175.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №1 2011код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2011 Journal of Siberian Federal University 4 (1) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.С. Соколов член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В. В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Kirill S. Alexandrov Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Veniamin S. Sokolov Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Natalia V. Trofimova Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features (Historiographical aspects) –3– Vitaly V. Boriskin A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA – 12 – Oleg S. Safronov Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin – 19 – Alexei D. Krivolap Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space – 29 – Uliana V. Smirnova The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse – 37 – Daniil V. Pivovarov Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation – 50 – Olesya V. Kuznetsova Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe – 60 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 17.01.2011 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,5. Уч.-изд. л. 12,0. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2733. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Hasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Alexey M. Korostelev Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) – 67 – Dmitry E. Kichigin The Pottery of the Late Bronze $ Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II (Northwestern Coast of Lake Baikal) – 78 – Vladimir I. Kirko and Anna V. Keusch The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational Institution on the Example of the Siberian Federal University – 90 – Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin, Natalja A. Verbitska, Natalja V. Kachina and Anna S. Mironchik Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren and Students of Krasnoyarsk Region Higher Education Institutions – 102 – Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Nikolay V. Schedrin Concept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures – 112 – Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional MythReality – 119 – Yelena A. Nozdrenko Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity of Technological Approach and Formation of High Spiritual and Intellectual Potential – 128 – Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century – 143 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 3-11 ~~~ УДК 75.046(470.5)+94(470.5) Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features (Historiographical aspects) Natalia V. Trofimova* South Ural State University, 76 Lenina, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 The present article is devoted to the analysis of research points of view on a set of questions in the field of Old Russian icon-painting traditions of the Ural study. Special attention in the analysis was paid to the source and methodological basis of the research. Thus, we came to the conclusion that development of a complex approach is necessary for effective solving of the problem. Keywords: icon painting, old belief, «Nevian School of icon painting». Icon painting craft was mentioned for the fi rst time by A.V. Komarov in 19 century: «Icon painting is the craft of three families in Nevian factory and there are no other places it could be seen. This craft appeared about 100 years ago and was obviously transported by old believers who migrated to Ural, especially during famine» (Komarov, 1889, 113). D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak also mentioned about famous icon-painters in the Ural area in his publicistic sketches in 1880-1890 (Mamin-Sibiryak, 1947, 260). But works of A.V. Komarov and D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak were not supposed to investigate the old believer icon-painting as a scientific problem. The situation has not changed greatly after the revolution. The attempt to focus art collectors’ and connoisseurs’ interest on the Ural old believer icon-painting was made by S. Dulong in his report at the meeting of «The Ural Society of Natural Science Fans» (USNSF). But when this society * 1 was closed down in 1929, all efforts to explore Ural icon-painting were ceased. Art learning of old Russian icon painting in Russia began in 1960s and in 1970s in the Ural region. In 1970s Ekaterinburg local history museum organized summer historically – domestic expeditions (which included exploring of icon-painting works) to Sverdlovsk region, particularly to Talizky, Kuvshinsky, Krasnoufimsky, Shalinsky, Nizhnetagilsky and other areas. Thus, we can name 1970s -1980s as the period of scientific materials collection. The period between the late 1980s and the early 1990s was the first stage of scientific exploring of Ural old believer icon-painting. This stage is characterized by the beginning of scientific apprehension of collected data, generation of first conceptions, introduction of «Nevian School of icon painting» notion for scientific use (Golynez, 1988, 31-44). The main problem of that period was the problem of stylistic sources of Ural old Corresponding author E-mail address: Trofimowa-N@mail.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved #3# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features believer icon-painting revealing (Trofimova, 2009, 153-156). But the main feature of first research was hypothetical because of lack of early Ural icons and documents. The beginning of the new stage of research work began in the middle of 1990s and it is characterized by the increasing number of the explored icons and collected data. It helped the scientists involved to make their knowledge about the Ural old believer icon-painting more profound, accurate and concrete. Alongside the problem of its stylistic sources there were set some others about: the time of formation and inner evolution of «Nevian School of icon painting», the part of Nevian School in Ural icon-painting, existence of other centers of icon-painting in this area (Golynez, 1995, 74). The most active discussion of these questions was during the post soviet period. This scientific article is supposed to carry out the analysis of research points of view on the problem of formation period and internal evolution of «Nevian School of icon painting» on the Ural mining territory and its stylistic sources. It is worth mentioning, that the modern historical science and art learning are identifying old believer icon-painting with Nevian School of icon painting on the basis of chapel agreement. It is known that the Ural became one of the centers of old belief after the church split in 1653-1656. The migration of old believers greatly raised after defeating Kerzhenz city in 1722. Tens of thousands of old believers, the majority of them were sophontiev’s people, migrated to the East, especially to the Ural factories. Because of repressions in 30s of the XIX century, «beglopopovcy» refused to accept the fugitive parsons of official church and initiated church services without parsons. This way sophontiev’s agreement became chapel agreement. Research workers refer the beginning of Ural icon-painting to the beginning of Stephan Permsky’s mission. Stephan Permsky was an icon painter: «We can trace the history of Ural icon-painting from 80s of the XIV century with the introduction of Christian enlightenment in the Ural area». But G.V. Golynez thinks that «we can talk about Ural icon-painting as it is, only when Tsar Peter the Great started his ruling. But dealing with the beginning of the XVIII century the researchers have to rely on documentary witnesses and legends only» (Golynez, 1988, 32). That’s why up to the present time there is no unanimous opinion about time when the Ural icon-painting started. There is some agreement of research workers’ opinion concerning the formation time of Nevian icon-painting school, although there is no unanimity about this problem in modern native historiography. G.V. Golynez stated in the middle of 1990s that «The Ural old-believer icon painting school originated in 1720s, after migration of people («vygonok») from upper Volga river area, Kerzhenc city, Poland border areas («Vetka»), maritime area to Demidov’s Ural (Golynez, 1995, 74: 2008, 68-84). The sources of scientific data were icon works and the method of research was art learning method, which includes iconographic analysis, composition analysis and coloristic analysis of icons. The opinion of G.V. Golynez was supported by the research workers, such as G.I. Vzdornov ( Vzdornov, 2005, 9), T.A. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin ( Runeva et al., 2000, 361), G.I. Panteleeva (Panteleeva , 2003, 11) and the collectors Y.M. Ryazanov and L.D. Ryazanova (Ryazanov et al., 1999, 64). Followers of that point of view prove it by the earliest icon work «The Egypt Holy Mother» dated 1734. At the beginning of 2000s this problem was solved another way. V.I. Baidin put in the science use the archive data from Perm, Sverdlovsk and #4# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features Tymen regions. The careful art analysis of these data helped to reconstruct biographies of first old-believer icon painters. On the basis of mentioned above, he assumed that «old-believers icon painting school based in the Ural mining area (Nevian school), formed quite later, by the last quarter of XVIII century, when the third or fourth generation of local painters had already been working» (Baidin, 2002, 81). As research worker thinks, the processes of cultural self-identification of UralSiberian «beglopopov’s people» were crucial for Nevian School of icon-painting. On the other hand, there was isolation of Ural-Siberian «beglopopov’s people» from their colleagues in European part of Russia. This autonomy was saved, developed in the next decade and resulted in chapel agreement, which was the most popular on the Ural and Siberian territory» (Baidin, 2002, 79-80). E.V. Royzman and M.P. Borovik supported V.I. Baidin’s opinion: «The majority of age-dated «nevian» icons started to appear after 1770, but rare early icons can be assumed as milestones of ural icon-painting craft» (Borovik, 2002, 19). Consequently such followers as E.V. Royzman, M.P. Borovik, and V.I. Baidin suppose that document learning analysis is the most preferable method of icon painting art research. With the help of this method they dated formation of Nevian School painting by the last quarter of XVII century. E.V. Royzman, however, changed his mind some time later. In 2006, he thought: «In any case, Nevian School of icon painting was formed in the fi rst half of XVIII century» (Interview with a member of State Duma E. Royzman). He supposed that historical processes played the main role in icon-painting formation, fi rst of all he marked huge historical meaning of Demidov’s factories which were potent religious centers in the Ural area and there was integration of two streams of old-believers who migrated from the Volga and Maritime areas. The process of the Ural old-believer icon painting development had irregular character; it was pointed out by A.V. Komarov in the end of the XIX century: «In old times, icon painting crafts flourished; there were about ten icon-painting workshops, but now there orders decreased so dramatically, that three workshops had no work» (Komarov, 1889, 113). Thus, emerging of evolution problem in the second half of the XX century (when the old-believer icon-painting appeared in researcher’s field of study) was obvious. There were different opinions about this question. The milestone of contradictions was timing of Nevian icon-painting school flourishing that was called «golden» or «high» Neviansk. G.V. Golynez dated «High Neviansk period by the second half of XVIII century – the first half XIX century. The author considers that art flourishing of the school «was stimulated by the industry and economics of the area development», concentration and cohesiveness of old-believing in the Ural area after defeat of priories in the European part of Russia, when «the chapel agreement played the cohesive role. They protected their ways of living, chapel ceremony, their care and eagerness supported the Ural iconpainting». Moreover, «Neviansk was the place where the best artist gathered in the second half of XVIII century – the first half of XIX century» (Golynez, 1997, 209). As we can see, G.V. Golynez considered economic growth to be the main reason for art uprisal. A.T. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin narrowed «Classic Neviansk» period having limited it to the end of XVIII century – the first half of XIX century, «when the Bogatyrevs line, the Chernobrovins line, the Anisimovs line worked, later it was the Filatovs, the Romanovs and the Kalashnikovs line» (Runeva et al., 2000, 361). #5# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features Thus, the authors found connection between the art uprisal and creative work of the lines that had formed before and had been working for many generations. Managers of «Nevian Icon» museum E.V. Royzman and M.P. Borovik defended a different point of view, based on stylistic features of icons: «Nevian icon of XVIII century, dobogatyrevskaya in particularly, is notable for a more advanced level of writing, true performance and, dare we say it, more chaste taste. «Nevian icon» as we call it «high Neviansk» did not step over XIX century line» (Royzman, 2002, 16). But in 2006 E.V. Royzman changed his mind and expanded the time boundaries of the period: «The period that we call «high Neviansk» is at least 70 years old. It has started to decline since 20s-30s of the XIX century» (Royzman, 2002, 16). Thus, during that period two points of view in historical science about the period of Nevian oldbeliever icon painting formation were developed. G.V. Golynez, G.I. Vzdornov, T.A. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin, G.I. Panteleeva and collectors Y.M. Ryazanov, L.D. Ryazanova linked the process to the first half of XVIII century. V.I. Baidin, E.V. Royzman and M.P. Borovik attached it to the last quarter of XVIII century. The fiercest dispute was on period of Nevian School flourishing because the researchers had different reasons hierarchy. T.A. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin, Y.M. Ryazanov, L.D. Ryazanova, E.V. Royzman and M.P. Borovik put art characteristics of icon in the first place, but G.V. Golynez judges from economic and religious reasons and then forms stylistic characteristics. There are no disputes in scientific community about crisis period and decadence in the Ural icon painting. All researchers agreed on the point that since second half of XIX century there was «loss of creative power». As it is known, the process of economy reorientation to capitalist regime was on the way. The Ural lost his leading positions in metal melting, changes in economic positions of factories took place and rich clients were lost. Thus there was a reduction in numbers of icon workshops, distribution of cheap mechanically typed icons, assimilation of old-believer style icon with various Ural icons and imported ones. G.V. Golynez thinks that Nevian icon painting experienced some revival at the turn of XIX and XX century. This revival was the result of the manifest dated October 17, 1905 which gave civil rights to the old believers. But Nevian School would never reach such high level as it did before. Some professionals had been working until 20s of XX century; this fact can be proved by the latest icon «God Almighty», dated April 2, 1919. Researches agreed on stylistic features of the Ural icon. Coloristic specificity, as scientists think, is expressed in decorativeness, active using of red, green and gold palette: «Coloration of Nevian icons is notable for decorativeness, combination of favorite hues of red, «green and blue palette is rich» (Golynez, 1988, 35). V.I Baidin, basing on the analysis of Apocalypse miniature, noted icon influence on miniatures style, «however gold background is typical for Nevian icon style» (Baidin 1994, 41). G.V. Golynez carried out coloristic analysis of icons and came to the conclusion that «Nevian artists used complete gold plating very often, sometimes too excessive» (Golynez, 1988, 35). One of the features was usage of mineral colors of industry production: «Nevian artists liked to use colors obtained from grinding of local minerals into paste, this method gave a special color effect to icons» (Ryazanov, 1991, 3). This features were also noted by N.A. Goncharova, T.A. Runeva, V.I. Gubkin and V.I. Kolosnicin (Goncharova et al., 1998, 7-12; Gubkin, 1988, 128-137; 1997, 227231). The common art features of the Ural oldbeliever icon painting were pointed out by L.D. Ryazanova: «We know about a lot of icons from #6# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features advanced to simple «of primitive painting style, which nevertheless can be united according to sainthood painting workmanship and unique colored hills» (Ryazanova , 1986, 148). All researchers pointed out colored hills as the main feature of this school (Ryazanov, 1991, 3). E.V. Royzman, taking into account results of exploring dated icons of XVIII century, singled out «common for all Nevian icons of XVIII century feature – «pozem» with flowers, this stylistic element sometimes can be seen in simplified form in «krasnoufimsk» style icons of XIX century» (Borovik, 2002, 19). E.V. Royzman, G.I. Panteleeva, G.V. Golynez pointed out Ural nature views as attributes of the Ural old believer icon (Golynez, 2008, 6884; Panteleeva, 1992, 132-137; Interview with member of State Duma E. Royzman, 2006). There were singled out two types in personal painting. G.V. Golynez, taking into account the analysis of Bogatyrev’s masterpieces, pointed out special Nevian style of personal painting, and described it as «lovely, chubby, with broadly placed, big and slightly popped eyes, swollen lids; short, straight and scarcely noticeable humped nose; roundish chin; waved line of slightly smiled lips with face features brought together vertically» (Golynez, 1997, 210; 2008, 68-84). Another «expressive» type more often can be seen in one-figure icon. T.A. Runeva and V.I. Kolosnicin suppose that the second type of sainthood prolonged Novgorod’s traditions of XVII century. Novgorod style marked by «rough, graphical paint; sharp-cut nose, mouth, chin, cheekbones; eyes with heavy lower lid, arched eyebrow, superciliary ridges; wrinkle on the forehead, light entrance in whiteness» (Runeva et al., 2000, 361). Besides, M.P. Borovik and E.V. Royzman traced evolution stages of «dobogatyrevskaya» icon formation and built logical circuit as follows: 1. «oval painting» dated by the beginning of XVIII century, characterized by north influence; 2. «White sainthood icons» dated by 30s – 50s of XVIII century and existed up to the beginning of XIX century. 3. «bold painting», the earliest example dated by 1762, it combines Moscow and north influence; 4. «krasnoufimsk painting» known from 80s of XVIII century, can be seen in different types until the beginning of XX century, differs from other types by more soft whitening of sainthoods, width and other dimensions desk ratio and absence of arks.( Royzman, 2002, 19) Taking into consideration all mentioned above, we can state that the main distinguishing features of the Ural old-believer icon painting, particularly Nevian icon painting school are: intensive usage of gold and mineral colors, decorativeness of color scale, icon hills, «pozem», Ural area views and white style sainthood. The most favorite icon images in old believer community, as researchers suppose, were images of Holy Virgin, iconographic type «Tenderness», also images of Nicolai Miracle Worker, Ilya Prophesy especially in «Ilya’s fire ascension», Ioan Ancestor, Saint George, and Aleksandr Nevsky. Image of Panteleimon – Healer became famous in XIX century. We should also say that in spite of conservatism of old believer community, their icon painting revealed spirits of the new times. That process was traced by G.V. Golynez, who singled out successive change of baroque, classicism and romanticism features in Nevian icon. The main guides of European style were sons of the Ukraine, «lived near «kerzhaki» people, Pole and Swede POWs, foreign specialists who worked in metallurgic factories. There were also channels with old believer centre of Poland, Romania and the Baltic states (Golynez, 1997, 211). #7# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features Assessment of art nature of the Ural old believer icon painting became ambiguous. V.I. Baidin described it as follows: «The Ural old believer icon is framed in culture phenomenon known as «primitive» or «the third culture» which is functioning together and in interaction with scientific-artistic professionalism and nonprofessional folklore. «Primitive» occurs and develops in city and city area in the end of XVII –the beginning of XX century. In specific Russian social-economical conditions we should add trade and mining settlements to the nurturing city area «soil» of «the third culture» (Baidin, 1992, 19). In this context, a basis for this conclusion was the V.N. Prokofiev’s conception about three levels of art culture of the New and the Newest time (Prokofiev, 1983, 6-28). G.V. Golynez agreed with the fact that it is possible to consider the Ural old-believer icon as the «primitive», but she specified it: «It is necessary to take into consideration the nature of the Ural culture which unlike the capital culture possesses primitive characteristics. In that very culture, the old believer icon, having kept mediaeval traditions, turned out to be more professional and was the example of great artistry» (Golynez, 1995, 74: 2008, 68-84). Thus, researchers identify art nature of the Ural old believer icon painting as the high level of ‘primitivism’. V.N. Prokofiev wrote about its multilevelness as follows: «The whole spectrum of primitive forms, overflowing into each other: coming nearer to high culture level or to folklore is in between these opposite borderlines (nonprofessional folklore and scientific-artistic professionalism – N.T.)» (Prokofiev, 1983, 6-28). In spite of unprofessional nature of the Ural old believer icon painting, researchers highly appreciate its art features. G.V. Golynez defined its meaning and role as follows: «Studying of Nevian School proves that it is an important phenomenon in native art history that enriches our knowledge about the new time icon painting. It rose to eminence in artistry in its best days» (Golynez, 1997, 213). V.G. Puzko pointed out that «such provincial centers can give a complete idea about cultural and historical meaning of old-believer icon as a whole» (Puzko, 2005, 369376). We can conclude that the problems of formation time and inner development of the Ural old believer icon painting are urgent nowadays. The role of Nevian school in the Ural iconpainting and existence of other icon painting centers in the Ural area are still undecided. Ya.A. Rusanov having analyzed the stylistic features of the South Ural icons came to the conclusion that: «Researching of Chelyabinsk prayer hall’s icons of old-believer artists work proves the opinion that there were icon workshops in the South Ural, which dealt with different orders» (Rusanov, 2008, 79-84; 2009, 75). Alongside the problems mentioned above, there is a set of practical tasks for investigators. Firstly, conditions of storing of art monuments need to be carefully examined, because the ancient technology of icon painting changed in XVIII – XIX centuries, but materials used in the New time are not carefully studied. There is another problem – Nevian school restoration methods, which are being developed. G.V. Golynez indicated the way of the following research work: «Comparison of Nevian face original with surviving art works, surviving nonsigned and non-dated icons with dated icons, the Ural region icon painting with painting of other regions». According to the author, «stylistic and iconographic experience, obtained by native science, should coexist with theological thought» (Golynez, 2008, 84). In our opinion, complexity of the Ural old-believer icon painting research is not only in the lack of data or absence of earlier dated icons, the methods of research used by this #8# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features or that investigator were highly restrained. It proved that we need to apply the complex approach to get good scientific research results and clear idea of the situation studied. Art nature of Nevian school needs art review, but restitution of history of the Ural old-believer icon-painting development needs historical methods of research, such as historicalcomparative method and others which help to restore the real history of the subject, to show cause-effect links and natural laws of historical evolution and give individual and picturesque characteristics of historical events and personalities.(Kovalchenko, 2003, 184). References A.V.Komarov, Icon-painting craft // Zverev P.N. Yekaterinburg region’s crafts. – Yekaterinburg, 1889. P. 113. – (in Russian). D.N.Mamin-Sibiryak, Articles and Essays. – Sverdlovsk, 1947. P. 260. – (in Russian). G.V.Golynez, Nevian icon-painting school of the second half of XVIII century -XIX century and its stylistic features // From history of the Ural art culture. – Sverdlovsk. 1988. P. 31-44. – (in Russian). N.V.Trofimova, Problem of stylistic sources of old believer icon-painting in the Ural mining area in native historiography. Tez.ct. // Scientific search. Social-humanitarian and natural sciences. Scien. conf. data.- Chelybinsk, 2009. P. 153-156. – (in Russian). G.V.Golynez, Ural icon // Seasons. Chronicles of Russian art life. Yearbook. M., 1995. P. 74 – (in Russian). G.V.Golynez, Gornee and dolnee. Nevian icon-painting school // Picture of the Ural in graphic art. Yekaterinburg: 2008. P. 68-84. – (in Russian). G.I.Vzdornov, Praise word for «Nevian icon» museum // Museum «Nevian icon».- Yekaterinburg, 2005. P. 9. – (in Russian). T.A.Runeva, V.I.Kolosnicin, Nevian icon-painting school // the Ural historical encyclopedia. 2 edition, revised and added. – Yekaterinburg, 2000. P. 361. – (in Russian). G.I.Panteleeva, Ancient Rus monument. From Chel. art gallery collection. Part 1. Icon-painting. Chelyabinsk, 2003. P. 11. – (in Russian). Y.M.Ryazanov, L.D.Ryazanova, Nevian icon: from the beginning to decline // Ural pathfinder. 1999. №. 2. P. 64. – (in Russian). V.I.Baidin, Articles about icon-painters working at metallurgic factories, the first half – the middle of XVIII century: new names and new information about artists (concerns the question about sources and formation time of Nevian icon-painting school) // Herdal of Nevian icon museum. Yekaterinburg, 2002. V.1. P. 81. – (in Russian). M.P.Borovik, E.V.Royzman, Signed and dated icons of «Nevian icon» museum collection XVIII century // Herald of Nevian icon museum. Yekaterinburg, 2002. V.2. P. 19. – (in Russian). Interview with MP E.V.Royzman, who created «Nevian icon» museum // Source http://www. starover.religare.ru/article6960.html,dated December 23, 2006 G.V.Golynez, Nevian icon: Ancient Rus traditions and context of New time // Nevian icon / edited by Pervukhina V.I. Yekaterinburg, 1997. P. 209. – (in Russian). E.V.Royzman, «How it was». «Nevian icon» museum herald. Yekaterinburg, 2002. V.1. P. 16. – (in Russian). #9# Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features V.I.Baidin, Ways-roads of Paisiy Zavertkin // the Ural pathfinder.1994. №. 3. P.41. Ryazanov Y.M. Meeting with white faced people // the Ural pathfinder. 1991. №.10. P. 2-3. – (in Russian). N.A.Goncharova, T.A.Runeva, O.P.Gubkin, Icon painting legacy of the Ural: sources and ways of development //the Ural icon. Picturesque, carved and cast icon dated XVIII – the beginning of XX century.- Yekaterinburg, 1998. P. 7-12. – (in Russian). O.P.Gubkin, Bogatyrev’s – Nevian artist icon-painters line // From history of the Ural art culture. – Sverdlovsk., 1988. P. 135. – (in Russian). O.P.Gubkin, Nevian icon painters the Bogatyrevs and the Chernobrovins // Nevian icon. Album. Yekaterinburg, 1997. P. 227-231. – (in Russian). L.D.Ryazanova, »Pisan byst… in nevian factory»//Ural.1986. №. 12. P. 148. – (in Russian). G.I.Panteleeva, Ancient Rus art collection in Yekaterinburg’s local history museum possession.// Aancient Russian tradition in the Ural culture: Mat. Scien.-pract. Conference (April 28-30, 1992.) – Chelyabinsk. 1992. P. 132-137. – (in Russian). V.I.Baidin, About old-believer icon-painting in metallurgic Ural area, in XVIII – XIX century // Ancient Russian icon painting tradition in the Ural history. Mat. Scien.-pract. conference (April 28-30, 1992.) – Chelyabinsk. 1992. P. 19. – (in Russian). V.N.Prokofiev, About three levels of art culture of the New and the Newest time (on the problem of primitive in graphic arts) // Primitive and its place in art culture of the New and the Newest time. M., 1983. P. 6-28. – (in Russian). V.G.Puzko, Orthodox icon as historically-cultural occurrence // Old-believing: history, culture, modernity / editored by Osipova V.I. M-Borovsk. V. 1. 2005. P. 369-376. – (in Russian). Ya.A.Rusanov, South Ural monuments of old-believer icon-painting dated by the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century (according to materials of Kalnin O.G.’s personal collection) // SUSU’s herald. Series: Social-humanitarian sciences. – Chelyabinsk, 2008. V. 10. № 6. P. 79-84. – (in Russian). Ya.A.Rusanov, Monuments of old-believes icon-painting in the South Ural. Collection of prayer home of Chelyabinsk pomor community // SUSU herald. «Socially-humanitarian sciences» series.2009. V.12. № 9. P. 75. – (in Russian). I.D.Kovalchenko, Method of historical research. M., 2003. P. 184. – (in Russian). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features Уральское старообрядческое иконописание: зарождение, эволюция, стилистические особенности (историографический аспект) Н.В. Трофимова Южно-Уральский государственный университет Россия 454080, Челябинск, пр. Ленина, 76 В статье проведен анализ исследовательских позиций по ряду вопросов в области изучения древнерусских иконописных традиций Урала. При анализе исследований особое внимание было уделено их источниковой и методологической основам, что позволило прийти к выводу о необходимости разработки комплексного подхода для эффективного решения поставленных проблем. Ключевые слов: иконопись, старообрядчество, «невьянская школа иконописи». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 12-18 ~~~ УДК 347.964.1 A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA Vitaly V. Boriskin* Kemerovo State University 6 Krasnaya st., Kemerovo, 650000 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 In this article author makes a comparative analysis of Executory systems of Russia and USA. Author gives short description of US Marshals and Russian service of officers of justice. Author analyses not only credentials of each structure? Bit also the way both Marshals and officers of justice use to train its stuff. In the final part of the article author describes his vision of future of Russian officers of justice as an executory body, and hopes that at least some part of Marshals experience will be used in this future. Keywords: term1: Officers of justice, term2: executory, term3: US Marshals, term4: the new law «About executory process». Point Today United States considers as an example of a country with the highly developed law system, beginning with the precedent court system and to the system of a greatly organized, highly qualified structure of US Marshals (Walker, 1967; Romanov, 2000; Mingalin, 2003). The oldest federal law enforcement agency in the United States is truly the Marshals Service. The agency was formed by the Judiciary Act of Sept. 24, 1789. The act specifically determined that law enforcement was to be the U.S. Marshals' primary function. Therefore it appropriately defined marshals as law enforcement officers. Section 28 of the Judiciary Act authorizes the U.S. marshal or deputy marshal to execute federal judicial writs and process. It also required sworn personnel and continuity in office. Such language was designed to give the U.S. marshals * 1 a wide latitude of powers and the authority to deputize. The direct connection to the federal court system indicated the early need to execute lawful precepts throughout the new nation. Many of the first U.S. Marshals had already proven themselves in military service during the American Revolution (Rosbuck, 2000). Among the first marshals was John Adams' son-in-law Congressman William Stephens Smith for the district of New York. Another New York district Marshal was Congressman Thomas Morris. Another early U.S. Marshal was Henry Dearborn for the district of Maine. From the earliest days of the nation, Marshals were permitted to recruit Special Deputies as local hires or as temporary transfers to the Marshals Service from other federal law enforcement agencies. Marshals were also authorized to swear in a posse to assist them in manhunts and other Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 12 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA duties on an ad hoc basis (Kraig, 2004). Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts, and to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal judges, Congress, or the President. The Marshals and their Deputies served subpoenas, summonses, writs, warrants, and other process issued by the courts, made all the arrests, and handled all federal prisoners. They also disbursed funds as ordered by the courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U.S. Attorneys, jurors, and witnesses. They rented the courtrooms and jail space and hired the bailiffs, criers, and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, and that the witnesses were on time. When Washington set up his first administration and the first Congress began passing laws, both quickly discovered an inconvenient gap in the constitutional design of the government: It had no provision for a regional administrative structure stretching throughout the country. Both the Congress and the executive branch were housed at the national capital; no agency was established or designated to represent the federal government's interests at the local level. The need for a regional organization quickly became apparent. Congress and the President solved part of the problem by creating specialized agencies, such as customs and revenue collectors, to levy tariffs and taxes, yet there were numerous other jobs that needed to be done. The only officers available to do them were the Marshals and their Deputies. Thus, the Marshals also provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every decade through 1870. They distributed Presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, and performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. Over the past 200 years, Congress, the President and Governors have also called on the Marshals to carry out unusual or extraordinary missions, such as registering enemy aliens in time of war, sealing the American border against armed expeditions from foreign countries, and at times during the Cold War, swapping spies with the Soviet Union, and also retrieving North Carolina's copy of the Bill of Rights (usmarshals.gov. Retrieved on 2007-01-08). Particularly in the American West, individual Deputy Marshals have been seen as legendary heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness (see Famous Marshals, below). Marshals arrested the infamous Dalton Gang in 1893, helped suppress the Pullman Strike in 1894, enforced Prohibition during the 1920s, and have protected American athletes at recent Olympic Games. Marshals protected the refugee boy Elián González before his return to Cuba in 2000, and have protected abortion clinics as required by Federal law. Since 1989, the Marshals Service has been responsible for law enforcement among U.S. personnel in Antarctica, although they are not routinely assigned there. One of the more onerous jobs the Marshals were tasked with was the recovery of fugitive slaves, as required by the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. They were also permitted to form a posse and to deputize any person in any community to aid in the recapture of fugitive slaves. Failure to cooperate with a Marshal resulted in a $5000 fine and imprisonment, a stiff penalty for those days. The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue was a celebrated fugitive-slave case involving U.S. marshals. James Batchelder was the second marshal killed in the line of duty. Batchelder, along with others, was preventing the rescue of fugitive slave Anthony Burns in Boston in 1854. # 13 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA In the 1960s the Marshals were on the front lines of the Civil Rights Movement, mainly providing protection to volunteers. In September 1962, President John F. Kennedy ordered 127 marshals to accompany James Meredith, an African American who wished to register at the segregated University of Mississippi. Their presence on campus provoked riots at the university, requiring President Kennedy to federalize the Mississippi National Guard to pacify the crowd, but the marshals stood their ground, and Meredith successfully registered. Marshals provided continuous protection to Meredith during his first year at «Ole Miss,» and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy later proudly displayed a marshal's dented helmet in his office. U.S. Marshals also protected black schoolchildren integrating public schools in the South. Artist Norman Rockwell's famous painting «The Problem We All Live With» depicted a tiny Ruby Bridges being escorted by four towering U.S. marshals in 1964. Just as America has changed over the past two centuries, so has its federal justice system – from the original 13 judicial districts, to 94 districts spanning the continent and beyond; and with tens of thousands of federal judges, prosecutors, jurors, witnesses, and defendants involved in the judicial process. The Marshals Service has changed with it, not in its underlying responsibility to enforce the law and execute the orders issued by the court, but in the breadth of its functions, the professionalism of its personnel, and the sophistication of the technologies employed (Rosbuck, 2000). These changes are made apparent by an examination of the contemporary duties of the modern Marshals Service. Except for suits by incarcerated persons, non-prisoner litigants proceeding in forma pauperis, or (in some circumstances) by seamen, U.S. Marshals no longer serve process in private civil actions filed in the U.S. district courts. Under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, process may be served by any U.S. citizen over the age of 18 who is a not a party or an attorney involved in the case. Today, almost all federal, local and state entities in US acknowledge the Marshals Service as the oldest or first federal law enforcement agency. Other federal agencies have mistakenly believed they were the first. However, their claims fall short when researched in proper context. Although they had equally important functions, they were not conceived on the model of law enforcement at the same time. Today The United States Marshals Service still executes all lawful writs, processes, and orders issued under the authority of the United States, and shall command all necessary assistance to execute its duties (Larry D. Ball, 2005). The Marshals Service occupies a uniquely central position in the federal justice system. It is involved in virtually every federal law enforcement initiative. First mention of officers of justice can be tracked down all the way to the early Russian state – Ancient Rus the Pskov and Novgorod Judicial Deeds (yearly Russian written laws). These Deeds described a officer of justice as a powerful figure who represent the power of state. Next, after some changes were made the officers of justice (Law reform of 1864). Officers of justice are now elected by the head of the local courts after it is “made sure he is rightful and can perform the necessary actions” and therefore are part of judicial system. In such state the organization of officers of justice existed for more then a half of a centaury, till the revolutionary 1917 then communist party, lead by Lenin took the rule of the country. By the Decree of Soviet Narodnih Deputatov of 24 November 1917 officers of justice were dismissed together with courts. The new, Soviet country needed new law system together with powerful organizations to enforce these laws. # 14 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA There for the courts and officers of justice were created completely anew with the ideals of people’s society and communist ideology in mind. This ideology included the strong believe in such a bright future, were the necessity of courts or officers of justice shall become needless because of the society without money and without private property have no need for courts. Therefore courts and officers of justice were created for a short period of time in order to sustain order while communism will be build and it made whose organization both powerful in case of credentials and weak in case of no long term plans for it’s existence. In years to come it become obvious communism is not coming as soon as it was indented but civil war and the next WW II, Cold war made the organization of court system and officers of justice a bit less then the top priority in the decisions, government had to face. And so with some changes here and where, the officers of justice existed until the early 1990, and the fall of the Soviet Union. The global change in a country course, the creation of the market economy demanded court system with the ability to solve the most hard economy disputes. 6 of November 1997 with the acceptation of a law “About the officers of justice in Russian federation” a new organization were born (usmarshals.gov. Retrieved on 2007-0108). Modern Russian system of law enforcement is made of Russian officers of justice. Today officers of justice main purpose is to make sure the courts decisions are made real. So one can say it is the most important part of Russian legal system. Although officers of justice, rather young organization, are already been through many changes. Russian legislators are trying to give officers of justice some adequate powers to enforce the courts decisions, and at the same way to make them act within legitimate field. Should Russian legislators use US Marshals as an example for building up the future of officers in law, or there is some other way to form a working system of executing court decisions? Example For the most part of its work to executes all lawful writs, processes, and orders issued by courts US Marshals cooperate closely with other enforce organization such as FBI and police department (Miller, 1999). By stating what US Marshals command all necessary assistance to execute its duties means what its getting all the help it needs. US Marshals is the most respectable organization in US legal system. In famous case U.S. vs Rostoff, Marshals kept a close eye on Rostoff wife and husband and eventually discovered the illegal scheme they used to hide their property in order to evade executing court order (Stumpf, 2002). Discovering such a scheme is not an easy task and took all the powers Marshals have in order to expose it. US judicial system is widely known for its superior efficiency. But this efficiency provided not only my judges and courts but this the help of Marshals as well. Americans know: if you won a case in a court, its decision will be properly executed. This assurance brings stability to US economy and social system, and the stability is the thing Russia needs now most of all. To execute a court’s judgment can be a really hard job, cause in some cases court’s judgment are not only about getting money or property form one person to another, but also some, rather unique cases which require to sustain a person from a certain action etc (Yarkov, 2002). In most cases US Marshals execute a judgment in the most strict case possible. It means, if the court’s decision describes a certain things person has to do, Marshals have to find a way to make a person do this. Let’s take a look at one particularly interesting case. At the request of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Marshals seized # 15 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA various animal food products stored under unsanitary conditions at the PETCO Animal Supplies Distribution Center located in Joliet, Illinois, pursuant to a warrant issued by a U.S. district court in Chicago. Marshals seized all FDA-regulated animal food susceptible to rodent and pest contamination. The seized products allegedly violate the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act because they were being held under unsanitary conditions. (The act uses the term “unsanitary” to describe such conditions). During an FDA inspection of a PETCO distribution center in April, widespread and active rodent and bird infestation was found. FDA inspected the facility again in May and found continuing and widespread infestation (Kraig, 2004). Russian officers of justice with the powers they have today can only gather some limited information about people and commercial organization who must execute some court orders or decisions. Of course they have some powers to execute it themselves, but in most cases such actions requires if not the initial presence of the person who must perform action described in court order or decision at least the solid prove what this person knows about officers of justice actions. And getting such prove can be really hard since it is so easy to evade meeting with officer of justice. And without powers to search for whose persons themselves officers of justice can’t execute court orders of decisions properly. (Belyakov, 2003). For the most part of Officers of justice work is a paper work to describe the necessity of some actions and to warn the people who ought to perform tasks described in court’s order or decision of the legal consequences what they can face in case of disobeying the court’s order. But warnings made real are fewer then less and this calls for offenders to continue ignore the court’s decision. Let’s take a look at one particular example of how this system works. A person won a civil case about a treaty of an immovable property rent and now has a court decision to get the immovable property he once gave to the rent back. Officers of justice upon receiving such order start an executive case and informs debtor about this case. Officer of justice can’t perform the necessary actions to get the property back himself, because the court decision says what debtor must return the property himself. And so the long and painful process of finding the debtor begins. The information about possible location of debtor officer of justice can ask from burro of addresses or the court, which made the dissection, and if the debtor was smart enough to avoid ever showing up in known places. Since officer of justice can’t inform the debtor about the executive case he has no other option to execute the court decision therefore the immovable property remained in debtor’s possession. After more then half a year and only with the active help of the person, who was most interested in execution of this dissection – the owner of the immovable property, were this court decision executed. In order to do so the owner took the responsibility for finding the debtor into himself and were almost 24 hours a day waiting for debtor at his known place in order to inform debtor about executive case himself, instead of officer of justice. After the debtor were formally aware of the executive case the officer of justice were able to return the immovable property back to the owner without the debtor, since he had prove that debtor were aware of the executive case and refused to cooperate. So the hardest part were to inform the debtor of the executive case, and officer of justice would never do it himself, since he has a legal right to keep a look-out for people. For this reason there are so many undone court orders and decisions and its number grows with each year. It is said what modern and democratic society can’t exist without the proper court system and Russian worked hard to build own. (Maslenkov, 2004). Nowadays the court # 16 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA system itself functions very effectively and every months more and more Russian citizens prefer to decide their argues in courts. But all this is useless until court orders and decisions will meet proper execution and Russian officers of justice require some serious changes in order to do it. Resume As you can see, these two organizations – US Marshals and Russian officers of justice have the same purpose, but very different powers and methods to do it. Of course one can’t say that Russian needs to take US Marshals for an example and reform officers of justice in its liking, since Russia as a country and as a legal system has many interesting and unique features. These features are mostly the legacy of its totalitarian past. In the past Russian already created many powerful enforce organizations and today, while trying to build a free and democratic society, creating another such powerful organization with powerful methods of operating is not such a great idea. Together with stabilizing the procedure of executing court decisions Russia needs to draw a hard line of how far officers of justice can go chasing their just cause, and giving them the powers of US Marshals is not the best way. Russia needs to follow its own way in this matter, and what it will be is hard to say right now. But the need for such change is desperate indeed. The one way, which seems most reasonable and appropriate, is to widen little bit the officers of justice credentials give them at least some way to look for debtors not only on a paper, but in real life as well. Some say what giving them a credentials rather suitable for a intelligence or organ of domestic affairs will hurt civil rights, but they forget, what the court system, which does not work can hurt civil rights much more. The credentials, which should be given to the officers of justice we mean not the ability to read people mail or tap the phone or bug the office, no, what we suggest is the credentials to ask around, or keep a look-out for debtors. This part of US Marshals credentials can be essential in the work of Russian officers of justice as well, by drawing a hard line of what officers of justice can and cannot with the new credentials do we will make sure the continuing development of Russia as a country with the stable, civil democratic system. References L. D. Ball, The united states marshals of New-Mexico and Arizona territories 1846-1912 (Lansing: Michigan University, 2005), 17. А. М. Belyakov, «Officers of justice: criminal inquiry», Law and right, 12 (2003), in Russian. R. Ernst, G. Stumpf, Deadly affairs (New York: Phaidon, 2002), 236-264. S. Kraig, Court security officer (New York: Phaidon, 2004), 47-64. C. C. Miller, The U.S. Marshals Service (Des Moines: Drake University, 1999), 183-196. S. L. Maslenkov, «Inquiry in criminal procedure in modern Russia: problems of perfection», (Nijniy Novgorod: University Press, 2004), in Russian. N. Mingalin, «Who has the right to prosecute an inquiry in Russian officers of justice service?», World of justice, 2 (2003), in Russian. А. К. Romanov, Law system in England (Moscow: Affair, 2000), in Russian. D. Rosbuck, Work check-up, or how to execute the sentence? (Boise, 2000), 186-201. United States Marshals Service: Historical Perspective (usmarshals.gov. Retrieved on 2007-01-08) М. G. Walker, R. J. Walker, The English legal system (London, 1967). V. V. Yarkov, Officer of justice hand book, (Мoscow: Bek Izdatelstvo, 2002), in Russian. # 17 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA Сравнительный анализ систем исполнения судебных решений США и Российской Федерации В.В. Борискин Кемеровский государственный университет Россия 650043, Кемерово, ул. Красная, 6 В статье проводится сравнительный анализ систем исполнения судебных решений в США и Российской Федерации, дается краткая характеристика Федеральной службы судебных приставов России и службы судебных Маршалов США. Автор анализирует не только полномочия каждой структуры, но также даёт характеристику подходу каждой из этих структур к формированию своего аппарата. Ключевые слова: судебные приставы-исполнители, Закон «Об исполнительном производстве», служба Судебных Маршалов США, новый Закон «Об исполнительном производстве». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 19-28 ~~~ УДК 940 Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin Oleg S. Safronov* Military Aviation Engineering University (Voronezh) 54а Old Bolsheviks st., Voronezh, 394064 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 Given clause is devoted to the analysis of debatable themes of history of medieval Russia in treatment of the ideologist of the anarchy-communism, outstanding scientist P.A. Kropotkin. It is noted, that the ideologist anarchism estimated social movements only positively as saw in them permanent struggle of people against the state. It is investigated, that he considered the period of formation of the centralized state a stage of occurrence of «government». Up to XV-XVI centuries, in his opinion, in Russia existed the period of «free cities». Keywords: Kropotkin, anarchism, historical sights, Russia. Introduction Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin in spite of the fact that about forty years has lived far from the native land, constantly studied history and closely watched events of modern Russia. In opinion S.Slatter, P.A.Kropotkin « … was interested in social problems and everything that referred to them » (Slatter, 1995, P. 143). Close perusal of performances, reports, clauses and letters of the theorist of anarchism shows presence at his to the original historical concept. Meanwhile, we about it do not know. A considerable role to hushing up of his historical concept the governments as imperial Russia and Soviet state have played. States the ideology of the governments did not allow to investigate P.A.Kropotkin antiauthoritative doctrine. P.A.Kropotkin has not left after himself product in which his sights at all historical events of Russia would be regularly * 1 stated. In this connection his interpretations of historical events of the country which were kept in archives and book funds are resulted and analyzed. Considerable aid for disclosing outlook of P.A.Kropotkin has rendered his monographers «Ideals and the validity in the Russian literature», and also «Mutual aid among animals and people as the engine of progress». His memoirs of «Note of the revolutionary» had great value also. His clause «Russian revolutionary party» is devoted to specially emancipating movement in Russia. Concerning history of Russia and emancipating movement in Russia was possible to find in P.A.Kropotkin’s separate statements in products «Great French revolution 1789-1793», «Bread and Will», «Modern science and anarchy», «Ethics: the origin of morals». It is necessary to note, that studying of a scientific and political heritage of P.A.Kropotkin Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 19 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin has begun in the beginning of XX century. Since then special interest of scientists and politicians causes his the concept antistateism. The scientific and political heritage of the ideologist of the Russian anarchism draws to itself attention as domestic (Ermashova, 1967; Baranchenko, 1995), and foreign researchers (Cai, 1992; Sakon, 1992). It is necessary to note, that basically, were studied his political (Blauberg, 1991; La Torre, 1993), philosophical (Hamilton, 1964), legal sights, and also the biographic facts of many-sided activity of the ideologist anarchism (Danilov, 1976; Slatter, 1994). Researchers have analyzed a significant part of questions of the anarchical doctrine and the theory of revolution of P.A.Kropotkin (Zateev, 2003), have tried to estimate his political (Pirumova, 1991) and ethical views (Mkrtichan, 1992; Kinna, 1995). At the same time, the theme of history of our country and emancipating movement in Russia in P.A.Kropotkin’s estimation was not analyzed at all. E.V.Starostin marking is absolutely right, that «Clauses and books Kropotkin’s in which he, anyhow, mentioned history of Russia, features of its historical way, history of revolutionary movement, etc., did not become a subject of close studying» (Starostin, 2005, P. 10). As a whole, historical sights of an outstanding thinker of anarchical ideology have not received due attention from scientistshistorians. V.A.Markin is absolutely right wrote «However not all the parties of extensive creative heritage Kropotkin’s are known equally» (Markin, 1993, P. 154). Meanwhile, the detailed analysis of historical views of the ideologist Russian anarchism will promote an intensification of process of accumulation of historical knowledge. In connection with the special interest shown by a modern society to the decision of historical problems, the objective analysis of historical sights of P.A.Kropotkin is the ripened problem. It is necessary to note, that P.A.Kropotkin has started to form the historical concept on the certain basis. The big influence on formation of his sights on medieval history of Russia was rendered by the ancestor Russian anarchism Michael Aleksandrovich Bakunin. In this connection, in clause are analyzed not only P.A.Kropotkin’s sights, but also the basic positions of the anarchist historical concept developed by M.A.Bakunin. The point of view P.A.Kropotkin as well as the founder of Russian anarchism M.A.Bakunin began history of Russia with the period of the Kiev Russia. Considering history of Russia for a long time (till the period of formation of any government), M.A.Bakunin correctly marks, that «Slavs were on advantage a tribe peace and agricultural» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 330). He considered, that during this historical period Slavs had a brotherly communication of tribes, «operated, on patriarchal custom old men … they had no and did not know nobility, had no even with itself a caste of priests, everyone were equal between themselves» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 330-331). Idealizing mentality of Slavic people, M.A.Bakunin considered, that peaceable disposition inherent in them has led to that «Slavs have been partly exterminated, big a part are subdued by Turks, Tatars, Magyars, and mainly Germans» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 331). Therefore, in opinion М.