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175.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №1 2011

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2011
Journal of Siberian Federal University
4 (1)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
А.Г.Дегерменджи
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В. В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Natalia V. Trofimova
Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic
Features (Historiographical aspects)
–3–
Vitaly V. Boriskin
A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and
USA
– 12 –
Oleg S. Safronov
Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment
P.A. Kropotkin
– 19 –
Alexei D. Krivolap
Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
– 29 –
Uliana V. Smirnova
The Linguistic Characteristics of the Technologization of
Discourse
– 37 –
Daniil V. Pivovarov
Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine of Progressive Revelation
– 50 –
Olesya V. Kuznetsova
Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice: Sacrifice in the Structure of the
Universe
– 60 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Hasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgeniya V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Alexey M. Korostelev
Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII (North-West
Coast of Lake Baikal)
– 67 –
Dmitry E. Kichigin
The Pottery of the Late Bronze $ Early Iron Epoch of the Site
Red Jar II (Northwestern Coast of Lake Baikal)
– 78 –
Vladimir I. Kirko and Anna V. Keusch
The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic
Educational Institution on the Example of the Siberian Federal
University
– 90 –
Alexey N. Tarbagaev,
Sergei I. Bushmin, Natalja A. Verbitska,
Natalja V. Kachina and Anna S. Mironchik
Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren
and Students of Krasnoyarsk Region Higher Education
Institutions
– 102 –
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Nikolay V. Schedrin
Concept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures
– 112 –
Larisa S. Nabokova and Natalya P. Koptseva
Television Myths Creation as an Analogue of Traditional MythReality
– 119 –
Yelena A. Nozdrenko
Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA)
Manager in the Integrity of Technological Approach and
Formation of High Spiritual and Intellectual Potential
– 128 –
Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva
Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century
– 143 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 3-11
~~~
УДК 75.046(470.5)+94(470.5)
Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development,
Stylistic Features (Historiographical aspects)
Natalia V. Trofimova*
South Ural State University,
76 Lenina, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
The present article is devoted to the analysis of research points of view on a set of questions in the
field of Old Russian icon-painting traditions of the Ural study. Special attention in the analysis was
paid to the source and methodological basis of the research. Thus, we came to the conclusion that
development of a complex approach is necessary for effective solving of the problem.
Keywords: icon painting, old belief, «Nevian School of icon painting».
Icon painting craft was mentioned for
the fi rst time by A.V. Komarov in 19 century:
«Icon painting is the craft of three families in
Nevian factory and there are no other places it
could be seen. This craft appeared about 100
years ago and was obviously transported by
old believers who migrated to Ural, especially
during famine» (Komarov, 1889, 113). D.N.
Mamin-Sibiryak also mentioned about famous
icon-painters in the Ural area in his publicistic
sketches in 1880-1890 (Mamin-Sibiryak,
1947, 260). But works of A.V. Komarov and
D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak were not supposed to
investigate the old believer icon-painting as a
scientific problem.
The situation has not changed greatly after
the revolution. The attempt to focus art collectors’
and connoisseurs’ interest on the Ural old believer
icon-painting was made by S. Dulong in his report
at the meeting of «The Ural Society of Natural
Science Fans» (USNSF). But when this society
*
1
was closed down in 1929, all efforts to explore
Ural icon-painting were ceased.
Art learning of old Russian icon painting
in Russia began in 1960s and in 1970s in the
Ural region. In 1970s Ekaterinburg local history
museum organized summer historically –
domestic
expeditions
(which
included
exploring of icon-painting works) to Sverdlovsk
region, particularly to Talizky, Kuvshinsky,
Krasnoufimsky, Shalinsky, Nizhnetagilsky and
other areas. Thus, we can name 1970s -1980s as
the period of scientific materials collection.
The period between the late 1980s and
the early 1990s was the first stage of scientific
exploring of Ural old believer icon-painting. This
stage is characterized by the beginning of scientific
apprehension of collected data, generation of first
conceptions, introduction of «Nevian School of
icon painting» notion for scientific use (Golynez,
1988, 31-44). The main problem of that period
was the problem of stylistic sources of Ural old
Corresponding author E-mail address: Trofimowa-N@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features
believer icon-painting revealing (Trofimova,
2009, 153-156). But the main feature of first
research was hypothetical because of lack of
early Ural icons and documents.
The beginning of the new stage of research
work began in the middle of 1990s and it is
characterized by the increasing number of the
explored icons and collected data. It helped the
scientists involved to make their knowledge about
the Ural old believer icon-painting more profound,
accurate and concrete. Alongside the problem of
its stylistic sources there were set some others
about: the time of formation and inner evolution
of «Nevian School of icon painting», the part of
Nevian School in Ural icon-painting, existence
of other centers of icon-painting in this area
(Golynez, 1995, 74). The most active discussion
of these questions was during the post soviet
period.
This scientific article is supposed to carry
out the analysis of research points of view on the
problem of formation period and internal evolution
of «Nevian School of icon painting» on the Ural
mining territory and its stylistic sources.
It is worth mentioning, that the modern
historical science and art learning are
identifying old believer icon-painting with
Nevian School of icon painting on the basis
of chapel agreement. It is known that the Ural
became one of the centers of old belief after
the church split in 1653-1656. The migration
of old believers greatly raised after defeating
Kerzhenz city in 1722. Tens of thousands
of old believers, the majority of them were
sophontiev’s people, migrated to the East,
especially to the Ural factories.
Because of repressions in 30s of the XIX
century, «beglopopovcy» refused to accept
the fugitive parsons of official church and
initiated church services without parsons. This
way sophontiev’s agreement became chapel
agreement.
Research workers refer the beginning of
Ural icon-painting to the beginning of Stephan
Permsky’s mission. Stephan Permsky was an
icon painter: «We can trace the history of Ural
icon-painting from 80s of the XIV century with
the introduction of Christian enlightenment in
the Ural area». But G.V. Golynez thinks that «we
can talk about Ural icon-painting as it is, only
when Tsar Peter the Great started his ruling. But
dealing with the beginning of the XVIII century
the researchers have to rely on documentary
witnesses and legends only» (Golynez, 1988,
32). That’s why up to the present time there is
no unanimous opinion about time when the Ural
icon-painting started. There is some agreement
of research workers’ opinion concerning the
formation time of Nevian icon-painting school,
although there is no unanimity about this problem
in modern native historiography.
G.V. Golynez stated in the middle of 1990s
that «The Ural old-believer icon painting school
originated in 1720s, after migration of people
(«vygonok») from upper Volga river area,
Kerzhenc city, Poland border areas («Vetka»),
maritime area to Demidov’s Ural (Golynez, 1995,
74: 2008, 68-84). The sources of scientific data
were icon works and the method of research was
art learning method, which includes iconographic
analysis, composition analysis and coloristic
analysis of icons.
The opinion of G.V. Golynez was supported
by the research workers, such as G.I. Vzdornov (
Vzdornov, 2005, 9), T.A. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin
( Runeva et al., 2000, 361), G.I. Panteleeva
(Panteleeva , 2003, 11) and the collectors Y.M.
Ryazanov and L.D. Ryazanova (Ryazanov et al.,
1999, 64). Followers of that point of view prove
it by the earliest icon work «The Egypt Holy
Mother» dated 1734.
At the beginning of 2000s this problem was
solved another way. V.I. Baidin put in the science
use the archive data from Perm, Sverdlovsk and
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features
Tymen regions. The careful art analysis of these
data helped to reconstruct biographies of first
old-believer icon painters.
On the basis of mentioned above, he
assumed that «old-believers icon painting school
based in the Ural mining area (Nevian school),
formed quite later, by the last quarter of XVIII
century, when the third or fourth generation
of local painters had already been working»
(Baidin, 2002, 81). As research worker thinks, the
processes of cultural self-identification of UralSiberian «beglopopov’s people» were crucial
for Nevian School of icon-painting. On the
other hand, there was isolation of Ural-Siberian
«beglopopov’s people» from their colleagues in
European part of Russia. This autonomy was
saved, developed in the next decade and resulted
in chapel agreement, which was the most popular
on the Ural and Siberian territory» (Baidin,
2002, 79-80). E.V. Royzman and M.P. Borovik
supported V.I. Baidin’s opinion: «The majority
of age-dated «nevian» icons started to appear
after 1770, but rare early icons can be assumed as
milestones of ural icon-painting craft» (Borovik,
2002, 19).
Consequently such followers as E.V.
Royzman, M.P. Borovik, and V.I. Baidin
suppose that document learning analysis is
the most preferable method of icon painting
art research. With the help of this method they
dated formation of Nevian School painting by
the last quarter of XVII century. E.V. Royzman,
however, changed his mind some time later. In
2006, he thought: «In any case, Nevian School
of icon painting was formed in the fi rst half of
XVIII century» (Interview with a member of
State Duma E. Royzman). He supposed that
historical processes played the main role in
icon-painting formation, fi rst of all he marked
huge historical meaning of Demidov’s factories
which were potent religious centers in the Ural
area and there was integration of two streams of
old-believers who migrated from the Volga and
Maritime areas.
The process of the Ural old-believer icon
painting development had irregular character; it
was pointed out by A.V. Komarov in the end of the
XIX century: «In old times, icon painting crafts
flourished; there were about ten icon-painting
workshops, but now there orders decreased so
dramatically, that three workshops had no work»
(Komarov, 1889, 113). Thus, emerging of evolution
problem in the second half of the XX century
(when the old-believer icon-painting appeared in
researcher’s field of study) was obvious. There
were different opinions about this question. The
milestone of contradictions was timing of Nevian
icon-painting school flourishing that was called
«golden» or «high» Neviansk.
G.V. Golynez dated «High Neviansk period
by the second half of XVIII century – the first
half XIX century. The author considers that
art flourishing of the school «was stimulated
by the industry and economics of the area
development», concentration and cohesiveness
of old-believing in the Ural area after defeat of
priories in the European part of Russia, when «the
chapel agreement played the cohesive role. They
protected their ways of living, chapel ceremony,
their care and eagerness supported the Ural iconpainting». Moreover, «Neviansk was the place
where the best artist gathered in the second half
of XVIII century – the first half of XIX century»
(Golynez, 1997, 209).
As we can see, G.V. Golynez considered
economic growth to be the main reason for art
uprisal.
A.T. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin narrowed
«Classic Neviansk» period having limited it
to the end of XVIII century – the first half of
XIX century, «when the Bogatyrevs line, the
Chernobrovins line, the Anisimovs line worked,
later it was the Filatovs, the Romanovs and the
Kalashnikovs line» (Runeva et al., 2000, 361).
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features
Thus, the authors found connection between the
art uprisal and creative work of the lines that had
formed before and had been working for many
generations.
Managers of «Nevian Icon» museum E.V.
Royzman and M.P. Borovik defended a different
point of view, based on stylistic features of icons:
«Nevian icon of XVIII century, dobogatyrevskaya
in particularly, is notable for a more advanced
level of writing, true performance and, dare we
say it, more chaste taste. «Nevian icon» as we
call it «high Neviansk» did not step over XIX
century line» (Royzman, 2002, 16). But in 2006
E.V. Royzman changed his mind and expanded
the time boundaries of the period: «The period
that we call «high Neviansk» is at least 70 years
old. It has started to decline since 20s-30s of the
XIX century» (Royzman, 2002, 16).
Thus, during that period two points of view in
historical science about the period of Nevian oldbeliever icon painting formation were developed.
G.V. Golynez, G.I. Vzdornov, T.A. Runeva, V.I.
Kolosnicin, G.I. Panteleeva and collectors Y.M.
Ryazanov, L.D. Ryazanova linked the process to
the first half of XVIII century. V.I. Baidin, E.V.
Royzman and M.P. Borovik attached it to the last
quarter of XVIII century. The fiercest dispute was
on period of Nevian School flourishing because
the researchers had different reasons hierarchy.
T.A. Runeva, V.I. Kolosnicin, Y.M.
Ryazanov, L.D. Ryazanova, E.V. Royzman and
M.P. Borovik put art characteristics of icon in
the first place, but G.V. Golynez judges from
economic and religious reasons and then forms
stylistic characteristics.
There are no disputes in scientific community
about crisis period and decadence in the Ural icon
painting. All researchers agreed on the point that
since second half of XIX century there was «loss
of creative power». As it is known, the process
of economy reorientation to capitalist regime was
on the way. The Ural lost his leading positions
in metal melting, changes in economic positions
of factories took place and rich clients were lost.
Thus there was a reduction in numbers of icon
workshops, distribution of cheap mechanically
typed icons, assimilation of old-believer style
icon with various Ural icons and imported ones.
G.V. Golynez thinks that Nevian icon painting
experienced some revival at the turn of XIX and
XX century. This revival was the result of the
manifest dated October 17, 1905 which gave civil
rights to the old believers. But Nevian School
would never reach such high level as it did before.
Some professionals had been working until 20s of
XX century; this fact can be proved by the latest
icon «God Almighty», dated April 2, 1919.
Researches agreed on stylistic features of
the Ural icon. Coloristic specificity, as scientists
think, is expressed in decorativeness, active
using of red, green and gold palette: «Coloration
of Nevian icons is notable for decorativeness,
combination of favorite hues of red, «green and
blue palette is rich» (Golynez, 1988, 35). V.I
Baidin, basing on the analysis of Apocalypse
miniature, noted icon influence on miniatures
style, «however gold background is typical
for Nevian icon style» (Baidin 1994, 41). G.V.
Golynez carried out coloristic analysis of icons
and came to the conclusion that «Nevian artists
used complete gold plating very often, sometimes
too excessive» (Golynez, 1988, 35). One of the
features was usage of mineral colors of industry
production: «Nevian artists liked to use colors
obtained from grinding of local minerals into
paste, this method gave a special color effect to
icons» (Ryazanov, 1991, 3). This features were
also noted by N.A. Goncharova, T.A. Runeva,
V.I. Gubkin and V.I. Kolosnicin (Goncharova et
al., 1998, 7-12; Gubkin, 1988, 128-137; 1997, 227231).
The common art features of the Ural oldbeliever icon painting were pointed out by L.D.
Ryazanova: «We know about a lot of icons from
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advanced to simple «of primitive painting style,
which nevertheless can be united according to
sainthood painting workmanship and unique
colored hills» (Ryazanova , 1986, 148). All
researchers pointed out colored hills as the
main feature of this school (Ryazanov, 1991,
3). E.V. Royzman, taking into account results
of exploring dated icons of XVIII century,
singled out «common for all Nevian icons of
XVIII century feature – «pozem» with flowers,
this stylistic element sometimes can be seen in
simplified form in «krasnoufimsk» style icons of
XIX century» (Borovik, 2002, 19).
E.V. Royzman, G.I. Panteleeva, G.V. Golynez
pointed out Ural nature views as attributes of
the Ural old believer icon (Golynez, 2008, 6884; Panteleeva, 1992, 132-137; Interview with
member of State Duma E. Royzman, 2006).
There were singled out two types in personal
painting. G.V. Golynez, taking into account the
analysis of Bogatyrev’s masterpieces, pointed
out special Nevian style of personal painting,
and described it as «lovely, chubby, with broadly
placed, big and slightly popped eyes, swollen
lids; short, straight and scarcely noticeable
humped nose; roundish chin; waved line of
slightly smiled lips with face features brought
together vertically» (Golynez, 1997, 210; 2008,
68-84). Another «expressive» type more often
can be seen in one-figure icon. T.A. Runeva and
V.I. Kolosnicin suppose that the second type of
sainthood prolonged Novgorod’s traditions of
XVII century. Novgorod style marked by «rough,
graphical paint; sharp-cut nose, mouth, chin,
cheekbones; eyes with heavy lower lid, arched
eyebrow, superciliary ridges; wrinkle on the
forehead, light entrance in whiteness» (Runeva et
al., 2000, 361).
Besides, M.P. Borovik and E.V. Royzman
traced evolution stages of «dobogatyrevskaya»
icon formation and built logical circuit as
follows:
1. «oval painting» dated by the beginning of
XVIII century, characterized by north influence;
2. «White sainthood icons» dated by 30s –
50s of XVIII century and existed up to the
beginning of XIX century.
3. «bold painting», the earliest example
dated by 1762, it combines Moscow and north
influence;
4. «krasnoufimsk painting» known from 80s
of XVIII century, can be seen in different types
until the beginning of XX century, differs from
other types by more soft whitening of sainthoods,
width and other dimensions desk ratio and
absence of arks.( Royzman, 2002, 19)
Taking into consideration all mentioned
above, we can state that the main distinguishing
features of the Ural old-believer icon painting,
particularly Nevian icon painting school are:
intensive usage of gold and mineral colors,
decorativeness of color scale, icon hills,
«pozem», Ural area views and white style
sainthood.
The most favorite icon images in old believer
community, as researchers suppose, were images
of Holy Virgin, iconographic type «Tenderness»,
also images of Nicolai Miracle Worker, Ilya
Prophesy especially in «Ilya’s fire ascension»,
Ioan Ancestor, Saint George, and Aleksandr
Nevsky. Image of Panteleimon – Healer became
famous in XIX century.
We should also say that in spite of
conservatism of old believer community, their icon
painting revealed spirits of the new times. That
process was traced by G.V. Golynez, who singled
out successive change of baroque, classicism
and romanticism features in Nevian icon. The
main guides of European style were sons of the
Ukraine, «lived near «kerzhaki» people, Pole and
Swede POWs, foreign specialists who worked in
metallurgic factories. There were also channels
with old believer centre of Poland, Romania and
the Baltic states (Golynez, 1997, 211).
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Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features
Assessment of art nature of the Ural old
believer icon painting became ambiguous. V.I.
Baidin described it as follows: «The Ural old
believer icon is framed in culture phenomenon
known as «primitive» or «the third culture»
which is functioning together and in interaction
with scientific-artistic professionalism and nonprofessional folklore. «Primitive» occurs and
develops in city and city area in the end of XVII
–the beginning of XX century. In specific Russian
social-economical conditions we should add trade
and mining settlements to the nurturing city area
«soil» of «the third culture» (Baidin, 1992, 19).
In this context, a basis for this conclusion was the
V.N. Prokofiev’s conception about three levels
of art culture of the New and the Newest time
(Prokofiev, 1983, 6-28).
G.V. Golynez agreed with the fact that it is
possible to consider the Ural old-believer icon
as the «primitive», but she specified it: «It is
necessary to take into consideration the nature
of the Ural culture which unlike the capital
culture possesses primitive characteristics. In
that very culture, the old believer icon, having
kept mediaeval traditions, turned out to be
more professional and was the example of great
artistry» (Golynez, 1995, 74: 2008, 68-84).
Thus, researchers identify art nature of the
Ural old believer icon painting as the high level
of ‘primitivism’. V.N. Prokofiev wrote about its
multilevelness as follows: «The whole spectrum
of primitive forms, overflowing into each other:
coming nearer to high culture level or to folklore
is in between these opposite borderlines (nonprofessional folklore and scientific-artistic
professionalism – N.T.)» (Prokofiev, 1983, 6-28).
In spite of unprofessional nature of the Ural
old believer icon painting, researchers highly
appreciate its art features. G.V. Golynez defined
its meaning and role as follows: «Studying of
Nevian School proves that it is an important
phenomenon in native art history that enriches
our knowledge about the new time icon painting.
It rose to eminence in artistry in its best days»
(Golynez, 1997, 213). V.G. Puzko pointed out
that «such provincial centers can give a complete
idea about cultural and historical meaning of
old-believer icon as a whole» (Puzko, 2005, 369376).
We can conclude that the problems of
formation time and inner development of the Ural
old believer icon painting are urgent nowadays.
The role of Nevian school in the Ural iconpainting and existence of other icon painting
centers in the Ural area are still undecided. Ya.A.
Rusanov having analyzed the stylistic features of
the South Ural icons came to the conclusion that:
«Researching of Chelyabinsk prayer hall’s icons
of old-believer artists work proves the opinion
that there were icon workshops in the South Ural,
which dealt with different orders» (Rusanov,
2008, 79-84; 2009, 75).
Alongside the problems mentioned above,
there is a set of practical tasks for investigators.
Firstly, conditions of storing of art monuments
need to be carefully examined, because the
ancient technology of icon painting changed in
XVIII – XIX centuries, but materials used in
the New time are not carefully studied. There
is another problem – Nevian school restoration
methods, which are being developed. G.V.
Golynez indicated the way of the following
research work: «Comparison of Nevian face
original with surviving art works, surviving nonsigned and non-dated icons with dated icons, the
Ural region icon painting with painting of other
regions». According to the author, «stylistic and
iconographic experience, obtained by native
science, should coexist with theological thought»
(Golynez, 2008, 84).
In our opinion, complexity of the Ural
old-believer icon painting research is not only
in the lack of data or absence of earlier dated
icons, the methods of research used by this
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or that investigator were highly restrained.
It proved that we need to apply the complex
approach to get good scientific research results
and clear idea of the situation studied. Art
nature of Nevian school needs art review, but
restitution of history of the Ural old-believer
icon-painting development needs historical
methods of research, such as historicalcomparative method and others which help
to restore the real history of the subject, to
show cause-effect links and natural laws of
historical evolution and give individual and
picturesque characteristics of historical events
and personalities.(Kovalchenko, 2003, 184).
References
A.V.Komarov, Icon-painting craft // Zverev P.N. Yekaterinburg region’s crafts. – Yekaterinburg,
1889. P. 113. – (in Russian).
D.N.Mamin-Sibiryak, Articles and Essays. – Sverdlovsk, 1947. P. 260. – (in Russian).
G.V.Golynez, Nevian icon-painting school of the second half of XVIII century -XIX century
and its stylistic features // From history of the Ural art culture. – Sverdlovsk. 1988. P. 31-44. – (in
Russian).
N.V.Trofimova, Problem of stylistic sources of old believer icon-painting in the Ural mining area
in native historiography. Tez.ct. // Scientific search. Social-humanitarian and natural sciences. Scien.
conf. data.- Chelybinsk, 2009. P. 153-156. – (in Russian).
G.V.Golynez, Ural icon // Seasons. Chronicles of Russian art life. Yearbook. M., 1995. P. 74 – (in
Russian).
G.V.Golynez, Gornee and dolnee. Nevian icon-painting school // Picture of the Ural in graphic art.
Yekaterinburg: 2008. P. 68-84. – (in Russian).
G.I.Vzdornov, Praise word for «Nevian icon» museum // Museum «Nevian icon».- Yekaterinburg,
2005. P. 9. – (in Russian).
T.A.Runeva, V.I.Kolosnicin, Nevian icon-painting school // the Ural historical encyclopedia. 2
edition, revised and added. – Yekaterinburg, 2000. P. 361. – (in Russian).
G.I.Panteleeva, Ancient Rus monument. From Chel. art gallery collection. Part 1. Icon-painting.
Chelyabinsk, 2003. P. 11. – (in Russian).
Y.M.Ryazanov, L.D.Ryazanova, Nevian icon: from the beginning to decline // Ural pathfinder.
1999. №. 2. P. 64. – (in Russian).
V.I.Baidin, Articles about icon-painters working at metallurgic factories, the first half – the middle
of XVIII century: new names and new information about artists (concerns the question about sources
and formation time of Nevian icon-painting school) // Herdal of Nevian icon museum. Yekaterinburg,
2002. V.1. P. 81. – (in Russian).
M.P.Borovik, E.V.Royzman, Signed and dated icons of «Nevian icon» museum collection XVIII
century // Herald of Nevian icon museum. Yekaterinburg, 2002. V.2. P. 19. – (in Russian).
Interview with MP E.V.Royzman, who created «Nevian icon» museum // Source http://www.
starover.religare.ru/article6960.html,dated December 23, 2006
G.V.Golynez, Nevian icon: Ancient Rus traditions and context of New time // Nevian icon / edited
by Pervukhina V.I. Yekaterinburg, 1997. P. 209. – (in Russian).
E.V.Royzman, «How it was». «Nevian icon» museum herald. Yekaterinburg, 2002. V.1. P. 16. – (in
Russian).
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Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features
V.I.Baidin, Ways-roads of Paisiy Zavertkin // the Ural pathfinder.1994. №. 3. P.41.
Ryazanov Y.M. Meeting with white faced people // the Ural pathfinder. 1991. №.10. P. 2-3. – (in
Russian).
N.A.Goncharova, T.A.Runeva, O.P.Gubkin, Icon painting legacy of the Ural: sources and ways
of development //the Ural icon. Picturesque, carved and cast icon dated XVIII – the beginning of XX
century.- Yekaterinburg, 1998. P. 7-12. – (in Russian).
O.P.Gubkin, Bogatyrev’s – Nevian artist icon-painters line // From history of the Ural art culture. –
Sverdlovsk., 1988. P. 135. – (in Russian).
O.P.Gubkin, Nevian icon painters the Bogatyrevs and the Chernobrovins // Nevian icon. Album.
Yekaterinburg, 1997. P. 227-231. – (in Russian).
L.D.Ryazanova, »Pisan byst… in nevian factory»//Ural.1986. №. 12. P. 148. – (in Russian).
G.I.Panteleeva, Ancient Rus art collection in Yekaterinburg’s local history museum possession.//
Aancient Russian tradition in the Ural culture: Mat. Scien.-pract. Conference (April 28-30, 1992.) –
Chelyabinsk. 1992. P. 132-137. – (in Russian).
V.I.Baidin, About old-believer icon-painting in metallurgic Ural area, in XVIII – XIX century //
Ancient Russian icon painting tradition in the Ural history. Mat. Scien.-pract. conference (April 28-30,
1992.) – Chelyabinsk. 1992. P. 19. – (in Russian).
V.N.Prokofiev, About three levels of art culture of the New and the Newest time (on the problem
of primitive in graphic arts) // Primitive and its place in art culture of the New and the Newest time.
M., 1983. P. 6-28. – (in Russian).
V.G.Puzko, Orthodox icon as historically-cultural occurrence // Old-believing: history, culture,
modernity / editored by Osipova V.I. M-Borovsk. V. 1. 2005. P. 369-376. – (in Russian).
Ya.A.Rusanov, South Ural monuments of old-believer icon-painting dated by the end of XIX – the
beginning of XX century (according to materials of Kalnin O.G.’s personal collection) // SUSU’s herald.
Series: Social-humanitarian sciences. – Chelyabinsk, 2008. V. 10. № 6. P. 79-84. – (in Russian).
Ya.A.Rusanov, Monuments of old-believes icon-painting in the South Ural. Collection of prayer
home of Chelyabinsk pomor community // SUSU herald. «Socially-humanitarian sciences» series.2009.
V.12. № 9. P. 75. – (in Russian).
I.D.Kovalchenko, Method of historical research. M., 2003. P. 184. – (in Russian).
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Natalia V. Trofimova. Ural Old Believer Icon-painting: Origin, Development, Stylistic Features
Уральское старообрядческое иконописание:
зарождение, эволюция, стилистические особенности
(историографический аспект)
Н.В. Трофимова
Южно-Уральский государственный университет
Россия 454080, Челябинск, пр. Ленина, 76
В статье проведен анализ исследовательских позиций по ряду вопросов в области изучения
древнерусских иконописных традиций Урала. При анализе исследований особое внимание
было уделено их источниковой и методологической основам, что позволило прийти к выводу о
необходимости разработки комплексного подхода для эффективного решения поставленных
проблем.
Ключевые слов: иконопись, старообрядчество, «невьянская школа иконописи».
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 12-18
~~~
УДК 347.964.1
A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems
of Russia and USA
Vitaly V. Boriskin*
Kemerovo State University
6 Krasnaya st., Kemerovo, 650000 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
In this article author makes a comparative analysis of Executory systems of Russia and USA. Author
gives short description of US Marshals and Russian service of officers of justice. Author analyses not
only credentials of each structure? Bit also the way both Marshals and officers of justice use to train
its stuff. In the final part of the article author describes his vision of future of Russian officers of justice
as an executory body, and hopes that at least some part of Marshals experience will be used in this
future.
Keywords: term1: Officers of justice, term2: executory, term3: US Marshals, term4: the new law
«About executory process».
Point
Today United States considers as an example
of a country with the highly developed law system,
beginning with the precedent court system and
to the system of a greatly organized, highly
qualified structure of US Marshals (Walker, 1967;
Romanov, 2000; Mingalin, 2003).
The oldest federal law enforcement agency
in the United States is truly the Marshals Service.
The agency was formed by the Judiciary Act of
Sept. 24, 1789. The act specifically determined
that law enforcement was to be the U.S. Marshals'
primary function. Therefore it appropriately
defined marshals as law enforcement officers.
Section 28 of the Judiciary Act authorizes the
U.S. marshal or deputy marshal to execute
federal judicial writs and process. It also required
sworn personnel and continuity in office. Such
language was designed to give the U.S. marshals
*
1
a wide latitude of powers and the authority to
deputize. The direct connection to the federal
court system indicated the early need to execute
lawful precepts throughout the new nation.
Many of the first U.S. Marshals had already
proven themselves in military service during the
American Revolution (Rosbuck, 2000). Among
the first marshals was John Adams' son-in-law
Congressman William Stephens Smith for the
district of New York. Another New York district
Marshal was Congressman Thomas Morris.
Another early U.S. Marshal was Henry Dearborn
for the district of Maine.
From the earliest days of the nation, Marshals
were permitted to recruit Special Deputies as local
hires or as temporary transfers to the Marshals
Service from other federal law enforcement
agencies. Marshals were also authorized to swear
in a posse to assist them in manhunts and other
Corresponding author E-mail address: vlespodrova@ya.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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duties on an ad hoc basis (Kraig, 2004). Marshals
were given extensive authority to support the
federal courts within their judicial districts, and
to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal
judges, Congress, or the President.
The Marshals and their Deputies served
subpoenas, summonses, writs, warrants, and
other process issued by the courts, made all
the arrests, and handled all federal prisoners.
They also disbursed funds as ordered by the
courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses
of the court clerks, U.S. Attorneys, jurors, and
witnesses. They rented the courtrooms and jail
space and hired the bailiffs, criers, and janitors.
They made sure the prisoners were present, the
jurors were available, and that the witnesses
were on time.
When Washington set up his first
administration and the first Congress began
passing laws, both quickly discovered an
inconvenient gap in the constitutional design of
the government: It had no provision for a regional
administrative structure stretching throughout
the country. Both the Congress and the executive
branch were housed at the national capital; no
agency was established or designated to represent
the federal government's interests at the local
level. The need for a regional organization quickly
became apparent. Congress and the President
solved part of the problem by creating specialized
agencies, such as customs and revenue collectors,
to levy tariffs and taxes, yet there were numerous
other jobs that needed to be done. The only
officers available to do them were the Marshals
and their Deputies.
Thus, the Marshals also provided local
representation for the federal government
within their districts. They took the national
census every decade through 1870. They
distributed Presidential proclamations, collected
a variety of statistical information on commerce
and manufacturing, supplied the names of
government employees for the national register,
and performed other routine tasks needed for the
central government to function effectively. Over
the past 200 years, Congress, the President and
Governors have also called on the Marshals to
carry out unusual or extraordinary missions, such
as registering enemy aliens in time of war, sealing
the American border against armed expeditions
from foreign countries, and at times during the
Cold War, swapping spies with the Soviet Union,
and also retrieving North Carolina's copy of the
Bill of Rights (usmarshals.gov. Retrieved on
2007-01-08).
Particularly in the American West, individual
Deputy Marshals have been seen as legendary
heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness (see
Famous Marshals, below). Marshals arrested the
infamous Dalton Gang in 1893, helped suppress
the Pullman Strike in 1894, enforced Prohibition
during the 1920s, and have protected American
athletes at recent Olympic Games. Marshals
protected the refugee boy Elián González before
his return to Cuba in 2000, and have protected
abortion clinics as required by Federal law. Since
1989, the Marshals Service has been responsible
for law enforcement among U.S. personnel
in Antarctica, although they are not routinely
assigned there.
One of the more onerous jobs the Marshals
were tasked with was the recovery of fugitive
slaves, as required by the Fugitive Slave Act of
1850. They were also permitted to form a posse
and to deputize any person in any community to
aid in the recapture of fugitive slaves. Failure to
cooperate with a Marshal resulted in a $5000 fine
and imprisonment, a stiff penalty for those days.
The Oberlin-Wellington Rescue was a celebrated
fugitive-slave case involving U.S. marshals. James
Batchelder was the second marshal killed in the
line of duty. Batchelder, along with others, was
preventing the rescue of fugitive slave Anthony
Burns in Boston in 1854.
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In the 1960s the Marshals were on the front
lines of the Civil Rights Movement, mainly
providing protection to volunteers. In September
1962, President John F. Kennedy ordered 127
marshals to accompany James Meredith, an
African American who wished to register
at the segregated University of Mississippi.
Their presence on campus provoked riots at
the university, requiring President Kennedy to
federalize the Mississippi National Guard to
pacify the crowd, but the marshals stood their
ground, and Meredith successfully registered.
Marshals provided continuous protection to
Meredith during his first year at «Ole Miss,»
and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy later
proudly displayed a marshal's dented helmet in
his office. U.S. Marshals also protected black
schoolchildren integrating public schools in the
South. Artist Norman Rockwell's famous painting
«The Problem We All Live With» depicted a tiny
Ruby Bridges being escorted by four towering
U.S. marshals in 1964.
Just as America has changed over the past
two centuries, so has its federal justice system –
from the original 13 judicial districts, to 94
districts spanning the continent and beyond;
and with tens of thousands of federal judges,
prosecutors, jurors, witnesses, and defendants
involved in the judicial process. The Marshals
Service has changed with it, not in its underlying
responsibility to enforce the law and execute the
orders issued by the court, but in the breadth of its
functions, the professionalism of its personnel, and
the sophistication of the technologies employed
(Rosbuck, 2000). These changes are made
apparent by an examination of the contemporary
duties of the modern Marshals Service.
Except for suits by incarcerated persons,
non-prisoner litigants proceeding in forma
pauperis, or (in some circumstances) by seamen,
U.S. Marshals no longer serve process in private
civil actions filed in the U.S. district courts. Under
the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, process
may be served by any U.S. citizen over the age
of 18 who is a not a party or an attorney involved
in the case.
Today, almost all federal, local and state
entities in US acknowledge the Marshals Service
as the oldest or first federal law enforcement
agency. Other federal agencies have mistakenly
believed they were the first. However, their
claims fall short when researched in proper
context. Although they had equally important
functions, they were not conceived on the model
of law enforcement at the same time. Today The
United States Marshals Service still executes all
lawful writs, processes, and orders issued under
the authority of the United States, and shall
command all necessary assistance to execute
its duties (Larry D. Ball, 2005). The Marshals
Service occupies a uniquely central position in the
federal justice system. It is involved in virtually
every federal law enforcement initiative.
First mention of officers of justice can be
tracked down all the way to the early Russian
state – Ancient Rus the Pskov and Novgorod
Judicial Deeds (yearly Russian written laws).
These Deeds described a officer of justice as
a powerful figure who represent the power of
state. Next, after some changes were made
the officers of justice (Law reform of 1864).
Officers of justice are now elected by the head
of the local courts after it is “made sure he is
rightful and can perform the necessary actions”
and therefore are part of judicial system. In
such state the organization of officers of justice
existed for more then a half of a centaury, till
the revolutionary 1917 then communist party,
lead by Lenin took the rule of the country.
By the Decree of Soviet Narodnih Deputatov
of 24 November 1917 officers of justice were
dismissed together with courts. The new, Soviet
country needed new law system together with
powerful organizations to enforce these laws.
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There for the courts and officers of justice
were created completely anew with the ideals
of people’s society and communist ideology in
mind. This ideology included the strong believe
in such a bright future, were the necessity
of courts or officers of justice shall become
needless because of the society without money
and without private property have no need for
courts. Therefore courts and officers of justice
were created for a short period of time in order
to sustain order while communism will be build
and it made whose organization both powerful in
case of credentials and weak in case of no long
term plans for it’s existence. In years to come
it become obvious communism is not coming
as soon as it was indented but civil war and the
next WW II, Cold war made the organization of
court system and officers of justice a bit less then
the top priority in the decisions, government
had to face. And so with some changes here
and where, the officers of justice existed until
the early 1990, and the fall of the Soviet Union.
The global change in a country course, the
creation of the market economy demanded court
system with the ability to solve the most hard
economy disputes. 6 of November 1997 with the
acceptation of a law “About the officers of justice
in Russian federation” a new organization were
born (usmarshals.gov. Retrieved on 2007-0108).
Modern Russian system of law enforcement
is made of Russian officers of justice. Today
officers of justice main purpose is to make
sure the courts decisions are made real. So one
can say it is the most important part of Russian
legal system. Although officers of justice, rather
young organization, are already been through
many changes. Russian legislators are trying to
give officers of justice some adequate powers
to enforce the courts decisions, and at the same
way to make them act within legitimate field.
Should Russian legislators use US Marshals as an
example for building up the future of officers in
law, or there is some other way to form a working
system of executing court decisions?
Example
For the most part of its work to executes
all lawful writs, processes, and orders issued
by courts US Marshals cooperate closely with
other enforce organization such as FBI and police
department (Miller, 1999). By stating what US
Marshals command all necessary assistance to
execute its duties means what its getting all the
help it needs. US Marshals is the most respectable
organization in US legal system. In famous
case U.S. vs Rostoff, Marshals kept a close eye
on Rostoff wife and husband and eventually
discovered the illegal scheme they used to hide
their property in order to evade executing court
order (Stumpf, 2002). Discovering such a scheme
is not an easy task and took all the powers Marshals
have in order to expose it. US judicial system is
widely known for its superior efficiency. But this
efficiency provided not only my judges and courts
but this the help of Marshals as well. Americans
know: if you won a case in a court, its decision
will be properly executed. This assurance brings
stability to US economy and social system, and
the stability is the thing Russia needs now most of
all. To execute a court’s judgment can be a really
hard job, cause in some cases court’s judgment
are not only about getting money or property
form one person to another, but also some, rather
unique cases which require to sustain a person
from a certain action etc (Yarkov, 2002). In most
cases US Marshals execute a judgment in the
most strict case possible. It means, if the court’s
decision describes a certain things person has to
do, Marshals have to find a way to make a person
do this.
Let’s take a look at one particularly
interesting case. At the request of the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration, U.S. Marshals seized
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various animal food products stored under
unsanitary conditions at the PETCO Animal
Supplies Distribution Center located in Joliet,
Illinois, pursuant to a warrant issued by a U.S.
district court in Chicago. Marshals seized all
FDA-regulated animal food susceptible to rodent
and pest contamination. The seized products
allegedly violate the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act because they were being held under
unsanitary conditions. (The act uses the term
“unsanitary” to describe such conditions). During
an FDA inspection of a PETCO distribution
center in April, widespread and active rodent and
bird infestation was found. FDA inspected the
facility again in May and found continuing and
widespread infestation (Kraig, 2004).
Russian officers of justice with the powers
they have today can only gather some limited
information about people and commercial
organization who must execute some court orders
or decisions. Of course they have some powers
to execute it themselves, but in most cases such
actions requires if not the initial presence of the
person who must perform action described in
court order or decision at least the solid prove
what this person knows about officers of justice
actions. And getting such prove can be really
hard since it is so easy to evade meeting with
officer of justice. And without powers to search
for whose persons themselves officers of justice
can’t execute court orders of decisions properly.
(Belyakov, 2003). For the most part of Officers
of justice work is a paper work to describe the
necessity of some actions and to warn the people
who ought to perform tasks described in court’s
order or decision of the legal consequences what
they can face in case of disobeying the court’s
order. But warnings made real are fewer then less
and this calls for offenders to continue ignore the
court’s decision. Let’s take a look at one particular
example of how this system works. A person
won a civil case about a treaty of an immovable
property rent and now has a court decision to
get the immovable property he once gave to the
rent back. Officers of justice upon receiving such
order start an executive case and informs debtor
about this case. Officer of justice can’t perform
the necessary actions to get the property back
himself, because the court decision says what
debtor must return the property himself. And
so the long and painful process of finding the
debtor begins. The information about possible
location of debtor officer of justice can ask from
burro of addresses or the court, which made the
dissection, and if the debtor was smart enough
to avoid ever showing up in known places. Since
officer of justice can’t inform the debtor about the
executive case he has no other option to execute
the court decision therefore the immovable
property remained in debtor’s possession. After
more then half a year and only with the active
help of the person, who was most interested in
execution of this dissection – the owner of the
immovable property, were this court decision
executed. In order to do so the owner took the
responsibility for finding the debtor into himself
and were almost 24 hours a day waiting for debtor
at his known place in order to inform debtor
about executive case himself, instead of officer
of justice. After the debtor were formally aware
of the executive case the officer of justice were
able to return the immovable property back to
the owner without the debtor, since he had prove
that debtor were aware of the executive case and
refused to cooperate. So the hardest part were
to inform the debtor of the executive case, and
officer of justice would never do it himself, since
he has a legal right to keep a look-out for people.
For this reason there are so many undone
court orders and decisions and its number grows
with each year. It is said what modern and
democratic society can’t exist without the proper
court system and Russian worked hard to build
own. (Maslenkov, 2004). Nowadays the court
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system itself functions very effectively and every
months more and more Russian citizens prefer
to decide their argues in courts. But all this is
useless until court orders and decisions will meet
proper execution and Russian officers of justice
require some serious changes in order to do it.
Resume
As you can see, these two organizations –
US Marshals and Russian officers of justice have
the same purpose, but very different powers and
methods to do it. Of course one can’t say that
Russian needs to take US Marshals for an example
and reform officers of justice in its liking, since
Russia as a country and as a legal system has
many interesting and unique features. These
features are mostly the legacy of its totalitarian
past. In the past Russian already created many
powerful enforce organizations and today, while
trying to build a free and democratic society,
creating another such powerful organization with
powerful methods of operating is not such a great
idea. Together with stabilizing the procedure of
executing court decisions Russia needs to draw
a hard line of how far officers of justice can
go chasing their just cause, and giving them
the powers of US Marshals is not the best way.
Russia needs to follow its own way in this matter,
and what it will be is hard to say right now. But
the need for such change is desperate indeed.
The one way, which seems most reasonable and
appropriate, is to widen little bit the officers of
justice credentials give them at least some way
to look for debtors not only on a paper, but in
real life as well. Some say what giving them a
credentials rather suitable for a intelligence or
organ of domestic affairs will hurt civil rights,
but they forget, what the court system, which
does not work can hurt civil rights much more.
The credentials, which should be given to the
officers of justice we mean not the ability to read
people mail or tap the phone or bug the office, no,
what we suggest is the credentials to ask around,
or keep a look-out for debtors. This part of US
Marshals credentials can be essential in the work
of Russian officers of justice as well, by drawing
a hard line of what officers of justice can and
cannot with the new credentials do we will make
sure the continuing development of Russia as a
country with the stable, civil democratic system.
References
L. D. Ball, The united states marshals of New-Mexico and Arizona territories 1846-1912 (Lansing:
Michigan University, 2005), 17.
А. М. Belyakov, «Officers of justice: criminal inquiry», Law and right, 12 (2003), in Russian.
R. Ernst, G. Stumpf, Deadly affairs (New York: Phaidon, 2002), 236-264.
S. Kraig, Court security officer (New York: Phaidon, 2004), 47-64.
C. C. Miller, The U.S. Marshals Service (Des Moines: Drake University, 1999), 183-196.
S. L. Maslenkov, «Inquiry in criminal procedure in modern Russia: problems of perfection»,
(Nijniy Novgorod: University Press, 2004), in Russian.
N. Mingalin, «Who has the right to prosecute an inquiry in Russian officers of justice service?»,
World of justice, 2 (2003), in Russian.
А. К. Romanov, Law system in England (Moscow: Affair, 2000), in Russian.
D. Rosbuck, Work check-up, or how to execute the sentence? (Boise, 2000), 186-201.
United States Marshals Service: Historical Perspective (usmarshals.gov. Retrieved on 2007-01-08)
М. G. Walker, R. J. Walker, The English legal system (London, 1967).
V. V. Yarkov, Officer of justice hand book, (Мoscow: Bek Izdatelstvo, 2002), in Russian.
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Vitaly V. Boriskin. A Comparative Analysis of Executory Systems of Russia and USA
Сравнительный анализ систем исполнения
судебных решений США и Российской Федерации
В.В. Борискин
Кемеровский государственный университет
Россия 650043, Кемерово, ул. Красная, 6
В статье проводится сравнительный анализ систем исполнения судебных решений в США
и Российской Федерации, дается краткая характеристика Федеральной службы судебных
приставов России и службы судебных Маршалов США. Автор анализирует не только
полномочия каждой структуры, но также даёт характеристику подходу каждой из этих
структур к формированию своего аппарата.
Ключевые слова: судебные приставы-исполнители, Закон «Об исполнительном производстве»,
служба Судебных Маршалов США, новый Закон «Об исполнительном производстве».
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 19-28
~~~
УДК 940
Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia
in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin
Oleg S. Safronov*
Military Aviation Engineering University (Voronezh)
54а Old Bolsheviks st., Voronezh, 394064 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
Given clause is devoted to the analysis of debatable themes of history of medieval Russia in treatment
of the ideologist of the anarchy-communism, outstanding scientist P.A. Kropotkin. It is noted, that the
ideologist anarchism estimated social movements only positively as saw in them permanent struggle of
people against the state. It is investigated, that he considered the period of formation of the centralized
state a stage of occurrence of «government». Up to XV-XVI centuries, in his opinion, in Russia existed
the period of «free cities».
Keywords: Kropotkin, anarchism, historical sights, Russia.
Introduction
Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin in spite of the
fact that about forty years has lived far from the
native land, constantly studied history and closely
watched events of modern Russia. In opinion
S.Slatter, P.A.Kropotkin « … was interested in
social problems and everything that referred to
them » (Slatter, 1995, P. 143). Close perusal of
performances, reports, clauses and letters of the
theorist of anarchism shows presence at his to the
original historical concept. Meanwhile, we about
it do not know. A considerable role to hushing
up of his historical concept the governments
as imperial Russia and Soviet state have
played. States the ideology of the governments
did not allow to investigate P.A.Kropotkin
antiauthoritative doctrine. P.A.Kropotkin has not
left after himself product in which his sights at
all historical events of Russia would be regularly
*
1
stated. In this connection his interpretations
of historical events of the country which were
kept in archives and book funds are resulted and
analyzed. Considerable aid for disclosing outlook
of P.A.Kropotkin has rendered his monographers
«Ideals and the validity in the Russian literature»,
and also «Mutual aid among animals and people
as the engine of progress». His memoirs of «Note
of the revolutionary» had great value also. His
clause «Russian revolutionary party» is devoted
to specially emancipating movement in Russia.
Concerning history of Russia and emancipating
movement in Russia was possible to find in
P.A.Kropotkin’s separate statements in products
«Great French revolution 1789-1793», «Bread and
Will», «Modern science and anarchy», «Ethics:
the origin of morals».
