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184.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №4 2010

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2010
Journal of Siberian Federal University
3 (4)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН К.С.Александров
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
А.Г.Дегерменджи
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Valery I. Golikov
Russian Federation Military Communications $ History, Current
State and Future Development
– 487 –
Natalya V. Klimovich
Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis
of Translation of English and American Fiction from English
into Russian)
– 509 –
Ekaterina M. Feytelberg
Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena in Turkish
Literary Text as a Translation Problem
– 518 –
Maria A. Pipenko
Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere
– 526 –
Veronica A. Razumovskaya
Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text: Types and Translation
Strategies
– 536 –
Evgeniya V. Zander and Elena V. Inukhina
Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring of Socioeconomic
Systems
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
– 546 –
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Natalia P. Koptzeva
Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region: Concerning the
Question of Methodology of Culture Studies
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
– 554 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 19.08.2010 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 13,2.
Уч.-изд. л. 12,7. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2134.
Отпечатано в ИПК СФУ. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Hasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgenia V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Natalia A. Bakhova
Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School
– 563 –
Anastasia V. Kistova
Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk
– 581 –
Valentin G. Nemirovsky and Tatyana A. Fenvesh
Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition as a Factor in the
Formation of Modern Postnonclassic (Universum) Sociology
– 593 –
Elena A. Nozdrenko
Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication: Cultural
Aspect
– 600 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Nicolai N. Petro
Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia: a presentation
to the first Forum of European and Asian Media (FEMA)
Moscow, December 8-10, 2009
– 610 –
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Jelena Petrucijova
In the Trace of Human Identity
– 615 –
Helen Stuhr-Rommereim
Reading Solzhenitsyn’s œOne Day in the Life of Ivan DenisovichB:
Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives
– 625 –
Tatiana M. Sofronova
Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology
(on the Example of Fire Science Vocabulary)
– 633 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 487-508
~~~
УДК 623.61
Russian Federation Military Communications –
History, Current State and Future Development
Valery I. Golikov*
Tomsk State University
11 Lytkina, Tomsk, 634045 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article concerns the historical path of development of military communications in Russia since
its origin to our days. It shows the contradictions between the troop command system military
communications condition and modern warfare spectrum and lines of Signal corps developments in
the context of the Russian Federation Armed Forces new-look formation.
Keywords: military communications, Signal corps, telegraph, automated process-control system,
organization and establishment, Armed Forces.
Throughout
its
history
military
communications went a long and complicated
path of development: from simple sound and
visual means for transmitting signals and
command of execution to the battlefield to
modern multifunctional automated systems,
capable of providing almost unlimited in range
communication for both immobile and moving
land-based, afloat, under water, air and space
objects.
The variety of communication means such
as voice face to face communication, signaling
system and courier communication appeared
concurrently with the origin of human society.
Initially it had peaceful application only. Usage
of communication in military arts began in times
of tribal wars with the subsequent using in the
slaveholding society wars.
The appearanceas a result of social and
military reform of the Athenian army in ancient
Greece at the turn of VI – V centuries BC, The
*
1
Great Wall of Chinese construction in IV – III
centuries BC, where outpost support and fortress
garrisons used smoke and flash signals to provide
communication, creation in 312 BC of Rome –
Brundizy and Rome – Ancona – Arimini in 220
BC mail routes to communicate with troops on
the march and on the battlefield, usage of pigeons,
walkers, outrunners and variety of means
of reports, messages and orders encryption
as usage of variety of other communication
means evidently represent slow, but the greatest
possible for that time, development of military
communication as to the most demanded as it
provided safety of the state and success in both
defensive, and aggressive wars.
With the formation of Eastern-Slavic tribes
the rise of original Russian military art started
which has received development in victorious
wars with Byzantium in VI – VII centuries [1,
p. 7]. Nevertheless, in spite of the occurrence of the
first organizational and tactical forms of the battle
Corresponding author E-mail address: wyakhirev@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development
and new ways of troops control – communication
facilities used for military purposes, were, as
a matter of fact, the same as they were a lot of
centuries back, maybe, only with the differences
considering features of district and climate.
The most ancient Russian annals which have
reached up to now and the images concerning
the time of Kievan Rus (IX – XII centuries)
testify to an independent way of development of
a communication facility and the signal system,
providing troops control [2, p. 5 – 11].
Transfering of military and state messages for
a broad spectrum of the population of cities was
carried out, as a rule, through special persons –
«Biriuchi» (heralds). To apply the population
to gathering armies the cymbal, bell, drums
and pipes were used. On greater distances (for
communication of boundary cities (fortresses) and
the watchtowers with Kiev, and also with an army
which is being a campaign) first of all fires and
marks were used. They enabled the transferring of
prearranged signals consistently from one post to
another, forming a line of alarm communication
along the border and the interior of the state.
For the first time the «povoz» was applied (the
kind of horse post), which provided delivery of
princely decrees and military messages. For
communication with an army and between
posts along the border pigeons, messengers on
skis, horses and on boats were widely used also.
Delivery of especially important messages and
their preservation were as fiduciary carried out
especially by authorized representatives, thus the
maintenance of a message either was learnt, or
various ways of coding were applied. Directly on
the battlefield the following methods of command
were widely used: the personal contact, a personal
example of the commander and his clothes,
banners, the dismount warrior, arrows, pipes
and its variations, a voice, position of hands and
subjects (the weapon of the commander) were
widely applied.[3. V. 1, p. 47 – 51].
In wars of Russian people against German dogknights (1240-1242) development of the military
communications was expressed in expansion of
a scope of mobile means. Horse and dismount
warrior began to be used for communication of
the commander with subordinates directly on a
battlefield that facilitated troops control at the
changed ways of the armed struggle.
During the struggle against the Tartar
Mongol hordes in Russia (XIII-XIV centuries)
for the fi rst time in the history of military art
communication on a campaign was provided
by specially organized line of military «flying»
riding mail. Reports from armies to grand prince
Dmitry Donskoy or voevodes (battlemasters)
were delivered not directly, but through a
number of already established intermediate
posts that provided greater speed of delivery of
reports [4, p. 9].
The history of the Signal Corps originates
since the time of creation of the regular Russian
army and navy by progressive state and military
figure Peter I. Having created regiments, brigades
and divisions in army and squadrons, and naval
divisions and groups, Peter I understood the
importance of the organization of management
of these structures in a peacetime and during
operations, paying considerable attention to a
question of use of a communications means.
For the fi rst time in the book «Kniga Ustav
Voinskiy» (Military Regulations), published on
April, 12th, 1716, questions of troops control
and communication were addressed in special
chapters which defi ned and legislatively fi xed
the list of officials in the field of communication,
their quantity and functional duties. The day of
signing this regulations by Peter I is considered
the day of the organization in the Russian Army
of regular postal and courier communication
service which given a start to the process
of creation and development of military
communications in Russia [5, p. 6]. From
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Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development
that time army commanders and subordinate
commanders were given aide-de-camps who
delivered written orders and transferred oral
instructions, and watched their execution also.
For the maintenance of communications on
the battlefield each commander wielded two
drummers and no fewer than three messengers.
Consequentially, in analysis of operations of
the last fights and wars as a whole experience of the
organization of troops control with the purpose of
its account was generalized by the development
of some battle documents. For example, by the
development in 1763 of the new Infantry charter
and the charter for cavalry alongside other
questions of action of infantry the organization
of communications on the march, alignment of
forces and their forming-up was also considered
in detail. [6, p. 157].
In
A.V.Suvorov’s
campaigns
who
raised Russian military art to a higher level
of development, troop control and military
communications received the further development
having outstripped the military art of the Western
Europe. A.V.Suvorov practiced the allotment of
staff officers to columns on the march, achieved
the organization of steady communication on the
front, and in necessary cases for maintenance of
interaction used groups of cossacks which had
in advance developed tactical abilities to appear
suddenly or disappear, pass through fighting
orders of the enemy, passing difficult sites and
establishing communication. The commander
showed samples of skilful application of a
communication means depending on their battle
characteristics (a rocket, alarm means), for the
first time has applied a communication facility
(rocket) for disinformation of the enemy, showed
care of providing of couriers with all necessary
for the performance of their duties.
For the fastest transfer of the instructions
and orders to armies, and also duly situation data
acquisition A.V.Suvorov’s first of all applied and
used staff meetings (advice) of generals and head
commander. [7, V. 1, p. 150, 158 – 159].
In 1778 the first special signal unit-Yamskoy
Cossack regiment, and in 1796 – courier service
corps were formed [8, V. 8, p. 266].
On the eve of the Patriotic War of 1812
Russian military thinking in the field of troop
control and communications went its own way,
relying on the experience of the last wars and
reached the level of development of productive
forces. In January, 1812 the charter « Big army
field forces control Establishment» was put
into operation where functions of the second
department and the on duty general in charge
of communication matters were described.
Field post offices were put in force in armies.
Duties of messengers, orderlies, aide-de-camps,
couriers were fixed. The special form and signs
for the communication maintenance personal
were fi xed. The responsibility for a condition of
military roads, placement of postal unit on them,
providing of units with a delivering means,
security and recruitment was established. Time
of departures and deliveries of packages was
fi xed. The post «the military adviser and the
field inspector of mails» was founded.
During the Patriotic War the theory developed
by M.I.Kutuzov and practice of troops control,
precisely defined service of aide-de-camps,
orderlies, messengers, couriers and military post,
have facilitated work of staffs and commanders.
Nevertheless an applied communication facility
lagged behind the requirements of troops
control that is why army officers, inventors and
constructors began to search for an output in the
creation of technical communications.
After the Patriotic War of 1812 development
of a communication facility went mainly in a
direction of creation of such samples which would
allow not only to submit prearranged message,
but also to conduct the transfer of information,
carrying out two-way exchange.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development
Though officials of the imperial
government, admiring everything foreign, did
not encourage the domestic inventors, many
Russian innovators worked at the improvement
of a communication facility and have achieved
in this respect great successes. And still, in
spite of available domestic inventions: night
optical telegraph of land surveyor Ponjuhaev
in 1815; optical telegraphs of Russian inventor
Shegorin in 1818 and Captain-Lieutenant
P.E.Chistyakov in 1827 [9. d. 404а. p. 434];
semaphore telegraph of Major-General
P.A.Kozen in 1824, – the imperial government
for a huge sum of money bought the patent for
the system of optical telegraph of the French
engineer Z.Shato, represented advanced design
of telegraph I.P Kulibin in 1833, invented in
1793 [10. V.1, p. 93].
The optical telegraph existed in Russia
for about half a century. From 1852 it began to
be replaced by the electric telegraph. It was
promoted by the discovery by Russian scientists
and inventors in the field of electrotechnics and
electromagnetism.
The first electromagnetic telegraph was
invented in Russia in 1832 by Pavel Lvovich
Shilling, the outstanding Russian physicist and
the orientalist, therefore the priority of its creation
belongs to Russia.
The worthy successor and continuer of
P.L. Shilling works on the development and
introduction of telegraph in Russia was Boris
Semenovich Jakobi, an outstanding physicist and
electrical engineer, a member of the Petersburg
academy of sciences who in 1841 for the first time
in Russia constructed a line of electric telegraph
between the Winter Palace and the General Staff
in Petersburg. Communication was carried out by
means of original writing devices which design
was better and more simple, than at invented
in the same time in the Western Europe Morse
device [11, p. 27-38].
Qualitatively a new period of development
of Signal Corps began in the second half of
the XIX century with the introduction in the
Russian army of telecommunication means.
Having estimated the advantage of electric
telegraph in transferring of reports, orders,
instructions on great distances in small terms
that was important owing to the changed ways
of conducting the armed struggle on extensive
and isolated from each other battlefields, the
Russian Military Engineers department of the
Russia Ministry of War in April 1854 ordered
a station of the military-marching electric
telegraph consisting of two Morse cable devices
and 16.5 versts of copper wire and poles in
Vienna. In a year the military electric telegraph
was applied in conditions of warfighting in
Sevastopol during the Crimean War. Thus it is
necessary to note, that by 1855 in Russia more
than 5 thousand km of constant cable lines had
been already constructed.
By 1864 the Sveaborgskiy fortress military
telegraph has been formed, and in 1865 the
fortress military telegraph in Kronstadt. Fortress
telegraphs were regular parts of Signal Corps
whose experience was used in the further
formations [12, p. 9 – 13]. So, in 1867 the first
exemplary military-marching cable park was
completed which incorporated 4 officers and 40
enlisted man, 8 Morse devices and 35 versts of
wire. In three years the decision of forming six
more military-marching parks was accepted.
Subsequently, the manning level and material of
parks were increased.
Field
cable
communication
was
successfully used during Russian-Turkish
war in 1877 – 1878. The generalization of
gained experience led to the reorganization of
existing parks in 1883 and the forming of 17
new marching military-cable parks at the rate
of one park to each corps. Parks have received
new manning table and equipment lists, their
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development
communication facilities became more various;
a new optical communication facility has
appeared – heliographs and lanterns.
Wide application of military telegraph in the
army has played an exclusively important role
in the radical improvement of troops control. It
has not only expanded opportunities for orders
and reports transferring on great distances
in short terms, but also provided document
communication. But the telegraph did not allow
carrying out personal discussions of commanders
and staffs directly from the workplaces. The
scientific idea aspired to solve this problem.
In 1876 the American A.Bell and almost
simultaneously with him, his compatriot E.Grey
submitted patent applications for phones invented
by them. Already by the end of 1877 telephone
sets had appeared in Russia.
Many engineers and commanders of the
Russian army have highly valued the importance
of this invention for military communications.
In the summer of 1878 in Vyborg under the
direction of Lieutenant Colonel V.B.Jakobi the
first tests of phones in the Russian army were
carried out. Communication between islands
of the Tranzundskiy sea gate at a distance of 6
km by telegraph cable and between Vyborg and
Uran-Saadskaya the governmental station on
a line of military telegraph at a distance of 30
km was carried out. The results of tests seemed
positive. However the awkwardness and great
weight of the first telephone sets did not allow for
their use in the army. Soon V.B.Jakobi designed
a miniature phone – the first field telephone set
[13, p. 27 – 31].
The difficulty of using the phone firstly
consisted of the necessity to have for this
purpose special wires. Only after the decision
by Captain G.G.Ignatyev in 1880-1881 a problem
of simultaneous telegraphy and telephony by
wires, did the phone start to be widely used in
the Russian army [14, p. 10]. The initiator of the
use of phones in the navy fleet was naval officer
E.V.Kolbasev.
In 1894 the decision on the disbandment of
existing cable parks was accepted. Instead of them
for communication between staffs of army, corps
and divisions in the structure of every army corps
engineer battalion one telegraph company was
formed. It consisted of 310 men and incorporated
24 field telephone sets, 189 horses and 74 vehicles
[15 p, 161 – 162].
Formation of telegraph companies in
engineer battalions subordinated in the operative
attitude to the chief of staff of the corps, and
concerning completing the staff by specialists,
communication materials and a special transport –
to the Chief of the Army Engineers Department,
was a great achievement in the development
of a problem of centralization of military
communications control in the Russian Army.
In the process of developing a means
of fighting and military art, requirements to
management of armies were continuously raised.
An existing electric communication facility could
not completely satisfy the need for management
any more. On doctrines in peacetime and in
fighting conditions often it was necessary to
provide communication in conditions when it
is difficult, and sometimes impossible to build
wire lines (for example, in areas occupied by the
opponent, greater water barrier or impassable
mountains, with the ships in the sea and in a
number of other cases). Life persistently demanded
the creation of such means which could overcome
the listed obstacles. In searches of the decision of
a problem many minds in the 1880s and 1890s
were occupied with the idea of how to signal at
distance without wires.
Due to the progressive activity of Russian
scientists and inventors, achievements in
electrotechnics and technology of wire telegraph
on April, 25th, 1895 at a session of the branch
of physics of the Russian Society of Physics
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Valery I. Golikov. Russian Federation Military Communications – History, Current State and Future Development
and Chemistry the Russian scientist Alexander
Stepanovich Popov made the scientific report on
the invention of the communication system [16,
p. 7 – 10].
In the spring of 1897 А.S.Popov had led a
series of practical works on the realization of radio
communication (wireless telegraph) between
military fleet vessels, and in 1898 – 1900 under
his control military signalmen made two portable
radio stations and experiments were conducted
on their use.
It would seem, it was possible to provide
the army with the necessary quantity of Russian
radio stations, however the absence of the
industrial base, a necessary commercial crop in
the domestic industry of that time, absence of
necessary enterprise led to the first samples of
Popov’s spark radio station and it was decided to
order abroad – to French firm «Dukrete».
In May of 1899 the first in the history of
Russian military fleet radio unit – the Kronstadt
spark military telegraph was formed. And in 1900
after edition of a special Navy Department order
which determined the introducing of wireless
telegraph, russian military ships radio stations
had started to be established [17, p. 161 – 162].
By the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war
of 1904 -1905 there were still no independent Signal
Corps in the Russian Army, telegraph companies
were still a part of engineer battalions. However
their organic means could not satisfy growing
needs for telegraph and telephone messages any
more. Also an absence of signal elements and
units in troops complicated the organization of
communication in conducting operations at all.
And only during the war, with great delay, for the
use of the General Headquarters and staffs the
1st and 2nd Eastern-Siberian telegraph battalions
had been formed. These battalions arrived at the
theater of operation in September, 1904 and in
June, 1905. Each battalion consisted of 26 officers
and 1078 personnel.
In April 1905, for the first time two wireless
telegraph (radiotelegraph) companies were
formed for Army use. They used 8 radio stations,
bought at the firm “Marconi”. Only one radio
station served the officer and 45 personnel (24 of
them were from logistics staff) [18, p. 12 – 13].
The Russo-Japanese war had shown the
perspectives of technological applicationtelegraph, phone and radio – for operative
control of formations and units [7, V. 1, p. 274].
In terms of the variety of signals equipment,
the Russian Army was not interior to any other,
but the economic backwardness of Russia and
weakness of technical base had not allowed it to
have the necessary quantity of communications
facilities.
Nevertheless, conclusions were drawn on
the basis of war experience about the necessity
of improving the organization of military
communications. From 1910 the infantry corps
communication units (21 operators, 13 horse
messenger, 4 bicyclists, 10 versts of cable on
coils) had been formed, and the total number of
telegraph companies in the structure of engineer
battalions of the Engineering Corps had reached
35. Additionally there were 8 spark companies.
Five of these companies during mobilization were
deployable as two independent companies [19, p.
7]. The recruiting of these units required plenty
of experts in communication. Their training was
carried out in both military schools, and directly
in armies.
Training of signal officers for the Army in
peacetime was carried out in Petrograd Military
Engineering School, the only such school in
Russia, and perfection of knowledge of officers
was made at the biennial Officer Electrotechnical
School created in 1911 on the basis of the Military
Electrotechnical School, for teaching in which
a number of authoritative scientists, such as
B.S.Jakobi, P.N.Jablochkov and А.С. Popov were
involved.
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The great lack of development of military
communications before the First World War in
the Russian Army was due to the absence of a
single headquarters to control signal elements
and units and also questions as to the organization
and development of communications facilities.
Still there were no independent Signal Corps.
The communications service in the army was
assigned to the general staff departments.
There were no regular officials responsible
for communication.
And still during the First World War real steps
on uniting a radio communication control were
carried out – in 1915 radiotelegraph managers of
the fronts and armies were appointed and instead
of spark companies radiotelegraphic battalions
(at the end of war there were 16) were formed.
In each corps and division a radiotelegraphic
section was organized. By the end of 1916 there
were 45 separate cable companies and 79 cable
companies of engineer battalions in armies.
Besides telegraph-cable sections were formed as
part of division’s engineer companies. It became
possible due to the creation during the war of a
necessary industrial base for the manufacture of
a domestic communication facility. So, in 1916,
105 thousand telephone and 3 thousand telegraph
devices, 236 thousand versts of cable, 800 radio
stations and 10 thousand carts were supplied to
the army [20, p. 1210, Л. 3, 48, 52].
For the preparation of signalmen in
September – October, 1916 in all armies field
educational telephone commands were formed,
and from that time every front radiotelegraph
manager had charge of a radio engineer school.
Preparation of signalmen (private soldiers and
corporals) was assigned to three reserve cable
battalions and cable companies of engineer
battalions. In 1915 for the purpose of officers
preparation the Military Engineering School in
Kiev was founded, and in 1916 at all headquarters
of armies and fronts short-term (monthly and
three-monthly)
telegraph-telephone
officer
courses were organized [4, p. 34].
The quantitative growth of communications
facilities and variety and complexity of their
use urgently demanded centralization in the
organization of a communication service in the
Army as a whole. But by the end of the War it
was not done in full measure. Only in May, 1917
the post of chief signal officer in all headquarters
from the General Headquarters to the regiments
inclusive (in the regiment this post was occupied
the signal team chief) was created. However the
problem of organization of one centralized army
signal service and separation of signal units and
elements in special signal troops was not solved.
The First World War experience showed that
operations where commanders paid close attention
to the questions of troop control and organization
of communication, as a rule, troops always
achieved success (the operation of Southwest
front, the 8th Army, etc.). On the contrary, the
slighting attitude to questions of troop control
and organization of communication led to defeat
(destruction of the 2nd army of General Samsonov
in the East-Prussian operation). This experience
has implications for today.
After the October Revolution, in the
conditions of the beginning of Civil War and
military intervention, for the purpose of Soviet
authority protection the formation of the first
parts of the Red Army began. At the beginning
of 1918 numerous measures on the creation of the
control system of the Army were implemented
[18 p, 17 – 18]. So, by the order of The People’s
Commissariat of Military and Naval Affairs of
April, 20th, 1918 №294 the first in Red Army
the rifle division manning document was fixed.
It made provision for having in a division a
separate signal battalion of 977 personnel, and in
regiments- signal teams.
The battalion commander simultaneously
was charged with division signal affairs, and the
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regiments signal team commander was charged
with regimental signal affairs. But to form signal
battalions appeared impossible as there were
neither personnel, nor techniques and transport.