А. Bakunin, «from second half X of century» for Slavs « begins the martyr history of their slavery, but not only martyr, together with heroic» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 331). M.A.Bakunin emphasized the term «heroism» in relation to Slavs as considered, that they, having got in dependence, persistently and tirelessly struggled for freedom not regretting the blood. The ideologist of anarchism allocated too a greater role during genesis of the state to the foreign policy factor. «It is doubtless, – proved # 20 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin M.A.Bakunin, – that Slavs never by itself, their initiative of the state did not compose. Instead of they composed it because never were an aggressive tribe. Only people aggressive create the state and create it to by all means itself in favor of, to the detriment of subdued people» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 330). M.A.Bakunin, characterizing the period of feudal dissociation, absolutely fairly marks presence of intestine wars which conducted Russian princes. And, the ideologist of anarchism marks, that intestine wars weakened ancient Russia, therefore «this torn apart internal difference of opinions the complex of large and fine princedoms has easily been crushed in fight on Kalka Tatars (on May, 31st, 1223) which have subordinated all to an identical yoke» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 410). Peter Alekseevich did not allocate time of existence of the uniform state the Kiev Russia and a stage of feudal dissociation. It wrongly considered that in the ancient period of Russian history the principle of federalism was prevailing. «To Russia these traces, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – unfortunately, have disappeared, as destruction of independent cities-republics has begun in XIII century, with the Mongolian invasion. They have held on till XV century only in Novgorod, Pskov, their suburbs and their northeast colonies (Vyatka, etc.) » (Kropotkin, 1979, P. 147). Therefore P.A.Kropotkin has been assured, that the Old Russian state represented a network of independent city communities which have been incorporated by only homogeneous ethnos, territory, language, trade. In the rest these grounds were absolutely sovereign. However, these cities-republics coped princes, but their could choose. Time of their existence – X-XII centuries (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 17). P.A.Kropotkin drew a parallel with the West-European cities-republics (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 19). He considered, that owing to a principle of imitation medieval cities «adopted each other political, religious and economic movements and them «charters of liberties» (Kropotkin, 1992, P. 21). He estimated the Kiev Russia according to the general historical sights. It is necessary to agree with A.A.Mkrtichyan’s judgment, that « Russia he (i.e. Kropotkin. – О.S.) included in a modern western civilization … So, was not, on his (Kropotkin. – О.S.) to opinion, the states in the medieval Europe» (Mkrtichyan, 1991, P. 53). Business in that, the Old Russian state in P.A.Kropotkin’s general historical scheme is the period of free city communities. In the given period, in P.A.Kropotkin’s opinion, a legal proceeding has been based on a principle of equivalent punishment for harmed. This principle has integrally entered into a life of people during primitive or wild communities. In the period of rural communities, considered P.A.Kropotkin, the given principle became a basis of the sanction of social contradictions. The principle of punishment existed in the form of «patrimonial revenge, payment for harmed, – wrote Peter Alekseevich, – established in an epoch of communities» (Kropotkin, 1990, P. 8). Peter Alekseevich considered that during the period of free city community’s ethical categories of mutual aid and solidarity have most brightly proved. A.I.Rakutov written is absolutely right: «All history of a human society, according to Kropotkin, is history of mutual aid and as its carrier is people the history is creativity of broad masses, there is a creativity of mainly moral maintenance» (Rakutov, 1975, P. 66). With this statement N.M.Pirumova agrees also, who considered that «scientifically proved was the idea of mutual aid and the solidarity, become key position his (i.e. Kropotkin. – О.S.) the social theory» (Pirumova, 1992, P. 20). Researchers of creativity of P.A.Kropotkin, B.S.Itenberg and T.Sasaki, bearing in mind the doctrine about mutual aid, considered, that it «was one of elements Populist philosophies of the history # 21 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin which has born as a result of connection of ideas of communal socialism with Darwinism and love to people» (Itenberg, Sasaki, 1994, P. 84). P.A.Kropotkin, developing M.A.Bakunin idea, considered, that, the period of free cities X-XII of centuries is replaced by XV century by a stage of the state. Quite right researchers V.I.Prokopenko and V.P.Ponomareva have noted, that «Concept of the state he (i.e. P.A.Kropotkin. – О.S.) considers not through a prism of a civil society, and as the form of an inequality between people, as means of restriction of the rights and freedom of citizens to please to a ruling clique» (Prokopenko, Ponomareva, 1994, P. 24). P.A.Kropotkin idealized Middle Ages as blossoming free city communities then have reached. However capture by the government of cities-republics has forced his to compare a policy hostage with «the worst from time to time the Middle Ages and religious wars» (Quotation on: Pirumova, 1989, P. 30). In his opinion, actually the state is wine in social contradictions, in this connection, to the state P.A. Kropotkin gave «special attention, as to a source of wars and monopolies» (Kropotkin, 1995, P. 151). M.A.Bakunin correctly recognizes a main role of Moscow during association of Russian princedoms. The ideologist of anarchism quite fairly marks, that Moscow princes, during the first stage of unifying process, have refused idea to combat against Mongols. They «played a role of the most devoted subject Tatar khans and have managed by flattery and groveling soon to achieve something like a role khans agents above Russian princes by virtue of which they should collect a tribute and have been recognized by arbitrators in internal princely contentions» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 410). M.A.Bakunin considered that in origin of the state centralization in Russia admission Moscow princes and the Mongolian yoke. Moscow princes aspired, in fair opinion of the ideologist of anarchism, to enrichment, to authority. However the Mongolian khans were not going to share the authority. Therefore Moscow princes used diplomatic dodges to strengthen the influence, not resorting to the open opposition with Mongolian khans. However not only Moscow princes were admission in the state centralization. Russian people, which image was idealize M.A.Bakunin, has agreed, in his opinion, to centralization «being is induced, so to say, by a presentiment of the great future forthcoming it» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 394). People were under double oppression, correctly considered the ideologist of anarchism, under burden of princes and Mongols. But to struggle with two enemies simultaneously it was impossible, considered M.A.Bakunin. Therefore people, in opinion of the ideologist of anarchism, instinctively helped to become stronger Moscow princes. The introduction of Golden Horde during feudal dissociation also promoted clearing of the Mongolian yoke, quite right marked M.A.Bakunin. Finally, the aspiration of grand dukes to the authority, supported by people on the one hand and feudal dissociation of Mongols favorable for Moscow with another, has come to the end safely «at Ivan’s III and IV (Terrible) with 1462 for 1584 by a gain of Novgorod, Pskov and other cities by full rout of princely sorts» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 410-411). At the same time M.A.Bakunin fairly marked persistent struggle of Great Novgorod, Pskov and other areas against domination of the Moscow princes. Association of Russian grounds around of Moscow has led to a basic change of political value of this city and great Moscow princes. P.A.Kropotkin correctly considered that process of occurrence of the centralized state was affected with a number of circumstances. The ideologist of anarchism could understand that the factor of external influence was prevailing, i.e. influence of a mongolo-tatar yoke has caused # 22 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin aspiration of Russian people to be released from it. Except for external, Peter Alekseevich allocates the large reasons of internal development, namely – a role of church and princely authority. In P.A.Kropotkin’s erroneous opinion, priests and princes, having taken advantage of difficult position of Russian people, have undertaken strengthening own authority (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 19). And in XV century ostensibly the federal principle of development was replaced by the centralized principle (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38). P.A.Kropotkin marked that since XV century it is possible to speak about autocracy, but not earlier (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 291). According to his general historical theory of development, is time of change of the period of free cities a stage of the state XV century. In Peter Alekseevich opinion, the period of the state was characterized by process of strengthening of authoritative authority (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 22). M.A.Bakunin considered, that oprichnina has occurred from the silent sanction of people which did not love boyars that they remained rough and severe misters. «Such by, – wrote M.A.Bakunin in «Russian affairs» (a picture of modern position)», – they promoted the destruction as in people the love to the tsars who have released it from Tatars was still strong, and diplomacy of Russian grand dukes has found the most resolute expression in Ivan Terrible» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 411). The general feature of reforms of Ivan Terrible is their anti boyars orientation. Proclaiming reforms, Ivan’s IV government represented them as actions, which purpose consist in liquidating consequences of seigniorial board and to strengthen economic and political positions of those social groups, whose interests it expressed and on which leaned, noblemen, landowners and tops city. «Hiding own aspiration to unlimited authority and to strengthening the power, – wrote M.A.Bakunin, – under mask cares of people, it at triumph of the last in weights destroyed tyrantsboyars and thus has strengthened the authority terror and love» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 411). In Ivan Terrible M.A.Bakunin was involved with personal qualities as the reformer, but, as a matter of fact, to his reforms he disapproved. P.A.Kropotkin correctly considered, that oprichnina was means which was used by tsar Ivan Terrible for strengthening the power. As a result the nobility has lost a significant part of the influence. It also truly saw Ivan Terrible tsar unite Russian grounds in a uniform monarchy. However activity of the first Russian tsar Peter Alekseevich wrongly represented, as the final, resolute effort undertaken by princely authority for destruction of last displays of a principle of federalism, existed during the period of free cities. Ivan’s IV campaign to Novgorod was most a bright example of this struggle. Therefore Ivan Terrible Peter Alekseevich realized only the suppressor of the last of «the center of freedom». In Peter Alekseevich opinion, despite of process of strengthening of authoritative authority, in XVI century freedom-loving, anarchical movement of people was observed also. According to the belief, P.A.Kropotkin considered as motive power of historical progress not the state and tsars, as representatives of the state historical school, and broad masses (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38). Therefore he named N.M.Karamzin – the reactionary historian-statesman who sees only a role of the state (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38). In this connection, P.A.Kropotkin quite legally marked, that in business of connection of Siberia a main role has played national colonization of edge (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38). Here it is necessary, obviously to mention cardinal idea in Kropotkin concepts of historical development. P.A.Kropotkin emphasized, that except for egoistical aspiration of a ruling class exists also mutual aid of broad masses. Historical development passes at struggle of these resisting # 23 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin aspirations. But P.A.Kropotkin considered that class struggle is the reason of historical development. He has been assured, that at anarchical communism the egoistical aspiration of «chiefs» will disappear and there will be only a mutual aid of broad masses. Proceeding from the given postulate, Peter Alekseevich considered, that national colonization of Siberia has occurred because of altruism of people. By virtue of natural kindness Russian peasants peacefully colonized Siberia, not restraining interests of local population. «… In Siberia, the European settlement has been stopped in the movement along a southern fertile strip by strong native tribes, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – … similarly to conquerors of Siberia, which have moved at first to the Yakut area to avoid collisions with strong tribes the Buryat, and have entered the Amur area from the north» (Quotation on: Luzyanin, 1994, P. 237). And only on already blazed road the state connection and nationalization of Siberia has gone. Egoistical aspirations of tsar and noblemen have led to planting of authority of «chiefs» on connection of territory. Characterizing the beginning of XVII century, P.A.Kropotkin as well as M.A.Bakunin, marks the period of Vague time. M.A.Bakunin absolutely fairly marks struggle of a Russian Zemstvoes against the Polish king, Jesuits, the Moscow boyars. However he continues this number and considers, that during the Great Distemper there was a war «and in general against prevalence of Moscow» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 332). M.A.Bakunin always highly estimated Russian people masses. Including it struggle for freedom, the ideologist of anarchism fondly believed, that the national home guard 1611 – «it was true revolt of people masses against tyranny of the Moscow state, boyars and church. The power of Moscow has been broken and the released Russian provinces have sent then the deputies who though have chosen new tsar, but have forced it to accept the known conditions limiting its authority» (Bakunin, 1920, P. 106). M.A.Bakunin marks, that Michael Romanov’s election on a throne passed with the conditions limiting his authority. Quite fairly spoke M.A.Bakunin about end of process of enslaving of peasants in XVII century. In his opinion, peasants were free even before the Mongolian invasion. During the Mongolian yoke peasants still were free since feudal dissociation did not allow princes to be united in struggle against freedom of grain-growers. And only owing to strengthening position of the Moscow state to which was promoted by joint activity of the Moscow princes, boyars and hierarchs of church, «people great Russian, free up to the end of 16 centuries, has suddenly appeared attached to the ground, and all over again actually, and then and has legally become the slave to mister – the proprietor of the ground, granted to it the state» (Bakunin, 1920, P. 106). In Peter Alekseevich opinion, process of strengthening of the government also has been expressed and in enslaving peasants. Concerning serfdom P.A.Kropotkin spoke the following. He correctly considered that enslaving of peasants was the long phenomenon which could not be made less than one imperial decree. The serfdom did not exist in independent republics (X-XII centuries), it began to be entered simultaneously with strengthening the centralized state. In Peter Alekseevich fair opinion, Moscow princes for conquest of the next princedoms and for clearing of a mongolo-tatar yoke military force was required. It could be generated only on basis of patrimonial facilities (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 292). And the last existed on the basis of forced labor of peasants. Thus, the need for strengthening military power has led to the serfdom (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 19). Final enslaving of peasants, Peter Alekseevich not absolutely truly specified, has # 24 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin been carried out during Michael Romanov’s board (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 22). Chronologically process of introduction of the serfdom, in P.A.Kropotkin’s opinion, was designated since XIII century – in Moscow a princedom, since XV century – in Russian state and till XVII century. As it was already spoken, Peter Alekseevich marked, that process of formation of the centralized state has been caused only by egoistical instincts of princes and churches which aspired to capture of authority. The serfdom has arisen because of need for the military force necessary princes. Therefore P.A.Kropotkin represented process of enslaving of peasants by generation of the state epoch. And it was one more argument strengthened his belief that the state bears one harm. Conclusion Thus, P.A.Kropotkin as well as M.A.Bakunin, analyzed debatable questions of Russian history from an anarchical position. It is necessary to note, that M.A.Bakunin political and philosophical sights have influenced his interpretation of the basic events of history of Russia. The ideologist of anarchism gave special attention to popular uprisings. He considered as the main reason of country performances hatred of people against the state system as a whole. In M.A.Bakunin opinion, the state appears in history of Russia only in XV-XVI centuries. Till this period people lived freely, without the serfdom and the state pressure. Peter I, in his opinion, has strengthened the government, having added «the western bureaucracy». People, the ideologist of anarchism considered, repeatedly tried to dump hated authority of the state, but Stepan Razin and Yemelyan Pugachev attempts have not crowned success. Only in XIX century Decembrists have woken a public idea. М.А. Bakunin considered, that only to association of efforts of radical youth and a national revolutionary spirit there can be a fi nal clearing of authority of the state. As a whole, the general estimations of ideologists of Russian anarchism on many key questions of history of Russia are traced. In particular, they considered the period of formation of the centralized state the period of formation of «government». Up to XV-XVI centuries, in their opinion, in Russia existed the period of «free cities». Only Ivan III and Ivan Terrible have won free cities and have destroyed bases of a free life. In the further, in the Russian history, ideologists of anarchism considered, there was a strengthening a position of the state due to reduction of freedom of broad masses. Introduction of the serfdom was significant step on a way of strengthening of a position of the state and an exclusive class. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Antonov V.F. Populism in Russia: a Utopia or the rejected opportunities // Questions of history. M., 1991. №1. P. 5 – 19, in Russian. Bakunin M.A. Selected works. V. 3. SPb. – M., 1920. 286 p., in Russian. Bakunin M.A. Collected works and letters 1828 – 1876. V. 3. M., 1935. 495 p., in Russian. Bakunin M.A. Fragment from works «Addition» «A» to the book « Statehood and anarchy» and from the book «The Whip-German empire and a social revolution» // Native land. 1989. №5. P. 26 – 30, in Russian. Bakunin M.A. Philosophy. Sociology. A policy. M., 1989. 430 p., in Russian. Bakunin M.A. Corruption. – About Machiavelli. – Development of statehood // Questions of philosophy. 1990. № 12. P. 59 – 66, in Russian. # 25 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Baranchenko V.E. Death and P.A.Kropotkin’s funeral // Questions of history. 1995. N3. P. 149154, in Russian. Blauberg I.I. «The Choice – in your hands...» // Questions of philosophies. M., 1991. N11. P.64-71, in Russian. Borisenok YU.A. Mad of an idea in mad to year: (Bakunin and views of Engels on Slavic peoples in 1848 – 1849) // Native land. M., 1993. №2. P. 109 – 111, in Russian. Cai Yingtian. Some cognitive problems upon the relation between science and production // Чжэсюе яньцзю = Philos. research. Pekin, 1992. N1. Danilov В.Н. A.A.Kropotkin – the Russian scientist and the public figure // Philosophies Sciences. 1976. N4. P.154-156, in Russian. Ermashova M. The London letters of S.М.Stepnyak-Кravchinski // Questions of literatures. 1967. N4. P.152-174, in Russian. Hamilton W.Z. The genetically evolution of social behavior // J.Theor. Biol. 1964. N1. P.1-52. Itenberg B.S., Sаsаki Т. Brothers Kropotkin’s and Peter Lavrov // Native history. 1994. N4. P.7990, in Russian. Kinna R. Kropotkin’s theory of mutual aid in historical context // Intern. zev. of social history. Assen, 1995. Vol.40, pt.2. P.259-283. Kropotkin P.A. Ideal and the validity in Russian literatures. SPb., 1907. 345 p., in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Great the French revolution, 1789-1793. М.: Science, 1979. 575 p., in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Punishment a death penalty // Native land. M., 1990. №4. P. 8, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Reference to working and advanced circles of the public of the Western Europe (1920) // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 43-46, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Reference of the Moscow league of federalists about problems of league. The charter of League of Federalists // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 52-54, in Russian. Kropotkin П.А. About current events (1919) // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 46-48, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Letters to S.P.Tyurin, 1917, 4 sent. // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 54-55, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. letters to S.L.Milner, 1919, 6 febr. // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 56-57, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Modern position of Russia (1919-1920) // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 48-51, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Progress is necessary for moral // Native land. M., 1992. № 10. P. 21, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Letters to M.I.Goldsmit  // Native archives. 1994. № 1. P. 80 – 83, in Russian. Kropotkin P.A. Letters to James Mejvor. 1903-1917 // Historical archive. 1995. №1. P. 144, in Russian. La Torre m. Una fondazione naturalistica dell'anarchismo: Petr Кropotkin // Riv. intern. di filosofia del deritto. Milano, 1993.4 serie A 70, N2. P.179-202. Luzyanin G.I. Canadian P.A.Kropotkin’s travel // New and newest history. 1994. № 3. P. 235 – 241, in Russian. # 26 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin 30. Markin V.A. International conference of memory of P.A.Kropotkin [M., deck. 1992] // Questions of history of natural sciences and technique. 1993. №2. P. 154-155, in Russian. 31. Mkrtichyan А.А. P.A.Kropotkin and the Western Europe // New and newest history. 1991. №2. P. 48-63, in Russian. 32. Mkrtichyan A.A. Kropotkin about revolutionary terror // The Bulletin of the Moscow State University. Ser.7: philosophy. 1992. N1. P. 30-35, in Russian. 33. Mndoyans S.А. M.A.Bakunin and the left Hegelianism // The Bulletin of the Moscow State University. Ser. 7: philosophy. 1986. №6. P. 39 – 47, in Russian. 34. Moiseev P.I., Bogatov V.V. About M.A.Bakunin’s one half-forgotten product // The Bulletin of the Moscow State University. Ser. 8: philosophy. 1974. №2. P. 60 – 70, in Russian. 35. Moksin G.N. Peasant monarchism in M.A.Bakunin’s interpretation // Bulletin VSU. Ser. 1: the humanities sciences. Voronezh, 1998. Issue 1. P. 162 – 167, in Russian. 36. Pirumova N.M. Letters and meetings // Native land. M., 1989. N1. P. 26-31, in Russian. 37. Pirumova N.M. Humanism and Peter Kropotkin’s revolutionize // Questions of philosophy. 1991. №11. P. 38-43, in Russian. 38. Pirumova N.M. Multivariate world of Kropotkin // Native land. M., 1992. № 10. P. 20, in Russian. 39. Prokopenko V.I., Ponomareva V.P. Moral of a problem in P.A.Kropotkin’s works // Teaching of history at school. 1994. № 3. P. 23 – 27, in Russian. 40. Rakutov A.I. Moral P.Kropotkin’s concept // The Bulletin of the Moscow State University. Philosophy., 1975. №5. P. 63-71, in Russian. 41. Sakon Takeshi. On P.A.Kropotkin’s archives // Дзимбун кэнкю: = Studies in the humanities. Oсака, 1992. T.44, N2. P.1-16. 42. Slatter S. The correspondence of P.A.Кropotkin as historical source material // Slavonic a. East EuroP. rev. L., 1994. Vol. 72, N2. P.277-288. 43. Slatter S. P.A.Kropotkin’s letters to professor James Mejvoru. 1903-1917 // Historical archive. 1995. №1. P. 143, in Russian. 44. Starostin Е.V. P.A.Kropotkin – the historian of Russia // Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin and problems of modeling of historical and cultural development of a civilization: materials international scientific conference. SPb., 2005. P. 10-18, in Russian. 45. Zateev V.I. M.A.Bakunin and P.A.Kropotkin as founders and theorists of Russian anarchism // The Bulletin Buryat un-ty. Ser. 5, Philosophy, sociology, political science. Ulan-Ude, 2003. Issue 7. P. 153-169, in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin Спорные темы в истории средневековой России в трудах П.А. Кропоткина О.С. Сафронов Воронежский военный авиационный инженерный университет Россия 394064, Воронеж, ул. Старых Большевиков, 54 а Данная статья посвящена анализу спорных тем в истории средневековой России в трудах идеолога анархического коммунизма, выдающегося ученого П.А. Кропоткина. Отмечено, что идеолог анархизма оценивал социальные движения только положительно, так как видел в них постоянную борьбу народа против государства. Исследовано, что он считал период образования централизованного государства этапом зарождения «правительства». По его мнению, до XV-XVI веков в России существовал период «свободных городов». Ключевые слова: Кропоткин, анархизм, исторические события, Россия. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 29-36 ~~~ УДК 316.7 Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space Alexei D. Krivolap* European Humanities University 12 Tauro g., Vilnius, LT-01114 Lithuania 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 The article deals with social aspects of development and cultural assimilation of Internet technologies in Belarus. The first national domain .by appeared in Belarus 15 years ago and since then the Internet has been developed greatly from an experimental technology available only at research institutes to one of the key communication channels. One of the reasons for writing this article is the desire to ground the possibility for national segments to exist on the global Internet web not only in the national language, in general, but the Belarusian segment, in particular, as well as to clarify the mechanisms aimed to develop national identity by means of Internet technologies. Keywords: cultural studies, Internet, cultural identity, representation, cyberspace Point Each society has its peculiar way of assimilation and application of «neutral» technologies. And there can be a variety of answers to the question about the fact, how the use of the Internet can be integrated into the existing social relations. How the concepts of distance and social space are generally changing while new social and cultural relations emerge and transform the existing ones. As mainly at this level we can discuss the influence and use of the Internet in the process of cultural identity development. Hereby it is important to clarify the issue of correlation between the Internet and identity, where at least two possibilities may be singled out: 1. The Internet is a tool helping to develop cultural identity(ies), i.e. on-line technologies are used to influence off-line practices. * 1 2. The Internet is the space where one can acquire its new identity, new self, i.e. it is a new dimension of social reality, where one can perform a great deal of potentialities, which are impossible to fulfill in other spaces. The present article is focused on the first possibility, which interprets the Internet as a tool aimed to develop one’s identity. The problems existing in the national Internet spaces are sufficiently global: from the attempts to clarify the issues of its possible existence in principle to difficulties relevant to opposition against power intending to control information space. While «Ru-Net» has been the object of research for a long time, other national Internet spaces remain uninvestigated. However, before discussing the Belarusian Internet space it should be clarified, what «RuNet» is and how one can briefly determine Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 29 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space the boundaries of the concept «Ru-Net». May websites in the domain .RU be referred to «RuNet» or may this notion include all websites in Russian? Within the frames of this article the term «Ru-Net» shall be used in accordance with the definition suggested by Schmidt and Teubener: «The boundaries that confine this assumed ‘RuNet’ may be accordingly language, technology, territory, cultural norms, traditions or values and political power» (Schmidt and Teubener, 2006: 14). Is there something that is common for developers of national Internet resources, which allows them to feel the community of their identities? In order to discuss local national and cultural phenomena of the Internet use we would focus on the consumers of this local information. At this point it would be appropriate to use the comparison with the phenomenon of printing capitalism and its influence on emergence of national states with the development of national Internet spaces as local communities: «It (the community) is imaginary, since the members of even the smallest nation would never get to know the majority of their brothers-in-nation, meet with them or even hear of them, while the image of their community would be present in the mind of each such member» (Anderson, 2001: 31). It is logical to ask, in what way cyberspace may be independent and autonomous from national states? On the one hand, it can be explained by the famous text «Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace»: «Cyberspace consists of transactions, relationships, and thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in the web of our communications. Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live [...] Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal, our governance will emerge. Our identities may be distributed across many of your jurisdictions» (Barlow, 1996). However, declaring the independence of supranational cyberspace does not mean avoiding interventions on behalf of national states. We can mention attempts of national states to control and govern civil relations on the Internet: «The general technique of controlling information intermediaries has extraordinary potential. Consider how often you rely not just on search engines to find information but also on blogs, online newspapers, and other intermediaries that point you in the direction of useful information. It is one thing for government to crack down openly on forbidden information. But it can be harder to notice that information has become more difficult to find. It is hard, in other words, to know what you don’t know» (Goldsmith and Wu, 2006: 75-76). As well as manifestations of global censorship, restrictions, which are far beyond the limits of national states and become worldwide phenomena: «A number of other countries were found to be engaged in less pervasive forms of Internet filtering, typically concentrated around a single content area or contentious Internet service. For example, in addition to blocking some gambling and pornographic sites, ISPs in South Korea block access to all websites related to North Korea. India blocks access to websites related to extremist and militant groups, particularly those associated with Hindu and Islamic extremism. A number of Middle Eastern and Gulf Countries, including Syria, Jordan, UAE, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia, block access to the entire Israeli (.il) domain» (Deibert, 2009: 327-328). Herewith, disciplining and teaching users may be carried out by means of creating cultural images. For instance, we may mention an intention to upgrade computer skills and improve informational culture. The mechanism of individual virtual socialization may be discovered through the meaning of the term «informational # 30 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space culture»: «By the term community informational culture we shall mean steady forms of behavior in the informational space, the forms being accepted by the majority of members of the given virtual collective» (Konstantinov, 2008: 527-258). The role and influence of new media, in general and the Internet, in particular on development of cultural identity and their place in national and cultural projects is attracting attention of more and more researchers in the field of cultural studies. A number of hypotheses have been suggested in the process of research project planning, validity of which shall be verified in the course of the present research work: 1. No national «Internets» exist in Belarus and Ukraine (they exist only in Northern Korea and Cuba, but they are rather common «Intranets»). It would be possibly more appropriate to state national peculiarities of assimilation of new communication technologies and cultural legitimate application forms of the latter. 2. Belarusian Internet space forms and considerably identifies «Ru-Net» and this may be regarded as cultural colonization and re-experiencing cultural dependence on soviet cultural practices. 3. Russian-language space does not equal to «Ru-Net». It is much broader than Russian user-oriented websites and includes a variety of resources irrelevant to Russian users. 4. Cultural dependence of national Internet spaces on «Ru-Net» exist in human consciousness and is relevant not only to the Internet, but also to any other communication practices. However, in spite of the general level of development of theoretical Internet problems, classification and typology of its national segments has not been duly elaborated. Example The present article is based on the results of the research project «Development of national identity in the countries of Eastern European Borderland (Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova) on the Internet», which has been successfully implemented in 2006-2007 within the frames of the program «Social transformations at the Borderland (Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova) administered by the Center for Advanced Studies and Education. The object of the research shall be the Belarusian segment of the global Internet web as a social and cultural phenomenon in its historical perspective. The subject shall apply to the practices of cultural identity development in the process of representation by using Internet technologies. The aim of the project is to conceptualize of the mechanisms and strategies of cultural identity development by means of Internet technologies. The named aim is supposed to be achieved upon accomplishment of the following tasks: 1. to determine the degree of independence (or dependence) of Internet development in Belarus on the basis of description and analysis of national Internet projects; 2. to study the specific character of mechanisms developing cultural identity in national segments of the Internet on the basis of Belarusian resources; 3. to examine the role of web information in the process of cultural identity development; 4. to identify the degree to which the traditions of soviet cultural past practices determine the level and character of integration of Belarus into global informational space. We applied a method of semi-standard indepth interviews with experts to obtain primary information (face-to-face). The interviews were # 31 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space conducted in winter-spring in 2007 in Minsk, Kiev and Kishinev. The interviews were recorded by means of a digital dictaphone. There have been totally conducted 22 in-depth semi-structured interviews with top managers and managers of Internet projects in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine. Firstly, we applied the method of open coding to transcripts, which allowed to «stick» concept labels to the latter and split the continuous speech of the interviewed persons into semantic units. Later we used axial coding and selective coding. Mainly these two multidirectional strategies allowed us to obtain more multidimensional results of the research. The present methodology is based on theoretical knowledge of the grounded theory. Theoretical sampling was used in the research: «Theoretical sampling is the process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects, codes, and analyzes his data and decides what to collect next and where to find them, in order to develop his theory as it emerges. This process of data collection is controlled by the emerging theory» (Glaser and Strauss, 1967, p. 45). We have also sorted out the central category of the project. This central category shall be the national Internet or national Internet space. We identified three subcategories to develop and support the central category on the basis of the interviews conducted: Identity, Space and Influence. These three subcategories are closely connected and interact with each other. The problem of identity is the subject of our interest firstly in the context of cultural identity, and mainly the way in which social and cultural practices and routine activities define our identity. Pursuant to the above-mentioned aims and tasks we created a large-scale coding system used as the main criteria of further interview deconstruction. Upon the deconstruction of the interview they were reconstructed in the compliance with the criteria of the coding system. Individual statements used by experts were regarded not as their «personal opinion» or «private point of view», but as the statements cycling in the discourse. Herewith it is rather symptomatic to consider frequent repetitions of the same ideas used by different experts. We have to emphasize that in the course of traditional quantity researches in the media field the audience and its behaviour become the object of studies. Later, pursuant to «feedback» obtained from the audience and available information relevant to the latter (demographic characteristics, consumer behaviour, employment etc.) we formed the notion of mass media, with its audience under investigation. The peculiarity of our research work shall be the fact that mass media are investigated not pursuant to «feedback» obtained from its audience, but the mass media are studied as a self-sufficient social institute. In other words, presented research’s results are not typical for traditional communication studies of media effects. Herewith, not the external manifestations of social activity of mass media are under analysis, but its latent self-description narratives. Proposed approach correlate well with idea of conceptual changes in cultural studies: «The cultural production thesis is an adaptation of the cultural studies’ approaches by shifting the focus on to the cultural politics of production on the Web while maintaining the insights derived from celebrating the activity of the populace in making meaning. This new thesis is the fundamental reorientation of cultural studies from reception to production in order to make sense of the Web» (Burnett and Marshall, 2003: 72). In the present article Internet studies shall be regarded as a scope of research strategies and practices aimed at investigation of social, cultural, political and economic relations emerging in the process of user interaction both in the Web (on-line) and relevant to the Web (off- # 32 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space line). We may state that Internet studies apply research principles of cultural studies to new communication technologies. And if the methods applied for cultural studies of the Internet ten years ago were greatly criticized: «The most important methodological principle for a cultural study of the Internet is simply to have one. To truly learn anything about the Internet, one has to ask carefully considered questions that can be answered only through some kind of organized research» (Sterne, 1999: 265). At present the researcher is regarded as completely independent and free to choose any methodology: «The program of contemporary culture studies is based on the principle of necessity for direct observation of different forms of social interactions; a concrete program of scientific investigations on culture is connected with selection of methodology for social interactions studies. Selection of the basic form of social interactions 1) depends on subjective intentions of the scientist carrying out investigations on culture; 2) determines concrete subjects and methods of culture studies on the base of direct observation of people’s social life» (Koptzeva and Reznikova, 2009: 493). The Internet has been ignored in academic research works in the humanities field for a long time, but at present the Internet investigation in Russia is becoming more and more popular. Previously it was analyzed and studied as one of possible communication technologies, as an applied field of computer science, but at present more attention is paid to the studies of social and cultural consequences of implementation of this new communication technology. Social aspects of the Internet may include a change in its perception as a new dimension of public space, transformation of its previous forms of social and cultural interaction of individuals and social groups etc. «The Web produces a continuum of engagement from collective organization to audience. The user in his/her cultural reproduction of his/her Web space navigates between these collective identity poles» (Burnett and Marshall, 2003: 80). However, identity issues are becoming a matter of peculiar interest for cultural studies. We have to underline that the specific character of the Internet is observed in the course of new role distribution in the communication process. Hereby, we take into account user development and conceptualization, but not the audience: «Audience, consumer, reader and listener are the usual ways of identifying the subjective experience of other media and cultural forms and, though they relate to the experience of the Web, they do not express its essential difference. In order to advance on understanding the Web of identity, it is the different subjectivity of the user that has to be explored. To organize that interpretation of the user and how it relates to but differentiates itself from how people use traditional media, we have called this interpretation the cultural production thesis» (Burnett and Marshall, 2003: 70). The research is focused not on a consumer but mainly on a user as an active individual directly participating in its own identity formation. However, Internet researchers, and the Internet in general, are targeted at a certain group of users: «Most Internet content targets well-off, well-educated, English-speaking users. An estimated 78 percent of all websites are in the English language, even though just over 50 percent of Internet users are native English speakers, and only 10 percent of the world population use English as a first language» (Chen et al., 2002: 79). Concentration on study of «English-speaking users» had produced a new term for description and explanation of this domination and influence on global Internet’s research in studies – «Anglophonic». But Internet is not limited by the English language. In other words: «However, despite the clear importance of # 33 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space attending to the Internet’s Anglophone origins, in this introduction we have been arguing that it is necessary for Internet studies to take greater account of developments in the non-Anglophone world and to qualify the conception of the Internet as a «global» technology with increased recognition of its very local histories and cultures of use» (Goggin and McLelland, 2008: 12). Ru-Net is already under active consideration and research. Now start to appear the Ph.D. thesis on Ru-Net in English. And the text of Eugene Gorny is very important. In his text is a statement about nowadays condition of Internet studies in Russia from foreign point of view: «Generally, the Russian Internet remains to a great extent terra incognita for English-language Internet researchers. The study aims to contribute to the knowledge of Internet uses and interpretations in various cultural contexts by developing theories based on empirical and historical case studies of the Russian Internet» (Gorny, 2006: 7). And his dissertation is logical a step to internalization of the Russian Internet studies’. Troubles in construction of national Internet space as object for studies are actual for many non-Anglophone cultures. And researchers need to create they own local research object’s in context of global Internet studies’. Global (Anglophonic) theory of Internet’s development should be tested by local (non-Anglophonic) studies: «Local Internet histories and concepts question the analytical power of generalizations while also making the directions and stances from which these can be made in the first place visible». (Paasonen, 2008: 28). Locally based Internet studies produces and provides visibility of the object being studied – national Internet space. In this context, all discussions about Internet’s development in Belarus we should mention its cultural dependence on Russia. This becomes apparent both in borrowing the terms (for instance, the offsetting point for provider traffic in Moscow RU9 and BY9 in Minsk), and in structuring information (for instance, complete adoption of catalogue subject headings) etc. In other words, the mainstream in Internet studies is targeted at English-speaking users and the English language resources, while other Internet spaces remain unstudied by the researchers. The presented project is an attempt to complete this lacuna and presented in the first approximation – What is Bel-Net? Resume The conducted research allows to draw the following conclusions: The Russian language space does not equal to «Ru-Net». It is much broader than Russian user-oriented websites and includes the variety of resources having no relevance to Russian users. The Russian language predominance in the national Internet spaces is not regarded as a sign of belonging and loyalty to Russia. And this provides grounds to speak about such phenomenon as a great number of Russian national websites. At present it is possible to speak the same language on one sixth part of the land as in the period of the USSR, but presently it is feasible in virtual space. We may assume that in the period of the Russian Empire its territory was connected by the common railway network. In the period of the USSR there was a common power supply network. At present this connecting function is fulfilled by the Russian segment of the Internet (global network). There is no national Internet as autonomous and self-sufficient space, but there is the national Internet as a local way to learn new technologies. Being a part of the national Internet is one of the developmental stages of the Internet project. Transfer to the global level is a kind of threshold, the indicator of maturity of not only a single project, but of the national information system # 34 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space as a whole. When we talk about Belarusian Internet we do not mean the Internet developed in Belarus, but the peculiarities of its usage and cultural assimilation of this new communication technology. It may be stated that the main dependence of national Internet spaces on «Ru-Net» lies in our consciousness, i.e. it is revealed not only with regard to the Internet, but also to any other communication practices. The existing dependence on «Ru-Net» may be abolished by means of creating a new independent one. This is a classic model of masterpiece creation: to obtain the status of expert the pupil has to create a masterpiece. Up to now we experience the influence of ideas recorded in written culture, when we perceive the Internet as a big book (newspaper). But this is another informational space functioning according to organization and interaction principles. Development and investigation of virtual space, its review in the actual context is performed by means of transfer of familiar offline practices into on-line space. References 1. Anderson B. Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. – M.: Kanon-press, 2001. – 288 p. (in Russian) 2. Barlow J. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace [the Electronic resource]. – 1996. – URL: http://homes.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html 3. Burnett R., Marshall D. Web Theory. An Introduction. New York and London: Routledge, 2003 – 242 p. 4. Chen W., Boase J., Wellman B. The Global Villagers: Comparing Internet Users and Uses Around the World // The Internet in everday life / ed. by Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornthwaite, 2002. – Р. 74-113. 5. Deibert R. The geopolitics of internet control: censorship, sovereignty, and cyberspace // Routledge handbook of Internet politics / edited by Andrew Chadwick and Philip N. Howard, 2009. – Р. 323336. 6. Glaser B., Strauss А. The Discovery of Grounded Theory. – Chicago: Aldine Publishing, 1967. – 271 p. 7. Goggin G., McLelland M. Internationalizing Internet Studies: Beyond Anglophone Paradigms // Internationalizing Internet studies / edited by Gerard Goggin and Mark McLelland. – 2008 – P. 3-17. 8. Goldsmith J., Wu T. Who controls the Internet? – Oxford, 2006. – P.13-48. 9. Gorny E. A Creative History of the Russian Internet – A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Goldsmiths College, University of London. – 388 p. [the Electronic document]. – 2006. – URL: http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/russ-cyb/library/texts/en/gorny_creative_history_ runet.pdf 10. Konstantinov P. Internet Community Socialization Processes // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. – 2008. – Vol. 1 (4). – P. 523-530. 11. Koptzeva N., Reznikova K. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. – 2009. – Vol. 2 (4). – P. 491-506. 12. Paasonen S. What Cyberspace? Traveling Concepts in Internet Research / Internationalizing Internet studies / edited by Gerard Goggin and Mark McLelland. – 2008 – P.18-31. # 35 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space 13. Schmidt H., Teubener K. «Our runet»? Cultural identity and media usage // Control + Shift. Public and Private Usages of the Russian Internet / ed. by Schmidt H., Teubener K., Konradova N. – 2006. – Norderstedt: Books on Demand. – P.14-21. 14. Sterne J. Thinking the Internet: Cultural Studies Versus the Millenium // Jones S. Doing Internet Research : Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net – Sage, 1999. – P. 257-288. Конструирование культурной идентичности в национальном Интернет-пространстве А.Д. Криволап Европейский гуманитарный университет Литва LT-01114, Вильнюс, ул. Тауро, 12 Статья посвящена социальным аспектам развития и культурного освоения Интернеттехнологий в Беларуси. С момента появления белорусского национального домена .by прошло 15 лет, и за этот период Интернет прошел долгий путь от экспериментальной технологии, доступной только научно-исследовательским учреждениям, до одного из основных каналов массовой коммуникации. Одной из причин написания этой статьи является желание обосновать возможность существования национальных сегментов глобальной сети Интернет не только на национальном языке вообще, но и белорусского сегмента в частности, а также прояснить механизмы конструирования культурной идентичности пользователей с применением Интернет-технологий. Ключевые слова: культурные исследования; репрезентация; киберпространство. Интернет; культурная идентичность; Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 37-49 ~~~ УДК 801.1; 801.7 The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse Uliana V. Smirnova * Siberian Federal University 82A Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 There has been a certain amount of prominent research concentrated on the technologization of discourse. On consideration of the recent conclusions on technologization, I suggest that the angle of research should be altered to focus on defining the linguistic nature of technologization, the levels (or steps) this procedure implies, and its main source. The nexus between technologization, manipulation and simulacra has not yet been acknowledged and proved. Technologization has also not been related to the elimination of the subject from the postmodernistic discourse. Using examples from the political discourse of G. W. Bush, the following article pertains to the validity of such claims. Keywords: technologization of discourse, manipulation, discursive technologies, simulacrum, the discourse of the Expert Community, ostrannenie (defamiliarization). Introduction It is not a revolutionary new statement that individuals, discourses and the process of communication have been undergoing serious transformations in post modern environment (some indicative publication include Fairclough 2005a, 2005b, 2005c; Morrish 2000; Poster 2001; Simmons 2001; Simulacrum America: The USA and the Popular Media 2000; Spanos 2001; Thurlow 2009; Vannini 2007; Wallin 2006; Ziarek 2002). The changes in the works of philosophers and linguists go under the names of ‘synthetic personality’ (A. Tolson), ‘the death of the author’ (R. Barthes, J. Kristeva), ‘hyperreality’, ‘the procession of simulacra’ (J. Baudrillard), ‘humans as social machines (machines of desire)’ (J. Deleuze and F. Guattari), ‘a fake society’ (D. Anderson, P. Mullen) etc. Technologization of discourse, I * 1 believe, is a widespread accompaniment of these transformations, and it might also be believed to be their main cause. When we mention transmutations of individuals, we should never forget that in relation to linguistics we speak about the subject of discourse. While ‘individuals’ and ‘personalities’ are more appropriate terms for sociology and psychology, we should always keep in mind the famous words of E. Benveniste: ‘language provides the very definition of man, in and through language that man constitutes himself as a subject, because language alone established the concept of ‘ego’ in reality’ (Benveniste 1971: 729). This means that within such a view the discourse, which the speaker produces, gives evidence to the unique characteristics of this particular subject, personality, and individual. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 37 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse But at the same time herein lies a serious problem, that could be associated with changes of the episteme of the post modern society: the subject of discourse stops constituting himself through thoughts and ideas generated by himself / herself and articulated in his / her utterances, but rather is constituted by means of discursive technologies that are used to impose a certain language and a certain frame of mind. Although the speaker proclaims himself / herself as the subject in the instance of discourse in which I designates the speaker (ibid: 730), it is only simulative appropriation of the propositions ‘I believe’, ‘I think’, ‘I am sure’. The subject of discourse is effectively dissolved in the expert language and opinion. Another point which I would like to emphasise is that although there is a good foundation for technology in philosophy and linguistics (M. Foucault and N. Fairclough have written extensively on technologies), a ‘blind spot’ related to the linguistic approach to the technologization of modern culture still exists. My main aim is to redefine and broaden our understanding of technology in light of all the theoretical and practical knowledge that has been accumulated during my research of this phenomenon and in view of its practical use not only in linguistics but also in political science, Public Relations, and the studies of culture. Investigating the technologization of discourse The notion ‘technologization’ was coined by Norman Fairclough, who himself was influenced by Michel Foucault’s ideas about the synthesis of power, knowledge (technology) and discourse. Following M. Foucault’s and N. Fairclough’s works, we can come to the conclusion that technologization is the process of exercising power and influence over people’s lives and opinions through certain linguistic tools. However, the exact linguistic definition of the term ‘technology’, as well as the procedure of generating a tecnodiscourse, is still not very clear. What seems apparent is that technologization corresponds to the power of an expert / technologist that is effectively realised through the right to generate the discourse, a certain social position from which to address it to the audience, and special knowledge of how to tune the addressees in. Such a reflection points to a wider issue, and that is the need to apply a new notion – the discourse of the Expert Community, which is central to the works of A. Kaplunenko (Kaplunenko 2007). The original idea emerged in J. Swales’ Genre Analysis – the discourse community as a sociorethorical network that forms in order to work towards sets of common goals, that produces specific texts and has its own language, and that is open only to those who are able to speak the language (Swales 1990: 9-10). In linking a certain discourse with a certain expert community, it is not simply a question of a particular group of experts having an ideology (as a common sets of goals) and a language. It is what the experts want and know how to impose on the audience. From the standpoint of narrative theory, we can say that the ‘wielders of technology’ establish power over their technological creations or discoveries (Worthington 2009). This allows us to take a perspective on the expert techniques that are used to inculcate ideological ideas unnoticeably for the addressers of the discourse and highlight the linguistic aspect of technologies presented in scientific studies. When discussion takes place as to how technologization is put into practice we can underline the following: ‘two expressions are ‘textured’, textually constructed, in a relation of equivalence’ (Fairclough 2006: 42); a ‘doubling’ is created by means of certain terms (Foucault 2003: 15). In the context of his studies N. Fairclough # 38 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse speaks about semantically and pragmatically different signs equaled to each other (for example, globalization and economic liberalization in the speech of the US under-secretary Stuart Eizenstat) (Fairclough 2006: 42). M. Foucault concentrates his analysis on psycologico-ethical doubles of the offence, which are introduced in the discourse of psychiatric expertise by a whole series of terms, which happen to be unique discourse characteristics of a member of this particular Expert Community (for example, ‘psychological immaturity’, ‘poorly structured personality’, ‘bovarysme’, ‘Herostratism’, ‘Alcibiadism’ etc.) (Foucault 2003: 3). Having briefly looked at the starting points of studying technologization, it is worth approaching the observation of technology from another angle. I believe that the term ‘technology / technologization’, originally borrowed from mathematics, loses neither its original content nor its volume when it is introduced into philosophy and linguistics. Technology is a sequence of actions that is repeated within a definite set of procedures. In other words technology is characterised by a reproducible chain of elements and an algorithm that is recurrent until the final result has been reached. It’s a fact that researchers have already found similarities between the process of constructing a technology and the following of an algorithm, and it could be proved by the terms they use when describing the technological features of post modern discourse. For example, we meet such expressions as ‘technical exercises that serve to de-contextualize and de-politicize the terrain of well-being’ (McManus 2009) or ‘operating structures of storytelling in post modern fiction’ (Jackson 2007). In semiotic terms, technology could be described as a set procedure of manipulation with signs. When speaking about competent operations with signs it would be logical to suppose that the nature of technology lies in the syntax. With regard to technologization, the definition of ‘syntax’ – ‘formal relations of signs to one another’ (Ch. Morris), could be determined as an order of signs constructed and established by an expert. I relate technologization to manipulation for a reason. Manipulation in western discourse is widely associated with media and the coined term ‘media manipulation’. Although there exist many more terms which describe all different sorts of exertion of social influence to the advantage of the manipulator such as coercive persuasion, brainwashing, re-education, thought-control, mind control, thought reform, indoctrination, propaganda etc, the term ‘manipulation’ serves best to explain the very nature of the persuasion process. The etymological origin of the term ‘manipulation’ – skilful handling of objects – prompts that the origin of ‘handling’ of objects as well as minds lies in the expert operations with signs to create specific orders (chains) of signs with a view to imposing a certain ‘world view’ (in the original Leo Weisgerber’s interpretation it is reality structured in a certain way). The connection between manipulation and technologization is obvious – it’s encoded in their reliance on syntactical operation with signs. But while manipulation denotes a process of breaking down the phenomenological integrity of the individual with regard to inculcated values and with regard to motivation for actions, which contradict individually perceived ideas of them, technology is a means of effecting this process. Levels of technologization Apart from the fact that a direct link between manipulation and technology seems quite appropriate, another feature of technologization needs to be mentioned. I believe that there are three levels of the technologization of discourse and I shall illustrate the steps of constructing a technology referring to the discourse of George # 39 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse W. Bush produced in mass media after the tragic events of September 2001. This discourse generated the keywords ‘September 11’ or ‘9/11’ and an atomic-era military idiom ‘war on terror’, that ‘has provided the official gloss for so many acts of US state violence’ (Redfield 2007). The significance and impact of this particular discourse arose from the standing of the speaker (president of one of the most influential countries in the world) and the context of crisis for ‘fighting for freedom’ that America started in the wake of the hijacked planes intentionally being crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre in New York City on 9/11. It is remarkable to note that the process of technologization, that has been influencing discursive practices, only demonstrates the ongoing process of technologization in culture. Using Philippe Bonditti’s opinion as an example, the fact that politicians now focus on new technological tools to fight terrorism after 9/11, is a clear indication of the ‘increasing practices of surveillance and the globalization of control’ (Bonditti 2004). The first level of technologization. I claim that the fundamental basis of constructing a technology is expert technological syntax, by which I mean alliteration, rhythm, reiteration and rhyme. This formal syntactical level of technology has long been exploited by experts. In this respect K. Levi-Strauss’ study of the shamanistic curing procedures in primitive cultures can be quite indicative of the importance of the expert syntax. The anthropologist doesn’t answer the question why the healing techniques are successful but his evaluations help reveal the underlying principle of the shaman manipulations. It appears to be reiteration or shadowing of both the speech patterns and actions: ‘The (sick) woman speaks to the midwife: ‘I’m indeed being dressed in the hot garment of the disease’. The midwife answers her (sick woman): ‘You’re indeed being dressed in the hot garment of the disease, I also hear you say so’ (Levi-Strauss 2006). The same fundamental technique is widely applied in G. W. Bush’s discourse: ‘They would have seen the mighty United States of America retreat before the job was done which would enable them to better recruit… In my judgment, defeat – leaving before the job was done, which I would call defeat – would make this United States of America at risk to further attack’ (G. W. Bush, 07 April, 2007). This example illustrates the process of the syntactical construction of meaning very well. The first important feature of this utterance worth mentioning is the rhyme constituted in the double ‘retreat-defeat’. The repetition of the sound [eet] in the two words is designed to suggest that these words put together don’t only have phonetic equivalency but also equivalent meanings – withdrawal of the American troops from Iraq is the total failure of the American mission in Iraq. The expert’s other syntactical choice only cements the idea. Reiteration – ‘before the job was done’, ‘would have seen – would call – would enable – would make’, ‘the mighty United States of America – this United States of America’; alliteration ‘mighty United States’, ‘enable them to better’, ‘retreat – recruit – risk’, ‘United States – further attack’, and the general rhythm of the construction that creates gradual motion to a higher pitch – magnify the effect of conveying the expert’s meaning – the retreat of the American troops is America’s defeat. My principal reason for reproducing the next extract is because it provides a clear parallel between the way the shaman curative song is constructed in primitive culture and the way the manipulation effect is technologically reached in George W. Bush’s discourse. ‘The government has a responsibility to protect our citizens, and that starts with homeland security… After September the 11th, # 40 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse our government assumed a new responsibility to strengthen security at home and track down our enemies abroad. And the American people are accepting new responsibilities as well. I recently received a letter from a fourth grade girl that seemed to say it all. «I don’t know how to feel», she said. «Sad, mad, angry. It has been different lately. I know the people in New York are scared because of the World Trade Center and all, but if we’re scared, we are giving the terrorists all the power». In the face of this great tragedy, Americans are refusing to give terrorists the power. Our people have responded with courage and compassion, calm and reason, resolve and fierce determination. We have refused to live in a state of panic or a state of denial. There is a difference between being alert and being intimidated, and this great nation will never be intimidated… Life in America is going forward, and as the fourth grader who wrote me knew, that is the ultimate repudiation of terrorism’ (G. W. Bush, Nov. 8, 2001). Needless to say that the fourth grade girl, even if she existed in reality, is reproduced in this extract as a ‘narrative girl’ and is used in the process of technological meaning making. The girl’s narration starts with characteristics of the intentional state of ordinary Americans – sad, mad, angry, but, more importantly, scared. The word ‘scared’ is repeated and emphasised in light of the cause-effect relation that is established between Americans being scared and the terrorists being powerful. But the speaker draws a line under the emotion of fear and states the fact that Americans are refusing to give terrorists the power, which logically means that Americans are refusing to be scared. This idea is duplicated further – this great nation will never be intimidated. And indeed, the initial horizon of interpretation of Americans’ feelings (scare, panic, denial, intimidation) is technologically redirected: the speaker repeats the refrain with the verb that negates the meaning – Americans are refusing to give terrorists the power and sets the new horizon of interpretation of inner feelings and outer behavior – courage and compassion, calm and reason, resolve and fierce determination. Let me now turn to even more important features of this discourse which I think might be involved in constructing a technological chain – the alliteration in the words refuse, respond, reason, resolve, repudiation. I am not a specialist in the phonemic qualities of sounds taken from a cognitive perspective and can’t provide an acoustic analysis of the suggestive effect of the sounds (but I would wager that it is a very powerful and influential area of study which would be of great use for development of the theory of linguistic manipulation). But even before taking into consideration the innate phonetic associations that the use of the sounds might project on the idea of the message, I can claim that these words are alliterated for a reason. The chain constructed by a repetitive sound [re] can be used to send the subliminal idea: Americans refuse to respond with fear → they choose reason, resolve and repudiation of fear. The plausibility and resonance of this message rests upon the claims that are explicitly asserted in the discourse. In addition to this chain of meaning it is crucial to mention the sign ‘responsibility’ which alliterates with the ones mentioned above and is repeated a number of times – responsibility to protect, responsibility to strengthen, responsibility to repudiate terrorism. I would suggest that the narrative girl was introduced in the discourse to create an overwhelmingly powerful individual horizon of interpretation that blends with experiences and feeling of ordinary citizens. The fourth grade girl’s horizon sets the point which is then technologically shifted in the direction necessary for the expert. The gist of the message is the signs # 41 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse that start and finish the technological circle: We are not giving he terrorists all the power – We choose the ultimate repudiation of terrorism. I would like to draw attention to the fact that verbs to give, to refuse initiate the matrix of the discourse and are linked to a quite identifiable object – the terrorists. The pattern is finished with a noun phrase with very abstract categorisation repudiation of terrorism. It is a shift toward blurred meaning. But we will return to this when we describe the third level of technologization. The general rhythmic successions that are organized in the discourse – sad, mad, angry; courage and compassion, calm and reason, resolve and fierce determination pulsate in the discourse and make it very suggestive. Furthermore, we witness the duplication of signs. By ‘duplication’ I mean the manifestation of the same identity in different guises. It is realized through signs which might be claimed to be linear transformations of the same idea. For example, resolve (strong determination to achieve sth, OALD 1292) and fierce determination stem from ‘determination’; protect and homeland security (protection, OALD 1372) from ‘protection’; intimidated (frightened, OALD 815), scared (frightened, OALD 1354), panic (a sudden feeling of great fear, OALD, 1096) from ‘fear’, ‘frightened’. The operation of duplication involves slight modifications in the form of renaming one variable and is aimed, in my opinion, at masking the replication of the meaning. This redundancy is intentional and creates a magnified suggestive effect. The phenomenon of the duplication of meaning reiterates M. Foucault’ fundamental ideas about ‘doubles’ which are created ‘to shift the level of reality’ (Foucault 2003: 16) and reflects the concern in postmodern philosophy with questions of simulacra. Simulacrum as a building block of a technological chain. Analysing Haruki Murakami’s books, Michael Seats comes to the conclusion that the author employs the structure of the simulacrum in his narration (Seats 2006). ‘Simulacrum’ has become quite a ‘fashionable’ term. It originates from the works of the French post structuralism (J. Baudrillard, J. Derrida, G. Deleuze). The philosophical background for the ideas can be found in the works of Plato, who in his famous dialogue ‘Sophist’, speaks about imitations preoccupying the world of art – imitations as signs which are not the exact copies of the original but the copies of the copies, distorted intentionally in order to make the copy appear correct to viewers. From a semiotic perspective, simulacrum is a sign in which the natural relations between the signifier and the signified is deformed. In the natural process of semiosis, the signified (the object and its qualities) determines the choice of the signifying and rules its usage in the discourse. When the connection between the signified (which could be defined as structural knowledge linked to the sign in the semiotic process and accepted by an individual as gained knowledge) and the signifying is ignored, any interpretant could be associated with the sign. The interpretant becomes manipulative when it starts distracting the interpreter from the object and is constructed discursively, that is without reference to one’s personal experience but out of the building blocks which refer to each other within a certain discursive matrix. As Anna Free puts it, ‘the simulacrum concerns the surface of things’ but ‘the realness’ of the surface is deceptive (Free 2008). For example, in the utterance A lot of people are working really hard to protect America, but in the long run, the best way to defend our homeland, the best way to make sure our children can live in peace, is to take the battle to the enemy and to stop them (G. W. Bush, Nov. 8, 2001) the # 42 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse actions behind the sign ‘to protect America’ are interpreted through a technological chain of infinitives: to protect America – to defend our homeland – to make sure our children live in peace – to take the battle to the enemy and stop them. The rhythmic pulse created in the discourse has two crucial points: the tension at the beginning ‘to protect America’ and relaxation at the end ‘to take the battle to the enemy and stop them’. As a result, protection can be construed as taking the battle, although in relation to the actions in ‘the real world’ they have nothing to do with each other and are interconnected only in the technological chain. The processes involved in the manipulative interpretant construction are salient when considering the next level of technologization of discourse. The second level of technologization. Apart from being a kind of subliminal message which could be compared to the effect of the 25th frame, a technological chain is built to exploit archetypal meanings and culturally established interpretations. Reviving the term of the Russian formal school ‘ostrannenie’, I would call this level of technology ‘technological defamiliarization’. Victor Shklovsky is credited with formulating the important literary concept ‘defamiliarization’. He is concerned with familiarization of object perception: “We see the object as though it were enveloped in a sack. We know what it is by its configuration, but we see only its silhouette. The object perceived in the manner of prose perception, fades and does not leave even a first impression; ultimately even the essence of what it was is forgotten… Art removes objects from the automatism of perception in several ways”. The familiar can be presented as unfamiliar by the description and / or by the proposal to change its form without changing its nature (Shklovsky 1965: 11-15). The literary understanding of defamiliarization implies dehabituating automised perception by providing another point of view on the object. In other words, the object (or the sign referring to it) is removed from the familiar context of its perception and put into a new one. The essence of ‘technological defamiliarization’ lies in the same fundamental principle of the syntactical change of the surroundings of a particular sign but with one significant difference. Relying on a very wellknown context, the expert exploits its pragmatic power and generates new meanings by introducing a new order into relations between signs within the context familiar for the addresser. The key effect involves creating an expert vision of the object that might be inadvertently absorbed by the addresser on the wave of intentionality and the interpretation horizon characterizing the original context. I now propose to illustrate the process of ‘technological defamiliarization’, and consider its generic features, in a brief examination of what is perhaps one of the most illustrative examples: ‘We see a day when people across the Middle East have governments that honor their dignity, unleash their creativity, and count their votes. We see a day when leaders across the Middle East reject terror and protect freedom. We see a day when the nations of the Middle East are allies in the cause of peace’ (G. W. Bush, 31 Aug. 2006). The expert relies on the well-known configuration of signs formed in the discourse of M. L. King ‘I have a dream’ with one dramatic difference. He alters the order of signs to achieve a special manipulative effect: with all the emotions and feelings coded to the new day of M. L. King when all men are equal, there is a brotherhood of whites and blacks and no racial justice, the speaker targets a shift of meaning linking the new bright day of the Americans with democracy, freedom, peace in the Middle East. We can claim that the interpreters of the # 43 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse discourse perceive the new horizon and the new interpretant as personal and don't question the grounds on which they are based, because their hermeneutical efforts are blocked on the first formal level of technologization. I would also like to add that the effect of déjà vu, in the sense of how the déjà vu phenomenon is approached by the researcher of media culture and digital history Peter Krapp, plays a crucial role in the effect of defamiliarization. The reference to a culturally well-known event / thing / figure disturbs the cultural memory, but when it’s turned into a ‘decontextualized familiarity’ it might be acknowledged to be ‘a kind of memory without a memory’ (Krapp 2004: x) Defamiliarization is widely used in media manipulation, and it encompasses lots of tricks used by experts. Thus what Robin T. Lakoff calls ‘deliberate misinterpretations’ (Lakoff 2001) or George Lakoff – ‘a smart technique of stealing the other side’s language’ (Lakoff 2004: 21-22) is clearly ostrannenie because the parallel is apparent: the signs are taken out of context, which enables the expert to misconstrue the speaker’s original meaning whereas the misconstrued meaning is verified. It may be verified by the very fact that the speaker produced this utterance, as in the case of Hilary Clinton, when media create her image and determine what the speaker intended by her words ignoring what she really intended to say. Or by the exploitation of the intentionality generated in the original context, as when Bill Clinton used the words ‘the big government’ to describe the welfare reform. He removed the signs from the context of the ideological line of the Conservative party and set the opposing direction of intentionality – ‘the age of big government is over’. The third level. The final aspect of a technology is to intentionally refer the addresser to objects and events, allegedly existing in the context of his / her personal experience, which in fact function only in the forms constructed within a simulative world. This corresponds with the words of Plato: ‘imitation is a kind of creation of images and not of real things’; ‘imitations of real existences’ (Plato 2004: 102, 101). Reference is widely acknowledged to be the way language is connected with the objects in the world (although I must admit herein lies a very important philosophical problem whether the world of objects exists or not and more deeply where the meanings are – in signs themselves, in the embodied mind, in the embedded mind). So pseudoreference (a new term which I would like to introduce) is an intentional action of referring to objects and events, allegedly existing in the context of our personal experience, which in fact function only in the forms constructed within a simulative world. At this point it’s worth mentioning that pseudoreference will work most effectively at critical moments of culture. ‘A subject needs reference, it provides stability. If he or she is unable to immediately establish a frame of reference, it triggers a response of dread’ (Marzec 2002). So a subject is prone to accept whatever is imposed upon them if they have never experienced this particular thing or event. This is what happened in America on 9/11. A good example of pseudoreference is ‘the enemy of freedom’ – a term coined in American political discourse, the extension of which is so wide and vague that it can refer to an unlimited number of objects – Nazi Germany, Soviet Union, Iraq, Sudan, Taliban. But the special features of these simulative objects are constructed beyond physical experiences – beyond the boundaries of personal phenomenological worlds, and are restrained to images recreated within the context of values. If we refer to the notions introduced by Alfred Whitehead, we should speak about the World of Value and the World of Activity that are interdependent: ‘The reality inherent in the # 44 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse World of Value involves the primary experience of the finite perspectives for realisation in the essential multiplicity of the World of Activity’ (Whitehead 1968: 89). Still we can see that there could be constructed a wide technological gap between the two Worlds. If we look at the Value ‘Freedom’ in American culture, and the realisation of this Value in the World of Activity, then we may see the shift between ‘Freedom’, and its properties (which primarily imply ‘individual freedom’), and its realisation in a number of concrete actions. The latter are a) beyond the experience of ordinary Americans, b) beyond the values of the people where this value is being implemented, c) the Value ‘Freedom’ is clearly substituted by the realisations of values ‘Expansion’, ‘Dominance’, ‘Power’. Here we can proceed to a very serious issue of constructing worlds that are beyond people’s personal experiences and that are technologically imposed on them. Turning the subject of the discourse into simulacrum While most researchers acknowledge the fact the individuals are changing rapidly, their opinion about the nature of these changes differs drastically. While some of them support the idea of the distinction between human and machine being lost and the fluidity of gender identities (Haraway 1991), the others express opposing views about the binary oppositions being intensified (Mullany 2004). Whereas many hold a very pessimistic view of the increasing control of information and communications technologies (e.g. Finlay 1987), a few have argued that modern technologies bring genuine, productive and transformative changes (Poster 2001). Without claiming the changes to be good or bad, I would simply like to recognise that they exist and are well demonstrated in language use. A very interesting example is contained within the article by Samira Kawash, who contemplates her confusion over the meaning of the fragment of conversation “So there I was on line, when this kid started pushing me from behind, practically knocked me down...” (Kawash 1997). The wide use of new digital technologies has caused shifts in language use: ‘to be on line’ is no longer commensurable with physical activity because the automatic assumptions would be ‘to go on line’, ‘to shop on line’, ‘to work and play on line’. In my article I aim to concentrate more on the transformations of the subjects of discourse and the investigations of the problem within the nexus between manipulation, technologization and simulacrum. The key explanation to their integrity lies in the fact that the main aim of manipulating people happens to be alienation of the subject from the ideas and meanings he / she utters. ‘Alienated subject’ is virtually a nonexistent subject of the discourse which reproduces but does not produce utterances. This point is extensively proved and illustrated by media researchers who write about personalities constructed as ‘certain types of subjects’ (Tolson 1991: 195). There can be no doubt that it is true about TV presenters who are represented as constructions, even fabrications for the game which is ‘good television’ (ibid: 187), and public leaders, whose political persona is definitely a crafted one, based upon calculations of what will work, fed by focus group research (Talbot 2003: 71). But this may also be a very clear case for ordinary people. Thus Mary Talbot writes about call center workers, who are ‘imposed with a demand to present themselves in a way the company determines, down to the last detail’. This makes individuals a particularly extreme case of institutional control over individuals’ self-presentation (ibid: 130). I claim that this technological process of the alienation of the subject, which in linguistic terms would be better to formulate as the elimination of # 45 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse the subject, involves a wider audience in the post modern era and could be determined as creating a synthetic personality or, in terms widely used in this research, turning the subject into simulacrum. The main emphasis which I would like to lay here is on the thought (which is reiterated in the works on synthetic personalisation and synthetic personality): ‘personality’ is no longer reducible to ‘people as they really are’ but is revealed through their skills of ‘public verbal game’ (ibid: 185). All these clarify a newly emerged process in semiosis with a reversed direction of the vector: it is not the identity that generates its own discourse and reveals itself through it, but the discourse, which the identity adopts under pressure, or inadvertently, consumes and exterminates the subject of the discourse leaving the pronoun I to exist only as a pure form. In essence the idea of the elimination of the subject and constructing him as a simulacrum, although in another ideological sense, was expressed by the linguist credited with the term and theory dubbed ‘the death of the author’ – Roland Barthes. ‘Writing is that neutral, composite, oblique space where our subject slips away, the negative where all identity is lost, starting with the very identity of the body writing. No doubt it has always been that way. As soon as a fact is narrated no longer with a view to acting directly on reality but intransitively, that is to say, fi nally outside of any function other than that of the very practice of the symbol itself, this disconnection occurs, the voice loses its origin, the author enters into his own death, writing begins. Linguistically, the author is never more than the instance writing, just as I is nothing other than the instance saying I: language knows a subject, not a person, and this subject, empty outside of the very enunciation which defi nes it, suffices to make language hold together, suffices, that is to say, to exhaust it’ (Barthes 1977). Interestingly, whereas Barthes speaks about the death of the author as the absence of the dominating center that sets the only possible interpretation of the text, I see a vivid parallel between his ideas and the ones expressed in this article in relation to the transformations of the subjects under the influence of technologies. When the production of the discourse turns into ‘the very practice of the symbol itself’ or, in other words, the discursive practices start to overwhelmingly control the subjects of discourse (whether this process is conscious or unconscious for the addressers of the discourse), the subject is lost as it is dissolved in the flow of speech introduced from above. But I admit that these are only preliminary conclusions not supported by serious research. However I am sure that this particular aspect of technology will be proved true after thorough investigation with a special emphasis on the discourse presented from above (the Discourse of the Expert Community) and the effect it has when it is perceived below (the ideas of the discourses introduced from above and below belong to N. Fairclough). Resume Technologization is a universal mechanism of covert control and persuasion effectuated in the Discourse of the Expert Community. The basic nature of the technology rests on special syntax when an expert follows a three step technological algorithm: 1) to construct a chain of signs relying on four key principals of suggestive influence – rhythm, reiteration, rhyme, alliteration (the formal level); 2) to impose a certain interpretation of the event / object with reliance on a pre-directed intentional state of the addressers of the discourse; 3) to lock the addresser inside a discursive world created with pseudoreferents. There is a relation between manipulation, technologization and simulacrum and it could be clearly determined: manipulation is a technology # 46 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse used for the practical purpose of constructing a subject of the discourse as a simulacrum. This means that the subject of the discourse, which manifests itself the moment it appropriates the personal pronoun I, stops producing ideas but begins to reproduce discursive blocks that have been inadvertently consumed under the influence of expert technologies. I remains as a devaluated ‘pure’ form that marks the presence of the speaker but doesn’t indicate the subject, because the latter is lost. Thus technologization is a process that communication undergoes in modern times and it goes hand by hand with manipulation and simulacrum. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Anderson, D., Mullen, P. The idea of a fake society // Faking it. The sentimentalisation of modern society / ed. by D. Anderson and P. Mullen. – London: Penguin Books, 1998. – P. 3-18. Barthes, R. Image. Music. Text // Essays selected and translated by St. Heath. – London: Fontana Press, 1977. – 217 p. Benveniste, E. Problems in general linguistics. – Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1971. – 198 p. Bonditti, Ph. From territorial space to networks: a Foucaldian approach to the implementation of biometry // Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. – Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004. Fairclough, N. Transition, patriarchy and ‘room-service feminism’ in Romania: a critical discourse analysis perspective. – 2005а. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/ profiles/263/ Fairclough, N. Governance, partnership and participation: cooperation and conflict. – 2005b. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/263/ Fairclough, N. Critical discourse analysis in trans-disciplinary research on social change: transition, re-scaling, poverty and social inclusion. – 2005c. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/263/ Fairclough, N. Language and globalization. – London: Routledge, 2006. – 186 p. Finlay, M. Powermatics: a discursive critique of new communications technology. – London: Routledge, 1987. – 398 p. Free, A. The real lies: the simulacrum in Catherine Fisher’s The Oracle // Papers: Explorations into Children’s Literature. – Melbourne: Deakin University, 2008. Foucault, M. Abnormal: Lectures at the College de France, 1974-1975. – London: Verso, 2003. – 374p. Haraway, D. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. –London: Free Association Books; New York: Routledge, 1991. Jackson, T. E. ‘Graphism’ and story-time in Memento (Critical essay) // Mosaic. – Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 2007. Kaplunenko, A. Koncept – Ponyatie – Termin: Evolucia semiotichesckih sychnosteu v kontekste diskursivnoi praktiki. – Irkutsk, 2007. Kawash, S. @, or, Being on Line: A Reply to Timothy Luke, ‘Digital Beings & Virtual Times’ // Theory & Event: electronic academic journal. – Vol. 1 (2). – 1997. Krapp, P. Déjà Vu: Aberrations of Cultural Memory. – Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. – 218 p. # 47 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse 17. Lakoff, G. Don’t think of an elephant!: know your values and frame the debate: the essential guide for progressives. – Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2004. – 124 p. 18. Lakoff, R. T. The Language War. – Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001. – 332 p. 19. Levi-Strauss, C. Structural anthropology. – 2006. 20. Marzec, R. P. Enclosures, Colonization, and the Robinson Crusoe Syndrome: A Genealogy of Land in a Global Context // boundary 2. – Vol. 29 (2). – North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002. – P. 129-156 21. McManus, R. Work–Life Balance: A Case of Technical Disempowerment? // Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society. – Vol. 16(1). – Oxford: Oxford Journals, 2009. – P.111-131 22. Morrish, L. A Feminist’s Response to the Technologization of Discourse in British Universities // European Journal of Women’s Studies: SAGE Journals Online. – Vol. 7 (2). – 2000. – P. 229-238 23. Mullany, L. Become the man that women desire: gender identities and dominant discourses in email advertising language // Language and Literature: SAGE Journals Online. – Vol. 13 (4). – 2004. – P. 291-305 24. OALD, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 7th ed. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 25. Plato. Sophist. – New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2004. – 144 p. 26. Poster, M. What’s the Matter with the Internet? – Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001. – 214 p. 27. Redfield, M. Virtual Trauma: The Idiom of 9/11 // diacritics. – Vol. 37 (1). – Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. – P. 55-80 28. Seats, M. Murakami Haruki; the simulacrum in contemporary Japanese culture. – Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. – 365 p. 29. Shklovsky, V. Art as Technique // Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays / edited by L.T. Lemon, M. J. Reis. – Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965. – P. 11-18. 30. Simmons, J. R Simulacrum America: The USA and the Popular Media. (Book Reviews) // Utopian Studies. – Oxford: Oxford Brookes University, 2001. 31. Simulacrum America: The USA and the Popular Media / edited by E. Kraus, C. Auer. – Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2000. – 259 p. 32. Spanos, W. V. The Specter of History: Rethinking Thinking in the Post-Cold War Age // Mosaic. – Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 2001. 33. Swales, J. M. Genre Analysis: English in academic and research settings. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 34. Talbot, M., Atkinson, D. Atkinson, K. Language and power in the modern world. – Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003 – 342 p. 35. Tolson, A. Televised chat and the synthetic personality // Broadcast Talk / edited by P. Scannell. – London: Sage, 1991 – P. 178-201. 36. Thurlow, C., Bell, K. Against Technologization: Young People’s New Media Discourse as Creative Cultural Practice // Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. – Vol. 14 (4). – Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2009. – P. 1038-1049 # 48 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Uliana V. Smirnova. The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of Discourse 37. Wallin, J. Technologizing the Tale // Educational Insights / on-line journal of the Centre for Cross Faculty Inquiry in Education. – Vol. 10(2). – 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www. ccfi.educ.ubc.ca/publication/insights/v10n02/html/wallin/wallin.html 38. Whitehead, A. N. Essays in science and philosophy. – New York: Greenwood Press, 1968. – 348 p. 39. Woods, B. Communication, technology, and the development of people. –London: Taylor & Francis, 1993. – 158 p. 40. Worthington, M. The Texts of Tech: Technology and Authorial Control in Geek Love and Galatea 2.2 // Journal of Narrative Theory. – Vol. 39 (1). – Michigan: Eastern Michigan University, 2009. – P. 109-133 41. Vannini, Ph., McCright, A. M. Technologies of the sky: a socio-semiotic and critical analysis of televised weather discourse // Critical Discourse Studies. – Vol. 4(1). – London: Routledge, 2007. – P. 49-74. 42. Ziarek, K. Is All Technological? Global Power and Aesthetic Forces // CR: The New Centennial Review. – Vol. 2 (3). – Michigan: Michigan State University Press, 2002. – P. 139-168 Лингвистические характеристики технологизации дискурса У.В. Смирнова Сибирский федеральный университет Свободный пр. 82а, Красноярск 660041, Россия Об интересе к технологизации современного дискурса свидетельствует ряд проведенных в последние годы работ в этой области. Принимая во внимание все сделанные учеными выводы, я предлагаю изменить угол исследования данного феномена и сконцентрироваться на лингвистической сущности технологизации дискурса, уровнях реализации технологий и источниках ее возникновения. Связь между технологизацией дискурса, манипуляцией и симулякром до настоящей статьи не устанавливалась и не доказывалась. Также как и не говорилось о прямом отношении, которое имеет технологизация дискурса к проблеме исчезновения субъекта высказывания в эпоху постмодерна. Указанные вопросы освещаются в данной статье и иллюстрируются примерами из анализа политического дискурса Дж. Буша-мл. Ключевые слова: Технологизация дискурса; манипуляция; технологии воздействия; симулякр; дискурс экспертного сообщества; остраннение. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 50-59 ~~~ УДК 29-12 + 29-31 Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation Daniil V. Pivovarov* Ural State University, 51 Lenin st., Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 AThe ideological basis of Bаhа`i Faith – the doctrine of progressive revelation – is discussed in this article. Views of Baha'u'llah and his followers on the nature of a prophet, the mission of great prophets, essence of the next New Era and on association of mankind into the uniform subject are described. Keywords: Bаhа`i Faith, progressive revelation, nature of prophecy, sociohistorical communities, unity of mankind, auxiliary international language, world administration. The phenomenon of mutual reflection of national cultures and global civilizations became especially appreciable after 1844. Traditional cultures of the East are mainly based on ideals of Buddhism and Islam. Their features – refusal from vigorous experiments with the nature and with public foundations, contemplation and selfabsorption. On the contrary, Christian subcultures in Europe and the USA are focused on risk, experiment, technical power and knowledge of the material world. Scientific and technical progress in Europe and America has caused not only material welfare, but also terrible irrational effects – world wars, ecological crisis, moral degradation. From here follows the steadfast interest of western ideologists to eastern ways of survival – the interest of the West to the East. On the other hand, the need to overcome scientific and technical backwardness became essential for the countries of the East. The East and the West as never earlier meet each other. * 1 Threat of self-destruction of mankind because of costs of technical progress forces Europeans and Americans to be interested in values of Buddhism and Islam, and the need in technical progress accompanies with intensive penetration of Christianity into eastеrn countries. Especially active interosculations of ideals of Christianity, Islam and Buddhism and occurrence of gens of new world religions, which actively propagandize ideas of nonviolence, have begun with the middle of XIX century of peaceful co-existence of world outlook alternatives and intelligent dialogue between civilizations, science and religion, religious faiths, philosophical schools. Among such «synthetic» religions there is especially allocated the youngest world religion Bаhа`i Faith, which has more than 6 million followers today 1. Bаhа`i Faith has arisen in 1844 in Iran as a result of audit of Muslim dogma, but now it not less considerably differs from Islam, than, say, Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 50 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation Christianity from Judaism. Baha`i communities have arisen in Russia in XIX century (in Ashkhabad), and the imperial administration patronized them. The baha`is forerunner was Bab (the arab. bab – gates) – mirza Ali Mohammad (1819–1850), who lived in Shiraz and who has proclaimed in 1844 fast occurrence of a new envoy of God, the name to whom will be Baha’u’llah, i.e. Shine of God. The sermon of Bab and his Scriptus «Bayan» have caused mass babid movement in Iran per 1848–1852. Mirza Hussein Ali Nuri (1817–1892) who has declared himself in 1863 in Bagdad «That Who Shows God» and accepted the name Baha’u’llah, occured as the crow flies from ancient imperial surnames of Persia; his father was the shah’s vizier. An outstanding career was designated to him, but he has prefered to become a follower of Bab. Soon he has been grinded in prison and subjected to tortures. Baha’u’llah was justified by the Persian court (owing to intervention of the Russian ambassador) and released from his dungeon. Baha’u’llah refused to receive Russian citizenship, which Russian tsar Alexander II offered to him. He has preferred the exile, together with his family, to Bahgdad. Then he has been sent to Constantinople, Adrianople and, at last, to Аcca. From Adrianople, and later from Аcca he has addressed with a number of messages to governors of different states, called them to establish a universal peace and proclaimed the future association of mankind. Before his death Baha'u'llah has transferred reins of spiritual management in Baha`i community to his senior son Abbas Effendi (1844–1921) who has accepted a new name Abdu`l-Baha (servant of Baha). After clearing from the exile in 1908 Abdu`l-Baha has gone to travel across the Europe and America (1911–1913). There he widely popularized doctrine of Baha’u’llah about the world unity and social justice. The organizational and territorial base of this new religion has become stronger during Abdu`l-Baha’s leadership. Before his death Abdu`l-Baha has appointed his senior grandson, Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (1897–1957), the interpreter of the sacred texts and the Keeper of Bаhа`i Faith. Service of Shoghi Effendi proceeded 36 years, down to his death. He has translated into English and has interpreted much from written by Baha’u’llah and Abdu`l-Baha, promoted a wide circulation of their views and transformation of bahaism into independent world religion. Primary a Bаhа`is organization exists as: 1) a local spiritual assembly (not less than nine believers); 2) at a national level – a national spiritual assembly; 3) the highest authority – the Universal House of Justice. Gardens are broken on slopes of mountain Karmel and the complex of Bаhа`is World Center is created nowadays in Haifa. Bаhа`is World community has seven houses of worship (temples), and even one temple is erected on each continent. Bаhа`is trust, that Baha'u'llah was the continuer of nice affairs of the great prophets – Аbraham, Krishna, Zoroastr, Moses, Buddha, Christ, Моhammad – and that his main mission consists in the notice of people on inevitability of process of consolidation of the mankind into the uniform subject. According to Bаhа`i theology, coming of each true prophet is a periodic event occuring once in some hundreds of years, and it similar to space cycles, studied by astronomers. A kernel of a religious system – its founder, on behalf of God declaring a new sense of the future condition of mankind. After rise of a prophet his early community starts to embody a definite doctrine in a sacral Scriptus. National or world culture develops from religious principles of this or that Scripture (or from a Sacred Tradition) and lasts centuries and in the millenia. Bаhа`is consider, that each God`s envoy adds a special component to the general formula of rescue of mankind and specifies it. # 51 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation So, Buddha, speaking about individual rescue by own forces, specified eight ways of disposal of fatal desires. Jesus Christ has strengthened idea of rescue «through another man» principles of sincerity (openness) and love (harmony of the opposite beginnings). Моhammad has paid a special attention of mutual aid, to traditions, peaceful co-existence and has transferred accent on collective, «national» rescue. Baha'u'llah has united these principles as the whole on the basis of the requirement of joint rescue of people in structure of mankind and has put forward a principle «to love another more, than yourself». Baha'u'llah has declared, that since 1844 and within the next ten centuries will last the special «New Era» – the era of consolidation of all people of our planet in the uniform world community. His doctrine is called the doctrine of progressive revelation, and the prophet has stated it in one hundred books among which are especially important «The Kitab-i-Aqdas»(The Most Holy Book) and «The Kitab-i-Iqan» (The Book of Certitude). The doctrine about progressive revelation is concretized in set of compositions of Abdu`l-Baha and Shoghi Effendi. Further let us try to shift an essence of this dogma briefly. The idea of Baha’u’llah about the dual nature of every real prophet is methodologically important. For all true religions «God is one», nevertheless people are compelled to profess different beliefs about God. In effect, all original religions receive «beams» from a uniform Source, but differ with specific interpretation of this Source. Somewhat truly, that all religions are just the same «Religion» (ecumenists usually emphasize this aspect), however it is necessary to keep and esteem carefully as relative truths such religious forms as Hinduism, Judaism, Zoroastrism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, etc. Each original prophet spoke about himself as about a usual terrestrial person and, simultaneously, as about an Epiphany – for God speaks through prophets. In «The Book of Certitude» Baha’u’llah writes about God`s prophets: «As these birds of the Divine Throne are granted from the sky at the Divine Will and born for declaration of His staunch Belief. All of them can be considered as the same shower and the person. For all of them drink from a uniform bowl of Divine Love and taste a fruit from the same Tree of Unity. These Developers of God possess two sides. In one attitude each of them is a pure abstraction and unity in essence; you will not depart from truth if all of them to name the same name and to attribute them the same properties <…> The second side – their distinction. In this plan every Developer of God is absolutely individual, at everyone the unique mission, everyone is known under his own name <…> If Full Developers will say: «Truly I am the God», – this is truth and no doubt; for it was repeatedly proved, that through their Phenomena, Properties and Names there is a display, on the ground, of God’s Property and God’s Name». So, prophets differ with human appearance, but their divine essence is identical. All of them have the same internal essence – to be the GodMan, however circumstances of their corporal birth are different. In each religion there are two opposite tendencies according to intrinsic and phenomenal sides of a prophet. The first – recognition of origin of your religion from the same uniform Source from which also rise other religions. This tendency demands from supporters of one faith the respectful attitude to adherents of different faith. The second tendency is interfaced to need to protect uniqueness of own religious canon and to oppose its canons of alien religions, to differentiate faiths on «true» and «false». The border of an openness of one religion depends on a degree of display of the second tendency concerning to another. These extreme measures # 52 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation are not groundless, caused by the dual nature of any religion and give religious outlook a special dramatic nature. They are not to be subjected to unconditional condemnation and eradication. Wise investigation and understanding such extrema is much better. Both specified tendencies are objectively important for evolution of each religion and for preservation of its unique kernel. Reassessment of the importance of own way to God conducts to fanaticism, sectarianism, illusion about the superiority of «my» religion above «another’s»; there are disputes, whose is God true, and whose – only an idol. On the contrary, absolutization of identity of religions is responsible for a non-church ecumenism and religious divergence. Skill to find out harmony of these two opposite tendencies, peculiar to the moderate part of clergy and flock, is the guarantor of peaceful coexistence and mutual enrichment of all religions and cultures, observance of a principle of freedom of worship and easing polarization inside confessions. The reason of ascention of forms of historical generality of people on a higher level is seen (in the doctrine of progressive revelation) in events of coming of God’s envoys. Steps of progress of mankind and an epoch of updating of sense of the future centuries are in direct causal dependence on turns of prophets. For example, it is possible to assume, that Abraham had given a spiritual impulse to a breeding (tribal) unity, and Mohammad stood at sources of a national structure. Former envoys of God serially pawned preconditions for transformation of the world split into set of clashing regions, in uniform «metacountry». Step by step communities of people were as though translated from initial classes in which train in mutual coexistence and dialogue, in the senior classes – down to an adult’s condition. Now, in New Era, it is necessary to synthesize so organically spiritual and material in persons that became possible mass, instead of elite, international management through general meetings of ordinary people with each other. The sacred law of the future world hostel will be expressed, on Baha’u’llah, in a dialectic principle «distinctions in identity», assuming harmonious coexistence and evolution of all developed cultures. If there are more freely unique features of various languages and cultures, then the richer a spiritual genofund of mankind develops and there are more creative events in peace contacts among persons, religions and cultures. What was fine color of a life, if it is only one – it is always color of totalitarianism and utter darkness. As bаhа`is consider, it is necessary to recognize following principles for achievement of unity of mankind: 1) refusal of any prejudices; 2) maintenance of full equality of the rights of men and women; 3) comprehension of unity and relative character of religious truth; 4) elimination of extreme displays of poverty and richness; 5) maintenance of general education; 6) duty of everyone to search truth independently; 7) creation of the world federation; 8) recognition of that the true religion is in harmony with mind and scientific search. Founders of Bаhа`i Faith see main preconditions of becoming of uniform mankind and universal culture as independent integrity (alongside with kept national cultures) in the four future events-processes: 1) integration sociohistorical communities of people down to occurrence of the incorporated mankind; 2) fast progress of means of the communications; 3) creation of an auxiliary international language; 4) formation and strengthening of the world administration coordinating actions of the national governments. # 53 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation 1. Integration of sociohistorical communities. Bаhа`is trust, that God has started historical forces which destroy the traditional barriers dividing people on different races and beliefs. During the end of association of ancient people into primitive g e n e r i c u n i t s the opportunity of a survival of families essentially amplified: chances on mutual destruction of families were decreased, interfamily conflicts were weakened. A generic unit resisted interfamily conflicts with a help of sacral traditions and interdictions. During those old times love to a native generic community was above, than love to own family. Transition of a society from patrimonial building to higher – b r e e d i n g, and after to p e o p l e – the organizations considerably reduced probability of interpatrimonial contentions and wars inside of a uniform tribe or people. At last, for today n a t i o n is the highest of the forms of sociallyorganic integrity of people reached by mankind. Nation does unite force of patriotism in a single whole. The feeling of social love, which is pulling together set of differing people and groups in a more and more increasing whole, historically became complicated, increased from love to own family up to love to own nation. Nowadays national patriotism almost everywhere and with the sufficient basis is estimated as such relic, on which the sovereignty of any state is based. As soon as mankind grew by a consecutive investment of simple forms of the spiritual and material unity in more and more complex communities (from family through genos, tribe and people to nation), the character of such ascention, on Baha’u’llah, is valid as the objective divine law. The maximal form of human unity in comparison with all former communities – the uniform mankind, and it is inevitable. During centuries of New Era this form will be the complete subject in the attitude to God and space. On the foreground in outlook, the personal force of love to mankind as a whole will be put forward. This love in any way does not cancel love of an individual to his family, people, nation; it is built on above all historically more ancient forms of social love and in due course becomes the most sacred universal feeling. Inside of mankind incorporated in a bouquet of people and the nations, freedom and safety of citizens and the states will increase, borders will open, threat of global and regional collisions will sharply decrease; mankind will turn to one family, and a planet – into one country. Disorder of former social structures forces many people to aspire to creation of more advanced integrity inside of which former structures will turn to considerably transformed subsystems of new totality, harmonizing each other. For example, arising from bloody-related brotherhood, through Buddhist, Christian and Muslim brotherhoods, a brotherhood of people all grows up to universal «all human beings are brothers». Such prospect follows from historical experience of earthmen, expresses one of objective world tendencies – aspiration of people to tolerance, – resisting to not less strong alternative tendency to intolerance. Hence, such prospect is not cleanly ideological fiction. The doctrine of progressive revelation speaks about possibility of u n i t y of all nations, races, languages and cultures in structure of a reuniting mankind, but it does not speak about their m e r g e a n d d i s s o l u t i o n without the rest in some international mass, which suppresses love to a family, genos, tribe, people and native language. On the contrary, the principle «distinctions in identity» assumes such desirable maximum unity of mankind inside of which flowers of all unique cultures grow, and citizens of any country can use their fruits where and in what conditions they lived. In this sense the future world is seen as the uniform country inside of which to each person the right freely to move to all to parts of the world # 54 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation is given, and they may choose religion adequating their soul and national culture. Now people in the majority have not grown yet, spiritually and fi nancially, to skill to choose a sociocultural form of individual life adequate to their essence and mentality. More often they do not have sufficient conditions for a choice of the desirable nationality, the suitable language, attractive religion and culture. In what place to live and in what ethnic language to think is not yet a question of their free choice, but is a question of their casual birthplace and the compelled submission to local traditions and interdictions. That is why there are dissidents inside of national cultures and internal protests against specific values, totally imposed, are inevitable. At the same time this violent stay of peoplecells in severe constraints of national organisms is historically justified by laws of a survival and blossoming of each separate culture. Features of ethnic culture demand for the basic display «a critical weight» of identically thinking people, so that is necessary and enough of the people keeping each other within the limits of the same sociocultural whole. When all variety of cultures will ripen and for maintenance of each culture the superfluous number of adherents will be enough, then there will come time of collecting of all cultures in a uniform multi-colour bouquet. In only case when there will be unprecedented opportunities for a free choice individuals own sociocultural essence, and rigid borders between the national states protected by armies will disappear. And then each human being will found out, that, he is similar to a mine with diamonds, conceals in itself an inexhaustible loose of treasures which true value is unknown even to its owner, not speaking about associates. The purpose of human life – to use these riches as personally for itself, and for the good of mankind. Today the problem of universal values is a subject of sharp ideological discussions. The opposing parties, as a rule, oppose nondialectically with two theses: 1) universal ideals always predominated over the organization of a public life by virtue of that homo sapiens is the uniform socially-biological whole, and base principles of all religions and cultures, adjusting ethnic communications, are the same in essence; 2) national-ethnic always gets the best above universal: all history of mankind testifies that human life is organized in the form of ethnoses incessantly struggling with each other; there is no universal language, any thinking and any culture are based on national languages. It is possible to prove both of the thesis convincingly enough specially picked up examples, and in their collision they seem eternally unsoluble dilemma. However the dilemma is somewhat removed, when we start to interpret it in the view of the doctrine of progressive revelation and through the picture of step ascention of a sociohistorical generality of people from family up to the nation and, at last, up to the incorporated mankind. 2. About revolution in means of mass communications. The second major precondition of gradually standing apart universal culture is unprecedented rate of development of means of a mass communication, predicted by Baha’u’llah. After 1844 there is, in abundance, an unprecedented technics: telegraph, rotator, transatlantic cable, typewriter, phone, gas engine, car, linotype, photo, diesel engine, cinema, airplane, radio, TV, satellite, laser, computer, Internet – all these technical inventions have closely pull together between itself the countries and continents, have made the nations and their cultures closely interdependent. At all desire any people any more will not manage to become isolated behind «Iron Curtain» in the frontiers. # 55 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation As we see, to the beginning of XXI century there was a technical-tool precondition of association of mankind. 3. Need for the auxiliary international language. According to the Bible once, till the moment of erection of the Babel tower, all Adam’s descendants communicated on a uniform and true parent language. Then God had punished them for their arrogance and forced to express in different languages. So the Scripture explains the fact of existence of many ethnic languages. Whether to be for ever doomed mankind divided by language barriers? Some Christian thinkers, for struggle against language chauvinism and improvements of mutual understanding between people, suggested to think up any general artificial language – in addition to already existing ethnic languages – on which all people of our planet could communicate (Newton, Descartes, Leibnits, etc.). Johnathan Swift was rather ironic on this account. He derided in his book «Gulliver’s Travel» scientists from Laputa (the country thought up by him), which communicated by means of language of things; that is why these men have been compelled to drag with themselves huge backpacks with suitable things. Baha’u’llah wrote in his messages from Acca to some leaders of empires and countries, that it is necessary to design, in addition to a set of natural ethnic languages, the uniform auxiliary language for association of mankind within the New Era. The appeal of the Persian prophet has been heard by many. So, in 1887 L. Zamengof, a bаhа`i from Poland, has created one auxiliary language – esperanto – on the basis of the latin alphabet, and since then hundred thousands esperantists express themselves in it The teachers of Bаhа`i Faith predict, that some kind of «dialectic denying of denying» will occur in the come millenium: uniform language will be restored by linguistic synthesis in a new quality, supplementing polylanguism. This language is planned to be created gradually from fragments of all, without exception, practised languages, and any of them does not need to be given preferences. Probably, it will appear as a monosemic, emotionally neutral artificial language with a simple grammar, and the most successful sounds, syllables and the wordcombinations inherent in all nowadays practised national languages will be synthesized in it. Not reduced neither to the latin basis, nor to cyrillics, or to one of the east languages the planned auxiliary language will borrow something important at each of them. The computer development of main principles of the required language has begun already with the end of XX century, though it is still far up to the general agreement on its grammar and the base dictionary. What will this language be – to be solved by commissions of experts and all people. If such language will arise sometime, it, possibly, will not have limits of perfection, begins to be studied at all schools of the world by each person together with native, national, language. Then, in the future, people of all countries will be trained two languages at once from children's age. The internal social unity of mankind and the world on the Earth, probably, become norm with gradual overcoming a problem of linguistic mutual understanding (it will be possible to communicate with any foreigner directly, without a translator) So, apparently, gradually there is a special linguistic precondition for transformation of mankind into the uniform subject. 