It is necessary to note, that studying of a
scientific and political heritage of P.A.Kropotkin
Corresponding author E-mail address: istoruss@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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has begun in the beginning of XX century. Since
then special interest of scientists and politicians
causes his the concept antistateism. The scientific
and political heritage of the ideologist of the
Russian anarchism draws to itself attention
as domestic (Ermashova, 1967; Baranchenko,
1995), and foreign researchers (Cai, 1992; Sakon,
1992). It is necessary to note, that basically,
were studied his political (Blauberg, 1991; La
Torre, 1993), philosophical (Hamilton, 1964),
legal sights, and also the biographic facts of
many-sided activity of the ideologist anarchism
(Danilov, 1976; Slatter, 1994). Researchers have
analyzed a significant part of questions of the
anarchical doctrine and the theory of revolution
of P.A.Kropotkin (Zateev, 2003), have tried
to estimate his political (Pirumova, 1991) and
ethical views (Mkrtichan, 1992; Kinna, 1995).
At the same time, the theme of history of our
country and emancipating movement in Russia
in P.A.Kropotkin’s estimation was not analyzed
at all. E.V.Starostin marking is absolutely right,
that «Clauses and books Kropotkin’s in which he,
anyhow, mentioned history of Russia, features
of its historical way, history of revolutionary
movement, etc., did not become a subject of close
studying» (Starostin, 2005, P. 10).
As a whole, historical sights of an
outstanding thinker of anarchical ideology
have not received due attention from scientistshistorians. V.A.Markin is absolutely right
wrote «However not all the parties of extensive
creative heritage Kropotkin’s are known
equally» (Markin, 1993, P. 154). Meanwhile,
the detailed analysis of historical views of the
ideologist Russian anarchism will promote an
intensification of process of accumulation of
historical knowledge. In connection with the
special interest shown by a modern society to
the decision of historical problems, the objective
analysis of historical sights of P.A.Kropotkin is
the ripened problem.
It is necessary to note, that P.A.Kropotkin
has started to form the historical concept on the
certain basis. The big influence on formation of his
sights on medieval history of Russia was rendered
by the ancestor Russian anarchism Michael
Aleksandrovich Bakunin. In this connection,
in clause are analyzed not only P.A.Kropotkin’s
sights, but also the basic positions of the anarchist
historical concept developed by M.A.Bakunin.
The point of view
P.A.Kropotkin as well as the founder of
Russian anarchism M.A.Bakunin began history
of Russia with the period of the Kiev Russia.
Considering history of Russia for a long time
(till the period of formation of any government),
M.A.Bakunin correctly marks, that «Slavs were
on advantage a tribe peace and agricultural»
(Bakunin, 1989, P. 330). He considered, that
during this historical period Slavs had a brotherly
communication of tribes, «operated, on patriarchal
custom old men … they had no and did not know
nobility, had no even with itself a caste of priests,
everyone were equal between themselves»
(Bakunin, 1989, P. 330-331). Idealizing mentality
of Slavic people, M.A.Bakunin considered, that
peaceable disposition inherent in them has led to
that «Slavs have been partly exterminated, big
a part are subdued by Turks, Tatars, Magyars,
and mainly Germans» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 331).
Therefore, in opinion М.А. Bakunin, «from
second half X of century» for Slavs « begins
the martyr history of their slavery, but not only
martyr, together with heroic» (Bakunin, 1989,
P. 331). M.A.Bakunin emphasized the term
«heroism» in relation to Slavs as considered, that
they, having got in dependence, persistently and
tirelessly struggled for freedom not regretting the
blood.
The ideologist of anarchism allocated too
a greater role during genesis of the state to the
foreign policy factor. «It is doubtless, – proved
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M.A.Bakunin, – that Slavs never by itself, their
initiative of the state did not compose. Instead
of they composed it because never were an
aggressive tribe. Only people aggressive create
the state and create it to by all means itself in
favor of, to the detriment of subdued people»
(Bakunin, 1989, P. 330).
M.A.Bakunin, characterizing the period
of feudal dissociation, absolutely fairly marks
presence of intestine wars which conducted
Russian princes. And, the ideologist of anarchism
marks, that intestine wars weakened ancient
Russia, therefore «this torn apart internal
difference of opinions the complex of large and
fine princedoms has easily been crushed in fight
on Kalka Tatars (on May, 31st, 1223) which have
subordinated all to an identical yoke» (Bakunin,
1935, P. 410).
Peter Alekseevich did not allocate time of
existence of the uniform state the Kiev Russia
and a stage of feudal dissociation. It wrongly
considered that in the ancient period of Russian
history the principle of federalism was prevailing.
«To Russia these traces, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, –
unfortunately, have disappeared, as destruction
of independent cities-republics has begun in XIII
century, with the Mongolian invasion. They have
held on till XV century only in Novgorod, Pskov,
their suburbs and their northeast colonies (Vyatka,
etc.) » (Kropotkin, 1979, P. 147). Therefore
P.A.Kropotkin has been assured, that the Old
Russian state represented a network of independent
city communities which have been incorporated
by only homogeneous ethnos, territory, language,
trade. In the rest these grounds were absolutely
sovereign. However, these cities-republics coped
princes, but their could choose. Time of their
existence – X-XII centuries (Kropotkin, 1907,
P. 17). P.A.Kropotkin drew a parallel with the
West-European cities-republics (Kropotkin, 1907,
P. 19). He considered, that owing to a principle
of imitation medieval cities «adopted each other
political, religious and economic movements and
them «charters of liberties» (Kropotkin, 1992,
P. 21). He estimated the Kiev Russia according
to the general historical sights. It is necessary
to agree with A.A.Mkrtichyan’s judgment, that
« Russia he (i.e. Kropotkin. – О.S.) included in
a modern western civilization … So, was not,
on his (Kropotkin. – О.S.) to opinion, the states
in the medieval Europe» (Mkrtichyan, 1991,
P. 53). Business in that, the Old Russian state in
P.A.Kropotkin’s general historical scheme is the
period of free city communities.
In the given period, in P.A.Kropotkin’s
opinion, a legal proceeding has been based on a
principle of equivalent punishment for harmed.
This principle has integrally entered into a life
of people during primitive or wild communities.
In the period of rural communities, considered
P.A.Kropotkin, the given principle became a
basis of the sanction of social contradictions.
The principle of punishment existed in the form
of «patrimonial revenge, payment for harmed, –
wrote Peter Alekseevich, – established in an
epoch of communities» (Kropotkin, 1990, P. 8).
Peter Alekseevich considered that during
the period of free city community’s ethical
categories of mutual aid and solidarity have
most brightly proved. A.I.Rakutov written is
absolutely right: «All history of a human society,
according to Kropotkin, is history of mutual aid
and as its carrier is people the history is creativity
of broad masses, there is a creativity of mainly
moral maintenance» (Rakutov, 1975, P. 66). With
this statement N.M.Pirumova agrees also, who
considered that «scientifically proved was the
idea of mutual aid and the solidarity, become key
position his (i.e. Kropotkin. – О.S.) the social
theory» (Pirumova, 1992, P. 20). Researchers
of creativity of P.A.Kropotkin, B.S.Itenberg
and T.Sasaki, bearing in mind the doctrine
about mutual aid, considered, that it «was one
of elements Populist philosophies of the history
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which has born as a result of connection of ideas
of communal socialism with Darwinism and love
to people» (Itenberg, Sasaki, 1994, P. 84).
P.A.Kropotkin, developing M.A.Bakunin
idea, considered, that, the period of free cities
X-XII of centuries is replaced by XV century
by a stage of the state. Quite right researchers
V.I.Prokopenko and V.P.Ponomareva have noted,
that «Concept of the state he (i.e. P.A.Kropotkin. –
О.S.) considers not through a prism of a civil
society, and as the form of an inequality
between people, as means of restriction of the
rights and freedom of citizens to please to a
ruling clique» (Prokopenko, Ponomareva, 1994,
P. 24). P.A.Kropotkin idealized Middle Ages
as blossoming free city communities then have
reached. However capture by the government
of cities-republics has forced his to compare a
policy hostage with «the worst from time to time
the Middle Ages and religious wars» (Quotation
on: Pirumova, 1989, P. 30). In his opinion,
actually the state is wine in social contradictions,
in this connection, to the state P.A. Kropotkin
gave «special attention, as to a source of wars
and monopolies» (Kropotkin, 1995, P. 151).
M.A.Bakunin correctly recognizes a main
role of Moscow during association of Russian
princedoms. The ideologist of anarchism quite
fairly marks, that Moscow princes, during the
first stage of unifying process, have refused idea
to combat against Mongols. They «played a role
of the most devoted subject Tatar khans and have
managed by flattery and groveling soon to achieve
something like a role khans agents above Russian
princes by virtue of which they should collect a
tribute and have been recognized by arbitrators
in internal princely contentions» (Bakunin, 1935,
P. 410).
M.A.Bakunin considered that in origin of the
state centralization in Russia admission Moscow
princes and the Mongolian yoke. Moscow princes
aspired, in fair opinion of the ideologist of
anarchism, to enrichment, to authority. However
the Mongolian khans were not going to share
the authority. Therefore Moscow princes used
diplomatic dodges to strengthen the influence, not
resorting to the open opposition with Mongolian
khans. However not only Moscow princes were
admission in the state centralization. Russian
people, which image was idealize M.A.Bakunin,
has agreed, in his opinion, to centralization
«being is induced, so to say, by a presentiment of
the great future forthcoming it» (Bakunin, 1935,
P. 394).
People were under double oppression,
correctly considered the ideologist of anarchism,
under burden of princes and Mongols. But to
struggle with two enemies simultaneously it was
impossible, considered M.A.Bakunin. Therefore
people, in opinion of the ideologist of anarchism,
instinctively helped to become stronger Moscow
princes. The introduction of Golden Horde
during feudal dissociation also promoted clearing
of the Mongolian yoke, quite right marked
M.A.Bakunin. Finally, the aspiration of grand
dukes to the authority, supported by people on
the one hand and feudal dissociation of Mongols
favorable for Moscow with another, has come
to the end safely «at Ivan’s III and IV (Terrible)
with 1462 for 1584 by a gain of Novgorod, Pskov
and other cities by full rout of princely sorts»
(Bakunin, 1935, P. 410-411).
At the same time M.A.Bakunin fairly marked
persistent struggle of Great Novgorod, Pskov and
other areas against domination of the Moscow
princes. Association of Russian grounds around
of Moscow has led to a basic change of political
value of this city and great Moscow princes.
P.A.Kropotkin correctly considered that
process of occurrence of the centralized state was
affected with a number of circumstances. The
ideologist of anarchism could understand that
the factor of external influence was prevailing,
i.e. influence of a mongolo-tatar yoke has caused
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aspiration of Russian people to be released from
it. Except for external, Peter Alekseevich allocates
the large reasons of internal development,
namely – a role of church and princely authority.
In P.A.Kropotkin’s erroneous opinion, priests
and princes, having taken advantage of difficult
position of Russian people, have undertaken
strengthening own authority (Kropotkin, 1907,
P. 19). And in XV century ostensibly the federal
principle of development was replaced by the
centralized principle (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38).
P.A.Kropotkin marked that since XV century
it is possible to speak about autocracy, but not
earlier (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 291). According to
his general historical theory of development, is
time of change of the period of free cities a stage
of the state XV century.
In Peter Alekseevich opinion, the period
of the state was characterized by process
of strengthening of authoritative authority
(Kropotkin, 1907, P. 22). M.A.Bakunin considered,
that oprichnina has occurred from the silent
sanction of people which did not love boyars that
they remained rough and severe misters. «Such
by, – wrote M.A.Bakunin in «Russian affairs»
(a picture of modern position)», – they promoted
the destruction as in people the love to the tsars
who have released it from Tatars was still strong,
and diplomacy of Russian grand dukes has found
the most resolute expression in Ivan Terrible»
(Bakunin, 1935, P. 411).
The general feature of reforms of Ivan Terrible
is their anti boyars orientation. Proclaiming
reforms, Ivan’s IV government represented them
as actions, which purpose consist in liquidating
consequences of seigniorial board and to
strengthen economic and political positions of
those social groups, whose interests it expressed
and on which leaned, noblemen, landowners and
tops city. «Hiding own aspiration to unlimited
authority and to strengthening the power, – wrote
M.A.Bakunin, – under mask cares of people, it at
triumph of the last in weights destroyed tyrantsboyars and thus has strengthened the authority
terror and love» (Bakunin, 1935, P. 411). In Ivan
Terrible M.A.Bakunin was involved with personal
qualities as the reformer, but, as a matter of fact,
to his reforms he disapproved.
P.A.Kropotkin correctly considered, that
oprichnina was means which was used by tsar
Ivan Terrible for strengthening the power. As a
result the nobility has lost a significant part of
the influence. It also truly saw Ivan Terrible tsar
unite Russian grounds in a uniform monarchy.
However activity of the first Russian tsar Peter
Alekseevich wrongly represented, as the final,
resolute effort undertaken by princely authority
for destruction of last displays of a principle of
federalism, existed during the period of free
cities. Ivan’s IV campaign to Novgorod was most
a bright example of this struggle. Therefore Ivan
Terrible Peter Alekseevich realized only the
suppressor of the last of «the center of freedom».
In Peter Alekseevich opinion, despite of
process of strengthening of authoritative authority,
in XVI century freedom-loving, anarchical
movement of people was observed also. According
to the belief, P.A.Kropotkin considered as motive
power of historical progress not the state and
tsars, as representatives of the state historical
school, and broad masses (Kropotkin, 1907,
P. 38). Therefore he named N.M.Karamzin – the
reactionary historian-statesman who sees only a
role of the state (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38). In this
connection, P.A.Kropotkin quite legally marked,
that in business of connection of Siberia a main
role has played national colonization of edge
(Kropotkin, 1907, P. 38).
Here it is necessary, obviously to mention
cardinal idea in Kropotkin concepts of historical
development. P.A.Kropotkin emphasized, that
except for egoistical aspiration of a ruling class
exists also mutual aid of broad masses. Historical
development passes at struggle of these resisting
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aspirations. But P.A.Kropotkin considered
that class struggle is the reason of historical
development. He has been assured, that at
anarchical communism the egoistical aspiration
of «chiefs» will disappear and there will be only a
mutual aid of broad masses. Proceeding from the
given postulate, Peter Alekseevich considered,
that national colonization of Siberia has occurred
because of altruism of people. By virtue of
natural kindness Russian peasants peacefully
colonized Siberia, not restraining interests of
local population. «… In Siberia, the European
settlement has been stopped in the movement
along a southern fertile strip by strong native
tribes, – wrote P.A.Kropotkin, – … similarly to
conquerors of Siberia, which have moved at first
to the Yakut area to avoid collisions with strong
tribes the Buryat, and have entered the Amur area
from the north» (Quotation on: Luzyanin, 1994,
P. 237). And only on already blazed road the state
connection and nationalization of Siberia has
gone. Egoistical aspirations of tsar and noblemen
have led to planting of authority of «chiefs» on
connection of territory.
Characterizing the beginning of XVII
century, P.A.Kropotkin as well as M.A.Bakunin,
marks the period of Vague time. M.A.Bakunin
absolutely fairly marks struggle of a Russian
Zemstvoes against the Polish king, Jesuits, the
Moscow boyars. However he continues this
number and considers, that during the Great
Distemper there was a war «and in general against
prevalence of Moscow» (Bakunin, 1989, P. 332).
M.A.Bakunin always highly estimated Russian
people masses.
Including it struggle for freedom, the
ideologist of anarchism fondly believed, that the
national home guard 1611 – «it was true revolt
of people masses against tyranny of the Moscow
state, boyars and church. The power of Moscow
has been broken and the released Russian
provinces have sent then the deputies who though
have chosen new tsar, but have forced it to accept
the known conditions limiting its authority»
(Bakunin, 1920, P. 106). M.A.Bakunin marks,
that Michael Romanov’s election on a throne
passed with the conditions limiting his authority.
Quite fairly spoke M.A.Bakunin about end of
process of enslaving of peasants in XVII century.
In his opinion, peasants were free even before the
Mongolian invasion. During the Mongolian yoke
peasants still were free since feudal dissociation
did not allow princes to be united in struggle
against freedom of grain-growers. And only
owing to strengthening position of the Moscow
state to which was promoted by joint activity
of the Moscow princes, boyars and hierarchs of
church, «people great Russian, free up to the end
of 16 centuries, has suddenly appeared attached to
the ground, and all over again actually, and then
and has legally become the slave to mister – the
proprietor of the ground, granted to it the state»
(Bakunin, 1920, P. 106).
In Peter Alekseevich opinion, process of
strengthening of the government also has been
expressed and in enslaving peasants. Concerning
serfdom P.A.Kropotkin spoke the following. He
correctly considered that enslaving of peasants
was the long phenomenon which could not be
made less than one imperial decree. The serfdom
did not exist in independent republics (X-XII
centuries), it began to be entered simultaneously
with strengthening the centralized state. In Peter
Alekseevich fair opinion, Moscow princes for
conquest of the next princedoms and for clearing
of a mongolo-tatar yoke military force was
required. It could be generated only on basis of
patrimonial facilities (Kropotkin, 1907, P. 292).
And the last existed on the basis of forced labor
of peasants. Thus, the need for strengthening
military power has led to the serfdom (Kropotkin,
1907, P. 19).
Final enslaving of peasants, Peter
Alekseevich not absolutely truly specified, has
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been carried out during Michael Romanov’s board
(Kropotkin, 1907, P. 22). Chronologically process
of introduction of the serfdom, in P.A.Kropotkin’s
opinion, was designated since XIII century – in
Moscow a princedom, since XV century – in
Russian state and till XVII century. As it was
already spoken, Peter Alekseevich marked, that
process of formation of the centralized state
has been caused only by egoistical instincts of
princes and churches which aspired to capture of
authority. The serfdom has arisen because of need
for the military force necessary princes. Therefore
P.A.Kropotkin represented process of enslaving
of peasants by generation of the state epoch. And
it was one more argument strengthened his belief
that the state bears one harm.
Conclusion
Thus,
P.A.Kropotkin
as
well
as
M.A.Bakunin, analyzed debatable questions of
Russian history from an anarchical position. It
is necessary to note, that M.A.Bakunin political
and philosophical sights have influenced his
interpretation of the basic events of history of
Russia. The ideologist of anarchism gave special
attention to popular uprisings. He considered as
the main reason of country performances hatred
of people against the state system as a whole.
In M.A.Bakunin opinion, the state appears in
history of Russia only in XV-XVI centuries.
Till this period people lived freely, without
the serfdom and the state pressure. Peter I, in
his opinion, has strengthened the government,
having added «the western bureaucracy».
People, the ideologist of anarchism considered,
repeatedly tried to dump hated authority of the
state, but Stepan Razin and Yemelyan Pugachev
attempts have not crowned success. Only in
XIX century Decembrists have woken a public
idea. М.А. Bakunin considered, that only to
association of efforts of radical youth and a
national revolutionary spirit there can be a fi nal
clearing of authority of the state.
As a whole, the general estimations of
ideologists of Russian anarchism on many
key questions of history of Russia are traced.
In particular, they considered the period of
formation of the centralized state the period
of formation of «government». Up to XV-XVI
centuries, in their opinion, in Russia existed the
period of «free cities». Only Ivan III and Ivan
Terrible have won free cities and have destroyed
bases of a free life.
In the further, in the Russian history,
ideologists of anarchism considered, there
was a strengthening a position of the state
due to reduction of freedom of broad masses.
Introduction of the serfdom was significant step
on a way of strengthening of a position of the
state and an exclusive class.
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43. Slatter S. P.A.Kropotkin’s letters to professor James Mejvoru. 1903-1917 // Historical archive.
1995. №1. P. 143, in Russian.
44. Starostin Е.V. P.A.Kropotkin – the historian of Russia // Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin and problems
of modeling of historical and cultural development of a civilization: materials international
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The Bulletin Buryat un-ty. Ser. 5, Philosophy, sociology, political science. Ulan-Ude, 2003. Issue
7. P. 153-169, in Russian.
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Oleg S. Safronov. Debatable Themes Histories of Medieval Russia in Treatment P.A. Kropotkin
Спорные темы в истории средневековой России
в трудах П.А. Кропоткина
О.С. Сафронов
Воронежский военный авиационный инженерный университет
Россия 394064, Воронеж, ул. Старых Большевиков, 54 а
Данная статья посвящена анализу спорных тем в истории средневековой России в трудах
идеолога анархического коммунизма, выдающегося ученого П.А. Кропоткина. Отмечено, что
идеолог анархизма оценивал социальные движения только положительно, так как видел в
них постоянную борьбу народа против государства. Исследовано, что он считал период
образования централизованного государства этапом зарождения «правительства». По его
мнению, до XV-XVI веков в России существовал период «свободных городов».
Ключевые слова: Кропоткин, анархизм, исторические события, Россия.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 29-36
~~~
УДК 316.7
Construction of Cultural Identity
in the National Internet Space
Alexei D. Krivolap*
European Humanities University
12 Tauro g., Vilnius, LT-01114 Lithuania 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
The article deals with social aspects of development and cultural assimilation of Internet technologies
in Belarus. The first national domain .by appeared in Belarus 15 years ago and since then the Internet
has been developed greatly from an experimental technology available only at research institutes
to one of the key communication channels. One of the reasons for writing this article is the desire to
ground the possibility for national segments to exist on the global Internet web not only in the national
language, in general, but the Belarusian segment, in particular, as well as to clarify the mechanisms
aimed to develop national identity by means of Internet technologies.
Keywords: cultural studies, Internet, cultural identity, representation, cyberspace
Point
Each society has its peculiar way of
assimilation and application of «neutral»
technologies. And there can be a variety of
answers to the question about the fact, how the
use of the Internet can be integrated into the
existing social relations. How the concepts of
distance and social space are generally changing
while new social and cultural relations emerge
and transform the existing ones. As mainly at
this level we can discuss the influence and use
of the Internet in the process of cultural identity
development. Hereby it is important to clarify
the issue of correlation between the Internet and
identity, where at least two possibilities may be
singled out:
1. The Internet is a tool helping to develop
cultural identity(ies), i.e. on-line technologies are
used to influence off-line practices.
*
1
2. The Internet is the space where one
can acquire its new identity, new self, i.e. it is a
new dimension of social reality, where one can
perform a great deal of potentialities, which are
impossible to fulfill in other spaces.
The present article is focused on the first
possibility, which interprets the Internet as a tool
aimed to develop one’s identity.
The problems existing in the national Internet
spaces are sufficiently global: from the attempts
to clarify the issues of its possible existence in
principle to difficulties relevant to opposition
against power intending to control information
space. While «Ru-Net» has been the object of
research for a long time, other national Internet
spaces remain uninvestigated.
However, before discussing the Belarusian
Internet space it should be clarified, what «RuNet» is and how one can briefly determine
Corresponding author E-mail address: alexei.krivolap@ehu.lt
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
the boundaries of the concept «Ru-Net». May
websites in the domain .RU be referred to «RuNet» or may this notion include all websites in
Russian? Within the frames of this article the term
«Ru-Net» shall be used in accordance with the
definition suggested by Schmidt and Teubener:
«The boundaries that confine this assumed ‘RuNet’ may be accordingly language, technology,
territory, cultural norms, traditions or values and
political power» (Schmidt and Teubener, 2006:
14).
Is there something that is common for
developers of national Internet resources, which
allows them to feel the community of their
identities? In order to discuss local national and
cultural phenomena of the Internet use we would
focus on the consumers of this local information.
At this point it would be appropriate to use the
comparison with the phenomenon of printing
capitalism and its influence on emergence of
national states with the development of national
Internet spaces as local communities: «It (the
community) is imaginary, since the members of
even the smallest nation would never get to know
the majority of their brothers-in-nation, meet
with them or even hear of them, while the image
of their community would be present in the mind
of each such member» (Anderson, 2001: 31).
It is logical to ask, in what way cyberspace
may be independent and autonomous from
national states? On the one hand, it can be
explained by the famous text «Declaration of
the Independence of Cyberspace»: «Cyberspace
consists of transactions, relationships, and
thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in
the web of our communications. Ours is a world
that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is
not where bodies live [...] Our identities have no
bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by
physical coercion. We believe that from ethics,
enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal,
our governance will emerge. Our identities may
be distributed across many of your jurisdictions»
(Barlow, 1996).
However, declaring the independence of
supranational cyberspace does not mean avoiding
interventions on behalf of national states. We can
mention attempts of national states to control
and govern civil relations on the Internet: «The
general technique of controlling information
intermediaries has extraordinary potential.
Consider how often you rely not just on search
engines to find information but also on blogs,
online newspapers, and other intermediaries that
point you in the direction of useful information. It
is one thing for government to crack down openly
on forbidden information. But it can be harder to
notice that information has become more difficult
to find. It is hard, in other words, to know what
you don’t know» (Goldsmith and Wu, 2006:
75-76). As well as manifestations of global
censorship, restrictions, which are far beyond the
limits of national states and become worldwide
phenomena: «A number of other countries were
found to be engaged in less pervasive forms of
Internet filtering, typically concentrated around
a single content area or contentious Internet
service. For example, in addition to blocking some
gambling and pornographic sites, ISPs in South
Korea block access to all websites related to North
Korea. India blocks access to websites related to
extremist and militant groups, particularly those
associated with Hindu and Islamic extremism. A
number of Middle Eastern and Gulf Countries,
including Syria, Jordan, UAE, Bahrain, and
Saudi Arabia, block access to the entire Israeli
(.il) domain» (Deibert, 2009: 327-328).
Herewith, disciplining and teaching users
may be carried out by means of creating cultural
images. For instance, we may mention an
intention to upgrade computer skills and improve
informational culture. The mechanism of
individual virtual socialization may be discovered
through the meaning of the term «informational
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Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
culture»: «By the term community informational
culture we shall mean steady forms of behavior in
the informational space, the forms being accepted
by the majority of members of the given virtual
collective» (Konstantinov, 2008: 527-258).
The role and influence of new media,
in general and the Internet, in particular on
development of cultural identity and their place
in national and cultural projects is attracting
attention of more and more researchers in the field
of cultural studies. A number of hypotheses have
been suggested in the process of research project
planning, validity of which shall be verified in the
course of the present research work:
1. No national «Internets» exist in
Belarus and Ukraine (they exist only in
Northern Korea and Cuba, but they are
rather common «Intranets»). It would
be possibly more appropriate to state
national peculiarities of assimilation of
new communication technologies and
cultural legitimate application forms of
the latter.
2. Belarusian Internet space forms and
considerably identifies «Ru-Net» and this
may be regarded as cultural colonization
and re-experiencing cultural dependence
on soviet cultural practices.
3. Russian-language space does not equal to
«Ru-Net». It is much broader than Russian
user-oriented websites and includes a
variety of resources irrelevant to Russian
users.
4. Cultural dependence of national Internet
spaces on «Ru-Net» exist in human
consciousness and is relevant not only
to the Internet, but also to any other
communication practices.
However, in spite of the general level of
development of theoretical Internet problems,
classification and typology of its national
segments has not been duly elaborated.
Example
The present article is based on the results
of the research project «Development of national
identity in the countries of Eastern European
Borderland (Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova)
on the Internet», which has been successfully
implemented in 2006-2007 within the frames
of the program «Social transformations at the
Borderland (Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova)
administered by the Center for Advanced Studies
and Education.
The object of the research shall be the
Belarusian segment of the global Internet web as
a social and cultural phenomenon in its historical
perspective.
The subject shall apply to the practices of
cultural identity development in the process of
representation by using Internet technologies.
The aim of the project is to conceptualize of
the mechanisms and strategies of cultural identity
development by means of Internet technologies.
The named aim is supposed to be achieved upon
accomplishment of the following tasks:
1. to determine the degree of independence
(or dependence) of Internet development
in Belarus on the basis of description and
analysis of national Internet projects;
2. to study the specific character of
mechanisms developing cultural identity
in national segments of the Internet on the
basis of Belarusian resources;
3. to examine the role of web information
in the process of cultural identity
development;
4. to identify the degree to which the
traditions of soviet cultural past practices
determine the level and character
of integration of Belarus into global
informational space.
We applied a method of semi-standard indepth interviews with experts to obtain primary
information (face-to-face). The interviews were
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Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
conducted in winter-spring in 2007 in Minsk,
Kiev and Kishinev. The interviews were recorded
by means of a digital dictaphone. There have been
totally conducted 22 in-depth semi-structured
interviews with top managers and managers of
Internet projects in Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine.
Firstly, we applied the method of open coding to
transcripts, which allowed to «stick» concept
labels to the latter and split the continuous speech
of the interviewed persons into semantic units.
Later we used axial coding and selective coding.
Mainly these two multidirectional strategies
allowed us to obtain more multidimensional
results of the research. The present methodology
is based on theoretical knowledge of the grounded
theory. Theoretical sampling was used in the
research: «Theoretical sampling is the process
of data collection for generating theory whereby
the analyst jointly collects, codes, and analyzes
his data and decides what to collect next and
where to find them, in order to develop his theory
as it emerges. This process of data collection is
controlled by the emerging theory» (Glaser and
Strauss, 1967, p. 45). We have also sorted out
the central category of the project. This central
category shall be the national Internet or national
Internet space. We identified three subcategories
to develop and support the central category on
the basis of the interviews conducted: Identity,
Space and Influence. These three subcategories
are closely connected and interact with each
other. The problem of identity is the subject of
our interest firstly in the context of cultural
identity, and mainly the way in which social and
cultural practices and routine activities define our
identity.
Pursuant to the above-mentioned aims and
tasks we created a large-scale coding system
used as the main criteria of further interview
deconstruction. Upon the deconstruction of
the interview they were reconstructed in the
compliance with the criteria of the coding
system. Individual statements used by experts
were regarded not as their «personal opinion»
or «private point of view», but as the statements
cycling in the discourse. Herewith it is rather
symptomatic to consider frequent repetitions of
the same ideas used by different experts.
We have to emphasize that in the course
of traditional quantity researches in the media
field the audience and its behaviour become the
object of studies. Later, pursuant to «feedback»
obtained from the audience and available
information relevant to the latter (demographic
characteristics, consumer behaviour, employment
etc.) we formed the notion of mass media, with
its audience under investigation. The peculiarity
of our research work shall be the fact that mass
media are investigated not pursuant to «feedback»
obtained from its audience, but the mass media
are studied as a self-sufficient social institute. In
other words, presented research’s results are not
typical for traditional communication studies
of media effects. Herewith, not the external
manifestations of social activity of mass media
are under analysis, but its latent self-description
narratives.
Proposed approach correlate well with idea
of conceptual changes in cultural studies: «The
cultural production thesis is an adaptation of the
cultural studies’ approaches by shifting the focus
on to the cultural politics of production on the
Web while maintaining the insights derived from
celebrating the activity of the populace in making
meaning. This new thesis is the fundamental
reorientation of cultural studies from reception to
production in order to make sense of the Web»
(Burnett and Marshall, 2003: 72).
In the present article Internet studies shall
be regarded as a scope of research strategies
and practices aimed at investigation of social,
cultural, political and economic relations
emerging in the process of user interaction both
in the Web (on-line) and relevant to the Web (off-
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Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
line). We may state that Internet studies apply
research principles of cultural studies to new
communication technologies.
And if the methods applied for cultural
studies of the Internet ten years ago were greatly
criticized: «The most important methodological
principle for a cultural study of the Internet
is simply to have one. To truly learn anything
about the Internet, one has to ask carefully
considered questions that can be answered
only through some kind of organized research»
(Sterne, 1999: 265). At present the researcher
is regarded as completely independent and free
to choose any methodology: «The program of
contemporary culture studies is based on the
principle of necessity for direct observation of
different forms of social interactions; a concrete
program of scientific investigations on culture
is connected with selection of methodology
for social interactions studies. Selection of the
basic form of social interactions 1) depends on
subjective intentions of the scientist carrying out
investigations on culture; 2) determines concrete
subjects and methods of culture studies on the
base of direct observation of people’s social life»
(Koptzeva and Reznikova, 2009: 493).
The Internet has been ignored in academic
research works in the humanities field for a long
time, but at present the Internet investigation
in Russia is becoming more and more popular.
Previously it was analyzed and studied as one
of possible communication technologies, as an
applied field of computer science, but at present
more attention is paid to the studies of social and
cultural consequences of implementation of this
new communication technology.
Social aspects of the Internet may include a
change in its perception as a new dimension of
public space, transformation of its previous forms
of social and cultural interaction of individuals
and social groups etc. «The Web produces
a continuum of engagement from collective
organization to audience. The user in his/her
cultural reproduction of his/her Web space
navigates between these collective identity poles»
(Burnett and Marshall, 2003: 80).
However, identity issues are becoming a
matter of peculiar interest for cultural studies.
We have to underline that the specific character
of the Internet is observed in the course of new
role distribution in the communication process.
Hereby, we take into account user development
and conceptualization, but not the audience:
«Audience, consumer, reader and listener are the
usual ways of identifying the subjective experience
of other media and cultural forms and, though
they relate to the experience of the Web, they do
not express its essential difference. In order to
advance on understanding the Web of identity, it
is the different subjectivity of the user that has to
be explored. To organize that interpretation of the
user and how it relates to but differentiates itself
from how people use traditional media, we have
called this interpretation the cultural production
thesis» (Burnett and Marshall, 2003: 70).
The research is focused not on a consumer but
mainly on a user as an active individual directly
participating in its own identity formation.
However, Internet researchers, and the
Internet in general, are targeted at a certain
group of users: «Most Internet content targets
well-off, well-educated, English-speaking users.
An estimated 78 percent of all websites are in
the English language, even though just over
50 percent of Internet users are native English
speakers, and only 10 percent of the world
population use English as a first language»
(Chen et al., 2002: 79). Concentration on study
of «English-speaking users» had produced a
new term for description and explanation of this
domination and influence on global Internet’s
research in studies – «Anglophonic». But Internet
is not limited by the English language. In other
words: «However, despite the clear importance of
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attending to the Internet’s Anglophone origins,
in this introduction we have been arguing that it
is necessary for Internet studies to take greater
account of developments in the non-Anglophone
world and to qualify the conception of the
Internet as a «global» technology with increased
recognition of its very local histories and cultures
of use» (Goggin and McLelland, 2008: 12).
Ru-Net is already under active consideration
and research. Now start to appear the Ph.D. thesis
on Ru-Net in English. And the text of Eugene
Gorny is very important. In his text is a statement
about nowadays condition of Internet studies in
Russia from foreign point of view: «Generally,
the Russian Internet remains to a great extent
terra incognita for English-language Internet
researchers. The study aims to contribute to the
knowledge of Internet uses and interpretations in
various cultural contexts by developing theories
based on empirical and historical case studies of
the Russian Internet» (Gorny, 2006: 7). And his
dissertation is logical a step to internalization of
the Russian Internet studies’.
Troubles in construction of national Internet
space as object for studies are actual for many
non-Anglophone cultures. And researchers
need to create they own local research object’s
in context of global Internet studies’. Global
(Anglophonic) theory of Internet’s development
should be tested by local (non-Anglophonic)
studies: «Local Internet histories and concepts
question the analytical power of generalizations
while also making the directions and stances
from which these can be made in the first place
visible». (Paasonen, 2008: 28).
Locally based Internet studies produces
and provides visibility of the object being
studied – national Internet space. In this context,
all discussions about Internet’s development
in Belarus we should mention its cultural
dependence on Russia. This becomes apparent
both in borrowing the terms (for instance, the
offsetting point for provider traffic in Moscow
RU9 and BY9 in Minsk), and in structuring
information (for instance, complete adoption of
catalogue subject headings) etc.
In other words, the mainstream in Internet
studies is targeted at English-speaking users
and the English language resources, while
other Internet spaces remain unstudied by the
researchers. The presented project is an attempt
to complete this lacuna and presented in the first
approximation – What is Bel-Net?
Resume
The conducted research allows to draw the
following conclusions:
The Russian language space does not equal
to «Ru-Net». It is much broader than Russian
user-oriented websites and includes the variety
of resources having no relevance to Russian
users. The Russian language predominance
in the national Internet spaces is not regarded
as a sign of belonging and loyalty to Russia.
And this provides grounds to speak about such
phenomenon as a great number of Russian
national websites. At present it is possible to
speak the same language on one sixth part of the
land as in the period of the USSR, but presently it
is feasible in virtual space. We may assume that
in the period of the Russian Empire its territory
was connected by the common railway network.
In the period of the USSR there was a common
power supply network. At present this connecting
function is fulfilled by the Russian segment of the
Internet (global network).
There is no national Internet as autonomous
and self-sufficient space, but there is the national
Internet as a local way to learn new technologies.
Being a part of the national Internet is one of
the developmental stages of the Internet project.
Transfer to the global level is a kind of threshold,
the indicator of maturity of not only a single
project, but of the national information system
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Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
as a whole. When we talk about Belarusian
Internet we do not mean the Internet developed
in Belarus, but the peculiarities of its usage and
cultural assimilation of this new communication
technology.
It may be stated that the main dependence
of national Internet spaces on «Ru-Net» lies in
our consciousness, i.e. it is revealed not only
with regard to the Internet, but also to any
other communication practices. The existing
dependence on «Ru-Net» may be abolished by
means of creating a new independent one. This
is a classic model of masterpiece creation: to
obtain the status of expert the pupil has to create
a masterpiece.
Up to now we experience the influence
of ideas recorded in written culture, when we
perceive the Internet as a big book (newspaper).
But this is another informational space functioning
according to organization and interaction
principles. Development and investigation of
virtual space, its review in the actual context is
performed by means of transfer of familiar offline practices into on-line space.
References
1.
Anderson B. Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. – M.:
Kanon-press, 2001. – 288 p. (in Russian)
2. Barlow J. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace [the Electronic resource]. – 1996. –
URL: http://homes.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html
3. Burnett R., Marshall D. Web Theory. An Introduction. New York and London: Routledge, 2003 –
242 p.
4. Chen W., Boase J., Wellman B. The Global Villagers: Comparing Internet Users and Uses Around
the World // The Internet in everday life / ed. by Barry Wellman and Caroline Haythornthwaite,
2002. – Р. 74-113.
5. Deibert R. The geopolitics of internet control: censorship, sovereignty, and cyberspace // Routledge
handbook of Internet politics / edited by Andrew Chadwick and Philip N. Howard, 2009. – Р. 323336.
6. Glaser B., Strauss А. The Discovery of Grounded Theory. – Chicago: Aldine Publishing, 1967. –
271 p.
7. Goggin G., McLelland M. Internationalizing Internet Studies: Beyond Anglophone Paradigms //
Internationalizing Internet studies / edited by Gerard Goggin and Mark McLelland. – 2008 – P. 3-17.
8. Goldsmith J., Wu T. Who controls the Internet? – Oxford, 2006. – P.13-48.
9. Gorny E. A Creative History of the Russian Internet – A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy Goldsmiths College, University of London. – 388 p. [the Electronic document]. –
2006. – URL: http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/russ-cyb/library/texts/en/gorny_creative_history_
runet.pdf
10. Konstantinov P. Internet Community Socialization Processes // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences. – 2008. – Vol. 1 (4). – P. 523-530.
11. Koptzeva N., Reznikova K. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture
// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. – 2009. – Vol. 2 (4). –
P. 491-506.
12. Paasonen S. What Cyberspace? Traveling Concepts in Internet Research / Internationalizing
Internet studies / edited by Gerard Goggin and Mark McLelland. – 2008 – P.18-31.
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Alexei D. Krivolap. Construction of Cultural Identity in the National Internet Space
13. Schmidt H., Teubener K. «Our runet»? Cultural identity and media usage // Control + Shift.
Public and Private Usages of the Russian Internet / ed. by Schmidt H., Teubener K., Konradova
N. – 2006. – Norderstedt: Books on Demand. – P.14-21.
14. Sterne J. Thinking the Internet: Cultural Studies Versus the Millenium // Jones S. Doing Internet
Research : Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net – Sage, 1999. – P. 257-288.
Конструирование культурной идентичности
в национальном Интернет-пространстве
А.Д. Криволап
Европейский гуманитарный университет
Литва LT-01114, Вильнюс, ул. Тауро, 12
Статья посвящена социальным аспектам развития и культурного освоения Интернеттехнологий в Беларуси. С момента появления белорусского национального домена .by прошло
15 лет, и за этот период Интернет прошел долгий путь от экспериментальной технологии,
доступной только научно-исследовательским учреждениям, до одного из основных каналов
массовой коммуникации. Одной из причин написания этой статьи является желание
обосновать возможность существования национальных сегментов глобальной сети
Интернет не только на национальном языке вообще, но и белорусского сегмента в частности,
а также прояснить механизмы конструирования культурной идентичности пользователей
с применением Интернет-технологий.
Ключевые слова: культурные исследования;
репрезентация; киберпространство.
Интернет;
культурная
идентичность;
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 37-49
~~~
УДК 801.1; 801.7
The Linguistic Characteristics
of the Technologization of Discourse
Uliana V. Smirnova *
Siberian Federal University
82A Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
There has been a certain amount of prominent research concentrated on the technologization of
discourse. On consideration of the recent conclusions on technologization, I suggest that the angle of
research should be altered to focus on defining the linguistic nature of technologization, the levels (or
steps) this procedure implies, and its main source. The nexus between technologization, manipulation
and simulacra has not yet been acknowledged and proved. Technologization has also not been related
to the elimination of the subject from the postmodernistic discourse. Using examples from the political
discourse of G. W. Bush, the following article pertains to the validity of such claims.
Keywords: technologization of discourse, manipulation, discursive technologies, simulacrum, the
discourse of the Expert Community, ostrannenie (defamiliarization).
Introduction
It is not a revolutionary new statement
that individuals, discourses and the process of
communication have been undergoing serious
transformations in post modern environment
(some indicative publication include Fairclough
2005a, 2005b, 2005c; Morrish 2000; Poster
2001; Simmons 2001; Simulacrum America: The
USA and the Popular Media 2000; Spanos 2001;
Thurlow 2009; Vannini 2007; Wallin 2006; Ziarek
2002). The changes in the works of philosophers
and linguists go under the names of ‘synthetic
personality’ (A. Tolson), ‘the death of the author’
(R. Barthes, J. Kristeva), ‘hyperreality’, ‘the
procession of simulacra’ (J. Baudrillard), ‘humans
as social machines (machines of desire)’ (J. Deleuze
and F. Guattari), ‘a fake society’ (D. Anderson,
P. Mullen) etc. Technologization of discourse, I
*
1
believe, is a widespread accompaniment of these
transformations, and it might also be believed to
be their main cause.
When we mention transmutations of
individuals, we should never forget that in relation
to linguistics we speak about the subject of
discourse. While ‘individuals’ and ‘personalities’
are more appropriate terms for sociology and
psychology, we should always keep in mind
the famous words of E. Benveniste: ‘language
provides the very definition of man, in and
through language that man constitutes himself as
a subject, because language alone established the
concept of ‘ego’ in reality’ (Benveniste 1971: 729).
This means that within such a view the discourse,
which the speaker produces, gives evidence to the
unique characteristics of this particular subject,
personality, and individual.
Corresponding author E-mail address: yanasmirnova@hotmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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But at the same time herein lies a serious
problem, that could be associated with changes
of the episteme of the post modern society: the
subject of discourse stops constituting himself
through thoughts and ideas generated by himself
/ herself and articulated in his / her utterances,
but rather is constituted by means of discursive
technologies that are used to impose a certain
language and a certain frame of mind. Although
the speaker proclaims himself / herself as the
subject in the instance of discourse in which
I designates the speaker (ibid: 730), it is only
simulative appropriation of the propositions
‘I believe’, ‘I think’, ‘I am sure’. The subject of
discourse is effectively dissolved in the expert
language and opinion.
Another point which I would like to
emphasise is that although there is a good
foundation for technology in philosophy and
linguistics (M. Foucault and N. Fairclough have
written extensively on technologies), a ‘blind
spot’ related to the linguistic approach to the
technologization of modern culture still exists.
My main aim is to redefine and broaden our
understanding of technology in light of all the
theoretical and practical knowledge that has
been accumulated during my research of this
phenomenon and in view of its practical use not
only in linguistics but also in political science,
Public Relations, and the studies of culture.
Investigating the technologization
of discourse
The notion ‘technologization’ was coined
by Norman Fairclough, who himself was
influenced by Michel Foucault’s ideas about
the synthesis of power, knowledge (technology)
and discourse. Following M. Foucault’s and
N. Fairclough’s works, we can come to the
conclusion that technologization is the process
of exercising power and influence over people’s
lives and opinions through certain linguistic
tools. However, the exact linguistic definition of
the term ‘technology’, as well as the procedure
of generating a tecnodiscourse, is still not very
clear.
What seems apparent is that technologization
corresponds to the power of an expert /
technologist that is effectively realised through
the right to generate the discourse, a certain
social position from which to address it to the
audience, and special knowledge of how to tune
the addressees in. Such a reflection points to a
wider issue, and that is the need to apply a new
notion – the discourse of the Expert Community,
which is central to the works of A. Kaplunenko
(Kaplunenko 2007). The original idea emerged
in J. Swales’ Genre Analysis – the discourse
community as a sociorethorical network that
forms in order to work towards sets of common
goals, that produces specific texts and has its own
language, and that is open only to those who are
able to speak the language (Swales 1990: 9-10).
In linking a certain discourse with a certain
expert community, it is not simply a question of a
particular group of experts having an ideology (as
a common sets of goals) and a language. It is what
the experts want and know how to impose on the
audience. From the standpoint of narrative theory,
we can say that the ‘wielders of technology’
establish power over their technological creations
or discoveries (Worthington 2009). This allows
us to take a perspective on the expert techniques
that are used to inculcate ideological ideas
unnoticeably for the addressers of the discourse
and highlight the linguistic aspect of technologies
presented in scientific studies.
When discussion takes place as to how
technologization is put into practice we can
underline the following: ‘two expressions are
‘textured’, textually constructed, in a relation of
equivalence’ (Fairclough 2006: 42); a ‘doubling’ is
created by means of certain terms (Foucault 2003:
15). In the context of his studies N. Fairclough
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speaks about semantically and pragmatically
different signs equaled to each other (for example,
globalization and economic liberalization in the
speech of the US under-secretary Stuart Eizenstat)
(Fairclough 2006: 42). M. Foucault concentrates
his analysis on psycologico-ethical doubles of the
offence, which are introduced in the discourse
of psychiatric expertise by a whole series of
terms, which happen to be unique discourse
characteristics of a member of this particular
Expert Community (for example, ‘psychological
immaturity’, ‘poorly structured personality’,
‘bovarysme’, ‘Herostratism’, ‘Alcibiadism’ etc.)
(Foucault 2003: 3).
Having briefly looked at the starting
points of studying technologization, it is worth
approaching the observation of technology from
another angle. I believe that the term ‘technology
/ technologization’, originally borrowed from
mathematics, loses neither its original content nor
its volume when it is introduced into philosophy
and linguistics. Technology is a sequence of actions
that is repeated within a definite set of procedures.