Therefore in November, 1918 new manning
document of rifle division signal battalion, rifle
brigade signal company and rifle regiment signal
team were fixed. By these manning documents
the signal battalion of a division and a signal team
of rifle regiment had much fewer communications
facilities and less personnel and transport [21.
Д. 43. Л. 59]. In December of that year signal
elements had begun to be created in Aviation and
the Cavalry.
Thus, from the very foundation of the Red
Army signal battalions and signal teams did not
consist any more in staffs of engineer units and
elements. However a central body had not been
created that could control the communications of
the whole Red Army.
Since October, 1918 the field army radio
communication control was carried out by the
radiotelegraph inspector who was operationally
subordinate to the Military Revolutionary
Council headquarters, and in technical matters –
to the chief of the General Military Engineering
Command. At the fronts the post of the inspector of
front radiotelegraph was created, and in armies –
the post of army radiotelegraph manager was
fixed. In front Headquarters the postal telegraph
departments of people’s mails and telegraph
commissariat (they provided a mail service and
communication on constant communication lines)
were created. The General Military-Engineering
Command provided the Red Army with signal
supplies.
By order of the Military Revolutionary
Council
Revvoyensoviet,
Revolyutsionny
Voyenny Sovyet) № 1736/362, on 20th of October
1919, the Communications Office of the Red Army
(RKKA) was formed. It was headed by the chief
of the Red Army. Besides, the Departments of
communications of fronts and armies, divisional
and brigade departments of communications were
formed [22, 72]. Thus, there was the formalization
of association leadership coupling of the Red Army
into a harmonious system. That day became the
birthday of the Signal Corps of the Armed Forces,
as a separate specialized corps.
The Communication Office of the Red Army
was responsible for the organization and providing
of communications for the republic MRC and
Field Head Quarters, fronts and armies of the Red
Army, establishing of communication units, its
training and equipment [21, D. 2. L. 7.]. The first
Chief of Communications of the Red Army was
A.M. Ljubovich (formerly the Commissar of Post
Offices and Telegraphs); from September 1920 to
April 1924 it was I.A. Khalepsky (formerly the
chief of the Caucasus Front), who had done a lot
for the establishment and development of Signal
Corps.
By the end of 1920, Signal Corps included
13 separate battalions and 46 battalions,
communication divisions and brigades, a large
number of companies and commands, warehouses,
workshops and other units. The total strength of
signal troops was more than a hundred thousand
people [23, V. 2, p. 54].
During the civil war the general organization
of communication at all levels of command of the
Red Army had been developed, the main duties
of communications officers were worked out,
new ways of communicating by various means
and devices were developed. Continuously the
organizational and staff structure of linear and
nodal units of communication were improved.
It was the first time in the history of military
communications, when the Red Army trains
were used for communication and control. So it
became easier for the commanders and HQ staffs
at all levels to conduct control functions.
The activity of The Army Signal Corps
during the Civil War was commended in a special
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order of the Revolutionary Military Council of 17
February 1921, which stated: “The heroic Red
Army, which covered itself with undying glory,
owes much to the signal troops, who carried out
during the long struggle with the enemies of great
responsible tasks “[24, D. 13. L, 31].
After the Civil War the corps had been
reduced to 32,600 people and was armed with
worn-out communications mostly of foreign
production.
However, despite the low strength
and the necessary involvement of soldiers
for the reconstruction of civilian lines and
communications centers, as well as other facilities,
the Signal Corps was improving its structure,
equipment and training of personnel. The actual
issue of improving military communication
came into existence because of the diversity of
communications equipment and devices and their
deterioration.
By order of the Revolutionary Military
Council on 6 June 1920 the Military Technical
Council of Communications (MTCC) – VTSS
RKKA)), headed by the Red Army’s chief of
communications was established, which was
assigned to find solutions to all major issues
of organization and development of military
communication, including leadership in research
and development of new technical means and
current urgent issues.
However, very soon it became obvious that
in the difficult conditions of transition period of
the Red Army from war to peacetime in 1921 –
1923 MTCC was necessary to remove a number
of previously defined functions, and partially
transmit them to any agency, which was capable of
engaging in the development and implementation
of research and technical policy in the field of
military communications.
As a result of the urgent efforts of the Red
Army’s chief of communications I.A. Khalepsky
by order of the Revolutionary Military Council
of the Republic on April 15, 1923 The Research
Institute for the MTCC was established [25, S. 2
-7]. Based on the outcome of the research institutes,
during the prewar period the first generation
of military field radio, telephone and telegraph
apparatus, switching devices, communication
cables, terrestrial signal monitoring means with
which the Red Army entered the Great Patriotic
War, were created [26, 61 – 73].According to
the technical characteristics, those facilities
primarily satisfied the requirements of that
period, but they were not developed enough,
because of the extremely slow pace of signal corps
modernization. In addition, some new means of
communication before the war were only in the
stage of development of mass production, but for
their mass production, there was neither capacity
nor time. Therefore, a substantial amount of
obsolete communication devices were used in the
Red Army.
The problem of the supplying of Signal
Corps with equipment was the most acute, when
mass deployment of the Armed Forces from
autumn 1939 started. By mid-1941, the Red
Army increased by 280% (total number of army
and navy reached more than 5 million people).
By that time just central and district units of the
Signal Corps consisted of 19 separate regiments,
25 separate battalions and other units and
organizations of communication. Nevertheless,
despite the necessary amount of signal units and
elements, the level of equipment of radio facilities
was as follows: echelons of the General Staff- the
front to 35%, army -corps – 11%, and divisions –
62%, – 77 %, in battalions – 58%. From the total
number of radio stations, obsolete types 75% was
in the frontline radio network, in the armies –
24%, in the divisions – 89%, in the regiments –
63% [27, D. 10, L. 271 – 273,261 – 269].
In addition to technical, there was also
a shortage of staff, although training of
commanders and troops of communication
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professionals in the prewar period was performed
in the Electrical Military Academy of the RKKA,
Leningrad, Voronezh, Ulyanovsk, Kiev, Kharkov,
Ordzhonikidze, Stalingrad military academies
and military communications department of the
Moscow institute of engineers of communication
[23, V. 2. S, 349 – 354]. This state of affairs was
due to an insufficient number of schools and the
staff of teachers, as well as the problems of low
logistic support of academic activity [28, D. 11,
L. 33].
Such a state of military communications
equipment and staff training on the eve of the
war was not only due to economic hardship in the
prewar years, but also due to in appreciation of the
role of military communications. Thus, the Chief
of the Red Army’s (USKA) motion on increasing
the capacity of the communications technology
factories was rejected, due to the fact that funds
were necessary for increasing production of
other kinds of military products. In addition, in
1938 – 1939 several factories, manufacturing
communications equipment for the army, were
converted to the production of other weapons.
The main mistake was in the fact that the
Soviet military leadership overestimated the role
of nationwide communications in command and
control of the fronts and armies’, considering that
communication technology equipment supply
was not so important. Thus, in the fall of 1940, the
Defense Committee, having considered the plan
for delivery of communications for 1941, made
a decision to allocate most of them to various
non-military commissariats: Railways (People’s
Commissariat), of Internal Affairs and others
[29. 49]. Incidentally, we see the same attitude to
the signal corps of the Armed Forces of Russia
nowadays.
The Army Signal Corps from April 1924
to June 1941 was successively headed by N.M.
Sinyavskii, R.V. Longva, A.M. Aksenov, I.A.
Naidenov, N.I. Gapich [30. p. С 3 – 4].
The World War II analysis of many factors of
the opposing armies fighting showed the crucial
role of field centers in the sustainable command
and control of troops, and also uncovered strategic
and tactical problems. In a combat situation,
when the enemy provides communications
centers in the category of primary destruction
sites, and in conditions of high troops mobility,
the requirements for survivability and mobility
of centers immeasurably increased. It was
necessary to change their combat use tactics
radically, paying particular attention to such
issues as the deployment of elements of centers
on the terrain, security, defense and engineering
equipment centers, and the order of their moving.
Nevertheless, at the beginning of the Great
Patriotic War, these issues were worked out very
poorly.
As before the missions of the
communications organization at the tactical
level (up to and including the Infantry Corps)
were to be accomplished by the organic units
of the Signal Corps. The main communications
formations were: the Separate Battalion Infantry
Corps, a separate battalion Infantry Division,
a communication company in the regiment
and battalion communications platoon. The
Communication in the strategic-tactical and
operational levels of command (Front -Army)
was planned to be provided by forces of the
Commissariat for Communications and Signal
Corps Reserve Command (SRC). However, the
full combat and communications unit of fronts
and armies strength was only on paper, i.e. in
the mobilization plans. Therefore, in the initial
period of war (until Mobilization of the SRC units
and elements) the leadership of the Red Army
relied just on a nationwide network of People’s
Commissariat of communication [31, p. 11].
In the first, most difficult period of war the
lack of communications means and devices in
border areas became apparent as did, the lack of
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the technical equipment and poor training level of
the troops. Stationary military communications
centers existed in peacetime and were prepared
for wartime, but they were not protected from air
attack, they did not have independent outputs on
the country lines, and therefore they were entirely
dependent, as has been said before, on the centers
of People’s Commissariat of communication.
This enabled enemy aviation and saboteurs to put
the communications centers out of action quite
easily, according to previously planned actions.
[32, p. 58]. Radio communications, neither
organizationally, nor materially were not prepared
for sustainable troop command and control. In
the retreat, and difficult defensive battles the
Red Army forces, units and elements were not
fully strengthened with communications units.
Moreover, communications units and elements
were extremely undermanned and underequipped
and equipment. All these and several other factors
were a cause of control loss and temporary failure
of our troops in the initial period of war [33,
p. 141].
At the same time the scale of the battles
from the outset demanded the use of the whole
country’s capacity to ensure communications
with the troops. In order to centralize
communications control in the country and
army, by the determination of the State Defense
Committee on 23 July 1941 the Red Army’s chief
of communications was appointed colonel I.T.
Peresypkin (from February 1944 – Marshal of
the Army Signal Corps), who retained the post
of Commissar of Communication of the USSR.
The subsequent appointment of I.T. Peresypkin as
Deputy Commissar of Defense highly raised the
prestige of troop leadership of communications
departments, as that fact eliminated the interdepartmental barriers and created the conditions
for the use of all available resources of the
nationwide communications network to provide
leadership of the Armed Forces [34, p. 68 – 69].
The first week’s experience of World War II
showed that the number of communications units,
according to the plan, was clearly in adequate,
mainly because of a larger-than-expected
number of operational formations, which in
turn increased the needs of the communications
units and elements for every front and army.
Therefore, the communications chief of the Red
Army had 4 July 1941 filed a petition before the
General Staff on the additional formation of 5
separate regiments of communication, 33 front
and army battalions, some linear battalion, and
26 of the selected telegraph and construction and
maintenance companies. The organization of the
Red Army’s new front and army offices created
continuously increased needs of communication
units. In just one year of the war more than
1000 communication units were formed. During
particular months 250 – 350 communication
units were in the stage of organization, i.e., a few
dozen of the communications units per military
district that caused considerable tension due to
a lack of the required number of communication
technologies in the military commands.
Since August 5, 1941 The Communications
Office of the Red Army was reorganized into
the Main Office of Communications, the Red
Army (MOC), which took under their own
control the mission of providing General Head
Quarters and the General Staff, fronts, military
commands, and the reserves [35, V. 3, s. 14, 28],
since the beginning of the war the situation with
troops technology communication providing was
extremely complicated. Severity of the situation
aggravated by the fact that most of electrical
engineering factories from Leningrad, Moscow
and Kharkov were evacuated inland, and only by
the end of 1941 the required products began to be
produced [36, s. 28 – 30, 37, d. 1,l. 11-12].
Particular attention was paid to the application
and development of radio communication, which
became much more widely used in the armed
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forces, although by the end of the first period
of the Great Patriotic War it was not the main
type of communication [7. T. 2. P. 184]. It should
be noted that in the initial period of war radio
equipment for command and control was not
used, because of the fear of the HQ at all levels
being detected and the inability to deploy, to
organize and to provide radio communication
In order to correct that situation during of the
summer-autumn of 1941 the People’s Commissar
of Defense issued a decree «On the Red Army
communication improvement» № 243 dated July
23, 1941 [38, d. 65,l. 165 – 169], to which was later
added a GHQ directive «About the shortcomings
in the organization of command and control»
of July 24, 1942 [39, s. 45]. Those documents
ordered the elimination of underestimating radio
communications and to create order in the use of
radio as soon as possible.
The defensive fighting experience with
radio communications demanded improved
methods of its organization, modernization
of existing and new radio facilities. Thus, in
1942, the fi rst portable domestic VHF A-7 with
frequency modulation for infantry and artillery
regiments was developed, which was much
appreciated by the troops. Quartz-top boxes
were set up to HF radio for radio noise-stable
direct-printing of the General Staff to the front
(PAT station with the prefi x «Diamond»), the
fronts to the armies (RAF station with the
prefi x «Carbide») and the army with regiments
(radio SSR with the prefi x «Bekan»). The use
of these devices provided a significant increase
in the stability of radio communications, in
both the higher echelons of command, as well
as the tactical level.
The role of radio communication increased
greatly during the operations of the summerautumn campaign in 1942 [18, s. 59].
Combat experience showed that radio,
especially while on the offensive, becomes the
main, and often the only means of communication,
providing command and control. Accordingly,
further improving of the communications,
organizational structure offorces, command and
control functions, improving of communications
units, and increasing of their numbers was the
full structure of Signal corps of fronts and armies
conducted was defined more exactly, and they
were strengthened with new units and elements.
New elements – communications units
of special-purpose (USON) were added to the
General Staff communications system, through
which a direct wired connection between
the General HQ (Stavka) and 2-4 fronts were
provided. USONs were placed 50-200 km behind
the front lines. Therefore, through those units,
communications between adjacent fronts were
provided [40, s. 137].
In 1944 with an increased number of active
fronts, and the distance between the General
Staff and the fronts headquarters, the Supreme
Command Reserve (RVGK -Reserve Verkhovnogo
Glavnokomandovaniya) increased substantially,
due to the new formed communications brigades
(RVGK).
Despite all these shortcomings, the domestic
electrical industry, reorganized during the Great
Patriotic War according to the army needs of radio
and wire communications means and devices was
successful. Several models of communications
equipment were upgraded in accordance with
the requirements of combat units. Only in 1944,
62 249 sets of radio stations were produced for
Soviet troops. That was significantly higher
than the level of 1941, when just 9586 sets were
produced [41,20 – 21].
Besides, it should be noted that throughout
the war the number of communications personnel
continuously increased in the overall strength of
the army. Thus, if on the eve of the Great Patriotic
War signalers were about 5% of the total, by the
end, every tenth soldier of the Red Army was
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a signalman. During the Great Patriotic War,
28 266 signalers were trained, in the School
of Communications and, in the Academy of
Communications 4 653 of command personnel
[42, s. 241 – 243].
Gradual improvement of the organizational
structure and technical support, methods of use,
continuous improvement, the professional skills
of commanders and the Army Signal Corps
personnel special training enabled the execution
of complex tasks to ensure forces command and
control during the Great Patriotic War.
Mass heroism, courage and dedication were
the main features of military signalers on the
battlefield. 294 warriors-signalers were Heroes of
the Soviet Union; more than 100 signalers were
holders of the Medal of Glory. A great number
of military communications personnel were
awarded medals. During the war, almost 600
communications units were awarded medals. A
number of front and army communications units
were awarded the title of Guards.
During World War II, the Signal Corps
received tremendous experience in providing
communications in difficult combat conditions.
Analyzing the Army Signal Corps
experience, we see that success in the conduct
of operations and fighting depended to a certain
extent on the quality of forces command and
control – from the state of technical equipment,
capabilities and level of readiness and skills of
the Army Signal Corps. Practical experience
of communications, received in the war, and
the equipping of signal troops with technology
and its correct use became the foundation for
further building and improvement of military
communications.
In March of 1946 the Red Army General
Communications Office was reorganized into the
Office of the Chief of Army Signal Corps of the
USSR. And in April of 1948, by a directive of
the USSR Ministry of Defense, the Office of the
Chief of Army Signal Corps Army of the USSR
was reorganized into the Office of the Soviet
Army Signal Corps.
In the early postwar years, special attention
was paid to the development and introduction of
new principles of communications organization
according to the great experience of the Great
Patriotic War, that was required to improve
the structure and quality of the Army Signal
Corps as well as the introduction of a new army
communications, capable of providing command
and control in real conditions of warfare.
In 1948 the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union
reduced to 3 million people, and major changes at
the high level of the military command, military
districts, armies, and divisions were carried
out [43, 106]. The experience and views on war
tactics were fixed in the new «Field Service
Regulations of the Armed Forces of the USSR in
1948». On the basis of Marshal I.T.Peresypkin’s
work plan for the reorganization of security forces
communications means, approved by the Chief
of the General Staff, work on the acceleration
of industrial production for the first postwar
generation of military communications base for
various purposes was started.
In the late 40s and 50s the signal troops
began to receive adopted communications
complexes with new, improved military
characteristics: shortwave car radio sets R-100
and F-110 for radio of the General Staff, P-101
and F-102 to the front, P-118 and F-103 for the
army (corps) radio networks, as well as R-104 (in
the mobile and portable versions) for the division
of networks and F-112 for the tank forces [44, d.
425,l. 123 -127].
The signal troops were provided with VHF
radio sets R-105, F-106, F-108, F-109, F-114, F-116
and R-1 13 (Tank), which provided communication
on preset frequencies and without fine tuning
communication at the tactical level control [45,
d. 105,l.10-12].
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At the same time, a fundamentally new
type of communications – radio-relay (multichannel station P-400 [46, s. 34 – 38] and thin –
route R-401 technical equipment [47, s. 30 – 40])
were developed for the Soviet Army, as well as
frequency-division multiplexing and channeling
systems (P-310, P-304, P-311, P-312, P-313, P-314),
and improved types of telephone and telegraph
devices, switching devices, several types of
field communication cables were developed.
Providing troops with relays was a completely
new stage in the development of communication
systems of operating units, formations and
ground forces, so it improved reliability,
persistence and resistance to countermeasures,
and other characteristics.
The modernization of new equipment caused
changes in the organizational and technical
structure of the signal centers. Through the use of
new means of communication standard systems
were established for the automotive hardware
for organizing mobile field communication hubs
of various command levels. For the first time
manufactured mobile communications devices
(PUS), industrial production (during the war,
they were made by the servicemen themselves)
were used in the Army: PUS number 1 – for
command post, transported by 22 cars, PUS
number 2 – for the mobile command post of the
front, transported by 6 cars, PUS № 3 – for the
Army command post, transported by 9 cars, PUS
number 4 – for Corps command posts, transported
by 4 cars, PUS number 5 – for division command
posts, transported by the same machine. Time for
the deployment of those centers was significantly
reduced, but communication systems mobility
was greatly improved.
In October of 1958 by order of the USSR
Ministry of Defense, the Office of Signal Corps
of the Soviet Army was reorganized into the
Office of the Chief Signal Corps of the Ministry
of Defense of the USSR.
In the second half of the 50s, the rapid
development of nuclear missiles, the improvement
of other warfare means started, which caused
significant changes in the Armed Forces structure.
Thus, the new military service of the Armed
Forces – the Strategic Missile Forces (SMF)
was established in accordance with the Council
of Ministers of the USSR of December 17, 1959
[48, s. 447]. The communication units became
integral part of SMF [48. 106]. Those structural
and organizational changes took place in other
services and branches of the Armed Forces.
These circumstances, in turn, necessitated the
development of new methods of units and
weapons command and control.
The increased duty level greatly influenced
the general command and control system of the
Soviet Army and Navy and caused a significant
time reduction in command and control
processes.
The 60s are generally characterized by
practical work on the automated systems of
command and weapons (anti-aircraft, artillery and
missile forces) development, and planning work
in the field of troops control automation of the
Armed Forces. That was the reason of increased
demands on the communication systems and
channels in terms of their stability, resistance
to countermeasures, secrecy and transmitting
information timing.
With the retirement in 1957, of Army Signal
Corps Marshal I.T. Peresypkin A.I. Leonov
took charge of the Signal Corps (from 1961
Marshal of Signal Corps). Under his leadership,
work on improving the structure of the Army
Signal Corps and the creation of new means
of communication was continued. Under his
leadership communication devices were upgraded
and more efficient radio devices were created.
The development and providing signal
troops with the new HF and VHF middle and
high average power single-sideband radio
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devices (P-135, F-136, F-137, P-140) significantly
enhanced the quality characteristics of radio
channels at the operational and tactical levels
of command. New means of VHF radio for
tactical command level, including portable
and Ammunition radio R-107 and R-111 with
a wider range of frequencies (significantly
increasing the number of operating frequencies)
and an automatic adjustment to the prearranged
frequency was created and [49, p. 4].
Relay communications were further
developed. The new type of communication
based on the P-121, F-122, F-408, F-410 enabled
the provision of high quality multi-channel
connections directly between the control stations
at a distance of 150-250 km from each other
(without relay), even through difficult terrain
conditions.
In the 60s the first practical work on the
creation of satellites was carried out. Complex
were created for unified hardware compression
and channeling for cable, radio relay and
tropospheric communication lines, new means
of telephone, telegraph and facsimile equipment,
data communication equipment and information
security systems equipment for various
purposes.
Different types of communication equipment
were provided and we see the development
and delivery of next-generation hardware field
communication hubs, as well as several types
of command and staff vehicles for automotive
and armored transport base for commanders
of mechanized infantry (tank) regiments and
battalions.
The
new
mobile
communication
devices highlighted the changes necessary
in the organizational structure of the signal
corps and in the training of highly qualified
teams of engineering personnel and military
communications staff, providing them with the
necessary technical facilities. As a result, the
whole complex of arrangements for the Signal
Corps improvement, ensured the mobility and
speed rate of communication in different levels
of command.
The next stage of Signal Corps development
is associated with the activity of A.Belov (in 1973
Belov was conferred the rank of Marshal of the
Signal Corps).
In the early 70s at Belov’s initiative, a system
of routine maintenance and a field performance
program of communication equipment was
developed and implemented in the Army.