4. Need of mankind in the world administration. According to the doctrine of progressive revelation, creation of the world government is one of the essential precondition of universal culture. In 1912 Abdu`l-Baha, during his tour across the USA, has suggested to create such operating international body and place it in New York. And, as it is known, the organization of United Nations is located there today. World # 56 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation problems and regulation of interethnic relations – a subject of the future world administration selected by all states. By virtue of and in a process of opening borders between the states each citizen will be free to choose a place of the residing, religion, culture and a nationality adequating to his conscience and spirit. The principle of unity of any distinctions in people resists to extreme measures of cosmopolitism and nationalism, ecumenism and ideas of exclusiveness of any «selected» religion. It is necessary to search for «golden mean» between these extreme measures. The new world administrative order arises through overcoming of sharp social contradictions between empires and colonies, national states, world religions, a person and a society, traditions and new growths. From the end of XIX century the mankind began to change character of the communications considerably. The world congresses, devoted to the rights of women, general education, prohibition of childish labour, clearing of slaves and colonies, creation of the world administrative bodies have begun. The Hague conferences (with 1919) have turned to League of the nations which then became UN. The United Nations nowadays cost, probably, on a threshold of radical restructuring in a more effective instrument to control world social process. The world prepares for the new birth – the new spiritual and material communication fastening mankind together is born. Process of reunion of the patrimonial person with the parts-ethnoses, which have separated in due time, will borrow not years and not decades, but will demand many centuries. Bаhа`is constantly emphasize vital importance of growth of the spiritual beginning in association of mankind because: 1) without a progress of spirit there will be no tolerance to heterodoxy and, hence, there will be no strong and durable association of mankind; 2) transformation of the lowest type of unity into higher gives not only more freedom for persons, families, tribes and nations, but also threatens to suppress all parts of the social whole by means of authority of the operating world center, which may be removed from simple people and national formations. There is a threat, that the world bureaucracy, once having developed, will subordinate to itself all alive on the Earth, and a «person-screw» will have no place to be covered from it (unless on other planet). The formal opportunity of a similar condition of mankind disturbs minds of futurologists and scientific visionaries. Originally free will of all earthmen is necessary at reelections of heads and the decision of the major questions for avoidance of danger of usurpation of authority by world administration and also of threat of totalitarianism in the world scale. The long and not palatable, but the curative period of transformation of all existing political and social attitudes inside of each country and between the states is necessary. National-liberation movements, nationalism and patriotism are everywhere to grow; empires and violently incorporated social conglomerates will disappear. The scientifically verified conclusion follows from the doctrine of Baha'u'llah that movement of mankind to higher integrity, borrowing some centuries, every time is accompanied by strengthening of sufferings and the crisis phenomena. Process of breakage of the become numb institutes by all means generates counteraction from these institutes, their hostile reaction directed on restoration of an old condition, including imperial. It causes growth of intensity in a society, aggression in relations between people to that we are involuntary witnesses and participants today – for example, in connection with disintegration of the USSR (by the way, Baha'u'llah has predicted in the letter to emperor Alexander II, that crash of Russian empire will occur in the end of XX century). # 57 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation Therefore present growth of nationalism and patriotism is natural, expedient and inevitable. Everywhere, and including in distressful Russia, national-liberation movements become stronger. One people goes against another. Everywhere xenofobia, nationalism and patriotism amplifies. Baha'is speak: in order to be united strongly, it is necessary, at first, to become a sovereign, independent subject, to reveal the spiritual and material abilities and to become attractive for other people. This strategic purpose is pursued implicitly with national-liberation movement which, at the same time, is inevitably accompanied by the tendency of national intolerance, religious extremism and so forth. Those, who see only horrifying costs of this grandiose process and do not understand its latent historical purpose, are compelled to regard growth of nationalism and patriotism only as destruction of a society and coming of antiChrist in the world. The saving output it sees in cosmopolitism. On the contrary, those who see an ultimate goal of history of mankind only in preservation of each nation, fastening to each nation of own sovereign territory and exile from it any foreign spirit, are guided by national patriotism as a limiting and certainly valuable principle of a public life. Whether fondly to repeat a developing ideal of love to all mankind when compatriots are inclined to see enemies in peoples-neighbours and in general everywhere? Chesterton has somehow noticed, that «when somebody speaks about mankind, passengers in the overflown underground are represented me; it is surprising, how souls are far when bodies are so close». It is easy for me to love members of my family, but it is difficult to grow fond of people of other nationality, and furthermore mankind as a whole. The border dividing neighbours, conceals in itself danger of enmity between them, serves as the reason of mutual insults. The conflict usually begins in the environment near. All countries arose and changed the borders during struggle against neighbours. The most severe wars, as a rule, flash between the adjacent states. Mass sufferings because of the imperfection of a life, caused by split of mankind on nations, give rise to general need for reunion of mankind and improvement of activity of the international organizations. Achievement of the higher level of unity of people demands the increase of understanding of individual imperfection and aspiration to overcome it through cooperation with heterodoxes. The more deeply and more widely the unity of differing people, the greater role spiritual attraction is truly played in it. The whole epoch and many centuries of alteration of existing system of social attitudes is required in order to come to the higher type of unity of mankind, which reduces probability of wars. This epoch is not palatable, but curative. There will be a transformation of present forms of social unity and resubordination them to their world social communications within future centuries. Traditional communications will gradually cease to play the leading part and will be updated in the subordinated status. Process will proceed before full self-determination of any as much as small social generality of people while this generality will not feel enough free for decision, making on mutually advantageous cooperation with other not less free associations of people. According to Bаhа`i Faith, the more social freedom within the New Era all tribes and nations will achieve, the quicker there will be their voluntary association – the regional in the beginning, then continental and international at last. Predictions of Baha'u'llah, which has laid down in the basis of the new political thinking in the second half of XX century, partially prove to be true. Change of national reference points on universal is already appreciable in a number of the modern social phenomena and # 58 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Daniil V. Pivovarov. Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation in the future, it is possible, becomes obvious in many other aspects. For example, all agree today that universal is above national in the technics, natural sciences, mathematics, sports. But the national-ethnic beginning predominates in other spheres of a national life (for example, in family-household, religions, ideologies). National values test an escalating competition to universal cultural norms and ideals. Ideals of the future cosmopolitan culture appear gradually, and these ideals are recognized by all people. It is important to emphasize, that the such unusual culture will be capable to develop within the next centuries only on the basis of pluralism of prospering tribal and national cultures. So, we have discussed several general contours of the doctrine of Baha'u'llah and its successors about conditions of becoming of mankind as uniform subject and strengthening of the universal tendency of an attraction (toleration), which would begin capable to counterbalance the universal tendency of pushing away (intolerance). Undoubtedly, this doctrine includes some utopian moments. But, as academician A. A. Guseinov proves, Utopias are extremely necessary for mankind: «In the world in which there is no Utopia, there is no place for philosophy. The philosophy which cannot offer a worthy Utopia, appears fruitless»2. Summarizing Baha’u’llah’s doctrine about progressive revelation, it is possible to estimate highly a passionate appeal containing in it to transform mankind into the uniform subject and to strengthen the world tendency of nonviolence. References 1. 2. See: Bahá’u’lláh. The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Haifa: The Universal House of Justice. 1992; Báhá’u’lláh. Kitáb-i-Íqan. Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 2003; Abdu’l-Bahá. Some Answered Questions (Russian). Sankt-Peterburg, 1993; Effendi Shoghi. God Passes By. Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust,1944; Hatcher, W.S., Martin, J.D. The Bahá’í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1998; Johanisyan J.A. Bahá’í Faith. Sankt-Peterburg: AzbukaClassica, 2003. Guseinov A. A. Philosophy as Utopia for Culture (Russian). Moscow: Vestnik of Russian Philosophical Society. 2007. № 4. P. 42. Вера Бахаи: учение о прогрессивном откровении Д.В. Пивоваров Уральский государственный университет Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В статье обсуждается идейное основание религии Бахаи – учение о прогрессивном откровении. Описываются воззрения Бахауллы и его последователей на природу пророка, миссию великих пророков, сущность грядущей Новой Эры и на объединение человечества в единый субъект. Ключевые слова: Вера Бахаи, прогрессивное откровение, природа пророчества, социальноисторические общности, единство человечества, вспомогательный международный язык, всемирная администрация. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 60-66 ~~~ УДК 213-55 + 393.951 Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe Olesya V. Kuznetsova* Urals State University Named After M. Gorky 51 Lenin av., Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 In this work we study the ways of the culturological thought in the research into sacrifice. Some features of the archaic sacrifice are researched as a phenomenon, especially the correlation between sacrificial offering and immolation, along with its position in the universe structure. We have found some ways for further research: transition from the primary study of the ritual action to consideration of sacrifice as a religious phenomenon. Keywords: sacrifice, archaical sacrifice, ritual, cosmogony, immolation, structure. Sacrifice becomes the subject of thought as early as in ancient times, and then even though in a specific form, in the Middle Age scholasticism, the Renaissance and New Time occultism, but still only in the second part of the XIX century does a serious scientific and philosophical study begin. The research into sacrifice had a lot of peculiarities, two of which have an immediate relation to this subject matter. We should note that researchers, despite the non-religious character of their work, were still under the influence of the Christian legacy of the European civilization, the tradition which first of all saw sacrifice in the light of Christ’s sacrifice. This peculiarity matched another one: sacrifice was treated as some wholesome phenomenon, whose unity could be understood by bringing it to one common origin or function. However, under the influence of the diversity of forms referring to the studied phenomenon which researchers came across * 1 by the middle of the XX century, they started to gradually realize the heterogeneity of what was called sacrifice. There are some objections against the possibility of studying sacrifice through the prism of Abraham’s religions (Das, 1983). Moreover, the existence of sacrifice as a wholesome phenomenon is called into question and some people suppose that as far as ancient peoples and modern conservation societies are concerned, it is necessary to at least speak about a specific type – «traditional sacrifice» (McClaymond, 2008, р. 27, 153). But still, partly because the range of phenomena, united by that term, is far too vast and comprises sacrifice of the primeval societies as well as sacrifice in Judaism and Islam, and partly because the term «traditional» itself offers different meanings, if applied to religions and societies, it makes more sense to talk not about «traditional» but «archaic» sacrifice (although this term is not satisfactory Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 60 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olesya V. Kuznetsova. Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe enough either). Archaic sacrifice possesses some specific features, one of the most essential is that sacrifice is embedded in the structure of the perception of the universe. However, we should first address some particular issue, which is directly connected with it, and that is the correlation between sacrifice and immolation. Sacrifice and immolation. Many researches including W. Robertson-Smith, G. G. Fraser, Z. Freud, K.G. Jung, and after them G. Batay, J.-M. Haimone, R. Girard and others, despite the differences of how they perceive sacrifice, all in all understand it primarily as bloody sacrifice of an animal or a human. Moreover, W. RobertsonSmith, G.G. Fraser, Z. Freud and others saw immolation as one of the crucial parts of sacrifice, although the mere understanding of this event and the victim was different. R. Girard’s view on sacrifice can be characterized the same way, not as the communion or a neurotic identification, but as legitimate violence. K. G. Jung considered sacrifice to be the main factor in the alchemic idea, that it was a tool of killing and at the same time reviving. G. Batay and J.-M. Hamone reach the same view on sacrifice, perceiving it as death experience and at the same time as a trick that lets one see the metaphysical realm, avoiding one’s own demise. Even M. Moss, having profoundly studied bloodless sacrifice, regards it as a «murder» of plant. And the «murder» is the climax of the ritual, whether it is an animal’s sacrifice or soma juice, after which the ritual decreases (Moss and Hubert, 200, p. 42). In other words, whatever sacrifice meant for the aforementioned researchers, immolation was the event, without which the function defining its existence, could not take place. Nevertheless, not all researchers agree with such guideline. The described perception might be initially facilitated by the fact that in Christian tradition, whether it was Isaac’s or Christ’s sacrifice, death and sacrifice was basically the same thing. However if we refer to ethnographical materials we find essential variations of immolation and sacrifice. According to V. Das, who studied the same case as M. Moss, sacrificing animals merely accompanies the extraction of soma juice, not identifies with it. And if Moss regarded soma extraction as its sacrifice, V. Das refers to Vedas where it is repeatedly said not to kill the soma which is being prepared. This means that whereas for M. Moss the sacrifice of soma is its murder and reincarnation, V. Das insists that sacrificing soma is victimless sacrifice. K. McClaymond acknowledges the possibility of understanding an animal’s sacrifice as a climax for some cultures. But he thinks that murder is just a way to continue the ritual and that it plays a minor part alleviating more important actions – manipulations with a sacrificial offering (McClaymond, 2008, р. 62). Any layman can kill an animal but it takes an expert to properly dismember a victim for the ritual, which lets one think that the murder itself is not the main ritual event (McClaymond, 2008). One of the possible clues to understand the issue is space-time localization of immolation and sacrifice. Many researchers thought that immolation had to be at least timed to sacrifice. In the topological aspect it often corresponds to M. Moss’s opinion, according to which immolation has to take place only in a holy place because otherwise it would be nothing but murder (Moss and Hubert, 2000, p. 33). Nevertheless, the place of immolation (or extraction if we talk about libation) did not always agree with the place and time of sacrifice itself. Polynesian tribe moray had sacrificial rites when during one feast they sacrificed an animal where the ritual was taking place and at the same time they brought animals that had been killed before. As far as human sacrifice is concerned, there were some specific requirements, the victim was chosen randomly, killed suddenly and far from the place where # 61 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olesya V. Kuznetsova. Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe the ritual was taking place (Campbell, 2002, p. 555-558). Besides sacrificing deer stabbed right during the feast, Koryaks also sacrificed deer fat, dried loach and jukola which had been prepared in advance and the marrow the day after sacrificing deer (Gorbacheva, 2004, p. 78). Sacrificial animals were stabbed during Chuvash feasts, although within the territory of the feast but far from the altar (Gorbacheva, 2004, p. 7778). All this lets us think that sacrifice that took place in a different place and time was the peak or quintessence of the sacrificial ritual. Sacrifice in the structure of the universe. Within religious notions M. Moss defi nes sacrifice as a way of connection between a man and a sacred world (Moss and Hubert, 2000, p. 101). Moss regards the structure of the ritual space which, according to him, depends on the changes in the sacred status of the elements involved. The space of sacrifice is a field of concentric circles as Moss sees it, where the degree of sacrality grows as it gets closer to the centre – the place where sacrifice took place and where the sacrality has its peak (Moss and Hubert, 2000, p. 37, 38). On a large scale the structure connected to sacrifice as M. Eliade views it, is close to the one described by M. Moss. However, Eliade studies it not only in the light of the changes taking place in the sacred status but through its connection to the universal system. M. Eliade insists that the altar construction is a microscopic imitation of the world creation and any sacrifice in its turn is a repetition of the Creation (Eliade, 2000, p. 30). Any universe according to Eliade is a structure based on the opposition between the centre and the periphery, and that any cosmogony respectively starts with finding the centre (Eliade, 1987, p. 145). Thus, sacrifice is always connected to the centre of the universe. Besides, M. Eliade does not take into consideration the existence of the sacred elements in the religious space, the ones that are situated in the periphery of the concentric type cosmic structure. E. Leech does not consider the spatial structure of sacrifice to be directly connected to a strictly concentric organization. According to E. Leech in a topographical sense, the world of people and the sacred world have something in common as far as sacrifice is concerned; thus, the altar does not only unite but also separate the mundane and the sacred (Leech, 2001, p. 101). E. Leech differentiates the spatial structural components using the same principles as M. Moss, based on the degree of sacred sense: the panel is This World and has the minimal sacred charge, whereas the northern part of the tabernacle is The Most Sacred Place is charged to the limit. The intermediate area – the concentration of active ritual events is also divided into a court, relatively deprived of religious taboo, and the southern part of the tabernacle which is relatively sacred. Between the latter ones there is a boundary and a link at the same time – the sacrificial altar, which is the threshold marking the passage from the usual «normal world» to the sacred «abnormal» one (Leech, 2001, p. 107). Apart from those areas that lie within the panel, Leech points to the existence of a «blank spot» in a desert, destined for things that are too «infected with sacredness» (ashes from the altar fire etc.) or on the contrary too «unclean». Although E. Leech saw the structure of sacrifice first of all as a horizontal model, but in such a way that the horizontal can become the projection of the vertical (if we do not take into consideration the aforementioned «blank spot»). It is essential to note that the structure that Leech found is quite widespread even in its general features in archaic religions. Sacrifice to the sea that hunters offered using sea animals is indeed drawn to the structure that generally takes place horizontally. Moreover, here the areas of human and sacred are divided even more strictly: # 62 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olesya V. Kuznetsova. Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe in this case man does not trespass the limits of the sacred, his structural placement. It is also vital to note that the its correlation to the vertical structure that M. Eliade talks about, is not always easy to define. The sea cannot be always easily categorized into the lower world: Greeks did not identify Poseidon’s sea possession with Hades’ underground kingdom, and Poseidon himself unlike Hades mounts the Olympus. Sacrifice and cosmogony. Inclusion of sacrifice in the structure of religion universe is accompanied by its involvement in the cosmogonic processes and presents one characteristic feature of archaic sacrifice. However, the character of connection between sacrifice and cosmogony is evaluated in an ambiguous way. M. Moss supposed that theomachy dates back to the idea of sacrifice to a god. Sacrifice to a god turns into a fight of gods, as a consequence of splitting of one and the same spirit (Moss and Hubert, 2000, p. 91). Moss thought the proof for that was the fact that theomachy was linked to sacrifice, that sometimes one of the gods was the victim, the god participating in such fights (like Veda’s Soma), that it was not so seldom when a god died after the fight and that quite often the god and his adversary were co-creators (like in mitraism). In other words, Moss based his theory on the idea that on the one hand a god is a victim and a priest who brings the victim and on the other hand sacrifice to a god turns its nature from dark to luminous. However, it is necessary to note that the idea is not inherent in archaic sacrifice but in new time occultism. M. Eliade got closer to understanding the connection between sacrifice and cosmogony. Nevertheless he was not sure neither about the role of sacrifice in the universe establishment, nor about the types of the cosmogonic acts. On the one hand, M. Eliade talks about sacrifice as an event following cosmogony and appearing in the establishment of the sacred space or reproducing in a number of space sanctifying rites and the creation of the altar (Eliade, 2000, p. 73). In this case, sacrifice according to Eliade «endows the world with soul» and «proves» the effectiveness of the creative act, when it comes down to the ritual referring to ancient action. Besides it is there to «restore the primary unity that existed before the creation» (Eliade, 2000, p. 36, 73). On the other hand, sacrifice is said to be identical to cosmogony. Besides, M. Eliade found two types of the cosmogony: by establishing the world axis and by killing a monster or a dragon, and sacrifice does date back to the latter (Eliade, 2000, p. 277). Talking about the character of the connection between sacrifice and cosmogony we can say that it was F. B. J. Kayper who found a way out. He takes notice of sacrifice being identical to the cosmogonic deed not only in human rituals but on the level of mythological event as well. It is important that the character of such substitution is not genetic as much as it is structural: Veda Pradgapati fins out some «water nest» on the surface of endless waters in the primary ocean, where he makes a fire which becomes the earth and the pivot (Kepner, 1986, p. 120) and thus he does something like what created Varun having something to do with the primary island that appeared on the surface of the world waters, and Indra who facilitated that island and extended it to the known borders of the land. Besides, F. B. J. Kayper shares the opinion that the primary hill has a symbolic representation in the altar for the sacrificial fire (Kayper, 1986, p.124). Time aspect of sacrifice and universe system. In the universe system sacrifice does not only have spatial but also time characteristics. M. Moss studies profoundly sacrifice in its time aspect. As far as time is concerned sacrifice for him is a consecutive change of status of the participants as well as the victim. According to M. Moss the idea is that neither the sacrifice nor # 63 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olesya V. Kuznetsova. Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe the place, the tool or the victim possesses a proper religious status, they all refer to the sphere of the profane. And the function of the first stage of sacrifice is to endow them with such status. Du to that the sacrifice is supposed to have ritual purity (Moss and Hubert, 2000, p. 25, 28). Moss regards the priest institution first of all as an institution of mediators between humans and the sacred world, as sacrality due to its special condition and the type of activity. It is also necessary to endow the place where the sacrifice takes place and the tools with sacrality. Finally, M. Moss links the time aspect with the idea of identification between the victim and the sacrifice and the idea of the stages of transformation (status) that the sacrifice takes. Moss describes some of the stages that the victim goes through as a curve reaching the sacrality maximum, stopping there for a moment and then decreasing. As a result of such de-sacralisation the participants of the ritual have a possibility to secure the manipulations with the material component of the victim and the participants return safely into the normal profane state of the human world. Unlike M. Moss, M. Eliade is not so interested in details about changes of the sacrality status in time. Apparently, it is due to M. Eliade’s view of the time category as far as a traditional society man is concerned. M. Eliade admits the formation only in the modern profane time whereas the sacred time returned and essentially fused with the time of the world creation. Thus, the dichotomy of the profane and the sacred is more important for her as well as the idea connected with it that any sacrifice along with any other act important for a traditional man, is archetypical which means that it dates back to some ancient action, taking place in the primary epoch. That is why he asserts that «due to the paradox of the ritual any sacred space coincides with the World Centre, like time coincides with the mythical time of «inception» (Eliade, 2000, p. 36). While characterizing the victim’s transformation in a very general way, E. Leech follows M. Moss’s idea. E. Leech thinks that in time aspect the victim and the sacrifice correspond to the stages of transition between states that man goes through, besides the identification is important, on the one hand as the victim’s path with the path of the deceased, on the other hand – the victim and the sacrifice (Leech, 2001, p. 102). However, when referring to the materials, E. Leech studies the situation where there is not a complete identification between the victim’s path and the path of the initiated. E. Leech does not talk about some specific sacrifice but about an initiation ritual where multiple sacrifices are made successively and in different ways. According to Leeche’s time scheme, an initiated priest goes through three stages: primary «normal» state, marginal position and final «normal» state in a new status. The first stage is different from the first because of the separation rite, and the second differs from the third due to the inclusion rite. In other words, in all the transition rites the sacrifice is employed as a landmark marking each stage (Leech, 2001, p. 97, 113). The relative character of inclusion of the sacrifice into the universe structure. The structures studied above despite their differences, have one common feature: they all presuppose the correlation between the victim and the universe «centre». This essential feature characterizes the «cosmogonic» sacrifice, however not all archaic sacrifices, besides they imply the connection between the sacred world and the human world, and have an immediate relation to such «centre». One of the aspects in the range of problems that sacrifice encompasses is that within one feast and moreover one ritual sacrifice can have different topographical localization. Whether it is an Assyrian «home cleansing ritual» or morays sacrifices mentioned above, Chuvash festive rituals, Koryak feast in honour of the «owners» # 64 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olesya V. Kuznetsova. Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe of domestic deer and in many other cases sacrifice is not only characterized by the number of victims and the types of sacrifice but also by the differences in localization. It is essential that in the aforementioned ritual there are several necessary altars: two for two underground gods and three more – one for the home god, home goddess and home guarding god (Kifishin, 2000, p. 98). Besides, there are two groups of things that are used to bring to different parts of the house: vegetative victims – to the northwest of the inner part of the house, animal victims – to the southeast side (Kifishin, 2000, p. 102-103). So, although in cases like the Assyrian sacrifice in the «home cleansing» ritual it is possible to talk about some connection between the victim and cosmogony, but it is still de-centralized, it is directed to different areas of the sacred space, which corresponds to specific parts of the world. Conclusion. The connection between sacrifice and the structure of the universe is an indication of its archaic character. If space-time structure of the Old Testament sacrifice that Lech found still has its structural character of cosmic formation, then in Christ’s sacrifice and communion the notion of the universe structure can be seen only indirectly. Christian sacrifice defines the moral order not the space character: it atones for a man’s sins, sanctions his New Testament with god and abolishes the sacrifice of the archaic type. Christian sacrifice cannot be interpreted as a result of the creation but with some effort as a structural base of the universe. It also concerns sacrifice and its rudiments of other world religions: Islam, Buddhism, and the Bahá’í Faith. Nevertheless, the connection between archaic sacrifice and cosmogony has though essential but still not inherent aspect of archaic sacrifice. Archaic sacrifice cannot be classified according to the cosmologic ideas and it is also apparently impossible to understand archaic sacrifice be defining its ideas referring to cosmologic notions. For many types of archaic sacrifice it is difficult if not impossible to define some cosmological ideas. And even when such ideas can be defined, apparently they are not the main ones: sacrifice to ancestors, in the event of travelling, or successful trade, sacrifice to prophecy and when asking for cure etc. References 1. 2. 3. Gorbacheva V.V Koryak rites and feasts. – Saint-Petersburg: Nauka, 2004 (in Russian) Kayper F. B. Y. Works on Veda mythology. – M.: Nauka, 1986. (in Russian) Kivishin A. G. Sacrifice of Assyrian kings//Sacrifice: Ritual in culture and art from ancient times to modern days.- M.: Languages of the Russian culture, 2000. (in Russian) 4. Campbell G. Mythical image.- M.: OOO AST Publishing House, 2002. (in Russian) 5. Leech E. Culture and communication: Logic in the interconnection of symbols. About the usage of the structural analysis in social anthropology.- M.: «Oriental literature» RAN, 2001. (2001) 6. Moss M., Hubert A. Essay about the nature and function of sacrifice/Social functions of the sacred. Moss M. Selected works.- Saint-Petersburg, «Evrasia», 2000. (in Russian) 7. Salmin A. K. The system of Chuvash religion.- Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 2007. (in Russian) 8. Eliade M. Space and history.- M.: Progress, 1987. (in Russian) 9. Eliade M. Myth of the eternal coming// Eliade M. Selected works: Myth of the eternal coming; Images and symbols; The sacred and the mundane.- M: Ladomir, 2000a. (in Russian) 10. Eliade M. The sacred and the mundane // Eliade M. Selected works: Myth of the eternal coming; Images and symbols; The sacred and the mundane.- M: Ladomir, 2000a. (in Russian) # 65 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olesya V. Kuznetsova. Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe 11. Das V. Language of Sacrifice// Man > New Series, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 1983). 12. McClaymond Kathryn. Beyond Sacred Violence: a comparative study of sacrifice/ The Johns Hopkins University press. – Baltimore, 2008. Аспекты архаического жертвоприношения: жертвоприношение в структуре вселенной О.В. Кузнецова Уральский государственный университет им. А.М. Горького Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51 В данной работе рассматриваются пути культурологической мысли в исследовании жертвоприношения. Рассмотрены некоторые черты архаического жертвоприношения как явления, в особенности соотношение жертвоприношения и заклания, его положение в структуре мироздания. Намечены пути дальнейшего его изучения: переход от преимущественного исследования ритуального действия к рассмотрению жертвоприношения как религиозного явления. Ключевые слова: жертвоприношение, архаическое жертвоприношение, ритуал, космогония, заклание, структура. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 67-77 ~~~ УДК 903.023.[638.3] Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) Alexey M. Korostelev* Irkutsk State Technical University, 83 Lermontova, Irkutsk, 664074 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 This paper is devoted to the complex analysis of pottery from an monument Baikal’skoe VII. As a result of research funeral-memories a site Baikal’skoe VII it was found out, that the fragments of vessels found out on it concern to different types of pottery: smooth-wall and with prints of a cord. Such example of finds has once again proved, that carriers of different pottery traditions some time could coexist in common at coast of Lake Baikal. Keywords: pottery, material, fragment, ornament, type, the platen, dating. Introduction Pottery is one of the most widespread categories of finds on archaeological sites. Ceramics characteristics help scientists to define the chronology of archaeological sites and their cultural affiliations and, consequently, to imagine valuable way of its creation and creators. One of the archaeological sites of Iron Age on the northwestern coast of Lake Baikal is ritual and mortuary complex Baikal’skoe VII. Pottery analysis of materials discovered during the site excavations allowed to look at culture origin processes that took place on the northwestern coast of Lake Baikal from the end of 1st millenium BC to the beginning of 1st millenium AD. Research history Archaeological site Baikal’skoe VII is situated on the Ludar cape 0.45 km northeast from Baikal’skoe village on the small flat area * 1 that is located 45 – 50 m above Lake Baikal level is (Fig. 1). The ritual complex Baikal’skoe VII was discovered in 1988 by collaborators of Irkutsk State University A.V. Kharinsky and M.A. Zaytsev. Excavations of a trench 4x5 m in size occurred at the place of one artificial stone feature (N1) and oriented with long walls from northwest to southeast. This stone feature had round form and was 3.2x3.7 m in size. Most of the stones were located around the construction’s perimeter and formed a ring (Fig. 2). A pit oriented from northwest to southeast was found under the stone feature. Materials obtained during excavations are represented by a fragment of red deer antler, fragments of animal bones and fragments of vessel with cord impressions on its exterior surface. Pottery fragments were found near the southeast end of the stone feature at a depth of 10 – 12 cm from day surface. The rim of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 67 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 1. The Card-scheme of an arrangement of a monument Baikal’skoe VII Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) Fig. 2. Baikal’skoe VII, the plan excavations №1 with an archeological material these vessels is rounded, folded outward. There is a row of oval indentions («larvae» ornament) on its external edge. Diameter of the rim is 19.5 cm. A row of round indentions is located under the rim. Upper part of the vessel’s body is decorated with two zigzag application rollers. In some places narrow coating rollers diverge from them. Since the complex N1 contained such features as artificial stone feature and implements and did not contain human remains it has been interpreted as ritual construction (Kharinsky, 1996: 45 – 47). In 2006 the trench N2 4x5 m in size was excavated in 2 m southeast from the complex N1 at the place of an estimated artificial stone feature. During the work it was figured out that the complex N2 had been robbed because the stones have been thrown around (Fig. 2). The pottery fragments (492 specimens), bronze belt plate, and an iron thing were found here (Korostelev, 2008: 165). A grave pit was located under the stone feature. Some human bones were chaotically situated on its bottom. The remains did not have anatomical order but according to # 69 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) small size of the grave pit the person had been buried here with bent legs. Unlike other groups, elginskaya group of mortuary sites is determined by O.I. Gorunova and existed from the end of the fi rst millenium BC to the beginning of the fi rst millenium AD (Gorunova, 1993; Gorunova, Pudovkina, 1995). Mostly, the «elginsky» type burials are located on capes. The graves were arranged into one or several rows oriented from southwest to northeast. The individuals had been buried on right or left side with bent legs and head oriented to the southeast. All graves contained grave goods. The majority of these burials were robbed in the past. The period of existence of elginskaya mortuary tradition on Baikal coast is defi ned from III century BC to IV century AD (Kharinsky, 2005: 204). The radiocarbon date obtained for human remains from the complex N2 of Baikal’skoe VII are 2160100 BP (SOAS6584) does not contradict the previous statement. Subjected to calibration the date corresponds to 377-54 BC. The pottery fragments found during the clearing of stone feature under the grave belong to four vessels. Vessel N1 has rhombic impression on external surface of its body (waffle ornament). Upper part of the fragment is decorated with an application triangular in crosssection deformed by the vertical indentions of a pointed. A row of round indentions is located under the application. The body of the vessel is decorated with application that exhibit similar ornament design as the rest of the vessel. The second vessel is smooth-wall and ornamented with round, cone-shaped indentions and drawn zigzag ornament. The third and fourth vessels have cord impressions on its exterior surface. Upper parts of the fragments are decorated with an application triangular in cross-section deformed by fi nger pinches. A horizontal row of round indentions is located under the application. Body of the fi rst vessel is ornamented with triangular horizontal application deformed by fi nger pinches (Korostelev, 2010). Results of investigations During the field season 2009 it was decided to enlarge excavation N1 into northeast direction for detail studying and revealing the borders of the site and for searching the graves. The excavation N2 attached to excavating a from southeast side. It became a compound part of enlarged excavations N1 (Fig. 2). Thus, the total excavated area at the site Baikal’skoe VII includes 96 square metres. As a result of the work described in the article 544 fragments of pottery were found. Also some fragments of human skull, bone remains of animals, and fragments of indefinable burnt bones were discovered during the excavations. Traces of the constructions under the grave were not found. All pottery found on excavation of the site Baikal’skoe VII in 2009 is mainly presented by fragments of body from different vessels. Fragments of rims from several vessels and fragments from two underpans were also found. Fragments of bottom were not identified. Pottery was found in all parts of the excavated area except southern part. Some fragments were refitted that helped to reconstruct the forms of the vessels and their ornamental design. Pottery from archaeological complex Baikal’skoe VII is represented by two types: smooth-wall ceramics and ceramics with cord impressions on external surface. Almost all vessels are ornamented. The exception is the only one vessel from southwestern part of the excavated area (Fig. 3: 5). All 283 fragments of smooth-wall pottery and 9 fragments of indefinable burnt bones were found in southwestern part of the trench. Subsequent laboratory analysis has shown that the pottery belongs to 5 vessels of closed form # 70 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 3. Baikal’skoe VII, fragments of pottery Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) Fig. 4. Baikal’skoe VII, fragments of pottery (NN 1 – 3, 5). Only one of them (N4) has marked mouth (Fig. 4: 1). 1. Upper part of the vessel with rim has straight symmetrical form. Diameter of the vessel is 22 cm. From above the rim is decorated with nail indentions. There is a horizontal application deformed with oval sloping indentions of divergent trowel in 0.8 cm from the vessels edge. A row of round indentions of 0.2 cm in diameter at distance 0.2 cm from each other is located under the application. The vessel body is decorated with three rows of horizontal indents of divergent trowel with round end (Fig. 3: 2). 2. Upper part of the vessel with rim has straight symmetrical form. According to rim diameter of the vessel is 16.5 cm. Triangular in cross-section application is deformed with the finger pinches and located near the external edge of the fragment. A row of round indentions of 0.5 cm in diameter and made by stick with flat end is located under the application. Distance between the indentions is 2.5 cm. In 1.5 cm lower the vessel’s body is ornamented with two horizontal rows of sloping oval indentions of divergent trowel with round working end (Fig. 3: 4). 3. Upper part of the vessel with rim has internal non-central mushroom-shaped form. According to rim the vessel diameter is 16.5 cm. Triangular in cross-section horizontal application roller is located in 0.8 cm from the vessel edge. There is s row of round indents of 0.4 in diameter under it. The indents have 2 cm of distance from each other (Fig. 3: 8). 4. Upper part of the vessel with rim has straight symmetrical form with marked mouth. The lip of the rim is decorated with sloping indentions of fi ne-tooth stamp. There are two rows of the fi ne-tooth stamp indentions on # 72 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) external side of the mouth. The indentions in the upper row are sloping, while the indentions from the lower row are vertical. There are two sloping parallel indentions made by the same ornamenting tool under the second row on the vessel’s body. Internal side of the rim is decorated with zigzag motive including indentions produced by the same fi ne-tooth stamp (Fig. 4: 1). 5. Upper part of the smooth-wall vessel with rim of 13 cm in diameter has straight symmetrical form. Wall thickness is 0.4 cm. Ornament is absent (Fig. 3: 5). 170 pottery fragments including 109 ones of smooth-wall vessels and 61 fragments with cord impression were found in northeast part of the excavation. The laboratory analysis has shown that the fragments belong to four smooth-wall vessels (NN 1, 2, 6, 7) and three vessels with cord impressions from external side (N 3 – 5). All vessels have closed form and only one of them (№ 2) exhibits pronounced mouth. 1. Upper part of the vessel with rim has straight symmetrical form. According to the rim the vessel diameter is 33 cm. There is a horizontal row of bow-shaped indentions in 0.8 cm from the rim edge; a horizontal row of semicircular indentions is located 1.7 cm lower. The vessel’s body is decorated with an application triangular in cross-section ornamented with the indentions of a stick with triangular point. Two parallel wavy lines are drawn under the application on distance of 0.8 cm from each other (Fig. 3: 1). 2. Upper part of the vessel with rim has a pointed internal assymetrical form. A horizontal application deformed with indentions of object with pointed working end is located in 0.4 cm from the rim edge. A row of round indentions is located under the application. They are 0.5 cm in diameter and situated in distance of 2 cm from each other. The vessel body is decorated with the same application roller (Fig. 3: 3). 3. Upper part of the vessel with rim has mushroom-shaped external asymmetrical shape and pronounced mouth. The fragment is decorated with a row of round indentions in distance of 1.3 cm from the rim’s edge. They are 0.2 cm in diameter and located in 1.8 cm from each other. There is a vertical application triangular in crosssection on all fragments. They are located in 1.2 cm from each other. They had been fixed to the vessel surface with nail pinches which traces saved on the rollers and area between them. The mouth height is 1.5 cm (Fig. 4: 2). 4. Upper part of the vessel with rim has a straight symmetrical shape and pronounced mouth. External side of the fragment is decorated with four horizontal applications triangular in cross-section. They are dissected by the object with the flat point. The first upper application is situated between two horizontal rows of round indentions of 0.4 cm. The Internal side of the vessel is decorated with a row of sloping oval indentions (Fig. 4: 7). 5. Upper part of the vessel with the rim of external asymmetrical shape is slightly bended outward. Cord impressions have thread-like shape and are placed diagonally. In 1.5 cm from the rim edge the fragment is decorated with horizontal row of round indents of 0.3 cm in diameter. The distance between the indents is 1.5 cm and thickness of the fragment is 0.6 cm (Fig. 4: 8). 6. Upper part of the vessel with rim has straight symmetrical form. From above the rim is decorated with indentions of a fine-tooth stamp. External side of the mouth has two rows of finetooth stamp indentions. The indentions of the upper row are sloping. Internal side of the rim is ornamented with horizontal sloping row of finetooth stamp (Fig. 4: 5). 7. The fragment of the vessel’s body is decorated with two horizontal applications dissected with the sloping «larvae» indentions. The fragment thickness is 0.4 cm (Fig. 4: 6). # 73 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) 91 pottery fragments, admittedly representing three vessels, were found in central part of the excavated trench № 1. 1. Upper part of the smooth-wall vessel with rim has straight symmetrical form. The vessel diameter according to the rim is 18 cm. External and internal sides of the rim upper edge are ornamented with indentions of a stick with oval point. External side in 0.8 cm from the rim edge is decorated with horizontal application triangular in cross-section. The application is deformed with finger pinches. Horizontal row of round indentions is located under it. The vessel has closed shape (Fig. 3: 6). 2. Upper part of the vessel with rim has straight symmetrical shape and cord impressions. In 1.4 cm from the rim edge external part of the fragment is ornamented with a horizontal row of round indentions. They are 0.4 cm in diameter and located in distance of 1.3 – 1.8 cm from each other. The fragment is also decorated with the sloping application triangular in crosssection. The distance between them is 1 cm. They were attached to the vessel’s surface by the nail pinches; the traces of this are visible on the application and area between them. Internal side of the rim is ornamented with horizontal row of sloping «larval» oval indentions. Upper part of the rim is decorated with sloping indentions of a stick with flat pointed working end. The vessel mouth height is 1.5 cm (Fig. 4: 4). 3. The fragment of thin-walled vessel body has cord impressions and horizontal and sloping applications. They had been produced by the pressing out the clay paste on the body with fingers. The nail pinches created by this process is still visible between applications (Fig. 4: 3). The fragments of two underpans were also found during the excavations. Their diameters are 11 cm (Fig. 3: 7, 9). The first one was found in northeastern part of the trench. The second underpan was found in central part of the trench and decorated with round indent of 0.4 cm in diameter. Its internal side is ornamented with sloping horizontal row of indentions of stick with oval point. The indentions’ height is 1.8 cm. The relations of the bottoms to particular vessel has not been determined. Analysis of the pottery materials The pottery ornament has technical and decorating elements which are both important (Filatova, 2008: 89). According to described fragments ornament elements on the vessels are indentions of different kinds and drawn ornament. Ornamental row forms as a result of repeating of elements. It gives simple by formation, form and outline character motives (Filatova, 2008: 90). It is clear the motive on studying pottery consists of repeating indentions. They are round, semi-circular, bowshaped, oval, rectangular, and also fi ne-tooth stamp indentions made by object with pointed end and fi nger pinches. Composition on vessels is represented by horizontal, sloping and vertical applications and horizontal repeated rows of indentions. Applications have triangular section and are decorated with fi nger pinches, oval and «larval» indentions, and ones made by object with pointed end. The style of all ornaments is linear-geometrical. Ornamental design had been made with technique of indenting by pressing on external surface of vessel with ornamenter end or by fi nger pinches. Drawn ornament is also distinguished. Analyzing pottery from Baikal’skoe VII it is possible to make some conclusions. There are some similarities and some differences in ornamental design and technique of vessel manufacture. All vessels with mouth or without one have closed form, light brown and sometimes fulvous color. Only one fragment of vessel does not have ornamental design. The rest ones are ornamented by different or same ways. The # 74 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) pottery fragments were found in under-turf layer of dark gray loamy sand at depth of 5 – 12 cm. In spite of noted similarities discovered on the site Baikal’skoe VII the pottery is heterogeneous. Two kinds of pottery were distinguished: with cord impressions and smooth-wall. They are attributed to the different time periods. V.V. Svinin was one of the first who paid attention to originality of Baikal pottery with cord impressions. He dated it by the Late Bronze Age. The first specimens of pottery were collected by him in Senogda bay on northern Baikal (Svinin, 1966, 1976). Clay ware with cord impressions had been made with winded of cord trowel in technique of tapping (Svinin, 2000: 142). Pottery with cord impressions ornamented with horizontal and vertical applications belongs to senogdinsky type of pottery. This name was offered by A.V. Kharinsky and I.S. Karnyshev in 2003 (A.V. Kharinsky, I.S. Karnyshev, 2003: 139). The pottery of senogdinsky type had existed on Baikal coast from 13th century BC to 1st century AD (Kichigin, 2009: 161). Besides habitation sites these pottery was also found among grave goods in slab type graves and ritual complexes (Tsybiktarov, 1998: 121; Kharinsky, Korostelev, 2005: 336 – 352). The main ornamental elements were distinguished on the vessels of senogdinsky type. They are applications, finger, round and larval indentions, and impressions of trowel end (Karnyshev, 2006: 121). Since the pottery with cord impressions and ornamented with applications was found in slab-type graves one can suggest that it had been introduced on territory of the Cis-Baikal region by cattle-breeding tribes from territory of Transbaikal region (Kichigin, 2007: 112). Smooth-wall vessels decorated with applications, round and oval indentions (elginsky type) are considered to represent the second type of pottery. It is found on Baikal coast in archaeological sites dated by the end of 1st millenium BC to 1st millenium AD (Kharinsky, Karnyshev, 2003: 140 – 141). These ceramics type was widespread along the entire Lake Baikal coast including northern Baikal. It is also a major indicator of elginskaya mortuary tradition which is characterized by the burying individuals on the side with bent legs and oriented by head toward southeast. Sosnovoostrovsky type is a variation of elginskaya pottery tradition. It is characterized by drawn curvilinear ornament combined with horizontal applications and bow-shaped indentions (Kharinsky, 2005: 208). The vessel № 1 from northeastern part of the trench is attributed to sosnovoostrovsky pottery type. Pottery with rhombic impressions (borisovsky type) is also distinguished among grave goods of mortuary complexes of elginskaya tradition. This pottery was found in some Baikal sites in the same layer with pottery of senogdinsky type. It confirms the relations between these two types on the western coast of Lake Baikal. At the end of 1st millenium BC the above-mentioned pottery traditions coexisted (Kharinsky, Karnyshev, 2003: 140). Additional evidence of it is the presence of fragments of borisovsky and senogdinsky types in complex № 2 at Baikal’skoe VII. Ornamental design with indentions of finetooth stamp is not typical for the mentioned pottery traditions. It is difficult to attribute these vessels to the particular type of pottery. It is possible that the fragments had come upon territory of the site Baikal’skoe VII accidentally in earlier time. Conclusion The analysis of pottery found during excavations of a mortuary and ritual complexes from Baikal’skoe VII shows that the bearers of different pottery traditions co-existed on the northwestern Baikal coast for some period of time. As a result, the typical ornaments of early # 75 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) (senogdinskaya) pottery had become common for later (elginskaya) pottery. These are primarily the horizontal applications and round indentions beneath it. As a result of complex research the formation time of the mortuary and ritual complex Baikal’skoe VII is determined by the chronological period from the end of I millenium BC to the beginning of It millenium AD. Firstly, it is confirmed by burial rite which is compared with elginskaya burial tradition (3rd century BC – 4th century AD). Secondly, radiocarbon date received for human bones from complex N2 points to the time period between 4th and 1st centuries BC. Thirdly, pottery remains found across the entire excavated trench № 1 were compared with some pottery types and revealed that the time of the site formation is the second half of 1st millenium BC – the beginning of 1st AD. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. O.I Gorynova, «Early the Iron Age in territory Cis-Baikal (a modern condition of a problem)» Ethnosocial a generality in region of Eastern Siberia and their welfare dynamics (Ulan-Ude, 1993), 76-80. O.I. Gorynova, E.A. Pudovkina «Burial ground Elga VII and its place in a periodization of Iron Age Cis-Olkhon» The Baikal Siberia in an antiquity (Irkutsk, 1995), 154-174. I.S. Karnyshev «Ceramics senogdinsky type of Northern coast of Lake Baikal» Archeology, Ethnology, Paleoecology Northern Eurasia and adjacent territories: Materials of XLVI Regional (II All-Russia) archaeologo-ethnographic conference of students and the young scientists, devoted to the 160 anniversary from the date of I.T. Savenkova’s birth and to the 110 anniversary from the date of V.I. Gromova’s birth (Krasnoyarsk, 2006), Т. 1., 121-124. D.E. Kichigin «To a question on a chronological accessory vessels with cord impressions on external surface on pallets of the western coast Lake Baikal» Archeology, Ethnology, Paleoecology Northern Eurasia and adjacent territories: Materials of XLVII Regional (III-th All-Russia with the international participation) archaeologo-ethnographic conference of students and young scientists of Siberia and the Far East (Novosibirsk, 2007), 111-112. D.E. Kichigin «Shnurovaya ceramics of the period late bronze – early iron centuries of the western coast of Lake Baikal» Social Genesis in Northern Asia: materials of 3-rd All-Russia conference (Irkutsk, 2009), 158-165. A.M. Korostelev «Elginskaya funeral tradition Cis-Baikal» Ethnocultural history of Eurasia: modern researches and experience of reconstruction: Materials of XLVIII regional (IV All-Russia with the international participation) archaeologo-ethnographic student’s conference (Barnaul, 2008), 164-165. A.M. Korostelev «Ceramics in funeral-memories complexes of the Iron Age from northwest coast of Lake Baikal (on an example of a monument Baikal’skoe VII)» The Euroasian cultural space. Archeology, ethnology, anthropology: Materials V (L) Russian (with the international participation) archaeologo-ethnographic conference of students and young scientists (Irkutsk, 2010), 181-182. V.V. Svinin «Archaeological of research at northern coast of Baikal in 1963 and 1965» Reports of archeological expeditions for 1963-1965 (Irkutsk, 1966), 50-69. V.V. Svinin «Periodization of archeological monuments of Baikal» News VSORGO the USSR (Irkutsk, 1976), Т. 69, 167-179. # 76 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey M. Korostelev. Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West Coast of Lake Baikal) 10. V.V. Svinin «Research of ancient ceramics of Pribaikalye» The Baikal Siberia in an antiquity: the collection of proceedings (Irkutsk, 2000), Release 2 part 2, 128-145. 11. I.V. Filatova «Ornamental of tradition bottom Amur a neolith» Archeology, ethnography and anthropology of Eurasia, issue 2 (34 2008), 88-95. 12. A.V. Kharinsky «Archeological of research at northern coast of Lake Baikal and in a valley of the river Kudy in 1995 (area Severobajkalsky of Buryatiya, area Ekhirit-Bulagatsky of Irkutsk area)» Archive IA of the Russian Academy of Science, R.1. (1996), 45 – 56. 13. A.V. Kharinsky «Western coast of lake Baikal in I millennium BC – I millenium AD» Reports of Laboratory of ancient technologies (Irkutsk, 2005), Is. 3, 198-216. 14. A.V. Kharinsky, I.S. Karnyshev «Ceramic of tradition of northwest coast of Lake Baikal in I millennium BC (on materials of parking Baltahanova III)» Social Genesis Northern Asia: the past, present, the future: Materials of regional scientifically-practical conference (Irkutsk, 2003), 137-141. 15. A.V. Kharinsky, A.M. Korostelev «Kenotafy of the Iron Age at northern coast of Lake Baikal // Social Genesis in Northern Asia: the Collection of proceedings (Irkutsk, 2005), P.1, 336-342. 16. A.D. Tsybiktarov «Culture of tiled tombs of Mongolia and Transbaikalia (Ulan-Ude, 1998), 286. Керамика с археологического комплекса Байкальское VII (северо-западное побережье озера Байкал) А.М. Коростелев Иркутский государственный технический университет Россия 664074, Иркутск, ул. Лермонтова, 83 Данная статья посвящена комплексному анализу керамики с памятника Байкальское VII. В результате исследования погребально-поминального комплекса Байкальское VII выяснилось, что обнаруженные на нем фрагменты сосудов относятся к разным типам керамики: гладкостенному и с оттисками шнура. Такой пример находок еще раз доказал, что носители разных керамических традиций некоторое время могли совместно существовать на побережье Байкала. Ключевые слова: керамика, материал, фрагмент, орнамент, тип, венчик, датировка. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 78-89 ~~~ УДК 903.023[637.7+638.3] The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II (Northwestern Coast of Lake Baikal) Dmitry E. Kichigin* Irkutsk State Technical University, 83 Lermontov st., Irkutsk, Russia 664074 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 This article is devoted to the analysis of the pottery corded ware and the waffle ceramics of the site Red Jar II. Taking into account the stratigraphy peculiarities of these cultural remains and the typological similarities of the materials of next regions, author delineates the genesis of pottery traditions of the Northwestern coast of Lake Baikal in the period of the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch. Keywords: Lake Baikal; Late Bronze Age; Early Iron Age; Senogdinskaya pottery; pottery corded ware; waffle ceramics; vessel; rim; raised borders; ornamentation; composition Introduction A pottery material because of its indications – technology of manufacture and shape of vessels, methods and devices of ornamentation, peculiarities of baking process – is often as a time indicator of division into archaeological periods. In combination with other artifact types the pottery complexes are used for making a culturalchronological model of a region. As a rule quality of the models depend on the archaeological site that possess the clear deposit structure of cultural remains. On the coast Baikal there are similar sites in Priolkhon’e (Ulan-Khada, Sagan-Zaba, Tyshkine I and III, Berloga) and Chivyrkuy bay (Katun’ I and Okunevaja IV). The cultural stratums separating the sand interlayer are exposed on these archaeological objects (Gorjunova, 1983; Gorjunova and Lyhin, 1985; Grjaznov * 1 and Komarova, 1992; Gorjunova et al., 1996; Gorjunova et al., 2008). There are not sites like it on the Northwestern coast of Lake Baikal. But some sites are known which the archaeological material is deposited in consecutive order. This circumstance gives to archaeologists the possibility of using the cultural remains for making the cultural-chronological reconstruction of this region. The aim of this article is introduction of the pottery complexes of the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch from the site Red Jar II (the excavation trench № 1) and interpretation these materials according to the culturalchronological models of near regions. The stratum peculiarities of the site – in the absence of the sand interlayer – allow not dividing the cultural remains into chronological groups. And so the archaeological material is dated Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 78 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II according to its deposit layer and typological indications. Research history The site Red Jar II is in 3 km to the Northeast from the village Baikal’skoe (the North Baikal area, Republic Buryatiya) and is located in northern part of the Ludarsky lip, in 200 m to the Southwest from the cape with the same name (Fig. 1). The site has been opened in 1999 by A.V.Harinsky as a result of the researches spent in vicinities of the village Baikal’skoe. In 2006 the first excavation at the site has been made by I.S.Karnyshev. The excavation trench № 1 has been put above the place of concentration of an archaeological material in coastal exposures. The opened area has made 20 m² in the depth 0,32-0,52 m. As it turned out the archaeological material in number of 2124 finds (from them the ceramic potsherds – 910, the subjects of the stone industry – 340 and the bone fragments – 874) lies in the first three stratums – the turf, the light-grey sandy loam and the light-brown sandy loam – and practically it is not divided. With some share of convention it is possible to allocate two cultural layers characterized by concentration typologically homogeneous finds witch are attributed to a concrete stratum. So, I cultural layer is attributed to the sole of the turf stratum and the light-grey sandy loam stratum. Though some potsherds of the corded ware pottery decorated raised borders meet in lower stratum. The archaeological material is presented by 630 potsherds of ceramics, 115 subjects of the stone industry and 415 bone fragments. The potteries of the layer are corded ware (386), smooth-walled (106), with rhombic impressions (56) and ribbed impressions (14). Last two are fixed mainly in the sole of the second stratum. Besides, in the layer it is noted 68 fragments of ceramics which are not giving to diagnostics because of to their deformation. Among stone products in the layer fragments of flint bushes, a fragment of an edge of a quartzitic arrow head, a fragment of a triangular arrow head with direct base, an end-scraper at big amorphous flake, a cutting tool issued by a retouch at big flake and a fragment of a grinded crescent knife are noted. Also in the layer it is fixed 108 stone flakes. Among bone products two spherical beads and the tool with a superficial longitudinal groove are noted. The faunistic rests are presented by bones of a red deer, a roe, a small cattle (?) and a seal. In I cultural layer two bonfires are fixed also. The first of them measuring 0,40 х 0,40 m is put in the sole of the second stratum. The second bonfire measuring 0,28 х 0,45 m is put at the contact of the second and the third stratums. On both bonfires the radiocarbon dates have received – 1895±75 years BP (SOAN-6581) and 1940±70 years BP (SOAN-6582) which taking into account calibration correspond to the end of I millennium BC – the beginning of I millennium AD (Karnyshev and Kichigin, 2008). II cultural layer is attributed to the lightbrown sandy loam stratum. Though some potsherds with rhombic and ribbed surfaces are fixed in the upper stratum. The archaeological material is presented by 280 potsherds of ceramics, 235 subjects of the stone industry and 459 bone fragments. The potteries of the layer are corded ware (94), with rhombic impressions (85) and ribbed impressions (40), smooth-walled (39) and with net negatives (2). The first is fixed mainly in the roof of the stratum. Besides, in the layer it is noted 20 fragments of ceramics which are not giving to diagnostics because of to their deformation. Stone products are presented by two knife-shaped plates, an oval-triangular arrow head, a fragment of a triangular arrow head with direct base, a triangular extended arrow head with concave base, two massive arrows of darts # 79 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 1. The situational map of the site Red Jar II Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II (?), a scraper of the trapezoid form and a hammerstamper. Also in the layer it is noted 215 stone flakes. Among the faunistic rests it is fixed bones of a red deer and a seal. In 2008-2009 the excavation at the site has been continued by D.E.Kichigin. The total area of the opened excavation trenches has made 29 m². The received archaeological material essentially has not changed representations about culturalchronological interpretation of a monument. Therefore within the limits of the present article it remains outside of our attention. Research materials In the article the ceramic materials corresponding typologically to the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch of the Western coast of Lake Baikal are offered to consideration. On set of the most diagnosing characteristics (vessel form, technical decor and ornamentation) two ceramic complexes are allocated – the corded ware pottery and the waffle pottery. The ceramics description in the further narration is given according to the fixed level of fragments in ground thickness of the excavation trench № 1 in process of deepening from top to down. After the description of each vessel the site of the potsherds in the stratum is specified. impressions. The vessel from the lower horizontal raised border and to its bottom is decorated by the thin raised borders in the width 0,3-0,5 cm. The diameter of the vessel on a rim makes up 23 cm. The lower diameter of the round base is 13 cm, the height – 2,5cm. The lower external edge of the round base is decorated by nail impressions. The most part of the potsherds has fixed in the light-grey sandy loam stratum. Other fragments have met in the roof and the average part of the light-brown sandy loam stratum (Fig. 2 – 1). A vessel of the closed form (145 potsherds) with an open throat and expressed neck. The rim of the oval form is slightly unbent outside. The external surface of the vessel is covered by various impressions of a twisted cord. The vessel throat is decorated by horizontal raised border in the width 0,6-0,8 cm which is deformed finger impressions. Under the raised border a line of the round holes-apertures in diameter 0,2-0,3 settles down it. The vessel from the horizontal raised border and probably to its bottom is decorated by the thin raised borders in the width 0,2-0,3 cm which have the wavy form because of finger compressions. The diameter of the vessel on a rim makes up 23 cm. The stratigraphical situation of the ceramics fragments is similar above described (Fig. 2 – 2). I cultural layer. The pottery corded ware I-II Cultural layer. The waffle pottery A vessel of the closed form (207 potsherds) with an open throat and expressed neck, on the round base. The rim of the direct form is slightly unbent outside. The external surface of the vessel, except for the round base, is covered by vertical impressions of a twisted cord. The same impressions, but already various, are observed on the top cut of the rim. The vessel throat is decorated by two horizontal raised borders in the width 0,7 cm everyone. There is a line of the round holes-apertures in diameter 0,3 cm between them. The raised borders are deformed finger A round bottom vessel of the closed form (57 potsherds) with badly expressed neck. A rim is of the internally asymmetric fungusshaped form. The top cut of the rim is decorated by the inclined incisions. The external surface of the vessel is covered by rhombic (waffle) impressions. The rhombus party makes up 0,4-0,5 cm. The rhombus impressions are not observed on some fragments of a vessel bottom. A throat, a neck and shoulders of the vessel are decorated by five horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions put vertically # 81 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II Fig. 2. Senogdinsky vessels of the excavation trench № 1 of the site Red Jar II (in cline). First three lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions are continuous; the distance between impressions makes up 0,2-0,5 cm. The fourth and the fifth lines are characterized by faltering groups (festoons). Besides, there is a line of the round holes-apertures in diameter 0,4-0,5 cm possibly drilled. The thickness of the vessel walls to a bottom increases. The diameter of the vessel on a rim makes up 15-16 cm. The most part of the ceramic fragments is fi xed in the roof and the average part of the light-brown sandy loam stratum. And individual potsherds are in the sole of the light-grey sandy loam stratum (Fig. 3 – 1). II Cultural layer. The waffle pottery The potsherds of a throat and a body (7) from a vessel of the simple closed form. A rim is of the fungus-shaped form. The external surface of the vessel is covered by rhombic (waffle) impressions. The rhombus party makes up 0,4-0,5 cm. The vessel throat is decorated by two horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions put vertically. The distance between impressions makes up 0,1-0,3 cm. Lower the line of the same impressions is, but put in cline to each other forming a horizontal zigzag. The top cut of the rim is decorated by an average part of the tooth-comb ornament tool. The potsherds # 82 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II Fig. 3. The waffle pottery of the excavation trench № 1 of the site Red Jar II are fixed in the top third part of the light-brown sandy loam stratum (Fig. 3 – 2). The potsherds of the top part of a vessel (43) with rhombic (waffle) impressions. The ornamentation is in the form of three horizontal lines of the inclined stamp impressions representing small smooth lines. First two lines of the smooth impressions are continuous. The distance between them makes up 0,2-0,3 cm. The third line is characterized by faltering groups (festoons). The stratigraphical situation of the ceramics fragments is similar previous (Fig. 3 – 3). Discussion of the materials At Lake Baikal coast the corded ware pottery decorated raised borders with a round base is known as Senogdinsky pottery (Tyshkineisky type– by O.I. Goryunova). Its fragments are found by the excavations of the Plate Graves and the multilayered sites in the Ol’khon region and also sites of other regions of Lake Baikal coast. Appearance of Senogdinsky pottery at the end of II – the beginning of I millennia BC firstly in the Ol’khon region and later on all Baikal coast is accounted by some researchers for spreading the culture of the Plate Graves of Transbaikalia. At the end of I millennium BC the corded ware pottery has got out of use. The smooth-walled and the waffle potteries replace it. But the raised borders ornamentation remains and continues to exist to the middle of I millennium AD (Kharinsky and Karnyshev, 2003; Kharinsky, 2005; Kichigin, 2009). During the long time (the end of II – the end of I millennia BC) Senogdinsky pottery underwent some changes expressed by the form and the rim of vessels, a quality of the cord impressions # 83 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II and the ornamentation. So, for example, early Senogdinsky earthenware is characterized by the closed form of vessel consisting of two basic constructive elements – a throat and a body. At the later period vessels with an open throat and expressed neck prevail (Kharinsky, 2005; Kichigin, 2009). However as the most dating indication in our opinion the ornament is. At early stages the ornamentation of Senogdinsky vessels looks simply enough: the composition consists from 1-2 horizontal cut raised borders and a line of round holes-apertures (a standard composition). Probably such combination of the elements of an ornament in the upper piece of a vessel had the more practical value caused by aspiration of an ancient master to strengthen a vessel’s throat at the moment of drying (raised borders) and baking (holes-apertures). At the later period besides the standard composition on the corded ware vessels the additional ornamentation has been (a subsidiary composition). It is expressed in addition to horizontal wide raised borders of thin raised borders which are notable for its forms and an arrangement on a vessel’s surface. They can be straight or cramp-formed, horizontal or inclined (vertical), but decorate as a rule a vessel body and have more aesthetic value rather than the practical. The thin raised borders decorated the corded ware pottery are found at Baikal region everywhere. However more often they are found at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal where Senogdinsky pottery abounds with variants of additional ornamentation (Svinin, 1966; Karnyshev, 2006; Kichigin, 2009). Thus, the corded ware vessels decorate raised borders found in the excavation trench № 1 of the site Red Jar II concern to the late variant of Senogdinsky pottery – the second half of I millennium BC. It is possible, the radiocarbon date 1940±70 years BP (SOAN-6582) received by the second bonfire remains is some rejuvenated. It should be dated the bonfire to the end of I millennium BC. In our opinion, the coexistence of Senogdinsky pottery with other ceramic traditions at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal in the second half of I millennium BC is quite admissible. The results of excavation of the burial-funeral complex Baikal’skoe VII is not contradicted to such point of view also. At this monument the smooth-walled (Elginsky type) and the waffle (Borisovsky type) potteries of the Early Iron Age are found together with the potsherds of the corded ware pottery decorated raised borders – Senogdinsky type. The pottery with a rhombic impressions found by the excavation of the site Red Jar II (Fig. 3) is noted at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal in the several locations else – Kurla IV and Boguchansky XI. These potsherds are united in one ceramic complex with the ornament which consists of the horizontal lines of tooth-comb stamp impressions (in one case smooth stamp) put in cline or vertically. The similar pottery at excavation of burial and site complexes of other coast of Lake Baikal is not found. It essentially differs from Borisovsky waffle pottery which occurred at Baikal region at the end of I millennium BC – the beginning of I millennium AD Distinctions are notable not only in the form of vessels and ornamentation, but also in the most technical decor. The external surface of Borisovsky vessels is covered by the large rhombuses with the party more than 0,6 cm. There are also impressions rhombuses entered each other too the large. The waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of tooth-comb stamp of Northwest coast of Lake Baikal is covered the small rhombuses with the party of 0,4-0,6 cm (Abdulov and Tuzhik, 1995; Kharinsky, 2005). The distinctive feature of the waffle pottery interesting us is an ornament. The tooth-comb stamp impressions making horizontal lines are built in a certain order. Therefore it’s possible # 84 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II to allocate two variants of an ornamentation composition accepted by us as rule a certain indicator. The first variant represents 2-3 horizontal continuous lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions put in cline or vertically. Under them passes 1-2 lines of the same impressions, but consisted in groups (festoons). The second variant of a composition looks approximately also. Difference consists that the tooth-comb stamp impressions are built in the form of a zigzag in finishing lower line. The nearest analogies of these ornamentation compositions of the waffle pottery are found at Ust’-Karengsky sites of the Top Vitim. On the cultural layers containing the waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions two radiocarbon dates have received – 3670±40 years BP (LE-2650) and 3250±40 years BP (LE-2649) which taking into account calibration correspond to XVIII – XIII centuries BC (Vetrov and Samuilova, 1990). The waffle pottery finds the analogies in Ymyyakhtakh Culture of the Late Neolithic Age of Yakutia which is dated II – the beginning of I millennia BC. However the similar element of an ornament – the impression of the toothcomb stamp – at Ymyyakhtakh vessels is not met (Fedoseeva, 1980). It’s necessary to notice that at the site Ulahan Segelennjah (Olekma) in VII cultural layer the potsherds of vessels with rhombic impressions on the external surface decorated various ways including the tooth-comb stamp impressions are noted. Two radiocarbon dates have received on this cultural layer – 3570±140 years BP (IM-1011) and 3120±120 years BP (IM1009). In author opinion, the layer is dated the Bronze Age (Ust’-mil’ Culture) which is defined him the middle of II – middle of I millennia BC (Alekseev, 1996: 69-70). The ornamentation of vessels by the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions put in cline or vertically finds the wide analogies both to the East and to the West from Baikal. At Eastern Transbaikalia the tooth-comb ornament is noted in vessel decoration since Medial Neolithic Age (7 – 6 thousands years BP) to the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. It’s confirmed the results of excavation of burial and site complexes of the Darasunsky location. The tooth-comb element of an ornament in according to a waffle decor is distinctly traced on specific earthenware of the culture of the Plate Graves – tripod-vessels. The potsherds of tripod-vessels with the waffle surface and the tooth-comb stamp impressions were found by the excavation of the plate graves of the monument Zhigurzhinka. These burial complexes are dated VI – III centuries BC (Kirillov et al., 2000). In the plate graves of Buryatiya the potsherds of tripod-vessels find extremely seldom. The waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp in these burials is not met absolutely (Tsybiktarov, 1998). It’s necessary to notice that at excavation of the plate graves of Western coast of Lake Baikal any potsherd of tripod-vessel is not revealed. Moreover, in these burials it’s not met also potsherds with waffle surface (Turkin, 2003). The compositions of an ornament met on waffle pottery of the site Red Jar II also find the analogies to the West from Baikal. At settlement Ust’-Ilim (Angara) similar ornamentation is noted on the smooth-walled potsherds lying in one layer with the waffle pottery. At the same time, in cultural layers besides these potsherds there are potsherds of other polytypic earthenware. This circumstance calls in question the dating of the cultural layers by the certain period – the Neolithic Age or the Early Iron Age. Besides, the Bronze epoch on this monument is not absolutely allocated (Berezin, 1990). This problem is resolved with the materials of multilayered objects of Average Yenisei. At # 85 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 4. The genesis of the pottery corded ware and the waffle ceramics at the Northwest coast of Lake Baikal Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II settlement Shilka-9 in the fifth cultural layer the potsherds are divided by technology of manufacture and ornament on two groups. The first group (Shepilevsky type – XI-VIII centuries BC) includes the vessels with ribbed or waffle impressions on external surface; the ornament in the form of the horizontal lines of finger nips, the raised borders and the drawn lines. The second group (Bobrovsky type – XVIII-XII centuries BC) includes the potsherds of smooth-walled vessels decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb the smooth stamp. Anyhow, the combination of a waffle decor and a tooth-comb ornament on the Yenisei pottery is not met (Mandryka, 2005; Abdulina and Mandryka, 2007). At the moment the dating of existence of the waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal is defined difficult enough. Probably, its appearance at this area is caused by Northeast contacts through river valleys of the Top Angara and Muja with the areas of the Top and Average Vitim. After all the similar compositions of an ornament have been met at the Ust’-Karengsky sites. Thus, the potsherds of the waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp impressions found at the site Red Jar II are preliminary dated to the last third of II – to the first half of I millennia BC. Conclusion Absence accurate stratigraphy of archaeological layers of the site Red Jar II for today has no to the characteristic of this object as a basic monument of Northwest coast of Lake Baikal. Though the ceramic complexes according to their stratum levels, following one after another in process of deepening in the excavation trench, do not contradict to the cultural-historical datings based on the comparative-typological method of research. Probably, Northwest coast of Lake Baikal during the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch was cultural periphery where those or other traditions got from the different areas that is distinctly traced by a ceramic material (Fig. 4). So, at the end of the Bronze Age (the last third of II millennium BC) from the Northeast the tradition to produce circle bottom vessels in the beating way of a carved waffle beetle and to decorate their horizontal lines of tooth-comb or smooth tool impressions gets at this area. At the beginning of I millennium BC from the south and the southeast the Culture of the Plate Graves of Transbaikalia at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal gets. Since this time at all Baikal coast the corded ware pottery decorated raised borders has begun to prevail (Senogdinsky type). May be, both ceramic traditions– the waffle and corded ware potteries – coexisted some time at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal. At the second half of I millennium BC the ornamentation of Senogdinsky vessels becomes complicated. In addition to horizontal raised borders a vessel’s body is decorated by thin raised borders. In the boundary of eras the waffle pottery (Borisovsky type) again extends at the Baikal coast, but already with the standard compositions of Senogdinsky ornament. References Ju.A. Abdulina and P.V. Mandryka, «New settlement of the Late Bronze Age in a southern taiga of Average Yenisei», Reports of the Laboratory of ancient technologies, 5 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2007), 168-174, in Russian. T.A. Abdulov and L.L. Tuzhik, «The ceramic complexes of sites of the Kurlinsky bay», The Baikal Siberia in the ancient time (Irkutsk: Irkutsk State University, 1995), 175-192, in Russian. # 87 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II A.N. Alekseev, Ancient Yakutia: the New Stone and Bronze Ages (Novosibirsk: Publishing house IAEth of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1996), in Russian. D.Ju. Berezin, «Visual characteristic of pottery of the settlement Ust-Ilim», Ancient pottery of Siberia: typology, technology, semantics (Novosibirsk: the Science, 1990), 18-38, in Russian. O.I. Gorjunova, «A complex of a Bronze Age of the multilayered settlement Tyshkine III (to a question on Late Bronze on Baikal)», In the wake of ancient cultures of Transbaikalia (Novosibirsk: the Science, 1983), 70-75, in Russian. O.I. Gorjunova and Ju.P. Lyhin, «Archaeological monuments of the peninsula Sacred Nose: (Lake Baikal)», Ancient Transbaikalia and its cultural contacts (Novosibirsk: the Science, 1985), 130-147, in Russian. O.I. Gorjunova, A.G. Vorob’eva and L.A. Orlova, «New the data on chronology of multilayered settlements Priol’khonja», The newest archaeological and ethnographic openings in Siberia (Novosibirsk: Publishing house IAEth of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1996), 57-59, in Russian. O.I. Gorjunova, T.Ju. Nomokonova and A.G. Novikov, «The multilayered settlement Katun’ I – a basis of a division into periods of palaemetal epoch of the Chivyrkuy bay coast of Lake Baikal», The Anthropogene. Palaeanthropology, geoarchaeology, ethnology of Asia, ed. by G.I. Medvedev (Irkutsk: Publishing house the Print, 2008), 35-45, in Russian. M.P. Grjaznov and M.N. Komarova, «The excavation of the multilayered settlement UlanKhada», The Baikal Antiquities, ed. by V.M. Masson (Irkutsk: Irkutsk State University, 1992), 13-32, in Russian. S.A. Fedoseeva, Ymyyakhtakhsky culture of Northeast Asia (Novosibirsk: the Science, 1980), in Russian. I.S. Karnyshev, «Analysis and chronological interpretation of the ceramics collected at the Boguchansky bay coast (the North Baikal area, Buryatiya)», Sources, formation and development of Eurasian polyculture. Cultures and societies of Northern Asia in the historical past and the present (Irkutsk: Publishing house RPC «Radian», 2005), 199-200, in Russian. I.S. Karnyshev, «Senogdinsky pottery of northern coast of Lake Baikal», Archaeology, ethnology, palaecology of the Northern Eurasia and adjacent areas, I (Krasnoyarsk: Publishing house Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 2006), 121-124, in Russian. I.S. Karnyshev and D.E. Kichigin, «Senogdinsky pottery of the site Red Jar II (the North Baikal area, Republic Buryatiya)», Ethnocultural history of Eurasia: modern researches and experience of reconstructions (Barnaul: the Alphabet, 2008), 157-158, in Russian. A.V. Kharinsky, «Western coast of Lake Baikal in I millennium BC – I millennium AD, Reports of the Laboratory of ancient technologies, 3 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2005), 198-215, in Russian. A.V. Kharinsky and I.S. Karnyshev, «The pottery traditions of northwest coast of Lake Baikal in I millennium BC (on materials of the site Baltahanova III), Genesis of society in Northern Asia: past, present, future (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2003), 137-142, in Russian. A.V. Kharinsky and S.V. Snopkov, «The iron producing by people of the Ol’khon region in Elginsky period», Reports of the Laboratory of ancient technologies, 2 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2004), 167-187, in Russian. # 88 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II D.E. Kichigin, «The pottery corded ware of the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch of the western coast of Lake Baikal», Genesis of society in Northern Asia (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2009), 158-165, in Russian. I.I. Kirillov, E.V., Kovychev and O.I. Kirillov, The Darasunsky complex of archaeological monuments. The East Transbaikalia (Novosibirsk: Publishing house IAEth of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2000), in Russian. P.V. Mandryka, «The materials of the multilayered settlement Shilka-9 on Average Yenisei and their value for an ancient history of the southern taiga of Average Siberia», Reports of the Laboratory of ancient technologies, 3 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2005), 172185, in Russian. V.V. Svinin, «Archaeological researches at northern coast of Lake Baikal in 1963-1965 years», Reports of archaeological expeditions for 1963-1965 years (Irkutsk: Irkutsk regional historical museum, 1966), 50-69, in Russian. G.V. Turkin, «The forest-steppe Predbaikal’e in the end of II – I millenniums BC (on materials of the burial-funeral complexes)», Author’s abstract of dissertation (Vladivostok: 2003), in Russian. A.D. Tsybiktarov, The culture of the Plate Graves of Mongolia and Transbaikalia (Ulan-Ude: Publishing house of the Buryat State University, 1998), in Russian. V.M. Vetrov and O.V. Samuilova, «New direction in archaeology of the Top Vitim (palaemetal epoch)», Palaethnology of Siberia (Irkutsk: Irkutsk State University, 1990), 122-124, in Russian. Керамика позднего бронзового – раннего железного веков стоянки Красный Яр II (северо-западное побережье озера Байкал) Д.Е. Кичигин Иркутский государственный технический университет Россия 664074, Иркутск, ул. Лермонтова, 83 Настоящая статья посвящена анализу «шнуровой» и «вафельной» керамики стоянки Красный Яр II. Исходя из стратиграфических особенностей залегания этих культурных остатков и типологических сходств с материалами соседних регионов, автор раскрывает генезис керамических традиций северо-западного побережья озера Байкал в период позднего бронзового – раннего железного веков. Ключевые слова: озеро Байкал, поздний бронзовый век, ранний железный век, Сеногдинская керамика, «шнуровая» керамика, «вафельная» керамика, сосуд, венчик, налепные валики, орнаментация, композиция. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 90-101 ~~~ УДК 338.24 (571.510) The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational Institution on the Example of the Siberian Federal University Vladimir I. Kirko* and Anna V. Keusch, Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 In the given article we consider the latest changes of legislation and new opportunities, being offered in the result of this process, which influence the activity of federal universities. We suggest a structural model of the regional innovative platform, being based on the interaction of autonomic educational institutions, territorial-administrative formations and financial-industrial groups. Keywords: infrastructure, federal university, regional innovative platform The given research work has been carried out with the financial support from the Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Support of Science and Scientific-Technical Activity and also the Federal PurposeOriented Program «Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Personnel of Innovational Russia» for the 2009-2013 period. In the given article we consider the latest changes of legislation and new opportunities, being offered in the result of this process, which influence the activity of federal universities. We suggest a structural model of the regional innovative platform, being based on the interaction of autonomic educational institutions, territorialadministrative formations and financial-industrial groups. FSAEI of HPE «Siberian Federal University» At present time, in Russia they form a model of the national innovative system, which key component is innovative infrastructure, contributing to knowledge capitalization * 1 acceleration and providing connections among the subjects of innovative activity. Federal universities must play the leading role in formation and development of the innovative infrastructure subjects, as far as they are the driving force of innovations creation and realization, education-science-industry integration, formation and development of competitive humane capital. First federal universities were formed within the frames of the top-priority national project «Education» in the end of 2006; they were the Siberian Federal University (SFU) in Krasnoyarsk and the Southern Federal University (SFU) in Rostov-on-Don. Each of the universities Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 90 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… has united four higher educational institutions, which have been acting earlier in the regions. The process of integration has been going on the free-will basis and only those higher education institutions have taken part in the project, which have possessed a high scientific-technical and personnel potential of education and production. As for today, they have created five more federal universities: the Northern (Arctic) Federal University, the Privolzhsky Federal University, the Urals Federal University, the Far Eastern Federal University, and the North-Eastern Federal University. The Russian legislation does not limit the number of universities, which are being created. Today, the number, which is most often given by the experts, is 16-20 federal universities, but in reality there can be less or, visa verse, more of them. The number of the federal universities being created can depend on several circumstances. For example, it depends on the proposals of legislative and executive powers of the Russian Federation subjects, being prepared on the bases of social-economical development programs, which should correspond to the demand of such an educational center organization and on the presence of necessary resources . The experience of realization of S(iberian) FU and S(outhern)FU projects has proved the necessity of making legislative changes in the sphere of education and science in order to regulate the problems of such educational institutions’ activity. This way, they have made a row of changes in the federal laws of RF: «Concerning Education», «Concerning Higher and Postgraduate Vocational Education», «Concerning Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy» and others, and have accepted new normative legal acts. Federal Law of RF dated 10.07.1992 N 3266-1 «Concerning Education» (further Education Law) is a basic normative legal act, which regulates the relations in the sphere of provision and protection of RF citizens’ constitutional right to education, formation of legal guarantees for RF educational system’s free functioning and development. Chapter 1 contains general provisions, which concern the state policy in the sphere of education. Thereat, Federal purpose-oriented program of education development, which is developed and accepted by the RF Government, serves as an organizational basis of the RF state policy in the sphere of education . At present moment, Federal purposeoriented program of education development for 2006 – 2010 period has been approved by RF government order dated 23.12.2005 N 803. One of the main tasks of the Education Development Program is perfection of economic mechanisms in the sphere of education, which is achieved by means of realization of the program measures in the following leading directions: introduction of new models of financing of educational organizations of all the levels of education, implementation of mechanisms, contributing to development of economical independence of educational institutions, realization of a complex of measures, targeted to improvement of the educational sphere investment attractiveness and contributing to the inflow of investments and also of financial, material, intellectual and other resources in to the sphere of education. In the result of the Program measures realization they suppose to provide: - On the federal level: increase of competitiveness and efficiency of the Russian economy, which is caused by increase of the human capital quality, by a better satisfaction of the requirements of the quickly developing economy and increase of efficiency of the labor resources utilization; - on the level of educational institutions: expansion of the number of innovative- # 91 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… active scientific-educational complexes and network educational structures; growth of non-government financing of educational programs; improvement of financial situation and increase of efficiency of educational institutions’ activity, preservation and successive development of their innovative potential; increase of the share of non-material assets, being in commerce; strengthening of relations and expansion of mutuallyprofitable collaboration in the spheres of education, science and industry; - in the sphere of budget: concentration of the federal budget means for development of the system-forming «points of growth» in the sphere of education; contribution to development of various legal organizational forms of educational organizations; increase of the level of non-budgetary co-financing of education, provision of additional tax revenues . Proceeding from the analysis of the mentioned above, we conclude that the state policy in the sphere of education allows implementing elements of private-state partnership and developing innovation infrastructure of HEI, including such an element as Technology Park, which is necessary for salvation of the tasks, being set in the Program of education development. Federal Law of RF dated 22.08.1996 N 125ФЗ «Concerning Higher and Postgraduate Vocational Education» (further Higher Education Law) is that very law, which regulates relations in the sphere of higher and postgraduate professional education. Provisions of the Higher Education Law presuppose integration of higher and postgraduate professional education and science and also development and perfection of the system of education by means of appliance of new knowledge and achievements of science and engineering. The Higher Education Law determines the types and nominations of the higher education institutions in RF, and «federal university» is in that number. Federal university is a higher education institution, which: - realizes innovative educational programs of higher and postgraduate professional education, having been integrated into the world educational space; - provides systematic modernization of higher and postgraduate professional education; - realizes personnel training, re-training and (or) development on the basis of appliance of the modern educational technologies for a complex socialeconomical development of the region; - carries out fundamental and applied scientific researches in a wide spectrum of sciences, provides integration of science, education and industry, including implementation of the intellectual activity results into practice; - is a leading scientific and methodological centre . The law indicates at such a task of the federal university as a realization of educational innovation programs, and it allows making a conclusion about the legislator’s intention to make the given type of educational institution one of the main subjects of innovative activity. Thereat, the Higher Education Law provision, concerning the introduction of such a category as «national research university», seems to be very interesting. The category of «national research university» is set by the RF Government for the 10 years’ period according to the results of the competitive selection of universities’ # 92 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… development programs, which are targeted to personnel provision of top-priority directions of development of science, technology, engineering, branches of economy and social sphere, and also development and industrial implementation of high technologies . Such an innovation creates opportunities for organization of several centers of modern innovative technologies implementation: a federal university and «a national research university». Analysis of the Law provisions lets us conclude that it is impossible to award such a status to the federal university, and, consequently, it can positively influence on the competition in the sphere of collaboration of the university and business enterprises in the question of innovations. One of the rights of a higher educational institution upon the sanction of its founder (owner) and on the basis of certain agreements is the assignment of immovable and movable assets for use by scientific organizations, and also usage of immovable and movable assets, belonging to scientific organizations on their ownership basis, operative management and economic control . In future, such a right will allow building a system of usage of technical and material base of the university, without making any changes in the legislation. Within this system the university is a center of expensive and high-tech equipment, the center, which has highly-qualified specialists in its staff, being able to use this equipment. Purchase of the given equipment for the commercial structure can be unprofitable because of its high cost, and also because it can be used only on a certain stage. Federal Law of RF dated 10.02.2009 N 18-ФЗ «Concerning introduction of alterations of some legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the questions of activity of the federal universities» has established the following rights to the federal universities. Those higher educational institutions, which are budgetary educational organizations, have a right (without their property owner consent and only upon notification of the federal executive body, fulfilling the functions of the State policy formulation and normative legal regulation in the sphere of scientific and scientific-technical activity) to be the founders (and also co-founders) of business companies, which deal with the practical appliance (implementation) of the results of their intellectual activity (electronic data processing machines software, data bases, inventions, useful models, industrial patterns, selection achievements, integral micro-schemes topologies, and know-hows, which exclusive rights belong to the given higher educational institutions). Financial means, equipment and other property, which is in the operative management of the given higher education institutions, can be contributed to the charter capital of the organized business companies in the order, established by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Being a budgetary educational organization, higher education institution has a right to involve other people as founder (participants) of its business company, if the given higher education institution’s share in the joint stock company’s charter capital is more than twenty five percent or the share in the limited liability company is more than one third. Revenues from disposing of the shares (stocks) of the business companies’ charter capitals, which founders (participants) are the given higher education institutions, and some part of the profit of these business companies, being received by the given higher education institutions (dividends), are transferred to their independent ownership, appear on a separate balance sheet and are spent only on the legal protection of intellectual activity results, remuneration payments of their authors and also # 93 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… on realization of the charter activity of the given higher education institutions . All the mentioned above provisions activate the creation of minor innovational enterprises near by the universities and, as a consequence, formation of the innovative structure of the HEI. Development of federal universities is implemented within the frames of the programs, which have been approved by the RF Government and which provide the conditions of realization and criteria of evaluation of educational process efficiency, integration of educational and scientific-research activity, modernization and perfection of material-technical base and socialcultural infrastructure, integration into the world educational space . Financial provision of the federal universities’ activity is carried out in the order, having been established for autonomic institutions. Federal Law of RF dated 03.11.2006 N 174-ФЗ «Concerning autonomic institutions» acknowledges a non-commercial organization to be such an institution, created by the RF subject or by the municipal organization for fulfilling works and providing services with the aim of realization of full powers of the RF Government as it is required by the applicable legislation of RF, and full powers of the local government bodies in the spheres of science, education, public health service, culture, social protection, employment of population, physical culture and sports, and also in other spheres. The main type of activity of the autonomic institution is a free or partially paid provision of services by the order of its founders. The mentioned activity financing is made from the corresponding budget in the form of subventions, subsidies, state non-budgetary funds and other resources. The autonomic institution has a right to render paid services within the frames of its leading activity, when it goes in excess of the order of the founder. Revenues of the autonomic institution are transferred to its independent ownership and are used in order to achieve the goals, it has been organized for. The owner of the property of the autonomic institution has neither a right to acquisition of the income from the autonomic institution’s activity nor a right to use the property, being assigned to the autonomic institution. The autonomic institution’s property is assigned to it according to the right of operative management in compliance with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. The proprietor of both properties of the federal university and of the autonomic institution is the Russian Federation. Without consent of its founder, the autonomic institution has no right to dispose its immovable property and its most valuable movable property, being assigned to the autonomic institution by its founder or having been purchased by the institution on the money, allotted by its founder to purchase this property. What concerns the rest of the property, including the immovable one, the autonomic institution may dispose it by itself. Under the most valuable movable property we mean the property, without which it would be very difficult for the autonomic institution to realize its charter activity. The founder makes the decision to subsume the property under the category of “the most valuable” simultaneously with the decision to assign the mentioned property to the autonomic institution or with the decision of appropriation of means for its purchasing. The land plot, which is necessary for the autonomic institution to fulfill its charter tasks, is transferred to it on the basis of the right of permanent (indefinite) use . It is important to notice that the autonomic institution is given a right to open accounts with credit organizations, in comparison with the budget organizations. This way, federal universities’ autonomy establishes market principles of running of # 94 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… finances and business operations, gives an opportunity to spread efficiently the resources, and to improve the flexibility and efficiency of management. Federal Law of RF dated 23.08.1996 N 127ФЗ «Concerning Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy» regulates the relations among the subjects of scientific and scientific-technical activity, organs of state power and consumers of scientific and scientific-technical production. Let us consider the changes in the sphere of regulation of questions concerning collaboration and coordination of scientific organizations’ activity and educational institutions of higher vocational education. Any scientific organization may collaborate and coordinate its activity with educational institutions of higher vocational education, as well including contractual basis, and also by means of creation of alliances of scientific organizations and educational institutions of higher vocational education in the from of associations or unions in accordance with the RF legislation. In compliance with the contract, made with an educational institution of higher vocational education, the scientific organization may organize a structural subdivision (laboratory), fulfilling scientific and (or) scientific-technical activity on the basis of this educational institution of higher vocational education and taking into consideration its educational programs and themes of scientific research in the order, being determined by the Government of RF. In accordance with the contract, made with the educational institution of higher vocational education, the scientific organization has a right to place its movable and immovable property at the disposal of the educational institution of higher vocational education, and also it has a right to use the movable and immovable property, belonging to the educational institution of higher vocational education, on the basis of the right of ownership or operative management. The described relations between such state non-commercial organizations can be realized on a free (gratis) basis . Federal Law of RF dated 10.02.2009 N 18ФЗ «Concerning introduction of alterations of some legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the questions of activity of the federal universities» has also entrenched the full powers of the scientific organizations as follows. Budget scientific organizations have a right (without their property owner consent and only upon notification of the federal executive body, fulfilling the functions of the State policy formulation and normative legal regulation in the sphere of scientific and scientific-technical activity), to be the founders (and also cofounders) of business companies, which deal with the practical appliance (implementation) of the results of their intellectual activity (electronic data processing machines software, data bases, inventions, useful models, industrial patterns, selection achievements, integral micro-schemes topologies, and know-hows, which exclusive rights belong to the given higher educational institutions). Financial means, equipment and other property, which is in the operative management of the given higher education institutions, can be contributed to the charter capital of the organized business companies in the order, established by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Being budgetary educational organization, higher education institution has a right to involve other people as founder (participants) of its business company, if the given higher education institution’s share in the joint stock company’s charter capital is more than twenty five percent or the share in the limited liability company is more than one third. Revenues from disposing of the shares (stocks) of the business companies’ charter capitals, which founders (participants) are the # 95 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… given higher education institutions, and some part of the profit of these business companies, being received by the given higher education institutions (dividends), are transferred to their independent ownership, appear on a separate balance sheet and are spent only on the legal protection of intellectual activity results, remuneration payments of their authors and also on realization of the charter activity of the given higher education institutions . The adopted changes stimulate the creation of integrated scientific-educational structures in the modern conditions of formation of the national innovative system. 15 February, 2006, Inter-departmental commission on the scientific-innovative policy approved the Strategy of science and innovation development in RF for the period up to 2015. The authors of the Strategy admit that the system of formation of the budget financing priorities is not efficient. There is under-estimation of the fundamental science as a basic component of the national innovative system development. At the same time, being in perspective not in demand at the inner and global markets, a big number of applied implementations are financed by the means of the federal budget. Absence of efficient mechanisms of realization of the scientific-technological development priorities, being defined by the Government, and also absence of objective criteria of evaluation of the scientific organizations’ activity results have not given an opportunity to concentrate the resources to support the leading institutes, universities, scientific-pedagogical schools and to provide the faster growth of their material-technical base and personnel potential. The goal of the Strategy realization is formation of a balanced spectrum of researches and implementations and of an efficient innovative system, which provides technological modernization of economy and improves its competitiveness on the basis of innovative technologies and transference of the scientific potential into one of the main resources of a steady economical growth. In order to achieve the desired goal, a row of tasks is suggested to be solved: - To create a competitive sector of researches and implementations, and special conditions for its expanded reproduction; - To create an efficient national innovative system; - To develop the institutes of utilization and of legal protection of researches and implementations results; - To modernize the economy on the basis of technological innovations. The Strategy is suggested to be realized in three stages: the first stage 2006 – 2007 years; the second stage 2008 – 2010 years; and the third stage 2011 – 2015 years. The main expected results of realization of the first stage: - Improvement of efficiency and greater performance of the state sector of researches and implementations; reforming of the Russian Academy of Science and branch academies, having the state status, development of the system of state scientific centers; - Formation of the normative system, which will provide efficient stimuli and motivations to innovative activity, stimulating the ties among the participants of the innovative process; - «Adding on» of the row of missing elements of the innovative infrastructure (first of all, the centers of technological transfer); - Elaboration of possible breakthrough conceptions within the frames of toppriority directions of development of # 96 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… science, technologies and machinery in the Russian Federation and priorities of technological development due to realization of mega-projects; - Development of target-oriented federal and departmental programs of technological profile. The main expected results of realization of the second stage: - Modification of the content and the structure of the state sector of science, optimization of the used legal organizational forms; - Formation of a balanced, steady developing sector of researches and implementations, which will provide an expanded reproduction of knowledge and its active positioning in the global economy; - Formation and development of «the centers of superiority» in the scientific sphere, in the network of national laboratories, research universities; - Creation of efficient innovative infrastructure, providing interaction of the sector of researches and implementations with the native business sector; - Technological modernization of economy on the basis of the latest technologies; creation and expansion of «technological corridors», providing competitiveness of certain sectors of the Russian economy on the basis of the latest technologies of the native origin. The main expected results of realization of the third stage: - Achievement of the scientific researches level, which would correspond the targets of innovative development of economy; - Realization scaling of large projects within the frames of top-priority directions of development of science, technologies and machinery in the Russian Federation and priorities of technological development; - Dynamic development and strengthening of international positions of Russian hightechnology companies; - Wide-scale attraction of private and foreign investments into the Russian sector of researches and implementations; - Formation of a systematic demand in the results of researches and implementations from the part of the business sector; - Dynamic and balanced development of the national innovative system, corresponding to the main parameters of innovative systems, being widely used abroad . 22 September 2009, there was a meeting of the inter-departmental working group on the toppriority national project «Education» attached to the Russian Federation President’s Board on realization of the top-priority national projects and demographical policy. At this meeting, they accepted the Conception (further – Conception) of creation of federal universities and their development state provision. We should mark that there is a row of definitions in the given Conception. In particular, there is a definition of the federal university as an autonomic institution, which performs an educational, scientific and innovative activity in a wide spectrum of directions and its target is to provide widescale projects and programs of federal and/ or regional level with personnel and from the scientific point of view. The following features of the federal university have been singled out: a) A wide spectrum of innovative educational programs of the mainstream higher and additional vocational education, re-training and (or) personnel development on the basis of appliance of the modern educational technologies, division # 97 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… of programs according to their target groups and levels; b) A wide spectrum of fundamental and applied inter-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary scientific researches, carried out by the university, which include top-priority branches of development of science, technologies and machinery in the Russian Federation; c) Active participation in regional, national and international programs and projects, which provides a steady diversified structure of revenues in the university consolidated budget. The main expected results of creation of federal universities in the regions, realization of their development programs are the following: - An adequate personnel and scientific provision of social-economical development of strategically-important territories of Russia; - Creation of additional preconditions for economy development of the territories and regions, being a part of federal districts and involved in the activities of the federal universities; - A higher degree of accessibility of a qualitative professional education and an opportunity to go in for sophisticated science in the federal districts; - Elaborated mechanisms of provision of economical stability of the higher professional education institutions on the basis of their activity actualization and of a closer and responsible participation in the social-economical development of territories and regions of the federal districts; - Real formation of the group of institutions of higher professional education of a quantitatively new type . Basing on the analysis of legal normative acts, which regulate the activity of federal universities, we can come to the conclusion that precisely the universities must become the regional centers of innovations and innovative infrastructure development. The latest legislative changes let us approach the creation of the regional innovative infrastructure in a principally new way. Transition of the federal universities in to the status of autonomic institutions gives the universities ample opportunities of close interaction with territorialadministrative formations of various levels, allows creating structures on the basis of privatestate partnership and actively participating in their social-economical development of territories by means of creation of business companies. The Siberian Federal University is appealed to play an important role in the program of socialeconomical development of the Siberian Federal District (SFD) and of the Krasnoyarsk Region. The following spheres have been denoted as of top-priority in the Strategy of economical development of Siberia: - Development of industrial infrastructure, connected with the processing of the most important strategic raw material resources, such as oil, gas, coal, nonferrous and precious metals; - Development of high technology and science-intensive branches and industries; - Development and modernization of transport infrastructure, which serves a basis for balanced social-economical development of Siberia; - Enhancement of Siberia’s economy indicators from the point of view of its energy resources utilization; - Optimization of the population structure of the Extreme North and similar territories . By the analogy with the mentioned, the following tasks have been defi ned in the # 98 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… Fig. 1 Structural model of the regional innovative platform. SFU – Siberian Federal University; SE – small enterprises (business-incubators) Program of social-economical development of the Krasnoyarsk Region for the period up to 2010: - Improvement of the regional economy effectiveness on the account of development of top-priority extractive industries for the purpose of achievement of fast economical growth and diversification of the economy by means of implementation of processing technologies, providing high added value; - Efficient utilization of natural resources by means of manufacturing industries’ development; - Development of innovative activity by means of investments into the regional innovative infrastructure and organization of definitive personnel training; - Development of transport and communication infrastructures for the purpose of stimulation of inter-regional relations; - Development of housing and utilities infrastructure in order to create conditions for personal preservation and potential growth, and also in order to perfect the sphere of social services; - Realization of the system of management, aimed to enhance the competitiveness of the region and to create favorable conditions for making business and investing money . The Siberian Federal University has singled out 6 top-priority spheres of scientific and educational activity: Engineering Physics, Chemistry of New Materials and Material Science, Bio-physical Ecology and Biotechnology, Space and InformationalCommunicative Technologies, GeoTechnologies, Regional Technology and Humane Capital Management, and 13 enlarged groups of directions and specialties of personnel training, which provide scientific and personnel support of the main tendencies # 99 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… of social-economical development of Siberia and the Krasnoyarsk Region . Here, in Fig. 1, we present a structural model of the regional innovative platform on the basis of interaction of autonomic educational institutions, territorialadministrative formations (further – TAF) and fi nancial-industrial groups (further – FIG) by the example of the Krasnoyarsk Region and the Siberian Federal University. The essence of the model is creation of a branching network of municipal technological and socio-cultural business-incubators by the SFU in collaboration with FIGs and TAFs [11, 12] for the purpose of life conditions improvement and population employment, preservation of small-numbered native peoples, salvation of socio-economical problems of the given region development, and also formation of the innovative infrastructure. As for today, they have created favorable conditions for formation and development of innovation infrastructure and minor innovative business within the structure of the federal universities themselves. Efficiency of such an infrastructure formation mostly depends on efficiency of management decision making and on creation of a corresponding normative database in the HEI, and of course on the support from the part of regional state organs of power. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Creation of Federal Universities: a legislative aspect [electronic resource]. URL: http://www. garant.ru/action/interview/10230/ (the date of address: 04.09.2010) Concerning Education: Federal Law of RF dated 10.07.1992 N 3266-1 // ReferentialLegal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. Federal Purpose-Oriented Program of Education Development for the 2006 – 2010 period: accepted by the RF Government dated 23.12.2005 N 803 // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. Concerning Higher and Postgraduate Vocational Education: Federal Law of RF dated 22.08.1996 N 125-ФЗ // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. Concerning Introduction of Alterations of Some Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation on the Questions of Activity of the Federal Universities: Federal Law of RF dated 10.02.2009 N 18-ФЗ // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. Concerning Autonomic Institutions: Federal Law of RF dated 03.11.2006 N 174-ФЗ // ReferentialLegal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. Concerning Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy: Federal Law of RF dated 23.08.1996 N 127-ФЗ // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. Strategy of Science and Innovation Development in RF up to 2015: approved by the InterDepartmental Commission on Scientific-Innovative Policy on 15 February 2006, Record №1 [electronic resource]. URL: http://mon.gov.ru/press/reliz/2180/ (the date of address: 04.09.2010) # 100 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational… 9. Conception of Creation of Federal Universities and their Development State Provision: approved at the meeting of the inter-departmental working group on the top-priority national project «Education» attached to the Russian Federation President’s Board on realization of the top-priority national projects and demographical policy, dated 22.09.2009 N АФ-33/03пр // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010. 10. Program of Development of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Vocational Education «Siberian Federal University» for the 2007-2010 period [electronic resource]. URL: http://www.sfu-kras.ru/development/programme/ (the date of address: 04.09.2010); 11. A.V. Bukharov, V.G. Zinov, V.I. Kirko. «Concerning the Innovation Structure of the University Complexes», Innovations, №7, (117), 2008, 38-43. 12. On the Innovative Structure of University Complexes; Bucharov, Anatolyi V.; Kirko, Vladimir I.; Zinov, Vladimir G./Journal of Sibirian Federal University. Humanities & Social Science 3 (2008, 3), p. 318-327. Модель региональной инновационной платформы автономного образовательного учреждения на примере Сибирского федерального университета В.И. Кирко, А.В. Кеуш, Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье предложена модель структуры региональной инновационной платформы на основе взаимодействия федерального университета с территориально-административными образованиями и финансово-промышленными группами. А также рассмотрены основные изменения, которые произошли в законодательстве, затрагивающие деятельность федеральных университетов и дающие возможность построения такой модели. Ключевые слова: инновационная инфраструктура, федеральный университет, региональная инновационная платформа. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 102-111 ~~~ УДК 343.2/.7 Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren and Students of Krasnoyarsk Region Higher Education Institutions Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin, Nataly A. Verbitska*, Natalja V. Kachina and Anna S. Mironchik* Siberian Federal University 792 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 The article estimates the drug abuse situation in Krasnoyarsk region as well as that one among schoolchildren and students of Higher Education Establishment. Urgency of the research subject is being proved. The legal ground analysis for counteraction to drug-related offences in the educational environment is being carried out. Keywords: drug abuse prevention, schoolchildren, students of Higher Education Establishments, drug-related offences, drugs, psychotropic substances, educational establishment. The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific technical activity Point Nowadays the problem of drug abuse among teenagers and youth is urgent and requires fundamental scientifically-proved aimed at its solution. measures Example The current drug-abuse situation in the Russian Federation is characterised by trafficking scales expansion and non- medical consumption of highly-concentrated drugs, such as heroin, cocaine, amphetamine stimulators, medications of psychotropic influence as well as their influence on HIV-infection and virus hepatitis expansion * 1 that create serious threat to the state safety, national economy and health of the population. The key factor of negative development of a drug-abuse situation in Russian Federation is large-scale opiates manufacture in Afghanistan territory and their subsequent transnational traffic to the territory of Russia. In a number of Russian regions drugs distribution, made from local vegetative raw materials and medications containing drugs substances being on free sale are increasing. New kinds of psychoactive substances conducing to addicted behavior formation come into service. Heavy social consequences of drug addiction are Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 102 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… well-known. Addicts owing to physical and social degradation leave public labour, political, family life. Drug addiction inevitably generates the whole set of features alien to a society: hard-tocure psycho-physiological diseases and shadow economy stipulated by natural, increasing demand for drugs and illegal ways of its satisfaction in mercenary purposes, criminality, violence to the person, connected with drugs distribution and illegal enrichment. Specific feature of society narcotization is formation of groups and even communities of addicts. Their occurrence is connected with special conditions of acquisition and drug abuse. Facing difficulties with getting not only means for drugs but drugs themselves the addict is compelled to keep in touch with those who have originally attached them to drugs consumption. Aspiration to attach immediate surroundings to his vice is rather typical to an addict. Drug addiction creates incentives for numerous kinds of offences. Demand for drugs under conditions prohibiting their trafficking induces illegal drug dealing spreading. Other kinds of criminality connected with drug addiction expansion and addicts’ activity also grow. If a want for a daily dose of drugs substances is great, the addict is prone to commit any crime to get money for the next dose. He loses ties with the society that is why he is in a natural condition of increased predisposition to commit a crime. Drug addiction social consequences are aggravating as this problem is mainly the youth’s one. Really, drug addiction in Russia continues to «get younger». According to recent data, more than 60 % of addicts are people aged 18-30 years and almost 20 % are schoolchildren. According to Public Health Ministry of Russian Federation the average age of familiarising with drugs in Russia is 15-17 years. At the same time the first drugs abuse by children aged 11-13 have become more frequent occurrence and what is more occurrences of drugs abuse by children aged 6-7 have been noted [www.pmed.ru/article1]. Swift increase in drug addiction over last years testifies that the society and the state have appeared to be incapable of withstanding this phenomenon in full measure. Nowadays there is a real lack of institutions closely engaged in leisure orginising and problem –solving connected with the youth environment. Teenagers are often on their own, neither school, nor family are engaged in their education therefore the rising generation searches for ways of self-realisation in the street companies which indispensable attributes are alcohol and drugs Results of sociological researches show that attitude of the modern Russian society to addicts is rather tolerant. Consumption of drugs is not considered as danger an «outstanding» phenomenon any more. So, drugs cause an interest overstepping the household inquisitiveness limits within a considerable part of youth. Distance between a norm and a deviation has considerably reduced a borderline between admissible and unlawful is becoming obliterated. In some youth circles it has become «stylish» and fashionable to be «gowed-up», «stoned». According to sociological surveys, jargony phrases of addicts become widely common among teenagers, enter the youth slang steadily. Alcohol as an attribute of youth pastime is being replaced by drugs which are becoming an integral peculiarity of youth subculture, an intercourse component within teenaged-youth environment. Lately a social-demographic structure of youth narcotisation has undergone considerable changes. Currently socially adapted and quite safe people even more often become drug users. According to researches, about 3/4 respondents out of teenagers using drugs substances or having propensity to their abuse live in full middle class families. # 103 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… Drug abusing to get intoxicated takes a lot of pastime, group intercourse among the youth. It is time to speak about real vulnerability of rising generation to drugs temptation expansion. Mass media influence the rising generation outlook formation in an extremely adverse way. TV and radio tolerate to broadcast films, musical clips, songs propagandising a lifestyle implying drug abuse. Information on ways of manufacturing and use of drugs, places of their sales is openly offered to the Internet users, drug intoxication condition is described in an attractive way. A particular role in familiarising with abusing drugs is played by various night clubs. Availability of separate drugs should be entirely estimated as high. Drugs are purchased in discos, bars and cafes, in widely known places in the streets, parks, apartments at drug dealers and even at schools. Analysis of the situation existing in the country connected with non medical consumption of drugs shows that till now measures taken to decrease narcotisation level and to reduce drug trafficking volume are obviously insufficient. The teenage drug addiction problem is as extremely urgent for Krasnoyarsk region as for whole Russia. The high level of drug abuse pathology prevalence among minors remains that stipulates necessity of strengthening measures aimed at prevention of alcohol, drug and psychotropic substances abuse, at arrangement of medical and rehabilitation events for the given category of patients in Krasnoyarsk region. According to official data about 3500 minors with drug abuse pathology [www.krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/smi] were registered in regional drug abuse clinics at the beginning of 2009. Over last years educational establishments have become an attractive location for drugs distributors. Certainly, the state policy is aimed at drug addiction prevention and increase in efficiency of medical and social-psychological rehabilitation of the addicts. According to the President’s Decree № 690 on June, 09th, 2010 «On assertion of the State strategy of anti- drug abuse policy of Russian Federation till 2010» one of the preferable directions of anti drug abuse activity is inclusion sections on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse as well as programs aimed at corresponding target audiences in the basic and additional educational curriculums of educational and vocational training establishments. Thus, implementation of target programs should cover, first of all, children and teenagers under 17. However, despite it, over last years the tendency of increase in the number of addicts is being recorded. Many modern researchers connect low efficiency of primary anti- drug abuse prevention with insufficient scientific reasonableness of preventive events and programs. Absence of the state system of drug abuse situation monitoring negatively affects efficiency of the state anti-drug abuse policy. Today the new approach providing working out events after comprehensive study and definition of actual scales of drug addiction expansion, drug trafficking and losses connected with it both in all territory of the country, and in its concrete regions is necessary. The choice of forces and means should fit the true drug addiction scale of the country’s population. The group of scientists of criminal law chair of the SFU Law Institute carries out complex research on «Social-legal aspects of counteraction to drug-related offences committed in secondary and higher educational institutions of Krasnoyarsk region». Urgency of drug addiction research as a social-legal phenomenon in the educational # 104 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… environment is stipulated by its specificity in Krasnoyarsk region, characterised by considerable scales defined both by economic, and other conditions: presence of the developed transport infrastructure, a local raw-material base for drugs manufacturing, active migratory streams as well as drug traffics passage across Krasnoyarsk region territory, etc. It should be noted, that the modern condition of drug addiction expansion problem in Krasnoyarsk region is characterised by insignificant improvement on separate indicators that has been a consequence of the regional target program realisation «Complex measures on overcoming drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region» over 2007-2009. However, the noted decrease in some characteristics of a drug abuse situation does not mean decrease in the problem of struggle against drug trafficking urgency. The indicator of drugs consumers registered in regional drug abuse establishments accounts for 422.5 people in 100 000 population that exceeds an average Russian indicator almost twofold [www.krskstate.ru/ econom/socialeconomic]. According to a regional bureau of forensic examination 1199 people died of drugs overdose in the region only during 2005-2008 [www.krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/ koncept]. In 2008 against more than4000 people, 60 % aged from 18 to 35 criminal proceedings for drug trafficking were instituted in Krasnoyarsk region [www.krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/smi]. Thus, more than half of all crimes are committed by the youth. At the same time the given indicators do not entirely reflect the whole situation of drug addiction expansion owing to considerable latency of this phenomenon. Taking into account stated above, the situation in the sphere of illegal distribution and consumption of drugs within teenage and youth environment can be characterised as serious and capable instantly in the absence of due measures from public authorities and local government of developing into a more serious form comparable with epidemic. One of the basic directions of regional policy in this sphere is working out and implementation of preventive measures on decrease in negative social and economic consequences caused by drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in the region. The Concept of the long-term target program «Complex measures of counteraction to drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region» for 2010 – 2012 has been developed for this purpose in Krasnoyarsk region. The scientific research conducted by the criminal law chair of SFU Law Institute lecturers fully corresponds to regional policy in this sphere and has practical value as well. Demand for such workings out for effective counteraction to drug addiction among teenagers and youth in Krasnoyarsk region keeps within frameworks of the Krasnoyarsk region Anti- drug addiction commission policy and the RF Federal service on drug trafficking control activity in Krasnoyarsk region. Drug addiction prevention problem is interdisciplinary. It should be studied from the point of view of criminology, criminalistics, criminal and administrative law with the obligatory account of provisions and conclusions formulated by sociology, medicine, biology and psychology on drug addiction prevention matters. At the first stage of research work the concrete-sociological method of research carried out on the basis of unity of system-structural, functional methods and a method of modelling was widely applied. Within the frameworks of a concrete-sociological method such methods as supervision, questioning, interviewing and other # 105 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… methods used in sociological researches were used. The following groups were questioned during the poll: 1000 schoolchildren of 7-9 forms, 1000 schoolchildren of 10-11 forms, 1000 students of higher educational institutions. 100 officials of Department of Federal service on control over drug trafficking of Russian Federation for Krasnoyarsk region, 100 members of youth public organisations, 100 school teachers were interviewed during the expert poll. The choice and application of methods and various techniques of research work are determined by the studied phenomenon nature, problems which have been set to achieve the research work objectives. Representativeness, trustworthiness and objectivity of research are stipulated by respondents’ number, scientific-methodical approach to questionnaire elaboration and interview questions. At the same time implementation of measures on drug addiction prevention should be based on the rules of law system regulating prevention subjects’ powers, grounds for their application and rights of persons to whom these measures are applied. Legislation analysis obviously shows that it is far from being perfect and contains some gaps. The convention on the child’s rights passed by the resolution of General Assembly of the United Nations № 44/25 on 20.11.1989 and ratified by the decision of the Supreme Counsel of the USSR on 13.06.90 № 1559-1, recognises as the child every human being under 18 if under the law, applicable to the given child, he does not come of age earlier. Convention article 33 obliges state-participants to take all necessary measures including legislative administrative, and social ones as well as measures in the sphere of education to protect children from illegal use of drugs and psychotropic substances the way they are defined in corresponding international treaties, and not to admit use of children in illegal manufacturing such substances and trade in them. In 1993 the Supreme Counsel of RSFSR passed the «Concept of the state policy on drug control in Russian Federation» which recognised necessarily to carry out consistent actions for administrative and financial assistance to psycho -preventive work with population both on federal and regional level. The federal target program «Complex measures of counteraction to abusing drugs and their trafficking», developed for 1995 – 1997 and prolonged till 2001, is basically aimed at events which are in the sphere of law enforcement bodies’ competence. The federal law «On drug and psychotropic substances» (1998) is mainly devoted to matters of drugs medications manufacture and trafficking control. It concerns preventive work matters insufficiently. Therefore, issues on prevention of drug addiction and abuse of inhalants expansion, treatment and social rehabilitation of addicted patients required additional legislative regulation. The Federal target program was developed to implement provisions of the named Federal law «Complex measures of counteraction to drugs abuse and their trafficking for 1998 – 2000», providing a number of actions aimed at prevention of drug addiction and abuse of inhalants expansion, treatment and social rehabilitation of the drug addicted. It devised the events targeted at pupils and students, in particular, it was offered to include additional themes (courses) on problems of abusing drugs, their trafficking and drug addiction prevention into curricula of secondary special and higher educational establishments on training and retraining specialists working with teenagers and the youth. It specified necessity of working out manuals for pedagogical workers of educational establishments, parents, social workers on teenagers’ formation of negative # 106 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… attitude to drugs consumption, on psychologicalpedagogical rehabilitation of the minors inclined to drugs abuse. It was required to prepare trial samples of television materials of anti- drug abuse orientation and to develop scientifically proved methods of their efficiency estimation. The federal program aimed at work continuation on creation of psychologicalpedagogical service in departments on education, educational establishments and specialised establishments of social rehabilitation of minors. Psychologists should have been introduced into preschool and educational establishments’ personnel in the course of conditions creation. Thus, it is possible to ascertain, that at the state level the drug addiction problem is elaborated basically in a context of fight against drug trafficking, organisation of education of the population from the point of view of legal responsibility and medical aspect of diseases. The federal law on June, 24th, 1999 FL № 120 «On bases of the prevention system of child neglect and juvenile offences» limits the sphere of its operation to a certain circle of persons (article 5) and grounds for conducting individual preventive work (article 6) which are significant for drug addiction prevention in educational establishments audience. The regulatory act conclusive advantage is the definition of the system of subjects of prevention of minors and families deviant behaviour who are in socially dangerous position as well as powers on their social-pedagogical rehabilitation and (or) prevention of committing any offences and antisocial actions by them. Thus, agencies and establishments of prevention system comprise education authorities which develop and introduce in practice of educational establishment programs and techniques aimed at formation of minors’ law-abiding behaviour and educational establishments providing revealing minors, being in socially dangerous position (including those abusing drugs) and within their competence carrying out individual preventive work with such minors. Article 18 of this Federal law also provided duties of public health authorities and public health establishments as subjects of child neglect and offences prevention to carry out round-the-clock reception of minors who are under alcoholic or narcotic intoxication to render medical aid based on indications of medical character; to conduct detection, record, examination based on indications of medical character and treatment of minors using alcoholic and alcohol-containing production, beer and drinks made on its basis, drugs, psychotropic or intoxicating substances as well as to implement other measures falling within their competence on prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction and abuse of inhalants of minors and deviation behaviour connected with it. The first step in purposeful realisation of the state policy on use of existing means and education system resources in drug addiction prevention was made by passing the Ministry of Education Order of Russian Federation on 28.02.2000 № 619 «On the Concept of prevention of abusing psychoactive substances in the educational environment» together with Plan of measures of Ministry of Education of Russia on realisation of the Concept on prevention of abusing psychoactive substances in the educational environment for 2000 – 2001. Psychoactive substances under the sense of norms of the specified Concept are chemical and pharmacological means influencing physical and mental condition, causing pathological addiction; drugs, tranquilizers, alcohol, nicotine and other means are referred to them. The overall objective which is put forward in the Concept, consisted in educational, social and medical measures pooling within the limits of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, providing achievement of the common result: One of the tasks was reduction of demand and, # 107 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… hence, distribution of drugs among children and the youth and their involvement in a narcogene situation and subculture. Thus, the circle of minors and influence possibility on them depending on their belonging to this or that kind of educational establishment was not differentiated. Except this circumstance there were serious obstacles on the way of the stated prevention tasks decision. Firstly, Federal law on 08.01.1998 № 3-FL «On drug and psychotropic substances» provides rendering drug abuse clinic (including rehabilitation) assistance exclusively in public health establishments. At the same time it is obviously necessary to ensure possibility of rendering rehabilitation help to minors and the youth in the education system establishments which have received in accordance with the order established by the law license for the specified kind of activity. Till now the Federal law «On socially-medical rehabilitation of persons sick of drug addiction» aimed to regulate the order of rendering rehabilitation help to persons (including minors), abusing drugs, including those committing socially dangerous acts (crime) has not been passed yet. Secondly, current legislation allows physical examination of drug users only upon the decision of the Office of Public Prosecutor’s agencies, bodies of inquiry, an investigator or a judge. In this connection nowadays there are problems with operative examination of minors concerning drug abuse. Sometimes it takes weeks, within this time the drug is deduced from an organism and as a result the expert analysis of biological circles of a teenager suspected of drug abuse does not give positive result. Besides, the given concept has not received its logic continuation in the special programs of anti-drug abuse prevention targeted at students of secondary educational and higher educational establishments. The Russian Federation Government’s order on 13.09.2005 № 561 (issued on 26.01.2010) «On the Federal target program» Complex measures of counteraction to abusing drugs and their trafficking for 2005 – 2009» states the tasks – working on drug addiction prevention and drugrelated offences expansion, conducting constant control over scales of drug and psychotropic substances abuse expansion in Russian Federation. One of the major target indicators and Program indices is the share of teenagers and the youth aged from 11 to 24 involved in preventive actions, in relation to an aggregate number of the specified category of persons. But it did not consider that drug affection of minors and the youth depends on degree of susceptibility to provoking influence of social surroundings which depends on an educational level and characteristics of educational environment where they are. The Letter the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science on 06.10.2005 № АС1270/06, Russian Consumption Supervision on 04.10.2005 № 0100/8129-05-32 «On the Concept of preventive training in the sphere of prevention HIV/AIDS in the educational environment» indirectly concerns issues of prevention of drug addiction expansion in the educational environment. The reason for such a situation is in recognition of drug abuse as one of the factors facilitating HIV-infection. The idea of differentiation of programs on preventive influence concerning educational environment has not been reflected in municipal law making process, in particular in decisions of Krasnoyarsk city council on 12.10.1999 № 20-206 «On the Program «Prevention of drug addiction, abuse of inhalants, alcoholism and AIDS among the youth» and on 20.03.2001 № 2-19 «On the city target Program «Prevention of drug addiction and suppression of drug trafficking and psychotropic substances trafficking in Krasnoyarsk for 2001». # 108 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… Over 2007-2009 in Krasnoyarsk region the long-term target program on counteraction to drug addiction and alcoholism expansion which has been confirmed by the Law of Krasnoyarsk region on 25.01.2007 № 21-5717 (edit. on 26.05.2009) «On the regional target program» Complex measures on overcoming of drug addiction, drunkenness and an alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region» for 2007 – 2009» was in operation. It occupied the second place in Russia according to indicators of efficiency. On December, 1st, 2009 the Regional Government confi rmed the similar program for three forthcoming years. One of its directions is the anti- drug abuse propagation focused on familiarising of young generation to a healthy life stile. 240 thousand inhabitants of the region aged 11- 20 (60 % of age group) and 75 % of parents of schoolchildren will be involved in propaganda actions. The program also includes training experts for working with children and the youth. On December, 23rd, 2009 the vicegovernor of Krasnoyarsk region Igor Chernokov held the session of the anti- drug abuse commission devoted to prevention of drug addiction among students of higher schools. For these purposes proposals on introduction of more effective system of monitoring of a drug abuse situation, active involvement of the youth into sports, creative activity participation in public life were elaborated. The commission charged the Regional Ministry of Education to prepare and submit to higher educational establishments recommendations to design thematic information stands in educational buildings and hostels, and the rectors were recommended to include courses on prevention of drug addiction among students in the curriculum. Moreover, the decision to recommend to Council of rectors of Krasnoyarsk region to create constantly operating interuniversity commission on anti-drug abuse work is made, to charge it to develop a comprehensive plan of preventive actions and to elaborate an issue on possibility of introduction of students’ drug testing. Thereby, directions of higher educational establishments’ activity on drug addiction prevention for a short-term perspective have been confirmed. No regulatory legal act specially devoted to drug addiction prevention among schoolchildren and students of higher educational establishments has been passed in the Russian Federation as well as in Krasnoyarsk region since 1993 up to present time. Legal basis research of anti-drug abuse activity demonstrates a gap in educational establishments’ regulation. Introducing respective alterations into higher educational establishments Charters fails to provide the entire volume of powers for effective activity and interaction with other subjects on prevention. The imperative need in acceptance of such a special regulatory act at federal or regional levels corresponds to provisions «Strategies of the state anti-drug abuse policy of Russian Federation till 2020», confirmed by the Decree of the RF President on 09.06.2010 № 690. The following will contribute to perfection of organizational provision of anti-drug abuse activity as article 42 sets forth: a) Creation of the state monitoring system of the drug abuse situation in Russian Federation; b) Working out and implementation of federal and regional target programs in the sphere of counteraction to abusing drugs and their trafficking; c) Increase in the anti-drug abuse commissions role in the Russian Federation entities in the part dealing with legislative binding of compulsory decisions execution of commissions for # 109 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… territorial bodies of federal executive authorities, executive authorities of the Russian Federation entities and local selfgovernments. The similar program aimed at the students of higher educational establishments has been launched in one of the Siberian Federal District entity. According to Siberian business portal, on March, 23rd, 2010 Victor Kress the governor of Tomsk territory suggested an idea of implementation a pilot project on drug abuse prevention in Tomsk youth high school environment. Namely, it concerns the project «Working out and approbation of effective model of psychosocial prevention of the addicts among the highly educated youth in the conditions of the region transition to innovative development «, elaborated by the Siberian state medical university (SibSMU). The given project was supported by the State antidrug abuse committee. Actually, they mean to create an experimental model platform for modern technologies approbation to implement the State antidrug abuse policy in Tomsk. Three Tomsk higher educational establishments: the Siberian State Medical University (SibSMU), Tomsk State University (TSU) and Tomsk State Pedagogical University (TSPU) will be three launching sites for the project implementation and approbation. Considering, gradualness of reception of the higher vocational training and mutual influence of the general educational and student’s environment, we believe, that efficiency of preventive influence on students under considered purposes will increase at provision of a complex of the actions aimed simultaneously at schoolchildren and students of higher educational establishments. The Krasnoyarsk region government regulation on 01.12.2009 № 625-p«ON affi rmation of the long-term target program» Complex measures of counteraction to drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region» for 2010-2012» is to a greater extent the fi nance and economy-related document defi ning assigning money resources among different establishments of Krasnoyarsk region for purchasing express analysis tests detecting drug and psychotropic substances in a human body during preventive medical examinations for early detecting persons among minors and youth using such substances without doctor’s prescription does not contain legal measures of prevention from drug addiction expansion. One of the conducted by the lecturers of the SFU Law Institute Criminal law chair research result should be the project of drug addiction prevention among schoolchildren and students of Krasnoyarsk region Program with the possibility of its introduction in Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk region as a ground for the regional law passage. Resume The drug addiction among schoolchildren and students prevention problem requires immediate respond from the state and society by means of both social and legal measures. References 1. 2. The long-term target program «Complex measures of counteraction to drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region for 2010-2012 «//www.krskstate. ru/netnarkotikam/koncept The round table on problems on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse by the youth //www. krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/smi # 110 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren… 3. 4. The passport of the long-term target program «Complex measures of counteraction to drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region for 2010-2012 «//www. krskstate.ru/econom/socialeconomic Some statistics: drug addiction growth in Russia and in the world//www.pmed.ru/article1 Проблемы профилактики наркотизма среди школьников и студентов вузов Красноярского края А.Н. Тарбагаев, С.И. Бушмин, Н.А. Вербицкая, Н.В. Качина, А.С. Мирончик Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье дается оценка наркоситуации в Красноярском крае, в том числе среди школьников и студентов вузов. Обосновывается актуальность темы исследования. Проводится анализ правовой основы противодействия наркотическим правонарушениям в образовательной среде. Ключевые слова: профилактика наркотизма, школьники, студенты вузов, наркотические правонарушения, наркотические средства, психотропные вещества, образовательные учреждения. Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 112-118 ~~~ УДК 343.2/.7 Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures Nikolay V. Schedrin* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 To ensure society’s life activity measures of compulsion which according to their intrinsic characteristics are not referred to legal liability measures (punishment) – security measures have been long and very widely used. However, in spite of the fact that this concept is extend enough in legal literature and legislation, its content and volume requires specification and coordination. Keywords: security measures; kinds of security measures; limits of of security measures. The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific technical activity. To ensure society’s life activity measures of compulsion which according to their intrinsic characteristics are not referred to legal liability measures (punishment) – security measures1 have been long and very widely used. However, in spite of the fact that this concept is extend enough in legal literature and legislation, its content and volume requires specification and coordination. It is deemed, that as general legal «security measure» category can be deduced «through categories «source of increased danger» and»object of intensified protection». Generalisation of signs available in the domestic literature gives the grounds to assert, that the source of increased danger is a feature of one, more often unstable, system (substance, mechanism, phenomenon, process, organism, person, social group), which development or display are subject to poor or no control and can produce irreversible destructive changes * 1 in this or other system. This source has a high striking effect big concentrated internal energy, huge destructive force. The started destructive process and its consequences are often irreversible. Traditional «civilistic» interpretation and «itemized» approach according to which various objects (substances, flora and fauna kinds, waste products) or some kinds of activity are referred to sources of increased danger, are narrow and do not cover all variety of sources of increased danger. It is imperative to work out a definition of a source of increased danger which would have general legal and criminological value. In civil law there are two approaches to definition of a source of increased danger which are designated by terms «the theory of object» and «the theory of activity» 2. According to the first of them the subjects of a material world possessing features dangerous for the surrounding and are not subject Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 112 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay V. Schedrin. Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures to full control from the person are considered sources of increased danger3. The second approach was designated in item 17 of the decision of Plenum of the Supreme Court of Russian Federation on April, 28th, 1994 № 3 «On judicial practice on cases on compensation of harm inflicted to health». In explained, that it is necessary to recognise as a source of increased danger any activity which realisation gives an increased probability of a tresspass due to impossibility of the entire control over it from the person, and also activity on use, transportation, storage of subjects, substances and other objects of industrial, economic or other appointment possessing the same properties4. It seems to us, that jurists незаслуженно ignore the third approach which might be called the theory of the subject, according to which source of increased danger can be a person, social group or other subject of activity and management. For it is quite obvious, that any activity implies not only object but the subject as well. Under theory of the subject certain properties of the person of biological origin or formed under the influence of negative social factors can act as special sources of danger. Public danger which was formed as a result of mental disease5 or caused by negative moral and social qualities6, cruelty, self-interest and other individualistic inclinations7 can be referred to them. A source of increased danger can be a» criminogenic person» that «is expressed in aggregate properties and qualities of the subject indicating proclivity to a crime commission and its repetition»8. Mental properties of the person «can be a danger source at transformation of mental energy into energy of a socially dangerous act, by means of mental intervention (for example, hypnotic, extrasensive etc.)»9. It is deemed, that a source of increased danger can be certain relations developing in a social group as well. Interpretation of the Federal law «On bases of neglect of children and juvenile offences prevention system» allows to refer parental families if relations within them threaten physical and spiritual development of the minor to danger sources10. Communities which may be sources of increased danger are terrorist and other criminal organisations. This circumstance is actually recognised not only in Russian, but in foreign legislation, and in international legal acts as well. A source of increased danger can also be subjects of administrative, is administrativeauthoritative relations11. The second category by means of which security measures can be defined is «object of increased protection». It is impossible to say, it is not used in jurisprudence at all. There are legislative acts on especially protected territories, protection of computer soft ware, culture monuments, etc. However, a word-combination «the object of increased protection» has neither general legal nor criminologic category status. Any system can be considered an object of protection: person, social group, society, mankind; kinds and products of activity of the person; natural objects: fauna and flora, minerals and territories, etc. Object of protection are as material substances (organism, subjects, territory sites) and resulted public relations or certain activity. Generalisation of opinions available in this respect has led us to a conclusion, that objects of increased protection should be the major properties (relations) of the system in case of losing them , it either will collapse, or transformed into another and will not be able to reach the objectives set for it. For the system to function and develop protection of its essential elements is necessary. In the course of life activity it has become clear that for safe functioning of the person, society and mankind such objects of increased protection are life, health, freedom, honour, # 113 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay V. Schedrin. Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures dignity, sexual inviolability, property and other constitutional rights and personal freedoms; population health, public safety and morals; ecology, the constitutional system and safety of the state; peace and safety of mankind. In essence, these are the objects which owing to their special value are subject to criminal-legal protection. The current legislation separates out especially protected territories and objects, flora and fauna kinds, minerals, paleontologic objects, office, commercial, state secret, closing administrativeterritorial formations, etc. into the group of the kind. In the XIX-th century professor I.T.Tarasov noted that «people and subjects being in some cases a danger source, in other cases are subject to danger which they should be protected from by means of corresponding measures»12. The same thought is highlighted by A.A.Ter-Akopov who correctly considers, that the future concept of psychological safety should consider psychic of the person in two aspects: as object of protection and as a danger source13. From here follows, for example, that juveniles and minors owing to the intellectual, emotional and psychological immaturity represent threat and consequently their possibilities to enter certain relations should be limited, but, on the other hand, for the same reason they require special protection. Restriction of capacity of an insane is simultaneously a means of suppression of danger proceeding from him and a means of protection of his interests. Already at the beginning of mankind development it became clear, that threat of a tresspass to a human body, system principles of the organisation of the community which member he is, should be stopped rigidly, unequivocally and whenever possible «on distant approaches». Means which we name now security measures have been invented for this purpose». Security measures are measures of not punitive restriction of behaviour of physical persons, the organisations (including legal bodies), applied specially for prevention of harmful influence of a certain source of increased danger or a protection of object of increased protection from harmful influence of any sources of danger. The content of security measures contain special duties and prohibitions assigned to physical persons or social groups. They have arisen as safety reflexes. With development of not genetic forms of memory security measure were fixed in the form of a taboo, and then – in the form of the rules provided by the first version of social norm, socalled mononorm. In the course of civilisation formation protective reactions have taken shape in behavioural stereotypes and the safety rules which compulsion was supported with sanctions. Safetyrules is a set of duties and prohibitions, which the subject should observe to exclude or reduce harm caused by a source of increased danger to a minimum or to prevent causing damage to object of increased protection by any source of danger. Not all the rules regulating life activity can be named safety rules14. Rules of the person’s interaction with an increased source of danger and with object of increased protection can only be referred to them. In process of social labour division two basic types of sanctions have been singled out: stimulations (positive) and restrictions (negative)15. The latter in turn are subdivided into sanctions of restoration (indemnification), punishment and safety. Restoration sanctions is a reaction to rule infringement (including – safety rules) resulted in damage. They are aimed at «elimination of harm caused by unlawful act to public relations, at execution of non-performed duties»16. They include: compulsory execution of a duty, cancellation of illegal acts and a duty to indemnify a loss17. Thereby the system of legal relations, # 114 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay V. Schedrin. Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures broken by default of instructions of the law by the obliged subjects is recreated18. This group of measures is inherent in civil-law branch to a greater extent. But they are also used in criminal law where restoration is carried out by indirect stimulation (art. 75 art., 76 RF Criminal code) or direct imposing a duty to eliminate harm (art. 90 RF Criminal code). The idea of compensation of damage, restoration of broken relations, reconciliation of a victim and the criminal is laid down in so-called restorative justice19. Punishment sanctions are compulsory deprivation of certain welfare in proportion to weight of a committed offence. The purposes of general and special prevention are reached by threat or real causing of deprivations and sufferings to an offender. Calculation is simple: the punished himself, being afraid of penalty repetition, will avoid repetition of crimes as well, and to restraint of criminal aspirations of the majority of other people experience of others’ sufferings might be enough. Punishment is considered as one of the major crime prevention. Mechanism of punitive influence in the legal literature is well studied. It has been historically established that the general theory of law and branch juridical sciences have a «punitive» bias and are liability-punishment theories in essence while the social-psychological mechanism and efficiency of other kinds of legal regulation are investigated insufficiently. The safety sanction is a reaction to public danger of the person which was revealed in a socially dangerous act, or to public danger of a social group expressed in socially dangerous activity. It is a part of social norm where as a consequence of socially dangerous behaviour (activity) breaking a safety rule, restriction of possibilities of continuation of such behaviour (activity) is provided. Examples of sanctions in criminal law are forced measures of medical character, a part of forced measures of educational influence, special duties assigned to the conditionally condemned or to the released on parole20. Restriction can be fulfilled by different ways: physical, mechanical, organizational, psychological. Security measures are more often implemented by means of imposition of special prohibitions and duties on a person committed an illegal act. Unlike a safety rule which the «third parties» contacting with a source of danger or object of protection are obliged to observe the safety sanction is applied in that case when a physical person, an organization, a social group which danger has already been revealed in socially dangerous behaviour or activity have become a danger source. In connection with legislative techniques features, and also owing to specialisation of branches of law rules and safety sanctions can be placed not only in different articles, chapters, sections of one regulatory legal act, but also in different branches of legislation. Security measures can be aimed at the source of danger itself (atomic power station) isolating or limiting its harmful influence on the person and environment, – preventive punishment or at a protection of object of protection ( person, secret, property) from external sources of danger – protection measures. As one and the same object can be simultaneously object of protection and a danger source, there can be measures of double assignment as well which combine simultaneously a function of suppression and a protection function – preventive punishment and protection measures. A source of danger or object of protection character can serve as the classification bases. If a danger source is criminality, a crime or a personality of a criminal, there are bases to separate out anticriminal security measures. According to the level security measures can be subdivided into measures of the general, especial and individual level. Depending on sphere of application security measure are classified into economic, social-political, ideological. # 115 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay V. Schedrin. Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures Competition restrictions are referred to economic measures, for example separation of powers to social-political; ban of fascism propaganda- to ideological. According to the method it is possible to separate physical, technical, organizational and information security measures. Preventive punishment depending on the application moment can be subdivided into urgent and preventive. The first are applied to suppression of already begun harmful influence, the second for suppression of harmful influence which has not begun yet but which probability is rather high. Depending on a kind of social norm which the security measure is invested in, they can be subdivided into legal and outlawful. Security measures in law are an interbranch institution, close to institutions of punishment, encouragement, indemnification. It is introduced in all branches of legislation. Under legislation branch within which frameworks security measures are regulated, they can be subdivided into international – constitutional – administrative – civil – criminallegal, labour (industrial), and also civil – administrative – criminal – procedural and criminally-executive. Under international law they allow to «suppress» the state preventively – an aggression source; under constitutional law – through separation of powers to protect power from usurpation; under administrative law- to establish special modes concerning sources of danger (weapon) and objects of protection; under civil law – to limit capacity; under family law – by means of deprivation of parental rights to protect the minor from harmful influence; under employment law – not to let underqualified people to certain works and to provide safety precautions; in criminal law – to isolate a dangerous maniac, in criminal procedure – to detain a suspect, etc. Security measures are as objective (only not material, but social) reality, as a gravity. They exist irrespective of their social recognition and knowledge degree. Over millions years people considered and used gravity but the law on universal gravitation opened by I. Newton allowed to do it much more effectively. The problem is more likely deals with not only recognision of security measures, but rather with definition of sphere and bases of their application. Security measures always represent restriction of rights and freedoms of the person for this very reason their limits should be accurately designated. For this purpose personal, territorial and time approaches supplementing each other are proposed to be used. Accurate designation of security measures action limits in terms of a circle of persons they are extend over, territory on which they operate, and time of their action is necessary not only to avoid abuse, but also for optimum distribution of law-enforcement resources. It is possible to separate out typical signs of the person that can be a source of increased danger and (or) object of increased protection (age, citizenship, disease, criminal past), and also to designate typical signs of territory on which the safety mode in space (the frontier, a closed administrative-territorial formation, a zone of counterterrorist operation) should performed. Similarly it is necessary to work out rules of action of security measures in space. To restrict time limits of anticriminal sanctions of safety it is necessary to introduce concept «safe limitation» into the theory of law and in legislation and to establish after expiration of the term passed from the moment of socially dangerous act commission it is impossible to apply security measures. The dynamic model of the multilevel bases of the security measures which hierarchy comprise: social, regulatory-legal, actual (material) and organizational-legal bases allow to limit the scope of security measures. # 116 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay V. Schedrin. Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures The social basis of security measures forms necessity of suppression of harmful influence of a source of increased danger or a protection of object of protection from harmful influence by means of restriction of constitutional laws and personal freedoms. Thus harm forcedly caused to the person, possessing increased danger, or to the third parties, should be less than prevented harm. Proportionality of harm is carried out by principles similar to rules of emergency or necessary defence. International legal acts, the Constitution of Russian Federation and federal laws are regulatory-legal ground. Security measures are always restrictions of constitutional laws and freedoms, therefore according to p. 3 articles 55 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation their application on a by-law basis is inadmissible. Events and actions (not only lawful, but also wrongful) can serve actual bases of security measures. Actual bases for application of sanctions of safety b will be socially dangerous acts provided by the federal law. Applying safety sanctions, an official applying a law should proceed from presumption of absence of public danger of the person until this feature is not expressed in the concrete socially dangerous act provided by the federal law. Acts of application in the form of a sentence, court judgements, the decision of the judge, the public prosecutor or other competent decision where individualization of safety relations takes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 place are organizational-legislative grounds. Highlighted groups of the grounds matter at different stages of security measures application: social – for lawmaking, regulatory-legal and actual – for assigning, and organizational-legal – for execution of security measures. Appropriate procedure of their assignment and execution should be an important condition of restriction of security measures limits. The more the measure limits the rights and personal freedoms, the more authoritative the body, making the decision on its assigning and execution, and the more guarantees from an arbitrariness of the procedure of acceptance and decision execution should provide. An exception is only possible for application of urgent security measures (counterterrorist operation). But also in this case a post factum careful check of validity of application of security measures necessarily should be necessarily conducted. The parliamentary and judicial control is optimum for such cases. If procedure of application of security measures contains moments limiting constitutional laws and freedom, it should be provided only by the federal law. The decision of procedural issues derogating the citizens’ rights and freedoms is inadmissible in by-laws. And, at last, the forecast which, unfortunately, is wanting at use of this institution both in global and individual scale should serve a necessary precondition of application of security measures. More on security measures see : Schedrin N.V. Introduction to security measures legal theory:Monograph/Krasnoyarsk : Edit.: Krasnoyarsk State Uni., 1999. 180 p. See: Civil law: Textbook. P. II / Under edit. A.P. Sergeev J.K. Tolstoy.SPb.: TEIS, 1996. P. 732 – 735. See: ibid. P. 733. See: On judicial practice on cases on compensation of harm inflicted to health: Decision of Plenum of the RF Supreme court on April 28, 1994 // Bulletin of RF Supreme court. 1994. № 7. See.:Mikheev R.I. The insane. Social-legal essay. Vladivostok: Edit. By the Far-East University, 1992. P. 94 – 103. See.:Volzhenkin B.V. Public danger of a criminal and criminal liability ground. // Jurisprudence. 1963. № 3. P. 90. See.: Filimonov V.D. Public danger of a criminal’s personality. Tomsk: Edit. by Tom. Univ-ty, 1970. 277 P. See.:Burlakov V.N. Criminogenic personality and individual crime prevention. Prediction problems. SPb.: MIA Academy of Russia, 1998. P. 22. Ter-Akopov A.A. On legal aspects of psychic activity… . P. 89. Article 1 of the RF Law «On bases of neglect of children and juvenile offences prevention system» specifies, that «a family which is in a socially dangerous position, – a family having children, being in a socially dangerous position, and also # 117 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay V. Schedrin. Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 a family where parents or lawful representatives of minors do not execute their duties on their education, training and (or) maintenance and (or) negatively influence their behaviour or treat them in a cruel way». For more detailed the thesis ground see.: Schedrin N.V. Kilina O.M. Security measures for authority protection and protection from it.- Krasnoyarsk: RUMC LA , 2006. P. 19-39. Tarasov I.T. Essay of police law science. M.: Pub., at Jakovlev’s S.P. , 1897. P. 132. Ter-Akopov A.A. On legal aspects of psychic activity and psychological safety of the person.. P. 89. A.A.Ter-Akopov paid attention to this circumstance having divided special rules into two kinds: technological and safety. «Technological rules defi ne the content and sequence of operations they provide mainly conditions of desirable result reception …. Special safety rules regulate an order of interaction with the various subjects representing increased danger, which can have material, physical or organizational output» (Ter-Akopov A.A.Liability for special rules of behaviour. М: Legal. Lit., 1995. P. 24). We proceed from the defi nition, according to which, «sanction -is an element providing consequences for the subject realising disposition. They can be both negative – punishment, and positive – encouragement measures …» (Malkov A.V. Theory of the state and law: the Textbook. – Jurist, 2000. P. 167). Leyst O,E. Sanctions and liability on Soviet law. M.:Legal Lit.., 1981. P. 63. See.: Bazilev B.T. Legal liability (theoretical issues). Krasnoyarsk.Edit. by Krasnoyarsk Uni-ty, 1985. P. 35. Vetrova G.N. Sanctions in judicial law. M.: Science, 1991. P. 80 – 108. See., for example: Zer X. Restorative justice :new look at crime and punishment : Trans. from English. M.: MOO Centre «Judicial-legal reform, 1998. 354 p. For more detail see.: Schedrin N.V. Criminal-legal security sanctions // Criminal-legal legislation: state and development perspectives: Conference material /Krasnoyarsk State Univ-ty. Krasnoyarsk, 2002. P. 9 -21. Понятие, виды и пределы мер безопасности Н.