In other words technology is characterised
by a reproducible chain of elements and an
algorithm that is recurrent until the final result
has been reached. It’s a fact that researchers have
already found similarities between the process
of constructing a technology and the following
of an algorithm, and it could be proved by the
terms they use when describing the technological
features of post modern discourse. For example,
we meet such expressions as ‘technical exercises
that serve to de-contextualize and de-politicize
the terrain of well-being’ (McManus 2009) or
‘operating structures of storytelling in post
modern fiction’ (Jackson 2007).
In semiotic terms, technology could be
described as a set procedure of manipulation
with signs. When speaking about competent
operations with signs it would be logical to
suppose that the nature of technology lies in
the syntax. With regard to technologization, the
definition of ‘syntax’ – ‘formal relations of signs
to one another’ (Ch. Morris), could be determined
as an order of signs constructed and established
by an expert.
I relate technologization to manipulation for
a reason. Manipulation in western discourse is
widely associated with media and the coined term
‘media manipulation’. Although there exist many
more terms which describe all different sorts of
exertion of social influence to the advantage of
the manipulator such as coercive persuasion,
brainwashing, re-education, thought-control,
mind control, thought reform, indoctrination,
propaganda etc, the term ‘manipulation’ serves
best to explain the very nature of the persuasion
process. The etymological origin of the term
‘manipulation’ – skilful handling of objects –
prompts that the origin of ‘handling’ of objects as
well as minds lies in the expert operations with
signs to create specific orders (chains) of signs
with a view to imposing a certain ‘world view’
(in the original Leo Weisgerber’s interpretation it
is reality structured in a certain way).
The connection between manipulation and
technologization is obvious – it’s encoded in
their reliance on syntactical operation with signs.
But while manipulation denotes a process of
breaking down the phenomenological integrity
of the individual with regard to inculcated values
and with regard to motivation for actions, which
contradict individually perceived ideas of them,
technology is a means of effecting this process.
Levels of technologization
Apart from the fact that a direct link between
manipulation and technology seems quite
appropriate, another feature of technologization
needs to be mentioned. I believe that there are
three levels of the technologization of discourse
and I shall illustrate the steps of constructing a
technology referring to the discourse of George
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W. Bush produced in mass media after the
tragic events of September 2001. This discourse
generated the keywords ‘September 11’ or ‘9/11’
and an atomic-era military idiom ‘war on terror’,
that ‘has provided the official gloss for so many
acts of US state violence’ (Redfield 2007).
The significance and impact of this particular
discourse arose from the standing of the speaker
(president of one of the most influential countries
in the world) and the context of crisis for ‘fighting
for freedom’ that America started in the wake of
the hijacked planes intentionally being crashed
into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre
in New York City on 9/11.
It is remarkable to note that the process
of technologization, that has been influencing
discursive practices, only demonstrates the
ongoing process of technologization in culture.
Using Philippe Bonditti’s opinion as an example,
the fact that politicians now focus on new
technological tools to fight terrorism after 9/11,
is a clear indication of the ‘increasing practices
of surveillance and the globalization of control’
(Bonditti 2004).
The first level of technologization.
I claim that the fundamental basis of
constructing a technology is expert technological
syntax, by which I mean alliteration, rhythm,
reiteration and rhyme. This formal syntactical
level of technology has long been exploited by
experts. In this respect K. Levi-Strauss’ study of
the shamanistic curing procedures in primitive
cultures can be quite indicative of the importance
of the expert syntax. The anthropologist doesn’t
answer the question why the healing techniques
are successful but his evaluations help reveal the
underlying principle of the shaman manipulations.
It appears to be reiteration or shadowing of both
the speech patterns and actions: ‘The (sick) woman
speaks to the midwife: ‘I’m indeed being dressed
in the hot garment of the disease’. The midwife
answers her (sick woman): ‘You’re indeed being
dressed in the hot garment of the disease, I also
hear you say so’ (Levi-Strauss 2006).
The same fundamental technique is widely
applied in G. W. Bush’s discourse: ‘They would
have seen the mighty United States of America
retreat before the job was done which would
enable them to better recruit… In my judgment,
defeat – leaving before the job was done, which I
would call defeat – would make this United States
of America at risk to further attack’ (G. W. Bush,
07 April, 2007).
This example illustrates the process of the
syntactical construction of meaning very well.
The first important feature of this utterance
worth mentioning is the rhyme constituted in
the double ‘retreat-defeat’. The repetition of
the sound [eet] in the two words is designed to
suggest that these words put together don’t only
have phonetic equivalency but also equivalent
meanings – withdrawal of the American troops
from Iraq is the total failure of the American
mission in Iraq. The expert’s other syntactical
choice only cements the idea. Reiteration – ‘before
the job was done’, ‘would have seen – would
call – would enable – would make’, ‘the mighty
United States of America – this United States
of America’; alliteration ‘mighty United States’,
‘enable them to better’, ‘retreat – recruit – risk’,
‘United States – further attack’, and the general
rhythm of the construction that creates gradual
motion to a higher pitch – magnify the effect of
conveying the expert’s meaning – the retreat of
the American troops is America’s defeat.
My principal reason for reproducing the
next extract is because it provides a clear parallel
between the way the shaman curative song is
constructed in primitive culture and the way the
manipulation effect is technologically reached in
George W. Bush’s discourse.
‘The government has a responsibility
to protect our citizens, and that starts with
homeland security… After September the 11th,
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our government assumed a new responsibility to
strengthen security at home and track down our
enemies abroad. And the American people are
accepting new responsibilities as well. I recently
received a letter from a fourth grade girl that
seemed to say it all. «I don’t know how to feel»,
she said. «Sad, mad, angry. It has been different
lately. I know the people in New York are scared
because of the World Trade Center and all, but if
we’re scared, we are giving the terrorists all the
power».
In the face of this great tragedy, Americans
are refusing to give terrorists the power. Our
people have responded with courage and
compassion, calm and reason, resolve and fierce
determination. We have refused to live in a state
of panic or a state of denial. There is a difference
between being alert and being intimidated, and
this great nation will never be intimidated… Life
in America is going forward, and as the fourth
grader who wrote me knew, that is the ultimate
repudiation of terrorism’ (G. W. Bush, Nov. 8,
2001).
Needless to say that the fourth grade girl,
even if she existed in reality, is reproduced in
this extract as a ‘narrative girl’ and is used in the
process of technological meaning making. The
girl’s narration starts with characteristics of the
intentional state of ordinary Americans – sad,
mad, angry, but, more importantly, scared. The
word ‘scared’ is repeated and emphasised in light
of the cause-effect relation that is established
between Americans being scared and the
terrorists being powerful.
But the speaker draws a line under the
emotion of fear and states the fact that Americans
are refusing to give terrorists the power, which
logically means that Americans are refusing to
be scared. This idea is duplicated further – this
great nation will never be intimidated.
And indeed, the initial horizon of
interpretation of Americans’ feelings (scare,
panic, denial, intimidation) is technologically
redirected: the speaker repeats the refrain with the
verb that negates the meaning – Americans are
refusing to give terrorists the power and sets the
new horizon of interpretation of inner feelings and
outer behavior – courage and compassion, calm
and reason, resolve and fierce determination.
Let me now turn to even more important
features of this discourse which I think might be
involved in constructing a technological chain –
the alliteration in the words refuse, respond,
reason, resolve, repudiation. I am not a specialist
in the phonemic qualities of sounds taken from a
cognitive perspective and can’t provide an acoustic
analysis of the suggestive effect of the sounds
(but I would wager that it is a very powerful and
influential area of study which would be of great
use for development of the theory of linguistic
manipulation). But even before taking into
consideration the innate phonetic associations
that the use of the sounds might project on the
idea of the message, I can claim that these words
are alliterated for a reason. The chain constructed
by a repetitive sound [re] can be used to send the
subliminal idea: Americans refuse to respond
with fear → they choose reason, resolve and
repudiation of fear. The plausibility and resonance
of this message rests upon the claims that are
explicitly asserted in the discourse. In addition
to this chain of meaning it is crucial to mention
the sign ‘responsibility’ which alliterates with the
ones mentioned above and is repeated a number of
times – responsibility to protect, responsibility to
strengthen, responsibility to repudiate terrorism.
I would suggest that the narrative girl
was introduced in the discourse to create an
overwhelmingly powerful individual horizon
of interpretation that blends with experiences
and feeling of ordinary citizens. The fourth
grade girl’s horizon sets the point which is then
technologically shifted in the direction necessary
for the expert. The gist of the message is the signs
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that start and finish the technological circle: We
are not giving he terrorists all the power – We
choose the ultimate repudiation of terrorism.
I would like to draw attention to the fact that
verbs to give, to refuse initiate the matrix of the
discourse and are linked to a quite identifiable
object – the terrorists. The pattern is finished with
a noun phrase with very abstract categorisation
repudiation of terrorism. It is a shift toward
blurred meaning. But we will return to this when
we describe the third level of technologization.
The general rhythmic successions that are
organized in the discourse – sad, mad, angry;
courage and compassion, calm and reason,
resolve and fierce determination pulsate in the
discourse and make it very suggestive.
Furthermore, we witness the duplication of
signs. By ‘duplication’ I mean the manifestation
of the same identity in different guises. It is
realized through signs which might be claimed
to be linear transformations of the same idea. For
example, resolve (strong determination to achieve
sth, OALD 1292) and fierce determination stem
from ‘determination’; protect and homeland
security (protection, OALD 1372) from
‘protection’; intimidated (frightened, OALD 815),
scared (frightened, OALD 1354), panic (a sudden
feeling of great fear, OALD, 1096) from ‘fear’,
‘frightened’. The operation of duplication involves
slight modifications in the form of renaming one
variable and is aimed, in my opinion, at masking
the replication of the meaning. This redundancy
is intentional and creates a magnified suggestive
effect.
The phenomenon of the duplication of
meaning reiterates M. Foucault’ fundamental
ideas about ‘doubles’ which are created ‘to shift
the level of reality’ (Foucault 2003: 16) and
reflects the concern in postmodern philosophy
with questions of simulacra.
Simulacrum as a building block of a
technological chain.
Analysing Haruki Murakami’s books,
Michael Seats comes to the conclusion that the
author employs the structure of the simulacrum
in his narration (Seats 2006). ‘Simulacrum’ has
become quite a ‘fashionable’ term. It originates
from the works of the French post structuralism
(J. Baudrillard, J. Derrida, G. Deleuze). The
philosophical background for the ideas can be
found in the works of Plato, who in his famous
dialogue ‘Sophist’, speaks about imitations
preoccupying the world of art – imitations
as signs which are not the exact copies of the
original but the copies of the copies, distorted
intentionally in order to make the copy appear
correct to viewers.
From a semiotic perspective, simulacrum
is a sign in which the natural relations between
the signifier and the signified is deformed. In
the natural process of semiosis, the signified
(the object and its qualities) determines the
choice of the signifying and rules its usage in
the discourse. When the connection between the
signified (which could be defined as structural
knowledge linked to the sign in the semiotic
process and accepted by an individual as gained
knowledge) and the signifying is ignored, any
interpretant could be associated with the sign.
The interpretant becomes manipulative when it
starts distracting the interpreter from the object
and is constructed discursively, that is without
reference to one’s personal experience but out
of the building blocks which refer to each other
within a certain discursive matrix. As Anna Free
puts it, ‘the simulacrum concerns the surface
of things’ but ‘the realness’ of the surface is
deceptive (Free 2008).
For example, in the utterance A lot of people
are working really hard to protect America,
but in the long run, the best way to defend our
homeland, the best way to make sure our children
can live in peace, is to take the battle to the enemy
and to stop them (G. W. Bush, Nov. 8, 2001) the
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actions behind the sign ‘to protect America’
are interpreted through a technological chain
of infinitives: to protect America – to defend
our homeland – to make sure our children live
in peace – to take the battle to the enemy and
stop them. The rhythmic pulse created in the
discourse has two crucial points: the tension at
the beginning ‘to protect America’ and relaxation
at the end ‘to take the battle to the enemy and stop
them’. As a result, protection can be construed
as taking the battle, although in relation to the
actions in ‘the real world’ they have nothing to
do with each other and are interconnected only in
the technological chain. The processes involved
in the manipulative interpretant construction
are salient when considering the next level of
technologization of discourse.
The second level of technologization.
Apart from being a kind of subliminal
message which could be compared to the effect
of the 25th frame, a technological chain is built
to exploit archetypal meanings and culturally
established interpretations. Reviving the term
of the Russian formal school ‘ostrannenie’, I
would call this level of technology ‘technological
defamiliarization’.
Victor Shklovsky is credited with formulating
the important literary concept ‘defamiliarization’.
He is concerned with familiarization of object
perception: “We see the object as though it were
enveloped in a sack. We know what it is by its
configuration, but we see only its silhouette.
The object perceived in the manner of prose
perception, fades and does not leave even a first
impression; ultimately even the essence of what
it was is forgotten… Art removes objects from
the automatism of perception in several ways”.
The familiar can be presented as unfamiliar by
the description and / or by the proposal to change
its form without changing its nature (Shklovsky
1965: 11-15). The literary understanding
of defamiliarization implies dehabituating
automised perception by providing another point
of view on the object. In other words, the object
(or the sign referring to it) is removed from the
familiar context of its perception and put into a
new one.
The
essence
of
‘technological
defamiliarization’ lies in the same fundamental
principle of the syntactical change of the
surroundings of a particular sign but with one
significant difference. Relying on a very wellknown context, the expert exploits its pragmatic
power and generates new meanings by introducing
a new order into relations between signs within
the context familiar for the addresser. The key
effect involves creating an expert vision of the
object that might be inadvertently absorbed by
the addresser on the wave of intentionality and
the interpretation horizon characterizing the
original context.
I now propose to illustrate the process of
‘technological defamiliarization’, and consider its
generic features, in a brief examination of what
is perhaps one of the most illustrative examples:
‘We see a day when people across the Middle
East have governments that honor their dignity,
unleash their creativity, and count their votes. We
see a day when leaders across the Middle East
reject terror and protect freedom. We see a day
when the nations of the Middle East are allies in
the cause of peace’ (G. W. Bush, 31 Aug. 2006).
The expert relies on the well-known
configuration of signs formed in the discourse of
M. L. King ‘I have a dream’ with one dramatic
difference. He alters the order of signs to achieve
a special manipulative effect: with all the
emotions and feelings coded to the new day of
M. L. King when all men are equal, there is a
brotherhood of whites and blacks and no racial
justice, the speaker targets a shift of meaning
linking the new bright day of the Americans
with democracy, freedom, peace in the Middle
East. We can claim that the interpreters of the
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discourse perceive the new horizon and the new
interpretant as personal and don't question the
grounds on which they are based, because their
hermeneutical efforts are blocked on the first
formal level of technologization.
I would also like to add that the effect of déjà
vu, in the sense of how the déjà vu phenomenon
is approached by the researcher of media culture
and digital history Peter Krapp, plays a crucial
role in the effect of defamiliarization. The
reference to a culturally well-known event / thing
/ figure disturbs the cultural memory, but when
it’s turned into a ‘decontextualized familiarity’ it
might be acknowledged to be ‘a kind of memory
without a memory’ (Krapp 2004: x)
Defamiliarization is widely used in media
manipulation, and it encompasses lots of tricks
used by experts. Thus what Robin T. Lakoff calls
‘deliberate misinterpretations’ (Lakoff 2001) or
George Lakoff – ‘a smart technique of stealing
the other side’s language’ (Lakoff 2004: 21-22)
is clearly ostrannenie because the parallel is
apparent: the signs are taken out of context, which
enables the expert to misconstrue the speaker’s
original meaning whereas the misconstrued
meaning is verified. It may be verified by the very
fact that the speaker produced this utterance, as in
the case of Hilary Clinton, when media create her
image and determine what the speaker intended
by her words ignoring what she really intended
to say. Or by the exploitation of the intentionality
generated in the original context, as when Bill
Clinton used the words ‘the big government’
to describe the welfare reform. He removed the
signs from the context of the ideological line
of the Conservative party and set the opposing
direction of intentionality – ‘the age of big
government is over’.
The third level.
The final aspect of a technology is to
intentionally refer the addresser to objects and
events, allegedly existing in the context of his /
her personal experience, which in fact function
only in the forms constructed within a simulative
world. This corresponds with the words of Plato:
‘imitation is a kind of creation of images and
not of real things’; ‘imitations of real existences’
(Plato 2004: 102, 101).
Reference is widely acknowledged to be
the way language is connected with the objects
in the world (although I must admit herein lies
a very important philosophical problem whether
the world of objects exists or not and more deeply
where the meanings are – in signs themselves,
in the embodied mind, in the embedded mind).
So pseudoreference (a new term which I would
like to introduce) is an intentional action of
referring to objects and events, allegedly existing
in the context of our personal experience, which
in fact function only in the forms constructed
within a simulative world. At this point it’s worth
mentioning that pseudoreference will work most
effectively at critical moments of culture. ‘A
subject needs reference, it provides stability. If he
or she is unable to immediately establish a frame
of reference, it triggers a response of dread’
(Marzec 2002). So a subject is prone to accept
whatever is imposed upon them if they have never
experienced this particular thing or event. This is
what happened in America on 9/11.
A good example of pseudoreference is ‘the
enemy of freedom’ – a term coined in American
political discourse, the extension of which is so
wide and vague that it can refer to an unlimited
number of objects – Nazi Germany, Soviet Union,
Iraq, Sudan, Taliban. But the special features of
these simulative objects are constructed beyond
physical experiences – beyond the boundaries
of personal phenomenological worlds, and are
restrained to images recreated within the context
of values. If we refer to the notions introduced
by Alfred Whitehead, we should speak about the
World of Value and the World of Activity that
are interdependent: ‘The reality inherent in the
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World of Value involves the primary experience
of the finite perspectives for realisation in the
essential multiplicity of the World of Activity’
(Whitehead 1968: 89). Still we can see that there
could be constructed a wide technological gap
between the two Worlds.
If we look at the Value ‘Freedom’ in
American culture, and the realisation of this
Value in the World of Activity, then we may see
the shift between ‘Freedom’, and its properties
(which primarily imply ‘individual freedom’),
and its realisation in a number of concrete
actions. The latter are a) beyond the experience of
ordinary Americans, b) beyond the values of the
people where this value is being implemented, c)
the Value ‘Freedom’ is clearly substituted by the
realisations of values ‘Expansion’, ‘Dominance’,
‘Power’. Here we can proceed to a very serious
issue of constructing worlds that are beyond
people’s personal experiences and that are
technologically imposed on them.
Turning the subject
of the discourse into simulacrum
While most researchers acknowledge the
fact the individuals are changing rapidly, their
opinion about the nature of these changes differs
drastically. While some of them support the idea
of the distinction between human and machine
being lost and the fluidity of gender identities
(Haraway 1991), the others express opposing
views about the binary oppositions being
intensified (Mullany 2004). Whereas many hold
a very pessimistic view of the increasing control
of information and communications technologies
(e.g. Finlay 1987), a few have argued that modern
technologies bring genuine, productive and
transformative changes (Poster 2001).
Without claiming the changes to be good or
bad, I would simply like to recognise that they
exist and are well demonstrated in language use.
A very interesting example is contained within
the article by Samira Kawash, who contemplates
her confusion over the meaning of the fragment
of conversation “So there I was on line, when this
kid started pushing me from behind, practically
knocked me down...” (Kawash 1997). The wide
use of new digital technologies has caused shifts
in language use: ‘to be on line’ is no longer
commensurable with physical activity because
the automatic assumptions would be ‘to go on
line’, ‘to shop on line’, ‘to work and play on line’.
In my article I aim to concentrate more on
the transformations of the subjects of discourse
and the investigations of the problem within the
nexus between manipulation, technologization
and simulacrum. The key explanation to their
integrity lies in the fact that the main aim of
manipulating people happens to be alienation
of the subject from the ideas and meanings he /
she utters. ‘Alienated subject’ is virtually a nonexistent subject of the discourse which reproduces
but does not produce utterances.
This point is extensively proved and
illustrated by media researchers who write about
personalities constructed as ‘certain types of
subjects’ (Tolson 1991: 195). There can be no
doubt that it is true about TV presenters who are
represented as constructions, even fabrications
for the game which is ‘good television’ (ibid: 187),
and public leaders, whose political persona is
definitely a crafted one, based upon calculations
of what will work, fed by focus group research
(Talbot 2003: 71). But this may also be a very
clear case for ordinary people. Thus Mary Talbot
writes about call center workers, who are ‘imposed
with a demand to present themselves in a way the
company determines, down to the last detail’.
This makes individuals a particularly extreme
case of institutional control over individuals’
self-presentation (ibid: 130).
I claim that this technological process of the
alienation of the subject, which in linguistic terms
would be better to formulate as the elimination of
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the subject, involves a wider audience in the post
modern era and could be determined as creating
a synthetic personality or, in terms widely used in
this research, turning the subject into simulacrum.
The main emphasis which I would like to lay
here is on the thought (which is reiterated in the
works on synthetic personalisation and synthetic
personality): ‘personality’ is no longer reducible
to ‘people as they really are’ but is revealed
through their skills of ‘public verbal game’ (ibid:
185). All these clarify a newly emerged process in
semiosis with a reversed direction of the vector: it
is not the identity that generates its own discourse
and reveals itself through it, but the discourse,
which the identity adopts under pressure, or
inadvertently, consumes and exterminates the
subject of the discourse leaving the pronoun I to
exist only as a pure form.
In essence the idea of the elimination of the
subject and constructing him as a simulacrum,
although in another ideological sense, was
expressed by the linguist credited with the term
and theory dubbed ‘the death of the author’ –
Roland Barthes. ‘Writing is that neutral,
composite, oblique space where our subject
slips away, the negative where all identity is
lost, starting with the very identity of the body
writing. No doubt it has always been that way. As
soon as a fact is narrated no longer with a view
to acting directly on reality but intransitively,
that is to say, fi nally outside of any function
other than that of the very practice of the symbol
itself, this disconnection occurs, the voice loses
its origin, the author enters into his own death,
writing begins. Linguistically, the author is
never more than the instance writing, just as
I is nothing other than the instance saying I:
language knows a subject, not a person, and this
subject, empty outside of the very enunciation
which defi nes it, suffices to make language hold
together, suffices, that is to say, to exhaust it’
(Barthes 1977).
Interestingly, whereas Barthes speaks
about the death of the author as the absence of
the dominating center that sets the only possible
interpretation of the text, I see a vivid parallel
between his ideas and the ones expressed in
this article in relation to the transformations of
the subjects under the influence of technologies.
When the production of the discourse turns
into ‘the very practice of the symbol itself’ or,
in other words, the discursive practices start to
overwhelmingly control the subjects of discourse
(whether this process is conscious or unconscious
for the addressers of the discourse), the subject
is lost as it is dissolved in the flow of speech
introduced from above. But I admit that these
are only preliminary conclusions not supported
by serious research. However I am sure that this
particular aspect of technology will be proved
true after thorough investigation with a special
emphasis on the discourse presented from above
(the Discourse of the Expert Community) and the
effect it has when it is perceived below (the ideas
of the discourses introduced from above and
below belong to N. Fairclough).
Resume
Technologization is a universal mechanism
of covert control and persuasion effectuated in the
Discourse of the Expert Community. The basic
nature of the technology rests on special syntax
when an expert follows a three step technological
algorithm: 1) to construct a chain of signs relying
on four key principals of suggestive influence –
rhythm, reiteration, rhyme, alliteration (the formal
level); 2) to impose a certain interpretation of the
event / object with reliance on a pre-directed
intentional state of the addressers of the discourse;
3) to lock the addresser inside a discursive world
created with pseudoreferents.
There is a relation between manipulation,
technologization and simulacrum and it could be
clearly determined: manipulation is a technology
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used for the practical purpose of constructing a
subject of the discourse as a simulacrum. This
means that the subject of the discourse, which
manifests itself the moment it appropriates the
personal pronoun I, stops producing ideas but
begins to reproduce discursive blocks that have
been inadvertently consumed under the influence
of expert technologies. I remains as a devaluated
‘pure’ form that marks the presence of the speaker
but doesn’t indicate the subject, because the
latter is lost. Thus technologization is a process
that communication undergoes in modern times
and it goes hand by hand with manipulation and
simulacrum.
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Лингвистические характеристики
технологизации дискурса
У.В. Смирнова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Свободный пр. 82а, Красноярск 660041, Россия
Об интересе к технологизации современного дискурса свидетельствует ряд проведенных
в последние годы работ в этой области. Принимая во внимание все сделанные учеными
выводы, я предлагаю изменить угол исследования данного феномена и сконцентрироваться
на лингвистической сущности технологизации дискурса, уровнях реализации технологий
и источниках ее возникновения. Связь между технологизацией дискурса, манипуляцией
и симулякром до настоящей статьи не устанавливалась и не доказывалась. Также как и
не говорилось о прямом отношении, которое имеет технологизация дискурса к проблеме
исчезновения субъекта высказывания в эпоху постмодерна. Указанные вопросы освещаются
в данной статье и иллюстрируются примерами из анализа политического дискурса Дж.
Буша-мл.
Ключевые слова: Технологизация дискурса; манипуляция; технологии воздействия; симулякр;
дискурс экспертного сообщества; остраннение.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 50-59
~~~
УДК 29-12 + 29-31
Baha`I Faith: the Doctrine
of Progressive Revelation
Daniil V. Pivovarov*
Ural State University,
51 Lenin st., Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
AThe ideological basis of Bаhа`i Faith – the doctrine of progressive revelation – is discussed in this
article. Views of Baha'u'llah and his followers on the nature of a prophet, the mission of great prophets,
essence of the next New Era and on association of mankind into the uniform subject are described.
Keywords: Bаhа`i Faith, progressive revelation, nature of prophecy, sociohistorical communities,
unity of mankind, auxiliary international language, world administration.
The phenomenon of mutual reflection of
national cultures and global civilizations became
especially appreciable after 1844. Traditional
cultures of the East are mainly based on ideals
of Buddhism and Islam. Their features – refusal
from vigorous experiments with the nature and
with public foundations, contemplation and selfabsorption. On the contrary, Christian subcultures
in Europe and the USA are focused on risk,
experiment, technical power and knowledge
of the material world. Scientific and technical
progress in Europe and America has caused not
only material welfare, but also terrible irrational
effects – world wars, ecological crisis, moral
degradation. From here follows the steadfast
interest of western ideologists to eastern ways of
survival – the interest of the West to the East. On
the other hand, the need to overcome scientific
and technical backwardness became essential for
the countries of the East. The East and the West
as never earlier meet each other.
*
1
Threat of self-destruction of mankind because
of costs of technical progress forces Europeans
and Americans to be interested in values of
Buddhism and Islam, and the need in technical
progress accompanies with intensive penetration
of Christianity into eastеrn countries. Especially
active interosculations of ideals of Christianity,
Islam and Buddhism and occurrence of gens of
new world religions, which actively propagandize
ideas of nonviolence, have begun with the middle
of XIX century of peaceful co-existence of world
outlook alternatives and intelligent dialogue
between civilizations, science and religion,
religious faiths, philosophical schools. Among
such «synthetic» religions there is especially
allocated the youngest world religion Bаhа`i
Faith, which has more than 6 million followers
today 1.
Bаhа`i Faith has arisen in 1844 in Iran as a
result of audit of Muslim dogma, but now it not
less considerably differs from Islam, than, say,
Corresponding author E-mail address: daniil-pivovarov@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Christianity from Judaism. Baha`i communities
have arisen in Russia in XIX century (in
Ashkhabad), and the imperial administration
patronized them. The baha`is forerunner was Bab
(the arab. bab – gates) – mirza Ali Mohammad
(1819–1850), who lived in Shiraz and who has
proclaimed in 1844 fast occurrence of a new envoy
of God, the name to whom will be Baha’u’llah, i.e.
Shine of God. The sermon of Bab and his Scriptus
«Bayan» have caused mass babid movement in
Iran per 1848–1852.
Mirza Hussein Ali Nuri (1817–1892) who has
declared himself in 1863 in Bagdad «That Who
Shows God» and accepted the name Baha’u’llah,
occured as the crow flies from ancient imperial
surnames of Persia; his father was the shah’s
vizier. An outstanding career was designated to
him, but he has prefered to become a follower
of Bab. Soon he has been grinded in prison and
subjected to tortures. Baha’u’llah was justified
by the Persian court (owing to intervention of
the Russian ambassador) and released from his
dungeon. Baha’u’llah refused to receive Russian
citizenship, which Russian tsar Alexander II
offered to him. He has preferred the exile, together
with his family, to Bahgdad. Then he has been
sent to Constantinople, Adrianople and, at last,
to Аcca. From Adrianople, and later from Аcca
he has addressed with a number of messages
to governors of different states, called them to
establish a universal peace and proclaimed the
future association of mankind.
Before his death Baha'u'llah has transferred
reins of spiritual management in Baha`i community
to his senior son Abbas Effendi (1844–1921) who
has accepted a new name Abdu`l-Baha (servant
of Baha). After clearing from the exile in 1908
Abdu`l-Baha has gone to travel across the Europe
and America (1911–1913). There he widely
popularized doctrine of Baha’u’llah about the
world unity and social justice. The organizational
and territorial base of this new religion has become
stronger during Abdu`l-Baha’s leadership. Before
his death Abdu`l-Baha has appointed his senior
grandson, Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (1897–1957),
the interpreter of the sacred texts and the Keeper
of Bаhа`i Faith. Service of Shoghi Effendi
proceeded 36 years, down to his death. He has
translated into English and has interpreted much
from written by Baha’u’llah and Abdu`l-Baha,
promoted a wide circulation of their views and
transformation of bahaism into independent
world religion.
Primary a Bаhа`is organization exists as:
1) a local spiritual assembly (not less than nine
believers); 2) at a national level – a national
spiritual assembly; 3) the highest authority – the
Universal House of Justice. Gardens are broken
on slopes of mountain Karmel and the complex
of Bаhа`is World Center is created nowadays
in Haifa. Bаhа`is World community has seven
houses of worship (temples), and even one temple
is erected on each continent.
Bаhа`is trust, that Baha'u'llah was the
continuer of nice affairs of the great prophets –
Аbraham, Krishna, Zoroastr, Moses, Buddha,
Christ, Моhammad – and that his main mission
consists in the notice of people on inevitability of
process of consolidation of the mankind into the
uniform subject. According to Bаhа`i theology,
coming of each true prophet is a periodic event
occuring once in some hundreds of years, and it
similar to space cycles, studied by astronomers.
A kernel of a religious system – its founder, on
behalf of God declaring a new sense of the future
condition of mankind. After rise of a prophet
his early community starts to embody a definite
doctrine in a sacral Scriptus. National or world
culture develops from religious principles of this
or that Scripture (or from a Sacred Tradition) and
lasts centuries and in the millenia.
Bаhа`is consider, that each God`s envoy
adds a special component to the general
formula of rescue of mankind and specifies it.
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So, Buddha, speaking about individual rescue
by own forces, specified eight ways of disposal
of fatal desires. Jesus Christ has strengthened
idea of rescue «through another man» principles
of sincerity (openness) and love (harmony of
the opposite beginnings). Моhammad has paid
a special attention of mutual aid, to traditions,
peaceful co-existence and has transferred
accent on collective, «national» rescue.
Baha'u'llah has united these principles as the
whole on the basis of the requirement of joint
rescue of people in structure of mankind and
has put forward a principle «to love another
more, than yourself».
Baha'u'llah has declared, that since 1844 and
within the next ten centuries will last the special
«New Era» – the era of consolidation of all people
of our planet in the uniform world community.
His doctrine is called the doctrine of progressive
revelation, and the prophet has stated it in one
hundred books among which are especially
important «The Kitab-i-Aqdas»(The Most
Holy Book) and «The Kitab-i-Iqan» (The Book
of Certitude). The doctrine about progressive
revelation is concretized in set of compositions of
Abdu`l-Baha and Shoghi Effendi. Further let us
try to shift an essence of this dogma briefly.
The idea of Baha’u’llah about the dual
nature of every real prophet is methodologically
important. For all true religions «God is one»,
nevertheless people are compelled to profess
different beliefs about God. In effect, all original
religions receive «beams» from a uniform
Source, but differ with specific interpretation of
this Source. Somewhat truly, that all religions
are just the same «Religion» (ecumenists usually
emphasize this aspect), however it is necessary
to keep and esteem carefully as relative truths
such religious forms as Hinduism, Judaism,
Zoroastrism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, etc.
Each original prophet spoke about himself as about
a usual terrestrial person and, simultaneously,
as about an Epiphany – for God speaks through
prophets.
In «The Book of Certitude» Baha’u’llah
writes about God`s prophets: «As these birds of
the Divine Throne are granted from the sky at
the Divine Will and born for declaration of His
staunch Belief. All of them can be considered
as the same shower and the person. For all of
them drink from a uniform bowl of Divine Love
and taste a fruit from the same Tree of Unity.
These Developers of God possess two sides. In
one attitude each of them is a pure abstraction
and unity in essence; you will not depart from
truth if all of them to name the same name and
to attribute them the same properties <…> The
second side – their distinction. In this plan every
Developer of God is absolutely individual, at
everyone the unique mission, everyone is known
under his own name <…> If Full Developers will
say: «Truly I am the God», – this is truth and no
doubt; for it was repeatedly proved, that through
their Phenomena, Properties and Names there is
a display, on the ground, of God’s Property and
God’s Name». So, prophets differ with human
appearance, but their divine essence is identical.
All of them have the same internal essence – to
be the GodMan, however circumstances of their
corporal birth are different.
In each religion there are two opposite
tendencies according to intrinsic and phenomenal
sides of a prophet. The first – recognition of
origin of your religion from the same uniform
Source from which also rise other religions. This
tendency demands from supporters of one faith
the respectful attitude to adherents of different
faith. The second tendency is interfaced to need
to protect uniqueness of own religious canon
and to oppose its canons of alien religions, to
differentiate faiths on «true» and «false». The
border of an openness of one religion depends
on a degree of display of the second tendency
concerning to another. These extreme measures
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are not groundless, caused by the dual nature of
any religion and give religious outlook a special
dramatic nature. They are not to be subjected to
unconditional condemnation and eradication.
Wise investigation and understanding such
extrema is much better.
Both specified tendencies are objectively
important for evolution of each religion and for
preservation of its unique kernel. Reassessment
of the importance of own way to God conducts
to fanaticism, sectarianism, illusion about the
superiority of «my» religion above «another’s»;
there are disputes, whose is God true, and whose –
only an idol. On the contrary, absolutization of
identity of religions is responsible for a non-church
ecumenism and religious divergence. Skill to find
out harmony of these two opposite tendencies,
peculiar to the moderate part of clergy and flock,
is the guarantor of peaceful coexistence and
mutual enrichment of all religions and cultures,
observance of a principle of freedom of worship
and easing polarization inside confessions.
The reason of ascention of forms of
historical generality of people on a higher level
is seen (in the doctrine of progressive revelation)
in events of coming of God’s envoys. Steps of
progress of mankind and an epoch of updating of
sense of the future centuries are in direct causal
dependence on turns of prophets. For example,
it is possible to assume, that Abraham had given
a spiritual impulse to a breeding (tribal) unity,
and Mohammad stood at sources of a national
structure. Former envoys of God serially pawned
preconditions for transformation of the world
split into set of clashing regions, in uniform
«metacountry». Step by step communities of
people were as though translated from initial
classes in which train in mutual coexistence
and dialogue, in the senior classes – down to
an adult’s condition. Now, in New Era, it is
necessary to synthesize so organically spiritual
and material in persons that became possible
mass, instead of elite, international management
through general meetings of ordinary people
with each other.
The sacred law of the future world hostel
will be expressed, on Baha’u’llah, in a dialectic
principle «distinctions in identity», assuming
harmonious coexistence and evolution of all
developed cultures. If there are more freely
unique features of various languages and
cultures, then the richer a spiritual genofund of
mankind develops and there are more creative
events in peace contacts among persons, religions
and cultures. What was fine color of a life, if it is
only one – it is always color of totalitarianism and
utter darkness.
As bаhа`is consider, it is necessary to
recognize following principles for achievement
of unity of mankind: 1) refusal of any prejudices;
2) maintenance of full equality of the rights of
men and women; 3) comprehension of unity and
relative character of religious truth; 4) elimination
of extreme displays of poverty and richness;
5) maintenance of general education; 6) duty
of everyone to search truth independently;
7) creation of the world federation; 8) recognition
of that the true religion is in harmony with mind
and scientific search.
Founders of Bаhа`i Faith see main
preconditions of becoming of uniform mankind
and universal culture as independent integrity
(alongside with kept national cultures) in the four
future events-processes:
1) integration sociohistorical communities
of people down to occurrence of the incorporated
mankind;
2) fast progress of means of the
communications;
3) creation of an auxiliary international
language;
4) formation and strengthening of the
world administration coordinating actions of the
national governments.
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1.
Integration
of
sociohistorical
communities. Bаhа`is trust, that God has
started historical forces which destroy
the traditional barriers dividing people on
different races and beliefs. During the end of
association of ancient people into primitive
g e n e r i c u n i t s the opportunity of a survival
of families essentially amplified: chances on
mutual destruction of families were decreased,
interfamily conflicts were weakened. A generic
unit resisted interfamily conflicts with a help of
sacral traditions and interdictions. During those
old times love to a native generic community
was above, than love to own family. Transition
of a society from patrimonial building to
higher – b r e e d i n g, and after to p e o p l e – the
organizations considerably reduced probability
of interpatrimonial contentions and wars inside
of a uniform tribe or people. At last, for today
n a t i o n is the highest of the forms of sociallyorganic integrity of people reached by mankind.
Nation does unite force of patriotism in a single
whole. The feeling of social love, which is pulling
together set of differing people and groups in a
more and more increasing whole, historically
became complicated, increased from love to
own family up to love to own nation. Nowadays
national patriotism almost everywhere and with
the sufficient basis is estimated as such relic, on
which the sovereignty of any state is based.
As soon as mankind grew by a consecutive
investment of simple forms of the spiritual
and material unity in more and more complex
communities (from family through genos, tribe
and people to nation), the character of such
ascention, on Baha’u’llah, is valid as the objective
divine law. The maximal form of human unity
in comparison with all former communities –
the uniform mankind, and it is inevitable.
During centuries of New Era this form will be
the complete subject in the attitude to God and
space. On the foreground in outlook, the personal
force of love to mankind as a whole will be put
forward. This love in any way does not cancel
love of an individual to his family, people, nation;
it is built on above all historically more ancient
forms of social love and in due course becomes
the most sacred universal feeling. Inside of
mankind incorporated in a bouquet of people and
the nations, freedom and safety of citizens and
the states will increase, borders will open, threat
of global and regional collisions will sharply
decrease; mankind will turn to one family, and a
planet – into one country.
Disorder of former social structures forces
many people to aspire to creation of more advanced
integrity inside of which former structures will
turn to considerably transformed subsystems of
new totality, harmonizing each other. For example,
arising from bloody-related brotherhood, through
Buddhist, Christian and Muslim brotherhoods, a
brotherhood of people all grows up to universal
«all human beings are brothers». Such prospect
follows from historical experience of earthmen,
expresses one of objective world tendencies –
aspiration of people to tolerance, – resisting to not
less strong alternative tendency to intolerance.
Hence, such prospect is not cleanly ideological
fiction.
The doctrine of progressive revelation speaks
about possibility of u n i t y of all nations, races,
languages and cultures in structure of a reuniting
mankind, but it does not speak about their m e r g e
a n d d i s s o l u t i o n without the rest in some
international mass, which suppresses love to a
family, genos, tribe, people and native language.
On the contrary, the principle «distinctions in
identity» assumes such desirable maximum unity
of mankind inside of which flowers of all unique
cultures grow, and citizens of any country can
use their fruits where and in what conditions they
lived. In this sense the future world is seen as the
uniform country inside of which to each person
the right freely to move to all to parts of the world
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is given, and they may choose religion adequating
their soul and national culture.
Now people in the majority have not grown
yet, spiritually and fi nancially, to skill to choose
a sociocultural form of individual life adequate
to their essence and mentality. More often they
do not have sufficient conditions for a choice of
the desirable nationality, the suitable language,
attractive religion and culture. In what place
to live and in what ethnic language to think is
not yet a question of their free choice, but is
a question of their casual birthplace and the
compelled submission to local traditions and
interdictions. That is why there are dissidents
inside of national cultures and internal protests
against specific values, totally imposed, are
inevitable.
At the same time this violent stay of peoplecells in severe constraints of national organisms
is historically justified by laws of a survival and
blossoming of each separate culture. Features of
ethnic culture demand for the basic display «a
critical weight» of identically thinking people,
so that is necessary and enough of the people
keeping each other within the limits of the same
sociocultural whole. When all variety of cultures
will ripen and for maintenance of each culture
the superfluous number of adherents will be
enough, then there will come time of collecting
of all cultures in a uniform multi-colour bouquet.
In only case when there will be unprecedented
opportunities for a free choice individuals
own sociocultural essence, and rigid borders
between the national states protected by armies
will disappear. And then each human being
will found out, that, he is similar to a mine with
diamonds, conceals in itself an inexhaustible
loose of treasures which true value is unknown
even to its owner, not speaking about associates.
The purpose of human life – to use these riches
as personally for itself, and for the good of
mankind.
Today the problem of universal values
is a subject of sharp ideological discussions.
The opposing parties, as a rule, oppose nondialectically with two theses:
1) universal ideals always predominated over
the organization of a public life by virtue of that
homo sapiens is the uniform socially-biological
whole, and base principles of all religions and
cultures, adjusting ethnic communications, are
the same in essence;
2) national-ethnic always gets the best above
universal: all history of mankind testifies that
human life is organized in the form of ethnoses
incessantly struggling with each other; there is no
universal language, any thinking and any culture
are based on national languages.
It is possible to prove both of the thesis
convincingly enough specially picked up
examples, and in their collision they seem
eternally unsoluble dilemma. However the
dilemma is somewhat removed, when we start
to interpret it in the view of the doctrine of
progressive revelation and through the picture of
step ascention of a sociohistorical generality of
people from family up to the nation and, at last,
up to the incorporated mankind.
2. About revolution in means of mass
communications. The second major precondition
of gradually standing apart universal culture
is unprecedented rate of development of
means of a mass communication, predicted by
Baha’u’llah. After 1844 there is, in abundance,
an unprecedented technics: telegraph, rotator,
transatlantic cable, typewriter, phone, gas engine,
car, linotype, photo, diesel engine, cinema,
airplane, radio, TV, satellite, laser, computer,
Internet – all these technical inventions have
closely pull together between itself the countries
and continents, have made the nations and their
cultures closely interdependent. At all desire
any people any more will not manage to become
isolated behind «Iron Curtain» in the frontiers.
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As we see, to the beginning of XXI century
there was a technical-tool precondition of
association of mankind.
3. Need for the auxiliary international
language. According to the Bible once, till the
moment of erection of the Babel tower, all Adam’s
descendants communicated on a uniform and true
parent language. Then God had punished them for
their arrogance and forced to express in different
languages. So the Scripture explains the fact of
existence of many ethnic languages. Whether to
be for ever doomed mankind divided by language
barriers? Some Christian thinkers, for struggle
against language chauvinism and improvements of
mutual understanding between people, suggested
to think up any general artificial language – in
addition to already existing ethnic languages – on
which all people of our planet could communicate
(Newton, Descartes, Leibnits, etc.). Johnathan
Swift was rather ironic on this account. He
derided in his book «Gulliver’s Travel» scientists
from Laputa (the country thought up by him),
which communicated by means of language of
things; that is why these men have been compelled
to drag with themselves huge backpacks with
suitable things.
Baha’u’llah wrote in his messages from Acca
to some leaders of empires and countries, that it is
necessary to design, in addition to a set of natural
ethnic languages, the uniform auxiliary language
for association of mankind within the New Era.
The appeal of the Persian prophet has been heard
by many. So, in 1887 L. Zamengof, a bаhа`i from
Poland, has created one auxiliary language –
esperanto – on the basis of the latin alphabet,
and since then hundred thousands esperantists
express themselves in it
The teachers of Bаhа`i Faith predict, that
some kind of «dialectic denying of denying» will
occur in the come millenium: uniform language
will be restored by linguistic synthesis in a new
quality, supplementing polylanguism. This
language is planned to be created gradually from
fragments of all, without exception, practised
languages, and any of them does not need to
be given preferences. Probably, it will appear
as a monosemic, emotionally neutral artificial
language with a simple grammar, and the most
successful sounds, syllables and the wordcombinations inherent in all nowadays practised
national languages will be synthesized in it. Not
reduced neither to the latin basis, nor to cyrillics,
or to one of the east languages the planned
auxiliary language will borrow something
important at each of them.
The computer development of main principles
of the required language has begun already with
the end of XX century, though it is still far up
to the general agreement on its grammar and the
base dictionary. What will this language be –
to be solved by commissions of experts and all
people. If such language will arise sometime, it,
possibly, will not have limits of perfection, begins
to be studied at all schools of the world by each
person together with native, national, language.
Then, in the future, people of all countries will
be trained two languages at once from children's
age. The internal social unity of mankind and
the world on the Earth, probably, become norm
with gradual overcoming a problem of linguistic
mutual understanding (it will be possible to
communicate with any foreigner directly, without
a translator) So, apparently, gradually there is a
special linguistic precondition for transformation
of mankind into the uniform subject.
4. Need of mankind in the world
administration. According to the doctrine of
progressive revelation, creation of the world
government is one of the essential precondition
of universal culture. In 1912 Abdu`l-Baha, during
his tour across the USA, has suggested to create
such operating international body and place it in
New York. And, as it is known, the organization
of United Nations is located there today. World
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problems and regulation of interethnic relations –
a subject of the future world administration
selected by all states. By virtue of and in a process
of opening borders between the states each citizen
will be free to choose a place of the residing,
religion, culture and a nationality adequating to
his conscience and spirit. The principle of unity
of any distinctions in people resists to extreme
measures of cosmopolitism and nationalism,
ecumenism and ideas of exclusiveness of any
«selected» religion. It is necessary to search for
«golden mean» between these extreme measures.
The new world administrative order arises
through overcoming of sharp social contradictions
between empires and colonies, national states,
world religions, a person and a society, traditions
and new growths.
From the end of XIX century the mankind
began to change character of the communications
considerably. The world congresses, devoted
to the rights of women, general education,
prohibition of childish labour, clearing of slaves
and colonies, creation of the world administrative
bodies have begun. The Hague conferences
(with 1919) have turned to League of the nations
which then became UN. The United Nations
nowadays cost, probably, on a threshold of radical
restructuring in a more effective instrument to
control world social process. The world prepares
for the new birth – the new spiritual and material
communication fastening mankind together is
born. Process of reunion of the patrimonial person
with the parts-ethnoses, which have separated in
due time, will borrow not years and not decades,
but will demand many centuries.
