in each team. After description of the imaginary situation of the shipwreck the following instructions are given: “Your task is to define the degree of importance of the items in this situation from the list given. The most important is given number 1, the less important – number 10. All the items must get numbers from 1 up to 10. Remember, that all the items must have numbers and two different items can’t have the same number. The team, which list is similar to the list with the correct answers wins”. When the teams made the list, the following instruction is given: “Now, when you made up your decision, it is necessary to organize an expert council which should come up with the fi nal solution about this task. This solution will be the correct answer, the correct list. This list will be compared with the other lists and the winner will be chosen. Let me remind, that the list which is similar to the list with the correct answers wins. One representative of each team should work in the council.” The instructions to the representatives of the teams: “You are experts. Each expert is supposed to sign the general decision, which won’t be valid without his/her signature.” References Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Собр. соч. в 6 т. (М.: Педагогика, 1983). Т. 3. Галлямова Е.В., Привалихина Т.И., [E.V. Gallyamova, T.I. Privalihina] Эффекты педагогической стратегии в организации учебного взаимодействия младших школьников // Журнал практического психолога. 2004. №3. С. 69-75. Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Психология возрастных кризисов: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. пед. учеб. заведений (М., 2000) 184 с. Привалихина Т.И., Хасан Б.И. [T.I. Privalihina, B.I. Hasan] Становление конфликтной компетентности -результат образовательной практики. // Социальные конфликты (экспертиза, прогнозирование, технологии разрешения). СПб., 2004. Вып. 21. 136 с. Фролова Н.А. [N.A. Frolova] Опосредование перехода младших школьников в образовательное пространство основной школы // Вестник Красноярского государственного ун-та. 2006. № 11. Цукерман Г.А. [G.A. Tsukerman] Виды общения в обучении. (Томск: Пеленг, 1993). 270 с. Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Введение в психологию развития. (М.: Интерпракс, 1994). 215 с. Эриксон Э. [E. Ericson] Идентичность: юность и кризис.: пер. с англ. (М.: Прогресс, 1996). 344 с. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence Умение учиться и конфликтная компетентность Т.И. Юстус Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Вопрос о генезисе конфликтной компетентности является одним из ключевых как для теоретиков психологии развития и конфликтологии, так и для педагогов-практиков. В статье предпринята попытка обнаружения ключевых вкладов младшего школьного и подросткового возрастов в развитие умения эффективно разрешать конфликты. Результаты описанных экспериментальных процедур показывают, какие образовательные условия необходимы для формирования соответствующих умений и каких условий не достает для эффективного использования возможностей каждого возраста. Так, в начальной школе для формирования требуемых умений достаточно полноценной реализации учебной деятельности в групповой работе школьников. При переходе же в следующий возрастной этап необходимо специальное построение условий для переноса навыков из учебной во внеучебную сферу. конфликтная компетентность, возрастные новообразования, Ключевые слова: образовательные эффекты, младший школьный возраст, подростковый возраст, рефлексия, организация взаимодействия. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1602-1616 ~~~ УДК 373.22 Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents, Game Preferences and Favorite Toys Vladimir S. Sobkin* and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina Russian Academy of Education 8 Pogodinskaya str., Moscow, 119121 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The article analyses the representations of preschool children’s parents about their child’s play activity. First of all the research deals with the consideration of place of joint play of children and parents in general structure of family leisure time and involvement of parents in child’s play (as a participant or as a manager of a role-playing game). Besides we analyze preschoolers’ game preferences: favorite toys and games of children. The article is based on the materials obtained from the sociological poll of 1936 parents, whose children attend Moscow kindergartens. The research was conducted by the Institute of Sociology of Education (Russian Academy of Education) in 1997. During the analysis of the materials special attention was given to the influence of various demographic and socially-stratification factors on the answers of parents about play activity of preschoolers. Keywords: preschool childhood, joint play of parents and children, family leisure activities, games and toys preferences. The article is devoted to the representations of preschool children parents about their children’s play activity. Special attention is given to the consideration of place of joint play of parents with their child in general structure of family leisure time, involvement of parents in child’s play and also activity of adult as a manager of a role-playing game. Besides we analyze representations of parents about game preferences of preschoolers: what toys and games are preferred by their children. The representation about play as leading activity in preschool age is accepted in Russian psychology (L.Vygotsky, A.Leontev, D.Elkonin * 1 etc.) (Vygotsky, 1966, Smirnova, 1997, Elkonin, 1987, Elkonin et al. 1989). At the present moment a great number of researches concern features of children’s play and its influence on development and formation of child’s personality (Smirnova et al., 2005, 2006, 1997). In this article children’s play is discussed in a special way. The researchers have made an attempt to consider parent’s opinion towards preschoolers game. The basis of the article is represented by the materials obtained from the sociological poll of 1936 parents, whose children attend Moscow kindergartens. It continues a whole cycle of our works about preschool sociology (Sobkin et al., Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1602 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… 2012, 2002, 2011, 2011а). During the analysis of these materials we will try to estimate influence of various demographic and socially-stratification factors on the answers of parents about play activity of preschoolers. Joint play in the structure of family leisure time In order to find out what place is occupied by joint play of parents with their child in general structure of a family leisure time a special question was asked to respondents concerning the typical way of spending free time with their child at home. The general average data on preferences of various kinds of joint activity at leisure time by parents of preschoolers is given in Table 1. Apparently from the data resulted in the table, among various kinds of activity preference to joint play with the child at leisure time is given by almost a half of interrogated parents (49,1 %). And significant distinctions in answers of fathers and mothers are not revealed. At the same time it is indicative that the gender of a child makes significant impact on the opinions of parents concerning joint play. Parents of boys choose joint play more often, than parents of girls (accordingly: 52,2 % and 44,5 %; р = .001). It is peculiar both for fathers, and for mothers (Fig.1). Parents’ preferences of play activity in leisure structure also depend on the age of the child (Fig.2). Thus, parents of the senior preschool children (5-7 year old children) choose the given type of activity much less often, than parents of younger children. It is important to highlight that when a child reaches this age the general structure of joint leisure of parents with him also changes. And finally, the material status of a family plays also an important role: needy parents choose joint play with their child essentially less often than prosperous (accordingly: 42,8 % and 51,6 %; р = .0004). Involvement of parents in their child’s play In order to find out the degree of parental involvement in play activity with their child, a special question has been offered to the respondents: «Do you play together with your child?». It is necessary to notice that answers allow to find out not only the inclusiveness of parents in their child’s play but also to distinguish Table 1. Joint activity of parents with their child at leisure time (%) Types of joint activity % Reading of books 53,9 Joint play 49,1 Walks 44,5 Watching TV 25,5 Watching DVD, video 18,3 Involving the child into housework 16,8 Building, constructing 16,2 Modeling, drawing 15,2 Music listening, singing 10,2 Playing the computer 6,1 The child organizes his free time himself 9,3 # 1603 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Boys % Girls 54,8 60 50 51,1 44,7 43,8 40 30 20 10 0 Fathers Mothers Fig. 1. Answers of fathers and mothers of boys and girls about joint play with their children (%) 70 % 60 50 53,5 57,9 55,1 43,7 40 30 20 10 0 1,5 - 3 years 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 2. Percentage of parents, preferring to spend their free time at home with the child in a joint play in dependence of the age of the child (%) those reasons in connection with which parents don’t take part in joint play, for example: child’s preference of independent, separate play; inaptitude of parents to play with their child; lack of free time for joint play. Distribution of parents’ answers to this question is given in Table 2. The analysis of the received answers shows that the involvement of parents in joint play depends on the child’s age (Fig.3). Thus, with children of 4-5 years play 65,1 % of parents, whereas with children of 5-7 years – 59,1 % (р = .04). Moreover parents of the senior preschool children (5-7 years) more often, than parents of 4-5 year-old children notice that their children prefer to play independently (accordingly: 25,1 % and 20,1 %, р = .04). The graph shows that up to the senior preschool age there is a gradual withdrawal of parents from joint play with their child and child’s orientation to independent, separate play increases. Saying differently at the stage of senior preschool age a child’s play activity becomes more self-dependent. Distinctions of parents’ involvement in joint play degree depending on child’s gender which we have already mentioned is confi rmed. Thus, parents of girls mark their lack of free time for joint play more frequently than parents # 1604 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Table 2. Distribution of answers of parents to the question on their involvement in joint play with their child (%) Answer to the question % Yes, I play together with my child 63,7 No, my child prefers to play by himself 22,5 No, I am not able 3,0 Unfortunately, I don’t have enough time 10,2 Parents are included in joint play Child prefers to play independently % 70 65,1 59,1 60 50 40 30 25,1 20,1 20 10 0 4-5 years 5-7 years A f th hild Fig. 3. Involvement of parents in joint play depending on the age of the child (%) of boys (accordingly: 11,7 % and 9,0 %; р = .04). Gender of parents also has a significant impact on their involvement in a play with the child. So, mothers answer that they play with their child in 65,7 % of cases, and fathers – in 58,3 % (p = .001). Influence of socially-stratification factors is also traced. Parents with higher education note their involvement in joint play with the child more often than parents with secondary education (accordingly: 66,5 % and 60,6 %; р = .02). In comparison parents with secondary education mark independence of their child in play more frequently than parents with higher education (accordingly: 25,7 % and 20,6 %; р = .01). It is remarkable that unmarried mothers, in comparison with married, more often mark their inability to play with their child (accordingly: 4,6 % and 1,7 %; р = .004). Activity of parent as a manager of a role-playing game For the analysis of adult’s activity as organizer of a role-playing game for the child a question on whether parents invent plots for play or fairy tales for their child was asked (Table 3). Results received show that parents invent plots for games to children till 5 years much more often, thus organizing their play activity. For example, for children of 4-5 years 31,9 % of parents think out fairy tales and plots for games, and for children of 5-7 years – only 22,9 % (р = .001). Age dynamics is shown in Fig. 4. Again it confirms results of the previous analysis of the play activity age features. At the age of 5-7 years serious changes in the structure of preschoolers play activity occur, as well as the role of an adult in this activity changes. If earlier # 1605 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… 40 % 35 33,6 31,9 30 28 25 22,9 20 15 10 5 0 1,5 - 3 years 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 4. Percentage of parents who regularly invent fairy tales and plots for games for their child accordingly to the child’s age (%) Table 3. Distribution of answers of respondents to the question «Do you invent fairy tales for your child, interesting stories, plots for the game?» (%) Answer to the question % Yes, but it is rare enough 60,1 Yes, regularly 26,9 No 5,0 I am not able 4,5 Unfortunately, I don’t have enough time 3,5 adult played an important role in the organization of children’s play, then (since 5 years) a child becomes more independent in his play activity. Pointing out that the answer «I am not able to invent plots for games» is more often given by parents of children older than 4 years (Fig.5). If parents of 3-4 year-old children note inability to think out plots for games in 1,7 % of cases, then among parents of children of 4-5 years this answer is chosen by 5,4 % of parents (р = .04). Therefore at the age of 5-7 years the structure of organization of play activity changes. First of all it can be seen from the increase of child’s self-dependence, escalating independence in his play activity. The withdrawal of parents from joint play with their child is observed. It can be seen that by the age of 4 years parents often show uncertainty in their ability to participate in their child’s play and to become an organizer of a roleplaying game. In other words, at a transition stage to a role-playing game, the adult often appears incapable of its organization. Children’s game preferences During the poll parents were asked to answer which of the listed types of games their children usually prefer to play in (Table 4). From the data resulted in the table it is visible that game preferences differ depending on the gender of children. Boys much more often than # 1606 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… 6 % 5,6 5,4 5 4 2,7 3 2 1,7 1 0 1,5 - 3 years 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 5. Percentage of parents who have noted inability to invent fairy tales and plots for games for their child, depending on the age of the child (%) Table 4. Game preferences of preschool children (%) Types of games % Parents of boys Parents of girls Active games, sports games 52,3 53,8 51,6 Board games 42,2 39,2 44,5 Building, constructing 41,7 50,8 31,2 Games in family 24,7 9,7 39,9 Computer games, game console 23,0 28,4 17,4 Games in characters from books, films, cartoons 13,3 13,0 13,6 Military games 12,3 21,4 3,1 Games in different professions 7,3 4,6 10,5 girls prefer to play computer games (accordingly: 28,4 % and 17,4 %; р = .0001), military games (accordingly: 21,4 % and 3,1 %; р = .0001) and also to build and construct (accordingly: 50,8 % and 31,2 %; р = .0001). Girls more often than boys prefer board games (accordingly: 44,5 % and 39,2 %; р = .01), games in family (accordingly: 39,9 % and 9,7 %; р = .0001) and in different professions (accordingly: 10,5 % and 4,6 %; р = .0001). Also age distinctions in game preferences of children are observed (Fig. 6 and 7). It can be seen from the results presented in Fig. 6 that different types of games are preferable during the different age periods. Children of 1,5–3 years play board games much more rare, than older children (27,4 % at 1,5-3 years and 39,2 % at 3-4 years; р = .01). War games are also much less often preferred by children of 1,5 – 3 years in comparison with children of 3 – 4 years (accordingly: 5,2 % and 11,3 %; р = .04). Among the parents of children of 1,5 – 3 years computer games are marked only in 5,2 % of cases whereas among parents of children of 3-4 years their amount reaches 10,8 % (р = .04). Moreover it is shown on the chart that both child’s age and frequency of parent’s choice of computer games gradually increases. # 1607 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Board games % Military games Computer games 50 44,6 45 45 39,2 40 33,4 35 30 27,4 25 20 15,6 13,8 15 11,3 10,8 10 13 5,2 5,2 5 0 1,5 - 3 years 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 6. Growth of popularity of different types of games depending on the age of the child (%) Mobile & sports games Games in different professions % 80 70,4 70 61,9 56,4 60 50 43,9 40 30 20 10 10,5 5,2 4,9 7,6 0 1,5 - 3 years 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 7. Falling of popularity of different types of games depending on the age of the child (%) From Fig. 7 it is visible that preference of sports games decreases with the years (children of 4-5 years – 56,4 %, children of 5-7 years – 43,9 %; р = .0001). Games in different professions are more often preferred by children of 3-4 years in comparison with children of 4-5 years and children till 3 years (accordingly: 10,5 %, 4,9 % and 5,2 %; р = .01). Representations of parents about game preferences of their children depend on demographic and socially-stratification factors. So, fathers more often than mothers note among the game preferences of their children games where they act like books, films and cartoons characters (accordingly: 16,1 % and 12,4 %; р = .02). Mothers more often than fathers point out child’s preference of games in family (accordingly: 27,0 % and 18,8 %; р = .0003) (Fig.8). It is necessary to point out that parents with higher education mark games of their children in characters of books, films and cartoons more # 1608 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Games in characters of books, films, cartoons Games in "family" % 30 27 25 18,8 20 16,1 15 12,4 10 5 0 Fathers Mothers Fig. 8. Representations of fathers and mothers about game preferences of their child (%) often than parents with secondary education (accordingly: 17,1 % and 8,3 %; р = .0001). Parents with secondary education choose games in “family” more often than parents with higher education (accordingly: 28,5 % and 23,4 %; р = .007). Income level of a family also influences parents’ representation of game preferences of their child. Computer games are less often marked by parents from needy families (18,8 %) in comparison with prosperous parents (24,6 %; р = .006). The similar parity concerns such type of game as building and constructing (37,1 % in needy families and 44,1 % in prosperous; р = .006). Games in different professions are more often marked by parents from needy families, compared with the more prosperous (accordingly: 10,1 % and 6,4 %, p = .003). Dependence of children game preferences from marital status of their parents is also observed. Table 5 shows significant distinctions in preferences of different types of games by children from divorced and married parents (answers of married and unmarried mothers were considered). These results show that children whose mothers are divorsed prefer sports games, while children from complete families prefer board games, constructing and computer games. Preference of different types of toys In the research parents of preschool children were asked: “What is your child’s favorite toy?”. Obtained answers were grouped into 12 categories: − Animals − Traditional dolls − Modern dolls (Barbie, Baby Born, Baby Annabelle) − Traditional characters of children’s subculture (Winnie the Pooh, Piglet, Pinocchio, Carlson, etc.) − Modern characters of children’s subculture (Spider-Man, Batman, Ninja Turtles, robots, etc.) − Military toys (toy soldiers, tanks, guns, etc.) − Transport toys (cars, motorcycles, etc.) − Games with rules (dominoes, bingo, puzzles, etc.) − Materials for productive game (building kits, Lego, blocks, etc.) − Sport toys (ball, hockey, soccer, etc.) − Didactic toys # 1609 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Table 5. Dependence of children’s game preferences from marital status of their parents (%) Married mothers Unmarried mothers Р= Mobile games, sports games 50,5 60,8 .003 Board games 44,2 42,6 .02 Building, constructing 43,7 33,6 .003 Computer games, game console 23,8 17,8 .03 Types of games Table 6. Types of toys preferred by preschool children (%) Types of toys % Transport toys 31,1 Animals 30,5 Traditional dolls 17,5 Materials for productive game 13,6 Modern dolls 7,0 Modern characters of children’s subculture 5,7 Military toys 4,6 Not toys 3,2 Traditional characters of children’s subculture 3,1 Sport toys 2,2 Games with rules 1,4 Didactic toys 0,5 − Not toys (game console, GameBoy, PSP, computer, bicycle, etc.) General average data on preferences of different toy types of preschool children are shown in Table 6. The obtained data show significant difference in preferred types of toys for boys and girls. Boys more often than girls prefer transport toys (accordingly: 43,3 % and 6,0 %; р = .0001), materials for productive game (accordingly: 15,0 % and 8,0 %; р = .0001), modern characters of children’s subculture (accordingly: 7,2 % and 2,1 %; р = .0001) and military toys (accordingly: 6,6 % and 0,5 %; р = .0001). Girls more often than boys prefer animals (accordingly: 41,5 % and 20,2 %; р = .0001), traditional dolls (accordingly: 34,8 % and 1,6 %; р = .0001), modern dolls (accordingly: 14,8 % and 0 %; р = .0001) and traditional characters of children’s subculture (accordingly: 4,9 % and 1,3 %; р = .0002). It is important to point out the age changes. Fig. 9 presents those types of toys preference of which increases with the child’s age. Thus, children of 4-5 years are more likely than younger children prefer modern dolls (accordingly: 4,9 % and 0,4 %, p = .002); among the parents of 5-7 year-old children the percentage of those who point a doll as a favorite toy for the child grows up to 17 % (p = .003). Modern characters of children’s subculture are more often preferred by children of 4-5 years than of 3-4 year-old children (accordingly: 5,7 % and 0,8 %, # 1610 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Modern dolls Modern characters of children's subculture Materials for productive game 18 % 17 16 14 11,7 12 8,9 10 11,3 8,4 7,7 8 4,9 6 4 5,7 2,2 1,1 2 0,4 0,8 0 1,5 - 3 years 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 9. Increased preferences of various types of toys with the age of the child (%) Traditional dolls 45 Traditional characters of children's subculture 39 40 35,7 34,4 35 30 Transport toys % 28,9 26,1 24,9 25 20 15,7 15,6 15 12 10 5 2,4 3,5 3 - 4 years 4 - 5 years 1,7 0 1,5 - 3 years 5 - 7 years Ageofthechild Fig. 10. Decrease of preferences of various types of toys with the age of the child (%) p = .002). Children of 5-7 years are more likely than children of 4-5 years, prefer play materials for productive games (accordingly: 17,0 % and 11,7 %, p = .04). The Fig. 10 shows the decrease of child’s preferences of several types of toys with the growth. Children of 4-5 years are much more rare than 3-4 year-old children play traditional dolls (accordingly: 12,0 % and 24,9 %; p = .0001). Children of nursery group is much more likely than older children prefer to play traditional characters of children’s subculture (accordingly: 15,6 % and 2,4 %, p = .0001). Transport toys are often preferred by children of 4-5 years than 5-7 year-old children (accordingly: 35,7 % and 26,1 %, p = .003). Structural analysis of toy type preferences according to the age of preschoolers In order to clarify the age dynamics of those changes in game preference of boys and girls, as well as to analyze the impact of socio- # 1611 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… demographic parameters, we carried out a special factor analysis. For this purpose, a data matrix which fixes the particular preferences of toys for boys and girls of different age groups in terms of their fathers and mothers (for data analysis, we also differentiate the position of married and unmarried mothers) was formed. Thus, factor analysis was subjected to a matrix dimension of 12x12: where strings - different types of toys preferred by children, and columns point out view of fathers and mothers (married and unmarried) about the preferred types of toys of their children, taking into account age and gender of children. Factorization of this matrix by principal component analysis followed by rotation on the criterion «Varimax» Kaiser allowed to construct a simplified three-dimensional factor model, which describes 75,5 % of the total variance. As a result three bipolar factors were divided. The first bipolar factor F1 (44,2 %) has the following structure: Transport toys 0,850508 Military toys 0,818520 Materials for productive game 0,724199 Animals -0,923507 Traditional dolls -0,868932 Modern dolls -0,768501 The structure of this factor is quite interesting. As we can see on the positive pole of this factor such toys as transport (cars, motorcycles, etc.), military toys (toy soldiers, special equipment) and various types of building kits are grouped together. Thus, we can say that at the positive pole toys which can be called “materials, means for children’s play” were grouped. Playing with these types of toys children are not attached to certain roles, but basically manipulate and manage them as the means of play. At the negative pole of this factor animals (soft toys) and dolls were grouped. It should be noted that, in contrast to the positive pole of this factor, here we can see together such types of toys that encourage the adoption to the roles. Playing with animals and dolls, children learn a role position. The second bipolar factor F2 (18,5 %) – «games with rules - sport toys” has the following structure: Games with rules 0,796055 Not toys 0,650056 Sport toys -0,825868 In the structure of this factor on the positive pole are games with rules and not toys. As we have noted under the concept “not toys” we mean first of all computer games and video game consoles which also can be called games with rules, because these games also mean abidance by rules. Thus, we believe that the positive pole captures the assimilation of game rules. At the negative pole sport toys which first of all mean the manipulation of certain objects (eg. ball) are grouped. Also we should note that the use of these toys can mean a moment of competition (“the agonist desire to defeat an opponent”) (Johan Huizinga Homo Ludens, 1992). The third bipolar factor F3 (12,7 %) «didactic toys – traditional characters of children’s subculture” has the following structure: Didactic toys Modern characters of children’s subculture Traditional characters of children’s subculture 0,595263 0,509810 -0,872255 This factor is of particular interest for our study. We can see that at the positive pole of the factor didactic toys combine with modern characters of children’s subculture. At the negative pole are traditional characters of children’s subculture. This result seems to be very important to for the research. In fact the theoretical didactics of educational games and toys emphasizes the importance of using the characters of traditional # 1612 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… children’s subculture. It is most probably believed that through the traditional models children are able to perceive and understand the proposed problems and, therefore, successfully cope with them. However our results, in contrast, show that educational games and toys are not based on traditional characters of children’s subculture, though are based on the use of modern heroes of children’s subculture. A possible reason is that the developers of modern didactic toys actively use the modern context of children’s subcultures: fashion heroes and characters provide (from their point of view) the attractiveness of educational games and toys. Of special interest for us is the placement of parents’ views (married mothers of boys and girls of all ages, as well as unmarried mothers and fathers of boys and girls) in the space allocated to factors. We shall describe the features of placing of different groups of parents on the axes of factors F1 and F2 (Fig.11). Fig. 11 shows that all parents of girls grouped at the negative pole of factor F1, and parents of boys - on its positive pole. Thus, we can conclude that parents of girls fix that their child prefers to play with dolls and animals, learning a role position. Parents of boys fix that their child prefers “toys-means” (transport and military toys and materials for productive game). If we face the place of parents’ opinions on the axis of factor F2, we can see that the characteristic age pattern in the changing of toy preferences of children. Thus, we see that in general with age there is a transition from manipulation (sport games) to games with rules. The older the child is, the more his play activity is focused on conformance to certain rules and norms. Thus, the Fig. shows peculiar results of age dynamics of boys and girls play activity. As we see from quadrants I and IV boy’s parents (fathers of boys and married mothers of boys of 4-5 and 5-7 years) fi x the orientation of their child to the toys-means and abidance by rules in play. Parents of girls (married mother of girls of 4-5 and 5-7 years, unmarried mothers and fathers of girls) with abidance by rules in play of their child fi x an orientation on the development of the role-playing position. Such differences, in our opinion, determine the gender-specific development of role-playing game: for girls through the development of the role relationships, and for boys through the Fig. 11. Placing of married mothers of boys and girls of all ages, unmarried mothers and fathers of boys and girls on the axes of factors F1 and F2 # 1613 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Fig. 12. Placing of married mothers of boys and girls of all ages, unmarried mothers and fathers of boys and girls on the axes of factors F1 and F3 development of gaming facilities (using toysmeans). Let’s consider a particular gaming preferences of preschool children placing married mothers of boys and girls of all ages, unmarried mothers and fathers of boys and girls on the axes F1 and F3 (Fig. 12). Fig. 12 shows that the certain age dynamics of children toy preferences exists. If young children prefer games with traditional characters of children's subculture, then in the age of 5-7 years an abrupt shift in preference for didactic games occurs. These changes in the selection of toys mark the stage of preparation for school. At the same time, gender differences - focus on the role for girls and orientation to the facility for boys - is also stored in didactic games. *** On the basis of the conducted research the following conclusions are made: • In the structure of family leisure time play activity of parents with their child takes a leading place. Parents’ involvement in joint play with the child depends on the # 1614 # child’s age. In the age of 5-7 years the structure of play is changing a lot. The play becomes more independent from the adult. • The study highlighted a number of age and gender characteristics in the game preference of preschool children. Boys significantly more likely than girls prefer such types of games: computer games, building and construction, military games. Girls are significantly more often than boys prefer board games, playing in “family” and in various professions. In preschool age the interest for board games, computer games and military games constantly increases and the interest for outdoor games and games in various professions gradually reduces. • Didactic games in the structure of children’s play are related to modern characters of children’s subculture. These social factors and cultural context should be taken into consideration by the developers of contemporary didactic games. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… References L.S. Vygotsky Play and its role in the mental development of the child// Voprosy Psychologii. 1966. № 6. V.S. Sobkin, A.I. Ivanova, K.N. Skobeltsina Attitude of parents of preschool children towards school education // Pedagogika. 2012. № 4. V.S. Sobkin, E.M. Marich Sociology of family education: preschool age. Works on the sociology of education. Vol. VII. Issue XII. (M.: Centre for Sociology of Educational RAE, 2002). V.S. Sobkin, K.N. Skobeltsina Game preferences of modern preschoolers (based on survey among parents) // Psychological science and education. 2011. № 2. V.S. Sobkin, A.I. Ivanova, K.N. Skobeltsina What parent read to their children // Psychologist in a kindergarten. 2011. № 1. E.O. Smirnova, O.V. Gudareva State of play activity of contemporary preschool children // Psychological Science and Education. 2005. № 2. E.O. Smirnova, O.V. Gudareva Play activity of contemporary preschool children and its influence on personality development of children // Sociology of Preschool Education: Works on the sociology of education. Vol. XI. Issue XIX. (M.: Centre for Sociology of Educational RAE, 2006). E.O. Smirnova Psychology of the Child. A textbook for teacher training schools and universities. (M.: Shkola-Press, 1997). D.B. Elkonin The psychology of play. (M.: Pedagogika, 1978). D.B. Elkonin Selected psychological works // Ed. V.V. Davydov, V.P. Zinchenko. (M., Pedagogika, 1989). Johan Huizinga Homo Ludens. Translated from the Netherlands / Ed. G.M. Tavrizyan. (M., Progress-Academia, 1992). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents… Игровая деятельность детей дошкольного возраста: совместная игра с родителями, игровые предпочтения, любимые игрушки В.С. Собкин, К.Н. Скобельцина Российская академия образования Россия 119121, Москва, ул. Погодинская, 8 Статья посвящена изучению представлений родителей детей дошкольного возраста об игровой деятельности их ребенка. Специальное внимание уделено рассмотрению места совместной игры родителей с ребенком в структуре семейного досуга; включенности родителей в игру своих детей (в том числе как организатора сюжетно-ролевого пространства игры); игровым предпочтениям дошкольников (выявлению любимых игр и игрушек). В работе анализируется влияние различных демографических и социально-стратификационных факторов на представления родителей об игровой деятельности детей дошкольного возраста. Работа основана на материалах, полученных в ходе анкетного социологического опроса, проведенного сотрудниками Института социологии образования РАО в 2007 году. В ходе исследования было опрошено 1936 родителей детей дошкольного возраста (от 1,5 до 7 лет), посещающих ДОУ города Москвы (всего 45 ДОУ). Ключевые слова: дошкольное детство, игровая деятельность дошкольников, семейный досуг, совместная деятельность родителей с ребенком, игровые предпочтения дошкольников. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1617-1627 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes Elena О. Smirnova* Moscow Centre of Psychological and Pedagogical Expert Examination of Games and Toys Moscow State University of Psychology and Education Room 411, 29 Sretenka, Moscow, 107045 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 New various approaches to pre-school moral education are analyzed in the article. Urgency and complexity of this task and inadequacy of traditional methods based on moral standards and rules of behaviour acquisition, encouragement and reproach, higher self-appraisal, etc. are dwelt upon. The idea of L.S. Vygotsky who emphasizes that moral education can’t be based on laws and rules of behavior are also viewed upon. It is proved that moral education is inseparably connected with the development of interpersonal relations with the peers. Age-related dynamics of relationships to a peer at preschool age (from 3 to 7) is described. A special attention is given to problem forms of interpersonal relationships (aggressiveness, demonstrativity, shyness, etc.). In the final part of the article principles and stages of moral education focused neither on explanations, nor on positive examples display but on the development of spontaneous interrelations between children, perception of a peer not as an opponent or rival but as a partner are presented. Keywords: moral education, preschool pedagogy, interpersonal relationships, self-consciousness, subject and object inception in interpersonal relationships, acquisition of moral norms, selfappraisal. Preschool age is an extremely responsible period of a personality’s and interpersonal relationships’ formation when motivational sphere is intensively cultivated, personality mechanisms of behaviour, self-consciousness and attitude to others are formed. At this stage it is possible to overcome various deformities in relationships with other people, help a child to fully live through different stages of age development. Unfortunately, the issues of moral education are not given due attention in modern psychology. The matter lies not in the fact that teachers * 1 and tutors neither notice nor underestimate the importance of moral education but in the fact that this delicate sphere requires a very keen psychopedagogical approach. Traditional methods of pedagogy, and namely explanation, transmission of information, giving patterns and positive examples turn out to be ineffective. Various approaches to children’s moral education in preschool pedagogy At present in the majority of preschool educational programmes the chief method Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1617 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes of moral education is acquisition of moral standards and rules of behaviour. Tales, stories and dramatizations teach children to appraise characters’ actions and qualities, acquire the rules of moral behaviour and moral standards. It is supposed that understanding and acceptance of moral values will lead to a child’s relevant bahaviour: having learnt “what is good and what is bad”, a child will commit good deeds and avoid bad ones. However, life shows it is far from being so. Most children at the age of 3-4 appraise other characters’ good and bad deeds rightly; they know that it is good to make concessions to the weak, share sweets, help the others, etc. Nevertheless, their actions in real life are, as a rule, different from the standards they are aware of. L.S. Vygotsky rigorously criticizes such methods of moral education. He considers that moral education can’t be based on laws and rules of behaviour. Pedagogy based on moral law and prohibition can’t lead to success as it “intimidates a weak person and provokes a strong person’s resistance” (1, 258). Any fear, dependence on punishment or encouragement already means the absence of moral sense. Violation of a prescribed standard, on the contrary, gives an aura of courage, challenge, inner force to a violator. Warning children from what they mustn’t do, we fix their attention on this deed and thus give him / her a push to perform it. “Awareness of a right action doesn’t always guarantee its performance but awareness of a wrong action facilitates it” (Ibid., 262). Even if a child abstains from a bad deed under the influence of such educational pressure educational influence at this is “equal to zero or even negative because it is bought at the cost of fear and humiliation” (Ibid.). It should be mentioned that L.S. Vygotsky didn’t especially examine the problems of a child’s moral development. However, his works reveal an extremely interesting and extraordinary approach to moral education that doesn’t fit in with his main conception at first sight. It’s known that the basis of this conception is the idea of the development of higher psychological functions that, unlike natural ones, are indirect, unconditioned and conscious. From this point of view a child’s development is understood as acquisition of socially designed means that make it possible to control oneself and organize one’s own behaviour. It would seem from this point of view that moral development must be regarded as acquisition of moral standards which become the means of moral behaviour formation and becoming conscious of it. Pedagogy, based on moral standards observance, forms a completely wrong idea of moral values and deeds as kinds of personal merits or a peculiar advantage that causes self-admiration and contemptuous attitude to all the rest. All this is incompatible with moral development. According to Vygotsky’s precise point of view, he / she acts morally who DOESN’T KNOW that he / she acts morally (Ibid., 257). These Vygotsky’s statements, being rather radical and non-traditional for pedagogy, presuppose refusal to single out moral education as a separate area of pedagogical work, its integrity within the context of everyday life, its dissolution in it. However, Vygotsky also denies the ideas of free education. Absolute freedom means an adult’s denial of educational influence that leads to a child’s transfer to element’s forces. Left to his / her own resources, a child can do huge harm to him / herself. If a tutor refuses to educate, it is street, furniture, media, etc. that start doing it. Thus, moral education is necessary but it must be based not on external prohibition but on inner incentive, on the things that naturally attract a person to kind and beautiful. “Moral behaviour must become a person’s nature and be performed freely, easily and ingenuously” (Ibid., 265). # 1618 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes Vygotsky sees the main strategy of solving this most important task in setting forth right “social coordination of one’s behaviour with that of another’s”. By this term he means natural communication between children, reality of their interpersonal relationships in which children start valuing their friends’ anxieties and share common impressions and feelings. To Vygotsky’s mind, these reflected impressions from one’s own deeds are the strongest educational measures. Another form of cultivating a humane attitude to peers is organization of preschoolers’ common activity – playing or productive. These methods presuppose that children build common houses, draw pictures together or play plots. It is supposed that in the course of such common activity children learn to coordinate their actions, cooperate, they work out communication skills. However, such children’s common pastime often ends in quarrels, dissatisfaction with a peer’s deeds. The matter is that a child can’t coordinate his / her actions with a peer being neither attentive to a peer nor sensitive to a peer’s actions. Appraisal of one’s own actions usually precede the vision and ingenuous perception of somebody else that reduces a peer’s personality to a belief about him / her. All this “closes” the other and favours reticence, lack of understanding, offence and quarrels. Possession of attractive objects and superiority in subject activity are usual reasons of children’s conflicts and a traditional form of demonstration of self. Humane attitude to the others is obviously based on the ability to empathy, sympathy that becomes apparent in various life situations. It means that not only ideas of proper behaviour or communication skills, but moral senses, that make it possible to perceive and consider joys and sorrows of the others as a child’s own ones, should be cultivated first and foremost. Another widespread method of social senses formation is awareness of emotional states, distinctive enrichment of glossary of emotions, mastering the peculiar “ABC of emotions”. A widespread method of education both in domestic and foreign pedagogy are child’s awareness of his / her anxieties, cognition of oneself and comparison with the others. Children are taught to speak about own anxieties, compare their qualities with the qualities of the others, recognize and name emotions. All these methods, however, make a child’s attention concentrated on him / herself, his / her own achievements. Children are taught to listen to themselves, name their own states and moods, understand their own qualities and merits. It is believed that a child, who is confident in him / herself, understands his / her own anxieties well, can easily take the others’ position and share their anxieties. However, these assumptions prove to be wrong. Sensation and perception of one’s pain (both physical and emotional) doesn’t always lead to the empathy of other people’s pain, high appraisal of one’s merits doesn’t favour similar high appraisal of the others in most cases. For some time past formation of positive self-appraisal, encouragement and a child’s merits acknowledgement are chief methods of social and moral education. This method is based on the certainty about the fact that early development of self-consciousness, positive self-appraisal and mediation ensure a child’s emotional comfort, favour his / her personality’s and interpersonal relationships development. Such education is focused on strengthening a child’s positive selfappraisal. As a result, he / she starts perceiving and thinking about him / herself only and the others’ attitude to him / herself. As it has been shown this is the source of most problem forms of interpersonal relationships. Such concentration on oneself and one’s own qualities closes the possibility to see somebody else. As a result a peer often starts being perceived not as an equal partner but as a competitor and a rival. All this causes disconnection between # 1619 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes children while the main task of moral education is formation of community and unity with the others. Education strategy must presuppose the denial of competition and, consequently, appraisal. Any appraisal (both positive and negative) focuses a child’s attention on his / her own positive and negative qualities, merits and deficiencies of the others and as a result provokes the comparison of oneself with the others. All this causes the wish to please an adult, assert oneself and favours the development of the sense of community with the peers. Despite the evidence of this principle, it is difficult to be put into practice. Encouragement and censure are practically main and traditional methods of education. This statement suggests the conclusion that the basis of a child’s moral development and education should lie in organization of children’s interpersonal relationships. However, for a right solution of this pedagogical task it’s necessary to understand psychological conditions of formation of the most favourable alternatives of attitude to other people as well as the nature of deformations that arise on this way. A series of such research was undertaken at the laboratory of preschoolers’ psychological development at the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Education (2). Development of interpersonal relationships with the peers at preschool age The basis of the research is formed by M.I. Lisina’s idea that personal interrelations are inseparably connected with the image of oneself and somebody else: they arise in common communication activity and are its products. Relations and image of oneself base on two different inceptions – subject (personality) and object ones. A subject inception of self-consciousness corresponds to integral perception of oneself (and somebody else) as a source of consciousness, own activity, will, feelings, etc. It’s a certain centre, nucleus of self-consciousness in which a human I is unique and bears no likeness (it’s unmatched), isn’t subject to comparison (it’s incomparable) and has absolute value (it’s invaluable). Similar ingenious and non-appraisal perception and emotional view on another person as an integral personality correspond to it that causes inner connection with him / her and various forms of participation (empathy, collaboration, common joy, etc.). Object inception reflects a human’s ideas of specific qualities, knowledge, skills, possibilities, position in a group – their appraisal and meaningfulness. Some kind of objectification, determination of self, its fixation are caused by such ideas. These ideas of oneself make a periphery of an image of oneself which mediate a person’s attitude to the world, people and him / herself. This attitude causes appraisal and cognition of correspondent qualities of somebody else, their comparison with one’s own. Another person can become a means of self-assertion (implementation of one’s own interests and needs) at this. Object (or subject) attitude sets the boundaries of self, one’s own difference from the others and isolation. These two inceptions are indispensable and complementary parts of self-consciousness and every person’s attitude to others, though the extent of their manifestation rate and content may be considerably different. The empirical research based on this theoretical approach made it possible to trace back the development of a child’s interpersonal relationships in connection with the development of his / her self-consciousness in the course of the first seven years. The researches have shown that a new, extremely important sphere of a child’s interpersonal relationships (and namely his relationships with the peers) comes into existence at an early age of three. It is this sphere that was in the centre of most Russian # 1620 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes researchers’ attention. As the research has shown the first forms of relationships with a peer and first contacts with him / her reflect first and foremost the emotional experience of one’s likeness with another child. At an early age first of all children recognize themselves in a peer’s portrayals, in real contacts they reproduce his / her movements, vocalizations, facial expressions as if reflecting or being reflected in him / her. And such mutual recognition and reflection give kids stormy cheerful emotions. It’s typical that at this period children react to other children’s individual qualities (their appearance, skills, abilities, etc.) rather weakly and superficially as if they don’t notice the peers’ deeds and states. First of all they see their own reflection in a peer. At the same time a peer’s presence increases a child’s general activity and emotionality. It can be assumed than emotional and practical interaction between children of an early age gives them the sense of integrity, activity which becomes stronger if reflected and reproduced in somebody else. Children don’t distinguish certain qualities and properties (both their own ones and those of other children) yet. Their attitude to somebody else isn’t yet mediated by any other subject actions. It is affective, ingenuous and non-appraisal. Despite evident differences, all this brings the first forms of a child’s communication with an adult or a peer together. In both cases a child recognizes him / herself in another one that gives him / her the sense of community and complicity with others. Perceiving their own reflection in somebody else, children single out themselves better and get confirmation of their integrity and activity. In spite of the fact that the need for communication with a peer at an early age takes far from the main place in the hierarchy of a child’s needs and is usually not regarded as a new formation of this age, it can be suggested that emotional and practical interaction between children plays an extremely important role in subsequent development of interpersonal relationships. A feeling of ingenuous community and connection with others is built in here. Common actions, emotions (mainly positive) and moods that children easily catch from each other create the sense of community with equal and similar people which can subsequently become a basis for deeper human relationships. At an early age, however, this community is of a purely external, situational and procedural character. Besides, recognizing oneself in a peer, children experience an active process of self-cognition. Against a background of likeness every child’s own individuality is highlighted to its most. “Looking at a peer”, a child seems to objectify him / herself and single out specific qualities and properties in him / herself. Such type of a child’s attitudes to the peers is preserved approximately up to the age of four. In the whole, three-year-old children are rather indifferent to a peer’s actions, his appraisal from an adult’s part. They do not worry about a peer’s success and misfortunes. At the same time they easily catch cheerful emotions of the others (though they almost don’t notice negative anxieties), can let them have a toy or turn in a game if an adult asks about it. All this can be the evidence of the fact that a peer doesn’t play a significant role in a child’s inner life yet. A decisive improvement in the attitude to a peer takes place in the middle of a preschool age. The age of five isn’t usually regarded as critical by age psychology. However, our data, got by numerous researches, give evidence that it is a very crucial stage in a child’s personality development and display of this change is revealed particularly sharply in the sphere of relationships with the peers. At the age of approximately five a steady indifferent attitude to a peer is changed by a tense attention to him / her. There appears the need in collaboration and mutual actions. Children’s # 1621 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes communication starts being mediated by object or playing activity. Children watch their peers’ actions intently and jealously, appraise them and react to an adult’s appraisal with bright emotions. At the same period empathy to the peers (regarding both the number of cases and their intensity) sharply increases. But this empathy is often of an inadequate character – a peer’s success can make a child sad or offend him / her while a peer’s failures can make a child happy. Children start boasting, envying, competing, demonstrating their advantages. The number and acuteness of children’s conflicts increase sharply. Tenseness in relationships with the peers becomes higher. Ambivalence and shyness manifest themselves more often than in ages different from this. All the phenomena enumerated above give evidence concerning a deep qualitative change in a child’s attitude to a peer and him / herself. It can be assumed that its essence is in the formation of peripheral structures and object components of the I-image. A child’s self externalizes. Specific qualities, skills, abilities, etc. are singled out and appraised. But they can’t be singled out and appraised in themselves. It is possible only in comparison with somebody else’s, when peculiar to an equal but a different human being, i.e. a peer. A preschooler starts treating him / herself via another child. It is possible to appraise and assert oneself as a possessor of certain merits that are important not in themselves but only if they are appraised by someone, i.e. “in somebody else’s eyes”, only via the comparison with a peer. This comparison is focused not on disclosure of community (like at the age of three) but on the opposition of oneself and somebody else. A peer becomes an isolated, opposed human being and a subject of constant comparison with oneself. Comparison of oneself with somebody else takes place not only in the course of children’s real communication but in a child’s inner life. There appears a stable need in recognition, self- assertion, self-appraisal in the eyes of another person. These become very important components of self-consciousness. All this naturally increases tenseness and proneness to conflict in children’s relationships. Attitude to the peers significantly changes again by an elder preschool age (by the age of six-seven years). Emotional involvement in actions and a peer’s anxieties increases, empathy to another person becomes more marked and adequate; malevolence, envy, rivalness manifest themselves considerably seldom and not as sharply as at the age of five. Many children are already capable of emphasizing with both a peer’s success and failures, ready to help and support him / her. Children’s activity targeted on a peer (assistance, consolation, concessions) significantly increase. There appears the aspiration not only to respond to the peers’ anxieties but also to understand them. By the age of seven manifestations of children’s shyness considerably decrease. Sharpness and tenseness of preschoolers’ conflicts are reduced. All this can serve the evidence that b y the end of a preschool age a peer becomes not only the object of comparison with a child him / herself but a self-valuable, integral personality, a subject of communication and address. It can be suggested that appearance and increase of a subject component in a six/seven-year-old child’s attitude to other children reflect certain shift in his / her self-consciousness. By this age children start being aware of not only their specific actions and qualities but also of their desires, anxieties, motives which, in contrast to object characteristics, unite and consolidate a child’s personality in whole. A child’s self isn’t already firmly fixed on his / her own merits and appraisal of one’s own object qualities. It is open for other people, their joys and problems. A child’s self-consciousness exceeds the bounds of his / her own object characteristics and embraces other people’s anxieties. Another child already # 1622 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes becomes not only an opposed human being, means of self-assertion but the content of a child’s self. That is why children willingly help their peers, emphasize with them and don’t perceive the success of the others as their own failure. Our results show that such subject attitude of a person to him / herself and to the peers is formed by a preschool age in the most cases and it makes a child popular and preferable among the peers. This is a general logic of normal age development of a child’s interpersonal relationships with other children. However, it is not always realized in concrete children’s development. It is widely known that there are considerable individual alternatives in children’s attitude to the peers. Problem forms of interpersonal relationships (heightened proneness to conflict, shyness, aggressiveness, state of being outcast in a group of peers) cause a special alarm among these alternatives. In view of this we have given a special attention to the research of these problem forms of children’s relationships. Psychological peculiarities of shy children, conflict preschoolers, children outcast by the peers were in the focus of a special analysis. Our data have shown that these children do not differ from their peers in the level of intellect development, arbitrariness or playing activity. Psychological reasons of their difficulties lie in different things. Despite evident differences in behavioral manifestation, common psychological basis is the foundation of all problem forms of interpersonal relationships. It could be roughly defined as focusing on one’s own object qualities or predominance of object attitude to oneself and the others. Such focus causes constant appraisal of oneself, self-assertion, own merits demonstration, etc. Thus, unpopular, outcast children differ in a heightened desire for self-assertion, defense of selves, proof of their superiority; others become the means of self-assertion for them and the subject of comparison with them. The research has shown that a distinctive feature of conflict preschoolers is a tense need in the peers’ acknowledgement and respect, maintenance and confirmation of positive self-appraisal. L.N. Galiguzova’s work (2) convincingly proves that the basis of children’s shyness lies in self-focusing, constant doubts about own personality’s value. Such anxiety about one’s self overshadows the content of mutual communication activity, disturbs the emotional sphere development. It is clear that the peculiarities of a child’s self-consciousness lie in the basis of various disturbances of interpersonal relationships. That’s extremely significant that conflict, extremely active, aggressive preschoolers and shy children demonstrate common peculiarities of self-appraisal. In general cases a positive self-appraisal is distinctly different from appraisal of one-self in the eyes of the others. Having high common self-appraisal and considering oneself the best one, a child doubts the others’ positive attitude, especially if the others are unfamiliar to a child. In case of shyness this difference manifests itself in uncertainty, shrinking into his / her shell, anxiety and fear of new situations; in case of proneness to conflict – in demonstrativity and constant striving for his / her advantages to be proved, his / her self to be asserted. However, the basis of both alternatives is in common psychological foundation, that is focusing on oneself and one’s own image. A child unites, coincides with his / her image and strives to hold it. He / she constantly looks at him / herself by the eyes of the other as if being in the system of mirrors. Some children try to hide from this stare, shrink into their shell, others, on the contrary, admire themselves, demonstrate their merits. But in both cases these mirrors make it possible to see themselves only, shutting both the world around and other people in whom they see only attitude to themselves but not themselves. The matter of sources and factors of one or another type of attitude to the peers # 1623 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes naturally arises. The practice of communication with the peers is distinguished among them. Communicative skills are practised and friendly relationships between children are formed due to it. However, according to our approach, the main and key condition of the development of harmonious attitude to the peers is close adults’ personality, subject attitude to a child which forms the basis of a child’s self-consciousness. The possibility to check and confi rm this hypothesis occurs in the course of research of preschoolers’ who live without families (in children’s homes), are deprived of the parents’ normal subject attitude since early childhood but have unlimited possibilities to communicate with the peers. A special research has shown that both aspects of interpersonal relationships between inmates of children’s homes – subject and object ones – are non-mature and nondeveloped. These children are unable of empathy, mutual assistance. Indifferent, nonchalant attitude to the peers predominates in them. They demonstrate emotional involvement neither in their own activity nor in a peer’s activity. At the same time they don’t feel any need in appraisal of their merits, they don’t compare themselves with the others, neither compete nor rival. Children’s conflicts are of a slacker, emotionally flat character than in a kindergarten. The preschoolers’ main and practically the only communicative need (as well as the cause of their conflicts) is an adult’s attention and amicability. They get aware of themselves mainly through an adult’s attention and attitude which are an external basis of their self-consciousness (like in an infantile age). On the basis of these data it can be concluded that the structure of self-consciousness of children without families are not formed. Their selves need an external basis provided by an adult’s marked and personally addressed attitude which can’t be given by another child. Thus, the results have shown that formation and development of moral attitude to a peer depends not only upon children’s common life but upon a child’s consciousness level of development the source of which is an adult’s subject personality attitude at early stages of ontogenesis. Children without families are deprived of such attitude. As a result, a child’s self remains non-marked, nonformed that makes emotional involvement in any other activity and a full-fledged attitude to him / herself and other people impossible. Principles and stages of the programme of moral education The results available open the way to a new approach that might solve the problem of moral education. This approach is based not on moral standards and positive patterns acquisition or on the awareness of own anxieties but on the formation of the sense of community and complicity with the others that presupposes the removal of focus on a child him / herself and his / her appraisals. Working out of specific methods of cultivating a personality’s moral qualities and humane attitude to people is one of the main tasks solved by psychologists at present. The necessity of new approaches to children’s moral education arises in connection with it. Removal of focus on a child’s self via the development of attention to somebody else, the sense of community and complicity with the others but neither mediation over one’s own anxieties nor one’s own self-appraisal improvement should be the main strategy of this formation. Such strategy implies a significant change of tasks and methods of children’s moral education that exist in modern psychology nowadays. First of all it is necessary to refuse from a competitive start in games and pastime. Contests, competitive games, duels and competitions are rather widespread and are widely used in preschool education practice. However, all these games focus a child’s attention on his / her own # 1624 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes qualities and merits; cause bright demonstrativity, competitive capacity, orientation on appraisal of the others and, finally, disconnection with the peers. That’s why for the formation of a personality inception it’s important to exclude the games of a competitive character and any forms of competitiveness. Numerous quarrels and conflicts are often caused by toys. According to practice, any new object in a game distracts children from communication; a child starts regarding a peer a challenger for an attractive toy but not a partner. In view of this on the first stages of humane relationships formation it’s better to refuse from toys and objects to the extent possible to focus a child’s attention on the peers as much as possible. Verbal aggression (every possible teasing rhymes, calling the others names, etc.) is one more reason for children’s quarrels and conflicts. If a child’s positive emotions can be shown expressively (a smile, a glance, gestures, etc.), then the simplest and the most usual way of expressing negative emotions is their verbalization (swearwords, complaints, etc.). That’s why the work focused on the development of moral feelings must minimize children’s verbal interaction. Conventional signs, expressive gestures, facial expressions, etc. can be used as communication means instead of it. Besides, this work must exclude any compulsion. Any compulsion can cause the reaction of protest, negativism, and reticence. Thus, moral education (on the first stages in any case) must be based on the following principles: 1. Absence of appraisal. Any appraisal (irrespective of its valence) favours concentration on one’s own qualities, merits and drawbacks. It determines a prohibition on any verbal expression of a child’s attitude to a peer. Minimization of verbal addresses and transition to direct communication (expressive-and-mimic means or gestures) can favour non-appraisal interaction. 2. Refusal from real objects and toys. The practice shows that any new object in a game distracts children from direct interaction. Children start communicating on the occasion of something and communication itself becomes not the aim but means of interaction. 3. Absence of an emulative moment in games. As concentration on one’s own qualities and merits causes bright demonstrativity, competitiveness and focus on appraisal of the others, we have excluded games that provoke children into display of such reactions. The main aim of our programme is in the formation of community with the others and the possibility to see friends and partners in the peers. The sense of community and ability to see another person (but not one’s self in him / her) are the basis for humane attitude to people. It is this attitude that causes sympathy, empathy, common joys and assistance. Proceeding from these propositions we have worked out the system of games for 4-6-year-old kids. The main objective of the programme is attraction of a child’s attention to somebody else and his / her various manifestations: appearance, moods, movements, actions and deeds. Suggested games help children to experience the sense of community with each other, teach to notice a peer’s merits and anxieties, help him / her in playing and real interaction. The programme is extremely simple in implementation and doesn’t demand for any special conditions. It can be implemented by any adult with rather a small group of children (from 4 to 10 persons). It includes seven stages, each having its specific aims and objectives. The main aim of the first stage is refusal from verbal communication means habitual for children and transition to gestures and facial expressions in communication that require great # 1625 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes attention to the others. Attention to a peer becomes a meaning centre of all games on the second stage. Adjusting to somebody else and becoming similar to him / her in one’s own actions, children learn to notice the peers’ slightest details in movements, facial expressions, intonations. The ability to coordinate motions is perfected on the third stage. It requires the focus on the partners’ actions and adjustment to them. The fourth stage presupposes the children’s’ plunge into common anxieties – both joyous and uneasy. The imaginary sense of common danger which is established in games unites and ties preschoolers. Role-plays in which children assist and support each other in difficult playing situations are introduced on the fifth stage. The sixth stage makes verbalization of one’s own attitude to a peer possible. According to the rules of a game it must be of an extremely positive character (compliments, kind wishes, emphasizing the merits of the other, etc.). On the final, seventh stage games and pastime are held. Children learn to really assist each other in common activity while being engaged in them. It should be emphasized that the programme is focused neither on explanation, nor display of positive examples, nor encouragement of good deeds and reprimand of bad actions but on the development of ingenuous interactions between children, perception of a peer as a person close to him / her but neither a rival or opponent. The preliminary practice of organizing games and pastimes in Moscow kindergartens has shown that the climate in a group noticeably improves: children become more independent; aggression of many “problem” children reduces considerably; the number of demonstrative reactions goes down; shy children, who have been playing alone before, participate in common games more often. All this indicates a high effectiveness of this programme. References Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotsky] Педагогическая психология // Моральное поведение. Глава ХII. С. 249-270. Межличностные отношения от рождения до 7 лет [Interpersonal relationships from birth to 7 years] / под ред. Е.О. Смирновой (Москва-Воронеж, 2000). Смирнова Е.О., Холмогорова В.М. [E.O. Smirnova, V.M. Kholmogorova] Межличностные отношения дошкольников: диагностика, проблемы, коррекция (М: ВЛАДОС, 2003). Смирнова Е.О., Холмогорова В.М. [E.O. Smirnova, V.M. Kholmogorova] Конфликтные дети (М.: ЭКСМО, 2010). Проблемные формы межличностных отношений дошкольников [Problem forms of interpersonal relationships between preschoolers] // Вестник практической психологии. 2011. №3. С. 22-33. Сюжетная игра как фактор развития межличностных отношений дошкольников [Game with a plot as a factor of development of interpersonal relationships between preschoolers] Культурноисторическая психология. 2011. №4. С. 38-44. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes Методы нравственного воспитания в разных программах образования дошкольников Е.О. Смирнова Московский центр психолого-педагогической экспертизы игр и игрушек МГППУ Россия 107045, Москва, Сретенка 29, ауд. 411 В статье анализируются разные походы к нравственному воспитанию дошкольников. Показана актуальность и сложность данной задачи и неадекватность традиционных методов, которые основаны на усвоении моральных норм и правил поведения, на поощрении и порицании, на повышении самооценки и пр. Специально рассматривается позиция Л.С. Выготского, который показывает, что нравственное воспитание не может быть основано на законах и на правилах поведения. Доказывается, что нравственное воспитание неразрывно связано с развитием межличностных отношений со сверстниками. Рассматривается возрастная динамика отношения к сверстнику в дошкольном возрасте (от 3 до 7 лет). Особое внимание уделяется проблемным формам межличностных отношений (агрессивности, демонстративности, застенчивости и пр.) В последней части статьи представлены принципы и этапы программы нравственного воспитания, которая направлена не на объяснения, не на демонстрацию положительных примеров, а на развитие непосредственных взаимоотношений между детьми, на восприятие сверстника не как противника и конкурента, а как партнёра. Ключевые слова: нравственное воспитание, дошкольная педагогика, межличностные отношения, самосознание, субъектное и объектное начало в межличностных отношениях, усвоение моральных норм, самооценка. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1628-1638 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities Oksana S. Ostroverkh* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 In this paper we characterise the individual learning action of primary school children as proactive, independent and responsible. A necessary condition to form academic self-sufficiency is a special pedagogical action, when retention of the functional difference between the two parts of learning action that is between orientation and performance becomes the subject of teacher’s work. A teacher develops a polarised education space in such a way as to watch how children organise preparatory part of their action, whether the children are active in using notational systems and address the teacher or peers facing difficulties, how they make decisions switching from preparation to implementation. The paper details the essential characteristics of the teaching action which are the openness and targeting. Targeting of the pedagogical action is understood in different aspects of individual learning activities presented as a difference between orientation and implementation. The example of the open teaching action in organising academic work of the children on designing notation (helpers) is considered in detail. Keywords: developmental education, pedagogical action, individual learning action, academic selfsufficiency, responsibility, initiative, educational space of learning activities, notation. This work represents an attempt to answer the question “What is pedagogical action in developmental education?” The experimental developments on the project “Educational space of primary school children” became the material on the basis of which we considered the idea of pedagogic action being the subject of teacher’s work The project aims at developing the individual learning action of primary school children into independent and responsible one. Educational action is an action that is not associated with improvement of the individual and their abilities, but with improvement of the ways used * 1 to do some work. Proactive and self-responsible action of the child takes place when he or she takes the problem of an adult as their own task. Proactive action is connected with the response and in this sense is associated with certain risks. Response of an adult (e.g. the teacher is giving the mark) addresses the child who performs the action. And that is why every responsible action is related to the decision making. In this sense, the choice is always the choice whether to “act in public way” or “not”. In our opinion, when forming academic self-sufficiency the teacher has to deal with creating a choice situation for the child to consciously make decisions realising Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1628 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities when they are ready to do something and when not to. At present the theory and practice of developmental education doesn’t confirm that the issue of individual ability to learn has been settled and learning action became personal, independent and responsible.As V.V. Davydov and D.B. Elkonin said, the subject of learning activity is not only the person who performs well writing, reading, solves the problems, but the one who can prepare implementation of any action of the class who can find themselves a way to solve a class of concrete- practical problems. To line up the way, in contrast to achieve the result means to solve educational problem. Individual understanding by children of the orienting basis of the forthcoming action, i.e. the way to do it – wrote D.B. Elkonin – is the main idea of a learning task “(Эльконин, 1989, 216). We believe that the initiative in decision making being the most important feature of individual action can and should manifest itself very early. However, in order to make it manifest, it is necessary to create a special space of children action. Adults can participate in joint action with the child so that the child could have possibility and necessity to make choices within the limits corresponding to every age. In our project, the main method to build individual learning action responsible and associated with decision-making was dividing of children’s actions into two parts which are preparatory and executive. The action of the child from the outset was understood as distinction and switching from preparing (training) to implementing. We considered our project as orientation (“draft”) of children action and talked about orientation and implementation of children’s actions. Now we reconsider the project from the point of view of teacher’s actions. Why should the teacher have distinction between training and implementation ? In previous studies we showed that this distinction is essential for creation of the child action and all our polarisations are means for developing individual learning actions (Островерх, 1997; 2003; 1994). Can means of polarisation of the educational space be understood as means of teachers’, rather than children’s work? If yes, then what is the object of teacher’s work? We claim that the object of teacher’s action is the very structure of child’s action but not l of child’s action in general, but its structure in the aspect of two functions existing in one action, and often fused.. As a rule, traditional school in the person of the teacher directs it to the value and importance of implementation. In developmental education teachers value different things: they value more preparation than results of implementation for the teacher teaches how to draw up a draft. The teacher should organize the space of learning work in such a way that the child could prepare implementation of any action of this class, ie to devise a way of solving a class of problems (Давыдов, 1996). This space is a learning task from the start should come as a training space where the child is building his experience with the tool. In the developmental education the teacher’s action should be linked to the initiation of the orienting-exploratory and wider – all preparatory actions. Let us consider what this initiation, leading to the independent action of the child means. Following L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin we believe that the essential point is the work of the adult on giving children’s action some sense, sometimes even when the action was a failure. It is essential that children act should be reinterpreted by adults as a tentative, exploratory action. The very meaning of the action is exploratory in nature and this should be stressed. # 1629 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities Here is a famous example by L.S. Vygotsky about the origin of the pointing gesture.”Consider, for example – Vygotsky wrote, – the history of the pointing gesture, which, as we shall see plays a crucial role in the development of a child’s speech and is generally to a considerable extent the ancient basis of all higher forms of behaviour. Initially, the pointing gesture is simply unsuccessful grasping movement. A child tries to grasp an object which is too far removed, his hands outstretched to the subject, remain in the air, his fingers are doing pointing movements. This situation is the source for further development. For the first time there is a pointing movement, which we are entitled to call a pointing gesture in itself. There is a movement of the child, objectively indicating the object and nothing more. When the mother comes to help the child and interprets it as a pointing movement, the situation changes significantly. In response to the unsuccessful grasping movement of the child there is no reaction on the part of the subject, but from another person. The original meaning of unsuccessful grasping movement is understood, thus, by others. And only afterwards, based on the fact that unsuccessful grasping movement is associated by the child throughout the objective situation, he begins to take this movement as pointing... The child comes, therefore, to realize his gesture last. Its value and function first are determined by the initial objective situation, and then by the people around the child. Pointing gesture shows by the movement what is understood by others and only later is understood by the child “(Выготский, 1984, 144). Usually, this example is considered as a model when it comes to interpsychic form of existence of mental functions. This example reveals two aspects of transition from the interpsychic to the intrapsychic. One aspect lies in the fact that essence of outside collective behaviour form is transmission of some support from one person (adult) to another (child), with the help of which he organises his conduct and in the future, this support becomes internal. We are interested in the second aspect related to the fact that the support (stimulus) is developed in case it is used as a means of addressing another person. Unsuccessful grasping movement is reinterpreted by mother as a pointing movement. Being reconsidered it is returned to the child. For us, such reconsideration is the centre of communication between children and adults. What does reconsideration mean in our case? Here is an example of our project work. At the beginning of schooling when the child brings the completed assignment to the teacher, the teacher asks, “What should be evaluated in your work?” In other words, the child simply shows the teacher the work performed, and the teacher reconsiders it as something where is a preparatory part, which is not assessed, and this distinguishes it from the part of implementation. The teacher begins to treat the action as the action of search. And this attitude is expressed in a functional interpretation (reconsideration) directed at the child and accepted by him or her. Teacher reconsiders (reinterprets) the child’s work subdividing it into two parts which are training and preparation. The question arises: What is a schooling initiative? First, the teacher begins to see in the child’s work a “draft” and then the child reconsiders their work the same way. Here is an example of the primary school pupil during the time of dictation on the Russian language at the end of the academic year. The pupil wrote the entire dictation. After that, she checks all the work, finds a misspelled word, and highlighted it. Experimenter: Why have you highlighted the word? # 1630 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities Pupil: Now it’s time of dictation. I’ll revise misspelled words at home. In this example we see that the girl is planning her future work. Checking and highlighting misspelled words is preparation of the future action. Her own work is regarded as both implementation (she wrote a dictation) and as preparation of the future action. In our opinion, such work which from the point of view of the child can be continued can be considered individual learning action. So, in order to cause an individual educational action it is necessary to allocate a special subject of the teacher ‘s work and it is far from being trivial. It is associated with retention of functional differences, the relationship between the preparation and implementation. The subject of the teacher’s observation and work is distinctions and transitions between the two functional parts of the action – between the orientation and training in a broad sense, and implementation. The teacher begins to study not only how the child mastered the lesson, but the way he or she organises preparation, whether they are active in using notational systems (models, diagrams) as a means of analysing the problem, words, sentences, whether they address the teacher or peers when face difficulties, etc. The main idea of the pupil-teacher communication lies in rethinking, reinterpretation of the child’s work by the adult person. The teacher interprets something as opposed to implementation and conveys it to the child. The teacher is engaged in rethinking all the time, as well as in understanding and designing. Turning to the main objectives of the project, we emphasise that our experiment was intended to design such teachers’ actions, which would show the child the subject of his or her action and understanding, how they can convert their own ways of doing academic work. This transformation has a proactive and responsible form of behaviour. Initiative, responsibility and learning occur as a result or educational effect, and can not be formed directly and immediately. What does the introduction of these distinctions bring about? What is the growth in teachers’ work? A striking growth occurs when teachers have great opportunities to observe the children. The teacher in addition to pedagogical tasks consisting in delivering the contents is watching the child preparing his or her action, whether it is adequately developed, what means they use for it. Here, we stress an important characteristic of the teaching action which is its openness. According to B.D. Elkonin: “The action which was designed using initiation, manifestation and retention of a particular action (behaviour) can be called an open action. In successful cases, an adult develops an open action, and that it is the } way to enable the child to participate in the action of an adult, that is, using the way of developing by cumulative effects “(Эльконин, 1989, 62). Teachers’ action becomes productive when the child turns into action, an independent, rather than emulating the model of an adult. And the first form of such self-sufficiency, we could see when the child was designing a draft. By the middle of the first year we got individual features in training. So, at the lesson in writing in the first year (December), children were given the task: to write the word melon. On a separate table there are cards that can be used as an aid. On some cards the word is written entirely, on others only syllables and on the rest only some letters. Cards are made so that you can trace the pattern and write a line of elements. One of the pupils took the card with a word. He began to write and failed. After this, he went to the table, took a card with the first syllable, practised a bit, and then took the card with the second syllable, wrote a line and then again # 1631 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities practised in writing of the whole word. Then drew the line, separating his practice, and wrote the whole word to be evaluated by the teacher. In this case, availability of different cards, “helpers” creates the possibility of choice and allows you to vary the content of practice with respect to the difficulties with which the child experienced during the work. A variety of forms of exercise is one of our criteria of occurrence of individual learning action. One of the primary symptoms that distinguish the preparation and implementation does take place, is the emergence of children’s words reflecting the meaning of the action. In our case, the children began to call the table with the cards – a table with “helpers”. When a child singles out with the help of a word of special reality something which can actually help means another indicator that the child distinguishes and connects two parts of the work. The task of the teacher was to provide the child with the widest possible range of tools. At the initial stage of schooling they were used for to “correct” writing, and the children used them in case of difficulty (the elements of letters, numbers, etc.). We distinguish two types of child behaviour. One implies formation of the actual “draft”, when the child’s action develops within the tools proposed by the teacher. And the second, type is actually the work of the Child on producing, designing tools. Psychological meaning of this work is that the child is trying to determine the functional significance of things, makes attempts to study them in relation to each other, with regard to the tool helping to solve the problem. What does it mean to make the tool? It means to keep both the tool and the future task. Of course, this distinction between a tool and a task isn’t realised by a child. Contrasting the tools and tasks in the objective terms (table with “helpers” and “table for evaluation”), we observed that for the child, and this is an interesting psychological fact it is not trivial. During the first year, the child is confused, and when he takes his “helper”, he in reality takes the task. At the end of the first year, and to a greater extent in the second, when there are special classes for the production of “helpers”, the child begins to confuse them on another level, saying that makes for someone a helper, he writes a task for him. By the mid-end of the second year the child begins to distinguish tasks and tools, i.e. it means that he differs tools from the problem, and the desired result. This work of children on producing “helpers” is of great interest and can be used as a means of pedagogical diagnostics. Namely, looking at the “helper” created by the child, we can conclude how he or she can generalise academic material, whether they can identify the mode of action and its essential characteristics and to illustrate them by example of their own. The fact that the “helpers”, created by pupils differed both according to the level of generalisation, and to design, is an indicator of the effectiveness of teachers’ actions. In this case, teachers’ work enables the child to work not according to the pattern but independently realising what is effective means of solving the problem. This peculiarity, which we have when producing helpers should be working, but not demonstrative. In our case, if the teacher gives the task to make a “helper”, and the work of is completed with a result it is a manifestation of the closed pedagogic action (when an adult provides the conditions under which you can only do so and not otherwise).In contrast to the closed pedagogic actions “The action which was designed using initiation, manifestation and retention of a particular action (behaviour) can be called an open action (Эльконин и др. 1996, 63). # 1632 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities Actually open action involves creation of conditions under which the child himself will try to do something. In our case, the child is trying to do a “helper” and looking for a way how to present it to others, the rule or a scheme with examples. Open pedagogic action means also that a teacher is supposed to cooperate with children. For example, to check whether the created “helper” helps solve the problem or not. In our work, such checking looked like a distributed collective action when the created “helper” was handed by the child to another pupil who tested the “helper” in the situation of solving the problem or doing an exercises. It is essential to note that the work of one child with the “helper” of another led to the alteration, remaking of the “helper”. Here, we observed children’s initiatives to continue their action. Thus, in the first form, Julia H. on her own initiative created a “helper” and said to the teacher, “I figured out and made a” helper”, let’s hang it on the blackboard, it may be able to help kids.” In the third form a week after they worked to create “helpers” the children turned to the teacher asking about their use. Thus, one of the pupils asked the teacher: “And let me give Kate my “ helper” and I’ll see if it can help her or not,” then during the classes she sat next to Kate and watched as the girl used her “helper.” when Kate made a mistake solving the problem Julia drew her attention to the card, where the way of action was recorded. The emergence of such initiatives, we consider as the main criterion confirming that adult action developed as an open one. Along with such essential characteristic of the teacher as openness we identify another characteristic of the teaching action which is targeting. We hypothesised that the positive dynamics in the formation of individual learning actions, a shift in the development of children’s actions can be observed in case when pedagogical action is directed to the children with different levels of formation of learning action. We emphasise that non-triviality of this approach consists in the fact that the goal of the teacher is not so much children’s personal characteristics and styles of their work, not so much a measure of the mastering of the subject content by children, but the development of children’s actions as independent learning actions. To date, we know that for the formation of academic self-efficiency educator should develop their pedagogical actions, using different institutional forms (lesson, polarised- lesson) and elements of the educational space: - Tables with cards for practice, tables with cards “helpers”, tables with cards” for evaluation”. - Individual boards for practice, children’s notebooks divided into a draft and fair copy. - Dividing of the blackboard into tow parts: for practice and evaluation etc. Objectives of the study, conducted in 2004 – 05 academic year, were in fact to determine the main difficulties the children on first and second level of formation of individual learning action face: - To conduct a diagnostic procedure and divide children into three groups with high, medium and low levels of formation of individual learning actions. - To find the means and methods of pedagogic actions that will be effective for work with children in each of the three groups. Pedagogic action turns out targeting when the shift happens in development of an independent learning action for children of the first and second groups, and the zone of proximal development of their academic self-efficiency will be found with the children of the third level of learning action. # 1633 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities We started with identifying deficiencies in learning action of the pupils. It should be noted that if the two groups of pupils with low and middle levels of learning action develop the work consisted in the selection and description of the deficiencies of their educational activities, then the pupils with the third level of development of individual learning actions had to determine what could become a zone of proximal development of their action, what could be the task, when children feel deficiency in their learning actions. The third “m” form of gymnasium № 1 “Universe” was chosen as experimental. In this group of pupils for the first two years of study the work had been carried out in accordance with technology of the polarisations of educational space in two subjects (in Russian and mathematics). In early October 2004 a diagnostic procedure number 1, “Preparing for the tests” was held and the children were divided into three groups.Along with the lessons the teacher conducted special classes and polarised lessons Let us describe three key, in our opinion, types of work with pupils from different groups. 1 type of work “Finding difficulties” The children of the first group (low-level of formation of individual learning actions) are characterised by the following deficiencies: inability to define their own difficulties, lack of initiative in using tools and addressing the teacher, the inadequacy of the action when the pupil chooses work for assessment, but fails to do it, small amount of completed work (for example, such children, as a rule, do not have time to do the whole work when writing a test) and, consequently, have low results for test papers. The purpose of work with such children was to teach them to see their own difficulties. Within two months at each math lesson, the children performed the same type of work (table of multiplication and division). At the beginning of the lesson, the pupils determined in which cases of multiplication and division they make mistakes, and then bearing them in mind chose an assignment, (a card with examples) and did for ten minutes. Thus, pupils could track their achievements in the course of time, the amount of work yesterday (a week, a month ago), and how it has changed today. At the classes of practice, pupils worked with an hourglass to how much time they spend doing this or that type of work. Doing homework (the same kind of work – table of multiplication and division), these children also used the hourglass and learnt to control the amount of work. What was the result of such work? The students raised the tempo and increased the amount of work which improved performance of the tests. As teachers noted, children became more confident and began to check their works differently. 2 type of work “Working with “helpers”’ The children of the second group are characterized by deficiency in understanding notation.. We believe that if in children’s action there is a gap in the correlation of tool and task, pedagogical action should be directed to the removal of this deficiency. As a rule, the traditional pedagogy, if a child has a deficiency with using a drawing or a scheme) teaches to use this tool, offering a lot of training cards, and by repeated training the child learns to deal with the rule or pattern. Novelty of our approach lies in the fact that when a child fails to solve the problem and has problems with using tools, he or she should be returned to the production of tools. There are two types of work: work on the production of a tool and work on its application. In the second group of children there was held special training “Making helpers” where children created “helpers” to each other, and then they tested them, that is, a tool made by one child was tested by another, the one who made # 1634 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities the tool analysed it. At such sessions the focus shifted from solving problems by using notation to creation (as if to re-recreate) of notation and to analysis of them in terms of why they could be called “helpers.” It is interesting to note that when a pupil or a group of kids tested the “helper” made by another pupil it was, returned to the author afterwards. So, boys, after having tested the “helper for the distributive law of multiplication,” created by girls, advised them to generalise it: “And the best is to put the letters instead of numbers”, ie in the analysis of others’ ‘helper’ children go to a higher level of generalising. Working with the deficiency of children’s action we observed, what are the results of a particular type of work, whether changes occur in the motivation of children, whether they get new interests. The third type of work “Self-study of the topic” was offered to children with high level of individual learning action. Children at this level are characterised by ability to hold the ratio of preparation and implementation, namely, develop their preparation adequately, both with respect to their own difficulties, and the objective of their future work, ie hold the goal of the action, are initiative in choosing tools and know how to apply them in solving problems. These children on their own initiative, without waiting for the end of the lesson can finish their training and move to test, ie these pupils define limits of their work themselves. Speaking about the fact that the child holds the ratio of preparation and implementation it should be said, within what range it happens? We characterise the effect of individual learning within the boundaries where the work is given by the teacher when the cards to practise are offered by the teacher, when the “helpers” are created by children, are discussed together with the teacher and then are laid out in the space of a classroom on a separate table. When organising work, “Self-study of the topic,” we removed these restrictions. It was suggested to a group of seven pupils to work independently in another room, while the remaining pupils were working with a teacher in the classroom. There was given only one theme “Writing equations”, and tasks on the study of this subject the pupils chose from the textbook themselves. As a result of independent work the pupils produced a test on the subject for pupils in their class. The criteria for monitoring observations were selected as follows: whether the objective of the work is held (whether selected by the pupils for independent work assignments correspond to the subject or not), how much work each child does, what difficulties faces, whether they address other pupils or the teacher, what are the results of the test on the theme, what tasks are included in the test work for the class (whether they correspond to the theme, complexity of tasks). As a result of this work it was found that all seven students were able to study the new theme, opened a new way and then did the test paper given by the teacher with “excellent” mark, and made up a test for their comrades properly. It should be noted that making up the test paper for the whole class aroused the greatest interest, after doing it the pupils asked the teacher to check up the work. Moreover, when checking the test papers, a special attitude of these children towards the works of their classmates occurred, they tried to notice every achievement: “Vika, well done, she did everything right, did not make any mistakes. If you look at the test paper made up by the children, we can see that they included both; skillbuilding tasks (to solve the equation), and tasks to make up schemes, tasks setting traps. What was the subject of testing for these children? The tasks where the children had to correlate the various symbolic means as well as the subject of search of # 1635 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities pupils are border of actions which were presented in the form of a task setting a trap. Changing conditions (when you suggest the child making up a test paper or solving the problem) allows you to see at what level of mastery of the tool and as a consequence, the level of development of schooling action the child is. The fact that pupils were able to organise their own work on the subject and did it with excellent results opens new possibilities in the development of individual learning actions. Younger pupils (in the second half of primary school age) can hold the purpose of the action in a new subject content (new topic), can selforganise a new subject material and master the method of action and can also evaluate the method of action (making up tasks on simulation and the boundaries of the method of action). The results of this type of work can be described as follows: • All children had desire to work independently, even though the work was addressed only to one group of children. • Emotions of some children (a pupil asks her mother questions: “Will I be accepted to the group?” works on the test herself: • Responsible attitude towards the work (a group of girls working on their own, often had meaningful questions, they distributed the “ who makes test work for whom?”, collectively discussed, whose task should be included in the test paper work, and whose should not), • Interest and desire to work independently increased in children. They asked the teacher questions: “When will we work that way?” The teacher replied, “If you get excellent marks for your test papers you will work that way.” As a result, three quarters of pupils in the class got excellent marks for their tests. A comparative study of the diagnostic procedure of “free training” was held in December 2004 and May 2005.The study involved 43 pupils of two groups of the third year of schooling. The results of the study showed that in the experimental class where targeting action was developed by the teacher by the end of the year, all children with the first (lowest) level of the action moved to the second (middle), and the number of children with a third, high level of action substantially increased by the end of the academic year. In contrast to the experimental class in the control class where the teacher also used the technique of polarisation of educational space, but didn’t develop targeting work with groups of children there was a positive trend, but changes in the development of action were not significant, and the number of children with the first level of action was the same (Table. A). This confirms our hypothesis that in the second half of the primary school age it is necessary to develop a special work with groups of children who have different problems with formation of individual learning actions. If you do not develop targeting pedagogic action, then there won’t occur a significant shift in the development of learning self-efficiency of pupils. If you hold individual learning action of a child as a goal of the pedagogic action then the content of all forms of organisation (types of work, polarisation) become tools in the educational space as space of the teacher’s activities. Targeting pedagogic action is called so, because the different sides of the individual schooling action, presented as a distinction between orientation and implementation, turned out to be at the center of the pedagogic search. One should emphasise arising of children’s learning interest, the interest coming from the content of the subject. It is also an indicator that pedagogical action was developed as an # 1636 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities Table 1. Features of DT difference in the elderly according to gender and place of residence, years. Comparative analysis of the dynamics of the formation at the beginning and end of the third class (the number of students in%) The third level of the action 3, “m” 23 (100%) 3 “d” 20 (100%) The second level of the action The first level of the action before after before after before after 4% . 70% 78. 26% 0% 5% #, (10) 60% 70% -35 20% * Differences between the data in italics in the columns are statistically significant by c (p> 95%). 2 intermediary, open action, in contrast to direct actions of the teacher. Developing individual schooling action, without formation of motives for learning directly, we develop also children’s interests, we get the interest of the child to his own learning. The main motive of the teacher is developing children’s educational interest. References Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Собр. соч.: в 6 т. Т. 3. (М., 1982-1984). Давыдов В.В. [V.V. Davydov] Теория развивающего обучения (М., 1996). Островерх О.С. [O.S. Ostroverh] Об условиях становления индивидуального учебного действия в образовательном пространстве начальной школы // Материалы 4-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика развития: возрастная динамика и ступени образования» (Красноярск, 1997). Островерх О.С., Мокроусова А.Г. [O.S. Ostroverh] Учебная самостоятельность и ответственность в младшем школьном возрасте // Материалы 9-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика развития: ключевые компетентности и их становление» (Красноярск, 2003). С. 177. Островерх О.С., Свиридова О.И, Мокроусова А.Г. [O.S. Ostroverh] Динамика становления самостоятельности и процедуры ее диагностики в младшем школьном возрасте. // Материалы 11-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика развития: образовательные интересы и их субъекты» (Красноярск, 2005). С. 128. Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Введение в психологию развития (М., 1994). Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Л.С.Выготский – Д.Б.Эльконин: знаковое опосредование и совокупное действие // Вопросы психологии. 1996. № 5. Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Избранные психологические труды (М, 1989). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities Педагогическое действие в образовательном пространстве учебной деятельности младших школьников О.С. Островерх Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В данной статье определяется индивидуальное учебное действие младшего школьника как действие инициативное, самостоятельное и ответственное. Необходимым условием формирования учебной самостоятельности является особое педагогическое действие, когда предметом работы учителя становится удержание функционального различия между двумя частями учебного действия – ориентировкой и исполнением. Учитель особым образом строит поляризованное образовательное пространство и наблюдает за тем, как ребенок организует подготовительную часть своего действия, инициативен ли он в обращении к знаковым средствам, обращается ли в ситуации затруднения к учителю, сверстникам, как принимает решение при переходе от подготовки к реализации. В статье подробно описаны существенные характеристики педагогического действия – открытость и адресность. Адресность педагогического действия понимается в аспекте разных сторон индивидуального учебного действия, представленного как различение ориентировки и реализации. Подробно рассматривается пример открытого педагогического действия при организации учебной работы детей по конструированию знаковых средств («помощников»). Ключевые слова: развивающее обучение, педагогическое действие, индивидуальное учебное действие, учебная самостоятельность, ответственность, инициатива, образовательное пространство учебной деятельности, знаковое средство. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1639-1659 ~~~ УДК 371.255 The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Larisa A. Novopashina* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 In the given paper the author considers the specifics of adolescence and the methods of its nature and content. A particular focus is possible designing and cultural design of this period in human life. The social situation of development is a unit of content and design, which allows us to represent analytically the dynamics of the age and design of educational environment. A special tool, which influences the design of the educational environment as a development environment, is the assessment and measurement of educational outcomes. Keywords: social situation of development, adolescence and early adulthood, institutional transitions. Statement of a question The perspective on institutional transitions is set by the context that can be sociological, economic, psychological, educational, etc. For example, S.A. Smirnov, discussing institutional transitions, examines them in the context of management development and considers them as “... a different state, more attractive, competitive, corresponding to the challenges of the new century ...” . Institutional transition, which provides development and maturation of a person, is much more uncertain. Undoubtedly, we find a discussion of this problem, but there are few studies on this subject in a number of papers devoted to developmental education (D.B. Elkonin, B.B. Davydov, and others) and in the reports and transcripts of discussions. * 1 The transition problem in the ontogenesis has its history and specifics (G. Piaget, L. Kohlberg, J. Boom, E. Erickson, D. Levinson, G. Craig, L.S. Vygotsky, P.P. Blonsky, D. Levinson, P. Heymans, B.D. Elkonin, K.N. Polivanova, etc.). We are just interested in the subject of transitions, especially in the context of design and designing education with psychological content. What happens in the transition? What is its specificity? What do we want to happen there? – These and other questions are fundamental to our work. Modern developmental psychology (B.D. Elkonin, K.N. Polivanova, etc.) allows us to assume that the transition can be regarded as a special case of the interaction between form and content. A prerequisite for “the one who moves Corresponding author E-mail address: Nla@ippd.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1639 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment to the next stage” is “OTHER”, who provides the transition. In the given work the basic concepts for us are the concepts of the social situation of development and adolescence (as a transition in which the time of puberty, social and cultural maturity and the end of organic development and growth do not coincide), as well as evaluation and measurement of educational outcomes in the context of creating an educational environment as a development environment. Methodology and methods of research The concept of the social situation of development was introduced by L.S. Vygotsky and is defined as the ratio between the child and his surrounding reality, especially social reality. L.S. Vygotsky singles out the most important point in determining the dynamics of age: understanding the relationship between the personality of a child and his environment on every age level. At the same time L.S. Vygotsky pointed directly at the wrong solution of the environment problem and its role in the dynamics of age, when “environment is considered to have no reference to child and without present conditions that influence a child by the fact their existence” (Bolotov, 2008). The social situation of development represents a starting point for all the dynamic changes that occur in development during this period. It entirely determines the forms and the way in which a child acquires new features of personality, drawing them from the social reality as the main source of development, the way in which social becomes individual. Thus, the first question in the study of the dynamics of any age is to explain social situation of development, which according to L.S. Vygotsky and A.N. Leontiev, then manifests itself through “the experience of the child .., we cannot say if it is the influences of environment on a child or a feature of the child”, “and mental patterns of personality development become apparent in the moments of stress the social situation”. It should be noted that despite the “direct reality” of experiences, they are by no means a simple subject of study. The complexity of studying social situation of development is the difficulty of detection and the elusiveness of experience or the moment of tension of the social situation and a lack of proper research techniques. One of the tasks of the research was conducting a pilot study, which subject is the experience or the moment of tension of students from secondary and high school and is the centre of our attention. The development of research model takes into account the fact that designing educational environment as a development environment gets difficult, first of all, by differentiating a leading activity in adolescence and youth. The second reason is that teachers have their own ideas about students, their needs and interests, their ideas about science, the foundations to be taught and memories of their own schooling. And a third difficulty is a lack of attention to the importance of the completion of puberty to adolescence, as well as the fact that developed school environment does not include physiological changes and characteristics of puberty and post-pubertal period. The main constitutive moment of the social situation of development in adolescence is that young man is on the verge of entry into adult life. The transition from adolescence to youth is associated with an abrupt change of the internal position when facing the future becomes the main focus of the individual. And the problems of choice of profession, further course of life, self-determination and finding their identity (E. Erikson) turn into “affective center” (L.I. Bozovich) of the situations, which makes # 1640 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment the entire activity and all of the interests of the adolescent spin around it. L.S. Vygotsky identified the detergency or, in other words, the discrepancy between three points of maturation in the description of the adolescent age. The greatest peculiarity is that social and cultural maturity and the end of organic development and growth do not coincide in the time of puberty. This discrepancy is the basis of the criticism of the awkward age. Moreover, the occurrence of such discrepancy is historic. Sexual and organic development of animals coincides. Perhaps people used to have time when puberty put an end to the process of development and growth. P.P. Blonsky’s concept (that youth achievement is an extension of the period of development, drawing the line between childhood and puberty and the peak of cultural development) is the starting point for discussion of the childhood and adulthood boundaries. Here it is essential to understand what keeps these borders. In this sense, one of the key substantive phases of tension is the conflict between sexual maturity and cultural norms, aimed at the prohibition and restriction of sexual behavior, i.e. norms that show social immaturity (I. Kon.). It is clear that the effectiveness of restrictive standards of sexual behavior in adolescence depends on many factors that determine the identity of a particular culture (national, religious, economic, socially stratified). Describing the specifics of adolescence, K. Levin wrote that the space of free movement of adolescents has significantly increased, covering many areas that previously were not available to the child, such as the right to smoke, come back home too late, drive a car, etc. The boundaries of these newly acquired parts of free movement of space are defined only vaguely, and as a rule, are less differentiated than for the adult. In such cases, living space of the teenager, according to K. Levin, is full of opportunities and uncertainty at the same time. The overall situation of adolescent development includes the expansion of living space (geographically, socially and in time perspective) and cognitive unstructured nature of the new situation. Adolescence is characterized by a new experience of his own body, which can be represented as a change of the central region of steady living space (K. Levin). In other words, the principle of the suggested approach is that it’s necessary to consider the process of growing up in terms of puberty and the relationship to sexual relations and experience of one’s own body to understand the content of education which is appropriate to youth. B.I. Hassan, G.M. Breslav showed that “in contemporary school, on the one hand, we have a very complex and largely unproductive (or rather destructive) conflict of intertwining age characteristics that are implicitly taken into account by both adult and children, and on the other hand, clearly unified approach in terms of teaching strategies at the same time”. “Not noticing (referring to psycho-pedagogical) the diachrony of puberty, or rather, a clear asymmetry in this issue (and the selection, emphasis on the difference in social class) creates a new situation in the secondary school, which further leads to the formation of strong distortions in the development of intellectual and social potential generation entering the period of active selfdetermination”. (Polivanov, 2000). However, the experience shows that teachers continue to determine the activity of the leading educational activity in their work not taking into account the critical period in the development of the human body which is also the period of puberty. Sexual development has an impact on the formation of the individual in this period, although not a primary one. Like the other changes linked with an increase in mental and physical # 1641 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment strength of the child, puberty exerts its influence indirectly through the child’s relationship with the world, through a comparison with adults and other teens, i.e. only within the whole range of these changes. In the construction of educational environment as a space of development (school of maturation) (B.D. Elkonin, I.D. Frumin, 2000) the moment, in which the objectivity of education and training of young people faces with a set of activities in adolescence and youth and effectiveness of training, remains unresolved and tense. Or “.. the search for an ideal model of the school as a “place” (or a set of places), which provides the age dynamics and achievement of key competencies, is faced with a contradiction that is the ratio of the traditional subject and the age of the borders of development ...” (B. Hassan, 2000). In other words, finishing school is associated not only with the development of specific knowledge and skills provided by the school syllabus, but also with the achievement of a certain level of social and sexual development. This aspect of the maturation of adolescents does not affect the assessment of educational outcomes. Thus, the problem of assessing and measuring the results of education is one of the key due to the fact that the evaluation and measurement have a direct impact on participants’ expectations of education and its contents. The education system has several stages. At the same time participants’ expectations of the educational process from the educational stages have their own specific focus: the subsequent stage forms the requirements for the results of the previous stage in the views of participants of education (Blonsky, 1974). One of the contradictions of the education system lies in the fact that, on the one hand, each stage has its own educational content (Blonsky, 1974), and on the other hand, there is often a change of focus from their own content to this procedure produced estimates and measurements in the transitions between the stages (Blonsky, 1974). Distorted attitudes of the participants of education are observed towards the results of current educational stages, which consist in the following: they are not given their own unique value, and they act only as a preparation for the subsequent stages, and are not valuable and important to solve the problems adequate to a child’s age (Hassan, 2008). This issue is discussed in developmental psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, B.I. Hasan, etc.). Development pedagogy has the projects aimed at solving this problem. For example: Tubelskogo school, gymnasium “Universe”, “Tsaritsino” center and a number of educational projects. Expanding the research, we are faced with difficulties related to the research methods that are appropriate with the issues raised and the logic of study. Conceptually, the study is based within the cultural-historical school. We were interested in the following: whether we can discuss and describe the institutional transition and in which characteristics and how and by what means we can study the social situation of development. In pursuing this aim, we surveyed 16 experts and specialists in the field of education: managers, professionals working in developmental education, and professionals working in other learning approaches. In other words, we used the Delphi method of expert judgment, which allows us to display an overall assessment, based not on mathematics and statistics but at a reasonable point of view of the experts themselves. The study concluded that the discussion of subjects of the “transition” for most of the experts was a surprise and caused a number of difficulties associated primarily with the novelty of the issue. An expert survey also helped to identify the specifics of difference and relations of age and # 1642 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment institutional transitions, which is caused by the practice and area of the expert: - Specialists, who work on the technology of developing training or who are quite familiar with it, distinguish, discuss and correlate age and institutional transitions. - Experts, specialists with a long record of service in management, refer to but do not distinguish and correlate the age and institutional transitions. - Experts, professionals who work in other approaches, do not distinguish and do not pay any attention to the difference and correlation of the transitions. - Expert assessments showed that the “transitions” can be described and discussed from the point of view of the necessity of “Other” for the “transit” competencies in terms of functions, specific positions of the “Other”, but also in terms of specific place, its features and marks. The study of the social situation of development was based on a study of the attitudes of adolescent and his close environment (parents, teachers, peers) to various aspects of life. The choice in favor of the questionnaire is primarily due to the fact that the use of external monitoring is already difficult because it is hard to “catch” the moment of emotions, stress, and, moreover, a distorted interpretation of the researcher is likely to take place. In addition to the technical aspect, let’s pay attention to an ethical one: every person has a right to privacy of inner life (I.A. Meshcheryakov, F.V. Bassin). Mass survey allows us to use a representative sample and examine it with a questionnaire (V.S. Sobkin, B.G. Mescheryakov). It is important that the survey method allows us to withdraw an ethical problem of studying the experiences of others, as a person has a choice to participate in the survey or not. It is known that the experiences of adolescents are well reflected in the personal diaries, and this source of information is used by many researchers (S. Bühler, M.M. Rubinstein). However, the diary method is limited (P.P. Blonsky, J.S. Cohn, M.M. Rubinstein, and I.A. Meshcheryakova). In addition, the diaries are “difficult of access” for the researcher. The method of retrospection is also limited. M.M. Rubinstein, P.P. Blonsky noted that retrospective creates a distorted picture, as “childhood memories that adults have are prone to have various errors”. This fact was also confirmed by the psychoanalysts. Consequently, a retrospective method of studying the problem in the area of high school students cannot fully satisfy us but can be used as an auxiliary. The study was conducted on the basis of 8-11 grades of Gymnasium № 1 “Univers” in Krasnoyarsk. 102 people took part in the questioning. The conducted survey has a number of tables, which allows maintaining the sociodemographic characteristics of all students in grades 8 – 11 of the gymnasium. In developing the tools we have assumed that the process of sexual identity is completed with the end of puberty, and thus draw our notions of “the world of experience of a high school student” associated with the completion of puberty. Discussion of the Results Empirical data (shown in % in Tables 1, 2), which were obtained in the course of our study, can display a profound interest of high school students to the relationship between men and women, and this data is interesting in many respects. Firstly, we note that all the students of 8 – 11grades held the relations between the sexes in the field of their attention. Secondly, there is a shift of values among 11 grade # 1643 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Table 1. What age does an individual truly start thinking about the relationship between a man and a woman? 8 grade 9 grade 10 grade 12 12,5 8 Up to 12 years old 72 24 8,3 8 12–14 years old 28 48 45,8 40 Up to 10 years old 11 grade 14 –16 years old 12 20,8 36 Over 16 years old 4 12,5 8 9 grade 10 grade 11 grade 12 12,5 12 33,3 8 Table 2. What age did you start thinking about it? 8 grade Up to 10 years old Up to 12 years old 60 32 12-14 years old 40 40 37,5 44 14 –16 years old 8 16,6 36 Over 16 years old 8 students due to their age. If 60 % of eighthgraders claim that they would think about the relationship between man and woman up to the age of 12 (i.e. up to grade 8), 40 % of eighthgraders clearly indicate their age, and 36 % of the students in grade 11 notify the age from 14 to 16 years, answering the same question, which corresponds to their “school” age. In our view, this indicates that up to 11 grade students do not settle the question of relations between the sexes, they devote much attention to it what allows us to make a conclusion about keen interest of high school students to the issue of sexual development and to clock the time of psychic tension, in other words, the experience of high school student. In this regard, it is important to pay attention to those sources of information for students that are essential in shaping ideas about the relationship between men and women. In Table 3, the data is given to draw conclusions about the main sources of information. It is obvious that the main sources of information are the peers and the media, but at the same time, no references to the school or teacher are given. 43.3 % of adolescents surveyed out of 1187 in Krasnoyarsk, gave an answer to the question “how do you feel about sexual relationships at your age” as “acceptable, but I do not engage in sexual activity”. 29.9 % of adolescents consider them unacceptable and are not sexually active, 13.7 corresponds as “sex is natural and are sexually active” 4.3 % of students understand that it’s too early to have sexual relations, but, nevertheless, are sexually active. Specific gender relationship to sexual contact has been revealed. A characteristic feature is the “tension” between the recognition of the naturalness of sexual contacts and understanding that it is early to engage in sexual relations. 22.8 % of the boys responded indicated that they are sexually active, as for the girls they outnumber 6.9 %, p. = 0.0000. The inadmissibility of sexual # 1644 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Table 3. From what sources do you get information about the relationship between the sexes? Total % 8 grade 9 grade 10 grade 11 grade From literature 30,1 26 28,6 37,5 28 From father 3,8 2,9 8,3 4 From mother 35,4 8 17,1 37,5 16 From other grown-ups (strangers) From peers 5,1 12 4,1 4 41,1 48 2,9 41,6 72 From older friends 22,6 32 5,7 20,8 32 From mass media 40,9 44 42 45,8 32 Other 7,2 16,6 12 Table 4. Are you sexually active? boys girls Р= 1. I lead a regular sexual life and I have a regular sexual partner 8,5 4,2 0,0019 2. I lead a regular sexual life but I don’t have a regular sexual partner 5,6 0,3 0,0000 3. I occasionally lead a sexual life and I have a regular sexual partner 3,2 2 4. I occasionally lead a sexual life and I have different sexual partners 8,9 1,7 0,0000 5. I do not lead a regular sexual life but I have had a sexual experience 9,9 4,6 0,0006 6. I have never been sexually active 64 87,3 0,0000 relationships showed the following number of respondents: 72.3 % of girls and boys 27.7 %, p = 0.0000. The data show that 77.3 % of those who answered the question “Are you’re sexually active?” said no. In this case 6.9 % of teens say that “they do not lead a sexual life but they have had sex experience”. 6 % lead a regular sexual life with a regular sexual partner. 4.7 % of students occasionally lead a sexual life with different partners. The answers “I lead a regular sexual life but I don’t have a regular sexual partner” and “I occasionally lead a sexual life with different sexual partners” had 2.5 % of the responses. From the data in the Table 1 it’s clear that most young men have sex with different partners. Thus, of those who answered the question, “I lead a regular sexual life but with different sexual partners” are 5.6 % of boys and 0.3 % of girls. As for those who “occasionally lead a sexual life with different sexual partner”, the table shows 8.9 % of boys and 1.7 % girls. Significant differences were found among boys and girls run “lead a regular sexual life with a regular sexual partner” and their experience in sexuality. Among respondents to the question of 8.5 % of boys and 4.2 % of girls are regularly sexually active and have a regular partner, 9.9 % of boys and 4.6 % of girls “do not lead a regular sexual life but have had a sexual experience”. We should take into account that the occasional relationships with a regular sexual partner do not have gender specificity: 3.2 % of boys and 2 % of women responded affirmatively to this question. The data, presented below in Fig. 1, show that the question “Are you sexually active?” revealed # 1645 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Adolescents that are not sexually active 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 7 grade 9 grade 11grade Fig. 1 some significant differences in the transition from grade 7 (91.7 %) to grade 9 (79.5 %), and from 9th to 11th grade (63.9 %) the proportion of adolescents who do not have sex experience (p = 0.0000 for both transitions) reduces significantly. From 7th to 9th grade and 9th to 11th grade the proportion of young people who have occasional sexual relations with different partners significantly increases. Thus, in the 7th grade only 0.3 % of adolescents claim to have “occasional sexual relations with different partners” in 9th grade the number rises to 5.1 %, p = 0.0001, for the 11th grade of the number increases to 10, 0 % (p = 0.04). In addition, the transition from grade 7 (1.2 %) to grade 9 (8 %) significantly increased the percentage of adolescents who “do not lead a regular sexual life but have had a sexual experience” (p = 0.0000). Occasional and regular sexual relationship with a regular partner, as well as leading regular sexual life with different partners increased sharply in the transition from 9th to 11th grade. “I lead a regular sexual life and I have a regular sexual partner” indicated 3.9 % of respondents in the 9th grade and 9.3 % in the 11th grade (p = 0.0018), “I am sexually active but I don’t have a regular sexual partner” said 2, 2 % of ninth-graders and 4.1 % of 11th-graders (p = 0.045). The differences of age dynamics occur in the analysis of gender-specific adolescent sexuality. We asked the question “Do you use contraception?” to those who are sexually active and “What is the most important reason for you to use contraception?” 60.5 % of teens who answered the question said they always use contraception. At the same time 26.2 % occasionally use it and 13.3 %, in fact, “never uses contraception”, that is one eighth of sexually active teenagers. Gender differences are revealed only in the answers “I do not use contraception”. Those who answered the question “Do you use contraception?” were 9.8 % of boys and 20.7 % of girls who answered “I never use it at all” (p = 0.0086). Thus, it can be concluded that boys are more aware and much more likely use contraception. The analysis of age dynamics showed that the transition from grade 7 to grade 9 significantly increased the percentage of adolescents using contraception “from time to time”14.8 % and 32 % % , respectively (p = 0.0235) and the number of those who “never use” contraception decreases to 29.6 % and 10.8 % (p = 0.01). The research on the relationship between the life value as “health” and the use of contraceptives among teenagers showed that among adolescents, # 1646 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Age Dynamics of occasional sexual relationships among boys and girls 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 7 grade 9 grade 11 grade 7 grade boys 9 grade 11 grade girls Fig. 2 who are sexually active and treat “health” as the value of life, 60.6 % constantly use contraception, 28.6 % of respondents reported using contraception from time to time and almost one in ten (10.9 %) does not use any contraceptives. Thus, almost every third teenager leading sex life, on the one hand, declares the importance of health as an important value in life and, on the other hand, uses contraceptives from time to time or does not use them. Those who use contraception, single out the following factors of their use: unwanted pregnancy – 35.9 % boys and 73.6 % girls (p = 0.0000), catching sexually transmitted diseases – 62.8 % boys and 26.4 % girls (p = 0.0000). V.V. Zenkovsky (1923) saw the risk of heavy periods of experiences of adolescents and linked it with the lack of foresight of adults, which is manifested primarily in the priorities of school. “ A wild stream of new experiences destroys the foundations of mental equilibrium, shakes its foundations... and leads to very dangerous game with adventurous people, bring it closer to the brink of crime ... all the power of educational influence should be focused on the regulation of complex movements in the emotional sphere. (...) we do not want to think about the deep and terrible inner life, which is undergoing a teenager alone, when he is powerless facing incomprehensible forces that are playing with him, or we just throw up our hands in distressed weakness. Whereas school has a powerful means of regulating the internal motions in the soul of a teenager ...” Discussing the content of school education in the context of psychology and development pedagogy, we can have a chance to convert a source of natural and dangerous forces into a powerful resource for the development of personality. These studies found the attitude of adolescents to a healthy lifestyle. A joint research project of the Institute of Psychology and Pedagogy, Krasnoyarsk, and Institute of Sociology of Education, and RAO, Moscow, was carried out among students in 7, 9 and 11 schools in the city of Krasnoyarsk. It showed that about one in five teenager smoke (20.7 %), 22.4 % drink vodka, brandy and other spirits, 44.3 % drink wine, and finally 68.3 % drink beer, while 3.3 % of respondents indicated that they use drugs. The relationship of learning motivation and deviant behavior is fundamental for us. In this regard, the # 1647 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment study of the influence of schools on the motivation of learning and deviant behavior of adolescents has become the task of the research. The study of value orientations of young people, the emotional evaluation of their life prospects, as well as of the formation of life plans are the following emphasis of the research program. In this case it is important for us that the value orientations, emotional value and the formation of life plans are not closed systems that are determined by socio-demographic factors. We believe that the relationships between individuals can occur randomly in the process of sharing information and under the influence of educational system (school). The aim of the study was to identify those determinants that cause the system to maintain a stable position. We believed that if the school (educational system) in its activities is based on this idea, we will find a certain degree of order and the influence of this idea on orientation, assessment and the formation of life plans at the level of distributions of responses of the subjects. Moreover, the statistical distribution will be more closely grouped with the average value due to centering of the ideas introduced by the appearance of links while sharing information. In developing the questionnaire, we took the fact into account that the dominant socialization model in the social sciences emphasizes the role of external factors that give children the access to the world of adults (family, school, macro social structures), whereas in fact the children are almost not taken into account as independent and self-self sufficient “part of the existence”. As a result, childhood is invariably regarded as a negative phenomenon as a lack of competence, immaturity and lack of skills needed in the adult world. We tried to overcome the prevailing stereotype of childhood interpretation as a stage of “becoming an adult” regardless of the social significance of the specificity and quality of social life (Sobkin, 1990). Following M.M. Bakhtin ideas, we consider the opinion of a teenager as an authoritative statement about reality, and understand the importance of a particular cultural view and status of adolescence, irreplaceability of this position in general cultural process. We surveyed 1437 students in grades 7, 9 and 11 in schools in Krasnoyarsk. We asked them questions about the significance of certain values in life. The data presented in Fig. 3 characterize the choices of life values by students of various schools in the city of Krasnoyarsk. It is important to pay attention to the fact that the statistical distribution of the average values are grouped by centering the ideas introduced only in the school № 106 (Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”). In the context of “maturation” of adolescence only school № 106 (Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”) works with adolescence among the schools represented in the Fig. 4. In addition to the proof of our hypothesis, the results are interesting by the fact that the generated values of respect for others and good relationships with parents and a happy family life are less important for students in school № 106 (Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”), rather than for their peers from other schools. While the most preferred are the spiritual and physical bond, raising the cultural level and the possibility of creative activity. A question of how contemporary school leavers evaluate their s future success has a particular interest. We emphasize that in this case we are interested in the emotional evaluation of their future, “the confidence and optimism”, “doubt”, “fear and pessimism” of the future. The data presented in Fig. 4 show a tendency steady to influence of the idea of environmental development. Moreover, as a result of the study it is found that the assessment of personal perspectives of the students in schools is more # 1648 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment 80 The most important values 106 70 144 102 60 20 41 50 52 40 30 20 10 0 successful physical and soul intimacy gaining material welfare have close friends increasing cultural level independence and self-sufficiecy happy family life possibility to create raising the level of self-study good relationships with parents respect of others % ɪɚɩɫɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɣ Health Fig. 3 Assessment of life perspectives 70 61,7 60,7 60 53,8 50,9 50 49,3 % ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɧɢɣ 47,2 44,2 43 42,4 40 39,4 32,7 30,4 30 20 10 7,4 7 4,7 3,9 4,8 4,4 0 106 144 102 20 I'm confident and treat the nearest future with optimismʋ ɲɤɨɥɵ 41 52 There are some doubts my life will be successful I treat the nearest future with pessimism and fear Fig. 4 related to social stratification and demographic factors and should be considered in the overall socio-cultural context. So the factor of completeness / incompleteness of the family plays a significant role in assessing the graduates their personal perspectives, and the girls have more susceptible influence. Representations of the students about their future success also depend on the educational status of their parents. There is an evident tendency: the higher the parents’ education, the higher the proportion of students confident in their future and the lower the share of the irresolute. For example, the percentage of confidence in the future among school leavers whose parents have secondary education is 45.1 %, and among their peers from families where both parents have higher education the number is much higher – about 59 %. The level of education of parents significantly differentiates those who doubt that “they will succeed in life”: families with lower educational status (both parents with secondary education) have much lower the percentage of those who “doubt” that is 51.9 %, and in families with higher educational # 1649 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment 106 60 Life Plans 50 40 52 144 30 20 10 0 I clearly see my future My life plans are not defined yet 41 102 I try to think about presence and not to make any plans I think about future but I haven't made up my mind yet 19 20 Fig. 5 status (both parents with higher education) it is only 37.4 %. Let’s have a look at the structure of formation of life plans of students along with the assessment of their personal perspectives. In contrast to the previous question, which concerns the emotional evaluation of life prospects, in this case we put the emphasis on the formation and clarity of plans. Below, Fig. 5 presents data describing the students’ determination with respect to positions in adult life. The presented results are interesting, first of all, because they characterize the steady influence of type of school on self-determination of students. Thus, in schools №41 (60 %), №144 (49.5 %), №102 (44 %) and №106 (43 %) students think about the future more but still cannot decide, while in school №52 (41.5 %) and №20 (37.9) % school leavers clearly represents their future. In this case schools №52 and №20 have more rigid system of pedagogical influence. However, the experience of socializing in rapidly changing circumstances makes it impossible to form a habit of creating long-term strategic programs concerning their future. And here, in our opinion, one of the key problems of modern schooling takes place. Its essence of which is the ability to form a strategic planning of their life prospects in a rapidly changing socioeconomic conditions. Then we used the results of the survey conducted among students in schools in Krasnoyarsk. We surveyed 1187 teenagers who study in the 7th, 9th and 11th grades in 10 schools in Krasnoyarsk. The following set of criteria was used in choosing them: the criterion of regional jurisdiction of the school. This means that all seven regions are administrative districts represented by the school. A criterion for quota compliance with sex and age structure of each school. A criterion of diversity of schools. At this stage we also took into account the typology of the formal schools (gymnasiums, lyceums, secondary schools). The analysis of social stratification structure of schools has shown that these structures are essentially similar and have no statistically significant differences. These data for further analysis allow us to choose a number of schools on a random basis. The data presented in Table 7 shows that the number of young smokers is significantly higher # 1650 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Table 5. Smoking, drinking alcohol and taking drugs in the school environment Answers school А school В school С р= , р= I smoke 28,6 20,1 12,0 0,01, I use drugs 5,2 4,0 2,4 I never drink alcohol 65,5 76,2 87,7 0,01 ; 0,001 I drink alcohol once a week or more often I never drink beer 9,7 7,4 2,5 0,007; 0,009 20,8 28,5 42,7 0,004; 0,02 I drink beer once a week 35,1 24,0 15,9 0,0006; in school A (28.6 %) compared with school B (20.1 %) (p = 0.01) and school C. Despite the big number of adolescents who use drugs at school A, however, no significant differences were found. There is a similar situation to drinking in different schools. Thus, adolescents in a school A “never drink alcohol” 65.5 %, in school B this number increases to 76.2 % (p = 0.01), and in school C – 87.7 % (p = 0.001). Adolescents who never consume beer are 20.8 % in school A, 28.5 % (p = 0.004) in school B and 42.7 % in school C (p = 0.02). The high rate of alcohol use has also significant differences in the various schools. If we observe a weekly consumption of alcohol among 2.5 % of adolescents in the school C, boys and girls in school B have a rate 7,4 % of (p = 0.009), and similar rate of use is typical for a 9.7 % of adolescents in school A (p = 0.007). 15.9 % of adolescents in school C use the school drink beer every week, about every third teenager from school B uses in the beer with the same frequency, and 35.1 % of adolescents from a school A (as compared with school C with p = 0.0006). Thus, we observe a different situation with smoking and alcohol consumption in schools with equivalent social stratification conditions. Consequently, there are special factors or conditions of schools that have a significant impact on the spread among adolescents and addiction to smoking and drinking. We believe that these factors are shaped learning motivation of adolescents and an attitude of teachers and classmates to smoking and alcohol consumption. Motivation theory and deviation The analysis of learning motivation among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers showed that the reason for attending school, “My parents made me attend school” (p = 0.0000), and “I go to school just to get a school leaving certificate” (0.0000) is significantly more likely to indicate smoking teenagers compared those who do not smoke. When asked about the reasons that motivate learning, “the desire to get the approval of others” (p = 0.03) and the “the desire to gain the respect of peers, to take up a certain position” (p = 0.038) are more important reasons for such teenagers in comparison with non-smokers. For non-smoking adolescents it is more important to visit schools and they are interested in teaching (p = 0.003) and they have a desire to gain knowledge that will be useful in the future (p = 0.0000). The desire to acquire new knowledge (p = 0.0000) and the desire to get an interesting, prestigious and well-paid job (p = 0.01) in the # 1651 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment future are mostly typical for non- smoking adolescents. Thus, non-smoking adolescents have much higher motivation to study. Smoking adolescents are characterized with a low study motivation and a focus on immediate environment and their peers that may indicate a dependent behavior. Those teens who use drugs more frequently noted the reason for attending school as “socializing with friends” (p = 0.02) and “I go to school just to get a school leaving certificate” (p = 0.0000). Also a more important reason is “nothing in particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.02) among drug-using adolescents who answered the question about the reasons that motivate learning. Interest in teaching (p = 0.007), a desire to gain knowledge that will be useful in the future (p = 0.0002), “good teachers” (p = 0.0003) and “I like the organization of leisure time” (p = 0.001) are typical for adolescents do not use drugs. Also more important is the “duty and responsibility, I believe that everyone should study” (0.047). Thus, a low level of learning motivation is typical for drug-using adolescents. Let’s pay attention that that communication and entertainment among adolescents are important as a deterrent of drug use. The analysis of the reasons that motivate teenagers who take drugs and alcohol to study and attend school showed similar dependence to smoking and using drugs. For example, the response rate of adolescent who have never drunk beer is significantly higher in such answers as “I’m interested in studying” (p = 0.001), “I want to gain knowledge that will be useful in the future” (p = 0.0000) and the “desire to obtain knowledge” (0.0000). For adolescents, who consume beer every week in comparison to those who have never drunk beer, is much more important to “socialize with friends” (p = 0.04), “parents’ influence” (p = 0.000), “getting a school leaving certificate” (p = 0.0001) and “nothing in particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.003). The desire to gain knowledge that will be useful in the future (p = 0.0000), the desire to decide what knowledge will come in handy in the future (p = 0.03) and the desire to get an interesting prestigious and well-paid job in the future (p = 0, 0005) is much more common in the responses of teenagers who have never consumed any spirits. For teens that use spirits every week the most important motivations to study and go to school are: “I go to school just to get a school leaving certificate” (p = 0.0005), “My parents made me attend school” (p = 0.0000) and “nothing in particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.0000). Thus, we can make a conclusion that the absence of temporal perspective, manifested in a very low, almost missing level of learning motivation is typical for smoking, drinking and using drugs teenagers. The attitude of young people concerning the reasons of attending school The analysis of statistically significant differences showed the opinion of boys who study in schools B and C as following: “I want to gain knowledge that will be useful in the future” which is much more common in the responses (p = 0.01) compared with the views of boys from school A. Girls have another opinion. For girls from a school A the reason “I go to school just to get a school leaving certificate” is the most significant (p = 0.005) in comparison with the views of girls from schools B and C. The peculiarity of school attendance of girls from school B has become a “good leisure organization” (p = 0.002). Statistics of significant differences revealed that parents make girls from school C to attend school much less frequently than in the other two schools (p = 0.04). # 1652 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment The analysis of statistics of significant differences in boys’ learning motivation revealed only one peculiarity. Thus, the proportion of young men who answered the question “describe the main causes which makes you to study” is a much lower in school B (2.2 %, p = 0, 04) than in the other two schools that say “nothing in particular encourages me to study”. Girls from school C, unlike their peers of the other two schools were significantly more likely to indicate a desire to learn to acquire knowledge independently (p = 0.0000) and the desire to decide what knowledge will be useful in the future (p = 0.02). Duty, responsibility (p = 0.003) and “nothing in particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.01) were the feature of the learning motivation of girls from the second school. In addition, such reason to study as “joint activity and communication in the learning process” is less significant for the girls from the second school (p = 0.008). Thus, we can conclude that a characteristic feature of adolescents from school A is a low learning motivation. Adolescents from schools B and C are characterized by an interest in learning and a desire to gain new knowledge. In addition, their own desire to acquire knowledge by learning motivation is a peculiarity for students in school B. In general, in schools there are special conditions for supporting or not supporting the motivation to study among adolescents. The analysis of the goals of education for adolescents from different schools revealed that such goal as “a necessary training to enter the University” for boys from school B is a less important than that for boys of school A and C (p = 0.02). On the contrary, the girls from school B, in comparison with their peers from school A and C, to a greater extent believe that the goal of education is “a necessary training to enter the University” is (p = 0.01). Also the experience of social communication and interaction are more significant for girls from the third school (p = 0.02). The peculiarity of views of the girls from the second school concerning the objectives of education are significant differences in preferences “grounded knowledge” in comparison with girls from the third and the first schools (p = 0.01). “The opportunity to develop their own abilities” is supposed to be of a much greater extent for the girls from the third and the first schools than for the girls from the second school (p = 0.037). Girls from the first schools are more focused on the experience of participation in public life and activity (p = 0.02) than for a good preprofessional training (p = 0.03) more than the girls from the second and the first schools. Thus, the school environment is a factor that contributes to the goal-setting in adolescents with respect to education, which is the vector of development of the personality of an adolescent. The attitude of teachers and classmates to smoking and using drugs and alcohol in different schools The peculiarity of the relationship of school teachers from school C to drinking alcohol and smoking among teenagers was the fact that 66.6 % of respondents to the question of smoking and using alcohol teenagers said that “teachers are aware of my behavior, and that leads to conflicts” (p = 0.004). At the same time, the girls from school C use the tactic of concealing of their drinking alcohol and smoking. 75.0 % of girls of this school, who smoke and drink alcohol, said they “hide in any possible way” such behavior. According to 52.6 % of boys from school B and 34.6 % of boys from school A, their teachers know that they smoke and drink alcohol, but “are # 1653 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment tolerant of this”. In this case, we note that there is not such a reaction from teachers at school C. As for drug use, almost all students from three schools answered the question as “in every possible way they hide the use of drugs from teachers”. And only 14.2 % of adolescent, who use drugs in school A, reported that “teachers are tolerant of this”. Otherwise, the attitude to smoking, alcohol and drugs is shown among classmates. Thus, unlike their peers from schools A and B, every fourth classmate from school C “condemns” the behavior of boys who drink. There are other relationships regarding girls. A peculiarity of school A is indifferent attitude of classmates to girls consuming alcohol. 46.2 % of girls from school B who consume alcohol showed the same attitude to their classmates, while in the school And only 16.1 % and 14.2 % in the seven school have such attitude (p = 0.005). Smoking of boys at school A meets indifference from their classmates. “They do not care” said 64.0 % of smoking boys in relation to their classmates (p = 0.02). Classmates of the smoking girl from school B “consider this behavior quite normal”. Such attitude indicated 52.8 % of girls who answered this question. At the same time the different structures of relations were revealed: in school A 45 % of girls indicate that their classmates “do not care” whether they smoke or not, 30 % “consider quite normal” such behavior, and 5 % of girls who smoke hides this fact from their classmates. In school B 52.8 % of smoking girls reported that their classmates think it is quite normal, 33.3 % “they do not care” and 4.8 % of girls who answered the question indicated that their classmates “approve” or “condemn” this behavior in girls. In school C 50.0 % of girls who smoke said their classmates “do not care”, and 12.5 % of girls got typical responses to the question such as “they envy me” and “I hide from my classmates that I smoke”. No differences were found to the use of drug that their classmates take. Thus, a social situation of teenagers from different schools varied considerably. And a high deviant behavior among schoolchildren second school can be explained by prevailing attitude of teachers and classmates. It is important to consider one more thing: what is the structure and level of learning motivation among adolescents from different schools. Boys from school A indicate a lack of learning motivation (p = 0.04) to a greater extent than their peers from other schools. In other respects motivational structures have the same profile and importance. A different pattern is observed in girls. For example, girls from school A more often their peers from school B and C indicate the reason motivating them to learn as the “duty and responsibility” (p = 0.003), and “nothing in particular encourages me to learn” (p = 0.01). Peculiarity of the learning motivation of girls from the third school is the “desire to get knowledge independently” (p = 0.0000) and “the desire to decide what knowledge will be useful to me in the future” (p = 0.02). And finally, the peculiarity of motivation to study of girls from school C with is “the desire to acquire new knowledge” (p = 0.04) and “mutual activity and communication in the learning process” (p = 0.008). Thus, the motivation to study of adolescents from different schools has different profiles, which in turn influence on the structure of personality and deviant / normative behavior of the adolescent. The context of the social situation of development allows us to discuss the structure and nature of the transition, which helps the child to develop and get mature. Here we conducted a survey among experts, whose results are presented below. # 1654 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment The necessity for a transit “Other” is called in question only by one third of experts; the majority (69 %) believed the presence of the “Other” is a prerequisite for institutional transition as a condition of development. A number of experts pointed out that “Other” is not necessarily a specific person, but, for example, can be a group, rituals, lifestyle images of the future, computer, etc. Thus, characteristic, functions and actions of the “Other” have a different interpretation for the interviewees. In the sense that it may stand as an action for the fi rst expert, a function for another one, and characteristics for the third one. Almost all experts believe that the “other” does not guarantee a transition. There is always a situation of uncertainty and risk for a transit one, especially during the transition from school to university. According to the opinion of two experts it is not necessary to discuss the security of the transition, as it is not appropriate and similar to overprotection. It can be concluded that the presentation of the results of the current stage are made on the basis of the requirements of the next stage, and is fixed on the transitions (‘entrance’ and ‘exit’) between the learning stages. We were interested what the participants of education understand by the results of education and where (at what time and place) they located the subject associated with the results? That is, whether localization occurs at the ‘entrance’ to the stage, at the ‘exit’ from the stage, or it is distributed on the results of steps? The study was conducted in 2007-2008 in Krasnoyarsk. There were eight focus groups, which participants became parents, students and preschool, primary, secondary and university teachers. 53 people took part in the study at this stage. The data received during the focus groups were analyzed by the following criteria: the relations of the current stage, the choice next educational stage, attention span, the conception of the transition. The results of the study, integrated according to the following criteria are presented in this paper. We will discuss the transition from preschool to primary level, from secondary to high school / vocational education, from high school to university. Parents and primary school teachers were participants of the given study in the transition kindergarten – school. Parents believe that a kindergarten should teach basic literacy, numeracy, writing, and ‘train’ to classes in the given stage. A large group of parents believe that the key factor in the intellectual preparation to school is the family and that it lays the foundation of learning, interest and willingness to study. Parents would like the kindergarten to have such a function, but consider it is hardly worth to rely on it. The choice of the next step has been made. All parents know the school, class, and a future teacher. Most of them know the title of the educational program. The majority of parents know the teacher and rely on her, and not on the program. Their attention is held on the next stage, on what will happen to the child there. Expectations for the next stage are due to interest of the child, teacher’s attention, and additional classes in extra time and health. The idea of the transition is that parents choose special courses to prepare children for school. The fears of parents may cause: their own possible inability to help their child to cope with the program, the possibility of a bad relationship of the child in the class, the error values and attitudes of family and school, school maladjustment. # 1655 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Educators believe that the goal of preschool childhood is to create independence, the ability to be ready to interact with people and the desire to learn something new. In formulating the expectations of the next stage, teachers talk about the continuity of the efforts of such institutions as kindergarten and school, not to lose the human qualities which have been laid in preschool and to develop them further. The transition from adolescent stage to secondary school is different because students have no comprehension of this transition as a one of high quality. In this case the parents, while making the choice of the next stage (school or college), put on emphasis on the possibilities and interests of the child. However, the views of parents regarding the need for high school vary greatly and depend on the type of occupation. So parents, who work in small business, wait for the end of the school year and are not satisfied with the educational outcomes of children. They believed that teachers pick on their children instead of motivating and teaching them. They are not satisfied with the attitude given: “Why is she (the teacher) constantly discussing me in the classroom in front of all? Why does she (the teacher) share her attitude to my child out loud about?” Parents, who work in the governmentfinanced organizations, are keeping forward to the exams. They try to make a decision and negotiate with the administration on the future profile of teaching children and very loyal to the results of education on the stage. Parents who work in small business do not expect much from the next stage. As a rule, they know teachers and school capacity. The main task is to prevent teachers from humiliating their children in school. They get ready to break the resistance of the teachers in ‘accepting’ their children. Parents, who work in the governmentfinanced organizations, want their children to prepare for the Unified State Exam and to get a good school leaving certificate. They try to find new relations and channels that will help their children enter the university. Parents, who are wage workers, are at a loss. They do not know how to behave themselves and how to help their children. Discussing the transition, parents of small businesses believe that if a child has no interest in learning, he does not have to go to high school. This is a waste of time. The choice of high school can only be associated with the fact that there are no good colleges to hold the interest of the child. Senior stage/ special education is not required as well, as their child is not yet 18, and to start work one still needs some document. Parents, who work in the governmentfi nanced organizations, consider school leaving certificate and Unified State Exam compulsory; otherwise the child will not enter the university. High education is essential; otherwise one cannot make a career, take up the position and place in society. “What does it mean the child does not want to? I’ll make him, explain, prove it, who will ask for his opinion.....?” say the parents. For parents, who are wage workers, University is associated with the assessment, you need to enter and study there, otherwise you’ll be no one, and therefore children must study in grade 10. At the transition from school to college, almost all students made their choice. For many of them it’s a multiple choice: either here or there. And it is based on the prestige of the university, a set of disciplines on the chosen specialty that their future job will have, the image of their future job, “connections” in higher education, the demand for their future profession in the labor market and the recommendations of parents or teachers. # 1656 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment The perceptions of the transition are mainly focused on the evaluation of a child’s readiness to it, that is, to examinations and admission procedures. The attention of high school students in the perception of the next stage is distributed as follows: the procedure of ‘entry’ or entering university has the dominant value. The second place takes a generalized representation of the results of received education – the desire to get high-quality fundamental education, to work in an attractive and interesting sphere of work. And the last place that influence the choice of a student, takes the process of learning in higher education. Parents of high school students working in small businesses, it is believed that the man in my life to take place, and for this university is not a prerequisite. Consistency, in their view, generally has little to do with teaching. Parents, who work in the governmentfinanced organizations, believe it is necessary to enter a prestigious university to get a prestigious job afterwards. There is some difference in the views of parents of high school students about the next stage; some believe that the entry and what their children will study there are not particularly important. They will still need to be taught in special courses of foreign languages, to engage in network marketing, art, etc. Other parents believe that it is important to get an education that allows their children have a future profession. Parents from small businesses do not expect anything different on the current stage in comparison with what used to be on the previous stage. As a rule, they know teachers and school capacity already. The main task is not let their children being to children humiliated in school. They get ready to overcome the resistance from the teachers to ‘accept’ their child. We should note that they distinguish between the results of the teacher and child outcomes. Parents from the government-fi nanced organizations are looking forwards to the results of USE. In discussions they protect teachers from the fi rst group of parents. They rely on the loyalty of teachers. They show no criticism or comments towards the stage. They have high expectations; they want their children to prepare for the exams, and to have a good school leaving certificate. They try to fi nd new relations and channels to get admission to the university. They are concerned how to solve the question of USE (some of them pay a teacher, some pay to a tutor from the university the child enters, some pay to a tutor distinguished in the subject, some try to fi nd other opportunities.) The results of the focus groups revealed several interesting tendencies. For example, college students, in contrast to university students, are happy with their choices; they made decision on their professional future and have a clear understanding of the results of their education which is directly related to the requirements of their future profession. College students are satisfied with the certainty of high school prospects, attitude of teachers, and a low uncertainty in the educational process. University students are not confident enough they have made a clear choice in choosing a place to study. A lot of them point to unconcerned teachers and that their high school requirements do not match the desires. The idea of the current stage is focused on the inner conditions of getting higher education and the ability to communicate. Conclusion As a result of the research, we can draw the following conclusion: 1. School environment is a factor that contributes to goal-setting concerning adolescent education. # 1657 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment 2. Motivation of teaching adolescents from different schools has different profiles, which in its turn affects the personality structure and deviant / normative adolescent behavior. 3. Education and cognitive motivations and constraints of deviation adolescent behavioral strategies of teachers and classmates, which are built and maintained in a school environment, are conditions of teenager development and a healthy lifestyle. 4. The overall situation of development in adolescence includes an increase in the space of free movement and has cognitively unstructured nature of the new situation, including with respect to the “health”. 5. A new attitude towards one’s own body is a hallmark of adolescence. 6. The attention of the educational process focuses on the procedures of the transition, and the complexity of the transition is often a marker of the quality of education in the next stage. In this case, the procedure of transition begins to perform a dominant role in the distribution of effort in transition through the educational stage. 7. Existing procedures for transition between stages divide the attention of the educational process so that the evaluation of the current stage is based on the quality of the procedures go to the next level. 8. The most constructive transitions are nursery-school and school-college. At the same time the attention of participants in education field is increasingly focused on the content of the education of the next stage. Perhaps the lack of a complex transition procedure allows us to pay attention to the content of the forthcoming stage. 9. Due to the greater complexity of the transition procedure, the attention of the educational process focuses on the compliance with procedures and not on the content of the stage in transitions “secondary school – high school and the school-university” 10. The transition may not only be discussed, but also be designed as an age transition. Reference Блонский П.П. [P.P. Blonsky] Очерки детской сексуальности // Избранные педагогические и психологические сочинения: в 2 т. Т. 1. М., 1974. Болотов В.А. [V.A. Bolotov] Оценка качества образования и институциональные переходы. // Педагогика развития: Институциональные переходы в сфере образования (Красноярск 2008). С. 27-31 Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotsky] Педология подростка // Собр. соч.: в 6 т. Т. 4. (М., 1984). Жизненные ориентации старшеклассников и проблемы современного образования: Сб. науч. трудов / отв. ред. В.С. Собкин (М., 1990). Зеньковский В.В. [V.V. Zenkovsky] О педагогическом интеллектуализме (1923) // Зеньковский В.В. [V.V.Zenkovsky] Психология детства (М., 1996). Кон И.С. [I.S .Kon] Психология старшеклассника (М., 1980). Леонтьев А.Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Проблемы развития психики (М., 1981). Левин К. [K Levin] Теория поля в социальных науках (СПб., 2000). Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Психология возрастных кризисов (М., 2000). Рубинштейн М.М. [M.M. Rubinstein] Психология и педагогика юности // Рубинштейн М.М., Игнатьев В.Е. [M.M. Rubinstein, V.E. Ignatiev] Психология, педагогика и гигиена юности. (М., 1926). Смирнов С.А. [S.A. Smirnov] Человек перехода: сборник науч. работ (Новосибирск: НГУЭУ, 2005). 536 с. # 1658 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment Собкин В.С. [V.S. Sobkin] Старшеклассник в мире политики. (М., 1997). Собкин В.С., Ткаченко О.В. [V.S. Sobkin, O.V. Tkachenko] Отношение к образованию: переход от школы к вузу. // Педагогика развития: Институциональные переходы в сфере образования (Красноярск, 2008) С. 77-86. Фрумин И.Д. [I.D. Froumin] Тайны школы: Заметки о контекстах (Красноярск, 1999) 256 с. Фрумин И.Д., Эльконин Б.Д. [I.D. Froumin, B.D. Elkonin] Образовательное пространство как пространство развития («школа взросления») //Научные труды учителей и сотрудников Гимназии «Универс» (Красноярск, 2000). Хасан Б.И., Бреслав Г.М. [B.I. Hassan, G.M. Breslau] Пол и образование (Красноярск, 1996). Хасан Б.И. [B.I. Hassan] Психологическое содержание и институциональный смысл образовательных переходов. // Педагогика развития: Институциональные переходы в сфере образования (Красноярск, 2008) С. 40-50. Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Содержание обучения в подростковом возрасте. Педагогика развития: Содержание образования как проблема (Красноярск, 1999). С. 3-13. Сущность подросткового возраста и его проектирование в образовательном пространстве Л.А. Новопашина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В данной статье автором рассматривается специфика подросткового возраста и методы исследования его сущности и содержания. Особым фокусом являются возможные условия проектирования и культурного оформления этого периода в жизни человека. Социальная ситуация развития и выступает такой содержательной и конструкторской единицей, которая позволяет аналитически представлять динамику возраста и конструировать образовательное пространство развития. Особым инструментальным средством, влияющим на проектирование образовательной среды как среды развития, является оценка и измерение образовательных результатов. Ключевые слова: социальная ситуация развития, подростковый и юношеский возраст, институциональные переходы. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1660-1670 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition to Independence and Responsibility. Adolescence as a Transition Pavel A. Sergomanov* and Natalia P. Vasilyeva* Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute for Teachers’ Training and Retraining 19 Matrosova Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660079 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 This paper presents the rationale for the transformation of educational institutions, young people, as the transition from child to adult types of development. The reasons for change are the three concepts of marginal activities in the cultural-historical approach: the game, learning and work (labor), as well as the description of three types of age of people development: childhood, transition (awkward age), adult age. The idea of transforming the institution of education in its youth as a transitional type of development is based on the premise that such an institution must recreate with each coming generation horizons, images and patterns of performance and connectivity of the objectives, conditions and resources of learning, which acts as “a test body” of life-planning, an adult training site in adolescence. Keywords: developmental psychology, development, adolescence, high school, transitions Introduction In this article we shall try to construct a justification of ideas about the horizons and the program of work in those areas in which educational institutions can develop young people, given that these institutions are a transition from the child to adult types of development. Naturally, these institutions include the age cohort of about 16 to 20 years in contemporary Russia. In the cultural-historical approach, the processes of education are considered, on the one hand, as intended to resolve the contradictions of child development, and on the other – both have inherent contradictory nature. In the definition of education as a process of “forming – educating” * 1 of a man we adhere to this approach supported by L. S. Vygotsky (1997) and his followers. Key psychological representations are our motives and grounds of changes in educational institutions of youth, defining, inter alia, economic and legal requirements for the conditions and mechanisms of maturation. The system of education and social expectations, along with the fact of biological maturity set for high school students the task of choosing their life prospects. It is believed that at this age stage, boys and girls have the resources for this choice1. Studies of many psychologists suggest that this is not true. At the same time, we understand that the educational institution Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1660 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… may either contribute to or hinder the solution of problems of youth age. Studies of L. I. Bozhovic (1995), V. Davydov (2000), D. B. Elkonin (1989) and others have shown that the ratio of external requirements with the capabilities and needs of the child is the core of the social situation that determines its further development. What is the idea that you can use to describe the development in adolescence, and what are the requirements for the institutional conditions and mechanisms of transition to adulthood (independence and responsibility)? On the one hand, we rely on the representations of three marginal activities that are highlighted in the Hegelian tradition, and developed in the national psychology of development in cultural-historical approach: the game, learning and work (labor). It is important to note that an understanding of labor is not associated only with the type of industrial production. Psychologically, labor for us is every man’s productivity and performance, which demonstrates to others independence and responsibility in carrying out activities. In this sense, post-industrial, information age also has its own requirements for human autonomy, responsibility and performance, which, incidentally, according to some psychologists, blur the traditional (industrial) age limits, confirming a well-known idea that age is something that is set (assigned), but not given. On the other hand, normal activity is possible only if it exists as an institution. In other words, the game, learning and work (labor) should be “equipped with facilities” in the educational institutions so as to form a precise age assignment, requirements for development, providing age-amplification. Take a look at the history of developmental education in the country. Creation of the ideological and technological solutions of the relationship between learning and development for the elementary school took about 30 years and led to an understandable and even ideological shifting technology. In large part, we advanced the understanding of how to build a learning process in line with developing training according to Elkonin-Davydov. However, what has changed in schools in both institutions? What are the conditions and mechanisms of change so that they themselves have replaced old ones? What is our idea of a school, where the practice of developing education? How does it differ from traditional schools? Let’s look at the fate of two other interesting initiatives in the school – teaching and project (or, more precisely, designing) activities of young people and educational and research activities of high school students, which can be attributed to modern ideas of schooling. What is happening? With the explicit heuristic ideas for children’s development, and even when they are good technological elaboration, they live up to that time, while not threatening the school, above all, change relationships with the student, changing institution of school and its long conditions and mechanisms. How do you supervise children’s project or research, if you need to teach lessons? How can we organize such work, if not the necessary equipment, relationships, competence of personnel, and mode of operation? All these examples demonstrate the basic question of changes – changes in the conditions and mechanisms of the school, changing schools as an institution as a whole. At the same time, we often work only in the design logic, forgetting about the last station – to change the school in its institutional characteristics. Three Types of Development We distinguish three types of age of human development. These three types of development can be characterized by the relationship between the game, learning and work (labor). # 1661 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… Childhood Transition Adult Age (awkward age) Fig. 1. Three Types of Development Children’s type of development is associated primarily with the game and learning how to reproduce the activity (Davydov, 2000), which are “loaded” in childhood. And if there is a game based on the impossibility of the realization of meanings and relations of the adult world (role playing game), then there is the doctrine based on the apparent impossibility of the realization, “naturalized” tools of adult (non-children’s) world (reading, writing and counting). Thus, adulthood is childhood, first as a horizon of meaning relations between adults (role playing game), and then – as the horizon “Skillful mind” (reading, writing and counting). It is essential that an educational institution in its structure, the mechanisms and conditions serves for the game and learning. The relationship of children and adults are mediated primarily by institutional conditions such as a thematic program, the group (class), a means of assessing the results of games or exercises, and evaluation of games and exercises embedded in the context of group and discipline (teaching subject), organization of work of adults and children’s learning lives. Adult type of development, in our opinion, is not characterized by reproducing activity (game or learning), but by a new relationship that arises between the game and learning, the emergence of labor in human life. And such initial appearance is not immediate, but occurs in the horizon of personal perspective. This means that the game and learning have been “set” at work (labor). In other words, the game and learning become the means of teaching for the purpose of “better” performance of the individual. Actually the transition type of development is characterized by the fact that labor is not a goal but the game and learning have already exhausted the energy of development. Work in a transitional type of development serves as an immediate horizon, as well as a frame for exercise and play. In other words, during the period of youth, the question arises, for what must be learned, based on what perspective? A figurative expression L. S. Vygotsky (1930): “A teenager is looking at the future from the perspective of the present, whereas a young man is looking at the present from the perspective of the future.” That’s when the subjective reality has such a “view from the perspective of the future”, the transition is being formed. Therefore, at this point, we can raise the question about the institute, confi ning such a transitional type of development, the material of which the fi rst is way of life, and basic tool – life planning as a new functional system, the connectivity goals, conditions and resources in life expectancy. In this case the phrase “life plan” here does not sound in the sense of direct means of production, but in the sense of the becoming, breeding up adolescents. Youth in our understanding, is the transition from the childishness to maturity, and development in adolescence is not because the children’s ages, i.e. not according to the logic of change of the sustainable age for a crisis. We assume that in adolescence the establishment of the planning activity takes place through fi nding solutions to conflicts relating to the harmonization / mismatch in areas of life plan. # 1662 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… After a series of works we already have enough evidence to suggest that in adolescence, maturing occurs due to the development of life skills to a holistic planning and design of the life in a plan. The content of the plan is to coordinate resources and personal aspirations, and psychological form – experience the life of the plan and samples of its implementation. From this perspective, the life plan is a means of aligning the resources, conditions and aspirations. It (life plan) is determined by the complex dynamics and structure of action: selection of the ideal goal of a sufficiently large time field of given alternatives; account of available resources; account of the possibility of acquiring the necessary resources, the balance of the real goals in a hierarchy of achievement, inclusion in the hierarchy of the realism aspect of achievement; tasking the acquisition of the necessary, but still missing resources to achieve a real assessment of each goal for the approximation to the ideal goal, adjust claims and the hierarchy of realistic goals in line with developments, research and recording conditions. However, in general, a life plan of boys (girls) is a method of communication (coordination) of claims, conditions and resources. According to V. Davydov (1986), the leading types of activities for adolescents are educational and professional. After 11th grade in high school students have an exam, completing their formal childhood. So they are put in a situation of choosing their own perspectives of education, which in this situation is associated with the profession. It leads to the understanding of the idea of professional self-determination as the idea of leading activity for young people, and ideas about careers are some foundations of meaningful vision of the future for a boy or a girl. Judgments of school senior pupils 2 quite often contain only a general idea of the order-ideals of a future life and prospects of the profession, and the tested did not use them in the fantasy images, typical of a teenage way of perspective structuring. At the same time in their judgment there are no estimates of external and internal resources, conditions and instructions on actions to achieve goals. It seems that the accumulated resources are beginning to act the subject of evaluation, but in this case, is not associated with the perspective or view of the purpose and the system of previous achievements. The situation of choice is often based on what a person likes. Sometimes there are arguments to justify personal goals, and ideas about the constraints of the situation cannot be described. High school students point to the lack of resources to achieve the goal, but at the same time, the description of the proposed action plans and the ratio of the specific objectives and necessary resources available. Often answers to the question, what do you think needs to be done, are: “I will try,” “first try, and then understand.” High school students, as opposed to boys and girls older (students or employees), are characterized by volatility, “throwing from side to side,” the substitution of a task by another task of the same level of complexity, as well as they are characterized by the hope that with the understanding that the goal the half of the matter is done, and that now the plan is certainly going to work. Thus, planning for young people arises as a possible leading activity in reference to the phenomenon of productivity (or labor) horizon, with the simultaneous failure of its implementation. Productivity just requires more than just setting goals, but also clearly defines specific conditions and resources to achieve them with respect to this goal and to each other. In other words, the performance is impossible without a new functional organization (or a functional body) rights – life planning. In our opinion, this is what forms the basis of an age-being in adolescence. # 1663 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… 100% number of judgments, % 80% 2 1 2 4 7 1 1 50 52 60% 60 3 40% 20% 2 9 45 0% 13-14 33 11 9 15-16 17-18 Fig. 2. Dynamics of changes in the elements of life planning in the statements of young men and women in the planning process (method of “Coordination”, the tested, 80 people, 13 to 21 years) These findings are confirmed in a dissertation study we conducted3. Part of the research was conducted according to the author’s method of “Coordination.” In which the tested were asked to construct a route march on the topographic map, to rank the necessary resources for the campaign, and then by analogy with a topographical map to draw a map of his/her life. The study resulted in the allocation of four elements of building life plan: goals – ambitions; resources; conditions; the plan as ways for coordination (communication) of objectives, conditions and resources. The figure represents the number of judgments for each element of life plan, in the age dynamics. The structure of educational interests of high school age We studied the structure of the educational interests of high school pupils using the technique “Virtual School”4. First, we asked the children what subjects they study in school and what they do in their spare time. All the information was written on the board, and the expert to each type of training assigned a “cost” in terms of money and time: subjects in the “Virtual School”, “were taught” at three levels (standard, elementary and advanced), every kind of entertainment and activities in clubs, on the courses and sections were also associated by a certain amount of «money» and «time». Then the participants were asked to distract from the constraints of real life and to choose only what they really need. The choice was limited to a certain amount of resources allocated to each child (conditional “money” and “time”), they had to distribute to class. The student could use a sum of conditional money, enough to cover all the subjects of the standard level and the amount of time equal to a week, minus time for sleep and meal. The time period of the game is conditionally equal to one year and is organized by the school quarters, where every quarter new rules are being introduced. The first quarter of is a trial and introductory period, in the second quarter the amount of time is being reduced, in the third – “money”, and in the fourth quarter school attendance is optional. We analyzed the results based on three main areas in which students put their resources: the area of compulsory education, the area of proactive education, and the free time (entertainment) area. When allocating resources, high school students put 48 % of conventional “time” and “money” (conditional “time” and # 1664 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… “money”) to the area of compulsory education. 43 % of this 48 % is spent by high school students to the subjects required for admission to college. 2 % of all the resources was spent to the subjects that seem to be appealing to high school students due to the teacher’s personality. Finally, 3 % of the resources was occupied by the subjects that are of interest to high school students in terms of their applicability in life. In our view, the emergence of a responsible, sustainable interest in the area of training for the admission to a higher educational institution for the most part is defi ned by the present situation of the vocational choice. “The Institute (college) is a step towards future work, therefore even if from the school pupils were transferred to the Institute, they still need to learn the subjects close to their future profession, so that they would be useful later in their work.” Therefore, if the choice of an institution is justified, then the subjects are seen as useful for life and they are not refused from under any circumstances. On the other hand we can trace a substantive affection, or “affection of the object language”, i.e. the prospect of life for some reason is discussed in the language of the subject. “The main stimulus for the choice of subjects is an aptitude for the subject or attendance at a university (i.e. interest is in the relationship and responsibility for their choices)”. Of course, school subjects have social value, selecting them, high school students follow the stereotype of the importance of these subjects to life for the exam and for communication. The question – what do you study for – high school students who do not have informed choice of their future profession, say: “in order to be smart and educated” or “school needs to raise the image of the state, but one can live without the school”. Basically, these students when they are set free from their responsibilities, i.e. when they are given permission not to attend school in a game situation, completely abandon their studies in favor of entertainment. It is the justification of their choice of future, which has a great importance for the interest of high school students to learning a subject or an educational field. For us, a reasonable high school student life plan is a description of not only the chosen career path, but also the reason why this way is possible. That is, a boy or a girl really estimates opportunities, prescribes actions to achieve not only final but also intermediate goals. The justification of the life plan was assessed by experts and was based on video materials, interviews were conducted after the game procedures. The data indicated in Figure 3 shows that girls with justified life plans more than 50 % of the resources invested in the area of compulsory education, more than 30 % in the area of proactive educational interest, i.e. to an education which is not defi ned by someone, and is made on their own. Boys in this respect are slightly different. They spend more resources on compulsory education (70 %) and slightly less on proactive – 21 %. Thus, on average, boys and girls who have chosen the university and their social position, steadily invest in education from 84 to 91 percent of resources. Consequently, for the area of entertainment they have not more than 16 % of the resources. Thus, high school students who have a clear idea of their future life, and a justified choice of profession, have strong interests in learning, i.e. have the justification of claims, and can potentially make a plan. Boys and girls who have an unjustified life plan “spend” 30 % of the resources on the part of compulsory education, and proactive education area occupies 26 % of girls` resources, investments of boys in general are equal to zero. At the same time on entertainment, they leave an average 60 % of the resources. It is our # 1665 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… 80 7 73 70 70 60 53 50 44 40 30 reeasonablelifeeplan(boys) 31 30 reeasonablelifeeplan(girls) 26 unreasonablellifeplan(girls) 26 6 21 unreasonablellifeplan(boyss) 20 1 16 9 10 0 0 areaofcompulsory educaation areaofproaactive educatio on freetime (en ntertainment)area Fig. 3. “The Dependence of the Educational Interests of High School Pupils on Justification of the Life Plan” view this suggests that in reality they do not have interests for learning, even though they may call a name of the university they want to enroll. According to school administrators 95 % of high school pupils know exactly and can say to what college (university), and what specialty they will be heading to after school. But according to our survey, only 40 % who participated in the study have justified life plans and invest in a game situation a lot of resources in the study, especially in proactive education. These high school students point out to special events taking place in their schools. For example, in one of the schools involved in the study, regular discussion of life plans with the ability to choose their individual programs within the high school. At the same time on proactive education high school students of this school in the game were spent 31.8 % of resources, on average, more than the other two schools, also which participated in the study (25.8 %, 10.9 %). It can be assumed that the events that make the students not only think about where they want to enroll, as is done in a traditional school, but also think about what they have to achieve this, and why they want to enroll into this very specialty (major) – all that “awakens” the interests in their studies in high school. The figure apart from that shows the differences between boys and girls. So, a girl with a justified life plans invest nearly 20 % less resources in the area of compulsory education than men, while in the area of entertainment it is almost 2 times more. Girls with unjustified life plans invest in the area of leisure time 30 % less resources than boys, in the compulsory education between the two is almost no difference, and in the area of proactive education such boys, unlike girls do not invest at all. These gender differences in the interest of learning can presumably be explained by the fact that in high school are mostly young men left, who are successful and adapted to the school built in female gender characteristics5. The study shows that the real educational interest in the senior school age pupils appears only together with a justified life plan and a career # 1666 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… choice. Great importance for the understanding of the justification of their life plans in high school students and, consequently, for their interest in study, has the organization of school activities to discuss the reasons for their choice of social position and life plan. The contours of the future. What should I do? If we trust the original data and assumptions outlined in the beginning, then we must ask ourselves what are the institutional arrangements and mechanisms for the formation of “life planning”6, and what should we change in high school and college? Rather, the transformation of educational institutions in adolescence should be directed to the phenomenon of horizons, images and samples of performance, the material which will build a relationship to the educational process (learning). This should change the high school and college, which still are not development institutions. It is important to point out the fact that this discrepancy is tied to relations with young adulthood, which organize the work of an educational institution. It is very important because it is adults who ‘hold’ institute as an institution, and bear all the key terms and arrangements for its functioning. In this sense, the changes are needed in the following terms and conditions and mechanisms (a preliminary list): rights and responsibilities of young people to change (transformation) of their own curriculum – in the direction of increasing the “options” selfselection with trial forms of accountability for the results of the selection and removal of part of the responsibility for the results of passing the school curriculum. For boys and girls should be able to change their curriculum. For example, speech of Maria, 16 years of age: “I was a curriculum based on what is going to connect their lives with economic activity. Accordingly, the selected in-depth level math, social studies at the profile level, the physics (and suddenly the Polytechnic on the economy going.) But then I realized that the interest in health and medicine, which I think is just a hobby, I have a lot and I want to do this in my life. I’m going to medical school. And that means that I need to study biology and chemistry at the depth level, and in-depth mathematics is not needed. That is, you need to go in the other groups in mathematics, biology and chemistry”; clearance procedures for the choice of individual programs, motivation for learning on them. The levels of readiness (independence, responsibility, academic success in the development of programs on the subjects) to the training of graduates of DCI juvenile stages are different. Based on experience we can say that two-thirds of tenth-graders are capable of designing and implementing individual educational programs. For the remaining part the task of teaching organized on an individual educational plan is a formal, distorted understood as unnecessary stress. The difference due to both the individual characteristics of adolescents, since the terms of preparing for the transition to DCI (Grade 9); design of “corridors” of the educational value of courses (credits) for young people to selfdetermine the weight of a course. An example of such a corridor could be an individual education program. Olga, 17 years old: “I’m just confident in my future profession – a journalist. So I chose to profile level Russian language, literature, English and psychology at the basic level of mathematics, science and laboratory profile of linguistics. At the same time I’ll try myself as a journalist in the school newspaper – will be writing articles on the exciting topics for all high school students; rights and responsibilities of youth in the formation of study groups (groups) for the passage of certain courses. For example, Misha, 16 years of # 1667 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… age is saying about his responsibilities: «Catching up in-depth group in mathematics, I have to learn at “good” and “excellent”. The lower mark, means a transfer to a lower level study of the subject. It is possible, and move in the opposite direction – if I had studied at the profile level getting highest marks, so I would have proved that I am able to study in the advanced group, then I would have been entitled to transfer to it”; registration requirements of economic conditions of the educational programs of courses – in the direction of calculating the cost of such programs, the detection and exclusion of “exotic” options that require unrealistic resources (equipment, salaries, supplies, training materials, time); “Contract” scheme of teaching courses, where the group discussed the agreement on the expected outcomes of the course, resources and environment. For example, the possibility of shared responsibility between teacher and pupils. A teacher at the beginning of the course presents students results and discusses with them the conditions under which this result will be achieved – what is required of teachers, and what is required from the student. If the conditions are satisfied only with one hand – have nothing to rely on the claimed result; calculating the “corridor” of time spent on the passage of a course and presentation of the “corridor” as a critical learning environment; standards for calculating per capita funding of individual learning plans and the presentation 1 2 3 4 5 of the resource limits of security. For example, the content of regulations along with the number of hours (“net hours” of the curriculum), the resources needed to support individual teacher education programs (tutoring, scientific management of educational research, social planning, program participation in intellectual contests, new staff positions and changes in functional etc.). For schools the proposed practice of calculating is new, as in the tradition of comprehensive school calculations are always done on the basis of declarative cheap quality education, strict limits mandatory 25 students in the group, etc.; Design and calculation security conditions and resources of educational design and teaching and research activities. For a comprehensive school design and educational and research activities are an innovation for which the resource is a new component of teachers’ qualifications. Thus, the institution of a transitional type of development must recreate with each coming generation horizons, images and patterns of performance and connectivity of the objectives, conditions and resources of learning, acting as “a test body” of life-planning, training ground of adulthood in adolescence. High school and university in this sense should be a trial place of life planning so that youngsters could actually themselves vary their own resources and conditions in connection with those purposes which are made in one`s youth, should be able to give young people the possibility of implementing their own projects. We defi ne the resource of choice as «the ability to analyze existing opportunities, match them with their abilities and available resources, to realize the value of the choices made for their own future and take responsibility for the rejection of other alternatives.» A more detailed description of this material is in the article by P. A. Sergomanov and N. P. Vasilyeva, “On the Question of Content and Experience of Confl ict in Adolescence”, “Journal of Practical Psychologist” № 3, 2004, Moscow, p. 45-57. Васильева Н.П. Динамика разрешения конфликтов развития в юношеском возрасте: дисс. … канд. психол. наук, 19.00.13 : защищена 13.04.06. – Красноярск, 2006. 201 с. The technique was designed to study the dynamics of educational interests in preparation for the conference «Pedagogics of Development», 2004, authors: N.P.Vasileva, M.M. Kuzhabekova, E.V. Nikitina, under the supervision of B. Hasan. The traditional school, according to some researchers (Б.И.Хасан, Г.М. Бреслав, 1996), is a women’s institute of mentality. Therefore, boys are often unsuccessful in school, there are few male teachers in schools, and fathers do not like to go to parent-teacher conferences at school and avoid direct involvement in their children’s education. # 1668 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… 6 We are not talking about the linear, non-system view of the life planning. A simple requirement to plan anything can be applied only to an adult person who has an idea about the dependence of the objectives, conditions and resources of its own way. The question is not in the ability to plan, but in the feeling of connectedness, the integrity of the transition to labor. References Божович Л.С. [L.S. Bojovich] Проблемы формирования личности (Под редакцией Фельдштейна Д.И.) – (М.: Из-во «Институт практической психологии»; Воронеж: НПО «МОДЕК», 1995). – 352 с. Васильева Н.П. [N.P. Vasiliyeva] Динамика разрешения конфликтов развития в юношеском возрасте: дисс. … канд. психол. наук, 19.00.13. : защищена 13.04.06. (Красноярск, 2006). 201 с. Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Психология (М.: Изд-во ЭКСМО-пресс, 2000). 1008 с. (Серия «Мир психологии») Выготский, Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Проблема возраста. Вопросы детской психологии (Спб.: Союз, 1997). 224 с. Выготский, Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Педология подростка. Половое созревание (М.: Издание бюро заоч. обуч. при 2 МГУ, 1930). 172 с. Гинзбург М.Р. [M.R. Ginsburg] Психология личностного самоопределения: дис. … д-ра психол. наук (М., 1996). Давыдов, В.В. [V.V. Davydov] Виды обобщения в обучении: Логико-психологические проблемы построения учебных предметов (М: Педагогическое общество России, 2000). 480 с. Кон И.С. [I.S. Kon] Психология ранней юности: Книга для учителя. (М.: Просвещение, 1989). 255 с.: ил. Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Психология возрастных кризисов: Учеб. пособие для студентов высш. пед. учеб. заведений. (М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2000). 184 с. Формирование личности старшеклассника / под ред. Дубровиной; науч.-исслед. ин-т общей и пед. психологии Акад. пед. наук СССР. (М.: Педагогика, 1989). 168 с.: ил. Хасан Б.И., Бреслав Г.М. [B.I. Khasan] Пол и образование. Анализ конфликтов половозрастной идентификации (Красноярск: Краснояр. гос. ун-т. 1996) 174 с. Хасан, Б.И., Сергоманов П.А. [B.I. Khasan] Разрешение конфликтов и ведение переговоров (Красноярск–Москва: М: МИРОС, 2001). 176 с. Щукина Г. И. [G.I. Sh'ukina] Проблема познавательного интереса в педагогике (М.: Педагогика, 1971) 352 с. Эльконин, Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Избранные психологические труды / под. ред. В.В. Давыдова, В.П. Зинченко. (М.: Педагогика, 1989) 560 с. Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Психология развития: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб. заведений (М.: Изд. центр «Академия», 2001). 144 с. Эриксон Э. [E. Ericson] Идентичность: юность и кризис: пер. с англ. общ. ред. и предисл. А.В. Толстых (М.: Изд. группа «Прогресс», 1996). 344 с. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition… Институциональные механизмы и условия перехода к самостоятельности и ответственности. Юношеский возраст как переходный П.А. Сергоманов, Н.П. Васильева Красноярский краевой институт повышения квалификации и профессиональной переподготовки работников образования Россия 660079, Красноярск, ул. Матросова, 19 В статье представлено обоснование необходимости трансформации образовательных институтов юношества, как переходных от детского к взрослому типам развития. Основаниями для изменения являются представления о трех предельных видах деятельности в культурно-историческом подходе: игра, учение и труд, а также на описании трех типов возрастного развития человека: детский, переходный, взрослый. Идея трансформации института образования в юношестве как переходного типа развития базируется на тезисе, что такой институт должен воссоздавать с каждым приходящим поколением горизонты, образы и образцы производительности, а также связность целей, условий и ресурсов осуществления обучения, выступающего «пробным телом» жизненного планирования, тренировочной площадкой взрослости в юношеском возрасте. Ключевые слова: психология возраста, развитие, юношеский возраст, старшая школа, переходы. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1671-1684 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education Quality Management Kirill G. Mitrofanova, Natalia P. Vasilyeva and Elena Yu. Kozyrevab* a Centre for Methodology of Standards Design and Estimation of Education Quality, Federal Institute of Education Development 9/1 Chernyahovskogo Str., Moscow, 125319 Russia b Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute for Teachers’ Training and Retraining 19 Matrosova Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660079 Russia 1 b Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 This article provides an overview of the results of researching the efficiency of the institutes of professional development of education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory held in 2009-2010 by the interregional group of researchers from Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Khabarovsk and the Stavropol Territory at the initiative of Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute of Professional Development and Retraining of Education Workers, Ministry of Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The main objective of the research was determining the main factors, institutes and technology that influence the professional development of teaching staff for potential description of the standard model of professional development of a teacher. During the research the authors have developed a matrix of professionalization including most of professional tasks a teacher solves during his/her professional activities. The matrix can serve as the basis for describing the dynamics of teachers’ professional development, sequence of controversies appearing in professional activities and changes in the methods of solving case educational tasks. Management aspect of using the matrix of professionalization lies in developing instruments for estimation of the qualification аnd the new type of education workers, which would be based on determining levels and stages of qualification within the field of professional activities. Keywords: professionalization, professional development, management. Range of problems The issue regarding the quality of the “labour power” in education refers to education policy, management of teachers’ potential development, and lies far beyond traditional ideas about teachers’ * 1 education, training and retraining of human resources, and human resources management. The process of individual professional development of teaching staff has become a new subject of management. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1671 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Determination of this subject of management should be accompanied by redevelopment of the infrastructure of professional development of teaching staff. Nowadays different parties somehow interested in education (consumers, experts, specialists, managers) understand the objective problem of noncoincidence between the requirements to teachers’ professional development and its contents, and tendency of modernized education of the country (region). The necessity to change previous methods of teachers’ training with consideration of new conditions and requirements in education itself is realized. Training, retraining and professional development systems applied today are focused on reproduction of “what has already happened”, while education more and more expressively gets the features of new practice “supporting” innovative activities, innovative practice, i.e. something that does not exist widespread. In its turn, this leads to the necessity to solve the problem about models of professional development, which suppose turning to the profession and dynamic characteristics of professional development that would take into account differences in ideas of professionalism among different categories of teachers. Possible approach to the problem solving In 2009-2010 the interregional group of researchers from Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Khabarovsk and the Stavropol Territory at the initiative of Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute of Professional Development and Retraining of Education Workers and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk Territory researched efficiency of the institutes of professional development of education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The research was held with the general objective to study the situation at the market of continuing professional education available for education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The main objectives of the research included: − estimation of the efficiency of methods and forms of work offered at the CPE market from the point of view of meeting expectation of the education workers; − estimation of the efficiency of the offers outspread at the CPE market (programmes of professional development, different methods and forms of work with professional development of teachers and education administrators, and other workers of the field) from the point of view of its participants; − determination of subjective pictures of education workers’ careers, their objective and causative features; − determination of new (out-of-theinstitute) professional positions and types of activities in the field, their ratio with the reference to the current (institutionalized) professional positions and types of activities; − description of the standard model of professional growth (development) of teachers and stages of growth (development) of a teacher. Research methods: Sociological interviews, focus groups, complex analysis of the data, heuristic methods. Object and subjects of the research The object of the research is the process of professional development of education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The subject of the research is individual strategies of professional development (types of strategies). # 1672 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Objectives of the research The objective of the research is to determine the main factors (institutes and technologies) that influence the professional development of teachers (professional dynamics) in order to describe possible standard model of professional growth (development) of a teacher and stages of growth (development) of a teacher. Scope of work The following education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory took part in the research: administration of educational institutions, teachers, and tutors. At the first stage in 2009, 720 education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory took part in the study, among them 147 school headmasters, 341 teachers, 232 members of auxiliary teaching staff (tutors, methodologists, psychologists, programmers, etc.). In 2010, 1,326 people took part in the study. Among them 149 headmasters and 1, 177 teachers. The total amount of participants during two years made 2, 046 people, i.e. 6.7 % of all employees in the field of education. in the system of general education of the Krasnoyarsk Territory according to the statistic documents (RIK-83); 55 % of them belong to the group of teachers. General ratio of categories of workers in the field of education in the Territory is given on Fig. 1. About 90 % of workers in the field are female. Age characteristics of education workers in the field is represented at Fig. 2. As one can observe from the diagram most of working teachers belong to the age group of 35-55 years old. Amount of working teachers in the retirement age is less than 20 %. This corresponds to the AllRussian tendency. In the age group of younger than 25 years old there are mostly auxiliary teaching staff members. In order to answer the question about attraction of specialists of different ages to the field the existing data with general demographic situation in the Territory should be compared. Basing on this comparison we can judge about attractiveness of education field for different age groups of the Territory population. Significant results of the research. General situation. By 2009 45,788 people (30,609 managers, teachers, auxiliary teaching staff) was working 1. The question of the questionary “Please, mark the statement that can be more likely the reason for you to move from one position to Fig. 1. Ratio of education workers by categories # 1673 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 2. Distribution of education workers by age Fig. 3. Reasons of changing one position (place of work) for another another” was answered in accordance with the following categories of answers (Fig. 3). The diagram demonstrates the ratio of amount of transitions from one place of work to another in correlation with the reasons for changing positions. The most widespread reason for changing positions among respondents who have changed 3 and more positions is feeling at “dead end” at the occupied position. 12 % of education workers change work places 3 and more times and more than 50 % of them change the position because of this “dead end” feeling. While amount of education workers in the Territory corresponds to 3 % (720 people) and their work experience corresponds to the general statistic picture in the Territory (up to 5 year 11.81 %, 5-10 years 12.22 %, 10-15 years 13.75 %, 15-20 years 20.83 %, 20-25 years 20.42 %, over 25 years 20 %) the conclusions can be referred to the situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in general. In general about 50 % of teachers in the Territory are in the situation of “dead end”. We suppose # 1674 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 4. Estimation of the efficiency of continuing education forms that this indicates noncoincidence between qualification characteristics and professional tasks (requirements of the position). There are several answers to the question “Please, mark forms of continuing education you participated in”. 94.9 % of respondents answered that they took courses of professional development. Therefore, traditional courses of professional development are the most widespread form of professionalization. After the analysis of the answers to this question of the questionary we have obtained the following picture about ranging of the forms of continuing education in accordance with the ideas of education workers (Fig. 4). Comparison of interviewing results shows that professional development courses took only the 4th place by significance for a teacher falling behind such events as participation in festivals and conferences, winning in professional competitions, attestation and education services. The most significant events are connected with the professional status (festivals, conferences, competitions). Among their main characteristics such as screening out and assessment of results can be named. At the next stage we asked “If you plan to take a professional development course, please, explain why” (there are several possible answers). At Diagram 3 the structure of motivation to take a professional development course is given for the Krasnoyarsk Territory education workers. The blue line corresponds to the answers of directors of educational institutions, the red line stands for the answers of teachers (Fig. 5). Interviewing results showed inconsistency in reasons why directors send teachers to professional development courses and reasons explained by teachers themselves. Most of directors give such reasons as the necessity for teachers to pass attestation, realization of new projects and programmes and needs of the school. Most of teachers – 73 % – independently of their work experience indicate their personal interest and desire as the reason for attending professional development courses. Herewith, more than a half of the teachers are involved in development and realization of the programme of school development (Fig. 6). Analysis of answers to the question “Do you have any career plans?” showed that the shorter the period of work the more respondents have an approximate career plan. And vice versa, the longer the period of work the less amount of respondents plan their career. We suppose # 1675 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 5. Structure of motivation to take a professional development course Fig. 6. Level of participation in school management that this may be interpreted in two ways. One of the reasons may be that young specialists who have plans for the future do not see possibilities to fulfill their ambitions in education. Another reason is that their career is not connected with education. In a word people who can plan cannot stay for a long period of time in education. This can be observed at the diagram given below. (Fig. 7) For young teachers professional career is not very attractive and takes a long period of time to make. Career issues (in the questionary the question was “What career in education do you consider to be successful?”) are considered by the respondents via recognition (about 30 %) and expansion of activities’ spheres (about 25 %). Career success was assessed quite low (from 7 to 15 %). Administrators consider “occupying the position of the educational institution head” to be the biggest success; for teachers besides this consider a success “to get titles and awards”; representatives of auxiliary teaching staff consider expansion of spheres of activities to be a success. Therefore, workers of education sphere in the Krasnoyarsk Territory do not have any real description of “career in education”. # 1676 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 7. Career plans depending on the length of work experience Table 1. Matrix of professionalization Programmes Technologies Age limits of the audience Standards / Institutes Development of programmes of development and justification of activities of educational institutions How can it be arranged correctly? Modelling (by the subject) Development of the Projects and author’s programme research Foresight, scenarios of development, forecast By the algorithm (with the subject) Compilation from different programmes Interactive technologies Individual peculiarities and results referred to age characteristics By the example (in the subject) Basic programme Lesson / Referring to age extracurricular standards classics The research has shown the necessity to develop a mechanism (instrument) of selfassessment of the professionalism level of education workers that would provide solving two tasks: management of professional development of teaching staff and management of teachers’ own progress in career (individual educational programme) depending on their characteristics and scale, as well as work experience in the field of education. The instrument should be based on the model (matrix of professionalization) developed Prohibition where to get information within the framework of the research, which would include most of possible professional tasks a teacher solves in his/her activities. In order to estimate professionalism we offer standards of professional understanding and thinking organized in Table 1 as a hypothesis and basis of the project for professionalization of teachers’ work. We claim to get a fundamental model, which would include most of (all) possible professional tasks a teachers solves in his/her activities: from lessoning, holding a meeting with parents to development of new educational # 1677 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… contents, designing and supervising an individual educational programme of a pupil/student. The idea offered is presented in the following matrix (table). But another vector is possible that gives a third dimension in the matrix. This vector is professional age. Then professionalization can be considered in the area of inevitable crises (by the anthology with crises of age development described by L.S. Vygotsky for children) connected with professional formation, coming into professional culture and expansion of the list of professional activities. Such an approach has quite a long history in Russian tradition (works of Klimov, Mitina, Zeer). If we can describe distinctly the main contradictions and tasks to be overcome at each stage of professional dynamics, then we can speak about developing a fundamental model of teachers’ professional development. There are several consequences of developing a theoretical “matrix of professionalism”. The first consequence is the basis for describing the dynamics of teachers’ professional growth, consequence of contradictions that have their logics to appear in professional activities and change the method of solving case and teaching tasks. The second consequence is that the offered matrix can be the basis for development and description of levels, stages of qualification within the field of professional activities. And the third consequence is that after the research the task for developing instruments for assessment of qualification of education workers can be set, i.e. the task of professional development management can be set only after we can conceptualize the object of management. The first column in the model given above (matrix of professionalization) shows the level of knowing subject programmes. Therefore, answer to the question “How do you assess your level of knowing the subject matter?” the teachers answered as follows in accordance with their work experience (Fig. 8) Therefore, when we compare the first column of the matrix with our selection by work experience in the system of education there are two places that rise doubts. The first one is that young teachers with work experience from 0 to 3 years name the characteristics of the third line – modelling – more often than representatives of the next work experience category. This can be explained by absence of professional language understanding that a young teacher lacks. It is more likely that university graduates understood something different from modelling under the phrase “I can develop my own education programmes including intersubject and interage ones”. Teachers with work experience in the system of education from 12 to 25 years name characteristics of the second line as often, as the teachers with average work experience in education. May be this indicates professional deformation. The following data have been obtained by answers to the question formed by the result (Fig. 9). The Fig. shows that the part of the matrix that stands for subject programmes is recognized. We obtained direct relation when we compared answers to the question about the level of the subject matter knowledge and expected results from professional development courses. Analysis of answers to the question “How do you assess your level of knowing education technologies?” showed the following picture depending on work experience in the system of education (Fig. 10). In general ideas of teachers about professionalization development correspond to the model contained in the matrix of professionalization. The general picture is # 1678 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 8. Ideas of teachers about their level of knowing the subject matter depending on their work experience in the system of education Fig. 9. Ideas of teachers about the level of knowing the subject matter in accordance with the result expected from professional development courses disturbed by ideas of young teachers about their level by such answers as “I use interactive forms of organizing activities”, i.e. by the algorithm (with the subject). We suppose that young teachers either do not recognize themselves in the first line or overestimate themselves. We have obtained the following data from analyzing the results teachers expect from professional development courses (Fig. 11). Like with the previous question the expected results from professional development depend on the level of knowing education technologies. Therefore, the matrix is recognized by the column connected with education technologies as well. After analysing answers to the question “How do you consider age and individual peculiarities of pupils?” we have obtained the following data (Fig. 12). Here the analysis is more complex, relations are not so direct as in other cells of the matrix and teachers’ ideas are different from what we offer in the matrix. For example, information about what # 1679 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 10. Ideas about the level of knowing education technologies depending on work experience in the system of education Fig. 11. Ideas about the level of knowing education technologies in accordance with the results expected from professional development courses Fig. 12. Ideas of teachers about age and individual peculiarities of pupils depending on work experience Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 13. Ideas of teachers about age and individual peculiarities of pupils in accordance with the results expected from professional development courses results teachers should demonstrate in this or that age is divided into group from 0 to 5 years and from 5 to 25 years of work experience. A young teacher coming to school is not very confident in his/her knowledge. This confidence appears after 5 years of experience, then it gets lower in the period from 5 to 7 years of experience and then rises again almost until 25 years of work experience. The ability to elaborate an individual plan of work with a pupil develops in accordance with increasing work experience in the profession. The most significant rise here happens in the period from 5 to 7 years. Probably teachers get interested in this field of professional activities, or it may be connected with changes in their own ideas about their own knowledge (feeling lack of them), results of pupils in this or that age. The third line of this parameter is the most unclear one. A teacher does not develop the ability to fill in individual records of a pupil and to forecast a scenario of a pupil’s development basing of these records more than 8-12 % according to their own idea independently of work experience (Fig. 13). The Table and the Fig. show that the part of the matrix that stands for age and individual peculiarities of a pupil is recognizable. We have obtained direct relation during comparison of answers to the question about age and individual peculiarities of a pupil and results expected from professional development courses. After analysing answers to the question “How do you assess your level of participation in school management?” we have obtained the following data (Fig. 14). The relevant level of knowing the standards by each group in accordance with work experience is the level corresponding to the matrix of professionalization described above. The bigger the work experience the more often the idea of a teacher about his/her participation in forming and adapting standards of school life is represented by means of the phrase “I participate in development of school’s development programme”. A significant amount of answers corresponding to the second line of the matrix (action by the algorithm) “I understand how my activities correspond to the school’s development programme” falls on teachers with average work experience in education. The largest percentage (69 %) of answers corresponding to the first line of the matrix (action by the example/in the subject) “I know and observe internal regulations and standards of the school” falls on young teachers. Therefore, we can make a conclusion that the # 1681 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 14. Level of knowing standards depending on work experience Fig. 15. Level of knowing standards in accordance with the results expected from professional development courses column of the matrix determining the level of knowing the standards is recognized by teachers and corresponds to their work experience in education (Fig. 15). The Fig. shows that the part of the matrix, which determines the standards, is recognizable. We obtained direct relation when we compared answers to the question about the standards and expected results from professional development courses. After comparing answers to the question “What result would you like to have after attending a professional development course?” we have obtained the following data (Fig. 16). The main result of professional development courses for teaching staff is learning new methods of work and abilities to apply them within the framework of teaching and extracurricular activities. Independently of work experience in education this result is expected by 60-70 % of all respondents. Ideas about getting such a result from professional development courses as abilities to develop independent programmes, carry out independent research, mentor other teachers # 1682 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… Fig. 16. Ideas about the results expected from professional development courses depending on work experience in education increases correspondingly with the increase of work experience in the field. Therefore, this result can be obtained when a teacher possesses significant work experience in education. The lower line in the matrix is characterized according to the Fig. above as such a result of professional development courses as the ability to cope with duties within the activities’ sphere and as we can see from the diagram, such results are expected less by the teachers, who have bigger work experience in the field. Conclusions Movement in the problem field of professionalization, in the contemporary state of the system of education and taking into account international experience, is possible only if we consider teachers’ professional development as a technology of education management. Referring to international experience here means that all innovations in education in the world are fulfilled, first of all, from the position of management. The work of a modern teacher includes a variable list of different activities from a home tutor to an education manager, from a developer of new educational content to a specialist in realization of educational projects, from a developer and technologist of educational tests to a specialist in realization of individual programmes connected with specific abilities of a child. In order to have a successful career in education it is not enough for a modern teacher to know the subject. He/she needs to get to know new positions and types of activities beyond class activities and try to combine different forms of professional activities, including research, developments, management, individual approach, work with children with specific needs and with talented children, mentoring (i.e. work with other teachers). Getting of the second, third and sometime even fourth specialization allows a modern teacher to become more competitive, work in different organization, correspond to requirements of the time. The mechanism of “transformation”, movement of professionalization can be built on the basis of current educational infrastructure of the Territory for solving different tasks. Then it becomes possible to set (from management point of view) and build (from the point of view of professionalization of groups of teachers, in the logics of individualization) patterns of professionalization from a trainee to a mentor. # 1683 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education… It is worth noting that education like any other practice with several exceptions is always open at the professional level. A person who has worked to the level not lower than average will be in this or that way distinguishable, active in more than one place and will have admirers, and may be followers. This tendency is natural in pedagogics, education and arts. Процессы профессионализации педагогов как технология управления качеством образования К.Г. Митрофанова, Н.П. Васильеваб, Е.Ю. Козыреваб а Центр методологии проектирования стандартов и оценки качества образования Федерального института развития образования Россия 125319, Москва, ул. Черняховского, 9, стр. 1 б Красноярский краевой институт повышения квалификации и профессиональной переподготовки работников образования Россия 660079, Красноярск, ул. Матросова, 19 В статье приводятся результаты исследования эффективности институтов профессионализации работников образования Красноярского края, проведенного в 2009– 2010 гг. межрегиональной группой исследователей из Красноярска, Москвы, Хабаровска, Ставропольского края по инициативе Красноярского краевого института повышения квалификации работников образования, министерства образования и науки Красноярского края. Основной целью исследования стало выявление основных факторов, институтов и технологий, влияющих на профессиональное развитие педагогических работников для возможного описания нормативной модели профессионального развития учителя. В ходе проведения исследования авторами была получена матрица профессионализации, в которую вписывается большинство возможных профессиональных задач, которые решает педагог в своей деятельности. Разработанная матрица может служить основанием для описания динамики профессионального развития педагогов, последовательности возникающих противоречий, имеющих свою логику разворачивания в профессиональной деятельности, и смены способа решения ситуативных педагогических задач. Управленческий аспект использования матрицы профессионализации заключается в постановке задачи на разработку инструментов для оценки квалификации работников образования нового типа, основанного на выявлении уровней, ступеней квалификации внутри сферы профессиональной деятельности. Ключевые слова: профессионализация, повышение квалификации, управление. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1685-1693 ~~~ УДК 159.922.7 Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource Elena Y. Fedorenko* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The presented Article discusses the problems of school students’ health, the specificity of points of view at health problems in the context of education framework. It describes the structure and dynamics of mental health, the concepts of developing children’s health during their education and using the resources of the education system; it analyzes the traditional approaches to health presercation. Health is regarded as both the purpose and the result of education, as a developable and a manageable resource. Keywords: mental health, health resources development, education, point of view at health problems. Within the past years the problem of school students’ health became an urgent discussed topic in the periodicals. They discuss the reasons of poor health, caused by the children themselves or by the unsatisfactory work of the education system as a factor, which can considerably influence the students’ loss of health resources. Various publications point out similar groups of reasons originated from the education system. Among them there are: mismatch between the studying conditions, pedagogical techniques, and physiological, somatic, psychological resources of the child’s organism; the lack of education in the sphere of skills and knowledge of health issues, weak concentration on healthy lifestyle etc. The results of psychological, medical, pedagogical researches on such parameters as: eyesight, posture, nerves system parameters, emotional disorders and so on are quite disappointing. * 1 Therefore, it is essential to stop this process and take some measures that would preserve the children’s health and provide some disease prevention. This necessity leads to launching special programs for preventing eyesight and postural disorders, bodily diseases, for monitoring the dynamics of various characteristic of children’s organism that can be in this or that way defined as health indicators. Analyzing the focus on the health issues in education, it is possible to arrive at the conclusion that health is mostly regarded as a series of such physical indicators as good eyesight, posture, innards functioning, absence of bodily diseases, and that is the direction in which the adults apply their efforts; secondly, health becomes visible only in the context of its loss; health manifests itself as the opposite of disease, not as an acquired resource; third, despite the popularity of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1685 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource such psychology trend as psychosomatics, mental health issues are not included into the health preservation sphere of the education system, except for some certain pedagogical practices. In the context of such approach, health looks as a resource that is once granted to a person and that requires protection from invasions of surrounding factors; correspondingly, environment is regarded as a factor that invades health resources in order to destruct them. This way health is presented as a subject of trade within a system of relations that remind of economic relations, where one resource is always the payment for another, which is more important at the certain moment of time. This way, the idea of payment for education and development of children with their health is conventionally accepted by the education subjects and the society as a whole. Having analyzed the economic aspect of the problem, it is possible to say that obviously it is health that determines the functioning of a human as an economic subject, gives them such key economic features as the ability to perform physical and intellectual labour, the ability to learn, develop, produce other economic subjects. The essence of health as of an economic resource manifests itself in the interconnection with such economic category as labour (Moskvitina, 2009). Labour is performed by an individual, by a healthy individual. Health is more than a basis for labour; it preserves and increases its productiveness. High health level provides high capacity and efficiency of labour. According to Karl Marx, health acts as one of the most essential and important conditions of active, creative and full life of an individual in the society. Health is the main resource, which determines the satisfaction of almost all the requirements of an individual. Looking at numerous researches of health conditions of adult people carried out in various regions of Russia, it is possible to state that our contemporaries do not take health as a priority and are often ready to sacrifice it for the sake of acquiring some material goods or social benefits. Due to the less value of health in comparison with achievements in other spheres of life, the parents’ claims towards their children and especially their academic achievements are growing, though sometimes these claims do not correspond to the age and individual opportunities of a child. Many adults do not regard health as a developable resource and do not consider it to be the target and the value of development, though they often declare it to be an important component of life. At best they speak of developing healthy lifestyle skills that include correct nutrition, absence of bad habits, quenching and other practices aimed at physical health parameters as a priority. In this case, education measures do not foresee development of the health of the whole system; they are aimed at the health of some certain organs. This situation is in many ways connected to the absence of satisfactory idea of what the term “health” actually means. In the present time there are numerous definitions of the term, and their analysis shows the absence of an integral approach along with a specific point of view at the problem that originates from an expertise area (such as, medical, psychological, philosophical approaches). The criteria of defining health are disputable, therefore, the ways of preserving health depending on the age and professional activity conditions are not outlined correctly; neither are the ways of developing health resources on certain stages of life and within the framework of reaching some meaningful social results. As a rule, defining the terms of health and disease, we are trying to operate the definitions and criteria that have already been fixed in the culture, or we turn to the established academese patterns, and this way we cannot avoid some certain social and cultural determination. No # 1686 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource Specificity of the idea of health 30% from the point o f view of illness from the point o f view of health 70% Fig. 1. Specificity of the adults’ idea of health matter how hard we try to reach impartiality in defining health, we still rely on some common regulations; for this reason the words “healthy” and “normal” are generally perceived as synonyms. For example, the explanatory dictionary presents the following definition: “Health is a normal state of a correctly functioning, undamaged organism” (Dictionary.., 1992). Such definition seems to be easily corresponding to common sense, as long as we possess the definitions of the terms “normal” and “correct”. However, defining these categories is not an easy matter, for they are connected to various notions established in different professional fields or cultural stereotypes. The everyday stereotypes that presently prevail in Russia are generally described by proverbs and sayings used in the modern society, literally translated as “take care of your dress while it is new, and of your health while you are young”; “a sound mind in a sound body”; “the one who does not know illness, does not know health”; “one cannot appreciate health without illness”; “I am healthy as a bull, but I don’t know what to do” etc. (Dal, 2003). This information speaks of the idea of health as an alternative to illness, as a bodily characteristic and the major importance is granted to the bodily parameters, and health is not understood as a range of characteristics. Let us turn to the results of a survey on the idea of health (the number of respondents is 300 people, the age varies from 27 to 60 years old, equal share of men and women, covering representatives of various professional groups) that vividly outlines the main points in the idea of health. The respondents were offered to compete the following phrases: “Health is…”, “When one is healthy, he is…” The replies were classified according to the revealed ideas of health. In the end of the survey, two main ideas of health were found: from the point of view of illness, as an alternative to illness; and from the point of view of health components. The replies were divided into groups according to their frequency and their correspondence to different parameters of health. This way, we see that in the majority of cases health is perceived as series of bodily characteristics; therefore, attitude to health is connected to maintaining some certain satisfactory state of the body. Notion of health in its everyday understanding lacks the psychological aspect: a healthy person is imagined as a person without any defects, generally speaking, a person without any characteristics. Theoretically it is possible to find explanation of such understanding. For a long time the attention of researchers was concentrated on studying hazardous phenomena and abnormalities, deviations from healthy # 1687 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource 1. motor performance 2. absence of bad habits 3. healthy nutrition 4. efficient rest 5. healthy sleep 6. spiritual harmony 7. emotional well-being 8. quenching and hygiene 9. health as illness prevention 10. ability to help others 11. positive thinking 12. self-actualization 13. sexual health 14. professional satisfaction Fig. 2. Range of the adults’ ideas of health standards, as such standards are easier to identify by their difference from the “background”. It is proved by the existing and well-developed study of abnormality psychology. “Symptoms” are the behavioural features that go beyond the frameworks preferred or established by the society. Consequently, we have the rules and methods of social regulation, according to which people are divided into groups for placement into better conditions for observation, such as hospitals, prisons and other institutions. Moreover, there is an implicit conviction that only “normal” people have the right for personal inviolability and independent command of their life and fate. Though health cannot be limited to “being normal” which is understood as conformity to some historically established social regulations; besides, it makes no sense to define health as “the opposite” to illness, hoping that explanation of its main tendencies can simultaneously establish the limits of health in a more distinctive way. To our mind, a healthy person is just as independent “diagnostic category” as any other kind of person. Moreover, the contraposition of health and illness is sometimes quite problematic. For example, P.G. Gannushkin wrote: “Since the times of Claude Bernard it has been established that there is no dramatic difference between the phenomena of health and illness; there is an interconnection between the phenomena of both kinds. The same rules and powers are valid both for the norm and the pathology; the only difference is that in the conditions of pathology the harmony of interaction between the normal organism functions are broken” (Gannushkin, 1964). The same approach was observed by I.V. Davydovskiy: in his opinion, strict limitation and contraposition of the normal and the pathologic in physiology must be criticized. Any fact of pathology is to be regarded as a compensatory or assimilatory activity, as it is one of the kinds of adaptation activity of the organism (Davydovsky, 1969). Recently, health has been regarded as a complicated and multi-dimensional phenomenon that combines components of various qualities. The World Health Organization offers the following definition of health: “Health is the state of total physical, mental and social well-being, not only absence of illness or disease”. The definition given by the Definition Dictionary of Psychology and Psychoanalysis” is similar: “Health is a comparatively stable state when a person is well adapted, maintains their interest to life and ability of self-actualization”. Health is presented not only as a biological characteristic of a human being; it contains social, psychological, and spiritual # 1688 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource components, which means that it pretends to a compound and an interdisciplinary approach in its understanding. The works by Petlenko V.I., Davidenko D.N. (Petlenko et al, 1998) outline the following components of health: ▪ Somatic: the current state of organs and organ systems of the human organism. ▪ Physical: the level of development and functional potentials of the organs and systems that provide the organism’s assimilation to the influence of various factors. ▪ Mental: the state of the psychic sphere of a human being, the state of general emotional comfort that provides adequate regulation of behavior, normal development of the organism (according to the age and sex). ▪ Sexual: a complex of somatic, emotional, intellectual and social aspects of sexual being of an individual and their ability to love. ▪ Moral: a complex of the characteristics of motivational, consumer and informational bases of an individual’s life activity, the system of values, directives and motives of an individual in the social environment. At present the issue of studying a healthy personality is becoming especially urgent; it includes revealing the features that differentiate health from “being normal”. Shoben claims that healthy people have strong feature of self-control, personal responsibility and moral ideals. From the point of view of Gerard, healthy people continuously widen their awareness of themselves, other people and the world around them, develop their competence in satisfying the basic necessities and in hazard response they work out realistic interpersonal relations that correspond to their social roles and personal demands. Descartes understood the health of soul as an ability to recognize the truth. Another well-known philosopher, Helvetius, considered the distinctive feature of healthy mind to be the ability to compare the differences and similarities, conformities and non-conformities between things in the correct way (Strakhov, 1894). Having analyzed the existing psychological development theories, it is possible to note out a certain point of view at mental health; concerning that almost in all the approaches health acts as a dynamic feature. The psychoanalysis theory does not describe the conception of a healthy personality; it studies any personality as a potential neurotic, but some of them are more likely to become neurotic than others. This “ideal or normal neurotic” is different from a “not normal” one in two ways: balance and sublimation. A normal person’s structural subsystems are better balanced. The general energy of the organism is distributed between the three subsystems in such a way that each of them receives the amount needed for development. As a result, ego possesses the enough amount of energy for adequate perception of reality and adjustment for superego, simultaneously finding the resources for satisfying the ids. Neurotics and normal people differ in their protective tactics. Literally speaking, sublimation means de-energization of the ego instincts; it gets over their energy and spares it for its own purposes. In this case, ego turns to forming up the desired (civilized) behaviour. From social point of view, sublimation is a “successful” protection tactics, as it avoids conflicts and anxiousness and it helps implementing the things that are required by the socialization process. It is evident that a normal person can be regarded as just somebody whose ego contains more sublimed energy and so he possesses more socially approved behaviour patterns. Frankl connects the development progress with self-determination that depends only on acquiring more control over one’s life. There are no life situations that do not offer choice between alternatives, no matter how hopeless it looks. # 1689 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource Alternatives determination is the first step on the way to freedom. Making choice between them is the next step. The further the choice process goes in the series of subsequent steps, the faster the potential movement to freedom is. There is no person who can reach absolute freedom; however, anyone can become more free (Frankl, 1990). Humanistic theory generally underlines, that during lifetime its qualities continuously change. K. Rogers came up with a dynamic model of a “fully functioning person”. Rogers observes health in the aspect of personal development or growth, as an attribute of a freely developing personality, open to experience of different kinds. K. Rogers offers the term of congruence as an ability of a person to act and react sincerely, expressing feelings and motives in an open way: “A fully functioning person is always in the process of universal self-actualization; they are always able to react to the life situations freely and freely experience their own reactions to it, which enables them to live true, really good life” (Rogers, 1994). A similar motive can be found in works by A. Maslow. The main health criterion by A. Maslow is “full actualization of one’s opportunities” or “self-actualization”. Selfactualizing people reach harmonic and wellfunctioning hierarchy of motives that contains no conflicts the motives of higher levels are not blocked by the requirements of the lower ones. In his works, A. Maslow offers a list of characteristics of self-actualizing people, which would help to imagine a portrait of a healthy personality. E. Eriksson studied subsequent periods on the life cycle as a sequence of conflicts existential in their gist. Living through one of their phase can influence the next phase experience. If one of the conflicts fails to be successfully solved, one turns out to be unable to get over the next ones. According to the theory by E. Eriksson, the logics of personal development leads a person to the choice between maturity, health and regress; between personal grown, self-determination and illness or neurosis. E. Eriksson claimed that as one accepts the challenge of a next phychosocial crisis, they get the chance of personal growth and widening of their opportunities (Eriksson, 1996). The theory by E. Eriksson foresees some internal connection between personal growth and health. E. Fromm supposed that full satisfaction of specific human needs and individual solution of fundamental qualities of human existence is just as important requirement of healthy life as assimilation to the social environment. E. Fromm claimed the necessity of self-determination and choice of such fundamental life orientations as “destructivity or creativity, subtraction or integrity of perception, narcissism or feeling of fraternal solidarity and love, conformism or unique and creation” (Fromm, 1990). For this reason mental health is regarded as a progressive integration of fundamental feelings into a wider system. A healthy person on a certain stage of life has already solved the existential conflicts of the previous stages, and, therefore, they are able to constructively solve the fundamental problems of the current stage. C. Jung also considered the problem of progressive integration in personal development. According to Jung, the unconscious includes two spheres: personal and collective unconscious. The purpose of human development is liberation of the opportunities of the collective unconscious and their assimilation in the “self”, a certain mystic centre of the personality. The theory of C. Jung describes “self” as the embodiment of maximum wholeness and perfection one can ever achieve. Progress is the process of individualization, that makes one understand the difference between the conscious and the unconscious and to recognize both their own individuality and belonging to the humankind. The transfer of these discoveries into the conscious opens us all the conflicting controversies of the human being. Such analysis # 1690 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource leads to the point of view at healthy personality as a progressive movement on the way of acquirement of personal experience and its concordance with the universal human experience. This way, the mentioned theories contain direct address to the issue of actual structural and dynamic qualities of healthy personality. Concerning the first one, we can rely on the structures integration principle; in the relation to the second one, we can base on the progression principle in the development of dynamic systems. Both principles are visible in the conceptions by A. Adler and C.G. Jung, and in the works of the representatives of humanistic psychology trends. Such impulses were named differently by different psychologists: strive for perfection (Adler), wholeness and individuality (Jung), self-actualization (Rogers, Maslow); considering that the self-actualization idea itself foresees the sources of the progressive development to be found inside the person. The most important life tendency is revealing and implementing these abilities. The model of a healthy personality built within the framework of cultural and historical conception of development by L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontyev, S.L. Rubinstein determines the position of the integrity and wholeness of psyche, it set the dynamics of personal development at a certain age, and subsequent acquirement of various features of mental health. Mental health is regarded as something that refers not to separate psychic processes and mechanisms, but to the personality as a whole. Social situation is positioned as a unit of analysis of child’s development dynamics, which is a series of rules that regulate the occurrence and structure modifications of a child’s personality on every age stage, determines child’s lifestyle which later models the personality features and psychic neoplasms. Social situation of development is regarded as the relation between the child and the surrounding environment, specific for the current age: expectations and requirements of the society; the specificity of the child’s understanding of their social position and relationships with the people around them (within acceptance-rejection scale). The social situation sets specific tasks for every subject on every age stage; solution of these tasks is the psychic development of the current age. This way, mental health is the integral characteristic of the completion of the psychic functioning of a person. Understanding the mechanisms of mental health development is inextricably connected to the general ideas of personality and its mechanisms of development. Mental health is understood as maturity of the personality, integrity and activeness of personal self-regulation, responsibility, ability to realize the natural potential of the human mission. It means that building up the psychological model of a healthy personality should contain such characteristics as holism, dynamics and development structure. Health does not exist on its own; it manifests itself in complicated connections for reaching social productiveness. Coming to conclusion, we could say that health cannot be limited to “being normal” that is understood only as simple conformity to historically established social norms. It is also wrong to define health as alternative to illness, hoping that revealing the common tendencies of illness may help defining criteria and limits of healthy existence. Health is independent and contradictive; it cannot look just as a set of physical features once granted to a human being. Setting the research of mental health dynamics as a purpose enables us to turn to an integral approach to studying human psyche instead of studying separate components of the psyche without understanding the interconnection between all the levels and systems of the human organism. Mental health is an issue of structure and dynamics of the personality in the same way as neurosis or any other way of development. From the point of view of structure, a healthy # 1691 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource personality can also be regarded more like a process of continuous changes rather than a stable fixed system. As a general principle, personal structures strive for acquiring harmony, which would unite the impulsive, regulatory, definitive and stylistic functions into the whole. Despite of their social or ethnic origin, people who live in the modern society need to have a series of certain psychological traits that provide successful functioning within the society. These traits are usually formed on the way of step-by-step movement along various stages of development. There is a set of tasks typical for each of the stages that one has to solve, and a set of traits that one has to acquire to prepare for the next stage. This way, the assessment of mental health of an individual has to correspond to their stage of development along with their genetic heritage and cultural background. Education possesses enough resources for building up a model of children’s mental health development. Speaking of physical features of health, all these characteristics go through a sensitive period of development that occurs in the pre-school period of the child’s life, for example, the functioning of the visual analyzer: by the beginning of school the child possesses stable eyesight characteristics. Under advantageous education conditions, eyesight preserves its stability; if the conditions are worse (bad lighting, high strain on the eyesight, small fonts etc.), the eyesight decreases. Such characteristics should be understood and health preservation policy should be appropriate, however, not all parameters of health are formed in the pre-school age, including physical ones; many of them continue forming as the child is growing up. Examples of such parameters are stress sustainability, intellectual stamina, self-control, admission of indefiniteness, responsibility and other. Aiming at developing health resources foresees creation conditions of such functioning of a child within the education environment that would aid acquiring such resources and reinforcing them, and, therefore, forming healthy personality. This approach does not contradict the ideas of education in the sphere of health and forming health values of the students, along with the idea of preservation of certain resources of health reached by the current age; but it determined orientation on forming a healthy personality, and establishes new vision of health as a developable and a manageable resource. References Ганнушкин П.Б. [P.B. Gannushkin] Постановка вопроса о границах душевного здоровья// Избр. труды. (М. 1964) с. 97. Давыдовский И.В. [I.V. Davydovsky] Общая патология человека. (М., 1969) с. 387. Даль В. И. [V.I. Dal] Пословицы русского народа (М.: Изд-во Эксмо, 2003). Москвитина О.А. [O.A. Moskvitina] Сущность здоровья как экономического ресурса// Психология здоровья. СПб.; 2009) с. 46. Петленко В.И., Давиденко Д.Н. [V.I. Petlenko, D.N. Davidenko] Этюды валеологии: Здоровье как человеческая ценность (СПб., 1998) с. 124. Роджерс К. [K. Rogers] Взгляд на психотерапию. Становление человека (М., 1994). С. 233251. Страхов Н. [N. Strakhov] Об основных понятиях психологии и физиологии (СПб., 1894). Толковый словарь русского языка (М., 1992) с. 187. Фромм Э. [E. Fromm] Иметь или быть? (М., 1990) с. 336. # 1692 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource Франкл В. [V. Frankl] Экзистенциальный вакуум: Вызов психиатрии// Человек в поисках смысла (М., 1990) с. 308–321. Эриксон Э. [E. Eriksson] Идентичность: юность и кризис (М., 1996). Структура и динамика психического здоровья как развиваемого ресурса Е.Ю. Федоренко Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В данной статье обсуждаются проблемы здоровья школьников, характер фокусировок вокруг тематики здоровья в образовании. Представлена структура и динамика психического здоровья, концепция развития здоровья детей в образовании, анализируются традиционные подходы, ориентированные на здоровьесбережение. Здоровье обсуждается как цель и результат образования, как развиваемый и управляемый ресурс развития. Ключевые слова: психическое здоровье, развитие ресурсов здоровья, здоровье школьников, образование, представления о здоровье. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1694-1706 ~~~ УДК 371.255 Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects Victor E. Pakhal’yan* Moscow Institute of Open Education 6 Aviatsionny side st., Moscow, 125167 Russia 1 Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The article presents the author’s view on the problem of practical psychologists’ training in its present state. Analysis of the state of normative legal and methodological base of higher vocational education system serves the basis for dwelling upon the difficulties in practical psychologists’ training which are connected with formal requirements to professional activity and future specialists’ personal preparedness. The issue of the necessity to develop a new area in the sphere of practical psychology – preventive psychology of development – is given a special attention in the article. Keywords: practical psychologists’ training, educational result, personal preparedness, types of the tasks that are solved in various spheres of psychology, preventive psychology of development. Normative legal aspects of specialists’ training in the sphere of practical psychology and the problem of educational result quality Analyzing problems of practical psychology, quality of psychological services in the sphere of education and development prospects of the Service of practical psychology of education in our country, such aspects of the Service as content of syllabi and curricula of specialists’ training and methodological provision of educational process should be given a special focus of attention. The main aspects here are the following: the extent they conform to the contemporary ideas of an individual’s development as well as to the tasks solved by a practical psychologist in his / her work at the difficulties in children’s development in different * 1 educational environments. Organization and implementation of extra higher vocational education in psychology clearly display all sides of such a task. The sources of existing difficulties can be found in juridical base of higher vocational education1. 1. Comparison of the main documents, and namely “Law on Education” and “Federal Law on Higher and Post-Graduate Education” shows that the primacy of an individual’s needs in getting education is obvious. It is clearly seen in the content of the text of the articles and in the rank of these wordings: Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1694 # - “Content of education … should be focused on ensuring an individual’s self-determination, provision of conditions for his/her self-realization” (Law on Education, Article 14 Clause 1.); Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects - “The aim of higher professional education is of vocational education system to the labour training and retraining of specialists of the level market’s demands. More than a quarter of higher required, satisfaction of an individual’s needs to vocational education institutions’ graduates and extend and broaden his/her education …” (Law about a third of secondary vocational education on Education, Article 24 Clause 1.); institutions’ graduates do not become employed 2 “Extra educational programmes and extra and fill the vacancy of a specialty they have been educational services are provided in order to trained in an educational institution. And in case thoroughly satisfy the citizens’ educational they do they are not good at modern and efficient needs….” (Law on Education, Article 26 activity methods at the place of employment” Clause 1.); (Ibid.). - “The main objectives of a higher education - “A strategic aim achievement and fulfillment institution are: 1) satisfaction of an individual’s of the Programme’s tasks are ensured by the needs in intellectual, cultural and moral implementation of the system of policy measures development by means of getting higher and (or) grouped according to the main activity areas. post-graduate vocational education” (Federal law Fulfillment of a strategic task of educational on Higher and Post-graduate Education, Article content and technologies improvement are 8 Clause 2). ensured by the implementation of the policy 2. On the other hand, the text of “The Conception of Federal Target Programme for Education Development in 2006-2010” makes it possible to notice new emphasis and reveal new tendencies in the national state policy concerning higher vocational education. The aspects connected with economy, labour market, an employer’s needs, etc. are manifestly distinguished in it. measures in the following activity areas: <> introduction of a new list of training areas (chief subjects) and trades of vocational education and corresponding state educational standards, worked out on the basis of competence approach, in order to develop curricula adequate to the world trends, labour market’s and an individual’s needs” (Section VII). - “…higher rate of the employers’ role in The following wordings make this clear: professional personnel’s training (growth of - “…absence of institutional mechanisms, number of both primary, secondary and higher ensuring the connection of human capital vocational education institutions that passed development with the growth of the citizens’ through the employers’ examination of curricula wellbeing, in the sphere of education leads and vocational education institutions that provide to the situation when the system of education their training in compliance with new educational reproduces the citizens’ parasitical attitude to the standards developed with the employers’, social state, doesn’t form but suppresses an individual’s and professional associations’ participation)” activity on the labour market now and then” (Section IX, Clause 3). (Section IV). - “Successfulness of educational content and technologies development is to a great extent connected with the effectiveness of reduction of growing disparity of education quality and employers’ demands to it. This lag manifests itself, first of all, in the absence of an adequate reaction The analysis of the materials of numerous forums (conferences, workshops, etc.) shows that not all the specialists involved in training, retraining and advanced training pay serious attention to the trends that are outlined nowadays in the change of the national higher education content. Some of them are still sure that # 1695 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects vocational education and market have almost no connection as education belongs to the sphere of culture while market is included in the sphere of economy, thus, they hardly relate to each other. But the analysis of the national labour market and statistics break this illusion. It is vividly shown in various publications (M. Gladkova 2007; O.M. Zheleznyakova 2006; O.G. Kukosyan 2007; O.N. Oleinikova 2006, etc.). Discussing the issues of practical psychologists’ training, in extra vocational education system including, it is necessary to agree upon the meaning of the “educational result” term. It is appropriate to discuss the issue of what ensures “educational result” in practical psychologists’ training and how it is done. The example below will be a slight digression though. In the context of the topic discussed it can be generally stated that an educational result in practical psychologist’s training is a person ready to provide professional psychological services (with due level of proficiency) adequately to a client’s requests. In search of formal confirmation of the defined above we’ll appeal to normative legal aspect of the issue once again. In the text of “Law on Education” it is stated that: In the report of the International bank for person being trained) achievement of educational reconstruction and development in 2007 it is levels (educational qualifications), set by the stated that: state. skills that makes it possible to act adequately … in any situation” (Зимняя И. А. [I.A. Zimnyaya] Педагогическая психология. – Ростов-наДону: Феникс, 1997). Education under the present Law is understood as a purposeful process of upbringing and education in the interest of a human, society, state accompanied by the statement of a citizen’s (a In Turkey improvement in pre-school education Getting education by a citizen (a person being system higher trained) is understood as achievement of a certain examination marks, growth of number of higher educational qualification and its acknowledgement education institutions’ graduates, lower level of certified by a certain document. has resulted in students’ juvenile delinquency. In private sector productive capacity of secondary and higher education has increased especially in the countries with almost There is a concept of aim understood as a desired result. In “Law on Education” this aspect is designated the following way: Article 14. General requirements to the content total pre-school education. So, what should be regarded as educational result in the term’s broad meaning? Perhaps, “being educated” means such individual’s inner resources that help him/her establish adequate relations with the world and other individuals and meet the society’s requirements to an individual’s status he/she has got by the present moment? In particular, such kind of a definition is given by I.A. Zimnyaya: of education 1. The content of education is one of the factors of the society’s economic and social progress and must be focused on: - ensuring an individual’s self-determination, providing the circumstances for his/her selfrealization; - development of the society; - strengthening and improvement of a legal “It’s a human him/herself who has been trained state. in a certain educational system. It’s his/her 2. The content of education must ensure: experience being a set of developed intellectual, ▪ individual, behavioral qualities, knowledge and professional culture adequate to the world one; # 1696 # the level of the society’s general and Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects ▪ formation of a citizen’s worldview adequate to the modern level of knowledge and the level of a curriculum (stage of education); ▪ an individual’s integration into the national and world culture; ▪ upbringing of a person and a citizen (set off in bold by me – V.P.), integrated in modern society and aimed at the society’s improvement; ▪ reproduction and development of the society’s human resources potential. 3. Vocational education of any level must ensure getting a profession and a corresponding qualification by a person trained. 4. The content of education must contribute to mutual understanding and cooperation between people, peoples irrespective of racial, national, ethnical, religious and social belonging, take a variety of world outlooks into account, favour the realization of a trained person’s right on a free choice of opinions and convictions. As it is seen from the mentioned above, there are many multi-aspect targets for education to be oriented to. The analysis of monographs and professional periodicals that exist nowadays makes it possible to conclude that there is no single approach to the definition of this concept like in many other cases. Some specialists consider that these results comprise: ♦ “subject” (knowledge, abilities, skills, experience of creative activity, etc.); ♦ “metasubject” (activity methods, mastered during the course of one or several subjects, that are applied both in educational activity and real life situations); ♦ and “personality” (system of value preferences, interests, motivation, tolerance) components . Others include: ♦ state of health; ♦ academic success; ♦ satisfaction of the educational process subjects; ♦ individual progress in assimilation of universal abilities; ♦ age (psychological) maturity. It is also written that it is an integral characteristic comprising: ♦ subject and extra-subject knowledge and skills of a competence oriented character (i.e. focused on activity methods); ♦ key competences; ♦ social experience acquired during a course of getting education, etc. Thus, difficulties for definition of educational results in the whole are already built into normative legal base. In the context of the discussed issue it is appropriate to mention that the state, being a client in respect of the educational results in this specialty, has defined only the criteria of the level and content of mastering the curricula, presented in educational standards (State educational standards of higher vocational education). Another aspect of the issue is the quality of educational results3. I have failed to find a single document in which the criteria of all possible results of vocational education were enumerated. The documents of recent years mainly dwell upon the conditions of educational result achievement (in most cases – upon standards and financing). That’s why we can judge about the quality (if we rely on normative documents only) chiefly on the basis of the results of mastering curricula. It’s important here to understand a specific character of the connection between being educated and the quality of a specialist’s training for efficient practical work. # 1697 # Alison Wolf, professor of London University, in her book “Does Education Matter? Myths about Education and Economic Growth” mentions that if a higher rate of getting education is achieved without much thinking the connection between Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects being educated and economic growth may be less seldom. Being educated is a sign of social weakened. Another danger distinguished by the author is the following one: excessive anxiety about economic growth narrows and distorts the society’s idea of being educated. In the UK the quantitative growth of specialists (their enrolment and graduation) resulted in worsening the quality of university education. This is one of losses. Moreover, employment of a large number of lecturers to high school badly affects secondary school as the best teachers leave it. But the worst thing is, perhaps, that the leading universities start experiencing the lack of resources. As a result they can’t train the most brilliant students for leading roles in science and technology as it previously was. *** “Expert” magazine dated 03.09.2007 Lack of correspondence between what is taught and what is required by social-and-practical situations can be characterized as a global crisis in the sphere of higher education: education system train people to “going away” economy. This crisis unfolds against a background of worldwide tendencies. Firstly, large scale involvement into education is growing. This gives grounds to speak about the transition to general higher education in economically developed countries. The number of students in our country is the largest in the world: in 2005 495 students was the share of each 10 thousand residents of Russia. In the USA the share was 445, in Germany – 240, in the UK – 276, in Japan – 233. At that the education system itself has been functioning on the basis of the pattern adopted decades ago: the content of academic courses is often based on outdated economic, social, natural science and technical conceptions. And as for Russian students, they associate training in a higher education institution with competitiveness on labour market less and normality for the majority of them. Thus, we face the following state of affairs: if our compatriot has mastered curricula in psychology and stood the qualification tests designed to check the level of mastering them, he/she can provide professional psychological services to a client. Both a graduate and a lecturer responsible for professional training can show a client the document certifying the educational result and the quality of mastering the curricula (differential mark). But as for functional, real, practical suitability of a result of education, a client will be able to get it only after a certain period of time when a specialist starts practising and getting definite practical results. In the system of state institutions this moment will be formally registered only at the date of a specialist’s qualifying evaluation. The situation nowadays is the following: the state doesn’t directly regulate the relationship between labour market and specialists’ training4. It only provides the conditions for the system’s existence and development. In this respect the excessive number of institutions training practical psychologists on higher education market is not the state’s policy but a response to the people’s needs, a peculiar fashion on careers, etc. A client and a consumer are the same person here. It should be noted that the complexity in identification of a client of an educational result is determined by the fact that the result might not have a direct assignment. For example, the students of the system of additional higher vocational education are mainly motivated not by direct expectations of the result (to work as practical psychologist) but by its accompanying (additional) quality: additional diploma, additional profession, being extra resources of efficient professional activity. These provide with quite pragmatic advantages under the conditions of competition and shortage of vacancies. # 1698 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects Thus, at present the main (direct) clients of higher vocational education are labour market and a person getting education – “a student” (or his/her parents). It is they who lay claims to an educational result and evaluate it5. The fact that the bases of this or that quality of vocational education are built in the system of general education is also obvious. There they develop various systems of mastering curricula and criteria of an individual’s preparedness to his/her independent life and to continuation of his/her education at a secondary or higher level. At a forum of the Institute of pedagogy and psychology of development (IPPD, Krasnoyarsk), held several years ago, they discussed what is termed as “certain deficiencies of the students of different courses”. One of the participants wrote: “… a part of deficiencies result from the drawbacks of general education. … when I ask myself: “Why must they ALREADY be able to do this?” … I answer myself: “They had to learn this at school”. For example, to read, write, speak, make speeches, listen and hear, analyze, argue, work in a group, etc.” The author’s sufficiently large experience in training practical psychologists in education makes it possible to assert that the number of “deficiencies” is greater than it is expected. It especially strikes while working with people who have already graduated from higher vocational education institutions and come to get additional education. The difficulty here is that quite often there is nothing to “add” or it’s impossible to do at all as there are “blank spaces” and “gaps” in their minds. But time resources of the curriculum are not enough for teaching up to the proper level or re-teaching. Participation in state certifying commissions in many higher education institutions of our country gives me grounds to say that in the majority of cases the qualitative educational result in a practical psychologist’s training is mainly defi ned in such characteristic as “broad and deep professional training”. In some cases “high proficiency in traditional means of psychological services” can be added to it. But it is also evident that in careers, that help, the preparedness for efficient activity definitely presupposes a personality preparedness of those who will provide services. This component can neither be left aside nor “torn away from the whole”. This is mentioned only in works of experienced practitioners and outstanding specialists in this sphere. They unambiguously emphasize that a personality in practical psychology is both a condition and a result of vocational education (A.F. Bondarenko 2000; M. Bowen 1992; I.V. Dubrovina 1991; E.A. Klimov 1998; R. Kochunas 1999; V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000, et al.). But nowadays this aspect is not reflected in the documents specifying a specialist’s training in the Russian Federation. It is not regarded as a criterion that defines the quality of vocational education. The analysis made makes it possible to state that the educational result of training people in practice-oriented psychological professions directly depends on availability of the following possibilities: 1) practical implementation of differentiated approach to professional selection, matching and training in the sphere of careers that provide help that is based not only upon the criteria of being educated but upon the criteria of a personality preparedness to work with people; 2) providing with specific conditions of training that are qualitatively different from the conditions of traditional academic education not in respect of the curriculum mainly but regarding a) special practice-oriented training of professorial and teaching staff; b) educational and occupational base that makes it possible to # 1699 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects arrange practical activity of full value that is as much close to real professional activity as possible and c) evaluation of educational and occupational practice results that corresponds to a client’s requirements (criteria). As for the questions “who determines urgent consumer qualities of educational result of practical psychologists’ training” and “how is it done”, the following should be mentioned: 1. The state (its laws on education first of all provide with juridical terms of getting education and requirements to its content specified in state educational standards). 2. Educational institutions and their specialists (they implement the requirements to curricula, their contents and procedures of qualification acknowledgement specified in laws and state educational standards). 3. A future specialist (or persons who take the responsibility for this) (they choose an educational institution and specify the aim of such a training (a student; his/her parents; those who assign to training, etc.). 4. A client on behalf of those structures that include such kinds of vacancies in their staff list and open corresponding vacancies. The result we face nowadays, as a rule, doesn’t suit the market developing in Russia (a client). That’s why a client feels the necessity of establishing special structures that provide with a required educational result. Introduction of in-house training, personnel training outside Russia, etc. give evidence of it. All the mentioned above gives us grounds to dwell upon those difficulties and opportunities to overcome them that are revealed in the course of analysis of working experience in practical psychologists’ training and re-training. The example of additional higher vocational education for the “practical psychology” qualification will serve the basis for the analysis of this. Difficulties in practical psychologists’ training and re-training and possibilities to overcome them The present situation in home psychology and consequently in psychologists’ training and re-training is far from ideal. Methodological problems peculiar to the transition from “ideologized” to “professional” psychology are still reflected in both organization of higher education and additional higher vocational education system and its content6. In the context of the discussed issue it should be noted that recent decades are marked with sufficient activity in respect of practical psychologists’ training and re-training. But nevertheless many problems of organizational and substantial character are not solved here yet as well as in higher vocational education in the whole. As it is mentioned at the beginning of the article, in the first place it concerns standards, syllabi and curricular of higher education institutions. Unfortunately, their content is a “hostage” of that methodological mess mentioned above. Practical psychologists’ training and re-training show that one of the most important aspects of this problem is failure to distinguish the types of the tasks solved in various spheres of psychology. The experience of expert examination of curricula, syllabi, textbooks for psychologists’ training shows a non-differential character of such tasks as: 1) scientific (research) tasks proper; 2) scientific-and-applied tasks; 3) tasks of applied practical psychology; 4) tasks of psychological practice. # 1700 # Keeping within the limits of the topic of the article and taking genre restrictions concerning its volume into consideration, we shall not dwell upon the specificity of the tasks of types one, two and four but concentrate on the difficulties typical for practical psychology. It should be noted here that the problem highlighted by us is aggravated nowadays by the transition to a new Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects system of training including various possibilities of getting vocational educatin – via bachelor and master courses or “specialist’s” training. A set of recent works shows the main aspects of the issue discussed (Yu.M. Zabrodin 1982, 1990, 2002; V.A. Ivannikov 2006; E.A. Klimov 1992, et al.). Such context makes it clear that practical psychologists’ training must be based on the specificity of the tasks of type three that presuppose their own subject and tools. It should be noted here that practical psychology is viewed upon as the applied area of general psychological knowledge as well as a peculiar type of a psychologist’s activity focused to solve a definite professional task in accordance with the requirements of the sphere he/she (a specialist) serves and whose request he/she fulfils (I.V. Dubrovina 1991; V.A. Ivannikov 2006; A.G. Karayani, I.V. Syromyatnikov 2006, et al.). In this respect its subject area is determined by a specific character of psychological knowledge proper, on the one hand, and certain special features of the sphere a psychologist works in, on the other hand. The variety of tasks and forms of psychological knowledge application determines the main functions of practical psychology. As a rough approximation they can be divided into two groups: according to a method and form of a psychologist’s activity and according to the way of psychological knowledge application for solving certain tasks: 1) enlightener, advisory, expert, designing, normative and standardizing, etc.; 2) psychodiagnostics, psychoprognostics and psychological help (joint management). Considering the issue of specificity of a practical psychologist’s working methods, it’s important to note that the methods of practical psychology are mirror-like in respect of the methods of scientific research: the latter presupposes the direction from a real object to scientific knowledge about it, the former implies a different direction from scientific knowledge to a real object when an object’s particular specific character and conditions of its real existence are taken into account. Here we can state that the methods of practical psychology must ensure an effective “movement” in the “subject – subject” system and take a client’s specific requirements into consideration, never exceed the limits of concrete conditions of a client’s activity (Yu.M. Zabrodin, V.E. Pakhal’yan 2010). In this context it’s possible to state the following: 1) the system of a practical psychologist’s methods is inseparably connected with a specific character of concrete tasks a specialist faces in the course of his/her work in this or that sphere of human activity; 2) this system is a system of three main groups of practical psychology methods: ♦ methods of psychological expert examination; ♦ methods of psycho-prognostics and psychological design; ♦ methods of psychological help (joint management). Each group comprises specific ways of work (methods, techniques, etc.) that correspond to the character of the tasks set for a practical psychologist. Another, no less important aspect of practical psychologists’ training, is connected with the problems ingeniously close to an academic process. It’s not a secret that the problems with the staff often give no choice to the administration of educational institutions in which training is not always carried out by professional lecturers but by any specialists with diploma in a corresponding subject7. Moreover, according to V.Ya. Lyaudis’s true point of view, # 1701 # “…The process of teaching any scientific knowledge very often remains in the periphery Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects of conscience or even outside it because of a lecturer’s direct belonging to science. Being conscious of his/her experience in research, he/ she very slightly realizes those stereotypes and clichés he/she follows in the organization of an educational process when he/she works out the content of education. Such a discrepancy in the degree of conscious awareness of scientific content proper and teaching practice makes the latter rigid, non-alternative, that is true for psychologists as well” (V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000. P 3). One more aspect of a specialist’s training is connected with a specific character of the subject itself, its content. This aspect becomes extremely important for practical psychologists’ and psychologists-practitioners’ training. It is meant here that in teaching psychology “the primacy of the object to learn – content of knowledge – to the subject” is still vivid (V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000). Constant participation in expert examination of the materials that provide the content of future specialists’ training in the sphere of practical psychology shows that a considerable part of curricula, their content and teaching methods neither address to a future professional’s personality nor presuppose actualization of a personality’s potential (V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000). This, in its turn, doesn’t create “the zone of a personality’s perspective development”. Traditionally home psychology treated a human as a living being whose selectivity and activity, choice of activity, actions and ways of their realization are connected with the ability to carry out them taking the consequences for other members of his/her community into account and taking the responsibility for the choices made. So, a personality is meant here. It implies a certain stage of psychological maturity of a human who is not isolated from other humans but grew up under specific conditions – culture – and acquired it in a certain volume and quality by this or that way. The latter undoubtedly comprises acquisition of “psychological tools” (L.S. Vygotsky) with the help of which a human starts making these or those choices and taking responsibility for them. Such understanding makes it possible to adequately interpret the expressions like “a criminal’s personality”, in particular. The ideas of modern humanistic psychology, and, in particular, the proposition about a human’s natural need in self-actualization which is the main “mechanism” of his/her positive changes, personality growth (C. Rogers) also become the basis for working out the curricula for a practical psychologist’s training. It should be noted here that the problem of the resources of a personality’s changes is solved by establishing specific relationships between a specialist being a facilitator and a person in his/her care. Such relationships can’t be the result of a contact of a professional who is good at the influence technique. It is because a specialist in such work manifests him/herself as a human and a contact is carried out as a contact of a human with a human. This means that such work can’t be regarded as “an expert’s manipulation”. It shouldn’t be also forgotten that a person under a facilitator’s care has the right to stop the process at any moment and get from this care as much as he/she can. That’s why one of the most significant conditions of a personality’s change in the course of this work is a personality’s readiness to this change. All the mentioned above directly refers to the mechanism of interaction between a person trained and a person training in the system of future psychologists’ vocational education as well. In particular, the pattern of a practical psychologist’s training, designed on this basis, will ensure not only the knowledge of “artificial devices” focused on one’s own inner world acquisition but their “in-growth inside” that means acquisition of proper attitude to people, for whom help will be given, by a personality of a future specialist. Following these ideas we # 1702 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects can design the process of practical psychologists’ training so that it is addressed to a personality of a future specialist, presupposes actualization of his/her potential that, in its turn, will create “the zone of a personality’s perspective development”. More than that, the aspects highlighted can become the criteria of work efficiency not only in the course of vocational guidance, vocational choice and matching, subsequent tracking of a practical psychologist’s professional career, advanced training but in the course of retraining for work in this professional sphere. Specialists’ psychological health is undoubtedly one of the significant aspects of the approach discussed. In this respect the system of practical psychologists’ training, advanced training and retraining presupposes its support by such principles as “psychological ecological compatibility”, “psychological safety”. As a matter of principle, organization of a person’s training understood humanistically excludes the possibility of destructive impacts of educational environment on his/her development. This, in its turn, presupposes certain personnel policy in respect of “forming figures” (tutors, lecturers). Being precisely conscious of the complexity of such a task it is difficult to imagine a different way but establishment of criteria of psychological safety of development of all the subjects of educational environments on the basis of already existing knowledge about the regularities of a personality’s development and newly gained knowledge in this sphere. A list of these criteria is provided in almost any student’s textbook in practical psychology. But in reality these criteria are not applied. It is this that gives us grounds to speak about reasonability of working out a new area in psychology – preventive psychology of development understood as the area in applied psychology in which the subject of research and practice are supposed to be psychological phenomena, regularities and factors that determine the state and dynamics of a personality’s psychological health, ensure his/her psychological safety under the conditions of these or those activity spheres the knowledge of which provides the possibilities of timely prevention of unfavourable tendencies of its development. Foreign practice shows that this issue is quite urgent nowadays. At the same time M. Perrez and U. Baumann mention low efficiency of prevention in medicine: “Prevention hasn’t led to considerable structural changes at social and economical levels so far. The structure of modern supporting system is systematically strengthening in respect of therapeutics that is far from being so in respect of prevention; it also concerns single persons who want to individually improve their own “healthy behaviour” as well as people professionally involved in prevention. It is almost impossible to expect any changes of our “healthy behaviour”, focused on a disease, without decisive shift of structural accents in our present supporting system in favour of prevention (Перре М., Бауманн У. [M. Perrez, U. Baumann] Клиническая психология. – СПб., 2006, p. 493). In the system of psychological personnel’s advanced training and retraining apart from the problems general for higher vocational education there are problems specific for this area only. The most evident and, as practice shows, quite important are the following ones: 1. Unlike the students of main higher vocational education, the audience of retraining and advanced training departments is people with higher education. That’s why their syllabi and curricula presuppose predominance of content and subjects, which are ingenuously connected with a professional area chosen and have applied and practical character. However, even in case the curricula nominally reflect this correspondence the real content of the subjects taught (which is # 1703 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects noticed both in curricula and in teaching process itself) is often no much different from the content of curricula for main higher vocational education; 2. The picture of demands for these or those specialists by recruitment agencies and employment services and a real result of the system of psychological personnel’s advanced training and retraining is rather conflicting. On the one hand, it is obvious that the society’s demand for these or those specialists who are suggested retraining for the profession needed nowadays by recruitment agencies and employment services becomes lower in some sphere. But the absence of a stable state policy in this sphere results in financial limitation and prevents from effective use of this personnel resource. Commercial structures behave in this market insufficiently actively so far. They are not eager to invest in this sphere but prefer either to buy “the product prepared” or to establish “in-house system of personnel’s training and retraining” which is of a different quality and focus and doesn’t correspond to the market’s demands. This situation is quite well presented in a set of materials we have mentioned before8. Modern psychology is ever more moving towards solving the tasks of design and action. This changes the focus on status, role and prospects of fundamental areas of psychology. In this respect, following a great number of experts, it should be mentioned that a serious revision of the whole system of advanced training and retraining that exists nowadays, working out differentiated standards of higher vocational and additional vocational training, the system of psychological personnel’s advanced training and retraining is needed. Such work can be built on 1 the basis of singling out professional tasks that are solved by a psychologist of one or another qualification and specialization. The present state of affairs in this area of Russian education is far from required. At the same time a set of positive things, that have projected recently, can be mentioned if the stated above could be viewed from the point of availability of objective conditions for provision of psychological safety of development of the subjects of educational environments by present Russian higher vocational education. In particular, the draft of Federal state educational standards of higher vocational education (2009) highlights very important ideas: the idea of a higher role of educational institutions in curricula design and their focus on real demands of practice; the idea of an active role of a subject him/herself. The “personality qualities” parameter (competence is the ability to apply knowledge, skills and personality qualities to successful activity in a certain area) in psychologists’ training has been singled out in an official document for the fi rst time. But the matter of an individual’s “personality preparedness” for mastering this profession is still open. To crown the discussion of the topic chosen, it is worth mentioning that practical psychologists’ vocational education, advanced training and retraining significantly determine the quality of work at the problems of a personality’s development under the conditions of one or another environment. It is this fact that should be a starting point in determination of the state’s policy in respect of objectives of education, its content and results, including objectives and results of higher vocational education in the sphere of professions providing care. The necessity to improve the normative base of higher vocational education is mentioned in a number of articles. In particular, see: Барбашин И.В. [I.V. Barbashin] Современное состояние и проблемы системы высшего профессионального образования в Российской Федерации // Образование в социально-гуманитарной сфере Российской Федерации. Аналитический вестник Совета Федерации ФС РФ. 2003. № 2 (195) # 1704 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Perhaps, the wording of the aim (“training and retraining”) is not quite proper. A more adequate wording here might be the following – “satisfaction of an individual’s needs to extend and broaden his/her education”. See in details in: Вербицкая Л.А., Касевич В.Б. [L.A. Verbitskaya, V.B. Kasevich] О модернизации российской высшей школы: сегодняшние проблемы и возможные решения. // Вопросы образования 2004. №4, с. 10-22; Гладкова М. [M. Gladkova] Качество высшего образования в рыночном обществе предмет дискурса. // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. Спецвыпуск.. 2007. Т. 10, с. 50-65; Железнякова О.М. [O.V. Zheleznyakova] Взаимодействие базового и дополнительного образования как условие полноты и целостности образовательной траектории. // Дополнительное профессиональное образование. 2006. №12; Кукосян О.Г. [O.G. Kukosyan] Образование взрослых как важнейшая самостоятельная часть системы непрерывного образования. // Дополнительное профессиональное образование. 2007. №1; Пахальян В.Э. [V.Ae. Pakhal’yan] Каким должен или каким может быть психолог, работающий в условиях современного образования? // Вопросы психологии. 2002. №6, et al. The relations between the higher education system and labour market are described in, for example: Клячко Т.Л., Мау В.А. [T.L. Klyachko, V.A. Mau] Тенденции развития высшего профессионального образования в Российской Федерации // Вопросы образования 2007. №3, с. 46-64. See in detain about their evaluation in: Гладкова М. [M. Gladkova] Качество высшего образования в рыночном обществе предмет дискурса. // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. Т. 10. Спецвыпуск.. 2007, с. 5065. See in detail in: Асмолов А.Г. [A.G. Asmolov] XXI век: психология в век психологии. // Вопросы психологии. 1995. №1; Василюк Ф.Е. [F.E. Vasilyuk] Методологический смысл психологического кризиса. // Вопросы психологии. 1996. № 6; Забродин Ю.М. [Yu.M. Zabrodin] Основные проблемы становления практической психологии в СССР. // Психологические условия профессионального становления личности. – М., 1990; 29. Юревич А.В. [A.V. Yurevich] Методологический либерализм в психологии. // Вопросы психологии. – 2001. – № 5, et al. A qualified specialist (candidate or doctor of science) is a qualification that shows that a person has formal data for successful involvement in scientific research but it doesn’t specify the level of teaching ability. Practice shows that there is often no direct connection between having a scientific degree and being successful in teaching. See, for example: Employers’ requirements to the system of vocational education. М., МАКС Пресс, 2006; materials of “Additional vocational education” (Дополнительное профессиональное образование) journal and the site of Higher school of economics – http://isek.hse.ru/part2.html. References Василюк Ф.Е. [F.E. Vasilyuk] От психологической практики к психологической теории // Московский психотерапевтический журнал. 1992. № 1. Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotskiy] Инструментальный метод в психологии // Собрание сочинений в 6 т. Т. 1. (М., 1982) с. 103-108. Забродин Ю.М. [Yu.M. Zabrodin] Проблемы разработки практической психологии // Психологический журнал. Т. 1. 1982. № 2. Иванников В.А. [V.A. Ivannikov] Проблемы подготовки психологов // Вопросы психологии. 2006. № 1. Климов Е.А. [E.A. Klimov] Гипотеза «метелок» и развитие профессии психолога // Вестник Московского ун-та. Сер. 14. Психология. 1992. № 3. С. 3-12. Кукосян О.Г. [O.G. Kukosyan] Образование взрослых как важнейшая самостоятельная часть системы непрерывного образования // Дополнительное профессиональное образование. 2007. № 1. Ляудис В.Я. [V.Ya. Lyaudis] Методика преподавания психологии (М., 2000). Роджерс К. [C. Rogers] Становление человека (М., 1994). Слободчиков В.И. [V.I. Slobodchikov] Что развивается в образовании, что образуется в развитии? // Развитие и образование особенных детей: проблемы, поиски (М., 1999) с. 20. Требования работодателей к системе профессионального образования [Employers’ demands for the system of vocational education] (М., , 2006). Юревич А.В. [A.V. Yurevich] Системный кризис в психологии // Вопросы психологии. 1999. № 2. # 1705 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victor E. Pakhal’yan. Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects Подготовка практических психологов: трудности и перспективы В.Э. Пахальян Московский институт открытого образования Россия 125167, Москва, Авиационный переулок, 6 В статье представлен авторский взгляд на современное состояние проблемы подготовки практических психологов. На примере анализа состояния нормативно-правовой и методологической базы системы высшего профессионального образования обращается внимание на те сложности подготовки практических психологов, которые связаны как с формальными требованиями к профессиональной деятельности, так и с личностной готовностью будущих специалистов. Выделяется вопрос о необходимости разработки нового направления в сфере практической психологии – превентивной психологии развития. Ключевые слова: подготовка практических психологов, образовательный результат, личностная готовность, типы задач, которые решаются в разных сферах психологии, превентивная психология развития. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1707-1713 ~~~ УДК 37.04:004 Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training Olga G. Smolyaninovaa, Olga A. Imanova and Olga Y. Bugakovab* a Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia b Krasnoyarsk Teacher Training College No.1 named after M. Gorky 106 Uritskogo str. Krasnoyarsk, 660017 Russia1 a Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012 The article presents the experience of using an e-portfolio technology in the system of vocational education and training in accordance with the requirements of the modern labor market. The article describes the experience of implying this technology in the academic process at the Krasnoyarsk Teacher Training College No.1. Keywords: e-portfolio, pedagogical education, professional competences, vocational education and training. The research is carried out within the international project of the 7th framework program of the European Commission supported by the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation. (“E-Portfolio as the means of professional and personal development”, project № 12-26-19001). Introduction The problem of college graduates’ employment is topical in many regions of Russia. Young specialists lacking experience at the beginning of their professional career, have little chance to be employed in their field. According to the Federal Service of State Statistics the rise in teen unemployment (aged 1519) has made 8.6 % by the end of 2011. The rise in the unemployment of college and university graduates has made 21.9 % (Web-site “City News”). The problem of college graduates’ employment is a consequence of the fact that * 1 the Russian system of professional education has no settled relationship with the labor market. This relationship could eliminate the imbalance between supply and demand of experts, between the quality of vocational training and the requirements of the employer. The successful employment of college graduates is interfered by the absence of mutually advantageous communication between enterprises and vocational education institutions. The enterprises are not interested in retraining young specialists as it demands time and fi nance, and colleges train their students according to their own possibilities and taking Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1707 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova… Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training into account parents and school graduates’ wishes, practically ignoring the labor market tendencies. Therefore, the system of vocational education and training needs essential changes in terms of its adaptation to the modern economy requirements (Burkova, 2008). Thus, there is a need to establish an effective mechanism of interaction between the labor market and vocational education institutions in order to eliminate these contradictions. The implementation of the e-portfolio in the system of vocational education and training can become a link between the college and the employer, a basis for the graduate’s future career growth, an estimation tool of the student’s professional competence. On the other hand, the e-portfolio is an effective means of monitoring academic achievements of the student, showing the level of his/her involvement in academic, research, social, creative and other kinds of activity. Prospects and conditions of effective implementation of the e-portfolio technology in the system of vocational education and training The prospects of the e-portfolio implementation in the system of vocational education and training are as follows: The e-portfolio: contains information on different types of the student’s activity, on subjects, courses and practices taken in the course of training; allows to carry out prolonged monitoring of educational programs; reflects the results of the student’s individual academic activity, allows to trace and estimate the results of training and individual progress; demonstrates the academic potential and achievements of the college graduate to the employer; allows to trace the academic results during the entire period of training; testifies to the received knowledge, skills and abilities to be put into practice, i.e. about professional competences of the student; meets the interests of the student and the teacher and can become their means of interaction; stimulates the student’s academic activity, helps to realize his/her own purposes and possibilities; acts as the proof of the student’s involvement into creative, project and research work. Implementing e-portfolio in teacher training colleges A modern teacher should meet both the requirements of the employer and the educational demand of the society. According to the Federal state educational standard of primary general education, a primary school teacher is supposed to achieve the following educational results: ability of the pupils to plan, control and estimate their own educational actions according to the objective; ability to choose the appropriate ways to achieve the result; ability to understand the reason of success/failure of educational activity; ability to act reasonably even in failure situations; initial skills of cognitive and personal reflection. The basic criterion to assess students’ academic results is to consider their personal abilities. The absence of grading during the first and second years at school does not contradict # 1708 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova… Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training the standard system of assessment. It also helps to establish good relationship and cooperation of a pupil and a teacher. In the conditions of ungraded classes the primary school teacher should be able to use the e-portfolio technology (Smolyaninova et al, 2011). In the current context teacher training is focused on new tendencies in the system of assessment, reflection and the ability to design the educational process. Therefore, the e-portfolio, being an effective tool to develop professional competences, is used in many teacher training colleges: Kamyshlovsk teacher training college, Kemerovo teacher training college, Krasnoyarsk teacher training college No. 1, Minusinsk teacher training college, Samara social-pedagogical college, Northern teacher training college of Sverdlovsk region. Here we present the experience of the e-portfolio implementation at Krasnoyarsk teacher training college No. 1. At this college the e-portfolio is used as an effective means of qualitative assessment of students’ professional competences. The basic aim of the e-portfolio is to demonstrate students’ academic and professional achievements. The e-portfolio also pursues the following objectives: to support students’ educational and professional motivation; to encourage their academic activity and independence at all steps of professional education; to expand the possibilities of study and self-study; to develop reflective skills; to develop study skills (to set purposes, to plan and organize their own educational and professional activity); The content of the e-portfolio reflects the student’s various achievements allowing to assess his/her readiness to implement professional skills; it shows his/her significant academic results, and allows to monitor his/her individual progress in a wide educational context. At this college the e-portfolio use is accepted at the administrative level and is regulated by the local normative act. This act reflects basic requirements to the e-portfolio content; presents the detailed structure of the e-portfolio; describes the process of the e-portfolio formation and assessment; presents the criteria of assessment; Initially the innovative system of assessment by means of the e-portfolio was introduced at the Department of Primary Education. This method of assessment presupposes a personified account of the student’s achievements. It is also an instrument of pedagogical support for the student in his/her social and professional development. The curriculum of the first year at the Department of Primary Education includes the “E-portfolio technology” course. This course helps students to master methodological approaches to the e-portfolio compilation and implementation. Doing this course, students study the possibilities of the e-portfolio for assessment and reflection of a primary school teacher professional activity which they can later apply during their teaching placement at school. Before starting his/her e-portfolio, the student is assigned a password and a login. Today the college web-site contains portfolios which include the following headings: “Greeting”, “CV”, “Reflection”, “Achievements” and “References”. The structure of the e-portfolio has separate sections including materials which show the student’s participation in different types of activity: 1. Greeting (photo or video, a paragraph about the author); # 1709 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova… Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training 2. CV (summary which gives initial information on the student’s educational level, his/her personal qualities, a main objective of studying at college); 3. Reflection (an essay on his/her attitudes to the chosen profession, educational and career plans); 4. Achievements (academic achievements and other achievements in the sphere of: • research (participation in scientific conferences of various levels (federal, regional, municipal and institutional); • self-education (independent study of disciplines, attending extra-curricular courses); • methodological work (programs, analysis of available methodical materials, results of the student’s teaching placement, methodical materials to lessons, lesson analysis, reflection, out-of-class activities); • social work (participation in various actions, projects, student initiatives, extracurricular clubs, hobbies, volunteering); • references (by teachers, peer-students); • portfolio assessment (by experts, selfassessment); “Methodic bank” is a section which includes the results of teaching placement, the best plans of lessons, the results of the exam in the professional module “The organization of extracurricular activities and communication of primary school pupils” etc. Such materials in the student’s e-portfolio will help potential employers to estimate graduates’ potential and make the decision on their employment. The process of compilation and assessment of a first year student’s e-portfolio consists of several stages. Stage 1. At this stage during the first two months of training students study the introductory course “E-portfolio technology” and get acquainted with the criteria of assessment. Criteria: Completeness (whether all the sections necessary at this stage, are filled in); Information content (whether the information presented in the e-portfolio shows personal qualities and other characteristics of the student); Quality of materials’ layout Stage 2. Students fill in “Greeting” and “CV” sections. As a rule, the “Greeting” section doesn’t cause any difficulties unlike the “CV” section. Therefore, it is advisable to set fields for filling in advance for the “CV” section. In case such fields are absent, we recommend to make up questions, the answers to which will help students to fill in this section. Stage 3. Students write an essay “My future profession” which is placed in the “Reflection” section. Also, in this section, students present materials reflecting their educational plans for the coming period (a semester, a year). Teachers, mentors and psychologists should give students some advisory support in writing their reflective essays and reports. Such support is especially needed when students write about their professional (career) plans. In this case it is necessary to offer questions, the answers to which will help to reveal student’s professional motivation and long-term plans. For example, 1) My aim (long-term) (what I’m going to do, what kind of specialist I’m going to become, where I’m going to work, what position I’m going to take); 2) A chain of short-term objectives (what I already know and what I’m going to learn, what I have already achieved, educational and career plans); 3) Ways to achieve the objectives (what I’m going to do to achieve them: study # 1710 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova… Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training necessary literature, talk to competent people, use my own knowledge and life experience, enroll on a course, etc.); 4) External conditions (what kind of difficulties/obstacles I anticipate); 5) Internal conditions (abilities for training, persistence, patience, personal qualities necessary for this specialty); 6) Backups in case of insuperable difficulties in the plan realization. Stage 4. Students select materials and place them into the “Achievements” section. Stage 5. By the end of the academic year the e-portfolio materials are assessed by experts. Students start compiling the e-portfolio during their first year at college and later they develop and improve it. The content of the e-portfolio must reflect the development of the student’s professional competences in accordance with the Federal state educational standard of vocational education and training (Pedagogical education). For this purpose we have devised the scale of assessment of the student’s competences presented in the e-portfolio. The results of the student’s academic and professional activity presented in the e-portfolio are the admission to mid-term and final exams. Generally, the e-portfolio technology allows to estimate the student’s success in academic activity both in separate subjects and in the group of disciplines; allows to monitor the student’s results, abilities and competences necessary for his/her future professional activity; promotes the student’s motivation to improve his/her results; allows to track the student’s individual progress in his/her academic and social activity . focuses the student on success in future professional activity and career growth; allows the employer to choose a specialist basing on the objective criteria. Students independently select the best materials for their e-portfolio, analyzing them and making necessary changes after teachers and experts’ assessment. By doing this, students get reflective experience and develop critical thinking which are necessary in modern education. The e-portfolio is an effective tool which helps students to correlate the process with the results of their study, their claims with their real possibilities, the level of test tasks with their own level. In the long run, the e-portfolio contributes to the effective self-presentation at the labor market. Conclusion The experience of using the e-portfolio in Krasnoyarsk teacher training college No. 1 has shown that further implementation of this technology in the system of vocational education will be successful on condition that: • a well-defined concept of the e-portfolio technology introduction into the educational process is devised; • a discipline on the e-portfolio technology is included into the curriculum; • learner-support and didactic materials on the e-portfolio technology are devised both for teachers and for students; • a local act carried out on the administrative level regulates the introduction and implementation of the e-portfolio technology; • an accurate system of the e-portfolio materials ranking is devised; • their quantitative and qualitative assessment is carried out on the basis of unified criteria. In our opinion, the wide range of the e-portfolio technology possibilities can be fully # 1711 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova… Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training realized in case the consistency of operation is ensured between a college and a university, a college and the labor market. Thus, it is necessary to build up an e-portfolio database which will promote successful employment of college graduates. References Burkova N. Pedagogicheskiye printsipy monitoringa v uchrezhdeniyakh srednego professional’nogo obrazovaniya: avtoreferat doktorskoi dissertatsii (Pedagogical principles of monitoring in vocational education and training institutions: author’s abstract of the doctoral thesis). Moscow, 2008. Available at http://dissers.ru/avtoreferati-dissertatsii-pedagogika/a455.php; Smolyaninova O., Imanova O. Ispolzovanie tekhonologii e-portfolio v vysshem obrazovanii v Rossiyskoi Federatsii (E-porftolio technology implementation in higher education in the Russian Federation). Sibirskiy pedagogicheskii zhurnal (Siberian pedagogical journal) №9-2011, pp.65-77; Web-site “City News” available at http://anonssmi.ru/v-rossii-rastet-kolichestvo-bezrabotnojmolodezhi/ Web-sites of colleges Kamyshlovsk teacher training college http://kampk.ucoz.ru/Dokument/polozhenie_o_portfolio. doc; Kemerovo teacher training college http://kempc.edu.ru/index.php/; Kirov teacher training college http://kp-kollege.ru/; Krasnoyarsk teacher training college №1 http://www.kpk1.ru/ Minusinsk teacher training college http://www.minuspk.ru/?mode=honor.top; Noyabrsk college of professional and information technologies http://resume.nkit.ru/ Samara social-pedagogical collegehttp://samsspc.ru/2009/11/24/portfolio-kak-innovacionnyjocenochnyj-instrument.html; Northern teacher training college of Sverdlovsk region http://spkserov.ucoz.ru/index/ polozhenie_o_portfolio/ Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Olga A. Imanova… Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training Использование технологии епортфолио в системе среднего профессионального педагогического образования О.Г. Смолянинова, О.А. Иманова, О.Е. Бугакова Сибирский федеральный университет, Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Красноярский педагогический колледж №1 им. М.Горького Россия 660017, Касноярск, ул. Урицкого, 106 Авторами предлагается использование технологии епорфтолио для подготовки специалистов в системе среднего педагогического профессионального образования в соответствии с образовательными запросами общества и требованиями современного рынка труда. Представлен опыт использования данной технологии в Красноярском педагогическом колледже №1 им. М. Горького. Ключевые слова: епортфолио, педагогическое образование, профессиональные компетенции, среднее профессиональное образование. Исследование выполнено в рамках международного проекта 7-ой рамочной программы Еврокомиссии при финансовой поддержке РГНФ (проект «Электронный портфолио как средство профессионально-личностного развития», № 12-26-19001).