В. Щедрин Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Общепризнано, что в современном обществе растет количество и мощность источников повышенной опасности. Однако, несмотря на интенсивное исследование этой проблемы, в правовой науке до сих пор не выработаны четкие критерии источника повышенной опасности, нет его определения и в законодательстве. Статья посвящена исследованию указанной проблемы. Ключевые слова: меры безопасности; виды мер безопасности; пределы мер безопасности. Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 119-127 ~~~ УДК 165.19 Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality Larisa S. Nabokova* and Natalya P. Koptseva Siberian Federal University 82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 The modern mass media is a new mythological intermediate of the turn of ХХI century, which independently creates the image of a new reality for people. Constructive function is an attributive function of mass media and, first of all, of television in the modern society. Possibilities of television are unlimited in the sphere of generation and implementation of set typo-images, essential neomythological characteristics of mass media allow speaking about the phenomenon as of the most active and even aggressive subject of sense-formation in the modern social cognition for the reason of their unprecedented intensity in time and space, because of their subconscious manipulative powers. Myths of television are much more rational in comparison with the traditional mythoimages – they are generated on the basis of real course of events and real personages. Though, images of these events and personages come in sight of the consumers emotionally colored, much interpreted, stereotyped, simplified, and encoded with the help of specific symbols of television object-language. Being fi xed that way in the social conscious, they change the notions of values, change and even reform the way of people’s lives. As practical materials of the research we have used examples of television myth-creation of the period of the 2002 gubernator’s elections in the Krasnoyarsk region: technologies of mythoimages implementation by means of television were mainly based on image-semantic rows with the usage of collective archetypes of Siberian sub-ethnos (paradigms «all-Russian-provincial», «strong-weak», «native-foreign», «new-old» and others.) Keywords: Television myth-creation, mythology of mass media, Alexander Khloponin. The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific technical activity. In the modern post-industrial society, mass media has become a sign of our time, a technology of life and of social standards formation. Unprecedented scales of mass media functioning in the sphere of social knowledge, the degree of its influence over the public conscious and over the formation of the integral world social space * 1 have prevented us from considering mass media only as an instrument or as a communication channel. Having appeared at the end of XX century, phenomena of «global village», «virtual reality», «alternative culture», and «information explosion» point not only at the fact of rampant development of mass media communication and Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 119 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality mass media information (MMI), being their most important component, but also at the fact that they acquire a functional, which differs from the one, being traditionally accepted in science. The central scientific problem of the given research is a contradiction between the concept of mass media, which have been already formed in the fundamental science as a phenomenon, being infixed into the public conscious, as exclusively a channel of information transfer, on one hand, and that real role, which mass media plays in the processes of social cognition and the modern public conscious formation, on the other hand. Point of View In recent years, many a researcher agrees with the fact that MMI is not only a channel of people’s conscious manipulation, not simply a conductor of another social-political or commercial mythology. M. Maccluen, an outstanding MMI researcher, was the first, who started speaking about the possibility of conscious mythologization of communication by means of television, pointing at the obvious ability of mass media to generate «this life (with all its collisions)», «to act as a primary reason, which endues the reality with its own features..» in human conscious 2. Today, this problem is widely discussed in scientific circles. And there are more and more voices for the principle statement of the fact that the modern mass media communications is a new mythological intermediary at the turn of ХХI century, which independently creates a new reality image for the public. «Newspapers, radioand TV-channels have ceased to be the arena of various groups’ struggle; they themselves have become fully-fledged participants of this struggle. They have become not so much objective myths translators, as their creators. Not the mirror of society, but the hammer of urge»1. Popular web-sites and internet blogs are very candid in their utterances on the topic, their authors and participants assert that there is a social mythological space, being created by means of MMI: «MMI plays a dual role not only as re-translators, which are used by the politicians in order to influence their electorate, but also as translators, which create pseudo-reality by their own initiative»3. Neither political scientists, nor social scientists, nor philosophers already doubt the fact that the object of MMI influence – the modern public conscious – is totally mythologized in the informational society. It is generally acknowledged that mass thinks by means of standard images, stereotypes, being based on ancient panhuman myths and archetypes. «Today, myth is the most significant principal of organization of the public conscious. »4 That is why most researchers consider MMI from the point of view of the fundamental theory of the world, which, by the way, has been drastically renewed in the last decade and now suggests new visions of the problem. The given research is mainly based on the myth theory, being developed at a time by several Russian philosophical and sociological schools. These schools suppose myth to be an inseparable part of conscious, which positively structures self-conscious of the individual and whole groups. Such scientists, as N.А. Khrenov, А.М. Lobok, О.А. Karlova, consider the question of old and new mythologies not simply as a process of conscious catastrophe, but as a question of myth changing mechanisms. These theories do not analyze the problems of mythologies formation and implementation in the frames of traditional paradigm «myth»- «non-myth», but crucially otherwise: «myth» – «other myth». О. Karlova has used this paradigm as a basis of her myth theory in the definition of the problem of total mythologity of the human culture. «Birth of a new myth is connected with a long-lasting successive re-interpretation of myth senses from the «inside». # 120 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality First of all, it starts from re-interpretation of word sense, which can be defined as a changing of one myth-name by the other. » 5 In the given research we pay special attention to the role of mass media, which in particular is put in the bases of investigation of such a quite modern phenomenon, as image and advertising. In this process, О.А. Karlova and A.V. Kostina define MMI as the most important factor of myth construct-model formation. Here, the intermediate function of mass media as «substitutes» (substitutes-translators) turn it into the most important factor of image-making. To the mind of А.М. Lobok, the individual starts creation of his subjective myth-model from discovery of the integral myth, which represents a sort of matrix body. Accepting this myth and, thus, subjectively changing it, most of people already finish their «mythological search» on this very stage. In this case, we do not deal with personalities-creators, but with «flock», with mass, with the majority. As a rule, in this case, connection with the absolute is traditionally set and then strengthened by means of an intermediate in the existing original myth. For centuries, the role of such an intermediate has been played in the society by the organization with a complicated hierarchy of interrelations, which has had a number of recipes of perfection achievement, being kept in sacred texts, i.e. kindred, community or church. Some modern scientists suppose that the functions of such an intermediate pass to mass media in the informational society. In such researches, special place is given to television, as the most powerful mass media as far as it is widely spread and because of its audio-visual subconscious impact. «Precisely with the help of television, they create virtual, mythological reality, which is imposed on to the millions of viewers. Television is not simply an intermediate between myth-creators and spectators. It is a special sphere, which possesses a row of unique features, which turn it not only into a channel of myth delivery, but into the fabrics of myth production. »6 Some researches compare the essence of the modern television right with the nature of mythology itself. Modern Russian scientist N. Zorkaja, V. Borev, А. Kovalenko, V. Mikhalkovich, B. Sapunov, К. Bogdanov, and М.А. Mjasnikova point directly at the connection of television picture with the folk and mythological vision of the world. «Television is a syncresis, i.e. an inseparable integration, which is simultaneously considered to be a kind of art, mass media information and communication, a social phenomenon and a mythological model of the world. And in general, it creates a new reality, constructs a specific, mythological picture of the world. »7 Example Probably, there is no any other social sphere in modern Russia, where the creation of new mythologems and mythoimages has been as productive in the MMI context, as in the sphere of political leaders’ image-making. And the Krasnoyarsk region gubernatorial elections in 1998 and 2002 have proved it to full extend: both events were mainly based not on the live communication of the candidates with the electorate, but on the image-semantic rows with the usage of collective archetypes of Siberian sub-ethnos (paradigms «all-Russian-provincial», «strong-weak», «native-foreign», «new-old» and others.). Our study is based on the materials of the Krasnoyarsk region gubernator’s electoral campaign of 2002. In the result of that campaign, Alexander Khloponin won the elections, and today, he is a world-famous politician. Our research gains new topicality because of Alexander Khloponin’s appointment for the post of the vice prime minister of the Russian Government and the Presidential Envoy to the # 121 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality most hazardous region of the country – the North Caucuses Federal District. It has become one of the most remarkable political events in Russia of the beginning of 2010. Probably, the Krasnoyarsk region electoral campaign of 2002 has remained in the history of modern Russia as one of the latest bright political struggles of the Russian elites, where one could foresee the result, but still there was some hope for some game or «civil justice». In the light of the given research, we have studied the role of the mass media (and, first of all, of the television), which at that period had already become not an instrument, but a fully-fledged, economicallyprofitable and psychologically-efficient subject of the electoral process. First of all, it is a study of the process of myth generation and introduction into the mass conscious of the explored and prepared audience, the study being carried out on the bases of the Jung’s theory of archetypes, of the concept of «mass man», and paying special attention to the role of specific television object-language in this process. As it is well-known, myth differs from artistic phenomenon because it is perceived by the people, being plunged into it, as reality. And it is exactly the target of mass media, which fulfills a pragmatic task and strives to turn its own subjective interpretation of some fact or event (mythologem) into reality for its viewer or reader. Mythological foundations of television were most vividly demonstrated by the media coverage of the 2002 gubernatorial elections in the Krasnoyarsk region. At that period of time, the mass media had almost fully encroached the mission of image-makers. The informational space was activated, expanded, and hardened; it had become the sphere of information wars. The MMI, and first of all, electronic media used all the existing means in order to purposefully change the information – starting from data omission and suppression up to semantic fields deformation and complete disinformation. All the TV ideology was built on the negative data, on exclusively negative characteristics, facts and estimations. They chose most discrediting information, most unpleasant angles for the candidates. On one hand, taking into consideration the procommunist sentiments of the electorate, they used the image of «oligarch» and «stranger» in the adverse publicity. And on the other hand, in order to influence successful people, who were waiting for turns for the better, they exploited the images of «the old-fashioned man», «the local narrow-minded chieftain». And they stuck to this predetermined sense course, while giving all the information and disinformation about the candidates. Thereat, all the positive facts of their biographies and characters were categorically avoided; even their attractive looks and behavior were used against the candidates with the help of discriminating contrapositives. Most often, they persistently placed video images of a smiling and self-satisfied candidate right near by the pictures of poor, sick and unemployed people of the region on the background of scrap-heaps and ruins. Moreover, these gubernatorial elections in the Krasnoyarsk region have demonstrated one more very important component of the manipulative role of mass media – that is handling with the images, having been already fixed in the social conscious. Here, we are to pay attention to the fact that negative images of politicians can be created not only by means of certain data omitting or hiding, but with the help of constant and steady selective returning to some «images-meanings», which already exist in the social conscious. This fact is underlined by a row of scientists, in particular, by Dotsenko: «more «advanced» methods of manipulation presuppose preliminary fabrication of opinions or wishes, and their fixation in the mass conscious or in the notions of a concrete person, in order to have a possibility of referring to him»8. # 122 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality At the 2002 Krasnoyarsk region elections, they widely used a regional stereotype, which already existed at that time. It was the stereotype of attitude to powers, which ascended to the archetypical paradigm «native – foreign». The image of «foreigners» was started to be formed by the local mass media in the course of the Krasnoyarsk region gubernatorial elections of 1998, when Alexander Lebed won the elections. The paradigm «native – foreign» had got its real force in the time of Lebed by means of the mass media and mainly in the regional center. It had been well-fixed in the social conscious, and gave its fruition in the course of the Krasnoyarsk region legislative assembly elections of 2001, when the bloc under the given title «Ours» was a strong leader, being the image carrier of «the native, local». Some mass media, which had been efficiently working as image-makers at that period, used that «mine» as a ready part of the future construct later, at the gubernatorial elections of 2002. It has been proved on practice of several elections that most efficient technique of already formed image-stereotype usage is not its appliance to a new political subject, but a steady reference of this new subject to the subject, being a traditional carrier of this image. Further, they fix coinciding characteristics, factors, tendencies and senses of the «old» and the «new» image carriers in the public conscious. Though, for that purpose it is necessary to have, firstly, quite comprehensive materials and, secondly, a rather long period of time. Let us consider the attempt, which was undertaken by the mass media in the summer of 2002, to draw an analogy between «Lebed and Khloponin», using the image-stereotype «foreign». To our mind, it was a failure, because of following two reasons. Firstly, the content of the «image-knowledge» of candidate A.G. Khloponin did not correspond to the «image- meaning» («foreign for the region»), which had been selected for promotion in the public conscious. He started the electoral campaign as a Siberian gubernator (a citizen of Norilsk, the gubernator of Taimyr), and axiological integrity of the image-construct, having been presented by the opponents, failed. Secondly, there was no any other opportunity to refer in emotionalimage way the short young agile successful crisis manager of the new generation to the figure of powerful and soldierly smart Alexander Lebed, looking like «a Mohican of 90-s». In the given case, the mass media failed to present the public behavioral and visual video- and audio-proofs of resemblance between Lebed and Khloponin. And precisely such kinds of video- and audioinstruments have been used by the mass media in recent years in order to influence the public. Though, this result does not mean that the image-stereotype of «ours» became less popular in 2002, then it had been a year earlier (in the period of regional legislative assembly elections); the first round of the 2002 regional gubernatorial elections is eloquent of that fact. It is plain that the public conceived the political images of other candidates within the frames of the paradigm «native – foreign». And the PR managers of A.G. Khloponin succeeded in promotion of another paradigm in to the public conscious: «new, successful, federal – old, stagnant, local». It also appeared not from nothing: it was not a secret that in the time of Gubernator Alexander Lebed, the later had strained relations with the Center and, it had hindered the development of the Region, to the mind of many people. As it has been already mentioned, the leading semantic field mythoimages of that period had been generated in the public conscious yet in 1998. And precisely on that very basis, the mass media formed a renewed myth-reality of the 2002 elections. As practical materials for the given research we have used broadcast materials of one # 123 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality of the leading Krasnoyarsk television companies, of the highest rating product – TV news in the electoral campaign period of July – September of 2002. Already on the first stage of the electoral campaign, they formed an image of «starving Taimyr» in the block of news of the given TV Company, the region where A.G. Khloponin was the gubernator at that time. The image of oligarch, who was satisfied with his life, «living on his people», «being too far from the common, working men», «a foreigner, and an alien outsider», was aimed not only to anger the viewer, but to enforce the image of the second candidate – «our, honest, close to the common people» A.V. Uss, whose image was accompanied by several positive TV pictures. They organized in the air of the channel and brightly (from the point of view of practical creation of mythological reality) carried out the media-action «Help Taimyr» in the form of an everyday topic of the news-show. Daily, famous journalists and «patriots of the region» appealed to the public to help «starving and dying from cold» citizens of Taimyr, the region where A.G. Khloponin was the gubernator at that time. Black and white video of cold, ruined and decayed houses, ragged clothes, exhausted old faces, empty, unemotional children’s eyes, exaggerated with the help of blackout and rapid special computer effects, all that could not fail to cause the feeling of pity, «tugs of people’s heartstrings», and anger against those, who were responsible for all that. The topic «Help Taimyr» is an example of the negative background aspect of the candidate’s mythoimage, which had been projected and created by means of TV language, and which the channel-myth-creator was persistently forming at that time. This example persuasively proves the fact that television is able to produce and implement a new emotionally-substantial image, which exploits deeply-lying archetypes of the Russian collective conscious ( in the given case, compassion to the poor – hatred to the rich, injustice, the habit to count one’s money and so on), in to the mass conscious within a short period of time. An obligatory condition of such images formation is a high rate of its presentation. In the given case, the mentioned images were on the air up to 10-15 times a day in the form of regular and obtrusive trails. As far as the image was repeated so often and was so emotionally intensive, in a short period of time it became a rather powerful factor of emotional exposure over the mass conscious, and first of all, not so much the stereotype of «foreigner», but the stereotype of «oligarch» was being fed up and, in its turn, was feeding in Krasnoyarsk. Indeed, sometime later, on air there appeared the image of «oligarch» on the background of the given media-action, the «oligarch», who was «far from his people», who lived on the account of «starving Taimyr» and was absolutely careless about the people living there. Being shown on the screen, the candidate was constantly «dancing, drinking wine, having much fun», and «living up to the hilt». All these images on the screen were constantly opposed within the frames of one and the same program (the story about Taimyr gave way to the video about «the glamorous life» of the oligarch in Moscow and abroad), and even within the frames of one story. They used very often black and white video, which exaggerated the technique of antithesis by its nature. Images of the political opponent of A.G. Khloponin – A.V. Uss – were expressed in the following audio-visual images: «native, simple, ours, being close to his people», «of native origin, knowing the problems of the citizens». On air of the same TV channel, right near by the «oligarch» there appeared «a lightful face» of «our regionman», who was accompanied with additional positive characteristics: # 124 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality - «confident in his victory, calm», that was achieved by «highlight» shooting, selective editing, and key words such as «Uss is sure in our victory, he believes in the sound sense of Siberians»; - «our, native, understanding people», that was formed with the help of picture montage, usage of images of «ordinary countrymen», and the mental image of «bread and salt handling»; - «unjustly offended», that was done with the help of everyday items about «black PR», about trials on complaints against A.V. Uss, and provocations at the meetings with the electorate; - «significant, honored» – by means of positioning the figure of A.V. Uss near by symbolic persons, accompanying him by the words of support of opinion shapers. Thus, at the 2002 elections they used almost all the spectrum of the mass media’s object language in the process of formation of the new reality, and first of all, «audio-video» language of the television, wherein there were harmoniously combined specifics of television and mythological techniques: - proper television techniques: black and white or color video, computer special effects, persistent everyday translation of set TV mythoimages and key phrases, selective montage of pictures and speeches, special running time of the air, usage of the image of the mass media itself and of well-known journalists, and so on; - mythological techniques: mental images, sense antithesis, parallelism, refrain, circular plot-semantic closing of the narration, reticence, semantic field corruption, disinformation. The technique of antithesis became the basic principle of formation of the television paradigm «Uss – Khloponin». As a rule, A.G. Khloponin was presented all alone in the screen, other people were placed in «other» screenshots, i.e. in a distance, almost in «some other dimension»; A.V. Uss was always surrounded by people, workers, youth. Khloponin spoke from tribunes, from podiums – he was «afar from people»; Uss was always surrounded by a crowd, he was «ours, simple-minded, native». The mass media widely used the technique of refrain and circular parallelism, when one and the same phrase, one and the same screenshot was started, finalized and repeated several times in the course of one and the same news item (thus, the Taimyr news reportings were always started and closed by the images of doors, swinging in the wind, hopeless eyes of children; and the plots about Khloponin were often started and closed by the picture of the «dancing» candidate). To our opinion, the result of the first round of the election was the consequence of such an intensive mass media’s involvement into the mass conscious of the electorate, when A.V. Uss won, having got 27.53% voices of the voters against 25.25% voices for A.G. Khloponin. Secondly, in spite of his general failure in the second round in the region, A.V. Uss kept his steady leading position in the Krasnoyarsk city– here, we may observe a significant gap (49,6% voices against 24,8%) on the main territory of the given TV channel activity. Evolution of the political image of Alexander Khloponin and his relations with the mass media in the period of his governing in the region (20022009) deserves special attention in the context of the given research. Informational attack of the mass media in the period of the election campaign of 2002 made the new gubernator pay special attention to the local mass media. Informational policy became a strategic direction of the regional powers’ activity. All these years, a professional team of political image-makers and # 125 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality Alexander Khloponin himself kept an eye on the administration and the creative elite of the local mass media. In the result of such a policy, there was formed a steady, irreproachable image of the leader of the new generation, the professional manager, making precise decisions for the benefit of the citizens of the region, being respected and trusted by the people, and having precise notions of the future of the region and the country on the whole. The central place in realization of the informational policy was again taken by technologists of TV myth-creation. Though, it is a subject of a separate research work. Conclusions Thus, resuming the above-mentioned analysis, we may state the following: 1. Heavy media coverage of the electoral campaign of 2002 in the Krasnoyarsk region proves convincingly the ability of television to myth-creation, to production of new mythoimages and myth-metaphors, to creation of its own mythreality by means of its own specific language. 2. being created as a construct-model in that or this time, image is a phenomenon, which can be divide into separate elements, from which one can create other variations, «stretching» them on to the imaginative entirety as an essential quality of image perception. And this phenomenon demonstrates mass media and, first of all, television as an audio-visual myth-world at its full extent, being entire in its complexity, which is perceived not critically, but as something authentic precisely because of this complexity and image visualization dominance. 3. The analysis has revealed some «typoimages» in the modern mass communication. In comparison with the archetypes, they do not 1. 2. 3. have universal nature; they are situational, but steady within the frames of the given social situation. As a rational-irrational construct, these images are not only translated by television, but also generated by TV as «neo-typo-images» on the bases of already existing ones. Thus, in the modern society, constructive function is an attributive function of mass media and, first of all, of television. 4. Possibilities of television are unlimited in the sphere of generation and implementation of set typo-images, essential neo-mythological characteristics of mass media allow speaking about the phenomenon as of the most active and even aggressive subject of sense-formation in the modern social cognition. While most traditional social mythoimages have been formed for centuries, the images of television can be formed in the course of a month for the reason of their unprecedented intensity in time and space, because of their subconscious manipulative powers. Myths of television are much more rational in comparison with the traditional mythoimages – they are generated on the basis of real course of events and real personages. Though, images of these events and personages come in sight of the consumers emotionally colored, much interpreted, stereotyped, simplified, and encoded with the help of specific symbols of television object-language. Being fixed that way in the social conscious, they change the notions of values, change and even reform the way of people’s lives. Proceeding from the mentioned above, we may conclude, that the modern means of mass media act in the sphere of social communication as a sort of myth analogy, but being not equal to it. О. А. Karlova. Myth intelligent: Monograph / О. А. Karlova. – Krasnoyarsk: the KrasGU Publishing House, 2001. – 208 p., p. 200. McLuhan M., Understanding Media, op. cit., p. 41. Blog of Alexander Abrochnov http://abrochnov.blogspot.com/2008/10/blog-post.html # 126 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva. Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional Myth-Reality 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. V. Terin. Mass Communication. Research of the Western Experience http://www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/Polit/ Terin/05.php О. А. Karlova. Myth intelligent: Monograph / О. А. Karlova. – Krasnoyarsk: the KrasGU Publishing House, 2001. – 208 p., p. 83. http://psujourn.narod.ru/lib/cul_TV.htm Television as a “Fabrics of Myths” Resource: А. Tsuladze, Political Mythology. – Moscow, ESCMO. 2003. – 383 p. М. А. Myasnikova Folk-Mythological Bases of Television. http://proceedings.usu.ru/?base=mag/0052(03_222007)&xsln=showArticle.xslt&id=a38&doc=../content.jsp Problems of Education, Science and Culture № 52(2007). Edition 22. Laboratory of the Scientist Y.L. Dotsenko. Psychology of Manipulation: Phenomena, Mechanisms and Defense / Y.L. Dotsenko. – Moscow: CheRo in association with the «Uright» Publishing House, 2000. – 344 p., p. 116. Телевизионное мифотворчество как аналог традиционной мифореальности Л.С. Набокова, Н.П. Копцева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный,82 Современные средства массовой информации – это новый мифологический посредник рубежа ХХI в., самостоятельно создающий для населения образ новой реальности. Конструкционная функция является в современном обществе атрибутивной функцией средств массовой информации – в первую очередь, телевидения. Безграничные возможности телевидения в области продуцирования и внедрения устойчивых типообразов, сущностные неомифологические характеристики средств массовой информации позволяют говорить об этом феномене как о наиболее активном и даже агрессивном субъекте смыслопостроения в современном социальном познании по причине беспрецедентной интенсивности во времени и пространстве, в силу подсознательных манипулятивных мощностей. Мифы телевидения являются существенно более рациональными по сравнению с традиционными мифообразами – они формируются на основе реальной событийности и реальных героев. Однако образы этих событий и героев поступают к потребителю эмоционально окрашенными, существенно интерпретированными, стереотипизированными, упрощенными, закодированными с помощью специфических символов телевизионного объект-языка. Зафиксированные таким образом в общественном сознании, они меняют представления о ценностях, изменяют и даже заново формируют образ жизни людей. В качестве практического материала исследования использованы примеры телевизионного мифотворчества периода губернаторских выборов в Красноярском крае 2002 гг.: технологии внедрения мифообразов посредством телевидения были основаны, главным образом, на имиджево-семантических рядах с использованием коллективных архетипов сибирского субэтноса (парадигмы «всероссийский-провинциальный», «сильный-слабый», «наш-чужой», «старый-новый» и др.). Ключевые слова: телевизионное мифотворчество, мифология СМИ, Александр Хлопонин. Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 128-142 ~~~ УДК 351.85.08; 008-051 Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity of Technological Approach and Formation of High Spiritual and Intellectual Potential Yelena A. Nozdrenko* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 Inclusion of the modern Russian system of education into the processes of modernization is connected with the necessity of overcoming of various social-economical changes in education and training of competent dedicated experts, whose qualification must correspond to the real level of development of the social-cultural sphere. Market conditions require a high level of qualification of the competitive specialist at the labor market in the socio-cultural space. Today, graduates of educational institutions in the sphere of socio-cultural activity can be successful only on condition they possess a high-level general and professional competency, an ability to self-training and upgrading of professional skills and knowledge, to obtain necessary knowledge in the course of education. The problem of quality of education is one of the key problems within the frames of Bologna process in the world communion of higher education institutions. In the modern socio-economical conditions, professional training of SCA managers has its own specifics in the system of higher education. Thereat, specifics of the socialcultural sphere itself, as a sphere of the future professional activity of today’s student, dictates the peculiarities of professionalization of the person himself. We suppose that precisely the systematic approach, applied in the process of learning of the sociocultural activity manager’s profession, presupposes not only obtaining of a complex of knowledge (from general theoretical to special), but also becoming of a special world outlook. Professional becoming presupposes self-perfection and self-actualization of the person, and increase of the level of demands in one’s professional growth and realization of these demands. Today, the question of selfperfection of specialists’ training for the sphere of culture and arts in the system of higher vocational education should be discussed not from the perspectives of education direction changing, but in the context of its quality perfection, quality which to a large extent determines student’s social perspectives and his personal growth. Professional training of the manager of socio-cultural activity is a special technology, which synthesizes in itself the integrity of theoretical and practical readiness of the future specialist to his professional activity, his abilities, skills and possibilities to perform the necessary actions. Systematic approach in the process of training of the manager of socio-cultural activity is expressed in the synthesis of esthetic education and the system of humanitarian education and the social order, which is translated through the system of institutions of the socio-cultural sphere. Such a synthesis significantly improves the qualitative level of professional training of future specialists of the socio-cultural sphere and, what is also important, actualizes the positioning of professional education in the context of the project culture. Thus, peculiarity of training of the manager of socio-cultural * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 128 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… activity is expressed in a harmonious integrity of technological approach and formation of a high spiritual and intellectual potential of all the subjects of the educational process. Keywords: Socio-cultural sphere, manager of socio-cultural activity, professionalization in the sphere of socio-cultural activity, professional competency, professional training of managers of socio-cultural activity. Point In the recent decades, the Russian system of education has been involved in the process of modernization. It is connected with the necessity of overcoming of various socialeconomical changes in the modern education and training of competent dedicated experts, whose qualification must correspond to the real level of development of culture and society. Socialeconomical conditions require a high level of qualification of the employee, which will provide his competitiveness at the labor market of the socio-cultural complex. Graduates of professional educational institutions in the sphere of sociocultural activity must possess a high-level general and professional competency, an ability to start quickly their professional activity right in the process of study and after their graduation and ability of self-training and upgrading of professional skills and knowledge, of obtaining of necessary skills. Phenomenon of dualism of cultural institutions’ activity is connected to the polyphonism of the socio-cultural activity itself, which (from the point of view of researchers) can be considered as a method of human activity (technology) and within the personal aspect of human being. Contradiction between the technological and personal approaches does not exclude their dialectic oneness. The technological approach is connected to all the types of human activity and is revealed in socionormative functions of profiled institutions. The personal approach is connected to the function of individual’s socio-cultural self organization. Consequently, essence of the process of socio-cultural activity is in the oneness of the technological approach (as a method of human activity) and formation of a high spiritual and intellectual potential of the subject and the object of socio-cultural activity. As it is proved by many researches, person acts as a system-forming factor of the socio-cultural activity. According to the theory of management, general objective laws of professional becoming are inherent to the manager, as a subject of professional activity, and his competency is caused by the objective laws and specifics of his professional sphere of activity. Socio-cultural activity is a process, which is directed to preservation, mastering, production and reproduction of cultural values with a humanistic target of spiritual development and up-bringing of the person and perfection of social communities. M.V. Asainova supposes that «socio-cultural activity differs by its dualism: on one hand, it is directed to sociocultural development of the society, and on the other hand, to personal development» [2, p.43]. Socio-cultural activity includes in itself a sphere of leisure and leisure activity, national artistic culture, amateur creativity, education and social security and rehabilitation. The individual, family, social organizations and unions, socio-cultural institutes, branch institutions and organizations act as subjects of socio-cultural activity. Continuous integral development of the student’s personality provides a systematic approach to the process of educational activity. Hence, elaboration of the ability of all the subjects (teachers and students) of the process to sensecreativity is the most important methodological # 129 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… basis of educational process in the HEI, and in this case, formation of knowledge and skills (the competence-based approach) in the process of professional development becomes the method of this goal achievement. Thus, methodology of the systematic approach to the educational activity becomes the leading one in the process of transition form the pedagogics of knowledge and skills to the pedagogics of collaboration and development. Dialectic oneness and succession of culturalhistorical, socio-pedagogical and nationalethnical experiences, synthesis of traditions and innovations in the cultural sphere development are vividly revealed in the socio-cultural activity. Socio-cultural activity management is an important direction of the sociocultural sphere, which acts as a technology of management of economical, creative-industrial and other social relations in the process of formation, popularization and consumption of leisure-cultural goods and services. In recent years, in the sphere of management of the native socio-cultural activity there have appeared new specialties and specializations, some part of them re-appeared and actualized in the new socio-cultural conditions. These are the following professions as: musical producer; personal manager; impresario or promoter; agents, working with professional actors, stage directors, painters, top-models; productionmanager; exhibition curator; gallery owner; cinema-producer; project manager; leisurecultural programs producer; art-manager; and socio-cultural activity technologist. The given fact has undoubtedly actualized the question of specialists’ efficient training. This way, modern state of the sphere of culture and arts in Russia requires a highly-qualified, wellrounded manager, possessing spiritual-moral qualities, able to organize and to carry on his professional activity under the constantly changing socio-economical conditions. And such specialists must have a high professional level of professional training. Example Realizing the principles of education fundamentalization, HEIs perform specialists’ training for the sphere of culture and arts, use the experience of classical pedagogics, theoretical and methodological implementations of scientists in the sphere of modification of the system of specialists’ training for professional activity under the conditions of the modern market, and make their contribution to modernization of the system of specialists’ training for socio-cultural activity. Not being a profiled HEI, the Siberian Federal University successfully runs training of the mentioned above specialists. Specifics of the SFU educational process for the specialists from the sphere of socio-cultural activity is expressed in the following: the process of simulation of efficient manager consists of two systematic directions: fundamental and applied. Thereat, the given directions are synergically interconnected, and it is reflected in the interdisciplinary and inter-industrially significance of the educational process. The higher-education teaching personnel, which provides the process of study in the direction of «Socio-cultural activity» in the Siberian Federal University, has a high qualification (50% of teachers have scientific degrees and titles). The Siberian Federal University realizes educational activity in the given direction in accordance with the market demands of the Krasnoyarsk Region and socioeconomical peculiarities of the Region. Increase of efficiency of the educational process activity in the course of specialists’ training in the sphere of socio-cultural activity is fulfilled in the following directions: Orientation of the educational process to the culture of analytic thinking; # 130 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… Striving of all the participants of the educational process (teachers, students, and assistant personnel) to selfactualization, to continuous self-education and professional self-perfection; Utilization of the modern channels and means of scientific information, new informational technologies with modern audio-visual teaching aids; Understanding of the conceptual essence and socio-cultural significance of the profession; Forecasting and theoretical simulation of the socio-cultural processes; Orientation to applied sociological and marketing researches of the socio-cultural activity. At present time, the branch of culture and arts has become multi-topic, and it is revealed in variety of types of institutions, which realize socio-cultural services, in differentiation of work with various categories of population, in the usage of modern various forms, means, methods of socio-cultural activity. We agree with the researchers in that, that teaching conception of education appeals mainly to the students’ mind. It performs the task of «fulfilling» of their intellect with new scientific facts, notions, categories, rules, theories and laws. Today, a new target is set before the HEI – to teach the student not only to accumulate knowledge, but to apply it intensively in his practical activity, and it means to train the specialist to be demanded by the modern socio-cultural environment (in this case – by the environment of the Krasnoyarsk Region). The profession of the manager of socio-cultural sphere is comparatively new and it is under-studied, but at the same time it is one of the most complicated, while success in this field is achievable only on condition that the existing contradictions are solved on the basis of modernization of content model of the process of the modern manager’s training for the sphere of culture and arts. Such a model must provide a highly-qualified professional training for the student, studying modern management in compliance with the regional specifics of the socio-cultural activity. Professional education has the following socio-cultural goals: it prepares the specialists for a certain rather narrow and specific sphere of professional activity. If in the process of general education, the individual becomes familiar with the norms and values of the social community life, assimilates general knowledge of the world, means of communication, then in the course of professional education the individual turns form the consumer of culture into the creator and designer of actual forms or professional performer, who reproduces or interprets the given cultural forms. Professional becoming presupposes self-perfection and selfactualization of the individual, increase of his level of demands in his professional growth and their realization. The following tendencies are observed in the development of the native system of specialists’ professional training for the sphere of management : orientation to training of management specialists, possessing their professional mastery in perfection; continuous improvement of professional competence in the management activity; a high level of general education and professional culture in the sphere of management. Taking into account the importance of professional activity in formation of the personal professional competency, many a researcher recognizes the task of survey of the objective laws of professional’s becoming to be highly topical. Steady productivity or efficiency of the activity, a high level of qualification and professional competency, optimal intensity of work, high accuracy and reliability of the activity, a high level of organization, creativity, an opportunity of one’s intellect and personality # 131 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… Fig. 1. Indicators of professionalization in the sphere of socio-cultural activity development, orientation of labor to achievement of socially significant targets – all these act as indicators of one’s professionalism. Thus, the first indicators of professionalism in a certain activity are competency and qualification of the person. Personal becoming as a subject of professional activity takes place, first of all, within the frames of socialization, when the person becomes familiar with and assimilates the society’s experience. Thereat, successful socialization is accompanied by successful social adaptation of the person. The key element of the professional-personal development is the subject of professional activity, which is formed in the process of logical stages of cognition, which are interrelated with each other and constituting one common system of educational, educational-professional and professional competences. The competence-based approach is innovational in the modern system of the Russian education. Some researchers consider the given approach as a new type of education result, which is not reduced to a simple combination of skills and knowledge, but is oriented to salvation of real practical tasks. Being involved in the technology of future specialists of socio-cultural activity, the competencebased approach is in a complicated dialectics of interrelations with the personal-oriented, activity, culturological, axiological, hermeneutical, and dialogical approaches, and is also concluded in strengthening of the student’s subject position. Speaking about professionalization in the sphere of socio-cultural activity, we should also understand its indicators: subjective and objective (Fig. 1). Professional self-conscious is realized in the person’s notions about himself as of a professional. Such a notion is mainly formed in HEI, where they translate the position that the main value of a professionally-competent individual is the professionalism of his activity, creative activity, intellectual and moral self-perfection and so on. As far as theoretical component of education gives mainly a sort of idealized notion of the future profession, while practical component is targeted to formation of real notions of it. The task of the HEI is to realize such an educational process, when idealized and real notions about oneself as # 132 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… of a professional are integrated, and also the ideal notion of a professional as it is. Today, exactly subjective-activity approach becomes topical in the context of professional development of future managers of sociocultural activity, as far as it makes a substantial difference of understanding of the essence of education. Under the new conditions, the main task of education in HEI is not so the formation of the system of knowledge, relations and skills, but the creation of a product of the entire process of education – a professional – a ready specialist. In the given approach, we support the opinion of those researchers, who single out the following vivid advantages: 1) The work with the students is targeted to fundamental, essential characteristics of the person; 2) The one, who is taught, acquires not so the ability to realize some concrete technologies of socio-cultural activity, but a qualitatively new method of existence in the world, the method, which one will realize in all the existing types of professional activity; 3) The knowledge, which is acquired in the course of education, is not forgotten, but it has the dynamics of progression. Professional training is a target-oriented, methodically and systematically organized process of education of special knowledge, practical skills, and attainments of productive activity and methods of social communication under the leadership of experienced highereducation teaching personnel of HEI. Professional training of managers of socio-cultural activity is targeted to prepare professionally competent specialists, qualified personnel. Personallyoriented education has a target of development of humane qualities, which are in-born or acquired in the course of practical activity. The subjects of education are the following: knowledge (theoretical, methodical and practical), being necessary to the specialist for his professional activity; skills (ability to fulfill duties, being attached to the employee at a certain workplace); attainments (high degree of ability to appeal the obtained knowledge in practice); methods of communication (a form person’s life-sustaining activity, summation of person’s actions and deeds in the process of communication with the surrounding reality, elaboration of behavior models at one’s workplace, social relations, communicability and so on). The modern notion of the professional education content is connected with structural reforms in the system of education in general. Today, it becomes obvious that institutions of higher professional education must be re-oriented from teaching students concrete professions to provision of them for a wide basic professional education. Specialized training of managers of socio-cultural activity must be run in accordance with new tendencies and modern approaches to upgrading of the level of professional education. The modern principles of professional training of managers are democratism, orientation to student’s personal development, reflexive approach to development of professional managerial competence . The practice shows that professional and creative values are leading among the top-priority values, which constitute the identity of managers of socio-cultural activity, while the values, connected with safety and satisfaction of vital demands are of lesser importance. Professional values are revealed through orientation in career making, and the most important among them are: orientation to professional skills perfection # 133 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… and orientation to modernization of the obtained attainments in compliance with the changing circumstances of professional activity. To form the person, possessing the qualities, which are close to the described model, education institution has to carry out special conscious work in order to change and develop the adaptive model of social and personal identity of the student – the future manager of socio-cultural sphere. Becoming widely spread, the term «identity» characterizes the trans-individual source of individual (and collective) values and behavior stereotypes. To the mind of I.S. Kon, the notion of identity, which is widely used in humanitarian and social sciences, has three main modalities . Psychophysiological identity denotes integrity and succession of physiological and psychological processes of the organism. Persona identity (or ego-identity) denotes integrity and succession of life-sustaining activity, goals, motives, sensevital mind sets, axiological orientations and person’s self-conscious. Social identity denotes integrity and succession of a certain system of social characteristics (norms, roles and statuses), which allow to differentiate individuals according to their social status and group belonging. Social identity can be described as subjectively, within the frames of the opposition «We» — «They», so objectively, with the help of the terms of normative-collective expectations, which can be whether rather uncertain, amorphous, or strict, even institutionalized. The target of HEI is to form a program of education in such a way, that to ease the process of formation of professional identity – to form the program of professional identity for the managers of socio-cultural activity. One of the biggest roles in this process is played by the surrounding cultural environment. Famous sociologist N Smelzer proves that common culture is the basis of the identity of members of a group . Precisely common culture creates the feeling of unity, belonging to one community, and determines the most important norms and conditions of social behavior. It is quite logical to suppose that the bases of professional culture of the manager of socio-cultural activity are being formed right from the very beginning of studying in HEI. Formation of professional competency is a complex and contradictory process, which the researchers divide into two stages: the first stage is connected to professional competency mastering, and the second stage is connected to turning the student into the subject of professional competency (Fig. 2). Among the conditions, which provide formation of professional competency of future managers of socio-cultural activity one can singles out: diagnostic: perception of development level of socio-psychological potential, understanding of necessity of development of topical professional knowledge, skills and attainments, and striving for selfcognition and self-perfection; organizational: conditions, which determine the presence of special work for target-oriented formation of professional self-conscious and growth of professional competency; processual: conditions, which presuppose to use active methods of sociopsychological teaching, dialectic oneness of the rational and the emotional. Apparently, the success of fulfilling of functional duties by the future specialist in the sphere of socio-cultural activity directly depends on his readiness to managerial activity, also including his level of professional competency. Those knowledge, skills and attainments, which are formed, revealed and developed in the course of managerial activity and which are new, indispensable and can be singled out from none of the personal features – these knowledge, # 134 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… Fig. 2. The process of formation of professional competency of the manager of socio-cultural activity skills and attainments are integrative qualities of professional competency. Consequently, professional competency can be defined as an open system, which is actively and selectively sensitive to changes of the external environment and which enters the system of ties and relations of its carrier. Proceeding from the complex of systemmaking relations of managerial activity, M.V. Asainova has made an attempt in her dissertation research to create a theoretical model of professional competency of the manager of sociocultural activity . On one hand, the given model is necessary as an instrument of diagnostics of personal level of competency of management staff, on the other hand, as an orienteer for the future specialists in HEIs of culture and arts. Professional competency is described as an expanded graded system-integrated process of salvation of a complex of inter-correlated professional problems in the logics of goals achievement of interaction between the manager and subordinates, which allows revealing the difficulties of professional competency formation and finding the ways of its overcoming. Model of professional competency of the manager of socio-cultural activity – is a notiondescriptive model of inclusion in the sociopsychological processes of the personality of the future specialist. Researchers single out two components of professional competency: activity and personal components. Criterion of formation of the professional competency activity component is the presence of organizational, communicative skills and efficiency of managerial activity. Criterion of formation of the professional competency personal component is high intellect, creative attitude to the world, stress-resistance, self-assurance, striving for new knowledge (Fig. 3). Professional training of managers of sociocultural activity is connected with creation of pedagogical and organizational conditions for professional becoming of the student’s # 135 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… Fig. 3. Model of professional competency of the manager of SCA personality. Thereat, positioning of such becoming must be contextually directed to formation of professionally important qualities of the individual, and also to spiritual-moral becoming of the student. Professional training must be based on increase of the level of demands and professional growth motivations with due account for person’s striving for self-perfection and self-actualization. As far as manager’s competency is an indispensible part of general competency of the person, it is natural to suppose that readiness of professional competency of the manager of socio-cultural activity is expressed in such indicators as: system of knowledge of professional competency, system of skills, and system of values. Thus, professional competency of the manager of socio-cultural activity is a synthesis of qualities, wherein the integrity of theoretical and practical readiness to realization of professional activity, abilities, attainments, skills and possibilities to do necessary actions are expressed. To the opinion of V.P. Bespal’ko, any pedagogical activity is a summation of two interconnected blocks of components: educational tasks (didactical), being solved by the given system, and educational activity technologies . The scientist considers students, targets of educational process and its content as invariant elements of the system of educational tasks; while process of education and up-brining and organizational forms of educational activity are considered as structural components of educational technology. All the interactions of the students and teachers, which determine the course of educational process and its results, are realized within the frames of educational structure. # 136 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… Technology of training of the managers of socio-cultural activity to professional activity under the market conditions must be oriented to provision of maximal fullness of subject functions, which are fulfilled by the student in the process of continuous work practice in the external environment. Efficiency of this technology must be provided by a maximal activation of subject functions of the future specialist of the sphere of culture and arts: sensecreative, sense-searching, decision making, reflection, formation of personal positions, displaying initiative and responsibility, and «personal self-donning» (P.E. Reshetnikov) of socio-cultural means and methods of activity. Technological level of the main problem salvation presupposes transformation of the theoretical idea into a concrete project of its realization. According to the general opinion of scientists, the