Bаhа`is
constantly
emphasize
vital
importance of growth of the spiritual beginning
in association of mankind because: 1) without
a progress of spirit there will be no tolerance
to heterodoxy and, hence, there will be no
strong and durable association of mankind;
2) transformation of the lowest type of unity into
higher gives not only more freedom for persons,
families, tribes and nations, but also threatens to
suppress all parts of the social whole by means
of authority of the operating world center, which
may be removed from simple people and national
formations.
There is a threat, that the world bureaucracy,
once having developed, will subordinate to itself
all alive on the Earth, and a «person-screw»
will have no place to be covered from it (unless
on other planet). The formal opportunity of a
similar condition of mankind disturbs minds of
futurologists and scientific visionaries. Originally
free will of all earthmen is necessary at reelections of heads and the decision of the major
questions for avoidance of danger of usurpation
of authority by world administration and also of
threat of totalitarianism in the world scale. The
long and not palatable, but the curative period of
transformation of all existing political and social
attitudes inside of each country and between the
states is necessary. National-liberation movements,
nationalism and patriotism are everywhere to
grow; empires and violently incorporated social
conglomerates will disappear.
The scientifically verified conclusion
follows from the doctrine of Baha'u'llah that
movement of mankind to higher integrity,
borrowing some centuries, every time is
accompanied by strengthening of sufferings and
the crisis phenomena. Process of breakage of the
become numb institutes by all means generates
counteraction from these institutes, their hostile
reaction directed on restoration of an old
condition, including imperial. It causes growth
of intensity in a society, aggression in relations
between people to that we are involuntary
witnesses and participants today – for example,
in connection with disintegration of the USSR
(by the way, Baha'u'llah has predicted in the letter
to emperor Alexander II, that crash of Russian
empire will occur in the end of XX century).
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Therefore present growth of nationalism and
patriotism is natural, expedient and inevitable.
Everywhere, and including in distressful Russia,
national-liberation movements become stronger.
One people goes against another. Everywhere
xenofobia, nationalism and patriotism amplifies.
Baha'is speak: in order to be united strongly,
it is necessary, at first, to become a sovereign,
independent subject, to reveal the spiritual and
material abilities and to become attractive for
other people. This strategic purpose is pursued
implicitly with national-liberation movement
which, at the same time, is inevitably accompanied
by the tendency of national intolerance, religious
extremism and so forth. Those, who see only
horrifying costs of this grandiose process and
do not understand its latent historical purpose,
are compelled to regard growth of nationalism
and patriotism only as destruction of a society
and coming of antiChrist in the world. The
saving output it sees in cosmopolitism. On the
contrary, those who see an ultimate goal of
history of mankind only in preservation of each
nation, fastening to each nation of own sovereign
territory and exile from it any foreign spirit, are
guided by national patriotism as a limiting and
certainly valuable principle of a public life.
Whether fondly to repeat a developing ideal
of love to all mankind when compatriots are
inclined to see enemies in peoples-neighbours
and in general everywhere? Chesterton has
somehow noticed, that «when somebody speaks
about mankind, passengers in the overflown
underground are represented me; it is surprising,
how souls are far when bodies are so close». It
is easy for me to love members of my family,
but it is difficult to grow fond of people of other
nationality, and furthermore mankind as a whole.
The border dividing neighbours, conceals in
itself danger of enmity between them, serves as
the reason of mutual insults. The conflict usually
begins in the environment near. All countries
arose and changed the borders during struggle
against neighbours. The most severe wars, as a
rule, flash between the adjacent states.
Mass sufferings because of the imperfection
of a life, caused by split of mankind on nations,
give rise to general need for reunion of mankind
and improvement of activity of the international
organizations. Achievement of the higher level
of unity of people demands the increase of
understanding of individual imperfection and
aspiration to overcome it through cooperation
with heterodoxes. The more deeply and more
widely the unity of differing people, the greater
role spiritual attraction is truly played in it.
The whole epoch and many centuries of
alteration of existing system of social attitudes
is required in order to come to the higher type
of unity of mankind, which reduces probability
of wars. This epoch is not palatable, but curative.
There will be a transformation of present forms
of social unity and resubordination them to their
world social communications within future
centuries. Traditional communications will
gradually cease to play the leading part and will
be updated in the subordinated status. Process
will proceed before full self-determination of
any as much as small social generality of people
while this generality will not feel enough free
for decision, making on mutually advantageous
cooperation with other not less free associations
of people. According to Bаhа`i Faith, the more
social freedom within the New Era all tribes and
nations will achieve, the quicker there will be
their voluntary association – the regional in the
beginning, then continental and international at
last.
Predictions of Baha'u'llah, which has laid
down in the basis of the new political thinking
in the second half of XX century, partially
prove to be true. Change of national reference
points on universal is already appreciable in a
number of the modern social phenomena and
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in the future, it is possible, becomes obvious in
many other aspects. For example, all agree today
that universal is above national in the technics,
natural sciences, mathematics, sports. But the
national-ethnic beginning predominates in
other spheres of a national life (for example, in
family-household, religions, ideologies). National
values test an escalating competition to universal
cultural norms and ideals. Ideals of the future
cosmopolitan culture appear gradually, and these
ideals are recognized by all people. It is important
to emphasize, that the such unusual culture will
be capable to develop within the next centuries
only on the basis of pluralism of prospering tribal
and national cultures.
So, we have discussed several general
contours of the doctrine of Baha'u'llah and its
successors about conditions of becoming of
mankind as uniform subject and strengthening of
the universal tendency of an attraction (toleration),
which would begin capable to counterbalance the
universal tendency of pushing away (intolerance).
Undoubtedly, this doctrine includes some utopian
moments. But, as academician A. A. Guseinov
proves, Utopias are extremely necessary for
mankind: «In the world in which there is no
Utopia, there is no place for philosophy. The
philosophy which cannot offer a worthy Utopia,
appears fruitless»2. Summarizing Baha’u’llah’s
doctrine about progressive revelation, it is
possible to estimate highly a passionate appeal
containing in it to transform mankind into the
uniform subject and to strengthen the world
tendency of nonviolence.
References
1.
2.
See: Bahá’u’lláh. The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Haifa: The Universal House of Justice. 1992; Báhá’u’lláh.
Kitáb-i-Íqan. Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 2003; Abdu’l-Bahá. Some Answered Questions
(Russian). Sankt-Peterburg, 1993; Effendi Shoghi. God Passes By. Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing
Trust,1944; Hatcher, W.S., Martin, J.D. The Bahá’í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion.
Wilmette: Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1998; Johanisyan J.A. Bahá’í Faith. Sankt-Peterburg: AzbukaClassica, 2003.
Guseinov A. A. Philosophy as Utopia for Culture (Russian). Moscow: Vestnik of Russian
Philosophical Society. 2007. № 4. P. 42.
Вера Бахаи: учение о прогрессивном откровении
Д.В. Пивоваров
Уральский государственный университет
Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51
В статье обсуждается идейное основание религии Бахаи – учение о прогрессивном откровении.
Описываются воззрения Бахауллы и его последователей на природу пророка, миссию великих
пророков, сущность грядущей Новой Эры и на объединение человечества в единый субъект.
Ключевые слова: Вера Бахаи, прогрессивное откровение, природа пророчества, социальноисторические общности, единство человечества, вспомогательный международный язык,
всемирная администрация.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 60-66
~~~
УДК 213-55 + 393.951
Aspects of Archaic Sacrifice:
Sacrifice in the Structure of the Universe
Olesya V. Kuznetsova*
Urals State University Named After M. Gorky
51 Lenin av., Ekaterinburg, 620083 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
In this work we study the ways of the culturological thought in the research into sacrifice. Some
features of the archaic sacrifice are researched as a phenomenon, especially the correlation between
sacrificial offering and immolation, along with its position in the universe structure. We have found
some ways for further research: transition from the primary study of the ritual action to consideration
of sacrifice as a religious phenomenon.
Keywords: sacrifice, archaical sacrifice, ritual, cosmogony, immolation, structure.
Sacrifice becomes the subject of thought as
early as in ancient times, and then even though in
a specific form, in the Middle Age scholasticism,
the Renaissance and New Time occultism, but
still only in the second part of the XIX century
does a serious scientific and philosophical study
begin. The research into sacrifice had a lot of
peculiarities, two of which have an immediate
relation to this subject matter. We should note that
researchers, despite the non-religious character of
their work, were still under the influence of the
Christian legacy of the European civilization,
the tradition which first of all saw sacrifice in
the light of Christ’s sacrifice. This peculiarity
matched another one: sacrifice was treated as
some wholesome phenomenon, whose unity could
be understood by bringing it to one common
origin or function. However, under the influence
of the diversity of forms referring to the studied
phenomenon which researchers came across
*
1
by the middle of the XX century, they started
to gradually realize the heterogeneity of what
was called sacrifice. There are some objections
against the possibility of studying sacrifice
through the prism of Abraham’s religions (Das,
1983). Moreover, the existence of sacrifice as a
wholesome phenomenon is called into question
and some people suppose that as far as ancient
peoples and modern conservation societies
are concerned, it is necessary to at least speak
about a specific type – «traditional sacrifice»
(McClaymond, 2008, р. 27, 153). But still, partly
because the range of phenomena, united by that
term, is far too vast and comprises sacrifice of
the primeval societies as well as sacrifice in
Judaism and Islam, and partly because the term
«traditional» itself offers different meanings, if
applied to religions and societies, it makes more
sense to talk not about «traditional» but «archaic»
sacrifice (although this term is not satisfactory
Corresponding author E-mail address: olesyakzn@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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enough either). Archaic sacrifice possesses
some specific features, one of the most essential
is that sacrifice is embedded in the structure
of the perception of the universe. However, we
should first address some particular issue, which
is directly connected with it, and that is the
correlation between sacrifice and immolation.
Sacrifice and immolation. Many researches
including W. Robertson-Smith, G. G. Fraser,
Z. Freud, K.G. Jung, and after them G. Batay,
J.-M. Haimone, R. Girard and others, despite the
differences of how they perceive sacrifice, all in
all understand it primarily as bloody sacrifice of
an animal or a human. Moreover, W. RobertsonSmith, G.G. Fraser, Z. Freud and others saw
immolation as one of the crucial parts of sacrifice,
although the mere understanding of this event
and the victim was different. R. Girard’s view on
sacrifice can be characterized the same way, not
as the communion or a neurotic identification,
but as legitimate violence. K. G. Jung considered
sacrifice to be the main factor in the alchemic
idea, that it was a tool of killing and at the same
time reviving. G. Batay and J.-M. Hamone reach
the same view on sacrifice, perceiving it as death
experience and at the same time as a trick that
lets one see the metaphysical realm, avoiding
one’s own demise. Even M. Moss, having
profoundly studied bloodless sacrifice, regards
it as a «murder» of plant. And the «murder» is
the climax of the ritual, whether it is an animal’s
sacrifice or soma juice, after which the ritual
decreases (Moss and Hubert, 200, p. 42). In
other words, whatever sacrifice meant for the
aforementioned researchers, immolation was the
event, without which the function defining its
existence, could not take place.
Nevertheless, not all researchers agree with
such guideline. The described perception might
be initially facilitated by the fact that in Christian
tradition, whether it was Isaac’s or Christ’s
sacrifice, death and sacrifice was basically the
same thing. However if we refer to ethnographical
materials we find essential variations of
immolation and sacrifice. According to V. Das,
who studied the same case as M. Moss, sacrificing
animals merely accompanies the extraction of
soma juice, not identifies with it. And if Moss
regarded soma extraction as its sacrifice, V. Das
refers to Vedas where it is repeatedly said not to
kill the soma which is being prepared. This means
that whereas for M. Moss the sacrifice of soma is
its murder and reincarnation, V. Das insists that
sacrificing soma is victimless sacrifice.
K. McClaymond acknowledges the
possibility of understanding an animal’s sacrifice
as a climax for some cultures. But he thinks that
murder is just a way to continue the ritual and that
it plays a minor part alleviating more important
actions – manipulations with a sacrificial offering
(McClaymond, 2008, р. 62). Any layman can
kill an animal but it takes an expert to properly
dismember a victim for the ritual, which lets one
think that the murder itself is not the main ritual
event (McClaymond, 2008).
One of the possible clues to understand the
issue is space-time localization of immolation
and sacrifice. Many researchers thought that
immolation had to be at least timed to sacrifice. In
the topological aspect it often corresponds to M.
Moss’s opinion, according to which immolation
has to take place only in a holy place because
otherwise it would be nothing but murder (Moss
and Hubert, 2000, p. 33). Nevertheless, the place
of immolation (or extraction if we talk about
libation) did not always agree with the place and
time of sacrifice itself. Polynesian tribe moray
had sacrificial rites when during one feast they
sacrificed an animal where the ritual was taking
place and at the same time they brought animals
that had been killed before. As far as human
sacrifice is concerned, there were some specific
requirements, the victim was chosen randomly,
killed suddenly and far from the place where
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the ritual was taking place (Campbell, 2002,
p. 555-558). Besides sacrificing deer stabbed
right during the feast, Koryaks also sacrificed
deer fat, dried loach and jukola which had been
prepared in advance and the marrow the day
after sacrificing deer (Gorbacheva, 2004, p. 78).
Sacrificial animals were stabbed during Chuvash
feasts, although within the territory of the feast
but far from the altar (Gorbacheva, 2004, p. 7778). All this lets us think that sacrifice that took
place in a different place and time was the peak or
quintessence of the sacrificial ritual.
Sacrifice in the structure of the universe.
Within religious notions M. Moss defi nes
sacrifice as a way of connection between a man
and a sacred world (Moss and Hubert, 2000, p.
101). Moss regards the structure of the ritual
space which, according to him, depends on the
changes in the sacred status of the elements
involved. The space of sacrifice is a field of
concentric circles as Moss sees it, where the
degree of sacrality grows as it gets closer to the
centre – the place where sacrifice took place
and where the sacrality has its peak (Moss and
Hubert, 2000, p. 37, 38).
On a large scale the structure connected to
sacrifice as M. Eliade views it, is close to the one
described by M. Moss. However, Eliade studies it
not only in the light of the changes taking place
in the sacred status but through its connection to
the universal system. M. Eliade insists that the
altar construction is a microscopic imitation of
the world creation and any sacrifice in its turn is
a repetition of the Creation (Eliade, 2000, p. 30).
Any universe according to Eliade is a structure
based on the opposition between the centre and the
periphery, and that any cosmogony respectively
starts with finding the centre (Eliade, 1987, p.
145). Thus, sacrifice is always connected to the
centre of the universe. Besides, M. Eliade does
not take into consideration the existence of the
sacred elements in the religious space, the ones
that are situated in the periphery of the concentric
type cosmic structure.
E. Leech does not consider the spatial
structure of sacrifice to be directly connected to
a strictly concentric organization. According to
E. Leech in a topographical sense, the world of
people and the sacred world have something in
common as far as sacrifice is concerned; thus,
the altar does not only unite but also separate the
mundane and the sacred (Leech, 2001, p. 101).
E. Leech differentiates the spatial structural
components using the same principles as M. Moss,
based on the degree of sacred sense: the panel is
This World and has the minimal sacred charge,
whereas the northern part of the tabernacle is The
Most Sacred Place is charged to the limit. The
intermediate area – the concentration of active
ritual events is also divided into a court, relatively
deprived of religious taboo, and the southern
part of the tabernacle which is relatively sacred.
Between the latter ones there is a boundary and a
link at the same time – the sacrificial altar, which
is the threshold marking the passage from the
usual «normal world» to the sacred «abnormal»
one (Leech, 2001, p. 107). Apart from those areas
that lie within the panel, Leech points to the
existence of a «blank spot» in a desert, destined
for things that are too «infected with sacredness»
(ashes from the altar fire etc.) or on the contrary
too «unclean».
Although E. Leech saw the structure of
sacrifice first of all as a horizontal model, but
in such a way that the horizontal can become
the projection of the vertical (if we do not take
into consideration the aforementioned «blank
spot»). It is essential to note that the structure
that Leech found is quite widespread even in its
general features in archaic religions. Sacrifice to
the sea that hunters offered using sea animals is
indeed drawn to the structure that generally takes
place horizontally. Moreover, here the areas of
human and sacred are divided even more strictly:
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in this case man does not trespass the limits of
the sacred, his structural placement. It is also
vital to note that the its correlation to the vertical
structure that M. Eliade talks about, is not always
easy to define. The sea cannot be always easily
categorized into the lower world: Greeks did not
identify Poseidon’s sea possession with Hades’
underground kingdom, and Poseidon himself
unlike Hades mounts the Olympus.
Sacrifice and cosmogony. Inclusion of
sacrifice in the structure of religion universe is
accompanied by its involvement in the cosmogonic
processes and presents one characteristic feature
of archaic sacrifice. However, the character of
connection between sacrifice and cosmogony
is evaluated in an ambiguous way. M. Moss
supposed that theomachy dates back to the idea
of sacrifice to a god. Sacrifice to a god turns into
a fight of gods, as a consequence of splitting of
one and the same spirit (Moss and Hubert, 2000,
p. 91). Moss thought the proof for that was the
fact that theomachy was linked to sacrifice,
that sometimes one of the gods was the victim,
the god participating in such fights (like Veda’s
Soma), that it was not so seldom when a god died
after the fight and that quite often the god and
his adversary were co-creators (like in mitraism).
In other words, Moss based his theory on the
idea that on the one hand a god is a victim and
a priest who brings the victim and on the other
hand sacrifice to a god turns its nature from dark
to luminous. However, it is necessary to note that
the idea is not inherent in archaic sacrifice but in
new time occultism.
M. Eliade got closer to understanding the
connection between sacrifice and cosmogony.
Nevertheless he was not sure neither about the
role of sacrifice in the universe establishment, nor
about the types of the cosmogonic acts. On the
one hand, M. Eliade talks about sacrifice as an
event following cosmogony and appearing in the
establishment of the sacred space or reproducing
in a number of space sanctifying rites and the
creation of the altar (Eliade, 2000, p. 73). In this
case, sacrifice according to Eliade «endows the
world with soul» and «proves» the effectiveness
of the creative act, when it comes down to the
ritual referring to ancient action. Besides it is
there to «restore the primary unity that existed
before the creation» (Eliade, 2000, p. 36, 73). On
the other hand, sacrifice is said to be identical to
cosmogony. Besides, M. Eliade found two types
of the cosmogony: by establishing the world
axis and by killing a monster or a dragon, and
sacrifice does date back to the latter (Eliade,
2000, p. 277).
Talking about the character of the connection
between sacrifice and cosmogony we can say that
it was F. B. J. Kayper who found a way out. He
takes notice of sacrifice being identical to the
cosmogonic deed not only in human rituals but
on the level of mythological event as well. It is
important that the character of such substitution
is not genetic as much as it is structural: Veda
Pradgapati fins out some «water nest» on the
surface of endless waters in the primary ocean,
where he makes a fire which becomes the earth
and the pivot (Kepner, 1986, p. 120) and thus he
does something like what created Varun having
something to do with the primary island that
appeared on the surface of the world waters, and
Indra who facilitated that island and extended it
to the known borders of the land. Besides, F. B.
J. Kayper shares the opinion that the primary hill
has a symbolic representation in the altar for the
sacrificial fire (Kayper, 1986, p.124).
Time aspect of sacrifice and universe
system. In the universe system sacrifice does not
only have spatial but also time characteristics.
M. Moss studies profoundly sacrifice in its time
aspect. As far as time is concerned sacrifice
for him is a consecutive change of status of the
participants as well as the victim. According to
M. Moss the idea is that neither the sacrifice nor
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the place, the tool or the victim possesses a proper
religious status, they all refer to the sphere of the
profane. And the function of the first stage of
sacrifice is to endow them with such status. Du to
that the sacrifice is supposed to have ritual purity
(Moss and Hubert, 2000, p. 25, 28). Moss regards
the priest institution first of all as an institution of
mediators between humans and the sacred world,
as sacrality due to its special condition and the
type of activity. It is also necessary to endow the
place where the sacrifice takes place and the tools
with sacrality. Finally, M. Moss links the time
aspect with the idea of identification between the
victim and the sacrifice and the idea of the stages
of transformation (status) that the sacrifice takes.
Moss describes some of the stages that the victim
goes through as a curve reaching the sacrality
maximum, stopping there for a moment and then
decreasing. As a result of such de-sacralisation
the participants of the ritual have a possibility
to secure the manipulations with the material
component of the victim and the participants
return safely into the normal profane state of the
human world.
Unlike M. Moss, M. Eliade is not so
interested in details about changes of the sacrality
status in time. Apparently, it is due to M. Eliade’s
view of the time category as far as a traditional
society man is concerned. M. Eliade admits
the formation only in the modern profane time
whereas the sacred time returned and essentially
fused with the time of the world creation. Thus, the
dichotomy of the profane and the sacred is more
important for her as well as the idea connected
with it that any sacrifice along with any other act
important for a traditional man, is archetypical
which means that it dates back to some ancient
action, taking place in the primary epoch. That
is why he asserts that «due to the paradox of the
ritual any sacred space coincides with the World
Centre, like time coincides with the mythical
time of «inception» (Eliade, 2000, p. 36).
While
characterizing
the
victim’s
transformation in a very general way, E. Leech
follows M. Moss’s idea. E. Leech thinks that in
time aspect the victim and the sacrifice correspond
to the stages of transition between states that
man goes through, besides the identification is
important, on the one hand as the victim’s path
with the path of the deceased, on the other hand –
the victim and the sacrifice (Leech, 2001, p. 102).
However, when referring to the materials, E.
Leech studies the situation where there is not a
complete identification between the victim’s path
and the path of the initiated. E. Leech does not
talk about some specific sacrifice but about an
initiation ritual where multiple sacrifices are made
successively and in different ways. According to
Leeche’s time scheme, an initiated priest goes
through three stages: primary «normal» state,
marginal position and final «normal» state in a
new status. The first stage is different from the
first because of the separation rite, and the second
differs from the third due to the inclusion rite. In
other words, in all the transition rites the sacrifice
is employed as a landmark marking each stage
(Leech, 2001, p. 97, 113).
The relative character of inclusion of
the sacrifice into the universe structure. The
structures studied above despite their differences,
have one common feature: they all presuppose the
correlation between the victim and the universe
«centre». This essential feature characterizes the
«cosmogonic» sacrifice, however not all archaic
sacrifices, besides they imply the connection
between the sacred world and the human world,
and have an immediate relation to such «centre».
One of the aspects in the range of problems
that sacrifice encompasses is that within one
feast and moreover one ritual sacrifice can have
different topographical localization. Whether it is
an Assyrian «home cleansing ritual» or morays
sacrifices mentioned above, Chuvash festive
rituals, Koryak feast in honour of the «owners»
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of domestic deer and in many other cases
sacrifice is not only characterized by the number
of victims and the types of sacrifice but also by
the differences in localization. It is essential that
in the aforementioned ritual there are several
necessary altars: two for two underground gods
and three more – one for the home god, home
goddess and home guarding god (Kifishin, 2000,
p. 98). Besides, there are two groups of things
that are used to bring to different parts of the
house: vegetative victims – to the northwest of
the inner part of the house, animal victims – to
the southeast side (Kifishin, 2000, p. 102-103).
So, although in cases like the Assyrian sacrifice
in the «home cleansing» ritual it is possible to
talk about some connection between the victim
and cosmogony, but it is still de-centralized, it
is directed to different areas of the sacred space,
which corresponds to specific parts of the world.
Conclusion. The connection between
sacrifice and the structure of the universe is an
indication of its archaic character. If space-time
structure of the Old Testament sacrifice that
Lech found still has its structural character of
cosmic formation, then in Christ’s sacrifice and
communion the notion of the universe structure
can be seen only indirectly. Christian sacrifice
defines the moral order not the space character:
it atones for a man’s sins, sanctions his New
Testament with god and abolishes the sacrifice of
the archaic type.
Christian sacrifice cannot be interpreted as
a result of the creation but with some effort as a
structural base of the universe. It also concerns
sacrifice and its rudiments of other world
religions: Islam, Buddhism, and the Bahá’í Faith.
Nevertheless, the connection between archaic
sacrifice and cosmogony has though essential
but still not inherent aspect of archaic sacrifice.
Archaic sacrifice cannot be classified according
to the cosmologic ideas and it is also apparently
impossible to understand archaic sacrifice be
defining its ideas referring to cosmologic notions.
For many types of archaic sacrifice it is difficult
if not impossible to define some cosmological
ideas. And even when such ideas can be defined,
apparently they are not the main ones: sacrifice to
ancestors, in the event of travelling, or successful
trade, sacrifice to prophecy and when asking for
cure etc.
References
1.
2.
3.
Gorbacheva V.V Koryak rites and feasts. – Saint-Petersburg: Nauka, 2004 (in Russian)
Kayper F. B. Y. Works on Veda mythology. – M.: Nauka, 1986. (in Russian)
Kivishin A. G. Sacrifice of Assyrian kings//Sacrifice: Ritual in culture and art from ancient times
to modern days.- M.: Languages of the Russian culture, 2000. (in Russian)
4. Campbell G. Mythical image.- M.: OOO AST Publishing House, 2002. (in Russian)
5. Leech E. Culture and communication: Logic in the interconnection of symbols. About the usage
of the structural analysis in social anthropology.- M.: «Oriental literature» RAN, 2001. (2001)
6. Moss M., Hubert A. Essay about the nature and function of sacrifice/Social functions of the
sacred. Moss M. Selected works.- Saint-Petersburg, «Evrasia», 2000. (in Russian)
7. Salmin A. K. The system of Chuvash religion.- Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 2007. (in Russian)
8. Eliade M. Space and history.- M.: Progress, 1987. (in Russian)
9. Eliade M. Myth of the eternal coming// Eliade M. Selected works: Myth of the eternal coming;
Images and symbols; The sacred and the mundane.- M: Ladomir, 2000a. (in Russian)
10. Eliade M. The sacred and the mundane // Eliade M. Selected works: Myth of the eternal coming;
Images and symbols; The sacred and the mundane.- M: Ladomir, 2000a. (in Russian)
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11. Das V. Language of Sacrifice// Man > New Series, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 1983).
12. McClaymond Kathryn. Beyond Sacred Violence: a comparative study of sacrifice/ The Johns
Hopkins University press. – Baltimore, 2008.
Аспекты архаического жертвоприношения:
жертвоприношение в структуре вселенной
О.В. Кузнецова
Уральский государственный университет
им. А.М. Горького
Россия 620083, Екатеринбург, пр. Ленина, 51
В данной работе рассматриваются пути культурологической мысли в исследовании
жертвоприношения. Рассмотрены некоторые черты архаического жертвоприношения как
явления, в особенности соотношение жертвоприношения и заклания, его положение в структуре
мироздания. Намечены пути дальнейшего его изучения: переход от преимущественного
исследования ритуального действия к рассмотрению жертвоприношения как религиозного
явления.
Ключевые слова: жертвоприношение, архаическое жертвоприношение, ритуал, космогония,
заклание, структура.
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УДК 903.023.[638.3]
Pottery from Archaeological Site Baikal’skoe VII
(North-West Coast of Lake Baikal)
Alexey M. Korostelev*
Irkutsk State Technical University,
83 Lermontova, Irkutsk, 664074 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
This paper is devoted to the complex analysis of pottery from an monument Baikal’skoe VII. As a result
of research funeral-memories a site Baikal’skoe VII it was found out, that the fragments of vessels
found out on it concern to different types of pottery: smooth-wall and with prints of a cord. Such
example of finds has once again proved, that carriers of different pottery traditions some time could
coexist in common at coast of Lake Baikal.
Keywords: pottery, material, fragment, ornament, type, the platen, dating.
Introduction
Pottery is one of the most widespread
categories of finds on archaeological sites.
Ceramics characteristics help scientists to define
the chronology of archaeological sites and their
cultural affiliations and, consequently, to imagine
valuable way of its creation and creators.
One of the archaeological sites of Iron Age
on the northwestern coast of Lake Baikal is ritual
and mortuary complex Baikal’skoe VII. Pottery
analysis of materials discovered during the site
excavations allowed to look at culture origin
processes that took place on the northwestern
coast of Lake Baikal from the end of 1st millenium
BC to the beginning of 1st millenium AD.
Research history
Archaeological site Baikal’skoe VII is
situated on the Ludar cape 0.45 km northeast
from Baikal’skoe village on the small flat area
*
1
that is located 45 – 50 m above Lake Baikal level
is (Fig. 1).
The ritual complex Baikal’skoe VII was
discovered in 1988 by collaborators of Irkutsk
State University A.V. Kharinsky and M.A.
Zaytsev. Excavations of a trench 4x5 m in size
occurred at the place of one artificial stone
feature (N1) and oriented with long walls from
northwest to southeast. This stone feature had
round form and was 3.2x3.7 m in size. Most of
the stones were located around the construction’s
perimeter and formed a ring (Fig. 2). A pit
oriented from northwest to southeast was found
under the stone feature. Materials obtained
during excavations are represented by a fragment
of red deer antler, fragments of animal bones and
fragments of vessel with cord impressions on its
exterior surface. Pottery fragments were found
near the southeast end of the stone feature at a
depth of 10 – 12 cm from day surface. The rim of
Corresponding author E-mail address: alex-korostelev@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Fig. 1. The Card-scheme of an arrangement of a monument Baikal’skoe VII
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Fig. 2. Baikal’skoe VII, the plan excavations №1 with an archeological material
these vessels is rounded, folded outward. There
is a row of oval indentions («larvae» ornament)
on its external edge. Diameter of the rim is
19.5 cm. A row of round indentions is located
under the rim. Upper part of the vessel’s body
is decorated with two zigzag application rollers.
In some places narrow coating rollers diverge
from them. Since the complex N1 contained
such features as artificial stone feature and
implements and did not contain human remains
it has been interpreted as ritual construction
(Kharinsky, 1996: 45 – 47).
In 2006 the trench N2 4x5 m in size was
excavated in 2 m southeast from the complex
N1 at the place of an estimated artificial stone
feature. During the work it was figured out that
the complex N2 had been robbed because the
stones have been thrown around (Fig. 2). The
pottery fragments (492 specimens), bronze
belt plate, and an iron thing were found here
(Korostelev, 2008: 165). A grave pit was located
under the stone feature. Some human bones were
chaotically situated on its bottom. The remains
did not have anatomical order but according to
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small size of the grave pit the person had been
buried here with bent legs.
Unlike other groups, elginskaya group of
mortuary sites is determined by O.I. Gorunova
and existed from the end of the fi rst millenium
BC to the beginning of the fi rst millenium
AD (Gorunova, 1993; Gorunova, Pudovkina,
1995). Mostly, the «elginsky» type burials are
located on capes. The graves were arranged into
one or several rows oriented from southwest
to northeast. The individuals had been buried
on right or left side with bent legs and head
oriented to the southeast. All graves contained
grave goods. The majority of these burials were
robbed in the past. The period of existence of
elginskaya mortuary tradition on Baikal coast is
defi ned from III century BC to IV century AD
(Kharinsky, 2005: 204). The radiocarbon date
obtained for human remains from the complex
N2 of Baikal’skoe VII are 2160100 BP (SOAS6584) does not contradict the previous statement.
Subjected to calibration the date corresponds to
377-54 BC.
The pottery fragments found during
the clearing of stone feature under the grave
belong to four vessels. Vessel N1 has rhombic
impression on external surface of its body
(waffle ornament). Upper part of the fragment is
decorated with an application triangular in crosssection deformed by the vertical indentions of
a pointed. A row of round indentions is located
under the application. The body of the vessel is
decorated with application that exhibit similar
ornament design as the rest of the vessel. The
second vessel is smooth-wall and ornamented
with round, cone-shaped indentions and drawn
zigzag ornament. The third and fourth vessels
have cord impressions on its exterior surface.
Upper parts of the fragments are decorated
with an application triangular in cross-section
deformed by fi nger pinches. A horizontal row of
round indentions is located under the application.
Body of the fi rst vessel is ornamented with
triangular horizontal application deformed by
fi nger pinches (Korostelev, 2010).
Results of investigations
During the field season 2009 it was decided
to enlarge excavation N1 into northeast direction
for detail studying and revealing the borders of the
site and for searching the graves. The excavation
N2 attached to excavating a from southeast
side. It became a compound part of enlarged
excavations N1 (Fig. 2). Thus, the total excavated
area at the site Baikal’skoe VII includes 96 square
metres. As a result of the work described in the
article 544 fragments of pottery were found. Also
some fragments of human skull, bone remains
of animals, and fragments of indefinable burnt
bones were discovered during the excavations.
Traces of the constructions under the grave were
not found.
All pottery found on excavation of the site
Baikal’skoe VII in 2009 is mainly presented
by fragments of body from different vessels.
Fragments of rims from several vessels and
fragments from two underpans were also
found. Fragments of bottom were not identified.
Pottery was found in all parts of the excavated
area except southern part. Some fragments
were refitted that helped to reconstruct the
forms of the vessels and their ornamental
design. Pottery from archaeological complex
Baikal’skoe VII is represented by two types:
smooth-wall ceramics and ceramics with cord
impressions on external surface. Almost all
vessels are ornamented. The exception is the
only one vessel from southwestern part of the
excavated area (Fig. 3: 5).
All 283 fragments of smooth-wall pottery
and 9 fragments of indefinable burnt bones
were found in southwestern part of the trench.
Subsequent laboratory analysis has shown that
the pottery belongs to 5 vessels of closed form
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Fig. 3. Baikal’skoe VII, fragments of pottery
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Fig. 4. Baikal’skoe VII, fragments of pottery
(NN 1 – 3, 5). Only one of them (N4) has marked
mouth (Fig. 4: 1).
1. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
straight symmetrical form. Diameter of the vessel
is 22 cm. From above the rim is decorated with
nail indentions. There is a horizontal application
deformed with oval sloping indentions of
divergent trowel in 0.8 cm from the vessels edge.
A row of round indentions of 0.2 cm in diameter at
distance 0.2 cm from each other is located under
the application. The vessel body is decorated
with three rows of horizontal indents of divergent
trowel with round end (Fig. 3: 2).
2. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
straight symmetrical form. According to rim
diameter of the vessel is 16.5 cm. Triangular in
cross-section application is deformed with the
finger pinches and located near the external edge
of the fragment. A row of round indentions of 0.5
cm in diameter and made by stick with flat end is
located under the application. Distance between
the indentions is 2.5 cm. In 1.5 cm lower the
vessel’s body is ornamented with two horizontal
rows of sloping oval indentions of divergent
trowel with round working end (Fig. 3: 4).
3. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
internal non-central mushroom-shaped form.
According to rim the vessel diameter is 16.5 cm.
Triangular in cross-section horizontal application
roller is located in 0.8 cm from the vessel edge.
There is s row of round indents of 0.4 in diameter
under it. The indents have 2 cm of distance from
each other (Fig. 3: 8).
4. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
straight symmetrical form with marked mouth.
The lip of the rim is decorated with sloping
indentions of fi ne-tooth stamp. There are two
rows of the fi ne-tooth stamp indentions on
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external side of the mouth. The indentions in
the upper row are sloping, while the indentions
from the lower row are vertical. There are
two sloping parallel indentions made by the
same ornamenting tool under the second row
on the vessel’s body. Internal side of the rim
is decorated with zigzag motive including
indentions produced by the same fi ne-tooth
stamp (Fig. 4: 1).
5. Upper part of the smooth-wall vessel with
rim of 13 cm in diameter has straight symmetrical
form. Wall thickness is 0.4 cm. Ornament is
absent (Fig. 3: 5).
170 pottery fragments including 109 ones of
smooth-wall vessels and 61 fragments with cord
impression were found in northeast part of the
excavation. The laboratory analysis has shown
that the fragments belong to four smooth-wall
vessels (NN 1, 2, 6, 7) and three vessels with cord
impressions from external side (N 3 – 5). All
vessels have closed form and only one of them
(№ 2) exhibits pronounced mouth.
1. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
straight symmetrical form. According to the rim
the vessel diameter is 33 cm. There is a horizontal
row of bow-shaped indentions in 0.8 cm from
the rim edge; a horizontal row of semicircular
indentions is located 1.7 cm lower. The vessel’s
body is decorated with an application triangular
in cross-section ornamented with the indentions
of a stick with triangular point. Two parallel wavy
lines are drawn under the application on distance
of 0.8 cm from each other (Fig. 3: 1).
2. Upper part of the vessel with rim has a
pointed internal assymetrical form. A horizontal
application deformed with indentions of object
with pointed working end is located in 0.4 cm
from the rim edge. A row of round indentions is
located under the application. They are 0.5 cm in
diameter and situated in distance of 2 cm from
each other. The vessel body is decorated with the
same application roller (Fig. 3: 3).
3. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
mushroom-shaped external asymmetrical shape
and pronounced mouth. The fragment is decorated
with a row of round indentions in distance of
1.3 cm from the rim’s edge. They are 0.2 cm in
diameter and located in 1.8 cm from each other.
There is a vertical application triangular in crosssection on all fragments. They are located in 1.2
cm from each other. They had been fixed to the
vessel surface with nail pinches which traces
saved on the rollers and area between them. The
mouth height is 1.5 cm (Fig. 4: 2).
4. Upper part of the vessel with rim has a
straight symmetrical shape and pronounced
mouth. External side of the fragment is decorated
with four horizontal applications triangular in
cross-section. They are dissected by the object
with the flat point. The first upper application is
situated between two horizontal rows of round
indentions of 0.4 cm. The Internal side of the
vessel is decorated with a row of sloping oval
indentions (Fig. 4: 7).
5. Upper part of the vessel with the rim of
external asymmetrical shape is slightly bended
outward. Cord impressions have thread-like shape
and are placed diagonally. In 1.5 cm from the rim
edge the fragment is decorated with horizontal
row of round indents of 0.3 cm in diameter.
The distance between the indents is 1.5 cm and
thickness of the fragment is 0.6 cm (Fig. 4: 8).
6. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
straight symmetrical form. From above the rim is
decorated with indentions of a fine-tooth stamp.
External side of the mouth has two rows of finetooth stamp indentions. The indentions of the
upper row are sloping. Internal side of the rim is
ornamented with horizontal sloping row of finetooth stamp (Fig. 4: 5).
7. The fragment of the vessel’s body is
decorated with two horizontal applications
dissected with the sloping «larvae» indentions.
The fragment thickness is 0.4 cm (Fig. 4: 6).
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91
pottery
fragments,
admittedly
representing three vessels, were found in central
part of the excavated trench № 1.
1. Upper part of the smooth-wall vessel
with rim has straight symmetrical form. The
vessel diameter according to the rim is 18 cm.
External and internal sides of the rim upper edge
are ornamented with indentions of a stick with
oval point. External side in 0.8 cm from the rim
edge is decorated with horizontal application
triangular in cross-section. The application is
deformed with finger pinches. Horizontal row of
round indentions is located under it. The vessel
has closed shape (Fig. 3: 6).
2. Upper part of the vessel with rim has
straight symmetrical shape and cord impressions.
In 1.4 cm from the rim edge external part of
the fragment is ornamented with a horizontal
row of round indentions. They are 0.4 cm in
diameter and located in distance of 1.3 – 1.8 cm
from each other. The fragment is also decorated
with the sloping application triangular in crosssection. The distance between them is 1 cm.
They were attached to the vessel’s surface by the
nail pinches; the traces of this are visible on the
application and area between them. Internal side
of the rim is ornamented with horizontal row of
sloping «larval» oval indentions. Upper part of
the rim is decorated with sloping indentions of
a stick with flat pointed working end. The vessel
mouth height is 1.5 cm (Fig. 4: 4).
3. The fragment of thin-walled vessel body
has cord impressions and horizontal and sloping
applications. They had been produced by the
pressing out the clay paste on the body with
fingers. The nail pinches created by this process
is still visible between applications (Fig. 4: 3).
The fragments of two underpans were also
found during the excavations. Their diameters
are 11 cm (Fig. 3: 7, 9). The first one was found
in northeastern part of the trench. The second
underpan was found in central part of the trench
and decorated with round indent of 0.4 cm in
diameter. Its internal side is ornamented with
sloping horizontal row of indentions of stick with
oval point. The indentions’ height is 1.8 cm. The
relations of the bottoms to particular vessel has
not been determined.
Analysis of the pottery materials
The pottery ornament has technical and
decorating elements which are both important
(Filatova, 2008: 89). According to described
fragments ornament elements on the vessels
are indentions of different kinds and drawn
ornament. Ornamental row forms as a result
of repeating of elements. It gives simple by
formation, form and outline character motives
(Filatova, 2008: 90). It is clear the motive
on studying pottery consists of repeating
indentions. They are round, semi-circular, bowshaped, oval, rectangular, and also fi ne-tooth
stamp indentions made by object with pointed
end and fi nger pinches. Composition on vessels
is represented by horizontal, sloping and vertical
applications and horizontal repeated rows of
indentions. Applications have triangular section
and are decorated with fi nger pinches, oval and
«larval» indentions, and ones made by object
with pointed end. The style of all ornaments is
linear-geometrical. Ornamental design had been
made with technique of indenting by pressing on
external surface of vessel with ornamenter end
or by fi nger pinches. Drawn ornament is also
distinguished.
Analyzing pottery from Baikal’skoe VII
it is possible to make some conclusions. There
are some similarities and some differences
in ornamental design and technique of vessel
manufacture. All vessels with mouth or without
one have closed form, light brown and sometimes
fulvous color. Only one fragment of vessel does
not have ornamental design. The rest ones are
ornamented by different or same ways. The
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pottery fragments were found in under-turf layer
of dark gray loamy sand at depth of 5 – 12 cm.
In spite of noted similarities discovered on the
site Baikal’skoe VII the pottery is heterogeneous.
Two kinds of pottery were distinguished: with
cord impressions and smooth-wall. They are
attributed to the different time periods.
V.V. Svinin was one of the first who paid
attention to originality of Baikal pottery with
cord impressions. He dated it by the Late
Bronze Age. The first specimens of pottery were
collected by him in Senogda bay on northern
Baikal (Svinin, 1966, 1976). Clay ware with cord
impressions had been made with winded of cord
trowel in technique of tapping (Svinin, 2000:
142). Pottery with cord impressions ornamented
with horizontal and vertical applications belongs
to senogdinsky type of pottery. This name was
offered by A.V. Kharinsky and I.S. Karnyshev in
2003 (A.V. Kharinsky, I.S. Karnyshev, 2003: 139).
The pottery of senogdinsky type had existed on
Baikal coast from 13th century BC to 1st century
AD (Kichigin, 2009: 161). Besides habitation
sites these pottery was also found among grave
goods in slab type graves and ritual complexes
(Tsybiktarov, 1998: 121; Kharinsky, Korostelev,
2005: 336 – 352). The main ornamental elements
were distinguished on the vessels of senogdinsky
type. They are applications, finger, round and
larval indentions, and impressions of trowel end
(Karnyshev, 2006: 121).
Since the pottery with cord impressions
and ornamented with applications was found
in slab-type graves one can suggest that it had
been introduced on territory of the Cis-Baikal
region by cattle-breeding tribes from territory of
Transbaikal region (Kichigin, 2007: 112).
Smooth-wall vessels decorated with
applications, round and oval indentions (elginsky
type) are considered to represent the second
type of pottery. It is found on Baikal coast
in archaeological sites dated by the end of 1st
millenium BC to 1st millenium AD (Kharinsky,
Karnyshev, 2003: 140 – 141). These ceramics
type was widespread along the entire Lake Baikal
coast including northern Baikal. It is also a major
indicator of elginskaya mortuary tradition which
is characterized by the burying individuals on the
side with bent legs and oriented by head toward
southeast.
Sosnovoostrovsky type is a variation of
elginskaya pottery tradition. It is characterized
by drawn curvilinear ornament combined
with horizontal applications and bow-shaped
indentions (Kharinsky, 2005: 208). The vessel №
1 from northeastern part of the trench is attributed
to sosnovoostrovsky pottery type.
Pottery
with
rhombic
impressions
(borisovsky type) is also distinguished
among grave goods of mortuary complexes of
elginskaya tradition. This pottery was found in
some Baikal sites in the same layer with pottery
of senogdinsky type. It confirms the relations
between these two types on the western coast
of Lake Baikal. At the end of 1st millenium BC
the above-mentioned pottery traditions coexisted
(Kharinsky, Karnyshev, 2003: 140). Additional
evidence of it is the presence of fragments of
borisovsky and senogdinsky types in complex №
2 at Baikal’skoe VII.
Ornamental design with indentions of finetooth stamp is not typical for the mentioned pottery
traditions. It is difficult to attribute these vessels
to the particular type of pottery. It is possible that
the fragments had come upon territory of the site
Baikal’skoe VII accidentally in earlier time.
Conclusion
The analysis of pottery found during
excavations of a mortuary and ritual complexes
from Baikal’skoe VII shows that the bearers of
different pottery traditions co-existed on the
northwestern Baikal coast for some period of
time. As a result, the typical ornaments of early
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(senogdinskaya) pottery had become common for
later (elginskaya) pottery. These are primarily
the horizontal applications and round indentions
beneath it.
As a result of complex research the
formation time of the mortuary and ritual
complex Baikal’skoe VII is determined by
the chronological period from the end of I
millenium BC to the beginning of It millenium
AD. Firstly, it is confirmed by burial rite
which is compared with elginskaya burial
tradition (3rd century BC – 4th century AD).
Secondly, radiocarbon date received for
human bones from complex N2 points to the
time period between 4th and 1st centuries BC.
Thirdly, pottery remains found across the
entire excavated trench № 1 were compared
with some pottery types and revealed that the
time of the site formation is the second half of
1st millenium BC – the beginning of 1st AD.
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Керамика с археологического комплекса
Байкальское VII
(северо-западное побережье озера Байкал)
А.М. Коростелев
Иркутский государственный технический университет
Россия 664074, Иркутск, ул. Лермонтова, 83
Данная статья посвящена комплексному анализу керамики с памятника Байкальское VII. В
результате исследования погребально-поминального комплекса Байкальское VII выяснилось,
что обнаруженные на нем фрагменты сосудов относятся к разным типам керамики:
гладкостенному и с оттисками шнура. Такой пример находок еще раз доказал, что носители
разных керамических традиций некоторое время могли совместно существовать на побережье
Байкала.
Ключевые слова: керамика, материал, фрагмент, орнамент, тип, венчик, датировка.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 78-89
~~~
УДК 903.023[637.7+638.3]
The Pottery of the Late Bronze –
Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
(Northwestern Coast of Lake Baikal)
Dmitry E. Kichigin*
Irkutsk State Technical University,
83 Lermontov st., Irkutsk, Russia 664074 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
This article is devoted to the analysis of the pottery corded ware and the waffle ceramics of the site Red
Jar II. Taking into account the stratigraphy peculiarities of these cultural remains and the typological
similarities of the materials of next regions, author delineates the genesis of pottery traditions of the
Northwestern coast of Lake Baikal in the period of the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch.
Keywords: Lake Baikal; Late Bronze Age; Early Iron Age; Senogdinskaya pottery; pottery corded
ware; waffle ceramics; vessel; rim; raised borders; ornamentation; composition
Introduction
A pottery material because of its indications –
technology of manufacture and shape of
vessels, methods and devices of ornamentation,
peculiarities of baking process – is often as a time
indicator of division into archaeological periods.
In combination with other artifact types the
pottery complexes are used for making a culturalchronological model of a region. As a rule quality
of the models depend on the archaeological site
that possess the clear deposit structure of cultural
remains.
On the coast Baikal there are similar sites in
Priolkhon’e (Ulan-Khada, Sagan-Zaba, Tyshkine
I and III, Berloga) and Chivyrkuy bay (Katun’
I and Okunevaja IV). The cultural stratums
separating the sand interlayer are exposed
on these archaeological objects (Gorjunova,
1983; Gorjunova and Lyhin, 1985; Grjaznov
*
1
and Komarova, 1992; Gorjunova et al., 1996;
Gorjunova et al., 2008).
There are not sites like it on the Northwestern
coast of Lake Baikal. But some sites are known
which the archaeological material is deposited
in consecutive order. This circumstance gives to
archaeologists the possibility of using the cultural
remains for making the cultural-chronological
reconstruction of this region.
The aim of this article is introduction of
the pottery complexes of the Late Bronze –
Early Iron epoch from the site Red Jar II (the
excavation trench № 1) and interpretation
these materials according to the culturalchronological models of near regions. The
stratum peculiarities of the site – in the absence
of the sand interlayer – allow not dividing the
cultural remains into chronological groups.
And so the archaeological material is dated
Corresponding author E-mail address: kichigin@sibarchcenter.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
according to its deposit layer and typological
indications.
Research history
The site Red Jar II is in 3 km to the
Northeast from the village Baikal’skoe (the North
Baikal area, Republic Buryatiya) and is located
in northern part of the Ludarsky lip, in 200 m to
the Southwest from the cape with the same name
(Fig. 1).
The site has been opened in 1999 by
A.V.Harinsky as a result of the researches spent
in vicinities of the village Baikal’skoe. In 2006
the first excavation at the site has been made by
I.S.Karnyshev. The excavation trench № 1 has
been put above the place of concentration of an
archaeological material in coastal exposures.
The opened area has made 20 m² in the depth
0,32-0,52 m. As it turned out the archaeological
material in number of 2124 finds (from them
the ceramic potsherds – 910, the subjects of the
stone industry – 340 and the bone fragments –
874) lies in the first three stratums – the turf,
the light-grey sandy loam and the light-brown
sandy loam – and practically it is not divided.
With some share of convention it is possible to
allocate two cultural layers characterized by
concentration typologically homogeneous finds
witch are attributed to a concrete stratum.
So, I cultural layer is attributed to the sole
of the turf stratum and the light-grey sandy loam
stratum. Though some potsherds of the corded
ware pottery decorated raised borders meet in
lower stratum. The archaeological material is
presented by 630 potsherds of ceramics, 115
subjects of the stone industry and 415 bone
fragments. The potteries of the layer are corded
ware (386), smooth-walled (106), with rhombic
impressions (56) and ribbed impressions (14).
Last two are fixed mainly in the sole of the
second stratum. Besides, in the layer it is noted
68 fragments of ceramics which are not giving
to diagnostics because of to their deformation.
Among stone products in the layer fragments of
flint bushes, a fragment of an edge of a quartzitic
arrow head, a fragment of a triangular arrow head
with direct base, an end-scraper at big amorphous
flake, a cutting tool issued by a retouch at big
flake and a fragment of a grinded crescent knife
are noted. Also in the layer it is fixed 108 stone
flakes. Among bone products two spherical beads
and the tool with a superficial longitudinal groove
are noted. The faunistic rests are presented by
bones of a red deer, a roe, a small cattle (?) and
a seal.
In I cultural layer two bonfires are fixed
also. The first of them measuring 0,40 х 0,40
m is put in the sole of the second stratum. The
second bonfire measuring 0,28 х 0,45 m is put at
the contact of the second and the third stratums.
On both bonfires the radiocarbon dates have
received – 1895±75 years BP (SOAN-6581) and
1940±70 years BP (SOAN-6582) which taking
into account calibration correspond to the end of
I millennium BC – the beginning of I millennium
AD (Karnyshev and Kichigin, 2008).
II cultural layer is attributed to the lightbrown sandy loam stratum. Though some
potsherds with rhombic and ribbed surfaces are
fixed in the upper stratum. The archaeological
material is presented by 280 potsherds of
ceramics, 235 subjects of the stone industry and
459 bone fragments. The potteries of the layer
are corded ware (94), with rhombic impressions
(85) and ribbed impressions (40), smooth-walled
(39) and with net negatives (2). The first is fixed
mainly in the roof of the stratum. Besides, in the
layer it is noted 20 fragments of ceramics which
are not giving to diagnostics because of to their
deformation. Stone products are presented by
two knife-shaped plates, an oval-triangular arrow
head, a fragment of a triangular arrow head with
direct base, a triangular extended arrow head
with concave base, two massive arrows of darts
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Fig. 1. The situational map of the site Red Jar II
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
(?), a scraper of the trapezoid form and a hammerstamper. Also in the layer it is noted 215 stone
flakes. Among the faunistic rests it is fixed bones
of a red deer and a seal.
In 2008-2009 the excavation at the site has
been continued by D.E.Kichigin. The total area of
the opened excavation trenches has made 29 m².
The received archaeological material essentially
has not changed representations about culturalchronological interpretation of a monument.
Therefore within the limits of the present article
it remains outside of our attention.
Research materials
In the article the ceramic materials
corresponding typologically to the Late Bronze –
Early Iron epoch of the Western coast of Lake
Baikal are offered to consideration. On set of
the most diagnosing characteristics (vessel form,
technical decor and ornamentation) two ceramic
complexes are allocated – the corded ware pottery
and the waffle pottery.
The ceramics description in the further
narration is given according to the fixed level of
fragments in ground thickness of the excavation
trench № 1 in process of deepening from top to
down. After the description of each vessel the site
of the potsherds in the stratum is specified.
impressions. The vessel from the lower horizontal
raised border and to its bottom is decorated by the
thin raised borders in the width 0,3-0,5 cm. The
diameter of the vessel on a rim makes up 23 cm.
The lower diameter of the round base is 13 cm,
the height – 2,5cm. The lower external edge of
the round base is decorated by nail impressions.
The most part of the potsherds has fixed in the
light-grey sandy loam stratum. Other fragments
have met in the roof and the average part of the
light-brown sandy loam stratum (Fig. 2 – 1).
A vessel of the closed form (145 potsherds)
with an open throat and expressed neck. The
rim of the oval form is slightly unbent outside.
The external surface of the vessel is covered by
various impressions of a twisted cord. The vessel
throat is decorated by horizontal raised border in
the width 0,6-0,8 cm which is deformed finger
impressions. Under the raised border a line of the
round holes-apertures in diameter 0,2-0,3 settles
down it. The vessel from the horizontal raised
border and probably to its bottom is decorated
by the thin raised borders in the width 0,2-0,3
cm which have the wavy form because of finger
compressions. The diameter of the vessel on a rim
makes up 23 cm. The stratigraphical situation of
the ceramics fragments is similar above described
(Fig. 2 – 2).
I cultural layer. The pottery corded ware
I-II Cultural layer. The waffle pottery
A vessel of the closed form (207 potsherds)
with an open throat and expressed neck, on the
round base. The rim of the direct form is slightly
unbent outside. The external surface of the
vessel, except for the round base, is covered by
vertical impressions of a twisted cord. The same
impressions, but already various, are observed
on the top cut of the rim. The vessel throat is
decorated by two horizontal raised borders in
the width 0,7 cm everyone. There is a line of the
round holes-apertures in diameter 0,3 cm between
them. The raised borders are deformed finger
A round bottom vessel of the closed form
(57 potsherds) with badly expressed neck. A
rim is of the internally asymmetric fungusshaped form. The top cut of the rim is decorated
by the inclined incisions. The external surface
of the vessel is covered by rhombic (waffle)
impressions. The rhombus party makes up
0,4-0,5 cm. The rhombus impressions are not
observed on some fragments of a vessel bottom.
A throat, a neck and shoulders of the vessel
are decorated by five horizontal lines of the
tooth-comb stamp impressions put vertically
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
Fig. 2. Senogdinsky vessels of the excavation trench № 1 of the site Red Jar II
(in cline). First three lines of the tooth-comb
stamp impressions are continuous; the distance
between impressions makes up 0,2-0,5 cm. The
fourth and the fifth lines are characterized by
faltering groups (festoons). Besides, there is a
line of the round holes-apertures in diameter
0,4-0,5 cm possibly drilled. The thickness of the
vessel walls to a bottom increases. The diameter
of the vessel on a rim makes up 15-16 cm. The
most part of the ceramic fragments is fi xed in
the roof and the average part of the light-brown
sandy loam stratum. And individual potsherds
are in the sole of the light-grey sandy loam
stratum (Fig. 3 – 1).
II Cultural layer. The waffle pottery
The potsherds of a throat and a body (7)
from a vessel of the simple closed form. A rim
is of the fungus-shaped form. The external
surface of the vessel is covered by rhombic
(waffle) impressions. The rhombus party makes
up 0,4-0,5 cm. The vessel throat is decorated by
two horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp
impressions put vertically. The distance between
impressions makes up 0,1-0,3 cm. Lower the
line of the same impressions is, but put in cline
to each other forming a horizontal zigzag. The
top cut of the rim is decorated by an average part
of the tooth-comb ornament tool. The potsherds
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Fig. 3. The waffle pottery of the excavation trench № 1 of the site Red Jar II
are fixed in the top third part of the light-brown
sandy loam stratum (Fig. 3 – 2).
The potsherds of the top part of a vessel
(43) with rhombic (waffle) impressions. The
ornamentation is in the form of three horizontal
lines of the inclined stamp impressions
representing small smooth lines. First two lines
of the smooth impressions are continuous. The
distance between them makes up 0,2-0,3 cm.
The third line is characterized by faltering
groups (festoons). The stratigraphical situation
of the ceramics fragments is similar previous
(Fig. 3 – 3).
Discussion of the materials
At Lake Baikal coast the corded ware pottery
decorated raised borders with a round base is
known as Senogdinsky pottery (Tyshkineisky
type– by O.I. Goryunova). Its fragments are
found by the excavations of the Plate Graves and
the multilayered sites in the Ol’khon region and
also sites of other regions of Lake Baikal coast.
Appearance of Senogdinsky pottery at the end
of II – the beginning of I millennia BC firstly in
the Ol’khon region and later on all Baikal coast is
accounted by some researchers for spreading the
culture of the Plate Graves of Transbaikalia. At the
end of I millennium BC the corded ware pottery
has got out of use. The smooth-walled and the
waffle potteries replace it. But the raised borders
ornamentation remains and continues to exist to
the middle of I millennium AD (Kharinsky and
Karnyshev, 2003; Kharinsky, 2005; Kichigin,
2009).
During the long time (the end of II – the end of
I millennia BC) Senogdinsky pottery underwent
some changes expressed by the form and the
rim of vessels, a quality of the cord impressions
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and the ornamentation. So, for example, early
Senogdinsky earthenware is characterized by
the closed form of vessel consisting of two basic
constructive elements – a throat and a body.
At the later period vessels with an open throat
and expressed neck prevail (Kharinsky, 2005;
Kichigin, 2009).
However as the most dating indication in
our opinion the ornament is. At early stages the
ornamentation of Senogdinsky vessels looks
simply enough: the composition consists from
1-2 horizontal cut raised borders and a line of
round holes-apertures (a standard composition).
Probably such combination of the elements of
an ornament in the upper piece of a vessel had
the more practical value caused by aspiration
of an ancient master to strengthen a vessel’s
throat at the moment of drying (raised borders)
and baking (holes-apertures). At the later period
besides the standard composition on the corded
ware vessels the additional ornamentation has
been (a subsidiary composition). It is expressed
in addition to horizontal wide raised borders of
thin raised borders which are notable for its forms
and an arrangement on a vessel’s surface. They
can be straight or cramp-formed, horizontal or
inclined (vertical), but decorate as a rule a vessel
body and have more aesthetic value rather than
the practical. The thin raised borders decorated
the corded ware pottery are found at Baikal
region everywhere. However more often they are
found at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal where
Senogdinsky pottery abounds with variants
of additional ornamentation (Svinin, 1966;
Karnyshev, 2006; Kichigin, 2009).
Thus, the corded ware vessels decorate
raised borders found in the excavation trench №
1 of the site Red Jar II concern to the late variant
of Senogdinsky pottery – the second half of I
millennium BC. It is possible, the radiocarbon
date 1940±70 years BP (SOAN-6582) received by
the second bonfire remains is some rejuvenated.
It should be dated the bonfire to the end of I
millennium BC.
In our opinion, the coexistence of
Senogdinsky pottery with other ceramic traditions
at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal in the second
half of I millennium BC is quite admissible. The
results of excavation of the burial-funeral complex
Baikal’skoe VII is not contradicted to such point
of view also. At this monument the smooth-walled
(Elginsky type) and the waffle (Borisovsky type)
potteries of the Early Iron Age are found together
with the potsherds of the corded ware pottery
decorated raised borders – Senogdinsky type.
The pottery with a rhombic impressions found
by the excavation of the site Red Jar II (Fig. 3) is
noted at Northwest coast of Lake Baikal in the
several locations else – Kurla IV and Boguchansky
XI. These potsherds are united in one ceramic
complex with the ornament which consists of the
horizontal lines of tooth-comb stamp impressions
(in one case smooth stamp) put in cline or
vertically. The similar pottery at excavation of
burial and site complexes of other coast of Lake
Baikal is not found. It essentially differs from
Borisovsky waffle pottery which occurred at
Baikal region at the end of I millennium BC –
the beginning of I millennium AD Distinctions
are notable not only in the form of vessels and
ornamentation, but also in the most technical
decor. The external surface of Borisovsky vessels
is covered by the large rhombuses with the party
more than 0,6 cm. There are also impressions
rhombuses entered each other too the large. The
waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of
tooth-comb stamp of Northwest coast of Lake
Baikal is covered the small rhombuses with the
party of 0,4-0,6 cm (Abdulov and Tuzhik, 1995;
Kharinsky, 2005).
The distinctive feature of the waffle pottery
interesting us is an ornament. The tooth-comb
stamp impressions making horizontal lines are
built in a certain order. Therefore it’s possible
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
to allocate two variants of an ornamentation
composition accepted by us as rule a certain
indicator. The first variant represents 2-3
horizontal continuous lines of the tooth-comb
stamp impressions put in cline or vertically. Under
them passes 1-2 lines of the same impressions,
but consisted in groups (festoons). The second
variant of a composition looks approximately
also. Difference consists that the tooth-comb
stamp impressions are built in the form of a
zigzag in finishing lower line.
The nearest analogies of these ornamentation
compositions of the waffle pottery are found at
Ust’-Karengsky sites of the Top Vitim. On the
cultural layers containing the waffle pottery
decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb
stamp impressions two radiocarbon dates have
received – 3670±40 years BP (LE-2650) and
3250±40 years BP (LE-2649) which taking into
account calibration correspond to XVIII – XIII
centuries BC (Vetrov and Samuilova, 1990).
The waffle pottery finds the analogies in
Ymyyakhtakh Culture of the Late Neolithic Age
of Yakutia which is dated II – the beginning of
I millennia BC. However the similar element
of an ornament – the impression of the toothcomb stamp – at Ymyyakhtakh vessels is not met
(Fedoseeva, 1980). It’s necessary to notice that
at the site Ulahan Segelennjah (Olekma) in VII
cultural layer the potsherds of vessels with rhombic
impressions on the external surface decorated
various ways including the tooth-comb stamp
impressions are noted. Two radiocarbon dates
have received on this cultural layer – 3570±140
years BP (IM-1011) and 3120±120 years BP (IM1009). In author opinion, the layer is dated the
Bronze Age (Ust’-mil’ Culture) which is defined
him the middle of II – middle of I millennia BC
(Alekseev, 1996: 69-70).
The ornamentation of vessels by the
horizontal lines of the tooth-comb stamp
impressions put in cline or vertically finds the
wide analogies both to the East and to the West
from Baikal.
At Eastern Transbaikalia the tooth-comb
ornament is noted in vessel decoration since
Medial Neolithic Age (7 – 6 thousands years
BP) to the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. It’s
confirmed the results of excavation of burial and
site complexes of the Darasunsky location. The
tooth-comb element of an ornament in according
to a waffle decor is distinctly traced on specific
earthenware of the culture of the Plate Graves –
tripod-vessels. The potsherds of tripod-vessels
with the waffle surface and the tooth-comb stamp
impressions were found by the excavation of the
plate graves of the monument Zhigurzhinka.
These burial complexes are dated VI – III
centuries BC (Kirillov et al., 2000).
In the plate graves of Buryatiya the potsherds
of tripod-vessels find extremely seldom. The
waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of
the tooth-comb stamp in these burials is not met
absolutely (Tsybiktarov, 1998).
It’s necessary to notice that at excavation of
the plate graves of Western coast of Lake Baikal
any potsherd of tripod-vessel is not revealed.
Moreover, in these burials it’s not met also
potsherds with waffle surface (Turkin, 2003).
The compositions of an ornament met on
waffle pottery of the site Red Jar II also find the
analogies to the West from Baikal. At settlement
Ust’-Ilim (Angara) similar ornamentation is noted
on the smooth-walled potsherds lying in one
layer with the waffle pottery. At the same time,
in cultural layers besides these potsherds there
are potsherds of other polytypic earthenware.
This circumstance calls in question the dating
of the cultural layers by the certain period – the
Neolithic Age or the Early Iron Age. Besides, the
Bronze epoch on this monument is not absolutely
allocated (Berezin, 1990).
This problem is resolved with the materials
of multilayered objects of Average Yenisei. At
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Fig. 4. The genesis of the pottery corded ware and the waffle ceramics at the Northwest coast of Lake Baikal
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
settlement Shilka-9 in the fifth cultural layer
the potsherds are divided by technology of
manufacture and ornament on two groups. The
first group (Shepilevsky type – XI-VIII centuries
BC) includes the vessels with ribbed or waffle
impressions on external surface; the ornament in
the form of the horizontal lines of finger nips, the
raised borders and the drawn lines. The second
group (Bobrovsky type – XVIII-XII centuries BC)
includes the potsherds of smooth-walled vessels
decorated the horizontal lines of the tooth-comb
the smooth stamp. Anyhow, the combination of
a waffle decor and a tooth-comb ornament on
the Yenisei pottery is not met (Mandryka, 2005;
Abdulina and Mandryka, 2007).
At the moment the dating of existence of the
waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines of
the tooth-comb stamp impressions at Northwest
coast of Lake Baikal is defined difficult enough.
Probably, its appearance at this area is caused
by Northeast contacts through river valleys of
the Top Angara and Muja with the areas of the
Top and Average Vitim. After all the similar
compositions of an ornament have been met at
the Ust’-Karengsky sites. Thus, the potsherds of
the waffle pottery decorated the horizontal lines
of the tooth-comb stamp impressions found at the
site Red Jar II are preliminary dated to the last
third of II – to the first half of I millennia BC.
Conclusion
Absence
accurate
stratigraphy
of
archaeological layers of the site Red Jar II for
today has no to the characteristic of this object
as a basic monument of Northwest coast of Lake
Baikal. Though the ceramic complexes according
to their stratum levels, following one after another
in process of deepening in the excavation trench,
do not contradict to the cultural-historical datings
based on the comparative-typological method of
research.
Probably, Northwest coast of Lake Baikal
during the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch was
cultural periphery where those or other traditions
got from the different areas that is distinctly
traced by a ceramic material (Fig. 4).
So, at the end of the Bronze Age (the last
third of II millennium BC) from the Northeast
the tradition to produce circle bottom vessels in
the beating way of a carved waffle beetle and
to decorate their horizontal lines of tooth-comb
or smooth tool impressions gets at this area.
At the beginning of I millennium BC from the
south and the southeast the Culture of the Plate
Graves of Transbaikalia at Northwest coast of
Lake Baikal gets. Since this time at all Baikal
coast the corded ware pottery decorated raised
borders has begun to prevail (Senogdinsky
type). May be, both ceramic traditions– the
waffle and corded ware potteries – coexisted some time at Northwest coast of Lake
Baikal. At the second half of I millennium
BC the ornamentation of Senogdinsky vessels
becomes complicated. In addition to horizontal
raised borders a vessel’s body is decorated by
thin raised borders. In the boundary of eras
the waffle pottery (Borisovsky type) again
extends at the Baikal coast, but already with
the standard compositions of Senogdinsky
ornament.
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
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(Irkutsk: Publishing house RPC «Radian», 2005), 199-200, in Russian.
I.S. Karnyshev, «Senogdinsky pottery of northern coast of Lake Baikal», Archaeology, ethnology,
palaecology of the Northern Eurasia and adjacent areas, I (Krasnoyarsk: Publishing house Krasnoyarsk
State Pedagogical University, 2006), 121-124, in Russian.
I.S. Karnyshev and D.E. Kichigin, «Senogdinsky pottery of the site Red Jar II (the North Baikal
area, Republic Buryatiya)», Ethnocultural history of Eurasia: modern researches and experience of
reconstructions (Barnaul: the Alphabet, 2008), 157-158, in Russian.
A.V. Kharinsky, «Western coast of Lake Baikal in I millennium BC – I millennium AD, Reports
of the Laboratory of ancient technologies, 3 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical
University, 2005), 198-215, in Russian.
A.V. Kharinsky and I.S. Karnyshev, «The pottery traditions of northwest coast of Lake Baikal in I
millennium BC (on materials of the site Baltahanova III), Genesis of society in Northern Asia: past, present,
future (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2003), 137-142, in Russian.
A.V. Kharinsky and S.V. Snopkov, «The iron producing by people of the Ol’khon region in Elginsky
period», Reports of the Laboratory of ancient technologies, 2 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State
Technical University, 2004), 167-187, in Russian.
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Dmitry E. Kichigin. The Pottery of the Late Bronze – Early Iron Epoch of the Site Red Jar II
D.E. Kichigin, «The pottery corded ware of the Late Bronze – Early Iron epoch of the western
coast of Lake Baikal», Genesis of society in Northern Asia (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State
Technical University, 2009), 158-165, in Russian.
I.I. Kirillov, E.V., Kovychev and O.I. Kirillov, The Darasunsky complex of archaeological
monuments. The East Transbaikalia (Novosibirsk: Publishing house IAEth of the Siberian Branch of
the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2000), in Russian.
P.V. Mandryka, «The materials of the multilayered settlement Shilka-9 on Average Yenisei and
their value for an ancient history of the southern taiga of Average Siberia», Reports of the Laboratory
of ancient technologies, 3 (Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkutsk State Technical University, 2005), 172185, in Russian.
V.V. Svinin, «Archaeological researches at northern coast of Lake Baikal in 1963-1965 years»,
Reports of archaeological expeditions for 1963-1965 years (Irkutsk: Irkutsk regional historical
museum, 1966), 50-69, in Russian.
G.V. Turkin, «The forest-steppe Predbaikal’e in the end of II – I millenniums BC (on materials of
the burial-funeral complexes)», Author’s abstract of dissertation (Vladivostok: 2003), in Russian.
A.D. Tsybiktarov, The culture of the Plate Graves of Mongolia and Transbaikalia (Ulan-Ude:
Publishing house of the Buryat State University, 1998), in Russian.
V.M. Vetrov and O.V. Samuilova, «New direction in archaeology of the Top Vitim (palaemetal
epoch)», Palaethnology of Siberia (Irkutsk: Irkutsk State University, 1990), 122-124, in Russian.
Керамика позднего бронзового –
раннего железного веков стоянки Красный Яр II
(северо-западное побережье озера Байкал)
Д.Е. Кичигин
Иркутский государственный технический университет
Россия 664074, Иркутск, ул. Лермонтова, 83
Настоящая статья посвящена анализу «шнуровой» и «вафельной» керамики стоянки
Красный Яр II. Исходя из стратиграфических особенностей залегания этих культурных
остатков и типологических сходств с материалами соседних регионов, автор раскрывает
генезис керамических традиций северо-западного побережья озера Байкал в период позднего
бронзового – раннего железного веков.
Ключевые слова: озеро Байкал, поздний бронзовый век, ранний железный век, Сеногдинская
керамика, «шнуровая» керамика, «вафельная» керамика, сосуд, венчик, налепные валики,
орнаментация, композиция.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 90-101
~~~
УДК 338.24 (571.510)
The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform
of the Autonomic Educational Institution
on the Example of the Siberian Federal University
Vladimir I. Kirko* and Anna V. Keusch,
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
In the given article we consider the latest changes of legislation and new opportunities, being offered
in the result of this process, which influence the activity of federal universities. We suggest a structural
model of the regional innovative platform, being based on the interaction of autonomic educational
institutions, territorial-administrative formations and financial-industrial groups.
Keywords: infrastructure, federal university, regional innovative platform
The given research work has been carried out with the financial support from the Krasnoyarsk
Regional Fund of Support of Science and Scientific-Technical Activity and also the Federal PurposeOriented Program «Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Personnel of Innovational Russia» for the
2009-2013 period.
In the given article we consider the latest
changes of legislation and new opportunities,
being offered in the result of this process, which
influence the activity of federal universities.
We suggest a structural model of the regional
innovative platform, being based on the interaction
of autonomic educational institutions, territorialadministrative formations and financial-industrial
groups.
FSAEI of HPE «Siberian Federal
University»
At present time, in Russia they form a
model of the national innovative system, which
key component is innovative infrastructure,
contributing to knowledge capitalization
*
1
acceleration and providing connections among
the subjects of innovative activity.
Federal universities must play the leading
role in formation and development of the
innovative infrastructure subjects, as far as they
are the driving force of innovations creation
and realization, education-science-industry
integration, formation and development of
competitive humane capital.
First federal universities were formed
within the frames of the top-priority national
project «Education» in the end of 2006; they
were the Siberian Federal University (SFU) in
Krasnoyarsk and the Southern Federal University
(SFU) in Rostov-on-Don. Each of the universities
Corresponding author E-mail address: director.nifti@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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has united four higher educational institutions,
which have been acting earlier in the regions.
The process of integration has been going on the
free-will basis and only those higher education
institutions have taken part in the project, which
have possessed a high scientific-technical and
personnel potential of education and production.
As for today, they have created five more
federal universities: the Northern (Arctic) Federal
University, the Privolzhsky Federal University,
the Urals Federal University, the Far Eastern
Federal University, and the North-Eastern
Federal University. The Russian legislation
does not limit the number of universities, which
are being created. Today, the number, which is
most often given by the experts, is 16-20 federal
universities, but in reality there can be less or, visa
verse, more of them. The number of the federal
universities being created can depend on several
circumstances. For example, it depends on the
proposals of legislative and executive powers of
the Russian Federation subjects, being prepared
on the bases of social-economical development
programs, which should correspond to the demand
of such an educational center organization and on
the presence of necessary resources [1].
The experience of realization of S(iberian)
FU and S(outhern)FU projects has proved the
necessity of making legislative changes in
the sphere of education and science in order
to regulate the problems of such educational
institutions’ activity.
This way, they have made a row of changes in
the federal laws of RF: «Concerning Education»,
«Concerning Higher and Postgraduate Vocational
Education», «Concerning Science and State
Scientific and Technical Policy» and others, and
have accepted new normative legal acts.
Federal Law of RF dated 10.07.1992 N 3266-1
«Concerning Education» (further Education Law)
is a basic normative legal act, which regulates the
relations in the sphere of provision and protection
of RF citizens’ constitutional right to education,
formation of legal guarantees for RF educational
system’s free functioning and development.
Chapter 1 contains general provisions,
which concern the state policy in the sphere of
education. Thereat, Federal purpose-oriented
program of education development, which is
developed and accepted by the RF Government,
serves as an organizational basis of the RF state
policy in the sphere of education [2].
At present moment, Federal purposeoriented program of education development for
2006 – 2010 period has been approved by RF
government order dated 23.12.2005 N 803.
One of the main tasks of the Education
Development Program is perfection of economic
mechanisms in the sphere of education, which is
achieved by means of realization of the program
measures in the following leading directions:
introduction of new models of financing of
educational organizations of all the levels of
education, implementation of mechanisms,
contributing to development of economical
independence of educational institutions,
realization of a complex of measures, targeted
to improvement of the educational sphere
investment attractiveness and contributing to
the inflow of investments and also of financial,
material, intellectual and other resources in to the
sphere of education.
In the result of the Program measures
realization they suppose to provide:
- On the federal level: increase of
competitiveness and efficiency of the
Russian economy, which is caused by
increase of the human capital quality, by
a better satisfaction of the requirements
of the quickly developing economy
and increase of efficiency of the labor
resources utilization;
- on the level of educational institutions:
expansion of the number of innovative-
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active scientific-educational complexes
and network educational structures;
growth of non-government financing
of educational programs; improvement
of financial situation and increase of
efficiency of educational institutions’
activity, preservation and successive
development of their innovative potential;
increase of the share of non-material
assets, being in commerce; strengthening
of relations and expansion of mutuallyprofitable collaboration in the spheres of
education, science and industry;
- in the sphere of budget: concentration of
the federal budget means for development
of the system-forming «points of
growth» in the sphere of education;
contribution to development of various
legal organizational forms of educational
organizations; increase of the level of
non-budgetary co-financing of education,
provision of additional tax revenues [3].
Proceeding from the analysis of the
mentioned above, we conclude that the state policy
in the sphere of education allows implementing
elements of private-state partnership and
developing innovation infrastructure of HEI,
including such an element as Technology
Park, which is necessary for salvation of the
tasks, being set in the Program of education
development.
Federal Law of RF dated 22.08.1996 N 125ФЗ «Concerning Higher and Postgraduate
Vocational Education» (further Higher Education
Law) is that very law, which regulates relations in
the sphere of higher and postgraduate professional
education.
Provisions of the Higher Education
Law presuppose integration of higher and
postgraduate professional education and science
and also development and perfection of the
system of education by means of appliance of
new knowledge and achievements of science and
engineering.
The Higher Education Law determines the
types and nominations of the higher education
institutions in RF, and «federal university» is in
that number.
Federal university is a higher education
institution, which:
- realizes innovative educational programs
of higher and postgraduate professional
education, having been integrated into
the world educational space;
- provides systematic modernization of
higher and postgraduate professional
education;
- realizes personnel training, re-training
and (or) development on the basis of
appliance of the modern educational
technologies for a complex socialeconomical development of the region;
- carries out fundamental and applied
scientific researches in a wide spectrum
of sciences, provides integration of
science, education and industry, including
implementation of the intellectual activity
results into practice;
- is a leading scientific and methodological
centre [4].
The law indicates at such a task of the
federal university as a realization of educational
innovation programs, and it allows making a
conclusion about the legislator’s intention to make
the given type of educational institution one of
the main subjects of innovative activity.
Thereat, the Higher Education Law
provision, concerning the introduction of such a
category as «national research university», seems
to be very interesting.
The category of «national research
university» is set by the RF Government for
the 10 years’ period according to the results
of the competitive selection of universities’
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development programs, which are targeted to
personnel provision of top-priority directions of
development of science, technology, engineering,
branches of economy and social sphere, and also
development and industrial implementation of
high technologies [4].
Such an innovation creates opportunities
for organization of several centers of modern
innovative technologies implementation: a federal
university and «a national research university».
Analysis of the Law provisions lets us conclude
that it is impossible to award such a status to
the federal university, and, consequently, it can
positively influence on the competition in the sphere
of collaboration of the university and business
enterprises in the question of innovations.
One of the rights of a higher educational
institution upon the sanction of its founder
(owner) and on the basis of certain agreements
is the assignment of immovable and movable
assets for use by scientific organizations, and
also usage of immovable and movable assets,
belonging to scientific organizations on their
ownership basis, operative management and
economic control [4].
In future, such a right will allow building a
system of usage of technical and material base of
the university, without making any changes in the
legislation. Within this system the university is a
center of expensive and high-tech equipment, the
center, which has highly-qualified specialists in its
staff, being able to use this equipment. Purchase
of the given equipment for the commercial
structure can be unprofitable because of its high
cost, and also because it can be used only on a
certain stage.
Federal Law of RF dated 10.02.2009 N 18-ФЗ
«Concerning introduction of alterations of some
legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the
questions of activity of the federal universities»
has established the following rights to the federal
universities.
Those higher educational institutions, which
are budgetary educational organizations, have a
right (without their property owner consent and
only upon notification of the federal executive
body, fulfilling the functions of the State policy
formulation and normative legal regulation in
the sphere of scientific and scientific-technical
activity) to be the founders (and also co-founders)
of business companies, which deal with the
practical appliance (implementation) of the
results of their intellectual activity (electronic
data processing machines software, data bases,
inventions, useful models, industrial patterns,
selection achievements, integral micro-schemes
topologies, and know-hows, which exclusive
rights belong to the given higher educational
institutions).
Financial means, equipment and other
property, which is in the operative management
of the given higher education institutions, can be
contributed to the charter capital of the organized
business companies in the order, established by
the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
Being a budgetary educational organization,
higher education institution has a right to involve
other people as founder (participants) of its
business company, if the given higher education
institution’s share in the joint stock company’s
charter capital is more than twenty five percent or
the share in the limited liability company is more
than one third.
Revenues from disposing of the shares
(stocks) of the business companies’ charter
capitals, which founders (participants) are the
given higher education institutions, and some
part of the profit of these business companies,
being received by the given higher education
institutions (dividends), are transferred to their
independent ownership, appear on a separate
balance sheet and are spent only on the legal
protection of intellectual activity results,
remuneration payments of their authors and also
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on realization of the charter activity of the given
higher education institutions [5].
All the mentioned above provisions activate
the creation of minor innovational enterprises
near by the universities and, as a consequence,
formation of the innovative structure of the HEI.
Development of federal universities is
implemented within the frames of the programs,
which have been approved by the RF Government
and which provide the conditions of realization
and criteria of evaluation of educational process
efficiency, integration of educational and
scientific-research activity, modernization and
perfection of material-technical base and socialcultural infrastructure, integration into the world
educational space [5].
Financial provision of the federal universities’
activity is carried out in the order, having been
established for autonomic institutions.
Federal Law of RF dated 03.11.2006
N 174-ФЗ «Concerning autonomic institutions»
acknowledges a non-commercial organization to
be such an institution, created by the RF subject
or by the municipal organization for fulfilling
works and providing services with the aim of
realization of full powers of the RF Government
as it is required by the applicable legislation of RF,
and full powers of the local government bodies in
the spheres of science, education, public health
service, culture, social protection, employment of
population, physical culture and sports, and also
in other spheres.
The main type of activity of the autonomic
institution is a free or partially paid provision
of services by the order of its founders. The
mentioned activity financing is made from the
corresponding budget in the form of subventions,
subsidies, state non-budgetary funds and other
resources. The autonomic institution has a right
to render paid services within the frames of its
leading activity, when it goes in excess of the
order of the founder.
Revenues of the autonomic institution are
transferred to its independent ownership and
are used in order to achieve the goals, it has
been organized for. The owner of the property
of the autonomic institution has neither a right
to acquisition of the income from the autonomic
institution’s activity nor a right to use the property,
being assigned to the autonomic institution.
The autonomic institution’s property is
assigned to it according to the right of operative
management in compliance with the Civil Code
of the Russian Federation. The proprietor of both
properties of the federal university and of the
autonomic institution is the Russian Federation.
Without consent of its founder, the autonomic
institution has no right to dispose its immovable
property and its most valuable movable property,
being assigned to the autonomic institution by
its founder or having been purchased by the
institution on the money, allotted by its founder
to purchase this property. What concerns the rest
of the property, including the immovable one, the
autonomic institution may dispose it by itself.
Under the most valuable movable property
we mean the property, without which it would
be very difficult for the autonomic institution to
realize its charter activity. The founder makes
the decision to subsume the property under the
category of “the most valuable” simultaneously
with the decision to assign the mentioned property
to the autonomic institution or with the decision
of appropriation of means for its purchasing.
The land plot, which is necessary for the
autonomic institution to fulfill its charter tasks,
is transferred to it on the basis of the right of
permanent (indefinite) use [6].
It is important to notice that the autonomic
institution is given a right to open accounts with
credit organizations, in comparison with the
budget organizations.
This way, federal universities’ autonomy
establishes market principles of running of
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finances and business operations, gives an
opportunity to spread efficiently the resources,
and to improve the flexibility and efficiency of
management.
Federal Law of RF dated 23.08.1996 N 127ФЗ «Concerning Science and State Scientific and
Technical Policy» regulates the relations among
the subjects of scientific and scientific-technical
activity, organs of state power and consumers of
scientific and scientific-technical production.
Let us consider the changes in the sphere of
regulation of questions concerning collaboration
and coordination of scientific organizations’
activity and educational institutions of higher
vocational education.
Any scientific organization may collaborate
and coordinate its activity with educational
institutions of higher vocational education, as well
including contractual basis, and also by means of
creation of alliances of scientific organizations
and educational institutions of higher vocational
education in the from of associations or unions in
accordance with the RF legislation.
In compliance with the contract, made with
an educational institution of higher vocational
education, the scientific organization may
organize a structural subdivision (laboratory),
fulfilling scientific and (or) scientific-technical
activity on the basis of this educational institution
of higher vocational education and taking into
consideration its educational programs and
themes of scientific research in the order, being
determined by the Government of RF.
In accordance with the contract, made with
the educational institution of higher vocational
education, the scientific organization has a right to
place its movable and immovable property at the
disposal of the educational institution of higher
vocational education, and also it has a right to use
the movable and immovable property, belonging
to the educational institution of higher vocational
education, on the basis of the right of ownership
or operative management. The described relations
between such state non-commercial organizations
can be realized on a free (gratis) basis [7].
Federal Law of RF dated 10.02.2009 N 18ФЗ «Concerning introduction of alterations of
some legislative acts of the Russian Federation
on the questions of activity of the federal
universities» has also entrenched the full powers
of the scientific organizations as follows.
Budget scientific organizations have a
right (without their property owner consent and
only upon notification of the federal executive
body, fulfilling the functions of the State policy
formulation and normative legal regulation in
the sphere of scientific and scientific-technical
activity), to be the founders (and also cofounders) of business companies, which deal
with the practical appliance (implementation) of
the results of their intellectual activity (electronic
data processing machines software, data bases,
inventions, useful models, industrial patterns,
selection achievements, integral micro-schemes
topologies, and know-hows, which exclusive
rights belong to the given higher educational
institutions).
Financial means, equipment and other
property, which is in the operative management
of the given higher education institutions, can be
contributed to the charter capital of the organized
business companies in the order, established by
the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
Being budgetary educational organization,
higher education institution has a right to involve
other people as founder (participants) of its
business company, if the given higher education
institution’s share in the joint stock company’s
charter capital is more than twenty five percent or
the share in the limited liability company is more
than one third.
Revenues from disposing of the shares
(stocks) of the business companies’ charter
capitals, which founders (participants) are the
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given higher education institutions, and some
part of the profit of these business companies,
being received by the given higher education
institutions (dividends), are transferred to their
independent ownership, appear on a separate
balance sheet and are spent only on the legal
protection of intellectual activity results,
remuneration payments of their authors and also
on realization of the charter activity of the given
higher education institutions [5].
The adopted changes stimulate the creation
of integrated scientific-educational structures
in the modern conditions of formation of the
national innovative system.
15 February, 2006, Inter-departmental
commission on the scientific-innovative policy
approved the Strategy of science and innovation
development in RF for the period up to 2015.
The authors of the Strategy admit that the
system of formation of the budget financing
priorities is not efficient. There is under-estimation
of the fundamental science as a basic component
of the national innovative system development.
At the same time, being in perspective not in
demand at the inner and global markets, a big
number of applied implementations are financed
by the means of the federal budget. Absence
of efficient mechanisms of realization of the
scientific-technological development priorities,
being defined by the Government, and also
absence of objective criteria of evaluation of the
scientific organizations’ activity results have not
given an opportunity to concentrate the resources
to support the leading institutes, universities,
scientific-pedagogical schools and to provide the
faster growth of their material-technical base and
personnel potential.
The goal of the Strategy realization is
formation of a balanced spectrum of researches
and implementations and of an efficient
innovative system, which provides technological
modernization of economy and improves its
competitiveness on the basis of innovative
technologies and transference of the scientific
potential into one of the main resources of a
steady economical growth.
In order to achieve the desired goal, a row of
tasks is suggested to be solved:
- To create a competitive sector of
researches and implementations, and
special conditions for its expanded
reproduction;
- To create an efficient national innovative
system;
- To develop the institutes of utilization
and of legal protection of researches and
implementations results;
- To modernize the economy on the basis
of technological innovations.
The Strategy is suggested to be realized in
three stages: the first stage 2006 – 2007 years;
the second stage 2008 – 2010 years; and the third
stage 2011 – 2015 years.
The main expected results of realization of
the first stage:
- Improvement of efficiency and greater
performance of the state sector of
researches
and
implementations;
reforming of the Russian Academy of
Science and branch academies, having the
state status, development of the system of
state scientific centers;
- Formation of the normative system,
which will provide efficient stimuli
and motivations to innovative activity,
stimulating the ties among the participants
of the innovative process;
- «Adding on» of the row of missing
elements of the innovative infrastructure
(first of all, the centers of technological
transfer);
- Elaboration of possible breakthrough
conceptions within the frames of toppriority directions of development of
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science, technologies and machinery in
the Russian Federation and priorities
of technological development due to
realization of mega-projects;
- Development
of
target-oriented
federal and departmental programs of
technological profile.
The main expected results of realization of
the second stage:
- Modification of the content and
the structure of the state sector of
science, optimization of the used legal
organizational forms;
- Formation of a balanced, steady
developing sector of researches and
implementations, which will provide an
expanded reproduction of knowledge
and its active positioning in the global
economy;
- Formation and development of «the
centers of superiority» in the scientific
sphere, in the network of national
laboratories, research universities;
- Creation
of
efficient
innovative
infrastructure, providing interaction of the
sector of researches and implementations
with the native business sector;
- Technological modernization of economy
on the basis of the latest technologies;
creation and expansion of «technological
corridors», providing competitiveness of
certain sectors of the Russian economy
on the basis of the latest technologies of
the native origin.
The main expected results of realization of
the third stage:
- Achievement of the scientific researches
level, which would correspond the targets
of innovative development of economy;
- Realization scaling of large projects within
the frames of top-priority directions of
development of science, technologies and
machinery in the Russian Federation and
priorities of technological development;
- Dynamic development and strengthening
of international positions of Russian hightechnology companies;
- Wide-scale attraction of private and
foreign investments into the Russian sector
of researches and implementations;
- Formation of a systematic demand in the
results of researches and implementations
from the part of the business sector;
- Dynamic and balanced development
of the national innovative system,
corresponding to the main parameters of
innovative systems, being widely used
abroad [8].
22 September 2009, there was a meeting of
the inter-departmental working group on the toppriority national project «Education» attached
to the Russian Federation President’s Board on
realization of the top-priority national projects
and demographical policy. At this meeting, they
accepted the Conception (further – Conception)
of creation of federal universities and their
development state provision.
We should mark that there is a row
of definitions in the given Conception. In
particular, there is a definition of the federal
university as an autonomic institution, which
performs an educational, scientific and
innovative activity in a wide spectrum of
directions and its target is to provide widescale projects and programs of federal and/
or regional level with personnel and from the
scientific point of view.
The following features of the federal
university have been singled out:
a) A wide spectrum of innovative educational
programs of the mainstream higher and additional
vocational education, re-training and (or)
personnel development on the basis of appliance
of the modern educational technologies, division
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of programs according to their target groups and
levels;
b) A wide spectrum of fundamental and
applied inter-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary
scientific researches, carried out by the
university, which include top-priority branches
of development of science, technologies and
machinery in the Russian Federation;
c) Active participation in regional, national
and international programs and projects, which
provides a steady diversified structure of revenues
in the university consolidated budget.
The main expected results of creation of
federal universities in the regions, realization
of their development programs are the
following:
- An adequate personnel and scientific
provision
of
social-economical
development of strategically-important
territories of Russia;
- Creation of additional preconditions for
economy development of the territories
and regions, being a part of federal
districts and involved in the activities of
the federal universities;
- A higher degree of accessibility of a
qualitative professional education and
an opportunity to go in for sophisticated
science in the federal districts;
- Elaborated mechanisms of provision
of economical stability of the higher
professional education institutions on the
basis of their activity actualization and
of a closer and responsible participation
in the social-economical development
of territories and regions of the federal
districts;
- Real formation of the group of institutions
of higher professional education of a
quantitatively new type [9].
Basing on the analysis of legal normative
acts, which regulate the activity of federal
universities, we can come to the conclusion
that precisely the universities must become the
regional centers of innovations and innovative
infrastructure development.
The latest legislative changes let us
approach the creation of the regional innovative
infrastructure in a principally new way. Transition
of the federal universities in to the status of
autonomic institutions gives the universities ample
opportunities of close interaction with territorialadministrative formations of various levels,
allows creating structures on the basis of privatestate partnership and actively participating in
their social-economical development of territories
by means of creation of business companies.
The Siberian Federal University is appealed
to play an important role in the program of socialeconomical development of the Siberian Federal
District (SFD) and of the Krasnoyarsk Region.
The following spheres have been denoted
as of top-priority in the Strategy of economical
development of Siberia:
- Development of industrial infrastructure,
connected with the processing of the
most important strategic raw material
resources, such as oil, gas, coal,
nonferrous and precious metals;
- Development of high technology
and science-intensive branches and
industries;
- Development and modernization of
transport infrastructure, which serves
a basis for balanced social-economical
development of Siberia;
- Enhancement of Siberia’s economy
indicators from the point of view of its
energy resources utilization;
- Optimization of the population structure
of the Extreme North and similar
territories [10].
By the analogy with the mentioned,
the following tasks have been defi ned in the
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Fig. 1 Structural model of the regional innovative platform. SFU – Siberian Federal University; SE – small
enterprises (business-incubators)
Program of social-economical development of
the Krasnoyarsk Region for the period up to
2010:
- Improvement of the regional economy
effectiveness on the account of development
of top-priority extractive industries
for the purpose of achievement of fast
economical growth and diversification of
the economy by means of implementation
of processing technologies, providing
high added value;
- Efficient utilization of natural resources
by means of manufacturing industries’
development;
- Development of innovative activity by
means of investments into the regional
innovative infrastructure and organization
of definitive personnel training;
- Development
of
transport
and
communication infrastructures for the
purpose of stimulation of inter-regional
relations;
- Development of housing and utilities
infrastructure in order to create conditions
for personal preservation and potential
growth, and also in order to perfect the
sphere of social services;
- Realization of the system of management,
aimed to enhance the competitiveness
of the region and to create favorable
conditions for making business and
investing money [10].
The Siberian Federal University has
singled out 6 top-priority spheres of scientific
and
educational
activity:
Engineering
Physics, Chemistry of New Materials and
Material Science, Bio-physical Ecology and
Biotechnology, Space and InformationalCommunicative
Technologies,
GeoTechnologies, Regional Technology and
Humane Capital Management, and 13
enlarged groups of directions and specialties
of personnel training, which provide scientific
and personnel support of the main tendencies
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Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational…
of social-economical development of Siberia
and the Krasnoyarsk Region [10].
Here, in Fig. 1, we present a structural
model of the regional innovative platform
on the basis of interaction of autonomic
educational
institutions,
territorialadministrative formations (further – TAF) and
fi nancial-industrial groups (further – FIG) by
the example of the Krasnoyarsk Region and the
Siberian Federal University.
The essence of the model is creation of a
branching network of municipal technological
and socio-cultural business-incubators by the
SFU in collaboration with FIGs and TAFs [11, 12]
for the purpose of life conditions improvement
and population employment, preservation of
small-numbered native peoples, salvation of
socio-economical problems of the given region
development, and also formation of the innovative
infrastructure.
As for today, they have created favorable
conditions for formation and development of
innovation infrastructure and minor innovative
business within the structure of the federal
universities themselves. Efficiency of such an
infrastructure formation mostly depends on
efficiency of management decision making and on
creation of a corresponding normative database
in the HEI, and of course on the support from the
part of regional state organs of power.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Creation of Federal Universities: a legislative aspect [electronic resource]. URL: http://www.
garant.ru/action/interview/10230/ (the date of address: 04.09.2010)
Concerning Education: Federal Law of RF dated 10.07.1992 N 3266-1 // ReferentialLegal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update
04.09.2010.
Federal Purpose-Oriented Program of Education Development for the 2006 – 2010 period:
accepted by the RF Government dated 23.12.2005 N 803 // Referential-Legal System «Garant»:
[electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010.
Concerning Higher and Postgraduate Vocational Education: Federal Law of RF dated 22.08.1996
N 125-ФЗ // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». –
The latest update 04.09.2010.
Concerning Introduction of Alterations of Some Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation on the
Questions of Activity of the Federal Universities: Federal Law of RF dated 10.02.2009 N 18-ФЗ
// Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest
update 04.09.2010.
Concerning Autonomic Institutions: Federal Law of RF dated 03.11.2006 N 174-ФЗ // ReferentialLegal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update
04.09.2010.
Concerning Science and State Scientific and Technical Policy: Federal Law of RF dated 23.08.1996
N 127-ФЗ // Referential-Legal System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». –
The latest update 04.09.2010.
Strategy of Science and Innovation Development in RF up to 2015: approved by the InterDepartmental Commission on Scientific-Innovative Policy on 15 February 2006, Record
№1 [electronic resource]. URL: http://mon.gov.ru/press/reliz/2180/ (the date of address:
04.09.2010)
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Anna V. Keusch, Vladimir I. Kirko. The Model of the Regional Innovative Platform of the Autonomic Educational…
9.
Conception of Creation of Federal Universities and their Development State Provision: approved
at the meeting of the inter-departmental working group on the top-priority national project
«Education» attached to the Russian Federation President’s Board on realization of the top-priority
national projects and demographical policy, dated 22.09.2009 N АФ-33/03пр // Referential-Legal
System «Garant»: [electronic resource] / SPE «Garant-Service». – The latest update 04.09.2010.
10. Program of Development of the Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Vocational
Education «Siberian Federal University» for the 2007-2010 period [electronic resource]. URL:
http://www.sfu-kras.ru/development/programme/ (the date of address: 04.09.2010);
11. A.V. Bukharov, V.G. Zinov, V.I. Kirko. «Concerning the Innovation Structure of the University
Complexes», Innovations, №7, (117), 2008, 38-43.
12. On the Innovative Structure of University Complexes; Bucharov, Anatolyi V.; Kirko, Vladimir I.;
Zinov, Vladimir G./Journal of Sibirian Federal University. Humanities & Social Science 3
(2008, 3), p. 318-327.
Модель региональной инновационной платформы
автономного образовательного учреждения
на примере Сибирского федерального университета
В.И. Кирко, А.В. Кеуш,
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье предложена модель структуры региональной инновационной платформы на основе
взаимодействия федерального университета с территориально-административными
образованиями и финансово-промышленными группами. А также рассмотрены основные
изменения, которые произошли в законодательстве, затрагивающие деятельность
федеральных университетов и дающие возможность построения такой модели.
Ключевые слова: инновационная инфраструктура, федеральный университет, региональная
инновационная платформа.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 102-111
~~~
УДК 343.2/.7
Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention
Among Schoolchildren and Students
of Krasnoyarsk Region Higher Education Institutions
Alexey N. Tarbagaev,
Sergei I. Bushmin, Nataly A. Verbitska*,
Natalja V. Kachina and Anna S. Mironchik*
Siberian Federal University
792 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
The article estimates the drug abuse situation in Krasnoyarsk region as well as that one among
schoolchildren and students of Higher Education Establishment. Urgency of the research subject is
being proved. The legal ground analysis for counteraction to drug-related offences in the educational
environment is being carried out.
Keywords: drug abuse prevention, schoolchildren, students of Higher Education Establishments,
drug-related offences, drugs, psychotropic substances, educational establishment.
The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific
technical activity
Point
Nowadays the problem of drug abuse among
teenagers and youth is urgent and requires
fundamental scientifically-proved
aimed at its solution.
measures
Example
The current drug-abuse situation in the
Russian Federation is characterised by trafficking
scales expansion and non- medical consumption
of highly-concentrated drugs, such as heroin,
cocaine, amphetamine stimulators, medications
of psychotropic influence as well as their influence
on HIV-infection and virus hepatitis expansion
*
1
that create serious threat to the state safety,
national economy and health of the population.
The key factor of negative development of
a drug-abuse situation in Russian Federation is
large-scale opiates manufacture in Afghanistan
territory and their subsequent transnational traffic
to the territory of Russia.
In a number of Russian regions drugs
distribution, made from local vegetative raw
materials and medications containing drugs
substances being on free sale are increasing. New
kinds of psychoactive substances conducing to
addicted behavior formation come into service.
Heavy social consequences of drug addiction are
Corresponding author E-mail address: natalyav@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren…
well-known. Addicts owing to physical and social
degradation leave public labour, political, family
life. Drug addiction inevitably generates the
whole set of features alien to a society: hard-tocure psycho-physiological diseases and shadow
economy stipulated by natural, increasing demand
for drugs and illegal ways of its satisfaction in
mercenary purposes, criminality, violence to the
person, connected with drugs distribution and
illegal enrichment.
Specific feature of society narcotization
is formation of groups and even communities
of addicts. Their occurrence is connected with
special conditions of acquisition and drug abuse.
Facing difficulties with getting not only means
for drugs but drugs themselves the addict is
compelled to keep in touch with those who have
originally attached them to drugs consumption.
Aspiration to attach immediate surroundings
to his vice is rather typical to an addict. Drug
addiction creates incentives for numerous kinds
of offences. Demand for drugs under conditions
prohibiting their trafficking induces illegal drug
dealing spreading. Other kinds of criminality
connected with drug addiction expansion and
addicts’ activity also grow. If a want for a daily
dose of drugs substances is great, the addict is
prone to commit any crime to get money for the
next dose. He loses ties with the society that is
why he is in a natural condition of increased
predisposition to commit a crime.
Drug addiction social consequences are
aggravating as this problem is mainly the youth’s
one.
Really, drug addiction in Russia continues
to «get younger». According to recent data, more
than 60 % of addicts are people aged 18-30 years
and almost 20 % are schoolchildren. According
to Public Health Ministry of Russian Federation
the average age of familiarising with drugs in
Russia is 15-17 years. At the same time the first
drugs abuse by children aged 11-13 have become
more frequent occurrence and what is more
occurrences of drugs abuse by children aged 6-7
have been noted [www.pmed.ru/article1].
Swift increase in drug addiction over last
years testifies that the society and the state have
appeared to be incapable of withstanding this
phenomenon in full measure. Nowadays there is a
real lack of institutions closely engaged in leisure
orginising and problem –solving connected with
the youth environment. Teenagers are often on
their own, neither school, nor family are engaged
in their education therefore the rising generation
searches for ways of self-realisation in the street
companies which indispensable attributes are
alcohol and drugs
Results of sociological researches show
that attitude of the modern Russian society
to addicts is rather tolerant. Consumption
of drugs is not considered as danger an
«outstanding» phenomenon any more. So, drugs
cause an interest overstepping the household
inquisitiveness limits within a considerable
part of youth. Distance between a norm and a
deviation has considerably reduced a borderline
between admissible and unlawful is becoming
obliterated. In some youth circles it has become
«stylish» and fashionable to be «gowed-up»,
«stoned». According to sociological surveys,
jargony phrases of addicts become widely
common among teenagers, enter the youth slang
steadily. Alcohol as an attribute of youth pastime
is being replaced by drugs which are becoming
an integral peculiarity of youth subculture, an
intercourse component within teenaged-youth
environment. Lately a social-demographic
structure of youth narcotisation has undergone
considerable changes. Currently socially
adapted and quite safe people even more often
become drug users. According to researches,
about 3/4 respondents out of teenagers using
drugs substances or having propensity to their
abuse live in full middle class families.
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Drug abusing to get intoxicated takes a lot
of pastime, group intercourse among the youth. It
is time to speak about real vulnerability of rising
generation to drugs temptation expansion.
Mass media influence the rising generation
outlook formation in an extremely adverse
way. TV and radio tolerate to broadcast films,
musical clips, songs propagandising a lifestyle
implying drug abuse. Information on ways of
manufacturing and use of drugs, places of their
sales is openly offered to the Internet users,
drug intoxication condition is described in an
attractive way. A particular role in familiarising
with abusing drugs is played by various night
clubs.
Availability of separate drugs should be
entirely estimated as high. Drugs are purchased
in discos, bars and cafes, in widely known places
in the streets, parks, apartments at drug dealers
and even at schools.
Analysis of the situation existing in the
country connected with non medical consumption
of drugs shows that till now measures taken to
decrease narcotisation level and to reduce drug
trafficking volume are obviously insufficient.
The teenage drug addiction problem is as
extremely urgent for Krasnoyarsk region as
for whole Russia. The high level of drug abuse
pathology prevalence among minors remains
that stipulates necessity of strengthening
measures aimed at prevention of alcohol,
drug and psychotropic substances abuse, at
arrangement of medical and rehabilitation
events for the given category of patients in
Krasnoyarsk region. According to official data
about 3500 minors with drug abuse pathology
[www.krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/smi] were
registered in regional drug abuse clinics at the
beginning of 2009.
Over last years educational establishments
have become an attractive location for drugs
distributors.
Certainly, the state policy is aimed at drug
addiction prevention and increase in efficiency of
medical and social-psychological rehabilitation
of the addicts.
According to the President’s Decree
№ 690 on June, 09th, 2010 «On assertion of
the State strategy of anti- drug abuse policy
of Russian Federation till 2010» one of the
preferable directions of anti drug abuse activity is
inclusion sections on prevention of psychoactive
substances abuse as well as programs aimed at
corresponding target audiences in the basic and
additional educational curriculums of educational
and vocational training establishments. Thus,
implementation of target programs should cover,
first of all, children and teenagers under 17.
However, despite it, over last years the
tendency of increase in the number of addicts
is being recorded. Many modern researchers
connect low efficiency of primary anti- drug
abuse prevention with insufficient scientific
reasonableness of preventive events and
programs.
Absence of the state system of drug abuse
situation monitoring negatively affects efficiency
of the state anti-drug abuse policy. Today the
new approach providing working out events
after comprehensive study and definition of
actual scales of drug addiction expansion, drug
trafficking and losses connected with it both in
all territory of the country, and in its concrete
regions is necessary. The choice of forces and
means should fit the true drug addiction scale of
the country’s population.
The group of scientists of criminal law chair
of the SFU Law Institute carries out complex
research on «Social-legal aspects of counteraction
to drug-related offences committed in secondary
and higher educational institutions of Krasnoyarsk
region».
Urgency of drug addiction research as a
social-legal phenomenon in the educational
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environment is stipulated by its specificity
in Krasnoyarsk region, characterised by
considerable scales defined both by economic,
and other conditions: presence of the developed
transport infrastructure, a local raw-material
base for drugs manufacturing, active migratory
streams as well as drug traffics passage across
Krasnoyarsk region territory, etc.
It should be noted, that the modern
condition of drug addiction expansion problem
in Krasnoyarsk region is characterised by
insignificant improvement on separate indicators
that has been a consequence of the regional
target program realisation «Complex measures
on overcoming drug addiction, drunkenness and
alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region»
over 2007-2009.
However, the noted decrease in some
characteristics of a drug abuse situation does not
mean decrease in the problem of struggle against
drug trafficking urgency. The indicator of drugs
consumers registered in regional drug abuse
establishments accounts for 422.5 people in 100
000 population that exceeds an average Russian
indicator almost twofold [www.krskstate.ru/
econom/socialeconomic]. According to a regional
bureau of forensic examination 1199 people died
of drugs overdose in the region only during
2005-2008 [www.krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/
koncept].
In 2008 against more than4000 people, 60 %
aged from 18 to 35 criminal proceedings for drug
trafficking were instituted in Krasnoyarsk region
[www.krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/smi].
Thus, more than half of all crimes are
committed by the youth. At the same time the
given indicators do not entirely reflect the whole
situation of drug addiction expansion owing to
considerable latency of this phenomenon.
Taking into account stated above, the
situation in the sphere of illegal distribution and
consumption of drugs within teenage and youth
environment can be characterised as serious and
capable instantly in the absence of due measures
from public authorities and local government of
developing into a more serious form comparable
with epidemic.
One of the basic directions of regional policy
in this sphere is working out and implementation
of preventive measures on decrease in negative
social and economic consequences caused by
drug addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism
expansion in the region. The Concept of the
long-term target program «Complex measures of
counteraction to drug addiction, drunkenness and
alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region» for
2010 – 2012 has been developed for this purpose
in Krasnoyarsk region. The scientific research
conducted by the criminal law chair of SFU Law
Institute lecturers fully corresponds to regional
policy in this sphere and has practical value as
well.
Demand for such workings out for effective
counteraction to drug addiction among teenagers
and youth in Krasnoyarsk region keeps within
frameworks of the Krasnoyarsk region Anti- drug
addiction commission policy and the RF Federal
service on drug trafficking control activity in
Krasnoyarsk region.
Drug addiction prevention problem is
interdisciplinary. It should be studied from the
point of view of criminology, criminalistics,
criminal and administrative law with the
obligatory account of provisions and conclusions
formulated by sociology, medicine, biology
and psychology on drug addiction prevention
matters.
At the first stage of research work the
concrete-sociological method of research carried
out on the basis of unity of system-structural,
functional methods and a method of modelling
was widely applied. Within the frameworks of
a concrete-sociological method such methods as
supervision, questioning, interviewing and other
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methods used in sociological researches were
used.
The following groups were questioned
during the poll: 1000 schoolchildren of 7-9 forms,
1000 schoolchildren of 10-11 forms, 1000 students
of higher educational institutions. 100 officials
of Department of Federal service on control
over drug trafficking of Russian Federation
for Krasnoyarsk region, 100 members of youth
public organisations, 100 school teachers were
interviewed during the expert poll.
The choice and application of methods
and various techniques of research work are
determined by the studied phenomenon nature,
problems which have been set to achieve the
research work objectives.
Representativeness,
trustworthiness
and objectivity of research are stipulated by
respondents’ number, scientific-methodical
approach to questionnaire elaboration and
interview questions.
At the same time implementation of measures
on drug addiction prevention should be based on
the rules of law system regulating prevention
subjects’ powers, grounds for their application
and rights of persons to whom these measures
are applied. Legislation analysis obviously shows
that it is far from being perfect and contains
some gaps. The convention on the child’s rights
passed by the resolution of General Assembly of
the United Nations № 44/25 on 20.11.1989 and
ratified by the decision of the Supreme Counsel
of the USSR on 13.06.90 № 1559-1, recognises
as the child every human being under 18 if under
the law, applicable to the given child, he does not
come of age earlier. Convention article 33 obliges
state-participants to take all necessary measures
including legislative administrative, and social
ones as well as measures in the sphere of education
to protect children from illegal use of drugs and
psychotropic substances the way they are defined
in corresponding international treaties, and not
to admit use of children in illegal manufacturing
such substances and trade in them.
In 1993 the Supreme Counsel of RSFSR
passed the «Concept of the state policy on drug
control in Russian Federation» which recognised
necessarily to carry out consistent actions for
administrative and financial assistance to psycho
-preventive work with population both on federal
and regional level. The federal target program
«Complex measures of counteraction to abusing
drugs and their trafficking», developed for 1995 –
1997 and prolonged till 2001, is basically aimed at
events which are in the sphere of law enforcement
bodies’ competence.
The federal law «On drug and psychotropic
substances» (1998) is mainly devoted to matters
of drugs medications manufacture and trafficking
control. It concerns preventive work matters
insufficiently. Therefore, issues on prevention
of drug addiction and abuse of inhalants
expansion, treatment and social rehabilitation of
addicted patients required additional legislative
regulation.
The Federal target program was developed
to implement provisions of the named Federal
law «Complex measures of counteraction to
drugs abuse and their trafficking for 1998 –
2000», providing a number of actions aimed at
prevention of drug addiction and abuse of inhalants
expansion, treatment and social rehabilitation of
the drug addicted.
It devised the events targeted at pupils
and students, in particular, it was offered to
include additional themes (courses) on problems
of abusing drugs, their trafficking and drug
addiction prevention into curricula of secondary
special and higher educational establishments on
training and retraining specialists working with
teenagers and the youth. It specified necessity of
working out manuals for pedagogical workers
of educational establishments, parents, social
workers on teenagers’ formation of negative
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Alexey N. Tarbagaev, Sergei I. Bushmin… Problems of Drug Addiction Prevention Among Schoolchildren…
attitude to drugs consumption, on psychologicalpedagogical rehabilitation of the minors inclined
to drugs abuse. It was required to prepare trial
samples of television materials of anti- drug abuse
orientation and to develop scientifically proved
methods of their efficiency estimation.
The federal program aimed at work
continuation on creation of psychologicalpedagogical service in departments on education,
educational establishments and specialised
establishments of social rehabilitation of minors.
Psychologists should have been introduced
into preschool and educational establishments’
personnel in the course of conditions creation.
Thus, it is possible to ascertain, that at
the state level the drug addiction problem is
elaborated basically in a context of fight against
drug trafficking, organisation of education of
the population from the point of view of legal
responsibility and medical aspect of diseases.
The federal law on June, 24th, 1999 FL №
120 «On bases of the prevention system of child
neglect and juvenile offences» limits the sphere
of its operation to a certain circle of persons
(article 5) and grounds for conducting individual
preventive work (article 6) which are significant
for drug addiction prevention in educational
establishments audience.
The regulatory act conclusive advantage
is the definition of the system of subjects of
prevention of minors and families deviant
behaviour who are in socially dangerous position
as well as powers on their social-pedagogical
rehabilitation and (or) prevention of committing
any offences and antisocial actions by them.
Thus, agencies and establishments of prevention
system comprise education authorities which
develop and introduce in practice of educational
establishment programs and techniques aimed at
formation of minors’ law-abiding behaviour and
educational establishments providing revealing
minors, being in socially dangerous position
(including those abusing drugs) and within their
competence carrying out individual preventive
work with such minors. Article 18 of this
Federal law also provided duties of public health
authorities and public health establishments as
subjects of child neglect and offences prevention
to carry out round-the-clock reception of minors
who are under alcoholic or narcotic intoxication
to render medical aid based on indications of
medical character; to conduct detection, record,
examination based on indications of medical
character and treatment of minors using alcoholic
and alcohol-containing production, beer and
drinks made on its basis, drugs, psychotropic or
intoxicating substances as well as to implement
other measures falling within their competence
on prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction
and abuse of inhalants of minors and deviation
behaviour connected with it.
The first step in purposeful realisation of the
state policy on use of existing means and education
system resources in drug addiction prevention was
made by passing the Ministry of Education Order
of Russian Federation on 28.02.2000 № 619 «On
the Concept of prevention of abusing psychoactive
substances in the educational environment»
together with Plan of measures of Ministry of
Education of Russia on realisation of the Concept
on prevention of abusing psychoactive substances
in the educational environment for 2000 – 2001.
Psychoactive substances under the sense of
norms of the specified Concept are chemical and
pharmacological means influencing physical and
mental condition, causing pathological addiction;
drugs, tranquilizers, alcohol, nicotine and other
means are referred to them.
The overall objective which is put forward
in the Concept, consisted in educational, social
and medical measures pooling within the limits
of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention,
providing achievement of the common result:
One of the tasks was reduction of demand and,
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hence, distribution of drugs among children and
the youth and their involvement in a narcogene
situation and subculture. Thus, the circle of minors
and influence possibility on them depending on
their belonging to this or that kind of educational
establishment was not differentiated.
Except this circumstance there were serious
obstacles on the way of the stated prevention
tasks decision.
Firstly, Federal law on 08.01.1998 №
3-FL «On drug and psychotropic substances»
provides rendering drug abuse clinic (including
rehabilitation) assistance exclusively in public
health establishments. At the same time it is
obviously necessary to ensure possibility of
rendering rehabilitation help to minors and the
youth in the education system establishments
which have received in accordance with the order
established by the law license for the specified
kind of activity. Till now the Federal law «On
socially-medical rehabilitation of persons sick
of drug addiction» aimed to regulate the order
of rendering rehabilitation help to persons
(including minors), abusing drugs, including
those committing socially dangerous acts (crime)
has not been passed yet.
Secondly, current legislation allows physical
examination of drug users only upon the decision
of the Office of Public Prosecutor’s agencies,
bodies of inquiry, an investigator or a judge. In
this connection nowadays there are problems
with operative examination of minors concerning
drug abuse. Sometimes it takes weeks, within this
time the drug is deduced from an organism and as
a result the expert analysis of biological circles of
a teenager suspected of drug abuse does not give
positive result.
Besides, the given concept has not received
its logic continuation in the special programs of
anti-drug abuse prevention targeted at students
of secondary educational and higher educational
establishments.
The Russian Federation Government’s order
on 13.09.2005 № 561 (issued on 26.01.2010) «On
the Federal target program» Complex measures
of counteraction to abusing drugs and their
trafficking for 2005 – 2009» states the tasks –
working on drug addiction prevention and drugrelated offences expansion, conducting constant
control over scales of drug and psychotropic
substances abuse expansion in Russian
Federation. One of the major target indicators
and Program indices is the share of teenagers
and the youth aged from 11 to 24 involved in
preventive actions, in relation to an aggregate
number of the specified category of persons. But
it did not consider that drug affection of minors
and the youth depends on degree of susceptibility
to provoking influence of social surroundings
which depends on an educational level and
characteristics of educational environment where
they are.
The Letter the Russian Federation Ministry
of Education and Science on 06.10.2005 № АС1270/06, Russian Consumption Supervision on
04.10.2005 № 0100/8129-05-32 «On the Concept
of preventive training in the sphere of prevention
HIV/AIDS in the educational environment»
indirectly concerns issues of prevention of
drug addiction expansion in the educational
environment. The reason for such a situation is
in recognition of drug abuse as one of the factors
facilitating HIV-infection.
The idea of differentiation of programs on
preventive influence concerning educational
environment has not been reflected in municipal
law making process, in particular in decisions of
Krasnoyarsk city council on 12.10.1999 № 20-206
«On the Program «Prevention of drug addiction,
abuse of inhalants, alcoholism and AIDS among
the youth» and on 20.03.2001 № 2-19 «On the city
target Program «Prevention of drug addiction and
suppression of drug trafficking and psychotropic
substances trafficking in Krasnoyarsk for 2001».
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Over 2007-2009 in Krasnoyarsk region the
long-term target program on counteraction to drug
addiction and alcoholism expansion which has
been confirmed by the Law of Krasnoyarsk region
on 25.01.2007 № 21-5717 (edit. on 26.05.2009) «On
the regional target program» Complex measures
on overcoming of drug addiction, drunkenness
and an alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk
region» for 2007 – 2009» was in operation. It
occupied the second place in Russia according to
indicators of efficiency.
On December, 1st, 2009 the Regional
Government confi rmed the similar program for
three forthcoming years. One of its directions
is the anti- drug abuse propagation focused on
familiarising of young generation to a healthy
life stile. 240 thousand inhabitants of the region
aged 11- 20 (60 % of age group) and 75 % of
parents of schoolchildren will be involved in
propaganda actions. The program also includes
training experts for working with children and
the youth.
On December, 23rd, 2009 the vicegovernor of Krasnoyarsk region Igor Chernokov
held the session of the anti- drug abuse
commission devoted to prevention of drug
addiction among students of higher schools.
For these purposes proposals on introduction
of more effective system of monitoring of
a drug abuse situation, active involvement
of the youth into sports, creative activity
participation in public life were elaborated. The
commission charged the Regional Ministry
of Education to prepare and submit to higher
educational establishments recommendations
to design thematic information stands in
educational buildings and hostels, and the
rectors were recommended to include courses
on prevention of drug addiction among
students in the curriculum. Moreover, the
decision to recommend to Council of rectors
of Krasnoyarsk region to create constantly
operating interuniversity commission on
anti-drug abuse work is made, to charge it to
develop a comprehensive plan of preventive
actions and to elaborate an issue on possibility
of introduction of students’ drug testing.
Thereby, directions of higher educational
establishments’ activity on drug addiction
prevention for a short-term perspective have
been confirmed.
No regulatory legal act specially devoted to
drug addiction prevention among schoolchildren
and students of higher educational establishments
has been passed in the Russian Federation as
well as in Krasnoyarsk region since 1993 up to
present time. Legal basis research of anti-drug
abuse activity demonstrates a gap in educational
establishments’ regulation. Introducing respective
alterations into higher educational establishments
Charters fails to provide the entire volume of
powers for effective activity and interaction with
other subjects on prevention.
The imperative need in acceptance of such a
special regulatory act at federal or regional levels
corresponds to provisions «Strategies of the state
anti-drug abuse policy of Russian Federation
till 2020», confirmed by the Decree of the RF
President on 09.06.2010 № 690. The following
will contribute to perfection of organizational
provision of anti-drug abuse activity as article 42
sets forth:
a) Creation of the state monitoring system
of the drug abuse situation in Russian
Federation;
b) Working out and implementation of
federal and regional target programs in
the sphere of counteraction to abusing
drugs and their trafficking;
c) Increase in the anti-drug abuse
commissions role in the Russian
Federation entities in the part dealing
with legislative binding of compulsory
decisions execution of commissions for
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territorial bodies of federal executive
authorities, executive authorities of the
Russian Federation entities and local selfgovernments.
The similar program aimed at the students
of higher educational establishments has
been launched in one of the Siberian Federal
District entity. According to Siberian business
portal, on March, 23rd, 2010 Victor Kress
the governor of Tomsk territory suggested
an idea of implementation a pilot project on
drug abuse prevention in Tomsk youth high
school environment. Namely, it concerns
the project «Working out and approbation of
effective model of psychosocial prevention of
the addicts among the highly educated youth
in the conditions of the region transition to
innovative development «, elaborated by the
Siberian state medical university (SibSMU).
The given project was supported by the State
antidrug abuse committee. Actually, they mean
to create an experimental model platform for
modern technologies approbation to implement
the State antidrug abuse policy in Tomsk. Three
Tomsk higher educational establishments: the
Siberian State Medical University (SibSMU),
Tomsk State University (TSU) and Tomsk State
Pedagogical University (TSPU) will be three
launching sites for the project implementation
and approbation.
Considering, gradualness of reception
of the higher vocational training and mutual
influence of the general educational and
student’s environment, we believe, that
efficiency of preventive influence on students
under considered purposes will increase at
provision of a complex of the actions aimed
simultaneously at schoolchildren and students
of higher educational establishments.
The Krasnoyarsk region government
regulation on 01.12.2009 № 625-p«ON
affi rmation of the long-term target program»
Complex measures of counteraction to drug
addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion
in Krasnoyarsk region» for 2010-2012» is to a
greater extent the fi nance and economy-related
document defi ning assigning money resources
among different establishments of Krasnoyarsk
region for purchasing express analysis tests
detecting drug and psychotropic substances
in a human body during preventive medical
examinations for early detecting persons among
minors and youth using such substances without
doctor’s prescription does not contain legal
measures of prevention from drug addiction
expansion.
One of the conducted by the lecturers of the
SFU Law Institute Criminal law chair research
result should be the project of drug addiction
prevention among schoolchildren and students of
Krasnoyarsk region Program with the possibility
of its introduction in Legislative Assembly of
Krasnoyarsk region as a ground for the regional
law passage.
Resume
The drug addiction among schoolchildren
and students prevention problem requires
immediate respond from the state and society by
means of both social and legal measures.
References
1.
2.
The long-term target program «Complex measures of counteraction to drug addiction,
drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region for 2010-2012 «//www.krskstate.
ru/netnarkotikam/koncept
The round table on problems on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse by the youth //www.
krskstate.ru/netnarkotikam/smi
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3.
4.
The passport of the long-term target program «Complex measures of counteraction to drug
addiction, drunkenness and alcoholism expansion in Krasnoyarsk region for 2010-2012 «//www.
krskstate.ru/econom/socialeconomic
Some statistics: drug addiction growth in Russia and in the world//www.pmed.ru/article1
Проблемы профилактики наркотизма
среди школьников и студентов вузов
Красноярского края
А.Н. Тарбагаев, С.И. Бушмин,
Н.А. Вербицкая, Н.В. Качина, А.С. Мирончик
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье дается оценка наркоситуации в Красноярском крае, в том числе среди школьников
и студентов вузов. Обосновывается актуальность темы исследования. Проводится анализ
правовой основы противодействия наркотическим правонарушениям в образовательной
среде.
Ключевые слова: профилактика наркотизма, школьники, студенты вузов, наркотические
правонарушения, наркотические средства, психотропные вещества, образовательные
учреждения.
Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и
научно-технической деятельности
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 112-118
~~~
УДК 343.2/.7
Сoncept, Kinds and Limits of Security Measures
Nikolay V. Schedrin*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
To ensure society’s life activity measures of compulsion which according to their intrinsic characteristics
are not referred to legal liability measures (punishment) – security measures have been long and very
widely used. However, in spite of the fact that this concept is extend enough in legal literature and
legislation, its content and volume requires specification and coordination.
Keywords: security measures; kinds of security measures; limits of of security measures.
The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific
technical activity.
To ensure society’s life activity measures
of compulsion which according to their intrinsic
characteristics are not referred to legal liability
measures (punishment) – security measures1
have been long and very widely used. However, in
spite of the fact that this concept is extend enough
in legal literature and legislation, its content and
volume requires specification and coordination.
It is deemed, that as general legal «security
measure» category can be deduced «through
categories «source of increased danger»
and»object of intensified protection».
Generalisation of signs available in the
domestic literature gives the grounds to assert,
that the source of increased danger is a feature
of one, more often unstable, system (substance,
mechanism, phenomenon, process, organism,
person, social group), which development or
display are subject to poor or no control and
can produce irreversible destructive changes
*
1
in this or other system. This source has a
high striking effect big concentrated internal
energy, huge destructive force. The started
destructive process and its consequences are
often irreversible.
Traditional «civilistic» interpretation and
«itemized» approach according to which various
objects (substances, flora and fauna kinds, waste
products) or some kinds of activity are referred
to sources of increased danger, are narrow and
do not cover all variety of sources of increased
danger. It is imperative to work out a definition of
a source of increased danger which would have
general legal and criminological value. In civil
law there are two approaches to definition of a
source of increased danger which are designated
by terms «the theory of object» and «the theory
of activity» 2. According to the first of them the
subjects of a material world possessing features
dangerous for the surrounding and are not subject
Corresponding author E-mail address: zveroboy@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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to full control from the person are considered
sources of increased danger3.
The second approach was designated in item
17 of the decision of Plenum of the Supreme Court
of Russian Federation on April, 28th, 1994 № 3
«On judicial practice on cases on compensation
of harm inflicted to health». In explained, that it
is necessary to recognise as a source of increased
danger any activity which realisation gives
an increased probability of a tresspass due to
impossibility of the entire control over it from the
person, and also activity on use, transportation,
storage of subjects, substances and other objects
of industrial, economic or other appointment
possessing the same properties4.
It seems to us, that jurists незаслуженно
ignore the third approach which might be called
the theory of the subject, according to which source
of increased danger can be a person, social group
or other subject of activity and management. For
it is quite obvious, that any activity implies not
only object but the subject as well.
Under theory of the subject certain properties
of the person of biological origin or formed under
the influence of negative social factors can act as
special sources of danger. Public danger which
was formed as a result of mental disease5 or
caused by negative moral and social qualities6,
cruelty, self-interest and other individualistic
inclinations7 can be referred to them. A source of
increased danger can be a» criminogenic person»
that «is expressed in aggregate properties and
qualities of the subject indicating proclivity to
a crime commission and its repetition»8. Mental
properties of the person «can be a danger source
at transformation of mental energy into energy
of a socially dangerous act, by means of mental
intervention (for example, hypnotic, extrasensive
etc.)»9.
It is deemed, that a source of increased
danger can be certain relations developing in a
social group as well. Interpretation of the Federal
law «On bases of neglect of children and juvenile
offences prevention system» allows to refer
parental families if relations within them threaten
physical and spiritual development of the minor
to danger sources10. Communities which may
be sources of increased danger are terrorist and
other criminal organisations. This circumstance
is actually recognised not only in Russian, but in
foreign legislation, and in international legal acts
as well. A source of increased danger can also
be subjects of administrative, is administrativeauthoritative relations11.
The second category by means of which
security measures can be defined is «object of
increased protection». It is impossible to say,
it is not used in jurisprudence at all. There are
legislative acts on especially protected territories,
protection of computer soft ware, culture
monuments, etc. However, a word-combination
«the object of increased protection» has neither
general legal nor criminologic category status.
Any system can be considered an object
of protection: person, social group, society,
mankind; kinds and products of activity of the
person; natural objects: fauna and flora, minerals
and territories, etc. Object of protection are as
material substances (organism, subjects, territory
sites) and resulted public relations or certain
activity.
Generalisation of opinions available in this
respect has led us to a conclusion, that objects
of increased protection should be the major
properties (relations) of the system in case of
losing them , it either will collapse, or transformed
into another and will not be able to reach the
objectives set for it. For the system to function
and develop protection of its essential elements
is necessary.
In the course of life activity it has become
clear that for safe functioning of the person,
society and mankind such objects of increased
protection are life, health, freedom, honour,
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dignity, sexual inviolability, property and other
constitutional rights and personal freedoms;
population health, public safety and morals;
ecology, the constitutional system and safety of
the state; peace and safety of mankind. In essence,
these are the objects which owing to their special
value are subject to criminal-legal protection.
The current legislation separates out especially
protected territories and objects, flora and fauna
kinds, minerals, paleontologic objects, office,
commercial, state secret, closing administrativeterritorial formations, etc. into the group of the
kind.
In the XIX-th century professor I.T.Tarasov
noted that «people and subjects being in some
cases a danger source, in other cases are subject
to danger which they should be protected from by
means of corresponding measures»12. The same
thought is highlighted by A.A.Ter-Akopov who
correctly considers, that the future concept of
psychological safety should consider psychic of
the person in two aspects: as object of protection
and as a danger source13.
From here follows, for example, that juveniles
and minors owing to the intellectual, emotional
and psychological immaturity represent threat
and consequently their possibilities to enter
certain relations should be limited, but, on the
other hand, for the same reason they require
special protection. Restriction of capacity of an
insane is simultaneously a means of suppression
of danger proceeding from him and a means of
protection of his interests.
Already at the beginning of mankind
development it became clear, that threat of a
tresspass to a human body, system principles
of the organisation of the community which
member he is, should be stopped rigidly,
unequivocally and whenever possible «on distant
approaches». Means which we name now security
measures have been invented for this purpose».
Security measures are measures of not punitive
restriction of behaviour of physical persons, the
organisations (including legal bodies), applied
specially for prevention of harmful influence of a
certain source of increased danger or a protection
of object of increased protection from harmful
influence of any sources of danger. The content
of security measures contain special duties and
prohibitions assigned to physical persons or
social groups.
They have arisen as safety reflexes. With
development of not genetic forms of memory
security measure were fixed in the form of
a taboo, and then – in the form of the rules
provided by the first version of social norm, socalled mononorm. In the course of civilisation
formation protective reactions have taken shape
in behavioural stereotypes and the safety rules
which compulsion was supported with sanctions.
Safetyrules is a set of duties and prohibitions,
which the subject should observe to exclude or
reduce harm caused by a source of increased
danger to a minimum or to prevent causing
damage to object of increased protection by any
source of danger. Not all the rules regulating life
activity can be named safety rules14. Rules of the
person’s interaction with an increased source of
danger and with object of increased protection
can only be referred to them.
In process of social labour division two
basic types of sanctions have been singled
out: stimulations (positive) and restrictions
(negative)15. The latter in turn are subdivided
into sanctions of restoration (indemnification),
punishment and safety.
Restoration sanctions is a reaction to rule
infringement (including – safety rules) resulted
in damage. They are aimed at «elimination of
harm caused by unlawful act to public relations,
at execution of non-performed duties»16. They
include: compulsory execution of a duty,
cancellation of illegal acts and a duty to indemnify
a loss17. Thereby the system of legal relations,
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broken by default of instructions of the law by
the obliged subjects is recreated18. This group
of measures is inherent in civil-law branch to a
greater extent. But they are also used in criminal
law where restoration is carried out by indirect
stimulation (art. 75 art., 76 RF Criminal code)
or direct imposing a duty to eliminate harm (art.
90 RF Criminal code). The idea of compensation
of damage, restoration of broken relations,
reconciliation of a victim and the criminal is laid
down in so-called restorative justice19.
Punishment sanctions are compulsory
deprivation of certain welfare in proportion to
weight of a committed offence. The purposes of
general and special prevention are reached by threat
or real causing of deprivations and sufferings to
an offender. Calculation is simple: the punished
himself, being afraid of penalty repetition, will
avoid repetition of crimes as well, and to restraint
of criminal aspirations of the majority of other
people experience of others’ sufferings might be
enough. Punishment is considered as one of the
major crime prevention. Mechanism of punitive
influence in the legal literature is well studied. It
has been historically established that the general
theory of law and branch juridical sciences have
a «punitive» bias and are liability-punishment
theories in essence while the social-psychological
mechanism and efficiency of other kinds of legal
regulation are investigated insufficiently.
The safety sanction is a reaction to public
danger of the person which was revealed in a
socially dangerous act, or to public danger of a
social group expressed in socially dangerous
activity. It is a part of social norm where as a
consequence of socially dangerous behaviour
(activity) breaking a safety rule, restriction of
possibilities of continuation of such behaviour
(activity) is provided. Examples of sanctions
in criminal law are forced measures of
medical character, a part of forced measures of
educational influence, special duties assigned to
the conditionally condemned or to the released on
parole20.
Restriction can be fulfilled by different
ways: physical, mechanical, organizational,
psychological. Security measures are more often
implemented by means of imposition of special
prohibitions and duties on a person committed an
illegal act. Unlike a safety rule which the «third
parties» contacting with a source of danger or
object of protection are obliged to observe the
safety sanction is applied in that case when a
physical person, an organization, a social group
which danger has already been revealed in
socially dangerous behaviour or activity have
become a danger source. In connection with
legislative techniques features, and also owing to
specialisation of branches of law rules and safety
sanctions can be placed not only in different
articles, chapters, sections of one regulatory legal
act, but also in different branches of legislation.
Security measures can be aimed at the source
of danger itself (atomic power station) isolating or
limiting its harmful influence on the person and
environment, – preventive punishment or at a
protection of object of protection ( person, secret,
property) from external sources of danger –
protection measures. As one and the same object
can be simultaneously object of protection and a
danger source, there can be measures of double
assignment as well which combine simultaneously
a function of suppression and a protection
function – preventive punishment and protection
measures. A source of danger or object of
protection character can serve as the classification
bases. If a danger source is criminality, a crime
or a personality of a criminal, there are bases to
separate out anticriminal security measures.
According to the level security measures
can be subdivided into measures of the general,
especial and individual level. Depending on sphere
of application security measure are classified
into economic, social-political, ideological.
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Competition restrictions are referred to economic
measures, for example separation of powers to
social-political; ban of fascism propaganda- to
ideological. According to the method it is possible
to separate physical, technical, organizational
and information security measures. Preventive
punishment depending on the application moment
can be subdivided into urgent and preventive. The
first are applied to suppression of already begun
harmful influence, the second for suppression of
harmful influence which has not begun yet but
which probability is rather high.
Depending on a kind of social norm
which the security measure is invested in, they
can be subdivided into legal and outlawful.
Security measures in law are an interbranch
institution, close to institutions of punishment,
encouragement, indemnification. It is introduced
in all branches of legislation.
Under legislation branch within which
frameworks security measures are regulated,
they can be subdivided into international –
constitutional – administrative – civil – criminallegal, labour (industrial), and also civil –
administrative – criminal – procedural and
criminally-executive. Under international law
they allow to «suppress» the state preventively –
an aggression source; under constitutional law –
through separation of powers to protect power
from usurpation; under administrative law- to
establish special modes concerning sources
of danger (weapon) and objects of protection;
under civil law – to limit capacity; under family
law – by means of deprivation of parental rights
to protect the minor from harmful influence;
under employment law – not to let underqualified people to certain works and to provide
safety precautions; in criminal law – to isolate
a dangerous maniac, in criminal procedure – to
detain a suspect, etc. Security measures are as
objective (only not material, but social) reality, as
a gravity. They exist irrespective of their social
recognition and knowledge degree. Over millions
years people considered and used gravity but
the law on universal gravitation opened by I.
Newton allowed to do it much more effectively.
The problem is more likely deals with not only
recognision of security measures, but rather
with definition of sphere and bases of their
application.
Security measures always represent
restriction of rights and freedoms of the person
for this very reason their limits should be
accurately designated. For this purpose personal,
territorial and time approaches supplementing
each other are proposed to be used. Accurate
designation of security measures action limits in
terms of a circle of persons they are extend over,
territory on which they operate, and time of their
action is necessary not only to avoid abuse, but
also for optimum distribution of law-enforcement
resources.
It is possible to separate out typical signs
of the person that can be a source of increased
danger and (or) object of increased protection
(age, citizenship, disease, criminal past), and
also to designate typical signs of territory on
which the safety mode in space (the frontier,
a closed administrative-territorial formation,
a zone of counterterrorist operation) should
performed. Similarly it is necessary to work out
rules of action of security measures in space.
To restrict time limits of anticriminal sanctions
of safety it is necessary to introduce concept
«safe limitation» into the theory of law and in
legislation and to establish after expiration of
the term passed from the moment of socially
dangerous act commission it is impossible to
apply security measures.
The dynamic model of the multilevel
bases of the security measures which hierarchy
comprise: social, regulatory-legal, actual
(material) and organizational-legal bases allow to
limit the scope of security measures.
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The social basis of security measures forms
necessity of suppression of harmful influence of
a source of increased danger or a protection of
object of protection from harmful influence by
means of restriction of constitutional laws and
personal freedoms. Thus harm forcedly caused
to the person, possessing increased danger, or to
the third parties, should be less than prevented
harm. Proportionality of harm is carried out
by principles similar to rules of emergency or
necessary defence.
International legal acts, the Constitution
of Russian Federation and federal laws are
regulatory-legal ground. Security measures are
always restrictions of constitutional laws and
freedoms, therefore according to p. 3 articles 55
of the Constitution of the Russian Federation their
application on a by-law basis is inadmissible.
Events and actions (not only lawful, but also
wrongful) can serve actual bases of security
measures. Actual bases for application of
sanctions of safety b will be socially dangerous
acts provided by the federal law. Applying safety
sanctions, an official applying a law should
proceed from presumption of absence of public
danger of the person until this feature is not
expressed in the concrete socially dangerous act
provided by the federal law.
Acts of application in the form of a sentence,
court judgements, the decision of the judge, the
public prosecutor or other competent decision
where individualization of safety relations takes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
place are organizational-legislative grounds.
Highlighted groups of the grounds matter at
different stages of security measures application:
social – for lawmaking, regulatory-legal and
actual – for assigning, and organizational-legal –
for execution of security measures.
Appropriate procedure of their assignment
and execution should be an important condition
of restriction of security measures limits.
The more the measure limits the rights and
personal freedoms, the more authoritative the
body, making the decision on its assigning and
execution, and the more guarantees from an
arbitrariness of the procedure of acceptance and
decision execution should provide. An exception
is only possible for application of urgent security
measures (counterterrorist operation). But
also in this case a post factum careful check
of validity of application of security measures
necessarily should be necessarily conducted. The
parliamentary and judicial control is optimum
for such cases. If procedure of application of
security measures contains moments limiting
constitutional laws and freedom, it should be
provided only by the federal law. The decision of
procedural issues derogating the citizens’ rights
and freedoms is inadmissible in by-laws.
And, at last, the forecast which,
unfortunately, is wanting at use of this institution
both in global and individual scale should serve a
necessary precondition of application of security
measures.
More on security measures see : Schedrin N.V. Introduction to security measures legal theory:Monograph/Krasnoyarsk :
Edit.: Krasnoyarsk State Uni., 1999. 180 p.
See: Civil law: Textbook. P. II / Under edit. A.P. Sergeev J.K. Tolstoy.SPb.: TEIS, 1996. P. 732 – 735.
See: ibid. P. 733.
See: On judicial practice on cases on compensation of harm inflicted to health: Decision of Plenum of the RF Supreme
court on April 28, 1994 // Bulletin of RF Supreme court. 1994. № 7.
See.:Mikheev R.I. The insane. Social-legal essay. Vladivostok: Edit. By the Far-East University, 1992. P. 94 – 103.
See.:Volzhenkin B.V. Public danger of a criminal and criminal liability ground. // Jurisprudence. 1963. № 3. P. 90.
See.: Filimonov V.D. Public danger of a criminal’s personality. Tomsk: Edit. by Tom. Univ-ty, 1970. 277 P.
See.:Burlakov V.N. Criminogenic personality and individual crime prevention. Prediction problems. SPb.: MIA Academy
of Russia, 1998. P. 22.
Ter-Akopov A.A. On legal aspects of psychic activity… . P. 89.
Article 1 of the RF Law «On bases of neglect of children and juvenile offences prevention system» specifies, that «a family which is in a socially dangerous position, – a family having children, being in a socially dangerous position, and also
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11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
a family where parents or lawful representatives of minors do not execute their duties on their education, training and (or)
maintenance and (or) negatively influence their behaviour or treat them in a cruel way».
For more detailed the thesis ground see.: Schedrin N.V. Kilina O.M. Security measures for authority protection and protection from it.- Krasnoyarsk: RUMC LA , 2006. P. 19-39.
Tarasov I.T. Essay of police law science. M.: Pub., at Jakovlev’s S.P. , 1897. P. 132.
Ter-Akopov A.A. On legal aspects of psychic activity and psychological safety of the person.. P. 89.
A.A.Ter-Akopov paid attention to this circumstance having divided special rules into two kinds: technological and safety.
«Technological rules defi ne the content and sequence of operations they provide mainly conditions of desirable result
reception …. Special safety rules regulate an order of interaction with the various subjects representing increased danger,
which can have material, physical or organizational output» (Ter-Akopov A.A.Liability for special rules of behaviour. М:
Legal. Lit., 1995. P. 24).
We proceed from the defi nition, according to which, «sanction -is an element providing consequences for the subject
realising disposition. They can be both negative – punishment, and positive – encouragement measures …» (Malkov A.V.
Theory of the state and law: the Textbook. – Jurist, 2000. P. 167).
Leyst O,E. Sanctions and liability on Soviet law. M.:Legal Lit.., 1981. P. 63.
See.: Bazilev B.T. Legal liability (theoretical issues). Krasnoyarsk.Edit. by Krasnoyarsk Uni-ty, 1985. P. 35.
Vetrova G.N. Sanctions in judicial law. M.: Science, 1991. P. 80 – 108.
See., for example: Zer X. Restorative justice :new look at crime and punishment : Trans. from English. M.: MOO Centre
«Judicial-legal reform, 1998. 354 p.
For more detail see.: Schedrin N.V. Criminal-legal security sanctions // Criminal-legal legislation: state and development
perspectives: Conference material /Krasnoyarsk State Univ-ty. Krasnoyarsk, 2002. P. 9 -21.
Понятие, виды и пределы мер безопасности
Н.В. Щедрин
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Общепризнано, что в современном обществе растет количество и мощность источников
повышенной опасности. Однако, несмотря на интенсивное исследование этой проблемы, в
правовой науке до сих пор не выработаны четкие критерии источника повышенной опасности,
нет его определения и в законодательстве. Статья посвящена исследованию указанной
проблемы.
Ключевые слова: меры безопасности; виды мер безопасности; пределы мер безопасности.
Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и
научно-технической деятельности
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 119-127
~~~
УДК 165.19
Television Myths Creation as an Analogue
of Traditional Myth-Reality
Larisa S. Nabokova* and Natalya P. Koptseva
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
The modern mass media is a new mythological intermediate of the turn of ХХI century, which
independently creates the image of a new reality for people. Constructive function is an attributive
function of mass media and, first of all, of television in the modern society. Possibilities of television
are unlimited in the sphere of generation and implementation of set typo-images, essential neomythological characteristics of mass media allow speaking about the phenomenon as of the most
active and even aggressive subject of sense-formation in the modern social cognition for the reason of
their unprecedented intensity in time and space, because of their subconscious manipulative powers.
Myths of television are much more rational in comparison with the traditional mythoimages – they are
generated on the basis of real course of events and real personages. Though, images of these events
and personages come in sight of the consumers emotionally colored, much interpreted, stereotyped,
simplified, and encoded with the help of specific symbols of television object-language. Being fi xed
that way in the social conscious, they change the notions of values, change and even reform the way
of people’s lives.
As practical materials of the research we have used examples of television myth-creation of the
period of the 2002 gubernator’s elections in the Krasnoyarsk region: technologies of mythoimages
implementation by means of television were mainly based on image-semantic rows with the usage
of collective archetypes of Siberian sub-ethnos (paradigms «all-Russian-provincial», «strong-weak»,
«native-foreign», «new-old» and others.)
Keywords: Television myth-creation, mythology of mass media, Alexander Khloponin.
The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific
technical activity.
In the modern post-industrial society, mass
media has become a sign of our time, a technology
of life and of social standards formation.
Unprecedented scales of mass media functioning
in the sphere of social knowledge, the degree of
its influence over the public conscious and over
the formation of the integral world social space
*
1
have prevented us from considering mass media
only as an instrument or as a communication
channel. Having appeared at the end of XX
century, phenomena of «global village», «virtual
reality», «alternative culture», and «information
explosion» point not only at the fact of rampant
development of mass media communication and
Corresponding author E-mail address: l-nabokova@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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mass media information (MMI), being their most
important component, but also at the fact that
they acquire a functional, which differs from the
one, being traditionally accepted in science.
The central scientific problem of the given
research is a contradiction between the concept of
mass media, which have been already formed in
the fundamental science as a phenomenon, being
infixed into the public conscious, as exclusively
a channel of information transfer, on one hand,
and that real role, which mass media plays in the
processes of social cognition and the modern
public conscious formation, on the other hand.
Point of View
In recent years, many a researcher agrees with
the fact that MMI is not only a channel of people’s
conscious manipulation, not simply a conductor of
another social-political or commercial mythology.
M. Maccluen, an outstanding MMI researcher,
was the first, who started speaking about the
possibility of conscious mythologization of
communication by means of television, pointing
at the obvious ability of mass media to generate
«this life (with all its collisions)», «to act as a
primary reason, which endues the reality with its
own features..» in human conscious 2.
Today, this problem is widely discussed in
scientific circles. And there are more and more
voices for the principle statement of the fact
that the modern mass media communications is
a new mythological intermediary at the turn of
ХХI century, which independently creates a new
reality image for the public. «Newspapers, radioand TV-channels have ceased to be the arena of
various groups’ struggle; they themselves have
become fully-fledged participants of this struggle.
They have become not so much objective myths
translators, as their creators. Not the mirror of
society, but the hammer of urge»1.
Popular web-sites and internet blogs are
very candid in their utterances on the topic,
their authors and participants assert that there
is a social mythological space, being created by
means of MMI: «MMI plays a dual role not only
as re-translators, which are used by the politicians
in order to influence their electorate, but also as
translators, which create pseudo-reality by their
own initiative»3.
Neither political scientists, nor social
scientists, nor philosophers already doubt the fact
that the object of MMI influence – the modern
public conscious – is totally mythologized in the
informational society. It is generally acknowledged
that mass thinks by means of standard images,
stereotypes, being based on ancient panhuman
myths and archetypes. «Today, myth is the most
significant principal of organization of the public
conscious. »4
That is why most researchers consider
MMI from the point of view of the fundamental
theory of the world, which, by the way, has been
drastically renewed in the last decade and now
suggests new visions of the problem.
The given research is mainly based on the
myth theory, being developed at a time by several
Russian philosophical and sociological schools.
These schools suppose myth to be an inseparable
part of conscious, which positively structures
self-conscious of the individual and whole
groups. Such scientists, as N.А. Khrenov, А.М.
Lobok, О.А. Karlova, consider the question of old
and new mythologies not simply as a process of
conscious catastrophe, but as a question of myth
changing mechanisms. These theories do not
analyze the problems of mythologies formation
and implementation in the frames of traditional
paradigm «myth»- «non-myth», but crucially
otherwise: «myth» – «other myth». О. Karlova
has used this paradigm as a basis of her myth
theory in the definition of the problem of total
mythologity of the human culture. «Birth of a new
myth is connected with a long-lasting successive
re-interpretation of myth senses from the «inside».
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First of all, it starts from re-interpretation of word
sense, which can be defined as a changing of one
myth-name by the other. » 5
In the given research we pay special
attention to the role of mass media, which in
particular is put in the bases of investigation of
such a quite modern phenomenon, as image and
advertising. In this process, О.А. Karlova and
A.V. Kostina define MMI as the most important
factor of myth construct-model formation. Here,
the intermediate function of mass media as
«substitutes» (substitutes-translators) turn it into
the most important factor of image-making.
To the mind of А.М. Lobok, the individual
starts creation of his subjective myth-model from
discovery of the integral myth, which represents
a sort of matrix body. Accepting this myth and,
thus, subjectively changing it, most of people
already finish their «mythological search» on
this very stage. In this case, we do not deal with
personalities-creators, but with «flock», with
mass, with the majority. As a rule, in this case,
connection with the absolute is traditionally
set and then strengthened by means of an
intermediate in the existing original myth. For
centuries, the role of such an intermediate has
been played in the society by the organization
with a complicated hierarchy of interrelations,
which has had a number of recipes of perfection
achievement, being kept in sacred texts, i.e.
kindred, community or church.
Some modern scientists suppose that the
functions of such an intermediate pass to mass
media in the informational society. In such
researches, special place is given to television,
as the most powerful mass media as far as it is
widely spread and because of its audio-visual
subconscious impact. «Precisely with the help
of television, they create virtual, mythological
reality, which is imposed on to the millions of
viewers. Television is not simply an intermediate
between myth-creators and spectators. It is a
special sphere, which possesses a row of unique
features, which turn it not only into a channel
of myth delivery, but into the fabrics of myth
production. »6 Some researches compare the
essence of the modern television right with the
nature of mythology itself. Modern Russian
scientist N. Zorkaja, V. Borev, А. Kovalenko,
V. Mikhalkovich, B. Sapunov, К. Bogdanov,
and М.А. Mjasnikova point directly at the
connection of television picture with the folk and
mythological vision of the world. «Television is a
syncresis, i.e. an inseparable integration, which
is simultaneously considered to be a kind of art,
mass media information and communication, a
social phenomenon and a mythological model of
the world. And in general, it creates a new reality,
constructs a specific, mythological picture of the
world. »7
Example
Probably, there is no any other social
sphere in modern Russia, where the creation of
new mythologems and mythoimages has been
as productive in the MMI context, as in the
sphere of political leaders’ image-making. And
the Krasnoyarsk region gubernatorial elections
in 1998 and 2002 have proved it to full extend:
both events were mainly based not on the live
communication of the candidates with the
electorate, but on the image-semantic rows with
the usage of collective archetypes of Siberian
sub-ethnos (paradigms «all-Russian-provincial»,
«strong-weak», «native-foreign», «new-old» and
others.). Our study is based on the materials of
the Krasnoyarsk region gubernator’s electoral
campaign of 2002. In the result of that campaign,
Alexander Khloponin won the elections, and
today, he is a world-famous politician.
Our research gains new topicality because
of Alexander Khloponin’s appointment for the
post of the vice prime minister of the Russian
Government and the Presidential Envoy to the
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most hazardous region of the country – the North
Caucuses Federal District. It has become one of
the most remarkable political events in Russia of
the beginning of 2010.
Probably, the Krasnoyarsk region electoral
campaign of 2002 has remained in the history of
modern Russia as one of the latest bright political
struggles of the Russian elites, where one could
foresee the result, but still there was some hope
for some game or «civil justice». In the light of
the given research, we have studied the role of
the mass media (and, first of all, of the television),
which at that period had already become not an
instrument, but a fully-fledged, economicallyprofitable and psychologically-efficient subject of
the electoral process. First of all, it is a study of the
process of myth generation and introduction into
the mass conscious of the explored and prepared
audience, the study being carried out on the bases
of the Jung’s theory of archetypes, of the concept
of «mass man», and paying special attention to
the role of specific television object-language in
this process.
As it is well-known, myth differs from
artistic phenomenon because it is perceived by
the people, being plunged into it, as reality. And
it is exactly the target of mass media, which
fulfills a pragmatic task and strives to turn its own
subjective interpretation of some fact or event
(mythologem) into reality for its viewer or reader.
Mythological foundations of television
were most vividly demonstrated by the media
coverage of the 2002 gubernatorial elections in
the Krasnoyarsk region. At that period of time,
the mass media had almost fully encroached the
mission of image-makers. The informational
space was activated, expanded, and hardened; it
had become the sphere of information wars. The
MMI, and first of all, electronic media used all the
existing means in order to purposefully change
the information – starting from data omission and
suppression up to semantic fields deformation and
complete disinformation. All the TV ideology
was built on the negative data, on exclusively
negative characteristics, facts and estimations.
They chose most discrediting information,
most unpleasant angles for the candidates. On
one hand, taking into consideration the procommunist sentiments of the electorate, they
used the image of «oligarch» and «stranger» in
the adverse publicity. And on the other hand, in
order to influence successful people, who were
waiting for turns for the better, they exploited
the images of «the old-fashioned man», «the
local narrow-minded chieftain». And they stuck
to this predetermined sense course, while giving
all the information and disinformation about the
candidates. Thereat, all the positive facts of their
biographies and characters were categorically
avoided; even their attractive looks and behavior
were used against the candidates with the help of
discriminating contrapositives. Most often, they
persistently placed video images of a smiling and
self-satisfied candidate right near by the pictures
of poor, sick and unemployed people of the region
on the background of scrap-heaps and ruins.
Moreover, these gubernatorial elections
in the Krasnoyarsk region have demonstrated
one more very important component of the
manipulative role of mass media – that is
handling with the images, having been already
fixed in the social conscious. Here, we are to
pay attention to the fact that negative images of
politicians can be created not only by means of
certain data omitting or hiding, but with the help
of constant and steady selective returning to some
«images-meanings», which already exist in the
social conscious. This fact is underlined by a row
of scientists, in particular, by Dotsenko: «more
«advanced» methods of manipulation presuppose
preliminary fabrication of opinions or wishes,
and their fixation in the mass conscious or in the
notions of a concrete person, in order to have a
possibility of referring to him»8.
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At the 2002 Krasnoyarsk region elections,
they widely used a regional stereotype, which
already existed at that time. It was the stereotype
of attitude to powers, which ascended to the
archetypical paradigm «native – foreign». The
image of «foreigners» was started to be formed
by the local mass media in the course of the
Krasnoyarsk region gubernatorial elections of
1998, when Alexander Lebed won the elections.
The paradigm «native – foreign» had got its
real force in the time of Lebed by means of the
mass media and mainly in the regional center. It
had been well-fixed in the social conscious, and
gave its fruition in the course of the Krasnoyarsk
region legislative assembly elections of 2001,
when the bloc under the given title «Ours» was
a strong leader, being the image carrier of «the
native, local». Some mass media, which had
been efficiently working as image-makers at
that period, used that «mine» as a ready part of
the future construct later, at the gubernatorial
elections of 2002.
It has been proved on practice of several
elections that most efficient technique of already
formed image-stereotype usage is not its
appliance to a new political subject, but a steady
reference of this new subject to the subject, being
a traditional carrier of this image. Further, they
fix coinciding characteristics, factors, tendencies
and senses of the «old» and the «new» image
carriers in the public conscious. Though, for
that purpose it is necessary to have, firstly, quite
comprehensive materials and, secondly, a rather
long period of time.
Let us consider the attempt, which was
undertaken by the mass media in the summer
of 2002, to draw an analogy between «Lebed
and Khloponin», using the image-stereotype
«foreign». To our mind, it was a failure, because
of following two reasons. Firstly, the content
of the «image-knowledge» of candidate A.G.
Khloponin did not correspond to the «image-
meaning» («foreign for the region»), which
had been selected for promotion in the public
conscious. He started the electoral campaign as
a Siberian gubernator (a citizen of Norilsk, the
gubernator of Taimyr), and axiological integrity
of the image-construct, having been presented
by the opponents, failed. Secondly, there was
no any other opportunity to refer in emotionalimage way the short young agile successful crisis
manager of the new generation to the figure of
powerful and soldierly smart Alexander Lebed,
looking like «a Mohican of 90-s». In the given
case, the mass media failed to present the public
behavioral and visual video- and audio-proofs
of resemblance between Lebed and Khloponin.
And precisely such kinds of video- and audioinstruments have been used by the mass media in
recent years in order to influence the public.
Though, this result does not mean that the
image-stereotype of «ours» became less popular
in 2002, then it had been a year earlier (in the
period of regional legislative assembly elections);
the first round of the 2002 regional gubernatorial
elections is eloquent of that fact. It is plain that
the public conceived the political images of other
candidates within the frames of the paradigm
«native – foreign». And the PR managers of A.G.
Khloponin succeeded in promotion of another
paradigm in to the public conscious: «new,
successful, federal – old, stagnant, local». It also
appeared not from nothing: it was not a secret that
in the time of Gubernator Alexander Lebed, the
later had strained relations with the Center and, it
had hindered the development of the Region, to
the mind of many people.
As it has been already mentioned, the leading
semantic field mythoimages of that period had
been generated in the public conscious yet in
1998. And precisely on that very basis, the mass
media formed a renewed myth-reality of the 2002
elections. As practical materials for the given
research we have used broadcast materials of one
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of the leading Krasnoyarsk television companies,
of the highest rating product – TV news in the
electoral campaign period of July – September of
2002.
Already on the first stage of the electoral
campaign, they formed an image of «starving
Taimyr» in the block of news of the given TV
Company, the region where A.G. Khloponin
was the gubernator at that time. The image
of oligarch, who was satisfied with his life,
«living on his people», «being too far from the
common, working men», «a foreigner, and an
alien outsider», was aimed not only to anger the
viewer, but to enforce the image of the second
candidate – «our, honest, close to the common
people» A.V. Uss, whose image was accompanied
by several positive TV pictures.
They organized in the air of the channel
and brightly (from the point of view of practical
creation of mythological reality) carried out the
media-action «Help Taimyr» in the form of an
everyday topic of the news-show. Daily, famous
journalists and «patriots of the region» appealed
to the public to help «starving and dying from
cold» citizens of Taimyr, the region where A.G.
Khloponin was the gubernator at that time. Black
and white video of cold, ruined and decayed
houses, ragged clothes, exhausted old faces,
empty, unemotional children’s eyes, exaggerated
with the help of blackout and rapid special
computer effects, all that could not fail to cause
the feeling of pity, «tugs of people’s heartstrings»,
and anger against those, who were responsible for
all that. The topic «Help Taimyr» is an example of
the negative background aspect of the candidate’s
mythoimage, which had been projected and
created by means of TV language, and which the
channel-myth-creator was persistently forming
at that time. This example persuasively proves
the fact that television is able to produce and
implement a new emotionally-substantial image,
which exploits deeply-lying archetypes of the
Russian collective conscious ( in the given case,
compassion to the poor – hatred to the rich,
injustice, the habit to count one’s money and so
on), in to the mass conscious within a short period
of time. An obligatory condition of such images
formation is a high rate of its presentation. In the
given case, the mentioned images were on the air
up to 10-15 times a day in the form of regular and
obtrusive trails.
As far as the image was repeated so often
and was so emotionally intensive, in a short
period of time it became a rather powerful factor
of emotional exposure over the mass conscious,
and first of all, not so much the stereotype of
«foreigner», but the stereotype of «oligarch»
was being fed up and, in its turn, was feeding
in Krasnoyarsk. Indeed, sometime later, on
air there appeared the image of «oligarch» on
the background of the given media-action, the
«oligarch», who was «far from his people», who
lived on the account of «starving Taimyr» and
was absolutely careless about the people living
there. Being shown on the screen, the candidate
was constantly «dancing, drinking wine, having
much fun», and «living up to the hilt». All these
images on the screen were constantly opposed
within the frames of one and the same program
(the story about Taimyr gave way to the video
about «the glamorous life» of the oligarch in
Moscow and abroad), and even within the frames
of one story. They used very often black and
white video, which exaggerated the technique of
antithesis by its nature.
Images of the political opponent of A.G.
Khloponin – A.V. Uss – were expressed in the
following audio-visual images: «native, simple,
ours, being close to his people», «of native origin,
knowing the problems of the citizens». On air of
the same TV channel, right near by the «oligarch»
there appeared «a lightful face» of «our regionman», who was accompanied with additional
positive characteristics:
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- «confident in his victory, calm», that
was achieved by «highlight» shooting,
selective editing, and key words such as
«Uss is sure in our victory, he believes in
the sound sense of Siberians»;
- «our, native, understanding people»,
that was formed with the help of picture
montage, usage of images of «ordinary
countrymen», and the mental image of
«bread and salt handling»;
- «unjustly offended», that was done with
the help of everyday items about «black
PR», about trials on complaints against
A.V. Uss, and provocations at the meetings
with the electorate;
- «significant, honored» – by means of
positioning the figure of A.V. Uss near by
symbolic persons, accompanying him by
the words of support of opinion shapers.
Thus, at the 2002 elections they used almost
all the spectrum of the mass media’s object
language in the process of formation of the new
reality, and first of all, «audio-video» language of
the television, wherein there were harmoniously
combined specifics of television and mythological
techniques:
- proper television techniques: black and
white or color video, computer special
effects, persistent everyday translation
of set TV mythoimages and key phrases,
selective montage of pictures and
speeches, special running time of the air,
usage of the image of the mass media
itself and of well-known journalists, and
so on;
- mythological techniques: mental images,
sense antithesis, parallelism, refrain,
circular plot-semantic closing of the
narration, reticence, semantic field
corruption, disinformation.
The technique of antithesis became the basic
principle of formation of the television paradigm
«Uss – Khloponin». As a rule, A.G. Khloponin
was presented all alone in the screen, other
people were placed in «other» screenshots, i.e.
in a distance, almost in «some other dimension»;
A.V. Uss was always surrounded by people,
workers, youth. Khloponin spoke from tribunes,
from podiums – he was «afar from people»;
Uss was always surrounded by a crowd, he was
«ours, simple-minded, native». The mass media
widely used the technique of refrain and circular
parallelism, when one and the same phrase, one
and the same screenshot was started, finalized
and repeated several times in the course of one
and the same news item (thus, the Taimyr news
reportings were always started and closed by the
images of doors, swinging in the wind, hopeless
eyes of children; and the plots about Khloponin
were often started and closed by the picture of the
«dancing» candidate).
To our opinion, the result of the first round
of the election was the consequence of such an
intensive mass media’s involvement into the mass
conscious of the electorate, when A.V. Uss won,
having got 27.53% voices of the voters against
25.25% voices for A.G. Khloponin. Secondly, in
spite of his general failure in the second round
in the region, A.V. Uss kept his steady leading
position in the Krasnoyarsk city– here, we may
observe a significant gap (49,6% voices against
24,8%) on the main territory of the given TV
channel activity.
Evolution of the political image of Alexander
Khloponin and his relations with the mass media
in the period of his governing in the region (20022009) deserves special attention in the context
of the given research. Informational attack of
the mass media in the period of the election
campaign of 2002 made the new gubernator
pay special attention to the local mass media.
Informational policy became a strategic direction
of the regional powers’ activity. All these years, a
professional team of political image-makers and
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Alexander Khloponin himself kept an eye on the
administration and the creative elite of the local
mass media. In the result of such a policy, there
was formed a steady, irreproachable image of the
leader of the new generation, the professional
manager, making precise decisions for the benefit
of the citizens of the region, being respected and
trusted by the people, and having precise notions
of the future of the region and the country on
the whole. The central place in realization of
the informational policy was again taken by
technologists of TV myth-creation. Though, it is
a subject of a separate research work.
Conclusions
Thus, resuming the above-mentioned
analysis, we may state the following:
1. Heavy media coverage of the electoral
campaign of 2002 in the Krasnoyarsk region
proves convincingly the ability of television to
myth-creation, to production of new mythoimages
and myth-metaphors, to creation of its own mythreality by means of its own specific language.
2. being created as a construct-model in that
or this time, image is a phenomenon, which can
be divide into separate elements, from which one
can create other variations, «stretching» them on
to the imaginative entirety as an essential quality
of image perception. And this phenomenon
demonstrates mass media and, first of all,
television as an audio-visual myth-world at its
full extent, being entire in its complexity, which
is perceived not critically, but as something
authentic precisely because of this complexity
and image visualization dominance.
3. The analysis has revealed some «typoimages» in the modern mass communication.
In comparison with the archetypes, they do not
1.
2.
3.
have universal nature; they are situational, but
steady within the frames of the given social
situation. As a rational-irrational construct, these
images are not only translated by television, but
also generated by TV as «neo-typo-images»
on the bases of already existing ones. Thus, in
the modern society, constructive function is an
attributive function of mass media and, first of
all, of television.
4. Possibilities of television are unlimited
in the sphere of generation and implementation
of set typo-images, essential neo-mythological
characteristics of mass media allow speaking
about the phenomenon as of the most active
and even aggressive subject of sense-formation
in the modern social cognition. While most
traditional social mythoimages have been formed
for centuries, the images of television can be
formed in the course of a month for the reason of
their unprecedented intensity in time and space,
because of their subconscious manipulative
powers. Myths of television are much more
rational in comparison with the traditional
mythoimages – they are generated on the basis of
real course of events and real personages. Though,
images of these events and personages come
in sight of the consumers emotionally colored,
much interpreted, stereotyped, simplified, and
encoded with the help of specific symbols of
television object-language. Being fixed that way
in the social conscious, they change the notions
of values, change and even reform the way of
people’s lives.
Proceeding from the mentioned above, we
may conclude, that the modern means of mass
media act in the sphere of social communication
as a sort of myth analogy, but being not equal to
it.
О. А. Karlova. Myth intelligent: Monograph / О. А. Karlova. – Krasnoyarsk: the KrasGU Publishing House, 2001. – 208
p., p. 200.
McLuhan M., Understanding Media, op. cit., p. 41.
Blog of Alexander Abrochnov http://abrochnov.blogspot.com/2008/10/blog-post.html
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
V. Terin. Mass Communication. Research of the Western Experience http://www.gumer.info/bibliotek_Buks/Polit/
Terin/05.php
О. А. Karlova. Myth intelligent: Monograph / О. А. Karlova. – Krasnoyarsk: the KrasGU Publishing House, 2001. – 208
p., p. 83.
http://psujourn.narod.ru/lib/cul_TV.htm Television as a “Fabrics of Myths” Resource: А. Tsuladze, Political Mythology. –
Moscow, ESCMO. 2003. – 383 p.
М. А. Myasnikova Folk-Mythological Bases of Television. http://proceedings.usu.ru/?base=mag/0052(03_222007)&xsln=showArticle.xslt&id=a38&doc=../content.jsp Problems of Education, Science and Culture № 52(2007). Edition 22. Laboratory of the Scientist
Y.L. Dotsenko. Psychology of Manipulation: Phenomena, Mechanisms and Defense / Y.L. Dotsenko. – Moscow: CheRo
in association with the «Uright» Publishing House, 2000. – 344 p., p. 116.
Телевизионное мифотворчество
как аналог традиционной мифореальности
Л.С. Набокова, Н.П. Копцева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный,82
Современные средства массовой информации – это новый мифологический посредник
рубежа ХХI в., самостоятельно создающий для населения образ новой реальности.
Конструкционная функция является в современном обществе атрибутивной функцией
средств массовой информации – в первую очередь, телевидения. Безграничные возможности
телевидения в области продуцирования и внедрения устойчивых типообразов, сущностные
неомифологические характеристики средств массовой информации позволяют говорить об
этом феномене как о наиболее активном и даже агрессивном субъекте смыслопостроения
в современном социальном познании по причине беспрецедентной интенсивности во времени
и пространстве, в силу подсознательных манипулятивных мощностей. Мифы телевидения
являются существенно более рациональными по сравнению с традиционными мифообразами –
они формируются на основе реальной событийности и реальных героев. Однако образы этих
событий и героев поступают к потребителю эмоционально окрашенными, существенно
интерпретированными, стереотипизированными, упрощенными, закодированными с помощью
специфических символов телевизионного объект-языка. Зафиксированные таким образом в
общественном сознании, они меняют представления о ценностях, изменяют и даже заново
формируют образ жизни людей.
В качестве практического материала исследования использованы примеры телевизионного
мифотворчества периода губернаторских выборов в Красноярском крае 2002 гг.: технологии
внедрения мифообразов посредством телевидения были основаны, главным образом, на
имиджево-семантических рядах с использованием коллективных архетипов сибирского
субэтноса (парадигмы «всероссийский-провинциальный», «сильный-слабый», «наш-чужой»,
«старый-новый» и др.).
Ключевые слова: телевизионное мифотворчество, мифология СМИ, Александр Хлопонин.
Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и
научно-технической деятельности.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 128-142
~~~
УДК 351.85.08; 008-051
Peculiarities of Training of the Socio-Cultural Activity (SCA)
Manager in the Integrity of Technological Approach
and Formation of High Spiritual
and Intellectual Potential
Yelena A. Nozdrenko*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
Inclusion of the modern Russian system of education into the processes of modernization is connected
with the necessity of overcoming of various social-economical changes in education and training of
competent dedicated experts, whose qualification must correspond to the real level of development of
the social-cultural sphere. Market conditions require a high level of qualification of the competitive
specialist at the labor market in the socio-cultural space. Today, graduates of educational institutions
in the sphere of socio-cultural activity can be successful only on condition they possess a high-level
general and professional competency, an ability to self-training and upgrading of professional skills
and knowledge, to obtain necessary knowledge in the course of education. The problem of quality of
education is one of the key problems within the frames of Bologna process in the world communion
of higher education institutions. In the modern socio-economical conditions, professional training of
SCA managers has its own specifics in the system of higher education. Thereat, specifics of the socialcultural sphere itself, as a sphere of the future professional activity of today’s student, dictates the
peculiarities of professionalization of the person himself.
We suppose that precisely the systematic approach, applied in the process of learning of the sociocultural activity manager’s profession, presupposes not only obtaining of a complex of knowledge
(from general theoretical to special), but also becoming of a special world outlook. Professional
becoming presupposes self-perfection and self-actualization of the person, and increase of the level of
demands in one’s professional growth and realization of these demands. Today, the question of selfperfection of specialists’ training for the sphere of culture and arts in the system of higher vocational
education should be discussed not from the perspectives of education direction changing, but in the
context of its quality perfection, quality which to a large extent determines student’s social perspectives
and his personal growth. Professional training of the manager of socio-cultural activity is a special
technology, which synthesizes in itself the integrity of theoretical and practical readiness of the future
specialist to his professional activity, his abilities, skills and possibilities to perform the necessary
actions. Systematic approach in the process of training of the manager of socio-cultural activity is
expressed in the synthesis of esthetic education and the system of humanitarian education and the
social order, which is translated through the system of institutions of the socio-cultural sphere. Such a
synthesis significantly improves the qualitative level of professional training of future specialists of the
socio-cultural sphere and, what is also important, actualizes the positioning of professional education
in the context of the project culture. Thus, peculiarity of training of the manager of socio-cultural
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: elena.nozdrenko@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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activity is expressed in a harmonious integrity of technological approach and formation of a high
spiritual and intellectual potential of all the subjects of the educational process.
Keywords: Socio-cultural sphere, manager of socio-cultural activity, professionalization in the sphere
of socio-cultural activity, professional competency, professional training of managers of socio-cultural
activity.
Point
In the recent decades, the Russian system
of education has been involved in the process
of modernization. It is connected with the
necessity of overcoming of various socialeconomical changes in the modern education and
training of competent dedicated experts, whose
qualification must correspond to the real level
of development of culture and society. Socialeconomical conditions require a high level of
qualification of the employee, which will provide
his competitiveness at the labor market of the
socio-cultural complex. Graduates of professional
educational institutions in the sphere of sociocultural activity must possess a high-level
general and professional competency, an ability
to start quickly their professional activity right
in the process of study and after their graduation
and ability of self-training and upgrading of
professional skills and knowledge, of obtaining
of necessary skills.
Phenomenon of dualism of cultural
institutions’ activity is connected to the
polyphonism of the socio-cultural activity itself,
which (from the point of view of researchers)
can be considered as a method of human
activity (technology) and within the personal
aspect of human being. Contradiction between
the technological and personal approaches
does not exclude their dialectic oneness. The
technological approach is connected to all the
types of human activity and is revealed in socionormative functions of profiled institutions. The
personal approach is connected to the function
of individual’s socio-cultural self organization.
Consequently, essence of the process of
socio-cultural activity is in the oneness of the
technological approach (as a method of human
activity) and formation of a high spiritual and
intellectual potential of the subject and the object
of socio-cultural activity.
As it is proved by many researches,
person acts as a system-forming factor of
the socio-cultural activity. According to the
theory of management, general objective laws
of professional becoming are inherent to the
manager, as a subject of professional activity,
and his competency is caused by the objective
laws and specifics of his professional sphere of
activity. Socio-cultural activity is a process,
which is directed to preservation, mastering,
production and reproduction of cultural values
with a humanistic target of spiritual development
and up-bringing of the person and perfection of
social communities. M.V. Asainova supposes
that «socio-cultural activity differs by its
dualism: on one hand, it is directed to sociocultural development of the society, and on the
other hand, to personal development» [2, p.43].
Socio-cultural activity includes in itself a sphere
of leisure and leisure activity, national artistic
culture, amateur creativity, education and social
security and rehabilitation. The individual, family,
social organizations and unions, socio-cultural
institutes, branch institutions and organizations
act as subjects of socio-cultural activity.
Continuous integral development of the
student’s personality provides a systematic
approach to the process of educational activity.
Hence, elaboration of the ability of all the subjects
(teachers and students) of the process to sensecreativity is the most important methodological
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basis of educational process in the HEI, and in
this case, formation of knowledge and skills (the
competence-based approach) in the process of
professional development becomes the method
of this goal achievement. Thus, methodology
of the systematic approach to the educational
activity becomes the leading one in the process
of transition form the pedagogics of knowledge
and skills to the pedagogics of collaboration and
development.
Dialectic oneness and succession of culturalhistorical, socio-pedagogical and nationalethnical experiences, synthesis of traditions and
innovations in the cultural sphere development
are vividly revealed in the socio-cultural
activity. Socio-cultural activity management
is an important direction of the sociocultural sphere, which acts as a technology of
management of economical, creative-industrial
and other social relations in the process of
formation, popularization and consumption
of leisure-cultural goods and services. In
recent years, in the sphere of management of
the native socio-cultural activity there have
appeared new specialties and specializations,
some part of them re-appeared and actualized
in the new socio-cultural conditions. These are
the following professions as: musical producer;
personal manager; impresario or promoter;
agents, working with professional actors, stage
directors, painters, top-models; productionmanager; exhibition curator; gallery owner;
cinema-producer; project manager; leisurecultural programs producer; art-manager; and
socio-cultural activity technologist. The given
fact has undoubtedly actualized the question
of specialists’ efficient training. This way,
modern state of the sphere of culture and arts
in Russia requires a highly-qualified, wellrounded manager, possessing spiritual-moral
qualities, able to organize and to carry on his
professional activity under the constantly
changing socio-economical conditions. And
such specialists must have a high professional
level of professional training.
Example
Realizing the principles of education
fundamentalization, HEIs perform specialists’
training for the sphere of culture and arts, use the
experience of classical pedagogics, theoretical
and methodological implementations of scientists
in the sphere of modification of the system of
specialists’ training for professional activity
under the conditions of the modern market, and
make their contribution to modernization of the
system of specialists’ training for socio-cultural
activity. Not being a profiled HEI, the Siberian
Federal University successfully runs training of
the mentioned above specialists.
Specifics of the SFU educational process for
the specialists from the sphere of socio-cultural
activity is expressed in the following: the process
of simulation of efficient manager consists of two
systematic directions: fundamental and applied.
Thereat, the given directions are synergically
interconnected, and it is reflected in the interdisciplinary and inter-industrially significance
of the educational process. The higher-education
teaching personnel, which provides the process
of study in the direction of «Socio-cultural
activity» in the Siberian Federal University,
has a high qualification (50% of teachers have
scientific degrees and titles). The Siberian Federal
University realizes educational activity in the
given direction in accordance with the market
demands of the Krasnoyarsk Region and socioeconomical peculiarities of the Region. Increase
of efficiency of the educational process activity in
the course of specialists’ training in the sphere of
socio-cultural activity is fulfilled in the following
directions:

Orientation of the educational process to
the culture of analytic thinking;
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
Striving of all the participants of the
educational process (teachers, students,
and assistant personnel) to selfactualization, to continuous self-education
and professional self-perfection;

Utilization of the modern channels and
means of scientific information, new
informational technologies with modern
audio-visual teaching aids;

Understanding of the conceptual essence
and socio-cultural significance of the
profession;

Forecasting and theoretical simulation of
the socio-cultural processes;

Orientation to applied sociological and
marketing researches of the socio-cultural
activity.
At present time, the branch of culture and
arts has become multi-topic, and it is revealed
in variety of types of institutions, which realize
socio-cultural services, in differentiation of work
with various categories of population, in the
usage of modern various forms, means, methods
of socio-cultural activity. We agree with the
researchers in that, that teaching conception of
education appeals mainly to the students’ mind. It
performs the task of «fulfilling» of their intellect
with new scientific facts, notions, categories,
rules, theories and laws. Today, a new target is set
before the HEI – to teach the student not only to
accumulate knowledge, but to apply it intensively
in his practical activity, and it means to train
the specialist to be demanded by the modern
socio-cultural environment (in this case – by the
environment of the Krasnoyarsk Region). The
profession of the manager of socio-cultural sphere
is comparatively new and it is under-studied, but
at the same time it is one of the most complicated,
while success in this field is achievable only on
condition that the existing contradictions are
solved on the basis of modernization of content
model of the process of the modern manager’s
training for the sphere of culture and arts.
Such a model must provide a highly-qualified
professional training for the student, studying
modern management in compliance with the
regional specifics of the socio-cultural activity.
Professional education has the following
socio-cultural goals: it prepares the specialists
for a certain rather narrow and specific sphere
of professional activity. If in the process of
general education, the individual becomes
familiar with the norms and values of the social
community life, assimilates general knowledge
of the world, means of communication, then
in the course of professional education the
individual turns form the consumer of culture
into the creator and designer of actual forms
or professional performer, who reproduces or
interprets the given cultural forms. Professional
becoming presupposes self-perfection and selfactualization of the individual, increase of his
level of demands in his professional growth
and their realization. The following tendencies
are observed in the development of the native
system of specialists’ professional training for the
sphere of management [2]: orientation to training
of management specialists, possessing their
professional mastery in perfection; continuous
improvement of professional competence in the
management activity; a high level of general
education and professional culture in the sphere
of management.
Taking into account the importance of
professional activity in formation of the personal
professional competency, many a researcher
recognizes the task of survey of the objective
laws of professional’s becoming to be highly
topical. Steady productivity or efficiency of
the activity, a high level of qualification and
professional competency, optimal intensity
of work, high accuracy and reliability of the
activity, a high level of organization, creativity,
an opportunity of one’s intellect and personality
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Fig. 1. Indicators of professionalization in the sphere of socio-cultural activity
development, orientation of labor to achievement
of socially significant targets – all these act as
indicators of one’s professionalism. Thus, the first
indicators of professionalism in a certain activity
are competency and qualification of the person.
Personal becoming as a subject of professional
activity takes place, first of all, within the frames
of socialization, when the person becomes familiar
with and assimilates the society’s experience.
Thereat, successful socialization is accompanied
by successful social adaptation of the person.
The key element of the professional-personal
development is the subject of professional
activity, which is formed in the process of logical
stages of cognition, which are interrelated with
each other and constituting one common system
of educational, educational-professional and
professional competences. The competence-based
approach is innovational in the modern system
of the Russian education. Some researchers
consider the given approach as a new type of
education result, which is not reduced to a simple
combination of skills and knowledge, but is
oriented to salvation of real practical tasks. Being
involved in the technology of future specialists
of socio-cultural activity, the competencebased approach is in a complicated dialectics of
interrelations with the personal-oriented, activity,
culturological, axiological, hermeneutical, and
dialogical approaches, and is also concluded in
strengthening of the student’s subject position.
Speaking about professionalization in the
sphere of socio-cultural activity, we should also
understand its indicators: subjective and objective
(Fig. 1).
Professional self-conscious is realized in the
person’s notions about himself as of a professional.
Such a notion is mainly formed in HEI, where
they translate the position that the main value
of a professionally-competent individual is the
professionalism of his activity, creative activity,
intellectual and moral self-perfection and so on.
As far as theoretical component of education gives
mainly a sort of idealized notion of the future
profession, while practical component is targeted
to formation of real notions of it. The task of the
HEI is to realize such an educational process,
when idealized and real notions about oneself as
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of a professional are integrated, and also the ideal
notion of a professional as it is.
Today, exactly subjective-activity approach
becomes topical in the context of professional
development of future managers of sociocultural activity, as far as it makes a substantial
difference of understanding of the essence of
education. Under the new conditions, the main
task of education in HEI is not so the formation
of the system of knowledge, relations and skills,
but the creation of a product of the entire process
of education – a professional – a ready specialist.
In the given approach, we support the opinion of
those researchers, who single out the following
vivid advantages:
1) The work with the students is targeted to
fundamental, essential characteristics of
the person;
2) The one, who is taught, acquires not
so the ability to realize some concrete
technologies of socio-cultural activity,
but a qualitatively new method of
existence in the world, the method, which
one will realize in all the existing types of
professional activity;
3) The knowledge, which is acquired in the
course of education, is not forgotten, but
it has the dynamics of progression.
Professional training is a target-oriented,
methodically and systematically organized
process of education of special knowledge,
practical skills, and attainments of productive
activity and methods of social communication
under the leadership of experienced highereducation teaching personnel of HEI. Professional
training of managers of socio-cultural activity
is targeted to prepare professionally competent
specialists, qualified personnel. Personallyoriented education has a target of development of
humane qualities, which are in-born or acquired
in the course of practical activity. The subjects of
education are the following:

knowledge
(theoretical,
methodical
and practical), being necessary to the
specialist for his professional activity;

skills (ability to fulfill duties, being
attached to the employee at a certain
workplace);

attainments (high degree of ability
to appeal the obtained knowledge in
practice);

methods of communication (a form
person’s
life-sustaining
activity,
summation of person’s actions and deeds
in the process of communication with
the surrounding reality, elaboration of
behavior models at one’s workplace,
social relations, communicability and so
on).
The modern notion of the professional
education content is connected with structural
reforms in the system of education in general.
Today, it becomes obvious that institutions of
higher professional education must be re-oriented
from teaching students concrete professions to
provision of them for a wide basic professional
education. Specialized training of managers of
socio-cultural activity must be run in accordance
with new tendencies and modern approaches to
upgrading of the level of professional education.
The modern principles of professional training
of managers are democratism, orientation
to student’s personal development, reflexive
approach to development of professional
managerial competence [2].
The practice shows that professional and
creative values are leading among the top-priority
values, which constitute the identity of managers
of socio-cultural activity, while the values,
connected with safety and satisfaction of vital
demands are of lesser importance. Professional
values are revealed through orientation in career
making, and the most important among them
are: orientation to professional skills perfection
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and orientation to modernization of the obtained
attainments in compliance with the changing
circumstances of professional activity. To form the
person, possessing the qualities, which are close
to the described model, education institution has
to carry out special conscious work in order to
change and develop the adaptive model of social
and personal identity of the student – the future
manager of socio-cultural sphere. Becoming
widely spread, the term «identity» characterizes
the trans-individual source of individual (and
collective) values and behavior stereotypes.
To the mind of I.S. Kon, the notion of identity,
which is widely used in humanitarian and social
sciences, has three main modalities [6]. Psychophysiological identity denotes integrity and
succession of physiological and psychological
processes of the organism. Persona identity (or
ego-identity) denotes integrity and succession
of life-sustaining activity, goals, motives, sensevital mind sets, axiological orientations and
person’s self-conscious. Social identity denotes
integrity and succession of a certain system of
social characteristics (norms, roles and statuses),
which allow to differentiate individuals according
to their social status and group belonging. Social
identity can be described as subjectively, within
the frames of the opposition «We» — «They»,
so objectively, with the help of the terms of
normative-collective expectations, which can be
whether rather uncertain, amorphous, or strict,
even institutionalized.
The target of HEI is to form a program of
education in such a way, that to ease the process
of formation of professional identity – to form the
program of professional identity for the managers
of socio-cultural activity. One of the biggest
roles in this process is played by the surrounding
cultural environment. Famous sociologist N
Smelzer proves that common culture is the basis
of the identity of members of a group [8]. Precisely
common culture creates the feeling of unity,
belonging to one community, and determines the
most important norms and conditions of social
behavior. It is quite logical to suppose that the
bases of professional culture of the manager of
socio-cultural activity are being formed right
from the very beginning of studying in HEI.
Formation of professional competency is
a complex and contradictory process, which
the researchers divide into two stages: the first
stage is connected to professional competency
mastering, and the second stage is connected to
turning the student into the subject of professional
competency (Fig. 2).
Among the conditions, which provide
formation of professional competency of future
managers of socio-cultural activity one can
singles out:
 diagnostic: perception of development
level of socio-psychological potential,
understanding of necessity of development
of topical professional knowledge, skills
and attainments, and striving for selfcognition and self-perfection;
 organizational:
conditions,
which
determine the presence of special work for
target-oriented formation of professional
self-conscious and growth of professional
competency;
 processual: conditions, which presuppose
to use active methods of sociopsychological teaching, dialectic oneness
of the rational and the emotional.
Apparently, the success of fulfilling of
functional duties by the future specialist in the
sphere of socio-cultural activity directly depends
on his readiness to managerial activity, also
including his level of professional competency.
Those knowledge, skills and attainments,
which are formed, revealed and developed in
the course of managerial activity and which are
new, indispensable and can be singled out from
none of the personal features – these knowledge,
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Fig. 2. The process of formation of professional competency of the manager of socio-cultural activity
skills and attainments are integrative qualities
of professional competency. Consequently,
professional competency can be defined as an
open system, which is actively and selectively
sensitive to changes of the external environment
and which enters the system of ties and relations
of its carrier.
Proceeding from the complex of systemmaking relations of managerial activity, M.V.
Asainova has made an attempt in her dissertation
research to create a theoretical model of
professional competency of the manager of sociocultural activity [2]. On one hand, the given model
is necessary as an instrument of diagnostics of
personal level of competency of management
staff, on the other hand, as an orienteer for the
future specialists in HEIs of culture and arts.
Professional competency is described as an
expanded graded system-integrated process
of salvation of a complex of inter-correlated
professional problems in the logics of goals
achievement of interaction between the manager
and subordinates, which allows revealing the
difficulties of professional competency formation
and finding the ways of its overcoming.
Model of professional competency of the
manager of socio-cultural activity – is a notiondescriptive model of inclusion in the sociopsychological processes of the personality of
the future specialist. Researchers single out
two components of professional competency:
activity and personal components. Criterion of
formation of the professional competency activity
component is the presence of organizational,
communicative skills and efficiency of managerial
activity. Criterion of formation of the professional
competency personal component is high intellect,
creative attitude to the world, stress-resistance,
self-assurance, striving for new knowledge
(Fig. 3).
Professional training of managers of sociocultural activity is connected with creation
of pedagogical and organizational conditions
for professional becoming of the student’s
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Fig. 3. Model of professional competency of the manager of SCA
personality. Thereat, positioning of such
becoming must be contextually directed to
formation of professionally important qualities
of the individual, and also to spiritual-moral
becoming of the student. Professional training
must be based on increase of the level of demands
and professional growth motivations with due
account for person’s striving for self-perfection
and self-actualization. As far as manager’s
competency is an indispensible part of general
competency of the person, it is natural to suppose
that readiness of professional competency of the
manager of socio-cultural activity is expressed
in such indicators as: system of knowledge of
professional competency, system of skills, and
system of values. Thus, professional competency
of the manager of socio-cultural activity is a
synthesis of qualities, wherein the integrity of
theoretical and practical readiness to realization
of professional activity, abilities, attainments,
skills and possibilities to do necessary actions
are expressed.