This implementation improved the equipment
maintenance culture in a quality manner, made
possible to keep it in a state of combat readiness
and promptly submit a complaint to the industry
to eliminate identified equipment deficiencies.
As at that time the Soviet industry did
not have any technical means to equip the
communication control centers and the lack
of an integrated extensive communications
control system did not make it possible to
use available channel resources effectively,
particularly in fast-changing conditions, drastic
measures were taken to solve the problems of
communication system control. In this regard,
the Central Scientific Research Institute of
Communications of RF Ministry of Defense was
assigned to develop and produce unconventional
integrated equipment for the communication
control centers. Repair services of Signal Corps
were involved to replicate needed equipment
and to equip communication command posts
at the front and army level. Such advanced
communications facilities reduced by 2-3 times
the average time for communication gaps of the
main signal channels.
Taking into account the increasing role of
communication systems in the Armed Forces
control, the Signal Corps command of the USSR
Ministry of Defense was included in the General
Staff as of the USSR Armed Forces. The Signal
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Corps command existed until the beginning of
the RF Armed Forces formation.
In the late 70s there some measures were
taken to develop integrated researches in the
research institutes of the Ministry of Defense
and the Ministry of Industry, to prove conceptual
aspects of building and operating perspective
automated communications system of the Armed
Forces. On the basis of the research results
Large collaboration of industrial and
research organizations of the Ministry of Defense
was achieved in 1980 by a special resolution
of the Central Committee of the Communist
Party of the USSR and the Council of Ministers
of the USSR. Moreover, the joint automated
communications network of the Armed Forces
and communications facilities was developed.
At the same time a front automated
communications network, unified satellite
communication system of the Ministry of Defense
and advanced communication facilities were
established. The unified satellite communication
system of the Ministry of Defense was an
independent system and separate from the
Ministry of Communications network had a
common space-vehicle launching system and
command – and – measurement complex.
The Signal Corps dealt with complicated
problems of providing communication for
mobile command posts (including an airborne
communications control center) and linking them
to the corresponding communication systems. To
provide for the operation of the Armed Forces
automated process-control systems, and corps
and weapon system, the special data interchange
systems (data communications systems) were
developed. In its turn, the implementation of
the automated control systems has caused an
essential raising of requirements to technical
characteristics of the communications equipment
and communications system as a whole, so
special attention was given to the development
of new generation general communication
equipment and the modernization of some
existing communication equipment. As a result,
complexes of automated frequency-adaptive
were developed jam-resistant HV-VHV radio
communications: for a front communications
system -R-161; for strategic and tactical levels –
R-164.
The analysis of the structure and the
communication system operating conditions of
the Soviet forces command and control at the
operational and strategic levels in Afghanistan
made it possible to learn some instructive lessons
on communication organization.
From the first days of the Afghan war
the Soviet forces had to fulfill a lot of combat
missions. All components of the military
command and control system were dramatically
changed (echelons of command, command
centers and communications system). The
main reorganization purpose was to raise
controllability.
The
combat
operations
experience demonstrated the impossibility of
using the local communication systems centers
and communication lines. That was caused by
a low level of expanding communication or the
hostile attitude of the operating staff. Difficult
physiographical conditions required a rational
approach to the ways of constructing field
communication system elements, especially
primary networks.
Space communications ranks first in the Army
command and control system that, unfortunately,
had been established only at the division and
regiment levels. Wire communications was
limited in usage because it was difficult to lay
cable in rocky ground and to protect it.
Under preparation and in the process of
combat operations there was a severe problem
in providing communications security in a
tactical command and control level. Combat
operations illustrated the fact that in military
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confl icts the opposing force operatively reacted
to intercepted information practically in a real
time scale.
During the Afghan war there were also many
difficulties in the communication maintenance
organization. Firstly, they were caused by a failure
of communications equipment and the transport
base resulting from serious battle damages, a
sharp decrease in their technical reliability in
difficult physiographical and environmental
conditions, the necessity in communication
system maintenance whose elements are dispersed
over a large territory, etc.
The lessons received as a result of the
experience of establishing communication
control in Afghanistan made it possible to
improve the ways of communication organization
and providing communication applied to the
conditions of conducting operations in local
wars and conflicts and also in the conditions of
providing forces command and control in the
mountainous and desert areas.
In the late 80s specialists at the scientific
research institute of the RF Ministry of Defense
developed and implemented for the Army an
automated complex of HF-VHF reliable radio
communication and introduced the automated
complex KV-UKV radio transceiver R-163 (12
types), but in the late 90s the R-163 was replaced
by the advanced complex of antijam radio
communication set R-168 at the tactical level
(17 types). Considering the combat operations
experience in Chechnia, the complex was
recommended as the base equipment for the
standard communications systems at the tactical
level.
Later, the newest multichannel radio relay
stations (R-414, R-416, R-417, R-418, R-423) and
low-channel radio relay stations (R-415, R-419),
including the first home-produced RRS of
millimetric-wave R-421, and also new effective
tropospheric communication equipment (R-412,
R-423) were developed to widen communications
capabilities.
The integrated satellite communications
system of the second stage had higher possibilities.
To be more precise, it had high-traffic capacity
satellites and the newest satellite communications
stations, including light, mobile and armored
(R-438, R-439П, R-439БК). These types of
radio stations are more effective for providing
communication in peacekeeping operations.
It is especially necessary to point out the
command vehicles: the experience of Command
Vehicle type R-145 demonstrated the fact that the
CV’s were outmoded technically and morally.
They were replaced by the advanced command
post carriers with improved armor (R-149 combat
vehicle, R-149 combat vehicle), that provide
control and communication functions at a higher
technical level (They include a personal computer,
portable satellite communication station R-438,
and navigation equipment).
The Armed Forces received the unified
systems of frequency division multiplexing
and time division multiplexing. In the 90s the
complexes of field fiber-optic transmission
systems P-335 and P-337 were developed.
Thus, it is possible to make a conclusion that the
accepted communication equipment would allow
the formation of highly-structured communication
systems of strategic units. For the first time radio
relay and tropospheric communications systems,
sound channel and telegraph channel scramblers
began to be widely applied in the front and army
communication systems. Radio communication
was arranged from all front (army) control
centers to the control centers of the subordinate
and coordinating units. Radio relay and wire
communication was arranged directly or through
auxiliary communication centers or main signal
centers. Difficult work was carried out to establish
multipurpose stationary territorial communication
systems of military districts and to improve the
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national communication network, to increase its
survivability and qualitative characteristics of
communication channels, where the basic control
and communications systems of the Joint Staff,
military branches and the special control systems of
the Ministry of Defense are based on the channels
of this communication system. The questions
of Signal Corps organization and establishment
improvement, Signal Corps development and
qualified signal specialist training were decided
timely.
During a long period of Signal Corps
leadership (1970 – 1987) Marshal Belov managed
to reorganize the Signal Corps radically to a
symmetrical system which allowed the Command
to deliver decisions and orders in real time to
the armed forces and to provide continuous,
operations and sustained control for the Armed
forces. After Marshal Belov the Signal Corps
were commanded and controlled by General
K.I. Kobets (1987-1990), General O.S. Lisovskij
(1990-1991), General G.P. Gichkin (1991-1997),
General Yu.M. Zalogin (1997-2003), General N.P.
Ljaskalo (2003-2005).
During the last decade of the 20th century
there were many global changes in politics,
economy and society that affected the world.
Socialism and the USSR collapsed, the Warsaw
Pact was liquidated.
The protracted stage of the Russian
Federation’s formation and the process of
Armed Forces reorganization heavily affected
the Signal Corps in the Armed Forces. As a
result, the numerical strength of the Signal
Corps was considerably reduced. The lack of
sufficient financing led to a critical situation
where the number of communications equipment
considerably decreased and providing the Army
with the newest communication equipment was
practically stopped.
Moreover, the situation was aggravated
by the fact that the Signal Corps command was
unable to quantity estimate the current situation,
to define the developmental priorities of the
communication system and the Signal Corps as
a whole.
The main purpose of the plans concerning
the communication system and the Signal Corps,
the Government arms program for 2001-2010
(concerning the communication system and the
Signal Corps) was to develop a technological
basis of the communication control system
through the introduction of innovations and
technologies of the 70s and the 80-ies of the XX
century. For these reasons, the Signal Corps of the
Armed Forces began to degradate. By 2005, the
state of the communications system was deemed
unsatisfactory.
In 2005, the Armed Forces of the Russian
Federation was headed by Colonel-General E.A.
Karpov .
The office of the Chief Signal Officer analyzed
in detail the real state of the communication
system and the Signal Corps of the Armed Forces
and came to conclusion. To improve the following
situation the office of the Chief Signal Officer
developed a number of program documents
signed by the Minister of Defense and the Chief
of the General Staff:
• “The concept of transitioning the Armed
forces communication system to digital
telecommunication equipment”;
• “The special integrated work program
of a phased transition from a primary
communications network of the RF Armed
forces to digital telecommunications
equipment”;
• “The program of a phased transition from
secondary communication networks of the
Armed forces of the Russian Federation
to digital data processing equipment and
service provisioning”.
These
programs
were
aimed
at
communications system modernization, a
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planned re-equipment of the forces with the latest
communications equipment that were developed
by using modern telecommunications and
information technologies.
The development of the following programs
was an objective necessity considering the
general tendencies of communication systems
development in the Russian Federation.
Many operators deploy and operate digital
and communications systems successfully, and
provide users with a variety of telecommunications
services. It is obvious that the Armed Forces
communication system being a special consumer
of communications services of an Integrated
telecommunications network in Russia follows
all progress changes.
The
implementation
of
advanced
telecommunication technologies will make
it possible to establish an unified automated
communication system of the Armed Forces that
will provide the various communication services
to the military command authority and officials
and will allow the automation all processes
of troop command and control and weapons
control.
It should be noted that the experience of
developing a similar system in the Soviet Union
proves the fact that the successful accomplishment
of a mission to establish an integrated automated
digital communication system of the Armed
Forces can be provided only in conditions of a
due attention from the country’s leadership and a
full funding for its deployment.
Now, as well as in the time of the Integrated
automated communication system development
by the USSR Armed forces, the forms and
methods of conducting armed conflicts were
also reconsidered. The industry enterprises
were reconstructed under the influence of
other (market) factors. the new technologies
appeared. But one essential difference is the fact
that the Armed Forces Integrated Automated
Communication System was established in the
time of economic recession and the USSR’s
collapse. The IACS reconstruction work begins
in the period of the state and economy’s rebirth
that allows us to expect the successful realization
of this perspective system.
Today, in the process of forming a newlook Armed Forces, the Signal Corps are being
developed in difficult conditions of planned
transformation of the communication system and
the Signal Corps in a direction of the maximal
conformity of technical characteristics in the
control system and the structure of the Armed
forces both in peacetime, and in wartime, taking
into account many factors of a political, economic,
scientific, technical and military nature. The
decisions concerning the Armed Forces new
look and optimization affect the attitude to the
Army control elements: communication system,
the Signal Corps, communication equipment
development, military education, etc.
The Armed Forces informatization process
requires a reforming of the means of conducting
combat operations and providing information
support in battle.
So, at the present time the leading countries
establish global information networks for military
use on the base of developing communication
systems. Such systems, constructed with the use of
internet technologies, will be provided with a high
information throughput, scalability and external
influence resistance. Seeing these principles the
organization, missions and especially equipment
of the communications system and the main
development prospects require drastic changes
and quick re-equipment.
The new hazards and risks to the security of
the Russian Federation, the optimization of the
Armed Forces structure determine a necessity for
the forces control structure development, forms
of adaptation and methods of application in the
present time.
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The general purpose of the communication
system establishment and development being
the infrastructure element of the Armed Forces
command and control system is a transition
from the old system to the newest form of the
communication network organization by means
of digitalization and their integration to the
integrated information space of the Army.
Nowadays, the Office of the Chief Signal
Officer of the Russian Federation Armed Forces
is developing an establishment concept of
integrated information space of the Army that
should promote effective forces employment by
organization of timely planning and coordination
of their operations, providing timely feedback
communications with the subordinated forces,
units and detachments to receive information
concerning their status, position and facilities
promoting an accomplishment of assigned
missions.
The only hope is that in the near future
the planned perspective work on Signal Corps
development will equalize the Army technical
level in a quantity manner with the level of the
USA at the beginning of the new millenium. In
the US Armed Forces provision with individual
radio communication facilities is still at the top
level, particularly, their organizational structure
of communication units.
In August of 2008, the Russian Armed
Forces met some problems in providing
communications for the operating forces being
involved in the military conflict of Georgia
with Abkhazia and the Southern Ossetia. This
situation was like the military operations of
1941, when tanks and airplanes were engaged
in military operations without communications
facilities. Although the Armed Forces of the
Russian Federation are equipped with up-to-date
weaponry it is impossible to conduct military
operations without modern communications
means.
Unfortunately, there is one more negative
tendency in the Russian Armed forces.
Likeprewar years, all Russian departments
were provided with communication, except
the Armed forces; this was already noted in
the article. These days the level of providing
communications for the internal security troops
of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian
Federation is notably higher than the level in the
Ministry of Defense.
The beginning of the XXI century is an
appropriate time to solve a problem of providing
the Russian Army with modern communications
equipment satisfying all requirements.
It is essential to emphasize the fact that in
conditions of modern warfare and large-scale
military conflicts the Armed Forces will be pressed
in time to produce and install communication
equipment following the experience of the Great
Patriotic War. That we must all remember.
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9. The central state historical archive, 1289, Op.1.
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18. B.A. Bolvanovich, E.A. Dvoryanov, V.A. Ermakov, History of military communication (St.
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21. Russian state military archive, 25, Op.10.
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40. A.P. Zharsky, V. P. Zaitsev, Collection of guideline documents on control and communication
during the Great Patriotic War (L’vov, 1984).
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magazine, 2009, № 8).
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43. Base theory of troop command and control (Moscow, 1980).
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45. The central archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, F.71, Op.725118.
46. Operation manual and the short description of radio relay station R-400 (Moscow, 1952).
47. Operation manual of R-401 (Moscow, 1955).
48. The military encyclopedia of strategic rocket forces (Moscow, 1999).
49. E.V. L’vov, Institute of military communications: history and present time (Military thought,
2008, № 3).
50. Memoirs of the Marshal of the Signal Corps (Moscow, 2000).
51. V.I. Shinkarev, Establishment of a modern satellite communication system-priorities of the
institute researches (Military thought, 2008, № 3).
52. A.V.Usikov, G.A. Baturin, Military art in local wars and conflicts (Moscow, 2008).
53. About establishment and development of the Signal Corps (Subject collection, Moscow, 2004).
54. E.A. Karpov, The Signal Corps and communication equipment: agenda of their large -scale
reorganization (Russian military review, 2006, № 6).
55. Communication in the Armed Forces of The Russian Federation (Subject collection, Moscow, 2007).
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Forces of the Russian Federation (Military thought, 2008, № 3).
57. V. Veprintsev, Communication equipment for individual use in the US Armed Forces (Foreign
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58. V. Veprintsev, Communication equipment for individual use in the US Armed Forces (Foreign
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История, современное состояние и перспективы развития
военной связи в Российской Федерации
В.И. Голиков
Томский государственный университет
Россия 634045, г. Томск, ул. Ф. Лыткина, 11
В статье рассматривается исторический путь развития военной связи в России от времени
ее зарождения до наших дней, показаны противоречия между состоянием военной связи в
системе управления войсками и характером современных военных действий, основные
направления развития войск связи в условиях формирования нового облика Вооруженных Сил
Российской Федерации.
Ключевые слова: военная связь, войска связи, телеграф, радиостанция, автоматизированная
система управления, штатная структура, Вооруженные Силы.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 509-517
~~~
УДК 81.33
Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation
(on the Basis of Translation of English
and American Fiction from English into Russian)
Natalya V. Klimovich*
Siberian Federal University
82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The researches devoted to intertext and intertectuality are quite popular in modern linguistics.
Scientists pay attention to the types if intertextual elements used in texts, sources of the elements and
strategies of their translation. The Bible is considered as the main source of intertextual elements by
many authors. Elements from the Bible (words, idioms, quotations) are used quite often. We can hear
them in oral speech; meet them in newspapers and in fiction. In case of their translation we face the
fact that translator, due to incorrect translation of the intertextual elements from the Bible can not
convey the information of the original text.
Keywords: intertextual elements, intertext, prototext, metatext, idioms, quotation, direct quotation,
modified quotation, interjection, biblical interjection, methods of translation,
Introduction
In recent years the idea of intertextuality has
increasingly replaced that of influence as a way
of describing the status of text within a tradition.
There are certain texts, that are constructed
according to an aesthetics of intertextuality so as
to disestablish themselves as sources of influence.
Influence and intertextuality can therefore be seen
restrictively as ways of describing certain kinds
of text. But they can also be approached more
broadly as cultural categories that describe the
way we relate text and reader, and thus the way
we conceive texts within a cultural hermeneutic
that causes them to participate in “self”-formation
of the reader or of the writer.
According to T. Rajan’s «Intertextuality
and the Subject of Reading/ Writing» (Rajan,
*
1
1991), «intertextuality» as a term appeared
in J. Kristeva’s work. J. Kristeva’s vision on
intertextuality was influenced by M.M. Bakhtin’s
work, which is concerned with authorial
discourse as an intersubjective construction,
dialogically situated in relation to other social
discourses. Denying the distinction of other
Russian Formalists between ordinary and poetic
language, Bakhtin does on one level describe the
transposition of one kind of signifying material
into another. But he doesn’t suggest a vocabulary
to describe how the resulting instability can be
ideologically productive.
In this work we will deal with «intertextual
elements». As we noted in our previous researches
devoted to Biblical words and idioms in fiction
(Климович, 2004, 2005, 2006), we have chosen
Corresponding author E-mail address: klimovich7979@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Natalya V. Klimovich. Intertextual Elements and Methods of Translation (on the Basis of Translation of English…
the term «intertextual elements» to stress that
these are elements of one text or prototext (idioms
(or phraseological units), words, quotations and
vocative interjections) which we can find in
another text or metatext. But in this research we
deal only with intertextual elements from the
Bible, as we consider them to be one of the wellknown intertextual markers in a text.
In order to view the ways of their translation
we compared the original versions of English and
American fiction with their Russian translations.
According to the canons of the translatology
a translated text should be similar to the original
one, in other words, be equivalent to it. According
to V.N. Komissarov, “the specific character of the
translation, which makes it different from the other
ways of language mediation, is that it is intended
for complete substitution of the original text and
recipients of the translation believe it to be fully
equivalent to the original text. But on the other
way it is easy to make sure that full equivalence
in translation is impossible” (Комиссаров, 222.
С. 116).
Translation of the Idioms from the Bible
One of the largest groups of intertextual
elements is idioms (or phraseological units)
from the Bible. Many scientists have devoted
their works to this problem. A.V. Kunin was the
fi rst Russian scientist who devoted a chapter
in his work entitled «A Course of English
Phraseology» (Кунин, 1972). Nowadays there
are is lot of research on idioms from the Bible,
examining all the aspects of these intertextual
elements – origin, structure, the way they
function in the text etc. It was pointed out that in
the text, idioms from the Bible are used mostly as
allusions. In this group we marked only idioms
that are not used in the direct and non-direct
quotations. On the basis of the comparison of the
English and Russian texts the following groups
were formed:
Group 1 – equivalent translation. In
translation of the idioms from the Bible possible
equivalents or analogues in Russian were used.
This group is the largest.
276. ‘Well, think of wretches of our flesh
and blood growing up under a taunt which they
will gradually get to fell the full force of with
their expanding years’.
256. – Подумай о несчастных детях, нашей
плоти и крови, несущих на себе это пятно и
с каждым годом все острее ощущающих свой
позор. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles)
340. In jumping at Publicans and Sinners
they would forget that a word might be said for the
worries of Scribes and Fharisees; and this defect
or limitations might have recommended their own
daughter-in-law to them at this moment as a fairly
choice sort of lost person for their love.
316. Широко раскрывая объятия мытарям
и грешникам, они забывали о том, что
можно замолвить словечко и за книжников
и фарисеев, у которых тоже бывают свои
невзгоды. И благодаря этой особенности
они оказали бы своей невестке радушный
прием, – ее несчастья давали ей все права на
их любовь. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles)
344. D’Uberville was not the first wicked
man who had turned away from his wickedness
to save his soul alive, and why should she deem
it unnatural in him?
320. Д’Эрбервилль был не первым
грешником, который вернулся на стезю
добродетели, дабы спасти свою душу; как
же она могла считать это фальшью? (Tess of
the D’Ubervilles)
344. The greater the sinner the greater
the saint; it was not necessary to dive far into
Christian history to discover that.
320. Чем более велик грешник, тем
более велик святой; в этом можно убедиться,
даже не слишком углубляясь в историю
христианства. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles)
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Group 2 – Idioms from the Bible in
English – not idioms from the Bible in Russian
translation. This group includes idioms
translated into Russian neither as idioms, or in
the case of idiomatic translation, not as Biblical
idioms.
317. Inside the exterior, over which the
eye might have roved as over a thing scarcely
percipient, almost inorganic, there was the
record of a pulsing life which had learnt too
well, for its years, of the dust and ashes of
things, of the cruelty of lust and the fragility
of love.
295. Под этой внешней оболочкой –
на ней, как не заслуживающей внимания,
почти мертвой, лишь на секунду мог
остановиться взгляд – скрывалась натура,
полная жизни, но для своих лет слишком
грубо познавшая тщету бытия, жестокость
страсти и хрупкость любви. (Tess of the
D’Ubervilles)
271. She could not see why Mrs. Touchette
should make a scapegoat of a woman who had
really done no harm, who had only done good in
the wrong way.
227. Она отказывалась понимать,
почему миссис Тачит отыгрывается на этой
женщине, которая никому не сделала зла и
даже делала много хорошего, хотя и дурными
путями. (The Portrait of a Lady)
132. It was the keeper, he stood in the path
like Balaam’s ass, barring her way.