main achievement of the process of specialist’s training is the achievement of success in formation of students’ demand and ability of self-movement to the tops of professionalism in their future profession and their readiness to the activity. The specialist-manager’s knowledge, skills, psychological processes, conditions, and features of his personality, which provide realization of professional functional tasks, are considered to be subjective preconditions of his efficient activity. They specify such professionally important qualities, as positive attitude to his activity in the sphere of culture and arts, his interest and love to it, his abilities, being adequate to the requirements of the profession, features of character, temperament, and peculiarities of psychological processes. In the modern conditions, there must be objectively new requirements to the content of education. In order to substantiate the content of educational process for training of the manager of socio-cultural activity, it is necessary to do the following: to project efficiently the content of the tasks of every course within the frames of the teaching plan and with due account for the forecasted perspective of professional activity of the future SCA managers and for the modern requirements to them; to construct the types of educational activity, being necessary for salvation of the problems, directed to increase the efficiency of the modern SCA specialists’ training; to develop the content of educational activity, which includes the process of formation of the students’ system of knowledge, skills, attainments and abilities together with the development of logical, specific and professional thinking. Scientific-problematic field of socio-cultural technologies presents a systemized integrity of the main scientific directions, within which frames specialists realize their research activity. This field does not only reveal the problems and denote the directions of its sphere of influence on them, but also forms the structure of socio-cultural activity as of a scientific discipline. While it, in its turn and in accordance with its tasks, influences on the practical activity. To the mind of S.N. Moreva , realization of researches in the mentioned directions of socio-cultural activity will allow solving several problems: to provide a scientific character to the transformative socio-cultural activity under various conditions of development; to realize the leading role of science in its interaction with the socio-pedagogical experience in practice; to bring the system of managers’ training in the educational institutions of various types and training levels in correspondence with the new requirements. Most researchers mark the leading role of the scientific-research work of students (SRWS) in the course of specialists’ training in scientific- # 137 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… pedagogical researches, and they consider this type of activity as a variant of pedagogical system, which is directed to formation of «professional mastery» (L.F. Avdeeva). It is supposed that «maximal scientific activity of the student, as a subject of teaching, must undergo all the types of training work: lectures, laboratory and practical classes, being oriented mainly to the students’ self-directed work», in order to form generalized methods of searching and creative activity. In the work of M.A. Bajdan, the scientific-research work of students is considered as a means of their creative activity formation. In her dissertation work, L.F. Avdeeva has made an attempt to study the psychological-pedagogical factors, which influence on the success of the scientific-research work of students. It is shown that students’ orientation to their task (business orientation) results in their productive scientific-research activity. L.F. Avdeeva defines the main factor, which influences on the success of SRWS – it is student’s positive motivation to participation in this activity, and also creativity and pedagogical mastery of the scientific tutors of SRWS . We shall agree with the opinion of some researchers and colleagues concerning the fact that the division of the students’ research work into curricular and extra-curricular is rather relative, as far as these both types of scientific activity serve one and the same target – to prepare a creative specialist of high qualification. The tasks of the both types of scientific works are also common: to improve the level of professional knowledge and skills, to extend the obtained fundamental knowledge, to develop the research skills, to increase creative activity, independence and others. Research activity is obvious to play a significant role in the process of training and becoming of the manager of socio-cultural activity and is supported in two directions: 1) educational process organization with due account for new achievements in various spheres of scientific knowledge (economics, pedagogics, culture and arts and so on); 2) active involvement of students in research activity from the first years of their study. Forms and types of students’ participation in scientific activity can be various. Proceeding from the main content and appropriation of scientific-research works of students (SRWS), the following forms are most often used (Fig. 4). In the result of training of future managers of socio-cultural sphere, transition of the external motivation in the internal scale contributes to the success of research activity. Under this condition, the process of the new knowledge gathering will be perceived by the manager as an obligatory one, having an everlasting meaning not only in the period of study in HEI, but also in the course of all his professional career. S.N. Moreva has worked out a definition of research activity in the socio-cultural sphere, which in the given context is of special interest. S.N. Moreva defines it the following way [7, p. 85]: «it is an activity, which is based on the generally accepted scientific methodology, and which has a target to gather new scientific knowledge, being meant for perfection of the activity and professional qualities of the specialist on the basis of application of special means of scientific cognition». To the mind of some researchers, we should create the following pedagogical conditions in the course of the HEI’s educational process, in order to develop scientific-research skills of the future managers of socio-cultural activity: formation of knowledge of the pedagogical process participants in the sphere of scientific-research activity; formation of person’s axiological orientations to mastering of constantly growing professional knowledge and skills; building of educational process on the basis of the personal-oriented approach, # 138 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… Fig. 4. The types of SRWS when the leading role is given to the future specialist’s self-realization in the socio-cultural sphere; practical inclusion of all the educational process participants in research and cognitive activity; presence of emotionally-positive mind set in the educational space; provision of succession of content, forms, methods of knowledge and skills quality improvement on various stages of professional education. Unity of methodological, theoretical and technological knowledge in summation with the skills and attainments of research activity and also with practical experience determine professional competency of the manager of socio-cultural activity. Consequently, the content of research training of the specialist of the socio-cultural sphere must be obligatory included in the integral system of professional training and comprise such components as: formation of general scientific and general professional knowledge; formation of skills and attainments, being necessary for professional activity of the manager of the sociocultural sphere; formation of personal qualities of the employee of the sphere of culture and arts. Such an integral system is targeted to formation of professional competencies, skills and attainments in the sphere of future professional activity. Resume Within the frames of Bologna process, one of the key problems in the higher education institutions’ community is the problem of quality of education. Under the modern socioeconomical conditions, professional training of managers in the system of higher education has its own specifics, thereat peculiarities of the socio-cultural sphere as the sphere of future professional activity of today’s student are dictated by the peculiarities of professionalization of the person itself. Systematic approach in the course of mastering of the profession of socio-cultural activity manager includes not only a complex of knowledge (from general theoretical to special), but also becoming of a special world outlook. Professional becoming presupposes person’s self-perfection and self-actualization, increase of the level of professional growth requirements and their realization. Today, the question of perfection of culture and arts specialists’ training in the system of higher professional education should be discussed not from the position of education direction changing, but within the context of its quality # 139 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… improvement, which in a great extend determines social perspectives and personal development of the student. It is logical that the problem of quality cannot be discussed without the context of its criteria. We suppose that such criteria for the direction of «Socio-cultural activity» are covered by the competence-based approach, which is caused by the problems of person’s spiritual-moral development on the basis of local culture traditions and ethno-cultural educational problems. Under the usage of the competence-based approach, student’s subjective position is reinforced and contributes to formation of some other collective image of the graduate – the modern manager of socio-cultural activity. We think that he is a professional, possessing the following number of qualities: ability to self-education; flexibility (readiness to make adequate decisions under the conditions of varied environment); susceptibility to innovations; active life position, creativity, thinking, with a high personal readiness to the future and so on. Professional training of the manager of socio-cultural activity is a special technology, which embraces theoretical and practical readiness of the future specialist to realization of his future professional activity, his abilities, skills and opportunities to do necessary things. The systematic approach in the process of manager’s training for the sphere of culture and arts is expressed in the synthesis of aesthetic education and the system of humanitarian education and the social order, which is translated through the system of socio-cultural sphere institutions. Such a synthesis improves in a great extend the qualitative level of professional training of future specialists, and what is also very important, actualizes positioning of profi le education in the context of the project culture. Being realized for example in SFU, the project approach presupposes not only mastering of a certain sphere of knowledge, but also production of new knowledge in the field of socio-cultural activity (and it is its innovativeness). This way, peculiarity of training of the manager of socio-cultural activity is expressed in harmonious unity of the technological approach and formation of a high spiritual and intellectual potential of all the subjects of the educational process. 1) The work is carried out with the financial support of the grant of Krasnoyarsk regional fund for the support of scientific and scientific-and-technological activities on the project «Krasnoyarsk region as a poly-cultural space and native land of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the North». 2) The work is carried out with the financial support of the federal purpose oriented programme «Scientific and scientific-pedagogic staff in innovative Russia for 2009-2013» concerning the problem «Culture of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the North in the situation of global transformations: foresight research until 2050 based on the materials of analysis of the Yakut ethnos» held within the framework of the event 1.2.1 «Scientific investigations carried out by research groups guided by doctors of science». 3) The work is carried out with the financial support of the grant of Krasnoyarsk regional fund for the support of scientific and scientific-and-technological activities on the project «The system of culture of Krasnoyarsk region: basic subjects of culture and cultural needs». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. L.F. Avdeeva. Psychological-Pedagogical Factors of Success of Scientific-Research Works of Students: Dissertation abstract. Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical sciences. / L.F. Avdeeva. – Leningrad, 1984. –16 p. M.V. Asainova. Formation of Professional Competency of Managers of Socio-Cultural Activity in HEIs of Culture and Arts: Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical sciences: 13.00.08. / M.V. Asainova – Moscow: RSL, 2005 (from the funds of the Russia State Library). G.I. Babushkin. Methods of Moral Responsibility Up-bringing of the Specialists of Club-Type Institutions / G.I. Babushkin // Questions of Humanitarian Sciences. – 2006. – № 2. – P. 192194. V.P. Bespal’ko. Bases of Pedagogical Systems Theory: Problems and Methods of PsychologicalPedagogical Provision of Technical Teaching Systems / V.P. Bespal’ko. – Voronezh: Publishing House of the Voronezh University, 1977. – 304 p. N.V. Yefremova. Training of the Manager of the Sphere of Culture and Arts for his Professional Activity under the Conditions of Market Relations: Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical sciences: 13.00.08. / N.V. Yefremova – Moscow: RSL, 2008 (from the funds of the Russia State Library). I.S. Kon. Personality in Philosophy and Sociology / I.S. Kon // Philosophical Encyclopedia – V.3. – P. 83. S.N. Moreva. Organizational-Pedagogical Conditions of Research Activity of the Manager of the Socio-Cultural Sphere: Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical sciences: 13.00.05. / S.N. Moreva – Moscow: RSL, 2006 (from the funds of the Russia State Library). N Smelzer. Sociology / N Smelzer. Moscow, 1994. Modern Technologies of Socio-Cultural Activity: Educational Guidance. – Tambov: TSU n.a. G.R. Derzhavin, 2002. Особенности подготовки менеджера социально-культурной деятельности в единстве технологического подхода и формирования высокого духовного и интеллектуального потенциала Е.А. Ноздренко Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Включение современной российской системы образования в процессы модернизации связаны с необходимостью преодоления различного рода социально-экономических изменений в образовании и подготовкой компетентных профильных специалистов, квалификация которых должна соответствовать актуальному уровню развития социально-культурной сферы. Рыночные условия требуют высокого уровня квалификации конкурентоспособного специалиста, на рынке труда в социокультурном пространстве. Выпускники образовательных # 141 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yelena A. Nozdrenko. Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA) Manager in the Integrity… учреждений в области социально-культурной деятельности могут сегодня быть успешными только при условии обладания высокой общей и профессиональной компетентностью, способностью к самостоятельному повышению профессиональных знаний и умений, получению в процессе обучения необходимых навыков. В мировом вузовском сообществе в рамках Болонского процесса одной из ключевых проблем является проблема качества образования, профессиональная подготовка менеджеров СКД в системе высшего образования имеет свою специфику в современных социально-экономических условиях. При этом сама специфика социально-культурной сферы, как сферы будущей профессиональной деятельности сегодняшнего студента, диктует особенности профессионализации самой личности. Полагаем, что именно системный подход в процессе овладения профессией менеджера социально-культурной деятельности включает не только приобретение комплекса знаний (от общетеоретических до специальных), но и становление особого мировоззрения. Профессиональное становление предполагает самосовершенствование и самоактуализацию личности, повышение уровня потребностей в профессиональном росте и их реализацию. Вопрос совершенствования подготовки специалистов для сферы культуры и искусств в системе высшего профессионального образования сегодня следует обсуждать не столько с позиции изменения направления обучения, сколько в контексте совершенствования его качества, которое во многом определяет социальные перспективы и личностное развитие обучающегося. Профессиональная подготовка менеджера социально-культурной деятельности – это особая технология, в которой синтезировано единство теоретической и практической готовности будущего специалиста к осуществлению профессиональной деятельности, способности, умения и возможности производить необходимые для этого действия. Системный подход в процессе подготовки менеджера для сферы культуры и искусств выражается и в синтезе эстетического образования с системой гуманитарного образования и социального заказа, который транслируется через систему учреждений социально-культурной сферы. Такой синтез существенно повышает качественный уровень профессиональной подготовки будущих специалистов в социально-культурной сфере и, что не менее важно, актуализирует позиционирование профильного образования в контексте проектной культуры. Таким образом, специфичность подготовки менеджера социально-культурной деятельности выражается в гармоничном единстве технологического подхода и формирования высокого духовного и интеллектуального потенциала всех субъектов учебного процесса. Ключевые слова: Социально-культурная сфера, менеджер социально-культурной деятельности, профессионализация в сфере социально-культурной деятельности, профессиональная компетентность, профессиональная подготовка менеджеров социально-культурной деятельности. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 143-154 ~~~ УДК 378 Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva* Siberian Federal University 82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011 There are political, social, economic and technological transformations, demographic and cultural processes, described in this article, which define the framework for education reforms in different countries. Understanding the depth and scope of the processes is a necessary basis for development strategy for Russian education. The question about the future model of the Russian higher education and socio-anthropological project in education are also described, and the correct answer – it is an opportunity for Russian education and the country as a whole. In place of the Enlightenment project – «Knowing man» – alternative socio-anthropological projects came in: «A Man-operator», «Creative Man», «Mobile Man». These socio-anthropological projects will determine the content and format of education in the world in the next 20 years. The features of the socio-economic context of higher education in Russia are discussed in this article. «Compression» of industrial sector and the expansion of trade and services sectors, as a result of reforms 90 years, made education system, designed for staffing and management of medium-and hightech industrial economy, an excessive. At the same time, entering the world’s information and cultural space formed values of «consumer society» and educational characteristic of the «information society» in society, especially among young people (including the vision of higher education as a necessary stage in life). Different scenarios of development of higher education in Russia are also presented in the article. The main «fault line», about which scenarios of transformation in Russian higher education will be determined, is the gap between the economy (staffing requirements) and training system (in structure, content and format of education). This gap causes a high level of «fictitious» and «falsification» in education. Keywords: Higher education, post-industrial transition, the crisis of education, socio-anthropological project. The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific technical activity. 1. Introduction. The changing world and education At the turn of the 20th-21th centuries, a school in Russia came into a situation of «high * 1 uncertainty». On the one hand, the system of ideological, aimed at servicing the industrial production of the Soviet education, is dismantle. On the other hand the content and format of the Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 143 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century system of education could decide the problem of human and society in new situation are not lined up. The crisis of higher education is not exclusive for Russia, it is believed that it has the civilizational nature connected with the «phase shift» (postindustrial transition), and all developed countries with different degrees of severity experience it1. The «image of man», which was formed in the XIX-XX centuries in the «western world», the socio-anthropological project, which set meaningfulness and direction of education, were the basis, and they were destroyed. These phenomena have already «captured» by the public consciousness and they are becoming the subject of public discourse, but thinking of them has not become the basis for the formulation and adoption of strategic decisions yet. In recent decades, there have been significant political, social, and economictechnological transformations in the world and in Russia: 1) the group of technologically and economically leading countries made the transition from technology, lifestyles and ideals of the industrial society to the new ones, which correspond to the opportunities and challenges of post-industrial age; 2) the limits of the unipolar world and the corresponding model of globalization, characterized with the dominance of a small group of countries in the military, political, fi nancial, production and trade, cultural «occupation» (the imposition of values, life styles and formats for consumption) have been revealed; 3) the great social and political experiment – the establishment of a socialist state has been crashed and the building of the «Russian capitalism» has been begun. Institute of the higher education which has been existing in its classical form for 200 years, in the last 20-50 years has undergone the significant changing. In most countries, funding of the higher education from the state and regional budgets significantly reduced and the share of commercial education significantly increased2. Education ceases to be public (national) project gradually and goes into the initiative and responsibility of the individual. Education is no longer joined to the «sacred knowledge», that gateway to the «highest world of intellectuals», but it became just one of the types of services – «educational services» – along with the services of commercial agents, drivers, or beauticians. Many universities have lost their exclusive status of «temples of learning» and turned into supermarkets of «educational services». On the other hand, education went beyond national borders and became an important instrument of the international inf luence and a significant sector of international business. Countries with successful economies and developed sphere of education got the possibility to accumulate the best intellectual resources using the selection of talented youth. The complexity and contradictions of cultural, social and economic processes has created the series of educational reforms in different countries. At the same time in Russia in most cases, reform of education had just administrative and bureaucratic character. These changes have the direct impact on the content of public discourse on the present and the future of university education. Understanding of the depth and scope of the processes is the necessary basis for the modernization of the country and creating an adequate strategy for the development of Russian education. The question about the future model of the Russian higher education, implemented through the formation of the socio-anthropological project is opened now, and the correct answer is the opportunity for the Russian education and the country in general. # 144 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century 2. Demographic, economic, cultural processes: the global «map» of education In the next 20 years world population will increase by 1.2 billion people3, over-the young population will be forming primarily in economically underdeveloped countries. In these countries through the dissemination of modern standards of hygiene and primary health care infant mortality will be reduced, while but the problem of the birthrate regulation will not be decided. By the 2025, 1.4 billion people living in 36 countries will have felt the deficit of clean water and food. Deterioration of living conditions and labor redundancy in some macro regions of the world (Africa, Middle East and the Caucasus) and their deficits in other (European Union, Russia and others) will form a global flows of migrants. There will be new problems for education? Like socialization and inculturation of migrants, the formation of new strategies in the community residences, cooperation, tolerance and conflict. The global situation in general and higher education is determined by the fact that various macro-regions are at different stages of socioeconomic development and at the same time they feel the impact of global demographic, economic and cultural processes. Several countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are in the pre-industrial phase of economic and social development, and it will be actual for them to form the mass «primary literacy», providing: 1) reducing the demographic and ethnic tensions; 2) strengthening of the national economy and employment; 3) inclusion in the global processes of production and consumption; 4) getting the access to new technologies and equipment. In the emerging new global centers of industrial production (China, India, Brazil, SEA countries) over the next 10-20 years there will be the deploying of the education system appropriative to the phase of rapid industrial development and related with processes of urbanization, the growth of the general welfare of the population and forming the internal market of consumption. In OECD countries, the education system to ensure long-term socio-economic, political and technological advantage in the post-industrial transition will be forming. Their education will be primarily focused on management and innovation and technological activities and developing a global «intelligent pump», providing the inflow of talented, highly educated migrants, which allows to concentrate in these countries «intellectual capital» with the highest quality. Thus, in the next 20 years on the basis of economic macro-regions the various socioanthropological projects will be unfolding and the system of education, providing their realization will be formed. Beside the competition between the leading countries will increase. At the same time, against the intercivilization competition and related stress, the forming of the «educational habitats» will be. And the unity of languages and cultures became the basis of the habitats. The formation of «educational habitats» will be keenly competitive process and will become the new phase of «redistribution of the world». According to the UN projections4, the most developed countries of the world will be realized the project of «global literacy» classes in the economically underdeveloped countries of Africa. This project leads to their «cultural occupation», and provide subsequent integration economies of these countries in the turnover of the «Europe-US cooperation». The most powerful education ranges are: Anglo-western area of education, Chinese educational area, the Spanish-Latin American educational area, the Arab-Islamic educational area. The leading country (of the group of countries) will be in each educational area, # 145 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century exporting higher education. The processes of globalization of knowledge and dissemination of educational technology a new generation (distant education, open education, etc.) will overlap on the formation of educational ranges. As for Russia, the building of Russian educational area based on the Russian language and the traditional socio-economic ties with countries in Asia and the Caucasus (former republics of the Soviet Union) will be the most important task. In these countries the significant increase of young population is expected, so it will make employment and educational migration relevant to them. 3. The crisis of socio-anthropological project of the Enlightenment – «the knowing Man» Transformation of higher education in the late XX – early XXI century cannot be understood outside of the milestone – «the completion» of large-scale socio-anthropological project of the «Enlightenment», the realization of which led to the formation of the Western technological civilization. VM Rosin5 distinguishes three phases of the deployment of the project: the first phase is associated with the spread in Europe in XVI-XVII centuries, the ideas of Francis Bacon about the fact that the differences between the developed and the «savage» people are caused «not by the soil and the climate, but caused by all the forms of Arts and Sciences»6, and it made the significant thesis «Knowledge – is Power» and became the basis for the formation of European science and engineering as the basis of socio-economic development. In the Age of Enlightenment – the main phase of the project –conditions for the spread of this ideology were created, the system of scientific and academic subjects was formed, and the mass educational practice was created. It includes the mainstream schools (Comenius) and a system of higher education (W. von Humboldt). Successful implementation of the Enlightenment project in the developed countries marks an industrial transition and the birth of «technological civilization». The final phase of the project of the Enlightenment (the second half of the XIX – first half of the XX century) became a peak of hightech industrial development, it attempted to meet the growing needs of the population and formed a society of welfare. In this historical period the value of education becomes apparent for large groups, education becomes the most powerful mechanism to promote physical well-being and social status of the individual (education became the so called «social elevator»). During this period, a special layer of professional educators – school teachers and university professors was formed. The success of the project of the Enlightenment is caused by synchronization of four interrelated processes: 1) the formation of large-scale industrial production and, consequently, social order for training workers, engineers and technicians; 2) rapid population growth, increasing affluence and the decline in mortality; 3) the powerful Urban processes and the need for «cultural recycling» of the rural population into the population of large industrial centers that can be included in the conveyor organized activity; 4) the dissemination of ideas of the Enlightenment and creation the mass educational practices on their basis. 4. Features of the socio-economic context of the existence of higher education in Russia The peculiarity of the situation in Russia is that the modernization project «Restructuring» 80-90-ies greatly retarded social and economic development of the country and gave it back into the period of early industrial development with a # 146 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century predominance of low-tech economy. At the same time «the phenomenon of shortage» was eliminated and values and attitudes of «consumer society» were introduced. Their realization in Russia is based on export sales of natural resources. It led to the significant expansion of trade and services sector and the formation of needs in staff, owning simple «operate» qualifications. Entering in the world of information and cultural space, income growth as a result of rising world prices for hydrocarbons and metals are formed in society, especially among young people, the value of «consumer society», and install educational characteristic of the «information society». The gap between the life-orientation of youth in post-industrial activities of formats, styles of living and existing in the country to receive appropriate education and implementation of a professional career was formed. The practice in the past 20 years, a new configuration of world industrial and postproduction – the increased technological leadership in Europe, USA and Japan, high efficiency of industrial production in China, India, Brazil and Southeast Asian countries – significantly restrict the ability of Russia. Technological gap between Russia and Western countries Increased and become established, the revival of the medium-and high-tech industrial production has become almost impossible because of its failure to compete with industrial production in China and India. As a consequence, the Russian education system situation is as follows: a) the education system inertia is focused on training for fullscale industrial economy with a full range of engineering disciplines; b) installation of «modernizers education» are closed on the idea of integration into western educational formats that were formed for other social and economic conditions; c) management training virtually destroyed and supplanted by imports of educational services (teaching of political and managerial elite overseas) and import management education programs (MBA, MPA, etc.)7 5. The contours of the new social-anthropological projects An important feature of the postmodern era (characterized primarily for developed countries) is the «destruction of culture»8, which in the situation of total reflection of cultural values and norms loses its function of normalization of society and the «mount for man «. Reflection as a new mass competence grown in the depths of education and the mass of intellectual practices, drawn regarding values, which previously were the absolute basis for life and work of man and society. In addition, mass production practices and «simulacrums» and «practicabls»9 (Marketing and Advertising, political PR, contemporary art, virtual reality – the Internet) as the means of mass manipulation and individual consciousness were formed. It makes impossible to implement a largescale socio-anthropological project’s value with the high status and creates a situation of unfolding, even within the same country several competing and complementary «local» projects. Analysis of socio-cultural and educational reality reveals the following socio-anthropological projects, determining the direction of modernization of education: in the countries of new industrialization, «Functional Man» becomes the socioanthropological project – a man’s capable to perform certain functions and ready to include in the industrial production and develop urban lifestyle; in the countries unfolding the postindustrial mode it’s possible to pay attention to the socio-anthropological projects «Creative Man», « Mobile Man», «Man-operator», and they will provide # 147 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century scientific and technological leadership in these countries, the ability of some groups to rapidly modernizing changes, and employment opportunities of other groups on the «operator» service sectors and promote the production. These socio-anthropological projects will largely determine the content and format of education in the world in the next 20 years. 6. Transformations of higher education in developed countries The situation of higher education in developed countries, which now becomes the main reference point, a possible but not mandatory «way for the future» for Russian higher education is determined by the following interrelated trends. 1. Pragmatization of education. Exhaustion of energy of the socio-anthropological project «Education», based on the ideal of man as the bearer of reason and knowledge, led to the pragmatization of education. Education refused to support the mission of becoming human, the transfer of meanings and values – which are the manifestations of the something transcendent in the human world, forming pictures of the world, the development paradigms of thinking and activity. An extreme expression of pragmatization is utilitarian education centered on the transfer of situationally useful (but not «well-founded» in the paintings of the world or paradigms) knowledge and operational skills. The result is «Man Operational», reduced to the execution of operations. Questions about meaning of life, cultural identity, social cohesion remain outside the focus and responsibility of education. Positive option of education pragmatization is the transition from the development of systems of knowledge to the development activities. Depending on the level of education it will be the development of «packages of operations» or the development of holistic «paradigms» of activity. In terms of educational technology, it means the predominance of design, training and other forms, providing an opportunity of «test activity», in contrast to the assimilation of knowledge. Educational programs are created in collaboration with major companies, in some cases, training is conducted according to educational programs, prepared by the companies themselves. 2. Modernization of the State is the policy of reducing costs. New situation is the result of crosscountry competition at the end of XX century: 1) after the destruction of the Soviet Union the ideological confrontation between the socialist and capitalist systems, previously coerced the state and corporations to deploy social programs and move towards trade unions worldwide was stopped; 2) aging of the population, rising costs for pensions and health care of the «core voters» have led to increased social obligations in developed countries to a critical level; 3) the stage entrance of new «factories of the world» – China, India and countries in Southeast Asia – has led to increased economic competition and made it necessary to reduce economic and social costs. These developments have stimulated the reduction of social obligations of the state, including the reduction of government (public) investment in education and shifting the burden of educational expenditure to person (family). Education has ceased to be the public (national) project. A man with a planning horizon and the corresponding measure of responsibility for the future becomes the key «customer education». Payment for education has increased student’s responsibility for studying results, but in Russia, it has actually led to «the sale of diplomas.» Reducing costs policy resulted in compaction and facilitating of educational programs (it’s necessary to leave just the most course and useful) and the searching for cheaper formats and # 148 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century teaching technologies, including various forms of «contactless» training. Universities have become into the supermarkets for the sale of educational services, responding quickly to the changing «customers»‘ needs. 3. High school as an instrument of international competition. The global market of educational services, higher education has become an international business, and the export of educational services has become a significant sector of economies of different countries. Modern universities have become a way of attraction of young people from wide ranges of education, selection of them, general cultural and vocational training. Educational migration allows countries with an aging population and its natural decrease (Europe, Canada and others) to support the population and provide high quality human capital. It’s possible to distinguish leading universities focused on teaching, provide a unique «brand» education by integrating research and education, on the basis of these universities the world’s centers of excellence, concentrating personnel, ideas and technological developments are formed. In the next 10 years international specialization of countries in directions and levels of education10 is projected (India could become the world center of Bachelor of Information and engineering fields, while the U.S. and Europe, «dumping» wealth of mass «start» training will focus on the education of Masters and PhD students, in conjunction with R & D). Leading universities form a special «class» of professionals, who are capable to become leaders in technological and organizational development companies, state and municipal structures. Countries unable to establish and maintain a university of this class will have to import technology of business management, technologies of government and municipal structures, technological innovation and consumer formats, leading to a loss of national sovereignty in part. Regional universities, which do not fall into the «world’s elite of universities» and not included in the international network, will be «relegated» to the major vocational schools, with relatively low quality teachers and the least talented and trained students. 4. Change of social positions on education. There is a reassessment of education: on the one hand, people en masse tend to receive higher education, on the other – education is perceived something like pragmatic, a certain type of personal investment. There is a «desakralization» of education, the status of teachers is falling to the status of service workers, the motivation of youth to education is reducing. The recruitment and maintenance of social positions in relation to education is changing: the state moves to the position of «conductor» that defines the general rules of the game (such as educational loans); The university becomes a business unit that provides services, students are forced to take responsibility for setting educational goals and learning outcomes; business takes the «customization» of bachelors in corporate training centers, non-institutional forms of education that fosters the emergence of qualifying points are widely distributed; there is a large group of people who receive a second degree or additional education, training or undergoing specific training, secondary school graduates are not the only and even not the main type of student of high school. «Adult» students or foreign students have special requirements for high school and the universities which are not able to form suitable supply for them, are fading into the role. Development of new positions and roles, the formation of new rules and regulations, establishment of new consensus and the formation of new control circuit will be the main content of the «crisis in education». # 149 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century 5. The technological transformation of higher education. In the next 20 years electronic memory devices integrated with the human brain, pharmacological agents stimulate brain activity; universal voice translators, solves the problem of language barrier, three-dimensional electronic simulators, organizing a training complex manipulation actions11 will be widespread. In education traditional lecture-seminar format will be replaced by modern «project», «debatable», «search» formats, with high degree of autonomy and active learners; the setting for the formation of skills, the massive use of information and communication technologies and electronic educational resources will dominate. The researches will shift from industrial to postindustrial formats research activities of organization. Industrial formats are powerful (in terms of personnel and equipment) «factory» of functionally organized knowledge, ideas, innovations, with ranked marketing for scientific products. The high cost of unique equipment and world-class personnel leads to the fact that such «factories» well-built positioning and determine the research topics from the analysis of the competitive area and consumers’ needs of knowledge and technology. In the same time the subordinating of the cognitive scientist’s interest in the business logic is expected. Postindustrial formats are new cognitive institutions: research network, «invisible colleges», virtual laboratories, which allow to organize flexibility resources from various institutions (universities, research institutes, industrial laboratories, etc.) for the implementation of breakthrough projects in science and technology. It is important to point that Russia is still dominated by pre-industrial research formats, which are kinds of handicraft workshops «production of knowledge. The emergence of new cognitive institutions of industrial and postindustrial types is inhibited by low level of social connectedness intellectuals and extremely weak management in the intellectual sphere. That is why, one of the most important tasks of development for new generation of universities (federal, national, research) is the transformation of their corporate culture12. 7. Challenges for higher education in Russia Challenges for Russian higher education are based on review of a number of publications13, as well as the analysis of expert knowledge. Accumulation and analysis of expert knowledge are held within the Foresight study of the future of education, using both classical techniques and newly developed («Anti-Delphi»)14. The high school teachers of Krasnoyarsk and scientists with experience (research and teaching) both in Russia and in foreign universities (U.S., UK, China, Germany) were involved as the experts. Experts point that the development of higher education in Russia will occur as a refraction of a number of global trends in higher education. «Refraction» can mean, depending on the position of the authorities and professional communities, passive follow up the changes (or «passivedefensive reaction» to them), or active using of new opportunities. The main global trends, given external conditions and limitations for the spectrum of possible scenarios are: global post-industrial transition, which forms the international division of labor – countries and regions take place in the pre-industrial, neo-industrial, post-industrial socio-economic «niches». In this case the national economies are in need of different types, levels of professional training education systems; internationalization of higher education, the international division of labor, specialization of countries at different levels and types of vocational education, international competition # 150 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century in education. The formation of the world «educational habitat» on the basis of kinship of languages and cultures. The main «fault line» with respect to which scenarios of transformation of Russian higher education will be defined the gap between the economy (corresponding staffing requirements) and training system (structure, content and format of education). In the case of the widening the gap between the economy and education «fictitious» and «falsification» of education15 will increase that would lead to the accelerated degradation. In each presented scenario the version for the future of education in Russia are determined. Scenario 1. In economics, «folding» of highand mediumtehnology productions concludes, is a reduction of the country’s economy to some resource-extracting industries and servicing their production (exploration, transportation, equipment repair, etc.) is pointed. More than 60% employed people are in the field of trade and services, and these sphere are secondary and imitative (products, services, formats of activity are not created, but imported). There is a narrow sector of high-tech industries, which does not determine the nature of the economy as a whole. Redundancy and fictitious of higher education is overcome through its pragmatization and compactisation. Vocational Education is short in time and in scope, it includes: 1) general cultural components necessary for the formation of social adequacy of the youth and for the future (if necessary) reprofessionalization; 2) clearly defined and compact professional component, sufficient for training, based on performance of a specified list of functions. Education aimed at training researchers, designers, developers, innovation poorly developed due to lack of domestic demand. Requirements of economy and management in the new knowledge and technology are met through imports: «products» (purchase ready-made ideas, technology, equipment), educational services (training abroad and in the Russian branches of foreign universities), staff (the invitation of foreign experts, managers, engineers, designers, etc.). Possible version, when a small part of modernizated Russian universities began to prepare world-class specialists. At the same time in the country «educational migration tube» will be formed: teaching gifted students in elite universities will serve mainly a springboard for emigration to developed countries, enabling professional fulfillment in the high-tech sectors, and participation in advanced research and development16. On the other hand, the Russian higher education can become international «colleges», training of migrants from poor countries with surplus populations (Central Asia, Caucasus), a key objective of such education is to educate young people the Russian language, social norms and basic trades. Scenario 2. Political elites, business, society produce and implemented the country project – a project the future of Russia17, covering the economy, social sphere, science and education. There is an upgrade of the system of sociopolitical governance, including an update of «social contract»18. Selective modernization of traditional industrial sectors, which are necessary to upgrade the housing and construction and transport infrastructure, is made. «Launch» a limited number of new, competitive industries, is produced, sectors of modern research and development for internal and external markets, is emerging. This leads to the creation of knowledge-sector activities, providing the possibility of professional self-educated young people. Innovation policy includes support for a number of selected «strategic innovation» and promote «diffuse», local innovation, providing incremental changes in all spheres of social and economic-economic life of society. # 151 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century The country’s economy will be a set of industries in which some of them act as «cash cows» (resource extraction industries, which can be rolled in the long term), while others get the role of the «stars» who set the new positioning of countries in the global economy. It is important that the «country project» will provide valuable and pragmatic meaning of higher education, which is in excess of the current state of the economy. In this high school will be built, working for «future», and in two interrelated aspects: 1) training for the future, 2) research and development to deployment of a «country project». In this case, the «fictitious» of Higher education is overcome with shared by society (and perceived as realistic) vision of the future, given guidelines for content and technology education and personal motivation for education. Energy of country project helps to preserve the «transcendent», but not utilitarian sense of education, to preserve its content worldview and scientific world pictures, complex forms of thinking and activity. This apparent «excess education» is appropriate in terms of the company (ready to go to the costs), and in terms of the trainees19. The presence of distinct country project could change significantly the current migration situation, to make Russia attractive for active, mobile youth from other countries. Scenario 3. Continuing uncertainty about the strategic prospects of the country, «paralysis of will» of key actors in development will contribute to the disparate, competing «projects» are not united with a common framework of country projects. In this case, in accordance with the political and intellectual fashion various «projects» are run. These are the reform of separate spheres of social life, the creation of «innovative cities», the construction of special infrastructure or industrial projects («Wonders of the World»), the creation of schools with special status, etc. As one-time discretionary actions carried out overall long-term strategy, these projects do not advance the economy and society, and lead to dispersion of resources among the various groups lobbying data «action». In the absence of long-term and consistent strategy in higher education on a mass scale remains a fictitious character education, which is masked by the «international developments» of individual schools, individual staff Order of Resource Companies; prospects «nanotechnology» and «biomedical» breakthroughs. Context outlined above in the text creates a scenario fork for federal and national research universities: 1) Creating universities with special status may be limited to the union of higher education, additional financial investment in infrastructure 20-30 universities. Some of them will enter the global rankings of universities, their academic schools will become leaders in several areas of science and technology. These universities will be able to serve as a «pride», but they will not promote high school in general. 2) Federal and national research universities can assume the role of the special creative and communication platforms, in which: a), a new socio-anthropological project that correlated with the project of modernizing the country and start new cognitive practices; b) new educational paradigms, technology, education content are developed, c) Russian educational macro-region is been formed. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Bell D. The coming post-industrial society: Experience of social forecasting. Trans. from English. / Inozemtsev V.L. (Ed. and entry). M.: Academia, 1999. – 956 pp. Pereslegin SB Teach the game on the world chessboard / SB Pereslegin – M.: AST; Terra Fantastica, 2007. – 619 pp. Galushkina M., Knyaginin W. Mass, flexible, and international / / Expert № 43 (489), 2005. http://www.expert.ru/printissues/expert/2005/43/43ex-obraz/ The world after the crisis. Global Trends – 2025: a changing world. Report of the National Intelligence Council USA; – M.: Publishing House «Europe», 2009. – 188 pp. Global Monitoring Report on EFA (Education for All). – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2010. – 45 pp. Rozin VM Reflection images and education – Internet Resource http://www.fondgp.ru/lib/mmk/46/#_ftnref16 Bacon F. The new Organon. V.2. M., 1972. – 574 p. Universities that do not place international educational programs MBA, MPA did not enjoy popularity among the Russian elite and outside their own educational paradigm actually simulate the learning process. The content and technology management education are such an eclectic collection of fragments of the «Soviet knowledge, Western courses and a large number of formal knowledge material. Most universities do not even raise the question of the formation of management thinking. Zuev S. E. Some remarks for the concept of «market culture» / / Programming of cultural development: regional aspects. Vol. II. – Moscow: RIK, 1993. – P.59-68. Jean Baudriar. Symbolic exchange and death. – M.: «Dobrosvet, 2000. – 387 pp. Higher Education to 2030 – Volume 2: Globalization. – OECD, 2008. – 302 pp. Foresight-project «Childhood – 2030», 2008. http://www.detstvo2030.ru/ John P. Donoghue. Connecting cortex to machines: recent advances in brain interfaces // Nature Neuroscience 5, 1085 – 1088 (2002) Mijail D. Serruya, Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos, Liam Paninski, Matthew R. Fellows & John P. Donoghue Brain-machine interface: Instant neural control of a movement signal // Nature 416, 141-142 (14 March 2002) Leigh R . Hochberg , Mijail D . Serruya , Gerhard M . Friehs , Jon A . Mukand , Maryam Saleh , Abraham H . Caplan , Almut Branner , David Chen , Richard D . Penn and John P . Donoghue. Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia // Nature 442: 164-171 (13 July 2006). Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V. Corporate Culture – a tool for development of the University / University management: practice and analysis. 2010. № 1 (65). P. 23-29. Report «Education 2020, Is Russia ready to invest in their future, postindustrial transition». Gov. Univ – Graduate School of Economic. – M.:. HSE. – 2008. – 39 pp. Education and Society: Is Russia ready to invest in its future? Report. M. HSE, 2007. – 78 pp. Millennium Development Goals and national projects – a strategic choice for Russia. – M.: Institute for Complex Strategic Studies, 2006. – 32 pp. Coalitions for the future. Development Strategies for Russia: Collective of economists «SIGMA».- M.: OOO «Publishing» Industrialist of Russia «, 2007. – 112 pp. Russia of XXI century: the image of a desired future. – M.: Econ-Inform, 2010. – 66. Higher education in Russia. Analytical report / / group of authors led by prof. VL Glazychev. – M., 2004. http://www. glazychev.ru/projects/obrdocl/2004_obrdocl.htm Post-industrial transition in higher education of Russia: the example of analysis of the education market of North-West Russia. / Under the leadership of Knyaginin. – SPb.: Publishing house «CORVUS», Fund, Center for Strategic Research «North-West». – 128 pp.. Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva Practices of Exploring the Future: Russian Foresight / Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 3) pp.143-153. Many experts believe the «fictitious» the main problem of higher education in Russia, which is impossible without removing the modernization programs and educational technology. «Fictitious» means that the students pretend to learn, and teachers – what they teach. All participants of the educational process to understand that most of the transmitted knowledge is not used in professional activities. The process of education, whose core is the development of professional thinking and complex forms of activity, is replaced by translational lectures and disciplinary control activities (credit-modular system, the mass testing, etc.). In education, the mass becomes a purchase, copying from the Internet monitoring, projects and dissertations, improved technology cheating, is the direct purchase of tests, examinations and diplomas. Dezhina I. «Brain drain» from Russia: Myths and Reality / / Demoscope-weekly. 2002. March 31. № 59-60. Discussed options: «Space + atom», «Russia – an outpost of humanity in the Arctic», «Russia – the trans-Eurasian bridge», etc. Russia of XXI century: the image of a desired future. – M.: Econ-Inform, 2010. – 66. Experts estimate that a similar situation now exists in higher education in China, captured the neo-industrial country project Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century Высшее образование в России: вызовы XXI века В.С.Ефимов, А.В.Лаптева Сибирский федеральный университет 660041 Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82 В статье обозначены политико-социальные и экономико-технологические трансформации, демографические, культурные процессы, которые задают рамки для реформ образования, проводимых во многих странах мира. Понимание глубины и масштабов происходящих процессов является необходимой основой выработки стратегии развития российского образования. Обсуждается вопрос о будущей модели российского высшего образования, о реализуемом через образование социально-антропологическом проекте, и правильный ответ – это шанс для российского образования и страны в целом. Важнейшими для образования являются постиндустриальный переход и «завершение» социально-антропологического проекта «Просвещение», послужившего в свое время основой массовых образовательных практик. На смену проекту «Просвещение» – «Человек знающий» – приходят альтернативные социально-антропологические проекты: «Человек-оператор», «Человек креативный», «Человек мобильный». Данные социально-антропологические проекты будут в значительной степени определять содержание и форматы образования в мире в ближайшие 20 лет. Обсуждаются особенности социально-экономического контекста существования высшей школы в России. В результате реформ 90-х годов, «сжатия» индустриального сектора экономики и расширения сектора торговли и услуг система образования, рассчитанная на кадровое и управленческое обеспечение средне- и высокотехнологичной индустриальной экономики, оказалась избыточной. Одновременно вхождение в мировое информационнокультурное пространство сформировало в обществе, особенно в молодежной среде, ценности «общества потребления» и образовательные установки, характерные для «информационного общества» (в том числе установки на высшее образование как необходимый этап жизненного пути). Представлены сценарные варианты развития высшей школы в России. Основной «линией разлома», относительно которой будут определяться сценарии трансформации российского высшего образования, является разрыв между экономикой страны (потребностью в кадрах) и системой подготовки кадров (структурой, содержанием и форматами образования). Данный разрыв обусловливает высокую степень «фиктивности» и «фальсификации» образования. Ключевые слова: высшее образование, постиндустриальный переход, кризис образования, социально-антропологический проект. Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности.