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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2010 Journal of Siberian Federal University 3 (4) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН К.С.Александров академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.С. Соколов Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Kirill S. Alexandrov Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Veniamin S. Sokolov Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Valery I. Golikov Russian Federation Military Communications $ History, Current State and Future Development – 487 – Natalya V. Klimovich Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English and American Fiction from English into Russian) – 509 – Ekaterina M. Feytelberg Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem – 518 – Maria A. Pipenko Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere – 526 – Veronica A. Razumovskaya Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies – 536 – Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inukhina Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov – 546 – Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Natalia P. Koptzeva Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology of Culture Studies Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva – 554 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 19.08.2010 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 13,2. Уч.-изд. л. 12,7. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2134. Отпечатано в ИПК СФУ. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Hasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgenia V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Natalia A. Bakhova Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School – 563 – Anastasia V. Kistova Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk – 581 – Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation of Modern Postnonclassic (Universum) Sociology – 593 – Elena A. Nozdrenko Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect – 600 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Nicolai N. Petro Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia: a presentation to the first Forum of European and Asian Media (FEMA) Moscow, December 8-10, 2009 – 610 – Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Jelena Petrucijova In the Trace of Human Identity – 615 – Helen Stuhr-Rommereim Reading Solzhenitsyn’s œOne Day in the Life of Ivan DenisovichB: Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives – 625 – Tatiana M. Sofronova Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology (on the Example of Fire Science Vocabulary) – 633 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 487-508 ~~~ УДК 623.61 Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development Valery I. Golikov* Tomsk State University 11 Lytkina, Tomsk, 634045 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article concerns the historical path of development of military communications in Russia since its origin to our days. It shows the contradictions between the troop command system military communications condition and modern warfare spectrum and lines of Signal corps developments in the context of the Russian Federation Armed Forces new-look formation. Keywords: military communications, Signal corps, telegraph, automated process-control system, organization and establishment, Armed Forces. Throughout its history military communications went a long and complicated path of development: from simple sound and visual means for transmitting signals and command of execution to the battlefield to modern multifunctional automated systems, capable of providing almost unlimited in range communication for both immobile and moving land-based, afloat, under water, air and space objects. The variety of communication means such as voice face to face communication, signaling system and courier communication appeared concurrently with the origin of human society. Initially it had peaceful application only. Usage of communication in military arts began in times of tribal wars with the subsequent using in the slaveholding society wars. The appearanceas a result of social and military reform of the Athenian army in ancient Greece at the turn of VI – V centuries BC, The * 1 Great Wall of Chinese construction in IV – III centuries BC, where outpost support and fortress garrisons used smoke and flash signals to provide communication, creation in 312 BC of Rome – Brundizy and Rome – Ancona – Arimini in 220 BC mail routes to communicate with troops on the march and on the battlefield, usage of pigeons, walkers, outrunners and variety of means of reports, messages and orders encryption as usage of variety of other communication means evidently represent slow, but the greatest possible for that time, development of military communication as to the most demanded as it provided safety of the state and success in both defensive, and aggressive wars. With the formation of Eastern-Slavic tribes the rise of original Russian military art started which has received development in victorious wars with Byzantium in VI – VII centuries [1, p. 7]. Nevertheless, in spite of the occurrence of the first organizational and tactical forms of the battle Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 487 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development and new ways of troops control – communication facilities used for military purposes, were, as a matter of fact, the same as they were a lot of centuries back, maybe, only with the differences considering features of district and climate. The most ancient Russian annals which have reached up to now and the images concerning the time of Kievan Rus (IX – XII centuries) testify to an independent way of development of a communication facility and the signal system, providing troops control [2, p. 5 – 11]. Transfering of military and state messages for a broad spectrum of the population of cities was carried out, as a rule, through special persons – «Biriuchi» (heralds). To apply the population to gathering armies the cymbal, bell, drums and pipes were used. On greater distances (for communication of boundary cities (fortresses) and the watchtowers with Kiev, and also with an army which is being a campaign) first of all fires and marks were used. They enabled the transferring of prearranged signals consistently from one post to another, forming a line of alarm communication along the border and the interior of the state. For the first time the «povoz» was applied (the kind of horse post), which provided delivery of princely decrees and military messages. For communication with an army and between posts along the border pigeons, messengers on skis, horses and on boats were widely used also. Delivery of especially important messages and their preservation were as fiduciary carried out especially by authorized representatives, thus the maintenance of a message either was learnt, or various ways of coding were applied. Directly on the battlefield the following methods of command were widely used: the personal contact, a personal example of the commander and his clothes, banners, the dismount warrior, arrows, pipes and its variations, a voice, position of hands and subjects (the weapon of the commander) were widely applied.[3. V. 1, p. 47 – 51]. In wars of Russian people against German dogknights (1240-1242) development of the military communications was expressed in expansion of a scope of mobile means. Horse and dismount warrior began to be used for communication of the commander with subordinates directly on a battlefield that facilitated troops control at the changed ways of the armed struggle. During the struggle against the Tartar Mongol hordes in Russia (XIII-XIV centuries) for the fi rst time in the history of military art communication on a campaign was provided by specially organized line of military «flying» riding mail. Reports from armies to grand prince Dmitry Donskoy or voevodes (battlemasters) were delivered not directly, but through a number of already established intermediate posts that provided greater speed of delivery of reports [4, p. 9]. The history of the Signal Corps originates since the time of creation of the regular Russian army and navy by progressive state and military figure Peter I. Having created regiments, brigades and divisions in army and squadrons, and naval divisions and groups, Peter I understood the importance of the organization of management of these structures in a peacetime and during operations, paying considerable attention to a question of use of a communications means. For the fi rst time in the book «Kniga Ustav Voinskiy» (Military Regulations), published on April, 12th, 1716, questions of troops control and communication were addressed in special chapters which defi ned and legislatively fi xed the list of officials in the field of communication, their quantity and functional duties. The day of signing this regulations by Peter I is considered the day of the organization in the Russian Army of regular postal and courier communication service which given a start to the process of creation and development of military communications in Russia [5, p. 6]. From # 488 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development that time army commanders and subordinate commanders were given aide-de-camps who delivered written orders and transferred oral instructions, and watched their execution also. For the maintenance of communications on the battlefield each commander wielded two drummers and no fewer than three messengers. Consequentially, in analysis of operations of the last fights and wars as a whole experience of the organization of troops control with the purpose of its account was generalized by the development of some battle documents. For example, by the development in 1763 of the new Infantry charter and the charter for cavalry alongside other questions of action of infantry the organization of communications on the march, alignment of forces and their forming-up was also considered in detail. [6, p. 157]. In A.V.Suvorov’s campaigns who raised Russian military art to a higher level of development, troop control and military communications received the further development having outstripped the military art of the Western Europe. A.V.Suvorov practiced the allotment of staff officers to columns on the march, achieved the organization of steady communication on the front, and in necessary cases for maintenance of interaction used groups of cossacks which had in advance developed tactical abilities to appear suddenly or disappear, pass through fighting orders of the enemy, passing difficult sites and establishing communication. The commander showed samples of skilful application of a communication means depending on their battle characteristics (a rocket, alarm means), for the first time has applied a communication facility (rocket) for disinformation of the enemy, showed care of providing of couriers with all necessary for the performance of their duties. For the fastest transfer of the instructions and orders to armies, and also duly situation data acquisition A.V.Suvorov’s first of all applied and used staff meetings (advice) of generals and head commander. [7, V. 1, p. 150, 158 – 159]. In 1778 the first special signal unit-Yamskoy Cossack regiment, and in 1796 – courier service corps were formed [8, V. 8, p. 266]. On the eve of the Patriotic War of 1812 Russian military thinking in the field of troop control and communications went its own way, relying on the experience of the last wars and reached the level of development of productive forces. In January, 1812 the charter « Big army field forces control Establishment» was put into operation where functions of the second department and the on duty general in charge of communication matters were described. Field post offices were put in force in armies. Duties of messengers, orderlies, aide-de-camps, couriers were fixed. The special form and signs for the communication maintenance personal were fi xed. The responsibility for a condition of military roads, placement of postal unit on them, providing of units with a delivering means, security and recruitment was established. Time of departures and deliveries of packages was fi xed. The post «the military adviser and the field inspector of mails» was founded. During the Patriotic War the theory developed by M.I.Kutuzov and practice of troops control, precisely defined service of aide-de-camps, orderlies, messengers, couriers and military post, have facilitated work of staffs and commanders. Nevertheless an applied communication facility lagged behind the requirements of troops control that is why army officers, inventors and constructors began to search for an output in the creation of technical communications. After the Patriotic War of 1812 development of a communication facility went mainly in a direction of creation of such samples which would allow not only to submit prearranged message, but also to conduct the transfer of information, carrying out two-way exchange. # 489 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development Though officials of the imperial government, admiring everything foreign, did not encourage the domestic inventors, many Russian innovators worked at the improvement of a communication facility and have achieved in this respect great successes. And still, in spite of available domestic inventions: night optical telegraph of land surveyor Ponjuhaev in 1815; optical telegraphs of Russian inventor Shegorin in 1818 and Captain-Lieutenant P.E.Chistyakov in 1827 [9. d. 404а. p. 434]; semaphore telegraph of Major-General P.A.Kozen in 1824, – the imperial government for a huge sum of money bought the patent for the system of optical telegraph of the French engineer Z.Shato, represented advanced design of telegraph I.P Kulibin in 1833, invented in 1793 [10. V.1, p. 93]. The optical telegraph existed in Russia for about half a century. From 1852 it began to be replaced by the electric telegraph. It was promoted by the discovery by Russian scientists and inventors in the field of electrotechnics and electromagnetism. The first electromagnetic telegraph was invented in Russia in 1832 by Pavel Lvovich Shilling, the outstanding Russian physicist and the orientalist, therefore the priority of its creation belongs to Russia. The worthy successor and continuer of P.L. Shilling works on the development and introduction of telegraph in Russia was Boris Semenovich Jakobi, an outstanding physicist and electrical engineer, a member of the Petersburg academy of sciences who in 1841 for the first time in Russia constructed a line of electric telegraph between the Winter Palace and the General Staff in Petersburg. Communication was carried out by means of original writing devices which design was better and more simple, than at invented in the same time in the Western Europe Morse device [11, p. 27-38]. Qualitatively a new period of development of Signal Corps began in the second half of the XIX century with the introduction in the Russian army of telecommunication means. Having estimated the advantage of electric telegraph in transferring of reports, orders, instructions on great distances in small terms that was important owing to the changed ways of conducting the armed struggle on extensive and isolated from each other battlefields, the Russian Military Engineers department of the Russia Ministry of War in April 1854 ordered a station of the military-marching electric telegraph consisting of two Morse cable devices and 16.5 versts of copper wire and poles in Vienna. In a year the military electric telegraph was applied in conditions of warfighting in Sevastopol during the Crimean War. Thus it is necessary to note, that by 1855 in Russia more than 5 thousand km of constant cable lines had been already constructed. By 1864 the Sveaborgskiy fortress military telegraph has been formed, and in 1865 the fortress military telegraph in Kronstadt. Fortress telegraphs were regular parts of Signal Corps whose experience was used in the further formations [12, p. 9 – 13]. So, in 1867 the first exemplary military-marching cable park was completed which incorporated 4 officers and 40 enlisted man, 8 Morse devices and 35 versts of wire. In three years the decision of forming six more military-marching parks was accepted. Subsequently, the manning level and material of parks were increased. Field cable communication was successfully used during Russian-Turkish war in 1877 – 1878. The generalization of gained experience led to the reorganization of existing parks in 1883 and the forming of 17 new marching military-cable parks at the rate of one park to each corps. Parks have received new manning table and equipment lists, their # 490 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development communication facilities became more various; a new optical communication facility has appeared – heliographs and lanterns. Wide application of military telegraph in the army has played an exclusively important role in the radical improvement of troops control. It has not only expanded opportunities for orders and reports transferring on great distances in short terms, but also provided document communication. But the telegraph did not allow carrying out personal discussions of commanders and staffs directly from the workplaces. The scientific idea aspired to solve this problem. In 1876 the American A.Bell and almost simultaneously with him, his compatriot E.Grey submitted patent applications for phones invented by them. Already by the end of 1877 telephone sets had appeared in Russia. Many engineers and commanders of the Russian army have highly valued the importance of this invention for military communications. In the summer of 1878 in Vyborg under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel V.B.Jakobi the first tests of phones in the Russian army were carried out. Communication between islands of the Tranzundskiy sea gate at a distance of 6 km by telegraph cable and between Vyborg and Uran-Saadskaya the governmental station on a line of military telegraph at a distance of 30 km was carried out. The results of tests seemed positive. However the awkwardness and great weight of the first telephone sets did not allow for their use in the army. Soon V.B.Jakobi designed a miniature phone – the first field telephone set [13, p. 27 – 31]. The difficulty of using the phone firstly consisted of the necessity to have for this purpose special wires. Only after the decision by Captain G.G.Ignatyev in 1880-1881 a problem of simultaneous telegraphy and telephony by wires, did the phone start to be widely used in the Russian army [14, p. 10]. The initiator of the use of phones in the navy fleet was naval officer E.V.Kolbasev. In 1894 the decision on the disbandment of existing cable parks was accepted. Instead of them for communication between staffs of army, corps and divisions in the structure of every army corps engineer battalion one telegraph company was formed. It consisted of 310 men and incorporated 24 field telephone sets, 189 horses and 74 vehicles [15 p, 161 – 162]. Formation of telegraph companies in engineer battalions subordinated in the operative attitude to the chief of staff of the corps, and concerning completing the staff by specialists, communication materials and a special transport – to the Chief of the Army Engineers Department, was a great achievement in the development of a problem of centralization of military communications control in the Russian Army. In the process of developing a means of fighting and military art, requirements to management of armies were continuously raised. An existing electric communication facility could not completely satisfy the need for management any more. On doctrines in peacetime and in fighting conditions often it was necessary to provide communication in conditions when it is difficult, and sometimes impossible to build wire lines (for example, in areas occupied by the opponent, greater water barrier or impassable mountains, with the ships in the sea and in a number of other cases). Life persistently demanded the creation of such means which could overcome the listed obstacles. In searches of the decision of a problem many minds in the 1880s and 1890s were occupied with the idea of how to signal at distance without wires. Due to the progressive activity of Russian scientists and inventors, achievements in electrotechnics and technology of wire telegraph on April, 25th, 1895 at a session of the branch of physics of the Russian Society of Physics # 491 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development and Chemistry the Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov made the scientific report on the invention of the communication system [16, p. 7 – 10]. In the spring of 1897 А.S.Popov had led a series of practical works on the realization of radio communication (wireless telegraph) between military fleet vessels, and in 1898 – 1900 under his control military signalmen made two portable radio stations and experiments were conducted on their use. It would seem, it was possible to provide the army with the necessary quantity of Russian radio stations, however the absence of the industrial base, a necessary commercial crop in the domestic industry of that time, absence of necessary enterprise led to the first samples of Popov’s spark radio station and it was decided to order abroad – to French firm «Dukrete». In May of 1899 the first in the history of Russian military fleet radio unit – the Kronstadt spark military telegraph was formed. And in 1900 after edition of a special Navy Department order which determined the introducing of wireless telegraph, russian military ships radio stations had started to be established [17, p. 161 – 162]. By the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904 -1905 there were still no independent Signal Corps in the Russian Army, telegraph companies were still a part of engineer battalions. However their organic means could not satisfy growing needs for telegraph and telephone messages any more. Also an absence of signal elements and units in troops complicated the organization of communication in conducting operations at all. And only during the war, with great delay, for the use of the General Headquarters and staffs the 1st and 2nd Eastern-Siberian telegraph battalions had been formed. These battalions arrived at the theater of operation in September, 1904 and in June, 1905. Each battalion consisted of 26 officers and 1078 personnel. In April 1905, for the first time two wireless telegraph (radiotelegraph) companies were formed for Army use. They used 8 radio stations, bought at the firm “Marconi”. Only one radio station served the officer and 45 personnel (24 of them were from logistics staff) [18, p. 12 – 13]. The Russo-Japanese war had shown the perspectives of technological applicationtelegraph, phone and radio – for operative control of formations and units [7, V. 1, p. 274]. In terms of the variety of signals equipment, the Russian Army was not interior to any other, but the economic backwardness of Russia and weakness of technical base had not allowed it to have the necessary quantity of communications facilities. Nevertheless, conclusions were drawn on the basis of war experience about the necessity of improving the organization of military communications. From 1910 the infantry corps communication units (21 operators, 13 horse messenger, 4 bicyclists, 10 versts of cable on coils) had been formed, and the total number of telegraph companies in the structure of engineer battalions of the Engineering Corps had reached 35. Additionally there were 8 spark companies. Five of these companies during mobilization were deployable as two independent companies [19, p. 7]. The recruiting of these units required plenty of experts in communication. Their training was carried out in both military schools, and directly in armies. Training of signal officers for the Army in peacetime was carried out in Petrograd Military Engineering School, the only such school in Russia, and perfection of knowledge of officers was made at the biennial Officer Electrotechnical School created in 1911 on the basis of the Military Electrotechnical School, for teaching in which a number of authoritative scientists, such as B.S.Jakobi, P.N.Jablochkov and А.С. Popov were involved. # 492 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development The great lack of development of military communications before the First World War in the Russian Army was due to the absence of a single headquarters to control signal elements and units and also questions as to the organization and development of communications facilities. Still there were no independent Signal Corps. The communications service in the army was assigned to the general staff departments. There were no regular officials responsible for communication. And still during the First World War real steps on uniting a radio communication control were carried out – in 1915 radiotelegraph managers of the fronts and armies were appointed and instead of spark companies radiotelegraphic battalions (at the end of war there were 16) were formed. In each corps and division a radiotelegraphic section was organized. By the end of 1916 there were 45 separate cable companies and 79 cable companies of engineer battalions in armies. Besides telegraph-cable sections were formed as part of division’s engineer companies. It became possible due to the creation during the war of a necessary industrial base for the manufacture of a domestic communication facility. So, in 1916, 105 thousand telephone and 3 thousand telegraph devices, 236 thousand versts of cable, 800 radio stations and 10 thousand carts were supplied to the army [20, p. 1210, Л. 3, 48, 52]. For the preparation of signalmen in September – October, 1916 in all armies field educational telephone commands were formed, and from that time every front radiotelegraph manager had charge of a radio engineer school. Preparation of signalmen (private soldiers and corporals) was assigned to three reserve cable battalions and cable companies of engineer battalions. In 1915 for the purpose of officers preparation the Military Engineering School in Kiev was founded, and in 1916 at all headquarters of armies and fronts short-term (monthly and three-monthly) telegraph-telephone officer courses were organized [4, p. 34]. The quantitative growth of communications facilities and variety and complexity of their use urgently demanded centralization in the organization of a communication service in the Army as a whole. But by the end of the War it was not done in full measure. Only in May, 1917 the post of chief signal officer in all headquarters from the General Headquarters to the regiments inclusive (in the regiment this post was occupied the signal team chief) was created. However the problem of organization of one centralized army signal service and separation of signal units and elements in special signal troops was not solved. The First World War experience showed that operations where commanders paid close attention to the questions of troop control and organization of communication, as a rule, troops always achieved success (the operation of Southwest front, the 8th Army, etc.). On the contrary, the slighting attitude to questions of troop control and organization of communication led to defeat (destruction of the 2nd army of General Samsonov in the East-Prussian operation). This experience has implications for today. After the October Revolution, in the conditions of the beginning of Civil War and military intervention, for the purpose of Soviet authority protection the formation of the first parts of the Red Army began. At the beginning of 1918 numerous measures on the creation of the control system of the Army were implemented [18 p, 17 – 18]. So, by the order of The People’s Commissariat of Military and Naval Affairs of April, 20th, 1918 №294 the first in Red Army the rifle division manning document was fixed. It made provision for having in a division a separate signal battalion of 977 personnel, and in regiments- signal teams. The battalion commander simultaneously was charged with division signal affairs, and the # 493 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development regiments signal team commander was charged with regimental signal affairs. But to form signal battalions appeared impossible as there were neither personnel, nor techniques and transport. Therefore in November, 1918 new manning document of rifle division signal battalion, rifle brigade signal company and rifle regiment signal team were fixed. By these manning documents the signal battalion of a division and a signal team of rifle regiment had much fewer communications facilities and less personnel and transport [21. Д. 43. Л. 59]. In December of that year signal elements had begun to be created in Aviation and the Cavalry. Thus, from the very foundation of the Red Army signal battalions and signal teams did not consist any more in staffs of engineer units and elements. However a central body had not been created that could control the communications of the whole Red Army. Since October, 1918 the field army radio communication control was carried out by the radiotelegraph inspector who was operationally subordinate to the Military Revolutionary Council headquarters, and in technical matters – to the chief of the General Military Engineering Command. At the fronts the post of the inspector of front radiotelegraph was created, and in armies – the post of army radiotelegraph manager was fixed. In front Headquarters the postal telegraph departments of people’s mails and telegraph commissariat (they provided a mail service and communication on constant communication lines) were created. The General Military-Engineering Command provided the Red Army with signal supplies. By order of the Military Revolutionary Council Revvoyensoviet, Revolyutsionny Voyenny Sovyet) № 1736/362, on 20th of October 1919, the Communications Office of the Red Army (RKKA) was formed. It was headed by the chief of the Red Army. Besides, the Departments of communications of fronts and armies, divisional and brigade departments of communications were formed [22, 72]. Thus, there was the formalization of association leadership coupling of the Red Army into a harmonious system. That day became the birthday of the Signal Corps of the Armed Forces, as a separate specialized corps. The Communication Office of the Red Army was responsible for the organization and providing of communications for the republic MRC and Field Head Quarters, fronts and armies of the Red Army, establishing of communication units, its training and equipment [21, D. 2. L. 7.]. The first Chief of Communications of the Red Army was A.M. Ljubovich (formerly the Commissar of Post Offices and Telegraphs); from September 1920 to April 1924 it was I.A. Khalepsky (formerly the chief of the Caucasus Front), who had done a lot for the establishment and development of Signal Corps. By the end of 1920, Signal Corps included 13 separate battalions and 46 battalions, communication divisions and brigades, a large number of companies and commands, warehouses, workshops and other units. The total strength of signal troops was more than a hundred thousand people [23, V. 2, p. 54]. During the civil war the general organization of communication at all levels of command of the Red Army had been developed, the main duties of communications officers were worked out, new ways of communicating by various means and devices were developed. Continuously the organizational and staff structure of linear and nodal units of communication were improved. It was the first time in the history of military communications, when the Red Army trains were used for communication and control. So it became easier for the commanders and HQ staffs at all levels to conduct control functions. The activity of The Army Signal Corps during the Civil War was commended in a special # 494 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development order of the Revolutionary Military Council of 17 February 1921, which stated: “The heroic Red Army, which covered itself with undying glory, owes much to the signal troops, who carried out during the long struggle with the enemies of great responsible tasks “[24, D. 13. L, 31]. After the Civil War the corps had been reduced to 32,600 people and was armed with worn-out communications mostly of foreign production. However, despite the low strength and the necessary involvement of soldiers for the reconstruction of civilian lines and communications centers, as well as other facilities, the Signal Corps was improving its structure, equipment and training of personnel. The actual issue of improving military communication came into existence because of the diversity of communications equipment and devices and their deterioration. By order of the Revolutionary Military Council on 6 June 1920 the Military Technical Council of Communications (MTCC) – VTSS RKKA)), headed by the Red Army’s chief of communications was established, which was assigned to find solutions to all major issues of organization and development of military communication, including leadership in research and development of new technical means and current urgent issues. However, very soon it became obvious that in the difficult conditions of transition period of the Red Army from war to peacetime in 1921 – 1923 MTCC was necessary to remove a number of previously defined functions, and partially transmit them to any agency, which was capable of engaging in the development and implementation of research and technical policy in the field of military communications. As a result of the urgent efforts of the Red Army’s chief of communications I.A. Khalepsky by order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic on April 15, 1923 The Research Institute for the MTCC was established [25, S. 2 -7]. Based on the outcome of the research institutes, during the prewar period the first generation of military field radio, telephone and telegraph apparatus, switching devices, communication cables, terrestrial signal monitoring means with which the Red Army entered the Great Patriotic War, were created [26, 61 – 73].According to the technical characteristics, those facilities primarily satisfied the requirements of that period, but they were not developed enough, because of the extremely slow pace of signal corps modernization. In addition, some new means of communication before the war were only in the stage of development of mass production, but for their mass production, there was neither capacity nor time. Therefore, a substantial amount of obsolete communication devices were used in the Red Army. The problem of the supplying of Signal Corps with equipment was the most acute, when mass deployment of the Armed Forces from autumn 1939 started. By mid-1941, the Red Army increased by 280% (total number of army and navy reached more than 5 million people). By that time just central and district units of the Signal Corps consisted of 19 separate regiments, 25 separate battalions and other units and organizations of communication. Nevertheless, despite the necessary amount of signal units and elements, the level of equipment of radio facilities was as follows: echelons of the General Staff- the front to 35%, army -corps – 11%, and divisions – 62%, – 77 %, in battalions – 58%. From the total number of radio stations, obsolete types 75% was in the frontline radio network, in the armies – 24%, in the divisions – 89%, in the regiments – 63% [27, D. 10, L. 271 – 273,261 – 269]. In addition to technical, there was also a shortage of staff, although training of commanders and troops of communication # 495 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development professionals in the prewar period was performed in the Electrical Military Academy of the RKKA, Leningrad, Voronezh, Ulyanovsk, Kiev, Kharkov, Ordzhonikidze, Stalingrad military academies and military communications department of the Moscow institute of engineers of communication [23, V. 2. S, 349 – 354]. This state of affairs was due to an insufficient number of schools and the staff of teachers, as well as the problems of low logistic support of academic activity [28, D. 11, L. 33]. Such a state of military communications equipment and staff training on the eve of the war was not only due to economic hardship in the prewar years, but also due to in appreciation of the role of military communications. Thus, the Chief of the Red Army’s (USKA) motion on increasing the capacity of the communications technology factories was rejected, due to the fact that funds were necessary for increasing production of other kinds of military products. In addition, in 1938 – 1939 several factories, manufacturing communications equipment for the army, were converted to the production of other weapons. The main mistake was in the fact that the Soviet military leadership overestimated the role of nationwide communications in command and control of the fronts and armies’, considering that communication technology equipment supply was not so important. Thus, in the fall of 1940, the Defense Committee, having considered the plan for delivery of communications for 1941, made a decision to allocate most of them to various non-military commissariats: Railways (People’s Commissariat), of Internal Affairs and others [29. 49]. Incidentally, we see the same attitude to the signal corps of the Armed Forces of Russia nowadays. The Army Signal Corps from April 1924 to June 1941 was successively headed by N.M. Sinyavskii, R.V. Longva, A.M. Aksenov, I.A. Naidenov, N.I. Gapich [30. p. С 3 – 4]. The World War II analysis of many factors of the opposing armies fighting showed the crucial role of field centers in the sustainable command and control of troops, and also uncovered strategic and tactical problems. In a combat situation, when the enemy provides communications centers in the category of primary destruction sites, and in conditions of high troops mobility, the requirements for survivability and mobility of centers immeasurably increased. It was necessary to change their combat use tactics radically, paying particular attention to such issues as the deployment of elements of centers on the terrain, security, defense and engineering equipment centers, and the order of their moving. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, these issues were worked out very poorly. As before the missions of the communications organization at the tactical level (up to and including the Infantry Corps) were to be accomplished by the organic units of the Signal Corps. The main communications formations were: the Separate Battalion Infantry Corps, a separate battalion Infantry Division, a communication company in the regiment and battalion communications platoon. The Communication in the strategic-tactical and operational levels of command (Front -Army) was planned to be provided by forces of the Commissariat for Communications and Signal Corps Reserve Command (SRC). However, the full combat and communications unit of fronts and armies strength was only on paper, i.e. in the mobilization plans. Therefore, in the initial period of war (until Mobilization of the SRC units and elements) the leadership of the Red Army relied just on a nationwide network of People’s Commissariat of communication [31, p. 11]. In the first, most difficult period of war the lack of communications means and devices in border areas became apparent as did, the lack of # 496 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development the technical equipment and poor training level of the troops. Stationary military communications centers existed in peacetime and were prepared for wartime, but they were not protected from air attack, they did not have independent outputs on the country lines, and therefore they were entirely dependent, as has been said before, on the centers of People’s Commissariat of communication. This enabled enemy aviation and saboteurs to put the communications centers out of action quite easily, according to previously planned actions. [32, p. 58]. Radio communications, neither organizationally, nor materially were not prepared for sustainable troop command and control. In the retreat, and difficult defensive battles the Red Army forces, units and elements were not fully strengthened with communications units. Moreover, communications units and elements were extremely undermanned and underequipped and equipment. All these and several other factors were a cause of control loss and temporary failure of our troops in the initial period of war [33, p. 141]. At the same time the scale of the battles from the outset demanded the use of the whole country’s capacity to ensure communications with the troops. In order to centralize communications control in the country and army, by the determination of the State Defense Committee on 23 July 1941 the Red Army’s chief of communications was appointed colonel I.T. Peresypkin (from February 1944 – Marshal of the Army Signal Corps), who retained the post of Commissar of Communication of the USSR. The subsequent appointment of I.T. Peresypkin as Deputy Commissar of Defense highly raised the prestige of troop leadership of communications departments, as that fact eliminated the interdepartmental barriers and created the conditions for the use of all available resources of the nationwide communications network to provide leadership of the Armed Forces [34, p. 68 – 69]. The first week’s experience of World War II showed that the number of communications units, according to the plan, was clearly in adequate, mainly because of a larger-than-expected number of operational formations, which in turn increased the needs of the communications units and elements for every front and army. Therefore, the communications chief of the Red Army had 4 July 1941 filed a petition before the General Staff on the additional formation of 5 separate regiments of communication, 33 front and army battalions, some linear battalion, and 26 of the selected telegraph and construction and maintenance companies. The organization of the Red Army’s new front and army offices created continuously increased needs of communication units. In just one year of the war more than 1000 communication units were formed. During particular months 250 – 350 communication units were in the stage of organization, i.e., a few dozen of the communications units per military district that caused considerable tension due to a lack of the required number of communication technologies in the military commands. Since August 5, 1941 The Communications Office of the Red Army was reorganized into the Main Office of Communications, the Red Army (MOC), which took under their own control the mission of providing General Head Quarters and the General Staff, fronts, military commands, and the reserves [35, V. 3, s. 14, 28], since the beginning of the war the situation with troops technology communication providing was extremely complicated. Severity of the situation aggravated by the fact that most of electrical engineering factories from Leningrad, Moscow and Kharkov were evacuated inland, and only by the end of 1941 the required products began to be produced [36, s. 28 – 30, 37, d. 1,l. 11-12]. Particular attention was paid to the application and development of radio communication, which became much more widely used in the armed # 497 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development forces, although by the end of the first period of the Great Patriotic War it was not the main type of communication [7. T. 2. P. 184]. It should be noted that in the initial period of war radio equipment for command and control was not used, because of the fear of the HQ at all levels being detected and the inability to deploy, to organize and to provide radio communication In order to correct that situation during of the summer-autumn of 1941 the People’s Commissar of Defense issued a decree «On the Red Army communication improvement» № 243 dated July 23, 1941 [38, d. 65,l. 165 – 169], to which was later added a GHQ directive «About the shortcomings in the organization of command and control» of July 24, 1942 [39, s. 45]. Those documents ordered the elimination of underestimating radio communications and to create order in the use of radio as soon as possible. The defensive fighting experience with radio communications demanded improved methods of its organization, modernization of existing and new radio facilities. Thus, in 1942, the fi rst portable domestic VHF A-7 with frequency modulation for infantry and artillery regiments was developed, which was much appreciated by the troops. Quartz-top boxes were set up to HF radio for radio noise-stable direct-printing of the General Staff to the front (PAT station with the prefi x «Diamond»), the fronts to the armies (RAF station with the prefi x «Carbide») and the army with regiments (radio SSR with the prefi x «Bekan»). The use of these devices provided a significant increase in the stability of radio communications, in both the higher echelons of command, as well as the tactical level. The role of radio communication increased greatly during the operations of the summerautumn campaign in 1942 [18, s. 59]. Combat experience showed that radio, especially while on the offensive, becomes the main, and often the only means of communication, providing command and control. Accordingly, further improving of the communications, organizational structure offorces, command and control functions, improving of communications units, and increasing of their numbers was the full structure of Signal corps of fronts and armies conducted was defined more exactly, and they were strengthened with new units and elements. New elements – communications units of special-purpose (USON) were added to the General Staff communications system, through which a direct wired connection between the General HQ (Stavka) and 2-4 fronts were provided. USONs were placed 50-200 km behind the front lines. Therefore, through those units, communications between adjacent fronts were provided [40, s. 137]. In 1944 with an increased number of active fronts, and the distance between the General Staff and the fronts headquarters, the Supreme Command Reserve (RVGK -Reserve Verkhovnogo Glavnokomandovaniya) increased substantially, due to the new formed communications brigades (RVGK). Despite all these shortcomings, the domestic electrical industry, reorganized during the Great Patriotic War according to the army needs of radio and wire communications means and devices was successful. Several models of communications equipment were upgraded in accordance with the requirements of combat units. Only in 1944, 62 249 sets of radio stations were produced for Soviet troops. That was significantly higher than the level of 1941, when just 9586 sets were produced [41,20 – 21]. Besides, it should be noted that throughout the war the number of communications personnel continuously increased in the overall strength of the army. Thus, if on the eve of the Great Patriotic War signalers were about 5% of the total, by the end, every tenth soldier of the Red Army was # 498 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development a signalman. During the Great Patriotic War, 28 266 signalers were trained, in the School of Communications and, in the Academy of Communications 4 653 of command personnel [42, s. 241 – 243]. Gradual improvement of the organizational structure and technical support, methods of use, continuous improvement, the professional skills of commanders and the Army Signal Corps personnel special training enabled the execution of complex tasks to ensure forces command and control during the Great Patriotic War. Mass heroism, courage and dedication were the main features of military signalers on the battlefield. 294 warriors-signalers were Heroes of the Soviet Union; more than 100 signalers were holders of the Medal of Glory. A great number of military communications personnel were awarded medals. During the war, almost 600 communications units were awarded medals. A number of front and army communications units were awarded the title of Guards. During World War II, the Signal Corps received tremendous experience in providing communications in difficult combat conditions. Analyzing the Army Signal Corps experience, we see that success in the conduct of operations and fighting depended to a certain extent on the quality of forces command and control – from the state of technical equipment, capabilities and level of readiness and skills of the Army Signal Corps. Practical experience of communications, received in the war, and the equipping of signal troops with technology and its correct use became the foundation for further building and improvement of military communications. In March of 1946 the Red Army General Communications Office was reorganized into the Office of the Chief of Army Signal Corps of the USSR. And in April of 1948, by a directive of the USSR Ministry of Defense, the Office of the Chief of Army Signal Corps Army of the USSR was reorganized into the Office of the Soviet Army Signal Corps. In the early postwar years, special attention was paid to the development and introduction of new principles of communications organization according to the great experience of the Great Patriotic War, that was required to improve the structure and quality of the Army Signal Corps as well as the introduction of a new army communications, capable of providing command and control in real conditions of warfare. In 1948 the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union reduced to 3 million people, and major changes at the high level of the military command, military districts, armies, and divisions were carried out [43, 106]. The experience and views on war tactics were fixed in the new «Field Service Regulations of the Armed Forces of the USSR in 1948». On the basis of Marshal I.T.Peresypkin’s work plan for the reorganization of security forces communications means, approved by the Chief of the General Staff, work on the acceleration of industrial production for the first postwar generation of military communications base for various purposes was started. In the late 40s and 50s the signal troops began to receive adopted communications complexes with new, improved military characteristics: shortwave car radio sets R-100 and F-110 for radio of the General Staff, P-101 and F-102 to the front, P-118 and F-103 for the army (corps) radio networks, as well as R-104 (in the mobile and portable versions) for the division of networks and F-112 for the tank forces [44, d. 425,l. 123 -127]. The signal troops were provided with VHF radio sets R-105, F-106, F-108, F-109, F-114, F-116 and R-1 13 (Tank), which provided communication on preset frequencies and without fine tuning communication at the tactical level control [45, d. 105,l.10-12]. # 499 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development At the same time, a fundamentally new type of communications – radio-relay (multichannel station P-400 [46, s. 34 – 38] and thin – route R-401 technical equipment [47, s. 30 – 40]) were developed for the Soviet Army, as well as frequency-division multiplexing and channeling systems (P-310, P-304, P-311, P-312, P-313, P-314), and improved types of telephone and telegraph devices, switching devices, several types of field communication cables were developed. Providing troops with relays was a completely new stage in the development of communication systems of operating units, formations and ground forces, so it improved reliability, persistence and resistance to countermeasures, and other characteristics. The modernization of new equipment caused changes in the organizational and technical structure of the signal centers. Through the use of new means of communication standard systems were established for the automotive hardware for organizing mobile field communication hubs of various command levels. For the first time manufactured mobile communications devices (PUS), industrial production (during the war, they were made by the servicemen themselves) were used in the Army: PUS number 1 – for command post, transported by 22 cars, PUS number 2 – for the mobile command post of the front, transported by 6 cars, PUS № 3 – for the Army command post, transported by 9 cars, PUS number 4 – for Corps command posts, transported by 4 cars, PUS number 5 – for division command posts, transported by the same machine. Time for the deployment of those centers was significantly reduced, but communication systems mobility was greatly improved. In October of 1958 by order of the USSR Ministry of Defense, the Office of Signal Corps of the Soviet Army was reorganized into the Office of the Chief Signal Corps of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. In the second half of the 50s, the rapid development of nuclear missiles, the improvement of other warfare means started, which caused significant changes in the Armed Forces structure. Thus, the new military service of the Armed Forces – the Strategic Missile Forces (SMF) was established in accordance with the Council of Ministers of the USSR of December 17, 1959 [48, s. 447]. The communication units became integral part of SMF [48. 106]. Those structural and organizational changes took place in other services and branches of the Armed Forces. These circumstances, in turn, necessitated the development of new methods of units and weapons command and control. The increased duty level greatly influenced the general command and control system of the Soviet Army and Navy and caused a significant time reduction in command and control processes. The 60s are generally characterized by practical work on the automated systems of command and weapons (anti-aircraft, artillery and missile forces) development, and planning work in the field of troops control automation of the Armed Forces. That was the reason of increased demands on the communication systems and channels in terms of their stability, resistance to countermeasures, secrecy and transmitting information timing. With the retirement in 1957, of Army Signal Corps Marshal I.T. Peresypkin A.I. Leonov took charge of the Signal Corps (from 1961 Marshal of Signal Corps). Under his leadership, work on improving the structure of the Army Signal Corps and the creation of new means of communication was continued. Under his leadership communication devices were upgraded and more efficient radio devices were created. The development and providing signal troops with the new HF and VHF middle and high average power single-sideband radio # 500 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development devices (P-135, F-136, F-137, P-140) significantly enhanced the quality characteristics of radio channels at the operational and tactical levels of command. New means of VHF radio for tactical command level, including portable and Ammunition radio R-107 and R-111 with a wider range of frequencies (significantly increasing the number of operating frequencies) and an automatic adjustment to the prearranged frequency was created and [49, p. 4]. Relay communications were further developed. The new type of communication based on the P-121, F-122, F-408, F-410 enabled the provision of high quality multi-channel connections directly between the control stations at a distance of 150-250 km from each other (without relay), even through difficult terrain conditions. In the 60s the first practical work on the creation of satellites was carried out. Complex were created for unified hardware compression and channeling for cable, radio relay and tropospheric communication lines, new means of telephone, telegraph and facsimile equipment, data communication equipment and information security systems equipment for various purposes. Different types of communication equipment were provided and we see the development and delivery of next-generation hardware field communication hubs, as well as several types of command and staff vehicles for automotive and armored transport base for commanders of mechanized infantry (tank) regiments and battalions. The new mobile communication devices highlighted the changes necessary in the organizational structure of the signal corps and in the training of highly qualified teams of engineering personnel and military communications staff, providing them with the necessary technical facilities. As a result, the whole complex of arrangements for the Signal Corps improvement, ensured the mobility and speed rate of communication in different levels of command. The next stage of Signal Corps development is associated with the activity of A.Belov (in 1973 Belov was conferred the rank of Marshal of the Signal Corps). In the early 70s at Belov’s initiative, a system of routine maintenance and a field performance program of communication equipment was developed and implemented in the Army. This implementation improved the equipment maintenance culture in a quality manner, made possible to keep it in a state of combat readiness and promptly submit a complaint to the industry to eliminate identified equipment deficiencies. As at that time the Soviet industry did not have any technical means to equip the communication control centers and the lack of an integrated extensive communications control system did not make it possible to use available channel resources effectively, particularly in fast-changing conditions, drastic measures were taken to solve the problems of communication system control. In this regard, the Central Scientific Research Institute of Communications of RF Ministry of Defense was assigned to develop and produce unconventional integrated equipment for the communication control centers. Repair services of Signal Corps were involved to replicate needed equipment and to equip communication command posts at the front and army level. Such advanced communications facilities reduced by 2-3 times the average time for communication gaps of the main signal channels. Taking into account the increasing role of communication systems in the Armed Forces control, the Signal Corps command of the USSR Ministry of Defense was included in the General Staff as of the USSR Armed Forces. The Signal # 501 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development Corps command existed until the beginning of the RF Armed Forces formation. In the late 70s there some measures were taken to develop integrated researches in the research institutes of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Industry, to prove conceptual aspects of building and operating perspective automated communications system of the Armed Forces. On the basis of the research results Large collaboration of industrial and research organizations of the Ministry of Defense was achieved in 1980 by a special resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR and the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Moreover, the joint automated communications network of the Armed Forces and communications facilities was developed. At the same time a front automated communications network, unified satellite communication system of the Ministry of Defense and advanced communication facilities were established. The unified satellite communication system of the Ministry of Defense was an independent system and separate from the Ministry of Communications network had a common space-vehicle launching system and command – and – measurement complex. The Signal Corps dealt with complicated problems of providing communication for mobile command posts (including an airborne communications control center) and linking them to the corresponding communication systems. To provide for the operation of the Armed Forces automated process-control systems, and corps and weapon system, the special data interchange systems (data communications systems) were developed. In its turn, the implementation of the automated control systems has caused an essential raising of requirements to technical characteristics of the communications equipment and communications system as a whole, so special attention was given to the development of new generation general communication equipment and the modernization of some existing communication equipment. As a result, complexes of automated frequency-adaptive were developed jam-resistant HV-VHV radio communications: for a front communications system -R-161; for strategic and tactical levels – R-164. The analysis of the structure and the communication system operating conditions of the Soviet forces command and control at the operational and strategic levels in Afghanistan made it possible to learn some instructive lessons on communication organization. From the first days of the Afghan war the Soviet forces had to fulfill a lot of combat missions. All components of the military command and control system were dramatically changed (echelons of command, command centers and communications system). The main reorganization purpose was to raise controllability. The combat operations experience demonstrated the impossibility of using the local communication systems centers and communication lines. That was caused by a low level of expanding communication or the hostile attitude of the operating staff. Difficult physiographical conditions required a rational approach to the ways of constructing field communication system elements, especially primary networks. Space communications ranks first in the Army command and control system that, unfortunately, had been established only at the division and regiment levels. Wire communications was limited in usage because it was difficult to lay cable in rocky ground and to protect it. Under preparation and in the process of combat operations there was a severe problem in providing communications security in a tactical command and control level. Combat operations illustrated the fact that in military # 502 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development confl icts the opposing force operatively reacted to intercepted information practically in a real time scale. During the Afghan war there were also many difficulties in the communication maintenance organization. Firstly, they were caused by a failure of communications equipment and the transport base resulting from serious battle damages, a sharp decrease in their technical reliability in difficult physiographical and environmental conditions, the necessity in communication system maintenance whose elements are dispersed over a large territory, etc. The lessons received as a result of the experience of establishing communication control in Afghanistan made it possible to improve the ways of communication organization and providing communication applied to the conditions of conducting operations in local wars and conflicts and also in the conditions of providing forces command and control in the mountainous and desert areas. In the late 80s specialists at the scientific research institute of the RF Ministry of Defense developed and implemented for the Army an automated complex of HF-VHF reliable radio communication and introduced the automated complex KV-UKV radio transceiver R-163 (12 types), but in the late 90s the R-163 was replaced by the advanced complex of antijam radio communication set R-168 at the tactical level (17 types). Considering the combat operations experience in Chechnia, the complex was recommended as the base equipment for the standard communications systems at the tactical level. Later, the newest multichannel radio relay stations (R-414, R-416, R-417, R-418, R-423) and low-channel radio relay stations (R-415, R-419), including the first home-produced RRS of millimetric-wave R-421, and also new effective tropospheric communication equipment (R-412, R-423) were developed to widen communications capabilities. The integrated satellite communications system of the second stage had higher possibilities. To be more precise, it had high-traffic capacity satellites and the newest satellite communications stations, including light, mobile and armored (R-438, R-439П, R-439БК). These types of radio stations are more effective for providing communication in peacekeeping operations. It is especially necessary to point out the command vehicles: the experience of Command Vehicle type R-145 demonstrated the fact that the CV’s were outmoded technically and morally. They were replaced by the advanced command post carriers with improved armor (R-149 combat vehicle, R-149 combat vehicle), that provide control and communication functions at a higher technical level (They include a personal computer, portable satellite communication station R-438, and navigation equipment). The Armed Forces received the unified systems of frequency division multiplexing and time division multiplexing. In the 90s the complexes of field fiber-optic transmission systems P-335 and P-337 were developed. Thus, it is possible to make a conclusion that the accepted communication equipment would allow the formation of highly-structured communication systems of strategic units. For the first time radio relay and tropospheric communications systems, sound channel and telegraph channel scramblers began to be widely applied in the front and army communication systems. Radio communication was arranged from all front (army) control centers to the control centers of the subordinate and coordinating units. Radio relay and wire communication was arranged directly or through auxiliary communication centers or main signal centers. Difficult work was carried out to establish multipurpose stationary territorial communication systems of military districts and to improve the # 503 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development national communication network, to increase its survivability and qualitative characteristics of communication channels, where the basic control and communications systems of the Joint Staff, military branches and the special control systems of the Ministry of Defense are based on the channels of this communication system. The questions of Signal Corps organization and establishment improvement, Signal Corps development and qualified signal specialist training were decided timely. During a long period of Signal Corps leadership (1970 – 1987) Marshal Belov managed to reorganize the Signal Corps radically to a symmetrical system which allowed the Command to deliver decisions and orders in real time to the armed forces and to provide continuous, operations and sustained control for the Armed forces. After Marshal Belov the Signal Corps were commanded and controlled by General K.I. Kobets (1987-1990), General O.S. Lisovskij (1990-1991), General G.P. Gichkin (1991-1997), General Yu.M. Zalogin (1997-2003), General N.P. Ljaskalo (2003-2005). During the last decade of the 20th century there were many global changes in politics, economy and society that affected the world. Socialism and the USSR collapsed, the Warsaw Pact was liquidated. The protracted stage of the Russian Federation’s formation and the process of Armed Forces reorganization heavily affected the Signal Corps in the Armed Forces. As a result, the numerical strength of the Signal Corps was considerably reduced. The lack of sufficient financing led to a critical situation where the number of communications equipment considerably decreased and providing the Army with the newest communication equipment was practically stopped. Moreover, the situation was aggravated by the fact that the Signal Corps command was unable to quantity estimate the current situation, to define the developmental priorities of the communication system and the Signal Corps as a whole. The main purpose of the plans concerning the communication system and the Signal Corps, the Government arms program for 2001-2010 (concerning the communication system and the Signal Corps) was to develop a technological basis of the communication control system through the introduction of innovations and technologies of the 70s and the 80-ies of the XX century. For these reasons, the Signal Corps of the Armed Forces began to degradate. By 2005, the state of the communications system was deemed unsatisfactory. In 2005, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation was headed by Colonel-General E.A. Karpov . The office of the Chief Signal Officer analyzed in detail the real state of the communication system and the Signal Corps of the Armed Forces and came to conclusion. To improve the following situation the office of the Chief Signal Officer developed a number of program documents signed by the Minister of Defense and the Chief of the General Staff: • “The concept of transitioning the Armed forces communication system to digital telecommunication equipment”; • “The special integrated work program of a phased transition from a primary communications network of the RF Armed forces to digital telecommunications equipment”; • “The program of a phased transition from secondary communication networks of the Armed forces of the Russian Federation to digital data processing equipment and service provisioning”. These programs were aimed at communications system modernization, a # 504 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development planned re-equipment of the forces with the latest communications equipment that were developed by using modern telecommunications and information technologies. The development of the following programs was an objective necessity considering the general tendencies of communication systems development in the Russian Federation. Many operators deploy and operate digital and communications systems successfully, and provide users with a variety of telecommunications services. It is obvious that the Armed Forces communication system being a special consumer of communications services of an Integrated telecommunications network in Russia follows all progress changes. The implementation of advanced telecommunication technologies will make it possible to establish an unified automated communication system of the Armed Forces that will provide the various communication services to the military command authority and officials and will allow the automation all processes of troop command and control and weapons control. It should be noted that the experience of developing a similar system in the Soviet Union proves the fact that the successful accomplishment of a mission to establish an integrated automated digital communication system of the Armed Forces can be provided only in conditions of a due attention from the country’s leadership and a full funding for its deployment. Now, as well as in the time of the Integrated automated communication system development by the USSR Armed forces, the forms and methods of conducting armed conflicts were also reconsidered. The industry enterprises were reconstructed under the influence of other (market) factors. the new technologies appeared. But one essential difference is the fact that the Armed Forces Integrated Automated Communication System was established in the time of economic recession and the USSR’s collapse. The IACS reconstruction work begins in the period of the state and economy’s rebirth that allows us to expect the successful realization of this perspective system. Today, in the process of forming a newlook Armed Forces, the Signal Corps are being developed in difficult conditions of planned transformation of the communication system and the Signal Corps in a direction of the maximal conformity of technical characteristics in the control system and the structure of the Armed forces both in peacetime, and in wartime, taking into account many factors of a political, economic, scientific, technical and military nature. The decisions concerning the Armed Forces new look and optimization affect the attitude to the Army control elements: communication system, the Signal Corps, communication equipment development, military education, etc. The Armed Forces informatization process requires a reforming of the means of conducting combat operations and providing information support in battle. So, at the present time the leading countries establish global information networks for military use on the base of developing communication systems. Such systems, constructed with the use of internet technologies, will be provided with a high information throughput, scalability and external influence resistance. Seeing these principles the organization, missions and especially equipment of the communications system and the main development prospects require drastic changes and quick re-equipment. The new hazards and risks to the security of the Russian Federation, the optimization of the Armed Forces structure determine a necessity for the forces control structure development, forms of adaptation and methods of application in the present time. # 505 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development The general purpose of the communication system establishment and development being the infrastructure element of the Armed Forces command and control system is a transition from the old system to the newest form of the communication network organization by means of digitalization and their integration to the integrated information space of the Army. Nowadays, the Office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Russian Federation Armed Forces is developing an establishment concept of integrated information space of the Army that should promote effective forces employment by organization of timely planning and coordination of their operations, providing timely feedback communications with the subordinated forces, units and detachments to receive information concerning their status, position and facilities promoting an accomplishment of assigned missions. The only hope is that in the near future the planned perspective work on Signal Corps development will equalize the Army technical level in a quantity manner with the level of the USA at the beginning of the new millenium. In the US Armed Forces provision with individual radio communication facilities is still at the top level, particularly, their organizational structure of communication units. In August of 2008, the Russian Armed Forces met some problems in providing communications for the operating forces being involved in the military conflict of Georgia with Abkhazia and the Southern Ossetia. This situation was like the military operations of 1941, when tanks and airplanes were engaged in military operations without communications facilities. Although the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are equipped with up-to-date weaponry it is impossible to conduct military operations without modern communications means. Unfortunately, there is one more negative tendency in the Russian Armed forces. Likeprewar years, all Russian departments were provided with communication, except the Armed forces; this was already noted in the article. These days the level of providing communications for the internal security troops of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation is notably higher than the level in the Ministry of Defense. The beginning of the XXI century is an appropriate time to solve a problem of providing the Russian Army with modern communications equipment satisfying all requirements. It is essential to emphasize the fact that in conditions of modern warfare and large-scale military conflicts the Armed Forces will be pressed in time to produce and install communication equipment following the experience of the Great Patriotic War. That we must all remember. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. L.G. Beskrovny, Chrestomathy in Russian military history (Moscow, 1947). P.A.Usik, M.M. Mezhuev, The Signal Corps of Ukraine. Heroic pages of history (Fastov, 2002). Complete collection of Russian chronicles. Lavrentevskaya chronicle (St. Petersburg, 1846). N.I. Balaev, A.N. Borodin, Military operators in the days of war and peace (Moscow, 1968). Y.N. Popov, Postal and courier communications in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Novocherkassk, 2000). A. A. Strokov, History of military art (Moscow, 1963). P. A. Rotmistrov, History of military art (Moscow, 1963). The Soviet military encyclopedia (Moscow, 1980). # 506 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development 9. The central state historical archive, 1289, Op.1. 10. P.P. Turovsky, I. A. Brezhnev, N.P. Galoshin, History of military communications (Moscow, 1983). 11. M.D. Bocharova, B.S. Yakobi, Electrical works (Moscow, 1959). 12. L.N. Kopnichev, V.S. Kogan, Telegraphs and data transmission equipment (Moscow, 1975). 13. A.A. Eliseev, B.S. Yakobi (Moscow, 1978). 14. G.I. Golovin, S.L. Enshtein, Russian inventors in telephony (Moscow, 1949). 15. E.A. Karpov, I.A Brezhnev, N.P. Galoshin, History of military communication in the Russian army (St. Petersburg, 1999). 16. I.V. Brenev, The first steps of radiotechnics in Russia (Moscow, 1970). 17. A.S. Popov, Collection of documents on the 50th anniversary of the radio invention (St. Petersburg, 1945). 18. B.A. Bolvanovich, E.A. Dvoryanov, V.A. Ermakov, History of military communication (St. Petersburg, 1983). 19. B.A. Savin, History of the Russian Army Signal Corps establishment (Moscow, 2006). 20. The central state military historical archive, 1/9, Op.2. 21. Russian state military archive, 25, Op.10. 22. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Moscow, 2007). 23. E.A. Karpov, Y.K. Artamonov, V.L. Belyshev, History of military communication of the Russian Army (St. Petersburg, 1999). 24. Russian state military archive, 25, Op.11. 25. E.V. L’vov, Institute of military communications: history and present time (Voennaya mysl’, 2008, №8). 26. F.I. Belov, Stages of the Signal Corps radio equipment in the Soviet Army (Moscow, 1969). 27. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.71, Op.298608. 28. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.71, Op.12171. 29. N.I. Gapich, Some thoughts concerning control and communication questions (Military historical magazine, 1965, № 7). 30. Communication in the Russian Armed Forces-2008 (Subject collection, Moscow, 2008). 31. A.P. Zharkovsky, Questions of organization and providing communications in the USSR Armed Forces in prewar years (Military historical magazine, 2009, № 2). 32. P.M.Kurochkin, Communication was a necessity for everybody (Military historical magazine, 2008, № 4). 33. Lessons and conclusions of 1941 (Moscow, 1992). 34. V. Daines, Chief operator of the state (Orientir, 2004, № 2). 35. E.A. Karpov, I.A. Brezhnev, V.A. Danilov, History of military communications of the Russian Army (St. Petersburg, 1999). 36. I. T. Peresypkin, Communication in the opening stage of war (Moscow, 1960). 37. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.71, Op.12173. 38. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.4, Op.11. 39. Collection of combat documents of the Great Patriotic war № 5 (Moscow, 1947). 40. A.P. Zharsky, V. P. Zaitsev, Collection of guideline documents on control and communication during the Great Patriotic War (L’vov, 1984). # 507 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development 41. A. P. Zharsky, Industry of military communication equipment in wartime (Military -historical magazine, 2009, № 8). 42. Defense manpower of the USSR during the General Patriotic War in 1941-1945 (Moscow, 1963). 43. Base theory of troop command and control (Moscow, 1980). 44. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.71, Op.725124. 45. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.71, Op.725118. 46. Operation manual and the short description of radio relay station R-400 (Moscow, 1952). 47. Operation manual of R-401 (Moscow, 1955). 48. The military encyclopedia of strategic rocket forces (Moscow, 1999). 49. E.V. L’vov, Institute of military communications: history and present time (Military thought, 2008, № 3). 50. Memoirs of the Marshal of the Signal Corps (Moscow, 2000). 51. V.I. Shinkarev, Establishment of a modern satellite communication system-priorities of the institute researches (Military thought, 2008, № 3). 52. A.V.Usikov, G.A. Baturin, Military art in local wars and conflicts (Moscow, 2008). 53. About establishment and development of the Signal Corps (Subject collection, Moscow, 2004). 54. E.A. Karpov, The Signal Corps and communication equipment: agenda of their large -scale reorganization (Russian military review, 2006, № 6). 55. Communication in the Armed Forces of The Russian Federation (Subject collection, Moscow, 2007). 56. E.A. Petrov, A.V. Pereverzev, About the advanced digital communications system of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Military thought, 2008, № 3). 57. V. Veprintsev, Communication equipment for individual use in the US Armed Forces (Foreign military review, 2008, № 10). 58. V. Veprintsev, Communication equipment for individual use in the US Armed Forces (Foreign military review, 2008, № 11). 59. A. Miroshnikov, Armed Forces going “digital” (Independent military review, 2009, № 39). История, современное состояние и перспективы развития военной связи в Российской Федерации В.И. Голиков Томский государственный университет Россия 634045, г. Томск, ул. Ф. Лыткина, 11 В статье рассматривается исторический путь развития военной связи в России от времени ее зарождения до наших дней, показаны противоречия между состоянием военной связи в системе управления войсками и характером современных военных действий, основные направления развития войск связи в условиях формирования нового облика Вооруженных Сил Российской Федерации. Ключевые слова: военная связь, войска связи, телеграф, радиостанция, автоматизированная система управления, штатная структура, Вооруженные Силы. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 509-517 ~~~ УДК 81.33 Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English and American Fiction from English into Russian) Natalya V. Klimovich* Siberian Federal University 82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The researches devoted to intertext and intertectuality are quite popular in modern linguistics. Scientists pay attention to the types if intertextual elements used in texts, sources of the elements and strategies of their translation. The Bible is considered as the main source of intertextual elements by many authors. Elements from the Bible (words, idioms, quotations) are used quite often. We can hear them in oral speech; meet them in newspapers and in fiction. In case of their translation we face the fact that translator, due to incorrect translation of the intertextual elements from the Bible can not convey the information of the original text. Keywords: intertextual elements, intertext, prototext, metatext, idioms, quotation, direct quotation, modified quotation, interjection, biblical interjection, methods of translation, Introduction In recent years the idea of intertextuality has increasingly replaced that of influence as a way of describing the status of text within a tradition. There are certain texts, that are constructed according to an aesthetics of intertextuality so as to disestablish themselves as sources of influence. Influence and intertextuality can therefore be seen restrictively as ways of describing certain kinds of text. But they can also be approached more broadly as cultural categories that describe the way we relate text and reader, and thus the way we conceive texts within a cultural hermeneutic that causes them to participate in “self”-formation of the reader or of the writer. According to T. Rajan’s «Intertextuality and the Subject of Reading/ Writing» (Rajan, * 1 1991), «intertextuality» as a term appeared in J. Kristeva’s work. J. Kristeva’s vision on intertextuality was influenced by M.M. Bakhtin’s work, which is concerned with authorial discourse as an intersubjective construction, dialogically situated in relation to other social discourses. Denying the distinction of other Russian Formalists between ordinary and poetic language, Bakhtin does on one level describe the transposition of one kind of signifying material into another. But he doesn’t suggest a vocabulary to describe how the resulting instability can be ideologically productive. In this work we will deal with «intertextual elements». As we noted in our previous researches devoted to Biblical words and idioms in fiction (Климович, 2004, 2005, 2006), we have chosen Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 509 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… the term «intertextual elements» to stress that these are elements of one text or prototext (idioms (or phraseological units), words, quotations and vocative interjections) which we can find in another text or metatext. But in this research we deal only with intertextual elements from the Bible, as we consider them to be one of the wellknown intertextual markers in a text. In order to view the ways of their translation we compared the original versions of English and American fiction with their Russian translations. According to the canons of the translatology a translated text should be similar to the original one, in other words, be equivalent to it. According to V.N. Komissarov, “the specific character of the translation, which makes it different from the other ways of language mediation, is that it is intended for complete substitution of the original text and recipients of the translation believe it to be fully equivalent to the original text. But on the other way it is easy to make sure that full equivalence in translation is impossible” (Комиссаров, 222. С. 116). Translation of the Idioms from the Bible One of the largest groups of intertextual elements is idioms (or phraseological units) from the Bible. Many scientists have devoted their works to this problem. A.V. Kunin was the fi rst Russian scientist who devoted a chapter in his work entitled «A Course of English Phraseology» (Кунин, 1972). Nowadays there are is lot of research on idioms from the Bible, examining all the aspects of these intertextual elements – origin, structure, the way they function in the text etc. It was pointed out that in the text, idioms from the Bible are used mostly as allusions. In this group we marked only idioms that are not used in the direct and non-direct quotations. On the basis of the comparison of the English and Russian texts the following groups were formed: Group 1 – equivalent translation. In translation of the idioms from the Bible possible equivalents or analogues in Russian were used. This group is the largest. 276. ‘Well, think of wretches of our flesh and blood growing up under a taunt which they will gradually get to fell the full force of with their expanding years’. 256. – Подумай о несчастных детях, нашей плоти и крови, несущих на себе это пятно и с каждым годом все острее ощущающих свой позор. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 340. In jumping at Publicans and Sinners they would forget that a word might be said for the worries of Scribes and Fharisees; and this defect or limitations might have recommended their own daughter-in-law to them at this moment as a fairly choice sort of lost person for their love. 316. Широко раскрывая объятия мытарям и грешникам, они забывали о том, что можно замолвить словечко и за книжников и фарисеев, у которых тоже бывают свои невзгоды. И благодаря этой особенности они оказали бы своей невестке радушный прием, – ее несчастья давали ей все права на их любовь. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 344. D’Uberville was not the first wicked man who had turned away from his wickedness to save his soul alive, and why should she deem it unnatural in him? 320. Д’Эрбервилль был не первым грешником, который вернулся на стезю добродетели, дабы спасти свою душу; как же она могла считать это фальшью? (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 344. The greater the sinner the greater the saint; it was not necessary to dive far into Christian history to discover that. 320. Чем более велик грешник, тем более велик святой; в этом можно убедиться, даже не слишком углубляясь в историю христианства. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) # 510 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… Group 2 – Idioms from the Bible in English – not idioms from the Bible in Russian translation. This group includes idioms translated into Russian neither as idioms, or in the case of idiomatic translation, not as Biblical idioms. 317. Inside the exterior, over which the eye might have roved as over a thing scarcely percipient, almost inorganic, there was the record of a pulsing life which had learnt too well, for its years, of the dust and ashes of things, of the cruelty of lust and the fragility of love. 295. Под этой внешней оболочкой – на ней, как не заслуживающей внимания, почти мертвой, лишь на секунду мог остановиться взгляд – скрывалась натура, полная жизни, но для своих лет слишком грубо познавшая тщету бытия, жестокость страсти и хрупкость любви. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 271. She could not see why Mrs. Touchette should make a scapegoat of a woman who had really done no harm, who had only done good in the wrong way. 227. Она отказывалась понимать, почему миссис Тачит отыгрывается на этой женщине, которая никому не сделала зла и даже делала много хорошего, хотя и дурными путями. (The Portrait of a Lady) 132. It was the keeper, he stood in the path like Balaam’s ass, barring her way. 189. Стоял недвижимо, упрямо, и преграждал ей путь. Это был егерь. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover) Group 3 – there is no idiom from the Bible in the English text – but there is an idiom from the Bible in the Russian translation. In this group there are following cases: 1) idioms not from Bible, that were translated that as biblical idioms, 2) there is no idiom in English text but is an idiom from the Bible in the Russian translation, 3) words from the Bible translated as idioms from the Bible. 286. “Ma lass!” he said. “Th’ world’s goin’ to put salt on thy tail.” 408. – Девонька моя! Мир готов забросать тебя камнями. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover) In this example there is idiom – but not biblical one, was translated as idiom from Bible to Russian. 37. It was very probably this sweet-tasting property of the observed thing in itself that was mainly concerned in Ralph’s quickly-stirred interest in the advent of a young lady who was evidently not insipid. 32. Запретный плод, как известно, сладок, и, надо думать, именно это обстоятельство послужило причиной того, что появление молодой леди, явно не относившейся к разряду скучных, вызвало в Ральфе внезапный интерес. (The Portrait of a Lady) In this example there is no idiom in original version of the novel, but in Russian translation we see idiom from Bible. 75. “Certainly nothing but the spirit in us is worth having,” said Winterslow. 106. – Да, в нас ничто не может привлекать, разве только крепость души, – обронил Уинтерслоу. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover) Here a word from Bible translated as idiom from Bible. Group 4 – idioms from the Bible were not translated into Russian. In these cases the idioms from Bible were ignored by the translator and not translated into Russian. 297. Clare’s late enthusiasm for Tess had infected her through maternal sympathies, till she had almost fancied that a good thing could come out of Nazareth – a charming woman out of Talbothays Dairy. # 511 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… 276. Восторженность, с какой Клэр еще так недавно говорил о Тэсс, пробудила в ней материнское сочувствие, и она почти готова была поверить, что и на мысе Тэлботейс можно найти очаровательную женщину. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 400. Never in her life – she could swear it from the bottom of her soul – had she ever intended to go wrong; yet these hard judgments had come. Whatever her sins, they were not sins of intention, but of inadvertence, and why should she have been punished so persistently? 373. Она могла поклясться в том, что никогда за всю свою жизнь она не хотела поступать дурно, и все-таки ей вынесли суровый приговор. Каковы бы не были ее грехи, никогда не грешила она сознательно; почему же ее наказывают так упорно. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) Although idiom from Bible was not translated in the example above, biblical word sins and collocation sins of intention were translated. Quotations from the Bible. The next type of intertextual elements is quotations from the Bible. In fiction we found two types of quotations: 1) direct quotation – quotation from Bible that was not changed in the text; 2) modified quotation – author of the book changed quotation, by adding words to it or shortening it. Despite this quotation is still connected with the Holy Scripture. In order to find out the type of quotation we used King James Version in English and the Synodal translation, Canonized version in Russian. 1) Direct quotation. This group is the largest. English authors use direct quotations more than modified ones. Having analyzed the original text and its Russian version we found only one group – quotation in English version – quotation in Russian translation, because all the quotations were translated as quotations from the Bible in Russian. Direct quotation 298. “Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies. She riseth while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household. She girdeth her loins with strength and strengthneth her arms. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; her candle goeth not out by night. She looketh well to the ways of her household and eateth not the bread of idleness. Her children arise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her. Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. … Her children arise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and praiseth her. Many daughters have done virtuously, but she exelleth them all.” 278. – «Кто найдет добродетельную жену? Цена ее выше жемчугов. Она встает еще ночью и раздает пищу в доме своем, препоясывает силою чресла свои и укрепляет мышцы свои. Она чувствует, что занятие ее хорошо, и светильник ее не гаснет и ночью. Она наблюдает за хозяйством в доме своем и не ест хлеба праздности. Встают дети – и ублажают ее; встает муж – и хвалит ее; много было жен добродетельных, но ты превзошла всех их». Parables 31 (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) “The Heavens declare the Glory of God, and the Firmament sheweth His handiwork”. “Небеса возглашают славу Господу, и твердь являет плоды трудов Его”. (American tragedy) (The Old Testament / Psalm 18:2). Shortened quotation: “If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall move; and nothing shall be impossible unto you”. # 512 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… “Если вы будете иметь веру с горчичное зерно и скажете горе сей “перейди отсюда туда”, – и она перейдет; и ничего не будет невозможного для вас”(American tragedy). Here we see shortened direct quotation from Bible, New Testament / Mattew / 17:18-21: “And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, if ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you”. “И запретил ему Иисус, и бес вышел из него; и отрок исцелился в тот же час. Тогда ученики, приступив к Иисусу наедине, сказали: почему мы не могли изгнать его? Иисус же сказал им: по неверию вашему; ибо истинно говорю вам: если вы будете иметь веру с горчичное зерно и скажете горе сей: “перейди отсюда туда”, и она перейдёт; и ничего не будет невозможного для вас”. 294. That was just Clare’s own opinion. But he was perturbed. ‘Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid,’ said the Nazarene. Clare chimed in cordially; but his heart was troubled all the same. 274. Клэр придерживался того же мнения. И, однако, был в смятении. «Пусть сердце твое не ведает ни тревоги, ни страха», – сказал Назареянин. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 2) Modified quotation. Modified quotations from the Bible are usually recognized by the translator, and in the Russian version of the book have connections with the Holy Scripture. “Thy desire shall be to thy mate”. “И будет к жене твоей влечение твое”. (American Tragedy) (The Old Testament, Genesis, 3:16): “Thy desire shall be unto thy husband» (“…И к мужу твоему влечение твое…”). 167. ‘There is a time for everything,’ continued Izz, unheeding. ‘A time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing; the first is now going to be mine.’ ‘Fie – it is Scripture, Izz!’ 154. – Всему свое время, – не обращая на нее внимания, продолжали Изз. – Время для объятий и время, когда нужно воздержаться от них; сейчас мне на долю выпадет первое. – Фи! Ведь это из Священного писания, Изз! (Tess of the D’Ubervilles) 181. “The ownership of property has now become a religious question: as it has been since Jesus and St. Francies. The point is not, take all thou hast and give it to the poor, but use all thou hast to encourage the industry and give work to the poor.” 258. Вопросу собственности придается сейчас чуть ли не религиозное значение. Впрочем, это повелось еще со времен Христа. Вспомни хотя бы святого Франциска. Только теперь мы говорим немного иначе: вместо «раздай имущество бедным» – «вложи, что имеешь в производство». Чтобы у бедных была работа. (Mattew 19:21, Mark 10:21, Luke 18:22) (Lady Chatterley’s Lover) According to G. Denisova (Денисова, 2003), the main circumstance of the equivalent translation of intertextual element (intertextual elements from Bible in this research) – is that it was recognized by the translator. The Holy Scripture, as many scientists note, is the most important precedent text, and very often translators and readers easily recognize idioms and quotations from the Bible in the text. As we can see from the examples above they are quite recognizable by translators in fiction. Those examples where idioms were not translated are few and form only 10% of all the analyzed examples. In this case we may suppose that translator couldn’t recognize them in the text, or it was one of the translation techniques – omission. # 513 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… Interjections and Ways of Their Translation Now we consider the ways of translation of interjections in fiction and difficulties of their translation. According to the “Big Encyclopedia” (Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь, 2000), interjections are neither connecting nor autonomous parts of speech and intended for nonsegmented expression of emotional reactions to the environment. V.N. Yartseva (Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь, 2000) believes that interjections function in three semantic fields of speech: emotions and emotional evaluations, will or desire and etiquette. Interjections are the most expressive means of language. In fiction interjections are used in monologues and dialogues of the main characters thus making their conversations emotional and vivid. During this research we paid our attention to the fact, that very often in the structure of interjection we can find biblical words, to be exact, divine names: oh, Christ; by God; Jesus; oh, Lord etc. According to the classification of interjections given in “The Dictionary of the Linguistic Terms” by O.S. Akhmanova, «interjection, similar in its form to the vocative noun or vocative collocation are called vocative interjections» (Ахманова, 2004. С. 225]. So, as long as these group of interjections have names from the Bible in their structure, we will term them «biblical interjections». This group of interjections is also used as emotional and expressive marker, thus showing feelings and emotions of the main characters. Now let us have a look at the translation of the biblical interjections. The sources are: novel «The Grapes of Wrath» by J. Steinbeck and its translation into Russian by N. Volzgina and D.H. Lawrence’s «Lady Chatterley’s Lover» translated into Russian by I. Bagrov and M. Litvinova. In the examples below there are page numbers of the original text and its translation. On the basis of the translation analysis, several types of translation were found. On the basis of the founded types the following groups were formed: Group 1 – biblical interjections in English translated as biblical interjections into Russian. Translation of this group can be characterised as equivalent. 102. “Thank God,” she said. “Oh, thank God!” 78. – Слава Богу, – сказала она.- Слава Богу. (The Grapes of Wrath) 106. “He’s goin’ to hell on a poker, praise Gawd!” 84. – В пекло прямо на кочерге въедет, слава господу. (The Grapes of Wrath) 315. “Oh, Lord!” She subsided, breathing heavily. 325. – О господи! – И, вздохнув всей грудью, она умолкла. (The Grapes of Wrath) Group 2 – biblical interjections in English are not translated into Russian. Biblical interjections were omitted by the translator, so we will not find them in the Russian version of the novel. This group is the largest. 352. My God, we can’t pick them and dry and sulphur them. 368. Cобирать их, сушить, окуривать серой? (The Grapes of Wrath) 342. “My God, she’s a-getting’ big,” he said. 356. – Ну и толстеет она у нас! (The Grapes of Wrath) 344. “Jesus Christ, pretty soon they’re gonna make us pay to work” 358. – Скоро, пожалуй, нам самим придется приплачивать, лишь бы устроиться. (The Grapes of Wrath) # 514 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… Group 3 – biblical interjections in English translated as not-biblical interjection into Russian. In this case the translator doesn’t omit interjections, but translates them not with the biblical equivalent. The biblical interjection translated as verbal, primary, secondary, vocative, or with other possible type of interjection. 94. Christ, look at ‘er! 70. Полюбуйтесь-ка. Ну и ну! (The Grapes of Wrath) 97. ‘By God’ he says, ‘by God, I wisht I was a doin’ that!’ 73. «Эх, говорит, эх, кабы мне так!» (The Grapes of Wrath) 78. “God Awmighty,” said Joad. 52. – Ох, чтоб тебе! – сказал Джоуд (The Grapes of Wrath) Group 4 – biblical interjections in English translated into Russian with their biblical analogue. Biblical interjections translated not with the possible equivalents, but with another biblical interjections – analogues. 200. “Christ, I don’t know. Jus’ plug away at her.” 192. – Ей-богу, не знаю. Доползем какнибудь. (The Grapes of Wrath) 339. “Jesus, God, Jeremy. You ain’t got to tell me.” 353. – Господи владыка, он мне рассказывает! (The Grapes of Wrath) Group 5 – no biblical interjections in English text – biblical interjections in Russian translation. In this group in English text we see verbal, primary, secondary, vocative, or other possible types of interjections, which are translated into Russian as biblical interjections. 413. “Oh, my!” Ma said wearily. “Oh, my dear sweet Lord Jesus asleep in a manger!” 436. – О господи! – устало проговорила мать. – О господи Иисусе непорочный младенец! (The Grapes of Wrath) It is noticeable, that in the commentary to the original version by V.A. Kukharenko, the phrase “Oh, my dear sweet Lord Jesus asleep in a manger!” was translated also with the biblical interjection – « О боже, невинный и безгрешный!» 233. “Ah!” he said. “Take the man for what he means.” 334. – Господи! Не ищи ты в сказанном больше того, чем там есть, – проговорил он с легкой досадой. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover) Group 6 – antonymous translation of the biblical interjection. Biblical interjections were translated as biblical interjection but positive divine beings (God, Lord) or biblical proper names (Jesus Christ) were changed to the negative ones (черт, дьвол). 78. “Well, by God? I’m hungry.” 51. – Эх, черт! А я проголодался. (The Grapes of Wrath) 138. “Holy Jesus,” he said, “them springs is flat as hell.” 119. – Ах черт! – сказал он. – Рессоры совсем просели. (The Grapes of Wrath) 142. “God Almighty, the fan belt’s gone!” 124. – А черт! Ремень лопнул у вентилятора! (The Grapes of Wrath) As we can see from the examples above, another characteristic of the translation of the biblical interjection is that interjectional forms of the vernacular language were not translated into Russian (praise Gawd – слава господу, God Awmighty – ох, чтоб тебе, и др.). According to A.V. Fedorov (Федоров, 2002), translation of the vernacular language is one of the most difficult tasks. But vernacular language is possible to translate, since «problem of the vernacular language as one of the most difficult # 515 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… in its practical and theoretical aspect…presumes attentive and careful consideration of interaction of all the aspects of language, what makes it possible to convey stylistic originality of the novel» (Федоров, 2002. С.345). Very often inaccuracy in translation of interjections leads to incorrect transmission of the emotional information of the original text. This fact influences the way Russian readers comprehend a book. Unfortunately, in the considered books about 40% of biblical interjections were not translated into Russian, 20% of those were translated incorrectly, and most of them in translation were replaced by other types of interjections, only some of them were translated correctly thus conveying emotional information. Conclusions and future work Intertextual elements are quite recognizable in the text and as we can see from the examples given, the methods of translation of the biblical intertextual elements in fiction can vary according to the type of the element (idiom, quotation, interjection). Despite this there are some common features in translation: all the elements can be translated with its equivalent, analogue or omitted. References 1. 2. 3. Ахманова О.С. Словарь лингвистических терминов. – М.: Едиториал УРСС, 2004. – 576 с. Денисова Г.В. В мире интертекста: язык, память, перевод. – М.: Азбуковник, 2003. – 298 с. Климович Н.В. Библеизмы как интертекстуальные компоненты в художественном тексте // Вестник Красноярского государственного университета. Гуманитарные науки. 2006’6/2. – Красноярск, 2006. С. 13-19. 4. Климович Н.В. К вопросу об определении библеизма в лингвистике // Вестник Красноярского государственного университета. Гуманитарные науки. 2006’3/2. – Красноярск, 2006. С. 200-204. 5. Климович Н.В. Междометия библейского характера и особенности их перевода (на материале романа Джона Стейнбека «Гроздья Гнева») // Теоретические и прикладные аспекты межкультурной коммуникации: Сб. ст./ под ред. О.В. Гусевой; Краснояр. гос. ун-т. – Красноярск, 2005. С. 86-90. 6. Климович Н.В. Особенности перевода библеизмов // Профессиональная подготовка переводчика: современные концепции и опыт: Сб.ст./ под ред. О.В. Гусевой; Краснояр. гос. ун-т. – Красноярск, 2004. С. 46-48. 7. Комиссаров В.Н. Современное переводоведение. – М.: ЭТС, 2002. – 424 с. 8. Кунин А.В. Курс фразеологии современного английского языка/ А.В Кунин – М.: Высшая школа, 1972. – 334 с. 9. Федоров А.В. Основы общей теории перевода. – М.: ФИЛОЛОГИЯ ТРИ, 2002. – 416 с. 10. Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь/Гл. ред. В.Н. Ярцева. – 2-е изд. – М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 2000. – 688 с. 11. T. Rajan «Intertextuality and the Subject of Reading/Writing». Inf luence and Intertextuality in Literary History. ed. by Jay Clayton and Eric Rothstein.(– Madison, Wisconsin, 1991). 61-74. 12. Гарди Т. Тэсс из рода Д’Эбервиллей/ Пер. с англ. А. Кривцовой. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ»: ОАО «Люкс», 2004. – 413 с. # 516 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English… 13. Джеймс Г. Женский портрет/ Пер. с англ. М.А. Шерешевской, Л.Е. Поляковой. – М.: Наука, 1984. – 589 с. 14. Драйзер Т. Американская трагедия/ Пер.с англ. Норы Галь, З. Вершининой. – М.: НФ «Пушкинская библиотека», ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2003. – 907 с. 15. Лоуренс Д. Г. Любовник леди Чаттерли/ Пер.с анг. И. Багрова и М. Литвиновой. – СПб.: Азбука-классика, 2007. – 448 с. 16. Стейнбек Д. Гроздья гнева/ Пер. с англ. Н. Волжиной. Собр. соч. в 6 т. Том III. – М.: Издательство «Правда», 1989. – 480 с. 17. T. Dreiser «An American Tragedy». (– M.: «Foreign Languages Publishing House», 1951). – 753p. 18. T. Hardy «Tess of the D’Ubervilles.» (– Bungay: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd., 1967). – 446p. 19. H. James «The Portrait of a Lady». (– London: Marshall Cavendish Ltd., 1987). – 576p. 20. D.H. Lawrence «Lady Chatterley’s Lover». (– London: Penguin Books, 1994). – 365p. 21. J. Steinbeck «The Grapes of Wrath». (– M.: Progress Publishers, 1978). – 530p. Интертекстуальные элементы и методы их перевода Н.В. Климович Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а Исследования интертекста и интертекстуальности довольно популярны на современном этапе развития лингвистики. Исследователи посвящают свои работы видам интертекстуальных элементов в текстах различных типов, источникам их происхождения, а также основным стратегиям перевода данных единиц. Среди основных источников происхождения интертекстуальных элементов исследователи чаще всего отмечают текст Священного Писания. Элементы библейского текста (слова, фразеологические единицы, цитаты) одни из наиболее часто используемых в текстах различных типов. В случае их перевода мы зачастую сталкиваемся с неверными стратегиями их передачи, которые не только влияют на понимание и опознавание интертекстуальных элементов русскоязычным читателем, но и затрудняют общее понимание текста оригинала на русском языке. Ключевые слова: интертекстуальные элементы; интертекст; прототекст; метатекст; фразеологическая единица; цитата; прямая цитата; измененная цитата; междометия; междометия библейского характера; методы перевода. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 518-525 ~~~ УДК 81.33 Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem Ekaterina M. Feytelberg* Siberian Federal University 82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 Linguistic iconism, though frequently mentioned by modern linguists, is still unexplored within the framework of translation theory. To work out a strategy that could be applied to iconic units in literary text it should be regarded from the point of view of an integrative approach. This article is an attempt to consider phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena in Turkish literary text from a point of view of a new approach that would take into consideration not only semantic meaning of the unit , but also the function it performs, its composition and type. The author suggests the definitions of phonosemantics and phonostylistics and analyses the cases of their role in the literary text. The article deals with such phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena as onomatopoeia, sound symbolism, sound metaphor, alliteration and assonance. This article represents a base for composing a new strategy of dealing with iconic lexical units. Keywords: translation, translation problems, equivalence, adequacy, literary text, Turkish language, phonosemantics, phonostylistics, onomatopoeia, sound symbolism, sound metaphor, alliteration, assonance. Point of view Translation of any literary text is a very challenging task for a translator. Possessing a unique esthetic value, literary translation requires not only good knowledge of source and target languages, but other competences that are vital for interpretation of the stylistic means used by author. For the literary text translation to be adequate, it has to convey the techniques the author used both intentionally and unintentionally to have an influence upon the reader. Phonosemantic and phonostylistic means are also an integral part of the figurative system of the literary text, therefore they have to be carefully transferred into the target text. * 1 But, as S.V. Voronin has repeatedly said, for translators «linguistic iconism (onomatopoeia and sound symbolism) has always been something of a stepchild. Translation theory was never aware of it as a problem in its own right» (Voronin, 1990). But, in fact, it should be considered as a problem, because avoiding and omitting phonosemantic and phonostylistic units may result in considerable distortion of its stylistic effect. Voronin and Pago emphasize, that «iconic words are not only words that are felt to possess a phonetically motivated tie between sound and sense – iconic, too, are all those countless words where, in the course of historical development, this tie has become obscured but where it can be uncovered with the Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 518 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem aid of etymological analysis» (Voronin, 1990; Voronin, Pago, 1995). It is worth mentioning that not only etymologically iconic words can have phonosemantic and phonostylistic meaning; in certain literary contexts non-iconic words can become phonosemantically or phonostylistically relevant. The object of this study is not onomatopoeia or iconic words in Turkish literary text, but phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena, i.e. realization of the iconic words within the framework of the figurative system of the literary text. To further this research it is necessary to differentiate the two terms. Phonosemantics investigates the vast domain of linguistic iconism (as instanced by onomatopoeia and sound symbolism and the sound/sense link in a word. From the point of view of the iconic system’s chief property, the aim of phonosemantics would be the study of iconism as the indispensable, essential, recurrent and relatively stable non-arbitrary phonetically (primarily) motivated tie between of the phonemes of the word and the property of the denotatum that serves as the basis for nomination (Voronin, 1990). It is a science on the joint of phonetics, semantics and lexicology, its object is iconic system of the language in pantopochrony. In short, the present research phonosemantic effect or phonosemantic phenomena refers more to semantization of the sounding of the literary text than to its stylistic properties. Phonostylistics studies expressive properties and stylistic potential of sounding words and word combinations together with rhythmic, syntactic, semantic and lexical realization of the text. It is situated on the joint of stylistics and phonetics. Speaking about phonostylistic phenomena we mean iconic and non-iconic means of language that due to their sounding shape can be relevant for the realization of the esthetic and expressive functions of literary text. Discriminating phonosemantics and phonostylistics is essential from the point of view of translation theory, because for phonosemantics, a translation unit is a lexical unit (iconic or noniconic), while for phonostylistics a translation unit is usually a unit of higher level, up to the literary text as a whole. The next step after defining phonostylistics and phonosemantics is examining the realization of phonostylistic and phonosemantic features in iconic and non-iconic lexical units. As mentioned above, in literary text etymologically non-iconic words can be phonostylistically or phonosemantically relevant; it should be also taken into consideration that sometimes iconic words are not perceived by a modern speaker as such and can be revealed only with the help of ethymological analysis. To overcome these complications, the basic points of the research can be listed as follows: 1) In certain contexts, non-iconic lexical units can be phonosemantically and/or phonostylistically relevant; 2) In most cases etymologically iconic lexical units bare phonosemantic or phonostylistic meaning; 3) Any phonosemantically relevant linguistic unit also refers to phonostylistic meaning of the text; 4) Semantization of phonostylistic figures on the phonosemantic level is not obligatory. The main conclusion of this article is that for performing adequate literary translation, a translator has to be able to differentiate between phonosemantics and phonostylistics, to identify the function and the message of each phonosemantically or/and phonostylistically relevant linguistic unit in the literary text. The present approach to literary translation enables the translator to transfer the intentional expressive techniques applied by the author into a target text. # 519 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem Examples Within the framework of this research, a wide range of Turkish literary texts has been analyzed. Among them there are such pieces of modern Turkish literature as «Istanbullular» by Buket Uzuner, «Masumiyet Müzesi» and «Öteki Renkler» by Orhan Pamuk, and such bright example of classic Turkish literature of the XX century as «Çalıkuşu» by Reşat Nuri Güntekin and humorous stories by a brilliant Turkish satirist Aziz Nesin. From the point of view of phonostylistics and phonosemantics, the problems of translation can be caused by the following phenomena: 1. Onomatopoeia. Achieving equivalence on the level of onomatopoetic words is a basic problem a translator usually faces (Voronin, Ermakova, 1991) Vlakhov S. and Florin S. in their book «Непереводимое в переводе» («Untranslatable in Translation») refer to onomatopoetic words as to words with no direct equivalents in other languages (Vlakhov, Florin, 1986). Nevertheless, some linguists have noticed that onomatopes in different languages have much in common. In Turkey the author of formal classification of onomatopes, Hamza Zülfikar, wrote that «People who speak different languages give more or less the same names to the sounds of nature, because the easiest and natural ways to express this or that sound and very alike. The differences between onomatopes in different languages can arise in the process of secondary onomatopes derivation, but it is still possible to find similarities on the primary onomatopes level» (Zülfikar, 1995). In Russia the postulate about the translation of onomatopes belongs to the founder of phonosemantics, S.V. Voronin. S.V. Voronin and N.M. Ermakova have proved that there are no such drastic differences between onomatopes in different languages; applying universal phonosemantic classification by S.V. Voronin enables us to predict the structure of the onomatope in the target language in 90% of cases (Voronin, Ermakova, 1991). Due to the universal phonosemantic classification this problem of translation can be practically solved. To illustrate this, we can turn to one of the onomatope classes defined by S.V. Voronin. Instants are onomatopes that designate pulses (the pulse is an instant sound like a tap, tick, click or knock) (Voronin, 1982). Ex facte, instants in different languages look diverse, but this diversity is in fact hidden similarity; phonetic analysis shows that their construction is isomorphic and can be represented as follows (PLOS = plosive, AFFR = affricate, VOC = short vowel): PLOS VOC PLOS AFFR As emphasized by S.V. Voronin, the sounds of the phonemotype tend to be pulselike themselves; hence plosives (as well as affricates) in onomatopes designating pulses are not purely phonetical, they are «semantically loaded» (Voronin, 1990). So, having defined the phonemotype of the present onomatope, it is possible to predict its equivalent in the target language, so that its phonetic construction corresponds to the phonemotype scheme. Onomatopes of this phonemotype are present in the following examples: İstanbul matbuatı ateş etmeye hazır bir batarya vaziyetinde, benden küçük bir işaret üzerine bam!... bum!... (Güntekin, 2000). Firstly, the words are certainly etymologically and semantically iconic, it is fixed in the onomatopes dictionary by Hamza Zülfikar (Zülfikar, 1995); secondly, their phonemotype totally corresponds to the that of an instant as described by S.V. Voronin as it consists of the plosive /b/, short vowels /a/ and /u/, and, finally, plosive /m/. The sentence is translated into Russian as: Стамбульская пресса, как артиллерийская батарея, находится в боевой готовности. Стоит мне # 520 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem подать маленький знак – и бах!... бух!... The phonemotype of the Russian onomatope can ve desctibed just like the Turkish one in the source text, except for the final /kh/ instead of a plosive sound. So, in general the phonemotype of the word in both source and target languages remains isomorphic. The next example contains an onomatope derived from a primary onomatope, according to to classification by Hamza Zülfikar) (Zülfikar, 1995). Having an iconic origin, this derived word also has to be treated as an onomatope, with a phonemotype of an instant. Bu yay, asabî parmaklarım arasında birdenbire çatladı, iki parça oldu (Güntekin, 2000). The iconic verb çatla- is derived from the onomatope çat, which means «a sound of a fragile object breaking» (Zülfikar, 1995); its direct Russian equivalent is хруст – хрустеть, which does not only correspond to its lexical meaning, but also to its phonemotype. So, the sentence is translated into Russian as В моих нервных пальцах смычок вдруг хрустнул и разломился надвое. 2. Sound symbolic lexical units that do not correspond with a sounding denotatum. Sound symbolism is always a phonostylistic phenomena; contributing to the semantization of the sounding of the literary text, sound symbolism can often become phonosemantically relevant itself. The translation of sound symbolic elements can cause more problems than onomatopoeia because the phenomenon of sound symbolism is vaguer and less explored than onomatopoeia; in the majority of cases it is almost impossible to apply any certain technique to the translation of sound symbolism. Though there is a way of dealing with it. Firstly, it is necessary to identify the function performed by the sound symbolic unit in the text. The translation technique depends most of all on the function. If it is impossible to find a direct sound symbolic equivalent in target language, then the sound symbolic effect can be compensated in another part of the sentence, it can be translated descriptively or be substituted by onomatopoeia. Some problems that arise during translation of sound-symbolic elements in literary text are presented in the following examples: ‘Böyle bir rezilin çıktğı köyü Allah yerle bir eder elbet bigün... deyip mutfağa savuştu. Emin Hoca’nın dudakları kıpır kıpır. İyice yalvardım: ‘Emin Hoca emmi... Kurban olayım...’ – Конечно, в один прекрасный день Аллах сотрет с лица земли деревню, из которой вышел столь недостойный человек! – сказала она и скрылась на кухне. Губы Эмина-ходжи мелко-мелко задрожали. Я взмолился: «Эмин-ходжа, дядюшка… Ну прошу тебя…» (Nesin, electronic source). In this example finding a sound-symbolic equivalent to the word combination kıpır kıpır was both possible and relevant from the point of view of the quality of translation. But in some situations it is obligatory to find another way of conveying the meaning of the sound-symbolic unit that does not have a direct equivalent in the target text. For example, in this case the translator managed to take advantage from reduplication. Unlike Turkish language, in which reduplicated lexical units are very frequent and productive, in Russian they occur less often, consequently they are more exressively and stylistically marked than reduplicated lexical units in Turkish language. The next example is taken from «Masumiyet Müzesi» («Museum of Innocence») by Orhan Pamuk, whose style is famous for a special «oriental» style of narrating, very picturesque and metaphoric. Dışarıda, İstanbul’da bahar günlerine özgü o pırıl pırıl gök vardı (Pamuk, 2008). Epithet pırıl pırıl is sound-symbolic, it does not refer to a sounding denotatum, but its phonetic shape feels like a sound effect, an essential element of the phonostylistic and phonosemantic system of the text. In fact, it has a non-iconic and non-symbolic synonym # 521 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem parlak, and being replaced with it, the epithet could have dramatically change the image of the utterance. So, the sound symbolic effect can be compensated in the translation by means of additional lexical units, like Небо было таким ослепительно сияющим, каким оно бывает только в Стамбуле весной. 3. Sound metaphor, according to the definition by Yu. Lotman, is «any equalization of one sound complex to another, like rhyme and different kinds of sound repetitions. Sound metaphor binds phonetic phenomena in a person’s mind by means of association that generates emotional influence, anticipated and directed by the author» (Prokofyeva, 2009). Sound metaphor is widely used in Turkish literary text. Due to the firm principle or Turkish writing, sound metaphor is frequently accompanied by occasional changes and distortions of spelling. Thereby it is possible to claim, that in Turkish literary text sound metaphor is situated on the joint between phonosemantics and phonostylistics. In most cases the function it performs in literary text is figurative function, which means that it enables the reader to «hear» the scene as the author imagines it. This technique can cause serious problems for the translator. Martı yağmurda, damın üstünde hiçbir şey olmamış gibi duruyor. Sanki yağmur yağmıyor; her zamanki gibi kıpırdamadan duruyor. Ya da martı bir büyük filozof, aldırmıyor. Öyle duruyor. Damın üstünde. Yağmur yağıyor. Öyle duran martı da sanki şöyle düşünüyor: ‘Biliyorum, biliyorum, yağıyor; ama yapacak fazla bir şey yok.’ Ya da: ‘Evet, yağmur yağıyor, ama bunun ne önemi var’ (Pamuk, 1999). In this example not only the words roots themselves, but also grammatic affixes become phonostylistically relevant. The author takes advantage from several factors: firstly, the word yağmur «rain» is usually used together with verb yağmak «to rain»; due to being paronymous and consisting mostly of vowels, their combination yağmur yağıyor sounds melodious and soft. In the quoted extract the word combination yağmur yağıyor is repeatedly accompanied by verbs in the form of Present tense with the suffix –yor-, which also contributes to the phonostylistic pattern of the text, creating its rhythm and melody. Another reason for the suffix –yor- to possess the phonosemantic meaning is the fact that it is untypical for a Turkish word to have sound /o/ in the end of the word; etymologically this suffix originates from a separate verb that meant «to go», but gradually transformed into the Present Tense suffix. So, frequent repetition of this grammatical form can have a specific phonosemantic sounding in the literary text. Translating this extract into Russian using only ordinary verbs in Present tense is not enough, it requires a special strategy to recreate the meditative mood of the scene. Чайка сидит на крыше под дождем, будто ничего не случилось. Сидит под дождем не шевелясь, как будто дождя нет. Или эта чайка – великий философ, она не придает дождю значения. Так и сидит. На крыше и под дождем. А дождь идет и идет. И кажется, будто чайка думает так: «Знаю, знаю, дождь, но ведь ничего с этим поделать нельзя». Или так: «Да, дождь идет, и чего в этом такого?». Exaggerated repetitiveness of the word дождь «rain», the frequency of hissing sounds and reduplications идет и идет, знаю, знаю help to create the meditative rhythm of the scene and make the whole extract sound close to rustling of raindrops. Another example of sound metaphor can be seen in a story by Turkish satirist Aziz Nesin. In satiric writing and other types of humorous text such phonosemantic techniques can be quite frequent for not only conveying the emotions of the characters or creating the atmosphere of the situation, but also to contribute some expression and humour into the text. Dişlerimi sıka sıka, # 522 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem yumruğumu vura vura, kalemi bastıra bastıra yazdığım yazılan hatırlayıp birden kendimden korkmaya başladım (Nesin, electronic source). In this sentence the sound metaphor is represented by the rhythm of reduplicated word combinations. Reduplication itself is widely used in Turkish expressive speech, mostly in colloquial speech and literary text. In literary text this reduplication has dual nature: on one hand, grammatically it is just another way of deriving adverbial participle, but due to their reduplicated nature they are also expressively marked; on the other hand, reduplication also contributes a special sound effect to the text, creating the sound metaphor. Russian language doesn’t have such a mechanism of contributing expression into the utterance by grammatical means. So, in Russian translation we have nothing to do but compensate the lack of grammatical and reduplicative means by lexical ones. Вспомнив, сколько всего я написал, со злостью сжимая зубы, колотя от ярости кулаком по столу, с силой нажимая на ручку, мне стало страшно. 4. Alliteration and assonance, that are repetitions of similar sounds and their combinations, can refer both to phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena. Even though occurrence of alliteration and assonance is more typical for poetry than for prose, sometimes writers turn to these techniques to add more expressiveness to the utterance, or to create an unusual stylistic and phonosemantic effect. Contributing to creating the mood and the atmosphere of the piece, they can help the reader imagine the scene better, to «hear» it with their «inner ear», like in the following example: İki yaşlı kadın daha birbirini görür görmez ağlaşmaya başladılar. Ağlayıp kucaklaştılar, kucaklaşıp ağlaştılar.<…> Rezzan Hanım’ın ilk sözü, ‘Ooh, kana kana ağladım da ferahladım <…>’ demek oldu (Nesin, electronic source). The only iconic word in the extract is ağlamak «to cry»; but it is not always expressively marked because it does not have a non-iconic synonym. In this context, accompanied by other words, also rich in sound /a/, it makes assonance occur. The translator’s task is to preserve this phenomenon in the target text or replace it with another expressive technique of equal value. Только увидев друг друга, две старушки разрыдались. Рыдали и обнимались, обнимались и рыдали… После чего Резан-ханым сказала: «Ох, вот я вдоволь наревелась и мне стало легче». This variant of translation is conditioned by several factors: firstly, Russian verb плакать, unlike Turkish ağlamak, is not iconic, and unlike Turkish, it has expressively marked synonims рыдать and реветь. Secondly, none of the Russian equivalents of the verb ağlamak can accompany the verb обнимать (kucaklaşmak, to hug) with the effect of assonance. So, to compensate the expressive markedness of the phrase, the translator turned to another technique and took advantage of the variety of Russian synonyms for the verb to cry. An interesting example of alliteration is represented in a short story by Aziz Nesin «Ben Bir Copum» («I am a Truncheon»). Ben bir copum! <…> Amerika’dan buraya önce demokrasi geldi, sonra cip, arkadan da cop, yani ben geldim. Ciple cop, biz ikimiz demokrasinin açtığı yoldan geldik. – Я джоп, резиновая дубинка! <…> Из Америки к вам пришла сначала демократия, потом джипы, потом я. Мы, джип и джоп, приехали к вас в одной упаковке с демократией (Nesin, 1976). The word cop «truncheon» is not etymologically iconic, it is adopted from Persian (Nişanyan, electronic source). Nevertheless, its phonetic shape makes it associated with the sound of a truncheon blow and this similarity was taken use of. Due to its alliteration with the word cip «jeep» it stands out in the text and can not be omitted in the process of translation without # 523 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem distorting the stylistic image of the text. So, preserving the word cop in the target text looks like the best solution as it attracts the readers’ attention both with its contrast with other Russian words and its phonetic shape. Results The results at this stage of research can be formulated as follows: the specific character of the literary text presupposes a special role for etymologically iconic, or occasionally phonosemantically and phonostylistically loaded linguistic units. Every phonosemantically relevant unit is a part of phonostylistic and stylistic system of the literary text and it requires a careful approach to its translation. An ability to recognize a phonosemantic element, to assess its value in the text, to identify its function within the framework of the literary text and to convey its meaning into the target text is vital for preserving the stylistic uniqueness of the text, the individual style of its author. The techniques chosen for the translation of this or that phonosemantic or phonostylistic phenomena may vary from direct equivalents to compensation, descriptive translation and functional translation. The aim of the translator in this case is conveying not only the message, but also the image of the text, its mood and atmosphere, its sound and sense. It means that literary translator has to be competent in phonosemantics and phonostylistics in order to be able to perform phonosemantic analysis of the literary text. References 1. 2. 3. Güntekin Reşat Nuri. Akşam Güneşi (İstanbul: İnkilap, 2000), in Turkish. Güntekin Reşat Nuri. Çalıkuşu (İstanbul: İnkilap, 2000), in Turkish. Nesin Aziz. Stories for you. Translated by L. Dudina (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literatur, 1976), in Russian. 4. Nesin Aziz. Vatan Sağolsun [Electronic source]. – www.franklang.ru, in Turkish. 5. Nişanyan S. Sözlerin Soyağacı [Electronic source]. – http://www.nisanyansozluk.com, in Turkish 6. Pamuk Orhan. Öteki Renkler: Seçme Yazılar ve Bir Hikaye. (İstanbul: İletişim Yayıncılık A.Ş., 1999), in Turkish. 7. Pamuk Orhan. Masumiyet Müzesi. (İstanbul: İletişim Yayıncılık A.Ş., 2008), in Turkish. 8. Prokofyeva L.P. Sound-colour associativity in language conscience and in literary text: universal, national and individual aspects, a dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor Litterarum (Saratov, 2009), in Russian. 9. Vlakhov S., Florin S. Untranslatable in Translation. (Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1986), in Russian. 10. Voronin S.V. Fundamentals of Phonosemantics. (Leningrad:Leningrad University Press, 1982), in Russian. 11. Voronin Stanislav. Phonosemantics and Translation, in Translation and Meaning, Part 2. : Proceedings of the Łódź Session of the 1990 Maastricht-Łódź Duo Colloquium on «Translation and Meaning», Held in Łódź, Poland, 20-22 September 1990. (Łódź, 1990). 12. Voronin S.V., Ermakova N.M. To the problem of equivalence in translation (based on english onomatopoetic words), in Informational-Communicative aspects of translation: interacademic research collection (Nizhniy Novgorod, 1991), in Russian. # 524 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina M. Feytelberg. Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem 13. Voronin S.V., Pago A.D. Equivalence in translation and iconic lexical units (semiotic approach), in The problems of English language structure in synchrony and diachrony : issue 7, «English Phylology in translational and comparative aspects» (Saint-Petersburg: Saint-Petersburg University Press, 1995), in Russian. 14. Zülfikar Hamza. Türkçede Ses Yansımalı Kelimeler. İnceleme-Sözlük. (Ankara, 1995), in Turkish. Фоносемантические и фоностилистические явления в турецком художественном тексте как переводческая проблема Е.М. Фейтельберг Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр.Свободный, 82а Несмотря на то, что многие современные лингвисты говорят о звукоизобразительности в языке, она до сих пор практически не изучена в контексте теории перевода. Для того чтобы выработать переводческую стратегию, которую можно было бы применять в художественном переводе, необходимо рассматривать звукоизобразительность с точки зрения интегративного подхода. Эта статья представляет собой попытку рассмотреть функционирование, состав и тип фоносемантических и фоностилистических явлений в турецком художественном тексте. Автором предложены определения фоносемантики и фоностилистики, дан анализ их значения в художественном тексте. В статье рассматриваются такие явления, как звукоподражание, звукосимволизм, звуковая метафора, аллитерация и ассонанс. Ключевые слова: перевод, проблемы перевода, эквивалентность, адекватность, художественный текст, турецкий язык, фоносемантика, фоностилистика, звукоподражание, звукосимволизм, звуковая метафора, аллитерация, ассонанс. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 526-535 ~~~ УДК 316.772.5 Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere Maria A. Pipenko* Ulyanovsk State University 42 Lva Tolstogo, Ulyanovsk, 432970 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article observes several ways in which Russian bloggers express their civic position by using Internet options and use blogosphere as a public spere.. Evolutionally, it describes how the Internet has changed the behavior of usually politically passive users of Russian cyberspace. Several cyber events that from the author point’s of view describes the evolution of development of self consciousness of Russian bloggers are presented in chronological order: the first ( and the only) Internet conference with President Vladimir Putin which occurred in Summer 2006, a cyber war with Estonia in April-May 2007, a cyber war with distributors of Biologically Active Addings in October 2007, it also mentions a cyber war with Georgia during the military actions in Summer 2008, and two cases when simple bloggers used the blogosphere recourse to resist the system. It analyzes how in situation of total lack of attention of politicians to the population everyday problems and the level of state corruption, blogs are the only way to catch an eye of authorities and make them act, when usual means do not work. It all proves that with the help of Internet tools, average users can become a significant power, having an ability to influence different political and social events. Keywords: Internet activity, blogs, Runet, cyberwars, political activity, civic activity, blogosphere, youth, Internet studies, Cybersociology. Point of view Despite significant development of Internet space in Russia, the potential of new media space as an area for political activity has not yet been completely evaluated. However, the role of mobile media in organizing political collective action has manifested itself worldwide through the following: coordination of street demonstrations (which, in the Philippines and Spain, some have asserted contributed directly to the downfall of regimes), monitoring elections, and augmenting the get-out-and-vote campaigns in both Western countries and Asia. The use of mobile telephony and SMS, both by themselves and in coordination with Internet tools such as listservs, blogs, and * 1 online fundraising is still young, but has had significant impacts in the world. [H.Rheingold, 2003]. Proper use of the Internet may change the predictable results of elections. In addition, as an arrangement of political powers, it may destroy business or political careers. An example of such Internet potential is a story of American senator Trent Lott. On December 5, 2002, during the reception in honor of the 100th birthday of senator James Strom Thurmond, who was known for his racist views and political projects against the black population in the US, the republican senator Trent Lott said: “When Strom Thurmond ran for Corresponding author E-mail address: alfi firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 526 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere president, we voted for him. We’re proud of it. And if the rest of the country had followed our lead, we wouldn’t have had all these problems over the years either.” [Hewitt 2001]. Even though there were a lot of press representatives at this reception, no journalists except ABC news reporter Ed O’Keefe paid attention to these words. ABC news mentioned Lott’s comments twice the following morning, but didn’t emphasize it. This story might have died if popular blogger Atrios didn’t post it in his blog, which triggered a chain reaction of cross postings and discussions. In three days, the whole blogosphere was discussing the racist remarks of Lott, puzzled by the absence of any reaction from the republicans and printed media [Hewitt 2001]. On the tenth of December, Lott finally apologized and the story was printed on the front pages of newspapers, including the links and quotes of bloggers. As a consequence, Lott was destroyed as a politician. Although he stayed in the US senate, he lost all support, including the support of the republican party. This example shows that with the rise of Internet media, especially the blogosphere, cycle and dynamics of information distribution have changed dramatically. As a result, institutionalized media channels have lost their peculiarity. It is now no longer necessary to have special equipment for broadcasting for creating a major media event. As it turns out, Internet access is all you need. Certainly, there are blog “stars” and “authorities,” whose blogs are read by thousands of subscribers. Because of this, their chance to be heard is slightly higher than a chance of an ordinary blogger. However, if there is a real story that is considered significant by most of the users, an average blogger may become reason enough for a cyberwar (the proof follows). In the world of “traditional” media, the news about the senator was broadcasted once on primetime and wasn’t repeated. Without the Internet, the news would disappear, but because of the opportunity to copy and paste the original link and express one’s opinion, users could gain the attention of the public and printed media. So , new technologies become a sphere where people express their their views on different questions, including their political and civic positions, in other words- public sphere, a phenomenon that was minutely studied by Jurben Habermas. He focused on political participation as the core of a democratic society and as an essential element in individual self-development. According to Habermas, public sphere as a space where citizens could express their opinion regarding social life concerns began appearing around 1700. The public sphere consisted of organs of information and political debate such as newspapers and journals, as well as institutions of political discussion such as parliaments, political clubs, literary salons, public assemblies, pubs and coffee houses, meeting halls, and other public spaces where socio-political discussion took place. For the first time in history, individuals and groups could shape public opinion, giving direct expression to their needs and interests while influencing political practice. The bourgeois public sphere made it possible to form a realm of public opinion that opposed state power and the powerful interests that were coming to shape bourgeois society. Habermas’s concept of the public sphere thus described a space of institutions and practices between the private interests of everyday life in civil society and the realm of state power. The public sphere thus mediates between the domains of the family and the workplace – where private interests prevail -and the state which often exerts arbitrary forms of power and domination. What Habermas called the “bourgeois public sphere” consisted of social spaces where individuals gathered to discuss their common public affairs and to organize against arbitrary and oppressive forms of social and # 527 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere public power. The principles of the public sphere involved an open discussion of all issues of general concern in which discursive argumentation was employed to ascertain general interests and the public good. The public sphere thus presupposed freedoms of speech and assembly, a free press, and the right to freely participate in political debate and decision-making (Kellner, 1998). In the contemporary high-tech societies there is emerging a significant expansion and redefinition of the public sphere to conceive of the public sphere as a site of information, discussion, contestation, political struggle, and organization that includes the broadcasting media and new cyberspaces as well as the face-to-face interactions of everyday life. ( Kellner 1995). Electronic modes of communication are creating new public spheres of debate, discussion, and information; that’s why usually politically passive people start not only discuss the relevant questions but also undertake some actions that they had never done before, thanks to easy access and simple organization of the blogosphere. The rise of the Internet expands the realm for democratic participation and debate and creates new public spaces for political intervention. Computers, have produced new public spheres and spaces for information, debate, and participation that contain both the potential to invigorate democracy and to increase the dissemination of critical and progressive ideas as well as new possibilities for manipulation, social control, the promotion of conservative positions, and intensifying of differences between haves and have nots (Kelner, 1998). Russian cyberspace has recently become an arena for political activity of both official and unofficial powers, but it might be more clearly seen as a specific feature of how ordinary Russian users express their civil position online. It is remarkable that the structure, ways of communication, and activity of the Internet make that expression much easier. Moreover, the Internet world offers original methods of the “problem impact” that are extremely attractive to a large part of RuNet users, including young, educated professionals. When RuNet users started to participate in mass actions, they did it with great pleasure and for fun. Russian language speakers transfer their sense of humor to many political and civic actions, a humor that is created and supported on the Internet. Examples In this article, I would like to describe several cyber events that can be considered as an evolutional line, and reflect on the development of ways, methods, and results of civic activity expression by Russian Internet users. You will see, how the whole attitude to the blogs has changed. Starting with innocent flash mobs, then using the whole power of social media collaboration, users finally realized, that blogosphere might be the only space in contemporary Russian media area, that posses abilities to unite the attempts to change the things and to express the opinion. I will introduce the following events: an Internet conference with Russian President Putin that happened in Summer 2006, the cyberwar with Estonia in April-May 2007, the war with distributors of Biologically Active Addings (BAA) in October 2007, the cyberwar with Georgia and fights against the system when simple users looking for justice grabbed attention of authorities to punish guilty ones. In July of 2006, search engine Yandex, the most popular web portal in RuNet, organized an Internet conference with Russian President Vladimir Putin, giving everyone an opportunity not only to ask the President a question, but to vote for any question the user liked. It was declared that the President would answer the questions that would collect the maximum number of votes. During the # 528 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere conference, the Internet population started to act. At the end of the conference, 175,895 questions had been asked. There were 1,259,420 votes in total. It is interesting to note that along with “ordinary” questions about political, economic and social situations in the country, a large part of the questions that were asked were absurd questions such as: “-Imagine you are an Elf and you are followed by angry orcs. You have a bow and arrows. You shoot very well and you are able to kill one ork with every arrow. The problem is that you have only five arrows and there are ten orcs after you. What would you do?” Another question read,“-Do you hear voices that command you to kill somebody?” One final question that was asked was, “Could you tell what you think about peasant’s log huts?” [Yandex, 2006]. However, the most popular questions that collected the biggest amounts of votes, 28,424 and 26,602 correspondingly, were: “Preved Vladimir Vladimirovich, what do you think about Medved?1” [Yandex 2006] In addition, “Is the Russian Federation going to use Huge Fighting Androids to defend the borders of the country?” [Yandex 2006]. As it turns out, the President didn’t answer those two questions (and RuNet was really disappointed), but the tactic expression of civic position by Russian speaking Internet users was indicated in them. A lot of the Mass Media didn’t take these questions seriously, assuming that 1 Medved (from Russian Medved’ (bear)- a character of RuNet, embodied as antroph-amorphous creature, looked like a bear. The peak of popularity of this image was in 2006. Its origin is connected with the picture “Bear Surprise” by John Lurie. On this picture, one can see a bear, who’s catching a couple, having sex in the forest, and telling them, “Surprise”, raising forepaws, wanting to scare them. In Russian version of this picture, the word surprise was replaced by Preved- errative spelling of Russian friendly greeting (Privet).As a result the gesture of upraised paws got absolutely different meaning [Wikipedia 2006]. this was another flash-mob. But it may also be viewed as an attempt to express the real feelings and the mood of RuNet users toward political authorities. By declaring themselves as a group that exists and has certain resources, RuNet users are saying: “We are not interested in politics. We do not believe that you will treat us seriously. But if we can have fun, we will, and if we can have fun with authorities, we will. That’s the way we are dealing with this.” Although authorities didn’t react to this way of thinking (showing that politics in Russia is spoken with stricter “official” language), this event was widely discussed on the Internet, and showed users the potential of expressing civic opinion. This idea was further proved nine months later. In April 2007, the Government of Estonia decided to dismantle the bronze statue of a World War II-era Soviet soldier in Tallin. As a result, this caused riots and street protests in Russia as well as in Estonia. Estonian authorities expected this; they also expected some reaction on the Internet. “If there are fights on the street, there are going to be fights on the Internet,” said Hillar Aarelaid, the director of Estonia’s Computer Emergency Response Team [Landler, Markoff 2007]. However, Estonia’s government didn’t expect that the actions that followed were what some described later as the fi rst war in cyberspace. While the defenders of the Bronze soldier kept vigil by the monument, Internet fields faced their own battles. By the end of April, there was the first massive attack on the websites of the Estonia Government. In different websites and weblogs on RuNet, there was a message with detailed descriptions on how to make 10,000 queries from one user as well as emails from the prime minister and Parliament. As a result, on the 26th and 27th of April, prime minister and government websites were shut down. # 529 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere The websites of the several daily newspapers were ruined on the 30th of April. Afterwards, the government of Estonia asked for help, expecting the biggest attack on the ninth and/or tenth of May (the national Russian holiday, also known as Victory day. The Russian holiday that marks the Soviet Union’s defeat of Nazi Germany and honors fallen Red Army soldiers). As expected, the attack happened. On the ninth of May, online banking of the largest Estonia bank, “Hansabank,” was blocked. Russians used unprecedented measures of blocking IP addresses with the help of computer security experts from NATO, the European Union, Israel and the US. Despite these efforts, the Estonian bank still lost approximately $1 million. For clients, this meant that they couldn’t use their accounts while abroad. The last wave of attacks occurred on the th 18 of May. After that, the war was finally over. During the investigation, Estonian authorities surmised that these attacks were managed by the Russian government, but after additional inquiry, it was found that the cyberwar was an initiative of RuNet users. Although the monument was removed anyway, Estonia sustained significant financial losses as well as losses to its reputation, being absolutely powerless to do something against “mass Russian hooliganism.” The third cyber event that had the largest response out of online users took place in October 2007. It wasn’t directly connected with politics, but it was an uncommon expression of the civic position of the Russian Internet population, resulting in substantial consequences offline. On October 12, 2007, a livejournal user whose nickname was “brockhurst” posted a story: his mother called him crying, asking for money to buy a new “miraculous” medicine “Gravikoll” that was advertised on the radio. The distributors of the medicine announced discounts for seniors within limited dates. Because of this, she needed the money as soon as possible. The blogger checked the list of Russian medicines, consulted with his friend’s doctor, and found out that there was no such miracle medicine, and that “Gravikoll” was merely a vitamin. After having read the story, an indignant blogger suggested that swindlers who made a profit by misleading seniors, one of the most financially vulnerable populations in Russia, should be punished. 5000 comments were left to this posting, and bloggers developed a strategy of the real war, with the intent of blocking the activity of the company. There were several tasks, which included: - block telephone lines - use as many delivery men as possible - attack radio stations who advertised this “medicine” - attract the attention of the community, media and authorities in order to take the problem to an even higher level First of all, the company that sold “Gravikoll” was ruined by the squall of telephone calls. According to one blogger, “delicateline,” during two days, distributors of the medicine received 14 million (!) calls [Belkin, 2007]. Telephone operators were asked by callers to give details about the medicine. When operators asked them what phone numbers they could call back at, they received the phone numbers of police departments, advertising departments of radio stations that advertised “Gravikoll,” the phones of the Federal Antimonopoly Department, and Ministry of Health of Russia. Users also left posts on websites (such as adult and apartment rental sites) with the phone number of the mentioned organization. As a result, the manufacturer was called for a variety of different services, including: plumbing, piano tuning, and escort services. # 530 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere To block the delivery service of the company, bloggers began ordering the medication, and gave addresses to distant neighborhoods of Moscow (the whole list of blocking methods could be found at http://consatosi.livejournal.com/15171. html). The same methods were used toward the radio station “Echo of Moscow,” one of the main advertisers of “Gravikoll”. Along with the rough methods of blocking the activity of the company, users started to call different media and public services. As a result, the whole activity of the company that sold the medicine was completely paralyzed. All basic Internet media and some printed newspapers posted information about this company and how it swindled seniors. The war with “Gravikoll” coincided with the teleconference of president Putin, causing a flashmob when Putin was asked when “Gravikoll” would be included into a basket of goods for Russians (Belkin 2007). On the 15th of October, three days after “brockhurst’s” post, an inquiry was made by the Federal Antimonopoly Department. The representatives of the department promised to institute proceedings against distributors of biologically active addings in “Gravikoll” because of violating the law of advertising. In August of 2008, along with real military actions on the territory of Southern Osetia, cyberactions were taken in the Cyberspace. However, it is necessary to mention that a cyberwar with Georgia, had a totally different nature than a Estonia cyberwar. The “fun” element was completely removed, for the fi rst time in world history, cyberwar accompanied real conflict. Nevertheless, the scenario of the last cyberwar was the same: governmental websites as well as websites of Mass Media and banks were under hacker attacks. For example, a photo collage of the Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili and Adolph Hitler was placed by Russian hackers on the fi rst page of the official website of Internal Affair of Georgia. This cyberwar was also noticed by a large amount of professional hackers who also participated in the actions. According to experts, these hackers were connected with the Russian Business network, a network of criminal computer professionals with close links to the Russian mafia and the government. The company is known for its hosting of child pornography, spam hosting and other criminal activities. On the 5th of августа in RBN Exploit blog was declared that Russian Business Network remembered about it “Russian” roots and began the Georgian cyberspace invasion. According to the websites owners, many Georgian web-sites were controlled by Russian hackers. Several hours later, a map was presented, according to which several Russian servers controlled the whole traffic of the key Georgian servers. Georgian hackers also participated actively: a famous news web-site RIA Novosti was blocked more than for 10 hours. The web site employers declared that it was a very serious planned attack. The informational war went far beyond RussianGeorgian cyberspace. The fi rst rate website of IT links quoted Koka Archvadze: “ Russia blocked Georgian web-sites for it citizens”. The same microblog contained other quotes:” Russian hackers attack every web-page that publish the real news from precipitable Georgia. (http:// lenta.ru/articles/2008/08/11/hack/). We can suggest, that this cyberwar was a turning point in changing the mentality of Russian users. They finally realized the power of Russian blogosphere. It turns that with the total lack of attention to the population everyday problem and the level of state corruption, blogs are the only way to catch an eye of authorities and make them act, when usual means do not work. Now we can notice another tendency, the blogosphere becomes a tool for the fight to get # 531 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere a personal justice. The following two stories are a good example of that. It is necessary to notice that the most recent cases can’t be described as performed in a fun and criminal style- probably because the topics are too dramatic. On the 21 of May, a simple user Alexander Shumm published in his blog , that his pregnant wife was knocked down by a car, that didn’t stop and left the locus delicti. The woman and her unborn baby died in the hospital. The witnesses of an accident wrote the license plate of the car. Soon the driver was found. He was a police officer, who denied everything. Alexander Shumm tried to bring an action against the driver but he was helpless till the blog post appeared. It grabbed an attention of many people. More than 1000 commentaries were left and users decided to help Alexander. Livejournal users were looking for the witnesses, looked thought the street cameras tapes, and helped the victim with advice. The case also took an attention of traditional media. So the news about the accident was presented into several federal TV-channels, all-Russian newspapers and radio stations. The driver was finally taken into the court and an accusation was brought against him. For better communication, a special group was organized in Vkontakte – the most popular Russian social network. The case is not closed yet, but the user keeps the readers informed. (http://ashumm.livejournal.com). The second story in a certain sense reminds the first one. It was also connected with the death of a baby: a perfectly healthy woman was taken into the hospital, where she gave birth. The doctors reported to her husband that the child was absolutely fine but in the evening he found out that the baby was dead. He was struggling for two months trying to find out why his son died but everywhere he faced the situation when everybody from the hospital to the insurance company hide the information. Only when he published the story in the blog and users raised the post in top stories – he finally started to get some answers and got local authorities’ attention who took the investigation under control. He got an explanation form the reanimation group, who transported his baby to the different hospital and received the feedback of hospital management. This case also raised an important question- the responsibilities of doctors in contemporary juridical Russian system (http:// dead-mazay.li vejournal.com/29377.html). Resume As you can see, Russian users have become increasingly confident in their actions. The Internet conference with Vladimir Putin was an event that was mainly discussed online and didn’t draw much attention offline. However, the cyberwar with Estonia was a different situation. Though the bronze statue was removed, users still managed to cripple Estonian government. Methods that were used were limited to cyberspace. Furthermore, when RuNet was fighting with distributors of “Gravikoll,” the tools were more complicated. Users also used offline space, and as such they were successful in achieving results. The work of the company was blocked, the authorities attention was gained, and the company was sued. It seems that every user who has a story that may touch the hearts of bloggers can rely on the their help. So, the Internet may play a crucial role in establishing the relations between authorities and population and that raise several additional questions. Why the exact stories become the center of blogosphere news, when there are many similar situations are posted? How the access to such a powerful resource will develop the social inequality? And how to check the truth of posted stories if there were already several false stories of that kind? Somehow or other, the users permanently develop new strategies to express # 532 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere their civic and political position through the Internet. As Douglas Kellner writes : the political battles of the future may well be fought in the streets, factories, parliaments, and other sites of past conflict, but politics today is already mediated by media, computer, and information technologies and will increasingly be so in the future. Those interested in the politics and culture of the future should therefore be clear on the important role of the new public spheres and intervene accordingly. It is hard to conjecture how this feature could change the dynamics of social, political and cultural life in Russia. Who will control the media and technologies of the future, and debates over the public’s access to media, media accountability and responsibility, media funding and regulation? Will the new space be used by Russian political powers to manipulate Internet users, who might take advantage of its potential according to political interests of the ruling party? Could it in turn be used for coordination and creation of real cyberwars, using the right methods and ideology that would be interesting for the active part of RuNet? The Georgian cyberwar proved that this was possible. Or will perhaps Runetizens be able to stay independent, staying out of manipulation by different political and social forces, defining by themselves how to react and what events need to be reacted to. We have to face the fact, that at the present time, Russian Internet space is a critical resource with a huge potential for organizing different political and civic actions. References 1. Advesti, FAS will take institute proceedings against advertisers of Gravicol <http://www.advesti. ru/news/conflict/3122007gravikol>( 12/07) (original in Russian) 2. Alizar A. Blogger psychology: scientific research // webplanet.ru, 23 марта 2004 // http://www. webplanet.ru/news/internet/2004/3/23/ blog_survey.html (original in Russian) 3. Alizar А. Media against blogs: what is more influential // webplanet.ru, 22 марта 2005 // http:// www.webplanet.ru/news/internet/2005/3/22/btogga.html (original in Russian) 4. Belkin, I., Intelligent and ruthless, <http://lenta.ru/articles/2007/10/15/flashmob/>(15/10/07) (original in Russian) 5. Vernidub, А. The language has an authEr // Русский Newsweek. № 17 // http:// runewsweek.ru/ theme/?tid=16&rid=215 (original in Russian) 6. Question to V.V. Putin,Yandex (2006) <http://president.yandex.ru/question. xml?id=179523>(02/07/06) (original in Russian) 7. Question to V.V. Putin,Yandex (2006) <http://president.yandex.ru/question.xml?id=155546> (01/07/06) 8. Question to V.V. Putin,Yandex (2006) (original in Russian) 9. <http://president.yandex.ru/theme.xml?id=151> (30/06/06) (original in Russian) 10. Gornyi Е. Ontology of virtual personality // Existence and language : Thesis of International conference. Novosibisrk, 2004. p. 78-88 // http://www.zhurnal.ru/staff/gorny/texts/ovr.html (original in Russian) 11. Zhichkina А. Interrelation of identity and behaviour in the Internet of teenagers // http://flogiston. ru/articles/netpsy/ avtoref_zhichkina (original in Russian) 12. Kaspe I., Smurnova V. Livejournal.com, Russian version: cry while he is alive // Neprikosnovenny zapas 2002. № 24. (original in Russian) # 533 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere 13. Castells M. The Internet galaxy: Reflection on the Internet, business and society, Ekaterinburg, 2004. (original in Russian) 14. Kobrin, К. Praise to blog // http://www.nlo.magazine.ru/dog/gent/ gent86.html (original in Russian) 15. Kotin M. Blog all mighty // The secret of the firm. 2005. July,25. p. 46-48. (original in Russian) 16. Levit М, « Social activity in the Internet», http://www.grposition.ru/fface/560-socialnajaaktivnost-v-internete.html (original in Russian) 17. Hitrov А. Blog as cultural phenomenon . The journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology. 2007. V. 10. Special edition p. 66-76. (original in Russian) 18. brockhurst (2007) no title,<http://brockhurst.livejournal.com/112937.html> (12/10/07) (original in Russian) 19. consatosi (2007)Echo of Moscow, BAD and seniors, <http://consatosi.livejournal.com/15171. html>, (13/10/07) (original in Russian) 20. Hewitt H., (2005) Blog: Understanding the Information Reformation That’s Changing Your World ,Thomas Nelson press. 21. Homero, G., Puig-I-Abril Eulàlia, Rojas Hernando «Weblogs, traditional sources online and political participation: an assessment of how the internet is changing the political environment», New Media & Society, Jun 2009; vol. 11: pp. 553 – 574. 22. Kerbel, M., and Bloom, J. Blog for America and Civic Involvement Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, Oct 2005; vol. 10: pp. 3 – 27. 23. Kellner, Douglas (1995)Intellectuals and New Technologies,” Media, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17: 201-217 24. Kellner Douglas (1998) Habermas, the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention 25. Landler,M., Markoff, J. Digital Fears Emerge After Data Siege in Estonia, <http://www.nytimes. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. com/2007/05/29/technology/29estonia.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin> (29/05/ 07) Lawson-Borders, G., Kirk R., «Blogs in Campaign Communication». American Behavioral Scientist, Dec 2005; vol. 49: pp. 548 – 559. MacDougall, R., «Identity, Electronic Ethos, and Blogs: A Technologic Analysis of Symbolic Exchange on the New News Medium». American Behavioral Scientist, Dec 2005; vol. 49: pp. 575 – 599. Rhiengold, H., (2006) Mobile Media and Political Collective Action <http://www.socialtext.net/ data/workspaces/pmca/attachments/smart_mobs:20070622223922-0-2989/original/Political%20 Smart%20Mobs%208_06.doc> (02/03/06) Thurman, N., «Forums for citizen journalists? Adoption of user generated content initiatives by online news media», New Media & Society, Feb 2008; vol. 10: pp. 139 – 157. Wikipedia, Medved, <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%E5%E4%E2%E5%E4>, (27/06/06). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria A. Pipenko. Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere Русскоязычная блогосфера как особое пространство выражения гражданской позиции М.А. Пипенко Ульяновский государственный университет Россия 432970, Ульяновск, ул Льва Толстого, 42 В статье рассмотрено несколько стратегий, с помощью которых русскоговорящие блоггеры выражают свою гражданскую позицию и используют блогосферу как публичную сферу, а также описано, как Интернет изменил поведение обычно политически пассивных пользователей русского киберпространства. В хронологическом порядке представлены несколько событий, которые показывают эволюцию развития самосознания российских блоггеров: первая (и единственная) Интернет-конференция с президентом России Владимиром Путиным летом 2006, кибервойна с Эстонией в апреле – мае 2007, кибервойна с распространителями БАД. Также в статье упоминается кибервойна с Грузией во время военных действий летом 2008 и попытки простых блоггеров противостоять системе. Автор считает что, в ситуации государственной коррупции и отсутствия внимания политиков к повседневным проблемам граждан блоги – это единственный способ обратить на себя внимание властей и заставить их хоть как-то повлиять на ситуацию, когда другие средства не работают. Все это доказывает, что обычные блоггеры Интернета обрели способность влиять на различные политические и социальные события в стране. Ключевые слова: блоги, Рунет, кибервойны, политическая активность, гражданская активность, блогосфера, Интернет-исследования, киберсоциология, публичная сфера . Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 536-545 ~~~ УДК 81.33 Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies Veronica A. Razumovskaya* Siberian Federal University 82 a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The poetic translation is considered to be one of the most complicated translation types, according to formal and content peculiarities of poetic texts performing aesthetic function. The formal and content anomalies of poetic texts in translation aspect can be described using the universal category of symmetry. The results of the present study were obtained through the process of investigating the strategies of translating onomatopes and paronymes in the text of the novel in verse by A.S. Pushkin “Eugene Onegin” into English. Keywords: poetic text, literary translation, aesthetic function, anomaly, symmetry, asymmetry, phonosemantics, unit of translation, onomatope, paronyme, paronomasia. Introduction A distinctive feature of any poetic text is its anomaly which helps to realize the main function of such texts - an aesthetic one. There are different types of anomalies, as reflected in the form, content, and in the types of relationships between form and content of the text. Formal anomaly of the poetic text is determined by its expressive sound shape, a particular poetic form (which distinguishes poetry from prose), and, often enough, figurative graphical form. The predominance of connotative meaning over denotative meaning, concentration of implicit meanings, deliberate preservation of the linguistic ambiguities of lexical units in speech, maximum optimization of all stylistic devices and techniques to create expressive text - all these can be attributed to the expressions of content anomalies. The types of content anomaly enumerated above * 1 are involved in creation of “tribal” anomaly of the plan - semantic ambiguity. The relationship between form and content of a poetic text can be defined as that of isomorphism. The active study of general regularities and features of poetic language, as well as individual characteristics of the language of some authors suggests the existence of a special theory of poetic speech [1; 2; 3; 5; 6; 10; 13; 16; 27; 29; 30]. Poetic Translation: Form and Content Along with the issues related to the linguistic theory of poetic texts, linguists, translators and specialists in translation theory pay much attention to the development of the theory of poetic translation. The problems of poetic translation are part of a wide range of issues of literary translation, but are characterized by their apparent specificity, which makes theorists and Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 536 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies practitioners have quite contradictory views on poetic translation up to rejecting any possibility of such a translation . Recognizing the possibility of poetic translation, we believe it necessary to study its basic laws, strategies and specific techniques. Emphasizing the importance of both formal and content characteristics of a poetic text and the objective existence of poetic unity in form and content, we consider the possibility of representing the formal characteristics of a poetic text by means of interlingual translation. Paying attention mainly to the formal aspect of the poetic text in the process of translation is rather conditional, as for both the author and the reader of the original meaning of the word in poetry is closely connected with its acoustic form. The form of an artistic work is very significant when perceived by a recipient (a reader). Aimed at the reader, literary translation to a certain extent brings together literary translation with the translations of the Bible. The task of the translator of literary texts is not to demonstrate their own poetic talent (if they wish to do so, they can write their own poems). The translator should act as an intermediary, “the bridge” between an important segment of human experience and the audience, who want to enjoy that experience, but can not overcome the barrier of their native language [28: 7]. Translation of a literary text is, in a sense, an “explanation” of the text to others. And this “explanation” should contain the “explanation” of both the content and formal features of the original text. The purpose of this “explanation” is a disclosure of the aesthetic potential of the original poetic text, and a realization of the aesthetic function of the original and the translation. It is generally recognized that aesthetic function is called to meet the aesthetic feelings of the reader. So formal - and first of all - sound characteristics of a literary text take on a considerable importance. Among the most frequently occurring sound phenomena that contribute to the realization of the aesthetic function are onomatopoeia, sound symbolism, alliteration, assonance, paronyme and paronomasia, rhyme, rhythm, intonation and stress. In this paper some of the sound phenomena mentioned above will be considered. When translating expressive texts, poetic texts in particular, there is often a conflict between expressive (as defined by K. Buller) and aesthetic function (“truth” and “beauty”) - between the poles of an ugly literal translation and a beautiful free translation [32: 42]. In “meaningless” poetry sound impact is more important than the meaning. In the poetry for children and refined (art-for-art) literature of the end of the XIX-th century (T. Gautier, P. Verlaine) euphonic “beauty” is more important than “truth” . P. Verlaine paid special attention to the musical sound of poetic lines and the, enhancement of the musicality of a verse. The poet described his principles of poetics and aesthetics in the program 1874 poem “Poetic Art” / “The Art of Poetry” (“Art poetique”), where poetry is clearly separated from other types of fiction. Poetry, according to the French poet, should possess some vague meaning which requires a special sound form. Words in P. Verlaine’s works are subjected to poetic logic (if logic in poetry exists at all), and are dissolved in sounds. They are not separate words any more but words-sounds, words-music whose meaning is blurred and intertwined in the poetic tissue. “De la musique avant toute chose, Et pour cela préfère l’impair, Plus vague et plus soluble dans l’air, Sans rien en lui qui pèse ou qui pose. Il faut aussi que tu n’ailles point Choisir tes mots sans quelque méprise : Rien de plus cher que la chanson grise Où l’Indécis au Précis se joint “ [36: 486]. B. Pasternak gave the following translation of the original strophes: «За музыкою только дело. Итак, не размеряй пути. Почти бесплотность предпочти Всему, что слишком плоть и тело. Не церемонься с языком И торной не ходи # 537 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies дорожкой. Всех лучше песни, где немножко И точность точно под хмельком » [36: 487] P. Verlaine laid the foundations of impressionistic poetry based on musicality [15; 18; 38]. The works of Russian poet-futurist, reformer of the poetic language V. Khlebnikov are a shining example of the dominance of sound over sense (sound form over content) in the poetic tissue . Thus, the sound complex of a poetic work is extremely important for the realization of the aesthetic function of literature. Along these lines, one of the main problems of poetic translation can be defined as the preservation of the initial sound complex of the original or creation of a new sound complex, capable of performing a similar aesthetic function in translation. In both cases, the relationship between the sound complexes of the original and the translation can be considered from the point of view of the dichotomy of symmetry versus asymmetry. Symmetry in Science and Art Understanding of symmetry both in natural phenomena and works of art goes back to the times of antiquity. Ideas of symmetry (literally “proportionality”) originated from the views of ancient Greek philosophers and mathematicians, and related to their studies of world harmony. The starting point of intensive studies of symmetry goes back to the end of the XVIII-th century, when symmetric forms of natural crystals were discovered and described, and a set of symmetry operations that generate symmetrical shape were defined. Later symmetry operation began to be used both to describe biological systems, and to develop theories of mathematical symmetry. In the XX-th century the method of symmetry became an effective tool for theoretical studies in modern science. Thus, A.V. Shubnikov and representatives of his school have considerably expanded the concept of symmetry by incorporating the sign of transformational operations. These operations made it possible to effectively use the concept of symmetry in various scientific fields and apply the category of symmetry not only to scientific phenomena, but also to the phenomena of art. This widespread use of the concept of symmetry as well as the idea that symmetry has a universal status, corresponds to the ongoing trend toward the unification of the categories of science and art, and provides an opportunity for a fresh look at many things, including the phenomena of reality . In 1972 a program work by A.V. Shubnikov and V.A. Koptsik «Symmetry in science and art» was published, and two years later was translated into English . The researchers considered the concept of the relative equality of objects as the basis of the whole theory of symmetry, and believed that two objects can be described as equal in respect to some of their specific characteristics - if both objects have these characteristics [35: 1]. It is a generally recognized fact that nature does not allow and can not allow the existence of absolute equality between two objects, separated in time and space and, moreover, in real or relative equality. It is extremely important to establish a criterion or measuring of the equality. Obtaining equality implies, above all, the implementation of an operation of comparison. The comparison operation can be carried out only under the following conditions: (1) a comparison that assumes the existence of relative or actual, rather than absolute, equality can not be made considering all the parameters or characteristics of the compared objects; (2) the comparison makes use of the concepts of equality measure (the goal of science is to establish the extent of the similarity or likeness); (3) carrying out the operation of comparison a priori assumes that the compared objects are somehow similar; (4) it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the compared object can be involved into the # 538 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies comparison operation. Following A.V.Shubnikov and V.A .Koptsik we use the term «relative equality» and apply the term to certain characteristics or a set of characteristics of the objects to be compared [35: 2]. In our study, these characteristics will be represented by the sound of the poetic original and the sound form of poetic translation. The sound parameters of the two texts involved in the process of comparison will be compared Symmetry is one of the most important factors of the beauty of form [35: 7]. Symmetry, regarded as the law of the regular arrangement of structural objects is similar to harmony. To be more precise, symmetry is one of the components of harmony. Another component of harmony is asymmetry. The symmetry, asymmetry and harmony of objects and the phenomena of science and art are the basis of their ability to perform an aesthetic function. The esthetics of scientific and artistic creativity are in the ability to feel it there, where others fail to feel it [35: 9]. A.V. Shubnikov and V.A. Koptsik consider symmetry as a structural law of integrated systems and a method to study structural regularities. Between symmetric spaces there exists isomorphism [35: 307]. The category of isomorphism, as well as the category of symmetry, are relatively new categories of translation theory. The concept of symmetry occurs in the theory of art through the concept of structure. Art, as a graphic form of consciousness and modeling the world around us, should reflect and, indeed, reflects the structural aspect of the world. The structure is actually a broad law, a form of the existence and motion of matter, the products of scientific and artistic creativity are also subjected to this law. Art products literature, poetry, music, painting, architecture possess a complex artistic structure, representing an organic intertwining and interpenetration of a set of substructures that make up the individual components of artistic expressiveness [35: 351]. Researchers have noted that quite often the application of ideas of «ordinary» symmetry to the study of literature and poetry, as well as music theory, is often metaphorical in nature. Effective use of the theory of symmetry to the objects of humanitarian research will provide more interesting results. The first Russian scholars, who effectively applied the ideas of classical symmetry to music and poetry, were G.E. Konius (musician and educator), and G.V. Wolf (founder of Russian crystallography). In 1908 G.V. Wolf wrote that the spirit of music is its rhythm . More than a hundred years ago, Russian scientists have concluded that the category of symmetry can be applied to literary works as well as to music. Of particular importance is the category of symmetry for poetic works. Sound Symmetry and Asymmetry in Poetic Translation As mentioned above, the most common expressive sound characteristics of poetic text are onomatopea, sound symbolism, alliteration, assonance, and paronymy and paronomasia, rhyme, rhythm, intonation and stress. These sound phenomena in a certain way irradiate against the background of the original sound material. Reproduction of the entire sound complex of the original in interlingual translation is a virtually impossible task, due to the difference of the phonological systems of the languages included in the translation process. To be fair it should be noted that in the practice of literary translation, there are examples of the complete reproduction of the sounds of the original work in translation. So Celia and Louis Zukovski attempted to convey in translation the sound structure of the works by Roman poet Gaius Valeri Catullus. The translators set a practical task to carry out the reproduction of the form of the poetic works phoneme by # 539 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies phoneme preserving the sound, rhythm and syntax of the Latin original . In the practice of poetic translation such tasks are extremely rare and the solution to such problems does not bring the desired result. More often translators do not try to preserve not the entire phonemic set of the original in the translated text. They rather seek to preserve clear sound phenomena. Regular translation units serve as soundimitating units of language, which are represented by onomatopoeic and sound symbolic varieties. Iconic units are the object of study of a new integrative discipline called phonosemantics. The ability to describe the artistic originality of a poetic text from the phonosemantic viewpoint, as well as the usage of phonosemantic approaches to the translation problems have been repeatedly noted in the works of the founder of the Russian phonosemantics S.V. Voronin [8; 9]. Contemplation of translation problems (both in terms of modeling the processes of translation and translation criticism) from the viewpoint phonosemantics, has allowed the identification of a number of interesting approaches to solving the problems during the last decades. So, an understanding of translation as a synergistic speech comprehension process allows «to update the physical form of the text, its rhythmic structure and the sound organization of matter that can most effectively contribute to the identification of the place and function of a phonetics level in the translation process» [21: 78]. Thus, the need to integrate the sound settings in the translation process is acknowledged. Not only is iconic vocabulary attributed to the class of sound phenomena that are important for the implementation of the aesthetic function of the original text as well as the translated text, but they also serve as obvious translation units. In a figurative expression by S. V. Voronin, linguistic iconicity was considered by experts in the field of theory and practice of translation as «stepdaughter» (an «unloved child»), and it had received undeservedly little attention . However, recently the situation has changed somewhat. Considering the cross-language «macroequivalence» of the original text and its translation as a set of individual character «microequivalences» of the given texts [9: 84] supporters of a semiotic approach started to look for phonosematic universals in translation with the identification of the patterns of translation of iconic vocabulary. Analysis of linguistic material in the aspects of universality / specificity, invariance / variability and isomorphism / allomorphism allowed the researchers to conclude that the macroequivalence of texts in translation to some extent can be achieved via the microequivalence of iconic vocabulary which is part of the original and translated texts, whereas this microequivalence can be both intercharacter and intracharacter [9: 86]. One may hypothetically assume that the establishment of macroequivalence during translation with regard to the microequivalence of iconic vocabulary will have different frequency and form patterns that depend on the text material specifics. Integrated assessment of the quality of poetic translation in the light of the phonosemantic theory, as well as categories of isomorphism and symmetry may be one of the necessary science-based procedures done on the basis of special methods. The development of such techniques may be a primary concern in the near future. Let us consider some translations of the onomatopoetic words inserted into the poetic fabric of the novel in verse by A.S. Pushkin “Eugene Onegin”. Nabokov’s translation of Chapter IV into English was chosen as the material for analysis . The choice of poetic translation is not accidental. The author of the translation had a fine linguistic sense and in his own poetic and prose works paid great attention to the iconic # 540 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies features of the language, as evidenced by his metalinguistic phonosemantic comments, as well as examples of phonosemantic analysis contained in the special commentary volume of the English translation of the novel “Eugene Onegin”  . We will omit individual consideration of the intercharacter equivalence problem that implies the preservation of all explicit iconic words in the translated text being as equivalent number of the iconic words that are presented in the original text. And so let us turn to examples of intercharacter microequivalence that assumes the equivalence of the phonosemantic structure of explicit iconic words of the original text and the translation. Analysis of the translation of onomatopoetic words presented in Chapter IV of the novel “Eugene Onegin”, revealed the following types of intercharacter equivalence: identical, hyperonymic, hyponymic. Examples of identical microequivalence which make accurate reproduction of the semantic structure of iconic elements are few in number. (1) «Трещит лучинка перед ней» – «...in front of her the splintlight crackles» (XLI); (2) «Светлый кубок Еще шипит среди стола» – «The bright goblet amid the table fizzes yet» (XLVII); (3) «Его почуя, конь дорожный Храпит…» – «the road horse, upon sensing him, snorts...» (XLI); (4) «Соседи шепчут меж собою…» – «...among themselves the neighbors whisper...» (XXIV); (5) «Лесная тень, журчанье струй …» – «the sylvan shade, the purl of streams...» (XXXVIII. XXXIX). Using in the original and in translation onomatopoetic words, the sound of which corresponds to the denotative meaning of the depicted events, allows you to create expressive texts that contain figurative description of the nominated events. Cases of hyperonymic microequivalence that assume the use in translation of onomatopoeic equivalent with a broader conceptual volume (and, consequently, with a narrower semantic scope) may be illustrated by the following example: (6) «Но к ней Онегин подошел И молвил ..» – «...but up to her Onegin went and quoth...» (XII). To reproduce information implied in the onomatopoeic verb “молвить», the translator chose an archaic verb «quoth», which to some extent corresponds to the original verb in stylistic color (both verbs are stylistically marked), but does not reproduce iconic potential of the verb «молвить» and therefore it is its hyperonyme (in a semantic volume). Hyponymic microequivalence is defined as the translation of onomatopoetic words using equivalents with a narrower conceptual volume (and, consequently, with a wider semantic scope). (7) «Гусей крикливых караван Тянулся к югу…» – «the caravan of cronking geese was tending southward…» (XL). In the translation to reproduce the goose honk a low-frequency onomatopoetic word «cronking» is used, according to the dictionaries, to imitate the honk of wild geese - “a hoarse croak (as of a raven) or honk (as of a wild goose)”. (8) «Лесов таинственная тень С печальным шумом обнажалась…» – «the wood’s mysterious canopy with a sad murmur bared itself...» (XL). In V. Nabokov’s translation the onomatopoetic hyponyme «murmur» has a narrower conceptual volume than the neutral Russian word «шум» is used. «Murmur – a low indistinct but often continuous sound». To create the sound image impression of rustling leaves in the forest in autumn, a concentration of similar sounds (sibilants) is used in the original. The detailed sound metaphor of the original is reproduced in translation by one word with strong onomatopoeic potential, allowing the translator to create to a certain extent appropriate sound images. The examples of finding and assessment of equivalence in poetic translation discussed above are indicatives of a certain effectiveness in the attraction of phonosemantic universals to the # 541 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies facts of the translation. A set of universals can be expanded. Further research within the framework of the semiotic approach to translation theory should consider the attraction of data obtained for different language pairs involved in the process of translation. Implementing the operation of comparison between the original and the translation from the point of view of phonosemantics lets us speak about a certain phonosemantic symmetry in the compared text. This type of symmetry can be recognized as really existing only in cases of identical microequivalence. In other cases, the texts which are compared can be asymmetrical phonosemantically . Another important sound phenomenon is paronyme. Several definitions of the term “paronyme” in a wide range of understanding can be found in linguistic literature [4; 7; 19]. In this paper, we will use the term of “paronymy” in a broader sense as the phenomenon of partial sonic similarities between words (paronymes) with their semantic differences (full or partial)  because this understanding is presented mostly in works that deal with the problems of paronyme functioning in a literary text [12; 13; 16; 20]. .Using paronymy in order to enhance the aesthetic effect in the linguistics was called “paronomasia” - a stylistic device presented by deliberate approximation of words with similar sounds . Paronomasia can be met regularly in the language of poetry and is regarded as its characteristic feature. Studying the language organization patterns of poetic texts, scholars have found it necessary to identify the phenomena that underlie the aesthetics of such texts and make them a poetic fact. One of the universal phenomena is isomorphism because the connotative colouring that appears on the basis of isomorphism and dominates over the original denotativity  is a direct consequence of the inseparable unity of the form and content of a poetic text. The isomorphism of a poetic text is based on a number of stylistic devices. One of the regularly used methods is paronomasia. Since the translator’s task is to preserve the isomorphism of the original text and to create the product text that serves an aesthetic function, similar to the function of the original text, the stylistic device paronomasia should be retained in the translation. Preserving the paronomasia of the original text when translating is a task of a certain complexity that has been repeatedly noted in the literature . Let us consider examples of paronomasia in the text of chapter IV of A.S. Pushkin’s novel in verse, “Eugene Onegin” and compare the original text with the English translation by Nabokov. This analysis uses the paronyme typology proposed by V. P. Grigoriev for the texts of the Russian poetry of the XXth century [13: 280-283].. This typology can be considered universal and applicable to the poetic language of the first third of the XIX-th century. According to this classification, five paronyme types are found to be operating in the poetic language: vocalic, metathetic, epenthetic, consonantal and augmentative. The vocalic type is the most common and can be illustrated by the following example: (9) «Огонь потух; еще золою Подернут уголь золотой; Едва заметное струею Виется пар, и теплотой Камин чуть дышит. Дым из трубок В трубу уходит. Светлый кубок еще шипит среди стола. Вечерняя находит мгла…» (XLVII). In the English translation the paronomasia of the original is not delivered: «The fire is out; barely with ashes is filmed the golden coal; in a barely distinguishable stream weaves vapor, and with warmth scarce breathes the grate. The smoke from pipes goes up the chimney. The bright goblet amid the table fizzes yet. The evening murk comes on...». Metathetic paronyme type, which is similar to the vocalic type and the only difference being # 542 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies the undocked consequence of consonants, is presented by the example: (10) “..Ловласов обветшала слава Со славой красных каблуков И величавых париков..» (VII). In translation this paronymic pair is not preserved, partially offset by the loss of translational paronymic pair used by Nabokov in the translated version of the seventh strophe: «… the fame of Lovelaces has faded with the fame of red heels and of majestic periwigs ...». Examples with additional consonants are attributed to the epenthetic type when the additional consonant is included in the structure of the second paronyme: (11) “..Зато любовь красавиц нежных Надежней дружбы и родства: Над нею и средь бурь мятежных Вы сохраняете права..» (XXI). In the translation, we find: «As to the love of tender beauties, ‘tis surer than friendship on kinship. Over it even mid tumultuous storms rights you retain .. ». The paronomasia of the original text is not preserved, but aestheticism is partially offset by the translation of the paronymic pair of «friendshipkinship». The consonantal type is represented in the example (12) “..Ужели жребий вам такой Назначен строгою судьбой?» (XV) - «Can it be true that such a portion is by stern fate assigned to you?». The paronymes are not represented in the Russian translation. The augmentative type of paronyme is what we find in the eleventh strophe: (13) “Но, получив посланье Тани, Онегин живо тронут был: Язык девических мечтаний В нем думы роем возмутил» (XI). This type unites the examples when one paronyme is the structural part of another one. In the translation by Nabokov this type of paronyme is also not preserved: «But on receiving Tanya’s missive, Onegin was intensely moved: the language of a maiden’s dreamings in him roused up thoughts in a swarm :..». Conclusion The examples discussed above are only preliminary results, but they indicate that the preservation of linguistic iconism and paronomasia when translating is an extremely complex process and requires the development of special techniques which may be actually devised by the translation theory science of the XXI-th century. In terms of the general scientific category of symmetry, one can speak about the iconic (phonosemantic) and patronymic symmetry of the original and that of the translation. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. М. М. Бахтин, «Слово в поэзии и в прозе». Вопросы литературы, № 6. (1972), с. 76-82. М. М.Бахтин, «К эстетике слова». Контекст – 1973. ( М.: Наука, 1974). А. Белый, Поэзия слова. (Пг.: Эпоха, 1922). Ю. А. Бельчиков, М. С. Панюшева, Словарь паронимов современного русского языка ( М.: Русский язык, 1994). С. Г. Бочаров, Поэтика Пушкина. Очерки (М.: Наука, 1974). В. В. Виноградов, Стилистика. Теория поэтической речи. Поэтика (М.: Изд-во АН СССР, 1963). О. В. Вишнякова, Паронимия в русском языке (М.: Высшая школа, 1984). С. В.Воронин, Основы фоносемантики (Л.: Изд-во Ленинградского университета, 1982). С. В. Воронин, А. Д. Паго, «Эквивалентность в переводе и звукоизобразительная лексика (семиотический подход)», Английская филология в переводческом и сопоставительном аспектах. (СПб.: Изд-во Ленинградского университета, 1995), с. 83-87. # 543 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies 10. Н. К. Гей, Художественность литературы: Поэтика. Стиль (М.: Наука, 1975). 11. Г. В. Вульф, Симметрия и ее проявление в природе (М., 1908). 12. В. П. Григорьев, «Паронимия», Языковые процессы современной русской художественной литературы: Поэзия (М.: Наука, 1977), с. 186-239. 13. В. П. Григорьев, Поэтика слова (М.: Наука, 1979). 14. В. В. Елисеева, «Парономазия и ее передача при переводе», Английская филология в переводческом и сопоставительном аспектах. (СПб.: Изд-во Санкт-Петербургского университета, 1995), с. 87-94. 15. Ф. Карко, Верлен (СПб: Искусство, 1999). 16. Н. А. Кожевникова, Язык Андрея Белого (М.: Изд-во РАН, 1992). 17. Н. П. Колесников, «Парономазия как стилистическая фигура», Русский язык в школе, № 3. 18. 19. 20. 21. (1973), с. 86 – 89. П. Птифис, Верлен (М.: Молодая гвардия, 2002). А. П.Сковородников, «Паронимы», Культура русской речи: Энциклопедический словарьсправочник. (М.: Флинта: Наука, 2003), с. 451-452. Л. П. Ткаченко, «Стилистическая функция паронимов (на материале художественного текста)», Русский язык в школе, № 3. (1982), с. 34-48. И. Н. Шадрина, «Фоносемантическая структура текста как детерминанта переводческой деятельности», Текст: структура и функционирование, Вып. 6. (Барнаул: Изд-во Алтайского университета, 2002), с. 77-82. 22. Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь / Гл. ред. В.Н. Ярцева, (М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 1998), с. 368. 23. S. Bassnett, Translation Studies (London – New-York: Routledge, 1996), p. 81-109. 24. G. Caglioti, Simmetrie infrante nella scienza e nell’arte (Milano: Clup, 1983). 25. Catullus (Gai Valeri Catulli Veronensis Liber). Translated by Celia and Louis Zukofsky, Complete Short Poetry (Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 1991). 26. R. Jakobson, «On Linguistic Aspect of Translation», On Translation (ed. R.A.Bower) (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), p. 232-239. 27. R. Jakobson, «Linguistics and Poetics», Style in Language (Cambridge: MIT, 1960), p. 350 - 377. 28. Ch. S. Kraszewski, Four Translation Strategies Determined by the Particular Needs of the Receptor. Translation Theory Backwards (Lampeter, Ceredigion: The Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd, 1998). 29. G. N. Leech, A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (L.: Longman, 1969). 30. S. R. Levin, Linguistic Structures in Poetry (The Hague: Mouton, 1962). 31. J. Levy, Die literarische Ubersetzung. Theorie einer Kunstgattung (Frankfurt/ Main: Athenaum, 1969). 32. P. Newmark, A Textbook of Translation (New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo: Prentice Hall, 1988). 33. A. Pushkin, Eugene Onegin. A Novel in Verse. Translated from the Russian by Vladimir Nabokov. Vol. I. (Princeton University Press, 1990). 34. A. Pushkin, Eugene Onegin. A Novel in Verse. Translated from the Russian by Vladimir Nabokov. Commentary and Index. Vol. II. (Princeton University Press, 1990). # 544 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Veronica A. Razumovskaya. Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation Strategies 35. A. V. Shubnikov, V. A. Koptsik, Symmetry in Science and Art (New York and London: Plenum Press, 1974). 36. P. Verlaine, «Art poetique», Французские стихи в переводе русских поэтов XIX-XX веков / на франц. и русск. языках (сост. Е.Г. Эткинд) (М.: Прогресс, 1973). 37. S. Voronin, «Phonosemantics and Translation», Translation and Meaning. Proceeding of the Lodz Session of the 1990. Maastricht – Lodz Duo Colloqium (Maastricht, 1992), p. 289 - 295. 38. A. J. Wright «“Art poetique” Re-Examined”», PMLA, Vol. 74, № 3 (Jun., 1959). Звуковая симметрия в поэтическом тексте: типы и стратегии перевода В.А. Разумовская Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный 82 “а” Поэтический перевод является одним из самых сложных видов переводческой деятельности, что обусловлено формальными и содержательными особенностями поэтических текстов, выполняющих эстетическую функцию. Формальная и содержательная аномальность поэтических текстов в аспекте перевода может быть рассмотрена с позиции универсальной категории симметрии. Результаты настоящего исследования были получены при изучении стратегий перевода ономатопов и паронимов в тексте романа в стихах А.С. Пушкина «Евгений Онегин» на английский язык. Ключевые слова: поэтический текст, художественный перевод, эстетическая функция, аномальность, симметрия, асимметрия, фоносемантика, единица перевода, ономатоп, пароним, парономазия. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 546-553 ~~~ УДК 332.012.2 Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems Evgeniya V. Zander* and Elena V. Inyukhina Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 Analysis and evaluation of competitiveness of socioeconomic systems of different levels (regional, municipal, economic activity or industry, enterprise) are considered from methodological viewpoint. Methods of estimating competitiveness have been tested by the example of socioeconomic systems of Siberian Federal District. The approach developed can form the basis to reveal efficient lines of industrial policy to increase competitive capacity of the systems. Keywords: socioeconomic system, competitiveness, integral assessment, method of principal components, status monitoring, efficient lines of industrial policy, competitive aspects and factors, macro- meso- and microlevel objects. Introduction Competitiveness is an integral efficiency characteristic of any socioeconomic system. Competitiveness is assessed in management to position the controlled system, to make decisions on development prospects, targets and methods to attain them and to develop system development policy lines. The great number of methodological approaches to assessing competitiveness of countries, regions, industries and enterprises brings forth various assessments and ratings of the said systems. Divergent and contradictory ratings pose the information users a complicated problem: what assessments are to be used to make decisions and what ratings can be trusted. This, in its turn, proves the still existing need to develop alternative methods to assess the competitiveness. This is probably because * 1 the methods used by different authors do not solve all problems facing researchers studying competitiveness. Methods and Approaches To define competitiveness each author uses his own individual approach. First studies of competitiveness were conducted exclusively within the context of spatial organization of industries and enterprises. Economically advantageous position was considered to be the pledge of its competitiveness (A. Losch, H. Hotelling, W. Launhardt, J. Thunen, A.Weber, E.M. Hoover, Ф. Giarratani – Hoover, 1999). Today this concept of competitiveness is not always applicable to socioeconomic systems. Original availability of the only competitive advantage, given territory does not guarantee its successful development. Past experience demonstrates that Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 546 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems the systems not having this advantage can exhibit high level of competitiveness. Nowadays theory offers both general definitions of competitiveness, and definitions concretized to the level of a subject of competitive relations. Most frequently researchers in their works define competitiveness as a totality of properties, characteristics of an object which provide its successful development with the emphasis on comparison with other analogous objects and necessity of special «properties» inherent to the system. Concerning competitiveness it is customary to mention the works of M. Porter. His works on regional and international competition, competition between companies and on development of competitive strategies of different subjects formed the basis of fundamental assumptions of competitiveness and competitive advantages existing nowadays in all countries and scientific schools. M. Porter identifies several competitiveness levels. The first competitiveness level is competitiveness in the field of products and services which is in the fact that firm produces products and services surpassing other products and services in fineness or cost1. The next level is the enterprise level. According to M. Porter position of an enterprise in an industry is defined by competitive advantages: lower production costs and differentiation of goods2. In his works M. Porter shows that competitiveness of a company is largely determined by the competitiveness of its economic environment depending on basic conditions and competition within the cluster. According to M. Porter productivity is the only reasonable concept of competitiveness at the national level. It is through productivity that the main objective of any state – high and ever-growing living standards – is attained. On the other hand, competitiveness of an individual country depends on its propensity to innovate and modernize. So, M. Porter states that development and implementation of innovations and production modernization process promote most efficient use of available labor resources and capital. These processes lead the country to attainment of high competitiveness level. According to M. Porter high competitiveness can be achieved not only by the subject originally possessing considerable resources, but also by the subject which can correctly, efficiently and reasonably organize its activities3. Views of M. Best upon competitiveness differ. In his opinion the pledge of competitiveness is the method of organizing productive resources but not the intensity of their usage. In this manner of crucial importance is the capability to change-over for radically different methods of development, production, marketing of products, etc.4 The innovation aspect of competitiveness is found in the works of practically all modern researchers of this problem. E.g. L.K. Gurieva defines competitiveness of a region as an integral property of a region formed by a totality of qualitatively new factors and conditions. These factors are necessary for the region to move to the higher phases of socioeconomic and socialand-technological development. This definition underlines that competitiveness depends on «new factors and conditions». Thus, L.K. Gurieva places emphasis on the innovation development of regions5. However, it is obvious that not only socioeconomic systems following the road of «innovation-based development» have high competitiveness (in any event, nowadays). Competitive are also systems developing owing to 3 1 2 Porter, 2007. Porter, 2006. 4 5 # 547 # Porter, 2006. Best, 2002. Gurieva, 2007. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems the traditional factors: advantageous geographic position, availability of natural resources, largescale industrial production, etc. It should be noted, that in the long term perspective these factors can deny further high development rate of the system. Along with this there are numerous examples of regions which do not stake at innovations and at the same time hold leading positions among other objects. From our viewpoint in this case it is possible to speak about high current competitiveness and low strategic one1. In line with the authors’ standpoint call competitiveness, provided for by the so-called traditional factors, «current competitiveness». Call competitiveness formed by the effect of «new factors» (implementation of innovations, development of education, use of information technologies, etc.) «strategic competitiveness», i.e. competitiveness, providing for long-term development. Thus, plurality of approaches to the concept of «competitiveness» prohibit speaking about agreement of opinions among authors on competitiveness of country, region, industry, enterprise is. Some authors lay emphasis on indices by which competitiveness can be estimated (A.N. Prazdnichnykh, N.I. Pavlovsky et al.), other authors pinpoint index dynamics and necessity of comparing with other analogous objects (M.M. Plyashko, D.Ye. Sorokin et al.), the third involve in the definition factors of competitiveness of an object of a certain level (L.K. Gurieva, L.S. Shekhovtseva et al.). Concerning the factors of competitiveness approaches described in theoretical studies by different authors also vary. In this field the studies by A.G. Granberg deserve special attention. For main components of successful advance of 1 In addition to isolating levels of management objects many authors of works on competitiveness isolate several levels of competitiveness, too: relative and absolute competitiveness; general, economic and strategic; current and strategic competitiveness. socioeconomic systems to competitiveness he identifies the following factors: human, technicaltechnological, natural resources, institutional, organizational, informational2. A.I. Gavrilov does not separate the factors of socioeconomic development of a region from the factors of competitiveness. Among the socioeconomic factors of regional development he classes production, competitive and market factors. The competitiveness factors he subdivides into factors of direct effect (natural resources, human resources, external relations, etc.) and indirect effect (general economic, general political, etc.)3. Fascinating approaches to defi ne the competitiveness factors are presented by N.Ya Kalyuzhnova and Yu.K. Persky. They suggest to take the principle of rarity (scarcity) of natural resources as the basis for marking out the principal factors of competitiveness. This involves consideration of resource, investment, innovation and information factors. Effect of each group of factors brings forth certain competitive advantages. N.Ya Kalyuzhnova considers competitive interaction of regions during knowledge-based economy development4. Factors of competitiveness of socioeconomic systems are essentially aspects of competitiveness, which should be assessed to yield adequate results from comparison of these systems. Main methodological approaches to assessment of competitiveness can be united into three groups: based on statistical indices, ranking and expert estimates. Each methodological approach can involve simultaneous use of several methods and devices applied to different indices at a certain estimate level. In actual practice this is realized by the following procedures: monitoring of main 2 3 4 # 548 # Granberg, 2004. Gavrilov, 2002. Competitiveness of Regions, 2003. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems macroeconomic indices, their comparison with threshold values and indicative analysis; methods of expert estimate to rank the systems by the level of development; relative rate data on basic macroeconomic indicators and their dynamics, etc. It should be noted that all methods used are to a certain extent restricted in terms of their application. Some methods are fully based on subjective data of expert estimates. This makes them irreproducible for other researchers and puts in doubt the adequacy of results produced. Some approaches are specified by the lack of mechanism to calculate the weighing coefficients used to aggregate the indices into multiple indicators. Methods are frequently constructed as applied to a certain object possessing its own specifics. These methods cannot be applied to other objects or have to be substantially modified up to reconstruction of calculation algorithm. In addition, each researcher lays emphasis on a certain aspect of competitiveness. This, respectively, reflects in the selection of factors with highest specific weight in the system of indicators. Developed and used today are numerous techniques of evaluating specific weights of indices to construct integral indicators. However, these techniques are not widely used in the approaches of researchers studying the problem of competitiveness, probably because of their labor intensity and sophisticated nature. S.A. Aivazyan, V.M. Buchshtamber, I.S. Yenyukov, L.D. Meshalkin, V.V. Shakin, V.V. Strizhov and other researchers worked in this field. E.g., S.A. Aivazyan has developed the «expert-statistical method». Within the framework of this method evaluated is to be specific weight of effect of partial indices on the total aggregated status of efficiency. After that, according to this method an integral indicator is to be constructed in the form of a linear combination of objects’ indicators. S.A. Aivazyan also proposed the following methods of constructing the integral indicator: method of principal components, factor analysis, method of extremal grouping, multidimensional scaling and selection of most informative indices1. Methods of Assessing Competitiveness To eliminate the above mentioned constraints of the methods developed the authors suggest the following approaches: system approach (consider objects as socioeconomic systems and develop a system of indicators to assess level of competitiveness); structural approach (consider individual components forming the general result; consider a socioeconomic system a complex structure including systems of other levels); integration approach (aggregate individual specific indicators into integral indicators; study interactions to create aggregated groups); comprehensive approach (take into account various aspects of competitiveness in aggregated groups); dynamic approach (retrospective and perspective analysis, analysis of indicators’ dynamics); process approach (consider the formation of competitive advantage as a complex dynamic process depending on initial prerequisites and efficiency of managing this process); optimization approach (transition from qualitative characteristics to quantitative indicators normalizing the indicators, reducing them to commensurable form convenient for further analysis); 1 # 549 # Aivazyan, 1998. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems situation approach (each indicator is analyzed from the viewpoint of its significance to form the final result, study variability (variableness) of indicators, weigh the indicators). All these approaches used in a system made possible to develop procedures possessing a clear-cut structure, application algorithm. The procedure proposed overcomes many of the said constraints and shortcomings leading to incommensurable and inadequate results. The authors have developed an approach based on calculation of normalized indicators and aggregating them into indicators with application of weight coefficients. The said indicators are different components of competitiveness of the objects. Initial statistical information are socioeconomic indicators and system development efficiency indicators available in public data sources. The indicators initially formed into an array are combined into component-blocks of competitiveness. The produced sampling of indices undergoes normalization. The normalized indicators are ranks (from 0 to 10) to form the basis to judge the position of the objects analyzed in the general rating of systems and about the «step size» between the objects in the rating. As mentioned earlier, the normalized indicators are aggregated with use of the weight coefficients. For the method of finding the weight coefficients we suggest to use the principal component procedure which makes possible to select statistically the indicators at the same time. Transition from a large number of initial indicators of the object analyzed to substantially smaller amount of most informative variables is necessary due to several reasons First, this is duplication of information transmitted by highly interrelated indicators. Second, the «non-informativeness» of the indicators slightly varying from one object to an other. Third, the feasibility of aggregating, i.e. weighed summation of indicators with the weight coefficients defined on the basis of principal component method. The system of indicator-components of general level of competitiveness is a multilevel system. At the «top» level distinguished are two aspects of competitiveness: current and strategic. Each of them is an aggregated indicator combining aspects of competitiveness of the following levels. Among these aspects are: production potential, financial component, social aspect, level of development of innovations and technologies, etc. Each of these aspects is assessed on the basis of system of indicators using the weight coefficients. The indicators produced are aggregated into the indicators of the next level by weighing. Developed for each level of the socioeconomic system is its hierarchy of competitiveness indicators taking into account specifics of the object. The system of indicators proposed also serves the purpose of monitoring the status of socioeconomic systems through indicators of their activities. Realization of the entire system competitiveness evaluation algorithm forms the basis to analyze the competitiveness indicators in dynamics, to make conclusions about the processes running in system development and to show the interrelations between different management levels. This analysis makes possible to find problem aspects of competitiveness of systems and their advantages as compared to other systems. To reveal advantages and shortcomings is necessary to mould an adequate policy at the respective level of the socioeconomic system. This policy serves the purpose of eliminating development constraints to create new and maintain existing competitive advantages. Appraisal The approach put forward was tested by the authors by example of socioeconomic objects of # 550 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems Siberian Federal District: regional and industrial socioeconomic systems and municipal formations and enterprises. The level of competitiveness of objects was assessed including identification of current and strategic aspects, systems were rated by their competitiveness level, «problem» aspects of their development have been found. Analysis of competitiveness and socioeconomic indicators over several years formed the basis to demonstrate major lines of policy oriented to eliminate negative trends in dynamics of competitiveness level of socioeconomic systems1. To investigate competitiveness of socioeconomic systems the authors suggest the following analysis logics: evaluate competitiveness of macrosystems (regional socioeconomic systems), analyze competitiveness of mesolevel systems (industrial socioeconomic systems and territories – municipal formations) and then – study competitiveness of economic entity of microlevel (enterprises operating within the limits of competitive objects of mesolevel). This sequence of analysis of indicators and indices of competitiveness makes possible to trace which manufacturing capacities provide the regional macrosystem with competitive advantages. In addition, it makes possible to find out the enterprises which form the basis of competitiveness of the territories and industries (economic activities) and, accordingly, of the entire regional economy. It is expedient to analyze competitiveness indicators in dynamics, and consider variation of individual components as reasons of general dynamics of the indicator. These aims can be attained by economic analysis methods and methods of mathematical statistics. The procedure to assess competitiveness level was appraised by economic analysis techniques. As the indicators are additive models, the effect of 1 Zander et al., 2006, 2007, 2009. factors on indicators can be qualitatively evaluated by chain substitution method and proportional division technique (shared participation). These methods are the deterministic analysis methods with initially known types of models analyzed. It should be noted that each level of the object under study requires development of a system of indicators allowing to assess adequately the level of individual competitiveness components. Thus, to use the proposed approach requires taking into account specifics of the selected object to expand the available base of statistical information to perform the estimate. Conclusions The procedure developed by the authors overcomes the earlier found shortcomings and constraints of the existing methodological approaches. It exhibits the following distinctive features: maximum representativeness of indicators used to assess competitiveness of industrial and regional socioeconomic systems, and enterprises (it is recommended to use indicators from official sources of statistical information and financial accounting of the enterprises); adaptation of indices and indicators used to the opportunities of the existing public statistical accounting; omprehensiveness of the estimate providing for taking into account all most important components of competitiveness of the systems; systematization of the estimate implying consideration of interconnections between the indicators used and between the levels of objects of management (socioeconomic systems); use of weight coefficients attaching different value to the indices when they are aggregated into indicators; # 551 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems feasibility of building up the procedure of estimating the competitiveness level of systems by adding competitiveness factors and aspects without reconstructing the entire calculation algorithm; consistency of the system of indicators and indices with the objective of monitoring and forecasting the economic and social development of systems with different management levels. So, the procedure proposed is a comprehensive approach to estimating the competitiveness of socioeconomic systems of micro-, meso- and macrolevel. Nowadays competitiveness is the main index of efficiency of policy pursued at the respective management level. Competitive advantages of a socioeconomic system it initially possessed in the form of natural and labor resources, advantageous geographic position, etc. is not a guarantee of successful development. The initially available potential may be not used or lost. Socioeconomic development of a territory is based on efficiency of the real sector, whose successful functioning is provided for by the measures of industrial policy. This raises the question of the need to mould an adequate industrial policy at the regional level and structural policy to manage development of industries and enterprises. Efficiency of state influence on economy depends on timely monitoring of processes running within the socioeconomic system. This requires systematic complex analysis of socioeconomic indices, and competitive advantages of the system. This is necessary to find out negative trends in object development, their timely elimination and create incentives for positive changes in competitiveness of industrial and regional socioeconomic systems. References 1. S.A. Aivazyan, V.S. Mkhitaryan, Applied statistics and fundamentals of econometrics (Moscow: YuNITI, 1998), in Russian. 2. M. H. Best, New Competition. Institutes of industrial development (Moscow: TEIS, 2002), in Russian. 3. A.I. Gavrilov, Regional Economy and Management (Moscow: YuNITI -Dana, 2002), in Russian. 4. A.G. Granberg, Fundamentals of Regional Economy (Moscow: Publishing House GU VShE, 2004), in Russian. 5. L.K. Gurieva, Competitiveness of Innovation-Oriented Region (abstract of doctoral (Economy) thesis, Moscow, 2007), in Russian. 6. Ye.V.Zander, I.S. Ferova, Ye.V. Inyukhina, Yu.I. Startseva, «Approaches to Defining Competitive Positions of a Territory to Select State Policy Priorities», Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta – Gumanitarnye nauki, Vypusk 6/1 (2006). 7. Ye.V.Zander, I.S. Ferova, Ye.V. Inyukhina, Yu.I. Startseva, «Integral Estimate of Determinants of Competitiveness Of Regions», ЭКО, 11 (2007), 43 – 59. 8. Ye.V.Zander, Ye.V. Inyukhina, Yu.I. Startseva, «A study of competitiveness of socioeconomic systems (by example of Siberian Federal District)», Regionalnaya economica: teoriya I practica, 10 (2009), 6 – 17. 9. Competitiveness of Regions: Theoretical Applied Problems, Edited by Yu.K. Persky, N.Ya Kalyuzhnaya (Moscow: TEIS, 2003), in Russian. 10. M. Porter, Competition (Moscow: Williams, 2006), in Russian. # 552 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inyukhina. Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic Systems 11. M. Porter, Competitive Strategy. Methods of Analyzing Industries and Competitors (Alpina Business Books, 2007), in Russian. 12. E. M. Hoover, F. Giarratani, An Introduction to Regional Economics (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University, 1999). Мониторинг состояния социально-экономических систем на основе оценки конкурентоспособности Е.В. Зандер, Е.В. Инюхина Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Рассматриваются методологические вопросы анализа и оценки уровня конкурентоспособности социально-экономических систем разного уровня (регионов, муниципальных образований, видов экономической деятельности или отраслей, предприятий). Предложенная авторами методика оценки уровня конкурентоспособности апробирована на примере социально-экономических систем Сибирского федерального округа. Разработанный подход может служить основой для выявления эффективных направлений промышленной политики в целях повышения конкурентоспособности систем. Ключевые слова: социально-экономическая система, конкурентоспособность, комплексная оценка, метод главных компонент, мониторинг состояния, эффективные направления промышленной политики, аспекты и факторы конкурентоспособности, объекты макро-, мезо- и микроуровня. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 554-562 ~~~ УДК 397.4 Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology of Culture Studies Natalia P. Koptzeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article deals with methodological and conceptual bases of cultural studies of the peoples living in the North of Krasnoyarsk region. The author considers the key terms accepted in the contemporary research works and substantiates the use of «indigenous peoples» term applied for the North aboriginal inhabitants living in the territory of Krasnoyarsk region. The potential of John Barry’s conception of acculturation as a foundation of contemporary cultural studies of the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North are narrowly discussed in the article. The author thinks that today there is a cultural interaction between the Large pluralistic society and a certain ethno-cultural group, but not between two rather separate ethno-cultural groups (the Russian ethnos and that one of the peoples of Krasnoyarsk North). This approach signifies that both of the sides influence on each other and change in the process of acculturation. At present, the changes taking place in a local ethno-cultural group have been studied best of all while the Large pluralistic society is also changed. The author supposes that today Russia is going through a certain stage characteristic of the world community and connected with the change for a new type of social and economic relations between the state and the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North. This period is characterized by the transition from fi xation of traditional way of life (allegedly characteristic of those peoples) to the search for mechanisms of inclusion of those cultural standards in the market system. This social and economic reality requires new cultural and anthropological approaches, in particular, connected with the use of capacities of Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) for cross-cultural studies of the North peoples living in Krasnoyarsk region. Keywords: indigenous peoples, peoples of the North, Krasnoyarsk region, acculturation, HRAF, methods of culture studies, cultural anthropology. Key notions The areas of Siberia and the Far East make two thirds of the Russian land. Siberia takes 40% of Asia while only one fifth of the Russian population lives in Siberia. The vast majority of the population * 1 is the Russians, who have been assimilating the lands in the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East since the end of the 16th century, as well as the Ukrainians, the Byelorussians, and the representatives of other nationalities of the European part of Russia. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 554 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… The nationalities, which had been existing here long before the migration of the peoples living in the European part of Russia, are variously termed by the scientists as «aboriginals», «native-born population», «autochthonous nationalities», «aboriginal inhabitants», «indigenous peoples». Such words as «aboriginals» and «natives» can be referred to the epoch of colonial seizures and they bear the spice of disparaging attitude as far as public conscience and science have been under theory of evolutionism for a long time. It was positively rejected by contemporary cultural anthropology (ethnology) but it still secretly exists as conceptual and methodological basis in many scientific papers. In relation to social processes, the main point of evolutionism is the thesis that all ethno-cultural groups have similar stages (from the lowest to the highest ones) in their development. To speak plainly, there are three such stages: «savagery», «barbarity» and civilization. European culture as it was formed to the moment of mass industrialization and urbanization is represented as an ideal of civilization. The extreme aspect of that conception of evolutionism has brought to an idea that various human races are different human species. It’s not a secret that great Charles Darwin kept to this point of view. But the socially political and cultural consequences of this scientific hypothesis were utterly negative. Various races took different levels in the scale of «human evolution». Some social and cultural systems were declared to be the best, supreme, and perfect while the other ones were inferior, dead-end, and defective. At first, the only arguments in favour of equal accomplishment and unique nature of all ethnic cultures were those ones of Bible anthropology, which referred to the Holy texts of the origin of all people from Adam and Eve and three Noah’s sons after the Deluge, of the tower of Babel which was built after all people had spoken one language. In the middle of the 19th century, there appeared scientific communities in Britain, German, France, and then in the United States and other countries which developed exceptionally scientific arguments besides references to the Bible. There were formed scientific conceptions connected with the denial of evolutionism and recognition of independence, unique nature and equality of all ethno-cultural groups in relation to each other. This scientific position was of special importance in the years of war with the German Nazism and American racism as well as in other similar situations. Cultural anthropology is a young science in Russia as far as human and social sciences were under Marxism paradigm for a long period. It denied the consequence of ethno-cultural differences and the main structural element of social system was considered to be classes of people differentiated according to the principle of possession or non-possession of property for capital goods. Thus, Y.V. Bromley wrote in the 14th essay «Ethno-social processes in the world of socialism», the book «Essays on theory of ethnos» (2009): «In comparison with interethnic conflicts in the capitalist world, the achievements in the sphere of national relations are especially obvious in our state and many other countries of the socialist commonwealth. It demonstratively proves the well-known thesis of the founders of Marxism that «hostility of nationalities against each other will fall» together with the disappearance of class antagonism» [2, p. 338]. However a continued disregard of significant ethno-cultural dissimilarities in policy practically can bring about the situation that those interethnic relations could become a zone of grave social risk. Ignorance of the inner functional structure of one or another ethno-cultural group can be resulted in a case that all political decisions would be skidded around that group for many decades, # 555 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… all economic investments would be vain, and the territory would be a zone of incessant and endless war conflict. A bright example is the situation in the North Caucasus. Certainly, the territory of Siberia and Krasnoyarsk region is not a zone of social and political risk due to various reasons. But civilizing development of the lands in Siberia, new economic realias, and a new view on the laws of social development make scientists change both scientific terminology and scientific approaches to investigations in culture and anthropology. It seems to be that such terms as «natives» and «aborigines» applied to the peoples of Siberia are to be excluded from the scientific lexicon because they contain the arrogance of «invaders» explaining their invasive actions in theory of evolutionism anticipatorily regarding the people, who had been living in these lands, as inferior in economic, political, and cultural respects, including religion. The term «autochthonous peoples» (autochthones) means «primary and original population living in a country of any land or territory» and it is shifted from cultural anthropology (ethnology) to biology thereby it isn’t used also. The term «native peoples» is fixed in many international normative acts to start with the first article (Part 1. General Policy) of С 169 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, International Labour Organization (ILO): «(a) tribal peoples in independent countries whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations; (b) peoples in independent countries who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical region to which the country belongs, at the time of conquest or colonisation or the establishment of present state boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal status, retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions» . J. Barry, A. Poortinga, M. Siegel, and P.R. Dasen (2007) put forward another term – «indigenous peoples» – peoples who «have always been living here»; their roots are lost far in the past, and there weren’t left any evidences of any peoples who had been living there earlier and whose descendants still exist in a population. The main characteristic of indigenous peoples is their continued inhabitancy in the territories forcibly included in a large national state. The lands they had were often diminished in size and that reduced their chance to keep up their existence, and finally they were considered to be another «minority group» within a large pluralistic society. The term «indigenous peoples» has many advantages: 1. It isn’t loaded with «colonial» meaning like «aborigines» and «natives» terms. 2. It has scientific status, not that one of law, like «native peoples» term. 3. It has a cultural and anthropological meaning, not a biological one, like «autochthonous peoples» term. 4. It is included into cultural and anthropological scientific space where they use the terms fixing not frozen state of ethno-cultural group but a process of interaction of an ethnocultural group and so-called «big» (pluralistic) society. 2. Indigenous peoples as an object of cultural and anthropological research There could be pointed out two positions characterizing contemporary studies at culture. The first position: an object of study is particular cultures which are «independent, # 556 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… self-consistent and stable» with geographically fixed location; they are not characterized by globalization processes. If there can be fixed any change inside those cultures, it is to be connected with the process of interaction between individuals within a certain culture, but it’s not a result of contacts of cultures. The second position: every ethnic group has its own culture that’s why one mustn’t say «culture of minority». Today there isn’t any monocultural society. Various cultural groups coexist together in one society. In the modern world, there practically cannot be found any society with one religion, language, culture, and identity characterizing the whole population. The modern society is pluralistic. We chose the second position of John Barry and his colleagues. Thereby, the contemporary indigenous peoples interact not only with a single ethno-cultural group (monocultural society) but with pluralistic society consisting of many cultural groups. We can distinguish two viewpoints on pluralistic society. The first point: there is a «melting pot», an only dominating society, «main stream» society with minority groups around it. The fate of those minority groups is double: they can be either dissolved in the «main stream» society or remain marginal groups set aside by the majority in that society. The second point is called as «multiculturalism» by J. Barry and his colleagues. There is a variegated palette of ethno-cultural groups maintaining feeling of their cultural onliness and taking their own place in the social structure characterized by some universal (conventional) norms: economic, political and juridical agreements on how various ethno-cultural groups can coexist together. Thus, multiculturalism is characterized by two things: maintenance of cultural unique nature of all ethno-cultural groups and co-partnership of all groups in one big pluralistic society. The suggestion of John Barry and his colleagues is of great interest for formation of research position to indigenous peoples in Krasnoyarsk region. They discern two levels of study: group-cultural and individualpsychological. This subject matter requires a special consideration, but it is already clear now that this idea will allow scientific resources of both social anthropology and cross-cultural psychology to be attracted, and that will further scientific reliability (validity) of results of studies. Indigenous peoples as an object of contemporary cultural and anthropological research can be considered from all the scientific viewpoints mentioned above. However it is obvious that scientific points of view are closely connected with socioeconomic and sociopolitical interests of different countries. 3. Indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region in the context of foreign experience in interrelation between the state and peoples of the North Despite a large number of scientific and popular publications on the Russian North peoples, the main conceptual space of those articles has clearly pronounced ethnographic or historical and ethnographic nature. Serious cultural and anthropological investigations are a matter of the future. It is urgent to solve two serious problems connected with the crisis in Russian human sciences: 1) assimilation of the achievements of foreign scientists stored for the last 120-150 years since initiation of social (cultural) anthropology; 2) solution of the methodological problems the world scientific community has to face with, which are connected with negotiation of research position of «intrusion of cultural standards of one’s science as standards of the study of another culture». # 557 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… It appears to be that the solutions of these problems are interrelated and logic of development of Russian cultural anthropology for the nearest ten years is the following: concrete (local) studies connected with elaboration of ethnographic materials by means of the newest cultural and anthropological approaches of brightly pronounced cross-disciplinary character. Thus, some very interesting investigations of the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region can be carried on taking into account economic studies when the first place is taken by the analysis of social and economic situation of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, the mechanisms of state control over processes of improvement of social and economic conditions of the indigenous peoples and old-time communities of the North are studied, and the suggestions concerning development of policy in traditional village economic life and traditional life support of the indigenous peoples in the places of their dense living in Krasnoyarsk region are also analyzed. For instance, A.A. Maximov’s research «Realization of interests of the peoples of the North in the situation of industrial development: from foreign experience to the Russian model» (2007) reveals three key periods in the history of interrelations between Russia, Canada, the USA, Scandinavian countries, and indigenous peoples living in the North: 1. cooperation; 2. domination and assimilation; 3. formation of partnership relations. In this connection, it is to be mentioned that the situation in Russia is not an exception and it falls under the general objective laws. At the first stage, a state, which has an intention to colonize a certain territory, recognizes significance of economy of indigenous peoples and their right for the land and autonomy. Indigenous peoples prevail in number in large territories and economic branches traditional for those indigenous peoples predominate in those territories. Indigenous peoples become involved in exchange of goods, trading relations and processes of political, economic and cultural development. At the second stage, development of new economic branches is accompanied by the explosion of non-indigenous population in the lands of indigenous peoples. Policy of cooperation with aboriginal peoples is replaced by policy of domination and assimilation together with demographic changes. The essence of new policy is determined by the following key elements. 1. Indigenous peoples are deprived of their lands and resources. 2. Policy of paternalism substitutes for selfgovernment of indigenous peoples. 3. The steps destructive for culture of indigenous peoples are taken (Christianization, a new system of education, courts and laws, colonialist state language is forced into application as the main language). 4. The ideology justifying political, economic and cultural domination over indigenous peoples is formed. This ideology obtains its name in the second half of the 20th century: «assimilation doctrine» or «colonialist theory». According to the doctrine of assimilation, advantages and profit obtained by indigenous peoples while using resources of new lands appear to be a burden they bear for economic and social progress. At the same time, the destiny of indigenous peoples is archaic way of life with according low level of material production and consumption. The previously valid agreements, laws or legal standards declaring the rights of indigenous peoples for their lands and autonomy and corresponding to relations of partnership are considered to be a historical anachronism insignificant at present. 5. Racial prejudices are spread around including «domestic nationalism» corresponding to the policy of paternalism and the doctrine of # 558 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… assimilation. Even humane ideas of self-value of indigenous ethnic cultures and need of their protection actually degrade representatives of indigenous peoples and bring about racial prejudices as far as they represent indigenous ethno-cultural groups as special collectives able to keep up the traditional way of life but incapable of self-organization and self-development. Having lost control over their lands and resources, indigenous peoples weren’t able to protect their culture and achieve equality to nonindigenous population in their share in economy and level of wealth. Economic necessity, dependence on foreign political decisions and economic aid, and racial relations brought about progression of mental and infectious illnesses as well as social ones among indigenous peoples (alcoholism, suicides, violence in a family, criminality, apathy towards economic activity and life on the whole). Until the middle of the 20th century, the high indexes of troubles of indigenous peoples had been explained as specific features of their physiology and social life while the processes of assimilation and «dissolution» of indigenous peoples in the society of migrants had been estimated as objective and positive phenomena. Finally, the last stage comes – about from 1960s and 1970s up to now – when in response to the large-scale resource and hydroelectric projects as well as to the attempts to liquidate the Indian legal system in the USA and Canada, the indigenous peoples of Alaska, the north territories of Canada, Greenland, Sweden and Norway publicly claimed the lands they had previously inhabited and thought to be their motherland. The organizations of indigenous peoples spoke in support of such economic development that wouldn’t destroy their community but strengthen their autonomy and capacities for economic and social progress. They brought in land lawsuits, began to compile materials proving the right of indigenous peoples to live as communities and nations in their lands and structures of government. The problems of north peoples are of great importance in public and political discussions. There has begun a dialogue of indigenous peoples and federal organizations and search for the ways of satisfaction of the rightful claims of those peoples. The central part is taken by the questions concerning the rights of property in land and resources of settlement and territorial communities of indigenous peoples and political rights connected with autonomy. Since A.A. Maximov’s research work has a well-pronounced character, the author is interested in such processes as institution of indigenous peoples’ property rights for the lands and resources, the processes of development of the local self-government characterizing the north territories, traditional economy and its capacities for integration with market relations in the context of self-development of indigenous peoples of the Russian North. It seems to be that A.A. Maximov’s statement that, one way or another, the Russian indigenous peoples living in the North are included in the general world objective laws is substantiated and proved by means of vast economic materials and analysis. 4. The project of research program on the study of the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North. It is necessary to draw some cultural and anthropological conclusions, connected with the change of the main research approach, from this social and economic investigation. 1. It is necessary to refuse categorically and radically to study ethno-cultural groups of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North as some separate cultural minority groups, but the whole and dynamic process of acculturation is to be considered as a CULTURAL CONTACT # 559 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… BETWEEN MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY AND A CONCRETE ETHNO-CULTURAL GROUP, NOT BETWEEN THAT GROUP AND THE RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL URBANIZED ETHNOS. 2. This approach implies a special research program connected with: a) development of a model of the Large pluralistic society characterizing Russia at the beginning of the 21st century, including its form represented in Krasnoyarsk city; b) the study of the processes of acculturation inter-conditioned by the cultural contact of changes taking place both in the Large pluralistic society and in a certain ethnocultural group (considering two levels of that process: group-and-cultural and individualand-psychological); c) elaboration of methodical recommendations with respect to formation of the multicultural society in Krasnoyarsk region. 3. It is necessary to cooperate with Yale University in order to be able to use the data of the card-index Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) in our studies of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North. 5. Capacities of Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) for the cultural studies of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North The history of HRAF starts on 26th of February, 1949 when the scientists of several American universities (Harvard University, Pennsylvania State University, Oklahoma State University, Washington University, and Yale University) gathered in the conference in New Haven (Connecticut) to declare their participation in a new non-commercial scientific research organization which would be based on Yale University. There was proclaimed the mission of the new organization: «to develop and spread the card index of organized information connected with human communities and cultures». The organization was called Human Relations Area Files (HRAF). HRAF form is a constantly growing card-file of comparative and indexed ethnographic data sorted and arranged according to geographic position and cultural characteristics. According to the information given in 2006, HRAF includes 20 members – the authors taking part in filing and more than a hundred of associated members. Now the access to HRAF is available in the INTERNET. HRAF databases have been worked out for the purposes of promotion of cross-cultural investigations taking into account the whole variety of human life in order to explain human behaviour from the point of cultural universals. The unique indexation system «The Outline of Cultural Materials» (OCM) has been worked out. For instance, the researchers seek an answer to the question: how much do different ethnic cultures depend on supplies of food products? They evaluate the index «Keeping and conservation of food». The search in this subject will be connected with all the points describing desiccated, smoke-dried, salted, chilled, frozen, and canned food products as well as any other ways of food products keeping used by people of a certain type of culture. HRAF was established for carrying out of various investigations, but, first and foremost, for comparative cultural studies (so-called crosscultural studies). At present, there is a description of 350 cultures according to OCM indexes. It is necessary to mention that ethnic cultures of Krasnoyarsk North are represented extremely deficiently here: only the Samoyeds, the Yakuts, the Gilyaks, the Chukchee, and the Koryaks. It seems that cooperation of Siberian Federal University and HRAF would promote both the further development of cross-cultural studies and inclusion of Krasnoyarsk scientists’ cultural investigation in the world context. # 560 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Barry J., Poortinga A., Siegel M., Dasen P. Cross-cultural psychology. Studies and use. – Kharkov, 2007. Bromley, J.V. Essays on theory of ethnos. – Moscow, 2009. Human Relations Area files // http://www.yde.edu/hraf/ International Labour Organization (ILO), С 169 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention. – 1989. – http://www.gfbv.it/3dossier/diritto/ilo169-conv-en.html Kasten, Erich (ed.) People and the Land. – 2002, Dietrich Reimer Verlag Berlin. – 257 p. Koptseva, N.P. Cultural and anthropological project at social engineering (methodological problem at modern applied culture studies). // Journal of Siberian Federal University «Humanities and social sciences». – Vol. 3., №1. – P. 22-34. Koptseva, N.P. Materials of the first session of educational, scientific and methodological seminar «Theory and practice of applied culture studies» on the basis of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies Department, Institute of Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk. June 2nd, 2009. // Journal of Siberian Federal University «Humanities and social sciences». – Vol. 3., №2. – P. 194-232. Koptseva, N.P., Reznikova, K.V. Selection of methodological principles for actual research on culture. // Journal of Siberian Federal University «Humanities and social sciences». – Vol. 2., №4. – P. 491-506. Maximov A.A. Realization of interests of the peoples of the North in the situation of industrial development: from foreign experience to the Russian model. A thesis for a degree of candidate in economics. – Syiktyivkar, 2007. On guarantee of rights of small indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation: Federal law dated 30.04.1999 №82-FL. People to people, nation to nation: Highlights from the report of the Royal Commissions on Aboriginal Peoples. – Canada. Royal Commission on aboriginal peoples, 1996. Sadokhin, A.P. Ethnology. – Moscow, 2008. Tavadov, G.T. Ethnology. – Moscow: Project edition, 2004. The elements of ethnology. / Ed. Pimenov, V.V. – Moscow: Moscow State University, 2007. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptzeva. Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the Question of Methodology… Индигенные народы Красноярского края: к вопросу о методологии культурных исследований Н.П. Копцева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена методологическим и концептуальным основаниям культурных исследований народов Севера Красноярского края. Автор рассматривает основные термины, которые приняты в современных научных исследованиях, и обосновывает применение термина «индигенные народы» применительно к коренным народам Севера, проживающим на территории Красноярского края. В статье подробно обсуждаются возможности концепции аккультурации Джона Берри как основы для современных культурных исследований индигенных народов Красноярского Севера. Автор полагает, что в настоящее время имеет место не культурное взаимодействие двух достаточно обособленных этнокультурных групп (российского этноса и этноса, принадлежащего к народам Красноярского Севера), а «Большого» плюралистического общества и определенной этнокультурной группы. Данный подход означает, что в процессе аккультурации обе стороны испытывают воздействие друг друга и изменяются. В настоящее время лучше других изучены изменения, происходящие в локальной этнокультурной группе, тогда как изменению подвергается и «Большое» плюралистическое общество. Автор полагает, что в настоящее время Россия переживает определенный этап, характерный для мирового сообщества и связанный с переходом к новому типу социально-экономических отношений между государством и индигенными народами Красноярского Севера. Этот период характеризуется переходом от фиксации традиционного способа жизни, якобы характерного для этих народов, к поиску механизмов вписывания данных культурных стандартов в рыночную экономику. Данная социально-экономическая реальность требует и новых культурно-антропологических подходов, связанных, в частности, с использованием возможности Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) для кросс-культурных исследований северных народов Красноярского края. Ключевые слова: индигенные народы, народы Севера, Красноярский край, аккультурация, HRAF, методы культурных исследований, культурная антропология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 563-580 ~~~ УДК 75.047 Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Natalia A. Bakhova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article is devoted to the study of the history of development and diversity of landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school at the end of 19th-beginning of the 21st centuries as a unique occurrence of a regional culture. Landscape painting is one of the most popular genres in which Krasnoyarsk artists fulfill their artistic concept visualizing peculiarities of the Siberian people’s mindset. First of all specific processes of formation of landscape painting independence and inherent worth in the hierarchy of ancient Chinese and West European history of art were studied and compared. The first impulses of landscape pictures’ liberation from mythological, historical and everyday scenes have been determined. In this article the leading role of realistic landscape painting in the art of the Krasnoyarsk art school is discussed which is based on the diversity and wealth of natural landscapes of the Central and Eastern Siberia, plentiful landscape views. Closeness of nature allows the artist to grasp at maximum the essence of the nature so kindred to him and present its original qualities. West European theory of realistic landscape painting of the 19th century is prevailing for the landscape art of the Krasnoyarsk art school. According to this theory realistic everyday life landscapes more correctly represent the essence in each of the elements and events of everyday life, find the truly beautiful in it, require the ability of seeing this seeming simple as significant one. In the article for the first time art review and periodization of landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school for the whole period of its existence is offered. Specific diversity of the genre has been determined (epic and lyrical, historical and mythological landscapes, urban, industrial and rural landscapes, ethnic landscapes). Possible periodization of landscape painting genre development is determined in accordance with the change of priorities: artistic traditions, dominance of specific kinds of the genre, current and historical events of the Krasnoyarsk Territory culture. Regarding each stage of the regional landscape painting development representative art works demonstrating its peculiarity have been selected. The periodization of the history of the Krasnoyarsk art school development allows to follow the dynamics of the world landscape painting tradition development and formation of Siberian landscape painting own concepts. To sum it up the unique art qualities of the Krasnoyarsk landscape painting demonstrating the peculiarity of Siberian region as a multicultural space have been formulated. Keywords: landscape painting, concept of realistic landscape painting, theory of national landscape painting, Krasnoyarsk art school, regional culture, culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk artists. * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 563 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School POINT 1. Landscape painting genre in the history of art: formation of independence and inherent worth of landscape painting in the hierarchy of art genres. Landscape paintings first appeared in China during the period of Six Dynasties (220-618). The founder of the national landscape painting was Wang Wei in the second half of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Retreating from the presentation of the fantastic nature which served as a background for the scenes from the Imperators’ life Wang Wei by means of monochrome landscape style presents the unity of natural landscape merging together water and air spaces. Landscape painting is being filled with religious and philosophic ideas of Daoism and Buddhism. In the epoch of the Northern Song (960-1127) landscape painting acquires inherent worth and begins to prevail in the hierarchy of genres. Academic landscape painting of panoramic-monumental style of this period demonstrates the cosmic world order reaching its peak in works of Guo Xi. A unique and concluding event in the history of Chinese landscape painting becomes the art of «artistswriters» of the Northern Song epoch and Chan art of the Southern Song (1127-1279) epoch (Osenmuk, 2005). Landscape painting appears as a synthesis of the realism of the external visual range and conceptual philosophical and religious depth. The absolute, supreme quality of nature visualized in the form of emptiness is defined which can as reveal and crystallize all forms of being from itself, so it can dissolve a whole variety of forms in itself, as the Fullness of Being. In the history of West European landscape painting one of the first impulses of landscape paintings’ liberation from mythological, historical and everyday life scenes becomes the art of the Northern Renaissance artists (Netherlands, Germany). The world of nature according to the philosophy of pantheism (from Greek «pan» meaning «all» and «Theos» meaning «God», literally «All is God») in each of its phenomenon and fragment shows the aspects of the absolute most correctly, allows to define the presence of close connection with God (Zhukovsky, 2006, p.229). In the Netherlands special attention is paid to landscape painting, however, images of nature are only a part of the genre scenes accompanying the narration. The representatives of the «Danube School» in Germany in the 16th century work in the genre of romantic and fantastic landscape, in which anthropomorphic characters are dissolved in the natural space by means of narrative and pictorial techniques. But this kind of landscape painting didn’t completely succeed in neutralization of the narrative story and crystallization of the inherent worth of the exclusively natural forms’ image as the most lighted space of the essence. West European art of the 19th century becomes the next stage in the development of landscape painting. Due to the formation of the picturesque concept of realism in the works of G. Courbet (1819-1877) in the second half of the century, as well as due to the art of French and British artists of this period (among them J.M.W. Turner, J. Constable, T. Rousseau, C. Troyon, J.-B. C. Corot) landscape painting gradually becomes an independent and self-worth genre of painting (Istomina, 2006). The fact of the origin and the liberation of landscape painting genre from historical and mythological painting related to the events of the sacred history and dominating the first half century due to the activities of the French Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal Academy of Arts (England), demonstrates the use of natural elements such as symbols of a divine world. Representation of nature is has been preserving its majestic content, the phenomenon of the divine world in the aspect of nature in particular. # 564 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School 2. West European theory of realistic landscape painting as a fundamental one in landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school of the 20th century. The priority genre in which the painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school has been traditionally developing is realistic landscape painting. The concept of realistic landscape painting is formed in the art of painting in Western Europe in the 19th century. Founders of realistic images of nature were the English school landscapists, i.e. William Turner (1775 – 1851) and J. Constable (1776 – 1837), as well as the artists of Barbizon school (a group of French landscapists working in the countryside of Barbizon village in the forest of Fontainebleau, near Paris), among them T. Rousseau, J.–B. C. Corot, C. –F. Daubigny, K. Troyon (Bogemskaya, 2002). Realistic landscape according to the artistic conception of the Barbizon school displays the essence in each of the elements and events of everyday life, thus being raised to the quality of Being. On the contrary to the concept of classicism of the 18th-19th centuries human nature is not a reference repository of the divine content. Land cultivation, the contemplation of nature, natural human existence – this is how the actions done by these few human characters introduced by the artists can be characterized. In most cases, however, the figure of the human is absent. This means that the visual concept of art works is focused on the phenomenon of the very essence of the divine nature and the earth and the heavens interrelate as totalities not related to the vanity of human nature. If the classic concept of the idealistic landscape in depiction of nature was focused on the quality of the universal, the realistic landscape considers important the representation of the features of real natural elements. The absolute, the divine fills up every pore of the matter of the surrounding world of nature, thus the pantheistism in the image of particular natural areas is demonstrated. The specifics of a single image is the essence of the proximity of the universal. Simple and ordinary representation of nature reveals the truly beautiful in it, requires the ability of seeing the seeming simple as significant one. The key figure in establishing the theory of realistic national landscape painting has become the creative programme of the English artist J. Constable, «a natural painter» (Kenneth, 2004). Unlike the concept of the idealistic landscape painting common for the historical painting of that time, the theory of the national landscape painting of J. Constable asserts the uniqueness of representation of a single landscape close to the nature of the artist able to grasp the essence of the nature which is most kindred to him. The artist recreates one and the same motive: the area where he was born in various conditions of light and weather, time of the day. Nature in the art works of J. Constable is not just the English land, but the land of the south of England, the Dedham Vale, the banks of the river Stour. A series of «portraits» of trees (e.g. «The trunk of an elm tree», 1824) becomes the visualization of this theory. National landscape painting of the English art school is peculiar in such characteristics as nebula, rain and humidity. The heaven space appears as a source of the life of the World, therefore windmills, rain and rainbow become determining in the existence of the human and organize his life according to the laws of the divine, heavenly world. The movement of the human is determined by the movement of natural elements. The essence is manifested in the phenomenon of daily, intimate, everyday existence of the earthly world. The human is presented in the indissoluble unity with the Earth’s space due to the composition, the narrative character of the peasant’s appearance and lifestyle, as well as due # 565 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School to the technique, he merges together with the natural world into the single entity. It is the heaven and the earth that come into a relationship in J. Constable’s works as the ultimate heroes and these relations constitute the true story. The plot does not matter in the aspect of private and transient events distracting from the main event which is the event of interaction between the Earth and the Heaven. The Barbizon School artists depict the neighborhood of Paris emphasizing the representativeness of the nature of the village of Barbizon. National realistic landscape painting of the French art school is peculiar in such characteristics as fullness with the light and open horizon demonstrating the immensity of the French pastures and emphasizing the commonness of natural spaces by means of including the everyday peasant’s life, as natural as the depicted natural world. The world of the French nature becomes the source of life and the space for harmonious existence of the human. The heavenly world is presented as divine one under the cover of which the human exists. The founders of realistic landscape painting abandoning idealistic classical landscape compositions proposed an open-air method and, moreover, made it equivalent to working in the studio. Open-air painting was discovered in 18091811 by J. Constable. At the beginning of the 1820s this principle was completely developed by him on the basis of plenty of sketches drawn from nature. On the reverse side of his sketches done during the trips J. Constable made comments on the weather, the direction of the wind, the state and type of the clouds: «twilight after a very bright day», «clouds clearing away after the rain» (John Constable, 2005; R. Desnos, 2005). The sketches were written by oil making the sketch and the completed painting equal in value. Sketching, seeming incompleteness of works demonstrate the most correct method of presentation of the true structure of the world, being not static but in constant movement of spheres. This technique detects the state of unity and flowing, mutual reflection of the elements of nature, their coexistence. The method of open-air painting allowed to present the essence of nature in its air, luminous, transparent, moving and changeable state. West European theory of realistic national landscape painting has significantly influenced not only European artists of the 19th century – the romantic, realist and impressionist painters, but also significantly determined the development of landscape painting of the late 19th century in Russia. The classics and the guide for creating of art works of the Krasnoyarsk art school will be the works of Russian landscape painting of the second half of the 19th century, i.e. the works of A.K. Savrasov (1830-1897), I. I. Shishkin (18321898), A.I. Kuindzhi (1842-1910), F.A. Vasiliyev (1850-1873) and I. I. Levitan (1860-1900). Example 3. The natural wealth of the Krasnoyarsk Territory as a factor contributing to the popularity of the landscape painting genre in the Krasnoyarsk art school. Landscape painting is one of the most popular genres in which the painters of the Krasnoyarsk art school have been fulfilling their artistic vision starting from the end of the 19th century until present days. Moreover, artists who were brought up outside of the Krasnoyarsk Territory having arrived in the Territory, begin to work in this genre. This fact can be explained by the real wealth of Krasnoyarsk nature. The geographical area of the Siberian region forms a special mentality of Siberian people, through the prism of natural forms the place of the human in the world and the natural laws of his existence are defined. The Krasnoyarsk Territory stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the foothills of the Eastern # 566 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Sayan. In the south and in the east it is framed by the mountains of Southern and North – Eastern Siberia. The territory of the region has an extremely complicated terrain: there are mountains, plateaus, lowlands and valleys of various height and origin. The length of the territory from the north to the south predetermines the location of the territory within three climatic zones: arctic, subarctic and temperate. Thus, from the north to the south the following change of natural zones is observed: the polar zone, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, forest steppe and steppe. The main waterway is the Yenisei river which flows through nearly the entire territory from the south to the north being one of the largest rivers on the planet. Thus, the huge area combines almost all the climatic and natural areas. The human living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory has the opportunity to visit and get acquainted with various natural phenomena not even going beyond its boundaries. The Krasnoyarsk Territory is presented as a multicultural space which includes the Evenki and Taymyr autonomous districts in the north where historically the small northern tribes settled: Dolgans, Evenks, Nenets, Selkups, Kets, Nganasans. It shares borders with distinctive natural areas and original ethnic cultures, such as: the Republic of Tuva (in the South), the Republic of Khakassia Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous districts (in the west) indicating the relations with Asian neighbors. Assimilation of cultural traditions of these ethnic groups allows the culture of the region to absorb in itself centuries-long mythology of nature of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. 4. The peculiarity of the landscape painting genre in the art of the Krasnoyarsk art school: the periodization of the history of the landscape painting genre, artistic traditions, types of landscape painting, representational works. The fundamental tradition of landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school is the concept of national realistic landscape painting. The dominance of realistic landscape painting is determined by the diversity and richness of natural landscapes of Central and Eastern Siberia, plentiful of diverse landscape types. The history of landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school displays all the diversity of the genre. During the 20th century epic and lyrical, historical and mythological landscapes become dominant in works of regional artists. In the middle of the century during the All-Russian industrial constructions in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the construction of a regional centre urban and industrial landscapes are in demand. Periodically rural landscape becomes relevant in works of individual artists. Ethnic landscapes – the landscapes of Khakassia, Tuva, Taymyr, Evenkia and Dudinka – are of the highest priority in works of some artists of the Krasnoyarsk art school throughout the history of its existence. Possible periodization of the history of the landscape painting genre development in the Krasnoyarsk art school is determined by the following criteria: 1) change of priorities in the choice of artistic traditions; 2) dominance of certain types of the landscape painting genre; 3) focus on specific subjects of the landscape, and 4) influence of current and historical events on the artistic culture of the territory. 1910-1950. – the period of formation of the landscape painting genre in the Krasnoyarsk art school: art works of V.I. Surikov, D.I. Karatanov, A.P. Lekarenko. The history of landscape painting in the Krasnoyarsk Territory started with the first watercolour works of V.I. Surikov (1848-1916) of the pre-academic period of 1862-1870. The methodology of N.V. Grebnev, the teacher of Vasily Surikov in 1856-1861 at the Krasnoyarsk district school, was peculiar while painting from nature was compulsory, and above all, en plein air (from French «en plein air» meaning «open-air»). # 567 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 1 «Minusinsk steppe» 1873, by V. I. Surikov, STG Presentation of the colourful wealth of nature, changes of colour in natural conditions and realism become determinant at drawing lessons. In the future, V. I. Surikov will preserve this technique during the entire period of his career. While studying at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts (1869-1875) V.I. Surikov regularly returns to Krasnoyarsk, travels in Khakassia. He creates a lot of landscape paintings of the steppe and mountains of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk panoramic views distinguished by realism. In landscape painting of those years panoramic perspective plans are combined with the precise depiction of the details of the background (Lomanova, 2006). In the work of V.I. Surikov Siberian landscape will be the necessary component of historical paintings of the 1890-1900s. In general, the art of V.I. Surikov will become a professional basis for the development of painting in the Krasnoyarsk Territory: the tradition of realism, open-air work, panoramic-monumental image of Siberian nature. The native Siberian D.I. Karatanov (18741952) having taken incomplete course at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in the studio of A.I. Kuindzhi will become one of those painters who will continue the development of landscape painting in the Krasnoyarsk art school in the first half of the 20th century. The artist-historian, a native of Khakassia, a regular participant of research expeditions in the Krasnoyarsk Territory and to the Far North will present in his works a range of lyrical and epic landscapes distinguished by documentary realism. Starting from D.I. Karatanov’s art works Siberian taiga, Khakass steppes and the Sayan mountains, nature reserve «Krasnoyarsk Stolby», tundra of the Turukhansk region, the nature of the Far North and Siberian rivers will become the key themes in landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school in the following years. Landscape painting becomes the main genre in the art of D.I. Karatanov and one of the principal in the education system of Krasnoyarsk city school of painting (the first in Siberia, opened in 1910) where the artist would be the senior teacher. In the epic landscapes of D.I. Karatanov Siberian nature is distinguished by immensity, majesty and savagery. In the lyrical landscape sketches the artist turns to the transition states of nature, the object of his attention are unexplored areas of Siberian nature with small streams and trails. The only characters in such works are fishermen and hunters as the most similar in their nature to the savagery. Working en plein air, Krasnoyarsk artist paints a number of sketches and paintings of his favourite places – «vidovka» (an observation point) at «Stolby» referring to the natural image at different times of the day and year. Selected # 568 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 2 «Eastern Sayan», 1946 Fig. 3 «Taiga landscape», 1972 by A.P. Lekarenko works: «Windfall» (1934), «Taiga wilderness» (1935-1936). The new solution in the landscape painting genre proposed in his works another Krasnoyarsk artist A.P. Lekarenko (1895-1978). After numerous and long-lasting visits to Evenkia, the Turukhansk polar records expedition to the Taymyr (1926-1928) the artist returns with a series of landscape paintings devoted to the northern theme. Numerous sketches will become a kind of peculiar, visual-documentary report of what he saw and, at the same time, the artistic representation of constant cyclical variability, dynamics and diversity of Siberian nature. The desire to capture the multifaceted image of Siberian nature will allow to work in series in which richness and immensity of native wildlife will be revealed most fully. Later A.P. Lekarenko will make this method of work the main one in his landscape art, thus in 1946 after a long trip to the Eastern Sayan the landscape paintings series about the Sayan mountains will appear. Selected works: «Cedars and distances», «Eastern Sayan». 1950-1970. – Crystallization of the realist tradition of landscape painting in the art works of B.Ya. Ryauzov, T.V. Ryannel, R.K. Ruyga, Yu.I. Khudonogov, A.F. Kalinin. Current historical events in the history of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the second half of the 20th century influenced significantly the development of the landscape painting genre. The post-war period, the intensification of the industry development, many all-union construction sites in the region attracted the younger generation from all regions of the country. Among them were young artists not of Krasnoyarsk origin, such as: B.Ya. Ryauzov (1919-1994), V.I. Meshkov (born in 1919), T. Ryannel (born in 1921), A.F. Kalinin (1922-2002), R.K. Ruyga (1923-2002) and Yu.I. Khudonogov (1924-1967). Some will arrive after completing studies at art schools. The opening of Surikov’s Art School in 1958 and the first art gallery will become historic events and will determine the further development of art in the region. This period will be called the «Golden Age» of the Krasnoyarsk Art School (Lomanov, 1996). The natural phenomenon in landscape painting of 1950s was the landscape of military and post-war theme. Artists-veterans having come after the war to the Krasnoyarsk Territory depict the nature exhausted, wounded and wornout by numerous bloody battles. Much attention is paid to the places of heroic, glorious military events («Land at war» 1979- # 569 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 4 «Land at war», 1979 by B.Ya. Ryauzov Fig. 5 «Mountain cedars», 1959 by T. V. Ryannel 1982, «Place of Alexander Matrosov’s heroic deed», B.Ya. Ryauzov). Artists not participating in military events represent through natural images the atmosphere and the consequences of military events in the already peaceful life of the region («Sunflowers. June 1946» Yu.I. Khudonogov). Artists of the second half of the 20th century achieve recognition through numerous epic and lyrical landscape paintings series. Epic landscapes of B.Ya. Ryauzov, T.V. Ryannel of this period are notable for panoramic compositions, monumental formats, Siberian nature is mythologized («The path of giants», «Mongun-Taiga» («Saying farewell to the mountain»), «Peak Grandiozny», «Siberia. Eternity» in 1965 by T.V. Ryannel; «Powers of nature» in 1972 by B.Ya. Ryauzov). T.V. Ryannel in his art work «The birth of the Yenisei» (150x130, 1958) presents a raging stream breaking through the mountainous banks. The artist depicting the Upper-Yenisei waterfall in the Biy-Khem valley demonstrates the birthplace # 570 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 6 «The Birth of the Yenisei», 1958 by T.V. Ryannel of the powers of nature. Clouds of mist over the waterfall in their picturesque representation are like the ephemeral essence of clouds and water elements at the same time. The light of the rising sun over the top breakers of the turbulent flow highlights the origin of the power of water, reveals its divine nature. T.V. Ryannel depicts the mythological story of the immense mountain spring birth solemnly coming down from the heaven. Stony banks are witnessing the absolute inaccessibility of the Heavenly world where the heavenly stream comes into the world from. Through the variety of landscape painting types, as well as through the series of works, Siberian nature is revealed in many aspects showing all the immensity and variety of its manifestations. With all the traditions of the development of Siberian realistic landscape painting painters of this period actualize particular kinds of the genre. At the «Socialist Siberia» exhibition (1969) devoted to the centenary of Lenin’s birth the historic and revolutionary theme appears in the landscape paintings of B.Ya. Ryauzov («Turukhansk series» 1949-1951. («The Historic sites in Siberia connected with life and work of Lenin»), the series «Surikov’s places»). These are series of historic landscape paintings associated with Siberian exile of Vladimir I. Lenin and with the childhood of the great artist. The attention of the Krasnoyarsk artist is focused on the recreating of the atmosphere of the bygone epoch of Turukhansk, Shushenskoye and Krasnoyarsk through the images of nature. Selected works: B.Ya. Ryauzov «Shushenskoye» 1898. The window of V.I. Ulyanov» (1973-1978)», «The garden of Surikov» (1983-1986). In the works of T.V. Ryannel landscape-portraits appear which are new for Siberian landscape painting. «The Birch of Waldman» in 1961, «The Old Friend» in 1972. The peculiar portraits of nature are a metaphor of the human world, nature and the human are mutually revealing, are referring to each other. # 571 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 7, 8 Krasnoyarsk – a city at Red Jar, 1978 and «Here will be Sajano-Shushenskaja of HEPS», 1965, T.V. Ryannel Fig. 9 Homeland of the deer, 1973, V.I. Meshkov T.V. Ryannel, R.K. Ruyga and V.N. Udin turn to the topic of the exploration of Siberia (the overlap of the Yenisei River, the construction of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power plant, construction of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power plant named after the 50th anniversary of the USSR, 1955-1972; the construction of the Municipal bridge across the Yenisei River (1962); Krasnoyarsk becomes one of the largest industrial centres in the country). Industrial and urban landscapes are prevailing in that period («The left-bank pit», «The rightbank basin», «Overlapping the Yenisei river in the Sayan mountains», «The dam of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power plant» in 1968 by T.V. Ryannel, «Here the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydro power plant will be» 1964-1989 by R.K. Ruyga). The «Severe style» of 1960s in the landscape painting genre highlighted the spectacular narration about strength, stamina and masculinity of the Siberian man and Siberian nature. In 1960s the graphic art is developing (1961 – the first exhibition of prints, 1962 – the workshop of graphics of Siberia and the Far East, establishment of the printing studio). The mobility of this kind of art able to respond quickly to the accelerating dynamics of the modern life and the events of time is in great demand. R.K. Ruyga and V.I. Meshkov continuing the tradition of the Siberian landscape painting work # 572 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 10 «Khakassia of territory» 1963 by Yu.I. Khudonogov Fig. 11 «View to Yenisei», 1963; Fig.12 «Landscape with the red house» 1968 A.G. Pozdeev using the graphic techniques (pencil, ink, linocut, woodcut, lithography): the series «AbakanTayshet» by R.K. Ruyga; the series of colour linocuts «Evenk Series», «Around Taymyr» by V.I. Meshkov. Yu.I. Khudonogov and A.F. Kalinin reveal in their paintings the pagan antiquity of Khakass land, offer possibility of its coexistence with modernity. Interrelation of Khakass steppes and virgin lands, burial mounds and the construction of new settlements is presented. In their early works the artists attempt to detect the proximity of ancient and modern rhythms, the harmony of their coexistence. In later works they focus on the stability and permanence of antiquity, assert its superiority over the vanity of modernity («Plowed virgin land», «Town of virgin lands plowmen», «Eagle steppe», «Awakened steppe», Yu.I. Khudonogov). During this period declaring that realism is a fundamental tradition the artists master a range of other artistic traditions, among them English and French realist landscape painting, tradition of impressionism, expressionism («The Sayan rain» in 1980, «Rocks on the shore of Lake Baikal» in 1982, «The morning on the Biryusa» in 1989 by T.V. Ryannel). The object of the image becomes the nature of the Krasnoyarsk Territory from the Sayan ridges in Tuva to the Arctic Ocean. 1970-1990. – Traditions and innovations in landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school: art works of A.G. Pozdeev, V.F. Kapelko, G.G. Gorensky, A.A. Dovnar and V.A. Sergin # 573 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 13 «Hut with holes» A.G. Pozdeev Fig. 14 «At the mouth of the Ching river» V.F. Kapelko The opening of Krasnoyarsk State Art Institute and the Siberian-Far Eastern Branch of the USSR Academy of Arts (art workshops) in 1986-1987 will determine the further development of art in the region. Graduates of the capital’s art schools continue to come to Krasnoyarsk and bring with them almost unknown artistic traditions to the regional school, including West European (traditions of Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Primitivism and others). Most clearly the innovative techniques of landscape painting are represented in works of A.G. Pozdeev (19261998), G.G. Gorensky (born in 1938), V.F. Kapelko (1937-2000). Selected works: «In the prospect», «Red holiday» 1967-1969 by A.G. Pozdeev). The impressionist art tradition becomes the prevailing one: the colour and light interflowing of natural areas, the breach of the classic organization of the natural space, the play of reflexes demonstrates the idea of the natural world unity. However, the realist tradition of Siberian landscape painting is still preserved in the works of the artists taught in the traditions of the Krasnoyarsk art school, and these ones who choose the Krasnoyarsk Territory to be the space for their creative development and further perfection. V.A. Sergin (born in 1945) works in central Russia and paints landscapes of Pskov, Vladimir, and landscapes of Moscow suburbs, Fig. 15 «Autumn on the Yenisei», 1983 by V.A. Sergin # 574 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Baltic landscapes, works in Central Asia, but nevertheless he prefers the rugged wildness of Krasnoyarsk nature. Pastous, relief in the painting technique epic and lyrical landscapes of V.A. Sergin maximum materialize the artistic image of Siberian nature in front of the viewer creating the optical effect of three-dimensional image. Since 1997 the urban landscape appears in the art of V.A. Sergin – Krasnoyarsk streets and yards («Kirova Street», «Paris yard» 1998). The artistic language of the painter is formed on the basis of the realistic tradition of Siberian landscape, as well as on the traditions of Russian landscape painting (lyrical landscapes: the series «Four seasons», «Winter twilight» in 1996; epic landscapes: «My Siberia» in 1990, «The tale of Siberia» in 1999, «The Tale of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River» in 2000, «Taimyr silence» in 1982). A.A. Dovnar (1939-2005) preferred the rural landscape portraying the world of antiquity and peace having been preserved and existing in Siberian nature. 1990-2010. – Peculiarity of the present stage of the development of the Krasnoyarsk art school landscape painting genre: art works of I.S. Danilov, A.A. Pokrovsky, V.N. Udin, S.V. Forostovsky, V.P. Belinsky, E.A. Larionov. Landscape painting genre in the art of Krasnoyarsk art school has been one of the dominant ones. The range of artistic traditions expands significantly. Krasnoyarsk landscapists actualize the entire spectrum of global and domestic painting styles from realistic to abstract. The tradition of realistic Siberian landscape painting becomes one of the many. However, Siberian landscape painting has been the Fig. 16 Village Samkovo. Leaf fall. 1989 and Fig. 17 Starlings have arrived. 1994 by A.A. Dovnar Fig. 18 The village of Balai. 2006 by I.S. Danilov # 575 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Fig. 19 Himalayas. India. 2005 by A.A Pokrovsky prevailing and varied one: landscapes of central and southern Siberia, landscapes of the North, rural landscapes. The new landscapes in the history of landscape painting are the ethnic landscapes of Tibet, China, India and Polynesia. The variety of landscape topics not related to Siberian nature is the fact of openness and integration of the Krasnoyarsk art school into the world artistic process, the opportunity to discover the commonness and unity of the world of nature, as well as an attempt to take a fresh look at the nature of Siberia and see its uniqueness. Selected works: «Ergaki. Lake of Artists» in 2006 by V.P. Belinsky, «The Church in the Olgino village» in 2006 by E.A. Larionov, «The evening bells. Ovsyanka village» in 2005 by V.N. Udin, «Vavilova street in Krasnoyarsk» in 1991 by S.V. Forostovsky. Resume Landscape painting genre continues to be the most popular one in the work of Krasnoyarsk school artists. The nature of the Krasnoyarsk Territory appears to be a unique educational space, when immersed in it the artists reveal an inexhaustible source of creativity and appeal to nature depiction throughout their art career. Krasnoyarsk landscape painting during the whole century illustrates the dynamic evolution of the genre in all its diversity of kinds, a wide range of artistic traditions. In the article a possible periodization of the history of landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school is suggested allowing to see the dynamics of the development of the world landscape art tradition and the establishment of the Siberian landscape painting own concept. Landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school reveals many aspects of Siberian nature revealing all the immensity and complexity of its polar and nuance expressions. The unique artistic qualities of Siberian landscape painting are realistic representation of its savage majesty and unruliness and, at the same time, lyricism and restraint which exposes the whole complexity of the human self-determination in the universe. The plentiful of natural images of Siberia (Siberian taiga, Khakass steppe, the Sayan mountains, high-mountain Stolby, tundra, the nature of the Far North, Siberian rivers, etc.) # 576 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School and their qualities fundamentally opposite to each other; variable aspects of natural motives offer the viewers uniqueness and wealth of the region. Herewith, it is this visualization of an equivalent diversity of the Krasnoyarsk Territory nature, from monumental panoramic landscapes of Siberia in which the earth and the heaven interrelate as totalities to small, selected aspects of Siberian nature, which reveals the multicultural wealth of the Krasnoyarsk Territory as its natural law of existence making it clear to the viewer. 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August, 2009 (Vol. 2, №3). P. 323-335. 56. V.V. Osenmuk. Chan-Buddhist art and academic landscape of the Southern Song period (12th13th centuries) in China. – Moscow, 2001 57. А.A. Makhonina. Cultural Value of Classical Languages at Siberian Federal University // Humanities and social sciences. April, 2010 (Vol.3, №2). P.241-249. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School Жанр пейзаж в искусстве красноярской художественной школы Н.А. Бахова Сибирский федеральный университет, Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Cтатья посвящена исследованию истории развития и своеобразия пейзажной живописи красноярской художественной школы в период кон.XIX – нач.XXI веков как уникального явления региональной культуры. Жанр пейзажа является одним из востребованных, в котором реализуют свою художественную концепцию красноярские живописцы, визуализируя особенности мировоззрения сибиряков. Первоначально изучены и соотнесены специфические процессы становления самостоятельности и самоценности пейзажной живописи в иерархии жанров древнекитайской и западноевропейской истории искусства. Определены первые импульсы освобождения пейзажных картин от мифологических, исторических, бытовых сюжетов. В статье обсуждается главенство реалистического пейзажа в живописи красноярской художественной школы, что обосновывается разнообразием и богатством природных ландшафтов Центральной и Восточной Сибири, обилием пейзажных видов. Близость природы позволяет художнику максимально схватить сущность родственной ему природы и представить её оригинальные качества. Западноевропейская теория реалистического пейзажа XIX века является основополагающей для пейзажной живописи красноярской художественной школы. Согласно этой теории реалистические обыденные пейзажи наиболее корректно проявляют сущность в каждом из элементов и явлений повседневности, обнаруживают истинно прекрасное в ней, требуют умение видеть кажущееся простое как значимое. В статье впервые предлагается искусствоведческий обзор и периодизация пейзажной живописи красноярской художественной школы на протяжении всей истории её существования. Обнаруживается видовое многообразие жанра (эпические и лирические, исторические и мифологические пейзажи, городской, индустриальный и деревенский пейзажи, этнопейзажи). Возможная периодизация истории развития жанра пейзажа определяется в соответствии со сменой приоритетов: художественные традиции, доминанта отдельных видов жанра, актуально-исторические события культуры Красноярского края. Относительно каждого этапа развития региональной пейзажной живописи подобраны репрезентативные произведения, наглядно демонстрирующие его своеобразие. Периодизация истории развития пейзажной живописи красноярской художественной школы позволяет увидеть динамику освоения мировой художественной пейзажной традиции и становление собственной концепции сибирского пейзажа. В заключении сформулированы уникальные художественные качества красноярской пейзажной живописи, наглядно демонстрирующие своеобразие сибирского региона как поликультурного пространства. Ключевые слова: жанр пейзажа, концепция реалистического пейзажа, теория национального пейзажа, красноярская художественная школа, региональная культура, культура Красноярского края, пейзажная живопись Красноярского края, художники Красноярска. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 581-592 ~~~ УДК 377.031 Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk Anastasia V. Kistova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 In the modern world art education is recognized as one of the most effective ways to get to know yourself and the world you live in. The relevance and significance of the children art education problems involve the priority role of individualization and innovativeness in the field of teaching technologies aimed at the wholesome worldview formation of a creative individual that fits into the multifaceted and rapidly changing reality of the 21st century. Art education as a field of creativity and experimentation is highly consistent with the multifaceted dynamics of the modern life which helps to focus on the effective way of social activity and balance all the individual and social needs. Children art education has a special significance, since it is a basis for the holistic personality growth building up all the main characteristics of the worldview that will further develop and sharpen. This explains the need for the sustained guidance in the children art education and taking care of the variety of ways and methods of art education corresponding with the present multivariate dynamic way of social life. In this article the specifics of art education, the possible ways of the educational process organization at the children art school are discussed. A pedagogical system of subjects at the Krasnoyarsk Surikov’s children art school No.1 is taken as an example. Keywords: art education, methods and objectives of children’s art education, Krasnoyarsk Surikov’s Children Art School No.1. Point 1. The specifics of art education In the modern research and educational environment (philosophy, cultural studies, cultural anthropology, pedagogy, psychology, art, etc.) there is no unequivocal opinion on the essence of art education. It is possible to find some of the most debated aspects of the phenomenon’s essence that are allocated due to the dissimilar understandings of art education and its relevance in the modern reality. The fi rst aspect is related to the problem of the insufficient formation of the spiritual * 1 and moral compass in the modern educational system and the possibility of its solution through the artistic creation: "One of the main ways of nurturing spirituality in children is the analysis of their internal world necessary even for the youngest students. At this stage, art education might lend priceless support to a growing person and may become the fi rst lesson of spirituality" (Monakhova, 2004, p.22). In this concept, artistic activity not only exercises creativity and acquaints students with the social significance of the spiritual values, but also "reflects the personal experience and Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 581 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk an individual understanding of the discussed phenomena and events of the children’s lives" (Monakhova, 2004, p.22). The second aspect is related to the emphasis of the art education’s great importance in the development of the person's creative powers and hence the enrichment of his personality: "...it is necessary to turn to the organization issues of art education that develops an individual creativity needed to successfully adapt to changing technological and socio-cultural conditions of life in the fast developing world" (Bykasova et al., 2010, p.9). It is the specifics of artistic creativity that play a special educational role in the artistic culture as a space for creative self-awareness and self-development: "There is a risk of "drifting" from the culture of young generations of the 21st century, therefore, education is directed towards the artistic culture that has tools for the human formation which is the bearer of the human existence" (Bykasova et al., 2010, p.10). An independent creative activity here is preferred as the highest value of art education. The third aspect accentuates art education as "a particularly important sphere of a human activity vital for the development of the Russian society as a process of the person’s acquirement and acquisition of the humanity’s artistic culture, one of the most important ways of the holistic personality development and formation, its spirituality, creative individuality of the intellectual and emotional wealth" (Order of Russian Ministry of Culture No.1403 dated from December 28, 2001). It stresses the social importance of art education for the national self-awareness formation through the exploration of the cultural heritage. The fourth aspect refers to the ability of art education to develop an aesthetic taste and emotionally educate a human being through the perception of various works of art that are the bearers of aesthetic values: "By introducing the rich experience of mankind accumulated in the arts to a junior student it is possible to foster a highly moral, educated, versatile modern human being" (Pavlova, 2007, p.53). The fifth aspect is related to the communication skills of an art work which through its perception allows a person to fi nd his entity in collaboration with various facets of the world: "Every work of art is an exclusive model of the world, but not just the world, it is a model of its human understanding. It is the connection between a person and the world, a person and another person, understanding of the human essence. These are the three types of the world outlook. <...> The art world flows through a human’s feelings and emotions, enriches him with new feelings, perceptions and ideas. So through art all the human goes directly into a person and the human world" (Zakhovaeva, 2005, p.21-22). Thus, the essence of art education is understood as a multifaceted and multifunctional phenomenon that can develop a child’s personality to the utmost. The specificity of art education is associated with the creative process conditions that are included in the educational process. The main purpose of the children education is the development of a wholesome worldview that helps a self-knowing individual to harmoniously fit into the socio-cultural space: "A wholesome view and a holistic image are the cornerstone of painting as well as of all kinds of visual art in general. To be able to view and depict objects, nature and human sufficiently it is an obligatory quality of every true artist. Only with this quality an artist can properly convey his impressions of the outside world, fi nd important things in it and measure unimportant ones" (Makarova, 2009, p.62). # 582 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk 2. Organization methods of the educational process in the children art education The discussion on the essence of art education is closely related to the methods of structuring the educational process in the field of artistic culture. Usually, this problem involves the dialectics of traditions and innovations in the art pedagogy. The main question is how to organize the process of learning the artistic creation methods and practices so that it would lead not only to the mastery of certain artistic techniques and skills, but also to the development of the child’s wholesome worldview? Researchers in the field of art education history in Russia (Tumanov, 2008; Bykasova et al., 2010) note that the interaction between traditions and innovations in art education has always existed either in a form of conflict (denial of any creative moves beyond the proposed methods in the middle 19th century in Russia; denial of the creativity’s academic principles that limited master’s freedom in the 1920s) or in a fruitful alliance with each other when the traditional academic framework of the artistic creation is a strong base for the young artists’ own creative search (a modern stage of the art education development in Russia). "The search for new learning principles can and should be done as long as the basics of learning (mastering of art literacy) remain. According to the logic of the educational process, we can be confident that without the use of principles established by the academic educational system the learning process would be simply meaningless. On the other hand the question is referred to a combination of methodological principles that can modernize the learning process and make it adequate to the requirements of life". (Tumanov, 2008, p.43) A space for such creative experimentations and hence a basic element of art education as the formation and development of a child’s creative personality with a wholesome worldview, is a subject of composition that is one of the key subjects of contemporary children art education in Russia. The significance of "composition" as an art of linkage, connection and construction of a single whole from the essential and sufficient components points to its fundamental importance in the creative activity. In art education this subject is traditionally considered as one of the most complex and important ones, since it is related to the need for a student’s individual choice of the holistic image principles on a given subject. However, along with the ability to solve its own objectives the subject of "composition" can be an integral with respect to other subjects of the children's art school curriculum (painting, drawing, graphics, sculpture, art history). This suggests that it is the composition learning successfully combining traditional art education and its own creative pursuits that is able to demonstrate a students’ level of proficiency in the fundamentals of artistic traditions, a level of their own creativity development and the ability to develop a wholesome worldview and selfawareness. Example The first Drawing school across the Urals was established in the city of Krasnoyarsk on the 27th of January in 1910 which triggered the history of professional art education in Siberia. The school became a very successful educational artistic environment. The first graduating class of 1912 gave the Russian artistic culture such famous names as the sculptor Georgy Lavrov, the film artist Vasily Kovrigin, the painter and graphic artist Alexey Voshchakin, one of the leading artists and teachers in Siberia Andrey Lekarenko. Among the famous graduates of later years are Yuri Khudonogov, Andrey Pozdeev, # 583 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk Fig. 1. Composition assignment for the part-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. The 1960s Anatoly Znak, Valentin Teplov, Vladimir Kapelko and many others. The Krasnoyarsk Art School starting from its first teachers D. Karatanov and A. Lekarenko has always been famous for its academic Surikov – like traditions on the one hand, and innovative moves in the art pedagogy on the other hand. However, such an integrating and basic subject, in terms of the holistic view formation, as "composition" was introduced to the curriculum only in 1970. Initially, art education at the Surikov’s Children Art School has been focused on the development of the academic basics of painting and drawing in order to prepare Siberian artists to enter the Academy of Arts. But along with this there came the constant search for new methods in teaching mainly related to the personal example of the teaching artists. Subject of "composition" was an optional creative assignment which showed a greater level of artistic skills mastery. The composition of the 1960s (Fig. 1) is a striking example of the academic manner of drawing. It demonstrates principles of realistic methods relevant to the artistic culture of the Soviet period: an accurate rendering of the texture, an understated view – these are the features typical for a creative method of socialist realism in the form of "severe style". In the 1970s the subject of "composition" becomes mandatory in the full-time student’s curriculum at the Surikov’s Children Art School, but the works performed by the students continue to represent the characteristics of "severe style": an understated view in the composition, a theme of heroic labor, a generalization of images, romantic constructions in the composition and color (Fig. 2). Thus, the present works demonstrate a common directive of art education during the Soviet period to fit a future artist into the priority art tradition in terms of the state. Little attention is paid to the artist’s individual creative search. They are limited by the traditional set of composite structures, painting and graphic techniques and storylines. Besides, the cohort of the art school in the Soviet period consists of adolescents and adults who have already developed a worldview. Since the 1990's children art education at the Surikov’s Children Art School has been organized according to three different educational stages. Each of them has its age, content and methodological characteristics. Stage 1 – general aesthetic art education for 9-10 year-old children developing creative skills in general. # 584 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk Fig. 2. Composition assignment for the part-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. The 1970s Stage 2 – advanced level of art education for children older than 11 years designed for a 4-year study of drawing, painting, sculpture, composition and art history fundamentals. Stage 3 – pre-professional art education for high school students focused on special training for entry into the art vocational and higher institutions. With such a variety of targets, teaching methods and a content of education all three levels are closely related to each other by the principle of continuity and gradual complication of education. All three stages are aligned in a certain sequence by the elements of a complex multilevel system of art education adopted at the Surikov’s Art School. One of the key characteristics of the school’s educational system is the universality of the education that is based on the formation of a wholesome worldview but not just the acquisition of special art skills. Studying painting, drawing and sculpture is focused more on the aesthetic-creative development of students, on the opening and improvement of methods of artistic understanding of the world and themselves being a part of it. Classes on the history of art develop skills of reflection and analytical thinking, promotes awareness of themselves as a person in certain traditions, society, Space, and the future professional self-determination of students. Subject of "composition" develops the basics of artistic space modeling and hence the worldview by means of expressiveness of the painting, drawing and sculpture. Exercising composition contributes to the formation of a wholesome worldview and realization of the necessity of this wholeness as an inherent quality of the world and self’s essence. Thus, all subjects at the art school are now organized not only to simply provide a variety of artistic skills and knowledge but also to consistently affect the formation of the personal vision by means of the creative and analytical art activity. It is well reflected in the children's work on the subject of "composition". # 585 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk The work of the preparatory class is distinguished by the compositions originality, variety of techniques (materials) and themes. When the teachers assign a task they put an emphasis on the immediacy of a child's perception of the world and its artistic expression, rather than on learning of some certain creative techniques which as a result leads to the lack of stylistic features in the children's work (Fig. 3, 4, 5). The compositions of the full-time students are the works on given subjects (literary plots, history, biblical themes, domestic scenes, etc.). When the teachers assign a task for the students they pay much attention to the students’ own interpretation of the subject, the variety of techniques (the experiments in mixed techniques are welcomed) and the development of a selfportrait theme (Fig. 6, 7, 8). The work of the Surikov’s Children Art School No.1 graduate Nely Osmushkina (Fig. 8) demonstrates a high degree of artistic techniques mastery: integral coloring, selection of materials Fig. 3. Composition assignment for the preparatory class at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2008 Fig. 4. Composition assignment for the preparatory class at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2009 # 586 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 5. Composition assignment for the preparatory class at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2008 Fig. 6. Composition assignment for the 1st grade full-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2006 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 7. Composition assignment for the 2nd grade full-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2009 Fig. 8. N. Osmushkina. 14 years old. Composition assignment for the 4th year full-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2009 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk and techniques in accordance with the work’s subject, complete compositional structure, specificity and accuracy of strokes and lines. But mainly, this work shows originality of the creative self-vision in the outside world. In genre terms this work represents a synthesis of a self-portrait and a domestic scene which allowed the author to combine themes of self-determination and self-reflection, values of the moment and fragility of life with a theme of the refinement in the context of urban life with a vivid display of the Krasnoyarsk urban nature. Indeed, the work demonstrates a harmonious combination of the individual and the social, the traditional and the innovational, and most importantly a wholesome harmonious worldview. Such an outcome is the result of many years of studying starting with the preparatory stage and finishing with the senior 4th year. Thus, the Surikov’s Children Art School No.1 remains faithful to the ideological basis of the universal art education based on a balance of traditions and innovations in the art and on a sequentially structured educational system with the central subject of “composition”, and continues to be the “cradle” of the creative individuals being exactly what our great compatriot wanted it to be and what a today's global thinking person of the 21st century needs. Resume The art education structured system of subjects with a composition as an independent subject that at the same time integrates the results achieved while learning painting, drawing, graphic art and art history fundamentals may indeed be an effective way to organize an educational process in the children art education. The experience of the 100 year-old Krasnoyarsk Surikov’s Children Art School shows the possibility of harmonious interaction between the traditional foundations of art education with the new ways and methods of artistic practices and teaching technologies. The composition classes, based on a combination of tasks on the development of traditional skills of compositing with a certain freedom in choosing themes, materials, techniques and compositional solutions under the guidance of a supervisor play a key role in the formation of a child’s worldview. Contemporary art works of the Krasnoyarsk Art School graduates show both high level of art literacy and originality of the students’ wholesome vision of the world and themselves in this world. Thus, the system of art education at the Surikov’s Children Art School No.1 proves its effectiveness and compliance with the requirements of the modern world. References E.A. Alisov. 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N.P. Koptseva. Theory and practice of innovative educational programmes for aesthetic disciplines in Siberian Federal University // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. December 2008 (Volume 1, Issue 4). – pp.492-499. N.P. Koptseva, K.V. Reznikova. The choice of methodological bases for contemporary cultural studies // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. November 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 4). – pp.491-506. N.M. Libakova, N.P. Koptseva. Russian culture in search of truth at the turn of the 19th to 20th century. The truth of the real human existence in the unity philosophy of Vladimir Solovyov and # 590 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk Russian works of art // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. March 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 1). – pp.67-83. N.M. Libakova. The specifics of the gender theory methodology in applied cultural studies // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. November 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 4). – pp.580-586. V.S. Luzan. Cultural policy as a matter of applied cultural studies // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. August 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 3). – pp.323-335. V.S. Luzan. Cultural policy as an individual type of national policy // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. November 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 4). – pp.587-594. M.L. Makarova. The holistic perception and image // Art and education: Journal of techniques, theory and practice of art education and aesthetic education. – Moscow: Published by N. Kushaev. – 3, 2009. pp.62-69. A.A. Makhonina. Cultural significance of the classical languages in Siberian Federal University // Journal of Siberian Federal University. A series of “Humanities”. April 2010 (Volume 3, Issue 2). – p.241-249. E.V. Monakhova. The formation of spiritual and moral guidance for children at fine art classes // Features of art education in the context of additional education.- Moscow: State educational institution, Center for Development of additional education for children, 2004. – 64. About the concept of art education in the Russian Federation: Order of Russian Ministry of Culture dated from December 28, 2001 N 1403// http://kafedramxk.ru/index.php?option E.D. Pavlova. Art as a means of aesthetic education and formation of the artistic consciousness in students // Art and education: Journal of techniques, theory and practice of art and aesthetic education. – Moscow: Published by N. Kushaev. – 5, 2007. – pp.52-60. I.A. Panteleyeva. Representative possibilities of art works (based on the philosophical, artistic and historical study of the pyramid of Khufu) // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. September 2008 (Volume 1, Issue 3). -pp.373-384. E.S. Pelepeichenko. The role of additional education and staff training system under the contemporary socio-economic conditions of the region // Art and Education: Journal of techniques, theory and practice of art and aesthetic education. – Moscow: Published by N. Kushaev. – 1, 2010. -pp.13-18. A.A. Semyonova. The term of “concept” as the basis of modern cultural studies // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. May 2009 (Vol. 2, Issue 2). – pp.234-246. M.G. Smolina. Maieutic tools of art criticism // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. March 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 1). – pp.120-130. N.S. Stenina. Philosophical basics of the integrated art education // Art and education: Journal of technique, theory and practice of art and aesthetic education.- Moscow: Published by N. Kushaev. – 2, 2007. – pp.22 – 32. M.V. Tarasova. Rules of messaging between a viewer and a work of art // Journal of Siberian Federal University. The series of “Humanities”. March 2009 (Volume 2, Issue 1). – pp.131-147. I.N. Tumanov. Art-pedagogical education: Problems of the post-Soviet period // Fine art in school: scientific journal. – Moscow: “Art School” editorship. – 1, 2008. – pp.41 – 44. # 591 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk Детское художественное образование в Красноярске А.В. Кистова Сибирский федеральный университет, Россия 660041, Красноярск, Свободный, 79 В современном мире художественное образование признается одним из эффективных способов освоения человеком себя и окружающего мира. Актуальность и значимость проблем детского художественного образования связаны с приоритетной ролью индивидуализации и инновационности в сфере педагогических технологий, которые нацелены на формирование целостного мировоззрения разносторонне развитой творческой личности, соответствующей многоликой и стремительно меняющейся действительности XXI века. Художественное образование как пространство творчества и экспериментов в высшей степени соответствует многогранной динамике современной жизни, нацеливая человека на результативный деятельностный способ социальной активности, гармонизируя индивидуальные и социальные потребности. Детское художественное образование обладает особой значимостью, поскольку выступает основой для развития целостной личности, формируя все основные характеристики мировоззрения, которые в дальнейшем лишь развиваются и оттачиваются. Этим объясняется необходимость целенаправленного руководства художественным образованием детей, проявления заботы о разнообразии способов и приемов художественного образования, соответствующих современному поливариантному динамичному способу социальной жизни. В статье обсуждается специфика художественного образования, возможные способы построения образовательного процесса в детской художественной школе. В качестве примера рассматривается педагогическая система учебных предметов Детской художественной школы № 1 имени В.И. Сурикова в Красноярске. Ключевые слова: художественное образование; методы и цели детского художественного образования; Детская художественная школа № 1 имени В.И. Сурикова в Красноярске. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 593-599 ~~~ УДК 316.2 Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation of Modern Postnonclassic (Universum) Sociology Valentin G. Nemirovsky* and Tatyana A. Fenvesh Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article is devoted to analysis of the influence, which was exerted by Russian cultural-philosophical tradition on the formation of modern postnonclassic sociology. The authors analyze cultural and theoretical premises for the development of humanitarian school in postnonclassic sociology – universum approach. In this respect special attention is paid to the philosophy of Russian anthropocosmism and All-unity. A wide range of cultural-philosophical opinions beginning with the proto-Slavic period of their development is analyzed. Correspondences between similar points of view and typical features of postnonclassic (universum) sociology are established. Keywords: Russian culture, Russian philosophy, postnonclassic (universum) sociology, Russian anthropocosmism. A major feature of the modern period in development of sociology in Russia is its transition state. This is a conversion from classic and non-classic theories and their distinctive methodological techniques to postnonclassic approaches and their distinctive methods. This is true not only of sociology and philosophy. A number of famous scientists suppose that modern scientific knowledge deals with the limitation of classic and non-classic methodological means of research of complex systems in natural sciences, humanities and social sciences. One of responses to the modern situation is a postnonclassic science, which is based on correlations between system objects studied in modern sciences and changes in scientific rationality. Today the place of simple systems, which can be studied by one branch of * 1 science, is taken by the problems of complex selfregulating and self-developing systems, which require using of resources of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, non-classic and postnonclassic methodologies . Modern postnonclassic sociology has two main methodologies: Christian Scientist (or mathematically oriented) and humanitarian. The first, for example, is represented by a number of famous works by A.A. Davidov . The second is based on the universum paradigm. In this article we shall consider the influence of Russian cultural-philosophical tradition on the formation of postnonclassic (universum) sociology. In general it is typical of Russian philosophy to pay special attention to the inner moral and spiritual world of a person, his/her existential, religious and moral Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 593 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh. Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation… problems. It considers both human and society to be an inseparable part of nature and Cosmos, tries to go beyond the limits of everyday life to the limitless world of transcendentality. First of all, we talk about Russian anthropocosmism and philosophy of All-unity. To a great extent they had anticipated the formation of a new scientific outlook [4, p. 22]. Therefore works of A.V. Sukhovo-Kobylin, N.F. Fedorov, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, A.F. Chizhevsky and V.I. Vernadsky play an especially significant role for the development of modern postnonclassic principles in scientific knowledge. In western countries similar principles and approaches are developed nowadays within the framework of synergy and other schools of system analysis. It is widely accepted that Russian philosophy has one thousand year history, beginning from the time when Russia was baptized. For this period Russian philosophic ideas have got firmly established, have developed in a multitude of schools, keeping at the same time unique original integrity. The present-day interest in ideas of Russian philosophers, and in historical background in general, concerns not only national cultural traditions, it is linked to moral problems of development of Russian spiritual culture, which have arisen in front of modern Russian society nowadays. It is worth of note here that in the second half of the XIX century in Russian science the ideas of “system thinking” became very popular. Many scientists of that time tried to work out some synthetic structures. So, I.M. Sechenov pointed out the necessity to study human in the unity of his “flesh, soul and nature”. This peculiarity of Russian natural sciences provided guidelines for a special frame of mind, which later was called “Russian cosmism”. These tendencies in a certain way influenced not only the patterns of priorities of Russian science, but also influenced Russian philosophical thought, which provokes inimitable and original reflection on the philosophy of allunity. To understand and to realize oneself “in general world order” (P.Ya.Chaadaev) and to plug into the global world processes is impossible without a fundamental culturological approach to the history of Russian natural sciences and socialphilosophical thought, without searching for inner regularities and guidelines for the establishment and development of a special frame of thought, which can be called by one capacious notion “Russian philosophy”. Here one should refuse to use selective inquiry into separate schools of social-philosophical thought and refuse to declare that they are the only ones that meet national spirit. Aside from that, one should avoid using unilateral approaches to Russian scientific and philosophical heritage; such unilateralism can be revealed, when scholars show interest only in the conceptual (informative) side of the problem. Russian scientific and philosophical thought have been naturally developing into a combination of nature and society history and its transformation into integrated universal History of the World. Of course, Russian philosophy has been developing not in a notional and theoretical vacuum. The philosophy of Russian anthropocosmism has experienced substantial influence of Aristotle’s ideas developed by Ioann Damaskin (John of Damascus), hesychastic neoplatonism referring to works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, ideas about divine energy by Gregory Palamas. According to St. Gregory`s teaching, not only the God (who is virtually incomprehensible) descends its energy to the world, but also Man (as a part of the created world) is able to physically and spiritually rise over his nature, approaching the Creator. In other words, the Creator and his creation are connected in a complex (not in unilateral) way. This idea can be found in a famous quotation by St. Basil the Great: “God became man so that man might become a god”. The foundation of Russian philosophy cannot # 594 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh. Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation… be separated from the adoption of Christianity by Ancient Russia, which established a close connection to Byzantine Empire. It was Byzantine Empire which provided Russia with philosophical ideas and writings of the antique and west European thinkers. Questions on the universe, human and his place in nature were mentioned in ancient chronicles, legends, novels, teachings and prayings, where they were interconnected with different historical data and took a certain religious form (Illarion`s “The Treatise on the Law and Grace”, “Praying” by Daniel the Cloister). Humanitarian and Social-Philosophical ideas in Ancient Russia were practically oriented. For example, arguments in support of including Russian lands into the global historical process are stated, main rules of human life activity are described (Catechism by Vladimir Monomakh). It can be said that the development of the philosophy of Kiev Russia eventually resulted in an outlook, regarding the world as God`s creation, history of mankind as an arena, where good and evil are absolute opposites engaged in an eternal struggle for dominance. Human was viewed as a double-sided creature, consisting of the perishable body and immortal soul. In the XVI century Russian philosophical thought experienced substantial influence of a religious school of Hesychasm (Greek hesychos, quiet, silent), which involved the practice of silent (“noetic”) prayer. This doctrine concerns the relationship of God and the world and implies a process of advanced study of human spiritual nature; it resulted in the foundation of an outlook, asserting that humans are created in God`s image, whose labor is to support harmony and order of the world (Maksim Grek). The idea of unity of Man and the World with the unconditional complete beginning, their mutual striving one for another have determined basic elements of Russian cultural and spiritualacademic traditions. Nowadays objective evaluation of the historical past is on agenda, when “serious thought of our time requires, first of all, strict thinking and fair analysis of moments, when nation`s life is revealed with a certain depth, when its social principle is revealed in all its clarity, because the future and elements of its possible progress depend on it” [6, p. 175]. It was a long time before the adoption of Christianity in Russia, when a social principle of the Russian nation revealed itself. Embodiments of this principle in spiritual and material culture provided continuity and solidity of its development from philosophical-mythological ideas of our Pre-Christian ancestors to the latest modification of philosophical-cultural knowledge – Russian anthropocosmism. Every culture acts as a combination of rational and irrational manifestations. To find a precise definition for the notions of rational and irrational is quite difficult, but it is absolutely necessary for us. Our contemporaries look at ancient cultures, certainly, from aside, “from without”. This assessment is determined by his or her personal experience and personal outlook. But the subjectivity of outlook is not the only obstacle for finding out what is irrational, unreasonable, illogical or rational in a culture. The problem lies in a tight interconnection existing between these two poles. Irrational points of view of our contemporaries, rituals and cultic festivals could have such a substantial psychological impact on certain people and a society in general that they could overcome barriers, which seemed to be insurmountable and performed heroic deeds. But there were no religions on the earth, which had no any evaluations of reality, which contributed to the rational organization of labor and everyday life. How a culture in general is able to exist for a long period of time? It can be explained by its reproduction from one generation to another. Children repeat deeds and thoughts of their # 595 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh. Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation… fathers, grandfathers, grand grandfathers. This reproduction-related feature is typical for any society, and it provides for maintenance of the society. However within a dialectical framework this tendency is to be balanced by a need of culture for renovation and development. The dialectics of tradition and innovation is reflected in material-reasonable, spiritual-creative, traditional outlook-related aspects of life of a society; they are developed and consolidated by its entire history. A combination of these aspects for every culture forms its national characteristic, which reveals itself as a social principle. The social principle is a tangle of a culture`s durability, its embodiment in a social-cultural ambience, providing for its organization, a certain order in life of the society, its production and reproduction. Implementation and specification of the principle is being completed within certain outlook and culture related and outlook and society related frameworks, which have been formed in the process of objective historical development of every social entity and have determined such characteristics of the world, which are to be placed in the focus of human cognitive activity. As it was stated above, traditionally it is believed that Russia with its first capital Kiev – “ the mother of all Russian towns” – was formed in the second half or the IX century A.D., whereas Russian philosophical thought in its development is always associated with the adoption of orthodox Christianity. But when compared to those traditions of Slavic culture, which originate from distant in time antique-Scythian, Hyperborean-Aryan, Sumerian-Arattian cultures, it becomes obvious that the Slavic culture itself traces its roots back to the remote Indo-European past. A solid basis of material-economical, intellectual and spiritual life of Russia was formed in more distant archaic times, a long time ago before the adoption of Christianity in Russia. According to the findings of Russian historians and archeologists (V.N. Danilenko, B.A. Rybakov, V.N. Toporov, Yu.A. Shilov, B.D. Mikhailov, etc.), Slavonic people – especially eastern – are successors and keepers of the ethnocultural nucleus of Indo-European nations, which created the ancient and “generally optimal global civilization” [7, p. 219]. These scientists (Yu.A. Shilov in particular) assume that the territory of future Russia from the very beginning belonged to the sphere of development of one of ancient agricultural civilizations on our planet. This substantial circumstance provides a new look at the conceptual side and the very essence of the historical process of forming Slavic culture and later cultures, which inherited its traits. The organization form of social and economic life of the analyzed historical period was a collectivist formation (“primitive communism”), which was determined by objective circumstances. However this collectivist way of existence was a result of not only economic reasons. Yu.A. Shilov supposes that the ordering power of priest rulers (“protointellectuals”) underlay the collectivist way of existence; the priest rulers were responsible for spiritual order maintenance. Closed corporations of the priest rulers of the Indo-European cultural area created myths and written language, developed calendars and rituals. A system of sanctuaries – an observatory in the CircumPontic Region was built under their supervision. The first communal state of Aratta (“Sun-like Aratta”) appeared due to the efforts of these “proto-intellectuals” in the Danubian region, the Dnieper region and the plateau region of Iran. Even nowadays traces of Arattian traditions can be found (especially in India). An intellectual dialogue of Man and the World formed the basis of this ancient statehood; the dialogue was aimed at the maintenance and development of natural harmony and contributed to the avoidance of cosmic and social cataclysms. # 596 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh. Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation… Maintenance and reproduction of spiritual and social order was provided by the stability of outlook conceptions. A world model underlying these conceptions presented the world as a Universum, where Man acts as a rationalist living creature. This is a reason of high responsibility of human for his thoughts and deeds, which are directly interspersed in the live fabric of cosmic life. Perception of the world and disclosure of its traits within the frame of cosmic model implies the absence of objects and phenomena, which are absolutely isolated from others. Everything is in everything. This principle underlay archaic technological practices, formed on the territory of Indo-European (proto-Slavonic in particular) cultures. When creating a new item a master repeats all operations, which the Creator of the Universe performed at the beginning of the World. Thus, the master reproduces the eternal order, creates a world. Materials used for the creation of new items were raw materials for the creation of the world and human himself. This is why techniques used by gods underlay traditional technologies. The master manufactured an item, it means that he not only created it, but made it “alive”, fixed it in accord with the existing everliving world. All these stages took a lot of time, involved a multitude of irrational moments, which, from the point of view of modern people, resulted in redundancy of technological processes. In fact the Master performed a cosmic ritual of creation, creation of a useful and necessary in the world thing, which finishes a natural process of the correct original scheme. Fixing can be viewed as a process of harmonization (in accord with cosmic schemes) of everything material or spiritual created by Man. A sensory image formed by elements of the outer world and the general idea coincided, which resulted in identity of the material world and its reflection, a spiritual image, created by Man. This attitude to reality as a way of perception and explanation of the world demonstrated by our Indo-European predecessors determined the place of Man in the world; it formed the feeling of confidence, congruence, and harmony of human actions in the general cosmic order. Human strived to avoid contradictions with nature: when creating all necessary things for himself he kept on searching for ways of being in harmony with nature through such notions as life, happiness and purity. Within the material and spiritual production framework it was a way of the least resistance with the maximum outcome of necessary product, since when applying such a production technology Man did not face any natural resistance – human activity was performed in harmony and accord with the world. Consequently, the level of traumatism caused to the natural substance by anthropogenic factors was minimal. Actually, the principle of harmony was a natural and necessary condition of existence and development of proto-Slavs. A type of socially vital activities also developed in full accordance with this principle; major characteristics of the type were cooperation, solidarity, and ability to make friends. Such competent scholars as V.N. Danilenko, Yu.A. Shilov. B.A. Rybakov assume that the primitive communal system in protoSlavic Aratta was followed by a long period of non-military, sacred democracy – when not warriors, but priests were leaders of a society. It is not a coincidence that within the paradigm of postnonclassic (universum) sociology spirituality is a force, which provides a developmental impetus for moral progress of mankind (not material or scientific and technical progress, but moral). Those societies (even though they had a decent level of scientific and technical development), which trampled down emerging elements of this quality in people, stayed at a level of animal [3, p. 63]. Priests were responsible for keeping the balance between Cosmos and Society, which was being done on the basis of the harmony principle. Social horizon (family, group, ethnic group) # 597 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh. Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation… is determined by an uninterruptable process of harmonization, establishment of internal and external correspondences, elimination of contradictions in functioning of the universe and a society. When keeping harmony of Man and the environment, which was complicated by a transition from gathering economy to producing economy, priest-rulers (the intellectual elite of Sun-like Aratta) focused their attention on a contradiction between existence and nonexistence [7, p. 225]. So, guidelines of the institute of Saviorship (self-sacrifice for the common good) were formed in agricultural Aratta. The mythic ritual of Saviorship asserted that human soul was immortal and was inseparable from the cosmic whole; the ritual provided solidity and congruence of creative activities of a society. This Indo-European (proto-Slavic) understanding of God kept by ancient Russia underlay self submission of humans to the objective laws of the universe; God was understood as a piece of Luck – a part – a common destiny, which depends on the Common Whole [7, p. 241]. Thus, it can be assumed that not class struggle or economic violence underlay the development of agricultural primitive communism in proto-Slavic society, but continuous intellectual and spiritual efforts, an intense dialogue of Man and the universe maintained existence and provided a promising, long-term development of proto-Slavic society. Yu.A. Shilov supposes that this is a reason for its optimality, stability of its existence and reproduction of basic principles of sociality in the further historical development of ethnocultural ambience. Religious aspects of Russian culturalphilosophical traditions have reflected the fact that postnonclassic sociology being atheistic in its essence (without any doubt as any other science) uses transpersonal approaches and methods. We can`t help but agree that as a result of deep changes in modern culture the place that was typical of the Age of Enlightenment and revealed confrontation between scientific ideology and a religious, primitive and common consciousness is now being taken by the understanding of an existing need for their synergetic interaction . Since the emergence of postnonclassic approaches in sociology is connected with the foundation of a new scientific outlook, universum sociology has the following peculiarities: • development of an interdisciplinary and complex approach to social reality analysis; • synthesis of humanities, social studies and natural sciences; • application of polyparadigmal approaches; • study of social reality in the unity of all its rational and irrational aspects; • broadening the concept of sociology and erasing interdisciplinary borders with other social and humanitarian sciences; • application of modern methods of system analysis (synergetics, diatropics, fractal object, etc.; • application of ideas from traditional oriental philosophy and Russian philosophy, transpersonal psychology; • analysis of socium dynamics, taking all natural and cosmic factors into account [2, p. 68]. Practically, all these peculiarities in this way or another were predetermined by writings of Russian philosophers, belonging to different schools and trends, but were unified by one common Russian cultural-philosophical tradition. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh. Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the Formation… References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Davidov A.A. System Sociology: Ultra Large Scale Holistic Simulation” http://www.isras.ru/ index.php?page_id=1008 Nemirovskiy V.G. The Interdisciplinary Perspectives of the Contemporary Post-Non-Classical Sociology / The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. Vol. 2, Num. 1, 2007. pp. 65-77. Nemirovskiy V.G., Nevirko D.D., Grishaev S.V. Sociology. Classic and Postnonclassic Approaches to Social Reality Analysis (Moscow, Russia, 2003) – P. 63. Nemirovskiy V.G. Modern Sociology and Russian Cultural Traditions // Sociological Studies. 1994. № 3. – P. 23-29. Comprehending the World: Philosophy, Religion, Culturology. Edited by L.P. Kiyaschenko and V.S. Stepin. (Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2009). – 672 p. Chaadaev P.Ya. Apology of a Madman // From the History of Russian Humanitarian Thought (Moscow, Russia, 1993). – P. 173-180. Shilov Yu.A. Prehistory of Russia (Moscow, Russia, 1999). – P. 86. Русская культурно-философская традиция как фактор формирования современной постнеклассической (универсумной) социологии В.Г. Немировский, Т.А. Феньвеш Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена анализу влияния русской культурно-философской традиции на становление современной постнеклассической социологии. Рассматриваются культурные и теоретические предпосылки развития гуманитарного направления постнеклассической социологии – универсумного подхода. В этой связи особое внимание уделено философии русского антропокосмизма и Всеединства. При этом в статье рассмотрен широкий спектр направлений культурно-философских воззрений, начиная с протославянского периода их развития. Установлены соответствия между подобными воззрениями и характерными особенностями постнеклассической (универсумной) социологии. Ключевые слова: русская культура, русская философия, постнеклассическая (универсумная) социология, русский антропокосмизм. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 600-609 ~~~ УДК 659.1 Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect Elena A. Nozdrenko* Siberian Federal University 82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 Modern advertising is a phenomenon which to this or that extent affects the nature of social, economic, political and other interactions in the society. Tendencies of advertising communication system development involve integrated use of ATL-and BTL-tools to effectively represent the product at the market relevant for such product. The main requirement for the various tools of advertising is their efficiency including the ability to deliver a creative content of the message in accordance with the pragmatic goals of advertising communication. But, as practice shows, today these tools do not allow to achieve the desired goals without creativity. Advertising creativity can be defined as an imaginative cover of tools for informative and persuasive forms of communication designed to solve pragmatic business problems. Such factors of market environment as aggravation of competition, growth of financial and intellectual potential, globalization of information flows become a sufficient reason for appealing to the methods and sources of innovative solutions development, the search for innovative and creative ideas in order to increase the effectiveness of various institutions’ functioning in the society. Nowadays the understanding of the advertising success through the prism of creativity which provides opportunities to single out the product in the variety of market offers is quite obvious. The development of the informative and persuasive forms of communication in Russian contemporary history defines the rising tide of interest in disclosing the mechanisms of creative activity. Creativity is always primary and fundamental. However, in the creative advertising product it pursues a pragmatic purpose – to change the consumer behaviour of the target audience. One should understand that creativity in advertising is only a technology of the creative process organization that is fruitless out of the context of the culture in which it is carried out. Today in order to overcome the cover, a person builds to protect himself from a huge flow of information, we need to use the stimuli involving the appeal to the collective unconscious. Consequently, the issues of creativity should be considered from the prospective of different elements of culture (lifestyle, values and mentality) which determine the specifics of advertising within. An important condition for the development of creative thinking in advertising communication is an emotional and sensitive component, the development of which is designed to guarantee sensory perceptions and create emotional and axiological attitude to the objects of interest. This process includes entering into a situation of emotional experiences given in the advertising text which enables to actually experience emotions and feelings and get emotional and rationally provided images that promote accumulation of emotional and sensory experience and the development of emotional and imaginative component of thinking. The main component of the creative process in this case is a pragmatic element that is the original understanding of why advertising should be created, for whom it should be created (distinct identification of the target audience), how it should be created (the choice * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 600 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect of a relevant technology) and, basically, what exactly should be created (a qualitative approach in determining the form and content of advertising text). Every culture can be represented as a set of hierarchical values shared by the majority of its representatives. Since advertising reflects the world and is a product of its time, the prevailing value orientations in each culture can be determined by the advertising content. Thus, a social role of advertising is to advance the basic spiritual values that are essential to the society. If the behaviour patterns and value orientations are set within the mentality of the society, then advertising not only transmits them but also affects their quality change suggesting a different pattern of behaviour and correcting value orientations. In this case it is necessary to take into account the fact that the social differentiation of mentalities reflects the existing division into social groups with the inherent material interests, lifestyle, which is definitely reflected in the formation of the collective image of the target audience. The secret of creativity in this process lies in the methodology of values creating, the involvement of a particular culture’s mentality that is innovative, beyond the existing technologies, commonly accepted standards and regulations. Creativity in advertising is a combination of search and implementation of such an extent of information freshness which will strike the target audience and draw its attention. Cultural aspect of this search is quite fundamental because it is important that an advertising image is based on archetypes, stereotypes and myths present consumers' minds taking into account mentality, values, lifestyle and other components of culture. In this case it does not cause rejection but is perceived as something already familiar. In many cases such recognition inspires trust, and, as a consequence, increases the efficiency of advertising communication. Consequently, cultural approach in advertising communication is an integral part of creative positioning where an effective advertising idea can change something in the thinking of the target audience in a certain problem field with its cultural codes. Keywords: advertising, advertising communication, creativity, creative thinking, advertising creativity, lifestyle, values, creative advertising idea, cultural approach. Point Advertising as an object of study has a scientific value. The first issue to draw one’s attention is the extremely high social significance of advertising which involves many spheres of human life, including not only the economy and business, but also morality and art. The discussion about the essence of advertising and where it is implemented (whether in business or artistic endeavour) is quite relevant. The current debate about advantages and disadvantages of advertising from the perspective of everyday awareness states the need for scientific analysis so that a particular position associated with social significance of advertising could be reasonable and advertising itself could be subjected to forecasting and modeling in the spirit of social optimism. There is an opinion that advertising in its many manifestations reflects ideological, aesthetic and moral principles of Russian society and becomes an ideology of mass consumption. This tendency causes progressively increasing interest precisely to the creative part of the idea and its embodiment in the advertising product. Therefore, the understanding of creativity principles can be defined as a factor of the efficient advertising communication. Advertising communication exists in an inextricable connection with a cultural worldview which integrates in it as an internal, so an external contexts of the communication process. The internal context includes the value system, cultural identity, mentality, etc. The motivation of consumers belonging to another culture is often different, which determines their consumer behaviour. As the external context we can mention the time factor, location, conditions of communication, etc. Advertising can be quite efficient only if it takes into account the substantive aspects of both internal and external # 601 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect Fig. 1. An internal and external context of advertising communications contexts of communication. Thus, advertising should be high-context, i.e. implying context of another culture in its message, appealing to the consumer’s basic ideals of a particular culture with consideration of the national and cultural specificity. Cultural approach in advertising is an integral part of creative positioning, where an effective advertising idea can change thinking of the target audience in a certain problem field with its cultural codes. According to B. Malinowski, the elements of culture can continue to exist only if they are surrounded by an aura of satisfaction for the society members (conjugated with the balance of pleasure and pain, in which the first one prevails).  The underlying structures of culture which have historically and socially engrained in minds and behaviour of many generations are now integrated into advertising, influencing the historical and cultural evolution. If each culture has its own language system, then the language of advertising in the process of social interaction acts as a conductor which allows to attach an intersubjective, cultural significance to the subjective, individual experience as a translator of socially important ideas giving them a common, sharable meaning. Creative advertising contributes to the creation of a new reality defined by the increasing integrity of culture, traditions, values, etc., thus fulfilling its cultural function. Example The issues of the main approaches to the formation of creative thinking should be considered starting with the specification of the concepts used in this work. Let us consider the object of research, that is advertising communication, clarifying the concept of communication in this context as a “socially conditioned process of information transmitting and receiving in terms of interpersonal and mass communication on different channels with the help of different means of communication” [7, p.23]. In general sense, thinking is an indirect and generalized reflection of reality, a kind of mental activity, involving the cognition of the essence of # 602 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect things and phenomena, natural connections and relations between them. Thinking originally has creative nature, and a truly motivated person can generate new ideas. The basis of creativity in the advertising communication is a creative thinking which is the ability to create new relevant knowledge and forms embodied in an advertising text (both on verbal and nonverbal levels) that has a social and economic effect through the synthesis of dissimilar elements. Creativity is always primary and fundamental. However, in the creative advertising product it pursues a pragmatic purpose – to change the consumer behaviour of the target audience. One should understand that creativity in advertising is only a technology of the creative process organization that is fruitless out of context of the culture in which it is carried out. Today in order to overcome the cover a person builds to protect himself from a huge flow of information, we need to use the stimuli involving the appeal to the collective unconscious. Consequently, the issues of creativity should be considered from the prospective of different elements of culture (lifestyle, values and mentality) which determine the specifics of advertising within. The detection of consumer preferences which define the concept of advertising leads us to the concept of a life form or a lifestyle. According to the scientific sources, the concept of the "lifestyle" is derived from Weber’s Lebensführung – a way of maintenance and organization of life. Speaking of the style in advertising, it is a specific content in the way of presentation, language and composition of an advertising message which reflects the way of life and ways of expression of the target audience. The content always finds a well-ordered common expression through a form (in this case – advertising). In other words, individual experiences, motives and goals turn into social facts that run into the flow of social interactions in the process of advertising communication. An intellectual component of the above described content cannot be underestimated in this process. Resolving the problem of the relationship of creativity and intelligence in many ways contributes to understanding of creativity’s nature: the first one is the product and the result of creativity’s expression, and the intelligence is the integral expression of the cognitive abilities implementation. The problem is that the creator must generate and adopt new ideas at the same time, i.e. recognize their originality, have a clear picture of how to use them in advertising. The lifestyle demonstrated by advertising is based on the system of social values, social priorities, standards, worldviews, etc. appropriate for each particular culture. Thus, if in the process of generating creative ideas a crucial role belongs to creativity, then their adoption and implementation are involved with the manifestation of cognitive abilities of the target audience. David Ogilvy, a well-known expert in the field of advertising, says that “you cannot bore your consumers into buying your product, you can only interest them into doing so” , which means that you should find the only one true motivation which will allow to satisfy an unmet human need and offer an effective way to satisfy it in a way relevant to modern lifestyles. In respect to advertising, the lifestyle can be defined as a social status because it is a function of the typical for the target audience characteristics having been formed in the process of its social interactions. Lifestyle as a definition which explains the uniqueness of a human and features of consumer behaviour is a subject to changes. One of the factors of this change can be creative advertising that transmits the idea of selfexpression in order to have a conscious choice of the popular product or a behaviour model including symbolic cultural codes. In this process it is important not to be mistaken in the notion of the potential target audience lifestyle and to affect # 603 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect its changes in the context of cultural peculiarities where the advertising communication is carried out. In the advertising practice the in-demand form of the advertising message is a kind of television commercial “lifestyle” in which the emphasis is done not on the advertised product but on its user. To become understandable for the target audience advertising must speak the language of their time – in this sense, advertising becomes both the carrier of the dominant and the instrument of creating a new style. In this context we can say that advertising reproduces style features of the product. The objective of creativity here may be considered as achievement of an effective association of the suggested lifestyle with the advertised product. Thus, the social function of advertising in this context is to create a lifestyle relevant to the value orientations of the modern society which, as a consequence, becomes a strategy for its consumer behavior. The concept of the style is directly connected with the concept of values. The world of culture is the world of values where each culture is represented as a set of values being shared by the majority of its representatives. According to the opinion of many researchers, the basis of any culture is the value. Therefore, if there is a substitution of fundamental values in the society the type of culture changes as well. Consequently, if the type of culture changes the transformation of informative and persuasive types of communication occurs in it. Thus, in the basis of an advertising unit design, the transmitting of which supposes appeal to the problems of the society, the system of universal values becomes the uniting element. Nevertheless, the factor of cultural variety of each society should be considered. The values present in each culture direct the human activity in a determined way. We can suppose that it is the value that influences the choice of the behaviour alternative representing the desired. The human definition of the reality depends on the subjective idea, about the values as well. Notwithstanding that the human independently determines the halidoms important for him, there is a number of spiritual absolutes equal for all people (good and evil, beautiful and ugly, right and wrong etc.). The modern advertising not only takes into account the worldview and value orientations of the target audience but creates them in some respect building a specific consumer ideology. Creative thinking in this process functions on the basis of combining rational and logical, emotional and image components of the advertising communication. It should be noted that advertisement, as well as the values, cannot be referred to the concept of “truth” and is related to ideal, desired, standards; it brings assessment into understanding of the reality. The axiological approach is inevitable to all phenomena of the culture (advertisement included). It is obvious that the appearance of new spiritual absolutes in history is inevitable when social realities change. W. Windelband says that disintegration of previous life forms and occurrence of new value motives lead to the state of searching and detecting which require expression. According to the philosopher’s opinion, appearance of a new epoch requires, at least, new value orientations which give birth to a completely changed structure of life. W. Windelband writes: “when we speak about true cultural values we never act like individuals or even representatives of our kind, but always as treasurers and carriers of superempirical … functions of the mind” [1, pp.13-14]. The culture is determined by the established values while in various cultures we can observe the same values, but their priority is positioned differently. Advertisement in this context draws attention to social values shared by the majority # 604 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect of this or that culture/subculture representatives in order to change the behaviour pattern in the society or its segment. The values transmitted by advertising are always connected with the temper of the epoch and the consumer behaviour significantly depends on the culture prevailing in each particular society. One of the topical creative thinking strategies in this context is the “Big Idea” concept as a long-term strategy of creative positioning aimed at involvement of the maximum mainstream audience due to offering appreciated values and appealing to socially important tendencies. In today advertising activities the “Big Idea” is a specific and practical creative technology which allows to establish efficient advertising communication. In this creative technology (which is outlined by variety, long duration, uniqueness and sociability) we find the axiological approach as well, while the “big advertising idea” does not offer some specific product, but always life values (up-to-date in each specific culture) connected with this product. Each culture can be presented as a set of hierarchically established values shared by the majority of its representatives. One can determine the value orientations prevailing in each culture by the contents of the advertising while the advertising reflects the world and is the product of the time. The process of advertising creativity always has some sensual component and it is the feeling which becomes a specific image reflecting its rational essence and sensual perception. The connection of emotional perception and logical understanding of things synthesises the occurrence of such feelings which can become irreplaceable guidelines while looking for the solution and the guarantee for realising the possibility to understand an instinctively found advertising idea. The critics of modern advertising say that it influences the system of human values in a negative way, while it promotes the way to happiness though things’ acquisition and not through spiritual, ethic and intellectual development. But in any culture with various systems of values the modern human is relatively free in his/her choice determining the limit for the aspiration to satisfy desires, needs and fantasies in accordance with his/her own ideals. Values are always estimated in relation to some ideal and involve personality, structure of self-consciousness, i.e. personal needs as well. The attention paid to wealth does not reject spiritual or cultural values. Moreover, this creates favourable conditions for the development of these values while according to A. Maslow’s theory of needs motivation the fulfilment of high aspirations is possible only when lower, basic needs of the person are satisfied. D. Pivovarov thinks that active raising of spiritual ideals is more preferable for human activities while it will inevitably lead to understanding of the matter and flesh value, unlike the irrestrainable worship of only material goods (by means of advertising as well) which can transform the ideal into an idol and can make the human life itself meaningless and frustrated . Therefore, the social role of advertising is in perfection of the basic spiritual values vitally needed by the society. The value characterises human measurement of social consciousness presenting the existentially felt being. Cultural values do not die due to objectivization in texts while they are constantly getting new meaning. In advertising communication the type level of advertisement understanding is connected with a personality type, a typical motive, a typical situation which together compose everydaylife practical version of a social structure of a particular culture. Conversational level of advertisement understanding is connected with its substantial content, building of its meaning on the basis of existing knowledge of the text’s meaning # 605 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect in the particular culture and understanding of the message which can be expressed in a particular action. The values present in each culture projected in advertising which not only spreads, but also forms them, direct human activity in a particular way, thus, being the vector of the society development. One of the elements of the axiological attitude is the first layer of desires, aspirations and preferences forming the initial level of the mass consciousness – the mentality. From numerous research works we know that within the mentality various oppositions are presented – natural and cultural, emotional and logical, rational and irrational, individual and collective. Mentality as a collective-individual formation is a set of stable spiritual values, deep guidelines, skills, automatisms, latent habits, long-term stereotypes considered within particular spatial-time limits which are the basis of behaviour, lifestyle and conscious perception of particular occurrences of reality. This definition is determined as “psychological furniture” (M. Bloch), “symbolic paradigms” (M. Eliade), “prevailing metaphors” (P. Receour), “archaic residues” (Z. Freud) or “archetypes” (C. Jung), “...the presence of which is not explained by the individual life of the person but comes from the aboriginal inherent and inherited sources of the human mind” [9, p. 64]. This definition is used in modern literature at cultural and philosophic analysis of social reality and culture as a whole. Thus, mentality allows to unite analytical thinking, developed forms of consciousness with semi-conscious cultural codes the advertising communication contains. Creative thinking includes as the conscious, so the unconscious components (intuition). David Bernstein, one of the leading specialists of Great Britain in creativity, thinks that the creative process in advertising is a transformation of an offer into an idea and the main skills of people involved in advertising are the skills of arguing. According to such understanding of this definition creation of efficient advertising, first of all, requires intensive logical thinking based, more likely, on the facts estimation than on ideas “pulled out of a hat”. Creative thinking is fed by lively impressions, interesting events, behavioural clichés and other typical and extraordinary facts which are always present at various levels of the memory [8, p.65]. Advertising projects a worldview including in its message, for example, the idea of the personality and its attitude to the society, ideas of freedom, equality, honour, of good and evil, truth and labour, of the family and sex relationships, of the course of history and the value of the time, of the ratio of new and old, of death and soul. Mentality in advertising communication dates back to different ethnic and civilization origins connected with historical destiny, geopolitical interests in axiological and semantic space of the culture. According to the opinion of OctaveJacques Gérin “advertising gets control over the consumer, modifies his/her tastes and habits involving the consumer into the continuous process of the cognition, transforming his/her mentality” [2, p. 98]. If the behaviour patterns and axiological guidelines are given within the limits of the society’s mentality, the advertising not only transmits them but can also influence their qualitative change offering another behaviour model and correcting axiological guidelines. At the same time, it should be taken in consideration that social differentiation of mentalities reflects present in the society division into social groups with typical material interests, lifestyle which definitely influence building of the collective image of the advertising target audience. The secret of creativity in this process is in the methodology of values establishment, inclusion of mentality of a particular culture which is innovative and is beyond the limits of existing # 606 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect technologies, commonly accepted standards and regulations. The result of creativity is clear, traditional and is estimated easily and quickly. The way of obtaining this result itself is nontraditional and this is where the effect lies. Resume Thus, today we can speak about such a semiotic system functioning in the society as the advertising discourse. Creative thinking in advertising communication is formed in the conditions of globalization changing and adapting cultures, basing on separate elements (lifestyle, values, mentality, etc.). The power of advertising communication lies in the attention which makes us to turn not to the advertisement itself (as a text) but to the big (creative) idea which it contains. One can interpret “advertising” as the derivative from Latin “ad verter” which stands for “to attract attention to”. The next stage in perception in advertising communication is the interest, qualitative content of which determines continuity of the following units of the chain – desire and action (according to the AIDA model of advertisement perception). It is commonly known that this chain can break off at any of its units: attention can be not attracted, interest can disappear soon and then attention will be drawn to other information (another interesting advertisement, for instance), the desire can transform to the following step – the action. In modern conditions of intensive information environment (advertising as well) one can attract the audience using technologies based on creativity. Creativity in advertising is a combination of search and implementation of such an extent of information freshness which will strike the target audience and draw its attention. The cultural aspect of this search is fundamental while it is important that the advertising image is based on archetypes, stereotypes and myths present in minds of consumers taking into consideration mentality, values, lifestyle and other components of culture as well. Only then it does not cause rejection and is perceived as something familiar. This type of recognition most of the time inspires trust and, as a consequence, increases the efficiency of advertising communication. Notwithstanding the fundamental cultural aspect of creative advertising, the priority of economic component of advertising communication still remains important while, as it is commonly known, creativity always presupposes deriving benefits (this makes it different from art) and the main function of advertising is to sell (products, ideas, images). Obviously, the most creative advertising is only an art work (exciting, beautiful, tempting) if it does not fulfil this function. It is ironic, but when applied non-creative advertising can also fulfil economic function successfully enough. But we can assume that we will observe such facts in the future less frequently. The influence of advertising can never be predicted for 100%, no matter how creative it is. Constant changes in the society (socio-economic, political, etc.) constantly require fresh advertising decisions, new approaches, new creative ideas. With advance of creative technologies in our culture the human will be more sensitive to art pragmatism. Then it would be possible to call successful only such an advertisement which has creative selling idea based on relevant needs of the target audience. References 1. Windelband, W. Philosophy of culture and transcendental idealism [Text] / W. Windelband // International annual collection on philosophy of culture.– Moscow, 1910. – book 2. –ppс.13-14 – ISBN: 5-7333-0179-1. # 607 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Golovleva E.L. Fundamentals of advertising [Text]: studying materials / E.L. Golovleva. – Moscow: Academic Project, 2008. – 330 pages. – 4,000 copies. – ISBN: 978-5-8291-1002-4. Malinowski, B. A scientific theory of culture [Text] / B. Malinowski; translation from English. – Moscow: OGI (Nation and culture), 2005. – 184 pages. – 3,000 copies. – ISBN 5-94282-308-1. Maslow A. Self-actualizing and Beyond. – In: Challenges of Humanistic Psychology. N. Y., 1967. Ogilvy D.O. On advertising [Text] / D. Ogilvy; translation from English. – Moscow: EKSMO, 2007 – 232 pages. – 4,000 copies. – ISBN: 978-5-699-21961-2. Pivovarov D.V. The problem of the ideal image carrier: operational aspect [Text] / D.V. Pivovarov – Sverdlovsk: Edition of Ural University, 1986. – 129 pages. Romat E.V. Advertising [Text] / E.V. Romat – Saint Petersburg: Piter, 2008. – 208 pages with illustrations. – 4,000 copies. – ISBN 5-469-00671-9. N.V. Tkachenko. Creative advertising. Technologies of design [Text]: studying materials for university students majoring in Advertising / N.V. Tkachenko, O.N. Tkachenko edited by L.M. Dmitrieva. – Moscow.: YUNTI – DANA, 2009. – 335 pages, – 2,000 copies. – ISBN 978-5-238-01568-2. Jung C.G. Archetype and symbol [Text] / C.G. Jung – Moscow: Renaissance, 1991. – 304 pages. – 30,000 copies. – ISBN 5-7664-0462-X. Креативное мышление в рекламной коммуникации: культурологический аспект Е.А. Ноздренко Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а Современная реклама является феноменом, который в той или иной степени влияет на характер социального, экономического, политического и иного взаимодействия в социуме. Тенденции развития системы рекламной коммуникации предполагают комплексное использование ATL- и BTL-инструментов с целью эффективного представления продукта на актуальном для него рынке. Основное требование, предъявляемое к различным инструментам рекламы, – это их эффективность, в том числе способность передать творческое содержание сообщения в соответствии с прагматическими целями рекламной коммуникации. Практика показывает, что сегодня без креатива эти инструменты не позволяют достичь обозначенных целей. Рекламный креатив можно определить как образную оболочку инструментов информативноубеждающих видов коммуникации, призванных решить прагматические задачи бизнеса. Такие факторы рыночной среды, как обострение конкуренции, рост финансового и интеллектуального потенциала, глобализация информационных потоков, выступают достаточным основанием обращения к методам и источникам создания нетрадиционных решений, поиску инновационных, креативных идей с целью увеличения эффективности функционирования различных институтов в обществе. Сегодня очевидным является понимание успешности рекламной деятельности через призму креативности, предоставляющей возможности выделения продукта из многообразия рыночных предложений. Развитие информативноубеждающих видов коммуникаций в новейшей истории России определяет возрождение интереса к раскрытию механизмов творческой деятельности. Творчество всегда первично и фундаментально. Однако в креативном продукте рекламной деятельности оно подчинено прагматической цели – изменить потребительское поведение # 608 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena A. Nozdrenko. Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural Aspect целевой аудитории. Нужно понимать, что креативность в рекламе – это только технология организации творческого процесса, которая бесплодна сама по себе, вне контекста той культуры, в которой она осуществляется. Для того чтобы преодолеть защиту, которую выстраивает современный человек от большого потока информации, сегодня необходимо использовать раздражители, связанные с апелляцией к коллективному бессознательному. Следовательно, проблематику креативности целесообразно рассматривать сквозь призму составляющих культуры (жизненный стиль, ценности и ментальность), определяющих специфику рекламы в ней. Важным условием развития креативного мышления в рекламной коммуникации является эмоционально-чувственный компонент, развитие которого призвано систематически обеспечивать чувственно-образное восприятие и формировать эмоционально-ценностное отношение к изучаемым объектам. Данный процесс включает в себя организацию вхождения в ситуацию эмоциональных переживаний, предложенных в рекламном тексте, дающих возможность непосредственного проживания эмоций и чувств, возникновения эмоционально и рационально обусловленных образов, способствующих накоплению эмоциональночувственного опыта и развитию эмоционально-образного компонента мышления. Главной составляющей креативного процесса в данном случае выступает прагматический элемент, то есть изначальное понимание, зачем нужно создавать рекламу, для кого нужно ее создавать (четкая идентификация целевой аудитории), как нужно ее создавать (выбор актуальной технологии) и, собственно, что именно нужно создавать (качественный подход в определении формы и содержания рекламного текста). Каждую культуру можно представить как набор иерархически выстроенных ценностей, разделяемых большинством ее представителей. По содержанию рекламных сообщений можно определять господствующие в каждой культуре ценностные ориентации, так как реклама отражает мир и является продуктом своего времени. Таким образом, социальная роль рекламы заключается в совершенствовании базовых духовных ценностей, жизненно необходимых обществу. Если образцы поведения и ценностные ориентиры задаются в рамках ментальности общества, то реклама не только транслирует их, но и может влиять на их качественное изменение, предлагая иную модель поведения и корректируя ценностные ориентиры. При этом необходимо учитывать тот факт, что социальная дифференциация ментальностей отражает существующее в обществе разделение на общественные группы с присущими им материальными интересами, образом жизни, что определенно отражается на конструировании собирательного образа целевой аудитории. Секрет креативности в данном процессе заключается в самой методологии создания ценностей, включенности ментальности конкретной культуры, которая и является инновационной, находится за пределами существующих технологий, общепринятых норм и правил. Креатив в рекламе – это совокупность поиска и воплощение той степени оригинальности подачи информации, которая поразит и привлечет внимание целевой аудитории. Культурологический аспект такого поиска является фундаментальным, так как важно, чтобы рекламный образ опирался на архетипы, стереотипы и мифы, содержащиеся в сознании потребителей, учитывая ментальность, ценности, жизненный стиль и иные составляющие культуры. Тогда он не вызывает отторжения, и воспринимается как нечто уже знакомое. Этот режим узнавания во многих случаях внушает доверие и, как следствие, – повышает эффективность рекламной коммуникации. Следовательно, культурологический подход в рекламной коммуникации – неотъемлемая составляющая креативного позиционирования, где эффективная рекламная идея может что-то изменить в мышлении целевой аудитории в обозначенном проблемном поле с заложенными в нем культурными кодами. Ключевые слова: реклама, рекламная коммуникация, креатив, креативное мышление, рекламный креатив, образ жизни, ценности, креативная рекламная идея, культурологический подход. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 610-614 ~~~ УДК 32.0 Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia: a Presentation to the First Forum of European and Asian Media (FEMA) Moscow, December 8-10, 2009 Nicolai N. Petro* Department of Political Science, University of Rhode Island Washburn Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 USA 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article deals with Issues of security on the Eurasian continent. Being both the source and the crossroads of the world’s energy resources, as well as much of the current ethnic and religious dissatisfaction with modernity and globalization, Eurasia will be the battleground where the conflicting dynamics of religion, globalization, nationalism and modernization will be fought. The article discusses the possible approaches of Russia, China, European Union and the United States to these problems. Keywords: Eurasia, cultural security, Chinese foreign policy, Russian foreign policy, U.S. foreign policy, foreign policy of the European Union. Eurasian security is vital to humanity. Being both the source and the crossroads of the world’s energy resources, as well as much of the current ethnic and religious dissatisfaction with modernity and globalization, Eurasia will be the battleground where the conflicting dynamics of religion, globalization, nationalism and modernization will be fought. The global scope of these issues, which are threatening to erode established patterns of governance in many parts of the region, has pushed China into a more active role in Central Asia; it has pushed European integration, in an effort to gain added weight for Europe in world affairs; and it has fostered U.S. intervention in the region’s conflicts. Given the history of the * 1 past decade, it is probably no exaggeration to say that – the outcome of these efforts to resolve the problems of security in Eurasia will determine the success or failure of the 21st century. All too often, however, when we consider the size of the region and the magnitude of the challenges it faces, the actual people who reside there disappear. Many western analysts argue that existing boundaries, cultures, and populations will all be swept along by the inexorable forces of global commerce and democratization. In this view, made popular by Francis Fukuyama in the early 1990s, the collapse of the USSR removed the last obstacle to this. But the collapse of the USSR has also left an unexpected void at the heart of Eurasia. This Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 610 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai N. Petro. Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia void has become not only the source of Russia’s security concerns, but of the security dilemmas of every other nation in this vast region. If this void is not filled we can expect the 21st century to be no less bloody than the 20th The major powers on Eurasia’s periphery have each proposed their own solutions to how to fill this security void. The Chinese solution envisions a long term, gradual binding of more and more Eurasia countries into a Greater Chinese Co-Prosperity Sphere. In Southeast Asia local Chinese elites already exert effective control over domestic politics, which essentially guarantees a Chinese veto over political initiatives deemed undesirable – a more intrusive variant of what was once known in Europe as “Finlandization.” While undeniably successful in co-opting local elites, this model has also spawned resentment among the middle class in these nations that suspect they are not deriving as much benefit as the elite from this arrangement. It has therefore never been applied successfully to civilizations that are not in some way derivative or dependent on China. When these meet they clash, and political scientists like Samuel Huntington have predicted just such a clash with China’s main economic rival, the United States. The Chinese solution for Eurasian security therefore suffers from the fact that it is not a truly consensual model based on an equal partnership. Because of this fundamental inequality it will do little to resolve the sources of insecurity in Eurasia, which involve the reassertion of cultural and religious identities. Its strength, however, lies in a subtly crafted diplomacy that apparently respects the status quo and does not demand that local traditions change, while binding countries with ties that benefit them economically; The European solution has worked very well within the northwestern corner of Eurasia. But while it promotes itself as a potentially universal model, it is actually the result of a unique history of industrialization and colonialism that spread commercialism intensely throughout the world. This model survived the collapse of the British Empire only because of the rise of the USSR, which forced the United States to take over Britain’s global role in propagating consumerism and Western culture. Finally, the policy of containment provided Western Europeans with a common purpose that pushed them to integrate much further and more quickly than anyone had imagined possible. But Western Europe’s success in forging a common civilizational framework has also distanced it from its neighbors, making Europe’s integration into Eurasia much more difficult. Just crossing the Bosporus has proved impossible for Europeans, and there is no stomach for tackling the even more radical challenge of addressing security issues from Vancouver to Vladivostok, and from Mumbai to Murmansk. The model works well for those already live within it, but since it cannot be expanded and is therefore inadequate to the growing external threats that Europe now faces. Its strength lies in providing a successful example of how institutional integration can, in fact, erode centuries of hostility and forge stability and prosperity. The American solution is, perhaps, the simplest of all. In the short run it has sought to replace Russia, not to defend regional security, but to promote stable energy supplies and remove the strategic weapons that threaten American security. In the long term it has promoted political institutions and ideas that reflect America’s view of economics and politics as sources of long term stability in Eurasia. American neo-conservatives unabashedly saw the void created by the collapse of the USSR as an opportunity for reshaping the region. This led to rather blatant US intervention in several CIS countries, with results that very few in Washington today, however, find satisfactory. # 611 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai N. Petro. Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia The American solution to this rests on the popularity of its well known commercialcultural symbols, the brands that dominate global commerce, entertainment, and politics. Thanks to this dominance private enterprise, individualism, and global commerce have come to be seen as crucial to national competitiveness. As neo-conservatives like to point out, America’s presence throughout the globe, has become the de facto basis of world government. What they do not like to admit is that in the process, social tensions have been unleashed that they can no longer control. Unleashing the power of the individual has been America’s greatest legacy, while the failure to link individual interests back to the common good has been its greatest failure. As a result, the once popular notion that this model represents the aspirations of all mankind is no longer so widely accepted, and as America’s cultural dominance becomes less pronounced, it is likely to fi nd fewer and fewer admirers. Russia’s solution to Eurasia’s security dilemmas is the most sketchy. As I understand it, it is based on the following syllogism: 1/ Modernization is essential for Russia’s survival; 2/ Russian foreign policy must create conditions that allow Russian to modernize; 3/ Peace, stability and prosperity in Eurasia are critical to success. All of these are true statements, but there is as yet no strategy that connects them. What has emerged is a set of ad hoc measures, in different areas, that are meant to change the tone of relations in the region. So far, however, their only selling point is that they come from the Russia – the one indispensable actor in Eurasia. One related measure is the recently proposed Grand Euro-Atlantic Treaty, which is modeled on the analogy of the CSCE, but goes further in specifying conflict resolution mechanisms. But that is where the similarities end. Whereas the CSCE arose out of protracted negotiations between two relatively evenly matched blocks, Russia today, while stronger than it was ten years ago, is still weak and unable to exert its influence effectively throughout the region. For many in the West this means that Russia’s interests can be dismissed when discussing a strategy for Eurasian security. One example is the way in which President Medvedev’s declaration of “privileged interests,” has been totally misinterpreted, its potential as a starting point for dialogue with other nations in Eurasia lost. Unless Russian policy becomes more focused and assertive, the Euro-Atlantic Treaty will likely suffer the same fate. Still, the fact that Russia’s strategy is disjointed is not all bad. It also means that it is the most susceptible to adaptation and growth, including untapped resources. Compared with the other major powers Russia has the advantage of sharing a common cultural sphere with many other nations in the region, a legacy of the both the Soviet and Russian empires. Then, there is the obvious advantage of Russia’s wealth of energy resources. To date, Russia has not linked these particular advantages to an overall Eurasian strategy, and as a result its attempt to exert influence seem heavy-handed and often lead to counter-reactions. Conceivably, however, it could develop the soft power skills needed to advance its regional influence in ways that will guarantee the desired outcome without appearing to force concessions, in the same way that the United States does with respect to Canada, Mexico or its European allies. Russia’s singular advantage, however is that it has already recognized that the region’s problems are interrelated, and of such magnitude that no single nation, or group of nations, can solve them. It has therefore been at the forefront of creating the regional structures and # 612 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai N. Petro. Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia relationships that are needed, rather than merely working within the existing institutions that are clearly inadequate to the task. >>>>> To sum up, no major power has yet devised a good model for dealing with the security problems of Eurasia, and it is certainly arguable that these problems are so great that they defy any broad strategy. Still, I would like to think that there are elements in the approaches I’ve just discussed that overlap, and that could be combined and coordinated in ways that mutually reinforce positive tendencies, rather than multiplying negative ones by acting at cross purposes, as is currently the case. Such a strategy would focus on the following: 1/ A diplomacy that is reassuring – that respects the international status quo and does not gratuitously threaten stability by challenging local traditions and cultures in the name of universal rights, but that also sets the stage for transforming that status quo through consensual mechanisms; 2/ Successful examples of institutional and cultural interaction, especially ones that have succeeded in reducing religious and ethnic hostilities, eventually setting the stage for the codification of standards of civilized behavior toward one’s own citizens; 3/ Integration of nations and regions into the global economy, providing an increased role for both individual and collective enterprise, leading eventually toward treaties that expand basic liberal principles in domestic and international relations that will foster economic and social well being; The difficulty of each one of these tasks is exacerbated not just by reluctance of elites to change, but also by the fact that, in order to be successful, in each arena there must be breakthrough that leads to a qualitative transformation in international relations, one that stresses mutual responsibility over individual security. Therefore, the final requirement for such a strategy is understanding that existing institutions are insufficient to address these complex issues, and that new ones must replace them. In much the same way that the discussions of global climate change have slowly begun to affect international relations, by pointing to the need for all nations to take responsibility, the same must occur if security in Eurasia is to become a reality. I speak of creating the pre-conditions for a diplomacy of longue duree, one that sacrifices low priority shor term benefits for high priority long term objectives; I speak of security arrangements based on mutual vulnerability; I speak of financial structures that take global social, environmental, and social costs into account when defining profit. One way to do this is to defi nes true security as a function of cultural pluralism, both within nation-states and among them. It is no longer possible to reduce security to the level of the nation-state, because a society is more than the sum of its parts. Confusing the nation-state with society can lead to serious errors when identifying threats since, particularly after the Cold War, society has been more threatened that the state. The unique security challenges of the 21st century arise from the simultaneous appearance of BOTH subnational and metanational challenges, and yet we have seen time and again in recent years that the security that is most threatened today is not sovereignty, but identity—both at the subnational level, where it cohesion and loyalty are essential for a society’s survival, as well as the metanational level, where security threats have arisen that existing nation-state system cannot deal with. # 613 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nicolai N. Petro. Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia The solution is to encourage the formation of overlapping identities that do not coincide with the boundaries of nation-states. These can be cultural, tribal, religious, linguistic, familial, even metapolitical, as in the case of the European Union. As I see it, the pre-conditions for cultural security in Eurasia involves three steps. First, the creation of a political image that resonates within the existing political order and national cultures. Second, the promotion of this political image so that, over time, alternative political identities can emerge that can overcome the void left by the collapse of old identities. And, third, ensuring that this new political identity is institutionalized and incorporates the basic liberal values that permit unity in diversity, so that a larger and unifying Eurasian identity emerges as an additional layer of national identity, rather than in opposition to it. Ultimately, a space needs to be created in which existing societies and cultures cannot be reduced to the confines of the present international state system, or merely to the functioning of global markets. Instead, it must be an international regime whose primary task is cultural dialogue, with structures adapted to the specific conditions of cultural exchange, and can shift the political incentives that define security from ones of short term advantage, to ones of long term mutual responsibility. Russia is at the heart of this process, or perhaps I should say, at its bull’s eye. Being at the periphery would be easier, but Russia’s destiny as the heartland of Eurasia is determined by geography and not by choice. To thrive, Russia will need to offer a vision of Eurasian security that exceeds her capacity; a vision comparable to that of Jean Monnet, the father of the EU, when he said: «the unification of Europe is not the end goal, but merely one step toward the organized world of the future.» If Russia can do this, it will save itself and save the world. If it fails, then both may perish. Четыре державы в поисках безопасности. Доклад для первого Форума европейских и азиатских СМИ. Москва, 8-10 декабря 2009 Н.Н. Петро Кафедра политических наук, Университет Род-Айленда Уошберн Хол, Кингстон, Род-Айленд, США Статья посвящена проблемам безопасности на евразийском континенте. Евразия является одновременно источником энергоресурсов глобального значения и протестных настроений различных религиозных и этнических групп, недовольных процессами модернизации и глобализации. Всё это предопределяет судьбу Евразии как поля битвы, на котором столкнутся представления о религиях, глобализация, национализм и модернизация. В статье рассматриваются возможные подходы России, Китая, Европейского союза и США к этим проблемам. Ключевые слова: культурная безопасность, Евразия, внешняя политика Китая, внешняя политика России, внешняя политика США, внешняя политика Европейского союза. # 614 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 615-624 ~~~ УДК 1.14 In the Trace of Human Identity Jelena Petrucijova* University of Ostrava 5 Mlynska, Ostrava 701 03 Czechia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The article is focused on the issue of human being and human identity (both collective and individual one). Two methodilogical approaches – essential and existential – are considered to be so called traditional approaches of the philosophical antropology. An interpretative/narrative approach are the current state in the analysing of the identity issue. The mentioned approaches are used in the special sciences: social and cultural anthropology, psychology, etc., as well. The author emphasizes a cultural dimension of identity reflecting the human situation in globalized, multicultural world (e.g. the conceptions of multiple identity, sliced identity, split identity). Keywords: human identity; inclusive identity; exclusive identity; multicultural society. We are living in the multicultural society in the period of globalization. And to typical features of globalization we may refer unification of various spheres of our life. Some manifestations of unification are supported by us (for example, we would like to live «as well, as in the West» from the view point of our welfare), and we resist the others (first of all, because we are afraid of losing our unique peculiarities, which determine our identity). Multiculturalism is closely connected with globalization, though, for the first sight, they seem to be opposite (multiculturalism presupposes multiplicity, variety, in comparison with globalization, which claims for unification and universality), though if we take for attention the amplitude and the intensity of acculturation processes, then multiculturalism turns out to be a powerful means of globalization. Paradox of each globalization project is in the following: on one hand, it is targeted for erosion of the national * 1 identity, and, on the other hand, it indirectly leads to its revitalization and renewal. The mentioned processes and symptoms actualize the problem of identity and its preservation as on the local cultural level, so on the individual one. In the European culture, the problem of man has become a subject of philosophical reflection, and, first of all, it happened in the periods of social-cultural instability and radical changes. And the present time is not an exception. Historically, the answer to the question «What is man?» has been connected to the attempts to define the essence of man. In philosophical anthropology it has corresponded to the so-called Essential approach. The essence of man was accepted as something, preceding to a concrete person, something aprioristic to a certain degree, super-temporal and unchangeable (and only Hegel disclosed historical status of Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 615 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity the individual). The question was about generic essential definition of man. The truth of man as such was equal to the knowledge of his essence, and the truth of a concrete man was connected to the degree of realization, materialization of this eidetic essence. The situation drastically changed with the appearance of the existential philosophy. Sartre formulated the thesis «existence precedes essence» and wrote that existential definition of man was always his individual definition (taking into consideration the difference between the essence, which was perceived as eidos, i.e. a general form of the existing nature, and the substance, which was perceived as morfé, i.e. a concrete form of the creation). In his lection «Existentialism is humanism» Sartre formulated the so-called first principle of existentialism: man is nothing at the beginning, and only in some time he becomes what he makes of himself. The truth of man is connected with him himself. And its criterion is his responsibility for himself and for the whole humanity. The world has become that very space, which is created by the deeds and the words of people. Man differs from the anonymous existence of other creatures by his necessity «to reveal that he is in his unique peculiarity, in his deeds and his words» [3. P. 197]. Deeds and words indicate at the fact of humane existence and reveal the truth of his identity as much, as there is somebody, who is able to comprehend the meaning of these words and the senses of these deeds. Person «loses his reality» out of the sphere of Otherness [3. P. 58]. In ХХ century, philosophу began to understand more and more that the human world was not the light of objective facts, existing independently from the determinating humane activity. And first of all, it was the world of symbols and senses, being an integral part of humane understanding, interpretation, expression, i.e. being the consequence of humane conscious. If the world exists in the parameters of symbols, meanings and senses, by which means people not only cognate, but also create, then this world, which they share and which they speak about, exists in the form of a cultural construct, created by the people. And, consequently, if humane identity is created in the result of interaction with thus understood world, then communication (or, to be exact, narrative and interpretive activity) is the means of its creation, i.e. we are speaking about narrative identity. If in classical metaphysics the statement that everything is identical and synonymous to itself, is an axiom, then philosophy of ХХ century discloses a paradox and makes it absolute. In connection with the notion of identity, thinking mixes up two notions: identity in relation to the equal, similar, and identity in relation to oneself («I»). Antinomy is concluded in the fact that usage of one and the same word for denoting of the person from his birth to his death presupposes that there is some unchangeable bases, but humane experience denies the existence of person’s unchangeable bases . One can also find the mentioned approaches from the sphere of philosophic anthropology on the level of special humane sciences. At the end of ХIХ – at the beginning of ХХ century, the essential approach was prevailing (for example, they used the notions of Volksgeist, «nation’s character», «nation’s soul» in philosophy; Berdyaev spoke of «the soul of Russia»; and it was «ethno-cultural identity» by Wilhelm Wundt in psychology). One can find essentialism tendencies even in history, if history is perceived as a way of nation to self-realization in a national state, and nation is conceived as a super-historical, eternally existing phenomenon, gradually coming to self-cognition and self-reflection. In the meanwhile, we come across essentialism revelations in social and cultural anthropology in connection with the Ruth Benedict notion of cultural pattern (patterns of culture are dominating # 616 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity psychological qualities and ways of behavior, which are peculiar to the representatives of some culture), in connection with the R. Linton theory of basic types of personality (basic personality), with the А. Kardiner notion of “basic personality structure” and others. At the same time, the R. Lynton theory of social roles caused significant complications in the problem of identity. It raised a question, whether identity was a sum of certain roles or one and the same person was used to have many identities. In response to the one-sided essentialism there appeared theories, which denied the possibility of group, collective identity existence (cultural, national and so on.). For example, in their work «Social Construction of Reality» Berger and Luckmann argued about collective identity understanding in the vein of Durkheim sociology and anthropological school «Personality and Culture». These days can be sooner characterized by the tendency of searching of an adequate measure of balance between collective/group and individual identities. They differ significantly, being under the condition of constant tension and mutual interaction. There are a lot of conceptions of identity in the modern social-scientific (philosophic, sociological, psychological, socialanthropological and other) literature. In spite of terminological differences, some conceptions of «I»-identity give an opportunity to define several leading methodological principals: «I» consists of two parts (internal and external), which create more or less consistent integrity, being the result of humane interaction with the society and within the society. One of the component parts of this interaction is the process of self-identification with the help of «symbolization» (G.H. Mead) and self-identity correction with the opinion and attitude of «Others» (Ch.H. Cooley «lookingglass» identity conception – the looking-glass self ). The main factors of the personal «becoming» are as the tension between «I» and social, cultural sphere (the mentioned authors, and also R. Linton, M. Mead, R. Benedict and others), so «the key contradiction» between spontaneous internal «I», on one hand, and external «I», being subjected to social limitations and prohibitions, on the other hand (contradiction between internal «I» and external «me» can be found in the works of M. Mead and E. Goffman). Goffman also sticks to the so-called dramaturgic version of the symbolic interactionism, which conceives the world as one colossal theatre, wherein man has to play not only different performances for various communities in correspondence with their demands and expectations, but also in correspondence with his (man’s) choice of some of the institutionalized roles and in correspondence with the quality of their performance. Investigating the problem of identity and identification in connection with the theory of primary and secondary institutions, Berger and Luckmann prove that in the process of socialization one can observe as unification/ identification with the only possible world of «important Others» (for example, parents) and then «generalized Others» [6. P. 42-50], so creation/appearance of symmetry between the subjective and objective «I» realities as a result of the processes of internalization, externalization and objectivation, going on by means of the social institutions net. The authors write: «In reality, identity is objectively defined as a place in some concrete world and subjectively it can be perceived only simultaneously with this world. In other words, all the identifications go on the boarders, defining a certain social world... to get one’s identity means for one to get a given certain place in the world» [6. P. 50]. An important moment of the «I» identity theory is the processual character of «I» (we come across it already in Sigmund Freud’s works). R. Jenkins sticks to the point that we can # 617 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity avoid a huge gap between the activity and the structure thanks to the fact that social identities are conceptualized by the notion of process [13. P. 26]. Cultural identification plays one of the main roles in definition of human identity. Geertz writes, that one of the most important truths of us is that one, that we are prepared by nature to live thousands kinds of lives, but in reality we live only one life in one culture [10. P. 57]. Thus, culture is an image (construct) of reality (one of possible definitions of culture), existing between the man and the world, coordinating, limiting, and stimulating inter-human relations. And this image does not exist out of the conscious of its carriers and their activity. It is the bases as of stability, so of changes as well. The world of culture is given to us in the form of symbolic models, which include more or less coherent narration about what kind of world it is, what it consists of, and where it moves. Sloterdijk sais that mythomotorics is a summation of identification stories-narrations, being necessary for integrity and fullness of sense of some culture [17. P. 36]. Since Humboldt’s times we have been coming across the opinion that languages differ not on the level of symbols and phonemes, but, first of all, on the level of world outlooks. A certain completion of this thought could be seen as in the Sapir-Whorf theory of linguistic relativism, so in the thesis of L. Wittgenstein «the boarders of my language are the boarders of my world». «The real world is mainly built subconsciously on the bases of linguistic norms of a certain group.» [16. P. 57]. Every language is determined not only by that, what gives the speaker an opportunity to express himself, but also by that, what (formally and contextually) makes him speak. «Subject does not perceive or reflect the things; order, being their autonomic self-reflection, is that, what metaphysics calls to be subject» [9. P. 34]. Cultural identity is that very order. Identity of every person is connected to understanding «becoming» of this order and is legitimated by its anticipation. Order is the space, wherein understanding takes place; it is the criterion of obviousness and heresy . It gives sense to our existence. Expansion of certain behavior and linguistic codes goes on in the sphere of socio-cultural institutions, where the process of self-identification and identification formation (by means of collisions, acceptance and being accepted by «Others») takes place. Institutions are represented and legitimized in the modes of thinking, and, just the same way, identity is inseparable from the situation of human thinking, from human ability to separate and to integrate by means of language, attributing categories, «giving labels» (labelling) to other people, who are defined as «we», «they» or «a good-looking», «a jerk» and so on. Being specific constructions of reality, cultures (these variously structured and differentiated spheres) predetermine the sense of humane existence in culture. «If there is any specific, peculiar sense, then this sense is possible only within the frames of the differentiating structure itself... all the sense determinancy is based on its distinctions» [9. P. 63]. In cognitive anthropology, culture is defined as «cognitive map», which gives all the representatives of a certain culture some «instructions», which determine their ways of behavior in standard situations and which let explain and understand complicated situations. Representatives of a certain culture differentiate on the latent level of thinking some common patterns of thinking, on which bases they perceive and interpret the world. These patterns of thinking are revealed in their real inter-relations, «saturate» their social statuses and roles. But people are not just «products», patterns carriers; first of all, they are patterns creators. Being representatives of one and the same culture, people do not possess its absolute identical models. We live # 618 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity in a heteronomous cultural reality, and that is why, being caused by individual psychological dispositions, aspirations, values, and «existing on the edge» of various subcultures, our individual world model is a summation of cognitive maps. «Culture does not offer identical maps, but it sooner suggests certain complexes of principals of maps creation and navigation. Various cultures are like different navigational schools, which serve for various landscapes and seas crossing» [8. P. 6-7]. In symbolic anthropology, such an approach is developed by means of the following notions: «reality patterns» – its interpretation and «patterns for reality» – its organization instructions . We consider the modern world to be multicultural and of many faces. Every concretehistorical culture is a result of not only internal inventions, but also of the processes of acculturation and migration, which cause foreign (new) cultural elements to be saturated and processed. But, while in preceding epochs the role of tradition was explicitly prevailing, at the present time, the intensity of innovative changes is so high (let us recollect Childe’s considerations concerning «hot» and «cold» cultures), that it is a threat to cultures’ existence, as far as it violates cultural entirety and inner integration. And the life of a person becomes a life on the edge of cultural collisions, on the «boarder» of cultural worlds with their pluralism of axiological orientations and life styles (Czech author V. Belogradsky uses the metaphors «an intermediate world» and «in the gap between the worlds»). Identification degree of different persons is always various, as far as it is connected as with psycho-social data of the person, so with the historical «character» of the culture itself, and also with the degree of its openness or Withdrawnness? One can observe a contradiction between the individual «cognitive pattern» (a consistent system of knowledge, beliefs, moral mind sets and ideals) and facts of the new objective reality in the course of fast cultural changes, when transformation of traditional institutional structure of culture takes place (i.e. transformation of external reality). This contradiction can be connected with a disintegration of the current system of «cognitive maps», and it can even lead to disintegration of the individual in some extreme cases. Giddens writes: «To a large extend, self-understanding is determined by the stability of the individual social position in the society. But even there, where traditions are forgotten and where man has a choice of his life style, human «I» is not free» [12. P. 27]. That is why the ability of each of us to preserve our personal entirety becomes the leading factor, and this ability is the bases of cultural identity of the opened and changing phenomenon, which determines our humanness. But when we are speaking about the phenomenon of multiculturalism, we also come across other opinions. Thus, P. Adler underlines the role of changes and sticks to the point that new type of multicultural man, being born in the multicultural reality, is the type of man, who has not any cultural roots, and who is able to change his identity and features that way, that he can exist and function amid cultures.  А. Vattimo even considers that post-modern man will not think about the problem of identity at all and will cease to perceive himself as a steady entirety [19. P. 223]. The time of post-modern has really made the problem of identity more complicated. Individual identity is very sensitive to the impacts and changes of its environment; group/collective identity is more inert (its stability degree has been historical caused by specifics of its inner development, by the character and intensity of its relations with the environment). Most of people have situational individual identity, while collective identity is steadier and longer-lasting. # 619 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity Multiplicity becomes a typical sign of individual identity. «I» is understood as something constantly changing, multilayered, poly-dimensional (multiple identity, sliced identity), but, at the same time, split (split identity). For example, multiple identity conception presupposes that identities can be not only different, but even «potentially opposite, they can reveal in different time and in different places, thereat, they are not necessary to form any uniform and coherent entirety» [5. P. 387]. They change in correspondence with the changing of social statuses and roles of the human, his contacts with various socical goups and his behavior within the changing social and cultural environment. And the subjective factors of identification become of very high importance: «I am the one, whom I want to be», but so far, as «I» is accepted by the environment. Actually, identity becomes a summation of «situational» identities. That is why, «grasping» itself, defi nition of «I» identity, as its entirety, becomes a problem, because it is one of the variations of the eternal methodological problem, how «to capture and to freeze» the changing with the help of a word. As a metaphor of the modern situation of man in relation towards himself, towards his life journey, towards the world/worlds, which surround him, we come across with the image of labyrinth both in special scientific literature, (Wallace defi nes the situation of humane identity as «a way in the labyrinth – mazeway»), and in fiction (J.L. Borges considers the image of labyrinth as a synthesis of the metaphor of the way, of the open space and changing with the metaphor of closed space and constancy and it is one of the most favorite ones). Changeability becomes a feature not only of individual, but also of collective identity. Multiculturalism raises a row of questions, being connected as «with indefi niteness and variety, so with possible ways (or their absence) of one’s own identities’ construction» [20. P. 6]. One of the most widely-spread conceptions is an inclusive understanding of identity (compare it with the exclusive identity). Exclusive identity is based on cognition of one’s own way by means of non-acceptance, refusal from «otherness» as being «foreign»). We can meet this conception in the works of some thinkers, including Giddens. While the inclusive approach is considered to be not only as a purely theoretical one, but also as an expected form of social communication between cultures and societies. In connection with all the mentioned, we find the identity conception, which has been formulated by Tajfel and Turner, to be very interesting . The authors write that our Selfconscious is based on our perception of ourselves as a component part of some group (ethnic, national, linguistic, gender and so on). To define «I» means to realize «We» and to be accepted by these «We». As much a person perceives him(her) self as a member of different groups, as much his (her) identity can change depending on which group he (she) is identified with. Each of these identities is connected to certain expectations, belief, behavior and corresponding norms of the given group. Identification with the group is one of three stages of the process... The next two are categorization (2) and comparison (3). With the help of categorization (2) the surrounding world gets its sense. Real content and ways of categorization, which are a specific construct (in the cultural space and historical time), are based on historical experience of every culture and are fixed by its tradition. Cultural identity grows from the common past (as a rule, we are proud of it), from the present and the common «plans» for the future. «Social capital» of every culture also includes mechanisms of adaptations to a new cultural environment. The individual can be a member of some culture to as much extend, as # 620 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity much he shares his cultural experience with other members of this culture. The man preserves his ties with the culture he has been brought up in the course of all his life. These ties help him to «cope» better with the inter-cultural situation. The idea of social comparison (3) is connected with the following: we compare our group with other groups in order to define our own (and ourselves). We need «Them» to define «We». We search for compatible, but first of all, distinctive features and signs. We need «foreignness», «peculiarities» (otherness) in order to conceive «ours» and «mine». In most cases, the members of a certain group/culture make their comparison as follows: first of all, they estimate positively themselves (compare with МаcGarty ), as far as they use categories, being advantageous for their group. Positive self-estimation contributes to strengthening of the group self-conscious, solidarity and group integration. And it becomes the bases of generation of positive and negative stereotypes (also including prejudices). That is why identity is very often defined as something negative. To be identified with a certain group means to exclude other groups (that is the socalled exclusive understanding of identity, which is closely connected with ethnocentrism). To the mind of Murdock, ethnocentrism is an emotional and intellectual basis of the ethnic dualism, according to which everything, that exists and has a positive meaning for the society, is connected to its own group, and everything, that is problematic, is ascribed to other, very often unknown groups. Intolerance towards «Otherness», being not yet assimilated, is a defense of one’s own existence, as far as everything «other», «foreign» is perceived as a threat, and it means that it meets an aprioristic repulse. In the course of previous epochs, collective social/cultural identities were mainly formed on the basis of the tendency to social exclusion of «Otherness», and it was connected to the ethno-centric world outlook (including Europe-centrism, West-centrism and others). According to the mind of already mentioned Vattimo, cultures of the Western word are cultures of conflicts, as far as their identity presupposes a constant reconstruction in the process of conflicts. But, in the situation of cultural pluralism, «our identity is a constant game of disintegration. Being thus constructed, identity does not vanish, but, turning backwards from violence and hegemony of one culture over another, it accepts other cultures to have a right for freedom and contacts, thereat not derogating their systems of value. For the post-modern individual, there will appear conditions for his authentic citizenship development, being not already based on violence» [19. P. 224]. The question is in the following: shall there be formed other identities, which will be based on the opposition «We» and «They – other, foreign». When identity is considered in the context of the problem of relation towards «Otherness», then inclusive identity cultivation is considered to be the means of anticipation and overcoming of social conflicts. (Though, this concept has its opponents, as far as there is a real danger that inclusion can be understood as absorption, i.e. assimilation.) Cultural relativism is a theoretical approach, which explains the possibility of inclusive identity. This approach started to be developed in the previous century by representatives of cultural and social anthropology – it was a critical response to Eurocentrism (de facto to any form of Ethnocentrism). According to cultural relativism, every culture is an original, unique phenomenon. And it should be perceived by the «view», being purified from the stereotypes, which are typical for our culture, i.e. by «the eyes of a stranger». Cultural relativism has to deal with a row of problems, for example, cultural agnosticism (every culture is such a unique phenomenon, being concentrated in itself, that it is impossible to cognate it*) or # 621 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity axiological and moral relativism. That is why one can hear some critical opinions regarding to it in the modern literature. But, appeal to the necessity of overcoming of stereotypes and prejudices, as «a horizon of pre-understanding» of the foreign culture, remains to be the axis of our relation to «Otherness». New optics of the world perception gives one a possibility to see oneself by the eyes of some other person, and to see the other person as oneself, every action is experienced as a moral collision, and one’s own existence is not taken as once and for all «given existence», but as an act of choice. Possibly, here is the sense of the famous utterance of Rimbaud: «I am an Other». Though, in the situation of cultural pluralism, new «foreign» structures of symbols penetrate in the sphere of our culture with its peculiar cultural patterns, with its system of cognitive maps and unique symbolic structure. These foreign structures pretend to be the deciphering codes of our experience. And there appears a situation of antagonism between alternative defi nitions of reality, which can lead to the paradox of «overfilling vacuum», when human identity vanishes by itself and freedom becomes ineffably easy. To the mind of Augé, attitude towards the other person, which is very important for any identity becoming, loses its bases, as far as the modern world is characteristic of predominance of the situational and individual. Life consists of multitude, detached, various episodes [4. P. 59]. Society comes across with a serious problem: tyranny of identities or crisis of legitimacy. The crisis of legitimacy is connected to understanding of relativism of our world’s image and our method of living. Under the tyranny of identities we mean as revelation of ethnocentrism (do we still need «barbarians» in order to feel ourselves to be the representatives of «European Civilization»?), so absolute paternalism in the form of acceptance of minorities’ peculiarities, which contains in indirect form the mind set of superiority towards «Others». A principal possibility of cultural contacts and multiculturalism as a historical phenomenon do not mean that such contacts and creation of inter-cultural phenomenon exist in reality. «Heterogeneity can impact the attempts to change...identity, but it is not an obstacle by itself» [11. P. 47]. Cultures may be territorially close, but so-called «weak» members of closed societies turn out to be on the periphery, and their distinctions and closedness are intensified by their economical and social levels. Predominant cultures may make certain paternalistic steps, but this paternalism underlines and, thus and at the same time, intensifies their distinctions, according to the mind of some authors, it is a violation of the principle of freedom (Friedmann), i.e. it leads to «violence» over human identity. Huntington also writes that the policy of support and development of various cultural identities may lead to USA disintegration and contradicts the idea of individual freedom. *** The question is in the following: will the multicultural civilization create new cultural identities, being connected with the existing identities changing, or create a society without identities and without any depth in that sense that cultural identity will refer to the private sphere of human life (viz. The problem of correlation of cultural and civil identities in multicultural societies)? In any case, the future is connected with «the coming back to man» (to know the other presupposes to believe oneself) and with a constant dialogue as a means of searching for agreement. The time requires that the man takes responsibility for his own becoming and existence, without any absolute guarantee for his unmistakable behavior and without any possibility to correct his mistakes. # 622 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity Comments: * Human identity is considered to be a cultural construct, which cannot be transferred from one culture to another. But, in this case, there appears a question: are cultural contacts possible in general, in the global, multicultural light? According to D. Allen, we remain to be prisoners of Euro-Atlantic understanding of «I» as an atomized, self-defi ning creature [2. P. 3-26]. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Adler, P. Beyond cultural identity: reflections on cultural and multicultural man. // Cultural learning: Concepts, application and research. Ed. R.W. Bristian. Honolulu, 1997. Allen, D. Social Construction of Self: Some Asian, Marxist and Feminist Critique of Dominant Western View os Self // Culture and Self. Philosophical and Religious Perspectives, East and West. Ed. D. Allen. Boulder, 1997. P. 3-26. Arendt, H. Human Condition. Chicago, 1958. Augé, M. Pour une anthropologie des mondes contemporaines. Paris, 1994. Barker, C. Cultural studies. Theory and practice. London, 2000. Berger, P.L., Luckmann,T. The Social Construction of Reality. // Contemporary sociological theory (eds. C. Calhoun et al.). Oxford, 2002. P. 42 – 50. Foucault, M. The Subject and Power. // Dreyfus, H. – Rabinow, P. Michel Foucault: beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago, 1982. P. 208-254. Frake Ch. O. Plying Frames Can Be Dangerous: Some Reflections on Methodology in Cognitive Anthropology. // Quartely Newsletter of the Institute for Comparative Human Development 1977, № 3, Р. 3-34. Frank, M. What is neostructuralism? Minnesota, 1989. Geertz, C. The interpretation of cultures. Selected essays. NY, 1973. 227 p. Giddens, A. Modernity and self-identity. Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge, 1991. Giddens, L. The Reith Lecture. London, 1999. Jenkins, R. Social Identity. NY – London, 1996. McGarty, C., Haslam, S. A., Hutchinson, K. J. & Turner. The effects of salient group memberships on persuasion. // Small Group Research, 1994, № 25. Р. 267-293. Ricoeur, P. Le conflit des interpreétations. Essais ďhermeneutique. Paris, 1969. Sapir, E. Culture, Language and Personality. Berkeley, 1964. Sloterdijk, P. Falls Europa erwacht. Gedanken zum Programm einer Weltmacht am Ende des Zeitalters ihrer politishen Absence. Frankfurt a. M., 1994. Tajfel, H. & J.D. Turner. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. // W.G. Austin and S. Worchel (eds.) The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, 1979. Vattimo, G. Rozdiely, konflikty, kultúrny minimalizmus. // Aspekt, № 2, 1997. Woodward, K. (ed.) Questioning Identity. London, 2000. Р. 6-42. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Jelena Petrucijova. In the Trace of Human Identity По следам человеческой идентичности Е. Петруцийова Остравский университет, Чехия 701 03, Острава, Млинска, 5 Статья посвящена анализу проблемы человеческой идентичности (индивидуальной и коллективной). Эссенциальный и экзистенциальный подходы рассматриваются в качестве традиционных подходов философии человека. В современной литературе проблема идентичности человека всё чаще анализируется в контексте интерпретативного/ нарративного подхода. Упомянутые подходы используют и специальные науки о человеке, например, социальная и культурная антропология, психология и др. Особое внимание автор уделяет анализу культурной димензии идентичности, в которой отражается ситуация человека в глобальном, мультикультурном мире (концепции множественной идентичности, расслоённой идентичности и др.). Ключевые слова: человеческая идентичность; инклюзивная (включающая) идентичность зксклюзивная (исключающая) идентичность; мультикультурное общество. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 625-632 ~~~ УДК 821.161.1 Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”: Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives Helen Stuhr-Rommereim* Siberian State Aerospace University 31 Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia Fulbright Program 14 Tverskoy Bulvar, building 1, Moscow 125009 Russia 1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 A discussion of the difficulties in translation “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich” into English. Specific aspects of the original text are compared with the English translation and analyzed. The article is oriented toward the benefits for students of Russian, in terms of both linguistic and cultural knowledge, of reading “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich” and closely comparing the Russian text with the English translation. Keywords: translation; Solzhenitsyn; language learning; Russian Language; linguistics. In “One Day In the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” Solzhenitsyn details a world with its own rules. He outlines the complicated social structure and dynamic of Soviet labor camps and the lives of those imprisoned there. The story is emphatically not driven by plot. It is not a story of grand emotions and dramatic events. Rather, Solzhenitsyn focuses on filling in the details of the characters and minutiae of camp life. Though small in physical size and deceivingly small even in scope, there are obvious reasons why this novel has become accepted as an important work of modern world literature. In “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” Solzhenitsyn wastes no words or thoughts. The novel is compactly and precisely written, with carefully crafted language. In this article, I will discuss the * 1 various difficulties presented by reading the book in the original Russian for a speaker of Russian as a foreign language, as well as difficulties in translating the book from Russian into English. I am approaching this problem from the perspective of a student of Russian language and culture. My aim is to highlight what makes the book both difficult and rewarding for a student of Russian. Additionally, I am examining how the difficulties of the novel show the particular expressive strengths and weaknesses of the Russian and English languages, as well as how a close comparison of the Russian and English texts helps a language learner to better understand the particularities of Solzhenitsyn’s writing style. Susan Bassnett and André Lefevere state in the preface to Translation as social action: Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 625 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… Russian and Bulgarian perspectives, “the study of the manipulative processes of literature as exemplified by translation can help us toward a greater awareness of the world in which we live.” [Zlateva, 1993, p. vii]. A “greater awareness” of the world is precisely what I am seeking in my comparison of the Russian and English texts of “One Day.” In Translation as Social Action, the editor Palma Zlateva discusses the different perspectives found in Western European discussions of translation versus Russian and Bulgarian translation traditions. Namely that, in the West, translation holds a controversial position as both an absolutely necessary and inevitable— in order to communicate and to take in the literature of the world—as well as an inherently impossible exercise. Zlateva discusses how in the West the question of whether or not it is at all possible to translate a work into another language has plagued the discipline for centuries, while in Russian intellectual spheres translation has long been regarded as a creative endeavor in its own right, and so the question of “translatability” has not been so pressing [Zlateva, 1993, p. 1]. In this article I am looking at “One Day” from a more Western perspective—examining how successfully the English translation replicates the Russian original and paying particular attention to linguistic disparities between the two texts in order to better understand the Russian. Because I am discussing the novel from the perspective of a Russian learner, I am concerned with the English translation primarily as a tool to help in understanding the Russian translation, rather than as a work in itself. Narrative peculiarities When contemplating the book from the perspective of a Russian learner, it is both approachable and intimidating. It is of much less daunting length than other novels in the Russian canon, but at the same time it contains a complicated and specialized lexicon, as well as constant, carefully detailed movement that doesn’t settle into a broad, easy to follow plot. There are elements within the structure of the novel that make it more difficult for a reader to latch onto a broad narrative understanding that assists in making his or her way through a foreign text. The narrative has no climax, no central problem, no highs and lows. It is concerned with the small difficulties involved in the hard life of a victim of Stalin’s GULAG. There is great emphasis on the mundane qualities Shukhov’s situation. At the same time, each element of the story, each small moment Solzhenitsyn describes, uncovers different aspects of the burden that is every day life in the camps. Particular time is spent on detailing the time that prisoners spend milling about, being counted, recounted, and herded from place to place. While nothing is happening in these moments, they represent a time when the prisoners are most obviously at the mercy of their wardens. The lack of narrative arch leads to an almost predictable lack of conflict. For example, when Shukhov is being searched, he hides a tiny piece of metal from the camp guards. The reader understands that the guard won’t find the knife. It would be inconsistent with the narrative for a catastrophe to befall Shukhov at that moment. But one nonetheless understands the stress of the constant threat of further punishment. This is not the story of one disastrous day in the life of Ivan Denisovich, rather the story of one very average day in the life of a very average person, caught in the larger humanitarian disaster of Stalin’s camps. One of the difficulties in reading the novel, both in English and in Russian, is that the actual space of the camp remains abstract. Solzhenitsyn devotes his descriptions to the tiny actions that Shukhov takes to survive—where and how he hides his bread and his spoon, the pleasure he # 626 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… takes in his work and in eating his meager rations, his acute observations of those around him, and his knowledge of what one needs to do to survive in the camps. While life in the camp is detailed completely, the layout of the camp and descriptions of rooms and pspaces are barely touched on. The distance from one place to another, the appearance of the prisoners’ barracks, and the basic physical space they occupy is never completely clear. This leaves the reader scrapping together the world the zeks inhabit through non-visual details, paying close attention to small actions and interactions. The zeks seem to occupy a colorless, shapeless space. This characteristic comes across both in English and in Russian. However, when the two versions of the novel are compared, it becomes clear what an important role the tone and word choice in Russian plays in Solzhenitsyn’s characterization of camp life. Comparing the Russian and English texts Those same characteristics of Solzhenityn’s prose which make it difficult for a foreign reader to understand are the very elements in his style that give “One Day” its particular tone. A few specific stylistic elements stand out when directly comparing passages in Russian with their English translations. In this study, I’ve used the original translation by Robert Parker. Scenes such as those in the camp canteen require particular attention from the reader. Shukhov maneuvers through other zeks and camp guards in order to procure as much food as possible. At the core of the canteen scenes are minute and specific movements. The zeks discretely pass items between each other, they hide dishes, and position themselves in order to receive as much food as possible: “Договорились. Донёс тот до места, разгрузил, Шухов схватился за поднос, а и тот набежал, кому обещано, за другой конец подноса тянет. А сам щуплей Шухова. Шухов его туда же подносом двинул, куда тянет, он отлетел к столбу, с подноса руки сорвались. Шухов– –поднос под мышку и бегом к раздаче” [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 192]. “They came to an understanding. S280 carried his tray to the table and unloaded the bowls. Shukhov immediately grabbed it. At that moment the man it had been promised to ran up and tried to grab it. But he was punier than Shukhov. Shukhov shoved him off with the tray—what the hell are you pulling for?—and threw him against a post. Then putting the tray under his arm, he trotted off to the serving window” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 113]. In this passage, Solzhenitsyn’s sentences lack pronouns and sometimes even objects. Where in the original Russian, zek S280’s identity is completely left out, in English it is necessary to include his name and repeatedly include a pronoun. The focus of the passage is on movement, and most of the information is found in the verbs and their forms. Solzhenitsyn uses verbs that require several words to replicate in English, such as “схватился” versus “immediately grabbed.” A one letter prefix—a property in Russian not shared by English—takes the place of an adverb, conveying the same idea with one word. This economy of words lends a speed and choppiness to the prose that is missing in the English version. Even the simple difference between the word “договорились” and the English equivalent “they came to an understanding” slows down the prose. Simultaneously, this kind of writing presents particular difficulties for a foreign reader. Leaving out pronouns and objects removes much of what helps a foreign reader understand the action. In the English, prisoner S280 “unloaded the bowls,” while in Russian he simply “разгрузил,” his identity and the specific object he is unloading are not repeated. # 627 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… This elimination of all but the absolutely necessary words is evident in many instances throughout the novel: “И чтобы брюхо не занывало, есть не просило, перестал он думать о лагере, стал думать, как письмо будет скоро домой писать” [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 128] «And to prevent it complaining and begging for food, he stopped thinking about the camp and let his mind dwell on the letter he'd soon be writing home [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 36]”» In the English, the pronoun appears three times, while in Russian only once. Additionally, Parker has been forced to place the awkward pronoun “it” in the beginning of the passage. No pronoun is necessary in Russian, but what is being referred to is somewhat ambiguous. To maintain this ambiguity Parker chooses the pronoun “it,” rather than “his stomach” or something more specific. Another example of how Solzhenitsyn’s economic language loses much of its character and impact in English comes in the beginning of the novel after Shukhov is unable to be relieved from work due to illness: “Шухов ничего не ответил и не кивнул даже, шапку нахлобучил и вышел. Тёплый зяблого разве когда поймёт?” [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 118].” “Shukhov said nothing. He didn’t even nod. Pulling his hat over his eyes, he walked out. How can you expect a man who’s warm to understand a man who’s cold?[Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 7]” “Тёплый” and “зяблого” become “a man who’s warm,” and “a man who’s cold.” A part of Solzhenitsyn’s careful and economic word choice is the use of specialized camp vocabulary, presenting the greatest difficulty for both a translator and a Russian learner. These words are essential to Solzhenitsyn’s characterization of the camp, and it is impossible to maintain their cultural and linguistic connotations in translation. Without a preexisting knowledge of camp vocabulary or someone with whom to discuss complicated historical words, this novel would be nearly impossible to read for a Russian learner. In the passage below, one word, “shouted,” is used for two Russian words, while Pavlo’s emphatically Ukrainian speech is completely lost in the English translation, replaced with a somewhat characterless phrase: “Раствору!––орёт Шухов через стенку. Да––е––мо!––Павла кричит.” [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 162] “ ‘Mortar!’ Shukhov shouted over the wall. ‘Coming up!’ shouted Pavlo.” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 79] This example points to one of the primary problems in translating “One Day,” both in the case of special camp vocabulary and dialect, and the extra words demanded by the grammatical necessities of English. Solzhenitsyn’s word choice, when compared to the English, is in many cases much more specific than the resulting English translation. More general words and sentiments emerge in the English, losing many aspects of the cultural specificity contained in Solzhenitsyn’s language. Here is a further example: “Бывает, и я им помогу?” Шухов сам у Павла работу просит. “Поможить” Павло кивает [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 143] «Shall I give 'em a hand?» Shukhov volunteered «Yes, help them out,» said Pavlo with a nod. [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 56] Pavlo’s accent is lost, and the exchange has an almost forced politeness about it, rather than the comfortable familiarity in the Russian version. # 628 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… In another instance, the specialized language of the camps is replaced with a common English swear word: “Хромой грёбаный… в лоб тебя драть!...” [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 189] “You f---ing Limper, we’ll fi x you” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 111] The cultural specificity of the exchange is completely lost, all that is maintained is the basic roughness of Pavlo’s speech. When examined side-by-side with the original Russian, such examples are easily found throughout the English translation. Much of the camp’s characterization and the specificity of the prisoners’ individual speech are lost. Many of the difficulties in maintaining the tone of the translation can be blamed on basic grammatical differences between Russian and English, and the way that Solzhenitsyn takes advantage of certain aspects of Russian grammar. The linguistic necessity in English to include pronouns and objects to be understood removes a layer of force that is present in the original Russian. As demonstrated in previous examples, a greater amount of contextual information is contained in the form of the verb in Russian, while additional helping words are necessary in English. Because of the use of cases, which puts more information into the form of the words, as well as the fact that in past tense the gender and number of the subject is indicated in the verb form, one Russian word in a particular form often requires several English words to be completely translated. Solzhenitsyn’s writing and word choice is emphatically precise and spare, and he makes careful use of these grammatical qualities. His carefully constructed sentences often become much more mundane in English. A deeper understanding through comparison The purpose of this article, however, is not simply to criticize the English translation, or to say that it is impossible to translate “One Day” effectively. A work in translation is necessarily a different piece of writing from the original. Translation always presents numerous difficulties, particularly when translating specialized speech. It is impossible to replicated Russian GULAG slang in English. Rather, by looking at the Russian sideby-side with the English, the comparison allows a student of Russian to better appreciate Solzhenitsyn’s style and tone, and come closer to a complete understanding of the book as it is written in the original, and how it might sound to a native speaker. An instance of how this comparison can help lead to a deeper understanding of the text is the use of the word “Воля,” which has a multiplicity of meanings in Russian that lead to its translation into English as one of several words, depending on context. In the example below, the translator has chose two different English words for the one word “воля”: “Своими ногами––да на волю, а?” «To step out to freedom, just walk out on your own two feet.» [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 57] «хотя на воле…» [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 185] “Although when he had been at liberty…” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 106] The first dictionary definition of the word воля is usually “will,” but in the context of “One Day,” it more frequently means “freedom,” or “liberty.” Though these three words (will, freedom, and liberty) are closely connected in meaning in English, they have slightly different meanings. “Will,” in particular, is concerned with an individual’s internal ability to make choices. The English concept of “will” is not something that one loses due to physical confinement. A prisoner is still, to a degree, able to make choices for himself. A prisoner decides to be alive, decides # 629 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… to eat, and exercises “will power” in numerous ways. The phrase “на волю,” frequently used throughout “One Day” to refer to living in freedom as opposed to in captivity, is interesting and somewhat surprising for an English speaker. The expected phrase would be “на свободе.” The use of воля in this way deepens a Russian learner’s understanding of the specificities of the word and the complex of meanings it contains. Because it can be translated as both “freedom” and “will” it implies both internal and external freedom. The concept of “will” in Russian differs from its English equivalent. Specifically concerning “One Day,” looking closely at the use of this word and the words that the translator has chosen to replace it with in English helps an English speaker to understand the concept of freedom for a GULAG prisoner. Anna Wierzbicka writes in her essay “Russian ‘national character’ and Russian language”: “…common Russian words, such as, for example судьба, душа, or тоска, reflect and suggest certain values and attitudes; and that so do certain aspects of Russian grammar, such as the rich system of expressive derivation.” [Wierzbicka, 1998, p. 51] Воля can be added to this list as a word that represents a basic and important cultural concept, present in virtually all cultures, but simultaneously has different and potentially broader cultural connotations in Russian than its English equivalents. Wierzbicka also sites the expressive qualities of Russian grammar, which Solzhenitsyn in particular makes ample use of in “One Day.” The basic structure of a language reveals important truths about culture, and through carefully analysing the use of different words, a student can gain insite into the culture he or she is studying. For example, the Russian language has no word for “privacy,” a difference made famous during an exchange between former U.S. President Richard Nixon and Nikita Kruschev in 1959. The exchange took place at an exhibit on U.S. consumerism in Sokolniki Park in Moscow. Nixon asserted that the ideas that made the U.S. powerful could be seen in the privacy of homes, in the private lives of citizens. Nixon’s argument rested on the idea of the home, and he specifically emphasized the kitchen, as a private, non-political site. But the very word on which he was relying was impossible to translate, and the kitchen in Soviet Russia, the common space in a communal apartment, had a very different cultural connotation [Baldwin, 2004]. The exchange highlights how the walls between languages, if carefully examined, can be used to increase cross-cultural understanding. It is precisely these places where languages do not match up, rather where they conf lict with each other, that help us most in using language to intimately understand another culture. Understanding the cultural context It is important to understand all texts within their historical context, and the impact of “One Day” at the time of its publishing is particularly important. Such a historically specific work is bound to have a different cultural meaning for Russian readers and for foreign readers. There are many reasons why the novel is a part of curriculums in both Russia and the United States, and its historical importance is not a small one. In studying a language, the importance of understanding the history and culture of the people who speak that language should not be overlooked. Upon the publication of the first English translations, the American press reacted with enthusiasm to the book and praised its literary # 630 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… merit. Reviewers approached it as a book that was important to read in its revelation of the humanitarian tragedies of the Stalin era. Philip Rahv wrote in the New York Review of Books “the more readers this book has the better” [Rahv, 1963]. But ultimately, readers continue to come back to “One Day” not because of its socialhistorical importance, but because it has all of the qualities of great fiction. It isn’t simply a historical document, and one doesn’t need to be a student of Soviet history to enjoy it (although some background knowledge will certainly help in understanding it). Solzhenitsyn carefully avoids didacticism, and yet presents ideological and philosophical problems through his characters’ dialogues, as in Tsezar’s discussion of Eisenstein’s Ivan the Terrible with another zek [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 153]. The thread of human triumph and the power of the simple goodness of the Russian peasant is traceable throughout the book. In one scene, as Shukov eats, Solzhenitsyn outlines his mood: “Сейчас ни на что Шухов не в обиде: ни что срок долгий, ни что день долгий, ни что воскресенья опять не будет. Сейчас он думает: переживём! переживём всё, даст Бог кончится.[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 193]” The fact that in his detailing of a dark and at the time somewhat taboo topic in Russian history, Solzhenitsyn maintains threads of classic Russian literary themes has helped the book maintain its place in the contemporary literary canon, and undoubtedly helped it to be published at the time. In studying this novel, a Russian learner must understand the complex of history and politics, and also literary history that surrounds the book. “One Day” can be an extremely effective lens through which a student can learn much more about Russian culture and history. Conclusion In English, the final sentence of the novel is “We’ll survive. We’ll stick it out, God willing, till it’s over” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 115]. It’s the kind of simple strength and determination that cannot help but uplift a reader. “One Day” is a small and deceivingly simple book that presents a multitude of ideas and perspectives. As such, it is particularly rewarding for those studying Russian to read. A Russian learner can use the difficulty of the text to his or her advantage by analyzing what is particularly complicated about Solzhenitsyn’s style, as well as looking closely at how the tone in Russian differs from the tone in English. The reader is left with a stronger ability to confront difficult texts in Russian, and a working knowledge of the colorful vocabulary of Soviet zeks as a bonus. Such analysis will lead to a deeper understanding of the novel and the Russian language. Beyond the specific needs of a student of Russian language and the specific task of reading and understanding “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” this novel provides a particularly good study of broader differences between Russian and English. The language of the book is inextricably tied with the ideas it contains. As I have discussed, the particularities of Russian vocabulary and grammar have meanings that differ from their counter parts in English. In order to fully comprehend and produce Russian, a student must understand these particularities. Examining the complexes of meanings associated with particular words and the way that certain grammatical forms are transformed in English significantly helps a learner in achieving a greater facility in Russian. Comparing the Russian text with the English translation helps a learner to better understand the particular expressive strengths of both languages, as well as the specificities of Solzhenitsyn’s writing. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Helen Stuhr-Rommereim. Reading Solzhenitsyn’s “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”… References A. Baldwin, “The Radical Imaginary of The Bell Jar,” [electronic resource], Novel (A Forum on Fiction), October 1, (2004), URL: eLibrary P. Rahv, “House of the Dead?” [electronic resource], New York Review of Books, February 1, (1963), URL: http:// nybooks.com/articles/13780 H. Salisbury, H. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich [electronic resource], New York Times Book Review, January 22, (1963), URL: http:// nytimes.com/books/98/03/01/home/solz-ivan.htm A. Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, trans. from Russian to English by Ralph Parker (Signet, 1972) A. Solzhenitsyn, “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” in There is Light Everywhere… (Есть Всюду Свет…), ed. S. Vilensky, (Vozraschenie, 2000), 105-210, in Russian. A. Weirzbicka, “Russian ‘national character’ and Russian language: A rejoinder to H. Mondry and J. Taylor,” in Speaking of emotions: conceptualization and expression, ed. A. Athanasiadou, E. Tabakowska (Mouton de Gruyter, 1998), 49-55. P. Zlateva ed. Translation as social action: Russian and Bulgarian perspectives, (Routledge, 1993), vii-7. Читая Солженицына: лингвистические и культурологические перспективы Х.Р. Стур-Роммерайм Сибирский государственный аэрокосмический университет 31 Красноярский рабочий пр., Красноярск, 660014 Программа Фулбрайта 14 Тверской бульвар, дом 1, Москва, 125009 В статье анализируется перевод повести А.И. Солженицына «Один день Ивана Денисовича» на английский язык. Обсуждаются некоторые особенности языка Солженицына, вызывающие затруднения при переводе, а также то, как процесс перевода помогает иноязычному читателю глубже понять известное произведение. Ключевые слова: перевод; Солженицын; русский язык; изучение языков; лингвистика Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 633-646 ~~~ УДК 81’374 Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology (on the Example of Fire Science Vocabulary) Tatiana M. Sofronova* Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University 89 Lebedevoy st., Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia1 Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010 The paper focuses on conception and technology of a scientific glossary creation which could contribute to coordination of terms within the language and harmonization of terms between the languages. There are examples of logical-conceptual schemes for systematization of Fire Science terminology, detailed description of the glossary structure, and a comparative analysis of Russian and English terminological fields in Fire Science. Keywords: terminology, glossary, fire science, coordination of terms, harmonization of terms Introduction Development of any science follows the paradigm: “normal science” explaining each new phenomenon from the point of view of the dominant paradigm; extraordinary science with various scientific schools and contrasting ideas and approaches; and “revolutionary science” with systematized ideas and approaches which are approved to exist and eliminate existence of contrasting paradigms (Kuhn, 1962). Many modern sciences, including the Fire Science, are on the second, “extraordinary”, stage in their development. Different scientific schools and trends, each suggesting its own terms and notions of existing terms, create detrimental terminological confusion which leads to data garbling and misunderstanding among scientists of different scientific schools and countries. Coordination and harmonization of terms and * 1 notions is a long impending issue in present fire science due to integration and globalization and is a key recommendation of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for the near future. This was pointed out in the report of a FAO Forestry Officer Petteri Vuorinen at the IV International Wildland Fire Conference held in Spain in May, 2007. During the last several years, attempts are undertaken to mechanically compare fire science terms in different languages. As a result, it breeds more confusion. Therefore, a linguistic approach is needed to solve this problem. In our modern time of “an information outbreak”, the number of dictionaries grows; however, the value of each reference material can be hardly assessed by a specialist or translator (Krupnov, 1987). Therefore special importance should e given to the creation of Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 633 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... comprehensive bi- and multilingual electronic dictionaries or glossaries in each field of science and industry. By “comprehensiveness” we imply multifuncionality of a dictionary which could satisfy the needs of both specialists (of our country and abroad) and translators. The contemporary stage of terminography development is characterized by creation of new types of dictionaries rich in content owing to the fact that official state standards lost their monopoly in development of terminological dictionaries and official lexicographical instructions. Presently, computer technologies allow diversifying and differentiating the structure of dictionaries and increase their size (Tatarinov, 2006). The aim of our research is to develop a model of an electronic glossary which would coordinate and harmonize scientific terminology in the field of Fire Science. Materials and Methods Sources for the research are the following reference materials: A) Terminological glossaries: 1. Glossary of wildland fire management terms used in the United States. – Society of American Foresters, 1990. (About 1,500 terms in an alphabetical order) 2. Glossary of forest fire management terms / Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre. – Manitoba, 2003. (About 1,000 terms in an alphabetically nested order) 3. Wildfire Glossary / Prepared by rural and land management group for Australasian Fire and Emergency Services Authorities Council Agencies. January 2009. (About 560 terms in an alphabetical order) 4. Scott, J. H. and E.D. Reinhardt, compilers. 2007. FireWords Version 1.0: Fire Science Glossary [electronic]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). (About 300 terms in an alphabetically nested and thematic order) B) Encyclopedic dictionaries: 1. Encyclopedia of Forestry ( Moscow, 2006). 2. Forest Encyclopedia (Moscow, 1985). 3. Forestry: Terminological Dictionary, ed. by A,N. Filipchuk (Moscow, 2002). C) Bilingual forestry dictionaries: 1. Russian-English Forestry and Wood Dictionary (1966) / Compiled by Williams Linnard. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks., England. 2. English-Russian and Russian-English Dictionary of Forestry and Forest Industries / Compiled by Mozhayev D.V., Novikov B.N., Rybakov D.M. (Moscow, 1998). D) State standards: Nature Conservation. Forest Protection. Terms and Definitions. State Standard 17.6.1.01– 83 (Moscow, 1983). Unfortunately, the enumerated reference materials represent Fire Science terminology incompletely and lack systematization. Therefore, other sources for research are specialized Fire Science works (monographs, papers, dissertations), which contain rich terminological material and significantly supplement the Fire Science, for example: 1. N.P. Kurbatsky, “Terminology of Forest Fire Science”, in Questions of Forest Fire Science (Krasnoyarsk, 1972). 2. I.S. Melekhov, Wildland Fire Impact on Forest (Moscow, Leningrad, 1948). 3. I.S. Melekhov, Forest Fire Science (Moscow, 1978). 4. M.A. Sofronov et al., Wildland Fire Danger (Krasnoyarsk, 2005). # 634 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... 5. A.V. Volokitina et al., Surface Fire Behavior Prediction Using Vegetation Fuel Maps (Krasnoyarsk, 2005). 6. A.V. Volokitina, and M.A. Sofronov, Vegetation Fuel Classification and Mapping (Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2002), in Russian. According to one of the founding fathers of lexicography Kh. Kasares (1958), “alphabetical order is organized disorder” (Grinyov, 1993). Therefore, thematic principle should be given preference to revealing the notional structure of a field and, correspondingly, systematic links among terms in the coordinated terminological systems. Field theory and field modeling in linguistics (Ufimtseva, 1961; Shchur, 1974; Karaulov, 1976; Grinev, 1993; etc.) can be of much benefit for creation of this glossary. Study of terminological fields and selection of notions that are part of them are integral for creation of special dictionaries. The current is based on structural and systematic description of the vocabulary, creation of terminological fields, and comparison of terminological notions and terms between languages. Comparative method, field method, and lexicographical method are applied. Results Russia has no special glossaries in this field so far. The idea and the first attempt to create a brief terminological glossary on fire science were published in 1972 (Kurbatsky, 1972). About 300 terms were thematically arranged by N.P. Kurbatsky. Branch terminological State Standards (1983) can be of help in Russian glossary creation; however, their quality is not always high for they are frequently made up privately by not well-known and sometimes insufficiently competent authors. In branch encyclopedias, a corresponding article for a term is usually ordered only to one expert who gives only one version of it revealing his/ her personal point of view (Sofronova, 2007a). In view of integration of the Russian Fire Science into the world science there is an urgent need to create a special glossary with the following features: Terminology: Fire Science: Method of field modeling Inventory Systematization Coordination and adjustment Harmonization Method of creating dictionaries Carrying out library and archive research on fire nature and management Further training and study of innovations on the analyzed topic Field experiments and observations • Language – bilingual (Russian↔English) • Subject – special (wildfire science terminology) • Time – modern • Scope – reference – interlingual • Address – for specialists • Function – inventory and standardizing • Volume – small (up to 500 basic terms without nomenclature) • Order – thematic with alphabetical and nested indices in appendices Each dubious term or a pair of terms in both languages should be accompanied by a comment provided by a linguist-translator, who is at the same time a specialist in the given field and works in cooperation with highly qualified experts (Sofronova, 2007a; Sofronova et al., 2007). Or the experts in the field of science or technology, terminologists and translators should join their attempts. Only then one can expect improvement of notions and definitions (Krupnov, 1987). An electronic output of a glossary can be made with the help of a system for elaboration of technical documentation MadCap Flare, US. This program helps to structuralize the database and provide a user-friendly format: electronic HTML document of a minimum size with maximum information; publication of the glossary on the # 635 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... Table 1. Current logical-conceptual scheme of the Fire Science (Sofronova et al., 2007). Macrofields Microfields 1. General terms 2. Nature of wildfires 2.1. Problem of wildfires, fire statistics 2.2. Vegetation fuels (VF) 2.2.1. VF properties 2.2.2. VF classification 2.2.3. VF combustion 2.3. Structure of a wildfire 2.4. Characteristic and classification of wildfires 2.5. Wildland fire danger (fire danger, fire hazard, fire risk and their estimation) 3.1. Wildfire protection arrangement 3. Wildfire management 3.2. Wildfire detection 3.3. Means and methods of fire suppression 3.4. Information database 3.5. Wildfire behavior prediction 3.6. Fire prevention measures 4. Wildfire effects 4.1. Characteristic and classification of areas over which a wildfire has spread 4.2. Prediction of wildfire effects 5. Use of the positive fire role 5.1. Prescribed burning in clear cut areas 5.2. Prescribed burning in forests website; and a printout document in doc-format. The program was used to create the model of the bilingual glossary of fire science terminology. Logical-conceptual analysis of special texts (Melekhov, 1948, 1978; Sofronov et al., 2005; Volokitina and Sofronov, 2002; Volokitina et al., 2005) allowed us to create a logical structure of the Fire Science (Table 1 “Current logical-conceptual scheme of the Fire Science”) (Sofronova, 2007b; Sofronova et al., 2007). Its logical-conceptual system considerably differs (italic stands for new structural elements of the Fire Science) from the structure suggested by N.P. Kurbatsky (1972) since fire science does not cease to develop. Thematically classifying modern US, Canadian and Australian terms we came to the conclusion that the paradigmatic structure of the Fire Science in Russia corresponds to that in the US, Canada and Australia. Since the Russian Fire Science developed rather independently, Russian terms are not always found equivalents in the international terminological systems. For example, there are at least three terms to differentiate kinds of post-fi re territories in Russia, whereas the US and Canada apply only a general term and additional characteristic is introduced through attributes. Fig. 1 “Classification of post-fi re areas in relation to time of their existence” and Table 2 “Example of a glossary entry content oriented towards English speaking recipients” shows an example of the glossary entry content on the thematic group “Post-fi re territories” (Sofronova et al., 2007). This proves the need to create special bilingual electronic glossaries of coordinated and harmonized notions and terms. The developed by us multifunctional bilingual electronic glossary of Russian and US Fire Science terminology fulfills four typological lexicographical functions: • systematizing function which is realized by means of the thematic classification of terms together with their alphabetical order as well as logical-conceptual schemes of specific terminological fields and hyperlinks providing links both within one terminological system # 636 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Time Pozhar ishche Fre gorel (P > before a sh nik 0.2 fire) Gar’ (P 0.2) Gorelnik (tree mortality > 25 pct, P > 0.2) Young tree stand (P 0.3) Old gar’ (P 0,2) Two-storey stand Old gorelnik (P> 0.2) Ordinary forest (tree mortality < 25 percent) or non-forest vegetation plot Fig. 1. Classification of post-fire areas in relation to time of their existence (P – relative basal area of a tree stand) Table 2. Example of a glossary entry content oriented towards English speaking recipients RUSSIAN TERMS ENGLISH TERMS POZHARISHCHE (“fire site”) – a vegetation site over which a fire has BURN or BURNED AREA recently spread so that combustion traces are evident on the soil (e.g. ashes, (US, Canada) carbons, firebrands). Fresh gar’ is an unwanted term 1. an area burned over by wildland GORELNIK (i.e. “fire-disturbed forest”) – a post-fire forest site with died fire 2, 3. (dead-standing) trees (tree mortality is over 25 percent) and relative basal area over 0.2 falling on live trees1. This term is absent (is missing) GAR’ (“open burnt area”) – post-fire forest site with died (dead-standing) in the Australian Glossary10 trees (tree mortality over 80 percent) and relative basal area of 0.2 and less (or 0.3 and less in young tree stands) falling on live trees1. Comments. ▪ Available definitions of POZHARISHCHE in Russia: a site where a wildfire took place 4, 5. This interpretation is too broad and indefinite since it involves all vegetation plots ever passed by a fire, and traces of wildfires, take for example ancient ones, can be found almost everywhere. ▪ Available definitions of GORELNIK in Russia: 1) synonym to GAR’ 6; 2) sites with partially died tree stands after a wildfire 4, 7, 8. Gorelnik always has trees, fire-damaged forest, and GAR may be devoid of trees as a result of repeated fires. ▪ Available definitions of GAR’ in Russia: 1) any forest site over which a fire has spread 6, 9; 2) pozharishche (forest area) with totally died off trees 4, 5, 7, 8. One should take into consideration a forest inventory definition of “gar”, since the forest inventory gives information about burnt areas: during forest inventory “gar” is referred to “area not covered by forest vegetation” 8. This means that “gar” may have even live trees on condition that their relative basal area does not exceed 0.2 (or 0.3 in young stands). ▪ In the US and Canada a generalized term is used for all post-fire areas: BURN or BURNED AREA. Therefore, in English-Russian translation one should resort to specification, and in Russian-English translation – to descriptive rendering of the term. Sofronov and Volokitina, 2007 Glossary of wildland fire management terms used in the United States, 1990 3 Glossary of forest fire management terms, Canada, 2003 4 Ozhegov, 1999 5 Kurbatsky, 1972 6 Melekhov, 1946 7 State Standard, 1983 8 Encyclopedia of forestry, 2006 9 Forest Encyclopedia, 1985 10 Wildfire Glossary, 2009 1 2 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... and between terminological systems of different languages; • reference function is realized through translation and through additional encyclopedic information which helps to reveal all nuances of the considered notions and terms and to compare them with related notions and terms in the same field; • educational function is realized through the glossary structure, comparison of terminological systems in different languages, and discussion of additional encyclopedic material; • standardization function is provided through the specific use of terms, which is recommended in the discussion section and in the translator’s comments. The Glossary model focuses on the topic “Fire Classification” and is created to test its flexibility to be used both as a monolingual and bilingual reference material, i.e. as: 1) US Fire Science Glossary; 2) Russian Fire Science Glossary; 3) Comparative Fire Science Glossary of the US and Russian terminologies; 4) Russian-English Dictionary; 5) English-Russian Dictionary 6) Small encyclopedia of the US and Russian Fire Science. The content of the terminological field “Fire Classification” is created according to the following scheme in the Russian and English languages: • General information • General terms • Fires by an object of burning • Fires by human attitude • Types of fires • Kinds of fires • Fires by fire intensity • Special kinds of fires • Misleading terms “General information” gives logical schemes of the studied terminological field in Russia (Fig. 2 A “Logical-conceptual schemes of the terminological field ‘Fire Classification’ in Russia”) and in the US (Fig. 2 B “Logicalconceptual schemes of the terminological field ‘Fire Classification’ in the US”). As far as possible, each term is provided with an illustration (pictures, schemes). The way the glossary entry looks in the electronic glossary is shown in Fig. 3 “General view of the electronic glossary entry”. The anatomy of a glossary entry is similar to the FireWords Glossary entry (Scott and Reinhardt, 2007); however, some additional parts have been introduced to realize the bilingual feature of this glossary. Each entry consists of the following parts: • Title. The title is the term to be defined or the topic to introduce general. • Short definition. The short definition begins with the part of speech (noun, verb, etc.). If the short definition ends with a citation, then the definition was taken verbatim from that reference. However, the short definition is not always sufficient to discern the important differences from similar terms; therefore the following structural element was included. • Discussion. In the discussion section the author relates the term to similar terms or thematically related terms, discusses its use (and misuse), perhaps its origin, and more. When a related glossary term is used in the discussion section it appears as a link – clicking the link displays either a pop-up window displaying the short definition for that term or a popup minimized window of the whole term entry. Clicking outside the pop-up closes the window. The glossary includes one more additional function – “Screen # 638 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 2 (A). Logical-conceptual schemes of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 2 (B). Logical-conceptual schemes of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in the US Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... Fig. 3. General view of the electronic glossary entry Tip”. If you set your mouse cursor on the hyperlinked term, a small window with translation of this very term appears. To view the full glossary entry of these related terms, use the “See Also” section. Besides, forestry terms in the Russian glossary are colored green and have their definition entries in a subglossary. The definition of a forestry term appears as a pop-up window. Only the first paragraph or two of the discussion is shown. If more discussion has been written, click on the “More...” link to display the full discussion. • Units. The units section indicates standard choices for both scientific papers and fire management documents. In most cases conversion factors are included for converting between commonly used units for the term. • References. All literature cited in the glossary entry is listed under this heading. • See also. Links to the full glossary entry of terms used in this entry are listed # 641 # under this heading in a table. The table displays terms of both languages and this way links the US and Russian glossaries • Notes. The notes section includes entries for an author or translator of the entry and a date the entry was added or last edited. • Translation/ Original. The translation version or original version appears as a new window if clicked on the hyperlink. This window can be cascaded with the main window for comparative analysis. • Translator’s comments. This part is included in the Russian Glossary to reveal translation challenges (e.g., translator’s false friends) and suggest a variant of translation. Besides, variants of translation suggested by two RussianEnglish Forestry Dictionaries are demonstrated to highlight the importance of this very glossary creation. Search for terms can be done by four ways: 1. Look up a term by topic. In the table of contents terms are thematically arranged. Using this section you can browse all the entries pertinent to each fire science Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... section. Each term appears in one or more topics. 2. Look up a term in the index. The index tab (top of navigation pane, at left) is used to look for a particular term. The term can be written either in English or in Russian. The index term may have the following abbreviations at the end: ru = Russian original, en-tr = English translation of the Russian original, rutr = Russian translation of the English original. The terms of the English original have no abbreviations at the end. Each term is listed in alphabetical order and in alphabetical-nested order, for example, the English term “surface fire” is listed as both: • surface fire • type of fire : surface fire 3. Search the text or term list for a particular word (s). The search tab (top of navigation pane, at left) is used to search for terms. The search includes an additional option – it takes into account synonyms (which might be not a part of the index), and displays similar, confusing or misleading terms in the search result. Double-click on a term from the search results pane displays the glossary entry in the main window. 4. Follow a hyperlink from another term. Each reference to another Glossary term within an entry is hyper-linked to that related term: • Links to related terms in the discussion section display the short definition for that term in a pop-up window. This link is used to view a quick definition of the related term without leaving the current entry. • To view the full definition including annotation, illustration, etc, the link in the See Also section is clicked. Clicking the back button returns you to the current term. Discussion The volume of the terminological field “Fire Classification” differs in Russia and in the US (Table 3 “Quantitative comparison of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia and the US”). For example, Russia has a more developed terminological group naming surface and crown fi res while the US has a more developed group naming crown fi res. Some specific terms have not been created for some notions. For instance, the Russian fi re science terminology has no equivalent terms for “fi re-use-fi re”, “fi re severity”, “underburn”, “lethal underburn”, “stand-replacing fi re”. The US terminology has no equivalents for the following special lexical units: homogeneous and heterogeneous fi re, simple and complex fi re, understory-shrub fi re, bole fi re, steady surface fi re, etc. After a brief analysis of 118 fire classification terms in both languages it turned out that 41 terms are unique national terms and 45 terms are often misused or easily confused within or between languages. That is the probability of misinterpretation and misunderstanding between the two countries on this topic reaches almost 75% (Table 3 “Quantitative comparison of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia and the US”). Analysis of Russian-English specialized dictionaries shows that misunderstanding is dramatically increased by the fact that in our case 39 Russian terms out of 64 analyzed cannot be found in dictionaries at all and 12 terms are provided with erroneous translations. Thus, 80% of fire classification terms are simply lost in translation (Table 4 “Analysis of Russian-English Forestry Dictionaries in covering the special # 642 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... Table 3. Quantitative comparison of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia and the US Fire classification (Russia) Fire classification (USA) Total % Number of terms analyzed 64 54 118 100 Specifically national terms 24 17 41 35 Terms often misused or easily confused within or between languages* 17 28 45 38 *Examples: types and kinds of fires; fires by intensity and severity; wildfires, wildland fires, vegetation fires, landscape fires, etc. Table 4. Analysis of Russian-English Forestry Dictionaries* in covering the special vocabulary of the terminological field “Fire Classification” Examples Number of Russian terms analyzed Terms absent in dictionaries Type of fire, landscape fire, structure fire, slash fire, etc. Terms wrongly translated Total 64 39 underground fire → ground fire surface fire → creeping (ground) fire 12 escaped fire → incendiary fire low-intensity fire → hangover (holdover) fire; sleeper fire % 100 61 19 * Dictionaries: 1. Russian-English Forestry and Wood Dictionary (1966) / Compiled by Williams Linnard. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks., England, 107 p. 2. English-Russian and RussianEnglish Dictionary of Forestry and Forest Industries /Compiled by Mozhayev D.V., Novikov B.N., Rybakov D.M. - Moscow: Russo, 1998. - 857 p. vocabulary of the terminological field ‘Fire Classification’”). Moreover, there is a need to coordinate fi re classification terms within each language (Table 5 “Unsettled issues regarding coordination of notions and terms within each terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia and the US”). For example, disputable notions in the Russian terminology include running vs. steady surface fi res, spot fi res, bole fi res, etc. The US terminology has the following challenging notions as fi re-use fi re, shrub-canopy fi re, prescribed fi re vs. prescribed burning, etc. Besides, no classifications of surface and ground fi res were found in the US terminology unlike the Russian one and most terms on fi res classified by vegetation as an object of burning are absent in the official US fi re management glossaries. It should be noted that notions and terms differ not only between Russia and the US but also among major fi re science Englishspeaking countries: US, Canada and Australia. Therefore, the bilingual glossary should include comparative analysis of the usage of fi re science terms in these three countries (Table 6 “Kinds of fi re barriers according to the official fi re science glossaries”). For instance, in the Australian glossary, “control” line is a synonym to “fi reline” while other countries treat these terms as different. The Canadian glossary does not include the term “barrier” at all. Natural barrier as a term is included in the US glossary (while absent in all other glossaries!) but the term “constructed” or “man-made barrier” or “anthropogenic barrier” is not, although it should be present as an opposing notion for systematization. Barriers – # 643 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... Table 5. Unsettled issues regarding coordination of notions and terms within each terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia and the US Terminological issues in Russia Terminological issues in the US Running / steady surface fires: fast/ slow or superficial/ deeper-seated fires? Spot fires – a type of fire or fire behavior? Fire-use fire: to be or not to be? Shrub-canopy fire: is it a type of fire or a description of vegetation as an object of burning? Prescribed fire and prescribed burning: is there any difference? Different severity fires: theory and practice Understory-shrub fires or sapling-shrub fires? Bole fires – do they exist? Simple/complex fires and homogeneous/ heterogeneous fires: useful or useless terms? Landscape fires and vegetation fires: terms of application to be specified Is there a classification of surface and ground fires? Why terms on fires classified by vegetation as an object of burning (steppe fire, duff fire, slash fire) are absent in official fire management glossaries? Table 6. Kinds of fire barriers according to the official fire science glossaries Terms Control line USA Canada Australia Russia* +** + = fireline - Barrier + - + + Natural barrier + - - + Constructed barrier - - - + Linear barrier - - - + Polygon barrier - - - + Fuelbreak + = firebreak + “fire shield” Firebreak + = fuelbreak - + Fireline + + = control line “mineralized stripe” Fireguard - + - - * There is no official glossary of fire management terms in Russia. This column shows application in fire science literature. ** Legend: “+” – the term is present, “–“ – the term is absent, “=” – the term is a synonym to another term. any obstructions to fi re spread – can be both linear- and polygon-shaped according to the US and Australian glossaries whereas in Russian, a barrier can be only linear. The terms “linear barrier” and “polygon barrier” are not included in any glossaries. Fuelbreaks and fi rebreaks are absolute synonyms in the Canadian glossary whereas other countries differentiate these terms. The term “fi rebreak” is missing in the Australian glossary. The Canadian glossary also uses the term “fi reguard” as an inclusive term for fi rebreaks and fi relines made during a fi re. Conclusion Brief conclusions are as follows: • Russian and English Fire Science terminology is poorly systematized at present. • Field modeling can provide considerable help in coordination and harmonization of the studied terminology. • The results of this research will be used to create a full version of the multifunctional glossary of fire science terminology. We would like to hope that the idea of creating an electronic extended fire science glossary will # 644 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... find further support and joint effort to make it first bilingual with the future prospect of developing it into multilingual reference material. Further studies of the fire science vocabulary will contribute to not only a deeper understanding of the terminology which has not been involved in the linguistic analysis before but also will help to systematize the fire science terminology both in Russia and abroad. Acknowledgements The model of the bilingual glossary of fire science terminology was created within the framework of the Fulbright Faculty Development Program (2008-2009). Special gratitude should be addressed to Dr. Kevin Ryan, Research Forest Ecologist from the Missoula Fire Science Laboratory in Montana, and Dr. Ronald Wakimoto, Fire Science Professor at the University of Montana, for scientific editing of the developing glossary. The compilers of the US Fire Science Glossary “FireWords”, Dr. Joe Scott and Dr. Elizabeth Reinhardt from the US Forest Service, provided us with the software to elaborate the electronic version of the glossary and shared their database as a legacy for the developing bilingual glossary. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Encyclopedia of Forestry (Moscow: VNIILM, 2006), Volume 1, in Russian. Forest Encyclopedia (Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciclopedia, 1985), Volume 1, in Russian. Forestry: Terminological Dictionary, ed. by A,N. Filipchuk (Moscow: VNIILM, 2002), in Russian. Glossary of Forest Fire Management Terms, Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (Manitoba, 2003). Glossary of Wildland Fire Management Terms Used in the United States (Society of American Foresters, 1990). S.V. Grinev, Introduction into Terminological Science (Moscow: Moskovsky Litsey, 1993), in Russian. Yu.N. Karaulov, General and Russian Ideography (Moscow: Nauka, 1976), in Russian. V.N. Krupnov, Lexicographical Aspects of Translation (Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1987), in Russian. T.S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1962). N.P. Kurbatsky, “Terminology of Forest Fire Science”, in Questions of Forest Fire Science (Krasnoyarsk: ILiD SO RAN SSSR, 1972), 171-231, in Russian. I.S. Melekhov, Wildland Fire Impact on Forest (Moscow, Leningrad: Goslestekhizdat, 1948), in Russian. I.S. Melekhov, Forest Fire Science (Moscow: Moskovsky Lesotekhnichesky Institut, 1978), in Russian. Nature Conservation. Forest Protection. Terms and Definitions. State Standard 17.6.1.01– 83 (Moscow: Gos. Komitet SSSR po Standartam, 1983), in Russian. J.H. Scott, and E.D. Reinhardt, compilers, FireWords Version 1.0: Fire Science Glossary [electronic] (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer), 2007). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/fmi Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary, ed. by A.M. Prokhorov (Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciclopedia, 1985), in Russian. # 645 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology... 16. M.A. Sofronov, and A.V. Volokitina, Technique of Fire Science Examination and Description of Post-Fire Areas (Krasnoyarsk: IL SO RAN, 2007), in Russian. 17. M.A. Sofronov, J.G. Goldammer, A.V. Volokitina, and T.M. Sofronova, Wildland Fire Danger (Krasnoyarsk: IL SO RAN, Max Planck Institute (Germany), SibGTU, 2005), in Russian. 18. T.M. Sofronova, “Necessity of Harmonization of Fire Science Terminology”, Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Social Variants of Language – V”, April 19-20, 2007 (Nizhniy Novgorod: NGLU, 2007a), 76-80, in Russian. 19. T.M. Sofronova, “Fire Science Terminology in the Light of Field Theory”, Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Problems of Intercultural Verbal Interaction and Technology of Foreign Language Education, May 15-16, 2007 (Khabarovsk, 2007b), 291-296, in Russian. 20. V.A. Tatarinov, General Terminological Science: Encyclopedic Dictionary (Moscow: Moskovsky Litsey, 2006), in Russian. 21. G.S. Schur, Field Theory in Linguistics (Moscow: Nauka, 1974), in Russian. 22. T.M. Sofronova, A.V. Volokitina, M.A. Sofronov, “Necessity of Coordination and Adjustment of Wildfire Science Terminology: Russian-English Glossary”, Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference, May 13-17, 2007, Seville, Spain. 23. A.A. Ufimtseva, “Theories of a Semantic Field and Their Application in Lexicographical Studies”, in Issues of Language Theory in Modern International Linguistics (Moscow: Nauka, 1961), 3063, in Russian. 24. A.V. Volokitina, M.A. Sofronov, T.M. Sofronova, Surface Fire Behavior Prediction Using Vegetation Fuel Maps (Krasnoyarsk: SibGTU, 2005), in Russian. 25. A.V. Volokitina, and M.A. Sofronov, Vegetation Fuel Classification and Mapping (Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2002), in Russian. 26. Wildfire Glossary, prepared by rural and land management group for Australasian Fire and Emergency Services Authorities Council Agencies. January 2009, Australia. Модель двуязычного электронного глоссария (на примере пирологической лексики) Т.М. Софронова Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева 660049 Красноярск, ул. Лебедевой, 89 Статья посвящена описанию концепции и технологии создания глоссария научной терминологии, который способствовал бы согласованию терминов внутри языка и гармонизации терминов между языками. Даны примеры логико-понятийных схем упорядочиваемой терминологии, подробное описание структуры глоссария и словарной статьи, а также представлен сопоставительный переводческий анализ русских и английских терминов. Ключевые слова: терминология; глоссарий; пирология; согласование терминов; гармонизация терминов.