189. Стоял недвижимо, упрямо, и
преграждал ей путь. Это был егерь. (Lady
Chatterley’s Lover)
Group 3 – there is no idiom from the Bible
in the English text – but there is an idiom from
the Bible in the Russian translation. In this
group there are following cases: 1) idioms not
from Bible, that were translated that as biblical
idioms, 2) there is no idiom in English text but is
an idiom from the Bible in the Russian translation,
3) words from the Bible translated as idioms from
the Bible.
286. “Ma lass!” he said. “Th’ world’s goin’
to put salt on thy tail.”
408. – Девонька моя! Мир готов забросать
тебя камнями. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover)
In this example there is idiom – but not
biblical one, was translated as idiom from Bible
to Russian.
37. It was very probably this sweet-tasting
property of the observed thing in itself that was
mainly concerned in Ralph’s quickly-stirred
interest in the advent of a young lady who was
evidently not insipid.
32. Запретный плод, как известно,
сладок, и, надо думать, именно это
обстоятельство
послужило
причиной
того, что появление молодой леди, явно не
относившейся к разряду скучных, вызвало в
Ральфе внезапный интерес. (The Portrait of a
Lady)
In this example there is no idiom in original
version of the novel, but in Russian translation we
see idiom from Bible.
75. “Certainly nothing but the spirit in us is
worth having,” said Winterslow.
106. – Да, в нас ничто не может привлекать,
разве только крепость души, – обронил
Уинтерслоу. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover)
Here a word from Bible translated as idiom
from Bible.
Group 4 – idioms from the Bible were
not translated into Russian. In these cases the
idioms from Bible were ignored by the translator
and not translated into Russian.
297. Clare’s late enthusiasm for Tess had
infected her through maternal sympathies, till
she had almost fancied that a good thing could
come out of Nazareth – a charming woman out
of Talbothays Dairy.
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276. Восторженность, с какой Клэр еще
так недавно говорил о Тэсс, пробудила в ней
материнское сочувствие, и она почти готова
была поверить, что и на мысе Тэлботейс
можно найти очаровательную женщину. (Tess
of the D’Ubervilles)
400. Never in her life – she could swear
it from the bottom of her soul – had she
ever intended to go wrong; yet these hard
judgments had come. Whatever her sins, they
were not sins of intention, but of inadvertence,
and why should she have been punished so
persistently?
373. Она могла поклясться в том, что
никогда за всю свою жизнь она не хотела
поступать дурно, и все-таки ей вынесли
суровый приговор. Каковы бы не были ее
грехи, никогда не грешила она сознательно;
почему же ее наказывают так упорно. (Tess of
the D’Ubervilles)
Although idiom from Bible was not translated
in the example above, biblical word sins and
collocation sins of intention were translated.
Quotations from the Bible.
The next type of intertextual elements is
quotations from the Bible. In fiction we found
two types of quotations: 1) direct quotation –
quotation from Bible that was not changed in
the text; 2) modified quotation – author of the
book changed quotation, by adding words to it
or shortening it. Despite this quotation is still
connected with the Holy Scripture. In order to
find out the type of quotation we used King James
Version in English and the Synodal translation,
Canonized version in Russian.
1) Direct quotation. This group is the
largest. English authors use direct quotations
more than modified ones. Having analyzed the
original text and its Russian version we found
only one group – quotation in English version –
quotation in Russian translation, because all
the quotations were translated as quotations from
the Bible in Russian.
Direct quotation
298. “Who can find a virtuous woman?
for her price is far above rubies. She riseth
while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her
household. She girdeth her loins with strength
and strengthneth her arms. She perceiveth
that her merchandise is good; her candle goeth
not out by night. She looketh well to the ways
of her household and eateth not the bread of
idleness. Her children arise up and call her
blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth
her. Many daughters have done virtuously, but
thou excellest them all. … Her children arise
up and call her blessed; her husband also,
and praiseth her. Many daughters have done
virtuously, but she exelleth them all.”
278. – «Кто найдет добродетельную
жену? Цена ее выше жемчугов. Она
встает еще ночью и раздает пищу в доме
своем, препоясывает силою чресла свои и
укрепляет мышцы свои. Она чувствует,
что занятие ее хорошо, и светильник
ее не гаснет и ночью. Она наблюдает за
хозяйством в доме своем и не ест хлеба
праздности. Встают дети – и ублажают ее;
встает муж – и хвалит ее; много было жен
добродетельных, но ты превзошла всех их».
Parables 31 (Tess of the D’Ubervilles)
“The Heavens declare the Glory of God,
and the Firmament sheweth His handiwork”.
“Небеса возглашают славу Господу, и
твердь являет плоды трудов Его”. (American
tragedy) (The Old Testament / Psalm 18:2).
Shortened quotation:
“If ye have faith as a grain of mustard
seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove
hence to yonder place; and it shall move; and
nothing shall be impossible unto you”.
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“Если вы будете иметь веру с горчичное
зерно и скажете горе сей “перейди отсюда
туда”, – и она перейдет; и ничего не будет
невозможного для вас”(American tragedy).
Here we see shortened direct quotation from
Bible, New Testament / Mattew / 17:18-21:
“And Jesus said unto them, Because of your
unbelief: for verily I say unto you, if ye have faith
as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this
mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and
it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible
unto you”.
“И запретил ему Иисус, и бес вышел из
него; и отрок исцелился в тот же час. Тогда
ученики, приступив к Иисусу наедине,
сказали: почему мы не могли изгнать его?
Иисус же сказал им: по неверию вашему; ибо
истинно говорю вам: если вы будете иметь
веру с горчичное зерно и скажете горе сей:
“перейди отсюда туда”, и она перейдёт; и
ничего не будет невозможного для вас”.
294. That was just Clare’s own opinion.
But he was perturbed. ‘Let not your heart be
troubled, neither let it be afraid,’ said the
Nazarene. Clare chimed in cordially; but his
heart was troubled all the same.
274. Клэр придерживался того же мнения.
И, однако, был в смятении. «Пусть сердце
твое не ведает ни тревоги, ни страха», –
сказал Назареянин. (Tess of the D’Ubervilles)
2) Modified quotation. Modified quotations
from the Bible are usually recognized by the
translator, and in the Russian version of the book
have connections with the Holy Scripture.
“Thy desire shall be to thy mate”.
“И будет к жене твоей влечение твое”.
(American Tragedy)
(The Old Testament, Genesis, 3:16):
“Thy desire shall be unto thy husband»
(“…И к мужу твоему влечение твое…”).
167. ‘There is a time for everything,’
continued Izz, unheeding. ‘A time to embrace,
and a time to refrain from embracing; the first
is now going to be mine.’
‘Fie – it is Scripture, Izz!’
154. – Всему свое время, – не обращая
на нее внимания, продолжали Изз. – Время
для объятий и время, когда нужно
воздержаться от них; сейчас мне на долю
выпадет первое.
– Фи! Ведь это из Священного писания,
Изз! (Tess of the D’Ubervilles)
181. “The ownership of property has now
become a religious question: as it has been since
Jesus and St. Francies. The point is not, take
all thou hast and give it to the poor, but use all
thou hast to encourage the industry and give
work to the poor.”
258. Вопросу собственности придается
сейчас чуть ли не религиозное значение.
Впрочем, это повелось еще со времен Христа.
Вспомни хотя бы святого Франциска. Только
теперь мы говорим немного иначе: вместо
«раздай имущество бедным» – «вложи, что
имеешь в производство». Чтобы у бедных
была работа. (Mattew 19:21, Mark 10:21, Luke
18:22) (Lady Chatterley’s Lover)
According to G. Denisova (Денисова,
2003), the main circumstance of the equivalent
translation of intertextual element (intertextual
elements from Bible in this research) – is
that it was recognized by the translator. The
Holy Scripture, as many scientists note, is the
most important precedent text, and very often
translators and readers easily recognize idioms
and quotations from the Bible in the text. As we
can see from the examples above they are quite
recognizable by translators in fiction. Those
examples where idioms were not translated
are few and form only 10% of all the analyzed
examples. In this case we may suppose that
translator couldn’t recognize them in the text,
or it was one of the translation techniques –
omission.
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Interjections and Ways
of Their Translation
Now we consider the ways of translation of
interjections in fiction and difficulties of their
translation.
According to the “Big Encyclopedia”
(Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический
словарь, 2000), interjections are neither
connecting nor autonomous parts of speech
and intended for nonsegmented expression
of emotional reactions to the environment.
V.N. Yartseva (Языкознание. Большой
энциклопедический словарь, 2000) believes
that interjections function in three semantic fields
of speech: emotions and emotional evaluations,
will or desire and etiquette. Interjections are
the most expressive means of language. In
fiction interjections are used in monologues and
dialogues of the main characters thus making
their conversations emotional and vivid.
During this research we paid our attention
to the fact, that very often in the structure of
interjection we can find biblical words, to be
exact, divine names: oh, Christ; by God; Jesus;
oh, Lord etc. According to the classification
of interjections given in “The Dictionary of
the Linguistic Terms” by O.S. Akhmanova,
«interjection, similar in its form to the vocative
noun or vocative collocation are called vocative
interjections» (Ахманова, 2004. С. 225]. So,
as long as these group of interjections have
names from the Bible in their structure, we will
term them «biblical interjections». This group
of interjections is also used as emotional and
expressive marker, thus showing feelings and
emotions of the main characters.
Now let us have a look at the translation
of the biblical interjections. The sources are:
novel «The Grapes of Wrath» by J. Steinbeck
and its translation into Russian by N. Volzgina
and D.H. Lawrence’s «Lady Chatterley’s Lover»
translated into Russian by I. Bagrov and M.
Litvinova. In the examples below there are page
numbers of the original text and its translation.
On the basis of the translation analysis, several
types of translation were found. On the basis of
the founded types the following groups were
formed:
Group 1 – biblical interjections in English
translated as biblical interjections into Russian.
Translation of this group can be characterised as
equivalent.
102. “Thank God,” she said. “Oh, thank
God!”
78. – Слава Богу, – сказала она.- Слава
Богу. (The Grapes of Wrath)
106. “He’s goin’ to hell on a poker, praise
Gawd!”
84. – В пекло прямо на кочерге въедет,
слава господу. (The Grapes of Wrath)
315. “Oh, Lord!” She subsided, breathing
heavily.
325. – О господи! – И, вздохнув всей
грудью, она умолкла. (The Grapes of Wrath)
Group 2 – biblical interjections in English
are not translated into Russian. Biblical
interjections were omitted by the translator, so
we will not find them in the Russian version of
the novel. This group is the largest.
352. My God, we can’t pick them and dry
and sulphur them.
368. Cобирать их, сушить, окуривать
серой? (The Grapes of Wrath)
342. “My God, she’s a-getting’ big,” he
said.
356. – Ну и толстеет она у нас! (The
Grapes of Wrath)
344. “Jesus Christ, pretty soon they’re
gonna make us pay to work”
358. – Скоро, пожалуй, нам самим
придется приплачивать, лишь бы устроиться.
(The Grapes of Wrath)
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Group 3 – biblical interjections in
English translated as not-biblical interjection
into Russian. In this case the translator
doesn’t omit interjections, but translates them
not with the biblical equivalent. The biblical
interjection translated as verbal, primary,
secondary, vocative, or with other possible type
of interjection.
94. Christ, look at ‘er!
70. Полюбуйтесь-ка. Ну и ну! (The Grapes
of Wrath)
97. ‘By God’ he says, ‘by God, I wisht I was
a doin’ that!’
73. «Эх, говорит, эх, кабы мне так!» (The
Grapes of Wrath)
78. “God Awmighty,” said Joad.
52. – Ох, чтоб тебе! – сказал Джоуд (The
Grapes of Wrath)
Group 4 – biblical interjections in English
translated into Russian with their biblical
analogue. Biblical interjections translated not
with the possible equivalents, but with another
biblical interjections – analogues.
200. “Christ, I don’t know. Jus’ plug away
at her.”
192. – Ей-богу, не знаю. Доползем какнибудь. (The Grapes of Wrath)
339. “Jesus, God, Jeremy. You ain’t got to
tell me.”
353. – Господи владыка, он мне
рассказывает! (The Grapes of Wrath)
Group 5 – no biblical interjections
in English text – biblical interjections in
Russian translation. In this group in English
text we see verbal, primary, secondary,
vocative, or other possible types of interjections,
which are translated into Russian as biblical
interjections.
413. “Oh, my!” Ma said wearily. “Oh, my
dear sweet Lord Jesus asleep in a manger!”
436. – О господи! – устало проговорила
мать. – О господи Иисусе непорочный
младенец! (The Grapes of Wrath)
It is noticeable, that in the commentary to
the original version by V.A. Kukharenko, the
phrase “Oh, my dear sweet Lord Jesus asleep
in a manger!” was translated also with the
biblical interjection – « О боже, невинный и
безгрешный!»
233. “Ah!” he said. “Take the man for what
he means.”
334. – Господи! Не ищи ты в сказанном
больше того, чем там есть, – проговорил он с
легкой досадой. (Lady Chatterley’s Lover)
Group 6 – antonymous translation of the
biblical interjection. Biblical interjections were
translated as biblical interjection but positive
divine beings (God, Lord) or biblical proper
names (Jesus Christ) were changed to the negative
ones (черт, дьвол).
78. “Well, by God? I’m hungry.”
51. – Эх, черт! А я проголодался. (The
Grapes of Wrath)
138. “Holy Jesus,” he said, “them springs is
flat as hell.”
119. – Ах черт! – сказал он. – Рессоры
совсем просели. (The Grapes of Wrath)
142. “God Almighty, the fan belt’s gone!”
124. – А черт! Ремень лопнул у
вентилятора! (The Grapes of Wrath)
As we can see from the examples above,
another characteristic of the translation of the
biblical interjection is that interjectional forms
of the vernacular language were not translated
into Russian (praise Gawd – слава господу, God
Awmighty – ох, чтоб тебе, и др.). According
to A.V. Fedorov (Федоров, 2002), translation
of the vernacular language is one of the most
difficult tasks. But vernacular language is
possible to translate, since «problem of the
vernacular language as one of the most difficult
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in its practical and theoretical aspect…presumes
attentive and careful consideration of interaction
of all the aspects of language, what makes it
possible to convey stylistic originality of the
novel» (Федоров, 2002. С.345).
Very often inaccuracy in translation of
interjections leads to incorrect transmission of
the emotional information of the original text.
This fact influences the way Russian readers
comprehend a book.
Unfortunately, in the considered books about
40% of biblical interjections were not translated
into Russian, 20% of those were translated
incorrectly, and most of them in translation were
replaced by other types of interjections, only some
of them were translated correctly thus conveying
emotional information.
Conclusions and future work
Intertextual elements are quite recognizable
in the text and as we can see from the examples
given, the methods of translation of the biblical
intertextual elements in fiction can vary
according to the type of the element (idiom,
quotation, interjection). Despite this there are
some common features in translation: all the
elements can be translated with its equivalent,
analogue or omitted.
References
1.
2.
3.
Ахманова О.С. Словарь лингвистических терминов. – М.: Едиториал УРСС, 2004. – 576 с.
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13. Джеймс Г. Женский портрет/ Пер. с англ. М.А. Шерешевской, Л.Е. Поляковой. – М.: Наука,
1984. – 589 с.
14. Драйзер Т. Американская трагедия/ Пер.с англ. Норы Галь, З. Вершининой. – М.: НФ
«Пушкинская библиотека», ООО «Издательство АСТ», 2003. – 907 с.
15. Лоуренс Д. Г. Любовник леди Чаттерли/ Пер.с анг. И. Багрова и М. Литвиновой. – СПб.:
Азбука-классика, 2007. – 448 с.
16. Стейнбек Д. Гроздья гнева/ Пер. с англ. Н. Волжиной. Собр. соч. в 6 т. Том III. – М.:
Издательство «Правда», 1989. – 480 с.
17. T. Dreiser «An American Tragedy». (– M.: «Foreign Languages Publishing House», 1951). –
753p.
18. T. Hardy «Tess of the D’Ubervilles.» (– Bungay: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd., 1967). –
446p.
19. H. James «The Portrait of a Lady». (– London: Marshall Cavendish Ltd., 1987). – 576p.
20. D.H. Lawrence «Lady Chatterley’s Lover». (– London: Penguin Books, 1994). – 365p.
21. J. Steinbeck «The Grapes of Wrath». (– M.: Progress Publishers, 1978). – 530p.
Интертекстуальные элементы и методы их перевода
Н.В. Климович
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а
Исследования интертекста и интертекстуальности довольно популярны на современном этапе
развития лингвистики. Исследователи посвящают свои работы видам интертекстуальных
элементов в текстах различных типов, источникам их происхождения, а также основным
стратегиям перевода данных единиц. Среди основных источников происхождения
интертекстуальных элементов исследователи чаще всего отмечают текст Священного
Писания. Элементы библейского текста (слова, фразеологические единицы, цитаты) одни из
наиболее часто используемых в текстах различных типов. В случае их перевода мы зачастую
сталкиваемся с неверными стратегиями их передачи, которые не только влияют на понимание
и опознавание интертекстуальных элементов русскоязычным читателем, но и затрудняют
общее понимание текста оригинала на русском языке.
Ключевые слова: интертекстуальные элементы; интертекст; прототекст; метатекст;
фразеологическая единица; цитата; прямая цитата; измененная цитата; междометия;
междометия библейского характера; методы перевода.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 518-525
~~~
УДК 81.33
Phonosemantic and Phonostylistic Phenomena
in Turkish Literary Text as a Translation Problem
Ekaterina M. Feytelberg*
Siberian Federal University
82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
Linguistic iconism, though frequently mentioned by modern linguists, is still unexplored within the
framework of translation theory. To work out a strategy that could be applied to iconic units in literary
text it should be regarded from the point of view of an integrative approach. This article is an attempt to
consider phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena in Turkish literary text from a point of view of
a new approach that would take into consideration not only semantic meaning of the unit , but also the
function it performs, its composition and type. The author suggests the definitions of phonosemantics
and phonostylistics and analyses the cases of their role in the literary text. The article deals with such
phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena as onomatopoeia, sound symbolism, sound metaphor,
alliteration and assonance. This article represents a base for composing a new strategy of dealing with
iconic lexical units.
Keywords: translation, translation problems, equivalence, adequacy, literary text, Turkish language,
phonosemantics, phonostylistics, onomatopoeia, sound symbolism, sound metaphor, alliteration,
assonance.
Point of view
Translation of any literary text is a very
challenging task for a translator. Possessing
a unique esthetic value, literary translation
requires not only good knowledge of source
and target languages, but other competences
that are vital for interpretation of the stylistic
means used by author. For the literary text
translation to be adequate, it has to convey the
techniques the author used both intentionally and
unintentionally to have an influence upon the
reader. Phonosemantic and phonostylistic means
are also an integral part of the figurative system
of the literary text, therefore they have to be
carefully transferred into the target text.
*
1
But, as S.V. Voronin has repeatedly said, for
translators «linguistic iconism (onomatopoeia and
sound symbolism) has always been something of
a stepchild. Translation theory was never aware of
it as a problem in its own right» (Voronin, 1990).
But, in fact, it should be considered as a problem,
because avoiding and omitting phonosemantic
and phonostylistic units may result in considerable
distortion of its stylistic effect. Voronin and Pago
emphasize, that «iconic words are not only words
that are felt to possess a phonetically motivated
tie between sound and sense – iconic, too, are
all those countless words where, in the course
of historical development, this tie has become
obscured but where it can be uncovered with the
Corresponding author E-mail address: yekaterina@list.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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aid of etymological analysis» (Voronin, 1990;
Voronin, Pago, 1995). It is worth mentioning that
not only etymologically iconic words can have
phonosemantic and phonostylistic meaning; in
certain literary contexts non-iconic words can
become phonosemantically or phonostylistically
relevant.
The object of this study is not onomatopoeia
or iconic words in Turkish literary text, but
phonosemantic and phonostylistic phenomena,
i.e. realization of the iconic words within the
framework of the figurative system of the literary
text. To further this research it is necessary to
differentiate the two terms.
Phonosemantics investigates the vast
domain of linguistic iconism (as instanced by
onomatopoeia and sound symbolism and the
sound/sense link in a word. From the point of
view of the iconic system’s chief property, the
aim of phonosemantics would be the study of
iconism as the indispensable, essential, recurrent
and relatively stable non-arbitrary phonetically
(primarily) motivated tie between of the
phonemes of the word and the property of the
denotatum that serves as the basis for nomination
(Voronin, 1990). It is a science on the joint of
phonetics, semantics and lexicology, its object is
iconic system of the language in pantopochrony.
In short, the present research phonosemantic
effect or phonosemantic phenomena refers more
to semantization of the sounding of the literary
text than to its stylistic properties.
Phonostylistics studies expressive properties
and stylistic potential of sounding words and word
combinations together with rhythmic, syntactic,
semantic and lexical realization of the text. It is
situated on the joint of stylistics and phonetics.
Speaking about phonostylistic phenomena we
mean iconic and non-iconic means of language
that due to their sounding shape can be relevant
for the realization of the esthetic and expressive
functions of literary text.
Discriminating
phonosemantics
and
phonostylistics is essential from the point of view
of translation theory, because for phonosemantics,
a translation unit is a lexical unit (iconic or noniconic), while for phonostylistics a translation
unit is usually a unit of higher level, up to the
literary text as a whole.
The next step after defining phonostylistics
and phonosemantics is examining the realization
of phonostylistic and phonosemantic features
in iconic and non-iconic lexical units. As
mentioned above, in literary text etymologically
non-iconic words can be phonostylistically or
phonosemantically relevant; it should be also
taken into consideration that sometimes iconic
words are not perceived by a modern speaker
as such and can be revealed only with the help
of ethymological analysis. To overcome these
complications, the basic points of the research
can be listed as follows:
1) In certain contexts, non-iconic lexical
units can be phonosemantically and/or
phonostylistically relevant;
2) In most cases etymologically iconic
lexical units bare phonosemantic or
phonostylistic meaning;
3) Any phonosemantically relevant linguistic
unit also refers to phonostylistic meaning
of the text;
4) Semantization of phonostylistic figures
on the phonosemantic level is not
obligatory.
The main conclusion of this article is that
for performing adequate literary translation,
a translator has to be able to differentiate
between phonosemantics and phonostylistics,
to identify the function and the message of each
phonosemantically or/and phonostylistically
relevant linguistic unit in the literary text. The
present approach to literary translation enables
the translator to transfer the intentional expressive
techniques applied by the author into a target text.
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Examples
Within the framework of this research,
a wide range of Turkish literary texts has been
analyzed. Among them there are such pieces of
modern Turkish literature as «Istanbullular» by
Buket Uzuner, «Masumiyet Müzesi» and «Öteki
Renkler» by Orhan Pamuk, and such bright
example of classic Turkish literature of the XX
century as «Çalıkuşu» by Reşat Nuri Güntekin
and humorous stories by a brilliant Turkish
satirist Aziz Nesin.
From the point of view of phonostylistics
and phonosemantics, the problems of translation
can be caused by the following phenomena:
1. Onomatopoeia. Achieving equivalence
on the level of onomatopoetic words is a basic
problem a translator usually faces (Voronin,
Ermakova, 1991) Vlakhov S. and Florin S.
in their book «Непереводимое в переводе»
(«Untranslatable in Translation») refer to
onomatopoetic words as to words with no direct
equivalents in other languages (Vlakhov, Florin,
1986). Nevertheless, some linguists have noticed
that onomatopes in different languages have
much in common. In Turkey the author of formal
classification of onomatopes, Hamza Zülfikar,
wrote that «People who speak different languages
give more or less the same names to the sounds
of nature, because the easiest and natural ways
to express this or that sound and very alike. The
differences between onomatopes in different
languages can arise in the process of secondary
onomatopes derivation, but it is still possible
to find similarities on the primary onomatopes
level» (Zülfikar, 1995). In Russia the postulate
about the translation of onomatopes belongs to
the founder of phonosemantics, S.V. Voronin.
S.V. Voronin and N.M. Ermakova have proved
that there are no such drastic differences between
onomatopes in different languages; applying
universal phonosemantic classification by S.V.
Voronin enables us to predict the structure of the
onomatope in the target language in 90% of cases
(Voronin, Ermakova, 1991). Due to the universal
phonosemantic classification this problem of
translation can be practically solved. To illustrate
this, we can turn to one of the onomatope classes
defined by S.V. Voronin. Instants are onomatopes
that designate pulses (the pulse is an instant sound
like a tap, tick, click or knock) (Voronin, 1982). Ex
facte, instants in different languages look diverse,
but this diversity is in fact hidden similarity;
phonetic analysis shows that their construction
is isomorphic and can be represented as follows
(PLOS = plosive, AFFR = affricate, VOC = short
vowel):
PLOS
VOC PLOS
AFFR
As emphasized by S.V. Voronin, the
sounds of the phonemotype tend to be pulselike themselves; hence plosives (as well as
affricates) in onomatopes designating pulses are
not purely phonetical, they are «semantically
loaded» (Voronin, 1990). So, having defined
the phonemotype of the present onomatope, it
is possible to predict its equivalent in the target
language, so that its phonetic construction
corresponds to the phonemotype scheme.
Onomatopes of this phonemotype are present
in the following examples:
İstanbul matbuatı ateş etmeye hazır bir
batarya vaziyetinde, benden küçük bir işaret
üzerine bam!... bum!... (Güntekin, 2000). Firstly,
the words are certainly etymologically and
semantically iconic, it is fixed in the onomatopes
dictionary by Hamza Zülfikar (Zülfikar, 1995);
secondly, their phonemotype totally corresponds
to the that of an instant as described by S.V. Voronin
as it consists of the plosive /b/, short vowels /a/
and /u/, and, finally, plosive /m/. The sentence
is translated into Russian as: Стамбульская
пресса, как артиллерийская батарея,
находится в боевой готовности. Стоит мне
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подать маленький знак – и бах!... бух!... The
phonemotype of the Russian onomatope can ve
desctibed just like the Turkish one in the source
text, except for the final /kh/ instead of a plosive
sound. So, in general the phonemotype of the
word in both source and target languages remains
isomorphic.
The next example contains an onomatope
derived from a primary onomatope, according
to to classification by Hamza Zülfikar) (Zülfikar,
1995). Having an iconic origin, this derived
word also has to be treated as an onomatope,
with a phonemotype of an instant. Bu yay, asabî
parmaklarım arasında birdenbire çatladı, iki
parça oldu (Güntekin, 2000). The iconic verb
çatla- is derived from the onomatope çat, which
means «a sound of a fragile object breaking»
(Zülfikar, 1995); its direct Russian equivalent
is хруст – хрустеть, which does not only
correspond to its lexical meaning, but also to its
phonemotype. So, the sentence is translated into
Russian as В моих нервных пальцах смычок
вдруг хрустнул и разломился надвое.
2. Sound symbolic lexical units that do not
correspond with a sounding denotatum. Sound
symbolism is always a phonostylistic phenomena;
contributing to the semantization of the sounding
of the literary text, sound symbolism can often
become phonosemantically relevant itself. The
translation of sound symbolic elements can cause
more problems than onomatopoeia because the
phenomenon of sound symbolism is vaguer and
less explored than onomatopoeia; in the majority
of cases it is almost impossible to apply any certain
technique to the translation of sound symbolism.
Though there is a way of dealing with it. Firstly,
it is necessary to identify the function performed
by the sound symbolic unit in the text. The
translation technique depends most of all on the
function. If it is impossible to find a direct sound
symbolic equivalent in target language, then the
sound symbolic effect can be compensated in
another part of the sentence, it can be translated
descriptively or be substituted by onomatopoeia.
Some problems that arise during translation of
sound-symbolic elements in literary text are
presented in the following examples:
‘Böyle bir rezilin çıktğı köyü Allah yerle bir
eder elbet bigün... deyip mutfağa savuştu. Emin
Hoca’nın dudakları kıpır kıpır. İyice yalvardım:
‘Emin Hoca emmi... Kurban olayım...’ – Конечно,
в один прекрасный день Аллах сотрет с лица
земли деревню, из которой вышел столь
недостойный человек! – сказала она и скрылась
на кухне. Губы Эмина-ходжи мелко-мелко
задрожали. Я взмолился: «Эмин-ходжа,
дядюшка… Ну прошу тебя…» (Nesin, electronic
source). In this example finding a sound-symbolic
equivalent to the word combination kıpır kıpır
was both possible and relevant from the point of
view of the quality of translation. But in some
situations it is obligatory to find another way of
conveying the meaning of the sound-symbolic
unit that does not have a direct equivalent in the
target text. For example, in this case the translator
managed to take advantage from reduplication.
Unlike Turkish language, in which reduplicated
lexical units are very frequent and productive, in
Russian they occur less often, consequently they
are more exressively and stylistically marked than
reduplicated lexical units in Turkish language.
The next example is taken from «Masumiyet
Müzesi» («Museum of Innocence») by Orhan
Pamuk, whose style is famous for a special
«oriental» style of narrating, very picturesque
and metaphoric. Dışarıda, İstanbul’da bahar
günlerine özgü o pırıl pırıl gök vardı (Pamuk,
2008). Epithet pırıl pırıl is sound-symbolic, it
does not refer to a sounding denotatum, but
its phonetic shape feels like a sound effect,
an essential element of the phonostylistic and
phonosemantic system of the text. In fact, it
has a non-iconic and non-symbolic synonym
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parlak, and being replaced with it, the epithet
could have dramatically change the image of
the utterance. So, the sound symbolic effect can
be compensated in the translation by means of
additional lexical units, like Небо было таким
ослепительно сияющим, каким оно бывает
только в Стамбуле весной.
3. Sound metaphor, according to the
definition by Yu. Lotman, is «any equalization
of one sound complex to another, like rhyme
and different kinds of sound repetitions. Sound
metaphor binds phonetic phenomena in a person’s
mind by means of association that generates
emotional influence, anticipated and directed by
the author» (Prokofyeva, 2009). Sound metaphor
is widely used in Turkish literary text. Due to the
firm principle or Turkish writing, sound metaphor
is frequently accompanied by occasional changes
and distortions of spelling. Thereby it is possible to
claim, that in Turkish literary text sound metaphor
is situated on the joint between phonosemantics
and phonostylistics. In most cases the function
it performs in literary text is figurative function,
which means that it enables the reader to «hear»
the scene as the author imagines it. This technique
can cause serious problems for the translator.
Martı yağmurda, damın üstünde hiçbir şey
olmamış gibi duruyor. Sanki yağmur yağmıyor;
her zamanki gibi kıpırdamadan duruyor. Ya da
martı bir büyük filozof, aldırmıyor. Öyle duruyor.
Damın üstünde. Yağmur yağıyor. Öyle duran
martı da sanki şöyle düşünüyor: ‘Biliyorum,
biliyorum, yağıyor; ama yapacak fazla bir şey
yok.’ Ya da: ‘Evet, yağmur yağıyor, ama bunun
ne önemi var’ (Pamuk, 1999). In this example
not only the words roots themselves, but also
grammatic affixes become phonostylistically
relevant. The author takes advantage from
several factors: firstly, the word yağmur «rain»
is usually used together with verb yağmak «to
rain»; due to being paronymous and consisting
mostly of vowels, their combination yağmur
yağıyor sounds melodious and soft. In the quoted
extract the word combination yağmur yağıyor
is repeatedly accompanied by verbs in the form
of Present tense with the suffix –yor-, which
also contributes to the phonostylistic pattern
of the text, creating its rhythm and melody.
Another reason for the suffix –yor- to possess
the phonosemantic meaning is the fact that it is
untypical for a Turkish word to have sound /o/ in
the end of the word; etymologically this suffix
originates from a separate verb that meant «to go»,
but gradually transformed into the Present Tense
suffix. So, frequent repetition of this grammatical
form can have a specific phonosemantic sounding
in the literary text. Translating this extract into
Russian using only ordinary verbs in Present
tense is not enough, it requires a special strategy
to recreate the meditative mood of the scene.
Чайка сидит на крыше под дождем, будто
ничего не случилось. Сидит под дождем не
шевелясь, как будто дождя нет. Или эта
чайка – великий философ, она не придает
дождю значения. Так и сидит. На крыше
и под дождем. А дождь идет и идет. И
кажется, будто чайка думает так: «Знаю,
знаю, дождь, но ведь ничего с этим поделать
нельзя». Или так: «Да, дождь идет, и чего в
этом такого?». Exaggerated repetitiveness of
the word дождь «rain», the frequency of hissing
sounds and reduplications идет и идет, знаю,
знаю help to create the meditative rhythm of the
scene and make the whole extract sound close to
rustling of raindrops.
Another example of sound metaphor can be
seen in a story by Turkish satirist Aziz Nesin.
In satiric writing and other types of humorous
text such phonosemantic techniques can be quite
frequent for not only conveying the emotions of
the characters or creating the atmosphere of the
situation, but also to contribute some expression
and humour into the text. Dişlerimi sıka sıka,
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yumruğumu vura vura, kalemi bastıra bastıra
yazdığım yazılan hatırlayıp birden kendimden
korkmaya başladım (Nesin, electronic source). In
this sentence the sound metaphor is represented
by the rhythm of reduplicated word combinations.
Reduplication itself is widely used in Turkish
expressive speech, mostly in colloquial speech
and literary text. In literary text this reduplication
has dual nature: on one hand, grammatically it is
just another way of deriving adverbial participle,
but due to their reduplicated nature they are
also expressively marked; on the other hand,
reduplication also contributes a special sound
effect to the text, creating the sound metaphor.
Russian language doesn’t have such a mechanism
of contributing expression into the utterance by
grammatical means. So, in Russian translation
we have nothing to do but compensate the lack of
grammatical and reduplicative means by lexical
ones. Вспомнив, сколько всего я написал, со
злостью сжимая зубы, колотя от ярости
кулаком по столу, с силой нажимая на ручку,
мне стало страшно.
4. Alliteration and assonance, that
are repetitions of similar sounds and their
combinations, can refer both to phonosemantic
and phonostylistic phenomena. Even though
occurrence of alliteration and assonance is more
typical for poetry than for prose, sometimes
writers turn to these techniques to add more
expressiveness to the utterance, or to create
an unusual stylistic and phonosemantic effect.
Contributing to creating the mood and the
atmosphere of the piece, they can help the reader
imagine the scene better, to «hear» it with their
«inner ear», like in the following example: İki yaşlı
kadın daha birbirini görür görmez ağlaşmaya
başladılar. Ağlayıp kucaklaştılar, kucaklaşıp
ağlaştılar.<…> Rezzan Hanım’ın ilk sözü, ‘Ooh,
kana kana ağladım da ferahladım <…>’ demek
oldu (Nesin, electronic source). The only iconic
word in the extract is ağlamak «to cry»; but it is
not always expressively marked because it does
not have a non-iconic synonym. In this context,
accompanied by other words, also rich in sound
/a/, it makes assonance occur. The translator’s
task is to preserve this phenomenon in the
target text or replace it with another expressive
technique of equal value. Только увидев друг
друга, две старушки разрыдались. Рыдали
и обнимались, обнимались и рыдали… После
чего Резан-ханым сказала: «Ох, вот я вдоволь
наревелась и мне стало легче». This variant
of translation is conditioned by several factors:
firstly, Russian verb плакать, unlike Turkish
ağlamak, is not iconic, and unlike Turkish, it
has expressively marked synonims рыдать
and реветь. Secondly, none of the Russian
equivalents of the verb ağlamak can accompany
the verb обнимать (kucaklaşmak, to hug) with
the effect of assonance. So, to compensate
the expressive markedness of the phrase, the
translator turned to another technique and took
advantage of the variety of Russian synonyms
for the verb to cry.
An interesting example of alliteration is
represented in a short story by Aziz Nesin «Ben
Bir Copum» («I am a Truncheon»). Ben bir copum!
<…> Amerika’dan buraya önce demokrasi geldi,
sonra cip, arkadan da cop, yani ben geldim.
Ciple cop, biz ikimiz demokrasinin açtığı yoldan
geldik. – Я джоп, резиновая дубинка! <…> Из
Америки к вам пришла сначала демократия,
потом джипы, потом я. Мы, джип и джоп,
приехали к вас в одной упаковке с демократией
(Nesin, 1976). The word cop «truncheon» is not
etymologically iconic, it is adopted from Persian
(Nişanyan, electronic source). Nevertheless,
its phonetic shape makes it associated with the
sound of a truncheon blow and this similarity was
taken use of. Due to its alliteration with the word
cip «jeep» it stands out in the text and can not
be omitted in the process of translation without
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distorting the stylistic image of the text. So,
preserving the word cop in the target text looks
like the best solution as it attracts the readers’
attention both with its contrast with other Russian
words and its phonetic shape.
Results
The results at this stage of research can be
formulated as follows: the specific character
of the literary text presupposes a special role
for etymologically iconic, or occasionally
phonosemantically
and
phonostylistically
loaded linguistic units. Every phonosemantically
relevant unit is a part of phonostylistic and
stylistic system of the literary text and it requires
a careful approach to its translation. An ability
to recognize a phonosemantic element, to assess
its value in the text, to identify its function
within the framework of the literary text and
to convey its meaning into the target text is
vital for preserving the stylistic uniqueness
of the text, the individual style of its author.
The techniques chosen for the translation of
this or that phonosemantic or phonostylistic
phenomena may vary from direct equivalents
to compensation, descriptive translation and
functional translation. The aim of the translator
in this case is conveying not only the message,
but also the image of the text, its mood and
atmosphere, its sound and sense.
It means that literary translator has to be
competent in phonosemantics and phonostylistics
in order to be able to perform phonosemantic
analysis of the literary text.
References
1.
2.
3.
Güntekin Reşat Nuri. Akşam Güneşi (İstanbul: İnkilap, 2000), in Turkish.
Güntekin Reşat Nuri. Çalıkuşu (İstanbul: İnkilap, 2000), in Turkish.
Nesin Aziz. Stories for you. Translated by L. Dudina (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literatur,
1976), in Russian.
4. Nesin Aziz. Vatan Sağolsun [Electronic source]. – www.franklang.ru, in Turkish.
5. Nişanyan S. Sözlerin Soyağacı [Electronic source]. – http://www.nisanyansozluk.com, in
Turkish
6. Pamuk Orhan. Öteki Renkler: Seçme Yazılar ve Bir Hikaye. (İstanbul: İletişim Yayıncılık A.Ş.,
1999), in Turkish.
7. Pamuk Orhan. Masumiyet Müzesi. (İstanbul: İletişim Yayıncılık A.Ş., 2008), in Turkish.
8. Prokofyeva L.P. Sound-colour associativity in language conscience and in literary text: universal,
national and individual aspects, a dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor Litterarum
(Saratov, 2009), in Russian.
9. Vlakhov S., Florin S. Untranslatable in Translation. (Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1986), in
Russian.
10. Voronin S.V. Fundamentals of Phonosemantics. (Leningrad:Leningrad University Press, 1982), in
Russian.
11. Voronin Stanislav. Phonosemantics and Translation, in Translation and Meaning, Part 2. :
Proceedings of the Łódź Session of the 1990 Maastricht-Łódź Duo Colloquium on «Translation
and Meaning», Held in Łódź, Poland, 20-22 September 1990. (Łódź, 1990).
12. Voronin S.V., Ermakova N.M. To the problem of equivalence in translation (based on english
onomatopoetic words), in Informational-Communicative aspects of translation: interacademic
research collection (Nizhniy Novgorod, 1991), in Russian.
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13. Voronin S.V., Pago A.D. Equivalence in translation and iconic lexical units (semiotic approach),
in The problems of English language structure in synchrony and diachrony : issue 7, «English
Phylology in translational and comparative aspects» (Saint-Petersburg: Saint-Petersburg
University Press, 1995), in Russian.
14. Zülfikar Hamza. Türkçede Ses Yansımalı Kelimeler. İnceleme-Sözlük. (Ankara, 1995), in
Turkish.
Фоносемантические и фоностилистические явления
в турецком художественном тексте
как переводческая проблема
Е.М. Фейтельберг
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр.Свободный, 82а
Несмотря на то, что многие современные лингвисты говорят о звукоизобразительности в
языке, она до сих пор практически не изучена в контексте теории перевода. Для того чтобы
выработать переводческую стратегию, которую можно было бы применять в художественном
переводе, необходимо рассматривать звукоизобразительность с точки зрения интегративного
подхода. Эта статья представляет собой попытку рассмотреть функционирование, состав и
тип фоносемантических и фоностилистических явлений в турецком художественном тексте.
Автором предложены определения фоносемантики и фоностилистики, дан анализ их значения
в художественном тексте. В статье рассматриваются такие явления, как звукоподражание,
звукосимволизм, звуковая метафора, аллитерация и ассонанс.
Ключевые слова: перевод, проблемы перевода, эквивалентность, адекватность, художественный
текст, турецкий язык, фоносемантика, фоностилистика, звукоподражание, звукосимволизм,
звуковая метафора, аллитерация, ассонанс.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 526-535
~~~
УДК 316.772.5
Russian Blogosphere as a Public Sphere
Maria A. Pipenko*
Ulyanovsk State University
42 Lva Tolstogo, Ulyanovsk, 432970 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article observes several ways in which Russian bloggers express their civic position by using
Internet options and use blogosphere as a public spere.. Evolutionally, it describes how the Internet
has changed the behavior of usually politically passive users of Russian cyberspace. Several cyber
events that from the author point’s of view describes the evolution of development of self consciousness
of Russian bloggers are presented in chronological order: the first ( and the only) Internet conference
with President Vladimir Putin which occurred in Summer 2006, a cyber war with Estonia in April-May
2007, a cyber war with distributors of Biologically Active Addings in October 2007, it also mentions
a cyber war with Georgia during the military actions in Summer 2008, and two cases when simple
bloggers used the blogosphere recourse to resist the system. It analyzes how in situation of total lack
of attention of politicians to the population everyday problems and the level of state corruption, blogs
are the only way to catch an eye of authorities and make them act, when usual means do not work. It
all proves that with the help of Internet tools, average users can become a significant power, having an
ability to influence different political and social events.
Keywords: Internet activity, blogs, Runet, cyberwars, political activity, civic activity, blogosphere,
youth, Internet studies, Cybersociology.
Point of view
Despite significant development of Internet
space in Russia, the potential of new media space
as an area for political activity has not yet been
completely evaluated. However, the role of mobile
media in organizing political collective action
has manifested itself worldwide through the
following: coordination of street demonstrations
(which, in the Philippines and Spain, some have
asserted contributed directly to the downfall of
regimes), monitoring elections, and augmenting
the get-out-and-vote campaigns in both Western
countries and Asia. The use of mobile telephony
and SMS, both by themselves and in coordination
with Internet tools such as listservs, blogs, and
*
1
online fundraising is still young, but has had
significant impacts in the world. [H.Rheingold,
2003].
Proper use of the Internet may change the
predictable results of elections. In addition, as an
arrangement of political powers, it may destroy
business or political careers. An example of such
Internet potential is a story of American senator
Trent Lott.
On December 5, 2002, during the reception
in honor of the 100th birthday of senator James
Strom Thurmond, who was known for his racist
views and political projects against the black
population in the US, the republican senator
Trent Lott said: “When Strom Thurmond ran for
Corresponding author E-mail address: alfi na@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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president, we voted for him. We’re proud of it.
And if the rest of the country had followed our
lead, we wouldn’t have had all these problems
over the years either.” [Hewitt 2001].
Even though there were a lot of press
representatives at this reception, no journalists
except ABC news reporter Ed O’Keefe paid
attention to these words. ABC news mentioned
Lott’s comments twice the following morning,
but didn’t emphasize it. This story might have
died if popular blogger Atrios didn’t post it in his
blog, which triggered a chain reaction of cross
postings and discussions. In three days, the whole
blogosphere was discussing the racist remarks of
Lott, puzzled by the absence of any reaction from
the republicans and printed media [Hewitt 2001].
On the tenth of December, Lott finally
apologized and the story was printed on the front
pages of newspapers, including the links and
quotes of bloggers. As a consequence, Lott was
destroyed as a politician. Although he stayed in
the US senate, he lost all support, including the
support of the republican party.
This example shows that with the rise of
Internet media, especially the blogosphere, cycle
and dynamics of information distribution have
changed dramatically. As a result, institutionalized
media channels have lost their peculiarity. It
is now no longer necessary to have special
equipment for broadcasting for creating a major
media event. As it turns out, Internet access is
all you need. Certainly, there are blog “stars” and
“authorities,” whose blogs are read by thousands
of subscribers. Because of this, their chance to
be heard is slightly higher than a chance of an
ordinary blogger. However, if there is a real story
that is considered significant by most of the users,
an average blogger may become reason enough
for a cyberwar (the proof follows).
In the world of “traditional” media, the
news about the senator was broadcasted once
on primetime and wasn’t repeated. Without the
Internet, the news would disappear, but because
of the opportunity to copy and paste the original
link and express one’s opinion, users could gain
the attention of the public and printed media.
So , new technologies become a sphere
where people express their their views on
different questions, including their political and
civic positions, in other words- public sphere, a
phenomenon that was minutely studied by Jurben
Habermas. He focused on political participation
as the core of a democratic society and as an
essential element in individual self-development.
According to Habermas, public sphere as a
space where citizens could express their opinion
regarding social life concerns began appearing
around 1700. The public sphere consisted of
organs of information and political debate such as
newspapers and journals, as well as institutions of
political discussion such as parliaments, political
clubs, literary salons, public assemblies, pubs and
coffee houses, meeting halls, and other public
spaces where socio-political discussion took
place. For the first time in history, individuals and
groups could shape public opinion, giving direct
expression to their needs and interests while
influencing political practice. The bourgeois
public sphere made it possible to form a realm
of public opinion that opposed state power and
the powerful interests that were coming to
shape bourgeois society. Habermas’s concept
of the public sphere thus described a space of
institutions and practices between the private
interests of everyday life in civil society and
the realm of state power. The public sphere thus
mediates between the domains of the family and
the workplace – where private interests prevail -and the state which often exerts arbitrary forms
of power and domination. What Habermas called
the “bourgeois public sphere” consisted of social
spaces where individuals gathered to discuss their
common public affairs and to organize against
arbitrary and oppressive forms of social and
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public power. The principles of the public sphere
involved an open discussion of all issues of general
concern in which discursive argumentation was
employed to ascertain general interests and the
public good. The public sphere thus presupposed
freedoms of speech and assembly, a free press,
and the right to freely participate in political
debate and decision-making (Kellner, 1998).
In the contemporary high-tech societies
there is emerging a significant expansion and
redefinition of the public sphere to conceive
of the public sphere as a site of information,
discussion, contestation, political struggle, and
organization that includes the broadcasting media
and new cyberspaces as well as the face-to-face
interactions of everyday life. ( Kellner 1995).
Electronic modes of communication
are creating new public spheres of debate,
discussion, and information; that’s why usually
politically passive people start not only discuss
the relevant questions but also undertake some
actions that they had never done before, thanks
to easy access and simple organization of the
blogosphere. The rise of the Internet expands the
realm for democratic participation and debate
and creates new public spaces for political
intervention. Computers, have produced new
public spheres and spaces for information, debate,
and participation that contain both the potential
to invigorate democracy and to increase the
dissemination of critical and progressive ideas as
well as new possibilities for manipulation, social
control, the promotion of conservative positions,
and intensifying of differences between haves
and have nots (Kelner, 1998).
Russian cyberspace has recently become
an arena for political activity of both official
and unofficial powers, but it might be more
clearly seen as a specific feature of how ordinary
Russian users express their civil position online.
It is remarkable that the structure, ways of
communication, and activity of the Internet
make that expression much easier. Moreover,
the Internet world offers original methods of the
“problem impact” that are extremely attractive
to a large part of RuNet users, including young,
educated professionals. When RuNet users
started to participate in mass actions, they did it
with great pleasure and for fun. Russian language
speakers transfer their sense of humor to many
political and civic actions, a humor that is created
and supported on the Internet.
Examples
In this article, I would like to describe
several cyber events that can be considered as an
evolutional line, and reflect on the development
of ways, methods, and results of civic activity
expression by Russian Internet users. You will see,
how the whole attitude to the blogs has changed.
Starting with innocent flash mobs, then using
the whole power of social media collaboration,
users finally realized, that blogosphere might be
the only space in contemporary Russian media
area, that posses abilities to unite the attempts to
change the things and to express the opinion.
I will introduce the following events: an
Internet conference with Russian President Putin
that happened in Summer 2006, the cyberwar
with Estonia in April-May 2007, the war with
distributors of Biologically Active Addings
(BAA) in October 2007, the cyberwar with
Georgia and fights against the system when
simple users looking for justice grabbed attention
of authorities to punish guilty ones.
In July of 2006, search engine Yandex, the
most popular web portal in RuNet, organized
an Internet conference with Russian President
Vladimir Putin, giving everyone an opportunity
not only to ask the President a question, but to
vote for any question the user liked.
It was declared that the President would
answer the questions that would collect
the maximum number of votes. During the
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conference, the Internet population started to act.
At the end of the conference, 175,895 questions
had been asked. There were 1,259,420 votes in
total.
It is interesting to note that along with
“ordinary” questions about political, economic
and social situations in the country, a large part
of the questions that were asked were absurd
questions such as:
“-Imagine you are an Elf and you are
followed by angry orcs. You have a bow and
arrows. You shoot very well and you are able to
kill one ork with every arrow. The problem is that
you have only five arrows and there are ten orcs
after you. What would you do?” Another question
read,“-Do you hear voices that command you
to kill somebody?” One final question that was
asked was, “Could you tell what you think about
peasant’s log huts?” [Yandex, 2006].
However, the most popular questions that
collected the biggest amounts of votes, 28,424
and 26,602 correspondingly, were:
“Preved Vladimir Vladimirovich, what do
you think about Medved?1” [Yandex 2006]
In addition, “Is the Russian Federation
going to use Huge Fighting Androids to defend
the borders of the country?” [Yandex 2006].
As it turns out, the President didn’t answer
those two questions (and RuNet was really
disappointed), but the tactic expression of civic
position by Russian speaking Internet users was
indicated in them. A lot of the Mass Media didn’t
take these questions seriously, assuming that
1
Medved (from Russian Medved’ (bear)- a character
of RuNet, embodied as antroph-amorphous creature,
looked like a bear. The peak of popularity of this image was in 2006. Its origin is connected with the picture
“Bear Surprise” by John Lurie. On this picture, one can
see a bear, who’s catching a couple, having sex in the
forest, and telling them, “Surprise”, raising forepaws,
wanting to scare them. In Russian version of this picture, the word surprise was replaced by Preved- errative
spelling of Russian friendly greeting (Privet).As a result the gesture of upraised paws got absolutely different
meaning [Wikipedia 2006].
this was another flash-mob. But it may also be
viewed as an attempt to express the real feelings
and the mood of RuNet users toward political
authorities. By declaring themselves as a group
that exists and has certain resources, RuNet users
are saying: “We are not interested in politics. We
do not believe that you will treat us seriously. But
if we can have fun, we will, and if we can have
fun with authorities, we will. That’s the way we
are dealing with this.”
Although authorities didn’t react to this
way of thinking (showing that politics in Russia
is spoken with stricter “official” language), this
event was widely discussed on the Internet, and
showed users the potential of expressing civic
opinion. This idea was further proved nine
months later.
In April 2007, the Government of Estonia
decided to dismantle the bronze statue of a
World War II-era Soviet soldier in Tallin. As
a result, this caused riots and street protests in
Russia as well as in Estonia. Estonian authorities
expected this; they also expected some reaction
on the Internet. “If there are fights on the street,
there are going to be fights on the Internet,”
said Hillar Aarelaid, the director of Estonia’s
Computer Emergency Response Team [Landler,
Markoff 2007]. However, Estonia’s government
didn’t expect that the actions that followed were
what some described later as the fi rst war in
cyberspace.
While the defenders of the Bronze soldier
kept vigil by the monument, Internet fields faced
their own battles. By the end of April, there was
the first massive attack on the websites of the
Estonia Government. In different websites and
weblogs on RuNet, there was a message with
detailed descriptions on how to make 10,000
queries from one user as well as emails from
the prime minister and Parliament. As a result,
on the 26th and 27th of April, prime minister and
government websites were shut down.
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The websites of the several daily newspapers
were ruined on the 30th of April. Afterwards, the
government of Estonia asked for help, expecting
the biggest attack on the ninth and/or tenth of
May (the national Russian holiday, also known
as Victory day. The Russian holiday that marks
the Soviet Union’s defeat of Nazi Germany and
honors fallen Red Army soldiers).
As expected, the attack happened. On the
ninth of May, online banking of the largest Estonia
bank, “Hansabank,” was blocked. Russians used
unprecedented measures of blocking IP addresses
with the help of computer security experts from
NATO, the European Union, Israel and the US.
Despite these efforts, the Estonian bank still
lost approximately $1 million. For clients, this
meant that they couldn’t use their accounts while
abroad.
The last wave of attacks occurred on the
th
18 of May. After that, the war was finally over.
During the investigation, Estonian authorities
surmised that these attacks were managed by the
Russian government, but after additional inquiry,
it was found that the cyberwar was an initiative
of RuNet users.
Although the monument was removed
anyway, Estonia sustained significant financial
losses as well as losses to its reputation, being
absolutely powerless to do something against
“mass Russian hooliganism.”
The third cyber event that had the largest
response out of online users took place in October
2007.
It wasn’t directly connected with politics,
but it was an uncommon expression of the civic
position of the Russian Internet population,
resulting in substantial consequences offline.
On October 12, 2007, a livejournal user
whose nickname was “brockhurst” posted a
story: his mother called him crying, asking for
money to buy a new “miraculous” medicine
“Gravikoll” that was advertised on the radio. The
distributors of the medicine announced discounts
for seniors within limited dates. Because of this,
she needed the money as soon as possible. The
blogger checked the list of Russian medicines,
consulted with his friend’s doctor, and found out
that there was no such miracle medicine, and that
“Gravikoll” was merely a vitamin. After having
read the story, an indignant blogger suggested
that swindlers who made a profit by misleading
seniors, one of the most financially vulnerable
populations in Russia, should be punished.
5000 comments were left to this posting,
and bloggers developed a strategy of the real
war, with the intent of blocking the activity of the
company.
There were several tasks, which included:
- block telephone lines
- use as many delivery men as possible
- attack radio stations who advertised this
“medicine”
- attract the attention of the community,
media and authorities in order to take the
problem to an even higher level
First of all, the company that sold “Gravikoll”
was ruined by the squall of telephone calls.
According to one blogger, “delicateline,” during
two days, distributors of the medicine received 14
million (!) calls [Belkin, 2007].
Telephone operators were asked by callers to
give details about the medicine. When operators
asked them what phone numbers they could call
back at, they received the phone numbers of police
departments, advertising departments of radio
stations that advertised “Gravikoll,” the phones
of the Federal Antimonopoly Department, and
Ministry of Health of Russia.
Users also left posts on websites (such as
adult and apartment rental sites) with the phone
number of the mentioned organization. As a
result, the manufacturer was called for a variety
of different services, including: plumbing, piano
tuning, and escort services.
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To block the delivery service of the company,
bloggers began ordering the medication, and gave
addresses to distant neighborhoods of Moscow
(the whole list of blocking methods could be
found at http://consatosi.livejournal.com/15171.
html). The same methods were used toward the
radio station “Echo of Moscow,” one of the main
advertisers of “Gravikoll”.
Along with the rough methods of blocking
the activity of the company, users started to call
different media and public services.
As a result, the whole activity of the
company that sold the medicine was completely
paralyzed. All basic Internet media and some
printed newspapers posted information about
this company and how it swindled seniors.
The war with “Gravikoll” coincided with the
teleconference of president Putin, causing a
flashmob when Putin was asked when “Gravikoll”
would be included into a basket of goods for
Russians (Belkin 2007).
On the 15th of October, three days after
“brockhurst’s” post, an inquiry was made by
the Federal Antimonopoly Department. The
representatives of the department promised
to institute proceedings against distributors
of biologically active addings in “Gravikoll”
because of violating the law of advertising.
In August of 2008, along with real military
actions on the territory of Southern Osetia,
cyberactions were taken in the Cyberspace.
However, it is necessary to mention that a
cyberwar with Georgia, had a totally different
nature than a Estonia cyberwar. The “fun”
element was completely removed, for the fi rst
time in world history, cyberwar accompanied
real conflict. Nevertheless, the scenario of the
last cyberwar was the same: governmental
websites as well as websites of Mass Media and
banks were under hacker attacks. For example, a
photo collage of the Georgian President Mikheil
Saakashvili and Adolph Hitler was placed by
Russian hackers on the fi rst page of the official
website of Internal Affair of Georgia. This
cyberwar was also noticed by a large amount
of professional hackers who also participated in
the actions. According to experts, these hackers
were connected with the Russian Business
network, a network of criminal computer
professionals with close links to the Russian
mafia and the government. The company is
known for its hosting of child pornography, spam
hosting and other criminal activities. On the 5th
of августа in RBN Exploit blog was declared
that Russian Business Network remembered
about it “Russian” roots and began the Georgian
cyberspace invasion. According to the websites owners, many Georgian web-sites were
controlled by Russian hackers. Several hours
later, a map was presented, according to which
several Russian servers controlled the whole
traffic of the key Georgian servers. Georgian
hackers also participated actively: a famous news
web-site RIA Novosti was blocked more than
for 10 hours. The web site employers declared
that it was a very serious planned attack. The
informational war went far beyond RussianGeorgian cyberspace. The fi rst rate website of IT
links quoted Koka Archvadze: “ Russia blocked
Georgian web-sites for it citizens”. The same
microblog contained other quotes:” Russian
hackers attack every web-page that publish the
real news from precipitable Georgia. (http://
lenta.ru/articles/2008/08/11/hack/).
We can suggest, that this cyberwar was a
turning point in changing the mentality of Russian
users. They finally realized the power of Russian
blogosphere. It turns that with the total lack of
attention to the population everyday problem and
the level of state corruption, blogs are the only
way to catch an eye of authorities and make them
act, when usual means do not work.
Now we can notice another tendency, the
blogosphere becomes a tool for the fight to get
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a personal justice. The following two stories are
a good example of that. It is necessary to notice
that the most recent cases can’t be described as
performed in a fun and criminal style- probably
because the topics are too dramatic.
On the 21 of May, a simple user Alexander
Shumm published in his blog , that his pregnant
wife was knocked down by a car, that didn’t stop
and left the locus delicti. The woman and her
unborn baby died in the hospital. The witnesses
of an accident wrote the license plate of the car.
Soon the driver was found. He was a police officer,
who denied everything. Alexander Shumm tried
to bring an action against the driver but he was
helpless till the blog post appeared. It grabbed
an attention of many people. More than 1000
commentaries were left and users decided to help
Alexander. Livejournal users were looking for
the witnesses, looked thought the street cameras
tapes, and helped the victim with advice. The
case also took an attention of traditional media.
So the news about the accident was presented
into several federal TV-channels, all-Russian
newspapers and radio stations. The driver was
finally taken into the court and an accusation was
brought against him.
For better communication, a special group
was organized in Vkontakte – the most popular
Russian social network. The case is not closed
yet, but the user keeps the readers informed.
(http://ashumm.livejournal.com).
The second story in a certain sense reminds
the first one. It was also connected with the death
of a baby: a perfectly healthy woman was taken
into the hospital, where she gave birth. The
doctors reported to her husband that the child
was absolutely fine but in the evening he found
out that the baby was dead. He was struggling
for two months trying to find out why his son
died but everywhere he faced the situation when
everybody from the hospital to the insurance
company hide the information.
Only when he published the story in the
blog and users raised the post in top stories – he
finally started to get some answers and got local
authorities’ attention who took the investigation
under control. He got an explanation form the
reanimation group, who transported his baby to
the different hospital and received the feedback
of hospital management. This case also raised an
important question- the responsibilities of doctors
in contemporary juridical Russian system (http://
dead-mazay.li vejournal.com/29377.html).
Resume
As you can see, Russian users have become
increasingly confident in their actions. The
Internet conference with Vladimir Putin was
an event that was mainly discussed online and
didn’t draw much attention offline. However, the
cyberwar with Estonia was a different situation.
Though the bronze statue was removed, users
still managed to cripple Estonian government.
Methods that were used were limited to
cyberspace. Furthermore, when RuNet was
fighting with distributors of “Gravikoll,” the
tools were more complicated. Users also used
offline space, and as such they were successful
in achieving results. The work of the company
was blocked, the authorities attention was gained,
and the company was sued. It seems that every
user who has a story that may touch the hearts of
bloggers can rely on the their help.
So, the Internet may play a crucial role in
establishing the relations between authorities
and population and that raise several additional
questions. Why the exact stories become the
center of blogosphere news, when there are many
similar situations are posted? How the access
to such a powerful resource will develop the
social inequality? And how to check the truth of
posted stories if there were already several false
stories of that kind? Somehow or other, the users
permanently develop new strategies to express
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their civic and political position through the
Internet.
As Douglas Kellner writes : the political
battles of the future may well be fought in the
streets, factories, parliaments, and other sites
of past conflict, but politics today is already
mediated by media, computer, and information
technologies and will increasingly be so in
the future. Those interested in the politics and
culture of the future should therefore be clear on
the important role of the new public spheres and
intervene accordingly.
It is hard to conjecture how this feature
could change the dynamics of social, political and
cultural life in Russia. Who will control the media
and technologies of the future, and debates over
the public’s access to media, media accountability
and responsibility, media funding and regulation?
Will the new space be used by Russian political
powers to manipulate Internet users, who might
take advantage of its potential according to
political interests of the ruling party? Could it in
turn be used for coordination and creation of real
cyberwars, using the right methods and ideology
that would be interesting for the active part of
RuNet? The Georgian cyberwar proved that this
was possible. Or will perhaps Runetizens be able
to stay independent, staying out of manipulation
by different political and social forces, defining by
themselves how to react and what events need to
be reacted to. We have to face the fact, that at the
present time, Russian Internet space is a critical
resource with a huge potential for organizing
different political and civic actions.
References
1.
Advesti, FAS will take institute proceedings against advertisers of Gravicol <http://www.advesti.
ru/news/conflict/3122007gravikol>( 12/07) (original in Russian)
2. Alizar A. Blogger psychology: scientific research // webplanet.ru, 23 марта 2004 // http://www.
webplanet.ru/news/internet/2004/3/23/ blog_survey.html (original in Russian)
3. Alizar А. Media against blogs: what is more influential // webplanet.ru, 22 марта 2005 // http://
www.webplanet.ru/news/internet/2005/3/22/btogga.html (original in Russian)
4. Belkin, I., Intelligent and ruthless, <http://lenta.ru/articles/2007/10/15/flashmob/>(15/10/07)
(original in Russian)
5. Vernidub, А. The language has an authEr // Русский Newsweek. № 17 // http:// runewsweek.ru/
theme/?tid=16&rid=215 (original in Russian)
6. Question
to
V.V.
Putin,Yandex
(2006)
<http://president.yandex.ru/question.
xml?id=179523>(02/07/06) (original in Russian)
7. Question to V.V. Putin,Yandex (2006) <http://president.yandex.ru/question.xml?id=155546>
(01/07/06)
8. Question to V.V. Putin,Yandex (2006) (original in Russian)
9. <http://president.yandex.ru/theme.xml?id=151> (30/06/06) (original in Russian)
10. Gornyi Е. Ontology of virtual personality // Existence and language : Thesis of International
conference. Novosibisrk, 2004. p. 78-88 // http://www.zhurnal.ru/staff/gorny/texts/ovr.html
(original in Russian)
11. Zhichkina А. Interrelation of identity and behaviour in the Internet of teenagers // http://flogiston.
ru/articles/netpsy/ avtoref_zhichkina (original in Russian)
12. Kaspe I., Smurnova V. Livejournal.com, Russian version: cry while he is alive // Neprikosnovenny
zapas 2002. № 24. (original in Russian)
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13. Castells M. The Internet galaxy: Reflection on the Internet, business and society, Ekaterinburg,
2004. (original in Russian)
14. Kobrin, К. Praise to blog // http://www.nlo.magazine.ru/dog/gent/ gent86.html (original in
Russian)
15. Kotin M. Blog all mighty // The secret of the firm. 2005. July,25. p. 46-48. (original in Russian)
16. Levit М, « Social activity in the Internet», http://www.grposition.ru/fface/560-socialnajaaktivnost-v-internete.html (original in Russian)
17. Hitrov А. Blog as cultural phenomenon . The journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology.
2007. V. 10. Special edition p. 66-76. (original in Russian)
18. brockhurst (2007) no title,<http://brockhurst.livejournal.com/112937.html> (12/10/07) (original in
Russian)
19. consatosi (2007)Echo of Moscow, BAD and seniors, <http://consatosi.livejournal.com/15171.
html>, (13/10/07) (original in Russian)
20. Hewitt H., (2005) Blog: Understanding the Information Reformation That’s Changing Your World
,Thomas Nelson press.
21. Homero, G., Puig-I-Abril Eulàlia, Rojas Hernando «Weblogs, traditional sources online and
political participation: an assessment of how the internet is changing the political environment»,
New Media & Society, Jun 2009; vol. 11: pp. 553 – 574.
22. Kerbel, M., and Bloom, J. Blog for America and Civic Involvement
Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, Oct 2005; vol. 10: pp. 3 – 27.
23. Kellner, Douglas (1995)Intellectuals and New Technologies,” Media, Culture, and Society, Vol.
17: 201-217
24. Kellner Douglas (1998) Habermas, the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention
25. Landler,M., Markoff, J. Digital Fears Emerge After Data Siege in Estonia, <http://www.nytimes.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
com/2007/05/29/technology/29estonia.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin> (29/05/ 07)
Lawson-Borders, G., Kirk R., «Blogs in Campaign Communication». American Behavioral
Scientist, Dec 2005; vol. 49: pp. 548 – 559.
MacDougall, R., «Identity, Electronic Ethos, and Blogs: A Technologic Analysis of Symbolic
Exchange on the New News Medium». American Behavioral Scientist, Dec 2005; vol. 49:
pp. 575 – 599.
Rhiengold, H., (2006) Mobile Media and Political Collective Action <http://www.socialtext.net/
data/workspaces/pmca/attachments/smart_mobs:20070622223922-0-2989/original/Political%20
Smart%20Mobs%208_06.doc> (02/03/06)
Thurman, N., «Forums for citizen journalists? Adoption of user generated content initiatives by
online news media», New Media & Society, Feb 2008; vol. 10: pp. 139 – 157.
Wikipedia, Medved, <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%E5%E4%E2%E5%E4>, (27/06/06).
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Русскоязычная блогосфера как особое пространство
выражения гражданской позиции
М.А. Пипенко
Ульяновский государственный университет
Россия 432970, Ульяновск, ул Льва Толстого, 42
В статье рассмотрено несколько стратегий, с помощью которых русскоговорящие блоггеры
выражают свою гражданскую позицию и используют блогосферу как публичную сферу, а также
описано, как Интернет изменил поведение обычно политически пассивных пользователей
русского киберпространства. В хронологическом порядке представлены несколько событий,
которые показывают эволюцию развития самосознания российских блоггеров: первая (и
единственная) Интернет-конференция с президентом России Владимиром Путиным летом
2006, кибервойна с Эстонией в апреле – мае 2007, кибервойна с распространителями БАД.
Также в статье упоминается кибервойна с Грузией во время военных действий летом 2008
и попытки простых блоггеров противостоять системе. Автор считает что, в ситуации
государственной коррупции и отсутствия внимания политиков к повседневным проблемам
граждан блоги – это единственный способ обратить на себя внимание властей и заставить их
хоть как-то повлиять на ситуацию, когда другие средства не работают. Все это доказывает,
что обычные блоггеры Интернета обрели способность влиять на различные политические и
социальные события в стране.
Ключевые слова: блоги, Рунет, кибервойны, политическая активность, гражданская
активность, блогосфера, Интернет-исследования, киберсоциология, публичная сфера .
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 536-545
~~~
УДК 81.33
Sound Symmetry in Poetic Text:
Types and Translation Strategies
Veronica A. Razumovskaya*
Siberian Federal University
82 a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The poetic translation is considered to be one of the most complicated translation types, according
to formal and content peculiarities of poetic texts performing aesthetic function. The formal and
content anomalies of poetic texts in translation aspect can be described using the universal category
of symmetry. The results of the present study were obtained through the process of investigating the
strategies of translating onomatopes and paronymes in the text of the novel in verse by A.S. Pushkin
“Eugene Onegin” into English.
Keywords: poetic text, literary translation, aesthetic function, anomaly, symmetry, asymmetry,
phonosemantics, unit of translation, onomatope, paronyme, paronomasia.
Introduction
A distinctive feature of any poetic text is its
anomaly which helps to realize the main function
of such texts - an aesthetic one. There are
different types of anomalies, as reflected in the
form, content, and in the types of relationships
between form and content of the text. Formal
anomaly of the poetic text is determined by
its expressive sound shape, a particular poetic
form (which distinguishes poetry from prose),
and, often enough, figurative graphical form.
The predominance of connotative meaning over
denotative meaning, concentration of implicit
meanings, deliberate preservation of the linguistic
ambiguities of lexical units in speech, maximum
optimization of all stylistic devices and techniques
to create expressive text - all these can be
attributed to the expressions of content anomalies.
The types of content anomaly enumerated above
*
1
are involved in creation of “tribal” anomaly of
the plan - semantic ambiguity. The relationship
between form and content of a poetic text can be
defined as that of isomorphism. The active study
of general regularities and features of poetic
language, as well as individual characteristics
of the language of some authors suggests the
existence of a special theory of poetic speech [1;
2; 3; 5; 6; 10; 13; 16; 27; 29; 30].
Poetic Translation: Form and Content
Along with the issues related to the linguistic
theory of poetic texts, linguists, translators
and specialists in translation theory pay much
attention to the development of the theory
of poetic translation. The problems of poetic
translation are part of a wide range of issues of
literary translation, but are characterized by their
apparent specificity, which makes theorists and
Corresponding author E-mail address: veronica_raz@hotmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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practitioners have quite contradictory views on
poetic translation up to rejecting any possibility
of such a translation [26].
Recognizing the possibility of poetic
translation, we believe it necessary to study its
basic laws, strategies and specific techniques.
Emphasizing the importance of both formal and
content characteristics of a poetic text and the
objective existence of poetic unity in form and
content, we consider the possibility of representing
the formal characteristics of a poetic text by
means of interlingual translation. Paying attention
mainly to the formal aspect of the poetic text in
the process of translation is rather conditional,
as for both the author and the reader of the
original meaning of the word in poetry is closely
connected with its acoustic form. The form of an
artistic work is very significant when perceived by
a recipient (a reader). Aimed at the reader, literary
translation to a certain extent brings together
literary translation with the translations of the
Bible. The task of the translator of literary texts is
not to demonstrate their own poetic talent (if they
wish to do so, they can write their own poems).
The translator should act as an intermediary, “the
bridge” between an important segment of human
experience and the audience, who want to enjoy
that experience, but can not overcome the barrier
of their native language [28: 7]. Translation of a
literary text is, in a sense, an “explanation” of
the text to others. And this “explanation” should
contain the “explanation” of both the content
and formal features of the original text. The
purpose of this “explanation” is a disclosure of
the aesthetic potential of the original poetic text,
and a realization of the aesthetic function of
the original and the translation. It is generally
recognized that aesthetic function is called to
meet the aesthetic feelings of the reader. So
formal - and first of all - sound characteristics of
a literary text take on a considerable importance.
Among the most frequently occurring sound
phenomena that contribute to the realization of
the aesthetic function are onomatopoeia, sound
symbolism, alliteration, assonance, paronyme
and paronomasia, rhyme, rhythm, intonation and
stress. In this paper some of the sound phenomena
mentioned above will be considered.
When translating expressive texts, poetic
texts in particular, there is often a conflict between
expressive (as defined by K. Buller) and aesthetic
function (“truth” and “beauty”) - between the
poles of an ugly literal translation and a beautiful
free translation [32: 42]. In “meaningless” poetry
sound impact is more important than the meaning.
In the poetry for children and refined (art-for-art)
literature of the end of the XIX-th century (T.
Gautier, P. Verlaine) euphonic “beauty” is more
important than “truth” [31]. P. Verlaine paid
special attention to the musical sound of poetic
lines and the, enhancement of the musicality of a
verse. The poet described his principles of poetics
and aesthetics in the program 1874 poem “Poetic
Art” / “The Art of Poetry” (“Art poetique”),
where poetry is clearly separated from other
types of fiction. Poetry, according to the French
poet, should possess some vague meaning
which requires a special sound form. Words in
P. Verlaine’s works are subjected to poetic logic
(if logic in poetry exists at all), and are dissolved
in sounds. They are not separate words any more
but words-sounds, words-music whose meaning
is blurred and intertwined in the poetic tissue.
“De la musique avant toute chose, Et pour cela
préfère l’impair, Plus vague et plus soluble dans
l’air, Sans rien en lui qui pèse ou qui pose. Il faut
aussi que tu n’ailles point Choisir tes mots sans
quelque méprise : Rien de plus cher que la chanson
grise Où l’Indécis au Précis se joint “ [36: 486].
B. Pasternak gave the following translation of the
original strophes: «За музыкою только дело.
Итак, не размеряй пути. Почти бесплотность
предпочти Всему, что слишком плоть и тело.
Не церемонься с языком И торной не ходи
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дорожкой. Всех лучше песни, где немножко
И точность точно под хмельком » [36: 487] P.
Verlaine laid the foundations of impressionistic
poetry based on musicality [15; 18; 38]. The works
of Russian poet-futurist, reformer of the poetic
language V. Khlebnikov are a shining example of
the dominance of sound over sense (sound form
over content) in the poetic tissue [13].
Thus, the sound complex of a poetic work
is extremely important for the realization of the
aesthetic function of literature. Along these lines,
one of the main problems of poetic translation
can be defined as the preservation of the initial
sound complex of the original or creation of a new
sound complex, capable of performing a similar
aesthetic function in translation. In both cases,
the relationship between the sound complexes of
the original and the translation can be considered
from the point of view of the dichotomy of
symmetry versus asymmetry.
Symmetry in Science and Art
Understanding of symmetry both in natural
phenomena and works of art goes back to the
times of antiquity. Ideas of symmetry (literally
“proportionality”) originated from the views of
ancient Greek philosophers and mathematicians,
and related to their studies of world harmony. The
starting point of intensive studies of symmetry
goes back to the end of the XVIII-th century,
when symmetric forms of natural crystals were
discovered and described, and a set of symmetry
operations that generate symmetrical shape were
defined. Later symmetry operation began to be
used both to describe biological systems, and to
develop theories of mathematical symmetry. In the
XX-th century the method of symmetry became
an effective tool for theoretical studies in modern
science. Thus, A.V. Shubnikov and representatives
of his school have considerably expanded the
concept of symmetry by incorporating the sign
of transformational operations. These operations
made it possible to effectively use the concept of
symmetry in various scientific fields and apply
the category of symmetry not only to scientific
phenomena, but also to the phenomena of art.
This widespread use of the concept of symmetry
as well as the idea that symmetry has a universal
status, corresponds to the ongoing trend toward
the unification of the categories of science and art,
and provides an opportunity for a fresh look at
many things, including the phenomena of reality
[24]. In 1972 a program work by A.V. Shubnikov
and V.A. Koptsik «Symmetry in science and
art» was published, and two years later was
translated into English [35]. The researchers
considered the concept of the relative equality
of objects as the basis of the whole theory of
symmetry, and believed that two objects can be
described as equal in respect to some of their
specific characteristics - if both objects have
these characteristics [35: 1].
It is a generally recognized fact that nature
does not allow and can not allow the existence of
absolute equality between two objects, separated
in time and space and, moreover, in real or
relative equality. It is extremely important to
establish a criterion or measuring of the equality.
Obtaining equality implies, above all, the
implementation of an operation of comparison.
The comparison operation can be carried out only
under the following conditions: (1) a comparison
that assumes the existence of relative or actual,
rather than absolute, equality can not be made
considering all the parameters or characteristics
of the compared objects; (2) the comparison
makes use of the concepts of equality measure
(the goal of science is to establish the extent of
the similarity or likeness); (3) carrying out the
operation of comparison a priori assumes that the
compared objects are somehow similar; (4) it is
necessary to take into consideration the fact that
both qualitative and quantitative characteristics
of the compared object can be involved into the
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comparison operation. Following A.V.Shubnikov
and V.A .Koptsik we use the term «relative
equality» and apply the term to certain
characteristics or a set of characteristics of the
objects to be compared [35: 2]. In our study,
these characteristics will be represented by the
sound of the poetic original and the sound form
of poetic translation. The sound parameters of the
two texts involved in the process of comparison
will be compared
Symmetry is one of the most important
factors of the beauty of form [35: 7]. Symmetry,
regarded as the law of the regular arrangement
of structural objects is similar to harmony. To be
more precise, symmetry is one of the components
of harmony. Another component of harmony is
asymmetry. The symmetry, asymmetry and
harmony of objects and the phenomena of science
and art are the basis of their ability to perform an
aesthetic function. The esthetics of scientific and
artistic creativity are in the ability to feel it there,
where others fail to feel it [35: 9].
A.V. Shubnikov and V.A. Koptsik consider
symmetry as a structural law of integrated
systems and a method to study structural
regularities. Between symmetric spaces there
exists isomorphism [35: 307]. The category
of isomorphism, as well as the category of
symmetry, are relatively new categories of
translation theory. The concept of symmetry
occurs in the theory of art through the concept of
structure. Art, as a graphic form of consciousness
and modeling the world around us, should reflect
and, indeed, reflects the structural aspect of the
world. The structure is actually a broad law,
a form of the existence and motion of matter,
the products of scientific and artistic creativity
are also subjected to this law. Art products literature, poetry, music, painting, architecture
possess a complex artistic structure, representing
an organic intertwining and interpenetration of a
set of substructures that make up the individual
components of artistic expressiveness [35: 351].
Researchers have noted that quite often the
application of ideas of «ordinary» symmetry
to the study of literature and poetry, as well as
music theory, is often metaphorical in nature.
Effective use of the theory of symmetry to the
objects of humanitarian research will provide
more interesting results.
The first Russian scholars, who effectively
applied the ideas of classical symmetry to music
and poetry, were G.E. Konius (musician and
educator), and G.V. Wolf (founder of Russian
crystallography). In 1908 G.V. Wolf wrote that
the spirit of music is its rhythm [11]. More than
a hundred years ago, Russian scientists have
concluded that the category of symmetry can be
applied to literary works as well as to music. Of
particular importance is the category of symmetry
for poetic works.
Sound Symmetry and Asymmetry
in Poetic Translation
As mentioned above, the most common
expressive sound characteristics of poetic text
are onomatopea, sound symbolism, alliteration,
assonance, and paronymy and paronomasia,
rhyme, rhythm, intonation and stress. These sound
phenomena in a certain way irradiate against
the background of the original sound material.
Reproduction of the entire sound complex of the
original in interlingual translation is a virtually
impossible task, due to the difference of the
phonological systems of the languages included
in the translation process. To be fair it should be
noted that in the practice of literary translation,
there are examples of the complete reproduction
of the sounds of the original work in translation.
So Celia and Louis Zukovski attempted to convey
in translation the sound structure of the works by
Roman poet Gaius Valeri Catullus. The translators
set a practical task to carry out the reproduction
of the form of the poetic works phoneme by
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phoneme preserving the sound, rhythm and
syntax of the Latin original [25]. In the practice
of poetic translation such tasks are extremely rare
and the solution to such problems does not bring
the desired result. More often translators do not
try to preserve not the entire phonemic set of the
original in the translated text. They rather seek to
preserve clear sound phenomena.
Regular translation units serve as soundimitating units of language, which are represented
by onomatopoeic and sound symbolic varieties.
Iconic units are the object of study of a new
integrative discipline called phonosemantics.
The ability to describe the artistic originality of
a poetic text from the phonosemantic viewpoint,
as well as the usage of phonosemantic approaches
to the translation problems have been repeatedly
noted in the works of the founder of the Russian
phonosemantics S.V. Voronin [8; 9].
Contemplation of translation problems (both
in terms of modeling the processes of translation
and translation criticism) from the viewpoint
phonosemantics, has allowed the identification
of a number of interesting approaches to solving
the problems during the last decades. So, an
understanding of translation as a synergistic
speech comprehension process allows «to update
the physical form of the text, its rhythmic structure
and the sound organization of matter that can
most effectively contribute to the identification
of the place and function of a phonetics level in
the translation process» [21: 78]. Thus, the need
to integrate the sound settings in the translation
process is acknowledged.
Not only is iconic vocabulary attributed to
the class of sound phenomena that are important
for the implementation of the aesthetic function
of the original text as well as the translated text,
but they also serve as obvious translation units.
In a figurative expression by S. V. Voronin,
linguistic iconicity was considered by experts
in the field of theory and practice of translation
as «stepdaughter» (an «unloved child»), and it
had received undeservedly little attention [37].
However, recently the situation has changed
somewhat. Considering the cross-language
«macroequivalence» of the original text and
its translation as a set of individual character
«microequivalences» of the given texts [9: 84]
supporters of a semiotic approach started to look
for phonosematic universals in translation with
the identification of the patterns of translation of
iconic vocabulary. Analysis of linguistic material
in the aspects of universality / specificity,
invariance / variability and isomorphism
/ allomorphism allowed the researchers to
conclude that the macroequivalence of texts in
translation to some extent can be achieved via the
microequivalence of iconic vocabulary which is
part of the original and translated texts, whereas
this microequivalence can be both intercharacter
and intracharacter [9: 86].
One may hypothetically assume that the
establishment of macroequivalence during
translation with regard to the microequivalence
of iconic vocabulary will have different
frequency and form patterns that depend on the
text material specifics. Integrated assessment of
the quality of poetic translation in the light of the
phonosemantic theory, as well as categories of
isomorphism and symmetry may be one of the
necessary science-based procedures done on the
basis of special methods. The development of
such techniques may be a primary concern in the
near future.
Let us consider some translations of the
onomatopoetic words inserted into the poetic
fabric of the novel in verse by A.S. Pushkin
“Eugene Onegin”. Nabokov’s translation of
Chapter IV into English was chosen as the material
for analysis [33]. The choice of poetic translation
is not accidental. The author of the translation
had a fine linguistic sense and in his own poetic
and prose works paid great attention to the iconic
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features of the language, as evidenced by his
metalinguistic phonosemantic comments, as well
as examples of phonosemantic analysis contained
in the special commentary volume of the English
translation of the novel “Eugene Onegin” [34] .
We will omit individual consideration of the
intercharacter equivalence problem that implies
the preservation of all explicit iconic words in the
translated text being as equivalent number of the
iconic words that are presented in the original text.
And so let us turn to examples of intercharacter
microequivalence that assumes the equivalence
of the phonosemantic structure of explicit iconic
words of the original text and the translation.
Analysis of the translation of onomatopoetic
words presented in Chapter IV of the novel
“Eugene Onegin”, revealed the following
types of intercharacter equivalence: identical,
hyperonymic, hyponymic.
Examples of identical microequivalence
which make accurate reproduction of the semantic
structure of iconic elements are few in number.
(1) «Трещит лучинка перед ней» – «...in front of
her the splintlight crackles» (XLI); (2) «Светлый
кубок Еще шипит среди стола» – «The bright
goblet amid the table fizzes yet» (XLVII); (3)
«Его почуя, конь дорожный Храпит…» – «the
road horse, upon sensing him, snorts...» (XLI);
(4) «Соседи шепчут меж собою…» – «...among
themselves the neighbors whisper...» (XXIV);
(5) «Лесная тень, журчанье струй …» – «the
sylvan shade, the purl of streams...» (XXXVIII.
XXXIX). Using in the original and in translation
onomatopoetic words, the sound of which
corresponds to the denotative meaning of the
depicted events, allows you to create expressive
texts that contain figurative description of the
nominated events.
Cases of hyperonymic microequivalence that
assume the use in translation of onomatopoeic
equivalent with a broader conceptual volume (and,
consequently, with a narrower semantic scope)
may be illustrated by the following example:
(6) «Но к ней Онегин подошел И молвил ..»
– «...but up to her Onegin went and quoth...»
(XII). To reproduce information implied in the
onomatopoeic verb “молвить», the translator
chose an archaic verb «quoth», which to some
extent corresponds to the original verb in stylistic
color (both verbs are stylistically marked), but
does not reproduce iconic potential of the verb
«молвить» and therefore it is its hyperonyme (in
a semantic volume).
Hyponymic microequivalence is defined
as the translation of onomatopoetic words using
equivalents with a narrower conceptual volume
(and, consequently, with a wider semantic scope).
(7) «Гусей крикливых караван Тянулся к
югу…» – «the caravan of cronking geese was
tending southward…» (XL). In the translation
to reproduce the goose honk a low-frequency
onomatopoetic word «cronking» is used, according
to the dictionaries, to imitate the honk of wild
geese - “a hoarse croak (as of a raven) or honk (as
of a wild goose)”. (8) «Лесов таинственная тень
С печальным шумом обнажалась…» – «the
wood’s mysterious canopy with a sad murmur
bared itself...» (XL). In V. Nabokov’s translation
the onomatopoetic hyponyme «murmur» has
a narrower conceptual volume than the neutral
Russian word «шум» is used. «Murmur – a
low indistinct but often continuous sound». To
create the sound image impression of rustling
leaves in the forest in autumn, a concentration of
similar sounds (sibilants) is used in the original.
The detailed sound metaphor of the original is
reproduced in translation by one word with strong
onomatopoeic potential, allowing the translator
to create to a certain extent appropriate sound
images.
The examples of finding and assessment of
equivalence in poetic translation discussed above
are indicatives of a certain effectiveness in the
attraction of phonosemantic universals to the
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facts of the translation. A set of universals can be
expanded. Further research within the framework
of the semiotic approach to translation theory
should consider the attraction of data obtained for
different language pairs involved in the process
of translation. Implementing the operation of
comparison between the original and the translation
from the point of view of phonosemantics lets us
speak about a certain phonosemantic symmetry
in the compared text. This type of symmetry can
be recognized as really existing only in cases of
identical microequivalence. In other cases, the
texts which are compared can be asymmetrical
phonosemantically .
Another important sound phenomenon
is paronyme. Several definitions of the term
“paronyme” in a wide range of understanding
can be found in linguistic literature [4; 7; 19]. In
this paper, we will use the term of “paronymy”
in a broader sense as the phenomenon of partial
sonic similarities between words (paronymes)
with their semantic differences (full or partial)
[22] because this understanding is presented
mostly in works that deal with the problems of
paronyme functioning in a literary text [12; 13;
16; 20]. .Using paronymy in order to enhance
the aesthetic effect in the linguistics was called
“paronomasia” - a stylistic device presented by
deliberate approximation of words with similar
sounds [17]. Paronomasia can be met regularly
in the language of poetry and is regarded as its
characteristic feature.
Studying the language organization patterns
of poetic texts, scholars have found it necessary to
identify the phenomena that underlie the aesthetics
of such texts and make them a poetic fact. One of
the universal phenomena is isomorphism because
the connotative colouring that appears on the
basis of isomorphism and dominates over the
original denotativity [23] is a direct consequence
of the inseparable unity of the form and content
of a poetic text. The isomorphism of a poetic text
is based on a number of stylistic devices. One
of the regularly used methods is paronomasia.
Since the translator’s task is to preserve the
isomorphism of the original text and to create
the product text that serves an aesthetic function,
similar to the function of the original text, the
stylistic device paronomasia should be retained
in the translation.
Preserving the paronomasia of the original
text when translating is a task of a certain
complexity that has been repeatedly noted in
the literature [14]. Let us consider examples of
paronomasia in the text of chapter IV of A.S.
