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164.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №8 2014

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (8)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет:
академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов
академик РАН И.И. Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л. Миронов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л. Пашков
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Шайдуров
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Sergey A. Nikitin
The Method of Clarification and the Figurative Language
– 1252 –
Dmitry V. Pikalov
Agriculture and Taboo: to the Problem of the Conflict of Identity
of Hunting-Nomadic and Agricultural Outlooks
– 1262 –
Aza S. Franz
Polyvariant Character of the Russian Moral Culture
– 1270 –
Valentina I. Kudriavtseva
Neo-Cynicism of Peter Sloterdijk: a Revenge of the
Enlightenment?
– 1278 –
Editor-in-Chief
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Olesya V. Kuznetsova and Alexey V. Osintsev
Spiritual-Commercial Movement: Main Features, Peculiarities,
Attribution
Founding Editor
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
– 1286 –
Managing Editor
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences
Natalia P. Koptseva
Olga N. Tomyuk
Creativity and Lawmaking: Ontological Aspect
– 1293 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 27.08.2014 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 15,0.
Уч.-изд. л. 14,5. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2021.
Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
David Anderson – Professor, The University
of Aberdeen, Scotland
Gershons Breslavs – International Institute
of Applied Psychology, Latvia
Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles
University in Prague
Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau
University, Germany
Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor,
Novgorod State University
Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk
State Linguistic University
Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal
University
Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net,
LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor,
Department of Strategic and Regional
Studies, University of Jammu
Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate
Professor, Siberian Federal University
Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor,
Siberian Federal University
Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State
Pedagogical University named after
V.P. Astafev
Nicolay
Parfentyev
–
Professor,
Corresponding Member of the Peter
the Great Academy of Sciences and
Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian
Federation, South Ural State University
Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of
the Composers of Russia, Corresponding
Member of the Peter the Great Academy
of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts
Worker of the Russian Federation,
South Ural State University
Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island
University, USA
Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Vladimir I. Zhukovskiy
Modern Theory of Visual Art: Regional Project
– 1301 –
Natalia P. Koptseva, Ksenia V. Reznikova,
Natalia N. Pimenova and Anastasia V. Kistova
Cultural and Anthropological Studies of Indigenous Peoples
of Krasnoyarsk Krai Childhood (based on the field studies of
Siberian Federal University in 2010-2013)
– 1312 –
Vladimir S. Luzan
Mechanisms of Interaction Between the State, Businesses and
Small-Numbered Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Federation
Under Global Transformations
– 1327 –
Natalia N. Seredkina
Revisiting Methodological Principles of Cultural-Semiotic
Approach in Studying Art of Indigenous Peoples of the North,
Siberia and the Far East
– 1342 –
Alexandra A. Sitnikova
The Concept of œNorthB in the Works by Rockwell Kent
– 1358 –
Liudmila V. Kulikova and Iuliia I. Detinko.
Construction of Political œOthersB Through Multimodal Texts
(Cartoons) in British Press
– 1381 –
Yuri M. Aksutin
Imperial Society: Subjects and Character of Interethnic Interaction
Paradigm
– 1393 –
Elena V. Demidova and Galina V. Panasenko
Simulation of Manager Personal Qualities During the Dedicated
Training
– 1402 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian
Federal University
Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of
Tromso – The Arctic University of
Norway
Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University of Economics
Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute
of Philosophy RAS, Moscow
Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of
Philosophy and Law of SB RAS
Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member
RAS, Institute of Economics and
Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City
Pedagogical University
Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International
Academy, Riga, Latvia
Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Svetlana K. Demchenko and Margarita A. Yudina
Structural Shifts of Russian Economy in Globalization Process
– 1410 –
Anton I. Pyzhev,
Evgeniya V. Zander and Yulia I. Pyzheva
Analysis of State Forest Policy in Russia
– 1423 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1252-1261
~~~
УДК 101.1+130.31
The Method of Clarification
and the Figurative Language
Sergey A. Nikitin*
Ural Federal University named after the B. N. Yeltsin
51 Lenin, Ekaterinburg, 620083, Russia
Received 14.05.2014, received in revised form 22.06.2014, accepted 04.07.2014
The article is devoted to the relations between the phenomenology and the rhetoric. Edmund
Husserl some hundred years ago explored, described, and then used in his eidetic phenomenology
the noteworthy ability of every author to create the imaginary objects by the ordinary words. Today
we try to find out in the classical texts by Husserl the useful hint on where is the best way or method
to pass through the words and to recover the possibility to see clear. Consequently, the aim of
this article is to define and to describe the possible paths through the illusions of the so-called
direct speech to the insight of the idea as it is. As long as the subject matter of the paper is the
very transformative process that transmutes the existing words into the non-existing images, we
must make a conclusion in a form of the choice. This choice is predetermined by own Husserl’s
description of the so-called «free variations in phantasy». We consider these variations to be the
rhetorical resistance to the ordinary words, a kind of rubber that layer-by-layer moves forced or
erased metaphors away.
Keywords: Rhetoric, eidetic phenomenology, evidence, phantasy, method of clarification, direct
speech, figurative language.
Introduction
Despite the fact, that Husserl’s theory of
phantasy goes back to his early texts written
before 1900 it is still worth looking at. The number
of the publications of the last decades shows
this judgment to be true. I urge that this interest
attracted by the old, but not forgotten theory to
be closely connected with the contemporary
problems of the so-called «visual culture» and
its impact over the social communication. The
authors usually prefer to discuss the details of
the different interpretations of the Husserl’s
method of clarification. I will try to pass from
the reflections on method to the investigation of
*
the troublesome relations between the words used
and the images produced.
Theoretical framework
Since Descartes evidence is one of the
most important themes of all the tradition of the
modern Western philosophy. In order to achieve
both theoretical truth and practical validity the
scientists or the philosophers have to provide
their first principles to be evident. The way to
the evident principles may seem rather simple:
the one who wants to formulate them must
simply doubt in every proposition that does not
seem obvious or clear just from the beginning.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Nikitin62@yandex.ru
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However, since the times of Franz Brentano and
his disciples we know that this path leads to the
painful question whether one evident statement
may be more or less radical than the other one.
In its turn the comparison between the equally
evident but controversial statements throws us
back to the new search for the method that make
the gaze clear enough to see not the phantoms,
but the things themselves.
situation where this widely opened eyes shine on
the face of the skilled or sophisticated person –
would it be the philosopher or the scientist. How
could they become so naïve as to see the light
and to grasp what they have seen in the obvious
statements? Is it necessary for the philosopher to
come back to the primordial simplicity? Finally,
closing this same passage into the circle, what
is the relationship between these two situations,
«naïve» and «sentimental»?
Statement of problems
The philosophers of the last century as well
as their predecessors in the previous centuries
usually have dreamt about the solid foundations to
load them with their extraordinary argumentation.
They would have liked to deduce the necessary
(or, at least, universally valid) conclusions based
on the firm principles. They usually have sought
for such clarity of vision, such focal point, or
such concentration, which would have allowed
seeing the things as they have been and thus have
guaranteed the approach to the necessary (or at
least conventional) truths in the course of further
argumentation. A philosopher of nowadays has
to provide the clear gaze, like that which had
discerned his greatest predecessors, and only then
he can turn to the conscious construction of the
world, to the application of the rules of logic, to
the struggle against his enemies with the help of
all defensive and offensive techniques of eristic.
The stare becomes clear in two fundamentally
different, though related, situations. One of
them is the situation of naïve amazement, which
Aristotle had determined in one of the wellknown places of his Metaphysics to be the very
first impulse for the philosophy: «For from
wonder men, both now and at the first, began to
philosophize» [Aristotle, 1896: 9]. The presence
of a wonder makes the eyes to be widely opened,
so there are no any obstacles for the look from
the inside or for the light from the outside. Most
intriguing for us, the philosophers, must be the
Methods
For sure, the philosophers need some kind
of method to move from subtlety to simplicity or
vice versa. In fact, here as elsewhere, it would
be better to speak not about methodos, but about
hodos. Once upon a time Richard McKeon
stated that «“Method” (methodos) was used by
Aristotle to signify a “path to” the investigation
of a scientific subject matter or the solution
of the scientific problem and he distinguished
“methods” from “paths” or “ways” (hodos)
constructed in universal arts for the statement of
arguments or descriptions or accounts applicable
to any problem or subject matter» [McKeon, 1987:
29]. The method makes the way straight because
it appears to be the consequence of the rules.
However, there are no any rules or even principles
for the one who paves the path. On the pages of
this article I will discuss some typical situations
occurred when the philosopher smashes this way.
I also take into account the fact that only the
extraordinary popularity of the word «method»
makes the philosophers to reflect on method even
then they in fact look for the path.
Discussion
Edmund Husserl in the first and third books
of his Ideas pertaining to a pure phenomenology
and to a phenomenological philosophy writes
on the method of clarification as if it would
be the path to the clarity. This method of
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clarification is a way to fulfill the very goal of
the phenomenology. «It must expose to its views
events of pure consciousness as examples <and>
make them perfectly clear; within the limits
of this clarity it must analyze and seize upon
their essences, trace with insight the essential
interconnections, formulate what is beheld in
faithful conceptual expressions which allow their
sense to be prescribed purely by what is beheld
or generically seen; and so forth» [Husserl,
1983: 150]. Therefore, the phenomenologist (or
the contemporary transcendental philosopher)
is the one who makes clear, analyzes, seizes
upon, traces with insight, formulates in faithful
expressions. He has to clothe some «events of pure
consciousness» with the suitable words. Just from
the beginning, there are two different problems
to be stated: first of them is the clarification of
the images while the second one is the choice of
the words. If the philosopher tries to solve the
first one, he will have to focus his gaze upon the
subject matter and in doing so he himself or his
gaze will move from here to there and then back,
and back again.
In a way, the assertoric seeing and the
apodictic intellectual seeing resemble each
other. «We need a more universal term which
encompasses in its signification both assertoric
seeing and apodictic intellectual seeing» [Husserl,
1983: 330]. Everybody’s gaze may grasp not only
the surface details but also the general view
without any details. However, this curious idler
may not as well divert his thoughts from the
details to see the general view. This is the task for
the philosopher, and that is why we must make
a distinction between the simple seeing and the
intellectual contemplation. The philosopher, or
apodictic intellectual seer, looks not for the best
sightseeing place but for the insight. He focuses
not upon all the changeable details but upon the
unchanged general view. The phenomenologist,
or the philosopher of these days, undertakes the
serial movements from one degree of clarity to
another to find out his own place in the nearness of
the essence. Husserl wrote: «…[J]ust as there is for
the moment corresponding to it in the individual
there is for any essence an absolute nearness, so
to speak, in which its givenness, compared to
the series of degrees of clarity, in an absolute –
i.e., a pure givenness of it itself»1 [Husserl, 1983:
153]. Everybody knows these serial movements
as the movements of a wanderer who searches
the best observation point to know where to go
next or as the movements of a hand that tries to
make the tuning precise. The philosopher direct
his movements from the remoteness to givenness
and design them to separate the solid clarity from
the fluid inclarity. «That which floats before us in
fluid inclarity, with a greater or less intuitional
remoteness, must therefore be brought into
normal nearness and made perfectly clear before
it can be used as the basis for a correspondingly
valuable eidetic intuition in which essences and
eidetic relationships intended to attain perfect
givenness» [Husserl, 1983: 153]. This activity
looks like the interior of a creamery or perhaps
like the genesis of the planets from the primordial
fog, but in fact, Husserl describes our common
way to idea, or eidos. Husserl as well as the preSocratic philosophers and Plato in his «cave
symbol» before him has passed this way through.
In fact, all the ordinary women or men usually
grasp the idea as the general view or overview.
However, as far as the eidetic phenomenology
tries to see not the facts, but the essences, Husserl
must distinguish the mere seeing from the insight
into the ideas as such.
The transitions from one degree of clarity to
another Husserl describes in a long but beautiful
passage. «Thus the method, which is fundamental
part of method of all eidetic science, universally
requires proceeding step by step. The intuitions
of style particulars serving the seizing upon
essences may be already clear to an extent which
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allows for acquiring an essentially universal
moment which, however, does not extend as far
as the guiding intention; clarity is lacking on the
side partaking to more detailed determinations
of the essences combined with <what had been
attained>, consequently there is a need to bring
the exemplificatory single particulars nearer or
to provide anew more suitable ones in which the
confusedly and obscurely single traits intended to
stand out and, consequently, can become given
with maximum clarity» [Husserl, 1983: 156–
157]. The philosopher has to move his glance step
by step to find out the only exemplary particular
that would arrest the guiding intention and
organize the intentional structure, or style. Even
the illumination is not necessary for the insight.
In the darkness of the undetermined areas, it
happens that the knocking at the door of intuition
is possible. «A bringing nearer is effected here
throughout, even in the sphere of obscurity. What
is obscurely intended to comes closer to us in
its own manner; finally it knocks at the door of
intuition, but even so it need not come in (and
perhaps it cannot “because of psychological
obstructions”» [Husserl, 1983: 157]. Nobody
can distinguish the particulars perfectly well in
the obscurity of the unknown areas though the
observer may anticipate some kind of the insight
here too. Anyway, the halo of darkness always
surrounds the particulars given in the circle of light.
«It should also be mentioned that what is given at
any particular time is usually surrounded by a
halo of undetermined determinability, which has
its mode of being brought closer “explicatively” in
becoming separated into a number of intendings
[Vorstellungen]; at first it still may be in the
realm of obscurity, but then within the sphere of
givenness until what is intended to comes into the
sharply illuminated circle of perfect givenness»
[Husserl, 1983: 157]. What will the philosopher
see when he uses the method of clarification to
provide the insight? Sometimes he will see the
style particulars perfectly clear so everybody
may choose the exemplary particular, sometimes
in the obscurity he will anticipate the knocking at
the door of his intuition, and he always grasp the
halo that surrounds every illuminated sphere.
We may clarify the concepts of our
predecessors and we may make the new step
through the sphere still illuminated because
of our first attempts to clarify. «The process
of clarification… means two things: making a
concept clear by recourse to fulfilling intuition,
and, second, a process of clarification executed in
the sphere of intuition itself» [Husserl, 1980: 89].
In any case, the clarification means not only the
transposition of the attention from one point to
another, but also the selection of the words. The
philosophical and scientific heritage is nothing
more or less than the wide set of the concepts.
In order to clarify the concepts the philosopher
has to bind them with the insights of the intuition.
Afterwards it is possible to make the next steps
to the further clarification. Despite this fact, the
«method», or the way, of clarification is both
useful and necessary. «A thing is not given; a
thing-concept is not brought to actual clarity, if
a thing is merely seen. A phantom is also seen,
a mere seeing also yields no more than what
corresponds to the phantom, namely as sensory
schema» [Husserl, 1980: 88–89]. Thus far, the
observer needs the clarification just to set apart
the phantoms or the usual mistakes and to
perceive the structure of the given world beyond
them. When the observer makes this distinction
between the simple ability to see and the insight,
he will comprehend how complex the adventures
of his eye are.
Husserl describes in the passages above the
illustrious picture of the operations with the images
and the darkness. However, there exists also the
problem of the words used in these descriptions.
As long as the insight and the naming coincide
in space and time, the clarification process is
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two-fold. Husserl unambiguously prefers the
ambiguous words of the ordinary language to the
logical or mathematical formulae. «The words
used may derive from the common language, they
may be ambiguous and their changing senses may
be vague. As soon as they “coincide” with the
intuitionally given in the manner characteristic
of an actual expression, they take on a definite
sense as their actually present and clear sense, hic
et nunc; and starting from there we can fix them
scientifically» [Husserl, 1983: 151–152]. We know
all the disadvantages of the ordinary language
fair well. Yet the technical terminology is much
worse being the road to the dead-end hidden in
the darkness of senselessness. «Since, for good
reasons in view of the existing ambiguities of
common usage, foreign technical terms should,
in so far as possible, be avoided in the generally
accepted language, there is a continuing need for
caution and for frequent re-examination to see
whether what was fixed in the earlier context is
actually employed in the same sense in the new
one» [Husserl, 1983: 152]. The one who likes to
preserve the insight has to compare the different
contexts. The earlier context is even better as
far as «clarification must follow precisely the
stages of the constitution of the exemplary
object of intuition in question» [Husserl, 1980:
88]. However, we must change context for the
further clarification of the object still grasped
by the intuition. The language consisted of the
conventional signs must be the worst possible
context as concerns the saving of the insight.
Husserl strictly opposes the indirect symbolism
of the mathematics or the natural and technical
sciences for it excludes or ceases the very
possibility of the insight. «The art of continually
inventing new symbolic procedures is practiced
more and more perfectly and its rationality
is essentially one that depends merely on the
symbolism and from the outset presupposes,
without insight, the value of the symbols. What
was relatively a matter of insight on a lower
level is symbolized anew on a higher level and
robbed of evidentness (as a superfluous burden
of thought), and so the sciences become what we
know them as: factories turning out very valuable
and practically useful propositions – factories
in which one can work as laborer and inventive
technician, factories from which, as a practical
man, one can without inner understanding derive
products and at best comprehend the technical
efficiency» [Husserl, 1980: 82]. Since «the
clarification also has the function of giving old
words the newly constituted sense» [Husserl,
1980: 88], there must be the element of a fancy
in all the intuitive attempts to grasp the essence,
and Husserl knew it. He wrote: «Thus if one is
fond of paradoxical phrases, one can actually
say, and if one means the ambiguous phrase in
the right sense, one can say in strict truth, that
“feigning” [Fiktion] makes up the vital element
of phenomenology as of every other eidetic
science, that feigning is the source from which
the cognition of “eternal truths” is fed» [Husserl,
1983: 160]. This phrase is not that paradoxical, as
it seems to be for the fictional language is perhaps
the best way to grasp the essence.
In his lectures and notes published under
the title Phantasy, Image Consciousness, and
Memory Husserl states: «Consciousness of what
is not present belongs to the essence of phantasy.
We live in present; we have a perceptual field of
regard. In addition, however, we have appearances
that present something not present lying entirely
outside this field or regard» [Husserl, 2005: 63].
Usually we see the phantasy appearances as
«empty phantoms» [Husserl, 2005: 64], they
are colorless and unsaturated. However, «there
are often cases in which phantasy appearances
present themselves as vigorous formations,
cases in which they bring to intention objects
that are sharply drawn, plastic and color
saturated» [Husserl, 2005: 63–64]. In any case,
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Sergey A. Nikitin. The Method of Clarification and the Figurative Language
every phantasy appearance changes, manifests
its «protean character» [Husserl, 2005: 66], so
«we can speak of one phantasy presentation with
discontinuous representation» [Husserl, 2005:
67]. The observer of the sensuous perception has
at his disposal only the image, the «representing»
object and the «represented» object [Husserl,
2005: 21]. That is all. Situation changes when
the observer looks upon his own phantasies: he
has at his disposal the marvelous variety of the
non-existent objects. «Anyone who phantasies
has an image experience. Something objective
appears to him. However, no one considers
this appearance to be an appearance of the
object itself. Certainly no one takes this faint,
fluctuating appearance – now rising fleetingly
to the surface, now disappearing, its content
changing in so many ways as it does so – to be
the appearance of the object» [Husserl, 2005: 27].
The different image experiences change each
other in a free play. They come, they vacillate for
a moment or so, they go away. It is this vacillation
we need to see the essence as clear as possible.
«The apprehension that constitutes the image
object is at the same time the foundation for the
presentation that, by means of the image object;
and in normal phantasy presentation and image
presentation the act of meaning is aimed at the
latter, directed toward it alone» [Husserl, 2005:
2]. The unchained phantasy invents or creates
the subject matter and that makes Husserl to
choose the unchained phantasy as the best kind
of the pursuit for the clarification of the essence.
Husserl here mentions the overwhelming force
of the images, which can provide the material
layer for the newly creating essences.
Taking into account the uselessness of the
formal languages, we must advert to the simple
language used by the ordinary (or even illiterate)
people in their everyday life. What another kind
of language is better to make the gaze clear?
However, the authors who describe these variants
of speech sometimes exaggerate the effects of the
ordinary language.
The outstanding American writer Robert M.
Pirsig in his second novel Lila. An Inquiry into
Morals compared simple language of the Native
Americans with the sophisticated language of the
Whites. The Native Americans lived the life on
their own. They did only necessary things. They
never used ineffective or just ceremonial gestures.
«… [W]hen the Indians entered the teepee, or
went out, or added logs, or passed the ceremonial
peyote, or pipe, or food, they just did these things.
They didn’t go about doing them. They just did
them. There was no waste motion. When they
moved a branch into the fire to build it up they
just moved it. There was no sense of ceremony.
They were engaged in ceremony but the way
they did it there wasn’t any ceremony» [Pirsig,
1992: 43]. It was the ceremonial world without
any kind of the overt ceremony. The speech of
the Native Americans was also direct and simple.
«The directness and simplicity was in the way
they spoke, too. They spoke the way they moved,
without any ceremony. It seemed to always come
from deep within them. They just said what they
wanted to say. Then they stopped. It wasn’t just
the way they pronounced the words. It was their
attitude – plain-spoken, he thought…» [Pirsig,
1992: 43–44]. The protagonist of the novel or
perhaps Pirsig himself used the wordplay as he
compared the speech of the Indians to the Plains
they lived on. «They were spoken in the language
of the plains. This was the pure Plains American
dialect he was listening to. It wasn’t just Indian.
It was white too…» [Pirsig, 1992: 44]. This
plain speech was not something specific to the
languages of the Native Americans. Everybody
could remember as Pirsig really did Woody
Guthrie songs or the cowboy movies (westerns) as
the sources of the same plain speech. Sometimes
the Native Americans used the language that
was not their own (American English) but they
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were not imitators even at that. «…They were
not imitating. If there’s one thing these people
didn’t do it was imitate. Everything was coming
straight from the heart. That seemed to be the
whole idea – to get straight things down to a point
where everything’s coming straight on, direct, no
imitation. But if they weren’t imitating, why did
they talk this way? Why were they imitating?»
[Pirsig, 1992: 44]. The protagonist ate some
peyote with his friend anthropologist and the
Indians. And then the huge peyote illumination
came to him: «They’re the originators!» [Pirsig,
1992: 44]. The Native Americans had originated
the imitative (American English) language. This
language was not native for the Indians but they
used it as if it was one. Along with the language
the Native Americans had created the main traits
of the white American character. «The Europeans
usually think the Americans to be sloppy and
untidy, but the Americans imagine the Indians
to have just the same traits of character». The
Indians had created this kind of all-American
character by their manner to speak. «Indians don’t
talk to fill time. When they don’t have anything to
say, they don’t say it. When they don’t say it, they
leave the impression of being a little ominous.
In the presence of this Indian silence, whites
sometimes get nervous and feel forced as a matter
of politeness or kindness to fill the vacuum with
a kind of small-talk which often says one thing
and means another. But these well-mannered
circumlocutions of aristocratic European speech
are “forked-tongue” talk to the Indian and are
infuriating. They violate his morality. He wants
you to either speak from the heart or keep quiet.
This has been the source of Indian-white conflict
for centuries and although the modern white
American personality is a compromise of that
conflict, the conflict still exists» [Pirsig, 1992:
50–51]. The white Americans seemed to be
the simpletons for the Europeans, although for
the Native Americans the speech of the whites
looked like a spider web. «…To the Indians,
whites seemed like spiders when they talked.
They sat there and smiled and said things they
didn’t mean, and all the time their mind was
spinning a web around Indian. They got so lost
in their own web-spinning thoughts they didn’t
even see that the Indian was watching them too
and could see what they were doing» [Pirsig,
1992: 51]. The plain speech of the simple people
is opposed to the spider web of the cultural
speech. This contraposition had to become the
ultimate foundation for the every discussion of
the preferences of the simple language and direct
speech over the sophisticated language and the
polite meaningless words.
An ability to express the state of affairs in
just a few necessary words will absolve from
superfluous deeds. If you are on the far side of the
word web you will be able to see clear. As opposed
to our meaningless talks, the direct speech of the
primitive and non-educated people allows seeing.
The simple usage of the language is so closely
connected with doing and making that it gives
way to make the life what you like it to be and
not only to do the deeds in a life you are doomed
to. Both the language and the life will become
ceremonial without overt ceremonies. And many
other natural and supernatural properties the
authors interested in these kinds of speech and
language usually ascribe to them.
Sometimes they even sanctify the simple
language. When the archpriest of the Russian
Old Believers and one of the prominent authors
of the movement fi nish his autobiography,
he referred to his own speech as «viakanie»
(blathering) [Abbakum, 2010: 73]. For sure, we
have here the kind of self-humiliation. However,
we have just read his autobiography and have
been able to use our own evaluation, not the
author’s one. We have just experienced him to
be the eminent and almost perfect writer. We
have more than enough reasons to treat his
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evaluation of his speech as a kind of a strategy.
Abbacum had called his speech a blathering
in an attempt to humiliate himself but not his
speech. In any case, the uncolored language had
been the worthy material for the preaching. On
the contrary, the rhetorically colored speech of
the official church had been irrelevant in such a
case. The good preacher had had to break away
the web of the words woven of the rhetorical
devices by the government officials and the
priests of the fallen church. The true believers
had had to put off all the wiles of the official
church and of the government embodied in the
words of the rhetorically educated people.
This or that variant of the simple language
may not be so close to the Holy Writ, but it usually
exhibits the great health and purity. Anyway,
all these imaginary stories about imaginary
plain speech are doubtful. All the flowers of
the rhetoric bloom in the simplest words of the
everyday speech. Everybody knows a set of
the arguments concerning the inner rhetorical
character of the simplest speech. César-Chesnau
Dumarsais points it as follows: «In effect, I am
persuaded that it is possible to fi nd out more
figures while you spend only one day on the
Central Market, than during a long time in the
Academy» [Dumarsais, 1818: 3]. For sure, he
speaks on the urban culture, but the language
of the servants and of the tradesmen displays
us at the same time its figural background and
the vital simplicity of its forefront. The simplest
language could be the most figural one. This is
true as concerns the language of the Scriptures
as well. Gerard Genette argues: «Genesis says:
“And there was light”. Nothing is more marked
than this simplicity: it is the very figure, indeed
the perfectly obligatory figure, of the sublime»
[Genette, 1982: 48]. The contraction is not the
way from the figural language to the direct or
uncolored speech. Just the opposite, it is an
example of the rhetorical device exercised.
Perhaps the simplicity of the figure is the source
for the force that is enough to create the reality
as sacred as the reality of the Holy Writ.
The rhetoric has known this force for the
centuries. The classical tractate On the Sublime
by the so-called Pseudo-Longinus describes the
impact of the figural language on the reader or
hearer. «This striking image, being thrown in by
the speaker in the midst of his proofs, enables
him by one bold stroke to carry all mere logical
objection before him. In all such cases, our nature
is drawn towards that which affects it most
powerfully: hence, an image lures us away from
an argument: judgment is paralyzed; matters of
fact disappear from view, eclipsed by the superior
blaze. Nor is it surprising that we should be thus
affected; for when two forces are thus placed in
juxtaposition, the stronger must always absorb
into itself the weaker» [Longinus, 1890: 36].
The «striking image» is not taken from the outer
space of the other realities. The playful painter
does not draw the image mentioned above over
the written text. In fact, any writer has to create
both the images and the statements from the same
matter. He has to produce his images as well as
his proofs from the words and by the words. He
uses the same means to achieve two opposite
aims at the same place and nearly at the same
time. In this way, he creates the place called text
where the images may break off the statements
and absorb their remains.
On the one side, the freely floating
imagination creates the material foundation for
the ideas. On the other side, the images may
destroy the rational content of the statements, or
ideas. Paul de Man has seen the same situation in
Friederich Nietzsche and described it as a kind of
rhetorical «aporia» between the language of tropes
and the language of persuasion. «Considered as
persuasion, rhetoric is performative but when
considered as system of tropes, it deconstructs
its own performance» [De Man, 1979: 131]. The
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incessant strife between the persuasive tropes and
the effects of persuasion is the very essence of the
rhetoric. This inner strife makes every text such a
complex structure that is hardly imaginable in the
simple and direct speech. One could not blame
the hypocrisy on the people whose words in no
way disagree with their deeds. The only possible
source of the «rhetoricity» of the simple speech is
not the word neither deed but the very situation of
speech. In the situation of the utterance, the one
who speaks must transfer or translate the infrasituational acts into the common words with their
inherent rhetoric. This transitional process creates
the obstacles for the stare inside the words. They
are more or less accidental words, they are the
bad metaphors, erased or forced
In his prose poem «Rhetoric» French poet
Francis Ponge treats the innovation in rhetoric
as a kind of the salvation for it «save some
youngsters from the suicide and some other
youngsters from the careers of the police officer
or firefighter» [Ponge, 1987: 157]. Any attempts
to create rhetoric anew are extremely necessary
for those youngsters who feel repulsion not to
become themselves but to live through some
other persons’ life. Their greatest obstacle is
their speech. «The words are made not by me
and they express themselves: they never express
me» [Ponge, 1987: 157]. Only the simpletons
like police officers or firefighters just use the
common words. The persons who like to become
themselves or the poets must change the words.
«It is worth and useful to teach art of resistance
1
to words, to say only what one want to say, the art
to violate the words and to subject them to one’s
power. As a result to found a rhetoric, or rather
to teach everybody to find out his own rhetoric,
is a public work of rewarding» [Ponge, 1987:
157]. Everybody is obliged to search his own
rhetoric for the standard language of the words
that can express nobody’s wishes not to become
an impenetrable obstacle for a gaze that would
look for the essence of the world. To find out the
perfect word means to win the two-dimensional
struggle. First, it is the struggle against the settled
words and speech turns. Second, it is the struggle
against accidental and approximate turns of
speech.
Conclusion
As long as everyday language of ordinary
people is capable to fasten an insight, the clarity
of a sight is in a way connected with simple and
plain speech. Exaggerated all of apologia of
ordinary language are, they only confi rm this
fact. The usage of the rhetorical trops or figures
creates all the unconceivable effects of an
everyday language. The internal contradiction
of art of eloquence and a seeming naturalness of
popular speech represents one more reason of an
ambiguity and of a misty gaze. That is why the
opening of rhetorical character of an ordinary
language, becomes a necessary condition of the
glance clearing. Deleting of metaphors during
creation of new versions of rhetoric is directly
conformed to free variations in phantasy.
The italics here as elsewhere in the text were used by the authors cited.
References
1. [Abbacum]. Zhitie protopopa Avvacuma im samim napisannoye i drugie ego sochinenya [The
archpriest Abbacum’s biography written by himself and his other works]. St. Petersburgh: Azbukaklassika, 2010. 384 P.
2. [Aristotle] The Metaphysics of Aristotle / Trl: J. H. MacMahon. L. George Bell & sons, 1896.
XCVI, 446 P.
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3. De Man P. Allegories of Reading. Figural Language in Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and
Proust. N. Haven: Yale UP, 1979. XII, 306 P.
4. Derrida J. Signéponge / Signsponge / Trl: R. Rand. N. Y.: Columbia UP, 1984. XII, 160 P.
5. [Dumarsais C.-S.] Les Tropes de Dumarsais. [The tropes by Dumarsais] P. Belin-le-Prieur,
1818. LXIV, XXIV, 362 P.
6. Genette G. Figures of Literary Discourse / Trl: A. Scheridan. N. Y. Columbia UP, 1982. 303 P.
7. Husserl E. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy.
Bk. 1 / Trl: F. Kersten. The Hague. Martinus Nijhoff, 1983. XXIII, 401 P.
8. Husserl E. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy.
Bk. 3 / Trl: T. E. Klein, W. E. Pohl. The Hague. Martinus Nijhoff, 1980. XVIII, 130 P.
9. Husserl E. Phantasy, image consciousness, and memory / Trl: J. B. Brough. Dordrecht:
Springer, 2005. LXVIII, 723 P.
10. Longinus. On the Sublime / Trl: H. L. Havell, L. Macmillan, 1890. XXXII, 102 P.
11. McKeon R. Rhetoric. Essays in Invention and Discovery. Woodbridge. Ox Bow press, 1987.
XXXIV, 220 P.
12. Pirsig R. M. Lila. An Inquiry into Morals. N. Y. Bantham books, 1992. VI, 468 P.
13. Ponge F. Le Parti pris des choses. [On the side of the things] P. Gallimard, 1987. 224 P.
Метод прояснения и фигуральный язык
С.А. Никитин
Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина
Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51
Статья посвящена отношениям феноменологии и риторики. Эдмунд Гуссерль приблизительно
сто лет тому назад исследовал, описал, а затем использовал в эйдетической феноменологии
примечательную способность каждого автора создавать воображаемые объекты при помощи
обычных слов. Сегодня мы стремимся отыскать в классических текстах Гуссерля намек на
то, каков лучший путь или метод прохождения сквозь слова и обретения возможности видеть
ясно. Следовательно, цель этой статьи в том, чтобы определить и описать возможные пути
сквозь иллюзию так называемой прямой речи к пониманию идеи. Поскольку предмет статьи –
легко преобразующийся процесс преобразования присутствующих слов в отсутствующие
изображения, она приводит к выводу в форме выбора. Этот выбор предсказан предложенным
еще Гуссерлем описанием так называемых свободных вариаций в фантазии. Мы полагаем, что
эти вариации будут риторическим сопротивлением обычным словам, своего рода ластиком,
который слой за слоем стирает метафоры.
Ключевые слова: риторика, эйдетическая феноменология, очевидность, фантазия, метод
прояснения, прямая речь, образный язык.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1262-1296
~~~
УДК 930.85
Agriculture and Taboo:
to the Problem of the Conflict of Identity
of Hunting-Nomadic and Agricultural Outlooks
Dmitry V. Pikalov*
North Caucasus Federal University
2 Kulakov Prospect, Stavropol, 355029, Russia
Received 02.05.2014, received in revised form 12.06.2014, accepted 24.07.2014
For more than ten years the sphere of scientific interests of the author is worldviews of nomadic peoples
of Eurasia. On this subject two monographs and more than fi fty scientific papers were published.
Studying the ideology of nomads, the author faced with the phenomenon of tough confrontation of
sedentary and nomadic farming worldviews. One of the elements of this world outlook conflict is the
taboo on occupation by agriculture in a number of archaic cultures.
Keywerds: agriculture, taboo, neolytic revolution.
In some works of ours, we touched upon the
phenomenon of identity hunting-nomadic and
agricultural outlooks, best showed in the biblical
story of Cain and Abel. Now we would like to
examine the phenomenon of the ban on farming,
inherent for a number of archaic cultures. But
first let’s remember how Cain and Abel conflict
begins.
Eve, the first man Adam’s wife, bore him
Cain, “and said: I have gotten a man from the
Lord “. After birth of Abel – “And Abel was
a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the
ground”. Next, each brother brings as a gift to
God the fruits of their labors, and God accepts
the sacrifice of Abel – “the firstborn of his flock
and of the fat thereof “, and does not accept Cain’s
sacrifice – “the fruits of the earth”. Explanation
of God concerning the adoption of the gifts is
vague “if you do well, won’t you be accepted? But
*
if you don’t do well, sin is lying outside your door
ready to attack. It wants to control you, but you
must master it”.
Let’s begin with the assumption which no
good deed Cain commits and what sin lies at his
door. Cain is a farmer, his brother Abel – a herder.
This is actually the answer to this question. Abel
has natural labor; it is subject to the laws of
nature, set, as the creators of the Old Testament
thought, by God. The Jews themselves during the
formation of the Old Testament were nomadic
pastoralists. Cain is a tiller; the risk to the nomad
is associated with his marginality. As noted by
A. van Gennep, the danger lies in the transition
state, in marginality in [3; p. 134]. Anyone in this
state is a danger to himself and to others.
In the same situation participants of
initiatory rituals in archaic societies appear.
“During the marginal period between ritual
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: swaromir@mail.ru
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death and ritual rebirth, those who pass the
initiation are temporarily in the position of
exiles. During the ritual, they have no place in
society. Sometimes they do go to live somewhere
else. But sometimes they live close enough
to allow random contacts between them and
productive members of society. In this case, we
fi nd that they behave like dangerous criminals.
They can attack, steal, and rob. Such behavior
is even encouraged. Antisocial behavior is an
appropriate expression of marginality of their
condition. Be borderline is to come into contact
with danger... “[4; p. 147].
We also should mention inherent for archaic
cultures, and in particular for old-Judaic [8; 1115], ban for desecration. Abel, as a shepherd,
is in contact with “clear” in terms of the Old
Testament animals: sheep, goats, cattle. Contact
with these animals did not require purification
before entering a temple.
“In some sense people form an alliance with
their land and their cattle, like God enters into an
alliance with them. People emphasize the firstborn
of their livestock; the Sabbath applies both to
humans, and cattle. The cattle are domesticated
literally, taken into the house as slaves. The
animals should be included in the social order,
so the blessing could touch them” [4; p. 89].
Considering the fact that the ancient Hebrews
were originally nomads, and only later moved to
agriculture , it can be assumed that their nomadic
environment contained certain restrictions for
agriculture, what we can see in other nations [16;
p. 318-319 ]. We cannot insist on that, but there
is a very interesting piece of Leviticus, which is
worth quoting: “And every creeping thing that
creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination;
it shall not be eaten. Whatsoever goeth upon the
belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or
whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping
things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not
eat; for they are an abomination. [8; 11, 41-42].
This passage refers to the unclean animals
of all reptiles, snakes, worms, lizards, etc., i.e. all
who have obvious connection with land (Chthon).
And could not any idea of uncleanness of chthonic
animal be associated with impurity of the farmer
in hunter’s and nomad’s mind?
In XIX century ethnographers recorded in
some cultures hunting bans on agriculture. M.
Eliade writes: “Smohalla, Uanapum tribal leader,
refused to cultivate the land. He believed that to
wound, cut, tear, scratch “our common mother”
making farm work, is a great sin. He added: “You
ask me to cultivate the land? But how can I take a
knife and plunge it into the womb of his mother?
After all, if I did, she would never take back my
dead body. You ask me to loosen the soil and pull
stones? But can I disfigure the mother’s body,
reaching down to the bones? If I did, I am no
longer able to enter it to reborn again. You ask me
to mow the grass, make hay, sell it and enrich like
the white man? But how dare I hurt my mother’s
hair?” These words were spoken by less than a
century ago, but they go far back into history”
[16; p.318-31].
Here we see the traces of identity conflict
generated by the Neolithic revolution. Taboos
on agriculture, fixed in hunters and gatherers
societies could hardly arise, if they hadn’t farmers
nearby, with their more than a strange practice.
But it’s not so much a taboo, but the absence
of the cultural paradigm of agriculture among
hunters and gatherers. As the V.R. Cabo say
“hunters Bororo treated crops of neighboring
farmers like other gifts of nature – at every
opportunity they snatched young cassava roots,
baked and ate them” [6]. It is the lack of cultural
paradigms that didn’t allow a number of tribes
of hunters and gatherers to make the transition
to agriculture in the XIX century, though white
colonists helped them. In some cases, hunters
and gatherers ate immediately seeds for sowing
handed out to them, and in others – exhumed
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immature, young plants in white specialists’
treated fields, and ate them on the spot.
In the XIX century Brazil’s government has
chosen for this experiment a hunter-gatherer tribe
Bororo. They received arable land and seeds,
fields were treated for them by experts sent by the
government. Tribe received edibles in an amount
sufficient to live up to the time of harvesting.
But as soon as the Bororo became the proud
owners of axes, as they began to fell trees that
they previously had to climb on to get their fruits.
Sugarcane plantations had to be guarded day and
night, to save them from destruction, and cassava
plantations were killed, as women accustomed
to digging wild roots, ran to the fields with their
digging sticks and removed non-mature tubers.
[9; p.11-12].
“A missionary, who tried to attach an African
hunter-gatherer tribe Vasekele simultaneously to
the benefits of Christianity and to acquaint them
with agriculture, was raised by the natives to
laugh, and all his offers were rejected with such
arguments: “Are monkeys starving? We know
forests, and rivers, and streams. God wants us to
have roamed freely, and there is no his will that
we take the hoe” [9; p.12].
Aborigines of the island of Luzon refused
to learn the art of growing plants, because
“they do not want to stay in the same place”
[9; p.12]. Even tribes persuaded to plant several
kinds of vegetables, mostly left the landing area
before harvest time. It is possible that rough
and administrative methods commonly used by
the colonial authorities and missionaries played
some part; that could even lead to a rigid taboo
on agriculture, which M. Eliade noted in North
American Indian tribes.
Besides, we should note psychological
factors. “Pygmies and farmers treated each other
with some disdain, thinking the opposite side to
be of second-class people or even animals”, – M.
Kozlovskaya told [7]. Bantu sometimes married
women from the forest tribe of pygmies, reverse
marriages were never concluded. Pastoralists
were more aggressive towards neighboring
Bushmen – hunters and gatherers, as they
needed to expand their pastures. And Bushmen
experiencing pressure also took an aggressive
stance, increasing cattle rustling. They had no
wish to adopt this lifestyle: “Better one cow in
the stomach than ten in the pen”, they said [7].
Australian Aborigines of Cape York Peninsula
and Torres Strait islanders communicated with
Papua farmers and knew the principles of growing
plants, but actually did not engage in farming [13;
p.40].
Only under the influence of crisis factors,
rather than economic efficiency, some tribes of
hunters and gatherers in the XVIII-XIX centuries
are gradually moving towards agriculture. At
the end of the XIX century Bakairi tribes still
remembered that their grandfathers “knew
nothing of maize and cassava”. And only an acute
food crisis has forced Bakairi as well as Baynings
to learn simplest methods of farming from their
neighbors. Currently, hunting is their secondary,
auxiliary production unit [6]. In recent years
it became clear that many Bushmen, nomadic
hunters and gatherers of Botswana were able
to grow plants, but have done that only in rainy
years, as during periods of drought they were not
able to save the harvest.
On the Muralug Island at the beginning of
the XIX century Muralug only a few men with
socio-prestigious goals were growing yam, which
was imported from New Guinea and did not play
any significant role in the diet. But in the years
1848-1849 the traditional economy was in crisis
(catch of turtles plummeted, and there was a poor
harvest of wild yam), the locals started planting
wild yam everywhere [13; p.40].
Indian prophet Smohalla’s words that to
wound, cut, tear, scratch “our common mother”
making farm work, is a great sin [16; p.318], find
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paradoxical parallels in the views of agricultural
peoples. V. Toporov gives the example of Russian
religious verse, which says that when people first
began to cultivate land, she screamed with pain
and furrows of plow filled with blood. Then God
said land not to cry and not to bleed, and now
feed the people – “but you will eat them all” [7;
p.277]. Considering that the Russian spiritual
verses contain enough archaic pre-Christian
beliefs formation, the above verse is consistent
with widespread among certain peoples views
that Eliade gives: “Nomadic Bayta farmers, one
of the primitive Dravidian tribes of Central India,
sowed only in ash remaining on areas where the
jungle burnt out.
They were not stopped even with the
difficulties of this farming, because to cut their
mother’s breast with a plow they considering a
sin. And some Altaic and Finno-Ugric peoples
considered a terrible sin to pluck grass, because
the earth is just as painful as a man whose hair
or beard is pulled. Votyaks (Udmurtia), who
according to custom, used pits for sacrificial, took
care that the offerings were not made autumn,
since at this time the earth is sleeping. Cheremisy
(Mari) thought the earth was often sick, and
during such periods avoided sitting on it. There
is a lot of other evidence in preserving certain
beliefs associated with the cult of the Earth
Mother both in agricultural and non-agricultural
tribes. The cult of earth, even if it is not, as some
scientists believe, the oldest religion of man, is
becoming obsolete quite difficult” [15; p.235].
It is worth pointing to another aspect. Abel’s
killing animals for food has no differences with
similar acts of predators or hunters. Nowadays
many primitive peoples consider life of a hunter
more prestigious than the sedentary life of a
farmer. A typical example: Colombian desana
call themselves hunters, although 75% of their
food they get by fishing and gardening. But in
their eyes life of a hunter is an only real life [14; p.
50]. Primitive tribes often imagined the afterlife
as a country of rich hunting grounds. V. Masson
argues that hunting gave the Jeitun farmers of
ancient settlements in Central Asia (V century
BC) only 25% of animal food, the rest was
supplied by pets [10; P. 121]. At the same time it
is noteworthy that in one of dzheytun settlements
Pessedzhik-Depe wall paintings depicting hunting
were found. Apparently, hunting images in the
views of farmers continued to play an important
sacred role.
V. Shnirelman notes: “In contrast to early
hunters and gatherers, farmers had less diverse
food, their diet most consisted of carbohydrates,
and they experienced a protein deficiency, which
could be only avoided engaged regularly in
hunting and fishing. But developing agriculture
remaining hunters and fishermen was impossible
“[13; p.39]. Meat food acquired a special appeal
for farmers. That’s why meat and its production
eventually received a special sense of social
prestige. “Here lie causes of a paradoxical at first
glance phenomenon when early farmers often
considered hunting to be the most prestigious kind
of work. So, Indians Desai living in the Northwest
Amazon , considered themselves hunters and
hunting here were associated with basic value
orientation; although in practice hunting gave no
more than a quarter of their daily diet, many men
were more likely to engage in fishing, and the
main source of food was agriculture” [13; p.39].
Historians observe the same phenomenon
much later of the Don and the Zaporozhye
Cossacks: some Cossacks and the whole of
their association had the character of “earners”.
Cossacks despised ploughmen and kept them
apart. “Do not have wives, do not plow the land,
feed from cattle, animal catching and fishing
and in the old days had plunders obtained from
neighbor peoples”. Cossacking was a special
method of earning one’s living, and Paprocki,
who carols Cossacks as knights, recognized that
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in the lower reaches of the Dnieper “saber brought
more profits than household” [5].
Eliade notes: “In a few millennia after
the victory of agricultural economy outlook
of primitive hunters again affects the history.
Invasion and conquest of Indo-Europeans and the
Turkic-Mongols will be taken under the sign of the
hunter, “predator”. Members of the Indo-European
military alliances and nomadic horsemen of
Central Asia treated settled population they
attacked like predators – chasing, strangling and
devouring steppe herbivores or livestock. Many
Indo-European and Turkic- Mongol tribes wore
eponyms of predatory animals (especially wolf)
and had their origin from teriomorfic mythical
ancestor.
Military initiation of Indo-European
supposed ritual transformation into a wolf:
a paradigmatic warrior assimilated predator
behavior. Besides, persecution and killing a
wild animal becomes mythological model of
conquering a territory and establishment of the
state. Assyrians, Iranians, and Turkic-Mongol
had indistinguishably similar ways of hunting
and war. Everywhere in the Eurasian world ,
from the appearance of the Assyrians before to
newest times, hunting is a school and field testing,
and favorite sport for sovereigns and military
aristocracy...” [14; p.50-51]. Hunting is inheritance
of noble estates, from the Egyptian Pharaohs to
the aristocrats of Europe, an important part of
their high life; in medieval England it was the
main entertainment of the king and the Norman
aristocracy between military campaigns and
concerns of governing the country. This led to
emergence of such a phenomena as the Royal
forest or protected forest – forest in medieval
Europe, owned by kings and subject to special
forest feudal law, which was characterized by
extremely harsh penalties for infringement of
rights of the monarch for hunting and disposal of
forest resources. The greatest development of the
royal institute of protected forests was in England
end XI – beginning of XIII centuries.
Hundreds of thousands of years, man lived
in a kind of mystical symbiosis with wildlife, left
indelible marks. Moreover, orgiastic ecstasy is
able to re-actualize religious behavior of ancient
paleogominid – eating raw victim; this happened
in Greece, among worshipers of Dionysus, or in
the XX century among Moroccan ayssava [14;
p.51].
Adam and Eve as the Old Testament says,
lived a natural life gatherers in paradise gardens
of Eden, and only became farmers when had been
driven out: “Therefore the LORD God sent him
(Adam) forth from the garden of Eden, to till the
ground from whence he was taken” [2, 3, 23].
Agricultural labor is definitely interpreted by the
Old Testament as an element of punishment for
original sin.
Antinomy “farmer – herder” in cultures of the
Ancient Orient is also manifested linguistically.
Biblical Garden – Eden, is close to the Hebrew
vocables e’den – “pleasure” and supposedly dates
back to the Sumerian word edin – “plain“, “not
plowed land”. The fact that for the nomad plowed
land is associated with filth, sin and a violation
of taboos, we reviewed in detail in our book
“Mythologems of Neolithic revolution” [10].
Eden of ancient nomads is not-plowed fertile
plains. As rightly noted “...the ancient Jews were
eager to settle permanently in the fertile plains.
But it is significant that they dreamed of lands
“full with milk and honey” but not of the land of
bountiful crops, like Egyptians thought were in
after-life…
Organized states of the ancient Near
East were agricultural, but the values of an
agricultural commune are opposite values of a
nomadic tribe, and in particular – its extreme
type – desert nomads. Respect of settled farmers
to impersonal power and dependency, coercion
imposed by organized state means for the nomad
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unbearable lack of personal freedom. Eternal
worries of farmers about everything related
to the phenomenon of growth, and his total
dependence on these phenomena are a form of
slavery for a nomad. Moreover, for him a desert
is clean, and the picture of life, which at the
same time is a picture of rotting, is disgusting”
[13, p.291].
To drive to some place a crowd of peasants
were for nomadic Mongols as naturally as to
drive a herd of cattle, and their language was
designated them in the same terms. [8, p. 92]. In
his paper, D. Weatherford many times stated that
the Mongols of Genghis Khan hated lifestyle of
farmers itself.
Thus, during capture of North China, “the
Mongols not only systematically burned the cities,
but also spent much time and labor to destruction
of irrigation systems, which led to the complete
abandonment of large areas”. [8, p.119] Nomads
of Genghis Khan “came not to conquer and
control, but to kill, destroy and plunder...” – says
William Durant in his multi-volume “History
of Civilization” [1, p.340]. Mongols “not only
leveled cities to the ground and destroyed castles,
but also cut down vineyards, burnt orchards,
trampled fields” [8, p.148].
Actions of a farmer are strange and even
unnatural in terms of worldview of a hunter
and nomad. He pollutes and wounds the earth;
digging it, he “buries” the grain and waits until it
“resurrects”, he destroys the grain, turning it into
flour and bread.
Maybe that’s why labor of the farmer, as he
himself was scorned at all times. As Pierre Monte
writes in his book “Egypt of Ramses”: “The
scribe despised anyone engaged in physical work,
but below all he put the farmer. With their work,
farmers wore as fast as their tools. They were
beaten and mercilessly exploited by hosts and
tax collectors , they were robbed and plundered
by neighbors and looter, weather misled them,
locusts and rodents revenged them, they set
themselves against all the enemies of the human
race – this was the fate of the farmer. His wife
could be thrown in jail, children picked for debt.
Farmer was a complete image of an unfortunate
man...” [11; p.103]. Contempt for the farmer we
see in another ancient Egyptian text “Instructions
Ahto, son of Duauf” [1; p.87-88]. A few thousand
years later treatment to farmers has not changed:
“sullen animals, males and females are scattered
throughout the country; dirty and deathly pale,
burnt with sun, chained to the ground they dig
and shovel with indomitable perseverance; they
even possess a kind of gift of articulate speech,
and when straightened they show human faces,
and they really people. At night they return to
their lairs, where they live on black bread, water
and roots” [17; p.57- 60] – wrote about the French
peasants of his time in the XVII century Jean de
La Bruyere.
Here we come close to realization –
detection– of a crucial stage separating the
nomad hunter from sedentary farmer. Difference
in their employment was only external, not
very significant difference. Depth of the sociopsychological incompatibility and conflict of
identity was different.
A farmer lived in the state, each member
of which in some sense abandoned the natural
human right to self-defense and entrusted it to
someone else: a soldier, policeman, a judge, a
guard, a king, a jailer, an executioner. Free from
the problems of civil and military administration,
the farmer could all his time and energy spend
for useful work. Not like nomad hunter. Within
the tribal structure he retains all the rights and
responsibilities of self-defense – for himself, his
family, his tribe. He is a warrior, bravely going
to fight with any foreigner. He is also a judge
who knows the laws and customs of fathers; he
monitors their performance in his family and
neighbors.
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He is also an executioner, performing the
execution of “sentence” on the offender. He is a
supreme ruler, the tribal council deciding when to
attack the enemy or a rich caravan, and when to
retreat to a safe shelter. This is a key difference,
and it the main obstacle to the transition of
nomadic peoples to settled agriculture. A nomad
could learn from a farmer land plowing and
irrigation techniques, could sweat harvesting and
construction of the house, haying for cattle. But he
could not and did not want to part with his sacred
rights, which gave him a membership in the tribe
with its extensive “social I-can” [4, p.162-163]”.
A farmer, with all his richness, was in the eyes
of a nomad a disenfranchised poor fellow who
has lost his sense of honor, because he waived his
right to defend his honor and freedom in arms.
This blatant contempt, beggar and backward
nomad showed a prosperous farmer, was noted
a thousand times in memoirs and travel books.
Pride of a Bedouin, Mongol, Indian, Circassian
became proverbial, forced the civilized world to
show respectful cautious towards hunters and
nomads” [4, p.163].
References
1. Berlev O.D. The Oldest Description of the Egiptian’s Social Organization- The Problems of
Social Relations and Forms of Dependence in the Ancient East . Moscow, 1984.
2. The Book of Genesis.
3. A. Van Gennep. Les Rites des Passage.
4. M. Douglas. Purity and Danger. Analysis of Representation about Desecration and Taboo.
5. Zaporozhe Cossacks: historical reference. http://evenings.rpg.by/inf_hist.htm
6. B.R. Capo. The Primitive preagricultural community. http://aboriginals.narod.ru/primitive_
preagricultural_community.htm
7. Kozlovsky M.V. Alimentary innovation productive economy. http://imp.rudn.ru/psychology/
anthropology/ch9_5.html
8. The Book of Leviticus.
9. Lips Yu. The Origin of things. Essays of Primitive culture. Moscow, 1995.
10. V. Masson. The Settlement Jeytun. The problem of Formation Manufacturing Economy.
Leningrad,1971.
11. P. Monte. Ramesses Egypt. The Daily Life of Egyptians during the Time of Great Pharaoh.
12. Moscow,1989.
13. Toporov V.N. To Image Reconstruction of Mother Earth. //Balto-Slavic research 1998-1999. –
Мoscow, 2000
14. V.A. Shnirelman. What is Neolithic Revolution?// Knowledge is Power. 1988. – № 10.
15. M. Eliade. The History of Belief and religion ideas. In 3 books. Moscow, 2008.
16. M. Eliade. The Essays of Comparative Religion. Moscow,1999.
17. M. Eliade. The Sacred and the Usual. Moscow, 2000.
18. Stannard D. E. American Holocaust: Columbus and the Conquest of the New World. – Oxford
University Press, 1992.
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Dmitry V. Pikalov. Agriculture and Taboo: to the Problem of the Conflict of Identity of Hunting-Nomadic…
Земледелие и табу:
к проблеме конфликта идентичности
охотничье-кочевого
и земледельческого мировоззрений
Д.В. Пикалов
Северо-Кавказский федеральный университет
Россия, 355029, Ставрополь, пр. Кулакова, 2
Вот уже более десяти лет сферой научных интересов автора статьи являются
мировоззренческие установки кочевых народов Евразии. По данной проблематике были
опубликованы две монографии и более полусотни научных статей. Изучая идеологию кочевников,
автор столкнулся с феноменом жесткого противостояния мировоззрений представителей
оседлого и кочевого земледелия. Одним из элементов этого мировоззренческого конфликта
является табу на занятие земледелием в ряде архаических культур.
Ключевые слова: земледелие, неолитическая революция, табу.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1270-1277
~~~
УДК 316.722 (470+571)-029:17
Polyvariant Character
of the Russian Moral Culture
Aza S. Franz*
Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University
11 Mechanical Engineers Str., Ekaterinburg, 620012, Russia
Received 08.05.2014, received in revised form 21.06.2014, accepted 03.07.2014
The paper justifies the idea that the Russian society faces not only the process of destruction of
the national ethical culture but rather destruction of habitual conception of the national culture.
Differentiated approach to the problems has enabled the author to come to such a conclusion. On the
basis of this approach the author concludes on the polyvariant character of the national moral culture.
Traditional moral culture, aristocratic moral culture (that started to transform into “intelligent” mode
of morality in the second half of the XIX century), pragmatic (business) moral culture and the system of
nihilistic morals and behavior have been presented in the paper as these variants. On the basis of the
cited ethical/axiological studies the author presents the systems of ethical values of each of currently
functioning variants. It is suggested that without organization of ethical/cultural education in the
social conditions being formed nowadays it is impossible for a human being to form consciously an
optimal version of the individual moral culture.
Keywords: ethical culture, morality, mores, society, personality, traditional culture, aristocratic
culture (intelligence), pragmatic (business) culture, Russian nihilistic mores, conscious choice.
It is fairly accepted that the moral culture of
each people is one of its most significant social
values. Its effects on maintaining of the human
community integrity and on the ennoblement
of human interrelations are rarely doubted.
Over the centuries moral culture of any society
was developed on the basis of aggregate social
experience, positive outputs of which took the
form of customs and traditions. As it was not once
mentioned in the history of culture, “the notion
of good and evil were elaborating … not on the
basis of what was good or evil for an individual
creature but on the basis of what was good or evil
for the whole genus” [4, 77]. However, as years
passed by the formation of human individual
*
moral culture became more and more difficult,
this required specialized scientific research.
In the conditions of traditional societies
perception of moral culture by a human being
did not require special attention of scholarship.
The moral norms content was apprehended
by an individual just as any social value; that
is through the medium of spiritual, sensible
cognition in the process of observations over
repeated visualizations of culture in the other
people behavior. The Russian philosophy used
to outline that “in real life the point of value
is occurring in inseparable connection with
the existence” [5,7]. Any deviation of human
behavior from the commonly accepted standards
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: afranz38@mail.ru
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Aza S. Franz. Polyvariant Character of the Russian Moral Culture
was practically impossible as the direct social
control of the ambience gave the suction for each
act that did not comply with concepts of morality.
Thus, traditional society secured for its member
a possibility to feel and comprehend the generally
accepted differences between good and evil, to
adopt the requirements of morality and moral
means of their realization in one’s behavior,
mandatory for everybody.
In post-traditional societies the situation
has changed considerably. Though the
significance of moral culture for functioning
of society and for human vital activities has
not decreased (it has even increased due to
emergence of increasingly destructive terrorist
techniques and environmental accidents!),
it becomes more and more difficult to take
advantage of ennobling effects of moral culture.
The way of its perception prevalent in the past
is not easily practicable now as the society has
formed and practices coexisting contradictory
understanding of the preferable behavior.
Supporters of traditional morality are often to
demand emphatically reproduction of its norms
in reality but their efforts increasingly rarely
can be admitted successful.
Reduction of effectiveness of the moral
culture traditional perception has actualized
the necessity of scientific analysis of this
culture. Cultural studies have faced the task of
differentiated comprehension of real morals and
manners typical for a society. It seems the most
productive to the author to reveal the character
of the moral culture interconnections with the
relative phenomena: e t h i c s , m o r a l i t y, a n d
m o r e s . Analysis of the studies of e t h i c s
enables the author to present it as “basic spiritual
establishment formed in the society on the basis
of experience in interaction of individualities
and aimed at preventing the mankind against
self-destruction” [6.31]. Ethics is an imperative
system of principles and criteria of assessment for
human deeds. It forms m o r a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l
pu r poses for people aimed at good
a n d p r o h i b i t i o n s t o e v i l . Morality, just as
ethics, is a spiritual establishment. But the matter
of this spiritual establishment is composed of
“the mankind-developed conceptions on contents
of human properties necessary for realization
of norms of human behavior to be approved by
the society” [6, 46]. Morality is forming human
conceptions about social norms of behavior,
a d e q u a t e t o the ethical prescriptions. Ethics
and morality can be correlated as developed in the
human mind requirements to people’s behavior
(ethics) and means to fulfill these requirements
(morality).
Human behavior adequate to ethics and
morality express itself in m o r e s , and they
are socially accepted norms and forms of
human behavior. In them, in particular, ethics’
commanding character and morality’s content
comprehended by the given social community
realize themselves. Thus, ethics and morality
can be expressed as spiritual prerequisites of
the moral culture functioning, while mores
can be expressed as its practical visualization.
The approach suggested by the author enables
to present m o r a l c u l t u r e a s a s p e c i f i c
system of et h ics, moralit y a nd
m o r e s . It presumes to interpret directly and
indirectly observed customs on the basis of
the forming concrete/historical understanding
of ethics and morality by diverse cultural
groups. In this, the determining criterion of
behavior’s morality becomes rather the degree of
compliance with moral principles than the degree
of its habitualness. This enables to understand,
at least, two problems that are relevant to the
contemporary society. The first one: is it really
moral culture or just habitual notions of it that
are being destroyed. The second problem: is the
habitual method of mastering the moral culture
sufficient for moral self-cultivation.
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The study of the Russian moral culture
phenomenon conducted by the author has allowed
us to make a conclusion on the fact that “in current
conditions several types of moral values have
been formed that can claim the status of various
versions of the Russian moral culture” [7, 319].
Nowadays aristocratic, pragmatic and nihilistic
systems of ethics and morality insight by various
social groups function in the Russian society.
The existing traditional moral culture defined
and continues to define the value of an individual
in accordance with the extent of its u s e f u l n e s s
for the society. In this context it is no wonder that
in the last century 60s there was a discussion: who
must be saved first from water, a physicist or a
lyric poet? As physicists in the USSR of that time
were considered more beneficial for the society
persons than lyric poets, many participants of
the discussion considered that a physicist should
be saved first. In the traditional Russian moral
culture s e l f - s a c r i f i c e was welcomed as
voluntary service in the interest of the society,
with such its highest manifestations as h e r o i s m ,
unselfishness, m o d e s t y, w i l l i n g n e s s t o
pat ient overcom i ng of a ny suf fer i ng
for the sake of maintaining of common good.
These qualities helped people of the traditional
society to comply with the main demand of the
moral culture: that is t o b e l i k e a l l o t h e r s ,
they were the main criteria of people’s self-esteem.
The traditional system of values was based on the
principle of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . Authority of
age or hierarchic status determined the whole
set of undoubted norms of moral behavior:
r e s p e c t t o t he olde r f rom t he you nge r,
responsibilit y of t he older for act ions
of t he you nge r, i mpl icit ob e d ie nc e a nd
hu mbleness of t he you nger i n respect
o f t h e e l d e r s ’ c o m m a n d . “Render honor
and bow to those who are elder than you”, that
was a percept of Domostroy [3, 20]. This principle
made impossible any open conflict in everyday
life. On the background of humbleness the
authoritarianism inevitably were transforming
into F u h r e r p r i n z i p . The cult of Leader as the
highest earthy authority stimulated emergence of
the whole spectrum of the necessary properties:
l o y a l t y, t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , c o n s i s t e n c y.
Centuries-long system of the moral culture would
be incomplete without inclusion of such a value as
p a t r i o t i s m , which should be constantly proved
by a person in its behavior. The traditional moral
culture system faultlessly functioned due to
existence of so-called o r d e r and unconditional
obedience of each person to its demands. The
order was understood as the knowledge and
fulfilling by every person of its moral duties
and the public opinion’s most severe sanctions
in respect of every infringer. The order secured
the necessary level of public labor, warranted
preservation of family and mutual assistance.
When completing the description of the
traditional moral culture image one could
not miss to mention the character of relations
between a person and surrounding people. For the
traditional moral interrelations f a i t h of a person
in the possibility of help from other people, h o p e
of a person for this help and people’s l o v e of any
person as a creature of God were typical. This is
an approximate v i s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
m o r a l c u l t u r e based on the ethical/
axiological analysis of historical documentation,
fiction literature and observations of human
interrelations. However, in spite of tremulous
reproduction in literature and even in life the
traditional culture attractive values, no one of its
followers managed to intensify, at least to a small
degree, contemporary people orientation to the
traditional moral ideals. Traditional moral culture,
so familiar for all Russians, continues to exist
but the sphere of its application is considerably
decreasing. Cultural groups predisposed to
p e r f o r m i n g type of activity remain the subject
of its reproduction. Over the past centuries the
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traditional moral culture became a launching pad
for development on its basis other versions of moral
culture: a r i s t o c r a t i c (intellectual/creative),
pragmatic
(organizational/entrepreneurial)
and n i h i l i s t i c c u s t o m s .
A r i s t o c r a t i c m o r a l c u l t u r e started to
develop in the historical conditions when society
could afford c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f h u m a n
e x i s t e n c e . The process of comprehension of
any phenomenon by human mind is possible,
first of all, provided that there are conditions
for d e v e l o p m e n t of its i n d i v i d u a l i t y.
Therefore, gradually a system of moral values
different from traditional habits and manners
has developed within a social group of people
with predisposition to intellectual/creative
activities. Within the aristocratic customs human
labor is not considered as a compulsory share
in common labor but it is corresponding to an
initiative pursuit of a person itself to experience
pleasure resulted from the process of artistic or
scientific comprehension of the world. Studying,
ornamentation and ennoblement of the universe
became the meaning of life. For the sake of truth,
it is worth mentioning that results of intellectual/
creative activities of people become, as a rule,
useful for the whole society.
The aristocratic moral culture system of
values has attached high significance to such
human qualities as their n e e d f o r f r i e n d s h i p
and ability to be friends умение дружить,
n e e d f o r a d m i r i n g в о с х и щ а т ь с я other
person’s individuality and ability to notice and
appreciate the latter. P. V. Annenkov stressed that,
for example, for N.V. Gogol “even the extent of
respect for people was determined by the extent of
their expertise in some particular matter” [1, 56].
Predisposition of an individual for intellectual
creative activity involuntary creates in subjects
of other versions of moral culture who are not
familiar with specific features of intellectual
creative activity (and, not infrequently, in
creators themselves) the appearance of their
idle and, consequently immoral life. In this
variant of the moral culture any display of
practicality or prudent endeavor to succeed in
some activity could be unlikely assessed high,
as only concentration of a person’s attention
on the process of creation and accompanying it
high spirituality were admitted moral. P r i d e is
a distinguishing value of this moral culture as
well. It is understood as an intention of a person
not to burden other people with its troubles,
not to exploit their good attitude. By the way,
patriotic pride for one’s Motherland is gradually
supplemented with c o s m o p o l i t i s m , i.e. a need
for admiring everything that is worth of admiring
in the whole world. A person’s protective attitude
to surrounding people and its assurance in their
integrity and honesty stimulated it for display of
m a g n a n i m i t y. Moral ideals in conscience of
people adherent to this kind of culture took so
exquisite and attractive character that there were
no necessity to control each other’s behavior.
S e l f - e s t e e m and continuous e n d e a v o r t o
s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t did not allow them to
behave lower that their moral ideals. If the above
mentioned values were supplemented with the
characteristic for this type of culture possibility
to display the feeling of l o v e between parents
and children, between male and female, f a i t h
to predominance of good qualities in people and
h o p e for their preference of good deeds, as an
output we receive the basis for description of
the aristocratic moral cult ure image.
Together with appearance in XIX century the
social group of intelligentsia the aristocratic moral
culture gradually commenced to be perceived as
intelligence.
Very little in common with traditional
and aristocratic variants of moral culture
were revealed in the p r a g m a t i c m o r a l
c u l t u r e i m a g e . The name of this moral
culture version is not free from causes for
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debates, because pragmatism traditionally was
considered in Russia as an antipode of morality,
being in contradiction, for instance, with such
its characteristic as unselfishness. Omitting
the description of dramatic effect of pragmatic
variant of moral culture, its ideals and norms
formation in Russia, it is expedient to analyze
them from the point of view of their usefulness
in respect of the process of maintaining the
society’s integrity. S e r v i c e of an entrepreneur
to b u s i n e s s and aspiration to g e t t i n g a
prof it a nd ret ai n i ng on it s ef f iciency
are the determinative values of the moral culture
pragmatic variant. Such an attention to oneself
at first glance could be assessed infrequently as
egoism which traditionally considered immoral
in Russia. But – only at first glance! Provident
attitude of businesspeople to keeping on their
efficiency gradually was forcedly acknowledged
in common opinion as moral, because such
an attitude optimized economic conditions of
modern society existence. Without entrepreneurs’
prudence it is impossible to secure many conditions
of the society social integrity maintaining. These
conditions comprise organization of providing the
society with necessary quantity of commodities
and services; charity that gradually replaces
mercy which is constantly diminishing in human
relations; discharging of the great amount of
taxes to the state budget in order to realize public
social policy, etc. C o o p e r a t i o n in the moral
culture pragmatic variant becomes a high value
for the purposes of development of material
production. Without idealization of pragmatic
habits and manners arising from cruel violence,
the moral value of such qualities created by
them as i n d e f a t i g a b i l i t y, c o n s i s t e n c y,
honest y of people i n respect of work
and honest y in business relations as a
d e r i v a t i v e o f c a u t i o n s hould be mentioned.
The value of c o m p r o m i s e , t r u s t , first of all,
i n its ow n power and capacities, hope
only for o n e s e l f , and l o v e , certainly, f o r
o n e s e l f should be referred to as the pragmatic
culture preferences. An attempt to rehabilitate
egoism within the moral assessments’ system
(T. Hobbes, M. Weber, N. G. Chernishevsky,
M. M. Petrov and others) was, obviously, a
necessary stage in people’s reflection regarding
inevitable (in the conditions of a new kind of
activities) redefining of the moral values content.
In the moral culture pragmatic variant the value
of s e l f - c o n t r o l is increasing, an ability to
listen and hear an interlocutor is forming. The
most significant argument in favor of rejection
to consider the said norms of human behavior
moral values is the fact that entrepreneurship
intensifies social inequality. This argument can
be refuted as the very idea of social equality is
an utopia because as early as at the moment of
birth people possess incongruous potential of
physical, mental, intellectual and other sides of
development of a person.
Discussion of the n i h i l i s t i c c u s t o m s
s y s t e m is much more problematic. Due to the
particular body of reasons these customs began to
develop in the Russian society about a century and
a half ago. Their contemporary followers do not
doubt that namely nihilistic habits and manners
are the true manifestation of morality. To verify
or deny their opinion it is necessary to imagine
the aggregate image of nihilistic customs. As the
notion of a n i h i l i s t for the most of Russians
is associated with the generally known image
of Bazarov, the reservation should be made that
the image of a nihilist created by I.S. Turgenev
has nothing in common with the essence of the
Russian nihilism (Russian nihilists were not one
shocked with the fact), that in terms of its content
was far from its European model depicted by
I.S. Turgenev. Russian nihilistic mores initially
took shape under influence of such a concept of
morality where g o o d was seen in absolute terms
and, hence, according to nihilism ideologists,
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anything containing at least a smallest element of
e v i l must be destroyed. In an effort to totally
annihilate evil Russian nihilists have perceived
str uggle and uncompromising stand
as optimal moral values for achieving this goal.
Atheistic mentality typical for Russian nihilism
has focused their attention on the value of
human a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , on admiration of the
suppression force. Romanization of these states
has led to devaluation of v a l u e o f l i f e of any
human being. Nihilists considered an a b i l i t y
of a person to c o n f l i c t one of the highest
manifestations of the moral culture, and this was
an expression of a person’s dissatisfaction with
life. One of the highest, from the nihilistic point
of view, values was considered s e l f - w o r s h i p .
A nihilist put oneself in the place of the God
expelled from the soul, and only oneself, as
S.N. Bulgakov, a philosopher and a theologian,
mentioned, was considered the only source of
morality and the truth [2]. Concentration of a
person’s attention on the search of demerits in
other people and in any situation became the
most dangerous consequence of the nihilistic
mentality. The derivative of this was a need to
express one’s indignation in respect to everyone
on any occasion.
Due to inexpediency to work till the
complete extermination of the world evil, an
euphoric inertia of i d l e n e s s commenced
to form in the nihilists’ mode of life. It was
supported by d i s r e g a r d not only to w e a l t h ,
but just to elementary material security as well.
They interpreted p o v e r t y as a s y m b o l o f
h i g h m o r a l i t y. It is impossible not to mention
si mplif ication, i mpover ish ment and
m ilit a r i zat ion of la ng u age, as well
a s , w i d e r u s e of o b s c e n e l a n g u a g e
e l e m e n t s in the nihilists’ communication,
p r e d o m i n a n c e o f i m p e r a t i v e m o o d in
the process of communication. To complete the
nihilistic mores’ image one should note d i s t r u s t
to anyone, h o p e l e s s n e s s regarding everything
in this world, s c o r n f u l a t t i t u d e t o o n e ’s
M o t h e r l a n d as determinant features for a
nihilistic state of mind. I m p o s s i b i l i t y o f
l o v e either between parents and children or
between man and woman became an effect of the
nihilistic mentality, as searches of faults in each
other, obviously, just empty one’s soul.
Subjectivism in comprehension of morality
has led nihilists to actual rejection of it.
Intelligentsia, according the authors of “The
Milestones” (Izgoyev A.S., Struve P.B. et al), was
a subject of the nihilistic customs development at
the turn from XIX to XX century. I would like
to propose some qualification to this matter to
disprove the statement that all the intelligentsia
preferred the nihilistic habits and manners to all
others: the most part of it diligently and efficiently
worked in intellectual spheres (education,
medicine, art, science, etc.) In compliance with
the conducted studies, only r a d i c a l l e f t part of
i n t e l l i g e n t s i a r elated to the nihilistic mores’
followers [ 7, 2 5 0 -318 ] . Out of all the system
of nihilistic pseudo-values, only good intentions
agree with moral criteria, while the means and
outcomes of their realization are immoral. Hence,
nihilistic mores do not meet the moral culture
criteria.
In conclusion it is necessary to note that,
alongside with the traditional moral culture, its
aristocratic variant (intelligence) and pragmatic
mores have developed and became necessary
for society. As for the nihilistic model, which
destroy both a society and an individual person,
it represents pseudo-culture. Coexistence of
several variants of the national moral culture
and more complicated conditions of their
perception by people actualize the necessity of
purposeful competent assistance to young people
(schoolchildren and students) in conscious
comprehension of the existing positive moral
values and neutralization of the nihilistic mores’
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perception as values. Intentional perception
of moral culture for valuable socialization in
the conditions of pluralistic coexistence of
its different variants becomes insufficient. It
must be complemented with the possibility of
conscious choice by a person of one’s individual
moral orientations on the basis of comparison
of value characteristics of each variant of moral
culture, deliberate rejection of the nihilistic
mentality elements, and formation of tolerant
attitude of every person to all positive versions
of moral culture. Stabilization of the humane
relations between people is possible in the posttraditional societies not only on the basis of
reminding to the society of significance of moral
culture for every person but rather on the basis
of its awareness on creative potential of each
moral culture variant.
References
1. Анненков П.В. Замечательное десятилетие 1838-1848// Анненков П.В. Литературные
воспоминания. М.: Правда, 1989. – Annenkov P.V. Remarkable decade 1838-1848. Literary
Reminiscences. M.: Pravda, 1989.
2. Вехи: Сборник статей о русской интеллигенции. Свердловск: Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1991. – The Milestones: Collection of articles about Russian Intelligentsia. Sverdlovsk. Urals University
Publishing House, 1991.
3. Домострой, Ярославль, 1991. – Domostroy, Yaroslavl, 1991.
4. Кропоткин П. А. Этика. М., 1991. – Kropotkin P.A. The Ethics. M., 1991.
5. Лосский Н. О. Ценность и бытие. Харьков, М., 2000. – Lossky N.O. Value and Existence.
Kharkov, M., 2000.
6. Франц А.С. Нравственная культура: стратегия исследования идеального образа.
Екатеринбург: Изд-во Рос. гос. проф.-пед. ун-та, 2005. – Franz A.S. Moral Culture: The Strategy
of Studies of Ideal Image. Ekaterinburg. Russian State Professional Pedagogical University Publishing
House, 2005.
7. Франц А. С. Российские нравы: истоки и реальность. Екатеринбург: Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1999. – Franz A.S. Russian Customs: The Cradle and Reality. Ekaterinburg. Russian State Professional
Pedagogical University Publishing House, 1999.
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Aza S. Franz. Polyvariant Character of the Russian Moral Culture
Поливариантность российской
нравственной культуры
А.С. Франц
Российский государственный
профессионально-педагогический университет
Россия, 620012, Екатеринбург, ул. Машиностроителей, 11
В статье обосновывается мысль о том, что в российском обществе не столько идет процесс
разрушения отечественной нравственной культуры, сколько разрушаются привычные
представления о ней. Прийти к такому выводу автору позволил дифференцированный подход
к ее рассмотрению. На его основе автор приходит к выводу о поливариантном характере
отечественной нравственной культуры. В качестве вариантов в статье представлены
традиционная нравственная культура, аристократическая нравственная культура, начавшая
перевоплощаться во второй половине ХIХ века в интеллигентность, прагматическая (деловая)
нравственная культура и система нигилистических нравов. На основе проведенных этикоаксиологических исследований автором представлены системы нравственных ценностей
каждого из функционирующих в настоящее время ее вариантов. Предполагается, что
без организации этико-культурологического просвещения в складывающихся социальных
условиях невозможно осознанное формирование человеком оптимального для него варианта
индивидуальной нравственной культуры.
Ключевые слова: нравственная культура, мораль, нравственность, нравы, общество, личность,
традиционная культура, аристократическая культура (интеллигентность), прагматическая
(деловая) культура, российские нигилистические нравы, осознанный выбор.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1278-1285
~~~
УДК 374:1(091)+141.78+1 (430)+17.034.3
Neo-Cynicism of Peter Sloterdijk:
a Revenge of the Enlightenment?
Valentina I. Kudriavtseva*
Ural Federal University named after the B. N. Yeltsin
51 Lenin, Ekaterinburg, 620083, Russia
Received 14.04.2014, received in revised form 20.06.2014, accepted 15.07.2014
In this article it is presented a reflection upon functions of the education in contemporary world
in which predominate anti-Enlightenment tendencies. In this respect it is considered the personality
of contemporary German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk who put forward an authentic philosophy
that naturally continues the traditions of German Philosophy of life. In the article it is analyzed an
evolution of scientific work of this philosopher, the influence of philosophy of the Frankfurt School on
him. In accordance with the philosophy of Peter Sloterdijk contemporary mass consciousness in the
West is characterized by universal diffusive cynicism that arose as a consequence of an unsuccessful
Enlightenment. An opposition to diffusive cynicism is neo-cynicism in which humor and satire are
used to unmask a mercenary and selfish nature with evil will that is hidden behind fine appearance of
a humanist and an advocate of human rights.
Keywords: education, reforms, Enlightenment, the Frankfurt School, the German Philosophy of life,
diffusive cynicism, reason, will, cynicism, neo-cynicism.
Russia went through many reforms in all areas
of life after 1991 modern. The field of education
is no exception, but the situation in this area is
particularly important: it is the understanding (or
misunderstanding) of what is happening depends
on an understanding of general sense of reforms
without any exception. Only education can provide
such an understanding, because the education is
not just a giving of information or inculcation
of some skills. The education is a creation of a
common view of the world and man's place in it.
Without it all kinds of reforms are meaningless,
because it is possible to undertake and to carry
them only on some conditions. Firstly, one
must have an idea of lines of development of
*
the contemporary world, its future. Secondly,
one need to have an idea of the place of theirs
country in the world, the one that it will take if
everything remains as it was, and the place it can
take with some changes in the economy, politics
and culture. In its turn, the position of mankind
in the future depends on the ecological state of
the Earth, on the development of industry and the
consequences of this development, the number of
people on the Earth, on the harvests, the overall
quality of life on the Earth, and so on. Thus,
thirdly, it is necessary to have a general picture
of the situation on the planet. Such a picture as
Kant convincingly shown, can not give any of the
special sciences (they are called private, that can
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: remidosi@gmail.com
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not embrace the world in general). To give such
a picture can only education in general: data of
these particular sciences are brought together in
it by philosophy.
So it was decided to believe in modern
times in Europe. So thought in Russia until 1991.
Then enlightenment suffered a crushing defeat.
In Europe, as it is to believe, the collapse of
the Enlightenment began in the early twentieth
century.
In Russia it is today. Performances of
“healers” and even shamans arouse great interest
in the general public. The authority of science to
the masses in every way is undermined, but is
rapidly increasing the influence of religions, not
only “religions of the Book”, but primitive, pagan
cults.
How philosophy responds to these processes
in Europe and Russia? The philosophy known
to us for the Modern age that foreshadows to
the humanity scientific progress, the progress
of the mind which will supersede and ultimately
win all unscientific elements. Why do these
unscientific elements appear again? And what is
most importantly, why it is supported by the large
sections of the public that are minded against the
enlightenment?
These questions seek many modern
philosophers. One of the most famous among
them is Peter Sloterdijk.
The German bookstores have a special
place for his books where his name is marked
with stationary signs. These plates constantly
costs about ten books by Peter Sloterdijk and
commentator work devoted to his teachings.
Baron von Dobenek even released a special
handbook dictionary on works of Peter Sloterdijk,
which was published twice and has 278 pages.
Peter Sloterdijk’s fame is well deserved
because he put forward the original teaching
that seamlessly continues the tradition of the
German philosophy of life. Philosophy of Peter
Sloterdijk is controversial and of great interest to
the media.
Peter Sloterdijk was born in 1947 in
Karlsruhe. In 1968 he began to study philosophy,
German studies and history at the universities
of Munich and Hamburg. In 1971 he defended
his master’s thesis on “Structuralism as a poetic
hermeneutics”, and the following year wrote
the essay “Structuralist theory of the history of
Michel Foucault”. In 1973, this was followed by
the work of “saving language games. Criticism of
the linguistic constitution of the subject”.
His fluctuations between philology,
linguistics, history and philosophy led him to his
doctoral thesis in which he was on the intersection
of science: it reflected the history studied in
autobiographies in the time of Weimar Republic.
Peter Sloterdijk wrote his doctoral thesis and
defended it in 1976 under the supervision of
Professor Klaus Briegleb in linguistics at the
University of Hamburg, and the theme of it was:
“Literature and the organization of life experience.
Theory and history of autobiography in the
time of Weimar Republic in 1918-1933: specific
features”. (A significant part of the material out of
it came in the “Critique of Cynical Reason”).
After that began the time on his own
philosophizing. Peter Sloterdijk went to learn to
India in 1980, where he listened to the preacher
Bhagwan nicknamed as “religious Wittgenstein”
for what it “means” religious games1, parodies,
deconstructions, experiments, and positive
creation develops a kind of comparative study of
religion (Religionwissenschaft), without rejecting
anything and not putting theoretical critique” [1,
p. 17].
Subsequently Peter Sloterdijk did not answer
the questions about the aim of his trip to India
and what he learned from Bhagwan. He confined
himself to the assertion that the Western world
now has completely forgotten how to understand
this kind of knowledge.
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However, the analysis of the subsequent work
of the philosopher of Karlsruhe gives an idea of
the general trend of its development and, to some
extent, the meaning of studying of contemporary
religious practices.
Every thinker, by choosing the direction
of the movement, must determine two things:
a) what is the historical situation he is situated
together with his contemporaries, that what is the
starting point of his journey, and b) in what the
direction from the starting point one should go to
reach the goal.
The definition of the reference point in
Peter Sloterdijk arose under the influence of
the ideology of older Frankfurt School. This
was unanimously said by researchers of Peter
Sloterdijk. The presence of such an effect is
recognized by himself. It would be surprising if
there was no such an effect: the beginning year of
study at the University of Peter Sloterdijk is 1968,
the year of the student revolt in Europe, the peak
performance of “New Left”. Ideological inspirers
of the rebellion and philosophers were the first
generation of the Frankfurt School, in the first
place Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno.
These thinkers were forced to emigrate
from Germany, where National Socialists came
to the power. But, once in the U.S., they have
concluded that in the conditions of bourgeois
democracy humanitarian intelligentsia can not
realize itself. Under totalitarian regimes, where
the state controls all aspects of life of individuals,
an intellectual in the humanities is under pressure
from the government, a rigorous censor of his
work. In a democratic society, however, his
works are not in demand by the public. Russian
humanists and social scientists faced with this
in the past twenty years. They called for the
establishment of democracy, freedom of speech,
hoping it will allow them to express themselves
smoothly and without censorship, but it turned
out that these thoughts were not in interest by the
public that is affected by epidemic consumerism,
the public which determines the demand in the
market.
Concluding that the person is alienated both
in totalitarian, and the bourgeois-democratic
societies, Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer
blamed it on the rationalist style of thinking.
According to Karl Marx’s famous statement
that the kingdom of reason can not be anything
other than a bourgeois republic, the thinkers
of the Frankfurt School began to expose the
Enlightenment as alienated, bourgeois ideology.
All that is generally called industrial society
was represented by them as an infringement of
human freedom and individuality. The mind was
understood as aggressive beginning in the person,
which initially is intended to conquer and subdue
firstly the nature and then, other persons. As a
result, the nature is transformed by the mind into
raw materials for production: there is no beauty,
no life in it. The price of this is the fact that the
same rationalist attitude applies to people. The
Auschwitz appeared as a factory for people
processing for which they are a raw material. The
Auschwitz was a factory for people processing: in
one shop there was a “gold mining” where special
teams pulled out gold teeth of the people killed
with gas; in the other shop they extracted human
skin for wallets and lampshades; in the third one
they extracted human fat as raw material for
the production of soap; in the fourth one they
extracted human bones, which after burning used
for fine filtration of various substances.
From the Frankfurt School Peter Sloterdijk
borrowed, firstly, the negative attitude of the
industry in its former condition. In the industrial
society, industry is the most vivid and overt
aggression embodiment of bourgeois rationality.
Peter Sloterdijk has devoted many pages to the
industry in particular, the military industry,
that is dehumanizing, and threatening human
life in general and the development. In “Air
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Trembling: At the Roots of Terror” (2002), he
actually put on the same level an uncontrolled
industrial development and terrorism: in both
cases there is a destruction of people’s lives
through the destruction of their environment.
Gas War, the history of which Peter Sloterdijk
says in the first chapter, is consider by him as
State terrorism by using the latest advances in
science and technology [2, p.7-47]. The apex of
rationalism Peter Sloterdijk considers the “smart
weapons” (homing missiles, etc., equipped with
computers), as well as the atomic bomb, the
greatest achievement of science and technology.
Following the Frankfurt School, he believes
that we should not fight with mould and with
dampness, that is, not with the investigation,
and with reason. The struggle for disarmament
and for the environment is a struggle with the
consequences, and the reason appears, as has been
said, in the aggressive rationality of bourgeois
consciousness, that is embodied in the industry
and arms race. “What human beings seek to learn
from nature is how to use it to dominate wholly
both it and human beings. Nothing else counts”
[3, p. 2].
Here, however, the way of the Frankfurt
School and Peter Sloterdijk diverge.
The Frankfurt School is in hopeless captivity
and boundless pessimism. They can not imagine
any change to the existing world order that is
based on the global tradition of rationalism,
which, in their view, begins with the ancient
Greek myths. The majority of the population is
infected with rationalism, and so ready to play the
role of “social engineering”, “living machines”.
That type of “authoritarian personality”, which
is generated by the scientific and technological
enlightenment, is the base of totalitarian regimes.
Such an “authoritarian personality” of protofascist type is already spread in the United States
considered a stronghold of democracy. “According
to the overall pessimistic position of Adorno
(“where see, everywhere is a geek”), the majority
of the American people in one way or another in
some way can be subsumed under the concept
of “authoritarian” (and therefore “fascizoid”)
personality. Only a small group of people involved
in the avant-garde consciousness (i.e., discovered
the propensity for avant-garde art and the avantgarde type of behavior) is excluded from the circle
of media “authoritarian” disposition sentenced in
advance to become a breeding ground and the
material of the fascist regimes. <...> The only
practically political conclusion from this position
can only be a revolution of despair, organized by
a handful of representatives of the avant-garde of
the revolutionary consciousness without people
and against the people, as it is seen as a bearer of
“fascizoid” consciousness and a support of “pro-”
(or “before-”) fascist regimes” [4, p. 25].
Peter Sloterdijk criticizes the Frankfurt
School for such pessimism. Preaching elitism
they doom themselves to solitude in the fight and
to failure. They are not even saved by the image
that was invented for the contemporary critical
intellectuals Pasolini, the image of the Corsair,
the free pirate, who in the name of high culture
attacks all low and bourgeois. This guerrilla war
is doomed to failure, and the general tone of the
speeches of the Frankfurt School is complaints
and groans of the wounded.
Peter Sloterdijk writes in the “Critique of
Cynical Reason”: “Pasolini spiced up the dull
pseudocritique a bit in that he at least designed a
convincing costume: that of the buccaneer – pirate
writings. The intellectual as buccaneer – not a
bad dream. We have scarcely ever seen ourselves
that way. A homosexual gave the warning
signal against the effeminization of critique.
Like Douglas Fairbanks leaping around in the
cultural rigging, with drawn sword, sometimes
the conqueror and sometimes the conquered,
knocked about unpredictably on the seas of social
alienation. The blows fall on all sides. Because
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the costume is amoral, it fits morally like a
second skin. The buccaneer cannot assume fixed
standpoints because he is constantly moving
between changing fronts. Perhaps Pasolini’s
image of the pirate intellect can reflect light on
Brecht, I mean on the young, bad Brecht, not the
Brecht who believed he had to conduct classes on
the Communist galley” [5, p. xxxvi].
The irreconcilability of critics, its severity
and fighting spirit, just as in the contemporary
human rights advocates, should not deceive
us. These people do not expect to win; on the
contrary, the victory would hurt them. Only
when one is defeated, one can feel the pain and
suffering alone can reveal the truth. Critics, such
as those who created the Frankfurt school, take
the battle to suffer, and this suffering, to discover
new truths, just as it did, for example, Gandhi, the
preacher of philosophy of nonviolence.
Therefore Peter Sloterdijk continues: “The
offensive posture in the myth of the buccaneer
is inviting. One reservation might be the illusion
that the intelligentsia is based on brawling as
such. In fact, Pasolini is a beaten person, like
Adorno. It is the a priori pain –it makes even the
simplest things in life difficult for a person – that
opens his eyes critically. There is no significant
critique without significant defects. It is the
critically wounded in a culture who, with great
effort, find something healing, who continue to
turn the wheel of critique. Adorno dedicated a
well-known essay to Hein-rich Heine, Die Wunde
Heine {The sore, Heine). This sore is nothing other
than the one that bores away in any significant
critique. Among the great critical achievements
in modern times, sores open up everywhere: the
sore, Rousseau; the sore, Schelling; the sore,
Heine; the sore, Marx; the sore, Kierkegaard;
the sore, Nietzsche; the sore, Spengler; the sore,
Heidegger; the sore, Theodor Less-ing; the sore,
Freud; the sore, Adorno: Out of the self-healing
of deep sores come critiques that serve epochs as
rallying points for self-knowledge. Every critique
is pioneering work on the pain of the times
(Zeitschmerz) and a piece of exemplary healing”
[5, p. xxxvi].
The position of Peter Sloterdijk is uniquely
defined: he is not going to give himself a
propaganda capital, showing his wounds received
in the fight against brutal bourgeois machine.
All such demarches, known in contemporary
Russia as “March of Dissent”, can draw on its
side supporters at least. Suffering does not add
courage to fighters. Instead, it pushes those who
want to resist the Moloch of rationalism, in the
gloom. That is why Peter Sloterdijk distances
himself from the Frankfurt School, saying that
“It is not my ambition to enlarge this honorable
infirmary of critical theories. It is time for a new
critique of temperaments. Where enlightenment
appears as a “melancholy science” (AdornoTrans), it unintentionally furthers melancholic
stagnation. Thus, the critique of cynical reason
hopes to achieve more from a work that cheers us
up, whereby it is understood from the beginning
that it is not so much a matter of work but rather
of relaxation” [5, p. xxxvii]. The work, which
gives fun, work by choice – in contrast to dull
labour, to which forces the society – this is a
hidden reference to the “Human, all too human”
Nietzsche, where he was called to such work.
According to the theory of Peter Sloterdijk,
modern consciousness of the masses in the
West is characterized by universal diffuse (i.e.,
pervasive scattering) cynicism that resulted
from a failed education: “The discontent in our
1
culture has assumed a new quality: It appears
as a universal, diffuse cynicism. The traditional
critique of ideology stands at a loss before this
cynicism. It does not know what button to push
in this cynically keen consciousness to get
enlightenment going. Modern cynicism presents
itself as that state of consciousness that follows
after naive ideologies and their enlightenment.
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In it, the obvious exhaustion of ideology critique
has its real ground. This critique has remained
more naive than the consciousness it wanted to
expose; in its well-mannered rationality, it did
not keep up with the twists and turns of modern
consciousness to a cunning multiple realism.
The formal sequence of false consciousness up
to now–lies, errors, ideology –is incomplete; the
current mentality requires the addition of a fourth
structure: the phenomenon of cynicism. To speak
of cynicism means trying to enter the old building
of ideology critique through a new entrance” [5,
p. 3].
In the Enlightenment age philosophers
proposed to enlighten the people the following
ideas. The masses of the people are slaves of
superstitions. Some of them are a result of simple
ignorance, generating confusion. People just did
not learn science, and therefore expresses the naive,
primitive and inaccurate judgments about things.
But there are other prejudices, which deceivers
take advantage of making people believe, because
they are called now as manipulators of public
opinion. The religion, according to enlighteners,
was born when a simpleton met with a deceiver.
Someone who does not know the science is easily
to be cheated. That is what do all kinds of priests,
mystics, supporters of the irrational.
A person should get out of their captivity. He
must reject prejudice, and for that he is to subject
the Cartesian question everything he knows. He
has to live only in accordance with his mind.
The enlightener will help him awaken that mind,
but he would not impose a ready-made opinions.
“Have the courage to use your mind”, formulated
the main slogan of the Enlightenment Immanuel
Kant.
Philosophers enlighteners foreshadowed
in the coming kingdom of the mind a complete
rejection of violence and war. (Kant wrote a
special work “Perpetual Peace”). After all,
reasonable people can always be flexible minded
and find a peaceful solution to all problems.
The State in the future will be more and more
convincing, and less and less use of coercion. In
general, it will die as a coercive authority and will
become a manifestation of the Universal Mind on
the Earth (as in Hegel). Advances in science will
develop industry and agriculture, and they will
provide the material well-being and prosperity of
all people on Earth.
All these hopes were not realized: the two
world wars and revolutions that accompanied
them, have shown that the mind is not always
accompanied humanity. It can be used for mass
extermination, which in this case is justified most
rational theories. The equipment, from machine
guns and gas of the time of the First World War to
modern nuclear weapons is not a friend of a man,
but his murderer. The technology can enslave a
man, make him his appendage.
The lessons of history in the twentieth
century, including the industrial extermination of
people in concentration camps, destroyed the idea
of the mind as a means of salvation for humanity.
He was treated just as a tool to ensure that what
they want the will. But this will be both good
and evil. The ill will can use the achievements of
reason and science to the detriment of the people.
The good will, good for them.
Therefore the debate between supporters of
rationalism and anti-rationalism has moved into
the sphere of ethics, where are questioned the
good and the evil will. Enlighteners defended
here theirs last bastion: the mind and good will
are inseparable, a reasonable person can not be
evil. (This point of view – of the indissolubility
of truth and goodness – is known in philosophy
since the time of Socrates, a man of understanding
and knowledge the best can not be on the side of
the worst, can not be a guide to the worst, and,
therefore, evil man – the one who is calling for a
better, of course, a well-wisher.) Anti-enlighteners
argued that any will is evil. For whom destroys, it
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always seems the former builder destroyed evil,
whether it is a good or bad construction. Every
evil person who is trying to adopt something
new: he disturbs peace of the inhabitants of the
old buildings (organizations, communities ...) In
other words, humanity lives “beyond good and
evil” (Nietzsche). This means that it does not affect
and shall not affect the moral judgments. Angry
any carrier of something new, kind, anyone who
defends the old order. As such, the judge takes an
absurd look. Is it good one who saves by the most
severe measures the old order? And is evil one
who plants a new order? Is not it better to see the
world’s only life movement, in which the new is
always pushes and wins the old, and the idea of
“good” and “evil” to declare subjective?
But in this case it is to recognize that every
person has his own idea of right and wrong. The
authors of ethical theories represent o exception.
In each of them laid a subjective interest (subject,
there may be not only the individual, but also a
social group, and social class). But, representing
his ethical theory as an expression of human
values, as an expression of “objective truth” or
immutable, centuries-old principles, rooted “in
being itself,” “in the nature”, “the very essence
of man”, such theorists hide their subjectivism,
giving his objectivity – and, therefore, is cheating.
They act as ideologues – that is someone else’s
mind manipulators.
Modern Europeans, as is clear from the
above statements Peter Sloterdijk, know better,
but they do worst. They are at school are familiar
with the theories of the Enlightenment. They share
their “universal values” in words! But in practice
they do not act as these require immutable and
common in the West, moral rules like tolerance,
political correctness, human rights, etc. The New
cynic today knows that the rights and freedoms
are above all, and happy to teach this art to all
people in the backward countries. But he still
considers himself the owner of higher knowledge;
advanced people know how to use the rhetoric
of education for their own, selfish purposes,
even naive people learn ethics universal. Under
the guise of educational rhetoric people achieve
their goals and defend only their own interests.
So enlightened cynic, but it should be exclusively
his selfishness, the requirements of his will,
thus, not considering himself the reason a bad
person. Someone who literally understands the
requirement to comply with the ethics of reason
and humanity, is not viable. Among the Russian
youth it is called “nerd”, in the ranks of the
intelligentsia in his glory impractical “idealist”
who for the sake of ideals can donate their own
wealth and even freedom. “A good man” is
a man who keeps in his head the educational
concepts that are learned from childhood, but
really should only their selfish interests. Unlike
outright villain, who did not even look back
on educational ideals and has no idea of ethics
education, the “enlightened cynic” is still limited
his ego, he hesitates, doing evil, it works without
any pleasure, arguing that in his place could be
someone worse.
This is the portrait of a modern enlightened
cynic affected diffuse universal cynicism, a
victim of under-enlightenment. So what can
one oppose it, according to Peter Sloterdijk?
Humor and satire, the essence of which is that
the felicitous mask humanist and a champion of
human rights expose the self-serving and selfish
nature of a person who cautiously is following his
interests. Laughter, as Nietzsche said this in the
“Human, all too human”, is a measure of truth in
conversations about life. If I’m kidding, I point to
the existing back of your humane and enlightened
facade your true animal nature, prone to violence
and selfishness, and everyone laughs, confirming
that I was right.
Peter Sloterdijk such a whistleblower of the
hypocrisy in public called Cynic. Cynic figure
appears in the ancient world. The most famous
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of the Cynics was Diogenes. The essence of his
lewd jokes, revelations was the fact that all sorts
of high-flown words of Plato’s ideals, the sublime,
over celestial world, he demonstrated biological
life of his own body: in response to the talk of
higher love doing masturbation, saying that he
wanted to remove hunger, stroking herself hand
on his stomach, and in response to a public talk
about the spirit of the winds blew. In the ancient
city such a figure could only be a single as an
1
exception, it had to prove the rule. But in modern
society Cynic is massive and, in fact, finds a ready
response: all kinds of “humorists, satirists,” have
an enormous success, through humor, “below the
belt”, joking about gluttony, sex, physiological
release, using obscene language, which is entirely
tied to the physiology of “below the belt”.
Thus, the fact that earlier in the era of
enlightenment, would be considered shameful,
unworthy of civilized man, is now in full flaunt.
As «linguistic games” in Wittgenstein.
References
1. Davidoff Y. N. Critique of social-philosophical ideas of the Frankfurt School. Moscow, Nauka,
1977, 320 p.
2. Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Philosophical fragments.
Stanford University Press, 2002, 284 p.
3. Peter Sloterdijk. Critique of Cynical Reason. Translation by Michael Eldred. University of
Minnesota Press, 1987, 558 p.
4. Sloterdijk P. Luftbeben. An den Quellen des Terrors. Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp Verlag,
2002. Kap.1 Der Gaskrieg – oder: Das atmoterroristische Muster.
5. Van Tuinen, Sjord. Peter Sloterdijk. Ein Profil. 2., durchgesehene Auflage. Paderborn, Wilgelm
Fink Gmbh, 2007.
Неокинизм П. Слотердайка – реванш просвещения?
В.И. Кудрявцева
Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина
Россия, 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51
В данной статье представлены размышления о роли образования в современном мире, в котором
господствуют антипросветительские тенденции. В этом контексте и рассматривается
фигура современного немецкого философа Петера Слотердайка, который выдвинул
оригинальное учение, органично продолжающее традиции немецкой философии жизни. В
статье исследуется эволюция творчества этого философа, влияние на него философии
Франкфуртской школы. В соответствии с учением П. Слотердайка современное сознание масс
на Западе характеризует универсальный диффузный цинизм, которые возник в результате
неудавшегося Просвещения. Противопоставлением диффузному цинизму является неокинизм,
в котором юмор и сатира используются, чтобы за благообразной маской гуманиста и
поборника прав человека разоблачать корыстную и эгоистическую натуру, обладающую злой
волей.
Ключевые слова: образование, реформы, Просвещение, Франкфуртская школа, немецкая
философия жизни, диффузный цинизм, разум, воля, кинизм, неокинизм.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1286-1292
~~~
УДК 29+2_428+27-725+133.18
Spiritual-Commercial Movement:
Main Features, Peculiarities, Attribution
Olesya V. Kuznetsova* and Alexey V. Osintsev
Ural Federal University named after the B. N. Yeltsin
51 Lenin, Ekaterinburg, 620083, Russia
Received 11.05.2014, received in revised form 18.06.2014, accepted 05.07.2014
Spiritual-commercial movement is one of the most striking examples of the impact of the consumer
society on the sphere of religion. Moreover, it is the influence of the consumption paradigm on the
spiritual life of man. There is a problem of attribution of the spiritual-commercial movement as a
religious phenomenon. In our view moving it away from the realm of the religious leads us away from
understanding the spiritual foundations of this phenomenon. Several aspects of spiritual-commercial
movement are considered in this article: its religious character, commitment to non-classical ethics,
and connection with the consumption. The results of several studies of the spiritual-commercial
movements of the Middle Urals are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Study of religion, new religious movements, spiritual-commercial movement, consumption,
esotericism, non-classical ethic.
Since the time in the early 90s of the XX
century when the freedom of conscience and
religion was proclaimed, our homeland was in a
situation of “market of religions”, which is typical
for the Western world. However, because of the
rapid changes, it acquired a more radical form
than there. In a short period of time the post-Soviet
space was flooded with adherents and preachers
of various religions and religious movements,
which were either already known to the world
or emerging for the first time on such a fertile
and mellow soil. Stepanova E. A. describing
“subjective turn” in the culture of modernity
and postmodernity writes, which should be
recognized as “that in the modern world we see
signs of a radical change in the attitude of people
to the traditional (or claiming to be established)
*
ideological and religious systems. This change
does not reject tradition, but makes it a matter
of personal conscious choice”. (Stepanova, 2011,
p. 132). Traditional confessions, which certainly
gained a lot of importance and a solid number of
followers, had to coexist with other new religious
movements (NRMs) of various kinds. It is
significant that all of this was accompanied by a
growing influence of the esoteric movements.
Addressing this issue, we often find that such
esotericism has features which are different from
the Late Antiquity, Middle Ages or Renaissance.
Basically, many of the currently existing esoteric
movements are related to the phenomenon of the
New Age – a religion of “New Age” or “New
Age” – the so-called “Age of Aquarius.” New
Age movement emerged in the twentieth century
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: olesyakzn@yandex.ru
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from the development, and, as paradoxical as
it may seem, from the popularization of the
occult currents of the XIX-XX centuries, such
as theosophy and anthroposophy, spiritualism,
mesmerism, “new thinking”, etc. One of the
specific features of the occult, which distinguishes
it as an esoteric movement is the desire to expose
the secret knowledge (and the fact that it belongs
to it). It is noteworthy that New Age esotericism
is characterized by this same trait.
New Age phenomenon is very heterogeneous.
The specific nature of the New Age movements
is that at different degrees of expression of
esoteric inclinations they are often characterized
by a denial of their religious nature and a selfpositioning in the form of social movements and
practices of health, education, and even sport
related character.
In this article, we intend to address ourselves
to the field of modern esotericism, which takes
refuge in the entities whose activity is associated
with the eastern culture, in particular, such as
“yoga” and “qigong” and we will also consider
their religious side, in particular their religiousethical side. In the Middle Urals, there are quite
many centers and individual teachers in this field.
In the city of Yekaterinburg in 2012 there were
more than three dozen centers that offered yoga
classes, either as their main activity, or within
a wide range of workouts. It is interesting that
more and more fitness centers include teaching
yoga in the spectrum of the offer. However, we
are more interested in centers specializing in
Eastern practices and, in particular, yoga and
qigong. Among the specialized or relatively
specialized centers are: Iyengar Yoga Ural
Center, Anahata Yoga Center, Banyan Yoga
Center, Yogalaktika Center, Patanjali Yoga
Studio, IndRa Yoga & Ayurveda SPA Center,
Yoga and Life training center, Edis Ayurveda
and Yoga Studio, Alexander Petrazhitsky Yoga
Studio, Prana Studio, etc. Similarly, we see
quite a few various clubs and centers offering
teaching qigong. What do these centers teach
and what are the teachers there like? As far as
yoga is concerned, the courses with such content
are quite characteristic: Hatha Yoga, Ashtanga
Vinyasa Yoga, Universal yoga, couples yoga,
nidra yoga, yoga for the face, yoga for the eyes,
Kundalini yoga, Taoist yoga, yoga for beginners,
yoga for kids, yoga for pregnant women,
intensive yoga, etc.
Why do we find it possible to refer these
centers to the area of esoterics, not only to the
area of health and sport? Although the practices
in such centers are described primarily as
physical, moreover as the physical activities
to improve health, they have, in fact, to some
extent, identifiable religious aspect of the esoteric
nature. Instructors teach the students, though
fragmentarily, in sporadic statements, the idea of
human life energy typical of yoga, whose correct
flow and distribution in the body promotes not
only physical health, but also harmony with
the universe. In this case, it is essential that the
professed ideas have ethical (religious-ethical)
character.
The esoteric image of these ideas can be
judged on a number of parameters. First of
all, knowledge is given by mentors as secret,
available only to the initiated, which the students
become as the teaching progresses. In turn, the
knowledge is presented not as a whole open
doctrine, but as gradually given information,
as training is practiced, and has the form of
the chain of revelations from the teacher to the
students. In addition, although the initiation here
does not have clearly built steps, the student is
in the process of the “permanent initiation” (the
process ends with the termination of training, due
to the satisfaction with the level of knowledge,
or the frustration due to the depletion of funds
or just in case when the student feels he has the
ability to be a teacher.)
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Why, in its turn, do we not refer them to the
traditional yoga and qigong, but to the New Age?
We can see that there are at least five essential
traits.
First of all, within one center, we find a set
of movements that belong to the various schools.
Instructors usually teach several different courses
that are derived from various yoga teachings.
Teaching qigong, just as with yoga, is often
combined with a wide range of other practices,
for example, with such movement as shou-dao.
Secondly, in the yoga and qigong centers
known to us training is adapted to the conditions
of modern urban life. Moreover, there are courses
which are obviously innovative, such as a course
for children or intensive courses as well as courses
that refer to certain export knowledge of modern
medicine. ‘’Repertoire of practices, their rigidity
or flexibility, accompanying narratives, their
semantic content, their function within the religious
life of the complex and the world in general – all
these moves and is constant interpretation by
the subjects of practice’’ (Aghajanian, Roussele,
2011, p. 11). One interesting consequence of the
fact that qigong was also adapted by the New Age
movement, is the case when qigong classes were
held by skype, for example, in the “ Shou Dao
School of Tranquility’’ (Informational portal of
International Federation of martial and health
systems “shou dao” in Yekaterinburg, available
at: http://www.chigun-ekb.ru).
Thirdly, the traditional foundations of yoga
and qigong teachings are often loosely interwoven
with individual mythologies of mentors who get
their ideas in an entirely new culture. When
the uninitiated appears as “biorobot” who
automatically responds to external stimuli, and
has “stereotypes in the worldview,” whose life
“could be lived in vain’’ (Informational portal
of Banyan: yoga and personal training studio,
available at: http://banyan-yoga.ru/practice/
coaches/10 ).
Fourth, it is essential that, with numerous
references to the antiquity of the taught doctrines,
the main ideological emphasis is undergoing a
specific offset: comprehension of the mysteries
of the world creation and initiation of cosmic
harmony are reduced here to a set of pleasant
feelings and elimination of negative emotions,
such as “the enjoyment of life”, “lightness in
the body”, “lightness in the head”, “a feeling as
though a burden has been shifted”, “a feeling” of
becoming a little more relaxed and free and more
positive in the views on things and people ... “
(Informational portal of Narayana Ashtanga Yoga
center , available at: http://www.omnarayana.ru)
and this is another specific feature of the New
Age movement – here the esoteric doctrine is
partly profaned.
Fifth, an important feature of the fact that
such practices refer the New Age movement and
not directly to the ancient traditions is that the age
of the mentors here is often significantly younger
than their students. Yoga and qigong teachers are
often young people, just over 30. While many of
their students are around 40 and over 40. This is
combined with the typical New Age esotericism
violation of a fundamental esoteric principle –
the principle of transferring knowledge from the
teacher to the student. In New Age esotericism,
disciples want to quickly and widely spread the
acquired knowledge.
Concluding the discussion of identification
of the movements chosen by us, we must specify
that they may fairly be attributed to the so-called
“spiritual-commercial” movements. All of them,
in one way or another, provide information and
training related to the field of spiritual and they
all operate on a commercial basis. The tuition
fee is predetermined with respect to time and
size and cannot be attributed to the donations.
“A commercial coach, because of his work, is
a preacher and a teacher, he gives his audience
theory and practice (their ratio may be different,
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it is possible that one of the elements can be
reduced to a minimum)” (Egilsky, Matetskaya,
Samygin, 2011, p.104). Spiritual-commercial
movement is one of the most striking examples
of the impact of consumer society on the area of
religion; moreover, it is the example of influence
of the consumption paradigm on the spiritual life
of a person.
Besides yoga centers and studios, it is
necessary to mention another phenomenon –
yoga festivals and yoga tours. These phenomena
are also not peculiar to ancient traditions of yoga
teachings and are also a characteristic of the
considered phenomena as the movement of the
New Age. In particular, yoga tours to the “places
of power” of the Urals, which followers believe
Arkaim, the cave complex “Sikiyaz-Tamak” and
others are. Tours are organized by these centers
and by individual mentors.
So having described these movements,
the authors see the necessity to elaborate on
the latter, due to some specific features, which
should be considered in details. For this work
it is essential that the New Age Qigong, like
yoga, undergoes a transformation, not only in
the forms of transferring the knowledge, but in
the content of this knowledge itself. In addition
to the well-known traditional qigong, we can
observe a widespread phenomenon that bears the
same name, but is in fact very different from it.
We should observe it in more detail, and not only
due to the fact that it concerns us as one more
of a number of New Age phenomena, but for the
reason that it is one of the most striking forms of
the specifics of this movement.
Instructors who teach this type of qigong
claim that this is “special Taoist qigong” (above,
we have encountered the name of the course –
“Taoist Yoga”). As a consequence, it is completely
different from the “regular” qigong. It is curious
to see the desire to distance itself from the wellknown movement through a kind of devaluation,
discrediting the latter (which we did not find in the
case of different movements of yoga). Traditional
qigong is being taught as “not natural” for the
human body. For this reason, it is considered
as “difficult to accomplish”, which means, in
practice, “useless.” The principle of “Taoist
qigong” is that one should not take balanced
and straight body position, but rather those that
maximize comfort. And it is this, according to
the mentors, that helps achieve its “effectiveness.”
Let us note that this is contrary to the principle
of the well-known traditional oriental exercises,
where the restoration of the “right” flow of “life
energy” (“Qi” or “Ki”) begins with the correction
of shifted vertebra, kyphosis and scoliosis.
Opposing itself to traditional qigong, this
movement, however, strongly emphasizes that
it is also based on ancient practices attributed
by Taoists. Actually the image of alternative
tradition is created, which allows to legitimize
significant differences in the form of a littleknown tradition, the expertise, finally making its
way to the people.
At the same time, just as we have said above
about yoga, the “Taoist qigong”, is permeated with
obvious innovations. There are abundant courses
such as “female Taoist practices.” Participants
are offered “cell rejuvenation”, “restoring and
maintaining hormonal balance”, “control of the
endocrine system”, “ovarian breathing,” etc.
Among the reviewed ideas there is a
movement which can be attributed to bioenergy.
However, it does not refer to the work of W.
Reich, as well as it directly refers to some secret
knowledge of the East. This movement is very
common in the Urals. Typical examples are
“Amitayus” Indian and Tibetan Practices Center
or “Tibet” Center. As can be seen from the
proposed fee-based courses, the scope of work
of such centers is very wide. They refer on the
one hand to the organizations that specialize in
yoga and qigong practices and on the other hand
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to the field of spiritual teachings and thirdly
to other magical and healing practices. (There
is a specific feature of another kind: if yoga
and qigong centers usually have a permanent
address of its location, the latter considered
category is often characterized by the lack
of permanent address and is often reduced to
sites on the Internet. This leads to interesting
situations where the same person is the head
of several centers.) This is often manifested in
the “competence” of those who carry out their
activities within these entities.
‘’Non-classical ethics differ from classical
their language, way of explication which is not a
category, and existential and existential concepts
(Heidegger), as well as a distinctive style of
argumentation. This is a system of morality, which
is based on non-classical ideal of rationality and
have an enormous persuasive influence over the
moral and ethical values and ways of achieving
them’’ (Viktoruk, Grigoriev, 2003, p. 28). It is
crucial that the New Age movements discussed
here have developed a number of ideas of religious
and ethical character, if not quite homogeneous
in terms of their interpretation, but concentrated
around the same semantic centers developing
in similar ways and characterized by common
features.
First of all, we have to specify the
contradictory religious and ethical world,
preached by followers of the movements
mentioned above. They are characterized by
statements of such kind, as the universe is
“very complex”, “incomprehensible”, but at the
same time everything is “really simple”. All
unimaginable complexity is due to the “energy”
which sometimes flows in a steady stream, and
sometimes it deviates from it, swirling.
The desire of esoteric teachers to show their
fundamental expertise in scientific problems
and riddles often takes very extravagant forms.
For example, the explanation of an imaginary
problem of the end of the world on December 21,
2012 is taken seriously: the Earth will fly through
the center of the galaxy and then everything
will be fine again. However, the specifics of
the main body of adherents of this considered
movement is that they do not assess the absurdity
of such statements, and continue to believe in
the infallibility of the teaching. This situation is
typical for the general phenomenon of religion
and in its entirety reveals itself in the era of the
scientific revolution. However, in our case, there
is not a need for a firm faith. On the contrary, what
is characteristic of the New Age movement as a
whole, is that a person is rather free in a number
of aspects of faith. The need for a comfortable
feeling of knowledge and understanding of the
world order and their place in it, easily accessible,
despite the apparent complexity. In the first place,
such need, apparently explains a noncritical
acceptance of any provisions of the faith, often
contradictory, mutually exclusive, and an
unshakable belief in their truth.
In addition to the contradictions, logic
and, therefore, religious ethics of an adept of
the studied movements, is characterized by a
distinctive inversion. Tendency to such inversion
could be observed in the already mentioned thesis
that the “unfathomable world” is “in fact really
simple”. But we are interested in the “inversion”
in the field of religious morality.
At the heart of the perception and
understanding of the world by adherents lies the
idea that the real world is plural and, therefore,
“contradictory” in its manifestations. But in their
case the “contradiction” between the real world
and the world of the ideal, is shown through the
cultivated tendency to simplify, not the dialectical
synthesis. In other words, the conflict is removed
not by synthesis, but by a change of the indicator.
Thus, from the observation that in our life such
things as love or emotional attachment can bring
misfortune we can conclude that love is bad, it
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is not real love, and that emotional attachments
are evil.
The socially accepted moral is evaluated as
well: if the actions have negative moral values
consequences and then this is a bad moral.
Similarly, the problem of the relation to God and
to the divine is solved: if God is not only merciful,
but also demands responsibility then God is not
how he is depicted by the orthodox, he is bad, or
reduced to a blur, bordering on non-existence.
In other words, we are dealing with a
non-classical and situational ethics. For such
movements it is very typical to concentrate on the
development of one’s “I”, with one’s desires, and
to avoide thinking about the “other”, especially in
the aspect of “you”. Another is represented either
as a supporter and follower, or as oppressor of
freedom of the spiritual person.
Such attempts of non-classical ethics
commonly consider moral issues through
the prism of “energy.” It is a characteristic
way of interpreting moral concepts, through
rendered images, namely, through the image
of the “energy flow.” Thus, morality appears
as a smooth, quiet flow of energy, while the
deviations (moral corruption) appear as the flow
turbulence. Based on this visualization, it is
concluded that in order to attain a truly moral
existence, it is necessary to straighten this flow
in oneself. ‘’Nonclassical ethics strongly suggest
that ethics – not just theorizing, is primarily a
system of practices, behavioral patterns, which
can and should be changed in certain situations.
Ethics, as noted, ...Aristotle – that is what
makes us human. “Does” in this case means the
formative, shapes, and forms, these are shown,
fi xed in the specific behavioral patterns, practice
in general’’ (Viktoruk, Grigoriev, 2003, p. 28).
The ethics of gender relationships are very
specific in our chosen field. It is, in fact, turned
to the problems of sexuality: the development
of “female power” and “sexual energy”. These
areas are considered necessary and sufficient for
the traditional ways of “harmonization” of family
relationships. Interestingly, with the postulation
of commitment to tradition, an actual rejection
of understanding of the values of the traditional
family is frequently observed.
In all the movements we have a significant
(though not unchallenged) idea of retribution
used to identify them as religious. But the
nature of the doctrine of retribution is very
specific. It is based on the idea that the space
and the universe have the ability to “respond”
to our psycho-spiritual state. Thus, a person is
reaping the fruits of their thoughts, desires and
aspirations. In this regard, the necessity for a
continuous spiritual development is postulated.
In fact, the idea of spirituality is based on the
discourse of the spiritual-commercial entities: a
new spiritual era – “Age of Aquarius”, spiritual
growth or spiritual regeneration of mankind.
With all this the practices have a predominantly
body-psychological character and aimed
primarily at listening and scrutinizing one’s
own body and senses. They allow to have some
fantasy images in the mind, mostly visual
and tactile: the contemplation of one’s “inner
flower,” the contemplation of one’s “totem
animal”, a plant growing out of the body, the
sense of immersion in the earth, a sense of
movement or concentration of heat in certain
parts of the body, etc. The acquired spiritual
qualities are reduced to the permanent positive
emotional state, generosity and openness to the
world, similar to the naiveté of a child.
References
1. Stepanova E.A., ‘’New spirituality and old religions’’, Religious Studies, 1 (2011), pp. 127 –
134. in Russian.
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2. Aghajanian A., Roussele K. How and why to study contemporary religious practices?,
Religious practice in modern Russia, 2006. pp. 10 – 32. in Russian.
3. Egilsky E.E., Matetskaya A.V. Samygin S.I. New religious movements. Modern non-traditional
religions and esoteric teachings. Moscow, 2011. 224 p. in Russian.
4. Viktoruk E., Grigoriev A. ‘’Theoretical aspects of non-classical ethics: NRM in the context of
the existing legal provisions’’, Religion and Law, 2 (2011), pp. 28-29. in Russian.
Спиритуально-коммерческое движение:
основные черты, особенности, атрибуция
О.В. Кузнецова, А.В. Осинцев
Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина
Россия, 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51
Спиритуально-коммерческое движение – один из ярчайших примеров влияния общества
потребления на область религии, более того, влияния парадигмы потребления на духовную
жизнь человека. Существует проблема атрибуции спиритуально-коммерческого движения
как религиозного явления. На наш взгляд, выведение его за рамки религиозного уводит нас
от понимания духовных основ этого феномена. Ряд аспектов спиритуально-коммерческого
движения рассматривается в статье: его религиозный характер, приверженность
неклассической этике, связь с парадигмой потребления. Результаты исследований ряда
спиритуально-коммерческих движений Среднего Урала представлены в данной работе.
Ключевые слова: религиоведение, новые религиозные движения, спиритуально-коммерческое
движение, потребление, эзотерика, неклассическая этика.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1293-1300
~~~
УДК 101.1 + 111.1 + 111.7 +340.1
Creativity and Lawmaking:
Ontological Aspect
Olga N. Tomyuk*
Ural Federal University named after the B. N. Yeltsin
51 Lenin, Ekaterinburg, 620083, Russia
Received 24.05.2014, received in revised form 21.06.2014, accepted 07.07.2014
In this article the author explores the specifics of creativity and lawmaking as it’s variant, basing on
the works of different philosophers, and turns to ontological issues. The purpose is to study creativity /
lawmaking in the ontological aspect. Ontological aspect of the research involves identification of the
essential nature of the studied object (creativity / lawmaking), its ontological foundations, disclosure
of the specifics of phenomena of creativity and lawmaking.
Creativity and lawmaking are considered to be connected with the ontological Foundation of the
existence. The ontological reality of creativity / lawmaking is proved by its subordination to the
objective laws, by involvement in development process. The ontological aspect of investigation,
connected with detecting essential nature of subject matter (creativity / lawmaking), is examined from
a position of interdisciplinarity in correlation with categories of other areas of knowledge.
The author concludes that regularities of the process of law-making, as a vital way of organization
of social life and people being, are in connection with the objective laws of existence, and the results
of law-making relate to objective reality. In law-making the logical ability of reason is projected on
created legal reality for the purpose of regulation of people being by legal regulations. This is the
ontological nature of lawmaking, it’s essential difference from other types of creativity.
The field of application of results is philosophy, and in particular branches – ontology, philosophy of
creativity.
Keywords: ontology, creativity, lawmaking, ontological aspects of creativity / lawmaking, nature of
creativity, subjects of creativity, subjects of lawmaking, man as a subject of creativity / lawmaking,
lawmaking as a process of creating new in law, lawmaking and development.
The Research is carried out with the Financial Support of the young scientists UFU in the context of
realization of UFU development program.
The ontological aspect of the study of
creativity (lawmaking as a kind of creativity) is
connected with the identifying of the essential
nature of the studied object (creativity /
lawmaking), it’s ontological foundations,
disclosure of the specifics of phenomena of
creativity and lawmaking. The main concepts
*
of the ontology are categories of being and
nothingness, which cover the nature, society,
human. The being (to wide extent) – is a
very general notion of the existence, entity in
general.
Philosophers Plato, Aristotle, B. Spinoza,
I. Kant, G. V. F. Hegel and others, exploring
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: helgago@yandex.ru
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the creativity, because of the importance
of ontological questions for classical philosophy,
turn to ontological issues of creativity.
Non-classical philosophy approaches to
solving the problems of creativity from the
position of interparadigmality, interdisciplinarity,
considering creativity in correlation with
categories of other areas of knowledge. This
approach is found in the writings of A. Bergson,
J.-P. Sartre, M. Heidegger, G.-G. Gadamer,
V. S. Soloviev, N. A. Berdyaev and other
philosophers, who explores the ontological
foundations of creativity.
According to many researchers, creative
process is similar to the processes of improvement,
which occur in the objective reality, that allows to
speak about the ontological nature of creativity.
In ancient philosophy the creativity is
treated as a process, which resulted in creating
a new. Thus, the Greek philosopher Plato regarded
creativity as a person’s ability to create new,
unique. In the dialog “Symposium” philosopher
writes: “Creativity – is a broad concept. Anything
that causes a transition from nothingness into
being – is creativity, and, consequently, the
creations of any art and craft can be called
creativity, and all of their authors – creators”1.
Plato treats creativity not only as a birth process
of new, but also of beautiful works, thereby he
includes an aesthetic criterion in the definition of
creativity.
Understanding of creativity as a
process of continuous birth of the new is
typical of A. Bergson. In the work “Creative
Evolution” (1907) the philosopher writes, that
the new appears everywhere: in the nature – this
are the processes of birth, growth, maturation, in
the minds – the appearance of new images and
experiences. Thus, for example, in the inanimate
nature the essence of creativity is in renewal
and modification, in the transition from chaos to
order, for living organisms – in the form of their
adaptation to a changing environment. According
to the philosopher, the ontological nature of the
creativity consists in the similarity between
the process of human’s creation of various new
works and the process of renewal occurring, for
example, in nature.
The vector of a creative process, considered
as a birth process of the new, is directed from
nothingness to being: creativity is not simply
multiply the diversity of forms of existence, but
also generates a fundamentally new things, gives
a qualitative extension of the current being. “The
new” is the arising and becoming being.
The problem of justifying the ontological
nature of creativity, it’s connection with
existential, ontological foundations, continues
to excite contemporary philosophers. The
solution of this problem through the category
of “creativity” offers L. N. Stolovich. In the
work “Creativity” (2001) he defines creativity
as the highest form of universally understood
“creativity”, which is immanently inherent for
all the levels of the hierarchy of being and which
promotes the self-preservation and reproduction
of existent things by qualitative transformations
of their structures2.
According to V. I. Plotnikov, creativity is
a special form of vital activity, different from
all other forms by need and ability to generate
culture, continuously modify its elements and
functions. V. I. Plotnikov emphasizes such aspects
of metamorphosis, as structural change in the
initial state of the kinds of matter, integration of a
mutating in a certain substrate, the appearance of
asymmetry in the process of interaction, random
variation and the emergence of new forms of
movement3.
If creativity – is a process, connected with
the creation of a new, naturally, there arises a the
question, what is the “new”. The term “new” has
many meanings: first created, introduced instead
of the old one, obscure4. The new is previously
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understood as something what never existed at
all.
The new – is an essential property of
creativity, but the new is not a simple continuation
of the old, the previous. This approach is
characteristic of O. Spengler. In the work “The
Decline of the West” the philosopher writes that
“in relations between the live culture and the
world of the dead forms of culture” there can’t
be only “influence”, “duration” and “continuing
impact”. The creativity, says philosopher, is an
infusion of new, but the new is not a consequence
of old reasons. “Uncreated “affects”, and the
creating “takes upon itself””, because human
is allowed to see only the form, but not what in
the soul of the other person created it, considers
O. Spengler. Philosopher justifies this approach
on the example of the ancient world’s lawmaking.
The antique right was created by citizens to
regulate relations between them, however, certain
elements of Roman law, for example, the lawmaking authority of judges, still exist in modern
legal systems, but they are filled with different
meaning. The Roman praetor, who came to
power for a period of one year, established the
lump sum right, which wasn’t continued in the
future. If the ancient right – is the right of instant,
the right of today, English law – is the right of
future, when the creation of legal norms suggests
its application in practice “for ages”5.
V. N. Nikolko believes, that an essential
feature of the emergence of a new (images,
knowledges, etc.) is “irreducibility to the
previously existing content of the world
around us... new has content that is new, that
is not identical to what has already been”6.
Among basic forms of innovative processes
V. N. Nikolko considers nonstationarity (the
renovation in inanimate nature on the basis of
physical strength), evolutionary (the renovation
in nature on the basis of the vital forces) and
creativity (in the sphere of spiritual and material
production based on psychic powers). Creativity
is the highest form of the matter’s renovation:
basic “forms of novation processes form a
pyramid which has nonstationarity in the base,
evolutionary – in the middle, and creativity on the
top”7. Nonstationarity and evolutionary, as noncreative forms of the world’s renovation, – is the
base, the premise, the condition of creativity8.
As it was previously noted in the article
“Novelty as a universal criterion of creativity”,
creativity is characterized by the uniqueness,
uniqueness of the result, movement beyond
the traditions, the process of reproduction9.
Describing the creativity as the process of
creating new, reveals such ontological aspects
of creativity as qualitative transformation of the
old, creation of what has not previously existed,
which is present at all the levels of the hierarchy
of being10.
Creativity, as a form of change, renewal, is,
on the one hand, continuation of evolutionary and
nonstationarity, and, on the other hand, has its own
foundation – consciousness. In ontological terms
creativity is the synthesis of natural development
potentials of being and human’s creative activity
with the presence of unconscious and conscious,
casual and indispensable.
Changes in all spheres of society, new
situations require unconventional solutions, what
actualizes the problem of the subject of creativity.
In different concepts of creativity the subject is
regarded as: God (Plato, Hegel, N. Berdyaev and
others), Nature (Epicurus, B. Spinoza, A. Bergson
and others), Human (K. Helvetius, K. Marx,
J.-P. Sartre and others).
Many modern scholars believe that creative
ability is “ontologically” significant human’s
quality (for example, V. N. Nikolko “Creativity
as an innovation process (philosophical and
ontological analysis)”). Creative ability, as a
generic essence of the subject, varies according to
the degree of development. Thus, I. Ya. Loyfman
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distinguishes three levels of development of
creative abilities of the subject:
1) productive-reproductive: creative ability
in which something existing only recurs, copies
itself, and the new is created only exceptionally,
accidentally; creative ability as a reproduction out
of the elements and rules, various objectifications,
when the new appears by accident;
2) generative: creative ability, which is
characterized by a freer use of a limited number
of elements and rules, variation, formation of
maybe not an absolutely new product, but an
original new variation (emergence of a new is
possible); creative ability in varying degrees is
inherent to each person and is expressed in the
creation of new variants on the base of given
elements and rules;
3) constructive and innovative: the emergence
of a new is natural: a radically new is created
or elements and rules in the already known are
renewed; at this level scientific discoveries are
made, new ideas are put forward and etc11.
The desire for a new is caused by the fact that
the subject is not satisfied with the outer world
and looks for ways of its transformation. Human
activity as a subject of creativity is socially
determined, it is characterized by emotionalvolitional moments, selectivity, needs. For a man
as the subject of creativity in activity motivation is
necessary: both external, which is not connected
with the character of activity, and internal (pithy),
when the content of the activity acquires the
interest. A. N. Luk in the work “Thinking and
creativity” notes that creativity requires both
sensual motivation (high self-esteem, recognition
of others, encouragement, ambition, envy, greed,
curiosity, etc.), and high emotionality12. At the
same time, fear, excessive criticality inhibit the
creative activity. A characteristic feature of the
creator is a strong and stable motivation, the need
for creativity. Furthermore, in Yerkes-Dodson’s
law quantitative dependence between the force
of desire and the results of activity is fixed: the
stronger the desire, the better the result13. The
limit point – is the peak of the result (if the
motivation overstep the limit point, the results
become worse).
The regularities of the process of law-making
are in communication with the objective laws of
existence and the results of lawmaking as a kind of
creativity relate to objective reality. Lawmaking
is a vital way of organizing of social life, people’s
being, otherwise peace, order, provided by the
law, dissociate. This is the ontological nature of
lawmaking, it’s essential difference from other
types of creativity.
In the law-making the logical power of
the mind is projected onto the created legal
reality to streamline people’s being by legal
norms. As a proof cab be adduced a statements
Greek philosopher Aristotle. Aristotle, in his
treatise “Policy. Athens round table” writes
that, “the political system, established by
Solon, and the laws, which he published, were
new; ... athenians ... swore to observe them”14.
According to Aristotle Solon “established these
laws for a hundred years and gave the structure
to the state”, by which “gave honor to the
people, which they need”, “didn’t cut his rights,
did not give extra ones but”, “with his mighty
shield covering those and others”, “and didn’t
let anyone to win the other unjustly”15. All the
Athenian right was founded on the legislation of
Solon, and Solon is rightly considered to be the
founder of the Athenian state.
M. N. Marchenko believes that the lawmaking process – is an aimed at the achieving
the goals of social development activity of the
subjects of the law-making; this activity consists
in the identification of needs for legal regulation
of social relations, creation of (in accordance with
identified needs) new laws, which takes the place
of (abolishes) the current ones16. The rule of law –
is a general rule, that reflects the social experience
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of society and the state, special, individual
and distinct. Rules of law serve as scientific,
objectively valid prescription, model of public
relations, which reflect the interests of society
in improving, peace and order. Improvement
of the norms of law, of the content of the rules,
strengthening, streamlining of the legal reality,
of the human’s being – is the ontological aspect
of lawmaking.
Legislating, in our opinion, is a synthesis
of the natural potency of the development of
being and the purposeful activity of a subject.
Lawmaking activity is important for human,
and the emergence of the new in law acquires
social existence, when it becomes an element
of the spiritual life of society. The part of legal
conscience. Development of the legal reality is
determined by material and spiritual needs and
socio-cultural values of the people. Man, being
the subject of the law-making, participates in the
development of the society and the development
of himself, becomes an active subject, acquires
a real freedom. In lawmaking random and
regular correlate, freedom and necessity, which
is a manifestation of the ontological nature of
the creativity. At the same time, law-making is
subject to objective laws of existence, it is their
manifestation, included in a single process of
development.
In the scientific literature there is a point
of view that the subject of law-making is the
whole society, and the law-making process has
a collective nature. For example, L. S. Yavich,
L. I. Spiridonov note that the state is not the
creator of the law but only contributes to the
implementation of legal norms. According
to them, the force, that creates the right, is the
practice of many individuals. Many different
factors affect on legislating (cultural, political,
economic, etc.), that is why it can be argued that
all of society participates in the creation of the
right17.
In the lawmaking not only the attitude to legal
reality depends on the subject, his worldview, his
legal attitude, but also that on which aspect of the
legal reality the attention of creator is focused.
Durbina A. B. thinks that the legal attitude of
the subject of law-making, reflecting his view
on any socio-legal problem, is influenced by
many factors – from the environment (economic,
political, cultural etc.), the life of the subject, the
personal characteristics of the subject, his value
preferences, to the influence the media, etc18.
As an illustration of this state we will review
the laws of Hammurabi, king of Babylonia,
whose name is connected with the prosperity of
the state. Hammurabi’s laws – is a set of laws of
Babylonia (about 1760 BC.), monument of the
ancient Eastern slave law. The attention of the
king Hammurabi at the creation of legal norms
came from his social status, it was aimed at
strengthening of the power of the slave-owners
over the slaves, and the slave system in the whole.
Hammurabi’s laws reflect the higher level of
social differentiation in Babylonia, they were
designed to protect the property of the ruling
class. The subjects of the right according to the
low were avilum (a free member of commune),
imushkenum (a free man on the royal service,
“prostrating oneself”). Slaves and children were
treated only as the objects of law.
The manifestation of the ontological aspect
of creativity is the objectivity of thought, which is
ensuring the development of the idealized object
of creativity in the thinking of the creator from
its design to implementation in reality. In the
process of law creation it is permitted (in whole or
in part) the contradiction between the objectives,
the needs of people and the legal norms that have
the force of law, which is also a manifestation
of the ontological essence of lawmaking. In the
lawmaking the object passes to qualitatively new
condition through the resolution of the conflict, in
other words the object develops.
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It is important to draw attention to conditions,
which allows to improve the legal norms.
M. I. Abdullaev, S. A. Komarov emphasize the
following essential conditions: reflection of the
regularities of development of the state in legal
norms; correspondence between the rules of law
and the requirements of justice and morality;
observance of the laws of the existing system
of rights; account of the general principles of
regulation and management of the processes in
society19.
The ontological nature of the creativity
consists in the subordinate to the objective laws
and the involvement in the development process.
The link between the categories of “development”
and “creativity” is indicated by such researchers
as M. Bloch, J. A. Ponomarev, A. T. Shumilin,
K. S. Pigrov and others. Creativity and its
variety lawmaking are forms of development,
creation, the implementation of a commitment
to excellence. Moreover, K. S. Pigrov, a modern
researcher of creativity problems, believes that
1
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3
4
5
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7
8
9
10
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14
15
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20
creativity is not any development, but only one,
which “involves personal beginning”, and which
is carried out in accordance with the objectives of
the subject20.
Creativity and lawmaking in the ontological
aspect appear as a universal human ability to
transformation, changing and improving of
existence and his own development, in other
words, in the creative process human builds
himself, creates his own personality.
Legislating as a kind of creativity – is the
most important aspect the activity of the state,
which purpose is the formation of new legal norms,
modification, cancellation or supplementation of
existing ones. The reformation of the various sides
of the modern people’s life involves the creation
and improvement of the system of legal norms,
that regulate various relations in society, what is
the reason for increased research interest to the
problems of creativity in general and law-making
in particular, to identifying the ontological
foundations.
Platon. Sobranie sochinenii: v 4 t. / Obshch. red. L. F. Loseva, V. F. Asmusa, A. A. Takho-Godi; primech. A. F. Loseva i
A. A. Takho-Godi. Moscow, Mysl‘, 1993. T. 2. Pp. 135.
Stolovich L. N. Tvorchestvo. Filosofsky slovar / Pod red. I. T. Frolova. Moscow, Respublika, 2001. Pp. 554.
Plotnikov V. I. Sootnoshenie sotsialnogo i biologicheskogo kak filosofskaia problema: avtoref. dis. … d-ra. filos. nauk.
Sverdlovsk, 1980. Pp. 13.
Ozhegov S. I. Slovar‘ russkogo iazyka. Ekaterinburg, Ural-Sovety (Vest‘), 1995. Pp. 358.
Shpengler O. Zakat Evropy. Moscow; Minsk, AST; Kharvest, 2000. Pp. 737.
Nikolko V. N. Tvorchestvo kak novatsionnyi protsess (filosofsko-ontologicheskii analiz). Simferopol‘: Tavriia, 1990.
Pp. 42.
Tam zhe. Pp. 33.
Tam zhe. Pp. 33.
Dyachkova O. N. (2007). Novizna kak universalnyi kriterii tvorchestva. Izvestiia Rossyskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. A. I. Gertsena. T. 22. Vyp. 53.
Tam zhe. Pp. 311.
Loifman I. Ia., Rutkevich M. N. Osnovy gnoseologii. Ekaterinburg, Bank kulturnoi informatsii, 2003. Pp. 40.
Luk A. N. Myshlenie i tvorchestvo. Moscow, Politizdat, 1976. 133 p.
Tam zhe.
Aristotel‘. Politika. Sochineniia: v 4 tt. Moscow, Mysl‘, 1984. T. 4. Pp. 271.
Tam zhe.
Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava: Uchebnoe posobie / Pod red. M. N. Marchenko. Moscow, Prospekt, 2003. 636 p.
Iavich L. S. Sushchnost‘ prava: Sotsialno-filosofskoe ponimanie genezisa razvitiia i funktsionirovaniia iuridicheskoi
formy obshchestvennykh otnoshenii. Leningrad, LGU, 1985. 207 p.
Derbina A. B. (2011). K voprosu o pravosoznanii kak faktore formirovaniia pravovoi pozitsii sub‘‘ekta pravotvorchestva v
sovremennoi Rossii. Leningradskii iuridicheskii zhurnal. V. 2. Pp. 83–95.
Abdulaev M. I., Komarov S. A. Prpblemy teorii gosudarstva I prava. Sankt-Peterburg, Piter, 2003. 584 p.
Pigrov K. S. Sotsial‘no-filosofskie problemy tvorchestva. Leningrad, LGU, 1982.
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References
1. Abdulaev M. I., Komarov S. A. Prpblemy teorii gosudarstva I prava. Sankt-Peterburg, Piter,
2003. 584 p.
2. Aristotel‘. Politika. Sochineniia: v 4 tt. Moscow, Mysl‘, 1984. T. 4. Pp. 271–343.
3. Derbina A. B. (2011). K voprosu o pravosoznanii kak faktore formirovaniia
pravovoi pozitsii sub‘‘ekta pravotvorchestva v sovremennoi Rossii. Leningradskii
iuridicheskii zhurnal. V. 2. Pp. 83–95.
4. Dyachkova O. N. (2007). Novizna kak universalnyi kriterii tvorchestva. Izvestiia Rossyskogo
gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. A. I. Gertsena. T. 22. Vyp. 53. Pp. 309–312.
5. Iavich L. S. Sushchnost‘ prava: Sotsialno-filosofskoe ponimanie genezisa razvitiia i
funktsionirovaniia iuridicheskoi formy obshchestvennykh otnoshenii. Leningrad, LGU, 1985. 207 p.
6. Loifman I. Ia., Rutkevich M. N. Osnovy gnoseologii. Ekaterinburg, Bank kulturnoi informatsii,
2003. 176 p.
7. Luk A. N. Myshlenie i tvorchestvo. Moscow, Politizdat, 1976. 133 p.
8. Nikolko V. N. Tvorchestvo kak novatsionnyi protsess (filosofsko-ontologicheskii analiz).
Simferopol‘: Tavriia, 1990. 189 p.
9. Ozhegov S. I. Slovar‘ russkogo iazyka. Ekaterinburg, Ural-Sovety (Vest‘), 1995. 796 p.
10. Pigrov K. S. Sotsial‘no-filosofskie problemy tvorchestva. Leningrad, LGU, 1982.
11. Platon. Sobranie sochinenii: v 4 t. / Obshch. red. L. F. Loseva, V. F. Asmusa, A. A. TakhoGodi; primech. A. F. Loseva i A. A. Takho-Godi. Moscow, Mysl‘, 1993. T. 2. Pp. 135.
12. Plotnikov V. I. Sootnoshenie sotsialnogo i biologicheskogo kak filosofskaia problema: avtoref.
dis. … d-ra. filos. nauk. Sverdlovsk, 1980.
13. Problemy teorii gosudarstva i prava: Uchebnoe posobie / Pod red. M. N. Marchenko. Moscow,
Prospekt, 2003. 636 p.
14. Shpengler O. Zakat Evropy. Moscow; Minsk, AST; Kharvest, 2000. 1376 p.
15. Stolovich L. N. Tvorchestvo. Filosofsky slovar / Pod red. I. T. Frolova. Moscow, Respublika,
2001. Pp. 554.
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Olga N. Tomyuk. Creativity and Lawmaking: Ontological Aspect
Творчество и правотворчество:
онтологический аспект
О.Н. Томюк
Уральский федеральный университет им. Б.Н. Ельцина
Россия, 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51
В статье автор, опираясь на труды многих философов, исследует специфику творчества
и его разновидности правотворчества, выходя на онтологическую проблематику. Цель –
исследование творчества/правотворчества в онтологическом аспекте. Онтологический
аспект исследования предполагает выявление сущностной природы изучаемого
объекта (творчества/правотворчества), его онтологических оснований, раскрытие
специфики феноменов творчества и правотворчества.
Творчество и правотворчество характеризуются с точки зрения причастности к
онтологическим основаниям бытия. Онтологичность творчества/правотворчества
обосновывается через подчиненность объективным законам, включенность в процесс
развития. Онтологический аспект исследования, связанный с выявлением сущностной
природы изучаемого объекта (творчества/правотворчества), исследуется с позиции
межпарадигмальности, междисциплинарности, во взаимосвязи с категориями других
областей знания.
Автор приходит к выводу, что закономерности процесса правотворчества как жизненно
важного способа организации жизни социума, бытия людей находятся в связи с объективными
законами бытия, а результаты правотворчества относятся к объективной реальности. В
правотворчестве логическая способность разума проецируется на создаваемую правовую
реальность с целью упорядочения бытия людей правовыми нормами. В этом онтологичность
правотворчества, его существенное отличие от других видов творчества.
Область применения результатов – философия, раздел – онтология; философия
творчества.
Ключевые слова: онтология, творчество, правотворчество, онтологические аспекты
творчества/правотворчества, природа творчества, субъекты творчества, субъекты
правотворчества, человек как субъект творчества/правотворчества, правотворчество как
процесс создания нового в праве, творчество и развитие.
Исследование проведено при финансовой поддержке молодых ученых УрФУ в рамках
реализации программы развития УрФУ.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1301-1311
~~~
УДК 7.01
Modern Theory of Visual Art:
Regional Project
Vladimir I. Zhukovskiy*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 08.05.2014, received in revised form 20.06.2014, accepted 07.07.2014
The article defines the main notions of the modern visual art theory, studies the process of creating
artistic appearance in the relation-dialogue between the recipient and the object-work, determines the
role of an art critic as a bearer of conceptual knowledge of theory in the integrity of such professional
aspects as expert, researcher, maieutic.
Keywords: art theory, work of art, expert art critic, researcher art critic, maieutic art critic, artificiality,
trial, dialogue, artistic appearance, style.
During the last decades of the 20 th century
the science of art has been actively working on
new research procedures, forms of scientific
art study, engaging itself in the artistic
process, analyzing tendencies and prospects of
modern art development. It may be observed
in works of Russian art theory luminaries and
outstanding foreign scholars of the 20 th century
(H. Wölffl in, H. Sedlmayr, E. Panofsky and
others) (2, 10, 11).
By the beginning of the second decade of
the 21st century art theory has accumulated a
great amount of empiric material in urgent need
for systematization and scientific structuration.
There is a large group of historical and
artistic disciplines, that collect, describe and
chronologically graduate numerous monuments
of architecture, sculpture, and painting. These
are outstanding and fundamental art histories
of Asian, African, American and European
*
countries from the beginning of time until the
beginning of the current century.
Theory of a certain reality sphere is systematic
knowledge of the theory subject matter of the
quality and significance, sufficient for describing,
explaining and forecasting features and behavior
of theoretical knowledge objects (phenomena,
processes) (Agoshkova E.B., Novosiolov M.M.
(2013). Interval’nost’ v structure nauchnykh teoriy
[Intervality in the Scientific Theory Structure] //
Voprosy filosofii. (4). 44-58).
Creation of a sufficient and fundamental
visual art theory is a task for generations of
master scientists and specialists. However, even
now it is already possible to outline a series of
conceptual clauses, forming the fundament for
theoretic knowledge on visual art in the integrity
of works belonging to various types and genres.
Integrative theory is the key to scientific history
and methodology of visual art.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: art_dec@lan.krasu.ru
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Vladimir I. Zhukovskiy. Modern Theory of Visual Art: Regional Project
Theory as a form of organization for
developing knowledge does not appear out of
the blue; it is created with the target to obtain a
powerful cognitive instrument for developing
this or that scientific field. Therefore, any theory,
being a scientific instrument, is borne by a
dedicated bearer, who perceives its informational,
systemizing, explanatory and forecasting
functions in the corresponding field as an
epistemological norm and legislative dogma.
Such theory bearer is the one who has a perfect
command of logical and linguistic, modeling
and representative, operational and assessing,
problematic and heuristic subsystems of the
theory, capable of applying the theory in practice
in an efficient way.
As far as visual art theory is concerned, the
episteme bearer is an art critic, the professional
activity of whom is the integrity of three
components: expert, researcher and maieutic
(Zhukovskiy V.I. Teoriia izobrazitel’nogo
iskusstva [Visual Art Theory]. Saint Petersburg,
Aleteyia, 2011. 496 p.). Visual art theory, intended
for productive use, is expected to maximally
fulfill the requirements of all aspects of the theory
bearer’s profession. Therefore, visual art theory
satisfies the demands of:
– expert art critic, an erudite able to feel
the subtle differences between artistic
styles, epochs and works of various art
genres; a scientist capable of revealing
and verbally crystallizing historical,
religious,
mythological,
narrative
and other determinants, coordinately
identifying this or that piece of the visual
art history as belonging to this or that
period of its creator’s life;
– researcher art critic, an analytic
scientist, interested in deeper insight into
the contemplated core of the sign model,
a certain work of art as a sensuously
appearing entity;
– maieutic art critic, a professional of art
criticism, targeting on comprehensive
and careful assistance in the creation
and performance of an adequate
dialogue between the viewer and the
work of art.
And now let us speak of the theory of visual
art. Seemingly, its object is expected to be “art”
as such; however, “art” (Russian: iskusstvo,
originated from Old Slavic iskusiti, kusit’ “to
probate”, “to tempt”) stands for skills and abilities
in creating a product, which makes it evident that
its corner stone should not be “art” as a master’s
actions for making something, but the “art work”
itself as the mentioned “something”. “Art work”
as an object of visual art theory enables an art
critic to research both the process of production
(who, where, when, how and why produces the art
work), and the process of work preservation (who,
where, when, how and why keeps the produced
work), and the process of perceiving the art work
by its recipients (who, where, when, how and why
consumes the product).
The essential element of a theory is
explaining reasons for existing of its subject
matter. In visual art the reason of producing art
is rooted in the underlying need of a person to
unite the sphere of his self-affirmation with the
sphere of incorporating his individuality in the
universal, the need for “co-being”. Art work acts
as a “meeting point”, a sensuously appearing
entity, coition of a person as a finite creature with
what may be referred to as “infinite”, “absolute”,
“god”, “universal”, “substance”. The notion of an
“art work” is the “meeting point” of the finite with
the infinite, it is the key definition for visual art
theory. Being initially compressed and ultimately
abstract, plunging into this or that aspect of
professional art criticism, this definition obtains
an amazing capacity to expand or concretize itself
in a number of notional instruments with their
own unique technologies of mental functioning
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Vladimir I. Zhukovskiy. Modern Theory of Visual Art: Regional Project
(Zhukovskiy V.I. (2012) Strukturnye osnovy teorii
izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva [Structural Basics of
Visual Art Theory] // Filosofiia i kul’tura, (3), 96104.)
For an expert art critic, “art work” is
the “meeting point” of the fi nite with the
infi nite, manifesting itself as an ideal relation
between the person and absolute, where, in the
representantive space, both parties eager for
the meeting fi nd themselves in their abstract
form, provided that they both make a certain
attempt to achieve it. The attempt to “get
abstract” made by absolute is emanation of the
infi nite into the fi nite, which is understood as
the “depictive” trend of art. The attempt to “get
abstract” made by the person is immanation of
the fi nite into the infi nite, understood as the
“expressive” trend of art.
The dialectics of the relations between
“depiction” and “expression” in the “meeting
point” divides all visual art works into three
categories. The first one is the works where the
infinite component dominates; crossing the
border of the “meeting point”, it brings itself to
the “finite”. These are works of mainly “depictive”
kind, with the predominance of depicting the
infinite in finite forms, sensuously appearing with
the artistic tools of graphics, painting, sculpture,
architecture. The second group is the works of art
where the finite component dominates; entering
the “meeting point”, it strives to “de-infinite”
itself. Such creations belong to, mainly, the
“expressive” side of art, where the predominance
belongs to depiction of the finite in the deinfiniting forms, sensuously appearing, again,
with the artistic means of graphics, painting,
sculpture and architecture. The third group is
the group of works bearing a rare equality of the
opposition between the depictive and expressive
trends of art. Such masterpieces are made to
embody the moment of harmony between the
finite and the infinite in the “meeting point”
by means of graphics, painting, sculpture and
architecture.
Mixing the “depictive” and “expressive”
tendencies into the visual art history, we get such
stylistic “meeting points”, as “area-classicism”
and “area-romanticism”.
“Area-classicism” is the style space
containing artistic styles of the common visual
art history related to classicism in their features.
Such art works embody, predominantly, depictive
trend of art. The formal features of “areaclassicism” works are: planeness, linearity,
completeness, clearness, multiplicity. “Arearomanticism” is the style space, containing
artistic styles of the common visual art history
related to romanticism in their features, thereby
embodying, predominantly, expressive trend of
art. The formal features of “area-romanticism”
works are: depth, picturesqueness, openness,
unclearness, integrality.
Opening up the style spaces of “areaclassicism” and “area-romanticism”, it is possible
to outline the styles, “closely related” to classicism
(diverse “historical classicisms”, “Empire style”,
“academism” and to romanticism (“historical
romanticism” as such” “gothic”, “baroque”),
and the styles “distantly related” to classicism
(“romanica”, “impressionism”, “cubism” etc.)
and to romanticism (“rococo”, “symbolism”,
“modernism”, “expressionism” etc.).
It turns out that both “area-classic” and
“area-romantic” art works may be “realistic”.
Historical styles of “area-classicism” use realism
as materiality for bringing the self, sensuously
appearing in the finite forms of absolute, to a
naturalistic stage. Historical styles of “arearomanticism” use the materiality of realism as
a starting sensuously appearing point for deinfitining the finite.
Moving further along the differential ladder
of the “meeting point”, one may sooner or later
arrive at the point determining the disposition of
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Vladimir I. Zhukovskiy. Modern Theory of Visual Art: Regional Project
a certain art work in space and time of visual art
history, which is the professional objective of an
art critic in his “expert” aspect.
For a researcher art critic, art work is the
“meeting point” of the finite with the infinite which
reveals itself as the “artificiality”, “craftsmanship”,
“probation” of art (translator’s note: in Russian
language, all three terms originate from the same
root: iskustvennost’, iskusnost’, iskus). Art work
is always a thing, different from its original nature
(“artificiality”), demonstrating the handicraft of
its production with the requirement of skilled
treatment (“craftsmanship”), arousing the desire
for dialogue (“probation”).
“Craftsmanship” of an art work reveals
itself through the reference to Old Greek
techne, as the Hellenes used the word for a skill,
high craftsmanship, talent in a certain sphere.
Obtaining “techne” as “craftsmanship” claims
the penetration into the secrets of the divine skill
of creation. Nature creates, releasing a thing from
non-existence into the fullness of its actual being,
and a person, modeling the divine principles,
performs the act of creation, producing, or
un-veiling a thing from discreetness into the
openness. One may say that “craftsmanship” as
“techne” is the reason for un-veiling a thing in
its artistic form. In the “first” nature the process
of un-veiling towards the material result, form or
configuration is performed by force of a demiurge
force (god, spirit, nature, absolute etc.). In the
“second” nature the process of un-veiling leading
to a material result occurs for the “craftsmanship”
of the human will and mind, but under the aegis
of divine laws and objectives.
It is possible to outline several levels of
“craftsmanship”, significant both for producing
art works as “meeting points” (relation of a
master to the art material in the process of
artistic revelation) and for their consumption
(relation of the viewer with the material piece):
“craftsmanship” as such is the minimal level
of skill, qualification, competence, training;
“super-craftsmanship” as the level of virtuoso
skill of creating and developing art works with
a peculiar “crafty” production pattern; “metacraftsmanship” as the level of post-virtuoso,
overcoming the super-craftsmanship which loses
its significance and inherent value.
The “meeting point” of an art work in the
“craftsmanship” aspect, is, first of all, a thing
of certain dimensions, authentic and existing in
reality. An object-work as a whole consists of a
number of parts, which include, for a painting:
paints, canvas, canvas-stretcher, couch, glue,
lacquer etc. The most important component is the
“non-organic” mass of paints, the preservation
and support of which is performed by other
components of the object. In its turn, the “nonorganic” paint surface of the object is inevitably
made of its form and background, constructed of
elementary parts. The forms and the background
are tightly bound to each other, as the weaker the
“non-organic” element structure of the painting
surface is, the more tempted is the viewer to
abstract from the “crafty artificiality” of this
very work, and vice versa. We may confidently
state that all burden of revealing the subsequent
“organic”, “cordial” and “spiritual” layers of
the “artificiality” of an art work lays on the
“non-organic” layer of painting forms and the
background of the material “meeting point”
surface.
Infiltration into the matter, depicted and
expressed by an art work, is the first task of the
“artificiality” of the sign “meeting point” surface
in its material aspect. However, remaining a
bearer of tightly bound sign bodies, the “nonorganic” layer of is able to vary the meanings of
its signs in the process of ideal relations with the
recipient, turning them, as needed, into indexsigns, iconic signs or symbol-signs.
When the quality of connection between the
observer and the object-work transforms into the
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quality of connection between the viewer and the
art work as a “meeting point”, the artistic creation
and its “artificiality” turns into an organism of
index-signs, leading to the formation of the
“organic” layer of “artificiality”, which fills the
relations between the viewer and the work with
the sensation of reality, i.e. the integrality of the
creating and the created, action and result, abstract
and material, idea and thing, ideal and real. This
is the sphere of reality where both members of the
relation-dialogue (the viewer and the work of art)
become real co-creators of the artistic appearance
as an operating visual entity.
Opening of the depicted and the expressed
with the “meeting point” is not complete at the
level of index-signs in the “organic” layer of the
art work’s “artificiality”. Having passed through
the index stage, the relations between the viewer
and the artistic creativity product transform the
meanings of sign entities from indexes into icons,
thereby involving the dialogue parties into the
“cordial” layer of the appearance “artificiality”.
Formation of the “cordial” layer of a visual
appearance is described with artistic authenticity
(different from truthfulness), combined with the
adequate reproduction of current world outlooks
of people. The artistic authenticity content bears
objective-subjective character: it is not just
the attitude to artificial objects imitating the
things as they are in reality on their own; it is
the attitude to them as to entities expressing the
previously or presently existing cordial values
and ideals. The artistic authenticity is based on
sensual authenticity, but not limited to it. The
“non-organic”, “organic” and “cordial” layers
of “artificiality” are qualitatively different from
each other.
It is also worth emphasizing that a visual
artistic appearance as a new emergent unites, on
one hand, the “ostentatiousness” of the external
art work itself (as a separate material being)
with the products of the viewer’s speculation,
and on the other hand, the objectively-expressive
artificiality of sign, with the subjective signifying
capacity. As a result, we see, that artistic
appearance as a visual entity is an emergent,
always including two merged and equalized
contents of creative attitude aspects. And as long
as the emergent also contains the expressions of
both human (viewer) and inhuman (e.g., clots of
paint on the canvas surface), it would be wrong
to restrict the quality of an artistic appearance,
born in the dialogue-attitude, to the meaning
of either human or inhuman components. The
artistic appearance reveals itself as something
beyond the attitude of one of the dialogue parties
to another; it is relation between the human and
inhuman understood not in the manner of a
trivial projection theory, but in the understanding
of Hegel’s reflection theory. The proportion and
harmony between the viewer and the art work in
their ideal equality, in which they perceive each
other, thereby producing the quality of the artistic
appearance, may be different, but it is a different
matter. Depending on the trends that dominate
in the viewer’s activity assumption, oriented
at the perceiving the art core or his own self,
there occurs the domination of either sensuously
expressed gist of the art work, or, on the contrary,
of ontological images of the viewer personality
in the resulting artistic emergent appearance.
However, it is important that in the process of
such artistic relation, the recipient, cognizing the
meanings and senses of the signs on the material
surface of the piece, unconsciously perceives the
depths of his own self besides the external, visible
side of the dialogue.
Having gone through the “cordial” layer
of “artificiality”, the process of artistic relation
between the viewer and the art work is not
frozen; it moves onto a new level oriented at
both understanding the reasons of sensuous
diversity of visual perception and the reasons
why the viewer turned to the art work as such.
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It leads to a new transformation of meanings of
the signs on the material surface of the painting.
This time the main role is played not as much by
index or iconic meanings and senses of signs,
as by symbol-signs, the meaning of which,
according to their Ancient Greek defi nition, is
to act as a separator of the whole and unifier of
the ambiguous.
A new layer of “artificiality” of an art work,
which may also be referred to as “spiritual”, is
formed in a relative independence from the
previous one. These two layers are qualitatively
different and opposite, mutually denying each
other. However, this denial is dialectic: denial as
a moment of connection, moment of development
holding the expression of knowledge received by
dialogue parties at the previous stages of artistic
appearance formation.
The “spiritual” level of the art work
“artificiality” in its “meta-craftsmanship” is
made to reveal the underlying meaning of the
thing, expressed and depicted by the “meeting
point” through the symbolism of the art work
compositional formula. The compositional formula
is the significant bearer of the common meaning
and gist of the art work, which, diluted in the art
work “non-organic” layer and showing through
each of its elementary parts (simultaneously
belonging and not belonging to it), geometrically
and visually models the appearance of being.
Reflection on the symbolism of the “meeting
point” composition formula is a certain sort of
communication between the viewer (as a finite
creature) and absolute by means of universal
and generally significant language of geometric
shapes. Perception of the “secondary sensuality”
of a composition formula implies that the single is
manifested as an aspect of the universal, capable
of uniting with the corresponding aspects into a
harmonic whole. It feels as a long-expected part,
completing the viewer’s world attitude to the
full authenticity and wholeness, satisfying his
need for the integration of self-affirmation and
compassion.
The “meta-craftsmanship artificiality” of
an art piece, being a sign-entity, demonstrates its
dialectic unity of the “non-organic”, “organic”,
“cordial” and “spiritual” layers, which turns to
be related to the four great layers of being. One
may say that the “meeting point” of an art work
in its “artificiality” is the representative model
of being, acting as an auxiliary intermediary
“quasi-object” in a certain correlation with such
ultimately abstract and mysterious object as
being, able to replace it to a limited extent and,
provided that the viewer gets engaged into a
relation with the “quasi-object”, also capable of
presenting some information on the gist of the
modeled entity.
The “probation” of art piece may be presented
as the following logical chain: “temptation”,
“luring”,
“seduction”,
“enchantment”,
“contamination”, “testing”, “understanding”,
“cognition”,
“transformation”,
“change”,
“metamorphosis”. This chain of notions may
also thicken, grouping itself into four blocks of
notions: “seduction”, “contamination”, “testing”,
“metamorphosis”, where each block acts as an
aspect, side, function of the “probation” of an art
work as a “meeting point” for the finite with the
infinite.
“Seduction” understood as “enchantment”
begins with the revelation of the spell, i.e.
a materially existing base with non-organic
elementary cells endued with a special “seductive”
power. Then, the spell “arouses”, i.e. provokes
what is discreet, hidden inside the object, sleeping
within before the relation-dialogue (depicted
and expressed in the work of art). At the same
time, the spell “arouses” emotional and rational
resources in the viewer as well.
In the course of the artistic dialogue, the spell
“contaminates”, bringing the “fatal” “disease”
(artistic meaning).
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The further effect of the spell may be
defined with the expression “to carry away by
attraction”: the spell distracts both partners of
artistic relation from the state in which they were
before the “contamination” at the very beginning
of the “probation” process.
After the “contamination” stage, the
probation of the art piece continues with the period
of a “crucible”, a sort of “trial” which precedes
the qualitative transformation of the dialogue
parties seduced by the spell. Such period may be
defined as the “disease” itself, the course of which
is a complicated struggle between different sides
of artistic attitude with the external influence,
which turns internal in the “probation” process.
During this period the power of “enchantment”,
penetrating from the seducing to the seduced one,
is perceived as something desired, longed for,
and, being recognized, is finally perceived as the
“other self”.
The fi nal phase of the “probation” process
is the “transformation” of the seduced parties,
their “metamorphosis” which occurs as a
result of obtaining and digesting the meaning
conveyed by the spell. The “seduced” turns
“experienced”.
It is worthwhile noting, that “metamorphosis”
acts as the main function of “probation”, while
“seduction”, “contamination”, “testing” are all
auxiliary functions, assisting the achievement of
the required “probation” effect.
Release of artistic relations into the
“metamorphosis” phase is presented as falling
out from “regularity” into the reality, into the
openness of “co-being”, where co-being is not
a current being of something and not a potential
being of nothing, but a boundary as a synthesis
of both. In the co-being the finite component of
the person dies, bringing fear and desire together.
This is the feeling of death with simultaneous
preservation of life (absence in the presence and
presence in the absence).
Comparison of the “crafty artificiality”
layers of an art work (“non-organic”, “organic”,
“cordial” and “spiritual” with the phases of
the “crafty probation” process (“seduction”,
“contamination”, “testing”, “metamorphosis”)
brings us to the conclusion that “probation” as a
desire of self-affirmation and compassion is the
force which makes the viewer move from layer
to layer together with the “meeting point” piece
in the process of their artistic relation, thereby
forming an artistic appearance (visual notion)
as an intermediary between the finite and the
infinite (Zhukovskiy V.I. (2013) Tvorcheskiy
protsess: khudozhnik i khudozhestvennyy
material v ikh iskusnosti, iskustvennosti i iskuse
[Creative Process: Artist and Artistic Material in
Their Craftsmanship, Artificiality and Probation]
// Filosofiia i kul’tura, (4), 510-515.).
For a maieutic art critic the notion of an “art
work” is the “meeting point” of the finite with the
infinite; it opens into a bouquet of professional
means, assisting the relations between the viewer
and the art piece from the act of creating the
artistic appearance phenomenon until the fact
of its ultimate crystallization. Such “obstetrics”
brings the desired effect only when the activity of
the “maieutic art critic” is based on the fundament
of the results, obtained in advance by the “expert
art critic” and “researcher art critic”.
The relation composed between the viewer
as the finite and the absolute as the infinite in
the virtual space of an art piece as a “meeting
point” are close to such form of interaction as a
game. Comparison of “relation” with the term of
“game” gives the following results. First of all,
the epistemological status of game and relation
is the non-material being. Secondly, both relation
and game are sorts of influence of the “own”
to the “other” and vice versa. Relation opens
itself up as a “quality-shaped” action, a form
of mutual participation of co-related opposites,
mutual motion towards each other, striving
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to escape beyond their own limits and reveal
themselves one through another. But the game is
also actualized through some mutual actions of
partners: a game is the motion “back and forth”,
“but and ben”. Fourthly, the parties of a relation
and game partners do not perform their actions
chaotically; they follow a certain code of rules.
Fifthly, the rules of both relation and a game bear
a competitive struggle character. Relation parties,
inserting a part of their own meanings into one
another, by all means strive to conquer each other
without getting conquered in their turn. Stealing
the initiative from each other, the parties mutually
transform their “own” and “other” selves until they
smother all significant differences between each
other. Such struggle is special for its persistence
and risks, as the transformations caused by such
relation usually concern not only the quantity, but
the quality of the related parties. The same can
be said about a game. It is a widely known fact
that in archaic cultures categories of struggle and
game meant, practically, the same. Sixthly, the
rules of operating the “own” and “other” selves
both for relation and game bear a meaning only
in a specifically assigned space where the two
different components get into interaction with
each other.
We may continue on and on describing
common features between relation and game,
but the listed ones are enough to realize that the
“obstetric” mechanisms intended to bring the
dialogue parties into a coition at the “meeting
point”, are, in fact, nothing but methodological
means used for organization and management of
game processes.
It is also acceptable to outline several options
of a “maieutic art critic” position within the
“meeting point” game situation. The first option is
disjunctive. The intermediary isolates the relationgame parties from each other, depriving them of
the need and possibility of any direct contact. All
motions “back and forth” are done through the
“maieutic”, though each time he acts in the name
of the opposite party, abstracting himself from the
game process. The second option is conjunctive.
The intermediary creates background for direct
efficient game contact between the artistic
relation parties. The connection of the players
with the intermediary does not replace, but
complements the direct “back and forth” moves
of the opponents to and from each other. The
third option is disjunctive-conjunctive. From the
very beginning the intermediary does not take up
any restrictive or uniting functions, considering
the role of a “third party” to be conventionally
required in the artistic dialogue.
Notwithstanding with the options listed
above, the fact of presence of a “third party” in
the dialogue-game may make a deep impact on
the process of interaction between the artistic
relation parties. Inclusion of the “third party”
leads, though temporarily, the dialogue away
from the destructive path. Generally speaking,
introduction of a “third one” into the dyadic
system dramatically changes the structure of
situations possible within its framework and
interferes into their interaction. The effect of such
interference may be both ultimately advantageous
and problematic.
One should keep it in mind that interference
of a “third party” is not a panacea in the process
of creation and development of an artistic
appearance within the “meeting point” space.
Like a powerful medicine, the interference of the
“maieutic art critic” into the dialogue between
the viewer and the art piece may bring unwanted
side effects; therefore, it should only be used
when required (due to problematic dead-ends the
relation-game may get stuck in) and with great
care. In the best case, the “third party” interferes
into the game only when it is extremely required
(the relation is about to disappear) and adjusts
normal relations between the game participants
with such a success, that there is no more need
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for further interference of the “third party” into
the process.
A maieutic art critic, acting as a “third
party” in a disjunctive, conjunctive or disjunctiveconjunctive option of the relation-game between
the viewer and the art piece, is obliged to act as
a “psychologist”, “mentor”, “manager”, “referee”,
“friend”, leave aside the function of an “expert”
in the diversity of art pieces and a “researcher”.
The “psychologist” function makes the
“maieutic” measure the self-affirmation of the
person who encounters the art work along with
the pathologies of his individual as integrity of
self-affirmation and compassion. The obligations
of a “psychologist” force the “maieutic art critic”
consider the gender, age, national, religious and
other peculiarities of the potential viewer, which
determine the selection of an art piece for him to
encounter as a relation-game partner in order to
create an artistic appearance.
The “mentor” function obliges the “maieutic”
to assess the level of the potential viewer’s artistic
competence and culture of his visual thinking
for introducing some “expert” and “research”
corrections if required. In the event of absence
of any minimal culture of visual thinking, the
relation-game of such a person at the “meeting
point” will never happen (as the “observer”
is incapable of getting beyond the “viewer”
boundary).
The “manager” function makes it necessary
for the “maieutic” to facilitate the artistic
dialogue between the viewer and the art piece as a
“meeting point” and forces him to solve the tasks
of: a) planning; b) organization; c) motivation;
g) control of the relation-game. Planning is the
major obligation of an administrator forming the
base for organization, motivation and control,
targeted at fulfillment of further strategic and
tactic plans.
The “referee” function enables the “maieutic”
to control the specific game rules followed by the
dialogue members within the “meeting point”
space, adjusted individually for each artistic
relation, acting as a tertiary judge and facilitating
peaceful resolution of disputes that may arise
between the parties.
The “friend” function provides the
“maieutic” with an opportunity to count on
trust of the relation-game members. The
requirements to the “maieutic friend” are: 1)
establish friendly relations with the playing
viewer; 2) take the artistic game players as they
are; 3) preserve the atmosphere of intimacy in
the “meeting point” space, so that the viewer
feels at ease and free to express his feelings and
thoughts; 4) recognize feelings and thoughts of
the viewer and reflect them with verbal means
in order to teach the viewer how to reflect over
his own emotions and judgments; 5) respect the
viewer’s opportunity to solve the relation-game
tasks on his own and to do his own choice; 6)
avoid pressure on the actions or utterances of
the viewer, as he is supposed to be the leader,
while the maieutic acts as the “leaded one”; 7)
not to push the artistic relation process; 8) put
minimal restrictions on the viewer’s activity
in order to help him to correlate the artistic
game with reality and stimulate the sense of
responsibility.
Finally, we see that the “art piece” notion
is the “meeting point” of the finite with the
infinite; opening up in the “expert”, “research”
and “maieutic” aspects is a means for revelation
and contemplation over a number of notional
spheres, structural bases of the visual art world
(Zhukovskiy V.I. (2013) Proizvedenie iskusstva
v epitsentre khudozhestvennoy kul’tury [Art
Piece in the Art Culture Epicentre] // Filosofiia i
kul’tura (11), 1613-1620).
This is the super-objective for any adequate
theory: to strive for such a unity of knowledge,
at which the maximal number of facts from its
subject matter is described and explained with the
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minimal number of basic notions and principles
of the theory.
For many years, scientists from the Chair
for Culturology of Siberian Federal University
have been working on their research in “Current
Problems of Visual Art Theory”. The results
of their scientific inquiries are published in
the collection of articles Khudozhestbennaia
kul’tura: teoriia, istoriia, kritika, metodika
prepodavaniia, tvorcheskaia praktika [Artistic
Culture: Theory, History, Criticism, Teaching
Methodology, Creative Practice] (20002007), journals Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo
gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Krasnoyarsk
State University Press] (2005-2007), Zhurnal
Sibirskogo federal’nogo universiteta [Journal
of Siberian Federal University] and many other
Russian, foreign journal and monographs.
References
1. Agoshkova E.B., Novosiolov M.M. (2013). Interval’nost’ v structure nauchnykh teoriy
[Intervality in the Scientific Theory Structure] // Voprosy filosofii. (4). 44-58)
2. Wölfflin H. Osnovnye poniatiia istorii iskusstv: problema evoliutsii stilia v novom iskusstve
[Principles of Art History the Problem of the Development of Style in Later art]. Moscow, V. Shevchuk.
2009. 289 p.
3. Zhukovskiy V.I. (2012) Proizvedenie izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva: fenomen indeksnykh,
ikonicheskikh i simbolicheskikh khudozhestvennykh obrazov [Work of Visual Art: Phenomenon of
Index, Iconic and Symbolic Artistic Appearances] // Filosofiia i kul’tura, (11), 128-135.
4. Zhukovskiy V.I. (2013) Proizvedenie iskusstva v epitsentre khudozhestvennoy kul’tury
[Art Piece in the Art Culture Epicentre] // Filosofiia i kul’tura (11), 1613-1620. doi: 10.7256/19992793.2013.11.9845
5. Zhukovskiy V.I. (2012) Strukturnye osnovy teorii izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva [Structural
Basics of Visual Art Theory] // Filosofiia i kul’tura, (3), 96-104.
6. Zhukovskiy V.I. (2013) Tvorcheskiy protsess: khudozhnik i khudozhestvennyy material v ikh
iskusnosti, iskustvennosti i iskuse [Creative Process: Artist and Artistic Material in Their Craftsmanship,
Artificiality and Probation] // Filosofiia i kul’tura, (4), 510-515.
7. Zhukovskiy V.I. Teoriia izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva [Visual Art Theory]. Saint Petersburg,
Aleteyia, 2011. 496 p.
8. Zhukovskiy V.I., Koptseva N.P. (2010) Iskusstvo kak zhiznennaia neobkhodimost’. Proizvedenie
izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva [Art As Vital Need. Visual Art Piece] // Iskusstvo i obrazovanie, (3),
P. 5-29.
9. Zhukovskiy V.I., Koptseva N.P, Pivovarov D.W. Vizual’naia suschnost’ religii [Visual
Appearance of Religion]. Krasnoyarsk, KraSU, 2006. 461 p.
10. Sedlmayr H. Utrata serediny [The Lost Center]. Moscow, Territoriia Buduschego, 2008.
638 p.
11. Panofsky E. Smysl i tolkovanie izobrazitel’nogo iskusstva: st. po istorii iskusstva [Meaning in
the Visual Arts: Articles on Art History]. Saint Petersburg, Akademicheskiy Proekt, 1999. 393 p.
12. Stepin V.S. (2010). Nauka i filosofiia [Science and Philosophy] // Voprosy filosofii (8),
58-75.
13. Zhukovskiy V.I., Pivovarov D.W. (2010). Works of Art and Visual Thinking // European
journal of natural history, (2), P. 38-42.
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Современная теория изобразительного искусства:
региональный проект
В.И. Жуковский
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье определены основные понятия современной теории изобразительного искусства,
рассмотрен процесс создания художественного образа в диалоге-отношении реципиента с
произведением-вещью, обозначена роль искусствоведа, носителя концептуальных положений
теории, в единстве таких профессиональных аспектов, как знаток, исследователь,
майевтик.
Ключевые слова: теория искусства, произведение, искусствовед-знаток, искусствоведисследователь, искусствовед-майевтик, искусственность, искус, диалог, художественный
образ, стиль.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1312-1326
~~~
УДК 304.444
Cultural and Anthropological Studies
of Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Krai Childhood
(based on the field studies
of Siberian Federal University in 2010-2013)
Natalia P. Koptseva*, Ksenia V. Reznikova,
Natalia N. Pimenova and Anastasia V. Kistova
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 10.05.2014, received in revised form 14.06.2014, accepted 07.07.2014
The article describes the genesis of the social anthropology of childhood and reveals its basic
concepts. A well-reasoned statement that preservation, translation and reproduction of a specific
culture are directly connected with the topical cultural and anthropological state of childhood allows
to consider the culture of childhood of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East,
which have found themselves most vulnerable in the processes of global transformations of the 21st
century. Children are a strategic subject able to preserve and develop the unique culture of indigenous
peoples. At the same time, it is this category of population that is most vulnerable in terms of the sociocultural aspect, which is demonstrated on the examples of Chulym and Selkup ethno-cultural groups.
Global transformations of the modern industrial society actively destroy the traditional culture of the
indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Krai childhood. In the nearest future, this culture will have only a
virtual-information form or will disappear along with native languages of the cultural groups.
Keywords: social (cultural) anthropology of childhood, socialization, cultural transmission, ethnocultural identity, modal personality, Culture and Personality.
The research is conducted within the framework of national task fulfilment “Development of
Scientifically Grounded Concept for Creation of Interaction Mechanisms for Public Authorities,
Business and Ethnocultural Groups, Referring to Small Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia
and Far East” and within the framework of grant of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Science and
Scientific and Technological Activity Support.
1. Conceptual Foundations of Studies
of Small Indigenous Peoples
of Krasnoyarsk Krai Childhood Culture:
Psychological Anthropology
Childhood culture is one of the most
topical research subjects of the contemporary
*
social (cultural) anthropology. Such prominent
researchers as Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict,
Cora Du Bois, John Whiting and other scientists
[Benedict, 1997; Mead, 1988; Whiting,
1974] laid foundation of the social (cultural)
anthropology of childhood. The subject of their
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
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study was modal personality, origins of which
they were searching in the cultural practices
of education and children socialization in a
particular cultural group. In connection with
this, cultural methods of feeding, dressing,
hygiene habituation, indigenous children’s
sleep and wakefulness periods were thoroughly
studied; the field studies were conducted
by cultural anthropologists. Special area of
scientists’ attention is internal relationships
between children, between children and adults,
as well as socialization practices associated with
rewards and punishments typical of a particular
culture. For example, in certain cultures of
indigenous peoples there was no punishment
of children, while other Aboriginal cultures
punished their children for a long time, until the
age of 20. One of the scientific achievements of
classical cultural anthropology was discovery of
the critical role played by the rites and rituals
connected with children’s initiation, with their
transition to adulthood.
Sigmund Freud’s works [Freud, 1969] had
great impact on the social (cultural) anthropology
of childhood. Psychoanalytic concepts developed
by Freud are applied virtually in all cultural and
anthropological studies of children. Following his
works, the greatest importance of children’s need
for love, care and communication is underlined in
an effort to overcome stress and anxiety disorder,
etc. Etymological researches of childhood, when
the subject of study are cultural mechanisms of
socially significant emotions formation: affection,
joy, grief, suffering, aggressiveness and others
are of great importance.
Currently, the number of approaches
characteristic of cultural and anthropological
studies of childhood are emphasized, including
an empirical approach based on the fact that
the culture of childhood is the most important
stage of enculturation, where horizontal and
vertical cultural transmissions are performed,
and the basic cultural norms, ideals and
values are learnt. During this period external
influences play the key role for the cultural
identity formation.
Vertical and horizontal cultural transmissions
have a clearly emphasized ethnocultural form. The
result is formation of a personality that “fits in”
into a certain ethnocultural group, considers it as
“his/her group” and distinguishes it from “alien”
ethnocultural groups. Mechanisms of ethnic and
cultural identity formation can be very different.
The most important of them is formation of
affection, a strong and stable emotional connection
of a child to his/her immediate environment.
The affection is based on bioorganic processes,
thereby, psychobiological basis for the formation
of a strong cultural identity develops.
Formation of personal ethnic and cultural
identity is the basis for preservation, translation
and further development of a particular culture.
Preservation, translation and development of
a particular culture is connected with the fact
that these processes are carried out in the course
of direct activities of a person with the formed
modal personality type, characteristic of this
particular cultural group and different from
the modal personality type of another cultural
groups.
The concept of modal personality type was
developed in American school “Culture and
Personality” founded by Franz Boas [Boas, 2001].
Development of this concept was associated
with implementation of the main scientific ideal,
characteristic for the “Culture and Personality”
school. Representatives of the scientific school
upheld the principle of uniqueness, autonomy,
isolation and integrity of each particular
culture. These researchers believe that there are
no cultures that are “above” or “below” other
cultures. Representatives of Franz Boas’ school
explain specific features of different cultural
groups in connection with the peculiarities of
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psychological personality type. They believe
that there is a deep and inextricable connection
between economic, social and ecological cultural
forms of psychological personality type that
are formed in the process of specific cultural
pedagogical and socialization practices.
Within the frames of “Culture and
Personality” school A. Kardiner, C. Du Bois
and R. Linton developed an approach related to
the discovery of “basic and modal personality”.
“Basic and modal personality” approach was
developed in the course of anthropological
seminar at Columbia University (the USA).
During the seminar anthropologists presented
results of the specific cultural groups fieldworks,
and scientists-psychologists offered their own
interpretation of the obtained results to show
how certain psychological characteristics
of cultural group members defi ne the basic
cultural practices. As a result, a joint work by
psychiatrist A. Kardiner and anthropologist
R. Linton “The Individual and His Society”
[Kardiner, 1939] was written, where the authors
developed the basic personality structure and
demonstrated how the sum of characteristics
that specifies the general personality “carcass”
determines the basic cultural practices and
basic cultural forms of a particular community.
A. Kardiner and R. Linton proved that as early as
primary cultural institutions – food production,
marriage and family relationships type and
socialization practices fully determine special
features of a given culture. These primary
cultural institutions defi ne the basic personality
type that operates in a given culture and creates
it, and only then secondary cultural institutions
appear (to support the specific forms of primary
cultural institutions) – religion, mythology,
folklore, etc. Secondary cultural institutions
appear and exist as a result of primary cultural
institutions influence on a personality’s
consciousness.
The basic structure of a personality, in
terms of A. Kardiner and R. Linton, is formed
and implemented in the course of adaptation
of a personality to the basic ways of existence,
characteristic of a given cultural group.
The basic personality structure theory got
its further development in the studies by Cora
Du Bois [Du Bois, 1931, 1935, 1944, 1945,
1949], who proposed to replace the term “basic
personality structure” to the concept of “modal
personality structure” in order to “soften” the
rigidity of the “basic structure” definition. The
concept of “modal structure” is connected not
with the rigid psychological characteristics of
personality as a carrier of culture, but with the
statistical frequency of certain psychological
properties’ manifestations of definite culture
representatives. This allowed Cora Du Bois
investigate the dynamics of the psychological
qualities of the particular cultural group
representatives and to identify possible conflicts
between a personality and a particular culture.
Cora Du Bois rightly believes that study of the
psychological personality type should give not
unified but multiplicative results. Her hypothesis
that only a small percentage of people – members
of a particular cultural group will fully comply
with the modal personality type, is also attention
worthy.
In 1974, John Whiting proposed effective
scientific model, designed for research of
interactions and cause-and-effect relationships
between psychological personality type and
specificity of the cultural group a personality
belongs to [Whiting, 1974]. The basis of this
model is S. Freud’s idea that socialization
practices, in which a child was absorbed,
fully determine psychological type of an adult
personality. The second important idea for
J. Whiting’s model became A. Kardiner’s thesis
that primary cultural institutions predetermine
psychological personality type (a culture carrier),
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and secondary institutions are formed on the basis
of primary institutions and as a result of primary
cultural institutions influence on a personality’s
consciousness.
J. Whiting’s merit was that he thoroughly
researched primary cultural institutions and
specified practices that belong to them. He
identifies the following basic primary cultural
institutions: natural environment, social dynamics
and methods of cultural reproduction. J. Whiting
specificated the concept of “child upbringing”
through the following parameters: natural
environment, in which a child lives; people, who
care of a child; teachers; homework assignment
a child gets and his mother’s workload. Thus,
primary cultural institutions include both natural
and social parameters.
An adult person is considered through the
following parameters: 1) innate and 2) acquired.
Innate parameters include needs, motivations
and abilities. Acquired parameters include:
behavioral styles, skills and abilities, values,
conflict methods and ways of protection. Culture
reproduction systems are: food production
patterns, settlement patterns, production methods,
social structure, protection methods; types of
division of labor; laws and social control. The
external influences on a cultural group include
natural and social influences. Natural influences
are climate, landscape, flora and fauna. Social
influences include history of the cultural group
migration, borrowing (diffusion) and its cultural
discoveries.
J. Whiting calls secondary cultural
institutions “Project expression systems”.
They are represented by: religious practices,
magical practices, rituals, ceremonies, arts,
leisure, entertainment, crime rates and suicide
indicators.
Complete understanding of these parameters
constitutes the model of psychocultural research
by J. Whiting.
Thus, in American cultural anthropology
the most important principle of modern applied
culture studies that is associated with the
necessity of a thorough study of children’s
socialization practices and practices of moving
into adulthood was formed, because these
practices determine special characteristics of a
cultural group an adult will belong to. American
Psychological Anthropology in numerous field
studies discovered and recorded a direct causeand-effect interdependence between patterns of
behavior and psyche functioning on the one hand,
and cultural space (economic, social and political)
on the other hand.
There is no doubt that preservation,
translation and reproduction of a particular
culture is directly connected with the
current cultural and anthropological state of
childhood in a given culture. For conservation,
reproduction and translation of the unique
culture of indigenous peoples of the North,
Siberia and the Far East, that live compactly
in northern and arctic regions of the Russian
Federation, it is necessary to understand which
socialization practices, which pedagogical
and educational practices typical for children,
representatives of these cultures, it is necessary
to record and use in the forms that are common
in the 21 century.
In this regard, the study of childhood
culture of the indigenous peoples of the North,
Siberia and the Far East is of special importance,
as these particular nations, as evidenced by the
current practice, are particularly vulnerable to
global transformation processes characteristic
of the 21st century. Currently, the Russian
Federation is actively developing northern and
arctic zones, which are places of indigenous
peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East
compact residence. In this regard, studies
of childhood culture of these peoples are of
immediate interest.
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2. Childhood Culture
of Chulym Ethnocultural Group
in Tyukhtetsky District
of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Currently, in the territory of Krasnoyarsk
Krai active cultural studies of indigenous peoples
of the North, Siberia and the Far East in the
context of global transformations are conducted.
Studies related to childhood culture of these
peoples are of immediate interest. The children
are strategic subjects who could preserve and
develop the unique culture of indigenous peoples.
Nowadays, however, children of the indigenous
peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East are
the most vulnerable socially and culturally.
In 2010 field studies of Chulym ethnocultural
group that belongs to the category of indigenous
peoples of Krasnoyarsk Krai were carried out.
Participants of the field studies were scientists,
postgraduate students and students of “cultural
studies” course at Siberian Federal University.
During 2 weeks in August 2010 cultural studies
were conducted using the methods of participant
observation, expert interviews, focus groups, etc.
As a result of observations and interviews with
children and adults population of Chindatsky
village council during the expedition it was
possible to evaluate the situation and identify the
problems of Chulym children.
The main problem of the child population of
Pasechnoye, Chindat and Ust’-Chul’sk (people
call it Karasi settlement) settlements is that these
3 settlements are a part of Chindatsky village
council, as well as adults – remoteness and
even isolation of their places of residence from
the “civilization centers” (within the borders
of Chindatsky village council such a center
is Tyukhtet – the regional center). From the
settlements of the village council to Tyukhtet
it takes more than 8 hours of travel along a
country road with challenging terrain, which in
the rain is not suitable for traffic and bus service
is cancelled. Bus service to Tyukhtet was set up
by the village council – it is a local bus “PAZ”,
running 2 times a week (on Mondays and Fridays
it leaves Pasechnoye at 6 a.m. and goes back from
Tyukhtet at 6 p.m.). In this situation, children have
little or no opportunity to leave the settlement for
study or leisure that is why they are always in a
quite isolated environment.
Basically, the children of Chindatsky village
council settlements are not pure blood Chulyms,
but children of mixed families of Chulyms and
Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Mordvins.
In this territory there were no problems connected
with differentiation of Chulym children from
children of other nationalities. Mostly these were
not problems of Chulym children but problems of
the children living in the territory of Chindatsky
village council. Chulyms’ assimilation to the
dominant ethnic group (Russians) in the territory
reached its high level, and for the children of
Chulym nationality it is often difficult to answer
questions relating to their ethnic self-identification
(they shrug shoulders, avoid the answer asking
counter-question, most of them call themselves
Russians, less often – Khakas and Chulym).
All the children speak Russian as their mother
tongue as using this language they communicate
with their families, at schools and other public
places; even among the adult population there are
few native speakers of the Chulym language and
they only use some trite phrases in their native
language, noting more. Only two adults have a
perfect command of Chulym – a Russian woman
who lives in the district since her childhood in
the neighborhood with Chulym people and a
Chulym man who actively collects information
about his people and collaborates with Tomsk
State University towards development of Chulym
writing system (historically it has not appeared
yet), creation of a dictionary and a program for
studying Chulym language (he has already created
such a program). Chulym children do not speak
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the language; during the expedition we only met
three children who claimed that they understand
something in the Chulym language. Thus, there
is no practice of language as a main component
of self-identification among the Chulym children
of Chindatsky village council. Only on holiday
(The Annual Day of Chulym, celebrated in July)
children learn and sing the songs and ditties
translated into the Chulym language.
Upbringing and education. Children
from the three settlements of Chindatsky village
council study at school of Chindat settlement. Not
a long time ago a school in Pasechnoye settlement
and a boarding school in Chindat settlement were
closed. The reasons were difficult to find out as
opinions of the local people and leaders of the
village council were divided. The most common
version among officials about the reasons for
the educational institutions closure is that there
was small number of students (there is almost
no school-age population in Chindat and Ust’Chul’sk settlements). There is no kindergarten in
the settlements, for this reason preschool children,
in fact, are left to themselves – their parents are
busy all day (in the morning and in the evening –
hunting/fishing, in the afternoon – gardening,
etc.) or, in the case of underprivileged families,
just do not take care of their children.
Due to the village council initiative the
children are transported to school by rural bus
(it takes about 40 minutes from Pasechnoye to
Chindat and more than an hour from Ust’-Chul’sk
to Chindat). The level of schools’ provision with
learning materials could not be estimated as the
expedition was there in summer and was unable to
visit school but, according to the local people, the
problem is in the presence of school textbooks.
It was found out that schooling program
does not contain a national component. Local
settlement club performs this function for school,
annually organizing Chulym national celebrations.
At that, school-age children themselves are not
interested in studying their native language – it
is not used by them and their parents. Children
claim that it is most necessary to know Russian,
the most motivated kids from high school are also
interested in learning English, but there are few of
them (only two students said that; one of the girls
already studied English thoroughly at Tyukhtet
school after moving to the district center).
Young people of these settlements, according
to adults and themselves are not interested
in continuing their education in secondary
specialized educational institutions and in higher
educational institutions – there are practically no
jobs in the settlements, people live die to fishing
and subsistence farming, therefore, only those
who would like to change their place of residence
and lifestyle need to get a profession. And there
are such people, although only few of them. We
met several families whose children study in
Krasnoyarsk universities and at driver training
courses in Tyukhtet after military service.
No one of children and young people
mentioned the need for a national component in
school, vocational and higher education.
Healthcare. Children’s health problems in
the settlements are really problems, as the only
policlinic is in Tyukhtet. We witnessed a mass
departure of children for tests from Pasechnoye
by bus that was full of people and bags with
fish at 6 a.m. on Monday. At that, the village
council organized delivery of the tests’ results
by the postman – a bus conductor gives her all
the documents taken at the post office and in
the policlinic, and every settlement has its own
medical station and a health worker. However,
for diagnostics (delivery of medical tests) and
qualified specialists’ consultations parents with
children have to go to Tyukhtet policlinic.
An urgent need and a lack of dental care for
children and adults are especially noticeable.
Leisure time. Most of time children from the
settlements of Chindatsky village council are left
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to themselves due to the fact that families live due
to fishing and subsistence farming – their parents
are busy all day (fishing in the morning and in
the evening, gardening in the afternoon) besides
there are a lot of underprivileged families –
parents consume alcohol and do not take care of
their children. In summer time children spend
time playing joint games, swimming in the river
and just walk the streets in small groups. Many
children go cycling – locals say that the bikes
were presented to children by Chulym Regional
Public Association of Indigenous Minorities
of the Krasnoyarsk Krai North for Chulym
celebrations. Often bikes are too big for children
and parents reconstruct them into tricycles.
Children from the settlements of Chindatsky
village council, according to the local residents,
rarely travel during summer holidays, they only
visit their relatives, but it concerns children
from a few families. Children, according to
conversations, are not provided with summer
holiday packages as their parents cannot afford
it. Maybe the problem is that the parents of these
children don’t have the official status of people
in need of help – a few of the locals, most of who
after collapse of the collective farm left without
employment records and work places, venture such
an experience as employment centre registration.
Employment centre is located in Tyukhtet, and
when somebody registers there, according to
the residents, he/she has to come to the centre
twice a month, and for the third time come to the
bank for unemployment benefit. At that, a trip
to Tyukhtet costs 240 rubles (return trip), and
people will spend almost all the monthly benefit
to three return trips (according to the settlements
dwellers, it is about 800 – 900 rubles). Many of
them find no sense in such a waste of time and
efforts, fully devoting themselves to farming and
fishing…
The only place of leisure for children
and young people of Pasechnoye settlement is
settlement club. Here, employees of the club
collected a small library, hobby groups function
(there is the art director), there are toys (they were
bought 10 years ago at the expense of the village
council, the children cherish them and always
return to the place – on the library shelves),
celebrations are organized (their programmes
are developed, participants rehearse in the club),
disco parties are hold for young people (3 times a
week, they are very popular), a there is an audio
system with karaoke.
Children’s games are mostly focused on
adult’s image – they play in adults (in one
evening all the girls in Pasechnoye settlement
we met were wearing makeup – some of them
used their mother’s beauty bag, but girls have
their own beauty bags, to the question: ‘What
are you playing at?’ the children answered: ‘We
drink vodka’, i.e. they explained that they play in
adults), play families (often without dolls, these
are role-playing games). Children’s games are
mostly aimed at forming the image of the future,
to where, more often children transfer what they
see in their present. At that, in conversations the
image of the desired future children associate with
moving to another place of residence, i.e. a change
of lifestyle – Tyukhtet and Krasnoyarsk are their
ultimate dreams. Answering the question about
their future profession most girls of preschool
and primary school age said that they want to
become sails assistants, because in this case
you have everything. No other professions were
mentioned. Perhaps it is connected with the real
situation in the settlements where sails assistants
in stores work 3 hours a day (the rest of time they
are busy with farming and gardening) and they
are well off as they also get salary (what cannot
often be found in the territory).
Communication with children in Pasechnoye
settlement (expedition members lived in it) helped
them to see another acute problem – these children
really needed to communicate with adults,
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because they have enough communication with
other children. Both girls and boys are very shy
at the beginning of communication, though they
start communication first (often girls, boys are
more closed). At that, feelings of friendship and
“affinity” are the most demanded – tactile contact
is very important. As a result of communication
it became clear that children are in a desperate
need of adults who would be interested in them,
and having found such interlocutors in us, they
did not want to stop the communication. In this
case children need psychological consultations
with a psychologist able to solve these problems
by organizing the children’s communication with
adults and with each other in the correct format,
but there is no such a person in the settlements
and among the club and the school employees
(there is no such a position in the school’s staff
schedule).
Thus, the children from Chindatsky village
council settlements are in desperate need of not
only financial support, but also in formation of
healthy image of the future through education and
recreation, as well as in addressing their blurred
ethnic identity.
3. Ethnographic Description
of Childhood Culture Field Studies Results
of Indigenous Peoples – Selkups
and Evenks that dwell
in Turukhansky District
of Krasnoyarsk Krai
In 2010, scientists, postgraduate students
and students of Cultural Studies Department
of Siberian Federal University carried out field
research of indigenous peoples’ of Krasnoyarsk
Krai culture with a purpose to identify the
changes that occur in everyday culture of these
peoples under the influence of industrial society,
as well as under the impact of global processes,
including those, associated with secondary
industrialization of Siberia in the first third of
the 21st century. The following are the results of
studies of the group of scientists, postgraduate
students and students of the Department Cultural
Studies of Siberian Federal University carried out
in August 2010.
Farkovo settlement is located in
Turukhansky district of Krasnoyarsk Krai – it
is a place of compact residence for the unique
ethnocultural group – Selkups. In Farkovo there
is an original attitude toward the institution of
marriage: official marriage registration is not as
important as in large cities or towns; in Farkovo
regarding marriage locals use such expressions
as “came together” and “broke up” but not “got
married” and “got divorced”. A large number
of families cohabit for years and decades. At
that, children have their father’s surname. A
percentage of children in Turukhansk and
Farkovo is large. Often a family has four or even
more children. Since there is no even medicalobstetric centre in Farkovo, expectant mothers
go to Turukhansk, but there is a percentage of
those who, due to different reasons, do not have
time to get to the district center and among them
there are many cases of children’s death in the
process of childbirth. The main problems related
to children’s health are dental diseases: in most
cases children’s teeth are in a state of neglect,
require major treatment. Hygiene also leaves
much to be desired.
Most families of Turukhansk and Farkovo
have many children (at least three). Older
children babysit juniors. In most cases, children
are dressed in whatever came to hand, often in
smeary old rags. Clothing is given from seniors
to juniors as well as numerous toys. There are
few toys, they are often dirty and old. Parents
take care of children, for example, enumerating
electrical appliances they have, they may note that
they bought them for children: for their studying
and development. Some of the families moved
to Turukhansk from remote villages because of
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children, because the school is better as well as
living conditions. In families, despite the fact that
father is called the head of a family, mother is an
unofficial leader. She takes care of children more,
she also punishes them, while fathers only teach
moral values and mentor children. Few times the
researchers witnessed a situation when discussing
family plans regarding moving to more favorable
living conditions, a father said that he would
not move with his wife and children, but on the
contrary, would go to the wilderness and would
live there in simplicity.
Children, as well as adult population, are
divided into two main categories: sedentary and
nomadic. We communicated with sedentary
population, in many of these families children
live in insanitary conditions, as things and dirty
clothes are scattered everywhere in the house,
dishes is unwashed. Children up to about 2
years old are undressed in the summer period,
maximum, they are carelessly wrapped in a
baby linen cloth. At that, it is quite cool in the
room. It appears that children sleep either with
their parents or with older children as there are
no separate baby cots. Most often they sleep on
the floor, side by side. Bed-clothing, if there is
any, often not very clean. From the interviewees
we found out about children who lead a nomadic
life with adults. According to them, before school
these children mainly live in the forest, they don’t
go to kindergarten, don’t know anything, “they
even haven’t seen colored pencils”. In settlements
children live with their parents only in the
summer months and not in their homes but with
relatives, where several families live in the same
house. One of the interviewees said that babies
sleep in tents absolutely naked on the sawdust in
cradles suspended from the ceiling, because there
is too little space.
Basic baby food products are the same as
for adult population: fish; meat, not beef or pork
but moose meat; sometimes bear meat; waterfowl
is widely used for food. Fish and meat are often
eaten raw. There is no bakery in Farkovo, so bread
is baked in every family and under conditions of
very high prices for food, it contains a limited
amount of ingredients: flour, water, baking soda
and salt. Dough, kneaded of the aforementioned
products, is baked in hot sand or in the oven, and
this dish is called “Selkup bread”. According to
the local residents, children forgot about fruit and
candies a long time ago. In autumn most of the
children are sent to study to a boarding school,
where all of them have serious digestive problems
due to the drastic change of diet: instead of raw
fish and meat with selkup bread – unusual soups,
yeast bread and compotes.
In the presence of strangers the children
were very calm, did not attract attention, didn’t
make noise, listened conversations between
adults without interfering and spoke gently.
When a stranger appears, children come closer
to their parents, showing their curiosity to what
is happening only by their presence. Teenagers
do not demonstrate interest in adults’ business.
During the survey they tried to go to another
room. Children (approximately from 3-11 years
old) are very liberated, not shy, easily contact,
they were very interested to be around unfamiliar
adults during conversations with their parents.
Children always greet other people and thank for
little things. On the one hand the children are very
obedient, but on the other – very active, always
smiling. Nothing is forbidden to them, they do
what they want but at the first request to stop,
they stop an action. They are very responsive,
for example, once we had to go to the other end
of the settlement to conduct a survey, and a girl,
whose house was recently visited volunteered to
show us the way (and the way was quite long).
The children use any opportunity to talk to new
people. Teens of 11-18 years old are rude, they do
not come in contact, rudely refused to conduct a
survey, by any means pretend that they are not
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interested in it and generally it does not concern
them.
Children’s ethnicity is determined quite
pragmatically: small indigenous peoples of the
North can potentially qualify for government
assistance, for this reason children of mixed
marriages are rarely determined as Russians.
Because of ethnic origin loss sometimes confusion,
concerning children’s ethnic identification,
occurs. Thus, we witnessed a situation when the
question concerning ethnicity of a 14-year-old
teenager, was answered that he is a Selkup. His
father, who was nearby got indignant: “You are
not a Selkup, you are Russian!” The son agreed,
“Well, okay, Russian”. The father asked: “Mom,
what is his ethnicity?” The mother: “Ostyak”.
The father: «Well, okay. Write a Selkup”. There
were such situations where children’s mother
was a Selkup and their father was a Circassian,
but children were Russians. Generally, children
almost do not have information about their
ethnos, and, as a rule, are not interested in their
ancestors’ history. Many teenagers refused to
discuss their ethnicity, stating that “they are
Russians”, although they had characteristic
phenotypic features of small indigenous peoples
of the North. Children consider themselves
belonging to an ethnic group because of granted
benefits, including university admission. They
don’t speak their native language and don’t know
their national culture. Moreover, their parents
believe that it isn’t necessary for children to know
their national language, it is more important to
know English and, probably, Chinese. They want
their children to study in Krasnoyarsk. Children
studied the Selkup language in elementary school,
but they do not speak it fluently, they know only a
few words and can show the differences in writing
from the Cyrillic alphabet. But even the fact that
children are taught the Selkup language in school,
parents do not consider as benefit, because there
are several territorial Selkup dialects and in
Turukhansk district they teach not a local dialect,
but that, which is common in Tomsk Oblast. It
happens due to the fact that in Tomsk Oblast more
attention is paid to indigenous peoples and quite
successful attempts to revive the language and
traditions are made.
In Turukhansk few bright, interesting and
good-quality children’s outdoor playgrounds
were set up, in settlements we found at least
four. These playgrounds propagandize good
attitude towards their settlements by slogans
“Love Turukhansk!” In Farkovo there is also
such a high-quality children’s playground; it is
only one, but taking into account the fact that
there are only two streets in the settlement, it
is enough. Older children attend school. Adult
population of Turukhansk have very negative
attitude about the current situation of small
indigenous peoples’ children, as in many families
where parents are alive children live in boarding
schools, while their parents consume alcohol.
Juvenile delinquents’ department drives around
the settlement visiting dysfunctional families in
the mornings and takes their children to school.
They are fortunate that the settlement is small,
the locals say. The settlements dwellers say that
initially people have negative attitude towards all
children of indigenous peoples. It is connected
to the fact that most of indigenous population
is degrading and it affects their children. But
in the course of time teachers observe children
and if they understand that if a family is good,
they change their attitude. Where Russians are
dominant ethnic group, classmates also have
negative attitude towards indigenous peoples’
children: they say that they smell bad and try not
to approach them once again. In Krasnoyarsk
children of small indigenous peoples of the North
are often called Chinese.
Adults say that children should be taught
according to a special curriculum. They do not
need advanced mathematics or nuclear physics
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basis, it would be better to put greater emphasis
on biology, and not in its present form but in
more applied aspect. Some teachers tend to
inculcate ethnic activities in children through
extracurricular activities in schools, thus one
teacher teaches them taxidermy. The vast majority
of parents want their children to continue their
education in Krasnoyarsk and other southern
cities after they finish school, in the best case, they
expect that their children will not return to their
homeland. In Farkovo and Turukhansk there are
no educational institutions to continue education:
the only specialized school in Turukhansk where
girls were taught to run the household and boys
were taught the plumbing works and other bluecollar jobs was closed. Nowadays in Turukhansk
only a music school functions and the local
population is very proud of it, because the school
students win prizes in regional competitions.
A lot of people believe that one of the
main reasons for the decline and death of the
national culture and loss of the ethnic roots
is educational system that existed during the
Soviet era, when children were taken to boarding
schools away from their parents and the culture
has faded away. Children aged 3 months were
taken to kindergarten boarding schools. Their
parents continued to live in the forest, practicing
traditional forms of husbandry. 9 months a year
a child spent in kindergarten boarding schools,
the older children – in a boarding school; for
three months period they were returned to their
parents, but children didn’t know what to do there
after coming from conditions where they were
wrapped in cotton wool to the forest where they
had to hunt, at the same time saving themselves
from annoying gnats. It was education system
that became the reason of the fact that the 70s
generation doesn’t know anything about their
own culture, doesn’t practice the traditional
ornamental arts and doesn’t know their native
language at all. Adults who grew up in boarding
schools say that when they studied at school, they
were not allowed to speak their native language,
they were beaten for speaking it and reeducated, as
many children came to boarding schools directly
from the tents, could speak only their native
language and didn’t know Russian. Children
talked their native language only in secret… In
boarding schools students of different ethnic
groups studied together: Russians, Evenks and
Selkups; within the class there were no problems
based on a national basis, but on the other hand,
while studying ethnic identity disappeared. One
of the boarding school’s students 15 years after
its graduation, despite understanding of all the
negative points connected with it said that it
doesn’t worth reviving the ethnic roots, as they
shouldn’t return to a state of “monkeys”. But,
perhaps, it was said in the heat of the moment,
as nowadays ethnicity is preserved only by
hunters and fishermen, who due to the way of life
and government policy actively lose themselves
in alcohol. Therefore a false impression that a
Russified person is wealthy, sober and literate is
formed, while a “national” is always drunk, using
obscene native language.
Children are buried as well as adults in
the cemetery, either crosses or monuments are
erected. In former times (up to the 60s of the
20th century, when the last herds of deer were
killed, when the last real shamans died) infants,
as well as shamans were buried in especially
carved hollows of tree trunks. Over time, as
the trees grew, graves turned out to be at high
altitude. Farkovo locals say that they often found
children’s graves in houses’ cellars, as well as
under the thresholds.
4. Resume
1. Psychological anthropology, introduced
by Franz Boas’ scientific school, also known as
the “Culture and Personality” School can be the
conceptual basis for cultural and anthropological
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studies of small indigenous peoples of
Krasnoyarsk Krai childhood. Such well-known
concepts as “basic personality structure” and
“modal personality structure”, introduced by the
school’s scientists are of the highest significance.
2. The most effective method of studying
the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Krai
childhood culture is field studies that include direct
observations and surveys of a studied cultural
group. Expeditions carried out by Department of
Cultural Studies of Siberian Federal University in
2010-2013 in the territories of Chulyms, Selkups
and Evenks’ compact residence, gave opportunity
to make reliable ethnographic and culturalanthropological description of the real condition
of indigenous peoples’ childhood in Krasnoyarsk
Krai.
3. The main mechanism of preservation,
reproduction and translation of the unique culture
of small indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk Krai
is reproduction of the traditional socialization
practices, pedagogical and educational practices
in the modern society. It appears that global
transformations of the modern industrial society
are actively destroying the traditional childhood
culture of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk
Krai. In the nearest future, this culture will have
only a virtual-information form or will disappear
along with native languages of the cultural
groups.
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Культурно-антропологические
исследования детства коренных малочисленных народов
Красноярского края
(на материале полевых исследований
Сибирского федерального университета в 2010-2013 гг.)
Н.П. Копцева, К.В. Резникова,
Н.Н. Пименова, А.В. Кистова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье происходит обращение к генезису социальной антропологии детства, раскрываются
основополагающие для нее понятия. Аргументированное утверждение, что сохранение,
трансляция и воспроизводство конкретной культуры напрямую связаны с актуальным
культурно-антропологическим состоянием детства, позволяет сделать шаг к рассмотрению
культуры детства коренных малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока,
оказавшихся наиболее уязвимыми перед процессами глобальных трансформаций XXI века.
Дети являются стратегическим субъектом, который мог бы сохранить и развивать
уникальную культуру коренных народов, но именно эта категория населения оказывается
наиболее уязвима в социально-культурном отношении, что демонстрируется на примерах
чулымской и селькупской этнокультурных групп. Глобальные трансформации современного
индустриального общества активно разрушают традиционную культуру детства коренных
народов Красноярского края. В ближайшем будущем эта культура будет иметь исключительно
виртуально-информационную форму или исчезнет вместе с исчезновением родных языков
данных культурных групп.
Ключевые слова: социальная (культурная) антропология детства, социализация, культурная
трансмиссия, этнокультурная идентичность, модальная личность, «Культура-и-личность».
Исследование сделано в рамках выполнения государственного задания по теме «Разработка
научно обоснованной концепции создания механизмов взаимодействия органов власти, бизнеса,
этнокультурных групп, относящихся к коренным малочисленным народам Севера, Сибири
и Дальнего Востока», а также в рамках гранта Красноярского краевого фонда поддержки
научной и научно-технической деятельности.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1327-1341
~~~
УДК 323.2 (=47+57–81)
Mechanisms of Interaction Between
the State, Businesses
and Small-Numbered Indigenous Peoples
of the Russian Federation Under
Global Transformations
Vladimir S. Luzan*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 10.05.2014, received in revised form 14.06.2014, accepted 05.07.2014
Sustainable social and cultural development of small-numbered indigenous peoples of the North,
Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as SIPN) under global
transformations, besides the mobilization of the inner resources of the peoples themselves, depends on
the currently functioning mechanisms of interaction between the state, businesses and such peoples.
Consequently, the article makes an attempt to take an insight into foreign, and, first of all, Russian
experience of implementing various mechanisms of interaction, targeted at the preservation of the
original habitat, traditional lifestyle and cultural values of SIPN.
The article remarks, that despite the presence of multiple examples of mutually profitable cooperation
between business entities and SIPN, we may state that unlike foreign practices, Russian examples
are not regular and bear an incentive character (first of all, due to absence of clear mechanisms
established at the federal and regional levels, obliging each business entity to get engaged into such
interaction).
Keywords: small-numbered indigenous peoples; state; business; original habitat; political and legal
mechanisms; interaction.
Introduction into the problem. Under the
conditions of expanding globalization processes,
the fundamental role in further preservation of
the original habitat and identity of SIPN is played
by political and legal mechanisms of interaction
between the state authority bodies, businesses
and ethnocultural SIPN groups. There is no
doubt that the main subject of this interaction is
the state as the body which determines political
and legal mechanisms not only for its own
*
interaction with SIPN, but for building similar
communication of SIPN with other entities,
such as, fi rst of all, publically owned jointstock companies and private business entities
engaged in industrial development of the SIPN
original habitat. At the same time, the existing
geopolitical trends provide the grounds to assert,
that the scope of industrial development of such
territories is expected to be rapidly expanding
both in the short and the long-term prospective
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: luzan84@mail.ru
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Vladimir S. Luzan. Mechanisms of Interaction Between the State, Businesses and Small-Numbered Indigenous Peoples…
due to the exhaustion of natural resources in the
traditional extraction venues.
Conceptological grounds of the research.
In Russian scientific and journalistic works,
researches of political and legal mechanisms
of interaction between the state and SIPN were
described by famous scientists, politicians, public
officials and community leaders. All existing
works may be divided into two categories:
1) works regarding the conceptual bases of
building such mechanisms: Abdulatipov R.G.,
Arutiunov S.A., Guboglo M.N., Drobizheva
L.M., Zorin V.Iu., Kalinina K.V., Mikhaylov
V.A., Tishkov V.A. etc.;
2) fundamental and practical works directly
dedicated to the analysis of the problems of
building such political and legal mechanisms
of interaction between the state and smallnumbered indigenous peoples. First of all, these
are works by Abashidze A.Kh., Andrichenko
L.V., Arakchaa K.D., Donskoy F.S., Zaydfudim
P.Kh., Krylov B.S., Kriazhkov V.A., Samar Iu.A.,
Pik A.I., Khabrieva T.Ia,. Khariuchi S.N. etc.
It is worth mentioning that recently in Russia
a significant number of researches dedicated
to the issues of management of nature use and
industrial development of the Northern territories
in the context of ethnical and environmental
problems has been published, such as those by:
Ananidze F.R., Arakchaa K.D., Bakhtin N.B.,
Bogoslovskaia L.S., Mischenko V.L., Murashko
O.A., Pavlov P.N., Rayshev I.A. etc. First of all,
this tendency is connected with the new stage of
industrial development of such territories.
Numerous dissertations are dedicated
to building political and legal mechanisms of
interaction between the state and SIPN: Kal’te
Z.M. “Political and Legal Aspects of Development
of Saami, an Indigenous Small-Numbered People
of the Russian Federation” [Kal’te, 2003], Sleptsov
A.N. “State Policy in Enforcement of SIPN Rights
in Russia” [Sleptsov, 2005], Sondykov V.S. “SIPN
of the North: Management Development Problems
(Based on Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)”
[Sondykov, 2001], Khariuchi S.N. “Legislative
Safeguarding of Rights and Freedoms of Russian
SIPN: Implementation Problems” [Khariuchi,
2002] etc.
For better understanding of the genesis of
the political and legal mechanisms of interaction
between the state and small-numbered indigenous
people of Russia, the most interesting research is
the dissertation by Doronina I.A. “Political and
Legal Basis for Forming Traditional Nature Use
of SIPN Territories in the Russian North (Based
on Nenets Autonomous Okrug)” [Doronina,
2005].
The conducted analysis brought the
dissertation author to the conclusion, that,
despite the succession of the special indigenous
peoples’ status, throughout the whole history,
at different temporal stages the state policy has
been undergoing conceptual transformations:
from non-interference into administration and
conservation of the traditional aborigine lifestyle
in the 16th – 19th centuries, through the attempts
of integration and organization of their customs
in the Soviet epoch, to the modern principles of
respectful attitude to their right for preservation
of the traditional lifestyle, methods and means of
traditional nature use.
Studying modern (from mid-80-s of the
20th century) state policy concerning SIPN, I.A.
Doronina outlines three main development stages
[Doronina, 2005]:
1) Mid-80-s – early 90-s: “political” stage.
Throughout this period it is possible to trace the
change of SIPN policy priorities in regulative
legal documents connected to the recognition of
the peoples’ specific interest and right for selfgovernment in these or those forms, for the lands
and natural resources.
2) Years 1994-1998: “regulation-creating”
stage. This stage is characterized by drawing up
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a legislative system for solving SIPN problems
at the federal and regional levels, making up
regulations and Constitution clauses concerning
SIPN interests. The practice of creating smallnumbered peoples’ communities and assigning
free-use lands begins.
3) Since 1999 until present time: “law
implementing” stage, which begins with passing
the Federal Law “On the Guarantee of SIPN
rights in the Russian Federation” in the year 1999
and continues with multiple laws intended to
regulate SIPN rights in these or those fields. This
stage is specific for the attention demonstrated by
the state to SIPN problems, and for adoption of a
significant number of acts intended to safeguard
and actualize rights and interests of the peoples,
which proves the fact, that the state does recognize
its obligation towards small-numbered peoples.
As a result, the author comes to the
conclusion, that at the modern development stage
the necessity to safeguard the rights and interests
of SIPN in Russia was finally recognized at
the governmental level. The proof is the fact of
forming target policies and legislation for solving
SIPN problems.
For better study of the mechanisms of
interaction between the state and SIPN it is
essential to remark the fundamental work of the
Doctor of Law, Professor Kriazhkov V.A. “SIPN
of the North in Russian Law” [Kriazhkov, 2010],
which, based on the deep insight into Russian and
foreign legal practices, studies the topical issues of
constitutional and legal SIPN status: it researches
the retrolegal aspects of the status, modern state of
the legislation and international legal regulation of
the sphere; reveals governmental and alternative
mechanisms for safeguarding them.
As a result of the conducted research,
Kriazhkov V.A. suggests to improve the existing
political and legal mechanisms of interaction
between the state and SIPN in the following way
[Kriazhkov, 2010]:
1) determine procedures for free
identification of ethnicities classified as peoples
of the North, and of the ethnical groups seeking
for being included into this category;
2) consolidate the conditions of the special
right obtaining process for the persons belonging
to small-numbered indigenous peoples, and
provide the exercise of such rights by people
not belonging to this category but related to an
indigenous people, living traditional lifestyle;
3) establish mechanisms for exercising group
rights of small-numbered peoples, including
assignment of an authorized representative status
to certain persons;
4) strictly fix the right of the Northern
peoples and persons categorized as belonging to
such for free unlimited use of lands in the places
of their traditional habitat and the right for priority
use of such lands and natural resources following
from the existing rights for reimbursement and
compensation of damage caused by their relations
with the entities leading non-traditional economic
activity in the territories;
5) enforce the Northern peoples’ right for
administrative and territorial autonomy;
6) recover the right of small-numbered
peoples for quota-based representation in the
regional legislative bodies and representative
agencies of local government;
7) guarantee the right of the Northern
peoples and persons belonging to such peoples for
their native language and education concerning
the lifestyle and culture of the peoples, along with
the right for their cultural heritage, folklore and
traditional knowledge.
Moreover, we cannot help agreeing with the
author, that the strategic prospective of creating
new political and legal mechanisms in the subject
sphere is mostly determined by the engagement
of SIPN into current global processes. First of
all, we mean globalization, the phenomenon
which means the expansion of common values
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in the elements of the global economic, social
and legal systems. As a consequence, we may
forecast the enforcement of the majority, dilution
of traditional economy, extinction of languages
and cultures of minor ethnic communities,
which stimulates the group activities of SIPN,
striving to preserve their identity. Under
such conditions the state, exercising its legal
tools and considering international and legal
demands, has to temper the negative tendencies
connected with the lifestyle of such peoples,
at the same time, striving not to conserve it or
“pay their indemnities”, but to encourage their
new traditions and modernization, creating the
background for development of independence
and self-government of SIPN, their territorial,
national and cultural autonomy.
Problem statement. At the same time, in
the world and especially in Russian practice the
mechanisms of interaction between businesses
and SIPN bear more individual than systematic
character. For this reason, today we analyze the
most indicative foreign practices, where such
mechanisms were best developed and supported
by historical circumstances (USA, Canada,
Australia, Finland), but most important, where
business entities, unlike the majority of Russian
companies, understand the significance of their
own social responsibility to SIPN.
Foreign experience analysis is best presented
in the research by Maximov A.A. “Realization of
Interests of the Northern Peoples Under Industrial
Development Situation: From Foreign Experience
to Russian Practice” [Maximov, 2007].
The principle of supporting indigenous
population, according to which the local
population is entitled to receive the full volume
of profit from local resources’ development,
to be protected from any possible hazard, was
recognized simultaneously with the rights of
indigenous peoples for lands and resources. This
principle was practically implemented in one of
agreements for providing social and economic
profits and advantages to local population.
Paying royalty (monetary compensation
for the use of natural resources) is typical for
Australia, which at the present moment practices
several flexible mechanisms of royalty rate
calculation. For example, one of the agreements
foresees low fixed rates at the initial stage of
project development (construction of mines,
processing enterprises, development of ore
extraction), higher rates from the derivative
product for the community to receive optimal
profit at all stages of project development.
Another way of interaction between
businesses and SIPN is the participation of the
latter in the joint-stock equity of companies: if
an indigenous peoples’ community possesses
the main property rights for a resource deposit
or its part, or if it is entitled to control the access
to such resources, then the community becomes
the joint venture shareholder. For example, such
practice was implemented in the agreement
with indigenous peoples of Alberta, or in the
agreement concluded in 1995 for providing
profits to Inuvialuits of North-Western territories
of Canada under Darnley Bay project of nonferrous ore extraction [Maximov, 2007].
Maximov A.A. remarks, that development
of entrepreneurship assumes new opportunities
for the aborigines’ businesses, their corporations,
enterprises, individual ventures as contractors
and subcontractors. For contract organizations the
priority belongs to those managed by aborigines.
Social and cultural support may include
measures
on
settlement
infrastructure
development (for example, construction of
new roads), on adaptation of the population for
industrial work, on solution of the most acute
local social problems.
Other conditions are resolution of disputes,
management of the agreement performance
through a special Committee with a certain range
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of authority, through the company’s and special
committees’ reporting on each point of the
agreement [Maximov, 2007: 28].
Another example of interaction between the
state, businesses and small-numbered indigenous
peoples is the situation in Alaska (USA), where
two opposite interaction models co-exist at the
same time [Maximov, 2007: 31-32]:
1) “Mainstream” model. All population
of the state of Alaska has equal access to
natural resources and equal relation to common
institutions of municipal and regional authorities.
The authority and property are separate in
the aborigine communities. Local authority
institutions are separated from the village and
district corporations, which own the major
amount of lands and resources.
2) Communal model. The reaction to
destructive assimilative forces was the movement
for sovereignty (self-government) of aborigine
peoples of Alaska. The key institution of the
communal model is a national settlement, which
acts simultaneously as a source of political
authority and a collective economic venture.
Discussion. In modern Russian reality
there are examples when Russian companies,
enhancing their corporate image, would take
up social obligations not only to their own
employees, but also to the territories of their
economic activities. However, the most advanced
in the development of corporate and territorial
relations are the largest oil and gas corporations
of the Russian Federation, stimulating the
influence of their business on preservation of the
original SIPN habitat through various political
and legal mechanisms. At this level they conclude
agreements on the priority aspects of the regional
economic policy, which concerns the interests of
the whole population of the region.
The next level is concluding agreements
with the municipal entity administrations. This
is the level at which the agreements of greatest
significance for SIPN are concluded (e.g. YamaloNenets Autonomous Okrug). Before 2003, such
an agreement was based on providing companies
with considerable tax exemptions.
A different form of agreement targeted at
gaining profits for SIPN is agreement concluded
with reindeer-breeding economies, family and
tribal communities. In this situation relations
between subsoil users and the communities are
mostly of informal character and are based, as a
rule, on personal relationships.
Analysis of the positive Russian experience
in arranging interaction between a large business
and SIPN was presented in the dissertation by
Koroleva Iu.A. “Interaction Between the State
Governmental Bodies and Commercial Entities in
the Sphere of Social Security of Northern SIPN”
[Koroleva, 2007], where the author remarks, that
thanks to the work of certain companies a stable
tendency for forming a Russian model of corporate
social responsibility of the state, businesses and
society to the small-numbered indigenous peoples
has begun to develop. One of such examples is
Salym Project run by oil extracting company
Salym Petroleum Development (SPD), which has
been developing not only when the mentioned
research was being done, but until the present
time [Web-Site of the Company]. For this reason,
the examples presented are taken from the last
five years’ practice, which, for natural reasons,
were not included into the work by Koroleva
Iu.A., for instance:
– in the year 2008 SPD signed a 5
years’ cooperation agreement with
the government of Khanty-Mansi
Autonomous Okrug, which outlines the
obligations of SPD on actualization of
social investments at the amount of 15
million dollars in the years 2009-2013;
– Salym residents participate in selection of
social projects to be conducted by SPD.
They form a communal committee, which,
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besides SPD representatives, includes
representatives of the local authorities
and population. The committee regularly
discusses the social projects run by SPD
in Salym. At the end of each year SPD
carries out a social investment project
competition among local organizations;
– conducting its activities with the minimal
influence on the environment is one of
the basic principles of SPD. The company
strictly follows safety regulations to avoid
any pollution of the atmosphere, soil,
water or damage of flora and fauna in the
process of its work;
– SPD supports and sponsors a wide
range of incentives and projects, such
as: purchasing modern equipment for
hospitals and advanced training courses
for local doctors, providing microcredits
to small businesses located in the
settlement of Salym, providing academic
and occupational opportunities to local
school graduates, organizing summer
camps for children from poor families
etc.
Another example of a give-and-take
cooperation between the residents of national
settlements and commercial entities is the
development of raw hydrocarbon deposit by
Kholmogorneft Company. The deposit is located
in the lands historically owned by 32 families of
Khanty and Nenets. In the process of the project,
economic agreements with each family were
concluded, under which the families received
significant assistance from the company, such as,
monetary compensations, snowmobiles, fuel and
lubricants, construction materials etc. [Korolea,
2007: 124].
As a conclusion, Koroleva Iu.A. explains
the prospective of sustainable and well-balanced
development of social sphere in the Northern
regions by the following factors:
a) capital investments into Russian oil
and gas deposits made by large foreign
companies, which contribute their
money in the development of social
infrastructure, environment protection
and social security of SIPN;
b) occupation of foreign managers at the
deposit development sites, which provides
higher requirements for the personnel and
work organization, which, along with the
use of high-tech equipment, provides
flawless oil and gas extraction;
c) a stable tendency of assigning large
business representatives for governing
positions of the regions rich in natural
resource, which leads to the decrease
of the state sector share in the modern
economy, and, as a consequence, causes
re-distribution of responsibility for the
social wealth of the indigenous peoples
between businesses and the state.
At the same time, the territory of Russia
becomes a site for active development of
transnational companies, which prefer to lead
their own policy in their relationships with the
small-numbered indigenous peoples. A positive
example is Kinross Gold Corporation, one of
the world leaders in gold mining. Having started
their work in Russia in the year 1995, today
the Company generally focuses on managing
large-scale gold mining projects in Chukotka
Autonomous Okrug (CAO).
Participation in the local population’s social
life is the basic principle of the company as a
responsible subsoil user. Within this framework,
the company performs the following actions:
– provides annual gold mining report;
– carries out public consultations and round
tables with the participation of the local
population;
– in the year 2009, the Company founded
Social Development Foundation “The
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Kupol”. The initial target contribution
made by Kinross counted one million
dollars. Today the Foundation has financed
and launched 26 socially significant
projects for the total value exceeding 16
million roubles;
– provides economic and social support to
local indigenous population by creating
jobs, purchasing goods and services
including partnership agreements with
50 local enterprises and entrepreneurs;
– provides logistic support for solving
medical and other vital issues to the
people resident in the areas inaccessible
without a helicopter;
– granting
great
importance
to
environmental issues: in December
2009 “The Kupol” deposit became the
first Russian company to be certified
for compliance to International Cyanide
Management Code;
– in April 2011, Chukotka Mining and
Geology Company (affiliate of Kinross
Gold Corporation) concluded a social and
economic cooperation Agreement with
CAO Government.
From modern Russian companies, one of
the most active ones to cooperate with the local
population is LLC “LUKOIL – Western Siberia”
[Web-Site of the Company], which concludes
agreements with tribal leaders for social and
economic development of their districts and
natural habitat of the Northern SIPN for the sake
of environment protection. All issues concerning
the relationships between the company and the
indigenous peoples are solved at the meetings of the
company management with the representatives of
SIPN Assembly, municipal entity representatives
and tribal leaders.
In Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
(YNAO) “LUKOIL – Western Siberia” takes
an active part in implementation of the program
for “Preservation of Traditional Lifestyle and
Cultural Heritage of SIPN of the North”, makes
a significant contribution into the preservation of
their natural habitat by increasing environmental
friendliness of their industry.
Another example of effective interaction
between a large business and local population
is the work of “Sakhalin Energy” Company,
which, in cooperation with the Sakhalin Region
Administration and the Regional Council of
Authorized Sakhalin SIPN Representatives,
prepared a plan for assistance and encouragement
of 3,500 representatives of indigenous peoples of
the island, the majority of whom is resident in the
rural area [Web-Site of the Company].
The Plan is developed to solve three key
tasks: to avoid or soften the potential negative
impact of Sakhalin-2 project; to increase the
living standards and conditions of the Northern
SIPN; to expand the opportunities for such
peoples to take active part in the Cooperation
Plan implementation.
Norilsk Nickel Company also has a certain
experience of cooperation and assistance
provided to the indigenous peoples, resident in the
territories of Taymyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Municipal
District of Krasnoyarsk Region. At the present
time, besides tax payments and implicit subsidies
to the municipal entities (financial assistance to
housing and utilities, transportation services etc.),
the Company conducts a charity program for
the local settlements populated with the smallnumbered indigenous peoples of the North.
Conclusion.
Therefore,
despite
the
presence of a great number of positive examples
of interaction between business entities and
SIPN, we may conclude, that, unlike foreign
practice, Russian examples are not the result of
a consistent resource management and natural
habitat preservation policy followed together
with the SIPN, but single and individual
phenomena (which occur, mostly, due to the
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absence of sufficient legislative mechanisms at
the federal and regional levels, obliging each
business entity to engage itself into such an
interaction). It is proved by quotation from the
article “Aborigines and Oil” by Vinogradova O.
[Vinogradova, 2012: 59]: “The problem is, that
the existing laws only create the background
for solving a problem instead of offering certain
mechanisms. For example, the basic Federal Law
“On the Guarantee of Rights…” states, that the
national government of the Russian Federation,
entity administration and local authority bodies
“may” and “are entitled to” protect the interests,
traditions, habitat and economic activities of
SIPN, though nothing states that such protection
to be compulsory”.
At the same time, the existing examples
should be treated as positive examples of
international experience adoption by the Russian
companies, reflecting the general process of
forming social responsibility of businesses
manifested not only in tax payments, but also in
conduction of various programs for social and
economic development of SIPN. At the same
time, such activity is to be carried out by means
of all business entities engaged in any work in
the territories of the historical habitat of smallnumbered indigenous peoples of the North.
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Механизмы взаимодействия государства
и бизнеса с коренными малочисленными народами
Российской Федерации
в условиях глобальных трансформаций
В.С. Лузан
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Устойчивое социально-культурное развитие коренных малочисленных народов Севера,
Сибири и Дальнего Востока Российской Федерации (далее – КМНС) в условиях глобальных
трансформаций зависит не только от мобилизации внутренних ресурсов самих народов, но и
от реальных механизмов взаимодействия государства и бизнеса с данными народами. В связи
с этим в статье предпринята попытка рассмотрения зарубежного и, в первую очередь,
российского опыта внедрения разнообразных механизмов взаимодействия, направленных на
сохранение исконной среды обитания, традиционного образа жизни и культурных ценностей
КМНС.
В статье отмечается, что, несмотря на наличие примеров взаимовыгодного сотрудничества
бизнес-субъектов и КМНС, можно заключить, что существующие в российской практике
примеры в отличие от зарубежных не являются системными и имеют инициативный характер
(в первую очередь из-за отсутствия четких законодательных механизмов на федеральном и
региональном уровнях, обязывающих осуществлять данное взаимодействие каждого бизнессубъекта).
Ключевые слова: коренные малочисленные народы, государство, бизнес, исконная среда
обитания, политико-правовые механизмы, взаимодействие.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1342-1357
~~~
УДК 304.444
Revisiting Methodological Principles
of Cultural-Semiotic Approach
in Studying Art of Indigenous Peoples
of the North, Siberia and the Far East
Natalia N. Seredkina*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 12.05.2014, received in revised form 14.06.2014, accepted 24.07.2014
This article is devoted to the analysis of cultural-semiotic approach that is considered as one of the
key principles in studying the art of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East. The
author proposes systematization of the methodological principles of cultural- semiotic approach
(understanding of culture as a structure consisting of series of symbolic systems and cultural texts;
symbol creation principle actualized in fictional dialogism; culture representativeness and symbolic
interpretation of signs of culture and the concept of “value” as a key concept in semantic philosophy
of art). On the basis of correlation of cultural-semiotic approach methodological principles and
constructivism ideas, the definition of “art” is specified. Art is understood as a cultural-semiotic
construct that generates social meanings in the individual’s and collective’s consciousness and allows
a human being to verify ideas about the world around us and, on a subconscious level, design his/her
picture of the world.
Keywords: cultural-semiotic approach, constructivism, culture, art of indigenous peoples, culture
text, symbol, sign, ethnocultural value, cultural-semiotic construction, picture of the world.
1. Introduction
Cultural-semiotic approach appears on
the basis of philosophical hermeneutics and
linguistic concepts, in particular, the theory of
signs meaning by Ferdinand de Saussure. The
founder of semiotics as a general theory of sign
structures is an American philosopher, logician,
mathematician, philosopher and natural scientist
Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). It was he
who first created the classification of signs,
highlighting iconic, natural and conventional
signs. Further development of the semiotic
*
approach is associated with the studies by
L. Wittgenstein, H.G. Gadamer, R. Montague,
Ch. Morris, R. Carnap, S. Kripke, L. Tarsky, etc.
The Russian school of semiotics started developing
in the second half of the 20th century. In the early
1960s the Moscow-Tartu semiotic school that
united scientists from Tartu, Moscow, Yerevan,
Riga, Vilnius and others cities was formed. The
school became the leading national school that
developed the principles of structural analysis
of culture. The scientists’ interest was focused
on the problem of formation and functioning of
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: NevolkoN@yandex.ru
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Natalia N. Seredkina. Revisiting Methodological Principles of Cultural-Semiotic Approach in Studying Art…
the sign systems in human society. One of the
leading representatives of the Moscow-Tartu
school and the founder of modern semiotics is
the Soviet literary theorist and cultural studies
scholar Y.M. Lotman (1922 – 1993). The Tartu
structural-semiotic school dominated in the 1960
and 1970s, in the 1980s there was a noticeable
decline and in the 1990s the school practically
ceased existing, but the ideas of its theorists
both as a foreign semiotic school and a Russian
one are still relevant for the contemporary
cultural studies. Thus, N.L. Malinina (Malinina,
2010) devotes her research to the analysis of
Y.M. Lotman’ structural and semiotic ideas.
M.S. Inkizhekova understands a traditional
ethnic culture text as a way of knowing cultural
traditions and worldviews of particular peoples
(Inkizhekova, 2009). The substantive aspect
of a cultural text, its meaning-making and
representativeness are studied by T. Wijk (Wijk,
2011), F. Tenbruk (Tenbruk, 2013) and E. Fen
(Fen, 2010). For our work the studies of ethnic
art are also important. Ethnofuturism as a trend
of modern art, became a topic for researches
by V.O. Hartig (Hartig, 2006), E.P. Matochkin
(Matochkin, 2009), L.I. Nekhviadovich
(Nekhviadovich, 2010) and E.Y. Pavlova
(Pavlova, 2007). It should be noted that since the
early 20th century there was a “cultural turn” in
the humanities towards consideration of culture
structures as phenomena that form meanings
of “definite cultural manifestations and activity
types” (Wijk, 2011). The issue of generating of
sociocultural sense-making function by cultural
practices became particularly relevant in the last
decade of the 20th – early 21st century due to the
phenomena of globalization and multiculturalism
(Kistova, 2013; Koptseva, 2011, 2012; Reznikova,
2013; Semenova, 2012). One of the tools for
decoding sign constructions of cultural practices
is cultural-semiotic approach which principles
are the subject of this study.
The purpose of the study is to analyze
and systematize the methodological principles
of cultural-semiotic approach, to complement
them taking into account constructivism ideas in
relation to the symbolic “field” of art.
In this work we take into account
the methodological principles of cultural
anthropology, ethnology, ethno-psychology and
hermeneutics, history of art and philosophy
of culture. Particular attention is paid to the
conception of structuralist constructivism
by P. Bourdieu and ideas of constructivism
theorists (F. Barth, E. Gellner, V.S. Malakhov,
V.A. Tishkov, E. Hobsbawm, etc.). Fundamental
principles of cultural-semiotic approach are
represented by the researches of J. Alexander,
F. C. Smith, C. Geertz, Y.M. Lotman, G.N. Lola,
E.A. Orlova, Ch.S. Peirce.
Study of theoretical materials, devoted to
cultural-semiotic approach, found it necessary to
use analytical-descriptive method, which includes
both the analysis of individual elements that
constitute the basic principles of the approach, and
summarizing the data obtained. From the logical
procedures practiced in the study, theoretical
methods (analysis of the socio-philosophical,
socio-anthropological, cultural, ethnological,
ethnopsychological, cultural scientific literature),
empirical (analysis and interpretation) and the
method of introspection (reflection) were the
most actively used.
2. Systematization
of methodological principles
of cultural-semiotic approach
Based on the theoretical studies analysis
results of the researches who study the
semiotics of culture, the methodological
principles of cultural-semiotic approach will
be put in order.
The first methodological principle of
cultural-semiotic approach is understanding of
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culture as a structure consisting of a series of
symbolic systems and cultural texts.
According to the sociologists Jeffrey
Alexander and Philip Smith, cultural structures
should be understood semiotically. “According
to our hypothesis, the culture should be
thought of as a structure consisting of symbolic
systems. Symbols are signs that have the status
of generalization and provide categories for
understanding the elements of social, individual
and organic life” (cited by Wijk, 2011). Pierre
Bourdieu considers the nature of these structures,
“Social agents construct social reality through
cognitive structures that can be applied to all the
objects in the world ...” (Bourdieu). These objects
are symbolic systems that constitute the core of
“dramatized document” cultural texts (C. Geertz).
According to this principle, art in general and a
work of art in particular, represent a secondary
informative sociocultural text that is, like any
other text, according to the Y.M. Lotman’s logic,
has a specific language structure and internal
organization. Reconstruction of this “document”,
according to F. Smith and J. Alexander
(Alexander, Smith, 2010), is of great importance
for understanding of the impact that culture
has on social life’s formation. J. Alexander and
F. Smith, the authors of a new approach in cultural
sociology – “a strong programme” believe
that “internal senses” of cultural texts not only
function in society, but also have a modelling
effect on social life, i.e. in some sense direct our
activities. Scientists who supported hermeneutic
and semiotic understanding of culture separate
culture and social structure believing that culture
is a relatively autonomous beginning, participating
in the reproduction of social relations (Alexander,
Smith, 2010).
Extrapolating the aforementioned theoretical
model of culture as a collection of texts on sociocultural reality, it is possible to identify a number
of cultural texts, which play an important role
in a society life. These are cultural-semiotic
practices by which we mean the amount of social
actions in which sign-symbolic forms of culture
that carry certain social values and meanings
are produced, preserved and transmitted.
Mentioning these cultural-semiotic practices we
mean art, cinematograph, mass media, political
discourse, art criticism, etc. These texts represent
informative structure that actively functions
within society.
The second principle of cultural-semiotic
approach is the principle of symbol creation,
actualized in the artistic dialogism.
The main idea of this principle is “symbol”.
This category is of great interest to scientists.
Different aspects of symbol are studied. These
are both ontogeny of symbol and its cognitive
function and, unlike a sign and symbol, its
hermeneutics, and the symbolic nature of
culture. Our interest is focused on the role of
symbol in relation to the field of art. It is known
that art is symbolic and allows portraying an
ideal that, according to Kant, is the highest
purpose of art (Basin, 2012, p. 22). I. Kant
interprets the concept of “symbol” as beauty,
lovely presentation of things and an image given
in the “corporal representation”. Symbol in art,
according to Kant, is a symbolic form, which
expresses and communicates aesthetic ideas
(ibid.)
According to the modern theory of art,
symbol creation presents both during the
process of a piece of art creation and in the
process of a viewer’s communication with a
product. According to V.V. Bychkov’s opinion,
symbolization is understood as a dialogic process
of “creativity – perception – co-creation”, with an
artistic symbol in its center, and a deep meaning
of the symbolized (metaphysical reality) “shines
through” it, and it is fully actualized only in the
artistic symbol (Bychkov, 2012). Bychkov defines
artistic symbol as a core of the artistic image that
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expresses a certain reality, which is realized only in
the process of aesthetic perception of a particular
work of art by a particular recipient in his/her
inner world. In his article “Symbolization in Art
as an Aesthetic Principle” Bychkov differentiates
the concepts of “symbol” and “symbolization”.
A symbol is the result of symbolization, the
expression of a reality in a definite form. The
process of artistic symbolization, according to
the author, is a multilevel dynamic system that
includes metaphysical reality – artistic expression
(creativity) – a work of art –aesthetic perception of
a product by a recipient. The scientists emphasizes
that artistic symbolization includes in its field not
only the act of artistic creation (symbolization in
the narrow sense is creating of a work of art as a
kind of symbol, located outside reality), but also
the process of aesthetic perception as a unique
personal actualization of a symbol.
According to E.A. Orlova, “in every studied
and observed society certain areas of ordering
are found, where interaction and communication
are specially organized and have specific
symbolic expression” (Orlova, 2004, p. 153).
The author is referring to a system of symbols
designed to organize the relation of a man with
the world around. The founder of semiotics
Ch.S. Pierce notes that an action of a symbol is
based on the fact that information, encoded in it
will be understood in a certain way by a person
who interprets it (Pierce, 2000). According
to N.L. Koretskaia, the ability of a symbol to
fixation, storage and transfer of information
provides its close connection with the traditions,
rites and customs, and through them “a system of
symbols is included into national consciousness”
(Koretskaia, 1998) Y.M. Lotman believes that a
symbol has a quality to accumulate, consolidate
and transmit information over many generations,
acting as a keeper of non-genetic, cultural
memory of the people, rooted in the depths of the
archaic (Lotman, 1996).
A number of scientists, who studied fine
art of Siberia, note active interest of artists
to representations of the motifs connected
with archaic views of peoples. For example,
E.Y. Pavlova focuses attention on the increased
interest of the contemporary artists of Western
Siberia to ancient cultural traditions (Pavlova,
2007). As the basis of artistic creativity the
authors use mythological motifs and national
legends of their peoples, as well as ethnographic,
archaeological and historical materials. The
author considers the current state of art in Siberia
within the framework of artistic movement called
“ethnofuturism” originated in the late 1980s. It
is this movement, according to the researcher,
that best reflects the essence of the contemporary
art, which by the archaic forms determines
place of ethnos and its culture in the modern
world. S.V. Kardinskaia interprets ethnofuturism
in terms of ethnic problematics, giving it the
possibility to develop “deep” and ”authentic”
ethnicity by constructing an ideal model based
on archetypes.
E.P. Matochkin considers specificity of
“archeoart” as a special movement in Siberian
art (Matochkin, 2009). The author makes an
attempt to identify the prerequisites of one of
the important trends in the Siberian art and also
highlights its distinctive features. Consideration
of arheoart in its development is based on the
general survey of individual Siberian artists’
creativity (in particular, creativity by V.I.Surikov
as “the forerunner of the Siberian arheoart”,
G.I. Gurkin, V.F. Kapelko V.N. Kizlasov,
S.P. Lazarev, I.I. Ortonulov, N.I. Tretiakov,
M.P. Chevalkov etc.). Review of the Siberian
artists’ creativity includes description of the
individual paintings, mainly the storyline, which
the author relates to the legacy of the past as its
immediate representation. In the researcher’s
opinion in the basis of the contemporary artists’
address to arheoart there are “attempts through
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the art of antiquity again get in touch with mother
earth’s warmth and with the myths that generated
natural existence” (Matochkin, 2009, p.10). In
addition, through the legacy of the past the artists
try to comprehend the cultural space of Siberia
and arheoart becomes one of the means of its
comprehension. In this case, the task of an artist
is to create a new spiritual space of modernity
through references to the past.
Thus, the ability of symbols to have definite
meanings, as well as possibility of their reading
and understanding, makes them the texts of
culture. According to C. Geertz, it is necessary to
study not the ontological status of the phenomena
of our world, but their value, i.e. consider them
in terms of their symbolic manifestation. Symbol
creation both as the process of a cultural text
creation and its perception by a subject involves
disclosure of a specific message. In the sphere of
art this message is often introduced by archaic
representations acting as symbols.
The third principle is connected with the
representativeness of culture and symbolic
interpretation of the signs of culture.
The symbolic nature of cultural texts
determines representative character of culture
in general. F. Tenbruk defi nes representativeness
of culture in its intermediary role. He writes:
“Culture is representative, i.e. it produces ideas,
meanings and values, which act due to their de
facto recognition. It covers those beliefs, views,
world view, ideas and ideologies that affect
social action as they are actively or passively
separated or accepted” (Tenbruk, 2013, p.101).
Cultural codes that provide transference of
social experience and information are universal
means of representation, structural organization
and transference of cultural experience,
information and values. The fundamental role
of cultural form in these processes is found in
the fact that it manifests itself as a message and
a text.
Appeal of cultural texts to an individual and
society in general generate a “response back”
from the viewer. In the epoch of modernity
practice of interpretation becomes especially
important. According to Vattimo, we live in “the
era of interpretation”, and religion and faith give
it to us (cited by Rzaeva, 2011). R.O. Rzaeva
notes that attention to the interpretative nature of
culture is determined by the fact that postmodern
consciousness is based on the interpretive
mind. According to the researcher, symbolic
representations act as a reaction to attitudes and
beliefs that exist in society and serve as an identifier
of “the Other” in the postmodern society, which
is associated with the postmodern perception
of the text as an infinite chain of denotation
(Rzaeva, 2011). Cultural text is interpreted by a
subject as a “behavioral code”. “The subject of
postmodernism prefers possibility of existence
under the proposed code to individual freedom”
(ibid.).
The fourth principle of cultural-semiotic
approach is defined by the concept of “value” as
one of the key in the conception of the semantic
philosophy of art.
Cultural texts are significant for an individual
and society due to content they represent. As a
result of analysis of the works of art created by
representatives of indigenous peoples, it is possible
to consider sign-symbolic forms of works as an
expression of a society’s values that constitute
the core of their culture. E.Y. Basin defines the
aesthetic value as kalos – harmony, unity and
integration of parts of the whole in a work of
art. The world of aesthetic qualities or values,
according to Basin, is the world of eternal objects
outside of time and space (Basin, 2012, p.267).
In painting figurative sign acts as the language
of values communication. Morris, referring
to painting, outlines such values as objective
values, acting values and mental values (Basin,
2012, p.294). Since our interest concerns art of
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indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the
Far East, we separate ethno-cultural values that
define representative character of the national art,
and give the following definition: Ethno-cultural
values is a definite, formed in the historical
dynamics of ethnos, socio-cultural construct that
embodies especially significant views of an ethnocultural group. During the study of ethnic fine art
works the following ethnic-cultural values were
found: 1) a single ethno-cultural ideological basis
(religious-mythological); 2) specific types of
cultural heroes, characteristic of a definite ethnocultural group; 3) ideas of an ethnos’ perfect
personality type; 4) the most relevant things;
5) unique cultural signs for different types of
social communication. Thus, we offer to consider
a work of fine art as a cultural-semiotic space of
representation in sign-symbolic forms of ethnocultural values that serve as a powerful factor of
an ethnic society’s self-identity in a multicultural
system.
Thus, cultural-semiotic approach as a
methodological approach to the study of art offers
a particular model of interconnection between
culture as a social structure and a subject (an
individual, a society). According to this approach,
culture is understood as a structure consisting of
a series of symbolic systems and cultural texts,
representative and interpretive nature of which
is actualized in the process of symbol creation
and artistic dialogue. The important concepts
of cultural-semiotic approach are “symbol” and
“value” that define representative character of
cultural texts.
3. Art as a Cultural-Semiotic
Construct
The purpose of this section is to complement
and develop the methodological principles of
cultural-semiotic approach based on addressing to
theoretical ideas of constructivism, the direction,
which became one of the most topical problems
in the modern humanities at the beginning of the
21st century. This is connected with the fact that
the basis of this approach constitutes the topical
idea of symbolic production of ethnicity by the
means of cultural-semiotic practices. Postmodern
cultural text is a special field where construction
can be carried out. Supporters of constructivism
(V.A. Tishkov, V.S. Malakhov, etc.) prove that
identifying oneself as a member of a particular
community involves imagination (i.e. an
individual creates an image) of this community.
Due to construction and symbolic creation of an
ethno-cultural group’s image, symbolic field of
social reality is actualized (P. Bourdieu).
Nowadays ethnic identity construction
practices at all the levels of social life of an
individual and society in general are widely
used. Such constructing fields as print and
electronic media, Soviet and national cinema
and organization of national celebrations are in
the centre of researchers’ attention. Scientists
analyze symbolic space of a culture’s text, with
the help of which reality is not only socially
reproduced but also originated again, created in
each particular human existence in the process of
artistic dialogue. According to Rzaeva, one of the
trends of the modern society is “mediaization”
of reality, which, in the author’s opinion, leads
to the “the loss of image identity”. Identity
appears more like a simulation possible, transient
response, rather than as the basis of our existence
(Rzaeva, 2011). It is obvious that ethnic identity,
constructed by images of cultural texts is transient,
as it is constructed here and now in the process
of artistic dialogue. For most indigenous peoples
ethnicity may not be the basis for existence in a
multicultural system, but understanding of the
possibility to recreate it plays an important role
in their lives.
Art is an equally important sphere of
culture that has constructivist opportunities.
Constructivist theory allows us to consider art
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as a cultural-semiotic construct that generates
social meanings in individual and collective
consciousness. Sign-symbolic forms of
compositions are sensuously-present construct
of arts. Due to symbols a person has a symbolic
“reality” by which he/she constructs a holistic
picture of the world. According to G.N. Lola,
“an artist is not a copyist, an artist is a creator
of another reality” (Lola, 2011, p.38). Depending
on the emotional component in the structure
of personality, as well as on social, political
and ethnic factors, an individual constructs
either a positive image of his/her community,
or negative, connected with the forms of
hyperidentity (ethnocentrism, ethnodomination,
ethnic narcissism and nationalism) or with the
forms of hypoidentity (ethnic indifference,
ethnic
negativism,
ethnic
elimination,
ethnonihilism). This is explained by the fact that
a symbol’s decoding can’t be reduced only to the
single formulation, but confi rms the worldviews
of both an individual and an ethnic group in
general. The same symbolic forms have a lot of
interpretations. A researcher’s task in this case,
according to C. Geertz, is searching, identifying
and clarifying the meaning of the expressed
social. He writes: “The analysis represents
investigation of semantic structures, … as well
as the determination of their social basis and
social significance” (Geertz, 2004, p.15). At that,
interpretation assumes transition of the semantic
structures’ values of a text, identified during the
analysis, onto the social level. In other words,
the main value of a cultural text interpretation is
reading a cultural text as expression of the social
context. A cultural text should not be interpreted
in isolation from the life of society. A text is
expression of socially important meanings and
values. According to C. Geertz, the meaning
of semiotic approach to culture is to “help us
to gain access to the conceptual world which
people who we study live in, so that we can (in
the broad sense of the word) have a dialogue with
them” (Geertz, 2004, p.32). The interconnection
of art and social reality gives evidence about
sociocultural dynamics of art that allows
conducting verification of human ideas about
the world and constructing one’s own picture of
the world on a subconscious level.
In every society, according to C. Geertz,
the sphere of culture consists of a number
of cultural systems. There is a typical set of
cultural systems, which are repeated in most
societies. These are religion, ideology, politics,
science and art. On the basis of these cultural
systems, or rather their impulses, a person
forms vision of the world, his/her picture of
the world. R. Ayerman, sociology professor
at Yale University, introduces the concept of
“imagination space”, which is constructed by
imagination and creativity that are “directly
related to the semantic dimension” (Fen, 2010,
p.77). According to G.N. Lola, “by the produced
impressions communicative reality of art creates
and maintains the situation of meanings exchange
between the interacting subjects. In turn, such
an exchange is synchronous to formation of the
general semiotic space, in which consistency
and understanding are possible” (Lola, 2011, p.
39-40). This understanding of communication
is represented in the paradigm of social
constructivism, which develops the idea of reality
created as a result of everyday interactions,
semantic interpretations and reinterpretations.
The author keeps to the constructivism idea, in
particular, those, relating to the symbolic nature
of interaction: “cultural context of a work of
art develops in a communicative reality and is
created by it” (ibid., p. 40). G.N. Lola proposes to
use the term “narrative canon” for understanding
of the mechanisms for constructing reality.
According to the researcher, narrative canon is
a “dynamic semiotic structure organized around
semantic kernel; … it is a way of organization
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and existence of a communicative resource of an
art product” (ibid.).
Thus, art is understood as a space of
imagination, as a form of social reality that forms
the basis for social identities and practices. Art
creates a space for collective and individual
verification of ideas about the world around us.
Every time it will be a unique “product”, as a
recipient perceives and constructs an image not
as he/she sees it, but how he/she knows it, that
is, through the existing experience, relying on the
judgments of the objective world. Constructing a
holistic picture of the world, an individual looks
at the world around him/her, society and him/
herself, acquiring at the same time a feeling of
involvement and integrity of oneself as a member
of society.
In the process of communication an
individual enters into another dimension
of reality, transforming colorful strokes,
represented in the art space of the works of
fi ne art into semiotic-symbolic forms, thanks
to which, an individual artistic picture of
the world is constructed. In the process of
dialogue and communication with a cultural
text understanding of differentiation between
“own” / “other” and “we” / “they” takes place,
and this fact allows to detect ethnicity, i.e.
an individual constructs an image of his/her
community and ethnic picture of the world.
Thus, the art of ethnos becomes an explicated
form of understanding and expression of a
defi nite community’s identity. According to
I.G. Yakovenko, “as well as extended text, when
necessary, art forms a kind of image of the
universe, a picture of the world, in which there
is a place for the community that generated an
author” (cited by Nehviadovich, 2010, p.150).
4. Resume
1. Cultural-semiotic approach is considered
as one of the major methodological approaches
in studying the art of indigenous peoples of the
North, Siberia and the Far East. This approach
allows us to identify and scientifically experience
socio-cultural reality of an ethno-cultural group
by structural analysis of sign systems and texts
of its culture.
2. Methodological principles of culturalsemiotic approach were systematized:
– Understanding of culture as a structure
consisting of a series of symbolic systems
and cultural texts;
– principle of symbol creation, actualized
in artistic dialogism;
– representative nature of culture and
symbolic interpretation of the signs of
culture;
– the concept of “value” as a key one in
the conception of semantic philosophy
of art.
3. Consideration of cultural-semiotic
approach in correlation with constructivism
ideas made it possible to complement the
methodological principles of the approach in
regard to understanding the nature of art. Art
is understood as a cultural-semiotic construct
that generates social meanings in individual
and collective consciousness. As a secondary
constructing system art, in its cultural and
semiotic forms, embodies already existing and
functioning primary constructs that embody
ethnical and cultural values. Art has a sociocultural dynamics that allows humans to verify
ideas about the world and construct their
own picture of the world on a subconscious
level.
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К вопросу о методологических принципах
культурно-семиотического подхода
в изучении искусства индигенных народов
Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока
Н.Н. Середкина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья посвящена анализу культурно-семиотического подхода, рассматриваемого в
качестве одного из основных в изучении искусства индигенных народов Севера, Сибири и
Дальнего Востока. Предложена авторская систематизация методологических принципов
культурно-семиотического подхода (понимание культуры как структуры, состоящей
из ряда символических систем и культурных текстов; принцип символотворчества,
актуализируемого в художественном диалогизме; репрезентативность культуры и
символическая интерпретация знаков культуры; понятие «ценность» как одно из ключевых
в концепции семантической философии искусства). На основе корреляции методологических
принципов культурно-семиотического подхода и идей конструктивизма уточняется
определение понятия «искусство». Искусство понимается как культурно-семиотический
конструкт, порождающий социальные смыслы в индивидуальных и коллективных сознаниях и
позволяющий осуществлять верификацию человеком представлений об окружающем мире и
конструировать на подсознательном уровне свою картину мира.
Ключевые слова: культурно-семиотический подход, конструктивизм, культура, искусство
индигенных народов, культурный текст, символ, знак, этнокультурная ценность, культурносемиотический конструкт, картина мира.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1358-1380
~~~
УДК 7.071.1
The Concept of “North”
in the Works by Rockwell Kent
Alexandra A. Sitnikova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 20.05.2014, received in revised form 14.06.2014, accepted 24.07.2014
The article offers a study of paintings and graphic drawings by the artist Rockwell Kent for visualization
of the concept of “North” in these works. The study is followed by a detailed review of “waves” of
the professional and viewer’s interest in the works by R. Kent: in the 1920s, the artist took a leading
position in American art, in the 1960s, he became popular in the USSR, in the 1980s, he restored
attention of the American viewers, and in the present the interest in the works by R. Kent is maintained
on the Internet. In accordance with the objectives, the study presents general characteristics of the
series of works created by the artist during a trip to Alaska (1918-1919), Tierra del Fuego (1922-1923)
and Greenland (1929, 1932-1933, 1935); representative works of these cycles – “Sun glare. Alaska”
(1919), “Tierra del Fuego” (1922-1925), “November in Greenland” (1932-1933) – were analyzed. An
image of an Eskimo – an indigenous inhabitant of Greenland formed in the graphics of R. Kent was
studied. In addition, the article reveals the artistic traditions and techniques typical of the artist’s
work as a whole.
Keywords: artist Rockwell Kent, paintings by Rockwell Kent, graphic drawings by Rockwell Kent,
visual concepts, concept of “North”, North in fine arts, Alaska, Tierra del Fuego, Greenland Eskimos,
study of Rockwell Kent’s artwork.
Introduction
In America public attention to Rockwell
Kent (1882-1971) accounts for the 1920s, which
is about a decade before the heyday of abstract
directions in American painting. Despite the fact
that Kent’s painting itself is characterized by the
expansion of landscapes into local pure colours
carrying symbolic meaning, after the birth of
abstract expressionism, a phenomenon that could
be considered as completely American, paintings
and drawings by Rockwell Kent turned out to be
somewhat forgotten. But in the Soviet Union, on
the contrary, he became extremely popular: in
*
1962 he received the title of Honorary Member
of the USSR Academy of Arts, in 1967 he
received the International Lenin Prize “for peace
between peoples”, books with his illustrations
could be found in almost every home, and for
many Soviet graphic artists his works became
the standard model in the formation of their own
artistic language. Thus, for example, it is known
that the most outstanding Krasnoyarsk graphic
artist Vladimir I. Meshkov, a self-taught artist
who acquired a name because of lithographs
with scenes of Northern life and lives of the
Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples, improved
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: sem_dobrianka@mail.ru
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his skills based on the graphics of Rockwell
Kent, sent him letters with his works so that the
master assessed them (mentioned in: Troshev,
Zh. (1989) North Rhapsody: the story about the
artist. Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk Publishing
House, 165. Chapter 5: Music of paints, available
at: http://museumsrussian.blogspot.ru/2013/01/5.
html). After the collapse of the Soviet Union the
artwork of R. Kent was forgotten in Russia as well
for some time. Today, as evidenced by the Internet
activity around a wide variety of the author’s
works – drawings, paintings, book illustrations,
etc. – attention to R. Kent gradually returns
again, as his romantic trips to the Northern lands
in order to withdraw from the bustle and noisy
civilization, as well as his works of art that reveal
the ontology of the North are becoming more and
more relevant in the modern world that constantly
invents options for its own end and searches for
its own limits.
Before proceeding to the study of the concept
of North in the works of Rockwell Kent, we need
to outline the range of research materials that
are dedicated to his works. One of the greatest
American experts on the works by R. Kent is
Ferris R. Scott who describes the entire corpus
of works created by the artist, analyzes aspects
of his biography and journeys, gives interviews
about the work of the author, and researches
“waves” of the viewer’s attention to R. Kent.
For example, he writes about the attention to
creativity of R. Kent in the USSR after the
heyday of abstract expressionism in America:
“...Kent became the first American to exhibit his
art in the Soviet Union (1957-58). Inspired by the
Soviet people’s enthusiasm, he donated hundreds
of paintings, drawings, prints, and writings to
them in 1960. (The bulk of these are held by
the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg
and the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in
Moscow) (Ferris R. Scott. (2008) The evolving
legacy of Rockwell Kent. Fine art Connoisseur,
Volume 5, Issue 1, available at: http://scottrferris.
com/Essays/legacy.html)
Also on the gradual return of interest
in R. Kent in the American society: “Kent’s
popularity has increased gradually, with waves
of activity concentrated in the years immediately
after his death; around his centennial in 1982; and
around 2000 as the market for modern American
art soared. The first wave saw the publication of
Dan Burne Jones’s The Prints of Rockwell Kent:
A Catalogue Raisonné, as well as the launching
of George and Gladys Spector’s newsletter, The
Kent Collector, now issued by the Rockwell
Kent Gallery. The second wave focused on
centennial exhibitions, and on the publishing of
David Traxel’s An American Saga: The Life and
Times of Rockwell Kent (1980) and the anthology
mentioned above. The latest wave began with the
publication of my own Rockwell Kent’s Forgotten
Landscapes (1998, with Ellen Pearce), and the
mounting of such exhibitions as the Adirondack
Museum’s The View from Asgaard (1999) and
Rockwell Kent: The Mythic and the Modern at
Maine’s Portland Museum of Art (2005) (Ferris
R. Scott. (2008) The evolving legacy of Rockwell
Kent. Fine art Connoisseur, Volume 5, Issue 1,
available
at:
http://scottrferris.com/Essays/
legacy.html).
A detailed article by Fielding D. Dupuy
“Seeking a new paradise for mankind: Rockwell
Kent in Tierra del Fuego and the creation of
a new national image for Chile” is devoted to
R. Kent’s works created during his travels in the
Chilean province of Tierra del Fuego located on
the island of Tierra del Fuego – the southernmost
point of the South American continent. The
author includes R. Kent’s artwork in several
romantic creative concepts of the late 19th century
associated with finding paradise in deserted lands
or in a wild nature (for example, he compares the
literary works of R. Kent with the works of Henry
Thoreau): “Kent also writes about wanting to
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‘improve the land [...] with gardens and meadows
and fruit trees’ thereby imagining a desolate
place turned to paradise through his efforts. This
belief system that wilderness is to be feared but,
by the hand of man, an earthly paradise can be
constructed from it was central to the popular
conception of the United States, dating from
the colonial period”. (Fielding D. Dupuy (2012)
Seeking a new paradise for mankind: Rockwell
Kent in Tierra del Fuego and the creation of a new
national image for Chile. Image de la nation: art
et nature au Chilli, 3, 29, available at: http://cral.
in2p3.fr/artelogie/IMG/article_PDF/article_a150.
pdf). The author dwells on the study of the art
features of Chilean works by Kent – graphics,
paintings, writings and photographs which
he equates with photojournalism and visual
anthropology that acquired great significance in
the 1920s. Fielding D. Dupuy highlights features
that distinguish works of R. Kent created in Tierra
del Fuego from works created in Greenland
or on the island of Monhegan: “The Tierra del
Fuego paintings are notably devoid of the human
figure. This is in such contrast with Kent’s other
works that it must not be ignored. Kent is telling
us it is a land in which a man has no place. The
mystical elements in Kent’s Alaska work with
the human form set against the wilderness have
been replaced in Tierra del Fuego with what Kent
would later refer to as “stark, uncompromising
realism”. (Fielding D. Dupuy (2012) Seeking
a new paradise for mankind: Rockwell Kent in
Tierra del Fuego and the creation of a new national
image for Chile. Image de la nation: art et nature
au Chilli, 3, 29, available at: http://cral.in2p3.fr/
artelogie/IMG/article_PDF/article_a150.pdf)
In foreign research literature those who
studied the artwork of Rockwell Kent also were:
Dan Burne-Jones who was authorized by the
artist to engage in archiving, collection and the
museum and gallery activities with his works;
Frederick Lewis who filmed a documentary
“Rockwell Kent” about travels and works of
the artist in 2006 (Lewis F. (2012) The stormy
petrel of American art. Scandinavian review,
8, 8, available at: http://www.amscan .org/
SR.Summer12_RockwellKent.pdf; Lewis F.
(2006) Rockwell Kent. Documentary, DVD);
J. Milgram Wien and others. Of a particular
interest among these works is a documentary film
by F. Lewis, which uses biographical analysis for
understanding the artist’s works, expeditions of
R. Kent are reproduced through video recording
and archival photographs, selections from his
writings are quoted, and great attention is paid to
the artist’s work on the frescoes for the interiors
of public buildings that cannot usually be found
in the research literature.
In Soviet research literature with all the
advantages of fine art criticism (analysis of
colours, composition and other pictorial aspects
of works of R. Kent) a tendentious bias is clearly
present – rapture at an idea that only a socialist
worldview can appreciate the beauty of the works
of R. Kent while in his country the artist’s work
faded under the onslaught of fancy anti-aesthetic
Abstract Expressionism: “I just happened to see
the beautiful painting by Kent ‘Mount Equinox
in Vermont’ exhibited in one of the halls of the
beautiful museum of the Art Institute in Chicago
near Bellows and Sloan paintings, and their
creations looked impressive and serious as the
true carriers of high aesthetic values compared
with defiantly huge canvases of abstract painters
hanging in the next hall. However, Kent’s
paintings of those years can be found in museums
of the United States very rarely, even less rarely
than paintings of Edward Hopper. But as for the
paintings of the Greenland series created in 19291935, them I could see only on the walls of a small
apartment of Dan Burne-Jones in Oak Park, on the
far outskirts of the immense Chicago! Paintings by
Kent annoy the followers of Abstract, Surrealist
or Neo-Expressionist art in the U.S., and they
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try to forget or at least move it into the distant
past.” (Chegodaev A.O. About Rockwell Kent
and his autobiography. Introduction to the book
of Rockwell Kent “It’s me, O Lord”. Moscow,
Art, 1965, 695)
Later in the Russian art history a monograph
by T. Petrova was dedicated to the artwork of
R. Kent. Sections devoted to the R. Kent’s works
are present in encyclopaedias and monographs on
the works of American artists of the 20th century.
In the context of this study on not just the
analysis of the artwork of Rockwell Kent, but the
analysis of the concept of “North”, constructed
in the visual language, it is also useful to attract
more information about other options for
visualization of the North concept in the works
of other artists – both professional and amateur,
among the Indigenous Small-Numbered Peoples
(e.g. sources: Jacqueline Fry (1987) Contemporary
Inuit art and art from other “tribal” cultures.
American Review of Canadian Studies, Volume
17, Issue 1, 41-46; Trevor Holloway (1970) Artists
of the Frozen North. Design, Volume 72, Issue
2, 4-8; Jeffrey Mifflin (2011) Arctic spectacles:
The frozen north in visual culture, 1818-1875.
Early Popular Visual Culture, Volume 9, Issue 4,
363-365; Skorobogacheva Y.A. (2008) Art of the
Russian North. Moscow: White City, 304, etc.).
Importantly, for several years the global study
of the concept of “North” in the world and Russian
culture has been carried out by the research team
of the Humanities Institute of Siberian Federal
University – consequently, links to some of the
works of this group of scientists also allow you
to plunge into the broader context of the study
(Koptseva N.P., Pimenov N.N., Seredkina N.N.
(2013) Study of Applied and Decorative Arts and
traditional religions of the Indigenous SmallNumbered Peoples of the North as a factor of the
positive all-Russian cultural identity. Pedagogy
of art, No. 2, 15 – 30; Koptseva N.P., Nevolko
N.N., Reznikova K.V. (2013) Formation of ethnic
cultural identity in contemporary Russia through
works of national art (by the example of the
Evenk epos and Applied and Decorative Arts).
Pedagogy of art, No. 1, 1 – 15).
Methodology
To conduct the study the following
methodological approaches were used:
1) The philosophical and art-historical
analysis based on the consecutive application of
methods of observation, measurement, analysis,
synthesis, analogy, interpretation, extrapolation,
induction, deduction in accordance with
theoretical developments of V.I. Zhukovsky.
Methodological approach is used for an adequate
translation of the visual signs content into a verbal
language, to verbalize a conceptual image of the
“North” in the paintings of R. Kent.
2) The conceptual analysis in accordance
with
the
methodological
approach
of
Yu.S. Stepanov who suggests ways to penetrate
into the “unspeakable” essence of universal
cultural phenomena called a concept. In the
present study a similar methodology is used to
comprehend the essence of the concept of “North”
in the works of art.
3) The concept of a “visual turn” in culture
of the second half of the 20th century originating
in the works of W. Benjamin, M. McLuhan and
F. Jameson. On the basis of this approach a
research setting is formed, according to which
concepts exist not only as verbal constructs, but
may also have a visual representation that allows
us to study the content of cultural phenomena in
the analysis of works of art.
Point
“Geography” and typology of works by
Rockwell Kent, general characteristics of the
artist’s artwork.
Rockwell Kent received architectural
education at the Columbia University in New
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Fig. 1. R. Kent. The Commuters (Urban Landscape), 1923
York, during his studies he periodically published
mocking caricatures about a big city life (Fig. 1),
which did not seem to him comfortable and
suitable for a harmonious life. Together with
the university, he also attended painting classes
where he met the artist Edward Hopper. Early
works by Rockwell Kent with landscapes of
New Hampshire and Mount Monadnock were
presented at the exhibition of the Society of
American Artists in 1904. From 1905 till 1910
he lived on the island Monhegan, Maine – a
Northern corner of nature in the United States.
In 1918 he went to the next trip to the Northern
lands in Alaska together with his 10 year old son,
from which he returned in 1919 with a series of
paintings, prints and a book titled “Wilderness”
that made him a successful artist and writer. In
1922–1923, he travels to Tierra del Fuego, the
farthest land of South America, “supplementing”
his artistic and aesthetic study of Northern areas
that started in Alaska with introduction with
the opposite geographical point. From this trip
Rockwell Kent brings a more modest amount of
paintings (only about 22 works remained), but a
lot more drawings that illustrated his travel diary
“To the south of the Strait of Magellan”.
In general, it should be noted that the graphic
drawings and paintings are equally present in the
works of R. Kent. His graphic works are made
in a variety of different techniques – linocut,
xylography, lithography, pencil drawings and
some others. Most of the graphics are illustrations
to his own books: “Wilderness” (1920), “Voyaging
Southward from the Strait of Magellan” (1924),
“N by E” (1930), “It’s me, O Lord” (1959),
“Greenland Journal” (1962).
Since during his travels R. Kent also
constantly created texts on his travels, the
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Publishing House Lakeside Press in Chicago
offered him a job as a book illustrator at the end of
the 1920s. He chose a book by Herman Melville
“Moby Dick” that at that time was thoroughly
forgotten to such an extent that in 1930 it was
published without the author’s name on the cover
focusing on the name of the famous illustrator
R. Kent. Subsequently, he also did illustrations
for “The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer,
“Beowulf”, “Candide” by Voltaire, “Decameron”
by Boccaccio, and for some works of William
Shakespeare. Rockwell Kent is often compared
to Leonardo da Vinci and the artists of the High
Renaissance in the aspect of universality of
artistic abilities – besides the fact that he was a
painter, graphic artist, writer and traveller, he
also was engaged in the creation of advertising
posters for such companies as General Electric,
Rolls Royce and others, who sponsored his trip.
In 1929, 1931-1932, 1935, he took a trip to
Greenland.
Since the late 1940s, Rockwell Kent had
been living and working on the Asgor farm in the
Adirondack Mountains.
Thus, the study of the concept of “North” in
the works by Rockwell Kent is based on the works
created by the artist in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego
(except that in fact it is not North, but South, we
still pay attention to this series of works on the
principle of similarity of geo-climatic conditions
of Alaska and Tierra del Fuego: icebergs, snow,
tundra conditions in the winter season, a similar
way of life of the indigenous peoples) and
Greenland. In addition, some book illustrations of
the artist allow us to deepen our idea of conceptual
artistic intents of the author, so we address them
as well for completeness of the research.
Before we begin to analyze the concept of
“North” in the works of the artist, we need to say
a few words about his work as a whole.
Artistic traditions relevant for the artwork of
R. Kent are as follows:
A) Painting and graphic art of Romanticism.
The artist himself was fond of engravings by
William Blake and anyone could see the use of
the artistic techniques of the English romanticist
in the graphics of R. Kent: large anthropomorphic
characters interact with global and universal
forces of life (divine and celestial spheres in
William Blake’s works and stellar and solar
systems in R. Kent’s works). R. Kent continues a
particularly romantic line of representation of an
individual – a lonely hero able to comprehend the
deepest mysteries of existence, primarily through
the contemplation of nature. Similarity is found
when comparing the works of R. Kent and Caspar
D. Friedrich in terms of representation of a man as
a small grain of the universe, insignificant grain
compared to the powerful nature (Fig. 2–5).
B) Painting of Symbolism in the spirit of
Puvis de Chavannes who implicates allegorical
messages into frozen statue-like anthropomorphic
figures and into each iconic sign of the image.
R. Kent’s works are also visually close to the
Himalayan series of paintings of N. Roerich who,
during his life in Russia, headed the Artistic
Association “World of Art” that was developing
an idea of symbolism (Fig. 6–7).
C) An artistic idea of P. Gauguin who went
to Tahiti in search for “the earthly paradise” to
immerse in a culture fundamentally different
from the European, which preserved the ancient
models of the human being, and to tell about the
primary meanings of life through the language of
visual images.
D) Impressionism as a tradition of plein-air
painting made in such a technique where mutual
reflection of colours in each other is important.
The last feature is characteristic of the paintings
by R. Kent mainly created until the 1920s, but
subsequently he produced his own austere and
concise visual style, and the need to work “on
location” almost always retains its relevance in
the artist’s life.
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Fig. 2. William Blake. Isaac Newton. 1795
Fig. 3. R. Kent. Drifting. 1933
The central theme of the artwork of R. Kent
is a romantic search for a harmonious model of
co-existence between a man and nature, visual
presentation of the fundamental truths about
nature, an image of a human hero capable
to “reach” to natural greatness or, at least,
able to contemplate this greatness; visual and
naturalistic cognition of such phenomena as
“pristine wilderness”, “nature in the absence of
a human”.
Artistic techniques of R. Kent:
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– in some ways the pagan understanding
of nature (attitude towards nature as
towards a creation with its own temper) is
reflected in the application of the method
of anthropomorphization when natural
phenomena are represented in the form of
human figures;
– “plotlessness”, a focus on a few key
characters: earth, water, mountains, sky
are presented almost in each work, but
human figures can be seen occasionally.
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Fig. 4. Caspar David Friedrich. Wanderer above the Sea of Fog. 1818
Fig. 5. R. Kent. Artist in Greenland. 1935
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Fig. 6. Nicholas Roerich. Mount of Five Treasures (Two Worlds). 1933
Fig. 7. R. Kent. May, North Greenland, 1935-37
In a situation of occurrence of human
figures an active action or event can rarely
be noticed, people are often painted in the
calm and contemplative states or during
everyday activities, which reveals one of
the ideas of R. Kent that at some moments
in life nothing is happening, but only at
such moments a soul can open up to the
world;
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– ascetic choice of characters leads to
the fact that many meaningful ideas of
R. Kent’s works are in colour relations:
until the 1920s when the impressionistic
technique is important for him, the
meaning of works is mainly composed of
the interpenetration of colours into each
other; later, local colour spots without
subtle light-and-dark nuances and the
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variety of colours become more typical
characteristics of R. Kent’s works;
– layered division of the image where every
layer has its character (layer of earth,
layer of water, layer of mountains, and
layer of sky) and its colour. Thus, the
layered structure of the universe typical
of the natural philosophic approach is
emphasized.
Visualization of the concept of “North” in
the paintings by Rockwell Kent
Paintings made in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego
and Greenland differ from each other in colour,
characters and ideological content, so each series
of works reveals its aspect of the concept of
“North”.
A pictural series created in Alaska differs
by an impressionistic technique, where multiple
shades and their correlation on the painting
surface are important, dominating features are
light pastel colours (key colours – yellow, green,
blue and their shades); a few (no more than three)
human characters are depicted in the paintings –
surely it is justified by the actual state of things
(the artist went on a trip with his son where they
met a local old man), but there is also an idea of
chosenness of people who discover the Northern
nature.
A representative of this period may be
“Sun glare. Alaska” (1919) (Fig. 8). An artistic
idea of the work can be described as: lighting/
sanctification of the chosen people by sunlight –
a divine being with the power of manifestation
(emanation) of everything. This idea consists
of the fact that the painting is made by layerslevels (sun – sky – mountains – water surface –
snow land with three human figures pulling a
boat in the centre), the dynamics of colourful
strokes from the upper central point to all the
rest allows us to determine the character of the
“Sun” as the main in the hierarchy of these levels
(special significance of directions of colourful
strokes and images of the sun is emphasized
in another work of the “Whales” series created
in 1919 (Fig. 9), where the sun is a source of
strength once again, but the movement of light
diverges from it radially). Sunlight shows the
outlines of the mountains fi rst, then shows
the embossed surface of mountains, creates
glare on the water surface and, fi nally, people
pulling the boat are coming at the viewer along
the “solar path”.
Fig. 8. R. Kent. Sunglare - Alaska, 1919
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Fig. 9. R. Kent. Killer Whales in Resurrection Bay, Alaska (Whales), 1919
Thus, in a series of works created in Alaska,
the concept of “North” is revealed as a place for
the chosen people able to understand nature in
its primordial purity; North is a place for pagan
religious worldview, as in the North it is especially
noticeable that nature is an independent creature
living by its own laws and rules; North is a clear
understanding that everything in the world exists
in the hierarchy and a man takes a minor position
in this hierarchy.
The artwork created in Tierra del Fuego is
different from the pictures made in Alaska by
dark gloomy colouring (dominating features are
shades of gray, ochreous colours and tones), if the
sun glare lights mountain peaks, then a special
“layer” is set for this under the uppermost edge of
the paintings, where the sun does not reach tiers of
water and earth; images of people are completely
absent in the paintings at this time. Although, as
in the case of Alaska, R. Kent took the journey
with a partner and during his stay in Tierra del
Fuego he met other people in the southernmost
city of Ushuaia, and not far from Cape Horn that
he was about to visit, including local Indians, The
Yaghan, – these people are in photographs taken
by R. Kent during the trip. Apparently the artist
finished some of the paintings after his return
from Tierra del Fuego, as their completion is
dated 1925, 1927 – therefore, in addition to pleinair, natural impression of landscapes, R. Kent
also applied an analytical method of constructing
the image in accordance with the author’s artistic
idea.
A representative of this series of works
may be the painting “Admiralty Sound. Tierradel-Fuego” (1922-1925) (Fig. 10). Here again
we see the layered structure of the image: dark
gray sky; snow-capped peaks of the mountains
in the distance and on the top; close obscure
mountains; water surface with the “fragments”
of the mountains rising above from the water;
a Northern dwarf tree with sinuous branches in
the foreground, which is grown in the ground of
reddish ocher shades. If in the works created in
Alaska a key character was the sun that shines
on the monumental Northern view and chosen
people, the sunlight here is almost entirely
absent; light (white) spots are moved either to the
background or to the upper tier of the painting,
that is pushed as far from the “earth” level
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Fig. 10. R. Kent. Admiralty Sound - Tierra del Fuego, 1922-25
Fig. 11. R. Kent. Virgin Peaks,Tierra del Fuego, 1922-27
retaining its inaccessibility to it (this method
is constantly found in this series of works – for
example, it can also be observed in the painting
“Virgin Peaks. Tierra-del-Fuegro”, 1922-1927)
(Fig. 11). The main character of the painting is a
dwarf tree with sinuous branches. Being the only
organic creation in the painting, it demonstrates
the rigors of survival in the Northern nature
(dry branches and one broken off), but at that it
maintains the pursuit to “reach” to the snowy
mountains and the sky with its two branches,
but its third branch is still twisted to the ground.
Visual content of the painting is the idea that in
the Northern conditions only the basic urge to
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survive is retained, harmonious understanding
of terrestrial and celestial spheres is almost
unattainable: it is very difficult to get out of the
cycle of earthly needs to penetrate into the higher
heavenly spheres.
Thus, the concept of “North” in a series of
works created in Tierra del Fuego is revealed
as follows: the North is a place not suitable for
human life; Northern life is reduced to the basic
physical survival, Northern conditions require
extraordinary efforts to rise above earthly
problems of existence and move to the high level
of spiritual existence.
In paintings of the Greenland series
R. Kent formed a specific visual style, which is
sometimes referred to as “ascetic, harsh realism”.
The paintings maintain layered imaging (usually
it is a ternary structure: an earth surface with
human figures and sometimes dwellings, a water
surface with floating ice floes; mountain ranges
and the sky or a large mountain filling almost all
the space in the background, a snow-white plain
in the middle ground, and people and dogs in the
foreground), local colours clearly separating one
layer from the other are used. Unlike paintings
created in Alaska and Tierra del Fuego in this
painting there are a lot more people, and dogs
also become significant characters. The number
of paintings created in Greenland is much
more, therefore we can observe changeability
of nature throughout the calendar cycle: there is
a collection of Greenland landscapes in winter,
spring, summer and fall. In the works of this
series there are analogies between the Northern
paintings and European culture phenomena –
for example, comparison of a rock with a
gothic style in the painting “Greenland Gothic”
(1935-1937) or analogy between a boatman in
the painting “Dead Calm” (1932) (Fig. 12) and
Charon, etc. In the Greenland series there is also
self-reflection of the artist – for example, in the
painting “Artist in Greenland” we can observe
an artist painting icy massif (or glacier) in the
open air, the sacred action of which is guarded
by a pack of dogs; if we take into account the
fact that R. Kent portrays himself, we may come
up with an idea of going beyond your limits, the
Northern peace and creativity allow the spirit to
Fig. 12. R. Kent. Dead Calm - North Greenland, 1932
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Fig. 13. R. Kent. November in Greenland. 1935 – 1937
soar above everything and look at everything
from the universe.
One of the representatives of the Greenland
series is “November in Greenland” (1932-1933)
(Fig. 13). A tiered structure of the work consists
of: 1) mountains and sky that are similar to each
other in colour (just as the sky combines slightly
yellowish whiteness and a blue-black-gray
surface, the same colours are used for the image
of mountain peaks) – they represent untouchable
nature, nature as such; 2) water surface with
floating glaciers, the shapes of which resemble the
outline of the mountain peaks – the intermediary
space between the earthly world inhabited by
people and nature in its purity, as here partly
descended mountains and a man capable to come
into this space meet (we can see a boat mooring
on the shore); >>>
3) the earthly world is the world of human
existence, on which nature also spread its mighty
powers, as people’s dwellings are like the outlines
of the floating glaciers. Thus, the model of the
universe is revealed here – powerful primordial
nature penetrates into the human world (movement
from the distant view to the foreground is set by
the gradual reduction of forms in sizes towards
the bottom edge of the painting, as well as by the
fact that people’s huts nearer to the viewer do not
fit completely within the image, they are creeping
up on “us”), “arranges” the world of humans by
its own image and likeness (at first the outlines
of the mountains are repeated in the glaciers, and
then in the lines of dwellings).
Thus, in the Greenland series the concept of
“North” is filled with such content as: Northern
nature subjugates the human world, builds the
human world according to its laws and regulations;
Northern nature allows a person to go beyond
his own limits and look at the world from the
universe; the North is primarily phenomenology
of relations between a man and nature in its
purest form, where nature in the North goes
through phenomenological cleanup and appears
in its original essence – a phenomenon that, in
fact, is indifferent to human life, it exists by its
own harsh laws.
Visualization of the concept of “North” in
the graphic works by Rockwell Kent
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As already mentioned, the artist created
graphic drawings in every expedition, they
illustrated his books about travels. In the context
of this study we will focus on several graphic
works created in Greenland, because there R. Kent
lived in a small village (about 200 people) among
the Eskimos and his graphic works created there
visualize not so much an idea of romantic needs
of a person in a conversation with the Universe
without any intermediaries (which is typical
of his previous drawings), but a synthesis of
philosophical knowledge about people living in
the North and ethnographic details.
Based on the ethnographic details in the
graphic drawings we can observe ethnic clothing
of the Eskimos, ethnic specific types of faces
(narrowed eyes, swarthy faces indicating the
constant interaction with bright sunlight reflected
in snow), traditional activities – rowing, hunting,
sledding, etc. Importantly, R. Kent depicts the
Eskimos mostly in moments of relaxation when
“nothing happens” and they are immersed into
a contemplative calm state observing the world
around them (e.g., an engraving “A Young
Greenland Girl”) (Fig. 14), which emphasizes
the artist’s desire to show the viewer not details
of everyday life of the indigenous people, but a
perfect man disconnected from the scurry of life
and able to listen to the world.
Xylography of “A Greenland swimmer”
(1932) (Fig. 15) allows you to clearly see that
R. Kent violates the anatomical correctness
of the human body image in order to highlight
specific differences in a character’s lifestyle –
in this case the character has disproportionately
large hands, revealing him primarily as a person
who specializes in rowing, whose physiology
“adjusted” to this type of activity. Similar
Fig. 14. R. Kent. Young Greenland Woman, 1933
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Fig. 15. R. Kent. Greenland Swimmer, 1932
Fig. 16. R. Kent. Greenland Courtship, 1934
shape – a large torso, broad shoulders compared
to a narrower figure below the belt (for example,
it can also be observed in the work “Greenland
flirting”, 1934) (Fig. 16) – have all the Eskimos in
the graphic drawings of R. Kent, which points to
their strength as rowers and hunters.
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Fig. 17. R. Kent. Greenland Mother Nursing Child, 1934
Just as Paul Gauguin having explored
the culture of Tahiti presented the image
of a Tahitian woman as Mother, Madonna,
Rockwell Kent in his graphic drawings often
portrays Greenland mothers with babies:
in his drawings the Northern “Madonnas”
are presented as vessels full of lifeblood to
provide protection for their children from the
outside world – for example, in the drawing
“Greenland mother feeding a baby” (1934)
(Fig. 17) a woman is with exaggeratedly
large breasts, with her leg bent obstructing a
sleeping baby from the outer space where her
meditative look is directed to.
Thus, in the graphic drawings by Rockwell
Kent a certain presentation of a person is
modelled – an inhabitant of the North whose
physiology is influenced by Northern nature
and physical activity needed in the Northern
conditions; it is a man attentive to the states of
nature unencumbered with rules and regulations
of “big” civilization lifestyle.
In the context of talking about the graphic
drawings by R. Kent it should also be noted that
his book illustrations and custom works are not
directly related to the topic of the North, but
in all these works there are general concepts
of the artist. For example, in the most famous
illustrations to “Moby Dick” there is a romantic
thirst for pursuit of a dream, for simulation of
life as the eternal search for the desired, which
is typical of R. Kent. Of a particular interest, in
this case, may be a graphic series consisting of
four drawings ordered to R. Kent in 1937 by the
scientific community looking into apocalyptic
perspectives of the human civilization. He
presented four options for doomsday, namely:
“The Clash with the Moon”, “Cooling of the
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Fig. 18. R. Kent. Solar Fade-Out, 1937
Sun” (Fig. 18), “The Sun Blast” and “Degravity”. We can say that doing visual analysis
of the North he, as in this series, cognizes the
limits of the universe, those states where life
is reduced to the basic, therefore, vital matters,
feelings, experiences.
Conclusions
The study found that since the 1920s the
interest of professionals and ordinary viewers to
the artwork of Rockwell Kent is seen in “waves”,
it is periodical. The current interest in the works
of the artist that is present primarily in modern
media, the Internet and television, is due to
the fact that the world is in a constant state of
modelling options of its own outcome, the end
or at least the complete disappearance of all the
achievements of the civilization, which will make
a person revert to the original laws of existence,
and in the works of R. Kent depicting the ascetic
simplicity and complexity of life in the North, at
the “edge of the world” such a “cleanup” of the
world has already been made and revealed to the
viewers.
The study of paintings and graphic works by
Rockwell Kent allowed us to reveal the following
content of the concept of “North”:
– North is a space for the chosen people
capable of perceiving nature in its pristine
purity;
– North implies pagan religious experience
of the world, where nature and every
natural phenomenon is a separate creature
with its own character and way of
life;
– North puts a person in a strict hierarchical
system, where he occupies one of the
lowest levels;
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– North is a space in which life of organic
beings goes in a particularly harsh
environment, and therefore requires
endurance and determination;
– Northern life is reduced to the basic
physical survival, requires tremendous
efforts to rise above worldly problems
of existence and go to the higher level of
spiritual life;
– Northern nature subordinates the human
world itself, builds the human world
according to its laws and regulations;
– North is a space, in which a person is
able to go beyond his own limitations and
see the world from the perspective of an
indifferent universe, estranged from the
earthly problems;
– North changes a person’s physiology
in accordance with the vital factors
(protection from the damaging effects of
the environment, a human body is subject
to a certain kind of activity, etc.);
– North requires from a human attention
and observation, as well as allows him to
retain the purity of perception of the world
unencumbered with rules and regulations
of a “big civilization”.
In such verbal terms we disclosed the
content of the concept of “North” in the works of
art created by Rockwell Kent.
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Концепт «север»
в творчестве Рокуэлла Кента
А.А. Ситникова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья предлагает исследование живописных и графических произведений художника
Рокуэлла Кента на предмет визуализации в этих работах концепта «север». Предваряет
исследования подробный обзор «волн» профессионального и зрительского интереса к
творчеству Р. Кента: в 1920-е годы художник занимает ведущее положение в американском
искусстве, в 1960-е годы становится популярен в СССР, в 1980-е годы к художнику
возвращается внимание американских зрителей, в современности интерес к творчеству
Р. Кента поддерживается в Интернете. В соответствии с задачами исследованиями дана
общая характеристика циклам работ, созданных художником во время путешествия
на Аляску (1918-1919), во время путешествия на Огненную Землю (1922-1923) и во время
путешествия в Гренландию (1929, 1932-1933, 1935); проанализированы репрезентативные
произведения из этих циклов – «Солнечные блики. Аляска» (1919), «Огненная земля» (19221925), «Ноябрь в Гренландии» (1932-1933). Исследован образ эскимоса – коренного жителя
Гренландии, формирующийся в графических изображениях, созданных Р. Кентом. Помимо
этого в статье раскрываются художественные традиции и приемы, характерные для
творчества художника в целом.
Ключевые слова: художник Рокуэлл Кент, живопись Рокуэлла Кента, графика Рокуэлла Кента,
визуальные концепты, концепт «север», север в изобразительном искусстве, Аляска, Огненная
Земля, Гренландия, эскимосы, исследования творчества Рокуэлла Кента.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1381-1392
~~~
УДК 81’42=111
Construction of Political “Others”
Through Multimodal Texts (Cartoons)
in British Press
Liudmila V. Kulikova* and Iuliia I. Detinko
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 20.05.2014, received in revised form 21.06.2014, accepted 14.07.2014
Cartoons as types of multimodal texts are actively exploited in a media determined political discourse
for construction of “others” which is especially characteristic of the British press. In politics “others”
can be viewed in two perspectives: intra-cultural and inter-cultural. Intra-cultural perspective presents
the relationships between political parties within one culture, e.g. Conservative Party, Labour Party
and Liberal Democrat Party within British culture. In the inter-cultural perspective, the attitudes of
the particular culture’s politicians towards their counterparts or political groups outside this culture
are shown, e.g. Britain’s relationships with Russia, the United States of America, France, etc. The
general principles of multimodal analysis being the basic methods for the cartoons interpretation, the
idea is that in each of the two perspectives the mechanism of representing the “others” is different.
The specific features reveal themselves through the level of interdiscursiveness, emotionality,
generalization, detail, use of metaphors, the strategy in frames of which this or that multimodal text
contributes to the construction of the image of the “others”.
Keywords: political discourse, construction, political “others”, intra-cultural and inter-cultural
perspectives, multimodal text, multimodal analysis, cartoon in the British press.
Introduction
and Theoretical Framework
T. van Leeuwen and G. Kress wrote that the
contemporary interest in multimodality derives
from the fact that communication itself has
become increasingly multimodal over the past
ninety years or so. Discourse can no longer be
adequately studied without paying attention to
non-verbal aspects of communication, whether in
conversation, in therapeutic sessions, or in political
discourse (Leeuwen, Kress 2011). Different
aspects of multimodality and its analysis have
*
been studied by T. van Leeuwen (2005, 2008),
G. Kress (2009, 2010), R. Hodge (Hodge, Kress
1995), D. Machin (Machin, Leeuwen 2007),
K.L. O’Halloran (2004) and others.
Communicative-pragmatic approach to
understanding the text means that the perception
of reality can only be done through the
combination of verbal and non-verbal parameters.
To define the texts which represent different
semiotic components the term “multimodal
text” is used and the analysis of cartoons and
other non-verbal aspects of communication is
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kulikova_l@list.ru
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known as “multimodal analysis”. A multimodal
text is a complex textual construction in which
verbal and visual elements form the integral
structural, semantic and functional unity aimed
at complex pragmatic influence on the recipient
(Anisimova 2003: 17). K.L. O’Halloran and
B.A. Smith point out that multimodal analysis
includes the analysis of communication in all its
forms, but it is particularly concerned with texts
which contain the interaction and integration of
two or more semiotic resources – or “modes”
of communication – in order to achieve the
communicative functions of the text (O’Halloran,
Smith 2010). Mode is understood as a socially
shaped and culturally given resource for making
meanings (Kress 2009: 54). To denote the nonverbal part of the text the researchers use different
terms: “iconic component”, “non-verbal element”,
“paralinguistic means”, “visuals”, “semiotic
resource”, “semiotic mode of expression”– the
two last-named being the most productive (Airey,
Berge 2014; O’Halloran, Smith 2010; Jewitt 2009;
van Leeuwen 2005; Plotnikova 2013; etc.).
Semiotic resources include aspects of speech
such as intonation and other vocal characteristics,
the semiotic action of other bodily resources such
as gestures (face, hand and body) and proxemics,
as well as products of human technology such as
carving, painting, writing, architecture, image
and sound recording, and in more contemporary
times, interactive computing resources (digital
media hardwares and softwares) (O’Halloran,
Smith 2010). Political cartoons are bright
examples of multimodal texts in which semiotic
resource is presented by illustrations designed to
convey a social or political message. The cartoons
are characterized by the use of visual metaphors
and caricatures to portray political situations
and politicians and by the use of humorous or
emotional pictures for current events.
The article will first explain the concept of
political otherness in intra- and inter-cultural
perspectives, then will tell about the ways of
constructing the attitude towards the “others”
in British political communication through
multimodal texts and will show some strategies
of constructing “others” in political cartoons
illustrating the representation of “others” in the
intra-cultural and inter-cultural perspectives.
Intra-cultural
and inter-cultural perspectives
of political “others”
According to P. Chilton and C. Schäffner’s
definition, political discourse is the result of
politics, which, on the one hand, is viewed as a
struggle for power, between those who seek to
assert and maintain their power and those who seek
to resist it; on the other hand, politics is viewed as
cooperation, as the practices and institutions that
a society has for resolving clashes of interest over
money, influence, liberty, and the like (Chilton,
Schäffner 2002: 4-5). It should be mentioned that
the representation of the Self and the Other has
often become the main subject matter of political
discourse, because, by its nature, this opposition
encompasses positive and negative meanings and
is able to be filled with any contents, reflecting
the interests of different social groups [Grigor’eva
2010: 328]. Various factors and strategies can
contribute to constructions of Self and Other for
different political aims (KhorsaviNik 2010).
Political otherness, that is the representation/
construction of “others” can be viewed in two
perspectives: intra-cultural and inter-cultural.
These terms are correlated with such oppositions
as “self” and “others”, “in-group” and “outgroup” with the corresponding attributes for
identification of special attitude towards “us”
which differs from the attitude towards the
outsiders. “The understanding of the “other”
comes when something familiar ceases and
something strange and unusual starts” (Kulikova
2004a: 185). The relationships within “we-
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Fig. 1. Opposition “self” (intra-cultural/in-group) and “others” (inter-cultural/out-group)
group” are characterized by solidarity, unity
whereas the relationships with “others-groups”
are characterized by hostility. This attitude is
explained by the fact that everything alien is
perceived and evaluated basing on the “in-group”
stereotypes.
If we follow the traditional understanding of
the opposition “self” – “others” it can be presented
in the following way (Fig. 1):
Looking at the two perspectives: intracultural and inter-cultural; we should take into
consideration that
1) the relationships with the “others” are
traditionally connected with intercultural
communication;
2) according to the modern understanding
intercultural communication can be
viewed in both narrow and wide sense.
Intercultural communication in the wide
sense is the communication between the
representatives of different lingvo-cultures; in
the narrow sense intercultural communication
additionally looks at the peculiarities of
communication within one country, even
within different institutions and organizations.
This “intercultural” moment can appear due to
difference in age, professions, background of the
communicants, different behavior and choice
of words, for example, use of slang, language
literacy and so on (Kulikova 2004b: 29-30). In
other words, within one culture there can be
some relationships of otherness, because the
“self” culture is not homogeneous and there is
also an element of the “other” in it.
So, it is believed that the fact of belonging
to the same or different cultures determines the
kind of attitude towards the “others”. Thus we
can differentiate the relationships with the so
called “close other” (when the “other” is within
the same culture as the agent) and “distant other”
(when the “other” is outside the culture which the
agent belongs to). It can be demonstrated in the
following way (Fig. 2):
Correspondently, when we analyse the
construction of political otherness in the intracultural perspective we study the interaction
between political parties and political agents,
journalists belonging to the same national-lingvocognitive community, which can be viewed as one
country. In frames of inter-cultural perspective
we study the attitude towards the political
agents – representatives of other nationallingvo-cognitive communities (so to say, other
countries).
The
term
“national-linvo-cognitive”
community is defined as social, economic,
cultural, political and mental community of the
people sharing the same language and cognitive
base.
In the intra-cultural communication “others”
are the representatives of different political parties
(Conservative, Labour, Liberal-Democrats)
presented in the British Parliament. The majority
of the empirical data were taken from the British
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Fig. 2. Representation of “others” in intra-cultural (in-group) and inter-cultural (out-group) perspectives
newspapers and magazines. The criterion of the
selection was the address of the discourse directed
on the intra-cultural representatives.
From the position of inter-cultural
perspective “others” in relation to the British
culture are all the non-British political parties
and communities, for example, we studied
Britain’s relationships with China, France, Iran,
Iraq, the Russian Federation, the United States of
America and so on. The main source of empirical
material were the publications in the British press
devoted to the issues of foreign policy.
The ways of constructing political
“others” through the cartoons
As it was mentioned above it is important to
realize that while interpreting the multimodal texts
all the information perceived through different
semiotic modes is integrated and processed by
the recipient as a unified whole (Leeuwen, Kress,
2011). Looking at correlation between verbal
and visual components of the multimodal text it
can be said that images provide interpretations,
ideologically coloured angles, and they do so
not explicitly, but by suggestion, by connotation,
by appealing to barely conscious, half-forgotten
knowledge (Berger 1972).
In T. van Leeuwen’s book “Discourse and
practice: New tools for critical discourse analysis”
(2008) the author writes about the mechanisms
of representation and interpretation of “others”,
which was the result of the author’s joined work
with G. Kress. In the basis of the approach there
are two questions: “How are the depicted people
related to the viewer?” and “How are people
depicted?” Answering the first question the
researchers suggest considering the image in
three dimensions:
− the social distance between depicted
people and the viewer;
− the social relation between depicted
people and the viewer;
− the social interaction between depicted
people and the viewer.
In pictures, as in real life, distance
communicates interpersonal relationships. We
“keep our distance” from strangers; we are “close
to” our nearest and dearest and so on. In pictures
distance becomes symbolic. People shown in a
“long shot” from the far away, are shown as if
they are strangers; people shown in a “close-up”
are shown as if they are “one of us”.
The second parameter is the angle from
which we see the person, and this includes the
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vertical angle, that is, whether we see a person
from above, at eye level, or from below; and
the horizontal angle, that is whether we see a
person frontally or from the side, or perhaps from
somewhere in between. These angles express
two aspects of the represented social relation
between the viewer and the people in the picture:
power and involvement. Vertical angle is related
to power differences. To look down on someone
is to exert imaginary symbolic power over that
person, to occupy, with regard to that person, the
kind of “high” position. To look up at someone
signifies that someone has symbolic power over
the viewer, whether as an authority, a role model,
or something else. To look at someone from
eye level signals equality. The horizontal angle
realizes symbolic involvement or detachment.
Its real-life equivalent is the difference between
coming “face to face” with people, literally and
figuratively “confronting” them, and occupying a
“sideline” position.
In the social interaction we check whether
or not depicted people look at the viewer. If they
do not look at us, they are offered to our gaze as
a spectacle to our dispassionate scrutiny. The
picture makes us look at them as we would look
at people who are not aware we are looking at
them. If they do look at us, if they do address us
directly with their look, the picture articulates
a kind of symbolic demand. The people in the
picture want something from us – and what that
something is, is then signified by other elements
of the picture: by facial expressions, by gestures,
and also by angles.
So, there three dimensions – distance, angle,
and the gaze – which must always be there. The
gradations and multiple combinations these
dimensions allow can realize many different
ways of depicting people as “others” (Leeuwen
2008: 137-147).
Answering the second question “How are
people depicted?” Theo van Leeuwen offers five
ways of visual representation of people. Special
interest for us is how the people meant as “others”
are depicted:
1) deliberate exclusion of people from all
the contexts where in reality they are present;
2) depicting people as the “agents” (the
doers of the actions) or the “patients” (the people
to whom the action is done) in the situations which
are considered negative, oppressive, criminal,
humiliating and so on;
3) depicting people as homogenous groups
thereby denying their individual characteristics
and differences;
4) negative cultural connotations connected
with the image of the depicted person (hairstyle,
clothes, etc.);
5) negative racial stereotypes associated
with the depicted people (ibid.).
The example of the analysis
It should be mentioned that the cartoons are
usually the reaction on the social and political
events happened recently. They express criticism
towards some actions which is represented
through the images.
As an example we will take the cartoon by
S. Bell published in the British newspaper The
Guardian on the 11th of October 2012. (Fig. 3)
This cartoon is the reaction on the part
of the speech by the British Prime-Minister
David Cameron made in the Conservative Party
Conference on the 10th of October 2012. In his
speech D. Cameron talks about the system of
education in Great Britain:
And to all those people who say: he wants
children to have the kind of education he had at
his posh school...
...I say: yes – you’re absolutely right.
I went to a great school and I want every child to
have a great education.
I’m not here to defend privilege, I’m here to
spread it.
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Fig. 3. Steve Bell on David Cameron’s privilege pledge – cartoon. The Guardian. 11.10.12.
Having said that the Prime-Minister himself
went to a great school, Mr. Cameron underlines
that he would like the same education to every
child finishing his idea with the words “I’m not
here to defend privilege, I’m here to spread it”.
This phrase evoked wide response because of
the combination of the word “spread” having
the meaning “to become or cause sb/sth to be
distributed over a large area” (OALD); and the
word “privilege” meaning “a special right or
advantage available only to a particular person
or group of people” (ibid.). It is hardly possible
to “spread the privilege” (in other words, right
for something) and besides, in this context D.
Cameron is seen as a benefactor spreading (or
giving) the privilege.
In Steve Bell’s picture we can see a smiling
Prime-Minister standing on the doorstep of
the house and giving blue ribbons, the symbol
of “privilege” to a grey indefinite crowd of
people who humbly stand in the rain and wait
for some “benefaction”. Only the figure of the
Prime-Minister and “the privilege” (ribbon)
are coloured, whereas the people and the street
itself are grey and gloomy. The people’s faces
are almost indistinguishable which is a marker
of representation of “others”. However, in this
cartoon, considering the opposition and proportion
of bright and grey it can be concluded that the
Prime-Minister is represented as the “other”
towards the people. Moreover, the character
depicting Mr. Cameron is standing much higher
in comparison to the people waiting in the street
some of whom are standing with their necks
adroop and with the stoop. That is the way how
otherness is manifested through people’s (social)
position: the Prime-Minister looks down on the
crowd.
Also, the given example shows the
interdiscursive links with the original work on
the basis of which the cartoon was made. On the
verbal level it is proved with the phrase in the
left bottom corner “Apologies to Gustave Doré”,
which sends us to the work of the French artist of
the 19th century G. Dore Refuge – Applying for
Admittance. (Fig. 4)
The picture is connected with the acts of
1834 and 1849 aimed at deterring vagrancy in
Great Britain. The Master had to decide which
vagrants to admit being instructed to only admit
tramps who were unable to proceed with their
journey in cases of illness or extreme destitution
and that all able-bodied vagrants were to be
handed over to the police if asking for alms. So,
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Fig. 4. Doré, G. Refuge – Applying for Admittance. Available at: http://dl.tufts.ed/catalog/tufts:MS004.002.045.
DO01.00176 (accessed 21 July 2014)
in Dore’s picture people really got a privilege.
Interdiscursive links between Bell’s cartoon and
Dore’s picture help us to more exactly understand
the context of the situation in which the modern
version was created and thereby concentrate the
recipients’ attention on the paradox of the phrase
said by the Prime-Minister and the sense this
phrase has when perceived and interpreted by the
recipients.
The strategies
of multimodal representation
of “others” in British political cartoons
The construction of political “others”
through multimodal texts, namely cartoons in the
British press, is presented in three steps:
1) analysis of contents, that is interpretation
of the interconnection between the text
and social practice in which this text was
created;
2) identification of strategies of representing
“others”;
3) description of semiotic resources which
are are aimed at manifesting “others”.
By the strategy we understand the complex
of intentionally determined semiotic means
aimed at constructing the “others” in political
communication and determined by national,
linguistic and cognitive peculiarities of the
communicants.
One of the most productive strategies is the
identification, or positioning of “others”. In the
intra-cultural perspective it is usually connected
with some negative positioning of a politician,
whereas in the inter-cultural communication it
can have more neutral evaluative character. For
example (Fig. 5).
In this picture the Prime-Minister is
metaphorically presented in the image of a crying
seagull. It should be mentioned that metaphorical
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Fig. 5. Andreou, A. Why David Cameron is the ultimate “seagull” manager. New Statesman. 25.07.12.
images in the intra-cultural perspective are more
culturally determined, that is reflect national
political situation. In most cases negative
professional qualities are manifested.
Negative image of a seagull is based on
the metaphor “seagull manager”. It described
someone, usually a consultant, who flew in, made
a lot of noise, dumped on everyone from a great
height, then flew out again, leaving others to deal
with the consequences.
Visualization of politicians in the intercultural perspective is usually focused on the
political line of the “others”, not some personal
professional qualities. The situations are taken
in general not in the context of some specific
actions or words. Metaphors are usually widely
known and are more generalized, politicians are
recognizable, there can be some stereotypes.
(Fig. 6)
The cartoon presents the reaction on the
result of the elections in the United States of
America. The characters are recognizable, the
situation is clear.
In terms of interdiscursivity, we believe
that it is more a specific feature of intra-cultural
communication, here are more hints, references.
For example, in the presupposition of difference
between “now” and “then” which is an intra-
cultural strategy, the idea is to strengthen the
positive past and the negative present. (Fig. 7)
The cartoon consists of two parts presenting
two political leaders in the process of preparation
of the speech what is obvious from the words above
the picture – “Great British Speechwriters”).
The left part of the picture is black-and-white,
the right one is coloured. In the black-and-white
part is Winston Churchill who in this context
implicates the “positive past”. The character
is concentrated on self-writing the speech, the
attributes only include a pen, some paper and a
lamp. We think that the author’s intention is to
show a serious political approach of the past. In
the coloured part is a modern Prime-Minister
(the additional means of identification is the
sign of the cup “P.M. – Prime-Minister”). The
second part presents “negative present” which is
realized through the context: the Prime-Minister
is dictating the speech to the secretary, they
smile, the politician’s pose and the presence of the
additional attributes like tea and buns say about
the ease of the situation, perhaps, not very serious
attitude towards the preparation of the speech. If
we look at the second part of the cartoon and the
sign “Great British Speechwriters”, we will feel
the author’s intention to highlight the difference
between a serious concentrated approach of the
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Fig. 6. Davey, A. The Sun. 06.11.12.
Fig. 7. Bright S. Great British speechwriters. The Sun. 28.01.13.
past (then) and not serious, surface approach of
the present (now).
In the inter-cultural perspective the
images are more generalized, express the idea
more evidently, for example, the strategy of
paternalistic attitude towards the “others” which
is specific of only inter-cultural perspective. The
term “paternalism” is directly connected with
the otherness because it represents the relations
of “others” and a more influential person who
considers it to be his duty to demonstrate care and
protection towards the “other”.
In visual realization of the strategy of
paternalistic attitude towards the “others” it is
important that the sender and the receiver of the
help and protection were explicitly or implicitly
present in the picture. The intention of patronage
is manifested through understandable non-verbal
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representative of Libya is proved by the title in
the paper “Libyan oil contracts” and the Libyan
flag. Trying to interpret the author’s intention we,
judging from the context and verbal component
(The hand over), drew the conclusion that the
image has a negative, or criticizing, meaning.
Conclusions
Fig. 8. Kuhn, L. The hand over. Morning Star.
30.09.12.
signs of help: the position of the hand over the
object with the intention to constructively
influence this object and so on (Fig. 8):
We think that the cartoon actualizes the
negative aspect of the strategy of paternalistic
attitude towards the “others”. It is obvious that
the hand in the cuff with the image of the British
flag represents Great Britain. This person “helps”
the Libyan (the fact that the second person is the
Having analysed the representation of
“others” in British political cartoons it was
concluded that in the inter-cultural perspective
the authors of multimodal texts use generalized
visual images characterizing the situation in
general. In the cartoons there is an extensive use
of well-known metaphors (for example, Russia is
a bear), symbols (flags), well known politicians.
In the intra-cultural perspective the accent is
put on the detail, the image is “bound” to some
phrase of concrete action of a politician. The
cartoon is more emotional which is actualized
through facial expressions and posture of the
characters. There are more interdiscursive means
in comparison to inter-cultural perspective. In
general it was noticed that in the inter-cultural
perspective the author’s intention is more evident
than in the cartoons representing “others” in the
intra-cultural perspective.
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8. KhosraviNik, M. The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British
newspapers: A critical discourse analysis (2010) Journal of Language and Politics, 9:1, pp. 1 – 28. doi:
10.1075/jlp.9.1.01kho
9. Kress, G. (2009) What is mode? The Routledge handbook of multimodal analysis (ed. by
C. Jewitt). Oxon, Routledge, pp. 54-67.
10. Kress, G. (2010) Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication.
London, Routledge, 212 p.
11. Kulikova, L.V. (2004a) Kontsept “chuzhoi” v teorii mezhkul’turnoi kommunikatsii (russkonemetskii kontekst) [Concept “the other” in the theory of intercultural communication (RussianGerman context)]. Vestnik MGU. Seriia 19. Lingvistika i mezhkul’turnaia kommunikatsiia, (1),
179-187.
12. Kulikova, L.V. Mezhkul’turnaia kommunikatsiia: teoreticheskie i prikladnye aspekty. Na
materiale russkoy i nemetskoi lingvokultur [Intercultural communication: theoretical and applied
aspects. On the material of the Russian and German lingvo-cultures]. Krasnoyarsk, RIO KGPU,
2004b, 196 p.
13. Leeuwen, T. van (2005) Introducing social semiotics. Oxon, Routledge, 301 p.
14. Leeuwen, T. van (2008) Discourse and practice: New tools for critical discourse analysis.
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 172 p.
15. Leeuwen, T. van, Kress, G. (2011) Discourse semiotics. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary
introduction (ed. by T.A. van Dijk), 2nd edition. London, Sage Publications Ltd, pp. 107-125.
16. Machin, D., Leeuwen, T. van (2007) Global media discourse: A critical introduction. Oxton,
Routledge, 188 p.
17. O’Halloran, K.L. (2004) Visual semiosis in film. Multimodal discourse analysis: Systemicfunctional perspectives (ed. by K.L. O’Halloran). London, New York, Continuum, pp. 109-130.
18. O’Halloran, K.L., Smith, B.A. (2010) Multimodal text analysis. Available at: http://multimodalanalysis-lab.org/_docs/encyclopedia/01Multimodal_Text_Analysis-O’Halloran_and_Smith.pdf
(accessed 7 April 2014).
19. OALD – Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (ed. by J. Crowther,
K. Kavanagh, M. Ashby), 4th edition. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997, 1430 p.
20. Plotnikova, S.N. Cognitive scenarios of discourses of Deception (2013) Journal of Siberian
Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 (6), 589-602.
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Liudmila V. Kulikova and Iuliia I. Detinko. Construction of Political “Others” Through Multimodal Texts (Cartoons)…
Конструирование политических «чужих»
через мультимодальные тексты (иллюстрации)
в британской прессе
Л.В. Куликова, Ю.И. Детинко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Иллюстрация как тип мультимодального текста активно задействована в масс-медиально
опосредованном политическом дискурсе для конструирования «чужих», что особенно
характерно для британской прессы. В политике «чужие» могут рассматриваться в двух
перспективах: интра-культурной и интер-культурной. Интра-культурная перспектива
отражает отношения политиков в рамках одной культуры, в частности, взаимодействие
представителей консервативной, лейбористской и либерально-демократической партий
Великобритании. В интер-культурной перспективе анализируется отношение политиков одной
культуры (Великобритании) к политическим деятелям и партиям других культур, например,
рассматриваются отношения Великобритании с Россией, Соединенными Штатами Америки,
Францией и т.д. Принимая за основу общие принципы мультимодального анализа в качестве
базового метода интерпретации иллюстраций, мы полагаем, что в каждой из двух перспектив
механизм репрезентации «чужих» различается. Специфические черты манифестируются
через разные уровни интердискурсивности, эмоциональности, обобщенности, детализации,
метафоризации изображений; а также через ряд стратегий, в рамках которых тот или иной
мультимодальный текст участвует в конструировании образа «чужого».
Ключевые слова: политический дискурс, конструирование, политические «чужие», интракультурная и интер-культурная перспективы, мультимодальный текст, мультимодальный
анализ, иллюстрация в британской прессе.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1393-1401
~~~
УДК 008: 130.2
Imperial Society: Subjects and Character
of Interethnic Interaction Paradigm
Yuri M. Aksutin*
State University of Khakassia named after N. F. Katanov
90 Lenin Str., Abakan, 655017, Khakassia
Received 12.05.2014, received in revised form 21.06.2014, accepted 24.07.2014
This article is devoted to characteristics of “complementarity” interethnic cooperation, Russian
imperial society structure and interethnic cooperation during empire’s creation. Review of researchers’
approaches to structure and interaction of imperial and non-imperial cultures within the bounds of
Russian imperial society is represented in the article. This article is addressed to specialists and those
who is interested in imperial culture and history.
Keywords: empire, Imperial culture, complementarity, multiculturalism, interethnic cooperation.
Point
Modern Russian society is under action of
two differently directed trends: on one hand,
recently Soviet community, called “socialist
super-empire”, disintegrated into local political
and sociocultural communities, that form their
own national statehood. On the other hand, world
integration processes in which modern Russia
rushes to participate, become more and more
visible. In other words, trend of organization and
development during multicultural conglomeration
which seemed to be utopian or fatal, meets world
intentions now, i. e. it is not deadlock itself. It
forces to estimate our own imperial society in the
other way.
From the beginning of 1990th the amount
of researches devoted to imperial issue (which
was taboo in Soviet period) sharply increased
in Russia. Political, economic, social and
legal imperial institutions were analysed to
*
discover reasons of “attraction” and historical
longevity of supranational imperial formations
or to fi nd ways of decision modern poly-ethnic
conglomerates’ problems. But this problem
is still strictly urgent due to some reasons.
First, social transformations caused not only
revision of existing social and economic basics,
but also reorganization of people’s conscious.
Most former Soviet Union population came
to psychological discomfort because Soviet
internationalist ideology discredited itself,
while not everybody had an ideological basis
to increase ethnical self-consciousness. Thus,
while most nations tried to gain new identity over
its own self-consciousness revival, the Russians
who lost former “elder brother” higher status
and levelled their own identity without creating
national consciousness traditions faced certain
problems in discovering new identity basis. This
(among other things) mostly caused nostalgia for
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: aksutum@mail.ru
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the Soviet past and spreading of ideas to re-edit
supranational conglomeration.
Secondly, methodological discusses about
empire as political (way of society’s state
organization) and social-cultural (specific culture
type) phenomena are still last that makes different
authors come to opposite conclusions on the
ground of the same data. In our opinion, there’s
an opportunity to dissociate from economical and
political determinism that can not explain reasons
of imperial vitality and very often social attraction.
An approach to empire as isolated field of culture
is the most perspective in this regard. Third, due to
extensiveness of problem many theme issues are
out of researchers’ attention. For example, as it is
seen, appeal to different references during Russian
culture imperial dynamic is highly practiced. As
for social-cultural processes’ dynamic of nonSlavic imperial component, articles on this topic
are not numerous. But it’s evidently that culture
is a phenomenon that tends to become fully
syncretic (Stepin, 2003). It involves the society
as a whole, and the empire’s builders are just
take the lead. They are “impregnation” source.
And the explanation of empire social-cultural
steadiness would not be complete without nations
and other social groups’ complementarity, their
ability to change their approach to empire and
even rearrange the empire.
In this context studying of mechanisms
of creating, perception peculiarities and
development dynamics of interethnic and
intercultural relations in heterogeneous area such
as the Russian Empire. These problem questions
are the topics of our analysis.
Conception of “complementarity”, in our
opinion, plays a great role in understanding of
ethnopsychological processes inside the empire.
To wide extend it means mutual correspondence
of ethnic and cultural systems, that secures their
cooperation. L. N. Gumilev, while researching
national relations, meant complementarity as
“subconscious mutual individual sympathy
with”, “unconscious propensity of people of
different constitution to each other” (Gumilev,
2001. P. 238). Along with Gumilev, Y. I. Semenov
mentions great role of subjective factor in national
self-conscious’ creating. In his opinion, national
self-conscious “includes ethnical belonging
as a necessary component”, “perceptional
component” that means irrational (perceptional)
complementarity nature to be the part of this very
behaviour (Semenov, 2003).
M.B. Absalyamov widens concerned
conception from the ways of ethnopsychology.
Researcher widens complementarity over the
edge of individual in the sphere of ethnical
consciousness minding it perceptional human
nature. Complementarity’s appearance results
as individual adoption of culture values. M.B.
Absalyamov notes: “Complementarity should
be meant as self-determinated internal culture
person’s peculiarity (values, value orientations,
thinking, consciousness, freedom, activity
etc.), his predisposition to tolerant dialogue.
Complementarity is also internal ability of culture
as a whole” (Absalyamov, 2008. P. 327).
It’s no doubt that “complementarity” concept
has a great explanatory potential within the bounds
of studying and describing processes of imperial
society that are irrational in their essence. But
there are questions about measuring of people’s
“ethopsychological sympathy” and criteria
of national complementarity definition. E. L.
Zberovskaya notes: “It’s evidently that answers
on this and many other questions concerning
complementarity are in the psychological,
historical, culturological, sociological fields, and
they require special research” (Zberovskaya,
2010. P. 174).
Example
Speaking about story of forming and
development of Russian empire, it is easy to see
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that among the great amount of peoples inhabited
it by the end of the XVIII century it could not
be the equal opinion on understanding of such
important moments as including in the empire’s
boarders; perception of empire’s existence itself
not to mention the problem of ethnic stereotypes’
collision within the certain contact situation
(Aksyutin, Anzhiganova, 2010. P. 59–64).
Some nations considered joining empire as
deliverance from threatened downfall from the
aggressive neighbours. Thus, the Armenians
considered Russia as a state of coreligionists and
the defense of ottomans, they took active part
not only in its elite creating, but also in empire’s
building. Other nations concerned joining
as submission to force and, accordingly, as
unfavourable temporary circumstances. Thus, the
Bashkirs and the North Caucasian nations created
amount of novels about their land’s subjugation
by infidels. The third ones who had an experience
of living in multi-national states took in necessity
of living in alien’s state as natural. Contact
with the imperial society, imperial culture and
necessity to integrate into them did not cause
misunderstanding and “cross-cultural shock”,
though did not enchant. Their own experience
of imperial creation or living within the bounds
of Mongolian, Chinese or other empires was still
fresh in the memory.
Mentioned
statement
predetermined
researchers’ unity in separation of Russian
Empire specific features such as heterogeneity
and variety with its own features of asynchronism
in development of social groups – imperial
inhabitants. Different imperial nations had
their own visions, needs and interests, that
does not exclude an opportunity to define
phased regularity or common external likeness
features. For example, Y. I. Semenov using
identity of mental determinates defining unite
communicative language creating sees three
types of ethnocultural groups in the Russian
empire: 1. Nations of archaeomental language
(like primitive tribes inhabiting Eastern Siberia
and Far East). 2. Communities of paleomental
language (which is typical for Volga region,
Ural, Southern Siberia, Kazakhstan). 3. Native
speakers of neomental language (North-west of
empire: Poland, Ukraine, Baltic states) (Semenov,
1998. P. 29).
Asynchronicity that occurred, divergence of
interests and opinion of nations inhabited empire
certainly narrowed or excluded assimilated
nations’ participation in creating unite imperial
social-cultural space. Imperial society was highly
heterogeneous, and the main imperial principles
(such as strong state, unity and supremacy of
law, universal devotion, branched hierarchy and
imperial culture values) were hardly to express, for
example, in “archaeomental languages”. Native
speakers of paleomental languages (such as Russian
peasants before Peter’s The First reforms) needed
these categories to be interpreted and adapted,
invested with well-known forms (religious often).
But native speakers of neomental languages, i.e.
western imperial inhabitants adopted aims and
values of the imperial construction rather organic
(Semenov, 1998. P. 30). In other words, socialcultural complementarity in the Russian empire
was possible in full only for nations standing
on equal level of political, social, cultural and
psychomental development grade. In fact it means
absence or narrowness of imperial society which
consisted only of western district nations.
Some other researchers try to solve the
problem of coordination of nations from different
grades of political and social development, their
mutual adaptation to each other by defining
cooperation grades between strangers and
inhabitants. Also researchers singling out two
levels of cooperation in whole (elite (it is also
called modern, ideological, official) and local –
traditional) come to different conclusions
about social and cultural complementarity
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functioning within these stratums. For example,
E. A. Erohina mentions initially unequal in rights
cooperation character between traditional native
culture and bearers of modernization processes
such as officials, merchants and manufacturers;
cooperation between native-born traditional
culture and traditional culture of Russian oldtimer peasant population (Erohina, 1999. P.
143). In V. V. Trepavlov’s opinion, mechanism
of complementarity should be told about only in
the form of elite imperial stratums and elite of
associate nations (Trepavlov, 2007. P. 203).
When analysing Russian empire historical
expand to the east, it’s necessary to notice that
native South Siberia inhabitants (excluding
native-born North-West and East Siberian
inhabitants) being at the junction of Central
Asia cultures and civilizations had a tradition
of not only sovereignty sacred by religion (such
as tengrianizm, shamanism etc), but also an
experience of coexistence in polyethnocultural
state. In different times they fell under power
of their own and foreign leaders. But in the
beginning of Russians’ coming in Siberia
building of fortresses and jails, consolidating
the presence of strangers in new areas, and then
intensive cooperation with Slavic population
caused not only revision of geopolitical realities
but also changed social-cultural situation, caused
changes in the life of associate nations.
Contiguity with Russia as war and political
force, cultural and social space which is not alike
inevitably caused conflicts in different levels.
First, it is a conflict of “cultural and psychological
stereotypes”. It is caused, on one hand, by
contact with native speakers of other language,
anthropological type, value system, world-view
conscious (extrovert culture type) and other
needs (Aksutin, 2009). On the other hand, an
other nation is stereotypically with great part of
negative theatrics (own positive characteristics
are exalted during comparison) perceived as
“stranger”. Second, conflict of social-political
institutions, i.e. disparity of administrative
systems (vertical hierarchy of cooperation with
emperor in European tradition and the horizontal
one – in Asian political systems). Besides,
ethnopolitical conflict caused by involving of
Russian strangers into hard interethnic and
subethnic cooperation was very often happening.
Third, it’s a conflict of material interests that is
expressed, for example, in pretending to inhabited
areas, tributaries, etc. All these contradictions
often lead to mutual violence, which is defined by
A. S. Zuev as “conflict of counter actions” (Zuev,
2002. P. 179–183).
Primary contacts of different culture
bearers’ with each other became mass and
everyday. Character of these contacts (peaceful
or hostile), content (official or everyday) and
social level (elite or folksy) depended of range
of circumstances. Here conditions of region’s
entry into empire, Russian migration intensity,
contingent of migrants (Cossacks, missioners,
exiles, state convicts, peasants) and many
other factors told upon. In any way, Siberian
ethnoses should to fi nd a place for Russian ones
in habitual notion system, in habitual vision of
the world.
Researchers fairly link the beginning
of radical changes to the modernization and
europeanization of both social structure and
culture during reforms of Peter The Fist (Ogurtsov,
2003). The empire lost medieval, patriarchal
norms of cooperation between tzar, “native” and
“alien” subjects (these were typical for reign of
Ivan 3rd). This happened not only as a result of
policy, but also during upgrading of administrative
mechanism of Russians’ settlement, social and
cultural cooperation. With this processes basics
of gradual crating of new identity both with
joined nations and most of Russians (peasants
and Cossacks), which combined ethicallity with
imperial supranational identity.
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The official science nowadays doesn’t have a
unity in views on character and way of interethnic
cooperation on this stage of Siberian nations in
social and cultural imperial space.
For example, Novosibirsk researcher E. A.
Erohina notes that speaking about the Siberians
with their traditional social structure it’s necessary
to mean two different levels of interethnic
cooperation. The first one is marked by impact
of modern culture bearers on traditional Siberian
culture. This impact fully excludes possibility of
social and cultural complementarity, cooperation
equal in rights and synchronous development.
The second level is marked by cooperation and
complementarity, here representatives of Russian
old-timer culture and native Siberians took place.
Complementarity functioning here is determined
by conservatism of mentioned traditional cultures,
i.e. coincidence of basic determinants (value
system, worldview conscious etc.), aims, and also
by equal interest in contact, which is dictated to
by equal conditions of life (Erohina, 1999).
This conclusion is confirmed in any case by
modern researches, which state that important
opinions of ‘’stranger’’, “different”, “another”
and “enemy” (these are quite alike in different
cultures) are not absolute, but rather relative and
mobile. By widening and increasing intensity of
contacts “native” changes his sign, becoming
a “stranger”, and the stranger becomes more
‘’private”, an enemy can become a friend or even
“native” (Zivyan, 2002. P. 467). In other words,
being integrated into traditional social and
cultural environment, “strangers” transform from
“enemies” with overblown negative characteristics
into “differents” with neutral specifics, and
sometimes even into “natives”. Thus, researchers
noted tight connection of “native” conception
with relations within Siberian society. “Native”
are all relatives independently of their way of
life, character etc. But natives are also relatives
by marriage, who can be representatives of other
nation. But that doesn’t mean this stereotype is
true concerning other representatives of this
nation (Slavkina, 2003. P. 10).
From the second half of the 18th century
Russian population of South Siberia exceeded
native population more than twice. This created
precondition to successfully Christianisation and
assimilation of native population and determined
their transformation to settled life and partial
junction with peasants. Tributaries take part in
imperial household and cultural relations, that
caused social stratification and actuated contacts
with coming populations.
Besides peasants, subjects of interethnic
and cross-cultural cooperation in Siberia and
Far East were Cossacks. relations between native
population and Cossacks were formed as rather
hostile. On one hand, Cossacks were seen as
strangers-conquers, who were winners in political
struggle over domination in Siberia. More that,
Cossacks and peasants’ household activities
were quite threatening for traditional society.
It is known that cattle-breeding of nomads has
minimal anthropogenic impact on landscape, in
contrast with transforming impact of agricultural
nations (Gumilev, 2001. P. 192).
On the other hand, miscegenations were
higher wide-spread among Cossacks than among
other social groups. That has several explanations.
First, the Cossacks were formed historically
as ethnically heterogeneous community (so
called soldier estate). Second, the Cossacks
reinforcements took place basically by natural
reproduction that was determined by aspiration
for hereditary transmission of status and linked
Cossacks’ functions. But great amount of maleCossacks caused decline in fertility and interethnic
marriages. Third, Cossacks had more contacts
with native population and took their experience
of adaptation to place of living, because they had
not only salary, but also their own household
keeping Russian christian historical and cultural
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type (Asochakova, 2010). Fourthly, the Cossacks
were historically formed in cross-culture, crosslanguage and cross-antropological areas that
affected each certain situation.
In other words, the Cossacks’ role in forming
and character of interethnic relations was highly
dual due to their peculiarities. The Cossacks
within imperial society besides being a lower
level of punishment system and also participated
in land-reclamation. The Cossacks having
allotments and trading sometimes were forming
an average rate of interethnic and cross-cultural
relations appeared with imperial statement on
conquered areas.
Thereby, nearness of ethnoses in contact
with their needs and activity type (transforming
or adaptive), likeness of traditional social
structure gave a basis for mutual interest and
equal character of relations of newcomers
and native population of Siberia and Far East.
Peasants and minor citizens (careful Cossacks)
had more in common with similar social groups
of different ethnic origin than with their own
nobility. But there were factors that narrowed
social and cultural complementarity on this level
of interethnic cooperation (joining conditions,
interethnic relations subjects’ structure, ethnical
and political situation in region etc.) Necessity
to fulfil the duties of subjects and exist under
pressure of strict management autocratic state
was quite a heavy burden for many Siberian
nations. Nevertheless, only few episodes of
separatist riots took place in Russia in the 1518th centuries. That is an evidence of fully high
level of complementarity on the lower level of
interethnic cooperation.
As we mentioned, discussions among
researchers about relations’ complementarity
within elite imperial society stratums still
continue. In V. V. Trepavlov’s opinion, imperial
elite traditionally cooperated with its “colleagues”
speaking another language because the Russian
nobility historically formed as ethnically open
estate, and everybody representative of nonRussian elite can rely on being noble. “Actually,
the process of Russian nobility forming itself
was a gradual integration of people and families
different in origin into unite aristocratic
cooperation. Integration algorithm corresponded
comparative openness and opportunity for joining
nobility” (Trepavlov, 2007. P. 203).
On another opinion, “new imperial elite”,
marginal and heterogeneous in its structure,
attitude and origin, saw its main aim in renewal its
power and privileges. For it often external, official
imperial identity was typical. Former ethnical
elite, having lost its privileged position by joining
Russian empire and having become Russian
tributaries, searched evidence of its power and
authority in traditions and common law. So long
as orthodoxy and imperial legislation was fairly
associated for their conscious with Russian state,
patrimonial top people didn’t champion new faith
and ideology and bearer of basic imperial culture
categories, at least on the prime period of imperial
and non-imperial society contacting. Situation
changes only when contacts with the Russians
and increasing of local authorities’ social status
intensification. This should not be concerned as
display of feudal nobility with the imperial elite
solidarity.
Resume
Summarizing, let’s notice that Russian
imperial society during intense imperial territory
widening corresponded as a difficult social and
cultural mechanism. Widening empire, marked
its presence by lines of jails and fortresses,
inevitably contacted with native population of
adopted areas. That faced every nation from
very joining empire with necessity to adopt not
only to political, but also cultural integration.
«Adaptation» process consisted of several basic
stages. The first one – joining itself and Russian
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citizenship (voluntary, violent, temporary). The
second stage is nation’s incorporation in imperial
society, imperial culture and state with strict
hierarchy. The third stage is assimilation which
became more and more active with the course of
time. These processes were followed by slow but
steady unification of juridical status of nation and
area inhabited, unite citizenship and governance
standard, Russification caused by numeral and
cultural (prevailing religion, communication
language) Russians’ domination. These trends
weakened and intensified, but constantly
presented in Russian history 16-19th centuries,
anyway.
As a result of multiform polyethnical state
forming imperial society acquired compound,
branched
and
heterogeneous
structure,
which included a wide range of cultural and
anthropological types. That affected specific
character of interethnic relations paradigm in
imperial society which took place on several
layers at once. First, it’s a cooperation within
the bounds of contact situation, modernized by
European imperial culture pattern, bearer of
which was basically imperial elite, and Siberian
inhabitants’ traditional culture. Traditionalistic
culture model of the Siberian inhabitants was
characterized by orientation on isolationism and
conservation of value and cultural differencies.
Modernized imperial culture distinguished by
an opportunity of reflexive modernization and
integration based on pluralistic and rationalsecular values, interethic cooperation and
supraethnical dialogue (Popov, 2011. P. 10).
Imperiality (shared by authorities) as attempt of
supranationalism building corresponded as an
anthropological model of supraethnical identity.
The imperiality bearer corresponded as a social
and cultural subject with state-political identity,
which competed with different ethnic, and group,
and cultural identities. The imperiality had
discrepant values, anthropological and culture
species, that caused its expansion into different
ethnical and cultural spheres (supraethnical
political
and
ideological
identification,
authoritative monocultural homogenisation,
etc.), but did not have features of forth-coming
purposeful constructing of ideologized cultural
and anthropological supraethnical identity model.
Nevertheless, by visual modernization orientation
(conservative and technological modernization)
imperiality had conflicting traditionalistic
character, i.e. kept place for a practice of limited
complementarity in cooperation with elite of
foreign origin.
Second, it is a layer of adapted
(transformed) cooperation of official imperial
culture variant which is characterized by
synthesis of modernized and traditional
culture. Also imperial culture supposed limited
complementarity of interethnic cooperation
(native and “soldier estate”).
Third, it is a layer of cooperation between
traditional strangers’ and peasant culture. The last
one was affected by modernization in a few, that is
caused wide social and cultural complementarity
on this layer. Evidence of this is a quick adoption
of experience and even language of native
inhabitants in adopted region by the Russians,
coincidence of wide amount of value categories,
which are typical for “lower colonization” and
native-born of Siberia (values of freedom, labour,
family and motherland for nomads, Cossacks and
peasants).
In other words, value categories and
stereotypes, on one hand, helped to perceive visual
and internal life of other nation representatives.
But while meeting something new coming out
of “stereotype scheme” (“different”, “stranger”,
“alien”), “defence mechanism” of resistance and
disapproval switched on. Social and cultural
bases of resistance are contradictions determined
by cultural differences, and also confrontation
modernized and traditionalistic values appearing
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between bearers of different world-views. In other
words, when modelling interethnic cooperation
paradigm we should mention its basic social
and cultural attributes such as ambivalence,
irrationality and uncontrollability. This allows
to define interethnic relations as social in form
(between social subjects of different level) and
cultural in content, for which cultural differences
are basis.
Thereby, reasonable sight on our country’s
history and specific of interethnic contacts allows
to avoid single-valued negative characteristics of
the imperial period culture. It is characterized
by heterogeneity, variety of interethnic relation
paradigm, but rather effectively strengthened
the empire. An absence of mass separatist riots
of non-native inhabitants in the empire is an
evidence of that. This rather actual nowadays
when multiculturalism exhausted itself and
came into strict crisis which is followed by
ethnical and confessional conflicts in the
heart of Western civilization. By that time the
Soviet internationalistic supraethnical identity
compromised itself. Contradictions in in issues
of interethnic relations and confessions can
lead to irreversible consequences. This makes
researchers come back to the issue again and
again, and the interest here is not theoretical,
but applied. Понять и задействовать ресурс
оптимизации межэтнических отношений,
который был накоплен в ходе трехсотлетнего
контактного
сосуществования
народов
России, сегодня приобретает характер
насущной необходимости. The necessity to
understand and set ways of interethnic relations’
optimization, that was accumulated for three
hundred years of Russian contact co-existance,
in motion takes a form of vital necessity.
References
1. Absalyamov, M.B. (2008). Siberia: existence and time. Krasnoyarsk: KSAU Publishing, 327.
2. Aksutin, Y. M., Anzhiganova, L. V. (2010). The imperial culture: essence, structure, forming
and development factors. NSU bulletin. Philosophy series, 8(1), 59-64.
3. Aksutin, Y. M. (2009). Imperial ethnos: notion and definitions. Chelyabinsk state university
bulletin. Philosophy. Social science. Culturology, 18(156), 35-39.
4. Aralbaev, K. A. (1985). Folk notes in Mambetov’s generation shezher. Bashkir shezhers:
Phylological researches and publications, 44-53.
5. Asochakova, V. N. (2010). Estate and class population structure of Khakas-Minusinsk region
evolution in context of Christianity policy (18th – the beginning of 60th years of 19th century). TSPU
bulletin, 9, 5-11.
6. Erohina, E. A. (1999). Siberian nations: to the questions of interethnic cooperations specific.
Eurasia: cultural inheritage of the ancient civilizations, 1, 142-145.
7. Gumilev L. N. Etnogenez i biosfera Zemli [Ethnogenesis and biosphere of Earth]. Moscow,
AST Publishing, 2001, 560 р.
8. Ogurtsov, A. R. (2003). The morphological, cognitive, and conceptual aspects of culture.
Russian Studies in Philosophy, 41(4), 72-74.
9. Popov, M. E. (2011). Identities conflicts in post-traditional Russia. Synopsis of dissertation for
doctor of philosophy degree, 58.
10. Semenov Y. I. Filosofiya istorii (Obshchaia teoria, osnovnye problemy, idei i conceptsii ot
drevnosti do nashikh dnei) [Philosophy of history (common theory, basic problems, notions and
concepts from ancient times till nowadays)]. Moscow, Modern notebooks, 2003. 776 p.
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Yuri M. Aksutin. Imperial Society: Subjects and Character of Interethnic Interaction Paradigm
11. Semenov, Y. I. Late primitive and early class societies of European Russia north, Siberia and
Russian America within the Russian empire [Pozdnie pervobytnie i ranneklassovye obshchestva Severa
Evropeyskoi Rossii, Sibiri i Russkoi Ameriki v sostave Rossiyskoi imperii]. Materialy conferentsii
“Natsional’naya politica v imperatorskoi Rossii” (Materials of conference “National politics in
emperor Russia”). Moscow, 1998, pp. 7-59.
12. Slavkina, I. A. (2003). Dynamics of “stranger” concept lexical expression in Russian language
history. Synopsis of dissertation for candidate of philosophy degree, 18.
13. Stepin, V. S. (2003). Culture. Russian Studies in Philosophy, 41(4), 9-25.
14. Trepavlov V. V. Belyi tsar’: obraz monarkha i predstavleniya o poddanstve u narodov Rossii
XV-XVIII vv. [The white tzar: monarch’s image and notions about citizenship in Russia XV-XVIII
centuries]. Moscow, East literature, 2007. 255 p.
15. Zberovskaya, E. L. (2010). Complementarity as important part of polyethnical Siberian
culture. KrasSAU bulletin, 5, 173-179.
16. Zivyan, T. V. Modern Russian language situation projected on world model [Sovremennaia
russkaia yazykovaia situatsiia v proektsii na model’ mira]. Materialy conferentsii “Slavyanskaia
yazykovaia I etnoyazykovaia sistemy v kontakte s neslavyanskim okruzheniem” (Slavic language and
ethnolanguage systems in contact with non-Slavic environment). Moscow, 2002, pp. 463-475.
17. Zuev A. S. Russkie i aborigeny na krainem severo-vostoke Sibiri vo vtoroi polovine XVII –
pervoi chetverti XVIII vv. [Russians and natives in far north-east of Siberia in the second half of 17th
and first quarter of 18th century]. Novosibirsk State University, 2002. 330 p.
Имперский социум:
субъекты и характер парадигмы
межэтнических отношений
Ю.М. Аксютин
Хакасский государственный университет им. Н.Ф. Катанова
Республика Хакасия, 655017, Абакан, ул. Ленина, 90
Статья посвящена характеристике понятия «комплементарность» межэтнического
взаимодействия, состава субъектов российского имперского социума и парадигмы
межэтнических отношений периода становления империи. В работе представлен обзор
исследовательских подходов к проблеме анализа структуры и уровней взаимодействия
культур имперского и неимперского типов в рамках российского имперского социума. Статья
адресована специалистам и интересующимся историей и культурой империй.
Ключевые слова: империя, имперская культура, комплементарность, мультикультурализм,
межэтническое взаимодействие.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1402-1409
~~~
УДК 167.1
Simulation of Manager Personal
Qualities During the Dedicated Training
Elena V. Demidova* and Galina V. Panasenko
Siberian State Technological University
82 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 18.05.2014, received in revised form 11.06.2014, accepted 01.07.2014
The subject of the study is the achievement of manager personhood qualities in the process of
dedicated training. The article gives the author’s model of manager personality, according to which
the achievement of manager personhood qualities in the process of dedicated training is as the result
of a complex interaction of his personality levels (such as organismic, individual, self-personality)
with the general characteristics of the process control (communicative space, communicative
time, energy, information, material factors of management, specific management situation). In the
experimental part of the article on the basis of the proposed methods of psycho-diagnostics, as well
as statistical comparison the analysis and interpretation of the results are provided. In the course
of which there were correlated personality traits with a particular process control, based on the
levels of the individual, each associated with one of the authors of selected qualities emerging in the
process of professional development. Comparative statistical analysis of the study of the development
levels of personal qualities and their relationship with the students and leaders at different stages of
professional development has enabled to establish that the conditions of achievement of personhood
formation are different.
Keywords: management process, quality of management personality, simulation, profile.
Introduction
In today’s rapidly changing socio-economic
conditions of the Russian society there remains
a priority problem of personality development,
where special attention is paid to the process of
professional development.
Using a variety of methodological
approaches, researchers often come from the
proportionality of all the psychological qualities
of the person, which is not sufficient for the
effective functioning of various spheres of his/
her activities. The specific of any activity, and
especially management, has a certain effect on
*
the system of business and personal qualities of
the manager. Management currently serves as an
essential tool for making conceptual theoretical
problems and to solve practical problems in the
development of the Russian statehood. It becomes
the key management in addressing the most
pressing psychological, socio-psychological,
economic, political, ideological, and other
tasks. At the same time management training
is conducted mostly by Western models classic
design, effectively operating in a relatively stable
socio-economic system and giving failure in
conditions of instability of the Russian reality.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: demidova.doc@yandex.ru
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Practice shows that the success lies in the
personality of the manager, its inherent qualities,
therefore, in the process of training in this field.
Therefore, there is a need to develop management
parameters personality of the manager, that is
identifying the general characteristics of the
underlying personality properties caused by the
very nature of activity. The personality of the
manager as a carrier of certain qualities in their
totality constitutes the entire control system
and caused by a specific phenomenon comes to
the fore consideration. In this approach identity
management is the center of the intersection of
functional dependencies management process.
The problem of consideration the personality
of the manager as an object of psychological
research is appeared, where, on the one hand, the
properties of the individual manager associated
with personality characteristics in general, on
the other the identity of the manager acts as a
unique system, which has specific features due
to professional activities, and as interacting with
other systems and society in general.
Active interest in the problem of the
formation of manager personhood qualities in
the process of dedicated training is explained
by the economic conditions for the development
of modern society, where the old established
concepts of authoritarian rule are broken and
replaced by coming horizontal structure of
market relations, accompanied by democratic
governance processes. For the first time the
attitude to professional staff is not based on an
ideological basis, but according to the functional
purpose of management activities.
Management process
Management problems and their solution
methods arose in all countries and at all times,
since the origin of human civilization; they are
relevant in the present time. Scientific bases
of management are very complex because the
control systems are complex themselves: state
and regional structures, technological processes,
industrial plants and systems, but especially
challenging unique management object is society –
a community, production team, personality.
Variety of approaches, techniques and
development methods and implementation of
managerial human resource straining reveal
the complexity and diversity of the problem.
Theoretical clash of concepts such as management
and business administration reveals that they
are not identical. The first concept refers to all
processes – production, economic, marketing,
scientific, sales and others. The second concept –
business administration – is the kind of control
and is used in market conditions, where
connection between the structural units are more
flexible, and communication is built on the basis of
cooperation and partnership, even as focused on
the identification and use of maximum creativity
in the organization. Specialist in the field of
personnel management where the main field of
activity is people management rather than things
and processes has become known as a manager.
Without people there is no organization.
Without the right people, no organization can
achieve its objectives and survive. There is no
doubt that personnel management is one of the
most important aspects of the theory and practice
of business administration. Specific responsibility
for the overall management of human resources in
large organizations is assigned to professionally
trained senior control managers. In order for such
professionals to actively promote the objectives of
the organization, they need not only knowledge
and expertise in their particular area, but also
awareness of the problems of a low-level control.
However, if they do not understand the specifics of
personnel management, its mechanism, capacity
and limitations, they cannot take full advantage
of the recommendations of management. It is
therefore important that all managers know
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and understand the ways and methods of
managing people. Human resource management
includes a number of functional processes:
planning, organization, control, monitoring, and
accounting.
A new type of manager should be able to
organize employees qualitatively. His/her behavior
is focused on group work, so it becomes essential
quality ability to realistically assess the strengths
and weaknesses of each employee to make
rational use of the individual potentials in group
work. The combination of competence, behavior
and experience is the basis of development of the
qualities of the manager, the formation of which
occurs through the interaction of the individual
management processes. Personality appears here
as a system or as a penta-basis, which includes
all of the following concepts: communicative
space and time, energy, information, and material
factors of control. Dedicated five concepts (pentabasis) are universal characteristics of business
administration and at the same time they are
the basis for the theoretical description of the
individual manager.
Manager personality simulating
The manager as the main subject of the
administrative activity has special training
in the organization and performs a number
of different functions. One can confirm with
some degree of certainty that Russian managers
in a market should possess qualities such as
entrepreneurship, independence, professionalism,
willingness to take risks and take responsibility,
self-confidence, creativity associated with the
level of development, the ability to find creative
solutions; responsibility, focus on results,
leadership qualities; communicative, analytical
skills, ability to make decisions, organised nature
and flexibility, adherence to ethical principles,
etc. It is not possible to formulate by simple
generalization of empirical data on the activities
of the manager the list of basic requirements that
a manager should satisfy. Theoretical analysis of
the personality of the manager can not be reduced
to a simple generalization of the experience
of individual managers. Identity management
control system acts as a self-developing system,
experiencing a variety of impact and at the same
time is an active factor. Consequently, working
with so many personal qualities of a subordinate
is very difficult. For example, it is impossible to
take the person to the post of personnel manager
highlighting more than fifty professional quality
features, since it would be difficult to check
even their presence, and there is no word for
implementation of them.
In this regard, there is a need to design
a system with a certain minimum quality of
basic parameters that must commensurate vary
depending on the professional activity, as activity,
communication and relationships defines certain
structural frame on the formation of personal
qualities. It is much easier to operate with a
minimum of parameters in their comparative
analysis, especially for periodic diagnostics and
experimental study of the problem of forming
qualities.
The study analyzes the interaction between
the individual manager’s internal and external
environment in the course of professional
formation, where we settle dedicated business and
personal qualities. Business skills are considered
through the work and personal qualities are
based on the interaction of the subject-object
relationship. On the one hand of this interaction
there is the environment, and on the other side
there are inner psychological resources of the
personality. The consistency between individual
consciousness and its unconscious mental
processes is important here. At the junction of the
inner and outer world is born the unique structure
that represents the quality system that is revealed
in this study.
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Elena V. Demidova and Galina V. Panasenko. Simulation of Manager Personal Qualities During the Dedicated Training
Implementation of these qualities objectively
requires good economic training and deep
knowledge in the field of scientific management.
Business administration deals with these
problems.
Thus, business administration should be
considered as a special kind of control which
is necessary for the economically independent
entity in the market economy and is a system
of flexible enterprising leadership to rebuild
timely, responsive to market conditions,
competitive conditions and social factors of
development.
If we consider the person as widely
as possible, the structure of any individual
(personality of the manager in particular) can be
represented as a certain set of three subsystems
or levels of personality: organismic, individual,
self-personality. Furthermore, it is important
to note that the development and functioning
of the person occurs indirectly. It is defined by
general characteristics of the process control: a
communicative space and time, information,
energy, material factors of governance and
management. The graphical model of the manager
personality is given in Fig. 1.
There are three circles in the Figure, which
represent the major subsystems of a manager
personality in their interaction with the general
characteristics of the management process,
which is represented by the figure of the hexagon,
where every facet is characterized by one of
the management processes, which include the
communicative space, communicative time,
information, energy, material and material
factors control the specific situation. Any of the
active manifestations of the manager personality
has a corresponding pulse from every level of
personality subsystem.
Organismic level (1) generates energy pulse
and affects the motivation and other factors.
The term organismic points directly to the
biological side of man, emphasizes simple but
often overlooked fact that a human is primarily a
living organism with his/her own characteristics,
indicators of health, temperament, and emotional
stability or instability. Individual (2) also affects
the motivation, determines the originality of
management style, it imposes on the unique
features of the creative manager personality,
his/her emotional involvement. Self-personal (3)
defines everything associated with willpower
Communicative time
Communicative
Space
1
Information
2
3
Specific
Management
Situation
Energy
Material Factors of Management
Fig. 1. Model of manager personality
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Elena V. Demidova and Galina V. Panasenko. Simulation of Manager Personal Qualities During the Dedicated Training
qualities (the ability to dominate impossible
without willpower and management functions),
the ability to manage other people, the ability
to make their own responsible choices, to
make effective management decisions and take
responsibility for them.
Analysis and interpretation of results
The specificity of our observation is the
focused research personal qualities and their
formation. Experiment for determinations of the
personal qualities that affect the success of the
professional activities carried out in compliance
with the criteria for voluntary and anonymous.
The research base were the group of students
of FGBOU VPO Siberian State Technological
University, the Faculty of Humanities, III course
on specialty of Management of Organization
(29 people), the Faculty of Humanities II course
on Management of Organization (31 people),
students of the Faculty of Chemical Technology
IV course on various specialties of Chemical
Technology (104 people); students-managers who
were trained in additional professional education
program of Personnel Management and gained
additional knowledge and skills (11 people) and
acting heads of organizations (15 people). A total
number of tested people were 190 ones.
The developed model of the manager
personality which has a layered structure
(organismic, individual, self-personal) has
confirmed its value in a pilot study. For all its
constructible blocks (specific management
situation, material factors, energy, information,
communicative time and space) grouped the
authors by factors according to the questionnairetest 16PF, there are shown the highest values in
students-managers and heads of organizations
(Fig. 2).
Educational and professional activities
of managers in comparison with students
from other faculties revealed the statistical
differences for Student t-criteria, which are most
significant for blocks of our constructed model,
namely, information and specific management
situation. The qualities of high intelligence –
understanding of abstraction, speed of thought
processes, persistence and perseverance – allow
to analyze and solve managerial situation more
successfully, as the main form of professional
management activity is the development of
managerial decisions. In turn, this unit is
interconnected with the information model unit,
since it allows effectively to collect and manage
information.
Statistical analysis by Spearman revealed
that groups of the second year students of the
Faculty of Humanities on Management of
Organization and the fourth year students of
the Faculty of Chemical Technology in various
specialties experimentally no relationship
to the self-personal level. A group of thirdyear students of the Faculty of Humanities on
Management of Organization, students-managers
and heads of organizations identified a set of
correlations. In analyzing the relationships of
general characteristics of the managing process,
according to the authors’ model, the students of
the Faculty of Chemical Technology did not show
correlations of the management process, except
for specific managerial situation.
Students of the second and third years of
study at the Faculty of Humanities in Management
Organization have an increase in the complex
relations with the shift to the communicative space
and time. A similar picture is seen in the studentsmanagers and heads of organizations, indicating
that the sustained process to form a group and
the team with the forward and reverse impact on
the manager personality. Conditions of formation
of manager personality qualities were identified
on the base of the fact that the current Russian
economic education should accumulate new
priorities and install the best national traditions
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B
C
I
ȿ
M
N
Q1
N
A
Ɇ
F
ɇ
Ʉɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ
ȿ
Ʉɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ
8
Q1
ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ
3
3
Ʉɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɚɹ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ
Q3
8
5,5
Ⱥ
ɗɧɟɪɝɢɹ
ɋ
Ɇɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ
Q2
F
L
H
O
E
Q2
Q4
B
Q2
2nd year students FH
3d year students FH
4th year students FCT
Ⱥ – communicativeness
ȼ – intelligence
ɋ – emotional stability
ȿ – dominancy
F – unconcern
G – norms of morality
ɇ – braveness
I – emotional sensitivity
Fig. 2. Experimental Group Profiles
G
C
students-managers
heads of organizations
L – suspiciousness
Ɇ – dreaminess
N – diplomacy
Ɉ – uneasiness
Q1 – innovativeness
Q2 – self-sufficiency
Q3 – discipline
Q4 – strains
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Elena V. Demidova and Galina V. Panasenko. Simulation of Manager Personal Qualities During the Dedicated Training
with the emerging social value system, which is
open, spiritually and culturally rich, providing
formation of citizenship and patriotism.
Conditions of formation of different
manager personality qualities, their building is a
result of a complex interaction of levels of his/
her personality (organismic, individual, selfpersonality) with the general characteristics of
the management process (communicative space,
communicative time, energy, information,
material factors of control, specific management
situation) in the process of training.
References
1. Upravleniye personalom: kontseptsii, tekhnologii, razvitiye [Text]: monografiya / Panasenko
G.V. [i dr.]. – Tomsk: Izd-vo TGU, 2005. – 360 s.
2. Demidova, E.V., Panasenko, G.V. Model lichnosti menedzhera v protsesse professionalnogo
stanovlenii. Sovremennyye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. – 2013. – № 6; URL: http://www.scienceeducation.ru/113-11613 (data obrashcheniya: 14.01.2014)
3. Demidova, E.V., Panasenko, G.V. Filosofskiy podkhod k issledovaniyu i postroyeniyu modeli
lichnosti menedzhera. – Vestnik IrGTU. – Irkutsk (Rekomendovannoye VAK) №3 (86). – 2014. –
S. 287-293
4. Milkina, E.V., Panasenko, G.V. Stanovleniye kachestv lichnosti menedzhera v protsesse
professionalnoy podgotovki. dis. na soisk. uchen. step. kand. psikhol. nauk : 19.00.01 / Milkina Elena
Viktorovna; nauch. ruk. Panasenko Galina Vasilyevna ; Sib. gos. tekhnol. un-t . – Krasnoyarsk :
SibGTU, 2006. – 179 s.
5. Panasenko, G.V. Issledovaniye lichnosti menedzhera: mnogourovnevyy podkhod [Text] /
G.V. Panasenko, Yu.N. Belokopytov // EKO. – 2003. – № 8. – S 98-111.
6. Panasenko, G.V. Filosofiya i psikhologiya menedzhmenta [Text]: monografiya /
G.V. Panasenko. – Krasnoyarsk: KGTA, 1996. – 180 s.
Моделирование процесса
образования личностных качеств менеджера
в профессиональной подготовке
Е.В Демидова, Г.В Панасенко
Сибирский государственный
технологический университет
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 82
Предметом исследования является становление качеств личности менеджера в процессе
профессиональной подготовки. В статье представлена авторская модель личности
менеджера, согласно которой в процессе профессиональной подготовки становление
качеств личности менеджера происходит в результате сложного взаимодействия уровней
его личности (организмический, индивидуальный, собственно-личностный) с всеобщими
характеристиками процесса управления (коммуникативное пространство, коммуникативное
время, энергия, информация, материально-вещественные факторы управления, конкретная
управленческая ситуация). В экспериментальной части статьи на базе предложенных
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena V. Demidova and Galina V. Panasenko. Simulation of Manager Personal Qualities During the Dedicated Training
методик психодиагностики, а также статистического сравнения представлен анализ и
интерпретация результатов работы. В ходе которого были соотнесены качества личности с
тем или иным процессом управления, исходя из уровней личности, каждый из которых связан
авторами с одним из выделенных качеств, формирующихся в процессе профессионального
становления. Сравнительный статистический анализ изучения уровней развития личностных
качеств и их соотношение у студентов и руководителей на разных этапах профессионального
становления дали нам возможность установить, что условия становления личностных
качеств различны.
Ключевые слова: процесс управления, качества личности менеджера, модель, профиль.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1410-1422
~~~
УДК 338.1
Structural Shifts of Russian Economy
in Globalization Process
Svetlana K. Demchenko* and Margarita A. Yudina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 01.05.2014, received in revised form 12.06.2014, accepted 02.07.2014
The study tested structural shifts of Russian economy, characterizing it’s involvement into the processes
of globalization. The significance of Russian economy was defined within the following markets:
capital and investment resources exchange; exchange of natural resources, means of production
and consumer goods; exchange of human resources; exchange of technologies and innovations. The
level of globalization of Russian economy was expressed through popular indexes. Authors gave their
estimation of the place of Russian economy in modern processes of globalization. Russian economy
indexes were analyzed by Authors in details and collated with developing countries’ economy indexes.
As a result Authors concluded a low level of involvement of Russian economy in global processes
and substantiated the importance of Russian domestic implementation of human capital and research
capacity, with the necessary application of deliberate government policy.
Keywords: structural analysis, structural change, globalization.
Introduction
Structural shifts of different trends and rates,
accompanying the development of any national
economy, can no arise, change and operate within
the frameworks of a single economic system.
National economy is not a closed system, but one
of the parts of global economy with complicated
interactions between economic systems with
different levels of capital, technologies and
infrastructure development, availability of human
and natural resources, political system stability,
etc. Uneven development of structural elements
of global economy, differentiation on existence,
availability and costs of production factors within
the scales of individual national economies,
foreign policy of states’ governments result in
*
different structural shifts, and here any national
economy is involved into the process, being an
active or passive element of the operating global
economic mechanism.
One of the latest examples of interdependence
of national economies was the global financial
crisis of 2008-2009, the consequences of which
have been experienced by all national economies
despite the fact that the cause of the crisis, routed
in the USA, had nothing to do with them initially.
Modern global economy has reached such level
of globalization, when an event in one national
economy inevitably influences all others, and the
depth of such effect through cause-and-effect
relations is greater the more significant role of
this economy is in the global economic system.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: demchenko.sv@yandex.ru
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A significant surge in the 1st quarter of
2013 at the given diagrams is connected with a
transaction of purchasing by the state company
OJSC “Rosneft” of 100% share of TNK-BP Ltd.
The first part of the transaction (purchasing of
100% share in TNK-BP Ltd.) is illustrated in the
balance of payments as direct investments abroad
in amount of USD 55 billion, the second – as
receipt of direct investments from abroad in the
amount of USD 15.7 billion. We consider that
this transaction is not an exception from general
regularities and trends in capital market of Russian
economy, and matches them harmoniously.
Except for that, the association of two biggest
oil-business companies from different countries
is another proof of promotion of globalization
processes in Russian economy.
The analysis of foreign trade transactions of
the national economy is very important, as exactly
trade transaction to the full extent can reveal
competitive strengths of national economy and
the level of its involvement into global economic
processes.
The analysis of the structure of global
export demonstrates that within the period
between 2000 and 2011 Russian economy
strengthened its positions among the leader
Interaction of a national economy with global
economy happens in several key points: capital
and investment resources exchange; exchange
with natural resources, means of production and
consumer goods; human resources exchange;
exchange with a contribution into global research
and technology development.
Structural shifts
of Russian economy on import/export
within capital market
Let’s analyze structural shifts of Russian
economy on import/export within capital market.
Fig. 11 and Fig. 22 illustrate the trend of growth
for absolute investments indexes into Russian
economy as well as abroad. At the same time Fig. 33,
demonstrating the balance of direct investments,
indicates that investments abroad prevail over the
investments into Russian economy, which often is
stated by negative balance on quarter outcomes.
This unfavorable trend is also confirmed by
graphic analysis of relative indexes – the growth
rate of direct investments into Russian and abroad
(Fig. 44). Probably, foreign investors are not yet
certain about stability, security and significant
prospects for their future investments in Russian
economy.
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
Fig. 1. The dynamics of direct investments into Russia, USD mln.
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Q1 2013
Q3 2012
Q1 2012
Q3 2011
Q1 2011
Q3 2010
Q1 2010
Q3 2009
Q1 2009
Q3 2008
Q1 2008
Q3 2007
Q1 2007
Q3 2006
Q1 2006
Q3 2005
Q1 2005
Q3 2004
Q1 2004
Q3 2003
Q1 2003
Q3 2002
Q1 2002
Q3 2001
Q1 2001
Q3 2000
-10000
Q1 2000
0
-5000
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80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
Q1 2013
Q3 2012
Q1 2012
Q3 2011
Q1 2011
Q3 2010
Q1 2010
Q3 2009
Q1 2009
Q3 2008
Q1 2008
Q3 2007
Q1 2007
Q3 2006
Q1 2006
Q3 2005
Q1 2005
Q3 2004
Q1 2004
Q3 2003
Q1 2003
Q3 2002
Q1 2002
Q3 2001
Q1 2001
-10000
Q3 2000
Q1 2000
0
Fig. 2. The dynamics of direct investments of Russian economy abroad, USD mln.
15000
10000
5000
Q1 2013
Q3 2012
Q1 2012
Q3 2011
Q1 2011
Q3 2010
Q1 2010
Q3 2009
Q1 2009
Q3 2008
Q1 2008
Q3 2007
Q1 2007
Q3 2006
Q1 2006
Q3 2005
Q1 2005
Q3 2004
Q1 2004
Q3 2003
Q1 2003
Q3 2002
Q1 2002
Q3 2001
Q1 2001
Q3 2000
-5000
Q1 2000
0
-10000
-15000
-20000
-25000
-30000
Fig. 3. The dynamics of the balance of direct investments of Russian economy, USD mln.
exporting states, having moved from the 17th to
the 9th place (Fig.55). However, such significant
structural shift can hardly be called positive,
considering the structure of Russian export
where up to 72.2% is covered by the share of
fuel-energy products and mineral raw materials.
The analysis of the dynamics of the elements
of Russia export also confi rms that the change
of the position of Russian export was fully
performed due to the growth of export of fuel-
energy (mineral) products – in absolute indexes
(between 2000 and 2011 – 6.5-fold growth), as
well as in relative ones (from 53.5% in 2000
up to 70.3% in 2011 in the total export scope
of Russian economy)6. It’s worth noting that a
significant part of the absolute increase of the
amount of fuel and energy products export has
been caused also by sufficient growth of the
world’s prices on oil products, marked between
2000 and 2008, before the global crisis.
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900%
400%
-100%
-600%
-1100%
Abroad
Into Russia
Fig. 4. The dynamics of the growth rate of direct investments into Russia and abroad, %
1_USA
2_Germany
3_Japan
4_France
5_UK
6_Canada
7_China
8_Italy
9_Netherlands
10_Hong Kongg
11_Belgium
12_Korea
13_Mexico
14_Taipei
15_Singapore
16_Spain
17_Russia
18_Malaysia
19_Sweden
20_Saudi Arabbia
0
2
12
4
4,5
3,6
3,3
3,0
2,9
2,9
2,6
2,6
2,55
2,55
2,22
2,,0
1,9
1
1,7
1
1,7
11,7
1
1,6
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
4,7
4,5
4,3
3,9
3,7
3,33
3,2
2
2,,9
2,7
2
2,6
2,3
2,2
1,8
1,7
1,5
1,4
1,3
8,1
8,1
6
77,5
1__ China
2__USA
3__ Germany
4_
_ Japan
5__ Netherlands
6__ France
7__Korea
8__ Italy
9__Russia
10
0_ Belgium
11_UK
122_ Hong Kong
13_ Canada
144_ Singapore
155_Saudi Arabia
166_ Mexico
177_ Spain
188_ Taipei
199_ India
20
0_UAE
10,4
8
8,7
10
12,3
Fig. 5. The leading exporting states between 2000 and 2011 (% of the total export scope of all countries)
Therefore, the analysis of Russian economy
export in the context of globalization depicts
high-level involvement into global economic
processes, but only in a dedicated segment of
commodity line, which in fact is represented
by natural resources with insignificant share
of processing. Finished products of various
industries of Russian economy, including
innovational ones, has no sufficient weight in the
export structure, it is minimal. By this, there are
no visible trends to improvement – its insufficient
role keeps on falling. The established trend of
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6,88
0
2
4
4,6
3,9
3,5
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,8
2,5
2,5
2,5
2,0
2,0
2,0
1,88
1,55
1,,3
1,,3
6
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
5,,7
5
5,1
4,6
3,7
3,5
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,7
2,6
2,4
2,3
2,1
2,0
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,1
9,5
8
7,5
1_USA
2_Chhina
3_Germany
4_Jaapan
5_Frrance
6_UK
7_Netherlands
8_Itaaly
9_Korea
Hong Kong
10_H
11_C
Canada
12_IIndia
13_B
Belgium
14_S
Spain
15_S
Singapore
16_M
Mexico
17_R
Russia
18_T
Taipei
19_A
Australia
20_T
Turkey
12,33
14
1_USA
2_Germanyy
3_Japan
4_UK
5_France
6_Canada
7_Italy
8_China
9_Hong Koong
10_Netherlaands
11_Mexico
m
12_Belgium
13_Korea
14_Spain
15_Taipei
16_Singapoore
17_Switzerrland
18_Malaysiia
19_Swedenn
20_Australiia
18,9
10
main locomotive of changes in weight of Russian
economy’s import is only one type of products –
cars, equipment and transporting vehicles. The
growth of food products and agricultural goods
export, as well as chemical products and resin
also exists but is not significant.
The structure and dynamics of structural
elements of Russian economy’s import, similarly
to export, have clear disagreements with the
import structure of industrially developed and
even developing countries. The main import flows
into these countries are represented by different
natural and energy resources, and although a
share of finished goods exists and is differentiated
depending from definite economy, it is not
defining. Regarding global economy and growing
globalizations processes Russian economy’s
import, without doubts, is one of its significant
elements, but reveals only from the side of the
final products’ consumers. This situation, as we
suggest, is extremely unbeneficial for Russian
economy, as limiting only with the processes
of foreign goods consumption it is impossible
to improve competitiveness and efficiency of
national economy. Reduction of import growth
rates caused deployment of production of cars and
12
natural recourses export with preservation of
significant degradation of remaining structural
elements of export, to our mind, does not improve
competitive ability to Russian economy, but on
the opposite, undermine its stability and question
strategic economic safety of Russia. By this, in
other developing states we can observe quite
other results of national economy movement,
for example, the economy of China which lies
in the category of developing economies, but in
the structure of export is close to the structure of
industrially-developed states.
The graphic analysis of the main importing
states (Fig. 67) illustrates that Russian economy
has also changed significantly its positions in the
general rating – it moved from the 28th place in
2000 to the 17th in 2011. The analysis of the import
structure of Russian economy demonstrates
dominance of finished goods of various industries,
and the main role is played by 2 types of goods –
cars, equipment and transporting vehicles – 48.8%,
chemical industry’s goods, resins – 15.8%.8 The
Fig. 6. Leading importing states between 2000 and 2011 (% of the total import scope of all countries)
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Svetlana K. Demchenko and Margarita A. Yudina. Structural Shifts of Russian Economy in Globalization Process
equipment with foreign investments attraction in
Russia is the first positive event able to change
the situation in future. However, we think, at the
moment, these outlined shifts yet are very weak,
and time is urgent for their further successful
accomplishment, as well as favorable economic
conditions and targeted state policy.
The analysis of migration processes
in relation to Russian economy
The processes of globalization of global
economy reveal also in labor force market where
similarly to national economy, we observe
redistribution of human resources depending from
the best and the worst conditions for work and
living. Naturally, international migration of labor
force exists, but it is significantly complicated with
such factors as governmental limitations, issuing
of visa, residence permits, language barrier, high
costs of moving. Regarding stimulating factors we
can outline flexible migration policy of individual
countries, as well as spread of English language
as the mean of international communication.
The analysis of migration processes in
relation to Russian economy shall be held in two
directions – with the CIS states and non-CIS
states. To our mind, this is necessary for deeper
evaluation of the character of the trends revealed
in migration processes. Former commonness of
economic and social spaces, cultural traditions,
absence of language barrier, simplified procedure
of obtaining residence permit among Russia and
the CIS states ground a higher level of people’s
migration between them, comparing with nonCIS states.
The analysis of migration processes in
Russia in relation to the CIS-states (Fig. 79 and
Fig. 810) shows that during the whole period
between 1997 and 2011 positive balance of
migration was observed, by steady firm trend
of reduction of migration from Russia and by
uneven, sometimes multidirectional dynamics of
migration to Russia.
It’s worth to note that according to various
sources of information, an impression form about
migration to Russia of low-qualified labor force
from the CIS-states where the level of living, as a
rule, is significantly lower of the Russian one, and
there is no option to realize working potential.
By this, according to Mass Media, we observe
significant number of cases of illegal migration
to Russia and further employments of the CISstates’ citizens.
The dynamics of migration processes in
Russia in respect to the non-CIS states (Fig. 911
and Fig. 1012) demonstrates another picture –
the balance became positive only in 2007, and
since then grows by steady gradual reduction of
700000
600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
Migration to Russia
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
-
Migration out of Russia
Fig. 7. The dynamics of migration in the Russian Federation in respect to the CIS states, number of people
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p p
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
400000
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
-
Fig. 8. The balance of migration in the Russian Federation in respect to the CIS-states, number of people
100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Migration to Russia from non-CIS states
Migration from Russia to non-CIS states
Fig. 9. The dynamics of migration in the Russian Federation in respect to the non-CIS states, number of people
40000
30000
20000
10000
-10000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
-20000
-30000
-40000
-50000
-60000
Fig. 10. Migration balance in the Russian Federation in respect to the non-CIS states, number of people
migration from Russia. Noticeable is that there
is no confirmation of widely popular common
point of view about significant migration flow
from Russia to developed states: at first, each
year reduction of migration from Russia is
noticed (for example, if in 1997 89 312 people left
the country, than in 2011 – 14 206 people, i.e. 6
times less), secondly, for 14 years following the
statistics 661 126 people left the country, which
comprises only about 0.5% of the total population
of Russia13. But we should note, that in majority
of cases Russia is left by high-qualified human
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600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Migration to Russia from CIS states
Migration from Russia to CIS states
Fig. 11. The dynamics of migration in the Russian Federation, number of people
450000
400000
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Fig. 12. The balance of migration in the Russian Federation, number of people
resources, attracted by higher incomes and better
quality of living in developed states.
Considering the prevalence of migrations
with the CIS-states, the general image of
migration processes in Russia looks the following
way: positive balance with a growth trend since
2004, gradual annual reduction of leave (Fig. 1114
and Fig. 1215).
Drawing the conclusion on the analysis of
the labor force migration in Russian economy
in the context of globalization, we can note that
first of all, these processes exist, but they are not
that significant in the scales of global economy,
and secondly, now there are no negative trends on
migration of labor force from Russia observed.
National economies interaction
on technologies and innovations’ market
The next key point, through which the
national economy interacts with other national
economies, is the market of technologies
and innovations, defining the way of the
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global research and technology progress. The
promotion of globalization processes in the
sphere of innovational technologies is proven
by the extension of international research and
technology cooperation, increase of international
trading of science-intensive products, the rate
of technical novelties dissemination between
national economies. “At the moment, despite
the intensification of globalization processes of
research and technology development national
factors of this development dominate: the majority
of MNC (multinational companies) still perform
the main part of researches in the home base
country. This situation is typical for the USA,
Japan, Germany, France and Italy, within the
territory of which 80-90% of R&D self-potential
is preserved (the exceptions are Belgium and the
Netherlands, which perform more than a half of
their R&D abroad)”.16
The contribution of Russian economy in the
global research and technology development at
the moment is yet minimal, which is proved by
the statistics of international patent applications
(Fig. 1317) – for 4 years Russia has filed only
2 473 international patent applications, which is
128 times less that the leader in applications –
the USA. The fact that regarding the number of
domestic patent applications Russian economy
takes the sixth line in the rating may seem to be
a nice result, however, according to individual
authors, whom we agree with, this way Russia
compensates its need in new technologies, “being
new only for domestic market. Such situation
can lead further underrun from the developed
countries of the world, which have entered the
step of the sixth technological mode”.18
Importance and urgency of the subject of
globalization, its influence on the processes
Doomestic paatent applications
Japan
China
Korea
USA
Germany
Russia
UK
France
Brazil
Italy
Canada
Poland
Spain
Netherlands
Finland
Australia
Sweden
Switzerland
Austria
Israel
Intern
national patent app
plications
977 597
5288 399
445 4322
430 4599
93 888
92 965
32 030
30 911
17 828
16 439
11 051
9 991
8 321
5 927
5 664
5 195
3 183
2 838
2 382
2 324
USA
Japan
Germany
Korea
France
Canada
China
UK
S
Switzerland
Italy
Sweden
N
Netherlands
Australia
Finland
Israel
Austria
Spain
Russia
Brazil
Poland
317 340
25
50 004
180 303
89 080
50 397
34 000
33 239
31 808
30 519
25 813
25 650
23 057
14 909
14 450
13 449
9 415
8 797
2 473
2 294
909
Fig. 13. Rating of countries on domestic and international patent applications between 2005 and 2009, number
of pieces
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of development of national economy attract
attention of not only many individual researchers
and scientists, but also international consulting
organizations, which use different indexes to
compare the level of country’s globalization.
Thus, for example, a famous international
consulting agency Ernst & Young has
performed the analysis of the globalization level
of 60 leading world’s economies on 20 main
parameters, covering key aspects of international
integration processes. As a result they calculated
a special index – globalization index, which
considers the following five criteria: trade
openness, movement of capital and fi nance,
exchange of technologies and ideas, movement
of labor and cultural integration. According to
this rating, published under the results of 201219,
Russian economy underruns significantly and
takes the 48th line of 60 available. The index
growth of Russian economy is for 0.05 scores
in comparison with 2011 lies within the range of
the average index growth on majority of studied
countries.
Globalization index, calculated by the
consulting company A.T. Kearney in 2007 on the
ground of 12 indicators in 4 categories20 (political
relations, technology of communication, personal
contacts and economic integration) demonstrates
also not the very successful situation of Russia –
the 62nd of 72.
The rating on KOF globalization index,
developed by the Swiss Institute for Economy
and Federal Swiss Institute for Technology on
the ground of 24 variables21, depicts the level
of Russian economy at the 45th line (of 207
countries).
The development of domestic version of
the globalization index was performed also by
Russian researchers22, following the results of
which Russian economy is characterized with an
average level of involvement into the processes of
globalization.
Conclusion
Summarizing the analysis of the issues of
the transformation of the structure of Russian
economy in the process of globalization, we can
conclude about general low level of involvement
of Russian economy into global processes. With
no doubts, Russian economy cooperates in
various directions with different countries, and
as well as many other states is subjected to the
influence of global trends of economic growth
or downturn. But the place, which Russian
economy takes at the moment in global indexes,
evidently does not correspond to its potential.
This is obvious also by detailed analysis of
Russian economy indexes themselves and in
comparison with developing countries, which
yet several years ago were far behind, and no
have moved forward actively. Let’s note that we
should not limit with the line taken by Russian
economy in international ratings, it’s appropriate
also to consider the qualitative compound.
Thus, for example, good dynamics of export and
import indexes growth has expressly raised the
position of Russia in respect to other countries,
by the analysis of structural component shows
us, that in qualitative aspect it is not a move
forward. Economy, which during years has been
selling out its mineral resources, and lately has
increased the rates, cannot be effective. In the
context of global economy Russia has a passive
line, the line of a “donor: and although these
indexes are sometimes significant in scopes, they
do not give sufficient bonuses at the moment,
and which is the most important, they seriously
limit the prospect of development in future.
Within the market of international trade, as
well as in the global capital market, regarding
investments Russia is of interest only to the
countries in a narrow segment of natural-raw
material resources, because neither in innovations
and technologies, nor in competitiveness and the
quality of individual types of productions Russia
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Svetlana K. Demchenko and Margarita A. Yudina. Structural Shifts of Russian Economy in Globalization Process
has yet managed to become a leader. As we see,
even a domestic large-scale project of Russian in
the global capital market, i.e. purchasing of 100%
share in TNK-ВР Ltd was of the sphere of oil
production and processing.
Lack of significant migration from the
country and positive migration balance to
some extent can be evaluated positively, but
this, naturally, demands even deeper analysis.
Existence or lack of significant migration is far not
that important as the fact that human capital and
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
research potential should be implemented inside
of the country, and not to flow gradually abroad,
by this not disturbing the integrity of statistical
data. For this, without doubts, significant is
the policy of the state, as in this strategically
important issue one shouldn’t trust the processes
of self-regulation. As for globalization, to our
opinion, it will keep on playing a significant role,
despite recent slowing down of the growth rates
of individual national economies, as well as the
global economy in general.
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, published at the
web-site http://www.cbr.ru/statistics/?Prtid=svs&ch=PAR_30241#CheckedItem
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, published at the
web-site http://www.cbr.ru/statistics/?Prtid=svs&ch=PAR_30241#CheckedItem
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, published at the
web-site http://www.cbr.ru/statistics/?Prtid=svs&ch=PAR_30241#CheckedItem
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, published at the
web-site http://www.cbr.ru/statistics/?Prtid=svs&ch=PAR_30241#CheckedItem
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the WTO (World Trade Organization) available at www.
wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2001_e/its01_overview_e.htm and at www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2012_e/
its12_world_trade_dev_e.htm
Calculated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, available at
www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/ftrade/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the WTO (World Trade Organization) available at www.
wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2001_e/its01_overview_e.htm and at www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2012_e/
its12_world_trade_dev_e.htm
Calculated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, available at
www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/ftrade/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
available at www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
available at www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
available at www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
available at www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
Calculated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, available at
www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
available at www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
available at www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/demography/#
Globalization of Science and Technologies, available at www.innovacii-investicii.ru/Globalizatsiya-nauki-i-tehnologiy-689.html
The figure is generated by the Authors following the data of the World Intellectual Property Organization, available at
www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/wipi/figures.html
Arkhipova M. Y., Khavanskov V. A. Informational-Statistical Monitoring of Innovative Activity of the Russian Academy
of Sciences on the Basis of Patent Informational Sources, Economic Science of Modern Russia journal, 2012, No. 2, pp.
119-120.
See the official web-site of Ernst & Young Global Limited, available at www.ey.com/GL/en/Issues/Driving-growth/Globalization---Looking-beyond-the-obvious---2012-Index
See http://msu-students.ru/Stat_lectures/stat37.pdf
See the official web-site for KOF index, available at www.globalization.kof.ethz.ch/media/filer_public/2013/03/25/rankings_2013.pdf
Goretskaya E.O., Saprykina V.Y., Miselimyan T.L. Development of the Index of the Global Economy Globalization Level,
Science and Practice Magazine Sphere of Services: Innovations and Quality, 2011, No. 1, available at: www.journal.kfrgteu.ru/old_ nomer.php?number=1
# 1420 #
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References
1. Arkhipova M. Y., Khavanskov V. A. Informational-Statistical Monitoring of Innovative
Activity of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the Basis of Patent Informational Sources, Economic
Science of Modern Russia journal, 2012, No. 2, pp. 119-120.
2. Goretskaya E.O., Saprykina V.Y., Miselimyan T.L. Development of the Index of the Global
Economy Globalization Level, Science and Practice Magazine Sphere of Services: Innovations and
Quality, 2011, No. 1, available at: www.journal.kfrgteu.ru/old_ nomer.php?number=1
Web pages
1. Globalization of Science and Technologies, Available at: http://innovacii-investicii.ru/
Globalizatsiya-nauki-i-tehnologiy-689.html (accessed 12 August 2013). Official web-site of Central
Bank of the Russian Federation, Available at:
2. http://www.cbr.ru/statistics/?Prtid=svs&ch=PAR_30241#CheckedItem (accessed 3 August
2013). Official web-site of Ernst & Young Global Limited, Available at: http://www.ey.com/GL/en/
Issues/Driving-growth/Globalization---Looking-beyond-the-obvious---2012-Index (accessed 12
August 2013). Official web-site of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation,
Available at:
3. http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/population/
demography/# (accessed 28 September 2013). Official web-site for KOF index, Available at: www.
globalization.kof.ethz.ch/media/filer_public/2013/03/25/rankings_2013.pdf (accessed 10 September
2013). Official web-site of World Intellectual Property Organization, Available at:
4. http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/wipi/figures.html (accessed 10 September 2013). Official
web-site of the World Trade Organization, Available at: http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/
its2001_e/its01_overview_e.htm (accessed 30 September 2013). Statistics lectures, Available at: http://
msu-students.ru/Stat_lectures/stat37.pdf, (accessed 30 September 2013).
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Svetlana K. Demchenko and Margarita A. Yudina. Structural Shifts of Russian Economy in Globalization Process
Структурные сдвиги российской экономики
в процессе глобализации
С.К. Демченко, М.А. Юдина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Исследованы структурные сдвиги российской экономики, характеризующие ее вовлеченность
в процессы глобализации. Определено значение российской экономики на международном
рынке обмена капиталом, инвестиционными ресурсами; обмена природными ресурсами,
средствами производства и потребительскими товарами; обмена трудовыми ресурсами;
научно-технологического развития. Показан уровень глобализации российской экономики
согласно известным индексам, а также дана авторская позиция о месте российской экономики
в современных процессах глобализации. Проведен детальный анализ собственных показателей
российской экономики и их сравнение с развивающимися странами. Сделан вывод о низком
уровне вовлеченности российской экономики в глобальные процессы. Обоснована важность
внутригосударственной реализации человеческого капитала и научно-исследовательского
потенциала, возможной в случае наличия целенаправленной государственной политики.
Ключевые слова: структурный анализ, структурные сдвиги, глобализация.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 8 (2014 7) 1423-1432
~~~
УДК 332.68
Analysis of State Forest Policy in Russia
Anton I. Pyzhev*,
Evgeniya V. Zander and Yulia I. Pyzheva
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 08.05.2014, received in revised form 20.06.2014, accepted 06.07.2014
The aim of the paper is to give the overview of current state forest policy in Russia. First of all, we
considered the history of institutional environment of Russian forest complex since ancient times and
stated that the branch always suffered from a bad quality of state management. Then we investigated
the acting forest legislation based on the Forest Code of the Russian Federation and the main reforms
performed by the Government during 2000s. Last chapter of our study is dedicated to the role of Kyoto
process in the long-run development of the Russian forest complex. Our conclusion is that we expect
an improvement of governmental perception of forest branch as an important sector of the national
economy within next decades.
Keywords: forest complex, natural resource use, forest state policy, Kyoto protocol, carbon quotas
market
The publication was prepared within the framework of the project no. 13-02-00186 supported by the
Russian Foundation for Humanities.
1. Introduction
Through the whole history of ancient Russia
to the extent of 12th century the usage of forests
have not been regulated (Bykovskiy, 2012). First
mentioning of tryouts to institutionalize the forest
management are related to the “Russian Truth” of
Yaroslav the Wise (Russian truth, 1947). Since
forests were primarily used for construction
and apiculture, and honey was the main export
product, the most part of rules of the “Russian
Truth” were dedicated to the protection of these
kind of activities. In 13–16th centuries the rules
of property of forests were being established.
The barricades of felled trees have been created
for the protection against the external enemies.
*
The Cathedral Code of tsar Alexei Mikhailovich
of 1649 the feudal property of forests has been
finally established (Bykovskiy, 2012).
An important institutional modernization of
the forest complex was performed during the rule
of Peter the Great. Nikolay Shelgunov, the famous
historian of the Russian forestry, considered Peter
the Great as a founder of forestry in Russia. At
the same time, as well as other initiatives of this
great Russian reformer, his forest science was
“too young, and in most cases alien to Russia”
(Schelgunov, 1857). The necessity of creation of
forestry was dictated by the runaway development
of the Navy being fully made of wood at that
time. Peter has created the governmental forest
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: pyanist@ya.ru
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guard and “waldmeister” (forest master) service.
These services were draft for surveillance on
maintenance of forest legislation. Due to the
goals of forest protection, forest shelterbelts along
the riverbanks have been established. The death
penalty was proclaimed in case of lumbering
within these shelterbelts (Bykovskiy, 2012).
Despite the obvious progressive character
of the reforms of Peter, they could not create a
really efficient model of forest management.
The evidence from Nikolay Shelgunov: “Before
Catherine II forest management was quite
undefined and inaccurate. When the obstacles
forced the government to find ways of forest
saving, it issued decrees concerning forest
protection or just granted forests to noblemen,
former officers and “kind people”. But the
consistent system of forest management has not
been created nor by Peter the Great, neither by
his successors” (Schelgunov, 1857). Thus, as a
result of Peter’s reforms, one could consider only
the prerequisites for creating of civilized forest
management.
During the Soviet period of Russian
history the forestry was only a supplier of raw
forest materials for the forest industry and was
subsidized by the government. According to
the logic and ideology of organization of the
national economy, all the forest resources were
nationalized and the forest management system
became rigidly centralized. In fact, nobody
considered forest logging as an independent
sector of forest complex which must earn money
itself (Blam, 2012).
Institutional environment of the forest
complex in the recent history of Russia was being
developed under the influence of processes of
establishing of the new Russian statehood. First,
there was a soviet unitarity, then decentralization
of the state management system under Boris
Yeltsin’s rule, and the creation of the “vertical of
power” in 2000s1.
2. The Analysis
of the Acting Russian Forest Legislation
During the period of recent history of
Russia the main legislative changes touching
forestry issues have been performed in 1993,
1997, 2004, 2006. The acting Russian forest
legislation is based on Forest Code of Russian
Federation (2006) (hereinafter FC RF), which
defi nes the relations regarding the usage of
forest resources. Its implementation served as
a starting point for a very important reform of
the Russian forestry.
Let us consider the key principles of forest
relations regulation, stated in FC RF, that are
necessary for our further investigation.
According to the part 1, art. 8 of FC RF, all the
forestlands are in the federal property. Since the
forest resources belong to the government, all the
consumers pay for using them (part 11, art. 1, part
1, art. 94 of FC RF). The principle of chargeability
of forest resources could be implemented in two
forms:
• Long-run lease of forest land for a period
from 10 to 49 years (part 3 art. 73 of FC
RF) paid with a rental fee;
• Short-run (up to one year) forest logging
paid within a framework of agreements
for purchase and sale of forest stands.
Art. 20 of FC RF distinguishes property
rights of forest resources in the following
manner:
• If a forest user holds forest logging for
a purpose of geological examination for
further mining activity, then the cut timber
belongs to the Russian Federation;
• If a forest user performs commercial
logging (according to art. 25 of FC RF),
then the property rights for this timber
must be purchased according to the civil
law.
The direct forest management in the domain
of forest protection and reproduction is performed
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by forestry services (“lesnichestva”) and forest
parks (art. 23 of FC RF).
Citizens and organizations could perform
forest logging on the basis of lease agreements
(part 8, art. 29 of FC RF).
The participants of forest relations having
rights of forest using issue the forest declarations,
which are the official applications for usage
of forest resources according to the plans of
forestlands development (art. 26 of FC RF).
Upon completion of next year of forest usage,
each leaser must provide a report containing the
information including the volume and structure
of forest resources depletion (part 1 art. 49 of
FC RF).
The Forest Code establishes the principle
of competitiveness protection in the domain
of forest usage, supposing the restriction of
monopolistic activity of private persons or the
groups of interest (part 1, art. 50 of FC RF).
The threshold level of market concentration is
defi ned according to the Federal Law No. 135FZ dated 26.06.2006 “On the protection of
competitiveness” (part 4 art. 50 of FC RF). The
executive power institution has an instrument
of monopolistic power restriction on the forest
market by establishing of maximum volume of
timber that could be logged by private persons
(part 3 art. 50 of FC RF).
Functions of forest fire protection and
pollution abatement (including radioactive
elements), harmful insects and other negative
impacts are given to the institutions of executive
power and local governments (parts 1, 2 art. 51
of FC RF). It is stated that forest users who don’t
follow the forestry regulations, could be defeated
in right of continuing of their activities according
to the agreement of forest lease (part 3 art. 51 of
FC RF).
The functions of forest reproduction are also
given to the federal and local governments (art.
61 of FC RF).
Lessees of a forestland who honestly fulfill
the conditions of forest lease agreement have an
exclusive right of preferred concluding of the
same agreement for the new term (part 5 art. 72
of FC RF).
In the case of long-run lease of forestlands,
the technique of calculation of lease payment is
defined by the art. 73 of FC RF. According to part
2, art. 73 of FC RF, if a forestland is exploited
for commercial depletion of forest resources, a
minimal value of lease payment is calculated as a
production of a unit rate and the volume of forest
resources depletion. If usage of a forestland does
not suppose the forest resources depletion, then
the minimal payment fee could be calculated as a
production of area unit rate and the area of leased
forestland (part 3. art. 73 of FC RF). The rates,
mentioned above, are defined by the Government
of the Russian Federation and the institutions
of executive power as well as regional and local
governments (part 4 art. 73 of FC RF).
The conclusion of forest lease agreement
is performed according to the results of forest
auctions with the exception of the following cases
(parts 1, 3 art. 74 of FC RF):
• Forest usage for hunting, geological
examination activity, mining of minerals,
construction
and
exploitation
of
reservoirs, other artificial water objects
and hydro technical facilities, specialized
seaports, reconstruction and exploitation
of infrastructure objects (pipelines,
automobile and rail roads, power lines
and others);
• Implementation
of
priority-driven
investment projects in the domain of
forest usage;
• Forest usage in a purpose of timber
processing.
In a case of purchase and sale of forest
stands, the value of payment for commercial
timber logging within the framework of
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agreement is defi ned by art. 76 of FC RF. The
minimal value of payment fee for forest stands
is calculated as a production of timber unit rate
and volume of timber to be harvested (part 2 art.
76 of FC RF). These rates are established by the
Government of the Russian Federation, regional
and local governments (parts 3, 4 art. 76 of FC
RF).
The conclusion of the agreements of
purchase and sale of forest stands is performed
using the results of auctions with the exception of
the following cases (part 1 art. 77 of FC RF):
• Forest protection and reproduction jobs;
• Logging for private needs.
The current unit rates for timber and area
for the forestlands belonging to the federal
government, are established by the resolution
of the Government of the Russian Federation
No. 310 dated 22.05.2007. The rates depend on
species, timber taxes, and distance of removal.
Every year the Government may introduce the
increasing coefficients for these rates.
The auctions for long-run and short-run
forest lease must be conducted according to
the art. 8 of FC RF. Let us consider the main
requirements for forest auctions defined by that
article of FC RF:
• Auctions are conducted according to the
principle of starting price (part 1 art. of
78 FC RF);
• Step of auction, i.e. the value upon
which will increase the bid after some
of participants holds the starting price,
is defined as a sum that could not excess
5 % of the auction’s starting price (point
3 part 6 art. 79 of FC RF);
• Auction is organized by the owner of
rights on the forestland lot (parts 1, 2 art.
79 of FC RF);
• The official announcement about the
auction conduction and its parameters is
distributed through the Internet not later
than 30 days before the auction (part 3
art. 79 of FC RF);
• Participants of the auction must follow
the formal requirements of part 8 art. 79
of FC RF;
• All the participants must put the deposit in
a value between 10 and 100 % of starting
price before conduction of the auction
at the same time when the application is
issued (point 5 part 6 art. 79 of FC RF);
• The organizer of auctions must perform
the audio track of the auction procedure,
and any participant of the auction has a
right to make video or audio track (part 1
art. 80 of FC RF);
• Auction could be recognized, if two
requirements are fulfilled: there were two
or more participants of auction, and at
least one of them has accepted the offer to
purchase the auction item at the starting
price;
• In case if the auction has been recognized
as frustrated because of participation of
only one customer, he must conclude the
agreement for purchasing of the auction
item at the starting price (part 8 art. 80
of FC RF).
Part 1 art. 95 of FC RF states that the
assessment of forest is performed according to
the Federal Law No. 135-FZ dated 29.07.1998
“On the assessment activity in the Russian
Federation”, i.e. the Forest Code does not
contain any specific techniques of forest
resources assessment. In our previous paper
we investigated the methods of forest rent
assessment (Pyzhev et al., 2013).
Despite that some of the statements of
the Forest Code could be recognized as even
progressive ones (for example, the necessity of
forest auctions conduction for timber logging
except some specific cases), the legislation
formed in post-soviet Russia has been criticized.
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A. Pisarenko and V. Strakhov point out that in
fact the internal forest policy remained the same
since soviet times (Pisarenko, Strakhov, 2006).
This situation leads to the appropriation of
forest incomes not by their owner–the Russian
Federation, –but by the exporters of Russian
timber.
In the expert community, as well as in the
academic circles, the critic opinion concerning the
efficiency of current governmental policy in the
domain of forestry is dominating. This common
position is based on the analysis of the problems
of the branch development and the assessment of
profiled institutions of executive and legislative
power regulating the forestry.
In our opinion, the current state policy in
forestry is typical for those branches of economy
that are not important for the federal power. One
could observe the tryout of profiled ministries
and legislators to overregulate the branch for the
purposes of “increasing the efficiency”, “put the
activity in good order” etc. Actually, this leads to
tragicomic consequences. In 1917–1991 in USSR
(Russia) 774 official documents were accepted
regulating forest usage issues, but through
only 20 years of the recent Russian history the
legislative activity has been intensified–1792
acts (Sukhovolskiy et al., 2010). It is obvious
that the efficiency of such laws is questionable.
This results in increasing of bureaucratic costs
in the system of governmental power, and direct
or indirect costs at the level of businesses. At the
same time, the most vital accumulated problems
of the branch are not resolved.
The huge volume of new normative
documents in the forest sector is created on the
background of the endless chain of reorganization
of the ministries and agencies of the Russian
Government. This leads to the constant transfer
of authorities from one institution to another
and “diffusion” of responsibility of concrete
representatives of the institutions of executive
power for the result and efficiency of state and
regional policy.
3. The Contemporary Forest State Policy
in Russia
Let us consider the main changes in Russian
governmental forest policy during the last two
decades and their consequences.
In 2002 the Government of Russia has
accepted a new order of stumpage fee management.
Earlier the whole forest rent collected using the
stumpage fee was sent to the budgets of Russian
regions. These funding were dedicated to the
financing of protection and reproduction of the
forest resources. Now there was suggested to keep
in regional budgets only the funding collected
with minimal rates from stumpage fee, and the
surplus of it must be sent to the federal budget.
Following this change almost all the regions
have dismissed the increasing coefficients for the
minimal rates from stumpage fees. The result was
the deficiency of 4.4 bln rubles into consolidated
budget of Russia (Blam, 2012).
One of the major novelties of the Forest Code
of 2006 was the reform of forest state management
system supposing the replacement of vertical
structure of management with the distributed one
(Kolesnikova, 2013). At the federal level of power
in the domain of forestry execute:
• Ministry of natural resources and ecology
of the Russian Federation:
○ Legislative and normative regulating
of the branch;
• Federal agency of forestry of the Russian
Federation:
○ Coordination of the usage, protection
and reproduction of the forests
including interregional interaction;
○ Control under the fulfillment of
authorities transferred to the regions;
○ Administration of payments and
control under the usage of federal
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budget subvention by the regional
institutions;
○ Rendering of governmental services
and management of property in the
domain of forest relations.
Thus, the Ministry has virtually legislative
power and the Agency represents the executive
authority. Moreover, despite the formally
independent status, it is obvious that the
Agency is the lower level in the hierarchy of
governmental authorities. Such a complicated
structure of relationship predefines the problems
of uncertainty of responsibility and is not
conductive to increasing of efficiency of the state
management in this domain.
During the 2000s the federal center has
transferred almost all the functions concerning
the forest protection and reproduction to the
regional level and hasn’t created any extra
sources of financing for implementation of these
functions. In fact, the regional authorities lack of
traditional means of subsistence comprising the
sale of logged timber (Romashov, 2009).
At the regional level the corresponding
ministries and agencies perform the functions
of state forest management. The relations of
their responsibility are analogical to those
of the federal level authorities. The main
structures of the local forest management
are the so-called “leskhozy”, which carry
out the functions of industrial logging, its
primary processing and forest protection and
reproduction activities. During the last years
the leskhozy have experienced the major
changes. From the one hand, these are exactly
leskhozy, which are responsible for the forest
fund management, from the other hand, they
have no real power, necessary for performing
of these functions. Moreover, since leskhozy
are the governmental institutions, they have
no right to make the commercial logging
anymore, so they were prevented from provide
for themselves (Nikolaychuk, 2010).
The aim of that reform remains unclear,
because even the foreign scholars acknowledged
that the activity of leskhozy is quite efficient
(Eikeland, Riabova, 2002; Eikeland et al., 2004).
As a result of the conducting forest state
policy, the volumes of forest reproduction are
only decreasing (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. The volumes of forest reproduction and afforestation in Russia in 2000–2012
Sources: Federal agency of forestry of the Russian Federation
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Anton I. Pyzhev, Evgeniya V. Zander… Analysis of State Forest Policy in Russia
In 2007–2009 the Government of the
Russian Federation have attempted the tryout to
reduce the share of forest logging in the structure
of forest products export. The mechanism of this
reform was the step-by-step increasing of export
fees for unprocessed timber from 20 % in 2007 to
80 % in 2009 (Antonova, Lankin, 2009). These
actions reduced to sharp decreasing of the export
volume of round wood on the background of world
financial crisis, but the main goal–increasing of
forest processing industry–hasn’t been achieved
(Blam, 2011). Nevertheless, in 2010–2012 an
increasing of growth rate of sawn wood export
was observed. Such an effect may be explained
with the reaction of market participants on the
change of trade rules: those of them who did not
get the fee quota with 15 % rate, turned to the
elementary saw-milling producing bars being
almost the same timber, but with lower customs
fees (Lipin, Gaiduk, 2008). Of course, this result
does not coincide with the primary goal of the
government.
It is necessary to underline that at the
regional level the authorities produced quite
efficient and economically well founded of the
forestry problems, but their implementation has
been broken up by the bureaucratic impediments.
For example, in Khabarovsk region in 2003 the
governor has issued a special decree granting
the right to reduce stumpage fees for the forest
loggers, which supplied the timber to forest
processing industries. However, this decree has
been cancelled, because it contradicted to the
acting Forest Code (Zausaev, 2013).
At the end of 2013 the Government of the
Russian Federation have approved the document
titled “The Basement of State Policy in Forestry
until 2030”. As a matter of fact, this document
was kind of a roadmap of the long-run state
policy in the domain of forest relations. It does
not contain any new ideas and principles, which
could be premised to the branch development for
the next years. All the acting principles of the
current policy in the domain of forest relations
are kept. In other words, this is kind of a formal
reply to the well-known Decrees of the President
of the Russian Federation dated 07.05.2012
(Petrov, 2013).
4. Russian Forestry
and Kyoto Protocol
An important issue of the contemporary
agenda is the participation of forests in the
regulation of the carbon balance of the Earth
and solution of the climate change problems. In
1988 the International Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) has been created combining the efforts
of academic circles and the governments of main
European countries. The focus of IPCC is the
problem of ecological and economic and social
risks of climate change. The importance of this
issue does not arouse any doubts anymore. The
IPCC has contributed to the development and
further ratification of the Kyoto protocol, which
created the economic mechanisms to control the
emissions of greenhouse gases using the trade of
carbon quotas between countries.
Russian forests absorb increasingly more
volume of greenhouse gases. By the assessment
of D. G. Zamolodchikov, V. I. Grabovskiy and G.
N. Kraev, the sink of carbon to the Russian forests
has increased from 80 Mt in 1988 to 230–240 Mt
at the end of 2000s. This is explained with the
reduce of forest logging volumes in Russia during
the last decades (Zamolodchikov et al., 2012).
At this juncture the official policy of Russia
towards the problem of global warming is mostly
timeserving and addressed to the solving of
current foreign-policy tasks and benefiting from
the sale of emissions quotas. There is no strategic
participation in global initiative on reducing of
greenhouse gases emissions (Safonov, Charap,
2011). Despite quite a frequent discussion of the
participation of Russia in the Kyoto protocol (cf.
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Anton I. Pyzhev, Evgeniya V. Zander… Analysis of State Forest Policy in Russia
(Buchner, 2005; Firsova, 2008)), and all-round
lobbying of its ratification from the party of the
Russian government, during a long period there
were no complex and comprehensive estimates
of consequences of entering the Kyoto process.
Some of experts argue that this step was induced
by totally political reasons as a compromise for
entering the World Trade Organization (Buchner,
2005). More or less, the long-awaited conclusion
of the agreement with WTO has occurred in
2012, and the assessment of absorbing capacity
of Russian forests compared with the volume
of emission of the greenhouse gases was made
(Fedorov, 2007, 2011). The authors of the cited
papers have considered the different scenarios
of the dynamics of absorption and emissions of
greenhouse gases on the Russian territory and
have concluded that even the most pessimistic
scenario (and without making restrictions on
carbon dioxide emissions) Russia will keep the
possibility to perform trade of carbon quotas until
2100. The absorbing capacity of the Russian forest
is so huge, so it will allow absorbing up to 100
Gt of carbon in 2000–2100. By the preliminary
assessment of B. N. Porfiriev, the ratio between
growth rate of investment in power efficiency
of fuel and energy complex and decrease of
greenhouse gases emissions in 1990–2010 is
60–65 US $ for 1 t of the carbon equivalent.
At the same time, the same ratio of the growth
of investment to the development of forestry
and decrease of greenhouse gases emissions is
30–35 US $. It turns out, that according to the
criterion of greenhouse gases emission, the
investment into forestry is twice more efficient
than the same process in fuel and energy complex
(Porfiriev, 2013). These facts allow counting on
increasing on competitiveness of the carbon
market quotas that will lead to great demand on
forest services not only from private persons,
forest businessmen, but also from politicians.
5. Conclusion
In this paper we concluded that the system
of forest management in Russia always faced the
sufficient difficulties. The problems accumulated
in the branch by the current moment are stipulated
for institutional legacy of the soviet period and
careless, frequently indifferent state policy in the
domain of forest relations.
It would be naïve to count that the Russian
forest complex may become a serious concurrent
to the oil and gas sector, even though the state
holds a well-founded forest policy. In our opinion,
one should not point such a goal. It is much more
fundamental to speak about the diversification
of the structure of our economy that currently
almost totally depends on only one major branch.
It is also badly important to establish a sustainable
system of natural resources usage.
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1
A comprehensive study of Russian federalism development has been conducted by E. Zhuravskaya (2011).
Анализ государственной
лесной политики России
А.И. Пыжев,
Е.В. Зандер, Ю.И. Пыжева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Целью настоящей работы является анализ государственной лесной политики России. Мы
рассмотрели историю институциональной среды российского лесного комплекса с XII века
по настоящее время и установили, что отрасль испытывала существенные трудности,
связанные с невысоким качеством государственного управления в течение всей истории своего
развития. Затем была дана характеристика современному лесному законодательству России,
основанному на Лесном кодексе, а также проанализированы результаты реформ комплекса,
предпринятых Правительством в 2000-х гг. Последний параграф настоящей статьи посвящен
роли Киотского процесса в долгосрочном развитии российского лесного комплекса. Можно
ожидать, что в течение ближайших десятилетий лесная отрасль сможет стать важным
сектором национальной экономики, что улучшит ее восприятие представителями органов
власти и, в конечном итоге, повысит качество государственной лесной политики.
Ключевые слова: лесной комплекс, природопользование, государственная политика, Киотский
протокол, рынок углеродных квот
Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке РГНФ в рамках научного проекта № 1302-00186 «Эффективное управление рентой как источник долгосрочного развития лесного
комплекса России».
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