To the opinion of V.P. Bespal’ko, any
pedagogical activity is a summation of two
interconnected blocks of components: educational
tasks (didactical), being solved by the given
system, and educational activity technologies
[4]. The scientist considers students, targets of
educational process and its content as invariant
elements of the system of educational tasks;
while process of education and up-brining and
organizational forms of educational activity
are considered as structural components of
educational technology. All the interactions of
the students and teachers, which determine the
course of educational process and its results,
are realized within the frames of educational
structure.
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Technology of training of the managers of
socio-cultural activity to professional activity
under the market conditions must be oriented
to provision of maximal fullness of subject
functions, which are fulfilled by the student
in the process of continuous work practice in
the external environment. Efficiency of this
technology must be provided by a maximal
activation of subject functions of the future
specialist of the sphere of culture and arts: sensecreative, sense-searching, decision making,
reflection, formation of personal positions,
displaying initiative and responsibility, and
«personal self-donning» (P.E. Reshetnikov) of
socio-cultural means and methods of activity.
Technological level of the main problem salvation
presupposes transformation of the theoretical
idea into a concrete project of its realization.
According to the general opinion of
scientists, the main achievement of the process of
specialist’s training is the achievement of success
in formation of students’ demand and ability of
self-movement to the tops of professionalism in
their future profession and their readiness to the
activity. The specialist-manager’s knowledge,
skills, psychological processes, conditions,
and features of his personality, which provide
realization of professional functional tasks, are
considered to be subjective preconditions of his
efficient activity. They specify such professionally
important qualities, as positive attitude to his
activity in the sphere of culture and arts, his
interest and love to it, his abilities, being adequate
to the requirements of the profession, features
of character, temperament, and peculiarities of
psychological processes.
In the modern conditions, there must be
objectively new requirements to the content of
education. In order to substantiate the content of
educational process for training of the manager
of socio-cultural activity, it is necessary to do the
following:

to project efficiently the content of the
tasks of every course within the frames of
the teaching plan and with due account for
the forecasted perspective of professional
activity of the future SCA managers and
for the modern requirements to them;

to construct the types of educational
activity, being necessary for salvation
of the problems, directed to increase the
efficiency of the modern SCA specialists’
training;

to develop the content of educational
activity, which includes the process
of formation of the students’ system
of knowledge, skills, attainments and
abilities together with the development
of logical, specific and professional
thinking.
Scientific-problematic field of socio-cultural
technologies presents a systemized integrity of the
main scientific directions, within which frames
specialists realize their research activity. This field
does not only reveal the problems and denote the
directions of its sphere of influence on them, but
also forms the structure of socio-cultural activity
as of a scientific discipline. While it, in its turn
and in accordance with its tasks, influences on
the practical activity. To the mind of S.N. Moreva
[7], realization of researches in the mentioned
directions of socio-cultural activity will allow
solving several problems: to provide a scientific
character to the transformative socio-cultural
activity under various conditions of development;
to realize the leading role of science in its
interaction with the socio-pedagogical experience
in practice; to bring the system of managers’
training in the educational institutions of various
types and training levels in correspondence with
the new requirements.
Most researchers mark the leading role of
the scientific-research work of students (SRWS)
in the course of specialists’ training in scientific-
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pedagogical researches, and they consider this
type of activity as a variant of pedagogical system,
which is directed to formation of «professional
mastery» (L.F. Avdeeva). It is supposed that
«maximal scientific activity of the student, as a
subject of teaching, must undergo all the types of
training work: lectures, laboratory and practical
classes, being oriented mainly to the students’
self-directed work», in order to form generalized
methods of searching and creative activity. In
the work of M.A. Bajdan, the scientific-research
work of students is considered as a means of their
creative activity formation. In her dissertation
work, L.F. Avdeeva has made an attempt to study
the psychological-pedagogical factors, which
influence on the success of the scientific-research
work of students. It is shown that students’
orientation to their task (business orientation)
results in their productive scientific-research
activity. L.F. Avdeeva defines the main factor,
which influences on the success of SRWS – it is
student’s positive motivation to participation in
this activity, and also creativity and pedagogical
mastery of the scientific tutors of SRWS [1].
We shall agree with the opinion of some
researchers and colleagues concerning the fact
that the division of the students’ research work
into curricular and extra-curricular is rather
relative, as far as these both types of scientific
activity serve one and the same target – to
prepare a creative specialist of high qualification.
The tasks of the both types of scientific works are
also common: to improve the level of professional
knowledge and skills, to extend the obtained
fundamental knowledge, to develop the research
skills, to increase creative activity, independence
and others. Research activity is obvious to play
a significant role in the process of training and
becoming of the manager of socio-cultural activity
and is supported in two directions: 1) educational
process organization with due account for new
achievements in various spheres of scientific
knowledge (economics, pedagogics, culture and
arts and so on); 2) active involvement of students
in research activity from the first years of their
study.
Forms and types of students’ participation
in scientific activity can be various. Proceeding
from the main content and appropriation of
scientific-research works of students (SRWS),
the following forms are most often used (Fig. 4).
In the result of training of future managers of
socio-cultural sphere, transition of the external
motivation in the internal scale contributes to the
success of research activity. Under this condition,
the process of the new knowledge gathering will
be perceived by the manager as an obligatory
one, having an everlasting meaning not only in
the period of study in HEI, but also in the course
of all his professional career. S.N. Moreva has
worked out a definition of research activity in the
socio-cultural sphere, which in the given context
is of special interest. S.N. Moreva defines it the
following way [7, p. 85]: «it is an activity, which
is based on the generally accepted scientific
methodology, and which has a target to gather new
scientific knowledge, being meant for perfection
of the activity and professional qualities of the
specialist on the basis of application of special
means of scientific cognition».
To the mind of some researchers, we should
create the following pedagogical conditions in the
course of the HEI’s educational process, in order
to develop scientific-research skills of the future
managers of socio-cultural activity:
 formation of knowledge of the pedagogical
process participants in the sphere of
scientific-research activity;
 formation of person’s axiological
orientations to mastering of constantly
growing professional knowledge and
skills;
 building of educational process on the
basis of the personal-oriented approach,
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Fig. 4. The types of SRWS
when the leading role is given to the
future specialist’s self-realization in the
socio-cultural sphere;
 practical inclusion of all the educational
process participants in research and
cognitive activity;
 presence of emotionally-positive mind set
in the educational space;
 provision of succession of content,
forms, methods of knowledge and skills
quality improvement on various stages of
professional education.
Unity of methodological, theoretical and
technological knowledge in summation with the
skills and attainments of research activity and also
with practical experience determine professional
competency of the manager of socio-cultural
activity. Consequently, the content of research
training of the specialist of the socio-cultural
sphere must be obligatory included in the integral
system of professional training and comprise such
components as: formation of general scientific
and general professional knowledge; formation
of skills and attainments, being necessary for
professional activity of the manager of the sociocultural sphere; formation of personal qualities of
the employee of the sphere of culture and arts.
Such an integral system is targeted to formation of
professional competencies, skills and attainments
in the sphere of future professional activity.
Resume
Within the frames of Bologna process,
one of the key problems in the higher education
institutions’ community is the problem of
quality of education. Under the modern socioeconomical conditions, professional training
of managers in the system of higher education
has its own specifics, thereat peculiarities of
the socio-cultural sphere as the sphere of future
professional activity of today’s student are dictated
by the peculiarities of professionalization of the
person itself. Systematic approach in the course
of mastering of the profession of socio-cultural
activity manager includes not only a complex of
knowledge (from general theoretical to special),
but also becoming of a special world outlook.
Professional becoming presupposes person’s
self-perfection and self-actualization, increase of
the level of professional growth requirements and
their realization.
Today, the question of perfection of culture
and arts specialists’ training in the system of
higher professional education should be discussed
not from the position of education direction
changing, but within the context of its quality
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improvement, which in a great extend determines
social perspectives and personal development
of the student. It is logical that the problem of
quality cannot be discussed without the context of
its criteria. We suppose that such criteria for the
direction of «Socio-cultural activity» are covered
by the competence-based approach, which is
caused by the problems of person’s spiritual-moral
development on the basis of local culture traditions
and ethno-cultural educational problems. Under
the usage of the competence-based approach,
student’s subjective position is reinforced and
contributes to formation of some other collective
image of the graduate – the modern manager
of socio-cultural activity. We think that he is a
professional, possessing the following number
of qualities: ability to self-education; flexibility
(readiness to make adequate decisions under the
conditions of varied environment); susceptibility
to innovations; active life position, creativity,
thinking, with a high personal readiness to the
future and so on.
Professional training of the manager of
socio-cultural activity is a special technology,
which embraces theoretical and practical
readiness of the future specialist to realization
of his future professional activity, his abilities,
skills and opportunities to do necessary things.
The systematic approach in the process of
manager’s training for the sphere of culture and
arts is expressed in the synthesis of aesthetic
education and the system of humanitarian
education and the social order, which is
translated through the system of socio-cultural
sphere institutions. Such a synthesis improves
in a great extend the qualitative level of
professional training of future specialists,
and what is also very important, actualizes
positioning of profi le education in the context of
the project culture. Being realized for example
in SFU, the project approach presupposes not
only mastering of a certain sphere of knowledge,
but also production of new knowledge in
the field of socio-cultural activity (and it is
its innovativeness). This way, peculiarity
of training of the manager of socio-cultural
activity is expressed in harmonious unity of
the technological approach and formation of a
high spiritual and intellectual potential of all
the subjects of the educational process.
1) The work is carried out with the financial support of the grant of Krasnoyarsk regional fund
for the support of scientific and scientific-and-technological activities on the project «Krasnoyarsk
region as a poly-cultural space and native land of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the
North».
2) The work is carried out with the financial support of the federal purpose oriented programme
«Scientific and scientific-pedagogic staff in innovative Russia for 2009-2013» concerning the problem
«Culture of the small groups of indigenous peoples living in the North in the situation of global
transformations: foresight research until 2050 based on the materials of analysis of the Yakut ethnos»
held within the framework of the event 1.2.1 «Scientific investigations carried out by research groups
guided by doctors of science».
3) The work is carried out with the financial support of the grant of Krasnoyarsk regional fund
for the support of scientific and scientific-and-technological activities on the project «The system of
culture of Krasnoyarsk region: basic subjects of culture and cultural needs».
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L.F. Avdeeva. Psychological-Pedagogical Factors of Success of Scientific-Research Works
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L.F. Avdeeva. – Leningrad, 1984. –16 p.
M.V. Asainova. Formation of Professional Competency of Managers of Socio-Cultural Activity
in HEIs of Culture and Arts: Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical sciences: 13.00.08. /
M.V. Asainova – Moscow: RSL, 2005 (from the funds of the Russia State Library).
G.I. Babushkin. Methods of Moral Responsibility Up-bringing of the Specialists of Club-Type
Institutions / G.I. Babushkin // Questions of Humanitarian Sciences. – 2006. – № 2. – P. 192194.
V.P. Bespal’ko. Bases of Pedagogical Systems Theory: Problems and Methods of PsychologicalPedagogical Provision of Technical Teaching Systems / V.P. Bespal’ko. – Voronezh: Publishing
House of the Voronezh University, 1977. – 304 p.
N.V. Yefremova. Training of the Manager of the Sphere of Culture and Arts for his Professional
Activity under the Conditions of Market Relations: Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical
sciences: 13.00.08. / N.V. Yefremova – Moscow: RSL, 2008 (from the funds of the Russia State
Library).
I.S. Kon. Personality in Philosophy and Sociology / I.S. Kon // Philosophical Encyclopedia –
V.3. – P. 83.
S.N. Moreva. Organizational-Pedagogical Conditions of Research Activity of the Manager of
the Socio-Cultural Sphere: Dissertation work of Candidate of pedagogical sciences: 13.00.05. /
S.N. Moreva – Moscow: RSL, 2006 (from the funds of the Russia State Library).
N Smelzer. Sociology / N Smelzer. Moscow, 1994.
Modern Technologies of Socio-Cultural Activity: Educational Guidance. – Tambov: TSU n.a.
G.R. Derzhavin, 2002.
Особенности подготовки менеджера
социально-культурной деятельности
в единстве технологического подхода и формирования
высокого духовного и интеллектуального потенциала
Е.А. Ноздренко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Включение современной российской системы образования в процессы модернизации связаны
с необходимостью преодоления различного рода социально-экономических изменений в
образовании и подготовкой компетентных профильных специалистов, квалификация
которых должна соответствовать актуальному уровню развития социально-культурной
сферы. Рыночные условия требуют высокого уровня квалификации конкурентоспособного
специалиста, на рынке труда в социокультурном пространстве. Выпускники образовательных
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учреждений в области социально-культурной деятельности могут сегодня быть успешными
только при условии обладания высокой общей и профессиональной компетентностью,
способностью к самостоятельному повышению профессиональных знаний и умений,
получению в процессе обучения необходимых навыков. В мировом вузовском сообществе
в рамках Болонского процесса одной из ключевых проблем является проблема качества
образования, профессиональная подготовка менеджеров СКД в системе высшего образования
имеет свою специфику в современных социально-экономических условиях. При этом сама
специфика социально-культурной сферы, как сферы будущей профессиональной деятельности
сегодняшнего студента, диктует особенности профессионализации самой личности.
Полагаем, что именно системный подход в процессе овладения профессией менеджера
социально-культурной деятельности включает не только приобретение комплекса знаний
(от общетеоретических до специальных), но и становление особого мировоззрения.
Профессиональное становление предполагает самосовершенствование и самоактуализацию
личности, повышение уровня потребностей в профессиональном росте и их реализацию. Вопрос
совершенствования подготовки специалистов для сферы культуры и искусств в системе
высшего профессионального образования сегодня следует обсуждать не столько с позиции
изменения направления обучения, сколько в контексте совершенствования его качества,
которое во многом определяет социальные перспективы и личностное развитие обучающегося.
Профессиональная подготовка менеджера социально-культурной деятельности – это особая
технология, в которой синтезировано единство теоретической и практической готовности
будущего специалиста к осуществлению профессиональной деятельности, способности,
умения и возможности производить необходимые для этого действия. Системный подход в
процессе подготовки менеджера для сферы культуры и искусств выражается и в синтезе
эстетического образования с системой гуманитарного образования и социального заказа,
который транслируется через систему учреждений социально-культурной сферы. Такой
синтез существенно повышает качественный уровень профессиональной подготовки
будущих специалистов в социально-культурной сфере и, что не менее важно, актуализирует
позиционирование профильного образования в контексте проектной культуры. Таким образом,
специфичность подготовки менеджера социально-культурной деятельности выражается
в гармоничном единстве технологического подхода и формирования высокого духовного и
интеллектуального потенциала всех субъектов учебного процесса.
Ключевые слова: Социально-культурная сфера, менеджер социально-культурной деятельности,
профессионализация в сфере социально-культурной деятельности, профессиональная
компетентность, профессиональная подготовка менеджеров социально-культурной
деятельности.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2011 4) 143-154
~~~
УДК 378
Higher Education in Russia:
Challenges of the XXI Century
Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva*
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 3.01.2011, received in revised form 10.01.2011, accepted 17.01.2011
There are political, social, economic and technological transformations, demographic and cultural
processes, described in this article, which define the framework for education reforms in different
countries. Understanding the depth and scope of the processes is a necessary basis for development
strategy for Russian education. The question about the future model of the Russian higher education
and socio-anthropological project in education are also described, and the correct answer – it is an
opportunity for Russian education and the country as a whole. In place of the Enlightenment project –
«Knowing man» – alternative socio-anthropological projects came in: «A Man-operator», «Creative
Man», «Mobile Man». These socio-anthropological projects will determine the content and format of
education in the world in the next 20 years.
The features of the socio-economic context of higher education in Russia are discussed in this article.
«Compression» of industrial sector and the expansion of trade and services sectors, as a result of
reforms 90 years, made education system, designed for staffing and management of medium-and hightech industrial economy, an excessive. At the same time, entering the world’s information and cultural
space formed values of «consumer society» and educational characteristic of the «information society»
in society, especially among young people (including the vision of higher education as a necessary
stage in life).
Different scenarios of development of higher education in Russia are also presented in the article.
The main «fault line», about which scenarios of transformation in Russian higher education will be
determined, is the gap between the economy (staffing requirements) and training system (in structure,
content and format of education). This gap causes a high level of «fictitious» and «falsification» in
education.
Keywords: Higher education, post-industrial transition, the crisis of education, socio-anthropological
project.
The project is financially supported by Krasnoyarsk regional fund of scientific support and scientific
technical activity.
1. Introduction.
The changing world and education
At the turn of the 20th-21th centuries, a
school in Russia came into a situation of «high
*
1
uncertainty». On the one hand, the system of
ideological, aimed at servicing the industrial
production of the Soviet education, is dismantle.
On the other hand the content and format of the
Corresponding author E-mail address: evs@akadem.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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system of education could decide the problem of
human and society in new situation are not lined
up.
The crisis of higher education is not exclusive
for Russia, it is believed that it has the civilizational
nature connected with the «phase shift» (postindustrial transition), and all developed countries
with different degrees of severity experience
it1. The «image of man», which was formed in
the XIX-XX centuries in the «western world»,
the socio-anthropological project, which set
meaningfulness and direction of education, were
the basis, and they were destroyed.
These phenomena have already «captured»
by the public consciousness and they are becoming
the subject of public discourse, but thinking of
them has not become the basis for the formulation
and adoption of strategic decisions yet.
In recent decades, there have been
significant political, social, and economictechnological transformations in the world
and in Russia: 1) the group of technologically
and economically leading countries made the
transition from technology, lifestyles and ideals
of the industrial society to the new ones, which
correspond to the opportunities and challenges
of post-industrial age; 2) the limits of the
unipolar world and the corresponding model of
globalization, characterized with the dominance
of a small group of countries in the military,
political, fi nancial, production and trade,
cultural «occupation» (the imposition of values,
life styles and formats for consumption) have
been revealed; 3) the great social and political
experiment – the establishment of a socialist
state has been crashed and the building of the
«Russian capitalism» has been begun.
Institute of the higher education which has
been existing in its classical form for 200 years, in
the last 20-50 years has undergone the significant
changing. In most countries, funding of the higher
education from the state and regional budgets
significantly reduced and the share of commercial
education significantly increased2. Education
ceases to be public (national) project gradually
and goes into the initiative and responsibility of
the individual.
Education is no longer joined to the «sacred
knowledge», that gateway to the «highest world
of intellectuals», but it became just one of the
types of services – «educational services» –
along with the services of commercial agents,
drivers, or beauticians. Many universities have
lost their exclusive status of «temples of learning»
and turned into supermarkets of «educational
services».
On the other hand, education went beyond
national borders and became an important
instrument of the international inf luence and
a significant sector of international business.
Countries with successful economies and
developed sphere of education got the
possibility to accumulate the best intellectual
resources using the selection of talented
youth.
The complexity and contradictions of
cultural, social and economic processes has
created the series of educational reforms in
different countries. At the same time in Russia
in most cases, reform of education had just
administrative and bureaucratic character.
These changes have the direct impact on the
content of public discourse on the present and the
future of university education. Understanding
of the depth and scope of the processes is the
necessary basis for the modernization of the
country and creating an adequate strategy for the
development of Russian education. The question
about the future model of the Russian higher
education, implemented through the formation
of the socio-anthropological project is opened
now, and the correct answer is the opportunity
for the Russian education and the country in
general.
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2. Demographic, economic,
cultural processes:
the global «map» of education
In the next 20 years world population
will increase by 1.2 billion people3, over-the
young population will be forming primarily in
economically underdeveloped countries. In these
countries through the dissemination of modern
standards of hygiene and primary health care
infant mortality will be reduced, while but the
problem of the birthrate regulation will not be
decided.
By the 2025, 1.4 billion people living in 36
countries will have felt the deficit of clean water
and food. Deterioration of living conditions and
labor redundancy in some macro regions of the
world (Africa, Middle East and the Caucasus) and
their deficits in other (European Union, Russia
and others) will form a global flows of migrants.
There will be new problems for education? Like
socialization and inculturation of migrants, the
formation of new strategies in the community
residences, cooperation, tolerance and conflict.
The global situation in general and higher
education is determined by the fact that various
macro-regions are at different stages of socioeconomic development and at the same time
they feel the impact of global demographic,
economic and cultural processes. Several
countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America
are in the pre-industrial phase of economic and
social development, and it will be actual for them
to form the mass «primary literacy», providing:
1) reducing the demographic and ethnic tensions;
2) strengthening of the national economy and
employment; 3) inclusion in the global processes
of production and consumption; 4) getting the
access to new technologies and equipment.
In the emerging new global centers of
industrial production (China, India, Brazil,
SEA countries) over the next 10-20 years there
will be the deploying of the education system
appropriative to the phase of rapid industrial
development and related with processes of
urbanization, the growth of the general welfare
of the population and forming the internal market
of consumption.
In OECD countries, the education system to
ensure long-term socio-economic, political and
technological advantage in the post-industrial
transition will be forming. Their education will be
primarily focused on management and innovation
and technological activities and developing a
global «intelligent pump», providing the inflow of
talented, highly educated migrants, which allows
to concentrate in these countries «intellectual
capital» with the highest quality.
Thus, in the next 20 years on the basis of
economic macro-regions the various socioanthropological projects will be unfolding and the
system of education, providing their realization
will be formed. Beside the competition between
the leading countries will increase.
At the same time, against the intercivilization
competition and related stress, the forming of the
«educational habitats» will be. And the unity of
languages and cultures became the basis of the
habitats. The formation of «educational habitats»
will be keenly competitive process and will
become the new phase of «redistribution of the
world». According to the UN projections4, the
most developed countries of the world will be
realized the project of «global literacy» classes
in the economically underdeveloped countries
of Africa. This project leads to their «cultural
occupation», and provide subsequent integration
economies of these countries in the turnover of
the «Europe-US cooperation».
The most powerful education ranges are:
Anglo-western area of education, Chinese
educational area, the Spanish-Latin American
educational area, the Arab-Islamic educational
area. The leading country (of the group of
countries) will be in each educational area,
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exporting higher education. The processes of
globalization of knowledge and dissemination of
educational technology a new generation (distant
education, open education, etc.) will overlap on
the formation of educational ranges.
As for Russia, the building of Russian
educational area based on the Russian language
and the traditional socio-economic ties with
countries in Asia and the Caucasus (former
republics of the Soviet Union) will be the most
important task. In these countries the significant
increase of young population is expected, so it
will make employment and educational migration
relevant to them.
3. The crisis of socio-anthropological
project of the Enlightenment –
«the knowing Man»
Transformation of higher education in the
late XX – early XXI century cannot be understood
outside of the milestone – «the completion» of
large-scale socio-anthropological project of the
«Enlightenment», the realization of which led
to the formation of the Western technological
civilization.
VM Rosin5 distinguishes three phases of
the deployment of the project: the first phase is
associated with the spread in Europe in XVI-XVII
centuries, the ideas of Francis Bacon about the
fact that the differences between the developed
and the «savage» people are caused «not by the
soil and the climate, but caused by all the forms
of Arts and Sciences»6, and it made the significant
thesis «Knowledge – is Power» and became
the basis for the formation of European science
and engineering as the basis of socio-economic
development. In the Age of Enlightenment – the
main phase of the project –conditions for the
spread of this ideology were created, the system
of scientific and academic subjects was formed,
and the mass educational practice was created.
It includes the mainstream schools (Comenius)
and a system of higher education (W. von
Humboldt). Successful implementation of the
Enlightenment project in the developed countries
marks an industrial transition and the birth of
«technological civilization».
The final phase of the project of the
Enlightenment (the second half of the XIX – first
half of the XX century) became a peak of hightech industrial development, it attempted to meet
the growing needs of the population and formed
a society of welfare. In this historical period the
value of education becomes apparent for large
groups, education becomes the most powerful
mechanism to promote physical well-being and
social status of the individual (education became
the so called «social elevator»). During this
period, a special layer of professional educators –
school teachers and university professors was
formed.
The success of the project of the
Enlightenment is caused by synchronization
of four interrelated processes: 1) the formation
of large-scale industrial production and,
consequently, social order for training workers,
engineers and technicians; 2) rapid population
growth, increasing affluence and the decline in
mortality; 3) the powerful Urban processes and
the need for «cultural recycling» of the rural
population into the population of large industrial
centers that can be included in the conveyor
organized activity; 4) the dissemination of ideas
of the Enlightenment and creation the mass
educational practices on their basis.
4. Features of the socio-economic
context of the existence
of higher education in Russia
The peculiarity of the situation in Russia is
that the modernization project «Restructuring»
80-90-ies greatly retarded social and economic
development of the country and gave it back into
the period of early industrial development with a
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predominance of low-tech economy. At the same
time «the phenomenon of shortage» was eliminated
and values and attitudes of «consumer society»
were introduced. Their realization in Russia is
based on export sales of natural resources. It led
to the significant expansion of trade and services
sector and the formation of needs in staff, owning
simple «operate» qualifications.
Entering in the world of information
and cultural space, income growth as a result
of rising world prices for hydrocarbons and
metals are formed in society, especially among
young people, the value of «consumer society»,
and install educational characteristic of the
«information society».
The gap between the life-orientation of youth
in post-industrial activities of formats, styles
of living and existing in the country to receive
appropriate education and implementation of a
professional career was formed.
The practice in the past 20 years, a new
configuration of world industrial and postproduction – the increased technological
leadership in Europe, USA and Japan, high
efficiency of industrial production in China,
India, Brazil and Southeast Asian countries –
significantly restrict the ability of Russia.
Technological gap between Russia and Western
countries Increased and become established, the
revival of the medium-and high-tech industrial
production has become almost impossible
because of its failure to compete with industrial
production in China and India.
As a consequence, the Russian education
system situation is as follows: a) the education
system inertia is focused on training for fullscale industrial economy with a full range
of engineering disciplines; b) installation of
«modernizers education» are closed on the idea
of integration into western educational formats
that were formed for other social and economic
conditions; c) management training virtually
destroyed and supplanted by imports of educational
services (teaching of political and managerial
elite overseas) and import management education
programs (MBA, MPA, etc.)7
5. The contours of the new
social-anthropological projects
An important feature of the postmodern era
(characterized primarily for developed countries)
is the «destruction of culture»8, which in the
situation of total reflection of cultural values
and norms loses its function of normalization of
society and the «mount for man «. Reflection as
a new mass competence grown in the depths of
education and the mass of intellectual practices,
drawn regarding values, which previously were
the absolute basis for life and work of man and
society. In addition, mass production practices and
«simulacrums» and «practicabls»9 (Marketing
and Advertising, political PR, contemporary art,
virtual reality – the Internet) as the means of mass
manipulation and individual consciousness were
formed. It makes impossible to implement a largescale socio-anthropological project’s value with
the high status and creates a situation of unfolding,
even within the same country several competing
and complementary «local» projects. Analysis
of socio-cultural and educational reality reveals
the following socio-anthropological projects,
determining the direction of modernization of
education:
 in the countries of new industrialization,
«Functional Man» becomes the socioanthropological project – a man’s capable
to perform certain functions and ready to
include in the industrial production and
develop urban lifestyle;
 in the countries unfolding the postindustrial mode it’s possible to pay
attention to the socio-anthropological
projects «Creative Man», « Mobile Man»,
«Man-operator», and they will provide
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scientific and technological leadership
in these countries, the ability of some
groups to rapidly modernizing changes,
and employment opportunities of other
groups on the «operator» service sectors
and promote the production.
These socio-anthropological projects will
largely determine the content and format of
education in the world in the next 20 years.
6. Transformations of higher education
in developed countries
The situation of higher education in
developed countries, which now becomes the
main reference point, a possible but not mandatory
«way for the future» for Russian higher education
is determined by the following interrelated
trends.
1. Pragmatization of education. Exhaustion
of energy of the socio-anthropological project
«Education», based on the ideal of man as the
bearer of reason and knowledge, led to the
pragmatization of education. Education refused
to support the mission of becoming human, the
transfer of meanings and values – which are the
manifestations of the something transcendent in
the human world, forming pictures of the world,
the development paradigms of thinking and
activity.
An extreme expression of pragmatization
is utilitarian education centered on the transfer
of situationally useful (but not «well-founded»
in the paintings of the world or paradigms)
knowledge and operational skills. The result is
«Man Operational», reduced to the execution
of operations. Questions about meaning of life,
cultural identity, social cohesion remain outside
the focus and responsibility of education.
Positive option of education pragmatization
is the transition from the development of systems
of knowledge to the development activities.
Depending on the level of education it will be the
development of «packages of operations» or the
development of holistic «paradigms» of activity.
In terms of educational technology, it means
the predominance of design, training and other
forms, providing an opportunity of «test activity»,
in contrast to the assimilation of knowledge.
Educational programs are created in collaboration
with major companies, in some cases, training is
conducted according to educational programs,
prepared by the companies themselves.
2. Modernization of the State is the policy of
reducing costs. New situation is the result of crosscountry competition at the end of XX century:
1) after the destruction of the Soviet Union the
ideological confrontation between the socialist
and capitalist systems, previously coerced the
state and corporations to deploy social programs
and move towards trade unions worldwide was
stopped; 2) aging of the population, rising costs
for pensions and health care of the «core voters»
have led to increased social obligations in
developed countries to a critical level; 3) the stage
entrance of new «factories of the world» – China,
India and countries in Southeast Asia – has led
to increased economic competition and made it
necessary to reduce economic and social costs.
These developments have stimulated the
reduction of social obligations of the state,
including the reduction of government (public)
investment in education and shifting the burden
of educational expenditure to person (family).
Education has ceased to be the public (national)
project. A man with a planning horizon and the
corresponding measure of responsibility for the
future becomes the key «customer education».
Payment for education has increased student’s
responsibility for studying results, but in Russia,
it has actually led to «the sale of diplomas.»
Reducing costs policy resulted in compaction
and facilitating of educational programs (it’s
necessary to leave just the most course and
useful) and the searching for cheaper formats and
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teaching technologies, including various forms of
«contactless» training. Universities have become
into the supermarkets for the sale of educational
services, responding quickly to the changing
«customers»‘ needs.
3. High school as an instrument of
international competition. The global market
of educational services, higher education has
become an international business, and the export
of educational services has become a significant
sector of economies of different countries.
Modern universities have become a way of
attraction of young people from wide ranges of
education, selection of them, general cultural and
vocational training. Educational migration allows
countries with an aging population and its natural
decrease (Europe, Canada and others) to support
the population and provide high quality human
capital.
It’s possible to distinguish leading universities
focused on teaching, provide a unique «brand»
education by integrating research and education,
on the basis of these universities the world’s
centers of excellence, concentrating personnel,
ideas and technological developments are formed.
In the next 10 years international specialization of
countries in directions and levels of education10 is
projected (India could become the world center of
Bachelor of Information and engineering fields,
while the U.S. and Europe, «dumping» wealth of
mass «start» training will focus on the education
of Masters and PhD students, in conjunction with
R & D).
Leading universities form a special «class»
of professionals, who are capable to become
leaders in technological and organizational
development companies, state and municipal
structures. Countries unable to establish and
maintain a university of this class will have to
import technology of business management,
technologies of government and municipal
structures, technological innovation and
consumer formats, leading to a loss of national
sovereignty in part. Regional universities, which
do not fall into the «world’s elite of universities»
and not included in the international network, will
be «relegated» to the major vocational schools,
with relatively low quality teachers and the least
talented and trained students.
4. Change of social positions on education.
There is a reassessment of education: on the one
hand, people en masse tend to receive higher
education, on the other – education is perceived
something like pragmatic, a certain type of
personal investment. There is a «desakralization»
of education, the status of teachers is falling to
the status of service workers, the motivation of
youth to education is reducing.
The recruitment and maintenance of social
positions in relation to education is changing:
the state moves to the position of «conductor»
that defines the general rules of the game (such
as educational loans); The university becomes
a business unit that provides services, students
are forced to take responsibility for setting
educational goals and learning outcomes;
business takes the «customization» of bachelors
in corporate training centers, non-institutional
forms of education that fosters the emergence of
qualifying points are widely distributed; there is a
large group of people who receive a second degree
or additional education, training or undergoing
specific training, secondary school graduates are
not the only and even not the main type of student
of high school.
«Adult» students or foreign students have
special requirements for high school and the
universities which are not able to form suitable
supply for them, are fading into the role.
Development of new positions and roles,
the formation of new rules and regulations,
establishment of new consensus and the formation
of new control circuit will be the main content of
the «crisis in education».
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5. The technological transformation of
higher education. In the next 20 years electronic
memory devices integrated with the human brain,
pharmacological agents stimulate brain activity;
universal voice translators, solves the problem of
language barrier, three-dimensional electronic
simulators, organizing a training complex
manipulation actions11 will be widespread.
In education traditional lecture-seminar
format will be replaced by modern «project»,
«debatable», «search» formats, with high degree
of autonomy and active learners; the setting
for the formation of skills, the massive use of
information and communication technologies and
electronic educational resources will dominate.
The researches will shift from industrial
to postindustrial formats research activities of
organization. Industrial formats are powerful
(in terms of personnel and equipment) «factory»
of functionally organized knowledge, ideas,
innovations, with ranked marketing for scientific
products. The high cost of unique equipment
and world-class personnel leads to the fact that
such «factories» well-built positioning and
determine the research topics from the analysis
of the competitive area and consumers’ needs of
knowledge and technology. In the same time the
subordinating of the cognitive scientist’s interest
in the business logic is expected.
Postindustrial formats are new cognitive
institutions: research network, «invisible colleges»,
virtual laboratories, which allow to organize
flexibility resources from various institutions
(universities, research institutes, industrial
laboratories, etc.) for the implementation of
breakthrough projects in science and technology.
It is important to point that Russia is still
dominated by pre-industrial research formats,
which are kinds of handicraft workshops
«production of knowledge. The emergence of
new cognitive institutions of industrial and
postindustrial types is inhibited by low level of
social connectedness intellectuals and extremely
weak management in the intellectual sphere.
That is why, one of the most important tasks of
development for new generation of universities
(federal, national, research) is the transformation
of their corporate culture12.
7. Challenges
for higher education in Russia
Challenges for Russian higher education are
based on review of a number of publications13,
as well as the analysis of expert knowledge.
Accumulation and analysis of expert knowledge
are held within the Foresight study of the future
of education, using both classical techniques and
newly developed («Anti-Delphi»)14. The high
school teachers of Krasnoyarsk and scientists
with experience (research and teaching) both
in Russia and in foreign universities (U.S., UK,
China, Germany) were involved as the experts.
Experts point that the development of higher
education in Russia will occur as a refraction of
a number of global trends in higher education.
«Refraction» can mean, depending on the position
of the authorities and professional communities,
passive follow up the changes (or «passivedefensive reaction» to them), or active using of
new opportunities.
The main global trends, given external
conditions and limitations for the spectrum of
possible scenarios are:
global post-industrial transition, which forms
the international division of labor – countries
and regions take place in the pre-industrial,
neo-industrial, post-industrial socio-economic
«niches». In this case the national economies are
in need of different types, levels of professional
training education systems;
internationalization of higher education,
the international division of labor, specialization
of countries at different levels and types of
vocational education, international competition
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in education. The formation of the world
«educational habitat» on the basis of kinship of
languages and cultures.
The main «fault line» with respect to which
scenarios of transformation of Russian higher
education will be defined the gap between the
economy (corresponding staffing requirements)
and training system (structure, content and format
of education). In the case of the widening the gap
between the economy and education «fictitious»
and «falsification» of education15 will increase
that would lead to the accelerated degradation.
In each presented scenario the version for
the future of education in Russia are determined.
Scenario 1. In economics, «folding» of highand mediumtehnology productions concludes, is
a reduction of the country’s economy to some
resource-extracting industries and servicing
their production (exploration, transportation,
equipment repair, etc.) is pointed. More than
60% employed people are in the field of trade
and services, and these sphere are secondary and
imitative (products, services, formats of activity
are not created, but imported). There is a narrow
sector of high-tech industries, which does not
determine the nature of the economy as a whole.
Redundancy and fictitious of higher
education is overcome through its pragmatization
and compactisation. Vocational Education is
short in time and in scope, it includes: 1) general
cultural components necessary for the formation
of social adequacy of the youth and for the future
(if necessary) reprofessionalization; 2) clearly
defined and compact professional component,
sufficient for training, based on performance of a
specified list of functions.
Education aimed at training researchers,
designers, developers, innovation poorly
developed due to lack of domestic demand.
Requirements of economy and management in the
new knowledge and technology are met through
imports: «products» (purchase ready-made ideas,
technology, equipment), educational services
(training abroad and in the Russian branches
of foreign universities), staff (the invitation of
foreign experts, managers, engineers, designers,
etc.).
Possible version, when a small part of
modernizated Russian universities began to
prepare world-class specialists. At the same time
in the country «educational migration tube»
will be formed: teaching gifted students in elite
universities will serve mainly a springboard for
emigration to developed countries, enabling
professional fulfillment in the high-tech sectors,
and participation in advanced research and
development16. On the other hand, the Russian
higher education can become international
«colleges», training of migrants from poor
countries with surplus populations (Central Asia,
Caucasus), a key objective of such education is
to educate young people the Russian language,
social norms and basic trades.
Scenario 2. Political elites, business, society
produce and implemented the country project –
a project the future of Russia17, covering the
economy, social sphere, science and education.
There is an upgrade of the system of sociopolitical governance, including an update of
«social contract»18. Selective modernization of
traditional industrial sectors, which are necessary
to upgrade the housing and construction and
transport infrastructure, is made. «Launch» a
limited number of new, competitive industries,
is produced, sectors of modern research and
development for internal and external markets,
is emerging. This leads to the creation of
knowledge-sector activities, providing the
possibility of professional self-educated young
people. Innovation policy includes support for a
number of selected «strategic innovation» and
promote «diffuse», local innovation, providing
incremental changes in all spheres of social and
economic-economic life of society.
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Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century
The country’s economy will be a set of
industries in which some of them act as «cash
cows» (resource extraction industries, which can
be rolled in the long term), while others get the
role of the «stars» who set the new positioning of
countries in the global economy.
It is important that the «country project»
will provide valuable and pragmatic meaning
of higher education, which is in excess of the
current state of the economy. In this high school
will be built, working for «future», and in two
interrelated aspects: 1) training for the future,
2) research and development to deployment of a
«country project».
In this case, the «fictitious» of Higher
education is overcome with shared by society
(and perceived as realistic) vision of the future,
given guidelines for content and technology
education and personal motivation for education.
Energy of country project helps to preserve
the «transcendent», but not utilitarian sense of
education, to preserve its content worldview
and scientific world pictures, complex forms of
thinking and activity. This apparent «excess
education» is appropriate in terms of the
company (ready to go to the costs), and in terms
of the trainees19. The presence of distinct country
project could change significantly the current
migration situation, to make Russia attractive for
active, mobile youth from other countries.
Scenario 3. Continuing uncertainty about
the strategic prospects of the country, «paralysis
of will» of key actors in development will
contribute to the disparate, competing «projects»
are not united with a common framework of
country projects. In this case, in accordance
with the political and intellectual fashion various
«projects» are run. These are the reform of
separate spheres of social life, the creation of
«innovative cities», the construction of special
infrastructure or industrial projects («Wonders of
the World»), the creation of schools with special
status, etc.
As one-time discretionary actions carried
out overall long-term strategy, these projects do
not advance the economy and society, and lead
to dispersion of resources among the various
groups lobbying data «action». In the absence
of long-term and consistent strategy in higher
education on a mass scale remains a fictitious
character education, which is masked by the
«international developments» of individual
schools, individual staff Order of Resource
Companies; prospects «nanotechnology» and
«biomedical» breakthroughs.
Context outlined above in the text creates
a scenario fork for federal and national research
universities:
1) Creating universities with special status
may be limited to the union of higher education,
additional financial investment in infrastructure
20-30 universities. Some of them will enter the
global rankings of universities, their academic
schools will become leaders in several areas of
science and technology. These universities will
be able to serve as a «pride», but they will not
promote high school in general.
2) Federal and national research universities
can assume the role of the special creative and
communication platforms, in which: a), a new
socio-anthropological project that correlated
with the project of modernizing the country and
start new cognitive practices; b) new educational
paradigms, technology, education content are
developed, c) Russian educational macro-region
is been formed.
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Bell D. The coming post-industrial society: Experience of social forecasting. Trans. from English. / Inozemtsev V.L. (Ed.
and entry). M.: Academia, 1999. – 956 pp.
Pereslegin SB Teach the game on the world chessboard / SB Pereslegin – M.: AST; Terra Fantastica, 2007. – 619 pp.
Galushkina M., Knyaginin W. Mass, flexible, and international / / Expert № 43 (489), 2005. http://www.expert.ru/printissues/expert/2005/43/43ex-obraz/
The world after the crisis. Global Trends – 2025: a changing world. Report of the National Intelligence Council USA; – M.:
Publishing House «Europe», 2009. – 188 pp.
Global Monitoring Report on EFA (Education for All). – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2010. – 45 pp.
Rozin VM Reflection images and education – Internet Resource http://www.fondgp.ru/lib/mmk/46/#_ftnref16
Bacon F. The new Organon. V.2. M., 1972. – 574 p.
Universities that do not place international educational programs MBA, MPA did not enjoy popularity among the Russian elite and outside their own educational paradigm actually simulate the learning process. The content and technology
management education are such an eclectic collection of fragments of the «Soviet knowledge, Western courses and a large
number of formal knowledge material. Most universities do not even raise the question of the formation of management
thinking.
Zuev S. E. Some remarks for the concept of «market culture» / / Programming of cultural development: regional aspects.
Vol. II. – Moscow: RIK, 1993. – P.59-68.
Jean Baudriar. Symbolic exchange and death. – M.: «Dobrosvet, 2000. – 387 pp.
Higher Education to 2030 – Volume 2: Globalization. – OECD, 2008. – 302 pp.
Foresight-project «Childhood – 2030», 2008. http://www.detstvo2030.ru/
John P. Donoghue. Connecting cortex to machines: recent advances in brain interfaces // Nature Neuroscience 5, 1085 –
1088 (2002)
Mijail D. Serruya, Nicholas G. Hatsopoulos, Liam Paninski, Matthew R. Fellows & John P. Donoghue Brain-machine
interface: Instant neural control of a movement signal // Nature 416, 141-142 (14 March 2002)
Leigh R . Hochberg , Mijail D . Serruya , Gerhard M . Friehs , Jon A . Mukand , Maryam Saleh , Abraham H . Caplan ,
Almut Branner , David Chen , Richard D . Penn and John P . Donoghue. Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices
by a human with tetraplegia // Nature 442: 164-171 (13 July 2006).
Efimov V.S., Lapteva A.V. Corporate Culture – a tool for development of the University / University management: practice
and analysis. 2010. № 1 (65). P. 23-29.
Report «Education 2020, Is Russia ready to invest in their future, postindustrial transition». Gov. Univ – Graduate School
of Economic. – M.:. HSE. – 2008. – 39 pp.
Education and Society: Is Russia ready to invest in its future? Report. M. HSE, 2007. – 78 pp.
Millennium Development Goals and national projects – a strategic choice for Russia. – M.: Institute for Complex Strategic
Studies, 2006. – 32 pp.
Coalitions for the future. Development Strategies for Russia: Collective of economists «SIGMA».- M.: OOO «Publishing»
Industrialist of Russia «, 2007. – 112 pp.
Russia of XXI century: the image of a desired future. – M.: Econ-Inform, 2010. – 66.
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glazychev.ru/projects/obrdocl/2004_obrdocl.htm
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Russia. / Under the leadership of Knyaginin. – SPb.: Publishing house «CORVUS», Fund, Center for Strategic Research
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University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1 (2009 3) pp.143-153.
Many experts believe the «fictitious» the main problem of higher education in Russia, which is impossible without removing the modernization programs and educational technology. «Fictitious» means that the students pretend to learn, and
teachers – what they teach. All participants of the educational process to understand that most of the transmitted knowledge is not used in professional activities. The process of education, whose core is the development of professional thinking and complex forms of activity, is replaced by translational lectures and disciplinary control activities (credit-modular
system, the mass testing, etc.). In education, the mass becomes a purchase, copying from the Internet monitoring, projects
and dissertations, improved technology cheating, is the direct purchase of tests, examinations and diplomas.
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etc.
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Experts estimate that a similar situation now exists in higher education in China, captured the neo-industrial country
project
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valery S. Efimov and Alla V. Lapteva. Higher Education in Russia: Challenges of the XXI Century
Высшее образование в России:
вызовы XXI века
В.С.Ефимов, А.В.Лаптева
Сибирский федеральный университет
660041 Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82
В статье обозначены политико-социальные и экономико-технологические трансформации,
демографические, культурные процессы, которые задают рамки для реформ образования,
проводимых во многих странах мира. Понимание глубины и масштабов происходящих
процессов является необходимой основой выработки стратегии развития российского
образования. Обсуждается вопрос о будущей модели российского высшего образования, о
реализуемом через образование социально-антропологическом проекте, и правильный ответ –
это шанс для российского образования и страны в целом.
Важнейшими для образования являются постиндустриальный переход и «завершение»
социально-антропологического проекта «Просвещение», послужившего в свое время основой
массовых образовательных практик. На смену проекту «Просвещение» – «Человек знающий» –
приходят альтернативные социально-антропологические проекты: «Человек-оператор»,
«Человек креативный», «Человек мобильный». Данные социально-антропологические проекты
будут в значительной степени определять содержание и форматы образования в мире в
ближайшие 20 лет.
Обсуждаются особенности социально-экономического контекста существования высшей
школы в России. В результате реформ 90-х годов, «сжатия» индустриального сектора
экономики и расширения сектора торговли и услуг система образования, рассчитанная на
кадровое и управленческое обеспечение средне- и высокотехнологичной индустриальной
экономики, оказалась избыточной. Одновременно вхождение в мировое информационнокультурное пространство сформировало в обществе, особенно в молодежной среде, ценности
«общества потребления» и образовательные установки, характерные для «информационного
общества» (в том числе установки на высшее образование как необходимый этап жизненного
пути).
Представлены сценарные варианты развития высшей школы в России. Основной «линией
разлома», относительно которой будут определяться сценарии трансформации российского
высшего образования, является разрыв между экономикой страны (потребностью в кадрах) и
системой подготовки кадров (структурой, содержанием и форматами образования). Данный
разрыв обусловливает высокую степень «фиктивности» и «фальсификации» образования.
Ключевые слова: высшее образование, постиндустриальный переход, кризис образования,
социально-антропологический проект.
Проект финансово поддерживается Красноярским краевым фондом поддержки научной и
научно-технической деятельности.
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