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154.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №11 2012

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2012
Journal of Siberian Federal University
5 (11)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г.Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Boris D. Elkonin
Source and Driving Forces for Development
– 1525 –
Isak D. Froumin
Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five
Transitions
– 1534 –
Vasily V. Davydov
Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation
– 1542 –
Anatoly G. Kasprzhak
Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001
– 1549 –
Katerina N. Polivanova
Problems of Learning Motivation. The age Aspect
– 1560 –
Boris I. Khasan
Conflicts and Negotiations $ Educational Content and Conditions
for the Development
– 1570 –
Viktor A. Bolotov
Development Pedagogy $ the Crisis of the Genre?
– 1583 –
Tatiana I. Ustus
The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence
– 1593 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Sergey M. Geraschenko
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Khasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgeniya V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Vladimir I. Suprun
Liudmila V. Kulikova
Olga G. Smolyaninova
Nicolai N. Petro
Dr. Suneel Kumar
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina
Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents,
Game Preferences and Favorite Toys
– 1602 –
Elena Î. Smirnova
Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational
Programmes
– 1617 –
Oksana S. Ostroverkh
Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils
Schooling Activities
– 1628 –
Larisa A. Novopashina
The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational
Environment
– 1639 –
Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva
Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition to
Independence and Responsibility. Adolescence as a Transition
– 1660 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Kirill G. Mitrofanov,
Natalia P. Vasilyeva and Elena Yu. Kozyreva
Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology
of Education Quality Management
– 1671 –
Elena Y. Fedorenkon
Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable
Resource
– 1685 –
Victor E. Pakhal’yan
Practical Psychologists’ Training: Difficulties and Prospects
– 1694 –
Olga G. Smolyaninova,
Olga A. Imanova and Olga Y. Bugakova
Using E-Portfolio in Vocational Education and Training
– 1707 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1525-1533
~~~
УДК 159.922.7
Source and Driving Forces
for Development
Boris D. Elkonin*
Institute of the Russian Academy of Education
the Laboratory of the Junior School Phycology оf Psychological
4 build., 9 Mohovaya st., Moscow, 125009 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
Based on the classic for the Russian children’s psychology attitudes about the contradiction of the ideal
form and the level of somatic organization of a child, the idea about the causes of the development,
as the question why when you reach certain key points of development, the process does not stop and
does not turn into the functioning according to the already known schemes, but develops further,
is researched and developed. It is alleged that the development of an action as the development
of the world has two focusing and two completions. Firstly, the completion of the development in
the construction of an individual action and, secondly, its completion in the construction of the
combined, mutual action. The importance of realizing that mediacy – transferring samples – is not
completed by the formation of the separate cultural skills, but finds its fullness by being included into
the management of the nature of movement, finding its rhythm and measure – the step of development,
is emphasized.
Keywords: activity, the source of activity, action, subjectivity, the model, the driving forces of
development.
The original question
The subject of the driving forces is the
key subject for all the classical theories and
all the periodizations of ontogeny. In Soviet
psychology the key thesis about driving force,
the source and the conditions of development
are presented in the book by D.B. Elkonin
“Child Psychology”, published in 1960. These
thesis concerns leading activity as the driving
force of child’s development, the environment –
the medium of ideal forms (cultural norms) –
as the source of development and the level of
somatic organization of a child as a condition of
development (Elkonin, 1960: p. 16 – 19).
*
1
Later, having developed a well-known
periodization of ontogeny, D.B. Elkonin added
his own ideas about the driving forces of
development. He stated that the driving force of
the deployment of activities, and, consequently,
the driving force of development is the difference
(inconsistency, contradiction) of motivationalsemantic and operational-technical aspects
of activity, in other words mismatch and the
problematic relationship between the meaning
and the mode of action (Elkonin, 1989: p. 490).
The thesis about the essential contradictions
of the meaning and the mode of action requires
clarification of the question about the driving
Corresponding author E-mail address: belconin@bk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development
forces of development. This question can be
understood in two ways. Firstly, it is referred
to the causes of appearance of the mental new
developments and, consequently, the emergence
of the new possibilities of action.
All the representatives of Vygotsky’s
school and not only them have been studying
this question. Another interpretation of the same
question is its understanding as the question of the
causes of the development step, as the question
of why when you reach a certain key point, the
development process does not stop and does not
turn into the operation according to the already
known schemes, but develops further. The
question is not answered even if you indicate to
the cultural programme as the defined sequence
of the growing-up stages. It is not answered if we
are discussing development, but not a consistent
adaptation to the externally defined patterns of
behavior.
I believe that the thesis about the necessary
difference between the meaning and the mode of
action is crucial in answering the question about
the driving forces in its second interpretation,
crucial to understand the way, the step of
development appears.
The source of personal activity
The source of activity as personal activity
is the situation of human involvement in
creation or recreation of personal activity. In
this case we should emphasize two issues: firstly,
specifically involvement, as human activity is
made only in the form of joint action (Elkonin,
1989) and, secondly, we mean specifically
creation of personal activity, in contrast to its
involvement into subjection to some kind of
alien force. The situation is creation of personal
activity is the situation of overcoming of an alien
impact in personal activity. It is this situation
that creates overcoming of personal activity and
connected with it feeling of personal activity,
which is represented as a feeling of our body –
well-being. It appears in the rhythm of acting,
during transition of efforts, it means within the
limits, during effort-not effort and not efforteffort transition (Elkonin, 2010). Only at the
“point” of appearance of the feeling of personal
activity (in M.M. Bakhtin’s words “... the feeling
of self-generating activity ...” (Bakhtin, 1975)),
one becomes involved into the source of personal
activity – becomes its subject.
Subjectivity and the conditions of its
origin – the essence of the word, which define
the main direction, the axis, and the motif of
the deployment of research and development
practices in L.S. Vygotsky’s school.
For L.S. Vygotsky mediation – creation of an
attribution of a situation of behavior – is a universal
form of overcoming stimulus relationship with
the environment, stimulus forms of influence
on a person and control of a person’s behavior,
i.e., within the limit – overcoming the stimulus
organization of the world. Stimulus, provocative
in its nature do not leave any room for the activity,
in which deeply felt corporality is being recreated
and tested.
For A.N. Leontiev the major transformation,
that characterizes the creation of the psyche, is
the transformation of a stimulus into the subject,
which defi nes the transition to the sensation.
It is this transformation that A.N. Leontiev
recreated in his experimental work (Leontiev,
1981).
For A.V. Zaporozhets the condition of creation
of voluntary movement is its transformation from
insensible to sensible. This transformation was
also recreated experimentally (Zaporozhets,
1960).
The experiments which were conducted under
direction of A.N. Leontiev and A.V. Zaporozhets
(conducted in-parallel the late 50’s of the last
century, but never matched with each other
(Zaporozhets, 1960: p. 52 – 90), (Leontiev, 1981:
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p. 161 – 218)), revealed the two sides of the same
act.
A.V. Zaporozhets, studying the feeling of
personal movement, modeled it, making a kind
of screening of the rhythm of deep sensibility
(vegetative rhythm), i.e. its visible display, and
showed that the feeling of self-motion occurs in
the samples of such a screening.
A.N. Leontiev, not studying the feeling of selfmotion in the public, nevertheless demonstrated
that, for example, pitch distinction (hearing)
happens in cases where the display is being tested
and recreated in a special audible voice, or even
tactile intoning. Such a test and reconstruction
A.N. Leontiev called the assimilation of an
action to the subject. In such a way the category
of objectivity was introduced. It is important
that, in this case, the “object” displays, screens,
and thereby objectifies and retains implicit and
labile feeling. It is also important that this very
“subject” is not given, but should be detected and
reconstructed in specific tests.
He two sides of the act which was studied
are the following: a) detection and reconstruction
of the externally represented internal forces
(A.V. Zaporozhets) and b) the detection and
reconstruction of the reflection (image), which
manifests an inner force (A.N. Leontiev). The
internal assimilation (playback) and externallyeffective creation of its (specifically its) image –
are the two desired characteristics of the joint
action, in which the subjected activity appears.
The joint action should originate the
situation and the space, in which corporality
(well-being) and the image are in the mode of
mutual testing (mutual reflection) and the game
with their reversibility appears. We can say that
in such spaces the reciprocity of corporality
and its image are modeled. However, this space
is formed not as “a main scheme” but as “a live
model”, a concentrate of life events. This model
is not removed from the reality of life, but vice
versa, concentrates reality, revealing its hidden
completeness and verity (Heidegger, 2005),
(Heidegger, 1992). Ontogeny can be represented
as a rhythmic shift of these models and
“playgrounds” – the rhythm of the development of
the Events of recreation of the Source of personal
activity. In such a representation, D.B. Elkonin’s
guess about the nature of the psyche is becoming
clear. In his scientific diaries D.B. Elkonin wrote:
“The essence, the meaning [highlighted by the
author – B.E.] of the mental activity lies not in the
fact that it occurs internally, but in the fact that it is
the activity which carries out a specific function –
the action in reality according to a model. This is
the essence of the case. We should comprehend
mental activity as an internal activity. This is the
only way to study it” (Elkonin, 2004: p. 22).
The driving forces of development – are
the essential forces by which the life models
are systematically reconstructed – the events of
recreation of the Source of personal activity.
The duality of development
It was mentioned that a model in which
reciprocity of well-being and its image are
recreated is constructed in a special joint
action. In other researches, I call this action
mediation, and I believe that it has the form of
a test-productive action (Elkonin, 2010). It is
its development- modeling that sets the rhythm
of development. However, the action in its
completion can not be presented and introduced
for the development. Its development involves
the inclusion into its creation, being in it, in its
development, not only before it. The development
of such an action is taking place in the World, the
creation and definition of one’s own in the World.
M. Heidegger (after E. Husserl) named such
development intentionality. We will clarify the
structure of intentionality, and, thus, the structure
of the situation of connection of well-being and
the image and, thus, the structure of the Source
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Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development
of Activity – the situation of “the beginning” of
activity.
In the development of an action as the
development of the World, there are two focusing
and two completions. Firstly, the completion of
the development in the formation of an individual
action and, secondly, its completion in the
formation of the joint, mutual action (Elkonin,
2010: p. 211 – 215). In the different completions of
the action of mediation there are different aspects
of the development itself – different aspects of
“one’s own”. Firstly, the action is formed as the
development of a World by a person, or rather as
development of the certain means (physical and
external) of development of the World. Here, the
World is becoming one’s own – sensible, visible
and represented in words. Secondly, and this is
very important, the World is being developed in
a sense, that an individual becomes the part of
the World, and the World admits an individual as
Its Own. This second aspect of the development
in the studies of l.S. Vygotsky and his followers
was only assumed, but was never revealed. But
the personality – a Face and a Name – appears
only here, in approving someone as a source of
action.
For example, I could not but begin to write
this work, if I had not been recognized and
approved as one of the “players in the field” of
cultural-historical psychology, i.e., would not
have been taken into their “team”. However,
when I’m writing this study and develop, or
redevelop the schemes of cultural-historical
psychology, I understand that the study is going
to be completed, it will succeed, when it will be
accepted and recognized, and my ability to be
a “player” in this field, i.e. “to be in…” will be
approved.
The simple act of communication also has
these two sides: looking at another person, as
if “feeling” and becoming acquainted with the
person, I am, having become acquainted with a
person, at the same time, lay myself open to a
person’s opinion, feel his gaze and is visible by
a person.
Every product and creation, including
human image as a product, are dually established,
directed and completed: to the development of a
different by oneself and to the development of
oneself by a different. This duality and never
predetermined measure of reciprocity of the two
sides of development taken in advance, is the
intrigue of One’s own.
Reciprocity of the corporality and the image
is played out as a model to build the situation of
connection: a) call of an action (gesture), which
is aimed at oneself and b) the formation of an
action “from” oneself to a different. The first one
is formed as a special appeal – as a challenge of
the approval of entering into the state of activity
(“You are here with us”) and as a statement of
its completion (“It is done”, “You can”). It is here
One’s own-Different appears. The second one
is formed as the introduction of the backboneslimits of activity (samples), the product of its step
and rhythm (Elkonin, 2010а). At this point the
sensible bearing of the personal efforts and One’s
own corporality appears.
The reality which D.B. Elkonin defined as
the development of motivational and semantic
aspect of an action has the form of a challenge
of a statement of a person as the Source of one’s
own activity – as its subject. A statement and
a challenge is the essence of the practice of the
meaning of an action (Elkoniniva, 2004), the
practice of addressing to the World (the Other) as
a carrier of the image-idea of an action. What was
called the motive is phenomenally fulfilled as an
image of impulsion, breakthrough into activity
and as an image of fullness of completeness of
its fragment, the completeness of what was done.
The meaning and motivation are outplayed in
the models of “entry” into activity (vigilance,
ambition, strong-willed attitude) and are held in
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Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development
the images of a hero (feat) or in the image of a
loving person (smiles, tenderness, etc.)
The essence of the presented scheme of
understanding of the motivational-semantic
aspect of action lies in the fact that the meaning
and the motive are understood not as materialized
energy – the subject of an external action, which
defines its performance. They are understood
practically and effectively – as images – topics
(Elkonin, 2010: p. 45 – 54) and the energy of the
transition field – the images of the Event.
Understanding of the operational and
technical aspects of an action should also be
reconstructed. D.B. Elkonin himself started this
reconstruction, and he included the meaning of
example and the formation of the personal mode
of action by a child into choosing the made of
action (Elkonin, 1989: p. 130 – 141), and this
reconstruction should be continued.
Firstly, the mode of action is not onedimensional, it is three-dimensional and includes
experience and testing of the basis, testing of the
situations (the field) and testing of the direction of
an action (Elkonin, 2010: p. 233 – 252), (Egorova,
2009). The transitions of the levels (between the
basis, the field and the direction) determine the
completeness of the mode of action.
Secondly, the appearance of the new levels
in the mode of action is possible only with
immersion of the basic samples of acting into
an element of the certain progression (e.g., the
element of walking, or the element of finding the
meaning in the speech) (Elkonin, 2010). Only in
such an element the rhythm of action is formed. It
this element, similar to the energy of an element
intention appears, and this intention merges with
an action itself.
Thirdly, the development of the mode on the
level of formation of the personal situation and
the field of action, involves the separation of “my
action” and “an action which was performed by
me” and it involves individualization of an action
and emancipation from the person, who controls
an action. Here the field of personal action and
the field of compatibility (often conflict) appears
(Elkonin, 2010). The basis of formation of the
personal field of action – the basis of the speed
of its expansion – will be the subject of the
next crisis. Not only procedural and technical
definition of the basis of action is in conflict
with its “motivational-semantic” aspect. It is in
the conflict with it by situational and field mode
of action – direct self-centered expansion of the
field and formation of the new situations as one’s
own situations. It is in this “point”, the World
presented by the Others demands to reassert the
“right” to action-intention, as if asking, “Who
are you to try, how can you be the source of your
progress?”
In the analysis of the mode of action the
element of motion was neglected, with the help
of this element action-intention is formed and
the field of action is established. In the analysis
of the motivational-semantic aspect of an action,
energy-efficient, and corresponding to it spatialtopical form of phenomena (intentionality) of
the meaning and motive was neglected – the
challenge of the confirmation of subjectivity,
confi rmation of an individual as the source
of action, i.e. an individual as “I am” were
neglected as well.
I believe that these omissions have not
only “individual-mental” (“teachers could not
figure out”), but the cultural and historical
background. The form of culture and the form
of its representation on all its levels assumed the
given subordination of the already formed, and
given in samples cultural patterns. In the “field
of upbringing” there were supposed to be the
emphasis and direct transmittance of the norms
as “meanings” – the “values”, you have to fight
for, but in the field of “education” there was no
(and there is not) supposed to be involvement
into the element of promotion and expansion
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Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development
of the field of action. In this type of culture the
development of the mode and development
the meaning are parallel, and development of
a place in the World has a transformed form of
adaptation to the different types of regulations.
D.B. Elkonin’s thesis about the meaning and
the mode as connected aspects of an action and
acquisition of a place in society by this action – is
the beginning of the project of a new culture.
The driving forces for development
Specifications of understanding of the
meaning and the mode of action, given in the
previous section, give us an opportunity to get
to the idea of the driving forces of development.
Let me remind, that only those “forces”, which
recreate the models of testing of the method or the
point of action are considered. Let me also remind,
that the “forces” which define the progress itself
and the step of development are considered.
The question that should be answered is the
question of how the acting out of a model of one
type (e.g. a model of development of the meaning)
leads to the problem of the development of a
model of another type. Thus, the question about
the driving forces comes to the question of how
one model starts the development of the other.
It is important to emphasize that in this light,
research and analysis should come to the “point”
of transmission of one model to another, the
“point” of appearance of the substance of a new
action, and do not remain in the consideration of
the development post festum, at the point, where
a new model has already emerged and is being
implemented.
Another note is also important. In order
to discuss the driving forces in accordance
with the special requirements, it is necessary
to find those functional systems, which, when
started functioning, are capable of further selfdevelopment i.e., those that require development of
the opportunities, rather than special formation.
At this stage I can consider the transition of
one model to the development of another only in
two age groups – infancy and early childhood,
that form the age, which D.B. Elkonin called the
age of infancy.
Direct emotional communication of a child
and an adult in the first six month of child’s
life is introduced by the widely known and
discussed phenomenon. The basic phenomenon –
emergence, keeping and further appearance of
a smile, and later – elation when a child sees
an adult. The space of emotional contact is
consistently growing – the “contact” distance is
increasing, appears an adult’s coming and leaving
the “circle” of communication, and the angles of
rotation of a child’s head and body, associated
with it, are increasing.
It is important to emphasize that in the
reciprocity of a child and an adult, there is
no and there can not be any separation of
activation and movement (tonus and kinetics),
i.e. differentiation of the state of activity and the
activity itself (movement). There is no distinction
not only because a child is small, but, and this is
important, because the model of direct-emotional
communication and its nature, does not distinguish
between a state and a movement. In this absence
of distinction a movement is manifestation of a
state. Everything is a gesture. The distinction
between a state and its manifestation in love or
hatred at the same moment will not be love or
hatred, but their theatrical training. The absence
of distinction between the state of activation
and movement, and, correspondingly, between
a gesture and a movement, an intention and a
movement are the positive characteristics of the
dynamic field of the direct emotionality.
In child’s corporality the supported
combination of activation and movement turns
into the combination of perception and movement,
sensory and motor skills. A child sees an adult
distantly and turns the body and the head more and
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Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development
more, and breaks the records of these “distantly”
and “more”, extending the corporal field, because
of the direct sensor-motor connection.
According to B.A. Arkhipov’s (Arkhipov;
Arkhipov et al. 2010) experience and data, an
increase in the angles of eyes’ and body’s rotation
is symmetrically displayed in the other “parts” of
the body and starts the formation of a new body
axis, its field and body support – the functional
systems of posture and movement. A child
independently begins to crawl and walk, but his
vision and movement are not separated, and tonic
and kinetic basis in the movement are not separated
as well. A child is in the element of movement,
and only in the case of unpleasant incidents the
elements of control are activated. These incidents
are becoming the subject of special concern of
an adult. The situation of communication and the
type of challenge are changing. From the situation
of support of a child’s activity, an adult comes to
the situation of a child’s escort, i.e. to the situation
of limiting of a child’s activity to a certain
extend (this situation can be named “existential
situation of development”, distinguishing it,
thus, from the “social situation”)… It is here,
in this situation – the place of development of
child’s basic activities, i.e. the place of transfer
of the behavioral examples to a child. It concerns
action, because an example with the meaning of
the limits between “allowed” and “forbidden”,
“right” and “wrong” gives basics and guidelines
of activity control and forms of its fragmentation
and completion. As the limits, an example gives
artificial basics as intensifiers of the natural ones
and, thus, requires the division of a basis and
a movement, and therefore – the division of an
image and the way of acting, which leads to the
separation of a single sensor-motor field. The
separation of the sensor-motor field leads to the
accentuation of the tonic-kinetic transition (in
the form of basis) and to its reconstruction. The
step and the rhythm of movement appear, and
together with it appears the feeling of personal
effort.
As it was mentioned earlier, it is important
that the examples are fully and meaningfully
included into a child’s life, i.e. mediation becomes
complete only when it is plunged into an element –
the energy of development of the hidden order of
movement. Being plunged, in order to open the
hitherto hidden order – the rhythm of movement
in relation to the composition of its space, the
places of the basic orienting points of movement
(Elkonin, 2010).
In such a way one model (the leading activity)
gradually becomes the other. It becomes, because
as a by-product (Ponomarev, 1967), it starts selfdevelopment, the spontaneous formation of a
different functional system. Self-development,
extension of the field of “work” of this new
functional system “captures” the field is its origin
and sets new challenges in it, thus, leading to the
appearance of a new model of activity testing.
Only in the case of appearance of the element of
formation of corporality within direct emotional
communication it can be stated that direct
emotional communication is the driving force
of development. Summarizing what was said by
L.S. Vygotsky, it is possible to state that only that
cultural form of behavior, inside which the new
natural form appears and develops, becomes the
driving force of development – the new object
of further modeling and development. In the
given example of the development of oneself by
the World – the direct emotional challenge of an
adult – the resilient material for the development
of the World by oneself is formed.
In the formation and development of the new
subject of development, the positive role of some
indistinctions should be noticed and underlined:
the combination of a state and manifestation that
gives the directness of communication and which
is reflected in the combination of sensory and
motor basics of activity – in its spontaneity.
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Another example of the age transition,
interpreted as the transition of the models of
subjectivity – is the transition from the tender
age to pre-school age, from the development of
the basics of a physical action to a role-playing
game. I have already mentioned some aspects of
this transition and, therefore, I will describe it
briefly.
Once again I will emphasize the importance
of understanding, that mediation – giving
examples – is not finished by the formation of
the separate cultural skills, but is completed by
being included in the management of the element
of movement, in finding its rhythm and measure,
i.e. a step.
Immersiveness of the element of movement
is motivation. Rhythmization of this element is
recreation of intention, recreation of the personal
energy of movement in one’s corporality. At the
same time, an intention of a child’s movement
is not separated from the image of the field of
movement, is does not “live” differently than
in the images of the fragments of the field, it is
“inside” it. The phenomena of “inside” is called
“the field behavior”. The action, that energy
exists as “objective desire” – an action-intention.
In this action “I want” is not yet identified,
not outplayed as a special condition and is not
separated from “I can”. A child lives in this
“I want- I can”, i.e. lives in direct demiurgic
connection with the world.
It is here, in regard to the naive demiurgic
action-intention incidents that put it into
question arise. It may be lumbering machines,
scary passers-by, a lift or an airplane, or it
may be just father’ or mother’s prohibition to
approach to the computer or to them when they
work. Situations and events that L.S. Vygotsky
called the “unrealizable tendencies” appear.
Within action-intention, these situations can’t
be resolved and often transform into anxieties
and fears.
Children role-playing game is a model of
testing of the event of intention. The model of the
test of intention in the form of impossible effort,
i.e. in the form of a Hero and a feat. In this new
model, a child initiates and tests development
of oneself by others as the one who can, as the
one who has the source in intentions in him/
herself. In the game intentions and wishes are
developed.
But what was described will not happen
if the development of the examples of the
corporal action will not inspire and not intensify
the element of objective intention and spatial
expansion.
And again: mediation, overcoming of
natural in cultural will become the driving force
of development only in the case of generation
of the new natural, new spontaneous as its byproduct. And this new spontaneous will provoke
situations and tasks, which solution will require
the enactment of a new model of subjectivity, and
a new model of One’s own. In this case a Game
as the model of the development of intentionsimpulses.
References
Архипов Б.А. [B.A. Arkhipov] Формирование пространства и схемы тела в онтогенезе.
Рукопись.
Архипов Б.А., Максимова Е.В., Семенова Н.Е. [B.A. Arkhipov, E.V. Maksimova,
N.E. Semenova] Уровень тонической регуляции как основа формирования психики ребенка. Ж.
«Психотерапия», №5, 2010. С. 24 – 33.
Бахтин М.М. [M.M. Bakhtin] Вопросы литературы и эстетики. (М., 1975).
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Собр. соч. в 6 т. (М., 1982-1984).
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Boris D. Elkonin. Source and Driving Forces for Development
Егорова А.А. [A.A. Egorova] Феномены построения способа действия // Культурноисторическая психология. 2009. № 1. С 96–102.
Запорожец А.В. [A.V. Zaporozhets] Развитие произвольных движений (М., 1960).
Леонтьев А.Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Проблемы развития психики (М., 1981).
Пономарев Я.А. [Y.A. Ponomarev] Психика и интуиция (М., 1967).
Хайдеггер М. [M. Heidegger] Исток художественного творения (М., 2005).
Хайдеггер М. [M. Heidegger] Семинар в Ле Торе, 1969 // Вопросы философии. 1992. № 10.
С. 123–151.
Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Опосредствование. Действие. Развитие (Ижевск, 2010)
Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Пространство опосредствования и развитие // Антропопраксис,
2010.
Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Детская психология (М., 1960).
Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Избранные психологические труды (М., 1989).
Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Выдержки из научных дневников // Вопросы психологии,
2004. № 1. С. 9–22
Эльконинова Л.И. [L.I. Elkoniniva] О единице сюжетно-ролевой игры // Вопросы психологии.
2004. №1. С. 68–79
Исток и движущие силы развития
Б.Д. Эльконин
Психологический институт
Российской академии образования
Лаборатория психологии младшего школьника
Россия 125009, Москва, ул. Моховая, 9, стр. 4
Опираясь на классические для отечественной детской психологии положения о противоречии
идеальной формы и уровне соматической организации ребенка, критически осмысливается
и развивается идея о причинах возникновения самого шага развития как вопроса о том,
почему при достижении некоей ключевой точки процесс развития не останавливается, не
превращается в функционирование по уже готовым схемам, а, наоборот, развертывается
дальше. Утверждается, что в освоении действия как освоении Мира есть две фокусировки
и два завершения. Во-первых, завершение освоения в построении индивидуального действия и,
во-вторых, его завершение в построении совместного, совокупного действия. Подчеркивается
важность понимания того, что опосредствование – передача образцов – не завершается
формированием отдельных культурных навыков, а обретает свою полноту, будучи включенной
в управление стихией движения, в обретение ею ритма и меры, т.е. шага развития.
Ключевые слова: активность, исток активности, действие, субъектность, модель, движущие
силы развития.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1534-1541
~~~
УДК 37.035
Socio-Economic Development
and the Next Generation:
Five Transitions
Isak D. Froumin*
Institute of Education Development of the National Research University
«Higher School of Economics»
Room 411, 4/2 Slavanskaia ploshad, Moscow, 101090 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The article deals with the features of a contemporary transition of generation to adulthood. Such issues
and problems as the contribution of young people in socio-economic development are considered. The
data is given in the article that the transition to adulthood, according to its structure consists of five
transitions: a transition to life learning, a transition to the world of work, a transition to the creation
of the family or attachment to the family life , a transition from private life to public and civilian life,
and a transition from carelessness to health care. A presumption of three approaches for further work
in this subject is given. Firstly, it is an accurate analysis of the situation and youth policy in Russia.
Secondly, it is a question of a person’s driving forces in these transitions. What causes him to support
the objective processes, or to resist them? Thirdly, it’s reassessment of the problem of education in the
context of the present scheme. What potential is given to the person, who will enter the labor market,
create a family and participate in politics?
Keywords: education, age transition, the world of work, process maturity, resource people,
development.
Introduction.
Why are exactly the young people?
It is remarkable that we have been talking
about a few “eternal” questions for a long time
at the conferences on development pedagogy.
There is a question among them whether school is
responsible for the formation of long-term results,
such as a person’s success in life, the way he will
have been living in ten years after graduation,
and later on in fifteen years.
I intend to return to the question of the
effects of school education and try to define more
*
1
precisely the borders of the frame where one
could assess the progress and achievement of a
person. For us, as those who work in the field of
education, it’s essential to estimate the outcomes
of this growing and developing person, which
we set in terms of his future and socio-economic
development of society he lives in.
And it turned out so well that the report
concerning the world development, which had
been prepared by the World Bank, helped me
much in these reflections. In 2006 it was dedicated
to young people. It’s called “Socio-economic
Corresponding author E-mail address: ifroumin@worldbank.org
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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development and the next generation”. Here one
should say why the leaders of the economic and
social ideas turned to the problems of young
people in connection with the problems of socioeconomic development. The fact of the matter is
that humanity has the time now when there are
much more young people than it used to be before
and most likely, will be in the nearest future. It is
believed that in the next 20 years the humanity
will have already reached the peak of population
growth and will start decreasing. It can be traced
in the picture.
because they get a huge human resource which
is in general characterized by better health and
higher qualifications. Young people in developed
countries are also becoming an important
resource, because in ten years an able-bodied
person will have to support two members of the
family who do not work: a child and an elderly
person. Perhaps it’s not as dramatic in its way, but
this process is going on in Russia. In this sense,
the issues of productivity of young generation
and its role in the socio-economic development
plays a huge role.
A number of countries which include Russia
have already been on this peak. The figure also
shows that there are countries where the growth
continues, and the peak will be reached within ten
or twenty years. In any case, the humanity is going
through a period in which there is a huge increase
in young people. The question what to do with it
is not just a question of the youth policy, but it’s
also the question of socio-economic policy.
However, this issue is different for
developed and developing countries. In the
picture we observe the rise in the number of
young people and working-age population
in developing countries, which opens up
unprecedented prospects for these countries
Thus, today, economists, sociologists,
cultural anthropologists refer to the problems
of young people due to some reasons. Firstly,
the increased number of the youth groups in
developing countries is both an enormous risk
and a great opportunity for the sudden growth in
development, and, secondly, the lack of youth in
developed countries makes this resource really
valuable.
Why have I jumped from the question
of the role of education in socio-economic
development to the issue of youth? That’s
because the production of the younger generation
is a major contribution to education in the socioeconomic development. Of course, there are
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other contributions: schools collect waste paper,
elections are held there, and there are scientific
researches in universities. But education is
exactly the area that affects the majority of
young people. Besides, the number of years
young people study and spend in education in
developed and developing countries is increasing.
Thus, a potentially important resource of socioeconomic development is created (or can be
created) in the education system.
Then, a question is bound to arise for us as
employees of the system: how are young people
turning from a potentially valuable resource into
a real force in the development and what makes
its contribution positive and significant.
To answer this question, we must answer the
question posed in the title of the 13th conference
on pedagogy development: “What is the youth?
Is it the peak of childhood or early adulthood?”
And here I join the opinion of the authors of the
World Development Report, who, in fact, give
a completely unambiguous answer: the youth is
the transition to adulthood. In a good way, it is
a transition to a productive and happy adult life1.
Then, in fact, a fundamental issue of social and
economic policy is managing this transition. It’s
managing the transition of a huge mass of people
from childhood to adulthood.
For us, it helps to raise the question of the
role of education in this transition. In this case
the structure of this transition sets the frame of
the analysis of its remote consequences. That
is, roughly speaking, if there is the transition to
adulthood, the content of this transition allows
us to say whether we have worked well in
education.
Transition to adulthood – five steps
Then we make the next conceptual step that
is not based on any strict theoretical reasoning,
and is largely a judgment of common sense,
which is not alien to economists and sociologists.
This judgment is based on the observations and,
in general, a normal (i.e., “right”) transition to
adulthood, according to its structure, consists of
five steps. They are given below.
First step is a transition to lifetime learning.
It is not the development within school but it’s a
transition to learning, to be exact, learning not
within school environment. We emphasize that
this is a step away from externally imposed
and self-organized learning in the construction
of educational paths to develop new skills and
knowledge.
The second obvious transition is a transition
into the world of work. Indeed, most people start
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their career and are ether employed or unemployed
at the age of 24.
The next major step is a transition to the
creation of a family or attachment to the family
life, however teachers do not treat it serious.
The fourth step is a transition from private life
to public and civilian life. Deputy A.M.Kleshko
in the position of the external customer talked
about it at the conference mentioned above. At
the other conferences, we also discussed this
transition often as a matter of internal training
and education, as a matter of equipping the civil
competence. Indeed, this age shows whether a
person will be an active citizen, indifferent man
in the street, or political extremist.
And finally, the last transition, which
appearance in the World Development Report
took me by surprise and seemed not very
important and is equal to other key transitions at
first. It can be formulated like this: a transition
from carelessness to health care or from ruining
your health to recovery. This is the period when
the person begins to feel that he has the heart and
other internal organs. At this age, the foundations
for future health are laid down, as well as
person’s attitude to health. In the transition the
loss of health determines the whole future life of
a person to a large extent.
Thus, we deal with objective five transitions,
which seem to pull along a person.
situation (so far not yet a social situation of
development, but simply a social situation) pulls
him along these five transitions. But, again, one
cannot escape from these subjective psychological
processes, as their reality is objective.
Thus, a complete picture of socialization
in the broadest sense will be formed by
meeting and correlation of external and internal
processes. A list of the latter can be quite long.
Theoretically, it seems to me that here one can
write down all the processes described by
different age periodizations. The basic processes
of periodization by E. Erikson have a particularly
vital context (especially the search for identity is
important). The process of initiative development
and one’s independence is extremely important for
us in terms of our understanding of maturation.
Certainly, a key role in these transitions has the
process of acquiring human sexuality.
And this raises an important question,
and I will not give any definite answers to it,
but only raise a question of the relationship
of these processes. It seems to me that this is
where psychologists can find a field for serious
cooperation with economists and sociologists,
because they, in turn, often ignore these internal
processes. They do not consider the behavior
of the person itself as an important resource of
transition management.
Transition management
External transitions
and internal development
At our conferences we are constantly
discussing the inner development of a person:
his abilities, interests, energy and intellectual
development (as the conferences are held by
psychologists to a large extent). At the same time,
we often create artificial external context in which
these internal changes happen or even ignore it.
The reality is much more complicated because,
while we help the child develop, his external
What does it mean to manage these
transitions? After all, they are made objectively,
and our activity (or activity of a young person)
cannot cancel them as a rule. But we want to
ensure that these transitions take place in a good
way (here I use worldly terms). The transitions
are like to be at the crossroads: which way you
choose and turn that place you will find yourself.
We want our children and young people to
live through these five transitions so that they
experience lifelong learning, find a good job,
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be good citizens, have a good family and be
healthy. Therefore, the issue of management is
formulated as follows: how to influence these
transitions so that they took place optimally.
Traditionally, the only method of managing these
transitions, which was considered appropriate,
was to provide opportunities for young people.
In addition, the authors of the report on world
development suggest two more methods. I would
add one more. But let’s start with the expansion
of the real possibilities. This policy means that a
person is simply provided with a large number of
possibilities in a respective field. This is clearly
understood in terms of the transition to work. For
instance, a young man enters the labor market
with some skill, and fifty jobs are offered to him.
This example shows that this mechanism is a basic
one to ensure a smooth transition. After all, if a
young man is not able to find work, the transition
has a negative scenario. The key principles
in the implementation of this management
mechanism are the equality and ease of use. The
second most important method to ensure the
transition is actually the development of human
potential of these possibilities in every person.
If you are faced with hundreds of ways but your
legs can’t walk, these roads will not lead you
anywhere. Next, let’s have a look at an example
of specific transitions, how to build the capacity
of implementing these features in different
spheres. We can see the simplest example when
we create opportunities for specialized education
and children have no means of making decisions
about their own path in life. This is a vivid
example when there are opportunities with no
potential for implementation.
Where does the potential for implementation
come from? As teachers we mainly consider
child’s awareness in the field of school subjects
as the main potential. It is clear that we need not
only such awareness for life transitions, but also
awareness of those spheres of life where these
transitions are take place. It is necessary to have
knowledge of how to apply academic knowledge
that is what we call competence.
For economists, the most important and
obvious element of the implementation capacity
is financial resources of the person. Teachers
usually turn a blind eye. Recently I was struck
by the sociological studies of youth in the North
Caucasus that indicate tight recourses in families
as the main obstacle in getting higher education.
Therefore, the construction of socio-economic
policy without understanding that the younger
generation needs resources to realize their
potential will always be wrong.
There are also important components of
the potential. They are linked with each other:
motivation, energy and success in the previous
stages. Their role is confirmed by the findings of a
recent British study. They show that the enormous
investment in the so-called “bad schools” (they
are schools in depressed areas) in the equipment
and training of teachers do not give effect, if the
families and children have no motivation for a
further transition and no high expectations. This
aspect of the realization of potential is extremely
important for me.
It should be noted that the relationship of
these two management mechanisms is not as
trivial as it may seem from a simple scheme: more
opportunities leads to more the rights of young
people. This is illustrated by the transition to the
labor market. Recently, for example, the French
government tried to deprive young people of more
labor rights, the protection of first employment,
etc. However, faced with the protests of young
people, the government reversed the reform.
After that the magazine “Time” published an
amusing article, the meaning of which was that
that it would be useful to sent the French leaders
of the movement, who protect the labor rights of
young people, to Yekaterinburg (for some reason
this city was taken as an example the situation
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in Russia) where the young people in general
do not have any labor rights. They can be fired
the next day. But in general the article was very
positive with regard to Russia as it said there that
such a tough situation for the Russian does not
form dependency (in contrast to the Frenchman)
among Russian young generation but a positive
aggressiveness in the sense of looking for work
and activity. I think this comparison shows
the complexity of the problem. Perhaps, the
traditional conservative strategy that we have
built since school can be very dangerous in the
long run in conditions of a serious competition in
the labor market.
The third important principle of management
transitions is practical too. This is a principle of a
second chance. Indeed, our teaching strategies, as
well as youth policy as a whole, do not very often
suggest a second chance for a person when he has
got lost or came to a dead end of the transitions.
In this case, the person is actually thrown from
further productive life. Especially it’s typical for
young people who have been in prison and cannot
return to normal life afterwards. But only in
Russia these young people outnumber millions.
People who have not got education are in a similar
situation. Those children, who dropped out of
school, cannot go back into the education system
as a rule. And, therefore, the principle of second
chances is crucial. But it should not be a second
chance in a Soviet-style way, when a person is
kept down to repeat a year. Children need to be
able to find a bypass and catch up with their own
generation.
The issue of a second chance is closely
related to the issue of the risks at the transition
because the person usually needs a second chance
as his behavior on these transitions is risky. And
it is important to understand that risk-taking
behavior as a result of which a person gets into
a situation that requires a second chance, cannot
and should not be regarded as entirely negative.
For no particular reason did Rousseau write that
someone who was not a street kid would not grow
up a decent man. But the question is how to let
someone who took a risk, made a mistake and
took hard knocks (including negative experience
as well) continue to move forward. Risks and a
second chance are still being discussed in the
special schools in our educational policy but not
in the national curriculum.
And, of course, a key step in managing
transitions is the regulation of the interaction
of the most objective transitions and subjective
processes.
The interaction between the five objective
transitions mentioned above and psychological
processes of formation can occur in two ways. On
the one hand, the content of these transitions helps
designers of educational space set the image of
adulthood (here I refer to a model of educational
space, proposed by B.D. Elkonin in 1993), which,
from our point of view, is the major driving force
of age development . Such a formulation of the
problem has serious implications for gaining
experience and the selection of educational
content.
On the other hand, the processes of
maturation, as described in the different age
periodizations, allow the developers of educational
policy to see and understand a “small” dynamics
of transitions and to estimate the internal factors
of development.
Transitions of cohorts
and individual transitions
In the building educational and youth
policy a special difficulty lies in the making
such massive solutions that take into account the
diversity and inner complexity of the younger
generation. As different groups of young people
move into these transitions in different ways,
when we discuss the strategies, we needed to
treat them accordingly. There are several such
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groups, which move in the transitions in a special
way and concerning which we require different
management strategies. First of all, they are boys
and girls. Obviously, they move quite different
in these transitions, especially in the transition
associated with the creation of the family. In all
market economies, including Russia, transitions
significantly depend on the social situation
(including the educational path). Young people
from different ethnic groups or from migrants
also have different paths of transitions. It makes
a task of social and educational design extremely
complicated.
Transition to adulthood –
Agenda for Education
From my point of view, there are three areas
for further work in this subject. Firstly, it is an
accurate analysis of the situation and youth policy
in Russia. It is shown in World Development
Report how the three major social mechanism
of maturation management (ability, creating the
potential and a second chance) are realized for
the different transitions on a global scale. It is
obvious that in order to show the whole picture for
Russia, we need additional research in sufficient
detail. No doubt Russian youth situation has its
own specifics. Secondly, it seems to me that the
conceptual issues of the scheme as a whole are
not completely clarified. First of all, it’s a question
whether the transitions were singled out correctly.
Another interesting question is whether there is a
hierarchy within these transitions and which one
is most important. After all, economists firmly
believe that the transition to work is the most
important. And what do we think? Questions,
related to the opportunities and risks for various
transitions, are interesting as well. And, of
course, the question what are the driving forces
1
of a person in these transitions. What causes him
to support the objective processes, or to resist
them?
Thirdly, I think that we can and should
overestimate the problem of education in the
context of the present scheme. What potential
is given to the person, who will enter the labor
market, create a family and participate in
politics?
Here I have to share a personal experience.
Last time I visited Krasnoyarsk, I met with
several school-leavers of gymnasium “Univers”.
I know exactly that most of them regulate their
lives well. But among those school-leavers there
were two guys who used to be bright at school
and studied well while getting higher education.
But they seem to have left school and university
with high expectations, with unrealistic ideas
about what would be requested in the job market.
One of them is almost 30 now and the second is
26. And they lounge about here and there and
don’t have a proper job or aim. They work in a
shop of spare parts, assemble rides then sit in the
office and are bored. They can’t stop whining.
Both of them were divorced and have not created
a new family. And frankly speaking, I feel lousy
as well. All I think what we have done wrong,
creating the potential for these very able-bodied
and not foolish young men, so that they made the
right decision regarding employment. I would
be harsh to say here that the whole discussion
about the development of thinking, creativity and
education, etc. is not worth a dime if the person
ends up with no job, no family, and is sick. Our
internal discussions seem to be small without this
large outer frame. Serious attitude to ensure a
smooth transition by means of education can be
a challenge that galvanizes pupated pedagogical
thought.
It should be noted there, that in the work of reference the age group is from 13 to 24.
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Isak D. Froumin. Socio-Economic Development and the Next Generation: Five Transitions
Социально-экономическое развитие
и следующее поколение: пять переходов
И.Д. Фрумин
Институт развития образования
Национальный исследовательский университет
«Высшая школа экономики»
Россия 101000, Москва, Славянская площадь, 4/2, к. 411
Обсуждаются особенности современного поколенческого перехода к взрослости. Исследуются
вопросы вклада молодого поколения в социально-экономическое развитие. Приводятся
данные о том, что переход к взрослости по своей структуре состоит из пяти переходов:
переход к учению в течение всей жизни; переход в мир труда, работы; переход к созданию
семьи или к семейности; от частной жизни к жизни общественной и гражданской; переход
от беззаботности к заботе о здоровье. Выдвигается предположение, о трех направлениях
дальнейшей работы в этой тематике. Во-первых, это точный анализ ситуации и молодежной
политики в России. Во-вторых, вопрос о том, каковы собственные движущие силы
человека в этих переходах. Что заставляет его поддерживать объективные процессы или
сопротивляться им. В-третьих, переоценка задачи образования в контексте представленной
схемы. Какой потенциал дается человеку, который выйдет на рынок труда, начнет создавать
семью и участвовать в политике.
Ключевые слова: образование, возрастной переход, мир труда, процессы взросления, ресурсы
человека, развитие.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1542-1548
~~~
УДК 159.922.7
Development Pedagogy
and the Theory of Recapitulation
Vasily V. Davydov*
Russian Academy of Education
8 Pogodinskaya st. Moscow, 119121 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The given article outlines the main features of the theory of recapitulation and discusses the
importance of its provisions for the modern development pedagogy. It also discusses the regularities
of the ontogenetic process and historical forms of consciousness. This article analyzes the works
of foreign and domestic philosophers and psychologists about the heuristic meaning of the reduced
frequency problem and the need for its theoretical disclosure. It is emphasized that renunciation of
the appropriate well-known theories is often combined with the new attempts of foreign and domestic
scientists to explain the actual generality of logic of consciousness development in the children and in
the history of society.
Keywords: theory of recapitulation, biogenetic law, development psychology, ontogenesis, phylogenesis,
heredity, historical forms of consciousness, activity, development, reproducing activity.
In our report at the 3rd Conference on
development pedagogy in 1996 there was
detection of the inner and important connection
between such pedagogy with the theory of
repetition (recapitulation). Here we will try to
give the detailed description of the content of
recapitulation, its history and show that without
constant reliance on it, it is not possible to develop
the modern problems of development pedagogy.
The theory of recapitulation (Lat.
“recapitulation” – a concise review), that is
created in philosophy, psychology and pedagogy,
examines the regularities of reduced reproduction
(or duplication) of the historical development of
human consciousness in the ontogenesis of his
consciousness. The idea of such a recurrence
occurred in ancient philosophy (Plato, etc.), it was
*
1
presented in the philosophy of the Middle Ages
and was formulated in details at the beginning of
the 19th century by Hegel in his “Phenomenology
of Spirit”. “A single individual – he wrote – must
pass the stages of the universal spirit formation,
but as the forms that are already left by spirit, as
the stages of the path that is already developed
and smooth” (Гегель. Соч., т.IV. М., 1959, с.15)
According to Hegel, in the historical process the
content of the universal spirit is transformed into
its forms, that thus become the external heritage
for the individual in the form of «inorganic
nature». «Absorbing» it, the individual thus
captures it for himself (ibid.). This provision
was positively evaluated by F.Engels, who spoke
about the whole «Phenomenology of Spirit»
as the reflection of «individual consciousness
Corresponding author E-mail address: add_antonina@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation
at different stages of its development, that are
considered as the reduced reproduction of the
stages that have historically passed by the human
consciousness...» (К.Маркс и Ф.Энгельс. Соч.,
т.21, с.278). G.V. Plekhanov, supporting this
evaluation, thought that «the mental development
of every person is the summary of the development
history of his ancestors» (Г.В.Плеханов. Соч.,
т. 8, М.: Пр.., 1923, с. 48).
The problem of recurrence in the
consciousness development was raised and
discussed by major domestic philosopher
B.M. Kedrov. He considered the provision that
the development of individual consciousness to a
certain extent, «repeats some of the characteristics
and features ... of all its history in general» as
the right one (Б.М.Кедров. О повторяемости
в процессе развития. М., 1964, с.93). However
B.M. Kedrov noted that such a natural repetition
applied to the spiritual life and common path
of the intellectual development of mankind,
rather than to the stages of its socio-economical
development. B.M. Kedrov connected the
problem of recurrence with the question about
the correlation of the logical and historical in
dialectics. The logical, as you know is the abstract
that is free from the fortuities and reflection of
the historical development of the object. The
logical in general and in its pure form expresses
an internal need for the development of historical
processes. In the logical there is reiteration of the
historical stages of development.
There is reason to believe that the logical or
universal, expression of the substantial history
of human consciousness is the forms of culture.
Culture is inseparably linked with the sphere
of the ideal that records models of people's
skills to reproduce instruments, items, and their
communication, that is, captures the historically
developed methods of social activity, confronting
the individual with his mind and will in the form
of special reality. In these models (or methods) as
forms of culture there are necessary moments in
the history of conscious human activity. Then the
assignment of forms of culture by the individual
acts as the reduced reproduction in its development
of history of human activity and consciousness in
their essential points. Therefore, the problem of
history of activity and consciousness and their
ontogenesis is internally connected with the
problem of the historical formation of culture
and its appropriation by the individual. The
connection between these problems emerges
when culture and the ideal are understood as the
logical and universal expression of the history of
the conscious human activity.
This approach to the consideration of the
given issues has become possible due to the
works of outstanding domestic philosopher
E.V. Ilyenkov where he formulated the dialectical
and materialistic conception of the ideal, its
connection with the conscious human activity and
their culture. It allows us to relate the concept of
the ideal and culture and the concept of the logical
and universal (see: Э.В. Ильенков. Философия
и культура. М., 1991).
Hegel not only revealed the recurrence in the
development of individual and socio-historical
consciousness (universal spirit), but also suggested
general methods of its interpretation. According
to his views, something that in the history was the
essence of the case for the spirit, is transformed
for the individual into the «trace» or «shade».
The individual «runs» the past of the spirit in its
content that has already become forms or stages
of the developed path. Concerning the processes
of cognition, Hegel demonstrates that provision
as follows: «... Something that in earlier times has
occupied spirit of men is reduced to knowledge,
exercises and even games of boyish age, and
in the educational results we see the history of
education of the whole world that is somehow
sketched in a concise essay»(Гегель, Соч., т.
IV, М., 1959, с. 15). This statement makes great
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Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation
sense for all pedagogical sciences, and especially
for development pedagogy, because it highlights
their important social role: they are designed to
turn historical and substantial human knowledge
in such forms of culture, where complex and
long process of real knowledge are performed by
the children in the form of various «exercises»
and even «games.» In the current «pedagogical
success» you can see in a condensed form the
whole history of education and development of
individuals.
Assignment of forms of culture by the
individual is already developed way of the
development of his conscious activity. The
humanities are designed to determine how the
content of spiritual development of mankind is
becoming the content of the development of his
conscious activity.
The idea of parallelism between the
development of the child and the development of
generation in psychology in the 19th century was
used by Herbart and his followers, who demanded
that the stages of education should correspond to
the stages of history of culture. During the last
century in the field of biology a similar recurrence
was formulated by German scientists Muller and
Hegel in the form of the biogenetic law according
to which the development of embryos briefly
recapitulates the formation of all this species
(ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis). This
law has been moved into the psychology and
extended to еру extra-uterine childhood and
mental development of children. The idea of
recurrence quickly became central in a number of
systems of genetic psychology (S.Holl, Baldwin,
Chamberlain, Kirkpatrick, etc.) This idea was
formulated by analogy with the biogenetic
law as the repetition of the child in his mental
development of the main stages of the cultural and
historical development of mankind that led to the
gathering of the great volume of factual data from
the child's life, covering such repetition (atavism,
evolutional and cultural and historical parallels).
There was the development of the appropriate
theories and «formulas of repetition». Thus, the
Stern «formula» distinguishes, according to this
law, six phases in the childhood that correspond
to the six epochs in human history: during the
first six months of life, the child stands on the
stage of lower mammals (predominance of
reflexes and the lower functions), during the
second six months the child reaches the stage of
the development of higher mammals – monkeys
(prehension, imitation), since the second year of
life he actually enters the era of human history
(vertical gait, speech), which he runs up on the
steps of primitive culture (next 5 years are the
age of games and fairy tales), antiquity (the first
school years ), Christianity (middle school years)
and modern times (puberty).
L.S. Vygotsky in his article «Biogenetic law
in psychology and pedagogy», that was published
in the first edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(т. 6, М., 1930), outlined the main psychological
theories of recurrence, developed in the late 19th
century and in the first quarter of the 20th century
and gave them his own assessment. Among a lot
of attempts to create a scientific theory connected
with the use of biogenetic law in determination
of the stages of mental development of children,
L.S. Vygotsky marked out four main areas:
1) The theory of recapitulation (S.Holl and his
school) uses a direct analogy with the biogenetic
law of Hegel and considers the development of
a child as a process conditioned by hereditary
causes, the flow of which is determined by the
main line of evolutionary development.
2) The theory of selection (Thorndike)
explains the existence of analogies between the
development of the individual and generation by
the activity of the same reasons that determine
both processes. In phylogenesis there are two
main factors – the random variation and selection
of the useful that determines acquisition of
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property, in the ontogenesis the appearance of
this property at any given time is again regulated
by the same factors – variation and selection.
3) The theory of correspondence (Claparede,
Koffka, Blonsky) explains the parallelism of
ontogenesis and phylogenesis by the similarity
of both series that are based on the same
process of organic development, so in both
series in advance we can expect detection of the
similarities that are common for both and are
inherent by every process of development where
there is a regular sequence of steps – from the
primitive and generalized forms to the complex
and differentiated forms: correspondence of two
series is determined, therefore, by immanennt
logic of the development process.
4) The theory of social genesis (Zalkind,
Kornilov, Pinkevich) comes from the social
conditionality of human biology, sees it as the
main determining factor in the development of
the child, denies its automatic connection with
the past of mankind, and, consequently, the
applicability of the biogenetic law to psychology.
It points to the factual groundlessness of this
application, tension and artificial explanations
of such kind. While not denying the well-known
correspondence between the development of
the child and humanity and some of the factual
material accumulated by the supporters of this
law, the theory of social genesis assumes the
fundamental difference between the changes of
species as the basis that are measured in hundreds
and tens of thousands of years and therefore
commonly cut into the body and are repeated
in embryonic development, and changes of the
race that are measured in thousands of years,
decades and even centuries, and therefore are
not elaborated in the extra-uterine development
of the child. In all these scientific fields, as
L.S. Vygotsky considered, the most reasonable
by the factual material and the most consistent
with the general laws of psychology are theories
No. 3 and 4. But, as L.S. Vygotsky continued,
it would be mistake and unreasonable scientific
one-sidedness to assign the universal value to
biogenetic parallelism, as well as ignore it.
The main tendencies, as described above,
are arranged in a certain order, according to the
development of scientific views on this issue,
namely in the order of gradually decreasing
meaning of the basic analogy with the biogenetic
law and increasing critical limitation of this
analogy, the awareness of its true location and
size, or which is the same, increasing evaluation
of the leading role of social factor. In this sense
biogenetic law in psychology is revealed as a
preliminary hypothesis that has not explanatory
and practical, but mainly heuristic value,
requiring a thorough collection of material and
theoretical explanation.
The question of the applicability of this law in
psychology is relevant to the theory and practice
of education. Scientists tried to use this law to give
the possibility to the child to overcome animistic,
religious and other phases of development, archaic
forms of thinking and instincts. Thus, according
to Hall, in games the child must overcome the
lower instincts as the remainders of the animal
and prehistoric state that resumes of long-passed
stages of human development in the ontogenesis.
Gross pointed out the inconsistency of this view in
relation to the game, in his research of the games
of animals and people he came to the conclusion
that the biological significance of the game is not
the overcoming of the distant past, doomed to
destruction, but the preparation and practicing of
functions for the future, that is, the game can be
understood not in its connection with the past, but
in connection with the future.
Regarding pedagogical conclusions, listed
above theories of application of the biogenetic
law to psychology are placed in the order of
decreasing and narrowing its value evaluation. In
the field of practical application of the biogenetic
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law to education, as L.S. Vygotsky wrote, we
meet with the same divergence of opinions, like
in the field of theory.
Thus, in his article L.S. Vygotsky outlined
the essence of the main theories of recurrence
connected with the biogenetic law, while showing
significant differences of opinions of their authors,
as well as their differently directed practical
conclusions. But he also carefully evaluates
the scientific importance of the biogenetic law
for psychology and pedagogy: this law, he
believed, should neither be ignored nor be given
a universal role. Conducted comparison of these
theories has shown that one of them (it has been
created by Soviet psychologists) has very “critical
constraint” of appropriate analogy and highlights
“the leading role” of social factor in the mental
development of the child.
In his own cultural and historical theory
L.S. Vygotsky, as we know, does not use the
biogenetic law as even the slightest grounds
during the consideration of the regularities of
human mental development – a fundamental
and decisive role in this process is given to the
“social partnership”, communication between
the children and adults. However, during the
detection of the genesis of certain mental
functions of the child (e.g., attention, memory,
etc.) L.S. Vygotsky used some of materials of
their historical sociogenesis. In fact, he drew a
parallel between ontogenesis and history, but he
did not turned this sporadic analogy into detailed
theory, the basis of which might be an idea of
recurrence given by Hegel. But with the whole
course of his thoughts L.S. Vygotsky was very
close to this idea and theory.
There is the following evidence: his closest
student and companion A.N. Leontiev, relying on
the main provisions of the concept of L.S. Vygotsky,
during the creation of his own theoretical
approach to the human mental development is
almost directly uses the given Hegelian idea
(some of his other students have also been close to
it). When in the early 60s A.N. Leontiev revealed
some features of the child’s development during
the process of social experience appropriation,
he wrote: “This is a process that has resulted
in reproduction of historically formed human
characteristics, abilities and methods of behavior
by the individual “ (А.Н. Леонтьев. Проблемы
развития психики. Изд. 4, М., 1981, с. 544). Such
reproduction of abilities, activities with tools and
knowledge suggests that «the child should make
to them such practical and cognitive activity that
is adequate (although, of course, not identical) to
the human activity» (А.Н.Леонтьев. Избранные
психологические произведения, т.1, М., 1983, с.
113). Due to this formulation of the problem there
is a need for special consideration of connection
and correlation of historical regularities of
the development of practical and cognitive
human activities with the children’s activity
that is adequate to it. This activity reproduces
historically formed capacities (in particular, the
special task consists in disclosure of the meaning
of «adequacy» in its contrast to the «identity
«). Although A.N. Leontiev did not specifically
studied this issue, but he introduced the concept
of reproducing activity into the Soviet psychology
and pedagogy. In his theory the child, on the one
hand, gains and forms the special reproducing
activity (e.g., playing, studying, etc.), and on the
other hand, on this base he gains or reproduces
different socio-developed skills.
Since 1930s in psychology and pedagogy
interest in the biogenetic law was failing. This
was due to the fact that there was clear detection
of the groundlessness of such variants of the
theory of recurrence where the sources of mental
development of children were seen in the direct
evolutionary line connected with heredity, and
the stages of child development themselves
were compared with the specific and randomly
allocated stages of social development. At the
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same time more significance was gained by the
theories of Piaget, L.S. Vygotsky, A.Vallona, and
others, who had other starting points, rather than
focusing on the biogenetic law. Therefore, the
problem of correspondence of the development of
human consciousness in the social history and in
the process of the child’s ontogenesis has simply
started to be ignored. However, L.S. Vygotsky
was right, when he wrote in the article mentioned
above about the heuristic meaning of this problem
and the need for its theoretical disclosure – the
refusal of the already well-known theories was
often combined with the appearance of new
attempts made by foreign and domestic scientists
to explain the factual generality of logic of the
consciousness development in the child and in the
social history (E. Claparede, L.I. Bondarenko,
I.G. Belyavskiy, V.A. Shkuratov etc.)
At present the problem of recurrence is
gaining the specific scientific sounding, but
not in the context of the biogenetic law, but
in connection with the general rise of cultural
studies (M. Bartovskiy, C. Geertz, V.S. Bibler,
etc.) and in connection with attempts to use their
results in the study of the ontogenetic human
development (J. Bruner, J. Engeshtrem, M. Cole,
and others). Now there is increase of the interest
in the philosophical and pedagogical ideas of
Hegel, Herbart, and others, according to whom
the development of individual consciousness
reproduces its historical development in
the reduced form, and stages of personal
education should correspond to the stages of
cultural development (the provisions made by
V.S. Bibler, and others about the need for the
organization of the «school of the dialogue of
cultures»). When relying on the inner meaning
of the ideas there is current increase of the
possibility to develop a modern version of the
multidisciplinary theory of recapitulation,
namely multidisciplinary one.
The potential of modern philosophy, logic,
culture studies, psychology, pedagogy and
other social sciences during the formation of
the theory of recapitulation can use the system
of the following initial concepts: activity,
the ideal, the consciousness, the historical
content of culture, “folding” of such content,
forms of culture, the unity of the logical and
historical, appropriation, reproducing activity,
stages of the consciousness development in the
history, stages of the development of individual
consciousness, etc. The same concepts should
be used, in our opinion, during the development
of the main problems of the development
pedagogy.
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Vasily V. Davydov. Development Pedagogy and the Theory of Recapitulation
Педагогика развития
и теория рекапитуляции
В.В. Давыдов
Российская академия образования
Россия 119121, Москва, ул. Погодинская, 8
Излагаются основные характеристики теории рекапитуляции и обсуждается значение
ее положений для современной педагогики развития. Обсуждаются закономерности
онтогенетического процесса и исторических форм сознания. Анализируются работы
зарубежных и отечественных философов и психологов об эвристическом значении проблемы
сокращенной повторяемости и необходимости ее теоретического раскрытия. Подчеркивается,
что отказ от соответствующих уже хорошо известных теорий нередко сочетался с
появлением новых попыток зарубежных и отечественных ученых так или иначе объяснить
фактическую общность логики развития сознания у ребенка и в истории общества.
Ключевые слова: теория рекапитуляции, биогенетический закон, психология развития,
онтогенез, филогенез, наследственность, исторические формы сознания, деятельность,
развитие, воспроизводящая деятельность.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1549-1559
~~~
УДК 371.255
Pedagogy of Development:
a View from 2012 to 2001
Anatoly G. Kasprzhak*
Institute of Education Development of the National Research University
«Higher School of Economics»
Room 303, 11, Pokrovsky Bulvar, Moscow, 109028 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The author has attempted a detailed commentary to his own thoughts, shown in the reports at the
conferences on pedagogy development dated 2001 from 2012. Such an approach seems to me to be
the most productive. The author points to the limits of the possible predictions, which in education is
an integral part of the daily work of each practitioner teacher. The scholar indicates the need for an
urgent “uncovering” of school, to discuss its problems not only and not within the educational system,
and to involve people, who have already attained success outside the school. Otherwise, there is a
risk, on the one hand, to be faced with a denial of managers at all levels of need of any reforms in
school, and, on the other – a significant degradation of the teachers associated with the adoption of the
existing flawed way of life because of the impossibility of going beyond the school as an institution.
Keywords: pedagogy of development, educational technology, the traditional school, development,
socialization, education management.
Interesting is life. The speech “Pedagogy of
Development: What is it?” delivered in 2001 at
the Eighth Conference, I thoughts to be honest,
one of the most unsuccessful. I still remember
the confusion of the hall, as a consequence – the
friendly interest and support of colleagues. It was
sick of it; still remember the feeling in detail. It
took 11 years; I reread the text and ... realized that
all my thoughts beginning from 2001 grew out
of this text. And with respect to the mission of
schools, and competence-based approach, and
attempts to “see” the image of education in Russia
in the very near future. This fact defined the genre
of today’s work. It seemed to be interesting to me,
to give comments to my own thoughts, dating
*
1
back to 2001 from 2012. Such an approach seems
to me to be the most productive. It will, at least,
allow myself, not just one more time “to switch
on” reflection, but also to see the limits of possible
foresight, which in education is an inseparable
part of daily work of each practitioner teacher. I
hope that this intellectual exercise is going to be
interesting and useful not only to me, but to the
reader as well.
Distinguished colleagues!
Very interesting, in my opinion, is the fact
that only at the eighth conference, which was
called the “Pedagogy of Development”, there was
a conversation about a kind of meaning that the
Corresponding author E-mail address: agkasprzhak@hse.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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phrase has. Hypothetically, one can assume that
the reason for this is the need to find the answer in
our usual technological and social, rather, social
and pedagogical aspects. That is that the time has
come for a broader discussion of questions of not
only issues of what and how do we teach school
pupils, but also who and for what purpose do we
teach and, finally, who does this job. Moreover,
the authors of educational initiatives, heads of
educational institutions, confirm that the image
of the school is largely dependent, and at all times
depended not only on the answer choices to one
or another of the questions posed above, but also
on the sequence of their production.
In the past dating back to the Soviet school
was simple – the army of teachers (who) taught
all (whom) in the same (how) manner to be ready
(why) people for thinking about the meaning
of life and being obedient, to be “a builder of
communism.” Meanwhile all the pedagogy was
oriented to answer one question – what to study1?
But still, even in those years philosophers engaged
in educations were asking themselves different
types of questions. The developmental education
emerges, as well as author and innovative
schools…
Scientists, educators – practitioners have
been fifteen years on the road to freedom. Very
ambitious educational projects have been carried
out “in metal”. There has been spirited scientific
and pedagogical debate on the threshold of the
next reform of education and ... a reasonable
understanding of what professionals are:
• humanitarian project does not work as
long as its ideology is not assigned by the
one who executes it;
• language of teaching activity and
its description are almost always
inadequate;
• and, most importantly, the educational
reform must be prepared outside the
system of education.
Perhaps that is why me, a typical
representative of the teacher – practitioner, who
was led by the reflection of my own teaching
experience to scientific thinking, will be
impudent enough to try to discuss the conference
phrase “pedagogy of development” not only in
the conventional for me technological aspect, but
also in the social – pedagogical aspect.
Here, I find interesting two considerations.
The first concerns the general problems of the
school as an institution, the second – the Russian
experience.
“…We teach…” – whom, why, how and what
and, finally, – who. In 2001, ratings of secondary
and comprehension parts of the sentence seemed
more important, today, I think we should question
the phrase “we teach.” “Do we actually teach?” –
You want to ask a question, making, with emphasis
on the pronoun we. Do we teach, or they learn,
when we, with our help. Today it is clear that the
information society, in which we are rapidly drawn
into, questions the place of its former importance
of the teacher in the educational process. “... The
new school, the teacher does not claim to possess
the monopoly of knowledge, he holds the position
of organizer, adviser, interpreter of the “rules of
the game,” “educational network administrator,
only organizes the process2”. Thus, we are now
talking about changing the position of the teacher
and student, and as a consequence of the nature
of their relationship. In other words, today’s
schools – are innovative by nature. Moreover,
not only post-Soviet (second argument).
Social and Pedagogical Aspect
According to Hessen education (i.e. teacher
action in the educational environment of school),
“involves addition and preservation of the past
rather than its reproduction3”. If you agree with
this idea, we should recognize that only in case
of an act in which there is deliberate action of
the teacher, it is educational in nature. If you
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agree with the second thought of Sergei Hessen:
“... the goal of education is closely linked to
the objectives of life of society. Life defines
education, and vice versa – affects the formation
of life. To understand the educational system of
the society – is to understand its structure4”, so
that one can make a draft of a logical chain of
further thoughts.
If we consider a holistic pedagogical space
of a school that uses a particular technology and
training to determine what kind of society, it
orients its graduates (of current and / or tomorrow),
then the correlation of this educational technology
traditionally used, may allow us to identify a few
distinctive features of the pedagogic development.
And the “the angle of view” by which we conduct
our research can be materially different from the
traditional. For us, the subject of discussion is
not physiological and psychological development
of students, but the social mobility of the school
graduates, their focus on changing of the existing
socio-economic relations.
It should be understood that we are talking
only about those schools that are geared to
socializing function. After all, as you know,
“pedagogical space” can in any school (its
parts) have place or not. Enriching the student’s
knowledge, improving his education, so the
school can build a system of relations between
subjects of the educational process, that what –
that a particular child, for whatever reason, just do
not get into this field. His personal “pedagogical
space” with it “leave” from school, move to the
music studio or the sports section, for example.
Consequently, school, fulfilling the function
of socialization (learning), often does not claim to
be a truly pedagogical activity (development), it
just does not set itself such a goal. This is not good,
nor bad – it’s a fact. Heterogeneity within a single
school education system is a normal thing. One
of them (much) focused only on reproduction –
to create conditions in which the student will be
able to master a certain body of knowledge and
skills, giving him a right to be called modern
man. The other, a small part of the school focuses
its graduates for the reconstruction of the existing
society, all that genuine science is questioned,
does not put a sign of equity between the terms
“culture” and “civilization.” Probably, this is the
last part of school and engaged in a fundamental
improvement of educational technology, intended
to ensure that pedagogical action develops man
and society.
Probably for this reason great (researchers,
reformers), more often, “were so flattered”, when
they spoke about the school, which they had to
attend. Personal qualities of these artists, scholars,
reformers demanded liberal relations, the rights
of freedom of movement in the educational
environment of school, and not forced regimented
exercise patterns.
Based on these considerations, we would
like to somewhat change the subject of debate
and dwell on school development. That is an
educational institution for which the use of
pedagogy is the primary means of achieving this
goal.
Here, in my opinion, it’s time to make a
small step aside. At a conference, Boris I. Hasan
discussed the theme of “educational meetings”
as a probabilistic event. How to make sure that
this meeting take place? What conditions should
be in a school to make its probability higher? If
we add to this that the reflection of their own
teaching and administrative experience suggests
that to determine who needs these meetings
more – the student or teacher, it becomes clear
that the discussion about creating an environment
in which the teacher is transformed into a
traditional school teacher development, is the
subject of a separate discussion. I think that this
topic has several layers. This is the preparation
and retraining of teachers, teaching and
discussion of the nature of the meeting, which
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“seeks,” school teacher development, etc. etc.
Today, I want to mention one thing: closure of
the education system, and as a consequence, the
lack of support outside the school and the teacher
and pupil, drastically reduce the likelihood of
this encounter. This, in turn, separates from the
reflective teacher’s position on the course of the
educational process, the results of their labor, and
thus realize the necessity of the existence of the
school as an instrument of a cultural (civilized,
legal) transformation of the society.
There is an urgent need to “uncover” school,
to discuss its problems not only and not within the
education system, and to involve people, who have
become successful outside the school. Otherwise,
we, on the one hand, will be faced with a denial
of managers at all levels – the denial of any
reform of school, and, on the other – a significant
degradation of the teachers associated with the
adoption of the existing flawed way of life because
of the impossibility of going beyond the school as
an institution. However, the attempt to conduct a
qualitative set of measures to upgrade the Russian
system of secondary education, launched this year
already, sadly, largely confirmed the hypothesis
formulated above.
The key, I think, here is the idea of public
schools, completeness and relevance of which
can be seen from 2001. In one of the discussions
held in 2011, Deputy Minister of Education
and Science, Igor Remorenko brought a very
interesting analogy between the evolution of
operating systems used in modern computers
and the development of the school. “... Computer
users” experienced “may recall that the first
operating system – Norton Commander, popular
in the late 80’s early 90-ies, programs run
consecutively. To open the n, it was necessary to
close the first team n-1. As in a traditional school:
first math, then – history.
Then came the era of Windows. There was no
need to shut down one program in order to launch
another. Does it remind you such innovations
as the project-based learning, integration of
subjects, etc.
Today we started working with the operating
system Android, which does not require software
installation on your computer. This problem is
introduced in the PC, sent to the server, processed
there and returned back in the form of a solution.
If we assume that the development of the school
(public information) copies the evolution of
operating systems, we can assume that…5”.
So – the school becomes “uncovered”
by acquiring fundamentally new development
resources, and we were able to see this in 2001
Now we shall discuss the notion of
correspondence of school to the concept of school
development at various stages of history.
According to L.N. Modzalevsky6, result of
training in pre-Christian era, was the development
of a young man (baby boys) a body of knowledge
and skills that allowed him to save himself, his
specimen (now I have written his self-sufficiency).
The ancients meant to learn to produce food, the
ancient Greeks – to become a citizen (to know the
laws, to be able to take part in the debate), etc. etc.
This, as you know, and was the main function of
traditional school at those times.
We now turn to the work of Jacques Le Goff,
“Intellectuals in the Middle Ages7”. The main task
of school early medieval author sees in the creation
of conditions under which the clergy and people
of the state will determine the difference between
“religious and educational responsibilities8”. That
is, the creation of conditions for the emergence of
intellectuals (clerics) – “... those whose profession
was teaching to think and conveying their
thoughts 9…”.
But the same goals (tasks) were put by
the pre-Christian school of Socrates, weren`t
they? Thus, the school of Socrates ahead of the
traditional school of his time made a man solved
the problem of the subsequent interim period.
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We now shall try to apply the same reasoning
to the scheme of educational technology (School)
Komensky. Created in “... the Middle Ages, with
their commitment to authority and tradition 10”,
at the school on the one hand, were “restored
the rights of the individual mind in reading the
Bible11…”, and on the other – “Teachers conveyor”
Komensky preparing citizens of industrial
society. Is not it possible to treat the full name
of the main things for us, his work: «The Great
didactics, containing the universal art of teaching
all around, or ...12”?
Thus, the forward-looking school of
Komensky, you can call the school of his time.
Without claiming to conduct systematic
analysis, we add only that Peter Shchedrovitsky,
in the “Education and Society13”, gives sufficient
appreciation of the Soviet school as an institution,
which provides “... the reproduction and
mentality that determine the meaningfulness of
the execution of these types of activities and save
the data structures of municipal and industrial
relations, ...”. That is, it is best to replicate the
(simulated) existing social relations, and not
preparing a man capable of developing them, and
doomed themselves and society that it served to
die. Thus, the absence in the educational system
of schools, sooner or later returns to the starting
point of the society. Recent history has proved it.
The reproduction ... Following Toffler,
I note only that the ideology of education
usually try to set “of the past” – “image of the
future”, repeating the model school of archaic
societies, but the situation changed in the world.
Consequently, it and the school must change. At
the same conference in Krasnoyarsk, already in
2003, we developed, elaborated on this point.
“... A new quality of education for us is
the degree of fitness – as the school system, the
ground of its main tool”, a cultural form, for the
solution of other than the previously popular
media practice goals and objectives. In other
words, if we agree that the quality of education
depends on how the result fits the needs of the
customer, then the definition of a “new quality”,
we should point out the change of request.
Society moves to a new stage in its
development. For schools this means, above all,
change the criteria of success. If the industrial
(post-industrial) society could predict a set
of characteristics of a successful person next
decade, but now hardly anyone takes up the
description of the “model of the graduate.” In
these circumstances, “learning” begins in the
market valued more than “learning.” For the
same disciple to become a “man of the student,”
he at least should be in school that does not
discourage learning. He should understand that
in order to be successful in life one should have a
lifetime to learn and relearn. For this, the study
should probably be different in other ways…14”.
The traditional school and the school
of development – two components
of the education system
In the first half of the 20th century, Hessen,
Modzalevsky, other native teachers attempted to
separate the tasks of school for training and for
shaping cultural values. So Hessen, following
Kant, says that “cultural values” in their very
essence are inexhaustible tasks .... “Problems
without any solution15”. This, in our view means
that the school-oriented development, focused on
the tasks that are valuable in themselves, that is
precisely on cultural values. Is this why in any
society, there appeared schools that were focused
on the family, for whom the process of education
was the value? Is it because Goff, in reference to
the question of intellectual dependence on the
Church in the Middle Ages, says: «Of course,
along with universities, despite fierce opposition
of the church, could be based secular schools,
but instead give a general education, they were
limited to technical education designed to
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merchants: letters, invoices, foreign languages.
Thus, began to increase the gap between general
culture and special training16”. Is it our basic
curriculum that the French scholar says about,
that it “distributes” between the parties the
possibility of the educational process? Indeed,
the development has a chance to manifest itself
only in the school opportunities. “... Who? If
you follow the humanistic theories – students,
consumers of educational services. In this
case it is not difficult to guess that only all the
organizers of the educational process “hanging”
over the child (a teenager, young man, young
man). School in their texts (concepts, programs,
projects, etc.), presented in a way that it focuses
on the management of the support of teaching,
which, in turn, promotes self-responsible student
teaching. And this verbal picture looks good.
Well, it remains to tweak something somewhere
and ....
But if you look at what is happening a little
more closely, as they say, use the naked eye, you
begin to realize that the situation is somewhat
more precisely – is not so. The entire hierarchical
educational ladder is designed in such a manner
that “... schools teach only those whose every
step in the study corresponds to pre-established
measures of social control ...17”. This is a
reproduction of this scheme, “the reproduction
of culture samples accumulated by mankind”
(another cunning) for several centuries, modern
arranged in regular school.
But time moves forward inexorably. Joining
the information society demands changes to the
results and, consequently, the organization of
education. Figuratively speaking, the educated
man gives way to a person, who is in the process
of learning ...18”. The appearance of the school
of teaching (opportunities) is connected with
opportunities of schools that are regulated in any
country by state educational standards ....” . Let
us, now, take the next step.
So, if we accept that different schools may
have different functions, to be focused on the
priority of a solution of the problem, then we can
formulate a question, the answer to that depends
largely on the face of the modern Russian school:
“Should the school be confused by mass resolution
of these two tasks and, if so, why?”.
I think that at the level of common sense
answer to this question is simple – each school
has to deal with these tasks in parallel. Since
only a statement of the teacher in front of the
“eternal questions of pedagogy,” puts it in a
reflexive with respect to the position of their
own actions, his work makes him interesting,
and as a consequence, the school is “alive”. That
is, each institution must be an element of school
development. But, and this is very important, just
a steady balance between the physical operation
of the (non-virtual, as is customary in some socalled “innovative” schools) and development
based on knowledge of the traditions and
precise forecast will provide the normal forward
movement. Otherwise ... However, here, in
my opinion, the best result, a very modern,
unfortunately today, Leo Modzolevsky quote:
“Only ignorance of history and lack of respect
for those it could make Don Quixote in the
education business, which we had a lot lately,
and sometimes, with all its noble aspirations,
only to harm the proper development of teaching
cases in our country19”.
To make the school “live”. In achieving
this task orient us to consistently poor results
of Russian schoolchildren in the study. PISA.
Beginning in 2000, we participate in the fourth
cycle of this international study of quality of
education (study carried out once every three
years), showing more than modest results,
significantly below the average. However, in
another study, TIMSS20 purpose of which is a
comparative evaluation of general (substantive,
academic) training of secondary school students
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in math and science, our students show good
results.
In 2009, KN Polivanov, made a very
interesting comparison, imposing on each other
the results of Russian students in the two studies
mentioned above. It is noteworthy that in all
countries except Russia, the two studies agree.
This means that for students from other countries
increase subject knowledge related to the success
of their application, and our young people –
no. One hypothesis is that the reason for this is
too much academic quality of programs, their
information overload, isolation of objects from
each other.
Relying on the stated above we may
conclude that in discussing the actual teaching
(technological) aspect of the school (Education)
development, we must not shy away from
answering the following questions:
• Can the teacher science make a correct
prognosis and predict those educational
technologies that will bring the
educational institutions of the elements of
the school?
• Can the school in our transition to an
information society period be regarded
as a unique and self-contained institution
that is able to solve this function (open
school)?
• What resistance the modern Russian school
will face in the process of modernization
(development of educational technology
development)?
This, in our opinion, is particularly important,
since with high probability it can be argued that
the projected changes will cause resistance to
all consumers of educational services (from the
state to the child). The reason is simple – making
the cost of education, they want a guaranteed
result, and the school development only creates
the conditions to ensure that its graduates could
achieve this result (one of the main distinguishing
features of the school of our time by forcing the
school).
Technological aspect
In discussing the possible ways of developing
the content of general secondary education, all
agree on what should be changed. In this case
all (analysts, researchers, teachers, practitioners)
agree that it (the content of education) is
overloaded, cannot be mastered by all students
within the allotted time frame on it. But, we need
only touch on the theme of object-centrism, a
departure from the principle of scientific certainty
and completeness in the presentation of an issue
as supporters of the traditional subject-object
pedagogy Komensky and, surprisingly Herbart,
“stand in the rack,” and further dialogue becomes
impossible.
But ... life has, and the Russian education
system of governance does not notice. «...
Options (domestic) curriculum, suggest that
the “package” of traditional academic subjects,
and complete. Every student, regardless of their
chosen educational program must, at all levels,
study, at least in some extent, all the subjects.
The result of this project is not too difficult to
predict:
• Students will sit in a classroom for 6-8
hours daily and, consequently, do not do
their homework;
• Teachers will continue to lecture (the
material, then “pass” should be) and
just talk about the need to develop some
competence;
• A parent who understands that his/her
children needed more life in the modern
foreign language (and, it is English) and
the computer, not the ability to “cobble
together a stool,” takes a tutor.
And at the first lecture in a university
auditorium will sound very familiar phrase:
«Forget what you learned in school ....21».
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For this reason, the task of this conference, I
see the proof of the two is quite obvious to many
of the provisions:
• First. The need for a “school development”
within each school. In my opinion this
thesis, to some extent, has been proven
above.
• And the second one. The school of
educational technology should be used
with certain characteristics. And we
should proceed to the discussion of this
issue.
I think that in this audience do not detail
the proof that the basic contradiction of today’s
Russian school is that the ability to work with
the information, formulate a research problem,
to choose the path of the solution, not always
associated with a specific set of knowledge
and skills, which are developed on the basis of
appropriate skills. We are, traditionally, out of
habit, have a linear “knowledge”, “abilities”,
“skills”. For us, the need to increase the latter
determines the need to increase the former. Is this
true?
“..After the comparative analysis of the draft
federal educational standard of the national school
in 200222 and materials of the Program “Key
competencies 200023”, we came to the following
conclusions:
a. Both instruments are built in a “linear
logic”. The English document shows the average
path of the formation of skills of students as
they move from class to class, the domestic
growth – the amount of information over the
same period.
b. The rate increase in the amount of
information (knowledge), which has a student to
learn in English school on the way to the outlet
of the first class is small and considerably less
than the rate of change of training objectives.
In national schools – the situation is totally
different.
That is, the main difference we see is that the
strategy of the English school is to organize tasks
with simple information in complex situations,
domestic – complex information in standard
situations ...” .
Thus, the growth of knowledge is not
directly connected with the growth of skills
possessed by the pupil. As an indicator of
“progressive” will focus on finding a way out
of object-centrism as extensive, humiliating and
exalts the teaching learning. That is, it looks at
the child and the teacher as equal subjects of the
training activities.
General Conclusion
In conclusion, I would like to say that the
expected acceleration in the transition of school,
teachers and students in the new quality is unlikely
to happen in the nearest future. It, primarily, has
the following reasons:
• A manager is not yet ready to legalize the
right of a school for independent search
and to consider forecasting, not control as
the basis of his/her own activity;
• Pedagogic science today is not even
attempting to begin to build the content of
education, forms of organization of training
sessions so that it could satisfy both – the
present and the future (yet unknown to the
customer) demands. By the way, maybe
this is the reason for this overload!?
• A teacher – practitioner is just beginning
to understand (he is the closest to the
consumer), that his main task on the
one hand, is finding and testing relevant
technologies, and, on the other –
deliberate execution of tasks, and not
work in general.
And yet, I do not want to finish my statement
comments in such a minor tone.
One of the ideas of our approaching reform
relates to what the school should give the student,
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above all, habits of behavior in today’s dynamic
and competitive environment, which requires
the adoption and implementation of independent
decisions, necessary skills to interact with modern
institutions (financial, administrative and etc.).
The results of a number of studies that we
conducted last year show that nobody denies the
validity of these new requirements to school. It
seems to be clear to everybody, however, so far,
mostly in words...
P.S. The development of education and
socialization of children in the future up to
2020 to discuss the materials prepared by
the expert to the Government of the Russian
Federation (Supervisors: A. Kasprzhak, I.
Frumin)24.
The Russian school is not very different
from the Soviet school in terms of both content
and methods, and in the management model as
well25. This conservation has helped to preserve
some of the strengths of the Soviet-secondary
education, first of all, a fairly high level of
mathematical preparation and teaching reading in
elementary school. But in the society, which has
radically changed over the years, and economy of
the archaic school, its insufficient or inadequate
adaptation to modern conditions determine
the current status of the main problems and the
unwillingness to answer the most important
challenges of tomorrow:
1. There is a growing gap between schools
in terms of the quality of education and, hence,
increasing inequality in access to quality
education. According to the results of research
there is a clearly distinguished segment of schools
(from 4-5% to 25%, depending on the region),
where students are concentrated in risk groups:
people from disadvantaged families and families
with low incomes, showing very low educational
outcomes, insufficient knowledge of the Russian
language. There is a marginalization of such
schools and their students. As a result, the system
of secondary education ceases to function as a
social elevator, and, conversely, increases social
inequality.
2. There is a growing backlog of Russian
school of the world’s best systems in terms of
program content. Not an effective system of
ongoing, evolutionary update the content of
educational programs in response to the cultural
and technological change. The attempts of the
radical, one-time upgrade (development of a
complete set of new standards) predictably fail.
The most severely lagging behind of the quality
of education is seen in such areas such as social
studies, English language. An archaic school
leads to the alienation of children, the loss of their
interest in formal learning.
3. A high level of quality of individual
areas of school education, which is confirmed by
international surveys (mathematics and science
education (TIMSS), and reading (PIRLS),
the results of the participation of Russian
schoolchildren in Olympiads show that the
average level of Russian schoolchildren grades
4 and 8 of these subjects consistently higher
than the average international rates. However,
according to other international comparative
studies (PISA) Russian teens lag behind their
peers in most developed countries on the key
for the formation of functional literacy areas,
have limited abilities to apply their knowledge
in practice. This data reflect the contradiction
between the needs of a modern economy that
requires high-level intellectual skills (summarize,
analyze, predict, propose hypotheses, etc.) and
the orientation of the Russian school for training
as a reproduction of knowledge and application of
known algorithms.
4. In Soviet times, the effectiveness
of the school system was largely determined
by its embeddedness in a wider system of
socialization, the presence of “props”: roles
and responsibilities for the upbringing and
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socialization were distributed among family,
school, further education system, territorial
children’s organizations, children’s culture
industry. Currently, these “props” either absent
(destroyed), or do not perform in the same degree
of its functions. This leads to the laying of all
responsibility for the socialization and education
in the education system. However, the existing
personnel structure and the remaining from the
Soviet school of parenting practices do not allow
it to cope with this task. Today the school has lost
its monopoly and the objective in the socialization
of children, and a channel for information
dissemination. On the contrary, public policy,
while maintaining a narrow focus on school
does not account for the rapid development
and the possibility of non-formal education and
socialization of children (including the internet,
media, children’s and cultural industries). In
the stagnation of the system of education and
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additional education reduces the overall culture
of the younger generation, growing rates of
violence, extremism, alcohol and drug abuse.
5. The conflict between modernization
strategy of school “from above” on the one hand,
and the growing diversity of local conditions and
needs, which must meet the school. The reforms
“from above” do not leave any room for real
initiatives “from below”, limit the opportunities
for effective and responsible solutions in
the regions, municipalities and educational
institutions. As a result of increasing alienation
of teachers and parents from the processes of
modernization of education, the reforms often
have imitating nature. Citizens have a very
limited capacity to influence what is happening
in the schools – both as parents and as voters.
This is in contradiction with the capabilities
and needs of educated parents, who are the
majority.
In part – as equally?
Информационное общество и школа: учебно-методические материалы к курсу повышения квалификации (М.:
Российская политическая энциклопедия, 2008).
С.И. Гессен Основы педагогики (М., Школа-пресс. 1995).
ibid.
Каспржак А.Г. Выпускник школы для инновационной экономики. Модернизация образования как условие
устойчивого развития: материалы междунар. конф. Ярославский образовательный форум.(Ярославль: ГОАУ ЯО
ИРО, 2012).
Очерки истории воспитания и обучения с древнейших времен до наших дней (СПб.: Алетейя, 2000).
(Долгопрудный, Аллегро-Пресс, 1997).
Ibid. P. 128.
Ibid. the Cover.
Антология гуманистической педагогики. Коменский (Издательский дом Шалвы Амонашвилли. 1996. P. 5).
Ibid. P. 6.
Ibid. P. 42.
П.Г. Щедровицкий. Очерки по философии образования (М.: Педагогический центр «Эксперимент», 1993).
А. Каспржак, К. Митрофанов, К. Поливанова Становление ключевых компетентностей и результаты
традиционного обучения: материалы конф. «Педагогика развития: становление компетентностей и результаты
образования в различных подходах (Красноярск, 2004).
С.И. Гессен Основы педагогики (М.: Школа-пресс, 1995. С. 33).
Жак Ле Гофф. Интеллектуалы в средние века (Долгопрудный, Аллегро-Пресс, 1997. С. 127).
Иллич И. Освобождение от школ. Пропорциональность и современный мир (фрагменты работ разных лет), (М.:
Просвещение, 2006).
Каспржак А. Информационное общество и школа: учебно-методические материалы к курсу повышения
квалификации (М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия, 2008).
Л.Н. Модзалевский. Очерки истории воспитания и обучения с древнейших времен до наших дней (СПб., Алетейя,
2000. С. 32).
Trends in Mathematics and Science Study.
Школа возможностей и возможности школы // Вопросы образования. 2009. № 3.
Под редакцией Э. Днепрова и В. Шадрикова.
Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations.
Сборник материалов 18-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика развития» (Красноярск: ИПК СФУ, 2011).
Only the collapse of the educational system can be regarded as essential changes.
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Anatoly G. Kasprzhak. Pedagogy of Development: a View from 2012 to 2001
Педагогика развития: взгляд из 2012 – в 2001
А.Г. Каспржак
Институт развития образования
Национальный исследовательский университет
«Высшая школа экономики»
Россия 109028, Москва, Покровский бульвар, 11, к. 303
Предпринята попытка развернутого комментария к собственным размышлениям,
представленным в докладах на конференциях по педагогике развития, датированным 2001
из 2012. Именно такой ход представляется автору наиболее продуктивным. Указывается
на границы возможного предвидения, которое в образовании есть неотъемлемая часть
повседневной работы каждого практикующего педагога. Указывается на необходимость
срочно «открывать» школу, обсуждать ее проблемы не только и не столько внутри системы
образования, привлекать к работе в ней состоявшихся вне школы людей. В противном
случае есть риск, с одной стороны, столкнуться с отрицанием управленцами всех уровней
необходимости какого-либо реформирования школы, а с другой – деградацией значительной
части педагогов, связанной с принятием существующего ущербного образа жизни из-за
невозможности выхода за пределы школы как института.
Ключевые слова: педагогика развития, образовательные технологии, традиционная школа,
школа развития, социализация, управление образованием.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1560-1569
~~~
УДК 371.255
Problems of Learning Motivation.
The age Aspect
Katerina N. Polivanova*
Institute of Education Development of the National Research University
«Higher School of Economics»
Room 411, 4/2 Slavanskaia ploshad, Moscow, 101090 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The paper discusses the problems of learning motivation of schoolchildren. It is shown that the basis of
motivation is the logic of the age development. Based on the periodization of the mental development
of D.B. Elkonin two types of age were identified and the features of motivation were demonstrated.
It is shown that at the younger and older school age the learning motivation is related to the distinction
between a natural and artificial action. We describe the specifics of the formation of the artificial
action (assignment of the action sample).
The motivation of teenagers (in middle school) is related to the awareness of themselves as subjects
of the action.
Keywords: need, motivation, development objectives, periodization of mental development, younger
school age, adolescence.
The problem of learning motivation is one
of the most important in the education design.
In connection with the motivation or, simply
stated, with the interest we see a paradoxical
situation: people talk about the motivation
continuously, but school and school education is
increasingly fraught with compulsion. Or let’s
say more cautiously: it is assumed that the child
has (should have) an interest in what he is taught.
Where this interest come from, how it is kept –
no one talks about it as though it goes without
saying. However, it is clear that the learning
content is selected and filtered by adults, it is
often becomes the subject of heated debates but
these disputes are adults’. But why the child,
for example, has to know the Ohm’s law for the
*
1
circuit section – for some reason we avoid this
question shyly.
Is the child – a student, “a trainee” – a
player on the field of educational interests? If yes,
what is this interest, what is its origin, whether
it is necessary to consider it, how to satisfy this
interest.
Basically, as applied to education, there
are two sources of interest. The first one –
external – captures what a person should be to
be considered capable of functioning by the
society (what knowledge and skills he should
have). According to this position what should be
transferred to the child in the form of knowledge,
skills, competencies, etc is determined. And the
second one – internal (subjective) – what the
Corresponding author E-mail address: kpolivanova@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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subject itself wants, what it wants to learn. The
nature of the interest problem in education is
centered around the “meeting place” of these two
positions – external and internal.
Today, the content of education is entirely
set by the first position – external one. It is society
represented by specialists in the field of education
that decides what we should know and be able to
do. However, in this publication we try to prove
the following proposition: while ignoring the
interests of the growing child the elimination of
education occurs, and then the interests of all the
other players (government, education system,
business) – a fiction.
We proceed from two assumptions:
• a child has his own interests that
are connected to the logic of his
development;
• educational environment can and should
be built on these basal needs of the
growing child.
If continue to ignore your own internal
needs (motives), all the efforts, investments
and political actions are in vain. Virtually, the
situation is as follows: adults (society) invest
substantial resources in education proceeding
from their own ideas about what a child needs to
learn and hoping that he will provide for their old
age, but having done it badly they find the futility
of their investments. The same is at the state level:
investments in the education system suggesting
return in the future turn out to be wasted. If we
continue to build education based on a request
from the external to the basic needs of the learner,
we will always “miss” – our actions will get lost,
sink, disappear.
In addition to the above we can point
on a generic feature of the education system.
Traditionally, it is based on the engineering
type: the functioning of the system under
the assumption that the process of learning
is subject to the scheme I → R (incentive –
reaction), i.e. it is assumed that a given incentive
(learning content) is followed by a programmed
response (learning quality). This scheme is
applicable to the complex, but “dead” object;
the only response that can be pre-planned and
designed by setting the incentive is assumed.
Traditionally, the education system does not
accept the presence of its own (unknown)
characteristics of the object exposure. Hence,
in fact, all the resulting characteristics of
the education system that was once called
“objective” occur.
The most striking example of inadequacy of
this paradigm is a teenage school built without
regard to the intentions of students that today
performs (in mass practice) a single function –
controllable socialization.
It is clear that education can be effective, i.e.
one can count on the “income” only if it meets the
“natural” needs of the child. The word “natural”
is in quotes because a person does not have the
actual natural needs.
What interests of the child, and there are
many of them, should be considered? Our thesis
is that the space of analysis of the child needs,
and it is them that set the foundation for the
formation of his “interests”, is the space of the age
development. And although it does not exhaust
all the sources of interest in mass education it
remains prevalent.
To formulate the requirements for the
education system resulting from the analysis of
the logic of the age development we should refer
to the theoretical explanations of the mechanisms
of the origin and development of motivation.
According to the theory of activity,
motivation occurs with the “objectification of
needs” (A.N. Leontiev, 1971): the original needs
(biological needs) in the process of human
development “find” in the world around objects of
satisfaction, and these subjects become motives
of activity.
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In this logic two historical processes are
singled out – phylogenetic and ontogenetic.
In the history of mankind the development
of means of meeting needs – objects, i.e. motives
was going on. A person has original – basic, vital,
basal – needs – for food, warmth, etc. Gradually
the sphere of objects that meet those needs
expanded, there were new items that mediated
satisfaction of the needs (the field of production
emerged and developed: Neolithic Revolution,
scientific and technical progress). There came new
needs and new motives (objects that satisfy the
need). “Ideal” needs and motivations appeared.
Thus, the objectification of needs, i.e.
“meeting” with the object that can satisfy the need
leads to two interrelated processes – expansion of
objectivity and development of needs.
A.N. Leontiev also described the mechanism
of motives development. In the development
process of activity its component actions are
isolated, “grow” and become independent
activities. The purpose of the action becomes the
motif of a new activity. This mechanism is called
a “shift of the motive to the target”.
Another historical process of the development
of motivational sphere is ontogenetic. A child is
born in the world of deeply differentiated needs
and motives. This world of needs and motives is
gradually opening to the child. The more complex
the organization of the world is, the more difficult
the process of growing up is. So the historical
development of society leads to the emergence
of new ages. They are inextricably wedged in the
old ones (today) forming a complex sequence of
diverse ages. The current state of childhood is a
difficult fixation in the socio-cultural forms of the
origin history of childhood (D.B. Elkonin, 1971).
A complex sequence of ages is essentially a
sequence of major activities and, accordingly, of
main motives. These “age” motives in general are
universal and do not depend on the circumstances
of growing up.
Motives of the age development,
unfortunately, have not been studied or barely
explored. However, the very activity scheme
highlighting the sequence of the change of
leading activities outlines the logic of the
change of motives. Establishing the leading
activity leads to the formation of the motive
of this activity, therefore, the “leading” motive
occurs. In this logic, it should be noted that the
motive appears as a new formation of the leading
activity, i.e. at the end of the formation period of
the leading activity, at the end of the period of
the age establishment. Motivational mechanism
proposed by A.N. Leontiev is substantially
criticized. Let us present arguments of
B.D. Elkonin (2001). He draws attention to the
fact that, initially, the subject was never given
in the human activity, before activity. Therefore,
the main problem is the search and testing of the
subject, its recreation by means of the activity,
its formation as a subject. This is an important
point that allows a much more adequate
presentation of the situation in the formation of
the motive. In fact B.D. Elkonin says about the
mutual representation in one activity and needs
and its subject, about their mutual testing when
the need tests the subject and the subject tests
the need.
Both A.N. Leontiev and B.D. Elkonin discuss
the mechanism of a relationship between the
need and its given (according to A.N. Leontiev)
or stated, i.e. only potentially possible (according
to B.D. Elkonin). Nevertheless, the most painful
question, which is where the need really comes
from, remains unanswered. What is the need
that finds directly (or finds it in the process of
permanent testing and thus creates it) its own
subject.
The basis for understanding of the agerelated development in the Russian psychological
tradition is the periodization of psychological
development in childhood proposed by
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D.B. Elkonin (1971). This periodization is
based on the hypothesis saying that each of the
children ages that were socially and culturally
formed has its own meaning and purpose in
the overall logic of ontogeny. According to this
periodization, childhood (0 to 18 years) is divided
into three periods: early childhood, childhood and
adolescence. Each epoch consists of two different
types of periods: the epoch begins with a period
in the “child is a social adult” system and ends
with a period in the “child is a social subject”
system. During the first period, a motivational
aspect of activity is primarily developed, and
during the second period – the operational and
technical aspect.
In this context we are interested in the
epochs and the periods covered by the system of
public education: childhood (3 to 11 years) and
adolescence (11 to 18 years). As we said, each
epoch consists of two periods. First comes the
period of the pre-emptive development of the
sphere of relationships and experiences; it is a
period from 3 to 7 years (preschool age) and from
11 to 15 years (younger teenagers). The second
period in each of the epochs is the period of preemptive development of methods of actions; and
this is primary school age (from 6-7 to 11 years)
and older teens (15 to 18 years).
Thus, the ages of two types were defined –
the first one when the need-motivational sphere
predominantly develops, and the second one when
the operational-technical sphere predominantly
develops. It is belonging of the period to the first or
the second type that sets the quality of motivation
and its contents. During periods of the first type
a child is most motivated in activities that allow
him to discover the sphere of relationships with
others, get to know himself, experience and learn
the scope of his feelings and states. The periods
of the second type are characterized by a focus on
the acquisition of new ways of activity – abilities,
knowledge and skills.
Now we can speak about how well the public
education system is responding to the “challenges”
of the age development. It is clear that society has
succeeded well in the organization of education
for children living in the periods of the second
type (primary school and older teens), but the
education of children living in the periods of the
first type suffers a permanent failure.
In this article we want to specifically
identify the causes of this situation by defining
the objective of development in certain periods.
At first we consider the “successes” of the
education system – ages of the second type:
primary school and senior school (adolescence).
Here are the illustrations based on the material of
the primary school age as much better described
in psychology.
We can present many illustrations, evidence
that schooling accurately corresponds to an
internal request of the child, his motivation.
What is the request, what is the subject of the
need (motive)? It is known that children of
primary school age (especially at the beginning
of studying) play games with rules with passion
(“hopscotch”, rhymes, “rubber band” game,
bouncer, etc.). What is it? This is a recreation of
a situation of artificial (unnatural) action. What
are these games? The artificial, unnatural action
is appreciated in them. The same thing happens
in education: children acquire the skills of acting
by artificial means.
Artificial action is an action that is based on
specific laws in school, as a rule, it is presented
to a child as an example. How we can recreate,
reproduce the example. At first glance, it simply
must be repeated. However, it is not as obvious as
it seems at first glance.
For example, a first-grader learns to write
letters by means of samples. The child should
copy the samples. How does it work? The sample
cannot be copied i.e. “photographed”. To reproduce
a sample means to build your action so that the
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image appears on the paper as close to the sample
as possible. Thus, it is not the letter or the sample
itself that is copied, reproduced, but the action
according to its structure. But the sample of this
action is not given (a sample of the result is given).
A sample of the action is built by the child himself
by trying different ways of writing. About forty
years ago, when children learnt to write with ink
pens, when teaching to write the action itself was
drawn attention to – a teacher dictated: “press –
a hair”. The teacher did not just show what the
perfect letter looks like, but also paid attention
to how it occurs: the pressure increases on the
parts of the picture elements and on other parts it
is weakened (the line was like “as a hair”). This
facilitated the construction of the action, which,
when executed, led to the creation of the desired
image. If you change teaching techniques (in
particular, with the advent of ballpoint pens), this
part of the training disappeared. Requirements
for handwriting decreased, letters written by the
child ceased to be so perfect. But not only has the
perfection of written letters (calligraphy) gone,
but also a sample of the action has disappeared,
leaving only a sample of result.
Another example is from learning music.
They show to a child how to “play a note”. They
pay attention to the sound of it, show how a finger
should push the button. But again, neither the
sound of music, nor the trajectory of the finger
provides adequate performance. There is a
need to recreate (with your own hand, not with
the hand of the teacher) the whole score of the
micromotion of the shoulder, forearm, hand and
finger. No matter how skilled the teacher is, this
score is recreated by the hand, the body of the
child. Apparently, a more talented child grasps
this inner picture of the motion and reproduces it
easier, but a less talented child needs something
more. For example, the teacher asks the child to put
his hand under his elbow to feel the “heaviness”
that occurs in the elbow when he hit a key. This is
an attempt to give the child a feel for what kind of
feeling should arise in him when he plays a note
as required. And then the child should feel the
difference between a note taken with the “light”
and “heavy” elbow. Feeling the difference is the
time of partition of the natural action into his
“own” natural and his own “other” artificial. Or:
your past (real) and your present (ideal).
Let us stress: the artificial action is
constructed from the natural. The most
important is the distinction between your
own (natural) and another (artificial). These
examples draw us to the process of assigning a
sample. The sample of the action is not given
initially, no matter how many examples of the
proper execution are cited. The result of the
action is given in the example. But it is not and
cannot be a sample. The sample can occur when
a child feels, perceives the difference between
his original (natural, spontaneous), and his own
but different – exemplary – way of action. You
can help this feeling arise helping to build your
own exemplary action by supporting the child’s
hand giving verbal instructions, stopping the
wrong moves. Hence, the term “formation”
that is shaping the initially formless (natural,
spontaneous, organismic). But it is impossible
to impose, “put” this sample on the child.
So, in this example of the formation of the
subject-instrumental action the artificial action
is formed from the natural that becomes the
material for another artificial. At a time when the
child discovers (not reflexively, but by the fact
of changing his actions) his (yet operationally
natural) action for the first time, it ceases to be
natural, is broken up into his own and not his
own, and the discrepancy between the two poles
becomes a matter of need.
It is important to stress that the motive is
not actually an artificial action, not the sample as
such, not the mode of action as such, but the “gap”
between his own and the other, real and ideal.
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The time of their differentiation – the
emergence of this “gap” is the moment of
learning. Next the artificial is automated. This is
the stage of training, development, exercise – the
transformation of the newly established artificial
action into a skill.
Education in elementary school, thus, should
be designed as retention (gain, recreation) of the
distinction between the natural and the artificial.
In the traditional school the artificial
(cultural and social mode of action) is given
ready-made; in developing education systems it
is built by the children themselves in response to
the problem that cannot be solved by a “natural
way”. But the essence is the same: the retention of
distinction as such. This retention sets motivation
for educational activity. Thus, the primary school
age that is operationally technical in its main
purpose, “accurately” matches the formation
of the ways of action that children acquires in
school.
Let us emphasize that to a child it is not
important what system he is studying in – a
traditional or developing one. It is important for
those subjects of the education system that invest
own resources in it. Then we can already put the
question of what artificial must be presented as
the standard of education, the child does not care.
Further efforts are successful, if the training falls
into this gap: natural – artificial.
Now let us consider the periods of the first
type. These, as we already mentioned, are the preschool age and adolescence. We know that they are
the most difficult for the “direct formation”. It is
most clearly seen in adolescence, but when trying
to organize the training of preschool children the
same problems occur. It is known that the leading
activity of preschool age is a game. It develops
the motivational sphere in a child, the scope of his
personality. According to our records, regardless
of the program having effect in a preschool
institution (“Origins”, “Development”, “From
childhood to adolescence”, Sample Program), the
main focus in a preparatory group is on training
for the school. If we compare this with data of
E.O. Smirnova on reducing the level of formation
arbitrariness till the end of the pre-school age, it
will become clear that the introduction of direct
learning (working very well, as we just saw in the
primary school age) leads to the actual destruction
of the age, it stops solving its own problem of the
age.
What is the mechanism of motivation, what
is its subject at a preschool age or adolescence?
Let us consider the most troubled school age –
adolescence. It is described by different authors
in different ways, its leading activity is also
determined in different ways – intimate-personal
communication, social-useful activity, project
activity. But nearly all agree in recognizing that
the core of the age is the formation of identity
which is the establishment of your own holistic
Self. Formally, the term “identity” was introduced
to the academic community by E. Ericson (1996).
His theory is called social psychoanalysis. But
now another fact is more important – regardless
of the scientific paradigm most researchers agree
in recognizing the structure-determining role of
the process self-determination to understand the
content of adolescence.
Thus, the theoretical development of
Freud’s ideas leads to determining adolescence
as a period of release from the power of the
parents: “separation mourning”; according to
A. Freyd, the resumption of the conflict between
It and Super-Self provoked by increasing
the physiological changes can potentially be
resolved by building their own behavior criteria,
i.e. through individualization. E. Ericson
believed adolescence was a “normative crisis
of identity”, i.e. the period of the most intensive
search for their own integrity and identity.
Partial, fragmentation self-identification (I am a
schoolchild, I am a son) is subject to a review and
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critique, a new integral Self is constructed. In the
development of thinking (intelligent structures),
according to Piaget, in adolescence there is a
stage of formal operations like maneuvering
between reality and the possibility. The most
important characteristic of the stage of formal
operations is the ability to project yourself
into the future, to distinguish the real from the
possible and think about how it could be. Formal
operations are characterized by four features:
introspective thinking (a thought of a thought),
abstract thinking (leaving the bounds of the real
to the possible), logical thinking (the ability to
take into account all relevant facts and ideas
and make meaningful conclusions out of them,
such as establishing cause-effect relationships),
hypothetical thinking (the formulation of a
hypothesis and its proving, taking into account
many variables).
Thus, leaving behind the specifics and
peculiarities of individual conceptual approaches,
a teenager appears as the person building the
connection between his action and the field of
possibilities. We can call this the objective of the
age differently, by a popular term “Positioning”.
The teenager position himself in the world,
implementing, according to B.D. Elkonin, the
ontological decentration. Thus, in particular,
the phenomena of the imaginary audience and
a personal myth are described. Teens appreciate
their own place, position, opinion, appearance
the most acting based on the assumption of their
exclusivity (personal myth) and the interest of
others in their actions and deeds (imaginary
audience).
Features of the age and, therefore, the
objectives of the age hidden behind them are
linked with the problem of positing your own
personality in the world. Myself, my place in
the world, the world and my Self – these are the
main relationships that are explored and tested
in adolescence. The experiment with your Self
is a form of objectification of the age need for
the development, i.e. the motive. Adolescence,
therefore, is a period of searching for space of
satisfaction in the sphere of positing yourself
(through your action) in the space of possibilities
for its implementation.
These global problems of the age set the
general vector of motivation. The need for selfidentification can get objectified in the space
of the learning action, find the means of your
satisfaction in school. Then the direction of
education and the direction of self-construction
will be unidirectional, education will become
a space to meet the basic need of the age. If
education is organized differently, in particular,
on the grounds of the passive “learning” or even
the formation of generalized modes of action, as
in developmental education, if it implements the
logic of deployment of training objectivity, rather
than the logic of constructing yourself, education
is doomed to remain unmotivated.
What is the mechanism of teenage testing,
and how does it relate to motivation? Firstly, it is
necessary to identify the action committed and the
space it finds itself in. Secondly, it is necessary to
show the possible forms of detection, and, finally,
describe the screen on which this finding may be
a “seen”.
Teenagers go through a stage when they
attribute the unlimited power to their own thoughts
so the dreams of a bright future or to change
the world through ideas (even if this idealism
takes the materialistic form) seem to be not only
fantasies, but effective actions that are changing
the world themselves (Piaget, Inelder, 2003). So,
the idea (idea, hypothesis) can lead to changes in
the outside world, i.e. it is an action for a teenager.
: The world” that will be changed by the idea is a
space that will show the action, the changed world
will become a screen of the action, the change
will confirm the action, make it real. Thus, for a
teenager the situation is motivated when there is
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the action of the teenager, there is a change in the
situation through action, there is a space (screen)
on which the acting sees how the action links
with the change in the situation. The situation
of the action should provide an opportunity to
experiment on the action – its consequences. It
is distinction and mutual representation of the
action and its outcome (consequences) that is the
subject of motivation.
Fantasy formation indicated by Piaget and
Inelder is not the most unproductive way to find
your identity. Another, much more dangerous
way is antisocial behavior. Clearly, the society
prescribing forms of behavior “does not notice”
actions fit into the usual, reasonable limits. But
if the action is committed against the accepted
norms and forms, it is noticed, discussed and
judged, becomes the subject of retaliatory action.
Antisocial behavior in such a way is a form of
objectification of the need in self-discovery, selfidentification, and therefore a simple suppression
of it is counterproductive.
Thus, we state the following. Motivation
typical of adolescence requires the construction
of a situation characterized by the following
features:
• it potentially allows performing a lot of
different actions;
• it has a screen that reflects the result of
actions;
• there is no reference, initially given,
“correct” action with a prescribed
reference result.
In the process of taking action the relation
action-form of the result is built rather than the
result itself (as in the situation of mastering
instrumental action). We call this activity
project.
Unfortunately, what today is called the
project activity in the primary or high school
can hardly be regarded as such. This is creative
assignments, perhaps appealing to a teenager, but
in its inner nature they rarely provide a genuine
interest. Adolescents need unexpectedness, the
real unpredictability of the outcome, an event of
their own actions is required.
In fact, discussing motivation in learning
situations, we pay attention to the fact that it is
really important not only to become an adult
(graduate), but also to grow up (learn). Limiting
with the context of preparation for anything, for
the future professional or social success of today’s
student, we ignore the objectives of the age
development. Consequently, the age objectives
are not being solved, the age is not being lived;
the normal logic of growing up is interfered.
We accept the limitations of the health of
school children, but allow ourselves to grossly
violate the requirements of child psychology. This
is objective age requirements for the content of
education and forms in which it occurs. If they are
ignored the destruction of the learning situation
and the following is happening: education is
provided, but the educational product does not
occur. Then education becomes fictitious.
For example, in elementary school children
mostly have to master the generalized methods
of actions on the material of a variety of cultural
subjects, and educational product should be
measured as the sum of these modes of actions
mastered by the child. In the primary school
the objective of self-determination goes to the
forefront, and schooling becomes a material
for it. Accordingly, the maximum amount of
content and learning time should be taken by
the humanities and experimental natural science
courses, and the educational product should be
expressed at the level and type of texts (products)
that can be produced by the student. Skills and
formal knowledge are minimized.
In high school, from this point of view,
the situation is better – the age objective of the
professional self-determination can be solved
based on the school material, the prospects for
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further education or taking a job set a social
inquiry for studying, and that is why the situation
is relatively favorable. The key to solving the age
objective is the possibility of a pre-professional
test that (at least in intention) is solved by the
vocational school.
Thus, we fix the considerable source of
interests in education – the logic of the age
development and the form to satisfy this interest,
the organization of the age-oriented education.
This interest is not formed, it is not understood,
but its failure to satisfy manifests itself in the
processes of formalizing training: nominally
a student learns, but really – does not receive
education and in the future will not be the
holder of the educational product. However, the
educational service is paid for (at least the taxes
paid by parents). Moreover, the student and his
family in the learning process or later face the
problems of poor quality of education and/or are
forced to compensate with their own means – as
much as possible.
References
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotskiy] Педология подростка // Собр. соч. в 6 т. Т. 4. Детская
психология / под ред. Д. Б. Эльконина. (М.: Педагогика 1984). 432 с.
Леонтьев А.Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Деятельность, сознание, личность. (М.: Политиздат, 1975).
304 с..
Леонтьев А. Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Потребности, мотивы и эмоции. (М.: МГУ, 1971). 369 с.
Пиаже Ж., Инельдер Б. [J. Piaget, B. Inelder] Психология ребенка (18-е издание). (Спб.:
Питер, 2003). 160 с.
Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Проектная деятельность школьников. (М.: Просвещение.
2007). 196 с.
Эльконин Б. Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Психология развития: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб.
заведений. (М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2001). 144 с.
Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] К проблеме периодизации психического развития в детском
возрасте // Вопросы психологии. 1971. № 4. С. 29-41.
Эриксон Э. [E. Ericson] Идентичность: юность и кризис. (М.: Прогресс, 1996). 338 с.
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Katerina N. Polivanova. Problems of learning motivation. The age aspect
Проблемы мотивация учения.
Возрастной аспект
К.Н. Поливанова
Институт развития образования
Национальный исследовательский университет
«Высшая школа экономики»
Россия 101000, Москва, Славянская площадь, 4/2, к. 411
В статье обсуждаются проблемы мотивации учения школьников. Показано, что основой
мотивации является логика возрастного развития. На основании периодизации психического
развития Д.Б. Эльконина выделены два типа возрастов и продемонстрированы особенности
мотивации. Показано, что в младшем и старшем школьных возрастах мотивация учения
связана с различением естественного и искусственного действия. Описана специфика
формирования искусственного действия (присвоения образца действия). В подростковом
возрасте (в основной школе) мотивация связана с осознанием себя субъектом действия.
Ключевые слова: потребность, мотивация, задачи развития, периодизация психического
развития, младший школьный возраст, подростковый возраст.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1570-1582
~~~
УДК 371.255
Conflicts and Negotiations –
Educational Content
and Conditions for the Development
Boris I. Khasan*
Institute of Psychology and Development Pedagogy
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
Conflict competence acts as one of the most important educational outcomes. Opportunities to form
abilities to solve the conflicts that are need in education can be already implemented in developmental
education at primary school age. However, generated background of the conflict competence will
be the real age-related new formation, provided specially organized educational environment. Such
environment includes practice of conflict settlement in education in the negotiation processes of all
interested parties, including students. It is important to form this kind of negotiation institution,
taking into account the real risks that have their own specifics in different subjects of educational
relations.
Keywords: conflict, constructive negotiation processes, productive conflict settlement, educational
interests, age-related new formation, conflict competence.
No one likes the taste of yeast in the dough
- And yet it has risen only because of it.
Stanisław Jerzy Lec
I. Correlation of conflict
and subject competences
The question of the possibility to contribute
to the establishment of conflict competence, in
our opinion, can be responsibly raised already
in the second half of primary school, when
according to the concept of developmental
education and during the implementation of
appropriate educational technologies, we expect
the first effects of educational self-sufficiency
from students.
*
1
At the same time in the studies devoted
to the establishment of conflict competence in
school, there is a question about the correlation
of the activity on the development of ability to
productively settle the conflicts, and activity aimed
at the proper training of school subjects. This is the
question that has been raised by us in the context
of the correlation of subject and meta-subject
education. In this context, conflict competence
acts as an effect of meta-subject education, but its
formation, of course, requires the special material,
Corresponding author E-mail address: khbi@ippd.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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that can be reasonably considered as the learning
and subject material, but that is organized as a
specially discontinuous, problematic material –
task, problem. Our research aims in this respect
are rather coordinated with the organization of
educational tasks of the developmental education
system. At the same time, we believe that it is
possible to check the appearance of such an
effect as conflict competence just on the basis of
subject-indifferent material and thus to detect or
not detect the ability to transfer skills and use it in
the non-standardized situations.
Speaking about the competence, we
understand it (according to J. Ravenna, 2002)
as a personal effectiveness within the given
limits of the activity. The necessary condition
for the display and perhaps the appearance
of competence is the personal significance of
activity: “It is important for me to cope with
the task, to succeed in activity, so I make every
effort and show my competence”. If it does not
matter or it is not needed, competence is out
of the question. That is, we just do not know
whether it exists or not, because failure to
achieve the given result can be explained not by
the lack of skills, and the lack of motivation for
the solution.
For education, it means that competence
as the given, imposed with respect to age or
academic year one, has to correspond to or be
consistent with the claims of the child. That
is, these claims – “I want to know, to be able,
to overcome” – have become personal “I can”
in education and only then can we talk about
competence.
It should be emphasized that, according
to Ravenna and other authors (see also
(J. Christiansen, 1991, A.K. Markova, 1996)
being competent and not knowing about it at the
same time is not possible. That provision is the
place for questions about the subject of study
and ability formation. Is that thing that is formed
by teachers, and then measured and happily
discovered, the competence (or at least ability) of
the student or is it the reflected effect of activities
of the composer and measurer?
For the formation of the research program
and design of the usage of obtained results, we
formulate several key points.
1. Thereby, for the formation of competence
it is necessary for the child to notice, to detect
own progress and fix these transitions from “I
can’t” to “I can”.
In fact, these “I can” should be necessarily
in demand not only in an artificial frame of the
subject. This subject from the studying stage
should become something that will be applied or
work. And it must be discovered by the child as a
working and applicable thing.
In our opinion, it is the normal logic of
the subject education that is not self-sufficient,
but serves the purposes of development. From
the mastering of the subject as a subject for
the mastering to detect it as a resource tool for
working with another subject (see B.I. Khasan,
2003).
2. What is the conflict competence? It is
the complex of abilities that allows to effectively
settle conflicts. In this case it is important for
us that when we say “allow”, we do not mean
the finality of actions, their completeness. For
us, the most important thing is procedural
characteristics of productive oriented action with
contradiction and its conflicts. If you follow our
definition of the conflict as a special organization
of activities, as the form in which contradiction
is retained in the process of settlement, so the
conflict-competent person is the one who has
mastered this form and distinguished it among
others. And, most importantly, this person is able
to detect the contradiction and knows the ways of
its retention.
We believe, and it is the basic assumption,
that this kind of ability has its own line of
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development that can be built in accordance with
age. This means that at each age stage there is a
problem (imputation!) of the formation of conflict
competence of the specified level.
3. Variants of the correlation of the formation
dynamics of comflict competence with the subject
education are rather not variants, but some
scenarios of the correlation of aims and ways to
achieve them:
– “Even if you tech something, it will
grown by itself (If we teach well, good
things will grow, if we teach bad, not very
good things will grow”) – it is the natural
scenario;
– “It is necessary to teach specifically and
separately, and it doesn’t matter whether
you teach during the others lessons or the
same” – it is the subject scenario.
– Special organization of the subject
education where there will be formation
of connections between different lines
(according to the type “aim – means
to achieve”, and in inverse ratio, when
something that has been the aim yesterday
is becoming the means to achieve a
new goal today) – it is the meta-subject
scenario.
If we understand the connection between
actions transforming educational and subject
material and actions, skills, defining conflict
competencies – we will understand how to
provide its establishment and achievement of new
“I can” by the students.
4. In the model of the subject under study
it is important to distinguish three layers in the
logic of the competence formation.
● Educational and subject transformations
(the layer of the science and subject logic
and its didactic structure). This layer
forms the skill of specific regulatory
transformation and, thus, there is
mastering of norms of organization and
transformations in the certain subject
culture.
● Conflict (the layer of the activities
organization during the detection
of the gaps in own abilities to make
transformation when they are needed,
search and establishment of forms for
conflict settlement).
● General state (the layer where there is an
actual formation of connection between
two other layers, due to the transition
from the «It is needed» to «I want-but
I can’t» and then to «I can» with the
securing of what I exactly can and how it
has became possible and will be possible
in the future).
Abilities are always discovered in the
situation of overcoming, but they are fixed as
abilities and then as personal competence when
their application does not require special efforts
and becomes the irreversible thing that is not
possible to lose.
Thus, conflict competence, in our opinion,
can not be regarded as an independent separate
purpose and result of any special education
process, and also not as the random effect (bonus)
of subject education. It is developed together with
the subject competence and is the condition for
the effectiveness of the latter.
That is, if we really want to achieve sustained
and portable effects of subject education and
the same result of the behavior in conflict as
meta-ability (one of the key competencies), it is
important for us to look in educational technology
for the connection of these lines in the ratio of
«aim-material- means of transformation».
At the same time there is also the negative
assumption that only due to complication and
strengthening of the subject line it is impossible
to increase effectiveness in the subject and even
more in the parallel multiplication of these subject
lines.
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II. Experimental study
of the connection between the conflict
and subject competences1
Thus, the components of conflict competence
are the following:
1. Willingness to overcome difficulties
2. Ability to detect the contradiction that
lies at the heart of the conflict
3. Proficiency in the ways of resolving
various types of contradictions.
Reflection is the main means for conflict
settlement allows you to transfer the situation
of uncertainty in the form of the task, that is
to form “circumstances” of the person in the
construction – conflict which settlement will be
the settlement of the conflict.
At the finish of primary school, according
to the age-related goals and implementation of
educational programs, students can reach such
level of conflict competence that allows them to:
1. Effectively settle the conflicts of
extracurricular subject in group work.
(through the formulation of the problem
and development of educational cooperation)
2. Distinguish and hold in the settlement
two types of transformations: subject and
organizational.
Thus, the problem and contribution
of primary school age in the formation of
conflict competence consist in the following:
1) appearance of the ability to distinguish subjects
of transformation (that is the basic ability to
effective conflict settlement and lies in the basis
of distinguishing between the subject and the
conflict material, then the interests and goals of
the parties) and 2) detection of the interaction as
a resource for settlement.
In our opinion, the condition for the formation
of these abilities is the treatment of the school
subject by the teacher as means of activity, not
just as an object for the development and study.
This, in turn, is possible only with the special
lesson organization of such children’s interaction,
when the school subject is only the reason for
cooperation and its subsequent reflection. We
have conducted an experiment and attempted to:
- Create the situation of uncertainty with
the need to overcome it (the situation of
personal significance for the participants)
- Discover the phenomena of distinguishing
different types of material in the group
work
- Compare according to these criteria
students in classes where various
pedagogical strategies have been
implemented in the organization of
educational cooperation.
The experimental procedure was constructed
as follows.
Within
the
school-wide
campaign
“Remember your class”, the supervising teacher
introduces to the class adults who will shoot the
picture shot about their classroom. In order to do
this, they will choose a team of four people who
will be the screenwriters and presenters. In order
to select the best team there will be the game, and
the winners will be the smartest students who are
able to work together. Rules of the game are the
following:
Presenter thinks of a word that denotes
an object in this classroom. Task for the teams
is to guess the word. They should guess this
word according to the rules. The team asks the
presenter questions that can only be answered
“yes” or “no.” The teams play by turn. The first
team has 15 attempts, that is, they can ask just 15
questions. If during this time they can’t guess the
word, then the move is going to the next team.
They have 13 questions in total. If they also can’t
recognize the word, then the move is going to the
third team and this team has just 11 questions.
The winner is the team that guess the word. This
team gets 1 point. There are three rounds in total,
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the order of play is changing in every round. The
winner will be the team with the greatest number
of points. There are notes on the board about the
number of questions.
The whole procedure is recorded on video,
the groups include observers who are recording
the minutes of discussion.
After the first round, students were given the
time to discuss progress of the game in teams,
there were no any specific objectives for this
discussion.
This game was carried out in three 4th
academic year classes in the middle of the school
year. In total, the experiment was attended by 36
people. The classes were distinguished by the
system of education and system of pedagogical
activities for the organization of educational
cooperation.
The first group was represented by the class
with the traditional system of education and the
teacher did not set any tasks of mastering the
skills of cooperation (hereinafter referred to as
TE – traditional education).
The second group was the class of
developmental education, where the teacher
actively used the group and pair forms of work,
but only as a form of work that contribute to
effective mastering of subject material. The
cooperation did not act as the separate subject of
the activity of the teacher and class (hereinafter
referred to as DE – developmental education).
The third group was the students of class,
where within the developmental education the
teacher intentionally and systematically used
the educational co-operation and implemented
an entire program for the transfer of the skills
of cooperation to the students. The cooperation
itself was discussed in the educational process as
an independent subject (hereinafter referred to as
DE+ – developmental education +).
In the experimental situation we were
interested in the following:
1. Do the students in these classes differ in
the selection of settlement strategies?
2. Is it possible to identify differences in
the forms of cooperation and ways of its
organization?
3. Do the students at the end of primary
school mark subject material and
cooperation about it as the different
subjects of activity?
The analysis of questions to the presenter
allowed identifying questions of strategic search
and chaotic search. We labeled the question as
strategic, if the answer to it would determine the
future actions of the team (if the answer is “yes”,
then we’ll ask about ...; and if the answer is “no”,
then ...). The next question within the strategy is
always connected with the previous one. Chaotic
search is reflected in the questions that are the
enumeration of subjects without system and
special intention to clarify any property or get
certain information. Typically, this type of search
is accompanied by an active examination of the
class, “search with the eyes”. Participants try to
guess the word, and often the answer “no” does
not carry any information other than “we have
not guessed”.
We should also mention such questions that
have pseudo-reflexive character. By the form the
question refers to the group of subjects and finds
out its indicator, but by the content it refers to the
concrete subject. For example, the group asks
the question “Is it for shooting?” referring to the
video camera, or “Is it used for writing on the
blackboard?” referring to the chalk, etc. We have
to mention that any prohibitions or restrictions on
the naming of the subject in the instruction were
not introduced. Only in one case, such questions
have been the result of an erroneous understanding
of instructions by one of the respondents. The
cases of pseudo-reflexive statements are recorded
in all classes, and in some groups they were even
dominant. For us, this phenomenon means the
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attempt of external compliance with the “correct”
way of acting, without the reflexive attitude
toward it. Intuitively feeling how to do it “right”,
the students act almost like this, but do not
implement the method of strategic search. We fix
stereotyped activity upon the pattern of reflexive
operations that are not mastered as a method.
The percentage of different types of
statements said by fourth-graders is presented in
the table.
The following analysis results refer to the
dynamics of the search methods throughout the
game. It will be recalled that the game procedure
consisted of three rounds. It was important for
us to compare the methods of solution used in
different rounds. In order to do this, we compared
the percentage of statements of strategic search in
all grades from first to the third round.
The results of the comparison are presented
in the graph (Table 1).
It is evident from the graph that only in the
DE+ class dynamics of strategic statements is
positive. With almost equal results in the first
round that represents for us the spontaneous
activity of children, in the third round there
are significant differences. These quantitative
indicators have forced us to turn to the analysis of
phenomenal data. It was found that the first round
has the nature of the tentative one, when there is
an understanding of the problem conditions and
performance of the tests of spontaneous actions
(chaotic search). The pause before the second
round helps to make difficulty and suggest
methods of effective activity. In the second round
they are implemented. Effective implementation
is related to the distribution of functions in the
group (organization of cooperation), and the
discussion of the solution strategy throughout
the entire round (subject transformation). In this
case, in the third round the strategy has become
dominant and the percentage of chaotic statements
is significantly reduced.
If the orientation in the problem conditions
in the first round was not successful and the
discussion of methods had formal character, after
increase of the percentage of strategic statements
in the second round, in the third one, it would be
again reduced to the initial level. The reason for
this we see in the failure of the implementation of
agreements in the team. For us, it is an indicator
that students know “how it should be done”, they
try, but do not hold it in their own activities. We
dare say that in the presence of the teacher and
his organizing work, this strategies would have
found its continuation. Thus, students in the class
of DE may find difficulties and make attempts to
form it, but they are not able to keep the reflective
position in the group cooperation.
We have also found significant differences
in the forms of cooperation in different classes.
And again in the first round, almost all groups
demonstrated the direct cooperation “individual
members – presenter” and the group does not
work like organization. Then, after the redetermination of conditions and development of
the method of solution in the DE classes there
is appearance other forms. In the first of them
there is domination of cooperation “individual
Table 1. Ratio of the respondents’ statements by the method of search
Type of statements
Class:
Strategic search, %
Chaotic search,%
Pseudo-reflection,%
TE
DE
DE+
3.5
58
34
6
56
45
14
43
24
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members – leader – presenter” and this form is
maintained until the end of the game. Thus, there
is some sort of organization of work and questions
are not asked in chaotic way. That is, according
to the formal signs, the group is structured and
the method of action is developed. However, this
method is not consistent with the content of the
subject transformation (although the group is
organized, this organization does not serve the
task of the development of search method).
In the DE+ class this stage is practically
not observed; after the individual actions in the
first round in the group there is discussion of
the settlement strategy that then determines the
form of cooperation. Then the group as a whole
discusses and makes the decision about which
question should be asked.
It allows us to conclude that the distinction
between two types of material (cooperation and
subject transformation) in this experiment is
the key factor to effectiveness. And we see the
phenomena of this distinction in the activity
of respondents from the DE+ class. It means
that at the end of primary school it is possible
to distinguish the retention of two layers of
educational cooperation by students. And it does
not require the organization of special subjects
or meta-subjects – the appropriate level of
competence is the effect of full implementation
of educational activities.
With the special organization of
“discontinuity” of the subject by the teacher,
positioning it as the means for other activities,
students at the end of primary school are the
most effective in overcoming the situation of
uncertainty and group settlement of the conflict.
In order to make the received educational
result as the basis of the age-related new form, it
requires such social context where constructive
procedural characteristics of the cooperation
are demanded in the obvious for the character
way. We consider the retention of the conflict as
constructive when it is formed as the negotiation
process. In turn, the productive outcome of such
process is an agreement that has been reached
during the negotiations and that satisfies the
interests of the negotiating parties, and therefore
will be implemented by them voluntarily and
without coercion. (Khasan, 2003)
It is extremely important, in our opinion
that this context by itself should be presented
in the form of a general-purpose institution, i.e.
including all the positions that are interested
in education and not being designed by adults
exclusively for the children.
This circumstance opens up the problem of
needed and possible agreements with a relatively
high social status.
III. Conflicts and negotiations
in the educational relations
Efficiently solvable conflicts imply a clear
representation of the interests of the involved
parties and matching of the subject and material
of the conflict. If the reality of relations is framed
not in such a way, we deal with the so-called
“conflict monster” when one party wants one
thing, the other one wants another thing. Such
actions can be called crossing actions, but they
can hardly be discussed as the cooperation that
according to the classical theory of conflict is an
attribute of the conflict (Christiansen, 1991, p. 49),
and least of all they can match the characteristic
of consistency. And, despite the fact that their
actions really interfere with each other, because
they are simultaneously deployed in a limited
space and are in a real interdependence, this type
of cooperation can’t be productive. Usually there
is escalation of the tension followed by attempts
to increase the effort from all sides. It is followed
by mutual negative qualification, threats, etc.
For the professional work with such a
situation it is necessary to identify the real
interests of the parties, determine the essence of
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their inconsistent or consistent character, and try
to align interests.
Special feature of the educational relations,
quite clearly presented in a great number of
psychological and educational literature was
rather clearly schematized by L.S. Vygotskiy
(Vygotskiy, 1996, p.373-391), and then was
almost painted by G.P. Shchedrovitskiy as a
process of the cultural transmission where there
is cooperation of special cultural positions, and
their activity is mediated by the social situation
of development and by the usage of special
(corresponding to the cultural material) methods
of transformation (Shchedrovitskiy, 1993, p. 3842). Just the development and appropriation of
the cultural transformation methods forms the
semantic characteristics of educational relations.
And it is this understanding of the educational
relations that gives us reason to consider them as
developing and as a condition of the development
of the collective or individual subject participating
in them. In turn, it means that along with the
clear characteristics that define the cultural
forms of subjects under study and mean of their
transformation, we “see” in these relationships
rather high uncertainty in the field of individual
and collective achievements.
Does it mean that educational relations are
conflict, have a high degree of uncertainty and,
therefore, are always risky to the extent of their
dynamic?
The nature of the risks to the parties that
are participants of the educational relations is
determined by their interests and expectations,
as well as their contributions to the educational
process.
For what the parties – members of educational
relations count on? What risks are they trying to
minimize during the implementation of their own
interests?
Conducting our research, we focused on two
institutions that were members of educational
relations. It is the Institute for Education and
Institute for Family. It was important for us to
apply to the direct participants with such kind of
analysis, although of course we understand that
the main and common subject of such relations is
the Institute of State. This member stands behind
the Institute of Education, but the latter, of course,
over the last few hundred years, has acquired its
own specific interests that do not always coincide
with the interests of the state.
We have conducted dozens of focus groups
with representatives of educational institutions
and families. It was important to find out what
interests in education activity may be claimed
by these groups and how they are specified, as
well as ideas about their own contributions to
education.
The question about the risks has arisen
in connection with the need to analyze the
seriousness, reality and the status of interests in
education, their place among the other interests
of the respective institutions. The fact is that the
declarations about the importance of education, its
priorities have become a commonplace in various
discussions and seriously have had journalism
features that are far away from the real situation.
It is possible to check sufficient seriousness of
relations in the particular area, in our opinion,
if you understand what contributions and under
what guarantees people are willing to make, or
in other words, to what extent they are willing to
risk than in order to achieve their goals.
That is, the conscious willingness to take risk
is the measure of the seriousness of interests.
For one of the more clearly represented
positions interest is formed lapidary and
supposedly pragmatic. In fact, the household, in
accordance with the exact expression of Evgeny F.
Saburov, sends the child to school, setting oneself
free and giving the responsibility to another
party, with hopes for a good result in the distant
future. At the same time attempts to control
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the flow of the process in the desired direction
are made on the basis of own memories and
impressions, as well as relying on the inconsistent
standards. The latter is very important because
in fact it is an appeal to some “social contract”,
the content of which is interpreted by the parties
rather arbitrarily, but in full confidence that there
are generally accepted, well-known and obvious
norms. In strong formulations, it looks like this:
“We have given you our children, you owe us, so
do it”.
IV. Conflicts of adults – the context
of maturation conflicts
When such concentrated and shaped interests
are represented to the parties – participants of
education, their contradictory character becomes
apparent, since in these representations there is
no any agreement on the common field of activity
and its results, but the interdependence and mutual
claims and expectations are clearly visible.
For us as people specializing in the field of
conflict analysis and conflict settlement, such a
“picture” means that in principle such concordance
is possible, if it is showed and structured, and the
ground of the party interests are consecutively
opened and formed, and the possibilities to
satisfy them are discussed. In reality, nothing
happens. More specifically, attempts that are, in
our opinion, poorly and randomly organized are
made at the level of conversations about education
policy, and mostly in journalistic terms.
If we talk about the psychological projections
of these relations in the field of education, we will
see at once hopes, expectations, requirements,
and distrust, suspicion, resentment. And we are
constantly confronted with this “picture” in the
descriptions of relations between the parties
regarding education. And course of this conference
clearly shows it, because hardly anyone speaks on
his behalf about his way of understanding of the
situation, about his intentions, and what exactly
he wants to address to the partners or opponents.
Basically, there are still domination of some of
the common fixations and appeals. At best, the
representatives of the parties insist that their
interests should be taken into account (please,
note – taken into account, but not coordinated).
At the same time, even these interests are poorly
articulated and not thorough enough.
Psychological characteristic of such kind
of established relations, of course, leads us to
conclusion about their inefficiency, because the
simultaneous ambivalence of “trust-distrust”
seems rather strange. We will emphasize once
again that both parties considered by us are
forced to “trust” each other (another variant is
simply not given), and both suspect each other
of at least partial compliance, and procedural
characteristics (correctness of actions) and, even
more in the field of the results.
For all that, as it is shown by our analysis, it is
not just tolerable situation, but even comfortable.
Why is it comfortable for education?
Today the question about the responsibility of
educational institutions for the poor results is
raised, and every time the tension in this regard
is strengthened, and there are conversations that
the contributions are growing, but the quality is
falling and frustration is growing. History shows
that society has never been satisfied with modern
institutions of education and symmetrically there
have never been education systems that would
have been pleased with the attitude of the society
and the state towards them. This provision allows
the institutions of education to actually explain
their own inefficiency, without making the radical
self-transformation.
Why is it comfortable for the institution of
the family? In fact, there are the same reasons,
because it allows discussing the ineffectiveness
of education and as a derivative of it, many social
misfortunes not as a consequence of own actions,
but as imperfections and errors of the other
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party. In other words, this situation keeps its own
irresponsibility.
So we fix the stable mutual dissatisfaction
at all levels, and at the same time we say that we
must negotiate. So what is the condition when our
parties will be facing each other?
And this is that social “soup” in which it is
necessary to “cook” the conflict competence!
Education as an institution is certainly
responsible for the results, responsible for the
fact that it does not meet the requirements and
expectations. But the peculiarities of the mutual
dissatisfaction can be explained theoretically by
the fact that the parties seriously disagree on the
identification definition of each other. One party
considers itself as realizing the mission, and
requires recognition and support, while the other
party assigns her the status of service provider,
while declaring the recognition of the mission.
Apparently, the description of educational
relations within the service agreement that is
well-known in the law is the normal, but not
comprehensive “picture” of these relations.
Moreover, we believe and propose to consider suck
kind of relations as required, but complementary,
not basic one. That is, the situation is literally
such that today a much more complex content
“hides” in the form of service relations.
From our point of view, any attempts to build
education relations, constituted exclusively by
such ideas, are in fact hopeless, because from the
beginning they are considered not as civil but as
interpersonal. Everybody understands, especially
people who act like a customer, that the attempt
of a civilized settlement or arising disagreements
(conflicts) endangers that person who is actually
of such “agreements”, who is naturally included in
the educational process. In other words, relations
include such people, whose behavior in most
direct and essential way affects the conditions
and the results of the educational process. It’s not
just the material of transformation, in respect of
which the parties can contract an agreement, it
is the participant whose behavior is influenced
in one way or another by both sides. Moreover,
it is important, that during the discussion of
the educational process, we do not always see
its boundaries with reasonable certainty and
therefore we can hardly identify the content,
conditions and results of the actions of one of the
parties participating in the cooperation. It turns
out that the one who acts, relatively speaking,
as the customer has rather obvious and certain
contribution to education – the child, and expects
to receive some educational result (?). We do not
discuss other types of contributions. Another
party is also making a contribution with the help
of own financial, technological or other resources,
but the level of their certainty is much lower
than the first party has. The question about risks
arises precisely in those cases when the parties
are dissatisfied with the course or process or its
results. Moreover, typically such a conversation
(topic) is already has the grounds in such cases,
when at least one party is not satisfied. In our case,
we see the situation of mutual dissatisfaction.
And how the risks are distributed?
It turns out that, in accordance with the
contributions, everybody risks everything
that have been contributed. But there is one
significant feature in the risk of that party that
stands, relatively speaking, as “the producer of
educational services”. The fact is that, since the
contributions of this party are poorly personified
in contrast to the contributions of another party,
its main risk is connected with its failure to
satisfy the interest that is pursued by activity.
Then it turns out that the party runs the risk of
low status (or it’s better to say it will not get high
status). But in fact this party has already had this
status, regardless of how the activities will be
carried out, and what results it will bring. Society
and state with their current relations takes its
responsibility, deliberately fixing the low status
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with the well-known attributes. But the other side
bears full responsibility. It runs the risk of all his
contributions, moreover, all the costs (not received
knowledge, time, material costs, health and others)
are practically irreversible and irretrievable, and
at best are only compensated. The peculiarity
of the risks of this party is that the detection of
possible losses is significantly postponed in time
from the reality of the educational process, and
all the time there is some hope that it is possible
to fix something, and only at the end we fix the
result that nothing can be changed. The statement
said by M.M. Zhvanetskiy describes this situation
very well: “Life is a one-way street”. Probably, it
would be wise not to dramatize the situation so
hard. Of course, the discovery of some deficiencies
of education, as it is showed by practice, can be
filled or compensated. But it requires additional
and significant expenditure of resources of those
people who actually need this kind of filling.
This is a real responsibility and such additional
expenditures actually show who and what runs
risk of in the situation of uncertainty in the
educational relations.
If it is not easy just to fix the situation, but also
to qualify it, it seems important to draw attention
once again to the fact that those relations that
have developed in education, are analyzed every
time not as a joint activity of all interested parties
in the overall result with the distribution and
balanced variant of responsibility both at micro –
and macro levels. The conversation almost every
time is psychologically pointless: separately
about the interests of parents, separately about
the state’s interests, separately about some social
interest. And somehow it has turned out that the
interest of people maturing in this space is almost
not represented. They are, at best, participate in
simulations, which decorative nature is already
understand in the secondary school, especially if
it has become possible in the primary school to
establish the grounds for conflict competence.
Such kind of qualification proposes the
answer about what to do: to align interests, rather
than oppose them, that is to negotiate. But when
we are talking about contracts, we also, in turn,
run the risk of actualization of the almost ready
stereotypes, and thus of the loss of the real subject
of discussion. We can be answered immediately
from the both parties that the contracts have
already concluded, that schools have concluded
agreements with the parents about the conditions
of education, about the size and the frequency of
parental contributions to the educational activity
of educational institutions and the conditions
and peculiarities of the expenditure of such
contributions, about the accountability, etc. And
there is such a practice indeed, though it has a
weak resemblance to the civilized one. The only
thing is that majority of the contracts of this kind
are the contracts of accession, that is, you do not
discuss anything. You are offered to sign that you
agree with the certain and already established
terms and conditions. If you do not like such a
contract, so do not sign it, and therefore do not
enter into this relations and take your child to
another school. The same kind of “contracts” are
becoming widespread in the high school. In this
situation the party if the students themselves.
The fact is that psychologically (it is not less
important for us than legally) such a contract
releases the parties from personal personified
liability. It is automatically attributed by the very
contract form, but it is not necessarily assigned
by the participants. It turns out that this kind
of contract does not insure the participants
against the risks that we have been discussing
here. Figuratively speaking: “Well, it doesn’t
matter that the patient has died, we have treated
him right”. It occurs because this version of
the contract does not imply participation of the
parties in the process of formation and execution
of the agreement, i.e. it does not imply any joint
activity.
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We see the future in education contracts
exactly about the joint activity. Such a contract
should appear as the result of the negotiation
process. It will certainly be the long and difficult
process, for sure, especially at the beginning
of attempts to practice such negotiations, it
will be quite cost-based process of approval.
But in this negotiation process the parties
will be forced to form their own interests, to
formulate clear and verifiable objectives, to fi x
1
the dynamics of their achievements, to estimate
the conditions and contributions, to imagine
the real responsibility of participants. This
practice exactly will allow, in our opinion, to
establish the educational relations in a truly
civilized manner. Apparently, this perspective
has another aspect – the negotiation processes
in education are the real and sufficiently mass
practice of civil relations, but it’s a topic for
another discussion.
This part of work is conducted in cooperation with T.I. Yustus.
References
Равен Дж. [John Raven] Компетентность в современном обществе. Выявление, развитие и
реализация (М., Когито-центр, 2002).
Кристиансен Ж. [J. Christiansen] Профессия инженера по человеческим факторам. В кн.:
Человеческий фактор / под ред. Г. Салвенди (М., Мир, 1991). Т. 1.
Маркова А.К. [A.K. Markova] Психология профессионализма (М.: Знание, 1996).
Хасан Б.И. [B.I. Khasan] Границы компетенций: педагогические вменения и возрастные
притязания // Педагогика развития: ключевые компетентности и их становление: материалы
9-й науч.-практ. конф. (Красноярск, 2003).
Хасан Б.И. [B.I. Khasan] Конструктивная психология конфликта (СПб.: Питер, 2003).
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotskiy] О педологическом анализе педагогического процесса //
Педагогическая психология (М., Педагогика-Пресс, 1996).
Козер Л. [L. Kozer] Функции социального конфликта (М.: Идея-Пресс, 2000).
Щедровицкий Г.П. [G.P. Shchedrovitskiy] Система педагогических исследований
(Методологический анализ) // Педагогика и логика (М., Касталь, 1993).
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Boris I. Khasan. Conflicts and Negotiations – Educational Content and Conditions for the Development
Конфликты и переговоры –
содержание и условия образования
для развития
Б.И. Хасан
Институт психологии и педагогики развития,
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Конфликтная компетентность выступает как один из важнейших образовательных
результатов. Возможности формирования способностей к удержанию конфликтов, с
необходимостью возникающих в обучении, могут быть реализованы в развивающем обучении
уже в младшем школьном возрасте. Однако сформированные предпосылки конфликтной
компетентности станут реальным возрастным новообразованием при условии специально
организованных образовательных условий. К таким относится практика разрешения
конфликтов в образовании в переговорных процессах всех заинтересованных сторон, включая
учащихся. Такого рода институт переговоров важно выстраивать с учетом реальных рисков,
которые у различных субъектов образовательных отношений имеют свою специфику.
Ключевые слова: конфликт, конструктивные переговорные процессы, продуктивное разрешение
конфликтов, образовательные интересы, возрастные новообразования, конфликтная
компетентность.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1583-1592
~~~
УДК 371.255
Development Pedagogy –
the Crisis of the Genre?
Viktor A. Bolotov*
Russian Academy of Education
8, Pogodinskaya str., Moscow, 119121 Russia1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
This article analyzes the situation in the Russian practice of developmental education. The aim is to
develop the new didactics, capable of providing mass school with technology that meets the challenges
of tomorrow – to learn how to live and work in a rapidly changing world. This article grounds the
necessity of formation of the education quality assessment system and gives the characteristics of its
sub-systems: an external assessment of the individual achievements of the students, assessment of
the effectiveness of educational institutions activity, assessment of the effectiveness of educational
systems activity, the organization of assessment within the school.
Keywords: development pedagogy, new didactics, education quality assessment.
The problem of development has always been
recognized as one of the key problems in pedagogy.
At various stages of history the formulation of
the problem itself and, consequently, its solution
have been changing. This is due, primarily,
to the changes of socio-cultural context, the
requirements of production and economy, as
well as new interpretations of the understanding
of the essence of personal development and
learning process itself. This topic is also relevant
to pedagogy nowadays. Since the late 1980s in
Russia the word “development” has become the
most fashionable. In recent years it has acquired
not only the specific meaning in the educational
environment, but also become some kind of a
distinguishing mark “one’s own” – “foreign.”
Everyone is talking about developmental
education, there is an establishment of a large
*
1
number of special educational and methodical
complexes that “guarantee” the student’s
development, and, probably, in the vast territory
of our country it is very easy to find a school
where at least one teacher can say – I’m working
according to the methods of development
education. But when we try to evaluate the real
results of this great educational revolution, it turns
out that they are more than modest. In particular,
it can be proved by comparison of the results of
the PISA international study in 2000 and 2009.
Slightly exaggerating the situation, we can say
that almost the only trophy in the victorious
blitzkrieg of “developmental education” with the
so-called traditional one is the implementation of
several new terms (which are also interpreted in
different ways by various groups of teachers and
researchers), and arrogant and condescending
Corresponding author E-mail address: vikbolotov@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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attitude toward any kind of shabby archaic:
knowledge, abilities, skills.
So today the researches that in one conceptual
space compare views of different pedagogical
and psychological schools about the student’s
development would be highly relevant. There
also will be need for the analysis of technologies
that are offered by certain science school and
that provide this development. Unfortunately,
before the conduction of these studies it should
be necessary to admit that many provisions of
the pedagogical and psychological theories in
attempts to use them in educational practices are
unsustainable. This is due, primarily, to the fact
that the purpose and object of development are
determined mainly on the level of ideologemes,
the result is very vague, and the mechanisms
and technologies of implementation do not
stand school practice. “It’s easy to build
bridges in dreams, because there are no laws of
gravity” – C. Boyden wrote. Unfortunately, for
many pedagogical (and psychological) schools
creation of the ideal models that do not need
to take the “inert” reality into consideration,
it becomes an end in itself. From my point of
view, the only possible way to solve the problem
of development today is to describe the present
state of affairs and form ideas about the needs
of the future (society, government, economics,
etc.).
In this connection it is worth remembering
several examples of the establishment of new
approaches to school education.
It is believed that our school came out of
“The Great Didactic” by Comenius. It is worth
remembering the full name of this really brilliant
work, “The Great didactic, the whole art of
teaching all things to all men, and indeed of
teaching them with certainty, so that the result
cannot fail to follow; further, of teaching them
pleasantly, that is to say, without annoyance
or aversion on the part of the teacher or the
pupil, but rather with the greatest enjoyment
for both; further of teaching them thoroughly,
not superficially and showily, but in such a
manner as to lead to true knowledge, purity
in morals and innermost devotion”(author’s
highlighting).
If you recall the historical context, it
becomes clear how important was the supertask
that had been solving by Johann Amos Comenius.
This supertask arose from the situation with
Lutheranism: the person should be able to
communicate with God without the church and
the priest. And it’s necessary to teach people
how to read. It can be assumed that Comenius’
didactic, in general, has been linked to morality
in the first place. The second wind was gained
by Comenius’ Didactic one century later during
the Industrial Revolution, when it was necessary
to have a great number of rather competent
executors.
There is another well known example of
didactic that has radically changed the existing
school. It is the didactic by Dewey. In his book
“Democracy and education” he suggested quite
different organization principles of school and
school space comparing to the class-lesson
system, providing education of the citizen of
the United States. This was due to the fact that
at the beginning of last century the United
States of America had serious problems with
a sharp increase of the stratification of society
on the racial, ethnic and religious basis. And
Dewey’s didactics did not appear as the fruit
of scholastic reasoning, but as a response to
the challenges facing society. The American
school, using these didactic principles, has
made success: in response to the question “Who
are you?”, the majority of the U.S. citizens say
“I’m American” and only then they can specify
their nationality and religion. It should be
noted that solving the problem of the citizen
education, the American school lost in the
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traditionally understood quality of education,
and it’s not the chance that for decades it has
been facing the task of improvement of the
student’s educational level.
It is worth remembering that after the
October Revolution of 1917 to address there have
been made numerous attempts to reform the
traditional school in order to solve the problem
of educating the citizens of the new Russia.
But because the state in the fi rst place needed
executors, class-lesson system won. But the
problem of ideological education were solving
through extracurricular work and the activities
of the Pioneer and Komsomol organizations.
However, during the last decades of the Soviet
Union there was appearance of scientific schools
that designed the new educational system,
proceeding not from the concept of training of
ideologically competent executors, but from
some theoretical ideas about a modern person.
As an example we can name scientific schools
of V.V. Davydov, L.V. Zankov, V.S. Bibler, Sh.A.
Amonashvili, V.K. Dyachenko. Representatives
of the scientific schools designed a new practice,
new pedagogical paradigm, proceeding
from their philosophical, psychological and
pedagogical ideas about the modern education.
But since neither the Soviet society, nor the Soviet
state were not interested in these approaches in
general, then the Soviet mass school was not
affected by these works.
For me, everything mentioned above
means that if today any group of scientists
and practitioners really raises the problem of
establishment of the New school, at first they
have to understand what are the things that do not
satisfy them in the existing system of education
not in terms of today, but in terms of tomorrow,
and what challenges of tomorrow should be met
by their new school.
It is obvious that different groups of
researchers can have own idea about the proper
future, but, in my opinion, there are several
invariant positions for any such idea.
First of all, how the goals of any approach to
the construction of the new school are related to
the fundamental educational objectives that are
formulated in UNESCO documents, – to learn
to acquire knowledge (to learn how to learn); to
learn to work and earn (learning for labor); to
learn to live (learning for life); to learn to live
together (learning for life together).
Secondly, as noted by many experts, it is
time to quickly update the knowledge and change
the technologies. If earlier education was given
for the whole life and it was enough to conduct
professional activities in the chosen field until
one’s death, so today this situation has changed.
According to researchers, the volume of
scientific knowledge is doubling every 8-10 years,
and it means that the content of education that is
acquired by students is aging rapidly in many
ways. The volume of new knowledge increases
exponentially. So trying to take into account all
the latest achievements in the compulsory school
curriculum is just hopeless. The best way to solve
this problem is the transition from the knowledgecentered school to the culture conformable school
that provides the basic concepts of the relevant
culture and helps to master methods of work with
them.
Such a transition should lead, at first, to
the realization that future depends not only on
the volume of students’ knowledge, but on the
level of development of the universal ways of
thinking and working, the ability to develop new
technologies. In this situation, the new school is
facing the problem of not the transfer of existing
knowledge and existing technologies (as required
by the Great Didactic), but of the formation of
abilities to find and develop new skills and master
new technologies.
It is important to take in consideration
that different scientific schools can give their
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own interpretations of the concepts of “ways of
thinking,” “ways of working” and create their
own original techniques.
In connection with it, any textbook nowadays
also needs to be fundamentally different. Today,
despite a huge amount of books, textbooks do
not differ from each other. All of them are twinbrothers: the information necessary for the student
to solve a significant number of problems given in
the textbook dominates in it. The modern school
textbook should, in my opinion, take into account
the realities of current time. And above all, this
fact regards working with information. In modern
informational world, people very often enter the
bifurcation points, uncertain situations, when
his behavior at any given moment determines
the future. And basically there is solution of the
problems that do not have sufficient information.
There are no authorities to tell how to act, every
person has to start activity by himself. Therefore,
the most important task of the textbook is to learn
how to use additional sources of information. In
places where there is the Internet, where there
are computers – it is of course, the usage of
information and communication technologies,
and in places where there are not such things,
teachers should consider the usage of additional
library resources.
The development of interpersonal skills,
group interaction, that are so called-for in modern
society, is favoured by the usage of interactive and
project forms of education organization. Apart
from the fact that these forms allow students to
develop the skills listed above, every student is
given the space to express own views (even if it’s
wrong, it’s a good reason for the discussion!).
And once again, different scientific schools
can have their own vision of the solution of the
problems mentioned above.
But if we admit the possibility (and for me the
necessity!) of the presence of various theories and
practices of development in education, there is a
question about the comparison of the effectiveness
of any particular approach. In other words, there
is a problem of assessment of the education
quality that is given by practice. It is also a matter
of principle that the assessment should not only
be internal (as a rule, “it” is done according to
one’s own criteria and assessment procedures,
and people also argue that this approach “works”
very well), but also external – according to the
generally accepted indicators and procedures.
Only in the presence of an external assessment
it is possible to organize a real dialogue between
the different scientific schools and practices, the
real design of education development. However,
everything that is introduced as an external
assessment of education quality in some regions,
requires a serious discussion. On the one hand,
measuring materials that are used there, as a rule,
do not correspond testological canons, on the other
side – and it is more important, in my opinion,
“regional” understanding of the term “quality of
education” does not often stand any factful critics.
In this article, I will not delve into the discussion
of the very definition of the “quality of education”,
because various scientific schools may have (and
they have!) their own definitions of quality. The
author’s position on this issue was presented at
the conference “Development pedagogy” in
Krasnoyarsk in 2008 (1) and described in many
publications, in particular, in the journal “Issues
of education” (2). In this article I will only note
that today the most discussed and popular are
three main approaches to the assessment of the
quality of education.
The first approach is the compliance of
education with normative documents, and first of
all with standards. It is necessary to understand
that not all formulations of normative documents
are the basis for the creation of monitoring and
test materials. For example, in the standards the
objectives of education are often described as a
designation of the direction of the motion vector
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(“Our goal is the education of comprehensively
developed personality”), and it is impossible to
measure the achievements of every student, we
can only assess the state of the school environment
whether it contributes to approaching to the
goal-ideal or not. If the aims of education
are formulated specifically and operationally
(students in the school will study any rules and
master ways of solving any problems), it can
be possible to measure knowledge and abilities
of every student in accordance with the stated
requirements. Thus, in the second case, the
aims will be the basis for the development of the
necessary measuring materials and procedures.
As for the first example, when we speak about
some goals-ideals, then there can’t be any
measuring materials to evaluate, for example, the
student’s level of love for the motherland.
The second approach is the compliance of
educational results with the social expectations.
They are not the same in different strata of the
population. In my opinion, this is the space for
the target self-determination of various scientific
and educational schools.
The third approach to the quality of education
is the compliance with personal expectations. In
this case, the variety of different pedagogical
practices is possible and needed.
Thus, when it comes to the quality of
education, people should carefully sort out
who (government, society, personality, or any
scientific and pedagogical school) is talking
about what kind of quality of education. In my
opinion, the discussion of various schools about
the advantages of any system should begin
with a justification of their own ideas about the
education of high quality and check methods of
this quality. This article will focus on the problem
of the external quality assessment.
Unfortunately, at the present moment
the situation with the organization of external
assessment in Russia worries people – in fact,
except for the Unified State Examination
(USE), the State Final Examination-9 (SFE9) (that mostly check the level of proficiency in
school subjects), there are not any other various
international monitoring activities at the federal
level. If we consider this problem in a broader
context, it is necessary to formulate a number
of research tasks related to the organization of
external quality assessment.
Today, the questions about the quality
of education and thus its assessment are one of
the central questions when discussing the state
of affairs not only in education but in society as
a whole. Understanding of the fact that human
resource has become a key factor in the provision
of the development, forces society to give more
attention to this issue in the world and in Russia.
For example, the countries in the Organization
for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) are actively discussing the results of
the international researches PIRLS, TIMSS
and PISA, reflecting the problems of the quality
of general education. In Russia, the education
quality assessment in recent years is one of
the most pressing topics for discussions in the
professional educational community – more and
more teachers and managers understand that
speaking about the education quality management
without any real assessment of the state of affairs
is impossible. It should be also noted that the
effectiveness of educational system activity begin
to be increasingly taken into account during the
assessment of the efficiency of activity of the
executive authorities at regional and municipal
levels, and during the introduction of a new
system of teacher payments, and during the
certification of teachers and heads of educational
institutions, and in public reports about the state
of affairs in education.
Noting the practical importance of
the current scientific researches in the field
of education quality assessment, we must
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acknowledge that the conceptual framework of
researches on a number of direction of education
quality assessment is not worked properly, in
particular, in the approaches to the assessment
procedures, criteria and indicators of the
educational effectiveness (that is not limited just
by the assessment of the proficiency level), there
are few researches related to the improvement
of the current verification and intra-class (intraschool) assessment of educational achievements
of students, with the prospects of transition to the
new systems of assessment, including the usage
of portfolios.
In this connection it is reasonable to
describe the tasks according to the strategic areas
of development of education quality assessment:
external assessment of the individual achievements
of students, assessment of the effectiveness of
educational institutions activity, assessment of
the effectiveness of educational systems activity,
the systems of assessment within the school.
In the matter of the external assessment
of individual achievements of the students
one important moment is correlation of this
assessment with the requirements of the state and
the demands of society.
At present the main areas of research for the
improvement of the content of the state final
examination (USE and SFE) are connected
with the development of the common approaches
to the mandatory final examinations (in the
Russian language and mathematics). One of
such approaches might be the application of the
specially designed two-level system of assessment
of educational achievements in these subjects. The
validity of the statement of this question derives
from the analysis of the USE results in the schools
for the humanities and schools with the evening
mode of study. For mathematics: the first level is
the control of functional competence, the second
one is both the control of functional competence
and the control of the level of proficiency in
mathematical concepts and methods of reasoning
to the extent that is necessary for study in the
field of engineering and natural science at the
university. For the Russian language: the first level
is the Russian language as the official language of
the Russian Federation (qualifying evaluation for
the full school course with regard for the multiethnic composition of the country), the Russian
language for the university entrants (with regard
for two levels – basic and profile).
The exam can be presented in the format of
one examination work, and in the form of two
independent works.
This approach gives an opportunity
to partially solve the problem of possible
discrimination of graduates on ethnic grounds.
There is much to do in connection of different
stages of the state attestation, development of
the continuity of requirements that are raise to
the graduates of the secondary and high schools.
This problem is particularly important for the
language subjects, where the control of some
communication skills can be shared between the
secondary and high schools.
In this case there is no doubt about the need
for researches connected with the usage of the
results of SFE-9 for the formation of individual
educational trajectories of students in the high
school. It becomes especially important during
the transition to the high profile school.
To ensure management decisions aimed at
the improvement of the quality of education in
high school, there is a need for researches that
will allow comparing the results of examinations
within SFE-9 and USE. The complication of this
problem solution is connected with the fact that at
present the structures of tasks in specific subjects
in the USE and SFE-9 are often not coordinated,
there are different methods of scaling and
different procedures. However, today in several
regions the comparison of the results of the USE
and SFE-9 within the same cohort of students is
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used for the assessment of the effectiveness of the
teachers of the highest level of secondary school.
At the present stage it is reasonable to
consider issues related to the introduction of
tasks into the examination materials that check
the functional competence of the students, in
particular, tasks that contain excessive or, on the
contrary, lack of information for the task.
And in this regard it is necessary to talk
about overcoming of the narrow subjectcentricity in the approaches to the proficiency
quality assessment. I will illustrate it with a
simple example. Proceedings of the numerous
researches show that students have difficulties in
the solution of mathematical problems, conditions
of which are the detailed text. The reason for it
should be found in the lack of understanding of
the problem text that has a lot of complex causeeffect relations between different parts and in the
inability to interpret it. It is clear that the search
for solutions to these problems is not possible
within mathematics or the Russian language.
Consequently, the object of study is not the
content of educational material on mathematics,
but the presence of certain qualities (system of
qualities) of the student, providing the possibility
to solve text problems. And this is the basis for
the construction of measuring materials that are
outside the boundaries outlined by the subject of
any educational discipline. In this sense, many
tasks from PISA and PIRLS are of interest.
I want to emphasize that the actual content
of the state final certification after the graduation
from the secondary and high school can’t depend
on the views of the particular scientific and
pedagogical school. However it is legitimate to
raise the question about the impact of work on
the base of particular set of training materials,
prepared by the representatives of different
scientific and pedagogical schools, on the results
of the USE and SFE-9. In order to solve this
problem people now usually use just statistical
methods. Obviously, that without regard to other
factors, including the qualification of teachers, it
is impossible to make definite conclusions about
the impact of training materials. It is necessary
to conduct additional researches in order to
investigate the factors affecting the success of the
final examination.
In contrast to the secondary and high
school, graduation from the primary school is
not connected with the state final attestation,
but it does not preclude the introduction of the
independent (in this case, independent not of the
school, but of the particular teacher) diagnostic of
mastering of the “academic proficiency” that is
necessary for the successful study in the secondary
school. The term “academic proficiency” is used
in order to avoid in this text comparison of the
terms “universal academic activities” that are
introduced in the new standard of the primary
school, “academic activity” according to D.B.
Elkonin – V.V. Davydov and L.V. Zankov,
“proficiency” that is checked in the international
studies PIRLS and TIMSS; the terms “metasubject or sub-subject competences” that are
widely used in the educational community, but
often with a different interpretation of these
terms, etc. The comparison of skills, abilities
and competencies that stand either explicitly
or implicitly behind these concepts and terms
requires a separate study. It is essential that this
diagnostic should check not the level of mastering
of any subject taught in the primary school, but
the level of readiness for the successful study in
the secondary school.
Diagnostic of the level in “academic
proficiency” is necessary not for the qualification
(disqualification) of the children, but for the
development of individual study paths that allow
to eliminate student’s deficiencies that interfere
with the successful study in the secondary
school, and the development of appropriate
recommendations for teachers, students and their
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parents. Although certain studies in this area
have been already conducted, it is impossible
to talk about the final solution of this problem.
Again, there is the statement of a question about
the development of indicators and procedures
to be adopted by the representatives of different
scientific schools.
Researches related to the assessment
of
extracurricular
and
extra-subject
achievements of the students (often referred to
as “portfolio”) that are widely discussed in recent
years in the pedagogical community, in fact,
should reflect progress and personal achievements
of the student, apart from the level of proficiency
in various school subjects that is evaluated during
the USE and the SFE-9. Despite many years of
empirical practice in the introduction of intraschool portfolio, scientific and methodological
researches in this area are almost absent.
At the same time it is legitimate to raise the
question about the assessment of any specific
personality traits that are developed during the
implementation of the relevant scientific and
pedagogical approach, i.e. it should be noted
again that the concept of “personal development”
for different scientific schools can mean different
things.
There are also some invariants that are
recognized almost by everyone – it is the results
of Olympiads, contests and competitions held by
the organizations external to the concrete school.
However, closer examination of this topic shows
the need for additional researches in order to
determine the list of skills and competences of
the students being tested in these Olympiads,
contests and competitions. At the same time
there are alarming suggestions given by some
scientific and pedagogical schools about the
organization of an external assessment of the level
of politeness and socialization of the students,
their patriotism, tolerance, etc. It is obvious that
any “frontal” measure of the presence of certain
human values and personal characteristics can
only lead to profanity, and without any serious
scientific works it is even harmful to enter any
external assessment of the “achievements” of the
schoolchildren in this area.
Researches related to the state
accreditation of educational institutions
can be seen in the course of the previous topic
about the absence of any valid methods for the
mass assessment of personal characteristics of
the students. It can be argued that the question
about the creation of conditions for the formation
(growth) of the personal qualities in a particular
student should be raised during the state
accreditation of schools. In this regard, it is
necessary to conduct scientific researches in order
to identify new indicators of the state accreditation
of educational institutions, including, in addition
to the assessment of educational achievements,
the indicators providing the assessment of
the effectiveness of the school activity in the
socialization and education of the students.
Considerable importance should be gained by the
indicators of school activities on improvement of
the health of students. Particular importance is
gained by the problem of the development of new
indicators of the state accreditation due to the
introduction of the new generation of educational
standards, that are largely focused not only on the
academic achievements of the students, but also
on the establishment of the conditions for personal
and cognitive development of the students.
In assessing the statу of affairs with the study
of specific subjects at the school it is appropriate
to expand the program of scientific research on
the usage of the results obtained in the course
of the state accreditation of schools. Twenty
percent of all schools should every year pass this
procedure, and with the appropriate preparation of
measuring materials, compliance with the relevant
procedures and well-organized list of schools it is
possible to make well-founded conclusions about
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the level of teaching of all school subjects in the
given educational system. Similar works can be
deployed for the assessment of the state of affairs
with the formation of meta-subject competencies
and comparison of the effectiveness of various
scientific and pedagogical schools.
Introduction of new standards, as it has
been already noted above, raises particular
challenges for the establishment of modern
intra-school assessment systems. First of all, it
is related to the assessment of the development
of cognitive abilities and personal characteristics
of the students. It should be noted that, despite
the recent series of works, this task, in general, is
far from being solved. It is necessary to continue
researches related to the measurement of the
individual student’s progress and development of
the appropriate methodical recommendations for
teachers and students. The task of introduction of
the formative assessment techniques into schools
has remained urgent. There is also a large field for
the activity of various scientific and pedagogical
schools.
As noted above, in many countries around the
world the results of the international monitoring
programs PIRLS, TIMSS and PISA are actively
used for the assessment of the effectiveness
of educational systems. Russia is one of the
few countries that regularly takes part in these
studies. The results of the studies are used in
order to develop suggestions about the correction
of the content of educational programs. However,
deeper meaningful interpretation of the results
of PIRLS, TIMSS, PISA requires the repeated
analysis of the performance of certain test tasks
or questions, the usage of new methods for data
analysis, the introduction of new variables for
the analysis of tendencies, inclusion of additional
samples of students into the study (e.g., separately
4th and 5th, 9th and 10th grades, certain regions),
the usage of additional tools, including advanced
forms for teachers and parents. And although
some work in this area is already underway
(see, for example, (3)), for the control of the
quality of education it is necessary to develop
appropriate methods for the secondary schools,
municipal and regional education systems. It is
also necessary to expand the work on comparing
the results of the studies PIRLS, TIMSS, PISA in
order to clarify the dynamics of development of
different kinds of proficiency in the basic school.
It would be extremely important to compare how
students who were engaged in some methodical
system, perform tasks that were used in various
international studies.
In conclusion, I would like to point out that
if we will talk about the development pedagogy
seriously, then we can say with certainty that
there is no any scientific and pedagogical system
that can guarantee the development of students
without the organization of cooperation with the
social partners, and above all – the sensible work
with parents as the main social partner for the
school is still a family. Today despite the variety
of interpretations of the concept of “development”
none of the existing scientific and pedagogical
schools seriously considers the parents and the
individual strata of society as equal partners
(and schools even do not raise such a problem!).
But a lot of things, in my opinion, just depend
on whether the school and pedagogical science
be able to go beyond its borders or not, whether
it will develop as a part of the whole social and
public system or it will be just the part of the
industry state system.
At present, in our country there is a
discussion about the law of the Russian
Federation “On education”. The draft law has
absorbed a lot of the latest developments in
the field of education, it contains a lot of new
and progressive ideas. From the analysis of the
requirements of the draft law to the content of
education it follows that the basic requirements
are aimed at the personal development. The
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new educational standards are also aimed at
this idea. Will the scientific schools involved in
the development pedagogy be able to respond
to the challenges of the time, or there will be
just two realities in our school: one is the sphere
of beautiful ideologemes and the other is the
everyday educational practice, where there are
the same problems that many years ago?
References
Болотов В.А. [V.A. Bolotov] Оценка качества образования и институциональные переходы.
Педагогика развития: институциональные переходы в сфере образования: материалы 14-й
науч.-практ. конф. (Красноярск: ИПК СФУ, 2008).
Болотов В.А. [V.A. Bolotov] О построении общероссийской системы оценки качества
образования // Вопросы образования. 2005. № 1.
Тюменева Ю.А. [Yu.A. Tyumeneva] Читательская грамотность 15-летних школьников:
значимость семейных, индивидуальных и школьных характеристик // Вопросы образования.
2011. № 3.
Педагогика развития – кризис жанра?
В.А. Болотов
Российская академия образования
Россия 119121, Москва, ул. Погодинская, 8
В статье анализируется ситуация с российской практикой развивающего обучения. Ставится
задача по разработке новой дидактики, способной обеспечить массовую школу технологиями,
адекватными вызовам завтрашнего дня – научить жить и действовать в быстроменяющемся
мире. Обосновывается необходимость построения системы оценки качества образования
и даются характеристики её подсистем: внешней оценке индивидуальных достижений
школьников; оценке эффективности деятельности общеобразовательных учреждений; оценке
эффективности деятельности образовательных систем; организации внутришкольного
оценивания.
Ключевые слова: педагогика развития, новая дидактика, оценка качества образования.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1593-1601
~~~
УДК 371.255
The Ability to Study
and Conflict Competence
Tatiana I. Ustus*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The question of the genesis of conflict competence is a key aspect both for theorists of developmental
psychology, conflict resolution studies and for practicing pedagogues. The research attempts to
identify the key contribution of the primary school age and the age of adolescence in the development
of the skill to resolve conflicts effectively.
The results of the described experimental procedures show which educational conditions are necessary
for the formation of the appropriate skills and which conditions are lacks for the effective use of the
potential of every age.
For example, in elementary school full-fledged implementation of the training activities in students’
group work is enough for the formation of the required skills. In the process of transition into another
age group, special conditions for the transferal of the learning skills to other areas of life should be
made.
Keywords: conflict competence, age new development, educational effects, primary school age, age of
adolescence, reflection, organization of interaction.
1. Hypothetical model
of conflict competence formation
Conflict competence as the ability to hold
contradiction in its resolution is understood
as an integral personal new development.
Effectiveness in resolution of a particular
conflict is provided by a number of diverse
abilities, skills, knowledge and orientations. Is
structuring of all these skills into a single model
possible? The study of the genesis of conflict
competence is indeed necessary.
A hypothetical model was proposed by us to
study the formation of conflict competence in the
primary school age (Hassan, Privalihina, 2004)
and included:
*
1
1. Willingness to overcome difficulties in
activities (when faced with difficulties in activities
and relationships a person does not refuse to solve
them and is looking for ways to overcome them).
2. The ability to identify the subject of
transformation correctly (in a conflict situation a
person is able to define the differences in positions
of the participants, and that requires changes and
coordination).
3. Knowledge of the means of transformation
of the certain type of material (a person knows
how to act in a definite situation and knows how
to do it).
These three areas are the development plan
of conflict competence at the school ages, and
Corresponding author E-mail address: tip_77@hotmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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research task is to identify the unique contribution
of each age in its content.
We believe that at each age stage happens
something (or should happen according to
the age norms) that provides a certain level
of competence development. The reasons for
constructing a model of such a development
should be found in the main principles of
developmental psychology.
Each age is specific and unique from the
point of view of the formation of mental abilities
and has a specific task (E. Erikson, Y.Shvantsara,
L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, etc.). According to
the cultural-historical conception, each age is
characterized by the unique social situation of
development (specific to each stage the system
of relations between a child and an adult), which
defi nes the new developments that develop in
a child. The ways the problems will be solved
depend on the way child’s interaction with
the cultural environment is built and how this
interaction corresponds to the age problems.
New development of a certain age is not simply
transferred to the next age stage, but goes
there as a pattern. And this transition (which
is specially made) takes a special place at the
age development and proceeds as a crisis. K.N.
Polivanova found out that the crisis is opening
a new ideal form, the rejection of the old one
and the testing of the new development of the
previous period in the new space (Polivanova,
2000). In the critical period new skills and new
relationships are revealed to a child, and a child
tries to use them on purpose in another activity
and in a different situation.
Thus, fi rstly, the source of creation of
a new development is educational space in
which a child is placed and, secondly, the
special transfer is needed, it should be specially
organized detachment of a new development
from the activities in which it was formed. These
principles give basis for speculations about the
formation of conflict competence at the school
age.
In elementary school, the sphere of real
conflict extends from the conflicts within the
family and role conflicts (typical for the preschool age) to the subject-content conflicts
and conflicts of conformance to the status
requirements.
The central one, on the basis of the social
situation of development, becomes a conflict
between “I-know” – “I-don’t-know”, “I-amable,” – “I-am-not-able,” every time this conflict
is represented as a learning activity. This
learning activity is, in fact, the activity which
changes “I-am-not-able” to “I-am-able”. The
students should learn to detect their shortage
of resources to solve the problem and fi nd ways
to eliminate the shortage. This composes the
ability to study as new development of an age.
The certain level of reflection is considered
as an ability, which allows to determine the
type of conflict and resource, necessary for
its resolution. The developed methods of work
with the object and methods of organization of
educational interaction are resources for conflict
resolution.
Conflict competence in the primary school
age is formed in a situation of mutual activities
of students in the process of resolution of
educational tasks. Initially, an adult organizes
and develops a conflict for a child, fi nds lack
of resources and shows how to fill them, thus,
giving resolution of conflicts. Then, these actions
are internalized. We assume that internalization
occurs in stages and in the reverse sequence
to unfolding a conflict. It means that in the
beginning a child learns to attract well known,
but missing resources. Then, a child determines
the type of the missing resources and attracts
them. And fi nally, a child considers difficult
situation as a learning task, determines the type
and attracts the missing resource.
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2. The content of conflict
of competence
when finishing primary school
What we discussed above, gives us an
opportunity to develop a hypothesis about the
content of conflict competence in elementary
school. When finishing primary school, students
are able to resolve the educational conflicts
efficiently in the situation of group interaction,
especially by organizing reflection in a group. In
the individual work reflection is organized by a
child on purpose when resolving only educational
conflicts. Productive conflict resolution of
different content is possible only with the help
of an adult who models a conflict situation and
controls it.
At the phenomenal level, it means that
when finishing primary school in the educational
conflict students initially additionally define the
conditions (model a conflict situation) and then
apply the appropriate ways of converting the
material. They are also capable of collaboration
with the other participants of the situation, which
would be adequate to the task given.
Confirmation of this was obtained in the
process of observation and experimental studies.
The observation was carried out during
Mathematics and the Russian language lessons in
the 1, 2, 3 forms where students study according
to the program of developmental education by
D.B. Elkonin – V.V. Davydova (hereafter – DE).
Additional monitoring was conducted at the
Krasnoyarsk regional competition of students who
study according to the program of developmental
education.
In the result of observations phenomenal
confirmation of the model of educational
conflict resolution was obtained. In addition,
the observation allowed to make additional
conclusions:
- the stage of “finding difficulties” can
be identified as a separate stage in the
resolution of educational conflicts, but
formation of the ability to detect the gap
requires special pedagogical work .
- the stages of reflection formation in the
early school years are emphasized by the
criterion of the organizer of reflection.
- at the primary school age the reflective
functions are given by a teacher to a
group of students, and then to the other
individual students.
- we can assume that when finishing the
primary school the open reflection in the
solution of educational tasks is found only
in group work. At the individual action
only partial functioning of the reflection
can be observed.
It means that in order to form conflict
competence, when finishing the primary school
students should be able to detect errors and to find
the object of transformation in the educational
material. Besides, students should also be able to
organize group work in order to make the effective
transformation. And this requires the distinction
between the material of the task and the situation
of interaction regarding this problem. In itself,
the appearance of such a distinction is the most
important effect of educational activity.
The task of the next experimental research
was the discovery of the factors of the educational
space, which define the formation of the skills of
educational interaction.
We assumed that the methods of organization
of interaction of the younger students with
each other will be developed by the students
differently, depending on the direction of the
teacher’s actions.
Therefore, for the research we have chosen
the classes, where the students studied according
to the program of developmental education, and
teachers actively used the forms of group work
in class. However, the methods of their actions
differed by systematic criterion and forms of
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interaction. We tried to detect the effects of usage
of different forms. The study was conducted at the
experimental sites of the primary school of The
Krasnoyarsk State University School “Univers”
№ 1 in the period from 2000 up to 2003.
As a result of the preliminary part of the
research, four systems of pedagogical actions
or strategies aimed at transferring the methods
of organization of the educational interaction
to children were described (Gallyamova,
Privalihina, 2004).
Later, the experiment, based on the
methodology “Mittens” (G.A.Tsukerman) was
carried out with the students of the 2 and 4
forms. The modification of the methodology was
to exclude the possibility of appeal to an adultexperimenter, but to include their classmate – a
consultant, which was represented to the students
as a person who managed to cope with the task
successfully. When the work was finished, the
students were interviewed.
Speech acts of children in the process of work
and such fragments as appeals to the consultants
and responses to the interview questions were
analyzed. As a result of correlation of the selected
systems of pedagogical actions with the effects
in organization by children interaction with
each other, which were discovered during the
experiment, the relationship between the actions
of the teacher in the classroom and ways of
organizing by children interactions of this kind
was revealed.
In the classroom, where the teacher’s
actions are focused on achieving results for
each student individually even in collaboration
with the others, where asking each other is
not encouraged in the process of work and
consultations are conducted according to the
scheme “teacher – student”, the children by the
end of fourth grade, do not talk or consult with
each other while performing a task, and do not
ask consultants in case of difficulty.
In case if the students are allowed to talk to
each other in the process of work, where there
are additional conditions for the academic cooperation without a teacher (“desks of assistants’”,
small blackboards, “Reference Notebooks”), the
majority of children in the experimental situation
are able to organize interaction with each other
and use the resource of another child in case of
difficulty.
However, when the actions of a teacher
are mainly aimed at organizing the analysis of
the process of interaction and understanding the
structure of such a process, a third of the test
subjects demonstrated qualitative interaction.
The facts, founded in the study let us to make
a conclusion that the development of educational
interaction does not occur automatically because
of the particular type of content of the material,
but requires special organization in the teachingstudying situations.
Certain teaching strategies are especially
important for the formation of the interactional
skills in the primary school children and therefore
require special attention of the developmental
psychologists and education planners.
Experimental data show that even selection
and retention of the two plans of the educational
process – the subjective and organizational
ones are not available to the students and
they do not hold them as serving each other.
Fragments of the ceasing of unproductive
actions and spontaneous transition from one
plane to another are found in the behavior of
our test subjects as unique, and only in those
children where a teacher set and consistently
implemented the task of teaching the skills of
interaction. Thus, the results of this experiment
suggest the following conclusions.
– The level of development of skills of
interaction is determined, first of all, by
the strategy of teachers in organizing
group work in class.
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– The usage of the forms of group work
(even systematic) on the lessons, by
itself is not a sufficient criterion for the
developments of the skills group work in
students.
– They are formed most effectively when
teaching the skills of interaction is an
independent subject of the pedagogical
activity.
3. “The ability to learn”
and the transition
to the age of adolescence
What happens to these abilities at the next
age stage?
In theory, in the process of the transition
to the juvenile stage, there should be separation
of the new developments from the educational
task. And they should work as a tool; it means
that they should be consciously and specially
applied to solve other tasks. What kind of
tasks? According to the concept of the age of
adolescence – the task of building relationships
with other people, and search of their place in
the social systems.
We were interested in the question whether
those new developments which provide adequate
age conflict competence in primary school
children would be found when you switch to a
different age stage and solve other tasks.
For several years we have conducted
experiments to answer this question. We will try
to summarize their results. It is worth mentioning
that all the test subjects studied in elementary
school according to the programme by ElkoninDavydova and expert estimation give evidence
of good implementation of the programs in these
classes.
The first small experiment was conducted
by A.N. Batina with the students of the 5th forms
in two stages. At the first stage the students were
asked to solve the Olympiad-type mathematical
task, at the second stage in the same pair – to
play the game “Faces.” The core of the game is in
overcoming situations that require cooperation,
but it was built as a competition1. This game
requires organization of interaction, without
association with any educational material.
The subject of our study is the differences
in activities in solving these two problems.
Criteria for observation and the results at each
stage are shown in Table 1. The solving of the
first task gives evidence of the formation of the
new developments at the primary school age and
in the test subjects, whose work was interpreted,
were included only (1), those, whose skills were
confirmed experimentally, and (2) those, who
really took part in the resolution of the conflict,
were motivated to solve both problems. There
were 14 test subjects.
Table 1. The results of the criterion-oriented observation in the process of solving the tasks of different type
Criterion
Включенность
The quantity
of test subjects completing
mathematical tasks
14
The quantity
of test subjects playing
the game
14
Correct identification of the subject of
transformation
Organization of interaction relevant to the task
11
4
12
4
Orientation to co-decision
13
14
Retention of the conflict in its resolution
6
1
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Thus, almost all the teenagers demonstrate
the distinction between the two types of work
with mathematical task and the ability to build
effective collaboration to complete it, but only
a small number of students (28 % of the test
subjects) are able to do the same on the basis of
different material, although they are oriented
on co-decision and try to resolve the conflict.
As a result of this work it became evident that
there the transfer of skills from the educational
to non-educational situation does not happen.
A.N. Batina continued (quite successfully) this
work searching for the pedagogical conditions
that contribute to the transfer. However, this is
not to be discussed in this research (ref. Frolova,
2006). We need to focus on the detection of the
“traces” of contribution of the primary school age
to conflict competence.
The next experimental situation concerned
the task to hold the two plans – the object of
activity and interaction on its behalf. Another
classical procedure to the study conflicts –
“externalization of the internal conflict”
corresponds to these requirements. The
experiment was conducted by T. Mamenko on
the material of “Shipwreck” 2.
Assuming, that some abilities cannot be
detected, as they are in the zone of the nearest
but not actual development, we modified the
method and included an adult into some groups,
as a possible assistant in the organization of
interaction.
The experiment proved to be very
informative for the study of group work and the
way of thinking of teenagers; as for this research,
the key issues for the analysis were: whether
preteens use the same plan for completing the task
and the plan of the organization of their activities,
including joint activities with their peers? Which
components of the theoretical thinking are
transferred to the material of organization of their
activities? How is it manifested?
51 teenagers took part in the experiment.
18 of them are students of the 5th forms and и
33 – are students of the 7th forms. In the process
of observation, we distinguished between two
plans: 1. work with the content – the choice of
subjects, seasoning of the selection and resolution
of conflicts related to discontinuity and resistance
of the material; 2. organizational activities –
statement of the purpose, planning the actions to
achieve it, the control of performance and results,
organization of the group work.
We analyzed qualitative indicators –
presence \ absence of the certain actions in group
work and quantitative indicators – the number of
statements concerning the subject of observation.
The results of the analysis:
There were no qualitative differences in the
behavior of the 5th- and 7th-graders in the process
of resolution of the game conflict. Consequently,
further we present data about all the test
subjects.
1. When the task is given, we can see such
new developments as reflection, analysis and
planning. The teens could explain the choice
of subjects, were interested in the reasons of
selecting items by other student (both at the stage
of group work, and at the stage of the work of the
team leaders) – 36 % of all the statements.
2. Such methods as selection and discussion
of the tactics of their actions, orientation
and following the selected tactics in further
work, asking other people’s opinions about the
proposals that were made were episodic in the
replicas of the students – 3 % of the statements.
But they are not used as methods of group work,
the students do not use the prompts an adult.
Consequently, these methods of actions, typical
for the conflict-competent behavior, are not
subjective.
3. Such a method as emphasizing of other
people’s activities, and their evaluation as the
actions, which can influence the winning / losing
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situation does not take place – 1 statement which
was not perceived by the team.
4. The manifestation of reflection on the basis
of organization of their activities were statements,
made by some students, about the answer, which
is supposed to be correct, about the choice of the
team leader, and fixation, that other student tries
to make the better list for the team – less than
2 % of the statements. Identification of the team
leaders’ aim as “advocating their lists”. But these
components were not used in group work.
It was noted, that the team leaders in the work
of the expert council did not consider their teams
as a resource in negotiations, the teams also didn’t
consider the possibility of their participation at
the stage of making general list.
5. There was organization of a check of the list
in one of the teams and preparation of the general
list at the stage of the two team leaders’ work
only after the prompt of an adult. In the zone of
nearest development we also noticed such modes
of actions as taking into account the reasons for
the actions of another person, organization of the
checks of own activities, organization of group
work with the help of the means of external
organization (general list, scheme, plan).
Thus, we can conclude that the plan of
organization of work and interaction in the team
is not identified by the teenagers as an object
of transformation. The abilities, which were
manifested in the work with the content, are
not used in the organization of interaction. If an
adult makes the plan of actions and represents it
as a separate task – the teenagers are capable of
reflexive actions for the effective organization
of interaction according to the problem to be
solved.
Our expectations, regarding the dynamics
of the abilities according to the age, were not
proved. It appears, at least for this group of the
test subjects, that the abilities, which were formed
in the primary school, did not develop at the next
age stage, are kept as a ready tool, and become
actual only in the context, which is recognized
as adequate to this set of abilities -namely,
the educational task. For us, it means that the
distinction between the two plans of actions does
not automatically become “personal” skill, and
ability to organize interaction, adequate to the
task given, doesn’t go beyond the educational
situation.
Resume
The stages of detection difficulties, finding
contradictions and use of the appropriate ways
to transform the material are necessary and
important in conflict resolution.
At the stage of the primary school age conflict
competence is determined by the willingness
to overcome the difficulties, the ability to find
a gap in the material and organize interaction,
according to the transformational tasks.
The key factors in the educational process,
which determine the development of this level
of competence are the content of the educational
process (it should be made in the form of
completion and construction of the educational
tasks) and pedagogical activities of the teachers
aimed at organization of the educational
cooperation (organization of interaction should be
a separate subject for the students and the subject
of purposeful formation for a teacher).
However, the ability to study, providing
a certain level of conflict competence, when
finishing the primary school, is not “involved”
in the sphere of resolution of a new type of
conflict, and provides only educational activity
of teenagers. At goes without saying, that the
age of adolescence, makes its contribution to the
development of the competence, but if we want
such a valuable “baggage” to be in demand and
become the resource for the development of
the new skills, the separate pedagogical work,
devoted to the transfer, is required. The core
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of this work, in our opinion, is presentation of
the sphere of interaction and communication
1
2
as a separate subject of activity, significant and
important for the students in the wider context.
There are strips on the table in front of the test subjects with the elements of “faces” – eyes, nose and mouth. The faces are
made by moving the strips. In the middle the strips are parted by a screen, giving each player the equal number of details.
The screen doesn’t give an opportunity to see the playing area of the second player. It is technically impossible to make the
equal number of faces. The instruction to the test subjects: “You see the table game, where your task is to make as many
faces as possible at your playing area. Now they are separated and collected in a wrong way. Your partner will do the same
at his/her side of the playing area, you can’t talk to him/her or do something together. The game lasts about 10-15 minutes,
but you can fi nish it earlier if both players want to do this”.
The test subjects are divided into teams. There are 3 members in each team. After description of the imaginary situation
of the shipwreck the following instructions are given:
“Your task is to define the degree of importance of the items in this situation from the list given. The most important is
given number 1, the less important – number 10. All the items must get numbers from 1 up to 10. Remember, that all the
items must have numbers and two different items can’t have the same number. The team, which list is similar to the list
with the correct answers wins”.
When the teams made the list, the following instruction is given: “Now, when you made up your decision, it is necessary
to organize an expert council which should come up with the fi nal solution about this task. This solution will be the correct answer, the correct list. This list will be compared with the other lists and the winner will be chosen. Let me remind,
that the list which is similar to the list with the correct answers wins. One representative of each team should work in the
council.” The instructions to the representatives of the teams: “You are experts. Each expert is supposed to sign the general
decision, which won’t be valid without his/her signature.”
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Tatiana I. Ustus. The Ability to Study and Conflict Competence
Умение учиться
и конфликтная компетентность
Т.И. Юстус
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Вопрос о генезисе конфликтной компетентности является одним из ключевых как для
теоретиков психологии развития и конфликтологии, так и для педагогов-практиков. В статье
предпринята попытка обнаружения ключевых вкладов младшего школьного и подросткового
возрастов в развитие умения эффективно разрешать конфликты.
Результаты описанных экспериментальных процедур показывают, какие образовательные
условия необходимы для формирования соответствующих умений и каких условий не достает
для эффективного использования возможностей каждого возраста. Так, в начальной школе для
формирования требуемых умений достаточно полноценной реализации учебной деятельности
в групповой работе школьников. При переходе же в следующий возрастной этап необходимо
специальное построение условий для переноса навыков из учебной во внеучебную сферу.
конфликтная
компетентность,
возрастные
новообразования,
Ключевые
слова:
образовательные эффекты, младший школьный возраст, подростковый возраст, рефлексия,
организация взаимодействия.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1602-1616
~~~
УДК 373.22
Play Activity of Preschool Children:
Joint Play with Parents,
Game Preferences and Favorite Toys
Vladimir S. Sobkin* and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina
Russian Academy of Education
8 Pogodinskaya str., Moscow, 119121 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The article analyses the representations of preschool children’s parents about their child’s play activity.
First of all the research deals with the consideration of place of joint play of children and parents in
general structure of family leisure time and involvement of parents in child’s play (as a participant or
as a manager of a role-playing game). Besides we analyze preschoolers’ game preferences: favorite
toys and games of children.
The article is based on the materials obtained from the sociological poll of 1936 parents, whose
children attend Moscow kindergartens. The research was conducted by the Institute of Sociology
of Education (Russian Academy of Education) in 1997. During the analysis of the materials special
attention was given to the influence of various demographic and socially-stratification factors on the
answers of parents about play activity of preschoolers.
Keywords: preschool childhood, joint play of parents and children, family leisure activities, games
and toys preferences.
The article is devoted to the representations
of preschool children parents about their
children’s play activity. Special attention is
given to the consideration of place of joint play
of parents with their child in general structure
of family leisure time, involvement of parents
in child’s play and also activity of adult as a
manager of a role-playing game. Besides we
analyze representations of parents about game
preferences of preschoolers: what toys and games
are preferred by their children.
The representation about play as leading
activity in preschool age is accepted in Russian
psychology (L.Vygotsky, A.Leontev, D.Elkonin
*
1
etc.) (Vygotsky, 1966, Smirnova, 1997, Elkonin,
1987, Elkonin et al. 1989). At the present moment
a great number of researches concern features of
children’s play and its influence on development
and formation of child’s personality (Smirnova et
al., 2005, 2006, 1997). In this article children’s
play is discussed in a special way. The researchers
have made an attempt to consider parent’s opinion
towards preschoolers game.
The basis of the article is represented by
the materials obtained from the sociological poll
of 1936 parents, whose children attend Moscow
kindergartens. It continues a whole cycle of our
works about preschool sociology (Sobkin et al.,
Corresponding author E-mail address: sobkin@socioedu.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
2012, 2002, 2011, 2011а). During the analysis of
these materials we will try to estimate influence
of various demographic and socially-stratification
factors on the answers of parents about play
activity of preschoolers.
Joint play in the structure
of family leisure time
In order to find out what place is occupied
by joint play of parents with their child in general
structure of a family leisure time a special
question was asked to respondents concerning the
typical way of spending free time with their child
at home. The general average data on preferences
of various kinds of joint activity at leisure time by
parents of preschoolers is given in Table 1.
Apparently from the data resulted in the
table, among various kinds of activity preference
to joint play with the child at leisure time is
given by almost a half of interrogated parents
(49,1 %). And significant distinctions in answers
of fathers and mothers are not revealed. At the
same time it is indicative that the gender of a
child makes significant impact on the opinions
of parents concerning joint play. Parents of boys
choose joint play more often, than parents of
girls (accordingly: 52,2 % and 44,5 %; р = .001).
It is peculiar both for fathers, and for mothers
(Fig.1).
Parents’ preferences of play activity in
leisure structure also depend on the age of the
child (Fig.2). Thus, parents of the senior preschool
children (5-7 year old children) choose the given
type of activity much less often, than parents of
younger children. It is important to highlight that
when a child reaches this age the general structure
of joint leisure of parents with him also changes.
And finally, the material status of a family
plays also an important role: needy parents
choose joint play with their child essentially less
often than prosperous (accordingly: 42,8 % and
51,6 %; р = .0004).
Involvement of parents
in their child’s play
In order to find out the degree of parental
involvement in play activity with their child,
a special question has been offered to the
respondents: «Do you play together with your
child?». It is necessary to notice that answers
allow to find out not only the inclusiveness of
parents in their child’s play but also to distinguish
Table 1. Joint activity of parents with their child at leisure time (%)
Types of joint activity
%
Reading of books
53,9
Joint play
49,1
Walks
44,5
Watching TV
25,5
Watching DVD, video
18,3
Involving the child into housework
16,8
Building, constructing
16,2
Modeling, drawing
15,2
Music listening, singing
10,2
Playing the computer
6,1
The child organizes his free time himself
9,3
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Boys
%
Girls
54,8
60
50
51,1
44,7
43,8
40
30
20
10
0
Fathers
Mothers
Fig. 1. Answers of fathers and mothers of boys and girls about joint play with their children (%)
70
%
60
50
53,5
57,9
55,1
43,7
40
30
20
10
0
1,5 - 3 years
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 2. Percentage of parents, preferring to spend their free time at home with the child in a joint play in dependence
of the age of the child (%)
those reasons in connection with which parents
don’t take part in joint play, for example: child’s
preference of independent, separate play;
inaptitude of parents to play with their child; lack
of free time for joint play. Distribution of parents’
answers to this question is given in Table 2.
The analysis of the received answers shows
that the involvement of parents in joint play
depends on the child’s age (Fig.3). Thus, with
children of 4-5 years play 65,1 % of parents,
whereas with children of 5-7 years – 59,1 %
(р = .04). Moreover parents of the senior preschool
children (5-7 years) more often, than parents of
4-5 year-old children notice that their children
prefer to play independently (accordingly: 25,1 %
and 20,1 %, р = .04).
The graph shows that up to the senior
preschool age there is a gradual withdrawal
of parents from joint play with their child and
child’s orientation to independent, separate play
increases. Saying differently at the stage of senior
preschool age a child’s play activity becomes
more self-dependent.
Distinctions of parents’ involvement in
joint play degree depending on child’s gender
which we have already mentioned is confi rmed.
Thus, parents of girls mark their lack of free
time for joint play more frequently than parents
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Table 2. Distribution of answers of parents to the question on their involvement in joint play with their child (%)
Answer to the question
%
Yes, I play together with my child
63,7
No, my child prefers to play by himself
22,5
No, I am not able
3,0
Unfortunately, I don’t have enough time
10,2
Parents are included in joint play
Child prefers to play independently
%
70
65,1
59,1
60
50
40
30
25,1
20,1
20
10
0
4-5 years
5-7 years
A
f th hild
Fig. 3. Involvement of parents in joint play depending on the age of the child (%)
of boys (accordingly: 11,7 % and 9,0 %; р = .04).
Gender of parents also has a significant impact
on their involvement in a play with the child.
So, mothers answer that they play with their
child in 65,7 % of cases, and fathers – in 58,3 %
(p = .001).
Influence of socially-stratification factors is
also traced. Parents with higher education note
their involvement in joint play with the child
more often than parents with secondary education
(accordingly: 66,5 % and 60,6 %; р = .02). In
comparison parents with secondary education
mark independence of their child in play more
frequently than parents with higher education
(accordingly: 25,7 % and 20,6 %; р = .01).
It is remarkable that unmarried mothers, in
comparison with married, more often mark their
inability to play with their child (accordingly:
4,6 % and 1,7 %; р = .004).
Activity of parent as a manager
of a role-playing game
For the analysis of adult’s activity as
organizer of a role-playing game for the child
a question on whether parents invent plots for
play or fairy tales for their child was asked
(Table 3).
Results received show that parents invent
plots for games to children till 5 years much
more often, thus organizing their play activity.
For example, for children of 4-5 years 31,9 % of
parents think out fairy tales and plots for games,
and for children of 5-7 years – only 22,9 %
(р = .001). Age dynamics is shown in Fig. 4.
Again it confirms results of the previous
analysis of the play activity age features. At the
age of 5-7 years serious changes in the structure
of preschoolers play activity occur, as well as the
role of an adult in this activity changes. If earlier
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
40
%
35
33,6
31,9
30
28
25
22,9
20
15
10
5
0
1,5 - 3 years
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 4. Percentage of parents who regularly invent fairy tales and plots for games for their child accordingly to
the child’s age (%)
Table 3. Distribution of answers of respondents to the question «Do you invent fairy tales for your child, interesting
stories, plots for the game?» (%)
Answer to the question
%
Yes, but it is rare enough
60,1
Yes, regularly
26,9
No
5,0
I am not able
4,5
Unfortunately, I don’t have enough time
3,5
adult played an important role in the organization
of children’s play, then (since 5 years) a child
becomes more independent in his play activity.
Pointing out that the answer «I am not able to
invent plots for games» is more often given by
parents of children older than 4 years (Fig.5). If
parents of 3-4 year-old children note inability
to think out plots for games in 1,7 % of cases,
then among parents of children of 4-5 years this
answer is chosen by 5,4 % of parents (р = .04).
Therefore at the age of 5-7 years the structure
of organization of play activity changes. First of
all it can be seen from the increase of child’s
self-dependence, escalating independence in his
play activity. The withdrawal of parents from
joint play with their child is observed. It can be
seen that by the age of 4 years parents often show
uncertainty in their ability to participate in their
child’s play and to become an organizer of a roleplaying game. In other words, at a transition stage
to a role-playing game, the adult often appears
incapable of its organization.
Children’s game preferences
During the poll parents were asked to answer
which of the listed types of games their children
usually prefer to play in (Table 4).
From the data resulted in the table it is visible
that game preferences differ depending on the
gender of children. Boys much more often than
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
6
%
5,6
5,4
5
4
2,7
3
2
1,7
1
0
1,5 - 3 years
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 5. Percentage of parents who have noted inability to invent fairy tales and plots for games for their child,
depending on the age of the child (%)
Table 4. Game preferences of preschool children (%)
Types of games
%
Parents of boys
Parents of girls
Active games, sports games
52,3
53,8
51,6
Board games
42,2
39,2
44,5
Building, constructing
41,7
50,8
31,2
Games in family
24,7
9,7
39,9
Computer games, game console
23,0
28,4
17,4
Games in characters from books, films, cartoons
13,3
13,0
13,6
Military games
12,3
21,4
3,1
Games in different professions
7,3
4,6
10,5
girls prefer to play computer games (accordingly:
28,4 % and 17,4 %; р = .0001), military games
(accordingly: 21,4 % and 3,1 %; р = .0001) and
also to build and construct (accordingly: 50,8 %
and 31,2 %; р = .0001). Girls more often than boys
prefer board games (accordingly: 44,5 % and
39,2 %; р = .01), games in family (accordingly:
39,9 % and 9,7 %; р = .0001) and in different
professions (accordingly: 10,5 % and 4,6 %;
р = .0001).
Also age distinctions in game preferences of
children are observed (Fig. 6 and 7).
It can be seen from the results presented in
Fig. 6 that different types of games are preferable
during the different age periods. Children of
1,5–3 years play board games much more rare,
than older children (27,4 % at 1,5-3 years and
39,2 % at 3-4 years; р = .01). War games are also
much less often preferred by children of 1,5 – 3
years in comparison with children of 3 – 4 years
(accordingly: 5,2 % and 11,3 %; р = .04). Among
the parents of children of 1,5 – 3 years computer
games are marked only in 5,2 % of cases whereas
among parents of children of 3-4 years their
amount reaches 10,8 % (р = .04). Moreover it
is shown on the chart that both child’s age and
frequency of parent’s choice of computer games
gradually increases.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Board games
%
Military games
Computer games
50
44,6
45
45
39,2
40
33,4
35
30
27,4
25
20
15,6
13,8
15
11,3 10,8
10
13
5,2 5,2
5
0
1,5 - 3 years
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 6. Growth of popularity of different types of games depending on the age of the child (%)
Mobile & sports games
Games in different professions
%
80
70,4
70
61,9
56,4
60
50
43,9
40
30
20
10
10,5
5,2
4,9
7,6
0
1,5 - 3 years
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 7. Falling of popularity of different types of games depending on the age of the child (%)
From Fig. 7 it is visible that preference of
sports games decreases with the years (children
of 4-5 years – 56,4 %, children of 5-7 years –
43,9 %; р = .0001). Games in different professions
are more often preferred by children of 3-4 years
in comparison with children of 4-5 years and
children till 3 years (accordingly: 10,5 %, 4,9 %
and 5,2 %; р = .01).
Representations of parents about game
preferences of their children depend on
demographic and socially-stratification factors.
So, fathers more often than mothers note among
the game preferences of their children games
where they act like books, films and cartoons
characters (accordingly: 16,1 % and 12,4 %;
р = .02). Mothers more often than fathers
point out child’s preference of games in family
(accordingly: 27,0 % and 18,8 %; р = .0003)
(Fig.8).
It is necessary to point out that parents with
higher education mark games of their children
in characters of books, films and cartoons more
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Games in characters of books, films, cartoons
Games in "family"
%
30
27
25
18,8
20
16,1
15
12,4
10
5
0
Fathers
Mothers
Fig. 8. Representations of fathers and mothers about game preferences of their child (%)
often than parents with secondary education
(accordingly: 17,1 % and 8,3 %; р = .0001).
Parents with secondary education choose games
in “family” more often than parents with higher
education (accordingly: 28,5 % and 23,4 %;
р = .007).
Income level of a family also influences
parents’ representation of game preferences
of their child. Computer games are less often
marked by parents from needy families (18,8 %)
in comparison with prosperous parents (24,6 %;
р = .006). The similar parity concerns such type
of game as building and constructing (37,1 %
in needy families and 44,1 % in prosperous;
р = .006). Games in different professions are more
often marked by parents from needy families,
compared with the more prosperous (accordingly:
10,1 % and 6,4 %, p = .003).
Dependence of children game preferences
from marital status of their parents is also
observed. Table 5 shows significant distinctions
in preferences of different types of games by
children from divorced and married parents
(answers of married and unmarried mothers were
considered).
These results show that children whose
mothers are divorsed prefer sports games, while
children from complete families prefer board
games, constructing and computer games.
Preference of different types of toys
In the research parents of preschool children
were asked: “What is your child’s favorite
toy?”. Obtained answers were grouped into 12
categories:
− Animals
− Traditional dolls
− Modern dolls (Barbie, Baby Born, Baby
Annabelle)
− Traditional characters of children’s
subculture (Winnie the Pooh, Piglet,
Pinocchio, Carlson, etc.)
− Modern
characters
of
children’s
subculture (Spider-Man, Batman, Ninja
Turtles, robots, etc.)
− Military toys (toy soldiers, tanks, guns,
etc.)
− Transport toys (cars, motorcycles, etc.)
− Games with rules (dominoes, bingo,
puzzles, etc.)
− Materials for productive game (building
kits, Lego, blocks, etc.)
− Sport toys (ball, hockey, soccer, etc.)
− Didactic toys
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Table 5. Dependence of children’s game preferences from marital status of their parents (%)
Married mothers
Unmarried
mothers
Р=
Mobile games, sports games
50,5
60,8
.003
Board games
44,2
42,6
.02
Building, constructing
43,7
33,6
.003
Computer games, game console
23,8
17,8
.03
Types of games
Table 6. Types of toys preferred by preschool children (%)
Types of toys
%
Transport toys
31,1
Animals
30,5
Traditional dolls
17,5
Materials for productive game
13,6
Modern dolls
7,0
Modern characters of children’s subculture
5,7
Military toys
4,6
Not toys
3,2
Traditional characters of children’s subculture
3,1
Sport toys
2,2
Games with rules
1,4
Didactic toys
0,5
− Not toys (game console, GameBoy, PSP,
computer, bicycle, etc.)
General average data on preferences of
different toy types of preschool children are
shown in Table 6.
The obtained data show significant
difference in preferred types of toys for boys and
girls. Boys more often than girls prefer transport
toys (accordingly: 43,3 % and 6,0 %; р = .0001),
materials for productive game (accordingly:
15,0 % and 8,0 %; р = .0001), modern characters
of children’s subculture (accordingly: 7,2 % and
2,1 %; р = .0001) and military toys (accordingly:
6,6 % and 0,5 %; р = .0001). Girls more often than
boys prefer animals (accordingly: 41,5 % and
20,2 %; р = .0001), traditional dolls (accordingly:
34,8 % and 1,6 %; р = .0001), modern dolls
(accordingly: 14,8 % and 0 %; р = .0001) and
traditional characters of children’s subculture
(accordingly: 4,9 % and 1,3 %; р = .0002).
It is important to point out the age changes.
Fig. 9 presents those types of toys preference of
which increases with the child’s age.
Thus, children of 4-5 years are more likely
than younger children prefer modern dolls
(accordingly: 4,9 % and 0,4 %, p = .002); among
the parents of 5-7 year-old children the percentage
of those who point a doll as a favorite toy for
the child grows up to 17 % (p = .003). Modern
characters of children’s subculture are more often
preferred by children of 4-5 years than of 3-4
year-old children (accordingly: 5,7 % and 0,8 %,
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Modern dolls
Modern characters of children's subculture
Materials for productive game
18
%
17
16
14
11,7
12
8,9
10
11,3
8,4
7,7
8
4,9
6
4
5,7
2,2
1,1
2
0,4 0,8
0
1,5 - 3 years
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 9. Increased preferences of various types of toys with the age of the child (%)
Traditional dolls
45
Traditional characters of children's subculture
39
40
35,7
34,4
35
30
Transport toys
%
28,9
26,1
24,9
25
20
15,7
15,6
15
12
10
5
2,4
3,5
3 - 4 years
4 - 5 years
1,7
0
1,5 - 3 years
5 - 7 years
Ageofthechild
Fig. 10. Decrease of preferences of various types of toys with the age of the child (%)
p = .002). Children of 5-7 years are more likely
than children of 4-5 years, prefer play materials
for productive games (accordingly: 17,0 % and
11,7 %, p = .04).
The Fig. 10 shows the decrease of child’s
preferences of several types of toys with the
growth.
Children of 4-5 years are much more rare
than 3-4 year-old children play traditional dolls
(accordingly: 12,0 % and 24,9 %; p = .0001).
Children of nursery group is much more likely
than older children prefer to play traditional
characters of children’s subculture (accordingly:
15,6 % and 2,4 %, p = .0001). Transport toys are
often preferred by children of 4-5 years than
5-7 year-old children (accordingly: 35,7 % and
26,1 %, p = .003).
Structural analysis
of toy type preferences according
to the age of preschoolers
In order to clarify the age dynamics of
those changes in game preference of boys and
girls, as well as to analyze the impact of socio-
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Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
demographic parameters, we carried out a special
factor analysis. For this purpose, a data matrix
which fixes the particular preferences of toys for
boys and girls of different age groups in terms
of their fathers and mothers (for data analysis,
we also differentiate the position of married and
unmarried mothers) was formed. Thus, factor
analysis was subjected to a matrix dimension
of 12x12: where strings - different types of toys
preferred by children, and columns point out view
of fathers and mothers (married and unmarried)
about the preferred types of toys of their
children, taking into account age and gender of
children. Factorization of this matrix by principal
component analysis followed by rotation on the
criterion «Varimax» Kaiser allowed to construct
a simplified three-dimensional factor model,
which describes 75,5 % of the total variance. As a
result three bipolar factors were divided.
The first bipolar factor F1 (44,2 %) has the
following structure:
Transport toys
0,850508
Military toys
0,818520
Materials for productive game
0,724199
Animals
-0,923507
Traditional dolls
-0,868932
Modern dolls
-0,768501
The structure of this factor is quite interesting.
As we can see on the positive pole of this factor
such toys as transport (cars, motorcycles, etc.),
military toys (toy soldiers, special equipment)
and various types of building kits are grouped
together. Thus, we can say that at the positive pole
toys which can be called “materials, means for
children’s play” were grouped. Playing with these
types of toys children are not attached to certain
roles, but basically manipulate and manage them
as the means of play. At the negative pole of this
factor animals (soft toys) and dolls were grouped.
It should be noted that, in contrast to the positive
pole of this factor, here we can see together such
types of toys that encourage the adoption to the
roles. Playing with animals and dolls, children
learn a role position.
The second bipolar factor F2 (18,5 %) –
«games with rules - sport toys” has the following
structure:
Games with rules
0,796055
Not toys
0,650056
Sport toys
-0,825868
In the structure of this factor on the positive
pole are games with rules and not toys. As we
have noted under the concept “not toys” we
mean first of all computer games and video game
consoles which also can be called games with
rules, because these games also mean abidance
by rules. Thus, we believe that the positive pole
captures the assimilation of game rules. At the
negative pole sport toys which first of all mean
the manipulation of certain objects (eg. ball) are
grouped. Also we should note that the use of these
toys can mean a moment of competition (“the
agonist desire to defeat an opponent”) (Johan
Huizinga Homo Ludens, 1992).
The third bipolar factor F3 (12,7 %) «didactic
toys – traditional characters of children’s
subculture” has the following structure:
Didactic toys
Modern characters of children’s
subculture
Traditional characters of children’s
subculture
0,595263
0,509810
-0,872255
This factor is of particular interest for our
study. We can see that at the positive pole of
the factor didactic toys combine with modern
characters of children’s subculture. At the negative
pole are traditional characters of children’s
subculture. This result seems to be very important
to for the research. In fact the theoretical didactics
of educational games and toys emphasizes the
importance of using the characters of traditional
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Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
children’s subculture. It is most probably believed
that through the traditional models children are
able to perceive and understand the proposed
problems and, therefore, successfully cope with
them. However our results, in contrast, show
that educational games and toys are not based on
traditional characters of children’s subculture,
though are based on the use of modern heroes of
children’s subculture. A possible reason is that
the developers of modern didactic toys actively
use the modern context of children’s subcultures:
fashion heroes and characters provide (from their
point of view) the attractiveness of educational
games and toys.
Of special interest for us is the placement of
parents’ views (married mothers of boys and girls
of all ages, as well as unmarried mothers and
fathers of boys and girls) in the space allocated to
factors. We shall describe the features of placing
of different groups of parents on the axes of
factors F1 and F2 (Fig.11).
Fig. 11 shows that all parents of girls grouped
at the negative pole of factor F1, and parents of
boys - on its positive pole. Thus, we can conclude
that parents of girls fix that their child prefers
to play with dolls and animals, learning a role
position. Parents of boys fix that their child
prefers “toys-means” (transport and military toys
and materials for productive game). If we face the
place of parents’ opinions on the axis of factor
F2, we can see that the characteristic age pattern
in the changing of toy preferences of children.
Thus, we see that in general with age there is a
transition from manipulation (sport games) to
games with rules. The older the child is, the more
his play activity is focused on conformance to
certain rules and norms.
Thus, the Fig. shows peculiar results of
age dynamics of boys and girls play activity.
As we see from quadrants I and IV boy’s
parents (fathers of boys and married mothers
of boys of 4-5 and 5-7 years) fi x the orientation
of their child to the toys-means and abidance
by rules in play. Parents of girls (married
mother of girls of 4-5 and 5-7 years, unmarried
mothers and fathers of girls) with abidance by
rules in play of their child fi x an orientation on
the development of the role-playing position.
Such differences, in our opinion, determine the
gender-specific development of role-playing
game: for girls through the development of the
role relationships, and for boys through the
Fig. 11. Placing of married mothers of boys and girls of all ages, unmarried mothers and fathers of boys and girls
on the axes of factors F1 and F2
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Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Fig. 12. Placing of married mothers of boys and girls of all ages, unmarried mothers and fathers of boys and girls
on the axes of factors F1 and F3
development of gaming facilities (using toysmeans).
Let’s consider a particular gaming
preferences of preschool children placing married
mothers of boys and girls of all ages, unmarried
mothers and fathers of boys and girls on the axes
F1 and F3 (Fig. 12).
Fig. 12 shows that the certain age dynamics
of children toy preferences exists. If young
children prefer games with traditional characters
of children's subculture, then in the age of 5-7
years an abrupt shift in preference for didactic
games occurs. These changes in the selection of
toys mark the stage of preparation for school. At
the same time, gender differences - focus on the
role for girls and orientation to the facility for
boys - is also stored in didactic games.
***
On the basis of the conducted research the
following conclusions are made:
• In the structure of family leisure time play
activity of parents with their child takes
a leading place. Parents’ involvement in
joint play with the child depends on the
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child’s age. In the age of 5-7 years the
structure of play is changing a lot. The
play becomes more independent from the
adult.
• The study highlighted a number of age
and gender characteristics in the game
preference of preschool children. Boys
significantly more likely than girls prefer
such types of games: computer games,
building and construction, military
games. Girls are significantly more often
than boys prefer board games, playing
in “family” and in various professions.
In preschool age the interest for board
games, computer games and military
games constantly increases and the
interest for outdoor games and games in
various professions gradually reduces.
• Didactic games in the structure of
children’s play are related to modern
characters of children’s subculture.
These social factors and cultural context
should be taken into consideration by
the developers of contemporary didactic
games.
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References
L.S. Vygotsky Play and its role in the mental development of the child// Voprosy Psychologii.
1966. № 6.
V.S. Sobkin, A.I. Ivanova, K.N. Skobeltsina Attitude of parents of preschool children towards
school education // Pedagogika. 2012. № 4.
V.S. Sobkin, E.M. Marich Sociology of family education: preschool age. Works on the sociology
of education. Vol. VII. Issue XII. (M.: Centre for Sociology of Educational RAE, 2002).
V.S. Sobkin, K.N. Skobeltsina Game preferences of modern preschoolers (based on survey among
parents) // Psychological science and education. 2011. № 2.
V.S. Sobkin, A.I. Ivanova, K.N. Skobeltsina What parent read to their children // Psychologist in
a kindergarten. 2011. № 1.
E.O. Smirnova, O.V. Gudareva State of play activity of contemporary preschool children //
Psychological Science and Education. 2005. № 2.
E.O. Smirnova, O.V. Gudareva Play activity of contemporary preschool children and its influence
on personality development of children // Sociology of Preschool Education: Works on the sociology of
education. Vol. XI. Issue XIX. (M.: Centre for Sociology of Educational RAE, 2006).
E.O. Smirnova Psychology of the Child. A textbook for teacher training schools and universities.
(M.: Shkola-Press, 1997).
D.B. Elkonin The psychology of play. (M.: Pedagogika, 1978).
D.B. Elkonin Selected psychological works // Ed. V.V. Davydov, V.P. Zinchenko. (M., Pedagogika,
1989).
Johan Huizinga Homo Ludens. Translated from the Netherlands / Ed. G.M. Tavrizyan. (M.,
Progress-Academia, 1992).
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Vladimir S. Sobkin and Kseniya N. Skobeltsina. Play Activity of Preschool Children: Joint Play with Parents…
Игровая деятельность детей дошкольного возраста:
совместная игра с родителями, игровые предпочтения,
любимые игрушки
В.С. Собкин, К.Н. Скобельцина
Российская академия образования
Россия 119121, Москва, ул. Погодинская, 8
Статья посвящена изучению представлений родителей детей дошкольного возраста об игровой
деятельности их ребенка. Специальное внимание уделено рассмотрению места совместной
игры родителей с ребенком в структуре семейного досуга; включенности родителей в игру
своих детей (в том числе как организатора сюжетно-ролевого пространства игры); игровым
предпочтениям дошкольников (выявлению любимых игр и игрушек). В работе анализируется
влияние различных демографических и социально-стратификационных факторов на
представления родителей об игровой деятельности детей дошкольного возраста.
Работа основана на материалах, полученных в ходе анкетного социологического опроса,
проведенного сотрудниками Института социологии образования РАО в 2007 году. В ходе
исследования было опрошено 1936 родителей детей дошкольного возраста (от 1,5 до 7 лет),
посещающих ДОУ города Москвы (всего 45 ДОУ).
Ключевые слова: дошкольное детство, игровая деятельность дошкольников, семейный досуг,
совместная деятельность родителей с ребенком, игровые предпочтения дошкольников.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1617-1627
~~~
УДК 371.255
Methods of Moral Education
in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes
Elena О. Smirnova*
Moscow Centre of Psychological
and Pedagogical Expert Examination of Games and Toys
Moscow State University of Psychology and Education
Room 411, 29 Sretenka, Moscow, 107045 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
New various approaches to pre-school moral education are analyzed in the article. Urgency and
complexity of this task and inadequacy of traditional methods based on moral standards and rules
of behaviour acquisition, encouragement and reproach, higher self-appraisal, etc. are dwelt upon.
The idea of L.S. Vygotsky who emphasizes that moral education can’t be based on laws and rules
of behavior are also viewed upon. It is proved that moral education is inseparably connected with
the development of interpersonal relations with the peers. Age-related dynamics of relationships to
a peer at preschool age (from 3 to 7) is described. A special attention is given to problem forms of
interpersonal relationships (aggressiveness, demonstrativity, shyness, etc.). In the final part of the
article principles and stages of moral education focused neither on explanations, nor on positive
examples display but on the development of spontaneous interrelations between children, perception
of a peer not as an opponent or rival but as a partner are presented.
Keywords: moral education, preschool pedagogy, interpersonal relationships, self-consciousness,
subject and object inception in interpersonal relationships, acquisition of moral norms, selfappraisal.
Preschool age is an extremely responsible
period of a personality’s and interpersonal
relationships’ formation when motivational sphere
is intensively cultivated, personality mechanisms
of behaviour, self-consciousness and attitude to
others are formed. At this stage it is possible to
overcome various deformities in relationships
with other people, help a child to fully live
through different stages of age development.
Unfortunately, the issues of moral education
are not given due attention in modern psychology.
The matter lies not in the fact that teachers
*
1
and tutors neither notice nor underestimate the
importance of moral education but in the fact that
this delicate sphere requires a very keen psychopedagogical approach. Traditional methods of
pedagogy, and namely explanation, transmission
of information, giving patterns and positive
examples turn out to be ineffective.
Various approaches to children’s moral
education in preschool pedagogy
At present in the majority of preschool
educational programmes the chief method
Corresponding author E-mail address: smirneo@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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of moral education is acquisition of moral
standards and rules of behaviour. Tales, stories
and dramatizations teach children to appraise
characters’ actions and qualities, acquire the
rules of moral behaviour and moral standards. It
is supposed that understanding and acceptance
of moral values will lead to a child’s relevant
bahaviour: having learnt “what is good and what
is bad”, a child will commit good deeds and avoid
bad ones. However, life shows it is far from being
so. Most children at the age of 3-4 appraise other
characters’ good and bad deeds rightly; they know
that it is good to make concessions to the weak,
share sweets, help the others, etc. Nevertheless,
their actions in real life are, as a rule, different
from the standards they are aware of.
L.S. Vygotsky rigorously criticizes such
methods of moral education. He considers that
moral education can’t be based on laws and rules
of behaviour. Pedagogy based on moral law and
prohibition can’t lead to success as it “intimidates
a weak person and provokes a strong person’s
resistance” (1, 258). Any fear, dependence on
punishment or encouragement already means the
absence of moral sense. Violation of a prescribed
standard, on the contrary, gives an aura of
courage, challenge, inner force to a violator.
Warning children from what they mustn’t do, we
fix their attention on this deed and thus give him
/ her a push to perform it. “Awareness of a right
action doesn’t always guarantee its performance
but awareness of a wrong action facilitates it”
(Ibid., 262). Even if a child abstains from a bad
deed under the influence of such educational
pressure educational influence at this is “equal to
zero or even negative because it is bought at the
cost of fear and humiliation” (Ibid.).
It should be mentioned that L.S. Vygotsky
didn’t especially examine the problems of a
child’s moral development. However, his works
reveal an extremely interesting and extraordinary
approach to moral education that doesn’t fit
in with his main conception at first sight. It’s
known that the basis of this conception is the
idea of the development of higher psychological
functions that, unlike natural ones, are indirect,
unconditioned and conscious. From this point
of view a child’s development is understood as
acquisition of socially designed means that make
it possible to control oneself and organize one’s
own behaviour. It would seem from this point of
view that moral development must be regarded
as acquisition of moral standards which become
the means of moral behaviour formation and
becoming conscious of it.
Pedagogy, based on moral standards
observance, forms a completely wrong idea of
moral values and deeds as kinds of personal
merits or a peculiar advantage that causes
self-admiration and contemptuous attitude
to all the rest. All this is incompatible with
moral development. According to Vygotsky’s
precise point of view, he / she acts morally who
DOESN’T KNOW that he / she acts morally
(Ibid., 257).
These Vygotsky’s statements, being rather
radical and non-traditional for pedagogy,
presuppose refusal to single out moral education
as a separate area of pedagogical work, its
integrity within the context of everyday life, its
dissolution in it. However, Vygotsky also denies
the ideas of free education. Absolute freedom
means an adult’s denial of educational influence
that leads to a child’s transfer to element’s forces.
Left to his / her own resources, a child can do
huge harm to him / herself. If a tutor refuses to
educate, it is street, furniture, media, etc. that
start doing it.
Thus, moral education is necessary but it
must be based not on external prohibition but on
inner incentive, on the things that naturally attract
a person to kind and beautiful. “Moral behaviour
must become a person’s nature and be performed
freely, easily and ingenuously” (Ibid., 265).
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Vygotsky sees the main strategy of solving
this most important task in setting forth right
“social coordination of one’s behaviour with
that of another’s”. By this term he means natural
communication between children, reality of their
interpersonal relationships in which children
start valuing their friends’ anxieties and share
common impressions and feelings. To Vygotsky’s
mind, these reflected impressions from one’s own
deeds are the strongest educational measures.
Another form of cultivating a humane
attitude to peers is organization of preschoolers’
common activity – playing or productive. These
methods presuppose that children build common
houses, draw pictures together or play plots. It
is supposed that in the course of such common
activity children learn to coordinate their actions,
cooperate, they work out communication skills.
However, such children’s common pastime often
ends in quarrels, dissatisfaction with a peer’s
deeds. The matter is that a child can’t coordinate
his / her actions with a peer being neither
attentive to a peer nor sensitive to a peer’s actions.
Appraisal of one’s own actions usually precede
the vision and ingenuous perception of somebody
else that reduces a peer’s personality to a belief
about him / her. All this “closes” the other and
favours reticence, lack of understanding, offence
and quarrels. Possession of attractive objects and
superiority in subject activity are usual reasons
of children’s conflicts and a traditional form of
demonstration of self.
Humane attitude to the others is obviously
based on the ability to empathy, sympathy that
becomes apparent in various life situations. It
means that not only ideas of proper behaviour
or communication skills, but moral senses, that
make it possible to perceive and consider joys
and sorrows of the others as a child’s own ones,
should be cultivated first and foremost.
Another widespread method of social senses
formation is awareness of emotional states,
distinctive enrichment of glossary of emotions,
mastering the peculiar “ABC of emotions”. A
widespread method of education both in domestic
and foreign pedagogy are child’s awareness of his /
her anxieties, cognition of oneself and comparison
with the others. Children are taught to speak
about own anxieties, compare their qualities with
the qualities of the others, recognize and name
emotions. All these methods, however, make a
child’s attention concentrated on him / herself,
his / her own achievements. Children are taught
to listen to themselves, name their own states and
moods, understand their own qualities and merits.
It is believed that a child, who is confident in him
/ herself, understands his / her own anxieties well,
can easily take the others’ position and share their
anxieties. However, these assumptions prove to
be wrong. Sensation and perception of one’s pain
(both physical and emotional) doesn’t always
lead to the empathy of other people’s pain, high
appraisal of one’s merits doesn’t favour similar
high appraisal of the others in most cases.
For some time past formation of positive
self-appraisal, encouragement and a child’s merits
acknowledgement are chief methods of social and
moral education. This method is based on the
certainty about the fact that early development
of self-consciousness, positive self-appraisal and
mediation ensure a child’s emotional comfort,
favour his / her personality’s and interpersonal
relationships development. Such education is
focused on strengthening a child’s positive selfappraisal. As a result, he / she starts perceiving
and thinking about him / herself only and the
others’ attitude to him / herself. As it has been
shown this is the source of most problem forms
of interpersonal relationships.
Such concentration on oneself and one’s own
qualities closes the possibility to see somebody
else. As a result a peer often starts being perceived
not as an equal partner but as a competitor and
a rival. All this causes disconnection between
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children while the main task of moral education is
formation of community and unity with the others.
Education strategy must presuppose the denial of
competition and, consequently, appraisal. Any
appraisal (both positive and negative) focuses
a child’s attention on his / her own positive and
negative qualities, merits and deficiencies of the
others and as a result provokes the comparison of
oneself with the others. All this causes the wish
to please an adult, assert oneself and favours the
development of the sense of community with the
peers. Despite the evidence of this principle, it is
difficult to be put into practice. Encouragement
and censure are practically main and traditional
methods of education.
This statement suggests the conclusion that
the basis of a child’s moral development and
education should lie in organization of children’s
interpersonal relationships. However, for a right
solution of this pedagogical task it’s necessary to
understand psychological conditions of formation
of the most favourable alternatives of attitude to
other people as well as the nature of deformations
that arise on this way. A series of such research
was undertaken at the laboratory of preschoolers’
psychological development at the Institute of
Psychology of the Russian Academy of Education
(2).
Development of interpersonal
relationships with the peers
at preschool age
The basis of the research is formed by
M.I. Lisina’s idea that personal interrelations
are inseparably connected with the image of
oneself and somebody else: they arise in common
communication activity and are its products.
Relations and image of oneself base on two different
inceptions – subject (personality) and object
ones. A subject inception of self-consciousness
corresponds to integral perception of oneself (and
somebody else) as a source of consciousness, own
activity, will, feelings, etc. It’s a certain centre,
nucleus of self-consciousness in which a human I
is unique and bears no likeness (it’s unmatched),
isn’t subject to comparison (it’s incomparable)
and has absolute value (it’s invaluable). Similar
ingenious and non-appraisal perception and
emotional view on another person as an integral
personality correspond to it that causes inner
connection with him / her and various forms of
participation (empathy, collaboration, common
joy, etc.).
Object inception reflects a human’s ideas of
specific qualities, knowledge, skills, possibilities,
position in a group – their appraisal and
meaningfulness. Some kind of objectification,
determination of self, its fixation are caused
by such ideas. These ideas of oneself make a
periphery of an image of oneself which mediate
a person’s attitude to the world, people and him
/ herself. This attitude causes appraisal and
cognition of correspondent qualities of somebody
else, their comparison with one’s own. Another
person can become a means of self-assertion
(implementation of one’s own interests and
needs) at this. Object (or subject) attitude sets the
boundaries of self, one’s own difference from
the others and isolation. These two inceptions
are indispensable and complementary parts of
self-consciousness and every person’s attitude to
others, though the extent of their manifestation
rate and content may be considerably different.
The empirical research based on this
theoretical approach made it possible to trace
back the development of a child’s interpersonal
relationships in connection with the development
of his / her self-consciousness in the course
of the first seven years. The researches have
shown that a new, extremely important sphere
of a child’s interpersonal relationships (and
namely his relationships with the peers) comes
into existence at an early age of three. It is this
sphere that was in the centre of most Russian
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researchers’ attention. As the research has
shown the first forms of relationships with a
peer and first contacts with him / her reflect first
and foremost the emotional experience of one’s
likeness with another child. At an early age first
of all children recognize themselves in a peer’s
portrayals, in real contacts they reproduce his /
her movements, vocalizations, facial expressions
as if reflecting or being reflected in him / her.
And such mutual recognition and reflection give
kids stormy cheerful emotions. It’s typical that
at this period children react to other children’s
individual qualities (their appearance, skills,
abilities, etc.) rather weakly and superficially as
if they don’t notice the peers’ deeds and states.
First of all they see their own reflection in a peer.
At the same time a peer’s presence increases a
child’s general activity and emotionality.
It can be assumed than emotional and
practical interaction between children of an
early age gives them the sense of integrity,
activity which becomes stronger if reflected and
reproduced in somebody else. Children don’t
distinguish certain qualities and properties (both
their own ones and those of other children) yet.
Their attitude to somebody else isn’t yet mediated
by any other subject actions. It is affective,
ingenuous and non-appraisal. Despite evident
differences, all this brings the first forms of a
child’s communication with an adult or a peer
together. In both cases a child recognizes him
/ herself in another one that gives him / her the
sense of community and complicity with others.
Perceiving their own reflection in somebody else,
children single out themselves better and get
confirmation of their integrity and activity.
In spite of the fact that the need for
communication with a peer at an early age takes
far from the main place in the hierarchy of a
child’s needs and is usually not regarded as a
new formation of this age, it can be suggested
that emotional and practical interaction between
children plays an extremely important role
in subsequent development of interpersonal
relationships. A feeling of ingenuous community
and connection with others is built in here.
Common actions, emotions (mainly positive) and
moods that children easily catch from each other
create the sense of community with equal and
similar people which can subsequently become
a basis for deeper human relationships. At an
early age, however, this community is of a purely
external, situational and procedural character.
Besides, recognizing oneself in a peer, children
experience an active process of self-cognition.
Against a background of likeness every child’s
own individuality is highlighted to its most.
“Looking at a peer”, a child seems to objectify
him / herself and single out specific qualities and
properties in him / herself.
Such type of a child’s attitudes to the peers
is preserved approximately up to the age of four.
In the whole, three-year-old children are rather
indifferent to a peer’s actions, his appraisal
from an adult’s part. They do not worry about
a peer’s success and misfortunes. At the same
time they easily catch cheerful emotions of the
others (though they almost don’t notice negative
anxieties), can let them have a toy or turn in a
game if an adult asks about it. All this can be
the evidence of the fact that a peer doesn’t play a
significant role in a child’s inner life yet.
A decisive improvement in the attitude to a
peer takes place in the middle of a preschool age.
The age of five isn’t usually regarded as critical
by age psychology. However, our data, got by
numerous researches, give evidence that it is a very
crucial stage in a child’s personality development
and display of this change is revealed particularly
sharply in the sphere of relationships with the
peers. At the age of approximately five a steady
indifferent attitude to a peer is changed by a tense
attention to him / her. There appears the need in
collaboration and mutual actions. Children’s
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Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes
communication starts being mediated by object
or playing activity. Children watch their peers’
actions intently and jealously, appraise them and
react to an adult’s appraisal with bright emotions.
At the same period empathy to the peers (regarding
both the number of cases and their intensity)
sharply increases. But this empathy is often of an
inadequate character – a peer’s success can make
a child sad or offend him / her while a peer’s
failures can make a child happy. Children start
boasting, envying, competing, demonstrating
their advantages. The number and acuteness of
children’s conflicts increase sharply. Tenseness
in relationships with the peers becomes higher.
Ambivalence and shyness manifest themselves
more often than in ages different from this.
All the phenomena enumerated above give
evidence concerning a deep qualitative change in
a child’s attitude to a peer and him / herself. It can
be assumed that its essence is in the formation
of peripheral structures and object components of
the I-image. A child’s self externalizes. Specific
qualities, skills, abilities, etc. are singled out
and appraised. But they can’t be singled out and
appraised in themselves. It is possible only in
comparison with somebody else’s, when peculiar
to an equal but a different human being, i.e. a
peer. A preschooler starts treating him / herself
via another child. It is possible to appraise and
assert oneself as a possessor of certain merits
that are important not in themselves but only if
they are appraised by someone, i.e. “in somebody
else’s eyes”, only via the comparison with a peer.
This comparison is focused not on disclosure of
community (like at the age of three) but on the
opposition of oneself and somebody else. A peer
becomes an isolated, opposed human being and
a subject of constant comparison with oneself.
Comparison of oneself with somebody else
takes place not only in the course of children’s
real communication but in a child’s inner life.
There appears a stable need in recognition, self-
assertion, self-appraisal in the eyes of another
person. These become very important components
of self-consciousness. All this naturally increases
tenseness and proneness to conflict in children’s
relationships.
Attitude to the peers significantly changes
again by an elder preschool age (by the age
of six-seven years). Emotional involvement in
actions and a peer’s anxieties increases, empathy
to another person becomes more marked and
adequate; malevolence, envy, rivalness manifest
themselves considerably seldom and not as sharply
as at the age of five. Many children are already
capable of emphasizing with both a peer’s success
and failures, ready to help and support him / her.
Children’s activity targeted on a peer (assistance,
consolation, concessions) significantly increase.
There appears the aspiration not only to respond
to the peers’ anxieties but also to understand them.
By the age of seven manifestations of children’s
shyness considerably decrease. Sharpness and
tenseness of preschoolers’ conflicts are reduced.
All this can serve the evidence that
b y
the end of a preschool age a peer becomes not
only the object of comparison with a child him
/ herself but a self-valuable, integral personality,
a subject of communication and address. It can
be suggested that appearance and increase of
a subject component in a six/seven-year-old
child’s attitude to other children reflect certain
shift in his / her self-consciousness. By this
age children start being aware of not only their
specific actions and qualities but also of their
desires, anxieties, motives which, in contrast to
object characteristics, unite and consolidate a
child’s personality in whole. A child’s self isn’t
already firmly fixed on his / her own merits
and appraisal of one’s own object qualities. It is
open for other people, their joys and problems. A
child’s self-consciousness exceeds the bounds of
his / her own object characteristics and embraces
other people’s anxieties. Another child already
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becomes not only an opposed human being,
means of self-assertion but the content of a child’s
self. That is why children willingly help their
peers, emphasize with them and don’t perceive
the success of the others as their own failure. Our
results show that such subject attitude of a person
to him / herself and to the peers is formed by a
preschool age in the most cases and it makes a
child popular and preferable among the peers.
This is a general logic of normal age
development of a child’s interpersonal relationships
with other children. However, it is not always
realized in concrete children’s development.
It is widely known that there are considerable
individual alternatives in children’s attitude
to the peers. Problem forms of interpersonal
relationships (heightened proneness to conflict,
shyness, aggressiveness, state of being outcast in
a group of peers) cause a special alarm among
these alternatives. In view of this we have given a
special attention to the research of these problem
forms of children’s relationships. Psychological
peculiarities of shy children, conflict preschoolers,
children outcast by the peers were in the focus of
a special analysis. Our data have shown that these
children do not differ from their peers in the level
of intellect development, arbitrariness or playing
activity. Psychological reasons of their difficulties
lie in different things.
Despite evident differences in behavioral
manifestation, common psychological basis is the
foundation of all problem forms of interpersonal
relationships.
It could be roughly defined
as focusing on one’s own object qualities or
predominance of object attitude to oneself and the
others. Such focus causes constant appraisal of
oneself, self-assertion, own merits demonstration,
etc. Thus, unpopular, outcast children differ in a
heightened desire for self-assertion, defense of
selves, proof of their superiority; others become
the means of self-assertion for them and the subject
of comparison with them. The research has shown
that a distinctive feature of conflict preschoolers
is a tense need in the peers’ acknowledgement
and respect, maintenance and confirmation
of positive self-appraisal. L.N. Galiguzova’s
work (2) convincingly proves that the basis of
children’s shyness lies in self-focusing, constant
doubts about own personality’s value. Such
anxiety about one’s self overshadows the content
of mutual communication activity, disturbs the
emotional sphere development. It is clear that the
peculiarities of a child’s self-consciousness lie in
the basis of various disturbances of interpersonal
relationships. That’s extremely significant that
conflict, extremely active, aggressive preschoolers
and shy children demonstrate common
peculiarities of self-appraisal. In general cases
a positive self-appraisal is distinctly different
from appraisal of one-self in the eyes of the
others. Having high common self-appraisal and
considering oneself the best one, a child doubts
the others’ positive attitude, especially if the
others are unfamiliar to a child. In case of shyness
this difference manifests itself in uncertainty,
shrinking into his / her shell, anxiety and fear of
new situations; in case of proneness to conflict –
in demonstrativity and constant striving for his /
her advantages to be proved, his / her self to be
asserted. However, the basis of both alternatives
is in common psychological foundation, that
is focusing on oneself and one’s own image. A
child unites, coincides with his / her image and
strives to hold it. He / she constantly looks at him
/ herself by the eyes of the other as if being in the
system of mirrors. Some children try to hide from
this stare, shrink into their shell, others, on the
contrary, admire themselves, demonstrate their
merits. But in both cases these mirrors make it
possible to see themselves only, shutting both the
world around and other people in whom they see
only attitude to themselves but not themselves.
The matter of sources and factors of
one or another type of attitude to the peers
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naturally arises. The practice of communication
with the peers is distinguished among them.
Communicative skills are practised and friendly
relationships between children are formed due
to it. However, according to our approach, the
main and key condition of the development of
harmonious attitude to the peers is close adults’
personality, subject attitude to a child which
forms the basis of a child’s self-consciousness.
The possibility to check and confi rm this
hypothesis occurs in the course of research of
preschoolers’ who live without families (in
children’s homes), are deprived of the parents’
normal subject attitude since early childhood
but have unlimited possibilities to communicate
with the peers. A special research has shown
that both aspects of interpersonal relationships
between inmates of children’s homes – subject
and object ones – are non-mature and nondeveloped. These children are unable of empathy,
mutual assistance. Indifferent, nonchalant
attitude to the peers predominates in them. They
demonstrate emotional involvement neither
in their own activity nor in a peer’s activity.
At the same time they don’t feel any need in
appraisal of their merits, they don’t compare
themselves with the others, neither compete
nor rival. Children’s conflicts are of a slacker,
emotionally flat character than in a kindergarten.
The preschoolers’ main and practically the only
communicative need (as well as the cause of their
conflicts) is an adult’s attention and amicability.
They get aware of themselves mainly through
an adult’s attention and attitude which are an
external basis of their self-consciousness (like
in an infantile age).
On the basis of these data it can be concluded
that the structure of self-consciousness of children
without families are not formed. Their selves need
an external basis provided by an adult’s marked
and personally addressed attitude which can’t be
given by another child.
Thus, the results have shown that formation
and development of moral attitude to a peer
depends not only upon children’s common life but
upon a child’s consciousness level of development
the source of which is an adult’s subject personality
attitude at early stages of ontogenesis. Children
without families are deprived of such attitude. As
a result, a child’s self remains non-marked, nonformed that makes emotional involvement in any
other activity and a full-fledged attitude to him /
herself and other people impossible.
Principles and stages of the programme of
moral education
The results available open the way to a
new approach that might solve the problem of
moral education. This approach is based not on
moral standards and positive patterns acquisition
or on the awareness of own anxieties but on
the formation of the sense of community and
complicity with the others that presupposes the
removal of focus on a child him / herself and his
/ her appraisals. Working out of specific methods
of cultivating a personality’s moral qualities and
humane attitude to people is one of the main tasks
solved by psychologists at present.
The necessity of new approaches to
children’s moral education arises in connection
with it. Removal of focus on a child’s self via the
development of attention to somebody else, the
sense of community and complicity with the others
but neither mediation over one’s own anxieties nor
one’s own self-appraisal improvement should be
the main strategy of this formation. Such strategy
implies a significant change of tasks and methods
of children’s moral education that exist in modern
psychology nowadays.
First of all it is necessary to refuse from a
competitive start in games and pastime. Contests,
competitive games, duels and competitions
are rather widespread and are widely used in
preschool education practice. However, all these
games focus a child’s attention on his / her own
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qualities and merits; cause bright demonstrativity,
competitive capacity, orientation on appraisal
of the others and, finally, disconnection with
the peers. That’s why for the formation of a
personality inception it’s important to exclude the
games of a competitive character and any forms
of competitiveness.
Numerous quarrels and conflicts are often
caused by toys. According to practice, any
new object in a game distracts children from
communication; a child starts regarding a peer a
challenger for an attractive toy but not a partner.
In view of this on the first stages of humane
relationships formation it’s better to refuse
from toys and objects to the extent possible to
focus a child’s attention on the peers as much as
possible.
Verbal aggression (every possible teasing
rhymes, calling the others names, etc.) is
one more reason for children’s quarrels and
conflicts. If a child’s positive emotions can be
shown expressively (a smile, a glance, gestures,
etc.), then the simplest and the most usual
way of expressing negative emotions is their
verbalization (swearwords, complaints, etc.).
That’s why the work focused on the development
of moral feelings must minimize children’s
verbal interaction. Conventional signs, expressive
gestures, facial expressions, etc. can be used as
communication means instead of it.
Besides, this work must exclude any
compulsion. Any compulsion can cause the
reaction of protest, negativism, and reticence.
Thus, moral education (on the first stages
in any case) must be based on the following
principles:
1. Absence of appraisal. Any appraisal
(irrespective of its valence) favours concentration
on one’s own qualities, merits and drawbacks. It
determines a prohibition on any verbal expression
of a child’s attitude to a peer. Minimization
of verbal addresses and transition to direct
communication (expressive-and-mimic means or
gestures) can favour non-appraisal interaction.
2. Refusal from real objects and toys.
The practice shows that any new object in a
game distracts children from direct interaction.
Children start communicating on the occasion of
something and communication itself becomes not
the aim but means of interaction.
3. Absence of an emulative moment in
games. As concentration on one’s own qualities
and merits causes bright demonstrativity,
competitiveness and focus on appraisal of the
others, we have excluded games that provoke
children into display of such reactions.
The main aim of our programme is in the
formation of community with the others and
the possibility to see friends and partners in the
peers. The sense of community and ability to
see another person (but not one’s self in him /
her) are the basis for humane attitude to people.
It is this attitude that causes sympathy, empathy,
common joys and assistance.
Proceeding from these propositions we have
worked out the system of games for 4-6-year-old
kids. The main objective of the programme is
attraction of a child’s attention to somebody else
and his / her various manifestations: appearance,
moods, movements, actions and deeds. Suggested
games help children to experience the sense
of community with each other, teach to notice
a peer’s merits and anxieties, help him / her in
playing and real interaction.
The programme is extremely simple in
implementation and doesn’t demand for any
special conditions. It can be implemented by any
adult with rather a small group of children (from
4 to 10 persons). It includes seven stages, each
having its specific aims and objectives.
The main aim of the first stage is refusal
from verbal communication means habitual
for children and transition to gestures and facial
expressions in communication that require great
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attention to the others. Attention to a peer becomes
a meaning centre of all games on the second
stage. Adjusting to somebody else and becoming
similar to him / her in one’s own actions, children
learn to notice the peers’ slightest details in
movements, facial expressions, intonations. The
ability to coordinate motions is perfected on the
third stage. It requires the focus on the partners’
actions and adjustment to them. The fourth stage
presupposes the children’s’ plunge into common
anxieties – both joyous and uneasy. The imaginary
sense of common danger which is established in
games unites and ties preschoolers. Role-plays in
which children assist and support each other in
difficult playing situations are introduced on the
fifth stage. The sixth stage makes verbalization of
one’s own attitude to a peer possible. According
to the rules of a game it must be of an extremely
positive character (compliments, kind wishes,
emphasizing the merits of the other, etc.). On
the final, seventh stage games and pastime are
held. Children learn to really assist each other in
common activity while being engaged in them.
It should be emphasized that the programme
is focused neither on explanation, nor display of
positive examples, nor encouragement of good
deeds and reprimand of bad actions but on the
development of ingenuous interactions between
children, perception of a peer as a person close to
him / her but neither a rival or opponent.
The preliminary practice of organizing
games and pastimes in Moscow kindergartens
has shown that the climate in a group noticeably
improves: children become more independent;
aggression of many “problem” children reduces
considerably; the number of demonstrative
reactions goes down; shy children, who have
been playing alone before, participate in common
games more often. All this indicates a high
effectiveness of this programme.
References
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotsky] Педагогическая психология // Моральное поведение. Глава
ХII. С. 249-270.
Межличностные отношения от рождения до 7 лет [Interpersonal relationships from birth to 7
years] / под ред. Е.О. Смирновой (Москва-Воронеж, 2000).
Смирнова Е.О., Холмогорова В.М. [E.O. Smirnova, V.M. Kholmogorova] Межличностные
отношения дошкольников: диагностика, проблемы, коррекция (М: ВЛАДОС, 2003).
Смирнова Е.О., Холмогорова В.М. [E.O. Smirnova, V.M. Kholmogorova] Конфликтные дети
(М.: ЭКСМО, 2010).
Проблемные формы межличностных отношений дошкольников [Problem forms of
interpersonal relationships between preschoolers] // Вестник практической психологии. 2011. №3.
С. 22-33.
Сюжетная игра как фактор развития межличностных отношений дошкольников [Game
with a plot as a factor of development of interpersonal relationships between preschoolers] Культурноисторическая психология. 2011. №4. С. 38-44.
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Elena О. Smirnova. Methods of Moral Education in Various Pre-School Educational Programmes
Методы нравственного воспитания
в разных программах
образования дошкольников
Е.О. Смирнова
Московский центр психолого-педагогической
экспертизы игр и игрушек МГППУ
Россия 107045, Москва, Сретенка 29, ауд. 411
В статье анализируются разные походы к нравственному воспитанию дошкольников. Показана
актуальность и сложность данной задачи и неадекватность традиционных методов, которые
основаны на усвоении моральных норм и правил поведения, на поощрении и порицании, на
повышении самооценки и пр. Специально рассматривается позиция Л.С. Выготского, который
показывает, что нравственное воспитание не может быть основано на законах и на правилах
поведения. Доказывается, что нравственное воспитание неразрывно связано с развитием
межличностных отношений со сверстниками. Рассматривается возрастная динамика
отношения к сверстнику в дошкольном возрасте (от 3 до 7 лет). Особое внимание уделяется
проблемным формам межличностных отношений (агрессивности, демонстративности,
застенчивости и пр.) В последней части статьи представлены принципы и этапы программы
нравственного воспитания, которая направлена не на объяснения, не на демонстрацию
положительных примеров, а на развитие непосредственных взаимоотношений между детьми,
на восприятие сверстника не как противника и конкурента, а как партнёра.
Ключевые слова: нравственное воспитание, дошкольная педагогика, межличностные
отношения, самосознание, субъектное и объектное начало в межличностных отношениях,
усвоение моральных норм, самооценка.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1628-1638
~~~
УДК 371.255
Pedagogical Action in Educational Space
of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities
Oksana S. Ostroverkh*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
In this paper we characterise the individual learning action of primary school children as proactive,
independent and responsible. A necessary condition to form academic self-sufficiency is a special
pedagogical action, when retention of the functional difference between the two parts of learning
action that is between orientation and performance becomes the subject of teacher’s work. A teacher
develops a polarised education space in such a way as to watch how children organise preparatory part
of their action, whether the children are active in using notational systems and address the teacher or
peers facing difficulties, how they make decisions switching from preparation to implementation. The
paper details the essential characteristics of the teaching action which are the openness and targeting.
Targeting of the pedagogical action is understood in different aspects of individual learning activities
presented as a difference between orientation and implementation. The example of the open teaching
action in organising academic work of the children on designing notation (helpers) is considered in
detail.
Keywords: developmental education, pedagogical action, individual learning action, academic selfsufficiency, responsibility, initiative, educational space of learning activities, notation.
This work represents an attempt to answer
the question “What is pedagogical action in
developmental education?” The experimental
developments on the project “Educational space
of primary school children” became the material
on the basis of which we considered the idea of
pedagogic action being the subject of teacher’s
work
The project aims at developing the individual
learning action of primary school children into
independent and responsible one. Educational
action is an action that is not associated
with improvement of the individual and their
abilities, but with improvement of the ways used
*
1
to do some work. Proactive and self-responsible
action of the child takes place when he or she
takes the problem of an adult as their own task.
Proactive action is connected with the response
and in this sense is associated with certain risks.
Response of an adult (e.g. the teacher is giving
the mark) addresses the child who performs the
action. And that is why every responsible action
is related to the decision making. In this sense,
the choice is always the choice whether to “act
in public way” or “not”. In our opinion, when
forming academic self-sufficiency the teacher
has to deal with creating a choice situation for
the child to consciously make decisions realising
Corresponding author E-mail address: ostrovoksana@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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when they are ready to do something and when
not to.
At present the theory and practice of
developmental education doesn’t confirm that
the issue of individual ability to learn has been
settled and learning action became personal,
independent and responsible.As V.V. Davydov
and D.B. Elkonin said, the subject of learning
activity is not only the person who performs well
writing, reading, solves the problems, but the one
who can prepare implementation of any action
of the class who can find themselves a way to
solve a class of concrete- practical problems. To
line up the way, in contrast to achieve the result
means to solve educational problem. Individual
understanding by children of the orienting basis
of the forthcoming action, i.e. the way to do
it – wrote D.B. Elkonin – is the main idea of a
learning task “(Эльконин, 1989, 216).
We believe that the initiative in decision
making being the most important feature of
individual action can and should manifest
itself very early. However, in order to make
it manifest, it is necessary to create a special
space of children action. Adults can participate
in joint action with the child so that the child
could have possibility and necessity to make
choices within the limits corresponding to
every age.
In our project, the main method to build
individual learning action responsible and
associated with decision-making was dividing
of children’s actions into two parts which are
preparatory and executive. The action of the child
from the outset was understood as distinction
and switching from preparing (training) to
implementing.
We considered our project as orientation
(“draft”) of children action and talked about
orientation and implementation of children’s
actions. Now we reconsider the project from the
point of view of teacher’s actions.
Why should the teacher have distinction
between training and implementation ? In
previous studies we showed that this distinction
is essential for creation of the child action and
all our polarisations are means for developing
individual learning actions (Островерх, 1997;
2003; 1994). Can means of polarisation of the
educational space be understood as means of
teachers’, rather than children’s work? If yes, then
what is the object of teacher’s work?
We claim that the object of teacher’s action
is the very structure of child’s action but not
l of child’s action in general, but its structure
in the aspect of two functions existing in one
action, and often fused.. As a rule, traditional
school in the person of the teacher directs it to
the value and importance of implementation. In
developmental education teachers value different
things: they value more preparation than results
of implementation for the teacher teaches how
to draw up a draft. The teacher should organize
the space of learning work in such a way that
the child could prepare implementation of any
action of this class, ie to devise a way of solving
a class of problems (Давыдов, 1996). This space
is a learning task from the start should come as
a training space where the child is building his
experience with the tool.
In the developmental education the teacher’s
action should be linked to the initiation of the
orienting-exploratory and wider – all preparatory
actions.
Let us consider what this initiation, leading
to the independent action of the child means.
Following L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin we
believe that the essential point is the work of the
adult on giving children’s action some sense,
sometimes even when the action was a failure. It is
essential that children act should be reinterpreted
by adults as a tentative, exploratory action.
The very meaning of the action is exploratory in
nature and this should be stressed.
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Here is a famous example by L.S. Vygotsky
about the origin of the pointing gesture.”Consider,
for example – Vygotsky wrote, – the history of the
pointing gesture, which, as we shall see plays a
crucial role in the development of a child’s speech
and is generally to a considerable extent the ancient
basis of all higher forms of behaviour. Initially, the
pointing gesture is simply unsuccessful grasping
movement. A child tries to grasp an object which
is too far removed, his hands outstretched to the
subject, remain in the air, his fingers are doing
pointing movements. This situation is the source
for further development. For the first time there is
a pointing movement, which we are entitled to call
a pointing gesture in itself. There is a movement
of the child, objectively indicating the object and
nothing more.
When the mother comes to help the child
and interprets it as a pointing movement, the
situation changes significantly. In response to
the unsuccessful grasping movement of the child
there is no reaction on the part of the subject, but
from another person. The original meaning of
unsuccessful grasping movement is understood,
thus, by others. And only afterwards, based on
the fact that unsuccessful grasping movement is
associated by the child throughout the objective
situation, he begins to take this movement as
pointing...
The child comes, therefore, to realize
his gesture last. Its value and function first are
determined by the initial objective situation,
and then by the people around the child.
Pointing gesture shows by the movement what is
understood by others and only later is understood
by the child “(Выготский, 1984, 144).
Usually, this example is considered as a
model when it comes to interpsychic form of
existence of mental functions. This example
reveals two aspects of transition from the
interpsychic to the intrapsychic. One aspect
lies in the fact that essence of outside collective
behaviour form is transmission of some support
from one person (adult) to another (child), with
the help of which he organises his conduct and
in the future, this support becomes internal. We
are interested in the second aspect related to the
fact that the support (stimulus) is developed in
case it is used as a means of addressing another
person.
Unsuccessful grasping movement is
reinterpreted by mother as a pointing movement.
Being reconsidered it is returned to the child.
For us, such reconsideration is the centre
of communication between children and adults.
What does reconsideration mean in our case?
Here is an example of our project work.
At the beginning of schooling when the child
brings the completed assignment to the teacher,
the teacher asks, “What should be evaluated in
your work?” In other words, the child simply
shows the teacher the work performed, and the
teacher reconsiders it as something where is a
preparatory part, which is not assessed, and this
distinguishes it from the part of implementation.
The teacher begins to treat the action as the
action of search. And this attitude is expressed
in a functional interpretation (reconsideration)
directed at the child and accepted by him or her.
Teacher reconsiders (reinterprets) the child’s
work subdividing it into two parts which are
training and preparation. The question arises:
What is a schooling initiative?
First, the teacher begins to see in the child’s
work a “draft” and then the child reconsiders their
work the same way.
Here is an example of the primary school
pupil during the time of dictation on the Russian
language at the end of the academic year.
The pupil wrote the entire dictation. After
that, she checks all the work, finds a misspelled
word, and highlighted it.
Experimenter: Why have you highlighted
the word?
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Pupil: Now it’s time of dictation. I’ll revise
misspelled words at home.
In this example we see that the girl is
planning her future work. Checking and
highlighting misspelled words is preparation of
the future action. Her own work is regarded as
both implementation (she wrote a dictation) and
as preparation of the future action.
In our opinion, such work which from the
point of view of the child can be continued can be
considered individual learning action.
So, in order to cause an individual
educational action it is necessary to allocate a
special subject of the teacher ‘s work and it is far
from being trivial. It is associated with retention
of functional differences, the relationship
between the preparation and implementation.
The subject of the teacher’s observation and
work is distinctions and transitions between the
two functional parts of the action – between the
orientation and training in a broad sense, and
implementation. The teacher begins to study not
only how the child mastered the lesson, but the
way he or she organises preparation, whether
they are active in using notational systems
(models, diagrams) as a means of analysing the
problem, words, sentences, whether they address
the teacher or peers when face difficulties, etc.
The main idea of the pupil-teacher
communication lies in rethinking, reinterpretation
of the child’s work by the adult person. The
teacher interprets something as opposed to
implementation and conveys it to the child. The
teacher is engaged in rethinking all the time, as
well as in understanding and designing.
Turning to the main objectives of the
project, we emphasise that our experiment was
intended to design such teachers’ actions, which
would show the child the subject of his or her
action and understanding, how they can convert
their own ways of doing academic work. This
transformation has a proactive and responsible
form of behaviour. Initiative, responsibility and
learning occur as a result or educational effect,
and can not be formed directly and immediately.
What does the introduction of these
distinctions bring about? What is the growth
in teachers’ work?
A striking growth occurs when teachers
have great opportunities to observe the children.
The teacher in addition to pedagogical tasks
consisting in delivering the contents is watching
the child preparing his or her action, whether it is
adequately developed, what means they use for it.
Here, we stress an important characteristic
of the teaching action which is its openness.
According to B.D. Elkonin: “The action which
was designed using initiation, manifestation and
retention of a particular action (behaviour) can
be called an open action. In successful cases, an
adult develops an open action, and that it is the }
way to enable the child to participate in the action
of an adult, that is, using the way of developing
by cumulative effects “(Эльконин, 1989, 62).
Teachers’ action becomes productive when the
child turns into action, an independent, rather
than emulating the model of an adult.
And the first form of such self-sufficiency,
we could see when the child was designing a draft.
By the middle of the first year we got individual
features in training.
So, at the lesson in writing in the first year
(December), children were given the task: to
write the word melon. On a separate table there
are cards that can be used as an aid. On some
cards the word is written entirely, on others only
syllables and on the rest only some letters. Cards
are made so that you can trace the pattern and
write a line of elements.
One of the pupils took the card with a word.
He began to write and failed. After this, he went
to the table, took a card with the first syllable,
practised a bit, and then took the card with the
second syllable, wrote a line and then again
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practised in writing of the whole word. Then
drew the line, separating his practice, and wrote
the whole word to be evaluated by the teacher.
In this case, availability of different cards,
“helpers” creates the possibility of choice and
allows you to vary the content of practice with
respect to the difficulties with which the child
experienced during the work. A variety of forms
of exercise is one of our criteria of occurrence of
individual learning action.
One of the primary symptoms that
distinguish the preparation and implementation
does take place, is the emergence of children’s
words reflecting the meaning of the action. In
our case, the children began to call the table with
the cards – a table with “helpers”. When a child
singles out with the help of a word of special
reality something which can actually help means
another indicator that the child distinguishes and
connects two parts of the work.
The task of the teacher was to provide the
child with the widest possible range of tools.
At the initial stage of schooling they were used
for to “correct” writing, and the children used
them in case of difficulty (the elements of letters,
numbers, etc.).
We distinguish two types of child behaviour.
One implies formation of the actual “draft”,
when the child’s action develops within the tools
proposed by the teacher. And the second, type
is actually the work of the Child on producing,
designing tools.
Psychological meaning of this work is that
the child is trying to determine the functional
significance of things, makes attempts to study
them in relation to each other, with regard to the
tool helping to solve the problem. What does it
mean to make the tool? It means to keep both the
tool and the future task.
Of course, this distinction between a tool
and a task isn’t realised by a child. Contrasting
the tools and tasks in the objective terms (table
with “helpers” and “table for evaluation”),
we observed that for the child, and this is an
interesting psychological fact it is not trivial.
During the first year, the child is confused, and
when he takes his “helper”, he in reality takes the
task. At the end of the first year, and to a greater
extent in the second, when there are special
classes for the production of “helpers”, the child
begins to confuse them on another level, saying
that makes for someone a helper, he writes a task
for him. By the mid-end of the second year the
child begins to distinguish tasks and tools, i.e. it
means that he differs tools from the problem, and
the desired result.
This work of children on producing “helpers”
is of great interest and can be used as a means of
pedagogical diagnostics. Namely, looking at the
“helper” created by the child, we can conclude
how he or she can generalise academic material,
whether they can identify the mode of action and
its essential characteristics and to illustrate them
by example of their own.
The fact that the “helpers”, created by
pupils differed both according to the level of
generalisation, and to design, is an indicator of
the effectiveness of teachers’ actions. In this
case, teachers’ work enables the child to work
not according to the pattern but independently
realising what is effective means of solving the
problem. This peculiarity, which we have when
producing helpers should be working, but not
demonstrative.
In our case, if the teacher gives the task to
make a “helper”, and the work of is completed
with a result it is a manifestation of the closed
pedagogic action (when an adult provides the
conditions under which you can only do so and
not otherwise).In contrast to the closed pedagogic
actions “The action which was designed using
initiation, manifestation and retention of a
particular action (behaviour) can be called an
open action (Эльконин и др. 1996, 63).
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Actually open action involves creation of
conditions under which the child himself will try
to do something. In our case, the child is trying
to do a “helper” and looking for a way how to
present it to others, the rule or a scheme with
examples.
Open pedagogic action means also that a
teacher is supposed to cooperate with children. For
example, to check whether the created “helper”
helps solve the problem or not. In our work, such
checking looked like a distributed collective
action when the created “helper” was handed by
the child to another pupil who tested the “helper”
in the situation of solving the problem or doing an
exercises. It is essential to note that the work of
one child with the “helper” of another led to the
alteration, remaking of the “helper”.
Here, we observed children’s initiatives
to continue their action. Thus, in the first form,
Julia H. on her own initiative created a “helper”
and said to the teacher, “I figured out and made
a” helper”, let’s hang it on the blackboard, it may
be able to help kids.” In the third form a week
after they worked to create “helpers” the children
turned to the teacher asking about their use. Thus,
one of the pupils asked the teacher: “And let me
give Kate my “ helper” and I’ll see if it can help
her or not,” then during the classes she sat next to
Kate and watched as the girl used her “helper.”
when Kate made a mistake solving the problem
Julia drew her attention to the card, where the
way of action was recorded. The emergence of
such initiatives, we consider as the main criterion
confirming that adult action developed as an open
one.
Along with such essential characteristic
of the teacher as openness we identify another
characteristic of the teaching action which is
targeting. We hypothesised that the positive
dynamics in the formation of individual learning
actions, a shift in the development of children’s
actions can be observed in case when pedagogical
action is directed to the children with different
levels of formation of learning action.
We emphasise that non-triviality of this
approach consists in the fact that the goal of
the teacher is not so much children’s personal
characteristics and styles of their work, not so
much a measure of the mastering of the subject
content by children, but the development of
children’s actions as independent learning
actions.
To date, we know that for the formation
of academic self-efficiency educator should
develop their pedagogical actions, using different
institutional forms (lesson, polarised- lesson) and
elements of the educational space:
- Tables with cards for practice, tables with
cards “helpers”, tables with cards” for
evaluation”.
- Individual boards for practice, children’s
notebooks divided into a draft and fair
copy.
- Dividing of the blackboard into tow parts:
for practice and evaluation etc.
Objectives of the study, conducted in 2004 –
05 academic year, were in fact to determine the
main difficulties the children on first and second
level of formation of individual learning action
face:
- To conduct a diagnostic procedure and
divide children into three groups with
high, medium and low levels of formation
of individual learning actions.
- To find the means and methods of
pedagogic actions that will be effective
for work with children in each of the three
groups.
Pedagogic action turns out targeting when the
shift happens in development of an independent
learning action for children of the first and second
groups, and the zone of proximal development of
their academic self-efficiency will be found with
the children of the third level of learning action.
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We started with identifying deficiencies in
learning action of the pupils. It should be noted
that if the two groups of pupils with low and
middle levels of learning action develop the work
consisted in the selection and description of the
deficiencies of their educational activities, then
the pupils with the third level of development of
individual learning actions had to determine what
could become a zone of proximal development of
their action, what could be the task, when children
feel deficiency in their learning actions.
The third “m” form of gymnasium № 1
“Universe” was chosen as experimental. In this
group of pupils for the first two years of study
the work had been carried out in accordance
with technology of the polarisations of
educational space in two subjects (in Russian and
mathematics). In early October 2004 a diagnostic
procedure number 1, “Preparing for the tests”
was held and the children were divided into
three groups.Along with the lessons the teacher
conducted special classes and polarised lessons
Let us describe three key, in our opinion,
types of work with pupils from different groups.
1 type of work “Finding difficulties”
The children of the first group (low-level
of formation of individual learning actions) are
characterised by the following deficiencies:
inability to define their own difficulties, lack
of initiative in using tools and addressing the
teacher, the inadequacy of the action when the
pupil chooses work for assessment, but fails to do
it, small amount of completed work (for example,
such children, as a rule, do not have time to
do the whole work when writing a test) and,
consequently, have low results for test papers.
The purpose of work with such children
was to teach them to see their own difficulties.
Within two months at each math lesson, the
children performed the same type of work (table
of multiplication and division). At the beginning
of the lesson, the pupils determined in which
cases of multiplication and division they make
mistakes, and then bearing them in mind chose
an assignment, (a card with examples) and did
for ten minutes. Thus, pupils could track their
achievements in the course of time, the amount
of work yesterday (a week, a month ago), and how
it has changed today.
At the classes of practice, pupils worked with
an hourglass to how much time they spend doing
this or that type of work. Doing homework (the
same kind of work – table of multiplication and
division), these children also used the hourglass
and learnt to control the amount of work.
What was the result of such work? The
students raised the tempo and increased the
amount of work which improved performance
of the tests. As teachers noted, children became
more confident and began to check their works
differently.
2 type of work “Working with “helpers”’
The children of the second group are
characterized by deficiency in understanding
notation.. We believe that if in children’s action
there is a gap in the correlation of tool and task,
pedagogical action should be directed to the
removal of this deficiency.
As a rule, the traditional pedagogy, if a
child has a deficiency with using a drawing or a
scheme) teaches to use this tool, offering a lot of
training cards, and by repeated training the child
learns to deal with the rule or pattern. Novelty
of our approach lies in the fact that when a child
fails to solve the problem and has problems with
using tools, he or she should be returned to the
production of tools. There are two types of work:
work on the production of a tool and work on its
application.
In the second group of children there was
held special training “Making helpers” where
children created “helpers” to each other, and
then they tested them, that is, a tool made by one
child was tested by another, the one who made
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the tool analysed it. At such sessions the focus
shifted from solving problems by using notation
to creation (as if to re-recreate) of notation and to
analysis of them in terms of why they could be
called “helpers.”
It is interesting to note that when a pupil or a
group of kids tested the “helper” made by another
pupil it was, returned to the author afterwards.
So, boys, after having tested the “helper for the
distributive law of multiplication,” created by
girls, advised them to generalise it: “And the best
is to put the letters instead of numbers”, ie in the
analysis of others’ ‘helper’ children go to a higher
level of generalising. Working with the deficiency
of children’s action we observed, what are the
results of a particular type of work, whether
changes occur in the motivation of children,
whether they get new interests.
The third type of work “Self-study of the
topic” was offered to children with high level of
individual learning action. Children at this level
are characterised by ability to hold the ratio of
preparation and implementation, namely, develop
their preparation adequately, both with respect to
their own difficulties, and the objective of their
future work, ie hold the goal of the action, are
initiative in choosing tools and know how to
apply them in solving problems. These children
on their own initiative, without waiting for the
end of the lesson can finish their training and
move to test, ie these pupils define limits of their
work themselves.
Speaking about the fact that the child holds
the ratio of preparation and implementation it
should be said, within what range it happens?
We characterise the effect of individual
learning within the boundaries where the work
is given by the teacher when the cards to practise
are offered by the teacher, when the “helpers” are
created by children, are discussed together with
the teacher and then are laid out in the space of a
classroom on a separate table.
When organising work, “Self-study of
the topic,” we removed these restrictions. It
was suggested to a group of seven pupils to
work independently in another room, while the
remaining pupils were working with a teacher in
the classroom. There was given only one theme
“Writing equations”, and tasks on the study of
this subject the pupils chose from the textbook
themselves. As a result of independent work the
pupils produced a test on the subject for pupils in
their class.
The criteria for monitoring observations
were selected as follows: whether the objective of
the work is held (whether selected by the pupils for
independent work assignments correspond to the
subject or not), how much work each child does,
what difficulties faces, whether they address other
pupils or the teacher, what are the results of the
test on the theme, what tasks are included in the
test work for the class (whether they correspond
to the theme, complexity of tasks).
As a result of this work it was found that all
seven students were able to study the new theme,
opened a new way and then did the test paper
given by the teacher with “excellent” mark, and
made up a test for their comrades properly.
It should be noted that making up the test
paper for the whole class aroused the greatest
interest, after doing it the pupils asked the teacher
to check up the work. Moreover, when checking
the test papers, a special attitude of these children
towards the works of their classmates occurred,
they tried to notice every achievement: “Vika,
well done, she did everything right, did not make
any mistakes.
If you look at the test paper made up by the
children, we can see that they included both; skillbuilding tasks (to solve the equation), and tasks to
make up schemes, tasks setting traps. What was
the subject of testing for these children? The tasks
where the children had to correlate the various
symbolic means as well as the subject of search of
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pupils are border of actions which were presented
in the form of a task setting a trap. Changing
conditions (when you suggest the child making
up a test paper or solving the problem) allows
you to see at what level of mastery of the tool
and as a consequence, the level of development of
schooling action the child is.
The fact that pupils were able to organise
their own work on the subject and did it with
excellent results opens new possibilities in the
development of individual learning actions.
Younger pupils (in the second half of primary
school age) can hold the purpose of the action
in a new subject content (new topic), can selforganise a new subject material and master
the method of action and can also evaluate
the method of action (making up tasks on
simulation and the boundaries of the method
of action).
The results of this type of work can be
described as follows:
• All children had desire to work
independently, even though the work was
addressed only to one group of children.
• Emotions of some children (a pupil asks
her mother questions: “Will I be accepted
to the group?” works on the test herself:
• Responsible attitude towards the work
(a group of girls working on their own,
often had meaningful questions, they
distributed the “ who makes test work for
whom?”, collectively discussed, whose
task should be included in the test paper
work, and whose should not),
• Interest and desire to work independently
increased in children. They asked the
teacher questions: “When will we work
that way?” The teacher replied, “If you
get excellent marks for your test papers
you will work that way.” As a result, three
quarters of pupils in the class got excellent
marks for their tests.
A comparative study of the diagnostic
procedure of “free training” was held in
December 2004 and May 2005.The study
involved 43 pupils of two groups of the third year
of schooling. The results of the study showed that
in the experimental class where targeting action
was developed by the teacher by the end of the
year, all children with the first (lowest) level of
the action moved to the second (middle), and the
number of children with a third, high level of
action substantially increased by the end of the
academic year. In contrast to the experimental
class in the control class where the teacher also
used the technique of polarisation of educational
space, but didn’t develop targeting work with
groups of children there was a positive trend, but
changes in the development of action were not
significant, and the number of children with the
first level of action was the same (Table. A).
This confirms our hypothesis that in the
second half of the primary school age it is
necessary to develop a special work with groups
of children who have different problems with
formation of individual learning actions. If
you do not develop targeting pedagogic action,
then there won’t occur a significant shift in
the development of learning self-efficiency of
pupils.
If you hold individual learning action of
a child as a goal of the pedagogic action then
the content of all forms of organisation (types
of work, polarisation) become tools in the
educational space as space of the teacher’s
activities. Targeting pedagogic action is called
so, because the different sides of the individual
schooling action, presented as a distinction
between orientation and implementation, turned
out to be at the center of the pedagogic search.
One should emphasise arising of children’s
learning interest, the interest coming from the
content of the subject. It is also an indicator
that pedagogical action was developed as an
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Table 1. Features of DT difference in the elderly according to gender and place of residence, years. Comparative
analysis of the dynamics of the formation at the beginning and end of the third class (the number of students
in%)
The third level of the action
3, “m” 23
(100%)
3 “d” 20
(100%)
The second level of the action
The first level of the action
before
after
before
after
before
after
4%
[22].
70%
78.
26%
0%
5%
#, (10)
60%
70%
-35
20%
* Differences between the data in italics in the columns are statistically significant by c (p> 95%).
2
intermediary, open action, in contrast to direct
actions of the teacher.
Developing individual schooling action,
without formation of motives for learning
directly, we develop also children’s interests, we
get the interest of the child to his own learning.
The main motive of the teacher is developing
children’s educational interest.
References
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Давыдов В.В. [V.V. Davydov] Теория развивающего обучения (М., 1996).
Островерх О.С. [O.S. Ostroverh] Об условиях становления индивидуального учебного
действия в образовательном пространстве начальной школы // Материалы 4-й науч.-практ.
конф. «Педагогика развития: возрастная динамика и ступени образования» (Красноярск,
1997).
Островерх О.С., Мокроусова А.Г. [O.S. Ostroverh] Учебная самостоятельность и
ответственность в младшем школьном возрасте // Материалы 9-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика
развития: ключевые компетентности и их становление» (Красноярск, 2003). С. 177.
Островерх О.С., Свиридова О.И, Мокроусова А.Г. [O.S. Ostroverh] Динамика становления
самостоятельности и процедуры ее диагностики в младшем школьном возрасте. // Материалы
11-й науч.-практ. конф. «Педагогика развития: образовательные интересы и их субъекты»
(Красноярск, 2005). С. 128.
Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Введение в психологию развития (М., 1994).
Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Л.С.Выготский – Д.Б.Эльконин: знаковое опосредование и
совокупное действие // Вопросы психологии. 1996. № 5.
Эльконин Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Избранные психологические труды (М, 1989).
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Oksana S. Ostroverkh. Pedagogical Action in Educational Space of the Younger Pupils Schooling Activities
Педагогическое действие
в образовательном пространстве
учебной деятельности младших школьников
О.С. Островерх
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В данной статье определяется индивидуальное учебное действие младшего школьника
как действие инициативное, самостоятельное и ответственное. Необходимым условием
формирования учебной самостоятельности является особое педагогическое действие, когда
предметом работы учителя становится удержание функционального различия между
двумя частями учебного действия – ориентировкой и исполнением. Учитель особым образом
строит поляризованное образовательное пространство и наблюдает за тем, как ребенок
организует подготовительную часть своего действия, инициативен ли он в обращении к
знаковым средствам, обращается ли в ситуации затруднения к учителю, сверстникам, как
принимает решение при переходе от подготовки к реализации. В статье подробно описаны
существенные характеристики педагогического действия – открытость и адресность.
Адресность педагогического действия понимается в аспекте разных сторон индивидуального
учебного действия, представленного как различение ориентировки и реализации. Подробно
рассматривается пример открытого педагогического действия при организации учебной
работы детей по конструированию знаковых средств («помощников»).
Ключевые слова: развивающее обучение, педагогическое действие, индивидуальное учебное
действие, учебная самостоятельность, ответственность, инициатива, образовательное
пространство учебной деятельности, знаковое средство.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1639-1659
~~~
УДК 371.255
The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing
in Educational Environment
Larisa A. Novopashina*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
In the given paper the author considers the specifics of adolescence and the methods of its nature
and content. A particular focus is possible designing and cultural design of this period in human
life. The social situation of development is a unit of content and design, which allows us to represent
analytically the dynamics of the age and design of educational environment. A special tool, which
influences the design of the educational environment as a development environment, is the assessment
and measurement of educational outcomes.
Keywords: social situation of development, adolescence and early adulthood, institutional
transitions.
Statement of a question
The perspective on institutional transitions
is set by the context that can be sociological,
economic, psychological, educational, etc. For
example, S.A. Smirnov, discussing institutional
transitions, examines them in the context of
management development and considers them as
“... a different state, more attractive, competitive,
corresponding to the challenges of the new
century ...” [11].
Institutional transition, which provides
development and maturation of a person, is much
more uncertain. Undoubtedly, we find a discussion
of this problem, but there are few studies on
this subject in a number of papers devoted
to developmental education (D.B. Elkonin,
B.B. Davydov, and others) and in the reports and
transcripts of discussions.
*
1
The transition problem in the ontogenesis has
its history and specifics (G. Piaget, L. Kohlberg,
J. Boom, E. Erickson, D. Levinson, G. Craig,
L.S. Vygotsky, P.P. Blonsky, D. Levinson,
P. Heymans, B.D. Elkonin, K.N. Polivanova,
etc.).
We are just interested in the subject of
transitions, especially in the context of design and
designing education with psychological content.
What happens in the transition? What is its
specificity? What do we want to happen there? –
These and other questions are fundamental to our
work.
Modern
developmental
psychology
(B.D. Elkonin, K.N. Polivanova, etc.) allows us
to assume that the transition can be regarded as a
special case of the interaction between form and
content. A prerequisite for “the one who moves
Corresponding author E-mail address: Nla@ippd.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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to the next stage” is “OTHER”, who provides the
transition.
In the given work the basic concepts for
us are the concepts of the social situation of
development and adolescence (as a transition in
which the time of puberty, social and cultural
maturity and the end of organic development and
growth do not coincide), as well as evaluation
and measurement of educational outcomes in the
context of creating an educational environment
as a development environment.
Methodology
and methods of research
The concept of the social situation of
development was introduced by L.S. Vygotsky
and is defined as the ratio between the child and
his surrounding reality, especially social reality.
L.S. Vygotsky singles out the most
important point in determining the dynamics of
age: understanding the relationship between the
personality of a child and his environment on
every age level.
At the same time L.S. Vygotsky pointed
directly at the wrong solution of the environment
problem and its role in the dynamics of age, when
“environment is considered to have no reference to
child and without present conditions that influence
a child by the fact their existence” (Bolotov,
2008). The social situation of development
represents a starting point for all the dynamic
changes that occur in development during this
period. It entirely determines the forms and the
way in which a child acquires new features of
personality, drawing them from the social reality
as the main source of development, the way in
which social becomes individual. Thus, the first
question in the study of the dynamics of any age is
to explain social situation of development, which
according to L.S. Vygotsky and A.N. Leontiev,
then manifests itself through “the experience of
the child .., we cannot say if it is the influences of
environment on a child or a feature of the child”,
“and mental patterns of personality development
become apparent in the moments of stress the
social situation”.
It should be noted that despite the “direct
reality” of experiences, they are by no means a
simple subject of study.
The complexity of studying social situation
of development is the difficulty of detection and
the elusiveness of experience or the moment
of tension of the social situation and a lack of
proper research techniques. One of the tasks of
the research was conducting a pilot study, which
subject is the experience or the moment of tension
of students from secondary and high school and
is the centre of our attention.
The development of research model takes
into account the fact that designing educational
environment as a development environment gets
difficult, first of all, by differentiating a leading
activity in adolescence and youth. The second
reason is that teachers have their own ideas about
students, their needs and interests, their ideas
about science, the foundations to be taught and
memories of their own schooling. And a third
difficulty is a lack of attention to the importance
of the completion of puberty to adolescence, as
well as the fact that developed school environment
does not include physiological changes and
characteristics of puberty and post-pubertal
period.
The main constitutive moment of the social
situation of development in adolescence is that
young man is on the verge of entry into adult
life. The transition from adolescence to youth is
associated with an abrupt change of the internal
position when facing the future becomes the
main focus of the individual. And the problems
of choice of profession, further course of life,
self-determination and finding their identity
(E. Erikson) turn into “affective center”
(L.I. Bozovich) of the situations, which makes
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the entire activity and all of the interests of the
adolescent spin around it.
L.S. Vygotsky identified the detergency or,
in other words, the discrepancy between three
points of maturation in the description of the
adolescent age. The greatest peculiarity is that
social and cultural maturity and the end of organic
development and growth do not coincide in the
time of puberty. This discrepancy is the basis of
the criticism of the awkward age. Moreover, the
occurrence of such discrepancy is historic.
Sexual and organic development of animals
coincides. Perhaps people used to have time when
puberty put an end to the process of development
and growth.
P.P. Blonsky’s concept (that youth
achievement is an extension of the period of
development, drawing the line between childhood
and puberty and the peak of cultural development)
is the starting point for discussion of the childhood
and adulthood boundaries. Here it is essential to
understand what keeps these borders.
In this sense, one of the key substantive
phases of tension is the conflict between sexual
maturity and cultural norms, aimed at the
prohibition and restriction of sexual behavior, i.e.
norms that show social immaturity (I. Kon.). It is
clear that the effectiveness of restrictive standards
of sexual behavior in adolescence depends on
many factors that determine the identity of a
particular culture (national, religious, economic,
socially stratified).
Describing the specifics of adolescence,
K. Levin wrote that the space of free movement of
adolescents has significantly increased, covering
many areas that previously were not available to
the child, such as the right to smoke, come back
home too late, drive a car, etc. The boundaries
of these newly acquired parts of free movement
of space are defined only vaguely, and as a rule,
are less differentiated than for the adult. In such
cases, living space of the teenager, according to
K. Levin, is full of opportunities and uncertainty
at the same time.
The overall situation of adolescent
development includes the expansion of living
space (geographically, socially and in time
perspective) and cognitive unstructured nature of
the new situation. Adolescence is characterized
by a new experience of his own body, which can
be represented as a change of the central region of
steady living space (K. Levin).
In other words, the principle of the suggested
approach is that it’s necessary to consider the
process of growing up in terms of puberty and the
relationship to sexual relations and experience
of one’s own body to understand the content of
education which is appropriate to youth.
B.I. Hassan, G.M. Breslav showed that
“in contemporary school, on the one hand, we
have a very complex and largely unproductive
(or rather destructive) conflict of intertwining
age characteristics that are implicitly taken into
account by both adult and children, and on the
other hand, clearly unified approach in terms
of teaching strategies at the same time”. “Not
noticing (referring to psycho-pedagogical) the
diachrony of puberty, or rather, a clear asymmetry
in this issue (and the selection, emphasis on the
difference in social class) creates a new situation
in the secondary school, which further leads
to the formation of strong distortions in the
development of intellectual and social potential
generation entering the period of active selfdetermination”. (Polivanov, 2000).
However, the experience shows that teachers
continue to determine the activity of the leading
educational activity in their work not taking into
account the critical period in the development
of the human body which is also the period of
puberty. Sexual development has an impact on
the formation of the individual in this period,
although not a primary one. Like the other changes
linked with an increase in mental and physical
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strength of the child, puberty exerts its influence
indirectly through the child’s relationship with
the world, through a comparison with adults and
other teens, i.e. only within the whole range of
these changes.
In the construction of educational
environment as a space of development (school
of maturation) (B.D. Elkonin, I.D. Frumin,
2000) the moment, in which the objectivity of
education and training of young people faces
with a set of activities in adolescence and youth
and effectiveness of training, remains unresolved
and tense. Or “.. the search for an ideal model of
the school as a “place” (or a set of places), which
provides the age dynamics and achievement of
key competencies, is faced with a contradiction
that is the ratio of the traditional subject and the
age of the borders of development ...” (B. Hassan,
2000).
In other words, finishing school is associated
not only with the development of specific
knowledge and skills provided by the school
syllabus, but also with the achievement of a
certain level of social and sexual development.
This aspect of the maturation of adolescents
does not affect the assessment of educational
outcomes. Thus, the problem of assessing and
measuring the results of education is one of
the key due to the fact that the evaluation and
measurement have a direct impact on participants’
expectations of education and its contents.
The education system has several stages. At
the same time participants’ expectations of the
educational process from the educational stages
have their own specific focus: the subsequent
stage forms the requirements for the results of
the previous stage in the views of participants of
education (Blonsky, 1974).
One of the contradictions of the education
system lies in the fact that, on the one hand, each
stage has its own educational content (Blonsky,
1974), and on the other hand, there is often a
change of focus from their own content to this
procedure produced estimates and measurements
in the transitions between the stages (Blonsky,
1974). Distorted attitudes of the participants of
education are observed towards the results of
current educational stages, which consist in the
following: they are not given their own unique
value, and they act only as a preparation for
the subsequent stages, and are not valuable and
important to solve the problems adequate to a
child’s age (Hassan, 2008). This issue is discussed
in developmental psychology (L.S. Vygotsky,
D.B. Elkonin, B.I. Hasan, etc.). Development
pedagogy has the projects aimed at solving
this problem. For example: Tubelskogo school,
gymnasium “Universe”, “Tsaritsino” center and
a number of educational projects.
Expanding the research, we are faced with
difficulties related to the research methods that
are appropriate with the issues raised and the
logic of study. Conceptually, the study is based
within the cultural-historical school.
We were interested in the following: whether
we can discuss and describe the institutional
transition and in which characteristics and how
and by what means we can study the social
situation of development.
In pursuing this aim, we surveyed 16 experts
and specialists in the field of education: managers,
professionals
working
in
developmental
education, and professionals working in other
learning approaches. In other words, we used the
Delphi method of expert judgment, which allows
us to display an overall assessment, based not
on mathematics and statistics but at a reasonable
point of view of the experts themselves.
The study concluded that the discussion of
subjects of the “transition” for most of the experts
was a surprise and caused a number of difficulties
associated primarily with the novelty of the issue.
An expert survey also helped to identify the
specifics of difference and relations of age and
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institutional transitions, which is caused by the
practice and area of the expert:
- Specialists, who work on the technology
of developing training or who are quite
familiar with it, distinguish, discuss
and correlate age and institutional
transitions.
- Experts, specialists with a long record of
service in management, refer to but do
not distinguish and correlate the age and
institutional transitions.
- Experts, professionals who work in other
approaches, do not distinguish and do not
pay any attention to the difference and
correlation of the transitions.
- Expert assessments showed that the
“transitions” can be described and
discussed from the point of view of the
necessity of “Other” for the “transit”
competencies in terms of functions,
specific positions of the “Other”, but also
in terms of specific place, its features and
marks.
The study of the social situation of
development was based on a study of the attitudes
of adolescent and his close environment (parents,
teachers, peers) to various aspects of life.
The choice in favor of the questionnaire is
primarily due to the fact that the use of external
monitoring is already difficult because it is
hard to “catch” the moment of emotions, stress,
and, moreover, a distorted interpretation of the
researcher is likely to take place. In addition
to the technical aspect, let’s pay attention
to an ethical one: every person has a right to
privacy of inner life (I.A. Meshcheryakov,
F.V. Bassin).
Mass survey allows us to use a representative
sample and examine it with a questionnaire
(V.S. Sobkin, B.G. Mescheryakov). It is important
that the survey method allows us to withdraw an
ethical problem of studying the experiences of
others, as a person has a choice to participate in
the survey or not.
It is known that the experiences of adolescents
are well reflected in the personal diaries, and this
source of information is used by many researchers
(S. Bühler, M.M. Rubinstein). However, the
diary method is limited (P.P. Blonsky, J.S. Cohn,
M.M. Rubinstein, and I.A. Meshcheryakova). In
addition, the diaries are “difficult of access” for
the researcher.
The method of retrospection is also
limited. M.M. Rubinstein, P.P. Blonsky noted
that retrospective creates a distorted picture,
as “childhood memories that adults have are
prone to have various errors”. This fact was also
confirmed by the psychoanalysts. Consequently,
a retrospective method of studying the problem
in the area of high school students cannot fully
satisfy us but can be used as an auxiliary.
The study was conducted on the basis of
8-11 grades of Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”
in Krasnoyarsk. 102 people took part in the
questioning. The conducted survey has a number
of tables, which allows maintaining the sociodemographic characteristics of all students in
grades 8 – 11 of the gymnasium.
In developing the tools we have assumed that
the process of sexual identity is completed with
the end of puberty, and thus draw our notions of
“the world of experience of a high school student”
associated with the completion of puberty.
Discussion of the Results
Empirical data (shown in % in Tables 1, 2),
which were obtained in the course of our study,
can display a profound interest of high school
students to the relationship between men and
women, and this data is interesting in many
respects. Firstly, we note that all the students
of 8 – 11grades held the relations between the
sexes in the field of their attention. Secondly,
there is a shift of values among 11 grade
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Table 1. What age does an individual truly start thinking about the relationship between a man and a woman?
8 grade
9 grade
10 grade
12
12,5
8
Up to 12 years old
72
24
8,3
8
12–14 years old
28
48
45,8
40
Up to 10 years old
11 grade
14 –16 years old
12
20,8
36
Over 16 years old
4
12,5
8
9 grade
10 grade
11 grade
12
12,5
12
33,3
8
Table 2. What age did you start thinking about it?
8 grade
Up to 10 years old
Up to 12 years old
60
32
12-14 years old
40
40
37,5
44
14 –16 years old
8
16,6
36
Over 16 years old
8
students due to their age. If 60 % of eighthgraders claim that they would think about the
relationship between man and woman up to the
age of 12 (i.e. up to grade 8), 40 % of eighthgraders clearly indicate their age, and 36 % of
the students in grade 11 notify the age from
14 to 16 years, answering the same question,
which corresponds to their “school” age. In our
view, this indicates that up to 11 grade students
do not settle the question of relations between
the sexes, they devote much attention to it what
allows us to make a conclusion about keen
interest of high school students to the issue of
sexual development and to clock the time of
psychic tension, in other words, the experience
of high school student.
In this regard, it is important to pay attention
to those sources of information for students
that are essential in shaping ideas about the
relationship between men and women.
In Table 3, the data is given to draw conclusions
about the main sources of information.
It is obvious that the main sources of
information are the peers and the media, but at
the same time, no references to the school or
teacher are given.
43.3 % of adolescents surveyed out of 1187
in Krasnoyarsk, gave an answer to the question
“how do you feel about sexual relationships at
your age” as “acceptable, but I do not engage in
sexual activity”. 29.9 % of adolescents consider
them unacceptable and are not sexually active,
13.7 corresponds as “sex is natural and are
sexually active” 4.3 % of students understand
that it’s too early to have sexual relations, but,
nevertheless, are sexually active.
Specific gender relationship to sexual contact
has been revealed. A characteristic feature is
the “tension” between the recognition of the
naturalness of sexual contacts and understanding
that it is early to engage in sexual relations. 22.8 %
of the boys responded indicated that they are
sexually active, as for the girls they outnumber
6.9 %, p. = 0.0000. The inadmissibility of sexual
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Table 3. From what sources do you get information about the relationship between the sexes?
Total %
8 grade
9 grade
10 grade
11 grade
From literature
30,1
26
28,6
37,5
28
From father
3,8
2,9
8,3
4
From mother
35,4
8
17,1
37,5
16
From other grown-ups
(strangers)
From peers
5,1
12
4,1
4
41,1
48
2,9
41,6
72
From older friends
22,6
32
5,7
20,8
32
From mass media
40,9
44
42
45,8
32
Other
7,2
16,6
12
Table 4. Are you sexually active?
boys
girls
Р=
1. I lead a regular sexual life and I have a regular sexual partner
8,5
4,2
0,0019
2. I lead a regular sexual life but I don’t have a regular sexual partner
5,6
0,3
0,0000
3. I occasionally lead a sexual life and I have a regular sexual partner
3,2
2
4. I occasionally lead a sexual life and I have different sexual partners
8,9
1,7
0,0000
5. I do not lead a regular sexual life but I have had a sexual experience
9,9
4,6
0,0006
6. I have never been sexually active
64
87,3
0,0000
relationships showed the following number of
respondents: 72.3 % of girls and boys 27.7 %,
p = 0.0000.
The data show that 77.3 % of those who
answered the question “Are you’re sexually
active?” said no. In this case 6.9 % of teens say
that “they do not lead a sexual life but they have
had sex experience”. 6 % lead a regular sexual life
with a regular sexual partner. 4.7 % of students
occasionally lead a sexual life with different
partners. The answers “I lead a regular sexual
life but I don’t have a regular sexual partner” and
“I occasionally lead a sexual life with different
sexual partners” had 2.5 % of the responses.
From the data in the Table 1 it’s clear that
most young men have sex with different partners.
Thus, of those who answered the question, “I
lead a regular sexual life but with different sexual
partners” are 5.6 % of boys and 0.3 % of girls. As
for those who “occasionally lead a sexual life with
different sexual partner”, the table shows 8.9 % of
boys and 1.7 % girls. Significant differences were
found among boys and girls run “lead a regular
sexual life with a regular sexual partner” and
their experience in sexuality. Among respondents
to the question of 8.5 % of boys and 4.2 % of girls
are regularly sexually active and have a regular
partner, 9.9 % of boys and 4.6 % of girls “do not
lead a regular sexual life but have had a sexual
experience”. We should take into account that
the occasional relationships with a regular sexual
partner do not have gender specificity: 3.2 % of
boys and 2 % of women responded affirmatively
to this question.
The data, presented below in Fig. 1, show that
the question “Are you sexually active?” revealed
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Adolescents that are not sexually active
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
7 grade
9 grade
11grade
Fig. 1
some significant differences in the transition from
grade 7 (91.7 %) to grade 9 (79.5 %), and from 9th
to 11th grade (63.9 %) the proportion of adolescents
who do not have sex experience (p = 0.0000 for
both transitions) reduces significantly.
From 7th to 9th grade and 9th to 11th
grade the proportion of young people who have
occasional sexual relations with different partners
significantly increases. Thus, in the 7th grade only
0.3 % of adolescents claim to have “occasional
sexual relations with different partners” in 9th
grade the number rises to 5.1 %, p = 0.0001, for
the 11th grade of the number increases to 10,
0 % (p = 0.04). In addition, the transition from
grade 7 (1.2 %) to grade 9 (8 %) significantly
increased the percentage of adolescents who
“do not lead a regular sexual life but have had
a sexual experience” (p = 0.0000). Occasional
and regular sexual relationship with a regular
partner, as well as leading regular sexual life
with different partners increased sharply in the
transition from 9th to 11th grade. “I lead a regular
sexual life and I have a regular sexual partner”
indicated 3.9 % of respondents in the 9th grade
and 9.3 % in the 11th grade (p = 0.0018), “I am
sexually active but I don’t have a regular sexual
partner” said 2, 2 % of ninth-graders and 4.1 %
of 11th-graders (p = 0.045). The differences of age
dynamics occur in the analysis of gender-specific
adolescent sexuality.
We asked the question “Do you use
contraception?” to those who are sexually active
and “What is the most important reason for you
to use contraception?”
60.5 % of teens who answered the question
said they always use contraception. At the same
time 26.2 % occasionally use it and 13.3 %, in
fact, “never uses contraception”, that is one eighth
of sexually active teenagers.
Gender differences are revealed only in the
answers “I do not use contraception”. Those who
answered the question “Do you use contraception?”
were 9.8 % of boys and 20.7 % of girls who
answered “I never use it at all” (p = 0.0086).
Thus, it can be concluded that boys are more
aware and much more likely use contraception.
The analysis of age dynamics showed that the
transition from grade 7 to grade 9 significantly
increased the percentage of adolescents using
contraception “from time to time”14.8 % and
32 % % , respectively (p = 0.0235) and the number
of those who “never use” contraception decreases
to 29.6 % and 10.8 % (p = 0.01).
The research on the relationship between the
life value as “health” and the use of contraceptives
among teenagers showed that among adolescents,
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Age Dynamics of occasional sexual relationships among boys and girls
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
7 grade
9 grade
11 grade
7 grade
boys
9 grade
11 grade
girls
Fig. 2
who are sexually active and treat “health” as the
value of life, 60.6 % constantly use contraception,
28.6 % of respondents reported using
contraception from time to time and almost one
in ten (10.9 %) does not use any contraceptives.
Thus, almost every third teenager leading sex
life, on the one hand, declares the importance of
health as an important value in life and, on the
other hand, uses contraceptives from time to time
or does not use them.
Those who use contraception, single out
the following factors of their use: unwanted
pregnancy – 35.9 % boys and 73.6 % girls
(p = 0.0000), catching sexually transmitted
diseases – 62.8 % boys and 26.4 % girls
(p = 0.0000).
V.V. Zenkovsky (1923) saw the risk of heavy
periods of experiences of adolescents and linked
it with the lack of foresight of adults, which is
manifested primarily in the priorities of school.
“ A wild stream of new experiences destroys the
foundations of mental equilibrium, shakes its
foundations... and leads to very dangerous game
with adventurous people, bring it closer to the brink
of crime ... all the power of educational influence
should be focused on the regulation of complex
movements in the emotional sphere. (...) we do not
want to think about the deep and terrible inner
life, which is undergoing a teenager alone, when
he is powerless facing incomprehensible forces
that are playing with him, or we just throw up our
hands in distressed weakness. Whereas school
has a powerful means of regulating the internal
motions in the soul of a teenager ...” Discussing
the content of school education in the context of
psychology and development pedagogy, we can
have a chance to convert a source of natural and
dangerous forces into a powerful resource for the
development of personality.
These studies found the attitude of
adolescents to a healthy lifestyle. A joint
research project of the Institute of Psychology
and Pedagogy, Krasnoyarsk, and Institute of
Sociology of Education, and RAO, Moscow, was
carried out among students in 7, 9 and 11 schools
in the city of Krasnoyarsk. It showed that about
one in five teenager smoke (20.7 %), 22.4 % drink
vodka, brandy and other spirits, 44.3 % drink
wine, and finally 68.3 % drink beer, while 3.3 %
of respondents indicated that they use drugs. The
relationship of learning motivation and deviant
behavior is fundamental for us. In this regard, the
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study of the influence of schools on the motivation
of learning and deviant behavior of adolescents
has become the task of the research.
The study of value orientations of young
people, the emotional evaluation of their life
prospects, as well as of the formation of life
plans are the following emphasis of the research
program. In this case it is important for us that
the value orientations, emotional value and the
formation of life plans are not closed systems
that are determined by socio-demographic
factors. We believe that the relationships between
individuals can occur randomly in the process of
sharing information and under the influence of
educational system (school).
The aim of the study was to identify those
determinants that cause the system to maintain a
stable position.
We believed that if the school (educational
system) in its activities is based on this idea, we
will find a certain degree of order and the influence
of this idea on orientation, assessment and the
formation of life plans at the level of distributions
of responses of the subjects. Moreover, the
statistical distribution will be more closely
grouped with the average value due to centering
of the ideas introduced by the appearance of links
while sharing information.
In developing the questionnaire, we took the
fact into account that the dominant socialization
model in the social sciences emphasizes the role
of external factors that give children the access
to the world of adults (family, school, macro
social structures), whereas in fact the children
are almost not taken into account as independent
and self-self sufficient “part of the existence”.
As a result, childhood is invariably regarded as
a negative phenomenon as a lack of competence,
immaturity and lack of skills needed in the adult
world. We tried to overcome the prevailing
stereotype of childhood interpretation as a stage
of “becoming an adult” regardless of the social
significance of the specificity and quality of social
life (Sobkin, 1990). Following M.M. Bakhtin
ideas, we consider the opinion of a teenager as
an authoritative statement about reality, and
understand the importance of a particular cultural
view and status of adolescence, irreplaceability
of this position in general cultural process.
We surveyed 1437 students in grades 7, 9
and 11 in schools in Krasnoyarsk. We asked them
questions about the significance of certain values
in life.
The data presented in Fig. 3 characterize
the choices of life values by students of various
schools in the city of Krasnoyarsk. It is important
to pay attention to the fact that the statistical
distribution of the average values are grouped by
centering the ideas introduced only in the school
№ 106 (Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”).
In the context of “maturation” of adolescence
only school № 106 (Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”)
works with adolescence among the schools
represented in the Fig. 4. In addition to the proof
of our hypothesis, the results are interesting by
the fact that the generated values of respect for
others and good relationships with parents and a
happy family life are less important for students
in school № 106 (Gymnasium № 1 “Univers”),
rather than for their peers from other schools.
While the most preferred are the spiritual and
physical bond, raising the cultural level and the
possibility of creative activity.
A question of how contemporary school
leavers evaluate their s future success has a
particular interest. We emphasize that in this
case we are interested in the emotional evaluation
of their future, “the confidence and optimism”,
“doubt”, “fear and pessimism” of the future.
The data presented in Fig. 4 show a tendency
steady to influence of the idea of environmental
development. Moreover, as a result of the study
it is found that the assessment of personal
perspectives of the students in schools is more
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80
The most important values
106
70
144
102
60
20
41
50
52
40
30
20
10
0
successful
physical and soul intimacy
gaining material welfare
have close friends
increasing cultural level
independence and self-sufficiecy
happy family life
possibility to create
raising the level of self-study
good relationships with parents
respect of others
% ɪɚɩɫɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɣ
Health
Fig. 3
Assessment of life perspectives
70
61,7
60,7
60
53,8
50,9
50
49,3
% ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɧɢɣ
47,2
44,2
43
42,4
40
39,4
32,7
30,4
30
20
10
7,4
7
4,7
3,9
4,8
4,4
0
106
144
102
20
I'm confident and treat the nearest future with optimismʋ ɲɤɨɥɵ
41
52
There are some doubts my life will be successful
I treat the nearest future with pessimism and fear
Fig. 4
related to social stratification and demographic
factors and should be considered in the
overall socio-cultural context. So the factor of
completeness / incompleteness of the family plays
a significant role in assessing the graduates their
personal perspectives, and the girls have more
susceptible influence. Representations of the
students about their future success also depend
on the educational status of their parents. There
is an evident tendency: the higher the parents’
education, the higher the proportion of students
confident in their future and the lower the share
of the irresolute. For example, the percentage of
confidence in the future among school leavers
whose parents have secondary education is
45.1 %, and among their peers from families
where both parents have higher education the
number is much higher – about 59 %. The level of
education of parents significantly differentiates
those who doubt that “they will succeed in life”:
families with lower educational status (both
parents with secondary education) have much
lower the percentage of those who “doubt” that
is 51.9 %, and in families with higher educational
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106
60
Life Plans
50
40
52
144
30
20
10
0
I clearly see my future
My life plans are not defined yet
41
102
I try to think about presence and not to make any
plans
I think about future but I haven't made up my mind yet
19
20
Fig. 5
status (both parents with higher education) it is
only 37.4 %.
Let’s have a look at the structure of formation
of life plans of students along with the assessment
of their personal perspectives. In contrast to the
previous question, which concerns the emotional
evaluation of life prospects, in this case we put the
emphasis on the formation and clarity of plans.
Below, Fig. 5 presents data describing the
students’ determination with respect to positions
in adult life.
The presented results are interesting, first
of all, because they characterize the steady
influence of type of school on self-determination
of students. Thus, in schools №41 (60 %), №144
(49.5 %), №102 (44 %) and №106 (43 %) students
think about the future more but still cannot decide,
while in school №52 (41.5 %) and №20 (37.9) %
school leavers clearly represents their future. In
this case schools №52 and №20 have more rigid
system of pedagogical influence.
However, the experience of socializing
in rapidly changing circumstances makes it
impossible to form a habit of creating long-term
strategic programs concerning their future. And
here, in our opinion, one of the key problems
of modern schooling takes place. Its essence of
which is the ability to form a strategic planning
of their life prospects in a rapidly changing socioeconomic conditions.
Then we used the results of the survey
conducted among students in schools in
Krasnoyarsk. We surveyed 1187 teenagers who
study in the 7th, 9th and 11th grades in 10 schools
in Krasnoyarsk. The following set of criteria
was used in choosing them: the criterion of
regional jurisdiction of the school. This means
that all seven regions are administrative districts
represented by the school. A criterion for quota
compliance with sex and age structure of each
school. A criterion of diversity of schools. At
this stage we also took into account the typology
of the formal schools (gymnasiums, lyceums,
secondary schools).
The analysis of social stratification structure
of schools has shown that these structures are
essentially similar and have no statistically
significant differences. These data for further
analysis allow us to choose a number of schools
on a random basis.
The data presented in Table 7 shows that the
number of young smokers is significantly higher
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Table 5. Smoking, drinking alcohol and taking drugs in the school environment
Answers
school А
school В
school С
р= , р=
I smoke
28,6
20,1
12,0
0,01,
I use drugs
5,2
4,0
2,4
I never drink alcohol
65,5
76,2
87,7
0,01 ; 0,001
I drink alcohol once a week or
more often
I never drink beer
9,7
7,4
2,5
0,007; 0,009
20,8
28,5
42,7
0,004; 0,02
I drink beer once a week
35,1
24,0
15,9
0,0006;
in school A (28.6 %) compared with school B
(20.1 %) (p = 0.01) and school C.
Despite the big number of adolescents who
use drugs at school A, however, no significant
differences were found.
There is a similar situation to drinking in
different schools. Thus, adolescents in a school
A “never drink alcohol” 65.5 %, in school B
this number increases to 76.2 % (p = 0.01), and
in school C – 87.7 % (p = 0.001). Adolescents
who never consume beer are 20.8 % in school
A, 28.5 % (p = 0.004) in school B and 42.7 % in
school C (p = 0.02).
The high rate of alcohol use has also
significant differences in the various schools. If we
observe a weekly consumption of alcohol among
2.5 % of adolescents in the school C, boys and
girls in school B have a rate 7,4 % of (p = 0.009),
and similar rate of use is typical for a 9.7 % of
adolescents in school A (p = 0.007). 15.9 % of
adolescents in school C use the school drink beer
every week, about every third teenager from
school B uses in the beer with the same frequency,
and 35.1 % of adolescents from a school A (as
compared with school C with p = 0.0006).
Thus, we observe a different situation with
smoking and alcohol consumption in schools
with equivalent social stratification conditions.
Consequently, there are special factors or
conditions of schools that have a significant
impact on the spread among adolescents and
addiction to smoking and drinking.
We believe that these factors are shaped
learning motivation of adolescents and an attitude
of teachers and classmates to smoking and alcohol
consumption.
Motivation theory
and deviation
The analysis of learning motivation among
adolescent smokers and nonsmokers showed that
the reason for attending school, “My parents
made me attend school” (p = 0.0000), and “I go
to school just to get a school leaving certificate”
(0.0000) is significantly more likely to indicate
smoking teenagers compared those who do
not smoke. When asked about the reasons that
motivate learning, “the desire to get the approval
of others” (p = 0.03) and the “the desire to gain
the respect of peers, to take up a certain position”
(p = 0.038) are more important reasons for such
teenagers in comparison with non-smokers.
For non-smoking adolescents it is more
important to visit schools and they are interested
in teaching (p = 0.003) and they have a desire to
gain knowledge that will be useful in the future
(p = 0.0000).
The desire to acquire new knowledge
(p = 0.0000) and the desire to get an interesting,
prestigious and well-paid job (p = 0.01) in the
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future are mostly typical for non- smoking
adolescents.
Thus, non-smoking adolescents have much
higher motivation to study. Smoking adolescents
are characterized with a low study motivation
and a focus on immediate environment and their
peers that may indicate a dependent behavior.
Those teens who use drugs more frequently
noted the reason for attending school as
“socializing with friends” (p = 0.02) and “I go
to school just to get a school leaving certificate”
(p = 0.0000). Also a more important reason is
“nothing in particular encourages me to study”
(p = 0.02) among drug-using adolescents who
answered the question about the reasons that
motivate learning.
Interest in teaching (p = 0.007), a desire to
gain knowledge that will be useful in the future
(p = 0.0002), “good teachers” (p = 0.0003) and “I
like the organization of leisure time” (p = 0.001)
are typical for adolescents do not use drugs. Also
more important is the “duty and responsibility, I
believe that everyone should study” (0.047).
Thus, a low level of learning motivation
is typical for drug-using adolescents. Let’s
pay attention that that communication and
entertainment among adolescents are important
as a deterrent of drug use.
The analysis of the reasons that motivate
teenagers who take drugs and alcohol to study
and attend school showed similar dependence
to smoking and using drugs. For example, the
response rate of adolescent who have never
drunk beer is significantly higher in such answers
as “I’m interested in studying” (p = 0.001),
“I want to gain knowledge that will be useful
in the future” (p = 0.0000) and the “desire to
obtain knowledge” (0.0000). For adolescents,
who consume beer every week in comparison to
those who have never drunk beer, is much more
important to “socialize with friends” (p = 0.04),
“parents’ influence” (p = 0.000), “getting a school
leaving certificate” (p = 0.0001) and “nothing in
particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.003).
The desire to gain knowledge that will
be useful in the future (p = 0.0000), the desire
to decide what knowledge will come in handy
in the future (p = 0.03) and the desire to get an
interesting prestigious and well-paid job in the
future (p = 0, 0005) is much more common in the
responses of teenagers who have never consumed
any spirits.
For teens that use spirits every week the most
important motivations to study and go to school
are: “I go to school just to get a school leaving
certificate” (p = 0.0005), “My parents made
me attend school” (p = 0.0000) and “nothing in
particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.0000).
Thus, we can make a conclusion that the
absence of temporal perspective, manifested
in a very low, almost missing level of learning
motivation is typical for smoking, drinking and
using drugs teenagers.
The attitude of young people concerning
the reasons of attending school
The analysis of statistically significant
differences showed the opinion of boys who
study in schools B and C as following: “I want to
gain knowledge that will be useful in the future”
which is much more common in the responses
(p = 0.01) compared with the views of boys from
school A.
Girls have another opinion. For girls from a
school A the reason “I go to school just to get a
school leaving certificate” is the most significant
(p = 0.005) in comparison with the views of girls
from schools B and C.
The peculiarity of school attendance of
girls from school B has become a “good leisure
organization” (p = 0.002). Statistics of significant
differences revealed that parents make girls from
school C to attend school much less frequently
than in the other two schools (p = 0.04).
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The analysis of statistics of significant
differences in boys’ learning motivation revealed
only one peculiarity. Thus, the proportion of
young men who answered the question “describe
the main causes which makes you to study” is a
much lower in school B (2.2 %, p = 0, 04) than
in the other two schools that say “nothing in
particular encourages me to study”.
Girls from school C, unlike their peers of the
other two schools were significantly more likely
to indicate a desire to learn to acquire knowledge
independently (p = 0.0000) and the desire to
decide what knowledge will be useful in the
future (p = 0.02).
Duty, responsibility (p = 0.003) and “nothing
in particular encourages me to study” (p = 0.01)
were the feature of the learning motivation of girls
from the second school. In addition, such reason
to study as “joint activity and communication in
the learning process” is less significant for the
girls from the second school (p = 0.008).
Thus, we can conclude that a characteristic
feature of adolescents from school A is a low
learning motivation.
Adolescents from schools B and C are
characterized by an interest in learning and a
desire to gain new knowledge. In addition, their
own desire to acquire knowledge by learning
motivation is a peculiarity for students in
school B.
In general, in schools there are special
conditions for supporting or not supporting the
motivation to study among adolescents.
The analysis of the goals of education for
adolescents from different schools revealed
that such goal as “a necessary training to enter
the University” for boys from school B is a less
important than that for boys of school A and C
(p = 0.02).
On the contrary, the girls from school B,
in comparison with their peers from school A
and C, to a greater extent believe that the goal
of education is “a necessary training to enter the
University” is (p = 0.01). Also the experience
of social communication and interaction are
more significant for girls from the third school
(p = 0.02).
The peculiarity of views of the girls from
the second school concerning the objectives of
education are significant differences in preferences
“grounded knowledge” in comparison with girls
from the third and the first schools (p = 0.01).
“The opportunity to develop their own abilities”
is supposed to be of a much greater extent for the
girls from the third and the first schools than for
the girls from the second school (p = 0.037).
Girls from the first schools are more focused
on the experience of participation in public
life and activity (p = 0.02) than for a good preprofessional training (p = 0.03) more than the
girls from the second and the first schools.
Thus, the school environment is a
factor that contributes to the goal-setting in
adolescents with respect to education, which is
the vector of development of the personality of
an adolescent.
The attitude of teachers and classmates
to smoking and using drugs
and alcohol in different schools
The peculiarity of the relationship of school
teachers from school C to drinking alcohol and
smoking among teenagers was the fact that
66.6 % of respondents to the question of smoking
and using alcohol teenagers said that “teachers
are aware of my behavior, and that leads to
conflicts” (p = 0.004). At the same time, the girls
from school C use the tactic of concealing of their
drinking alcohol and smoking. 75.0 % of girls of
this school, who smoke and drink alcohol, said
they “hide in any possible way” such behavior.
According to 52.6 % of boys from school B and
34.6 % of boys from school A, their teachers
know that they smoke and drink alcohol, but “are
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tolerant of this”. In this case, we note that there is
not such a reaction from teachers at school C.
As for drug use, almost all students from
three schools answered the question as “in every
possible way they hide the use of drugs from
teachers”. And only 14.2 % of adolescent, who
use drugs in school A, reported that “teachers are
tolerant of this”.
Otherwise, the attitude to smoking, alcohol
and drugs is shown among classmates.
Thus, unlike their peers from schools A
and B, every fourth classmate from school C
“condemns” the behavior of boys who drink.
There are other relationships regarding girls. A
peculiarity of school A is indifferent attitude of
classmates to girls consuming alcohol. 46.2 % of
girls from school B who consume alcohol showed
the same attitude to their classmates, while in the
school And only 16.1 % and 14.2 % in the seven
school have such attitude (p = 0.005).
Smoking of boys at school A meets
indifference from their classmates. “They do not
care” said 64.0 % of smoking boys in relation
to their classmates (p = 0.02). Classmates of
the smoking girl from school B “consider this
behavior quite normal”. Such attitude indicated
52.8 % of girls who answered this question. At
the same time the different structures of relations
were revealed: in school A 45 % of girls indicate
that their classmates “do not care” whether they
smoke or not, 30 % “consider quite normal” such
behavior, and 5 % of girls who smoke hides this
fact from their classmates. In school B 52.8 % of
smoking girls reported that their classmates think
it is quite normal, 33.3 % “they do not care” and
4.8 % of girls who answered the question indicated
that their classmates “approve” or “condemn”
this behavior in girls. In school C 50.0 % of girls
who smoke said their classmates “do not care”,
and 12.5 % of girls got typical responses to the
question such as “they envy me” and “I hide from
my classmates that I smoke”.
No differences were found to the use of drug
that their classmates take.
Thus, a social situation of teenagers from
different schools varied considerably. And a high
deviant behavior among schoolchildren second
school can be explained by prevailing attitude of
teachers and classmates.
It is important to consider one more thing:
what is the structure and level of learning
motivation among adolescents from different
schools.
Boys from school A indicate a lack of
learning motivation (p = 0.04) to a greater extent
than their peers from other schools. In other
respects motivational structures have the same
profile and importance. A different pattern is
observed in girls. For example, girls from school
A more often their peers from school B and C
indicate the reason motivating them to learn as
the “duty and responsibility” (p = 0.003), and
“nothing in particular encourages me to learn”
(p = 0.01). Peculiarity of the learning motivation
of girls from the third school is the “desire to
get knowledge independently” (p = 0.0000)
and “the desire to decide what knowledge will
be useful to me in the future” (p = 0.02). And
finally, the peculiarity of motivation to study of
girls from school C with is “the desire to acquire
new knowledge” (p = 0.04) and “mutual activity
and communication in the learning process”
(p = 0.008).
Thus, the motivation to study of adolescents
from different schools has different profiles,
which in turn influence on the structure of
personality and deviant / normative behavior of
the adolescent.
The context of the social situation of
development allows us to discuss the structure
and nature of the transition, which helps the child
to develop and get mature. Here we conducted
a survey among experts, whose results are
presented below.
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The necessity for a transit “Other” is called in
question only by one third of experts; the majority
(69 %) believed the presence of the “Other” is
a prerequisite for institutional transition as a
condition of development. A number of experts
pointed out that “Other” is not necessarily a
specific person, but, for example, can be a group,
rituals, lifestyle images of the future, computer,
etc.
Thus, characteristic, functions and actions
of the “Other” have a different interpretation for
the interviewees. In the sense that it may stand
as an action for the fi rst expert, a function for
another one, and characteristics for the third
one.
Almost all experts believe that the “other”
does not guarantee a transition. There is always a
situation of uncertainty and risk for a transit one,
especially during the transition from school to
university.
According to the opinion of two experts it
is not necessary to discuss the security of the
transition, as it is not appropriate and similar to
overprotection.
It can be concluded that the presentation of
the results of the current stage are made on the
basis of the requirements of the next stage, and
is fixed on the transitions (‘entrance’ and ‘exit’)
between the learning stages.
We were interested what the participants of
education understand by the results of education
and where (at what time and place) they located
the subject associated with the results? That is,
whether localization occurs at the ‘entrance’
to the stage, at the ‘exit’ from the stage, or it is
distributed on the results of steps?
The study was conducted in 2007-2008 in
Krasnoyarsk. There were eight focus groups,
which participants became parents, students and
preschool, primary, secondary and university
teachers. 53 people took part in the study at this
stage.
The data received during the focus groups
were analyzed by the following criteria: the
relations of the current stage, the choice next
educational stage, attention span, the conception
of the transition.
The results of the study, integrated according
to the following criteria are presented in this
paper. We will discuss the transition from preschool to primary level, from secondary to high
school / vocational education, from high school
to university.
Parents and primary school teachers were
participants of the given study in the transition
kindergarten – school.
Parents believe that a kindergarten should
teach basic literacy, numeracy, writing, and
‘train’ to classes in the given stage.
A large group of parents believe that the key
factor in the intellectual preparation to school
is the family and that it lays the foundation
of learning, interest and willingness to study.
Parents would like the kindergarten to have such
a function, but consider it is hardly worth to rely
on it.
The choice of the next step has been made.
All parents know the school, class, and a future
teacher. Most of them know the title of the
educational program. The majority of parents
know the teacher and rely on her, and not on
the program. Their attention is held on the next
stage, on what will happen to the child there.
Expectations for the next stage are due to interest
of the child, teacher’s attention, and additional
classes in extra time and health.
The idea of the transition is that parents
choose special courses to prepare children for
school. The fears of parents may cause: their
own possible inability to help their child to
cope with the program, the possibility of a bad
relationship of the child in the class, the error
values and attitudes of family and school, school
maladjustment.
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Educators believe that the goal of preschool
childhood is to create independence, the ability to
be ready to interact with people and the desire to
learn something new.
In formulating the expectations of the next
stage, teachers talk about the continuity of the
efforts of such institutions as kindergarten and
school, not to lose the human qualities which
have been laid in preschool and to develop them
further.
The transition from adolescent stage to
secondary school is different because students
have no comprehension of this transition as a one
of high quality.
In this case the parents, while making the
choice of the next stage (school or college), put on
emphasis on the possibilities and interests of the
child. However, the views of parents regarding
the need for high school vary greatly and depend
on the type of occupation.
So parents, who work in small business, wait
for the end of the school year and are not satisfied
with the educational outcomes of children. They
believed that teachers pick on their children
instead of motivating and teaching them. They
are not satisfied with the attitude given: “Why
is she (the teacher) constantly discussing me in
the classroom in front of all? Why does she (the
teacher) share her attitude to my child out loud
about?” Parents, who work in the governmentfinanced organizations, are keeping forward
to the exams. They try to make a decision and
negotiate with the administration on the future
profile of teaching children and very loyal to the
results of education on the stage.
Parents who work in small business do not
expect much from the next stage. As a rule, they
know teachers and school capacity. The main
task is to prevent teachers from humiliating their
children in school. They get ready to break the
resistance of the teachers in ‘accepting’ their
children.
Parents, who work in the governmentfinanced organizations, want their children to
prepare for the Unified State Exam and to get a
good school leaving certificate. They try to find
new relations and channels that will help their
children enter the university.
Parents, who are wage workers, are at a loss.
They do not know how to behave themselves and
how to help their children.
Discussing the transition, parents of small
businesses believe that if a child has no interest
in learning, he does not have to go to high school.
This is a waste of time. The choice of high school
can only be associated with the fact that there are
no good colleges to hold the interest of the child.
Senior stage/ special education is not required as
well, as their child is not yet 18, and to start work
one still needs some document.
Parents, who work in the governmentfi nanced organizations, consider school leaving
certificate and Unified State Exam compulsory;
otherwise the child will not enter the university.
High education is essential; otherwise one
cannot make a career, take up the position and
place in society. “What does it mean the child
does not want to? I’ll make him, explain, prove
it, who will ask for his opinion.....?” say the
parents.
For parents, who are wage workers,
University is associated with the assessment, you
need to enter and study there, otherwise you’ll
be no one, and therefore children must study in
grade 10.
At the transition from school to college,
almost all students made their choice. For many
of them it’s a multiple choice: either here or there.
And it is based on the prestige of the university, a
set of disciplines on the chosen specialty that their
future job will have, the image of their future job,
“connections” in higher education, the demand
for their future profession in the labor market and
the recommendations of parents or teachers.
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The perceptions of the transition are mainly
focused on the evaluation of a child’s readiness
to it, that is, to examinations and admission
procedures.
The attention of high school students in
the perception of the next stage is distributed
as follows: the procedure of ‘entry’ or entering
university has the dominant value. The second
place takes a generalized representation of the
results of received education – the desire to get
high-quality fundamental education, to work
in an attractive and interesting sphere of work.
And the last place that influence the choice of a
student, takes the process of learning in higher
education.
Parents of high school students working in
small businesses, it is believed that the man in my
life to take place, and for this university is not a
prerequisite. Consistency, in their view, generally
has little to do with teaching.
Parents, who work in the governmentfinanced organizations, believe it is necessary to
enter a prestigious university to get a prestigious
job afterwards.
There is some difference in the views of
parents of high school students about the next
stage; some believe that the entry and what their
children will study there are not particularly
important. They will still need to be taught in
special courses of foreign languages, to engage in
network marketing, art, etc. Other parents believe
that it is important to get an education that allows
their children have a future profession.
Parents from small businesses do not
expect anything different on the current stage in
comparison with what used to be on the previous
stage. As a rule, they know teachers and school
capacity already. The main task is not let their
children being to children humiliated in school.
They get ready to overcome the resistance from
the teachers to ‘accept’ their child. We should
note that they distinguish between the results of
the teacher and child outcomes. Parents from the
government-fi nanced organizations are looking
forwards to the results of USE. In discussions
they protect teachers from the fi rst group of
parents. They rely on the loyalty of teachers.
They show no criticism or comments towards
the stage. They have high expectations; they
want their children to prepare for the exams, and
to have a good school leaving certificate. They
try to fi nd new relations and channels to get
admission to the university. They are concerned
how to solve the question of USE (some of them
pay a teacher, some pay to a tutor from the
university the child enters, some pay to a tutor
distinguished in the subject, some try to fi nd
other opportunities.)
The results of the focus groups revealed
several interesting tendencies. For example,
college students, in contrast to university students,
are happy with their choices; they made decision
on their professional future and have a clear
understanding of the results of their education
which is directly related to the requirements of
their future profession.
College students are satisfied with the
certainty of high school prospects, attitude of
teachers, and a low uncertainty in the educational
process.
University students are not confident enough
they have made a clear choice in choosing a place
to study. A lot of them point to unconcerned
teachers and that their high school requirements
do not match the desires. The idea of the current
stage is focused on the inner conditions of getting
higher education and the ability to communicate.
Conclusion
As a result of the research, we can draw the
following conclusion:
1. School environment is a factor that
contributes to goal-setting concerning adolescent
education.
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2. Motivation of teaching adolescents from
different schools has different profiles, which
in its turn affects the personality structure and
deviant / normative adolescent behavior.
3. Education and cognitive motivations and
constraints of deviation adolescent behavioral
strategies of teachers and classmates, which are
built and maintained in a school environment, are
conditions of teenager development and a healthy
lifestyle.
4. The overall situation of development in
adolescence includes an increase in the space of
free movement and has cognitively unstructured
nature of the new situation, including with respect
to the “health”.
5. A new attitude towards one’s own body is
a hallmark of adolescence.
6. The attention of the educational process
focuses on the procedures of the transition, and
the complexity of the transition is often a marker
of the quality of education in the next stage. In
this case, the procedure of transition begins to
perform a dominant role in the distribution of
effort in transition through the educational stage.
7. Existing procedures for transition between
stages divide the attention of the educational
process so that the evaluation of the current stage
is based on the quality of the procedures go to the
next level.
8. The most constructive transitions are
nursery-school and school-college. At the same
time the attention of participants in education
field is increasingly focused on the content of the
education of the next stage. Perhaps the lack of
a complex transition procedure allows us to pay
attention to the content of the forthcoming stage.
9. Due to the greater complexity of the
transition procedure, the attention of the
educational process focuses on the compliance
with procedures and not on the content of the
stage in transitions “secondary school – high
school and the school-university”
10. The transition may not only be discussed,
but also be designed as an age transition.
Reference
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и психологические сочинения: в 2 т. Т. 1. М., 1974.
Болотов В.А. [V.A. Bolotov] Оценка качества образования и институциональные переходы.
// Педагогика развития: Институциональные переходы в сфере образования (Красноярск 2008).
С. 27-31
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotsky] Педология подростка // Собр. соч.: в 6 т. Т. 4. (М., 1984).
Жизненные ориентации старшеклассников и проблемы современного образования: Сб.
науч. трудов / отв. ред. В.С. Собкин (М., 1990).
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В.В. [V.V.Zenkovsky] Психология детства (М., 1996).
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Леонтьев А.Н. [A.N. Leontiev] Проблемы развития психики (М., 1981).
Левин К. [K Levin] Теория поля в социальных науках (СПб., 2000).
Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Психология возрастных кризисов (М., 2000).
Рубинштейн М.М. [M.M. Rubinstein] Психология и педагогика юности // Рубинштейн М.М.,
Игнатьев В.Е. [M.M. Rubinstein, V.E. Ignatiev] Психология, педагогика и гигиена юности. (М., 1926).
Смирнов С.А. [S.A. Smirnov] Человек перехода: сборник науч. работ (Новосибирск: НГУЭУ,
2005). 536 с.
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Larisa A. Novopashina. The Essence of Adolescence and its Designing in Educational Environment
Собкин В.С. [V.S. Sobkin] Старшеклассник в мире политики. (М., 1997).
Собкин В.С., Ткаченко О.В. [V.S. Sobkin, O.V. Tkachenko] Отношение к образованию:
переход от школы к вузу. // Педагогика развития: Институциональные переходы в сфере
образования (Красноярск, 2008) С. 77-86.
Фрумин И.Д. [I.D. Froumin] Тайны школы: Заметки о контекстах (Красноярск, 1999) 256 с.
Фрумин И.Д., Эльконин Б.Д. [I.D. Froumin, B.D. Elkonin] Образовательное пространство
как пространство развития («школа взросления») //Научные труды учителей и сотрудников
Гимназии «Универс» (Красноярск, 2000).
Хасан Б.И., Бреслав Г.М. [B.I. Hassan, G.M. Breslau] Пол и образование (Красноярск, 1996).
Хасан Б.И. [B.I. Hassan] Психологическое содержание и институциональный смысл
образовательных переходов. // Педагогика развития: Институциональные переходы в сфере
образования (Красноярск, 2008) С. 40-50.
Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Содержание обучения в подростковом возрасте. Педагогика
развития: Содержание образования как проблема (Красноярск, 1999). С. 3-13.
Сущность подросткового возраста
и его проектирование
в образовательном пространстве
Л.А. Новопашина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В данной статье автором рассматривается специфика подросткового возраста и методы
исследования его сущности и содержания. Особым фокусом являются возможные условия
проектирования и культурного оформления этого периода в жизни человека. Социальная
ситуация развития и выступает такой содержательной и конструкторской единицей,
которая позволяет аналитически представлять динамику возраста и конструировать
образовательное пространство развития. Особым инструментальным средством, влияющим
на проектирование образовательной среды как среды развития, является оценка и измерение
образовательных результатов.
Ключевые слова: социальная ситуация развития, подростковый и юношеский возраст,
институциональные переходы.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1660-1670
~~~
УДК 371.255
Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions
for the Transition to Independence and Responsibility.
Adolescence as a Transition
Pavel A. Sergomanov* and Natalia P. Vasilyeva*
Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute
for Teachers’ Training and Retraining
19 Matrosova Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660079 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
This paper presents the rationale for the transformation of educational institutions, young people, as
the transition from child to adult types of development. The reasons for change are the three concepts
of marginal activities in the cultural-historical approach: the game, learning and work (labor), as
well as the description of three types of age of people development: childhood, transition (awkward
age), adult age. The idea of transforming the institution of education in its youth as a transitional
type of development is based on the premise that such an institution must recreate with each coming
generation horizons, images and patterns of performance and connectivity of the objectives, conditions
and resources of learning, which acts as “a test body” of life-planning, an adult training site in
adolescence.
Keywords: developmental psychology, development, adolescence, high school, transitions
Introduction
In this article we shall try to construct a
justification of ideas about the horizons and
the program of work in those areas in which
educational institutions can develop young people,
given that these institutions are a transition from
the child to adult types of development. Naturally,
these institutions include the age cohort of about
16 to 20 years in contemporary Russia.
In the cultural-historical approach, the
processes of education are considered, on the one
hand, as intended to resolve the contradictions of
child development, and on the other – both have
inherent contradictory nature. In the definition of
education as a process of “forming – educating”
*
1
of a man we adhere to this approach supported
by L. S. Vygotsky (1997) and his followers. Key
psychological representations are our motives and
grounds of changes in educational institutions of
youth, defining, inter alia, economic and legal
requirements for the conditions and mechanisms
of maturation.
The system of education and social
expectations, along with the fact of biological
maturity set for high school students the task of
choosing their life prospects. It is believed that at
this age stage, boys and girls have the resources
for this choice1. Studies of many psychologists
suggest that this is not true. At the same time,
we understand that the educational institution
Corresponding author E-mail address: sergomanov@kipk.ru, vasilieva@kipk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition…
may either contribute to or hinder the solution of
problems of youth age. Studies of L. I. Bozhovic
(1995), V. Davydov (2000), D. B. Elkonin (1989)
and others have shown that the ratio of external
requirements with the capabilities and needs of
the child is the core of the social situation that
determines its further development. What is the
idea that you can use to describe the development
in adolescence, and what are the requirements
for the institutional conditions and mechanisms
of transition to adulthood (independence and
responsibility)?
On the one hand, we rely on the
representations of three marginal activities
that are highlighted in the Hegelian tradition,
and developed in the national psychology of
development in cultural-historical approach:
the game, learning and work (labor). It is
important to note that an understanding of
labor is not associated only with the type of
industrial production. Psychologically, labor for
us is every man’s productivity and performance,
which demonstrates to others independence
and responsibility in carrying out activities. In
this sense, post-industrial, information age also
has its own requirements for human autonomy,
responsibility
and
performance,
which,
incidentally, according to some psychologists, blur
the traditional (industrial) age limits, confirming
a well-known idea that age is something that is
set (assigned), but not given.
On the other hand, normal activity is
possible only if it exists as an institution. In
other words, the game, learning and work (labor)
should be “equipped with facilities” in the
educational institutions so as to form a precise
age assignment, requirements for development,
providing age-amplification.
Take a look at the history of developmental
education in the country. Creation of the
ideological and technological solutions of the
relationship between learning and development
for the elementary school took about 30 years and
led to an understandable and even ideological
shifting technology. In large part, we advanced
the understanding of how to build a learning
process in line with developing training according
to Elkonin-Davydov. However, what has changed
in schools in both institutions? What are the
conditions and mechanisms of change so that they
themselves have replaced old ones? What is our
idea of a school, where the practice of developing
education? How does it differ from traditional
schools?
Let’s look at the fate of two other interesting
initiatives in the school – teaching and project
(or, more precisely, designing) activities of young
people and educational and research activities of
high school students, which can be attributed to
modern ideas of schooling. What is happening?
With the explicit heuristic ideas for children’s
development, and even when they are good
technological elaboration, they live up to that
time, while not threatening the school, above all,
change relationships with the student, changing
institution of school and its long conditions and
mechanisms. How do you supervise children’s
project or research, if you need to teach lessons?
How can we organize such work, if not the
necessary equipment, relationships, competence
of personnel, and mode of operation?
All these examples demonstrate the basic
question of changes – changes in the conditions
and mechanisms of the school, changing schools
as an institution as a whole. At the same time,
we often work only in the design logic, forgetting
about the last station – to change the school in its
institutional characteristics.
Three Types of Development
We distinguish three types of age of human
development. These three types of development
can be characterized by the relationship between
the game, learning and work (labor).
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Childhood
Transition
Adult Age
(awkward age)
Fig. 1. Three Types of Development
Children’s type of development is associated
primarily with the game and learning how to
reproduce the activity (Davydov, 2000), which
are “loaded” in childhood. And if there is a game
based on the impossibility of the realization of
meanings and relations of the adult world (role
playing game), then there is the doctrine based
on the apparent impossibility of the realization,
“naturalized” tools of adult (non-children’s)
world (reading, writing and counting). Thus,
adulthood is childhood, first as a horizon of
meaning relations between adults (role playing
game), and then – as the horizon “Skillful mind”
(reading, writing and counting). It is essential
that an educational institution in its structure, the
mechanisms and conditions serves for the game
and learning. The relationship of children and
adults are mediated primarily by institutional
conditions such as a thematic program, the group
(class), a means of assessing the results of games or
exercises, and evaluation of games and exercises
embedded in the context of group and discipline
(teaching subject), organization of work of adults
and children’s learning lives.
Adult type of development, in our opinion, is
not characterized by reproducing activity (game
or learning), but by a new relationship that arises
between the game and learning, the emergence of
labor in human life. And such initial appearance
is not immediate, but occurs in the horizon of
personal perspective. This means that the game
and learning have been “set” at work (labor). In
other words, the game and learning become the
means of teaching for the purpose of “better”
performance of the individual.
Actually the transition type of development
is characterized by the fact that labor is not a
goal but the game and learning have already
exhausted the energy of development. Work
in a transitional type of development serves as
an immediate horizon, as well as a frame for
exercise and play. In other words, during the
period of youth, the question arises, for what
must be learned, based on what perspective?
A figurative expression L. S. Vygotsky (1930):
“A teenager is looking at the future from the
perspective of the present, whereas a young man
is looking at the present from the perspective
of the future.” That’s when the subjective
reality has such a “view from the perspective
of the future”, the transition is being formed.
Therefore, at this point, we can raise the
question about the institute, confi ning such a
transitional type of development, the material
of which the fi rst is way of life, and basic tool –
life planning as a new functional system, the
connectivity goals, conditions and resources
in life expectancy. In this case the phrase “life
plan” here does not sound in the sense of direct
means of production, but in the sense of the
becoming, breeding up adolescents. Youth in
our understanding, is the transition from the
childishness to maturity, and development in
adolescence is not because the children’s ages,
i.e. not according to the logic of change of the
sustainable age for a crisis. We assume that in
adolescence the establishment of the planning
activity takes place through fi nding solutions
to conflicts relating to the harmonization /
mismatch in areas of life plan.
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After a series of works we already have
enough evidence to suggest that in adolescence,
maturing occurs due to the development of life
skills to a holistic planning and design of the life
in a plan. The content of the plan is to coordinate
resources and personal aspirations, and
psychological form – experience the life of the
plan and samples of its implementation. From this
perspective, the life plan is a means of aligning
the resources, conditions and aspirations. It (life
plan) is determined by the complex dynamics
and structure of action: selection of the ideal
goal of a sufficiently large time field of given
alternatives; account of available resources;
account of the possibility of acquiring the
necessary resources, the balance of the real goals
in a hierarchy of achievement, inclusion in the
hierarchy of the realism aspect of achievement;
tasking the acquisition of the necessary, but still
missing resources to achieve a real assessment
of each goal for the approximation to the ideal
goal, adjust claims and the hierarchy of realistic
goals in line with developments, research and
recording conditions. However, in general, a life
plan of boys (girls) is a method of communication
(coordination) of claims, conditions and
resources.
According to V. Davydov (1986), the leading
types of activities for adolescents are educational
and professional. After 11th grade in high school
students have an exam, completing their formal
childhood. So they are put in a situation of
choosing their own perspectives of education,
which in this situation is associated with the
profession. It leads to the understanding of the
idea of professional self-determination as the idea
of leading activity for young people, and ideas
about careers are some foundations of meaningful
vision of the future for a boy or a girl.
Judgments of school senior pupils 2 quite
often contain only a general idea of the order-ideals
of a future life and prospects of the profession,
and the tested did not use them in the fantasy
images, typical of a teenage way of perspective
structuring. At the same time in their judgment
there are no estimates of external and internal
resources, conditions and instructions on actions
to achieve goals. It seems that the accumulated
resources are beginning to act the subject of
evaluation, but in this case, is not associated with
the perspective or view of the purpose and the
system of previous achievements.
The situation of choice is often based
on what a person likes. Sometimes there are
arguments to justify personal goals, and ideas
about the constraints of the situation cannot be
described. High school students point to the
lack of resources to achieve the goal, but at the
same time, the description of the proposed action
plans and the ratio of the specific objectives and
necessary resources available. Often answers
to the question, what do you think needs to
be done, are: “I will try,” “first try, and then
understand.” High school students, as opposed
to boys and girls older (students or employees),
are characterized by volatility, “throwing from
side to side,” the substitution of a task by another
task of the same level of complexity, as well as
they are characterized by the hope that with the
understanding that the goal the half of the matter
is done, and that now the plan is certainly going
to work.
Thus, planning for young people arises
as a possible leading activity in reference to
the phenomenon of productivity (or labor)
horizon, with the simultaneous failure of its
implementation. Productivity just requires more
than just setting goals, but also clearly defines
specific conditions and resources to achieve them
with respect to this goal and to each other. In other
words, the performance is impossible without a
new functional organization (or a functional body)
rights – life planning. In our opinion, this is what
forms the basis of an age-being in adolescence.
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100%
number of judgments, %
80%
2
1
2
4
7
1
1
50
52
60%
60
3
40%
20%
2
9
45
0%
13-14
33
11
9
15-16
17-18
Fig. 2. Dynamics of changes in the elements of life planning in the statements of young men and women in the
planning process (method of “Coordination”, the tested, 80 people, 13 to 21 years)
These findings are confirmed in a dissertation
study we conducted3. Part of the research was
conducted according to the author’s method of
“Coordination.” In which the tested were asked to
construct a route march on the topographic map,
to rank the necessary resources for the campaign,
and then by analogy with a topographical map
to draw a map of his/her life. The study resulted
in the allocation of four elements of building life
plan: goals – ambitions; resources; conditions; the
plan as ways for coordination (communication) of
objectives, conditions and resources.
The figure represents the number of
judgments for each element of life plan, in the
age dynamics.
The structure
of educational interests of high school age
We studied the structure of the educational
interests of high school pupils using the technique
“Virtual School”4. First, we asked the children
what subjects they study in school and what they
do in their spare time. All the information was
written on the board, and the expert to each type
of training assigned a “cost” in terms of money
and time: subjects in the “Virtual School”, “were
taught” at three levels (standard, elementary
and advanced), every kind of entertainment and
activities in clubs, on the courses and sections were
also associated by a certain amount of «money»
and «time». Then the participants were asked to
distract from the constraints of real life and to
choose only what they really need. The choice
was limited to a certain amount of resources
allocated to each child (conditional “money”
and “time”), they had to distribute to class. The
student could use a sum of conditional money,
enough to cover all the subjects of the standard
level and the amount of time equal to a week,
minus time for sleep and meal. The time period
of the game is conditionally equal to one year and
is organized by the school quarters, where every
quarter new rules are being introduced. The first
quarter of is a trial and introductory period, in
the second quarter the amount of time is being
reduced, in the third – “money”, and in the fourth
quarter school attendance is optional.
We analyzed the results based on three
main areas in which students put their resources:
the area of compulsory education, the area
of proactive education, and the free time
(entertainment) area. When allocating resources,
high school students put 48 % of conventional
“time” and “money” (conditional “time” and
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“money”) to the area of compulsory education.
43 % of this 48 % is spent by high school students
to the subjects required for admission to college.
2 % of all the resources was spent to the subjects
that seem to be appealing to high school students
due to the teacher’s personality. Finally, 3 % of
the resources was occupied by the subjects that
are of interest to high school students in terms of
their applicability in life.
In our view, the emergence of a responsible,
sustainable interest in the area of training for the
admission to a higher educational institution for
the most part is defi ned by the present situation
of the vocational choice. “The Institute (college)
is a step towards future work, therefore even if
from the school pupils were transferred to the
Institute, they still need to learn the subjects
close to their future profession, so that they
would be useful later in their work.” Therefore,
if the choice of an institution is justified, then
the subjects are seen as useful for life and they
are not refused from under any circumstances.
On the other hand we can trace a substantive
affection, or “affection of the object language”,
i.e. the prospect of life for some reason is
discussed in the language of the subject. “The
main stimulus for the choice of subjects is an
aptitude for the subject or attendance at a
university (i.e. interest is in the relationship and
responsibility for their choices)”. Of course,
school subjects have social value, selecting
them, high school students follow the stereotype
of the importance of these subjects to life for the
exam and for communication. The question –
what do you study for – high school students
who do not have informed choice of their future
profession, say: “in order to be smart and
educated” or “school needs to raise the image
of the state, but one can live without the school”.
Basically, these students when they are set free
from their responsibilities, i.e. when they are
given permission not to attend school in a game
situation, completely abandon their studies in
favor of entertainment.
It is the justification of their choice of future,
which has a great importance for the interest of
high school students to learning a subject or an
educational field. For us, a reasonable high school
student life plan is a description of not only the
chosen career path, but also the reason why this
way is possible. That is, a boy or a girl really
estimates opportunities, prescribes actions to
achieve not only final but also intermediate goals.
The justification of the life plan was assessed
by experts and was based on video materials,
interviews were conducted after the game
procedures.
The data indicated in Figure 3 shows
that girls with justified life plans more than
50 % of the resources invested in the area of
compulsory education, more than 30 % in the
area of proactive educational interest, i.e. to an
education which is not defi ned by someone, and
is made on their own. Boys in this respect are
slightly different. They spend more resources
on compulsory education (70 %) and slightly
less on proactive – 21 %. Thus, on average,
boys and girls who have chosen the university
and their social position, steadily invest in
education from 84 to 91 percent of resources.
Consequently, for the area of entertainment
they have not more than 16 % of the resources.
Thus, high school students who have a clear
idea of their future life, and a justified choice
of profession, have strong interests in learning,
i.e. have the justification of claims, and can
potentially make a plan.
Boys and girls who have an unjustified
life plan “spend” 30 % of the resources on the
part of compulsory education, and proactive
education area occupies 26 % of girls` resources,
investments of boys in general are equal to
zero. At the same time on entertainment, they
leave an average 60 % of the resources. It is our
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80
7
73
70
70
60
53
50
44
40
30
reeasonablelifeeplan(boys)
31
30
reeasonablelifeeplan(girls)
26
unreasonablellifeplan(girls)
26
6
21
unreasonablellifeplan(boyss)
20
1
16
9
10
0
0
areaofcompulsory
educaation
areaofproaactive
educatio
on
freetime
(en
ntertainment)area
Fig. 3. “The Dependence of the Educational Interests of High School Pupils on Justification of the Life Plan”
view this suggests that in reality they do not
have interests for learning, even though they
may call a name of the university they want
to enroll. According to school administrators
95 % of high school pupils know exactly and
can say to what college (university), and what
specialty they will be heading to after school.
But according to our survey, only 40 % who
participated in the study have justified life
plans and invest in a game situation a lot of
resources in the study, especially in proactive
education. These high school students point out
to special events taking place in their schools.
For example, in one of the schools involved in
the study, regular discussion of life plans with
the ability to choose their individual programs
within the high school. At the same time on
proactive education high school students of
this school in the game were spent 31.8 % of
resources, on average, more than the other two
schools, also which participated in the study
(25.8 %, 10.9 %).
It can be assumed that the events that make
the students not only think about where they want
to enroll, as is done in a traditional school, but also
think about what they have to achieve this, and
why they want to enroll into this very specialty
(major) – all that “awakens” the interests in their
studies in high school.
The figure apart from that shows the
differences between boys and girls. So, a girl
with a justified life plans invest nearly 20 % less
resources in the area of compulsory education
than men, while in the area of entertainment it
is almost 2 times more. Girls with unjustified life
plans invest in the area of leisure time 30 % less
resources than boys, in the compulsory education
between the two is almost no difference, and in
the area of proactive education such boys, unlike
girls do not invest at all. These gender differences
in the interest of learning can presumably be
explained by the fact that in high school are
mostly young men left, who are successful and
adapted to the school built in female gender
characteristics5.
The study shows that the real educational
interest in the senior school age pupils appears
only together with a justified life plan and a career
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choice. Great importance for the understanding of
the justification of their life plans in high school
students and, consequently, for their interest in
study, has the organization of school activities
to discuss the reasons for their choice of social
position and life plan.
The contours of the future.
What should I do?
If we trust the original data and assumptions
outlined in the beginning, then we must ask
ourselves what are the institutional arrangements
and mechanisms for the formation of “life
planning”6, and what should we change in high
school and college? Rather, the transformation of
educational institutions in adolescence should be
directed to the phenomenon of horizons, images
and samples of performance, the material which
will build a relationship to the educational process
(learning). This should change the high school
and college, which still are not development
institutions.
It is important to point out the fact that
this discrepancy is tied to relations with young
adulthood, which organize the work of an
educational institution. It is very important
because it is adults who ‘hold’ institute as
an institution, and bear all the key terms and
arrangements for its functioning. In this sense,
the changes are needed in the following terms
and conditions and mechanisms (a preliminary
list):
rights and responsibilities of young people to
change (transformation) of their own curriculum –
in the direction of increasing the “options” selfselection with trial forms of accountability for the
results of the selection and removal of part of the
responsibility for the results of passing the school
curriculum. For boys and girls should be able to
change their curriculum. For example, speech
of Maria, 16 years of age: “I was a curriculum
based on what is going to connect their lives
with economic activity. Accordingly, the selected
in-depth level math, social studies at the profile
level, the physics (and suddenly the Polytechnic
on the economy going.) But then I realized that
the interest in health and medicine, which I think
is just a hobby, I have a lot and I want to do this
in my life. I’m going to medical school. And that
means that I need to study biology and chemistry
at the depth level, and in-depth mathematics is
not needed. That is, you need to go in the other
groups in mathematics, biology and chemistry”;
clearance procedures for the choice of
individual programs, motivation for learning on
them. The levels of readiness (independence,
responsibility, academic success in the
development of programs on the subjects) to
the training of graduates of DCI juvenile stages
are different. Based on experience we can say
that two-thirds of tenth-graders are capable
of designing and implementing individual
educational programs. For the remaining part
the task of teaching organized on an individual
educational plan is a formal, distorted understood
as unnecessary stress. The difference due to both
the individual characteristics of adolescents,
since the terms of preparing for the transition to
DCI (Grade 9);
design of “corridors” of the educational
value of courses (credits) for young people to selfdetermine the weight of a course. An example of
such a corridor could be an individual education
program. Olga, 17 years old: “I’m just confident in
my future profession – a journalist. So I chose to
profile level Russian language, literature, English
and psychology at the basic level of mathematics,
science and laboratory profile of linguistics. At
the same time I’ll try myself as a journalist in the
school newspaper – will be writing articles on the
exciting topics for all high school students;
rights and responsibilities of youth in the
formation of study groups (groups) for the passage
of certain courses. For example, Misha, 16 years of
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age is saying about his responsibilities: «Catching
up in-depth group in mathematics, I have to learn
at “good” and “excellent”. The lower mark, means
a transfer to a lower level study of the subject. It is
possible, and move in the opposite direction – if
I had studied at the profile level getting highest
marks, so I would have proved that I am able to
study in the advanced group, then I would have
been entitled to transfer to it”;
registration requirements of economic
conditions of the educational programs of
courses – in the direction of calculating the cost
of such programs, the detection and exclusion of
“exotic” options that require unrealistic resources
(equipment, salaries, supplies, training materials,
time);
“Contract” scheme of teaching courses,
where the group discussed the agreement on
the expected outcomes of the course, resources
and environment. For example, the possibility
of shared responsibility between teacher and
pupils. A teacher at the beginning of the course
presents students results and discusses with them
the conditions under which this result will be
achieved – what is required of teachers, and what
is required from the student. If the conditions are
satisfied only with one hand – have nothing to
rely on the claimed result;
calculating the “corridor” of time spent on
the passage of a course and presentation of the
“corridor” as a critical learning environment;
standards for calculating per capita funding
of individual learning plans and the presentation
1
2
3
4
5
of the resource limits of security. For example, the
content of regulations along with the number of
hours (“net hours” of the curriculum), the resources
needed to support individual teacher education
programs (tutoring, scientific management of
educational research, social planning, program
participation in intellectual contests, new staff
positions and changes in functional etc.). For
schools the proposed practice of calculating is
new, as in the tradition of comprehensive school
calculations are always done on the basis of
declarative cheap quality education, strict limits
mandatory 25 students in the group, etc.;
Design and calculation security conditions
and resources of educational design and teaching
and research activities. For a comprehensive
school design and educational and research
activities are an innovation for which the resource
is a new component of teachers’ qualifications.
Thus, the institution of a transitional type
of development must recreate with each coming
generation horizons, images and patterns of
performance and connectivity of the objectives,
conditions and resources of learning, acting as
“a test body” of life-planning, training ground
of adulthood in adolescence. High school and
university in this sense should be a trial place of
life planning so that youngsters could actually
themselves vary their own resources and
conditions in connection with those purposes
which are made in one`s youth, should be able to
give young people the possibility of implementing
their own projects.
We defi ne the resource of choice as «the ability to analyze existing opportunities, match them with their abilities and
available resources, to realize the value of the choices made for their own future and take responsibility for the rejection
of other alternatives.»
A more detailed description of this material is in the article by P. A. Sergomanov and N. P. Vasilyeva, “On the Question of Content and Experience of Confl ict in Adolescence”, “Journal of Practical Psychologist” № 3, 2004, Moscow,
p. 45-57.
Васильева Н.П. Динамика разрешения конфликтов развития в юношеском возрасте: дисс. … канд. психол. наук,
19.00.13 : защищена 13.04.06. – Красноярск, 2006. 201 с.
The technique was designed to study the dynamics of educational interests in preparation for the conference «Pedagogics
of Development», 2004, authors: N.P.Vasileva, M.M. Kuzhabekova, E.V. Nikitina, under the supervision of B. Hasan.
The traditional school, according to some researchers (Б.И.Хасан, Г.М. Бреслав, 1996), is a women’s institute of mentality. Therefore, boys are often unsuccessful in school, there are few male teachers in schools, and fathers do not like to go
to parent-teacher conferences at school and avoid direct involvement in their children’s education.
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6
We are not talking about the linear, non-system view of the life planning. A simple requirement to plan anything can be
applied only to an adult person who has an idea about the dependence of the objectives, conditions and resources of its
own way. The question is not in the ability to plan, but in the feeling of connectedness, the integrity of the transition to
labor.
References
Божович Л.С. [L.S. Bojovich] Проблемы формирования личности (Под редакцией
Фельдштейна Д.И.) – (М.: Из-во «Институт практической психологии»; Воронеж: НПО
«МОДЕК», 1995). – 352 с.
Васильева Н.П. [N.P. Vasiliyeva] Динамика разрешения конфликтов развития в юношеском
возрасте: дисс. … канд. психол. наук, 19.00.13. : защищена 13.04.06. (Красноярск, 2006). 201 с.
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Психология (М.: Изд-во ЭКСМО-пресс, 2000). 1008 с. (Серия
«Мир психологии»)
Выготский, Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Проблема возраста. Вопросы детской психологии (Спб.:
Союз, 1997). 224 с.
Выготский, Л.С. [L.S. Vigotsky] Педология подростка. Половое созревание (М.: Издание
бюро заоч. обуч. при 2 МГУ, 1930). 172 с.
Гинзбург М.Р. [M.R. Ginsburg] Психология личностного самоопределения: дис. … д-ра
психол. наук (М., 1996).
Давыдов, В.В. [V.V. Davydov] Виды обобщения в обучении: Логико-психологические
проблемы построения учебных предметов (М: Педагогическое общество России, 2000).
480 с.
Кон И.С. [I.S. Kon] Психология ранней юности: Книга для учителя. (М.: Просвещение,
1989). 255 с.: ил.
Поливанова К.Н. [K.N. Polivanova] Психология возрастных кризисов: Учеб. пособие для
студентов высш. пед. учеб. заведений. (М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2000). 184 с.
Формирование личности старшеклассника / под ред. Дубровиной; науч.-исслед. ин-т общей
и пед. психологии Акад. пед. наук СССР. (М.: Педагогика, 1989). 168 с.: ил.
Хасан Б.И., Бреслав Г.М. [B.I. Khasan] Пол и образование. Анализ конфликтов
половозрастной идентификации (Красноярск: Краснояр. гос. ун-т. 1996) 174 с.
Хасан, Б.И., Сергоманов П.А. [B.I. Khasan] Разрешение конфликтов и ведение переговоров
(Красноярск–Москва: М: МИРОС, 2001). 176 с.
Щукина Г. И. [G.I. Sh'ukina] Проблема познавательного интереса в педагогике (М.:
Педагогика, 1971) 352 с.
Эльконин, Д.Б. [B.D. Elkonin] Избранные психологические труды / под. ред. В.В. Давыдова,
В.П. Зинченко. (М.: Педагогика, 1989) 560 с.
Эльконин Б.Д. [B.D. Elkonin] Психология развития: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб.
заведений (М.: Изд. центр «Академия», 2001). 144 с.
Эриксон Э. [E. Ericson] Идентичность: юность и кризис: пер. с англ. общ. ред. и предисл.
А.В. Толстых (М.: Изд. группа «Прогресс», 1996). 344 с.
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Pavel A. Sergomanov and Natalia P. Vasilyeva. Institutional Mechanisms and Conditions for the Transition…
Институциональные механизмы и условия перехода
к самостоятельности и ответственности.
Юношеский возраст как переходный
П.А. Сергоманов, Н.П. Васильева
Красноярский краевой институт повышения квалификации
и профессиональной переподготовки работников образования
Россия 660079, Красноярск, ул. Матросова, 19
В статье представлено обоснование необходимости трансформации образовательных
институтов юношества, как переходных от детского к взрослому типам развития.
Основаниями для изменения являются представления о трех предельных видах деятельности
в культурно-историческом подходе: игра, учение и труд, а также на описании трех типов
возрастного развития человека: детский, переходный, взрослый.
Идея трансформации института образования в юношестве как переходного типа развития
базируется на тезисе, что такой институт должен воссоздавать с каждым приходящим
поколением горизонты, образы и образцы производительности, а также связность целей,
условий и ресурсов осуществления обучения, выступающего «пробным телом» жизненного
планирования, тренировочной площадкой взрослости в юношеском возрасте.
Ключевые слова: психология возраста, развитие, юношеский возраст, старшая школа,
переходы.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1671-1684
~~~
УДК 371.255
Processes of Professionalization of Teachers
as the Technology of Education
Quality Management
Kirill G. Mitrofanova,
Natalia P. Vasilyeva and Elena Yu. Kozyrevab*
a
Centre for Methodology of Standards Design
and Estimation of Education Quality,
Federal Institute of Education Development
9/1 Chernyahovskogo Str., Moscow, 125319 Russia
b
Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute
for Teachers’ Training and Retraining
19 Matrosova Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660079 Russia 1
b
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
This article provides an overview of the results of researching the efficiency of the institutes of
professional development of education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory held in 2009-2010 by
the interregional group of researchers from Krasnoyarsk, Moscow, Khabarovsk and the Stavropol
Territory at the initiative of Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute of Professional Development and
Retraining of Education Workers, Ministry of Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
The main objective of the research was determining the main factors, institutes and technology that
influence the professional development of teaching staff for potential description of the standard model
of professional development of a teacher.
During the research the authors have developed a matrix of professionalization including most of
professional tasks a teacher solves during his/her professional activities. The matrix can serve as the
basis for describing the dynamics of teachers’ professional development, sequence of controversies
appearing in professional activities and changes in the methods of solving case educational tasks.
Management aspect of using the matrix of professionalization lies in developing instruments for
estimation of the qualification аnd the new type of education workers, which would be based on
determining levels and stages of qualification within the field of professional activities.
Keywords: professionalization, professional development, management.
Range of problems
The issue regarding the quality of the “labour
power” in education refers to education policy,
management of teachers’ potential development,
and lies far beyond traditional ideas about teachers’
*
1
education, training and retraining of human
resources, and human resources management.
The process of individual professional
development of teaching staff has become a new
subject of management.
Corresponding author E-mail address: kozyreva@kipk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Determination of this subject of management
should be accompanied by redevelopment of
the infrastructure of professional development
of teaching staff. Nowadays different parties
somehow interested in education (consumers,
experts, specialists, managers) understand the
objective problem of noncoincidence between
the requirements to teachers’ professional
development and its contents, and tendency of
modernized education of the country (region). The
necessity to change previous methods of teachers’
training with consideration of new conditions and
requirements in education itself is realized.
Training, retraining and professional
development systems applied today are focused
on reproduction of “what has already happened”,
while education more and more expressively
gets the features of new practice “supporting”
innovative activities, innovative practice, i.e.
something that does not exist widespread. In its
turn, this leads to the necessity to solve the problem
about models of professional development, which
suppose turning to the profession and dynamic
characteristics of professional development that
would take into account differences in ideas of
professionalism among different categories of
teachers.
Possible approach
to the problem solving
In 2009-2010 the interregional group
of researchers from Krasnoyarsk, Moscow,
Khabarovsk and the Stavropol Territory at the
initiative of Krasnoyarsk Regional Institute
of Professional Development and Retraining
of Education Workers and the Ministry of
Education and Science of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory researched efficiency of the institutes of
professional development of education workers of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
The research was held with the general
objective to study the situation at the market
of continuing professional education available
for education workers of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory.
The main objectives of the research
included:
− estimation of the efficiency of methods
and forms of work offered at the CPE
market from the point of view of meeting
expectation of the education workers;
− estimation of the efficiency of the offers
outspread at the CPE market (programmes
of professional development, different
methods and forms of work with
professional development of teachers
and education administrators, and other
workers of the field) from the point of
view of its participants;
− determination of subjective pictures of
education workers’ careers, their objective
and causative features;
− determination of new (out-of-theinstitute) professional positions and types
of activities in the field, their ratio with the
reference to the current (institutionalized)
professional positions and types of
activities;
− description of the standard model of
professional
growth
(development)
of teachers and stages of growth
(development) of a teacher.
Research methods:
Sociological interviews, focus groups,
complex analysis of the data, heuristic methods.
Object and subjects
of the research
The object of the research is the process of
professional development of education workers of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
The subject of the research is individual
strategies of professional development (types of
strategies).
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Objectives of the research
The objective of the research is to determine
the main factors (institutes and technologies)
that influence the professional development of
teachers (professional dynamics) in order to
describe possible standard model of professional
growth (development) of a teacher and stages of
growth (development) of a teacher.
Scope of work
The following education workers of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory took part in the research:
administration of educational institutions,
teachers, and tutors. At the first stage in 2009, 720
education workers of the Krasnoyarsk Territory
took part in the study, among them 147 school
headmasters, 341 teachers, 232 members of
auxiliary teaching staff (tutors, methodologists,
psychologists, programmers, etc.). In 2010, 1,326
people took part in the study. Among them 149
headmasters and 1, 177 teachers. The total
amount of participants during two years made 2,
046 people, i.e. 6.7 % of all employees in the field
of education.
in the system of general education of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory according to the statistic
documents (RIK-83); 55 % of them belong to the
group of teachers. General ratio of categories of
workers in the field of education in the Territory
is given on Fig. 1. About 90 % of workers in the
field are female.
Age characteristics of education workers
in the field is represented at Fig. 2. As one can
observe from the diagram most of working
teachers belong to the age group of 35-55 years
old. Amount of working teachers in the retirement
age is less than 20 %. This corresponds to the AllRussian tendency. In the age group of younger
than 25 years old there are mostly auxiliary
teaching staff members.
In order to answer the question about
attraction of specialists of different ages to the
field the existing data with general demographic
situation in the Territory should be compared.
Basing on this comparison we can judge about
attractiveness of education field for different age
groups of the Territory population.
Significant results of the research.
General situation.
By 2009 45,788 people (30,609 managers,
teachers, auxiliary teaching staff) was working
1. The question of the questionary “Please,
mark the statement that can be more likely the
reason for you to move from one position to
Fig. 1. Ratio of education workers by categories
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Fig. 2. Distribution of education workers by age
Fig. 3. Reasons of changing one position (place of work) for another
another” was answered in accordance with the
following categories of answers (Fig. 3).
The diagram demonstrates the ratio of
amount of transitions from one place of work
to another in correlation with the reasons for
changing positions. The most widespread reason
for changing positions among respondents who
have changed 3 and more positions is feeling
at “dead end” at the occupied position. 12 % of
education workers change work places 3 and more
times and more than 50 % of them change the
position because of this “dead end” feeling. While
amount of education workers in the Territory
corresponds to 3 % (720 people) and their work
experience corresponds to the general statistic
picture in the Territory (up to 5 year 11.81 %,
5-10 years 12.22 %, 10-15 years 13.75 %, 15-20
years 20.83 %, 20-25 years 20.42 %, over 25
years 20 %) the conclusions can be referred to the
situation in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in general.
In general about 50 % of teachers in the Territory
are in the situation of “dead end”. We suppose
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Fig. 4. Estimation of the efficiency of continuing education forms
that this indicates noncoincidence between
qualification characteristics and professional
tasks (requirements of the position).
There are several answers to the question
“Please, mark forms of continuing education
you participated in”. 94.9 % of respondents
answered that they took courses of professional
development. Therefore, traditional courses of
professional development are the most widespread
form of professionalization. After the analysis of
the answers to this question of the questionary
we have obtained the following picture about
ranging of the forms of continuing education in
accordance with the ideas of education workers
(Fig. 4).
Comparison of interviewing results shows
that professional development courses took only
the 4th place by significance for a teacher falling
behind such events as participation in festivals
and conferences, winning in professional
competitions, attestation and education services.
The most significant events are connected with
the professional status (festivals, conferences,
competitions). Among their main characteristics
such as screening out and assessment of results
can be named.
At the next stage we asked “If you plan to
take a professional development course, please,
explain why” (there are several possible answers).
At Diagram 3 the structure of motivation to take
a professional development course is given for the
Krasnoyarsk Territory education workers. The
blue line corresponds to the answers of directors
of educational institutions, the red line stands for
the answers of teachers (Fig. 5).
Interviewing results showed inconsistency
in reasons why directors send teachers to
professional development courses and reasons
explained by teachers themselves. Most of
directors give such reasons as the necessity
for teachers to pass attestation, realization of
new projects and programmes and needs of the
school.
Most of teachers – 73 % – independently
of their work experience indicate their personal
interest and desire as the reason for attending
professional development courses. Herewith,
more than a half of the teachers are involved in
development and realization of the programme of
school development (Fig. 6).
Analysis of answers to the question “Do you
have any career plans?” showed that the shorter
the period of work the more respondents have
an approximate career plan. And vice versa,
the longer the period of work the less amount
of respondents plan their career. We suppose
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Fig. 5. Structure of motivation to take a professional development course
Fig. 6. Level of participation in school management
that this may be interpreted in two ways. One of
the reasons may be that young specialists who
have plans for the future do not see possibilities
to fulfill their ambitions in education. Another
reason is that their career is not connected with
education. In a word people who can plan cannot
stay for a long period of time in education. This
can be observed at the diagram given below.
(Fig. 7)
For young teachers professional career is
not very attractive and takes a long period of
time to make. Career issues (in the questionary
the question was “What career in education do
you consider to be successful?”) are considered
by the respondents via recognition (about 30 %)
and expansion of activities’ spheres (about 25 %).
Career success was assessed quite low (from 7 to
15 %). Administrators consider “occupying the
position of the educational institution head” to
be the biggest success; for teachers besides this
consider a success “to get titles and awards”;
representatives of auxiliary teaching staff
consider expansion of spheres of activities to be
a success. Therefore, workers of education sphere
in the Krasnoyarsk Territory do not have any real
description of “career in education”.
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Fig. 7. Career plans depending on the length of work experience
Table 1. Matrix of professionalization
Programmes
Technologies
Age limits
of the audience
Standards / Institutes
Development of
programmes of
development and
justification of activities
of educational institutions
How can it be arranged
correctly?
Modelling (by the
subject)
Development of the Projects and
author’s programme research
Foresight, scenarios
of development,
forecast
By the algorithm
(with the subject)
Compilation
from different
programmes
Interactive
technologies
Individual
peculiarities and
results referred to
age characteristics
By the example
(in the subject)
Basic programme
Lesson /
Referring to age
extracurricular
standards
classics
The research has shown the necessity
to develop a mechanism (instrument) of selfassessment of the professionalism level of
education workers that would provide solving two
tasks: management of professional development
of teaching staff and management of teachers’
own progress in career (individual educational
programme) depending on their characteristics
and scale, as well as work experience in the field
of education.
The instrument should be based on the
model (matrix of professionalization) developed
Prohibition where to get
information
within the framework of the research, which
would include most of possible professional tasks
a teacher solves in his/her activities.
In order to estimate professionalism we
offer standards of professional understanding
and thinking organized in Table 1 as a hypothesis
and basis of the project for professionalization of
teachers’ work. We claim to get a fundamental
model, which would include most of (all) possible
professional tasks a teachers solves in his/her
activities: from lessoning, holding a meeting
with parents to development of new educational
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contents, designing and supervising an individual
educational programme of a pupil/student.
The idea offered is presented in the following
matrix (table).
But another vector is possible that gives
a third dimension in the matrix. This vector is
professional age. Then professionalization can
be considered in the area of inevitable crises (by
the anthology with crises of age development
described by L.S. Vygotsky for children)
connected with professional formation, coming
into professional culture and expansion of the list
of professional activities. Such an approach has
quite a long history in Russian tradition (works of
Klimov, Mitina, Zeer).
If we can describe distinctly the main
contradictions and tasks to be overcome at each
stage of professional dynamics, then we can
speak about developing a fundamental model of
teachers’ professional development.
There are several consequences of developing
a theoretical “matrix of professionalism”.
The first consequence is the basis for
describing the dynamics of teachers’ professional
growth, consequence of contradictions that have
their logics to appear in professional activities and
change the method of solving case and teaching
tasks.
The second consequence is that the offered
matrix can be the basis for development and
description of levels, stages of qualification
within the field of professional activities.
And the third consequence is that
after the research the task for developing
instruments for assessment of qualification of
education workers can be set, i.e. the task of
professional development management can be
set only after we can conceptualize the object
of management.
The first column in the model given above
(matrix of professionalization) shows the level of
knowing subject programmes. Therefore, answer
to the question “How do you assess your level
of knowing the subject matter?” the teachers
answered as follows in accordance with their
work experience (Fig. 8)
Therefore, when we compare the first
column of the matrix with our selection by work
experience in the system of education there are
two places that rise doubts. The first one is that
young teachers with work experience from 0 to 3
years name the characteristics of the third line –
modelling – more often than representatives of
the next work experience category. This can be
explained by absence of professional language
understanding that a young teacher lacks. It is
more likely that university graduates understood
something different from modelling under
the phrase “I can develop my own education
programmes including intersubject and interage
ones”. Teachers with work experience in the
system of education from 12 to 25 years name
characteristics of the second line as often, as
the teachers with average work experience in
education. May be this indicates professional
deformation.
The following data have been obtained by
answers to the question formed by the result
(Fig. 9).
The Fig. shows that the part of the matrix
that stands for subject programmes is recognized.
We obtained direct relation when we compared
answers to the question about the level of the
subject matter knowledge and expected results
from professional development courses.
Analysis of answers to the question “How
do you assess your level of knowing education
technologies?” showed the following picture
depending on work experience in the system of
education (Fig. 10).
In general ideas of teachers about
professionalization development correspond
to the model contained in the matrix of
professionalization. The general picture is
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Fig. 8. Ideas of teachers about their level of knowing the subject matter depending on their work experience in
the system of education
Fig. 9. Ideas of teachers about the level of knowing the subject matter in accordance with the result expected from
professional development courses
disturbed by ideas of young teachers about their
level by such answers as “I use interactive forms
of organizing activities”, i.e. by the algorithm
(with the subject). We suppose that young teachers
either do not recognize themselves in the first line
or overestimate themselves.
We have obtained the following data from
analyzing the results teachers expect from
professional development courses (Fig. 11).
Like with the previous question the expected
results from professional development depend
on the level of knowing education technologies.
Therefore, the matrix is recognized by the column
connected with education technologies as well.
After analysing answers to the question
“How do you consider age and individual
peculiarities of pupils?” we have obtained the
following data (Fig. 12).
Here the analysis is more complex, relations
are not so direct as in other cells of the matrix and
teachers’ ideas are different from what we offer in
the matrix. For example, information about what
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Fig. 10. Ideas about the level of knowing education technologies depending on work experience in the system of
education
Fig. 11. Ideas about the level of knowing education technologies in accordance with the results expected from
professional development courses
Fig. 12. Ideas of teachers about age and individual peculiarities of pupils depending on work experience
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Kirill G. Mitrofanov, Natalia P. Vasilyeva… Processes of Professionalization of Teachers as the Technology of Education…
Fig. 13. Ideas of teachers about age and individual peculiarities of pupils in accordance with the results expected
from professional development courses
results teachers should demonstrate in this or that
age is divided into group from 0 to 5 years and
from 5 to 25 years of work experience. A young
teacher coming to school is not very confident
in his/her knowledge. This confidence appears
after 5 years of experience, then it gets lower in
the period from 5 to 7 years of experience and
then rises again almost until 25 years of work
experience. The ability to elaborate an individual
plan of work with a pupil develops in accordance
with increasing work experience in the profession.
The most significant rise here happens in the
period from 5 to 7 years. Probably teachers get
interested in this field of professional activities,
or it may be connected with changes in their own
ideas about their own knowledge (feeling lack of
them), results of pupils in this or that age. The
third line of this parameter is the most unclear
one. A teacher does not develop the ability to fill
in individual records of a pupil and to forecast a
scenario of a pupil’s development basing of these
records more than 8-12 % according to their own
idea independently of work experience (Fig. 13).
The Table and the Fig. show that the part
of the matrix that stands for age and individual
peculiarities of a pupil is recognizable. We have
obtained direct relation during comparison of
answers to the question about age and individual
peculiarities of a pupil and results expected from
professional development courses.
After analysing answers to the question
“How do you assess your level of participation
in school management?” we have obtained the
following data (Fig. 14).
The relevant level of knowing the standards
by each group in accordance with work
experience is the level corresponding to the
matrix of professionalization described above.
The bigger the work experience the more often
the idea of a teacher about his/her participation in
forming and adapting standards of school life is
represented by means of the phrase “I participate
in development of school’s development
programme”. A significant amount of answers
corresponding to the second line of the matrix
(action by the algorithm) “I understand how my
activities correspond to the school’s development
programme” falls on teachers with average work
experience in education. The largest percentage
(69 %) of answers corresponding to the first line of
the matrix (action by the example/in the subject)
“I know and observe internal regulations and
standards of the school” falls on young teachers.
Therefore, we can make a conclusion that the
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Fig. 14. Level of knowing standards depending on work experience
Fig. 15. Level of knowing standards in accordance with the results expected from professional development
courses
column of the matrix determining the level of
knowing the standards is recognized by teachers
and corresponds to their work experience in
education (Fig. 15).
The Fig. shows that the part of the matrix,
which determines the standards, is recognizable.
We obtained direct relation when we compared
answers to the question about the standards and
expected results from professional development
courses.
After comparing answers to the question
“What result would you like to have after
attending a professional development course?”
we have obtained the following data (Fig. 16).
The main result of professional development
courses for teaching staff is learning new methods
of work and abilities to apply them within the
framework of teaching and extracurricular
activities. Independently of work experience in
education this result is expected by 60-70 % of
all respondents. Ideas about getting such a result
from professional development courses as abilities
to develop independent programmes, carry out
independent research, mentor other teachers
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Fig. 16. Ideas about the results expected from professional development courses depending on work experience
in education
increases correspondingly with the increase
of work experience in the field. Therefore, this
result can be obtained when a teacher possesses
significant work experience in education. The
lower line in the matrix is characterized according
to the Fig. above as such a result of professional
development courses as the ability to cope with
duties within the activities’ sphere and as we can
see from the diagram, such results are expected
less by the teachers, who have bigger work
experience in the field.
Conclusions
Movement in the problem field of
professionalization, in the contemporary state of
the system of education and taking into account
international experience, is possible only if we
consider teachers’ professional development as a
technology of education management. Referring
to international experience here means that all
innovations in education in the world are fulfilled,
first of all, from the position of management.
The work of a modern teacher includes a
variable list of different activities from a home
tutor to an education manager, from a developer
of new educational content to a specialist
in realization of educational projects, from
a developer and technologist of educational
tests to a specialist in realization of individual
programmes connected with specific abilities of
a child. In order to have a successful career in
education it is not enough for a modern teacher
to know the subject. He/she needs to get to know
new positions and types of activities beyond
class activities and try to combine different
forms of professional activities, including
research, developments, management, individual
approach, work with children with specific needs
and with talented children, mentoring (i.e. work
with other teachers). Getting of the second, third
and sometime even fourth specialization allows
a modern teacher to become more competitive,
work in different organization, correspond to
requirements of the time.
The mechanism of “transformation”,
movement of professionalization can be built on
the basis of current educational infrastructure
of the Territory for solving different tasks.
Then it becomes possible to set (from
management point of view) and build (from the
point of view of professionalization of groups
of teachers, in the logics of individualization)
patterns of professionalization from a trainee
to a mentor.
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It is worth noting that education like any
other practice with several exceptions is always
open at the professional level. A person who has
worked to the level not lower than average will
be in this or that way distinguishable, active in
more than one place and will have admirers, and
may be followers. This tendency is natural in
pedagogics, education and arts.
Процессы профессионализации педагогов
как технология управления
качеством образования
К.Г. Митрофанова,
Н.П. Васильеваб, Е.Ю. Козыреваб
а
Центр методологии проектирования стандартов
и оценки качества образования
Федерального института развития образования
Россия 125319, Москва, ул. Черняховского, 9, стр. 1
б
Красноярский краевой институт повышения квалификации
и профессиональной переподготовки
работников образования
Россия 660079, Красноярск, ул. Матросова, 19
В статье приводятся результаты исследования эффективности институтов
профессионализации работников образования Красноярского края, проведенного в 2009–
2010 гг. межрегиональной группой исследователей из Красноярска, Москвы, Хабаровска,
Ставропольского края по инициативе Красноярского краевого института повышения
квалификации работников образования, министерства образования и науки Красноярского
края. Основной целью исследования стало выявление основных факторов, институтов
и технологий, влияющих на профессиональное развитие педагогических работников для
возможного описания нормативной модели профессионального развития учителя.
В ходе проведения исследования авторами была получена матрица профессионализации, в
которую вписывается большинство возможных профессиональных задач, которые решает
педагог в своей деятельности. Разработанная матрица может служить основанием для
описания динамики профессионального развития педагогов, последовательности возникающих
противоречий, имеющих свою логику разворачивания в профессиональной деятельности,
и смены способа решения ситуативных педагогических задач. Управленческий аспект
использования матрицы профессионализации заключается в постановке задачи на разработку
инструментов для оценки квалификации работников образования нового типа, основанного на
выявлении уровней, ступеней квалификации внутри сферы профессиональной деятельности.
Ключевые слова: профессионализация, повышение квалификации, управление.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1685-1693
~~~
УДК 159.922.7
Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health
as a Developable Resource
Elena Y. Fedorenko*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The presented Article discusses the problems of school students’ health, the specificity of points of view
at health problems in the context of education framework. It describes the structure and dynamics
of mental health, the concepts of developing children’s health during their education and using the
resources of the education system; it analyzes the traditional approaches to health presercation.
Health is regarded as both the purpose and the result of education, as a developable and a manageable
resource.
Keywords: mental health, health resources development, education, point of view at health problems.
Within the past years the problem of school
students’ health became an urgent discussed
topic in the periodicals. They discuss the reasons
of poor health, caused by the children themselves
or by the unsatisfactory work of the education
system as a factor, which can considerably
influence the students’ loss of health resources.
Various publications point out similar groups of
reasons originated from the education system.
Among them there are: mismatch between the
studying conditions, pedagogical techniques, and
physiological, somatic, psychological resources of
the child’s organism; the lack of education in the
sphere of skills and knowledge of health issues,
weak concentration on healthy lifestyle etc. The
results of psychological, medical, pedagogical
researches on such parameters as: eyesight,
posture, nerves system parameters, emotional
disorders and so on are quite disappointing.
*
1
Therefore, it is essential to stop this process
and take some measures that would preserve
the children’s health and provide some disease
prevention. This necessity leads to launching
special programs for preventing eyesight
and postural disorders, bodily diseases, for
monitoring the dynamics of various characteristic
of children’s organism that can be in this or that
way defined as health indicators.
Analyzing the focus on the health issues in
education, it is possible to arrive at the conclusion
that health is mostly regarded as a series of such
physical indicators as good eyesight, posture,
innards functioning, absence of bodily diseases,
and that is the direction in which the adults apply
their efforts; secondly, health becomes visible
only in the context of its loss; health manifests
itself as the opposite of disease, not as an
acquired resource; third, despite the popularity of
Corresponding author E-mail address: e.fedorenko@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Elena Y. Fedorenko. Structure and Dynamics of Mental Health as a Developable Resource
such psychology trend as psychosomatics, mental
health issues are not included into the health
preservation sphere of the education system,
except for some certain pedagogical practices.
In the context of such approach, health looks
as a resource that is once granted to a person
and that requires protection from invasions
of surrounding factors; correspondingly,
environment is regarded as a factor that invades
health resources in order to destruct them. This
way health is presented as a subject of trade
within a system of relations that remind of
economic relations, where one resource is always
the payment for another, which is more important
at the certain moment of time. This way, the
idea of payment for education and development
of children with their health is conventionally
accepted by the education subjects and the society
as a whole.
Having analyzed the economic aspect of
the problem, it is possible to say that obviously
it is health that determines the functioning of a
human as an economic subject, gives them such
key economic features as the ability to perform
physical and intellectual labour, the ability to
learn, develop, produce other economic subjects.
The essence of health as of an economic resource
manifests itself in the interconnection with such
economic category as labour (Moskvitina, 2009).
Labour is performed by an individual, by a healthy
individual. Health is more than a basis for labour;
it preserves and increases its productiveness.
High health level provides high capacity and
efficiency of labour. According to Karl Marx,
health acts as one of the most essential and
important conditions of active, creative and full
life of an individual in the society. Health is the
main resource, which determines the satisfaction
of almost all the requirements of an individual.
Looking at numerous researches of health
conditions of adult people carried out in various
regions of Russia, it is possible to state that our
contemporaries do not take health as a priority
and are often ready to sacrifice it for the sake of
acquiring some material goods or social benefits.
Due to the less value of health in comparison with
achievements in other spheres of life, the parents’
claims towards their children and especially their
academic achievements are growing, though
sometimes these claims do not correspond to
the age and individual opportunities of a child.
Many adults do not regard health as a developable
resource and do not consider it to be the target
and the value of development, though they often
declare it to be an important component of life.
At best they speak of developing healthy lifestyle
skills that include correct nutrition, absence of
bad habits, quenching and other practices aimed
at physical health parameters as a priority. In
this case, education measures do not foresee
development of the health of the whole system;
they are aimed at the health of some certain
organs.
This situation is in many ways connected
to the absence of satisfactory idea of what the
term “health” actually means. In the present time
there are numerous definitions of the term, and
their analysis shows the absence of an integral
approach along with a specific point of view at
the problem that originates from an expertise area
(such as, medical, psychological, philosophical
approaches). The criteria of defining health are
disputable, therefore, the ways of preserving
health depending on the age and professional
activity conditions are not outlined correctly;
neither are the ways of developing health resources
on certain stages of life and within the framework
of reaching some meaningful social results.
As a rule, defining the terms of health and
disease, we are trying to operate the definitions
and criteria that have already been fixed in the
culture, or we turn to the established academese
patterns, and this way we cannot avoid some
certain social and cultural determination. No
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Specificity of the idea of health
30%
from the point o f
view of illness
from the point o f
view of health
70%
Fig. 1. Specificity of the adults’ idea of health
matter how hard we try to reach impartiality in
defining health, we still rely on some common
regulations; for this reason the words “healthy” and
“normal” are generally perceived as synonyms.
For example, the explanatory dictionary presents
the following definition: “Health is a normal state
of a correctly functioning, undamaged organism”
(Dictionary.., 1992). Such definition seems to be
easily corresponding to common sense, as long as
we possess the definitions of the terms “normal”
and “correct”. However, defining these categories
is not an easy matter, for they are connected
to various notions established in different
professional fields or cultural stereotypes.
The everyday stereotypes that presently
prevail in Russia are generally described by
proverbs and sayings used in the modern society,
literally translated as “take care of your dress
while it is new, and of your health while you are
young”; “a sound mind in a sound body”; “the one
who does not know illness, does not know health”;
“one cannot appreciate health without illness”; “I
am healthy as a bull, but I don’t know what to
do” etc. (Dal, 2003). This information speaks of
the idea of health as an alternative to illness, as a
bodily characteristic and the major importance is
granted to the bodily parameters, and health is not
understood as a range of characteristics. Let us
turn to the results of a survey on the idea of health
(the number of respondents is 300 people, the age
varies from 27 to 60 years old, equal share of men
and women, covering representatives of various
professional groups) that vividly outlines the
main points in the idea of health. The respondents
were offered to compete the following phrases:
“Health is…”, “When one is healthy, he is…” The
replies were classified according to the revealed
ideas of health. In the end of the survey, two main
ideas of health were found: from the point of
view of illness, as an alternative to illness; and
from the point of view of health components.
The replies were divided into groups according
to their frequency and their correspondence to
different parameters of health.
This way, we see that in the majority of
cases health is perceived as series of bodily
characteristics; therefore, attitude to health
is connected to maintaining some certain
satisfactory state of the body.
Notion of health in its everyday
understanding lacks the psychological aspect: a
healthy person is imagined as a person without
any defects, generally speaking, a person without
any characteristics. Theoretically it is possible
to find explanation of such understanding. For
a long time the attention of researchers was
concentrated on studying hazardous phenomena
and abnormalities, deviations from healthy
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1. motor performance
2. absence of bad habits
3. healthy nutrition
4. efficient rest
5. healthy sleep
6. spiritual harmony
7. emotional well-being
8. quenching and hygiene
9. health as illness prevention
10. ability to help others
11. positive thinking
12. self-actualization
13. sexual health
14. professional satisfaction
Fig. 2. Range of the adults’ ideas of health
standards, as such standards are easier to identify
by their difference from the “background”. It
is proved by the existing and well-developed
study of abnormality psychology. “Symptoms”
are the behavioural features that go beyond the
frameworks preferred or established by the society.
Consequently, we have the rules and methods of
social regulation, according to which people are
divided into groups for placement into better
conditions for observation, such as hospitals,
prisons and other institutions. Moreover, there
is an implicit conviction that only “normal”
people have the right for personal inviolability
and independent command of their life and
fate. Though health cannot be limited to “being
normal” which is understood as conformity to
some historically established social regulations;
besides, it makes no sense to define health as “the
opposite” to illness, hoping that explanation of its
main tendencies can simultaneously establish the
limits of health in a more distinctive way.
To our mind, a healthy person is just as
independent “diagnostic category” as any other
kind of person. Moreover, the contraposition of
health and illness is sometimes quite problematic.
For example, P.G. Gannushkin wrote: “Since the
times of Claude Bernard it has been established
that there is no dramatic difference between
the phenomena of health and illness; there is an
interconnection between the phenomena of both
kinds. The same rules and powers are valid both
for the norm and the pathology; the only difference
is that in the conditions of pathology the harmony
of interaction between the normal organism
functions are broken” (Gannushkin, 1964). The
same approach was observed by I.V. Davydovskiy:
in his opinion, strict limitation and contraposition
of the normal and the pathologic in physiology
must be criticized. Any fact of pathology is to
be regarded as a compensatory or assimilatory
activity, as it is one of the kinds of adaptation
activity of the organism (Davydovsky, 1969).
Recently, health has been regarded as a
complicated and multi-dimensional phenomenon
that combines components of various qualities.
The World Health Organization offers the
following definition of health: “Health is the state
of total physical, mental and social well-being, not
only absence of illness or disease”. The definition
given by the Definition Dictionary of Psychology
and Psychoanalysis” is similar: “Health is a
comparatively stable state when a person is well
adapted, maintains their interest to life and ability
of self-actualization”. Health is presented not only
as a biological characteristic of a human being;
it contains social, psychological, and spiritual
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components, which means that it pretends to a
compound and an interdisciplinary approach in
its understanding. The works by Petlenko V.I.,
Davidenko D.N. (Petlenko et al, 1998) outline the
following components of health:
▪ Somatic: the current state of organs and
organ systems of the human organism.
▪ Physical: the level of development and
functional potentials of the organs and
systems that provide the organism’s
assimilation to the influence of various
factors.
▪ Mental: the state of the psychic sphere
of a human being, the state of general
emotional comfort that provides
adequate regulation of behavior, normal
development of the organism (according
to the age and sex).
▪ Sexual: a complex of somatic, emotional,
intellectual and social aspects of sexual
being of an individual and their ability to
love.
▪ Moral: a complex of the characteristics of
motivational, consumer and informational
bases of an individual’s life activity, the
system of values, directives and motives of
an individual in the social environment.
At present the issue of studying a healthy
personality is becoming especially urgent; it includes
revealing the features that differentiate health
from “being normal”. Shoben claims that healthy
people have strong feature of self-control, personal
responsibility and moral ideals. From the point of
view of Gerard, healthy people continuously widen
their awareness of themselves, other people and
the world around them, develop their competence
in satisfying the basic necessities and in hazard
response they work out realistic interpersonal
relations that correspond to their social roles and
personal demands. Descartes understood the health
of soul as an ability to recognize the truth. Another
well-known philosopher, Helvetius, considered
the distinctive feature of healthy mind to be the
ability to compare the differences and similarities,
conformities and non-conformities between things
in the correct way (Strakhov, 1894).
Having analyzed the existing psychological
development theories, it is possible to note out a
certain point of view at mental health; concerning
that almost in all the approaches health acts as
a dynamic feature. The psychoanalysis theory
does not describe the conception of a healthy
personality; it studies any personality as a potential
neurotic, but some of them are more likely to
become neurotic than others. This “ideal or
normal neurotic” is different from a “not normal”
one in two ways: balance and sublimation. A
normal person’s structural subsystems are better
balanced. The general energy of the organism
is distributed between the three subsystems in
such a way that each of them receives the amount
needed for development. As a result, ego possesses
the enough amount of energy for adequate
perception of reality and adjustment for superego,
simultaneously finding the resources for satisfying
the ids. Neurotics and normal people differ in their
protective tactics. Literally speaking, sublimation
means de-energization of the ego instincts; it
gets over their energy and spares it for its own
purposes. In this case, ego turns to forming up the
desired (civilized) behaviour. From social point
of view, sublimation is a “successful” protection
tactics, as it avoids conflicts and anxiousness and
it helps implementing the things that are required
by the socialization process. It is evident that a
normal person can be regarded as just somebody
whose ego contains more sublimed energy and so
he possesses more socially approved behaviour
patterns.
Frankl connects the development progress
with self-determination that depends only on
acquiring more control over one’s life. There are
no life situations that do not offer choice between
alternatives, no matter how hopeless it looks.
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Alternatives determination is the first step on the
way to freedom. Making choice between them is
the next step. The further the choice process goes
in the series of subsequent steps, the faster the
potential movement to freedom is. There is no
person who can reach absolute freedom; however,
anyone can become more free (Frankl, 1990).
Humanistic theory generally underlines, that
during lifetime its qualities continuously change.
K. Rogers came up with a dynamic model of a
“fully functioning person”. Rogers observes
health in the aspect of personal development or
growth, as an attribute of a freely developing
personality, open to experience of different
kinds. K. Rogers offers the term of congruence
as an ability of a person to act and react sincerely,
expressing feelings and motives in an open way:
“A fully functioning person is always in the
process of universal self-actualization; they are
always able to react to the life situations freely
and freely experience their own reactions to
it, which enables them to live true, really good
life” (Rogers, 1994). A similar motive can be
found in works by A. Maslow. The main health
criterion by A. Maslow is “full actualization of
one’s opportunities” or “self-actualization”. Selfactualizing people reach harmonic and wellfunctioning hierarchy of motives that contains
no conflicts the motives of higher levels are not
blocked by the requirements of the lower ones. In
his works, A. Maslow offers a list of characteristics
of self-actualizing people, which would help to
imagine a portrait of a healthy personality.
E. Eriksson studied subsequent periods on
the life cycle as a sequence of conflicts existential
in their gist. Living through one of their phase
can influence the next phase experience. If one of
the conflicts fails to be successfully solved, one
turns out to be unable to get over the next ones.
According to the theory by E. Eriksson, the logics
of personal development leads a person to the choice
between maturity, health and regress; between
personal grown, self-determination and illness or
neurosis. E. Eriksson claimed that as one accepts
the challenge of a next phychosocial crisis, they
get the chance of personal growth and widening
of their opportunities (Eriksson, 1996). The theory
by E. Eriksson foresees some internal connection
between personal growth and health.
E. Fromm supposed that full satisfaction
of specific human needs and individual solution
of fundamental qualities of human existence is
just as important requirement of healthy life as
assimilation to the social environment. E. Fromm
claimed the necessity of self-determination and
choice of such fundamental life orientations
as “destructivity or creativity, subtraction or
integrity of perception, narcissism or feeling
of fraternal solidarity and love, conformism or
unique and creation” (Fromm, 1990). For this
reason mental health is regarded as a progressive
integration of fundamental feelings into a wider
system. A healthy person on a certain stage of life
has already solved the existential conflicts of the
previous stages, and, therefore, they are able to
constructively solve the fundamental problems of
the current stage.
C. Jung also considered the problem of
progressive integration in personal development.
According to Jung, the unconscious includes two
spheres: personal and collective unconscious. The
purpose of human development is liberation of the
opportunities of the collective unconscious and
their assimilation in the “self”, a certain mystic
centre of the personality. The theory of C. Jung
describes “self” as the embodiment of maximum
wholeness and perfection one can ever achieve.
Progress is the process of individualization, that
makes one understand the difference between the
conscious and the unconscious and to recognize
both their own individuality and belonging to
the humankind. The transfer of these discoveries
into the conscious opens us all the conflicting
controversies of the human being. Such analysis
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leads to the point of view at healthy personality as a
progressive movement on the way of acquirement
of personal experience and its concordance with
the universal human experience.
This way, the mentioned theories contain
direct address to the issue of actual structural
and dynamic qualities of healthy personality.
Concerning the first one, we can rely on the
structures integration principle; in the relation to
the second one, we can base on the progression
principle in the development of dynamic systems.
Both principles are visible in the conceptions
by A. Adler and C.G. Jung, and in the works of
the representatives of humanistic psychology
trends. Such impulses were named differently
by different psychologists: strive for perfection
(Adler), wholeness and individuality (Jung),
self-actualization (Rogers, Maslow); considering
that the self-actualization idea itself foresees the
sources of the progressive development to be
found inside the person. The most important life
tendency is revealing and implementing these
abilities.
The model of a healthy personality built
within the framework of cultural and historical
conception of development by L.S. Vygotsky,
A.N. Leontyev, S.L. Rubinstein determines the
position of the integrity and wholeness of psyche,
it set the dynamics of personal development at a
certain age, and subsequent acquirement of various
features of mental health. Mental health is regarded
as something that refers not to separate psychic
processes and mechanisms, but to the personality
as a whole. Social situation is positioned as a unit
of analysis of child’s development dynamics, which
is a series of rules that regulate the occurrence and
structure modifications of a child’s personality on
every age stage, determines child’s lifestyle which
later models the personality features and psychic
neoplasms. Social situation of development is
regarded as the relation between the child and the
surrounding environment, specific for the current
age: expectations and requirements of the society;
the specificity of the child’s understanding of their
social position and relationships with the people
around them (within acceptance-rejection scale).
The social situation sets specific tasks for every
subject on every age stage; solution of these tasks
is the psychic development of the current age.
This way, mental health is the integral
characteristic of the completion of the psychic
functioning of a person. Understanding the
mechanisms of mental health development is
inextricably connected to the general ideas of
personality and its mechanisms of development.
Mental health is understood as maturity of the
personality, integrity and activeness of personal
self-regulation, responsibility, ability to realize
the natural potential of the human mission.
It means that building up the psychological
model of a healthy personality should contain
such characteristics as holism, dynamics and
development structure. Health does not exist on its
own; it manifests itself in complicated connections
for reaching social productiveness. Coming to
conclusion, we could say that health cannot be
limited to “being normal” that is understood only
as simple conformity to historically established
social norms. It is also wrong to define health as
alternative to illness, hoping that revealing the
common tendencies of illness may help defining
criteria and limits of healthy existence. Health
is independent and contradictive; it cannot look
just as a set of physical features once granted to
a human being. Setting the research of mental
health dynamics as a purpose enables us to turn
to an integral approach to studying human psyche
instead of studying separate components of the
psyche without understanding the interconnection
between all the levels and systems of the human
organism. Mental health is an issue of structure
and dynamics of the personality in the same way
as neurosis or any other way of development.
From the point of view of structure, a healthy
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personality can also be regarded more like a
process of continuous changes rather than a
stable fixed system. As a general principle,
personal structures strive for acquiring harmony,
which would unite the impulsive, regulatory,
definitive and stylistic functions into the whole.
Despite of their social or ethnic origin, people
who live in the modern society need to have a
series of certain psychological traits that provide
successful functioning within the society.
These traits are usually formed on the way of
step-by-step movement along various stages of
development. There is a set of tasks typical for
each of the stages that one has to solve, and a set
of traits that one has to acquire to prepare for the
next stage. This way, the assessment of mental
health of an individual has to correspond to their
stage of development along with their genetic
heritage and cultural background.
Education possesses enough resources for
building up a model of children’s mental health
development. Speaking of physical features of
health, all these characteristics go through a
sensitive period of development that occurs in the
pre-school period of the child’s life, for example,
the functioning of the visual analyzer: by the
beginning of school the child possesses stable
eyesight characteristics. Under advantageous
education conditions, eyesight preserves its
stability; if the conditions are worse (bad lighting,
high strain on the eyesight, small fonts etc.), the
eyesight decreases. Such characteristics should be
understood and health preservation policy should
be appropriate, however, not all parameters of
health are formed in the pre-school age, including
physical ones; many of them continue forming
as the child is growing up. Examples of such
parameters are stress sustainability, intellectual
stamina, self-control, admission of indefiniteness,
responsibility and other.
Aiming at developing health resources
foresees creation conditions of such functioning
of a child within the education environment
that would aid acquiring such resources and
reinforcing them, and, therefore, forming healthy
personality. This approach does not contradict
the ideas of education in the sphere of health and
forming health values of the students, along with
the idea of preservation of certain resources of
health reached by the current age; but it determined
orientation on forming a healthy personality, and
establishes new vision of health as a developable
and a manageable resource.
References
Ганнушкин П.Б. [P.B. Gannushkin] Постановка вопроса о границах душевного здоровья//
Избр. труды. (М. 1964) с. 97.
Давыдовский И.В. [I.V. Davydovsky] Общая патология человека. (М., 1969) с. 387.
Даль В. И. [V.I. Dal] Пословицы русского народа (М.: Изд-во Эксмо, 2003).
Москвитина О.А. [O.A. Moskvitina] Сущность здоровья как экономического ресурса//
Психология здоровья. СПб.; 2009) с. 46.
Петленко В.И., Давиденко Д.Н. [V.I. Petlenko, D.N. Davidenko] Этюды валеологии: Здоровье
как человеческая ценность (СПб., 1998) с. 124.
Роджерс К. [K. Rogers] Взгляд на психотерапию. Становление человека (М., 1994). С. 233251.
Страхов Н. [N. Strakhov] Об основных понятиях психологии и физиологии (СПб., 1894).
Толковый словарь русского языка (М., 1992) с. 187.
Фромм Э. [E. Fromm] Иметь или быть? (М., 1990) с. 336.
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Франкл В. [V. Frankl] Экзистенциальный вакуум: Вызов психиатрии// Человек в поисках
смысла (М., 1990) с. 308–321.
Эриксон Э. [E. Eriksson] Идентичность: юность и кризис (М., 1996).
Структура и динамика психического здоровья
как развиваемого ресурса
Е.Ю. Федоренко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В данной статье обсуждаются проблемы здоровья школьников, характер фокусировок
вокруг тематики здоровья в образовании. Представлена структура и динамика психического
здоровья, концепция развития здоровья детей в образовании, анализируются традиционные
подходы, ориентированные на здоровьесбережение. Здоровье обсуждается как цель и
результат образования, как развиваемый и управляемый ресурс развития.
Ключевые слова: психическое здоровье, развитие ресурсов здоровья, здоровье школьников,
образование, представления о здоровье.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1694-1706
~~~
УДК 371.255
Practical Psychologists’ Training:
Difficulties and Prospects
Victor E. Pakhal’yan*
Moscow Institute of Open Education
6 Aviatsionny side st., Moscow, 125167 Russia 1
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The article presents the author’s view on the problem of practical psychologists’ training in its
present state. Analysis of the state of normative legal and methodological base of higher vocational
education system serves the basis for dwelling upon the difficulties in practical psychologists’
training which are connected with formal requirements to professional activity and future
specialists’ personal preparedness. The issue of the necessity to develop a new area in the sphere
of practical psychology – preventive psychology of development – is given a special attention in
the article.
Keywords: practical psychologists’ training, educational result, personal preparedness, types of the
tasks that are solved in various spheres of psychology, preventive psychology of development.
Normative legal aspects of specialists’
training in the sphere
of practical psychology and the problem
of educational result quality
Analyzing
problems
of
practical
psychology, quality of psychological services
in the sphere of education and development
prospects of the Service of practical psychology
of education in our country, such aspects of
the Service as content of syllabi and curricula
of specialists’ training and methodological
provision of educational process should be given
a special focus of attention. The main aspects
here are the following: the extent they conform
to the contemporary ideas of an individual’s
development as well as to the tasks solved by
a practical psychologist in his / her work at the
difficulties in children’s development in different
*
1
educational environments. Organization and
implementation of extra higher vocational
education in psychology clearly display all sides
of such a task.
The sources of existing difficulties can
be found in juridical base of higher vocational
education1.
1. Comparison of the main documents, and
namely “Law on Education” and “Federal Law on
Higher and Post-Graduate Education” shows that
the primacy of an individual’s needs in getting
education is obvious. It is clearly seen in the
content of the text of the articles and in the rank
of these wordings:
Corresponding author E-mail address: vicp2003@rambler.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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- “Content of education … should be focused
on ensuring an individual’s self-determination,
provision of conditions for his/her self-realization”
(Law on Education, Article 14 Clause 1.);
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- “The aim of higher professional education is
of vocational education system to the labour
training and retraining of specialists of the level
market’s demands. More than a quarter of higher
required, satisfaction of an individual’s needs to
vocational education institutions’ graduates and
extend and broaden his/her education …” (Law
about a third of secondary vocational education
on Education, Article 24 Clause 1.);
institutions’ graduates do not become employed
2
“Extra educational programmes and extra
and fill the vacancy of a specialty they have been
educational services are provided in order to
trained in an educational institution. And in case
thoroughly satisfy the citizens’ educational
they do they are not good at modern and efficient
needs….” (Law on Education, Article 26
activity methods at the place of employment”
Clause 1.);
(Ibid.).
- “The main objectives of a higher education
- “A strategic aim achievement and fulfillment
institution are: 1) satisfaction of an individual’s
of the Programme’s tasks are ensured by the
needs in intellectual, cultural and moral
implementation of the system of policy measures
development by means of getting higher and (or)
grouped according to the main activity areas.
post-graduate vocational education” (Federal law
Fulfillment of a strategic task of educational
on Higher and Post-graduate Education, Article
content and technologies improvement are
8 Clause 2).
ensured by the implementation of the policy
2. On the other hand, the text of “The
Conception of Federal Target Programme for
Education Development in 2006-2010” makes
it possible to notice new emphasis and reveal
new tendencies in the national state policy
concerning higher vocational education. The
aspects connected with economy, labour
market, an employer’s needs, etc. are manifestly
distinguished in it.
measures in the following activity areas:
<> introduction of a new list of training areas
(chief subjects) and trades of vocational education
and corresponding state educational standards,
worked out on the basis of competence approach,
in order to develop curricula adequate to the
world trends, labour market’s and an individual’s
needs” (Section VII).
- “…higher rate of the employers’ role in
The following wordings make this clear:
professional personnel’s training (growth of
- “…absence of institutional mechanisms,
number of both primary, secondary and higher
ensuring the connection of human capital
vocational education institutions that passed
development with the growth of the citizens’
through the employers’ examination of curricula
wellbeing, in the sphere of education leads
and vocational education institutions that provide
to the situation when the system of education
their training in compliance with new educational
reproduces the citizens’ parasitical attitude to the
standards developed with the employers’, social
state, doesn’t form but suppresses an individual’s
and professional associations’ participation)”
activity on the labour market now and then”
(Section IX, Clause 3).
(Section IV).
- “Successfulness of educational content and
technologies development is to a great extent
connected with the effectiveness of reduction
of growing disparity of education quality and
employers’ demands to it. This lag manifests itself,
first of all, in the absence of an adequate reaction
The analysis of the materials of numerous
forums (conferences, workshops, etc.) shows
that not all the specialists involved in training,
retraining and advanced training pay serious
attention to the trends that are outlined nowadays
in the change of the national higher education
content. Some of them are still sure that
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vocational education and market have almost no
connection as education belongs to the sphere of
culture while market is included in the sphere of
economy, thus, they hardly relate to each other.
But the analysis of the national labour market and
statistics break this illusion. It is vividly shown
in various publications (M. Gladkova 2007;
O.M. Zheleznyakova 2006; O.G. Kukosyan 2007;
O.N. Oleinikova 2006, etc.).
Discussing the issues of practical
psychologists’ training, in extra vocational
education system including, it is necessary to
agree upon the meaning of the “educational
result” term. It is appropriate to discuss the issue
of what ensures “educational result” in practical
psychologists’ training and how it is done.
The example below will be a slight digression
though.
In the context of the topic discussed it can
be generally stated that an educational result in
practical psychologist’s training is a person ready
to provide professional psychological services
(with due level of proficiency) adequately to a
client’s requests.
In search of formal confirmation of the
defined above we’ll appeal to normative legal
aspect of the issue once again. In the text of “Law
on Education” it is stated that:
In the report of the International bank for
person being trained) achievement of educational
reconstruction and development in 2007 it is
levels (educational qualifications), set by the
stated that:
state.
skills that makes it possible to act adequately …
in any situation” (Зимняя И. А. [I.A. Zimnyaya]
Педагогическая психология. – Ростов-наДону: Феникс, 1997).
Education under the present Law is understood
as a purposeful process of upbringing and
education in the interest of a human, society, state
accompanied by the statement of a citizen’s (a
In Turkey improvement in pre-school education
Getting education by a citizen (a person being
system
higher
trained) is understood as achievement of a certain
examination marks, growth of number of higher
educational qualification and its acknowledgement
education institutions’ graduates, lower level of
certified by a certain document.
has
resulted
in
students’
juvenile delinquency. In private sector productive
capacity of secondary and higher education has
increased especially in the countries with almost
There is a concept of aim understood as a
desired result. In “Law on Education” this aspect
is designated the following way:
Article 14. General requirements to the content
total pre-school education.
So, what should be regarded as educational
result in the term’s broad meaning? Perhaps,
“being educated” means such individual’s inner
resources that help him/her establish adequate
relations with the world and other individuals and
meet the society’s requirements to an individual’s
status he/she has got by the present moment?
In particular, such kind of a definition is
given by I.A. Zimnyaya:
of education
1. The content of education is one of the factors
of the society’s economic and social progress and
must be focused on:
- ensuring an individual’s self-determination,
providing the circumstances for his/her selfrealization;
- development of the society;
- strengthening and improvement of a legal
“It’s a human him/herself who has been trained
state.
in a certain educational system. It’s his/her
2. The content of education must ensure:
experience being a set of developed intellectual,
▪
individual, behavioral qualities, knowledge and
professional culture adequate to the world one;
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▪
formation of a citizen’s worldview adequate
to the modern level of knowledge and the level of
a curriculum (stage of education);
▪
an individual’s integration into the national
and world culture;
▪
upbringing of a person and a citizen (set
off in bold by me – V.P.), integrated in modern
society and aimed at the society’s improvement;
▪
reproduction
and
development
of
the
society’s human resources potential.
3. Vocational education of any level must
ensure getting a profession and a corresponding
qualification by a person trained.
4. The content of education must contribute to
mutual understanding and cooperation between
people, peoples irrespective of racial, national,
ethnical, religious and social belonging, take a
variety of world outlooks into account, favour the
realization of a trained person’s right on a free
choice of opinions and convictions.
As it is seen from the mentioned above, there
are many multi-aspect targets for education to be
oriented to.
The analysis of monographs and professional
periodicals that exist nowadays makes it possible
to conclude that there is no single approach to
the definition of this concept like in many other
cases. Some specialists consider that these results
comprise:
♦ “subject” (knowledge, abilities, skills,
experience of creative activity, etc.);
♦ “metasubject”
(activity
methods,
mastered during the course of one or
several subjects, that are applied both
in educational activity and real life
situations);
♦ and “personality” (system of value
preferences,
interests,
motivation,
tolerance) components .
Others include:
♦ state of health;
♦ academic success;
♦ satisfaction of the educational process
subjects;
♦ individual progress in assimilation of
universal abilities;
♦ age (psychological) maturity.
It is also written that it is an integral
characteristic comprising:
♦ subject and extra-subject knowledge and
skills of a competence oriented character
(i.e. focused on activity methods);
♦ key competences;
♦ social experience acquired during a
course of getting education, etc.
Thus, difficulties for definition of
educational results in the whole are already built
into normative legal base. In the context of the
discussed issue it is appropriate to mention that the
state, being a client in respect of the educational
results in this specialty, has defined only the
criteria of the level and content of mastering
the curricula, presented in educational standards
(State educational standards of higher vocational
education).
Another aspect of the issue is the quality of
educational results3. I have failed to find a single
document in which the criteria of all possible
results of vocational education were enumerated.
The documents of recent years mainly dwell upon
the conditions of educational result achievement
(in most cases – upon standards and financing).
That’s why we can judge about the quality (if we
rely on normative documents only) chiefly on the
basis of the results of mastering curricula. It’s
important here to understand a specific character
of the connection between being educated and
the quality of a specialist’s training for efficient
practical work.
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Alison Wolf, professor of London University, in
her book “Does Education Matter? Myths about
Education and Economic Growth” mentions that
if a higher rate of getting education is achieved
without much thinking the connection between
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being educated and economic growth may be
less seldom. Being educated is a sign of social
weakened. Another danger distinguished by the
author is the following one: excessive anxiety
about economic growth narrows and distorts the
society’s idea of being educated. In the UK the
quantitative growth of specialists (their enrolment
and graduation) resulted in worsening the quality
of university education. This is one of losses.
Moreover, employment of a large number of
lecturers to high school badly affects secondary
school as the best teachers leave it. But the worst
thing is, perhaps, that the leading universities
start experiencing the lack of resources. As a
result they can’t train the most brilliant students
for leading roles in science and technology as it
previously was.
***
“Expert” magazine dated 03.09.2007
Lack of correspondence between what is taught
and what is required by social-and-practical
situations can be characterized as a global crisis
in the sphere of higher education: education
system train people to “going away” economy.
This crisis unfolds against a background of
worldwide
tendencies.
Firstly,
large
scale
involvement into education is growing. This
gives grounds to speak about the transition
to general higher education in economically
developed countries. The number of students in
our country is the largest in the world: in 2005
495 students was the share of each 10 thousand
residents of Russia. In the USA the share was
445, in Germany – 240, in the UK – 276, in
Japan – 233. At that the education system itself
has been functioning on the basis of the pattern
adopted decades ago: the content of academic
courses is often based on outdated economic,
social, natural science and technical conceptions.
And as for Russian students, they associate
training in a higher education institution with
competitiveness on labour market less and
normality for the majority of them.
Thus, we face the following state of affairs:
if our compatriot has mastered curricula in
psychology and stood the qualification tests
designed to check the level of mastering them,
he/she can provide professional psychological
services to a client. Both a graduate and a lecturer
responsible for professional training can show a
client the document certifying the educational
result and the quality of mastering the curricula
(differential mark). But as for functional, real,
practical suitability of a result of education, a
client will be able to get it only after a certain
period of time when a specialist starts practising
and getting definite practical results. In the
system of state institutions this moment will be
formally registered only at the date of a specialist’s
qualifying evaluation.
The situation nowadays is the following: the
state doesn’t directly regulate the relationship
between labour market and specialists’ training4.
It only provides the conditions for the system’s
existence and development. In this respect the
excessive number of institutions training practical
psychologists on higher education market is not
the state’s policy but a response to the people’s
needs, a peculiar fashion on careers, etc. A client
and a consumer are the same person here. It should
be noted that the complexity in identification of a
client of an educational result is determined by
the fact that the result might not have a direct
assignment. For example, the students of the
system of additional higher vocational education
are mainly motivated not by direct expectations
of the result (to work as practical psychologist)
but by its accompanying (additional) quality:
additional diploma, additional profession, being
extra resources of efficient professional activity.
These provide with quite pragmatic advantages
under the conditions of competition and shortage
of vacancies.
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Thus, at present the main (direct) clients of
higher vocational education are labour market
and a person getting education – “a student” (or
his/her parents). It is they who lay claims to an
educational result and evaluate it5.
The fact that the bases of this or that quality
of vocational education are built in the system
of general education is also obvious. There they
develop various systems of mastering curricula
and criteria of an individual’s preparedness
to his/her independent life and to continuation
of his/her education at a secondary or higher
level. At a forum of the Institute of pedagogy and
psychology of development (IPPD, Krasnoyarsk),
held several years ago, they discussed what is
termed as “certain deficiencies of the students
of different courses”. One of the participants
wrote:
“… a part of deficiencies result from the
drawbacks of general education. … when I ask
myself: “Why must they ALREADY be able
to do this?” … I answer myself: “They had to
learn this at school”. For example, to read, write,
speak, make speeches, listen and hear, analyze,
argue, work in a group, etc.”
The author’s sufficiently large experience
in training practical psychologists in education
makes it possible to assert that the number of
“deficiencies” is greater than it is expected. It
especially strikes while working with people who
have already graduated from higher vocational
education institutions and come to get additional
education. The difficulty here is that quite often
there is nothing to “add” or it’s impossible to do
at all as there are “blank spaces” and “gaps” in
their minds. But time resources of the curriculum
are not enough for teaching up to the proper level
or re-teaching.
Participation
in
state
certifying
commissions in many higher education
institutions of our country gives me grounds to
say that in the majority of cases the qualitative
educational result in a practical psychologist’s
training is mainly defi ned in such characteristic
as “broad and deep professional training”. In
some cases “high proficiency in traditional
means of psychological services” can be added
to it.
But it is also evident that in careers, that help,
the preparedness for efficient activity definitely
presupposes a personality preparedness of
those who will provide services. This component
can neither be left aside nor “torn away from
the whole”. This is mentioned only in works
of experienced practitioners and outstanding
specialists in this sphere. They unambiguously
emphasize that a personality in practical
psychology is both a condition and a result of
vocational education (A.F. Bondarenko 2000;
M. Bowen 1992; I.V. Dubrovina 1991; E.A. Klimov
1998; R. Kochunas 1999; V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000, et
al.). But nowadays this aspect is not reflected in
the documents specifying a specialist’s training
in the Russian Federation. It is not regarded as
a criterion that defines the quality of vocational
education.
The analysis made makes it possible to state
that the educational result of training people
in practice-oriented psychological professions
directly depends on availability of the following
possibilities:
1) practical implementation of differentiated
approach to professional selection, matching and
training in the sphere of careers that provide help
that is based not only upon the criteria of being
educated but upon the criteria of a personality
preparedness to work with people;
2) providing with specific conditions of
training that are qualitatively different from the
conditions of traditional academic education
not in respect of the curriculum mainly but
regarding a) special practice-oriented training
of professorial and teaching staff; b) educational
and occupational base that makes it possible to
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arrange practical activity of full value that is as
much close to real professional activity as possible
and c) evaluation of educational and occupational
practice results that corresponds to a client’s
requirements (criteria).
As for the questions “who determines
urgent consumer qualities of educational result of
practical psychologists’ training” and “how is it
done”, the following should be mentioned:
1. The state (its laws on education first of all
provide with juridical terms of getting education
and requirements to its content specified in state
educational standards).
2. Educational institutions and their specialists
(they implement the requirements to curricula,
their contents and procedures of qualification
acknowledgement specified in laws and state
educational standards).
3. A future specialist (or persons who take the
responsibility for this) (they choose an educational
institution and specify the aim of such a training
(a student; his/her parents; those who assign to
training, etc.).
4. A client on behalf of those structures that
include such kinds of vacancies in their staff list
and open corresponding vacancies.
The result we face nowadays, as a rule,
doesn’t suit the market developing in Russia (a
client). That’s why a client feels the necessity
of establishing special structures that provide
with a required educational result. Introduction
of in-house training, personnel training outside
Russia, etc. give evidence of it.
All the mentioned above gives us
grounds to dwell upon those difficulties and
opportunities to overcome them that are
revealed in the course of analysis of working
experience in practical psychologists’ training
and re-training. The example of additional
higher vocational education for the “practical
psychology” qualification will serve the basis
for the analysis of this.
Difficulties in practical psychologists’
training and re-training
and possibilities to overcome them
The present situation in home psychology
and consequently in psychologists’ training and
re-training is far from ideal. Methodological
problems peculiar to the transition from
“ideologized” to “professional” psychology are
still reflected in both organization of higher
education and additional higher vocational
education system and its content6. In the context
of the discussed issue it should be noted that
recent decades are marked with sufficient activity
in respect of practical psychologists’ training and
re-training. But nevertheless many problems of
organizational and substantial character are not
solved here yet as well as in higher vocational
education in the whole. As it is mentioned at
the beginning of the article, in the first place it
concerns standards, syllabi and curricular of
higher education institutions. Unfortunately,
their content is a “hostage” of that methodological
mess mentioned above. Practical psychologists’
training and re-training show that one of the most
important aspects of this problem is failure to
distinguish the types of the tasks solved in various
spheres of psychology. The experience of expert
examination of curricula, syllabi, textbooks for
psychologists’ training shows a non-differential
character of such tasks as:
1) scientific (research) tasks proper;
2) scientific-and-applied tasks;
3) tasks of applied practical psychology;
4) tasks of psychological practice.
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Keeping within the limits of the topic of the
article and taking genre restrictions concerning
its volume into consideration, we shall not dwell
upon the specificity of the tasks of types one,
two and four but concentrate on the difficulties
typical for practical psychology. It should be
noted here that the problem highlighted by us is
aggravated nowadays by the transition to a new
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system of training including various possibilities
of getting vocational educatin – via bachelor and
master courses or “specialist’s” training. A set of
recent works shows the main aspects of the issue
discussed (Yu.M. Zabrodin 1982, 1990, 2002;
V.A. Ivannikov 2006; E.A. Klimov 1992, et al.).
Such context makes it clear that practical
psychologists’ training must be based on
the specificity of the tasks of type three that
presuppose their own subject and tools. It
should be noted here that practical psychology
is viewed upon as the applied area of general
psychological knowledge as well as a peculiar
type of a psychologist’s activity focused to
solve a definite professional task in accordance
with the requirements of the sphere he/she (a
specialist) serves and whose request he/she fulfils
(I.V. Dubrovina 1991; V.A. Ivannikov 2006;
A.G. Karayani, I.V. Syromyatnikov 2006, et al.).
In this respect its subject area is determined by
a specific character of psychological knowledge
proper, on the one hand, and certain special
features of the sphere a psychologist works in, on
the other hand.
The variety of tasks and forms of
psychological knowledge application determines
the main functions of practical psychology. As
a rough approximation they can be divided into
two groups: according to a method and form of
a psychologist’s activity and according to the
way of psychological knowledge application for
solving certain tasks:
1) enlightener, advisory, expert, designing,
normative and standardizing, etc.;
2) psychodiagnostics, psychoprognostics
and psychological help (joint management).
Considering the issue of specificity of
a practical psychologist’s working methods,
it’s important to note that the methods of
practical psychology are mirror-like in respect
of the methods of scientific research: the latter
presupposes the direction from a real object to
scientific knowledge about it, the former implies
a different direction from scientific knowledge to
a real object when an object’s particular specific
character and conditions of its real existence are
taken into account. Here we can state that the
methods of practical psychology must ensure an
effective “movement” in the “subject – subject”
system and take a client’s specific requirements
into consideration, never exceed the limits
of concrete conditions of a client’s activity
(Yu.M. Zabrodin, V.E. Pakhal’yan 2010).
In this context it’s possible to state the
following:
1) the system of a practical psychologist’s
methods is inseparably connected with a specific
character of concrete tasks a specialist faces in
the course of his/her work in this or that sphere of
human activity;
2) this system is a system of three main
groups of practical psychology methods:
♦ methods of psychological expert
examination;
♦ methods of psycho-prognostics and
psychological design;
♦ methods of psychological help (joint
management).
Each group comprises specific ways of
work (methods, techniques, etc.) that correspond
to the character of the tasks set for a practical
psychologist.
Another, no less important aspect of practical
psychologists’ training, is connected with the
problems ingeniously close to an academic
process. It’s not a secret that the problems with the
staff often give no choice to the administration of
educational institutions in which training is not
always carried out by professional lecturers but by
any specialists with diploma in a corresponding
subject7. Moreover, according to V.Ya. Lyaudis’s
true point of view,
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knowledge very often remains in the periphery
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of conscience or even outside it because of a
lecturer’s direct belonging to science. Being
conscious of his/her experience in research, he/
she very slightly realizes those stereotypes and
clichés he/she follows in the organization of an
educational process when he/she works out the
content of education. Such a discrepancy in
the degree of conscious awareness of scientific
content proper and teaching practice makes
the latter rigid, non-alternative, that is true for
psychologists as well” (V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000. P 3).
One more aspect of a specialist’s training is
connected with a specific character of the subject
itself, its content. This aspect becomes extremely
important for practical psychologists’ and
psychologists-practitioners’ training. It is meant
here that in teaching psychology “the primacy of
the object to learn – content of knowledge – to
the subject” is still vivid (V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000).
Constant participation in expert examination of
the materials that provide the content of future
specialists’ training in the sphere of practical
psychology shows that a considerable part of
curricula, their content and teaching methods
neither address to a future professional’s
personality nor presuppose actualization of a
personality’s potential (V.Ya. Lyaudis 2000).
This, in its turn, doesn’t create “the zone of a
personality’s perspective development”.
Traditionally home psychology treated a
human as a living being whose selectivity and
activity, choice of activity, actions and ways of
their realization are connected with the ability to
carry out them taking the consequences for other
members of his/her community into account and
taking the responsibility for the choices made. So,
a personality is meant here. It implies a certain
stage of psychological maturity of a human who is
not isolated from other humans but grew up under
specific conditions – culture – and acquired it in
a certain volume and quality by this or that way.
The latter undoubtedly comprises acquisition
of “psychological tools” (L.S. Vygotsky) with
the help of which a human starts making these
or those choices and taking responsibility for
them. Such understanding makes it possible
to adequately interpret the expressions like “a
criminal’s personality”, in particular.
The ideas of modern humanistic psychology,
and, in particular, the proposition about a
human’s natural need in self-actualization which
is the main “mechanism” of his/her positive
changes, personality growth (C. Rogers) also
become the basis for working out the curricula
for a practical psychologist’s training. It should
be noted here that the problem of the resources of
a personality’s changes is solved by establishing
specific relationships between a specialist being
a facilitator and a person in his/her care. Such
relationships can’t be the result of a contact
of a professional who is good at the influence
technique. It is because a specialist in such work
manifests him/herself as a human and a contact is
carried out as a contact of a human with a human.
This means that such work can’t be regarded as
“an expert’s manipulation”. It shouldn’t be also
forgotten that a person under a facilitator’s care
has the right to stop the process at any moment
and get from this care as much as he/she can.
That’s why one of the most significant conditions
of a personality’s change in the course of this
work is a personality’s readiness to this change.
All the mentioned above directly refers to
the mechanism of interaction between a person
trained and a person training in the system of
future psychologists’ vocational education as
well. In particular, the pattern of a practical
psychologist’s training, designed on this basis,
will ensure not only the knowledge of “artificial
devices” focused on one’s own inner world
acquisition but their “in-growth inside” that
means acquisition of proper attitude to people,
for whom help will be given, by a personality
of a future specialist. Following these ideas we
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can design the process of practical psychologists’
training so that it is addressed to a personality of
a future specialist, presupposes actualization of
his/her potential that, in its turn, will create “the
zone of a personality’s perspective development”.
More than that, the aspects highlighted can
become the criteria of work efficiency not only
in the course of vocational guidance, vocational
choice and matching, subsequent tracking of
a practical psychologist’s professional career,
advanced training but in the course of retraining
for work in this professional sphere.
Specialists’
psychological
health
is
undoubtedly one of the significant aspects of the
approach discussed. In this respect the system
of practical psychologists’ training, advanced
training and retraining presupposes its support
by such principles as “psychological ecological
compatibility”, “psychological safety”. As a
matter of principle, organization of a person’s
training understood humanistically excludes the
possibility of destructive impacts of educational
environment on his/her development. This, in
its turn, presupposes certain personnel policy in
respect of “forming figures” (tutors, lecturers).
Being precisely conscious of the complexity of
such a task it is difficult to imagine a different
way but establishment of criteria of psychological
safety of development of all the subjects of
educational environments on the basis of already
existing knowledge about the regularities of a
personality’s development and newly gained
knowledge in this sphere. A list of these criteria
is provided in almost any student’s textbook
in practical psychology. But in reality these
criteria are not applied. It is this that gives us
grounds to speak about reasonability of working
out a new area in psychology – preventive
psychology of development understood as the
area in applied psychology in which the subject
of research and practice are supposed to be
psychological phenomena, regularities and
factors that determine the state and dynamics of a
personality’s psychological health, ensure his/her
psychological safety under the conditions of these
or those activity spheres the knowledge of which
provides the possibilities of timely prevention of
unfavourable tendencies of its development.
Foreign practice shows that this issue is quite
urgent nowadays. At the same time M. Perrez and
U. Baumann mention low efficiency of prevention
in medicine:
“Prevention hasn’t led to considerable structural
changes at social and economical levels so far.
The structure of modern supporting system
is systematically strengthening in respect
of therapeutics that is far from being so in
respect of prevention; it also concerns single
persons who want to individually improve their
own “healthy behaviour” as well as people
professionally involved in prevention. It is
almost impossible to expect any changes of
our “healthy behaviour”, focused on a disease,
without decisive shift of structural accents
in our present supporting system in favour of
prevention (Перре М., Бауманн У. [M. Perrez,
U. Baumann] Клиническая психология. –
СПб., 2006, p. 493).
In the system of psychological personnel’s
advanced training and retraining apart from the
problems general for higher vocational education
there are problems specific for this area only.
The most evident and, as practice shows, quite
important are the following ones:
1. Unlike the students of main higher
vocational education, the audience of retraining
and advanced training departments is people with
higher education. That’s why their syllabi and
curricula presuppose predominance of content
and subjects, which are ingenuously connected
with a professional area chosen and have applied
and practical character. However, even in case the
curricula nominally reflect this correspondence
the real content of the subjects taught (which is
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noticed both in curricula and in teaching process
itself) is often no much different from the
content of curricula for main higher vocational
education;
2. The picture of demands for these or
those specialists by recruitment agencies and
employment services and a real result of the
system of psychological personnel’s advanced
training and retraining is rather conflicting. On the
one hand, it is obvious that the society’s demand
for these or those specialists who are suggested
retraining for the profession needed nowadays by
recruitment agencies and employment services
becomes lower in some sphere. But the absence
of a stable state policy in this sphere results in
financial limitation and prevents from effective
use of this personnel resource. Commercial
structures behave in this market insufficiently
actively so far. They are not eager to invest in
this sphere but prefer either to buy “the product
prepared” or to establish “in-house system of
personnel’s training and retraining” which is of a
different quality and focus and doesn’t correspond
to the market’s demands. This situation is quite
well presented in a set of materials we have
mentioned before8.
Modern psychology is ever more moving
towards solving the tasks of design and action.
This changes the focus on status, role and
prospects of fundamental areas of psychology. In
this respect, following a great number of experts,
it should be mentioned that a serious revision
of the whole system of advanced training and
retraining that exists nowadays, working out
differentiated standards of higher vocational
and additional vocational training, the system of
psychological personnel’s advanced training and
retraining is needed. Such work can be built on
1
the basis of singling out professional tasks that
are solved by a psychologist of one or another
qualification and specialization. The present
state of affairs in this area of Russian education
is far from required. At the same time a set of
positive things, that have projected recently,
can be mentioned if the stated above could be
viewed from the point of availability of objective
conditions for provision of psychological safety
of development of the subjects of educational
environments by present Russian higher
vocational education. In particular, the draft of
Federal state educational standards of higher
vocational education (2009) highlights very
important ideas: the idea of a higher role of
educational institutions in curricula design and
their focus on real demands of practice; the idea
of an active role of a subject him/herself. The
“personality qualities” parameter (competence
is the ability to apply knowledge, skills and
personality qualities to successful activity in
a certain area) in psychologists’ training has
been singled out in an official document for
the fi rst time. But the matter of an individual’s
“personality preparedness” for mastering this
profession is still open.
To crown the discussion of the topic
chosen, it is worth mentioning that practical
psychologists’ vocational education, advanced
training and retraining significantly determine the
quality of work at the problems of a personality’s
development under the conditions of one or
another environment. It is this fact that should
be a starting point in determination of the state’s
policy in respect of objectives of education, its
content and results, including objectives and
results of higher vocational education in the
sphere of professions providing care.
The necessity to improve the normative base of higher vocational education is mentioned in a number of articles. In particular, see: Барбашин И.В. [I.V. Barbashin] Современное состояние и проблемы системы высшего профессионального
образования в Российской Федерации // Образование в социально-гуманитарной сфере Российской Федерации.
Аналитический вестник Совета Федерации ФС РФ. 2003. № 2 (195)
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Perhaps, the wording of the aim (“training and retraining”) is not quite proper. A more adequate wording here might be
the following – “satisfaction of an individual’s needs to extend and broaden his/her education”.
See in details in: Вербицкая Л.А., Касевич В.Б. [L.A. Verbitskaya, V.B. Kasevich] О модернизации российской
высшей школы: сегодняшние проблемы и возможные решения. // Вопросы образования 2004. №4, с. 10-22;
Гладкова М. [M. Gladkova] Качество высшего образования в рыночном обществе предмет дискурса. // Журнал
социологии и социальной антропологии. Спецвыпуск.. 2007. Т. 10, с. 50-65; Железнякова О.М. [O.V. Zheleznyakova]
Взаимодействие базового и дополнительного образования как условие полноты и целостности образовательной
траектории. // Дополнительное профессиональное образование. 2006. №12; Кукосян О.Г. [O.G. Kukosyan] Образование взрослых как важнейшая самостоятельная часть системы непрерывного образования. //
Дополнительное профессиональное образование. 2007. №1; Пахальян В.Э. [V.Ae. Pakhal’yan] Каким должен или
каким может быть психолог, работающий в условиях современного образования? // Вопросы психологии. 2002.
№6, et al.
The relations between the higher education system and labour market are described in, for example: Клячко Т.Л., Мау
В.А. [T.L. Klyachko, V.A. Mau] Тенденции развития высшего профессионального образования в Российской
Федерации // Вопросы образования 2007. №3, с. 46-64.
See in detain about their evaluation in: Гладкова М. [M. Gladkova] Качество высшего образования в рыночном
обществе предмет дискурса. // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. Т. 10. Спецвыпуск.. 2007, с. 5065.
See in detail in: Асмолов А.Г. [A.G. Asmolov] XXI век: психология в век психологии. // Вопросы психологии. 1995.
№1; Василюк Ф.Е. [F.E. Vasilyuk] Методологический смысл психологического кризиса. // Вопросы психологии.
1996. № 6; Забродин Ю.М. [Yu.M. Zabrodin] Основные проблемы становления практической психологии в СССР.
// Психологические условия профессионального становления личности. – М., 1990; 29. Юревич А.В. [A.V. Yurevich] Методологический либерализм в психологии. // Вопросы психологии. – 2001. – № 5, et al.
A qualified specialist (candidate or doctor of science) is a qualification that shows that a person has formal data for
successful involvement in scientific research but it doesn’t specify the level of teaching ability. Practice shows that there
is often no direct connection between having a scientific degree and being successful in teaching.
See, for example: Employers’ requirements to the system of vocational education. М., МАКС Пресс, 2006; materials of
“Additional vocational education” (Дополнительное профессиональное образование) journal and the site of Higher
school of economics – http://isek.hse.ru/part2.html.
References
Василюк Ф.Е. [F.E. Vasilyuk] От психологической практики к психологической теории //
Московский психотерапевтический журнал. 1992. № 1.
Выготский Л.С. [L.S. Vygotskiy] Инструментальный метод в психологии // Собрание
сочинений в 6 т. Т. 1. (М., 1982) с. 103-108.
Забродин Ю.М. [Yu.M. Zabrodin] Проблемы разработки практической психологии //
Психологический журнал. Т. 1. 1982. № 2.
Иванников В.А. [V.A. Ivannikov] Проблемы подготовки психологов // Вопросы психологии.
2006. № 1.
Климов Е.А. [E.A. Klimov] Гипотеза «метелок» и развитие профессии психолога // Вестник
Московского ун-та. Сер. 14. Психология. 1992. № 3. С. 3-12.
Кукосян О.Г. [O.G. Kukosyan] Образование взрослых как важнейшая самостоятельная часть
системы непрерывного образования // Дополнительное профессиональное образование. 2007.
№ 1.
Ляудис В.Я. [V.Ya. Lyaudis] Методика преподавания психологии (М., 2000).
Роджерс К. [C. Rogers] Становление человека (М., 1994).
Слободчиков В.И. [V.I. Slobodchikov] Что развивается в образовании, что образуется в
развитии? // Развитие и образование особенных детей: проблемы, поиски (М., 1999) с. 20.
Требования работодателей к системе профессионального образования [Employers’ demands
for the system of vocational education] (М., , 2006).
Юревич А.В. [A.V. Yurevich] Системный кризис в психологии // Вопросы психологии. 1999.
№ 2.
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Подготовка практических психологов:
трудности и перспективы
В.Э. Пахальян
Московский институт открытого образования
Россия 125167, Москва, Авиационный переулок, 6
В статье представлен авторский взгляд на современное состояние проблемы подготовки
практических психологов. На примере анализа состояния нормативно-правовой и
методологической базы системы высшего профессионального образования обращается
внимание на те сложности подготовки практических психологов, которые связаны как
с формальными требованиями к профессиональной деятельности, так и с личностной
готовностью будущих специалистов. Выделяется вопрос о необходимости разработки нового
направления в сфере практической психологии – превентивной психологии развития.
Ключевые слова: подготовка практических психологов, образовательный результат,
личностная готовность, типы задач, которые решаются в разных сферах психологии,
превентивная психология развития.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 11 (2012 5) 1707-1713
~~~
УДК 37.04:004
Using E-Portfolio
in Vocational Education and Training
Olga G. Smolyaninovaa,
Olga A. Imanova and Olga Y. Bugakovab*
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Krasnoyarsk Teacher Training College No.1 named after M. Gorky
106 Uritskogo str. Krasnoyarsk, 660017 Russia1
a
Received 04.11.2011, received in revised form 11.11.2011, accepted 23.11.2012
The article presents the experience of using an e-portfolio technology in the system of vocational
education and training in accordance with the requirements of the modern labor market. The article
describes the experience of implying this technology in the academic process at the Krasnoyarsk
Teacher Training College No.1.
Keywords: e-portfolio, pedagogical education, professional competences, vocational education and
training.
The research is carried out within the international project of the 7th framework program of the
European Commission supported by the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation. (“E-Portfolio
as the means of professional and personal development”, project № 12-26-19001).
Introduction
The problem of college graduates’
employment is topical in many regions of Russia.
Young specialists lacking experience at the
beginning of their professional career, have little
chance to be employed in their field.
According to the Federal Service of State
Statistics the rise in teen unemployment (aged 1519) has made 8.6 % by the end of 2011. The rise
in the unemployment of college and university
graduates has made 21.9 % (Web-site “City
News”).
The problem of college graduates’
employment is a consequence of the fact that
*
1
the Russian system of professional education
has no settled relationship with the labor market.
This relationship could eliminate the imbalance
between supply and demand of experts, between
the quality of vocational training and the
requirements of the employer.
The successful employment of college
graduates is interfered by the absence of
mutually
advantageous
communication
between enterprises and vocational education
institutions. The enterprises are not interested in
retraining young specialists as it demands time
and fi nance, and colleges train their students
according to their own possibilities and taking
Corresponding author E-mail address: smololga@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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into account parents and school graduates’
wishes, practically ignoring the labor market
tendencies.
Therefore, the system of vocational
education and training needs essential changes in
terms of its adaptation to the modern economy
requirements (Burkova, 2008).
Thus, there is a need to establish an effective
mechanism of interaction between the labor
market and vocational education institutions in
order to eliminate these contradictions.
The implementation of the e-portfolio in
the system of vocational education and training
can become a link between the college and the
employer, a basis for the graduate’s future career
growth, an estimation tool of the student’s
professional competence.
On the other hand, the e-portfolio is
an effective means of monitoring academic
achievements of the student, showing the level of
his/her involvement in academic, research, social,
creative and other kinds of activity.
Prospects and conditions
of effective implementation of
the e-portfolio technology
in the system of vocational education
and training
The
prospects
of
the
e-portfolio
implementation in the system of vocational
education and training are as follows:
The e-portfolio:
contains information on different types
of the student’s activity, on subjects,
courses and practices taken in the course
of training;
allows to carry out prolonged monitoring
of educational programs;
reflects the results of the student’s
individual academic activity, allows to
trace and estimate the results of training
and individual progress;
demonstrates the academic potential and
achievements of the college graduate to
the employer;
allows to trace the academic results
during the entire period of training;
testifies to the received knowledge, skills
and abilities to be put into practice, i.e.
about professional competences of the
student;
meets the interests of the student and the
teacher and can become their means of
interaction;
stimulates the student’s academic activity,
helps to realize his/her own purposes and
possibilities;
acts as the proof of the student’s
involvement into creative, project and
research work.
Implementing e-portfolio
in teacher training colleges
A modern teacher should meet both the
requirements of the employer and the educational
demand of the society. According to the Federal
state educational standard of primary general
education, a primary school teacher is supposed
to achieve the following educational results:
ability of the pupils to plan, control and
estimate their own educational actions
according to the objective;
ability to choose the appropriate ways to
achieve the result;
ability to understand the reason of
success/failure of educational activity;
ability to act reasonably even in failure
situations;
initial skills of cognitive and personal
reflection.
The basic criterion to assess students’
academic results is to consider their personal
abilities. The absence of grading during the first
and second years at school does not contradict
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the standard system of assessment. It also helps
to establish good relationship and cooperation of
a pupil and a teacher.
In the conditions of ungraded classes the
primary school teacher should be able to use the
e-portfolio technology (Smolyaninova et al, 2011).
In the current context teacher training is
focused on new tendencies in the system of
assessment, reflection and the ability to design the
educational process. Therefore, the e-portfolio,
being an effective tool to develop professional
competences, is used in many teacher training
colleges: Kamyshlovsk teacher training college,
Kemerovo teacher training college, Krasnoyarsk
teacher training college No. 1, Minusinsk teacher
training college, Samara social-pedagogical
college, Northern teacher training college of
Sverdlovsk region.
Here we present the experience of the
e-portfolio implementation at Krasnoyarsk
teacher training college No. 1. At this college
the e-portfolio is used as an effective means of
qualitative assessment of students’ professional
competences.
The basic aim of the e-portfolio is to
demonstrate students’ academic and professional
achievements.
The e-portfolio also pursues the following
objectives:
to support students’ educational and
professional motivation;
to encourage their academic activity and
independence at all steps of professional
education;
to expand the possibilities of study and
self-study;
to develop reflective skills;
to develop study skills (to set purposes, to
plan and organize their own educational
and professional activity);
The content of the e-portfolio reflects the
student’s various achievements allowing to assess
his/her readiness to implement professional skills;
it shows his/her significant academic results, and
allows to monitor his/her individual progress in a
wide educational context.
At this college the e-portfolio use is accepted
at the administrative level and is regulated by the
local normative act. This act
reflects basic requirements to the
e-portfolio content;
presents the detailed structure of the
e-portfolio;
describes the process of the e-portfolio
formation and assessment;
presents the criteria of assessment;
Initially the innovative system of assessment
by means of the e-portfolio was introduced at the
Department of Primary Education. This method
of assessment presupposes a personified account
of the student’s achievements. It is also an
instrument of pedagogical support for the student
in his/her social and professional development.
The curriculum of the first year at the
Department of Primary Education includes the
“E-portfolio technology” course. This course helps
students to master methodological approaches to
the e-portfolio compilation and implementation.
Doing this course, students study the possibilities
of the e-portfolio for assessment and reflection
of a primary school teacher professional activity
which they can later apply during their teaching
placement at school. Before starting his/her
e-portfolio, the student is assigned a password
and a login. Today the college web-site contains
portfolios which include the following headings:
“Greeting”, “CV”, “Reflection”, “Achievements”
and “References”.
The structure of the e-portfolio has separate
sections including materials which show the
student’s participation in different types of
activity:
1. Greeting (photo or video, a paragraph
about the author);
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2. CV (summary which gives initial
information on the student’s educational
level, his/her personal qualities, a main
objective of studying at college);
3. Reflection (an essay on his/her attitudes
to the chosen profession, educational and
career plans);
4. Achievements (academic achievements
and other achievements in the sphere of:
• research (participation in scientific
conferences of various levels (federal,
regional, municipal and institutional);
• self-education (independent study of
disciplines, attending extra-curricular
courses);
• methodological work (programs, analysis
of available methodical materials, results
of the student’s teaching placement,
methodical
materials
to
lessons,
lesson analysis, reflection, out-of-class
activities);
• social work (participation in various
actions, projects, student initiatives, extracurricular clubs, hobbies, volunteering);
• references (by teachers, peer-students);
• portfolio assessment (by experts, selfassessment);
“Methodic bank” is a section which includes
the results of teaching placement, the best plans of
lessons, the results of the exam in the professional
module “The organization of extracurricular
activities and communication of primary school
pupils” etc.
Such materials in the student’s e-portfolio
will help potential employers to estimate
graduates’ potential and make the decision on
their employment.
The process of compilation and assessment
of a first year student’s e-portfolio consists of
several stages.
Stage 1. At this stage during the first
two months of training students study the
introductory course “E-portfolio technology” and
get acquainted with the criteria of assessment.
Criteria:
Completeness (whether all the sections
necessary at this stage, are filled in);
Information content (whether the
information presented in the e-portfolio
shows personal qualities and other
characteristics of the student);
Quality of materials’ layout
Stage 2. Students fill in “Greeting” and “CV”
sections. As a rule, the “Greeting” section doesn’t
cause any difficulties unlike the “CV” section.
Therefore, it is advisable to set fields for filling in
advance for the “CV” section. In case such fields
are absent, we recommend to make up questions,
the answers to which will help students to fill in
this section.
Stage 3. Students write an essay “My future
profession” which is placed in the “Reflection”
section. Also, in this section, students present
materials reflecting their educational plans
for the coming period (a semester, a year).
Teachers, mentors and psychologists should
give students some advisory support in writing
their reflective essays and reports. Such support
is especially needed when students write about
their professional (career) plans. In this case it
is necessary to offer questions, the answers to
which will help to reveal student’s professional
motivation and long-term plans.
For example,
1) My aim (long-term) (what I’m going to
do, what kind of specialist I’m going to
become, where I’m going to work, what
position I’m going to take);
2) A chain of short-term objectives (what I
already know and what I’m going to learn,
what I have already achieved, educational
and career plans);
3) Ways to achieve the objectives (what
I’m going to do to achieve them: study
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necessary literature, talk to competent
people, use my own knowledge and life
experience, enroll on a course, etc.);
4) External conditions (what kind of
difficulties/obstacles I anticipate);
5) Internal conditions (abilities for training,
persistence, patience, personal qualities
necessary for this specialty);
6) Backups in case of insuperable difficulties
in the plan realization.
Stage 4. Students select materials and place
them into the “Achievements” section.
Stage 5. By the end of the academic year
the e-portfolio materials are assessed by experts.
Students start compiling the e-portfolio during
their first year at college and later they develop
and improve it.
The content of the e-portfolio must reflect
the development of the student’s professional
competences in accordance with the Federal state
educational standard of vocational education
and training (Pedagogical education). For this
purpose we have devised the scale of assessment
of the student’s competences presented in the
e-portfolio.
The results of the student’s academic and
professional activity presented in the e-portfolio
are the admission to mid-term and final exams.
Generally, the e-portfolio technology
allows to estimate the student’s success
in academic activity both in separate
subjects and in the group of disciplines;
allows to monitor the student’s results,
abilities and competences necessary for
his/her future professional activity;
promotes the student’s motivation to
improve his/her results;
allows to track the student’s individual
progress in his/her academic and social
activity .
focuses the student on success in future
professional activity and career growth;
allows the employer to choose a specialist
basing on the objective criteria.
Students independently select the best
materials for their e-portfolio, analyzing them
and making necessary changes after teachers
and experts’ assessment. By doing this, students
get reflective experience and develop critical
thinking which are necessary in modern
education.
The e-portfolio is an effective tool which
helps students to correlate the process with the
results of their study, their claims with their real
possibilities, the level of test tasks with their own
level. In the long run, the e-portfolio contributes
to the effective self-presentation at the labor
market.
Conclusion
The experience of using the e-portfolio
in Krasnoyarsk teacher training college No. 1
has shown that further implementation of this
technology in the system of vocational education
will be successful on condition that:
• a well-defined concept of the e-portfolio
technology introduction into the
educational process is devised;
• a discipline on the e-portfolio technology
is included into the curriculum;
• learner-support and didactic materials on
the e-portfolio technology are devised
both for teachers and for students;
• a local act carried out on the administrative
level regulates the introduction and
implementation of the e-portfolio
technology;
• an accurate system of the e-portfolio
materials ranking is devised;
• their quantitative and qualitative
assessment is carried out on the basis of
unified criteria.
In our opinion, the wide range of the
e-portfolio technology possibilities can be fully
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realized in case the consistency of operation is
ensured between a college and a university, a
college and the labor market. Thus, it is necessary
to build up an e-portfolio database which will
promote successful employment of college
graduates.
References
Burkova N. Pedagogicheskiye printsipy monitoringa v uchrezhdeniyakh srednego professional’nogo
obrazovaniya: avtoreferat doktorskoi dissertatsii (Pedagogical principles of monitoring in vocational
education and training institutions: author’s abstract of the doctoral thesis). Moscow, 2008. Available
at http://dissers.ru/avtoreferati-dissertatsii-pedagogika/a455.php;
Smolyaninova O., Imanova O. Ispolzovanie tekhonologii e-portfolio v vysshem obrazovanii
v Rossiyskoi Federatsii (E-porftolio technology implementation in higher education in the Russian
Federation). Sibirskiy pedagogicheskii zhurnal (Siberian pedagogical journal) №9-2011, pp.65-77;
Web-site “City News” available at http://anonssmi.ru/v-rossii-rastet-kolichestvo-bezrabotnojmolodezhi/
Web-sites of colleges
Kamyshlovsk teacher training college http://kampk.ucoz.ru/Dokument/polozhenie_o_portfolio.
doc;
Kemerovo teacher training college http://kempc.edu.ru/index.php/;
Kirov teacher training college http://kp-kollege.ru/;
Krasnoyarsk teacher training college №1 http://www.kpk1.ru/
Minusinsk teacher training college http://www.minuspk.ru/?mode=honor.top;
Noyabrsk college of professional and information technologies http://resume.nkit.ru/
Samara social-pedagogical collegehttp://samsspc.ru/2009/11/24/portfolio-kak-innovacionnyjocenochnyj-instrument.html;
Northern teacher training college of Sverdlovsk region http://spkserov.ucoz.ru/index/
polozhenie_o_portfolio/
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Использование технологии епортфолио
в системе среднего профессионального
педагогического образования
О.Г. Смолянинова,
О.А. Иманова, О.Е. Бугакова
Сибирский федеральный университет,
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Красноярский педагогический колледж №1 им. М.Горького
Россия 660017, Касноярск, ул. Урицкого, 106
Авторами предлагается использование технологии епорфтолио для подготовки специалистов
в системе среднего педагогического профессионального образования в соответствии
с образовательными запросами общества и требованиями современного рынка труда.
Представлен опыт использования данной технологии в Красноярском педагогическом колледже
№1 им. М. Горького.
Ключевые слова: епортфолио, педагогическое образование, профессиональные компетенции,
среднее профессиональное образование.
Исследование выполнено в рамках международного проекта 7-ой рамочной программы
Еврокомиссии при финансовой поддержке РГНФ (проект «Электронный портфолио как
средство профессионально-личностного развития», № 12-26-19001).
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журнал, университета, 2012, науки, 154, гуманитарные, сер, сибирской, федеральное
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