Pushkin’s novel in verse, “Eugene Onegin”
and compare the original text with the English
translation by Nabokov. This analysis uses the
paronyme typology proposed by V. P. Grigoriev
for the texts of the Russian poetry of the XXth century [13: 280-283].. This typology can
be considered universal and applicable to the
poetic language of the first third of the XIX-th
century. According to this classification, five
paronyme types are found to be operating in the
poetic language: vocalic, metathetic, epenthetic,
consonantal and augmentative.
The vocalic type is the most common and
can be illustrated by the following example: (9)
«Огонь потух; еще золою Подернут уголь
золотой; Едва заметное струею Виется
пар, и теплотой Камин чуть дышит. Дым
из трубок В трубу уходит. Светлый кубок
еще шипит среди стола. Вечерняя находит
мгла…» (XLVII). In the English translation the
paronomasia of the original is not delivered: «The
fire is out; barely with ashes is filmed the golden
coal; in a barely distinguishable stream weaves
vapor, and with warmth scarce breathes the grate.
The smoke from pipes goes up the chimney.
The bright goblet amid the table fizzes yet. The
evening murk comes on...».
Metathetic paronyme type, which is similar
to the vocalic type and the only difference being
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the undocked consequence of consonants, is
presented by the example: (10) “..Ловласов
обветшала слава Со славой красных каблуков
И величавых париков..» (VII). In translation
this paronymic pair is not preserved, partially
offset by the loss of translational paronymic pair
used by Nabokov in the translated version of the
seventh strophe: «… the fame of Lovelaces has
faded with the fame of red heels and of majestic
periwigs ...».
Examples with additional consonants
are attributed to the epenthetic type when the
additional consonant is included in the structure
of the second paronyme: (11) “..Зато любовь
красавиц нежных Надежней дружбы и
родства: Над нею и средь бурь мятежных Вы
сохраняете права..» (XXI). In the translation,
we find: «As to the love of tender beauties, ‘tis
surer than friendship on kinship. Over it even
mid tumultuous storms rights you retain .. ». The
paronomasia of the original text is not preserved,
but aestheticism is partially offset by the
translation of the paronymic pair of «friendshipkinship».
The consonantal type is represented in
the example (12) “..Ужели жребий вам такой
Назначен строгою судьбой?» (XV) - «Can it be
true that such a portion is by stern fate assigned
to you?». The paronymes are not represented in
the Russian translation.
The augmentative type of paronyme is what
we find in the eleventh strophe: (13) “Но, получив
посланье Тани, Онегин живо тронут был:
Язык девических мечтаний В нем думы роем
возмутил» (XI). This type unites the examples
when one paronyme is the structural part of
another one. In the translation by Nabokov this
type of paronyme is also not preserved: «But on
receiving Tanya’s missive, Onegin was intensely
moved: the language of a maiden’s dreamings in
him roused up thoughts in a swarm :..».
Conclusion
The examples discussed above are only
preliminary results, but they indicate that
the preservation of linguistic iconism and
paronomasia when translating is an extremely
complex process and requires the development of
special techniques which may be actually devised
by the translation theory science of the XXI-th
century. In terms of the general scientific category
of symmetry, one can speak about the iconic
(phonosemantic) and patronymic symmetry of
the original and that of the translation.
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(семиотический подход)», Английская филология в переводческом и сопоставительном
аспектах. (СПб.: Изд-во Ленинградского университета, 1995), с. 83-87.
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10. Н. К. Гей, Художественность литературы: Поэтика. Стиль (М.: Наука, 1975).
11. Г. В. Вульф, Симметрия и ее проявление в природе (М., 1908).
12. В. П. Григорьев, «Паронимия», Языковые процессы современной русской художественной
литературы: Поэзия (М.: Наука, 1977), с. 186-239.
13. В. П. Григорьев, Поэтика слова (М.: Наука, 1979).
14. В. В. Елисеева, «Парономазия и ее передача при переводе», Английская филология в
переводческом и сопоставительном аспектах. (СПб.: Изд-во Санкт-Петербургского
университета, 1995), с. 87-94.
15. Ф. Карко, Верлен (СПб: Искусство, 1999).
16. Н. А. Кожевникова, Язык Андрея Белого (М.: Изд-во РАН, 1992).
17. Н. П. Колесников, «Парономазия как стилистическая фигура», Русский язык в школе, № 3.
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П. Птифис, Верлен (М.: Молодая гвардия, 2002).
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Л. П. Ткаченко, «Стилистическая функция паронимов (на материале художественного
текста)», Русский язык в школе, № 3. (1982), с. 34-48.
И. Н. Шадрина, «Фоносемантическая структура текста как детерминанта переводческой
деятельности», Текст: структура и функционирование, Вып. 6. (Барнаул: Изд-во
Алтайского университета, 2002), с. 77-82.
22. Языкознание. Большой энциклопедический словарь / Гл. ред. В.Н. Ярцева, (М.: Большая
Российская энциклопедия, 1998), с. 368.
23. S. Bassnett, Translation Studies (London – New-York: Routledge, 1996), p. 81-109.
24. G. Caglioti, Simmetrie infrante nella scienza e nell’arte (Milano: Clup, 1983).
25. Catullus (Gai Valeri Catulli Veronensis Liber). Translated by Celia and Louis Zukofsky, Complete
Short Poetry (Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 1991).
26. R. Jakobson, «On Linguistic Aspect of Translation», On Translation (ed. R.A.Bower) (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1959), p. 232-239.
27. R. Jakobson, «Linguistics and Poetics», Style in Language (Cambridge: MIT, 1960), p. 350 - 377.
28. Ch. S. Kraszewski, Four Translation Strategies Determined by the Particular Needs of the
Receptor. Translation Theory Backwards (Lampeter, Ceredigion: The Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd,
1998).
29. G. N. Leech, A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (L.: Longman, 1969).
30. S. R. Levin, Linguistic Structures in Poetry (The Hague: Mouton, 1962).
31. J. Levy, Die literarische Ubersetzung. Theorie einer Kunstgattung (Frankfurt/ Main: Athenaum,
1969).
32. P. Newmark, A Textbook of Translation (New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo: Prentice
Hall, 1988).
33. A. Pushkin, Eugene Onegin. A Novel in Verse. Translated from the Russian by Vladimir Nabokov.
Vol. I. (Princeton University Press, 1990).
34. A. Pushkin, Eugene Onegin. A Novel in Verse. Translated from the Russian by Vladimir Nabokov.
Commentary and Index. Vol. II. (Princeton University Press, 1990).
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35. A. V. Shubnikov, V. A. Koptsik, Symmetry in Science and Art (New York and London: Plenum
Press, 1974).
36. P. Verlaine, «Art poetique», Французские стихи в переводе русских поэтов XIX-XX веков / на
франц. и русск. языках (сост. Е.Г. Эткинд) (М.: Прогресс, 1973).
37. S. Voronin, «Phonosemantics and Translation», Translation and Meaning. Proceeding of the Lodz
Session of the 1990. Maastricht – Lodz Duo Colloqium (Maastricht, 1992), p. 289 - 295.
38. A. J. Wright «“Art poetique” Re-Examined”», PMLA, Vol. 74, № 3 (Jun., 1959).
Звуковая симметрия в поэтическом тексте:
типы и стратегии перевода
В.А. Разумовская
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный 82 “а”
Поэтический перевод является одним из самых сложных видов переводческой деятельности,
что обусловлено формальными и содержательными особенностями поэтических текстов,
выполняющих эстетическую функцию. Формальная и содержательная аномальность
поэтических текстов в аспекте перевода может быть рассмотрена с позиции универсальной
категории симметрии. Результаты настоящего исследования были получены при изучении
стратегий перевода ономатопов и паронимов в тексте романа в стихах А.С. Пушкина «Евгений
Онегин» на английский язык.
Ключевые слова: поэтический текст, художественный перевод, эстетическая функция,
аномальность, симметрия, асимметрия, фоносемантика, единица перевода, ономатоп,
пароним, парономазия.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 546-553
~~~
УДК 332.012.2
Competitiveness-Assessment-Based Monitoring
of Socioeconomic Systems
Evgeniya V. Zander* and Elena V. Inyukhina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
Analysis and evaluation of competitiveness of socioeconomic systems of different levels (regional,
municipal, economic activity or industry, enterprise) are considered from methodological viewpoint.
Methods of estimating competitiveness have been tested by the example of socioeconomic systems
of Siberian Federal District. The approach developed can form the basis to reveal efficient lines of
industrial policy to increase competitive capacity of the systems.
Keywords: socioeconomic system, competitiveness, integral assessment, method of principal
components, status monitoring, efficient lines of industrial policy, competitive aspects and factors,
macro- meso- and microlevel objects.
Introduction
Competitiveness is an integral efficiency
characteristic of any socioeconomic system.
Competitiveness is assessed in management to
position the controlled system, to make decisions
on development prospects, targets and methods to
attain them and to develop system development
policy lines.
The great number of methodological
approaches to assessing competitiveness of
countries, regions, industries and enterprises
brings forth various assessments and ratings of
the said systems. Divergent and contradictory
ratings pose the information users a complicated
problem: what assessments are to be used to
make decisions and what ratings can be trusted.
This, in its turn, proves the still existing need
to develop alternative methods to assess the
competitiveness. This is probably because
*
1
the methods used by different authors do not
solve all problems facing researchers studying
competitiveness.
Methods and Approaches
To define competitiveness each author
uses his own individual approach. First studies
of competitiveness were conducted exclusively
within the context of spatial organization
of industries and enterprises. Economically
advantageous position was considered to be
the pledge of its competitiveness (A. Losch, H.
Hotelling, W. Launhardt, J. Thunen, A.Weber,
E.M. Hoover, Ф. Giarratani – Hoover, 1999). Today
this concept of competitiveness is not always
applicable to socioeconomic systems. Original
availability of the only competitive advantage,
given territory does not guarantee its successful
development. Past experience demonstrates that
Corresponding author E-mail address: ezander@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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the systems not having this advantage can exhibit
high level of competitiveness.
Nowadays theory offers both general
definitions of competitiveness, and definitions
concretized to the level of a subject of competitive
relations. Most frequently researchers in their
works define competitiveness as a totality of
properties, characteristics of an object which
provide its successful development with the
emphasis on comparison with other analogous
objects and necessity of special «properties»
inherent to the system.
Concerning competitiveness it is customary
to mention the works of M. Porter. His works
on regional and international competition,
competition between companies and on
development of competitive strategies of different
subjects formed the basis of fundamental
assumptions of competitiveness and competitive
advantages existing nowadays in all countries
and scientific schools.
M. Porter identifies several competitiveness
levels. The first competitiveness level is
competitiveness in the field of products and
services which is in the fact that firm produces
products and services surpassing other products
and services in fineness or cost1. The next level
is the enterprise level. According to M. Porter
position of an enterprise in an industry is defined
by competitive advantages: lower production costs
and differentiation of goods2. In his works M.
Porter shows that competitiveness of a company
is largely determined by the competitiveness of
its economic environment depending on basic
conditions and competition within the cluster.
According to M. Porter productivity is the
only reasonable concept of competitiveness at
the national level. It is through productivity
that the main objective of any state – high and
ever-growing living standards – is attained. On
the other hand, competitiveness of an individual
country depends on its propensity to innovate and
modernize. So, M. Porter states that development
and implementation of innovations and production
modernization process promote most efficient use
of available labor resources and capital. These
processes lead the country to attainment of high
competitiveness level. According to M. Porter
high competitiveness can be achieved not only
by the subject originally possessing considerable
resources, but also by the subject which can
correctly, efficiently and reasonably organize its
activities3.
Views of M. Best upon competitiveness
differ. In his opinion the pledge of competitiveness
is the method of organizing productive resources
but not the intensity of their usage. In this
manner of crucial importance is the capability
to change-over for radically different methods of
development, production, marketing of products,
etc.4
The innovation aspect of competitiveness
is found in the works of practically all modern
researchers of this problem. E.g. L.K. Gurieva
defines competitiveness of a region as an integral
property of a region formed by a totality of
qualitatively new factors and conditions. These
factors are necessary for the region to move to
the higher phases of socioeconomic and socialand-technological development. This definition
underlines that competitiveness depends on «new
factors and conditions». Thus, L.K. Gurieva
places emphasis on the innovation development
of regions5.
However, it is obvious that not only
socioeconomic systems following the road of
«innovation-based development» have high
competitiveness (in any event, nowadays).
Competitive are also systems developing owing to
3
1
2
Porter, 2007.
Porter, 2006.
4
5
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Porter, 2006.
Best, 2002.
Gurieva, 2007.
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the traditional factors: advantageous geographic
position, availability of natural resources, largescale industrial production, etc. It should be noted,
that in the long term perspective these factors can
deny further high development rate of the system.
Along with this there are numerous examples
of regions which do not stake at innovations
and at the same time hold leading positions
among other objects. From our viewpoint in this
case it is possible to speak about high current
competitiveness and low strategic one1.
In line with the authors’ standpoint call
competitiveness, provided for by the so-called
traditional factors, «current competitiveness».
Call competitiveness formed by the effect of
«new factors» (implementation of innovations,
development of education, use of information
technologies, etc.) «strategic competitiveness»,
i.e. competitiveness, providing for long-term
development.
Thus, plurality of approaches to the
concept of «competitiveness» prohibit speaking
about agreement of opinions among authors on
competitiveness of country, region, industry,
enterprise is. Some authors lay emphasis on
indices by which competitiveness can be estimated
(A.N. Prazdnichnykh, N.I. Pavlovsky et al.), other
authors pinpoint index dynamics and necessity of
comparing with other analogous objects (M.M.
Plyashko, D.Ye. Sorokin et al.), the third involve
in the definition factors of competitiveness of
an object of a certain level (L.K. Gurieva, L.S.
Shekhovtseva et al.).
Concerning the factors of competitiveness
approaches described in theoretical studies by
different authors also vary. In this field the studies
by A.G. Granberg deserve special attention.
For main components of successful advance of
1
In addition to isolating levels of management objects
many authors of works on competitiveness isolate several levels of competitiveness, too: relative and absolute
competitiveness; general, economic and strategic; current and strategic competitiveness.
socioeconomic systems to competitiveness he
identifies the following factors: human, technicaltechnological, natural resources, institutional,
organizational, informational2.
A.I. Gavrilov does not separate the factors
of socioeconomic development of a region from
the factors of competitiveness. Among the
socioeconomic factors of regional development
he classes production, competitive and market
factors. The competitiveness factors he subdivides
into factors of direct effect (natural resources,
human resources, external relations, etc.) and
indirect effect (general economic, general
political, etc.)3.
Fascinating approaches to defi ne the
competitiveness factors are presented by
N.Ya Kalyuzhnova and Yu.K. Persky. They
suggest to take the principle of rarity (scarcity)
of natural resources as the basis for marking
out the principal factors of competitiveness.
This involves consideration of resource,
investment, innovation and information
factors. Effect of each group of factors brings
forth certain competitive advantages. N.Ya
Kalyuzhnova considers competitive interaction
of regions during knowledge-based economy
development4.
Factors of competitiveness of socioeconomic
systems are essentially aspects of competitiveness,
which should be assessed to yield adequate
results from comparison of these systems. Main
methodological approaches to assessment of
competitiveness can be united into three groups:
based on statistical indices, ranking and expert
estimates. Each methodological approach can
involve simultaneous use of several methods and
devices applied to different indices at a certain
estimate level. In actual practice this is realized
by the following procedures: monitoring of main
2
3
4
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Granberg, 2004.
Gavrilov, 2002.
Competitiveness of Regions, 2003.
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macroeconomic indices, their comparison with
threshold values and indicative analysis; methods
of expert estimate to rank the systems by the
level of development; relative rate data on basic
macroeconomic indicators and their dynamics,
etc.
It should be noted that all methods used are
to a certain extent restricted in terms of their
application. Some methods are fully based on
subjective data of expert estimates. This makes
them irreproducible for other researchers and
puts in doubt the adequacy of results produced.
Some approaches are specified by the lack of
mechanism to calculate the weighing coefficients
used to aggregate the indices into multiple
indicators. Methods are frequently constructed
as applied to a certain object possessing its own
specifics. These methods cannot be applied to
other objects or have to be substantially modified
up to reconstruction of calculation algorithm.
In addition, each researcher lays emphasis
on a certain aspect of competitiveness. This,
respectively, reflects in the selection of factors
with highest specific weight in the system of
indicators.
Developed and used today are numerous
techniques of evaluating specific weights of
indices to construct integral indicators. However,
these techniques are not widely used in the
approaches of researchers studying the problem
of competitiveness, probably because of their
labor intensity and sophisticated nature. S.A.
Aivazyan, V.M. Buchshtamber, I.S. Yenyukov,
L.D. Meshalkin, V.V. Shakin, V.V. Strizhov and
other researchers worked in this field.
E.g., S.A. Aivazyan has developed the
«expert-statistical method». Within the framework
of this method evaluated is to be specific weight
of effect of partial indices on the total aggregated
status of efficiency. After that, according to this
method an integral indicator is to be constructed
in the form of a linear combination of objects’
indicators. S.A. Aivazyan also proposed the
following methods of constructing the integral
indicator: method of principal components,
factor analysis, method of extremal grouping,
multidimensional scaling and selection of most
informative indices1.
Methods of Assessing Competitiveness
To eliminate the above mentioned constraints
of the methods developed the authors suggest the
following approaches:
system approach (consider objects as
socioeconomic systems and develop a
system of indicators to assess level of
competitiveness);
structural approach (consider individual
components forming the general result;
consider a socioeconomic system a
complex structure including systems of
other levels);
integration approach (aggregate individual
specific indicators into integral indicators;
study interactions to create aggregated
groups);
comprehensive approach (take into account
various aspects of competitiveness in
aggregated groups);
dynamic
approach
(retrospective
and perspective analysis, analysis of
indicators’ dynamics);
process approach (consider the formation
of competitive advantage as a complex
dynamic process depending on initial
prerequisites and efficiency of managing
this process);
optimization approach (transition from
qualitative characteristics to quantitative
indicators normalizing the indicators,
reducing them to commensurable form
convenient for further analysis);
1
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Aivazyan, 1998.
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situation approach (each indicator is
analyzed from the viewpoint of its
significance to form the final result, study
variability (variableness) of indicators,
weigh the indicators).
All these approaches used in a system
made possible to develop procedures possessing
a clear-cut structure, application algorithm.
The procedure proposed overcomes many of
the said constraints and shortcomings leading
to incommensurable and inadequate results.
The authors have developed an approach based
on calculation of normalized indicators and
aggregating them into indicators with application
of weight coefficients. The said indicators are
different components of competitiveness of the
objects.
Initial
statistical
information
are
socioeconomic indicators and system development
efficiency indicators available in public data
sources. The indicators initially formed into
an array are combined into component-blocks
of competitiveness. The produced sampling of
indices undergoes normalization. The normalized
indicators are ranks (from 0 to 10) to form the
basis to judge the position of the objects analyzed
in the general rating of systems and about the
«step size» between the objects in the rating.
As mentioned earlier, the normalized
indicators are aggregated with use of the weight
coefficients. For the method of finding the weight
coefficients we suggest to use the principal
component procedure which makes possible to
select statistically the indicators at the same time.
Transition from a large number of initial indicators
of the object analyzed to substantially smaller
amount of most informative variables is necessary
due to several reasons First, this is duplication of
information transmitted by highly interrelated
indicators. Second, the «non-informativeness» of
the indicators slightly varying from one object to
an other. Third, the feasibility of aggregating, i.e.
weighed summation of indicators with the weight
coefficients defined on the basis of principal
component method.
The system of indicator-components of
general level of competitiveness is a multilevel
system. At the «top» level distinguished are
two aspects of competitiveness: current and
strategic. Each of them is an aggregated indicator
combining aspects of competitiveness of the
following levels. Among these aspects are:
production potential, financial component, social
aspect, level of development of innovations
and technologies, etc. Each of these aspects is
assessed on the basis of system of indicators
using the weight coefficients. The indicators
produced are aggregated into the indicators of the
next level by weighing. Developed for each level
of the socioeconomic system is its hierarchy of
competitiveness indicators taking into account
specifics of the object.
The system of indicators proposed also
serves the purpose of monitoring the status of
socioeconomic systems through indicators of
their activities. Realization of the entire system
competitiveness evaluation algorithm forms the
basis to analyze the competitiveness indicators
in dynamics, to make conclusions about the
processes running in system development and
to show the interrelations between different
management levels. This analysis makes possible
to find problem aspects of competitiveness of
systems and their advantages as compared to other
systems. To reveal advantages and shortcomings
is necessary to mould an adequate policy at the
respective level of the socioeconomic system.
This policy serves the purpose of eliminating
development constraints to create new and
maintain existing competitive advantages.
Appraisal
The approach put forward was tested by the
authors by example of socioeconomic objects of
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Siberian Federal District: regional and industrial
socioeconomic systems and municipal formations
and enterprises. The level of competitiveness of
objects was assessed including identification of
current and strategic aspects, systems were rated
by their competitiveness level, «problem» aspects
of their development have been found. Analysis
of competitiveness and socioeconomic indicators
over several years formed the basis to demonstrate
major lines of policy oriented to eliminate
negative trends in dynamics of competitiveness
level of socioeconomic systems1.
To
investigate
competitiveness
of
socioeconomic systems the authors suggest
the following analysis logics: evaluate
competitiveness of macrosystems (regional
socioeconomic systems), analyze competitiveness
of mesolevel systems (industrial socioeconomic
systems and territories – municipal formations)
and then – study competitiveness of economic
entity of microlevel (enterprises operating within
the limits of competitive objects of mesolevel).
This sequence of analysis of indicators and
indices of competitiveness makes possible to
trace which manufacturing capacities provide
the regional macrosystem with competitive
advantages. In addition, it makes possible to
find out the enterprises which form the basis of
competitiveness of the territories and industries
(economic activities) and, accordingly, of the
entire regional economy.
It is expedient to analyze competitiveness
indicators in dynamics, and consider variation
of individual components as reasons of general
dynamics of the indicator. These aims can be
attained by economic analysis methods and
methods of mathematical statistics.
The procedure to assess competitiveness level
was appraised by economic analysis techniques.
As the indicators are additive models, the effect of
1
Zander et al., 2006, 2007, 2009.
factors on indicators can be qualitatively evaluated
by chain substitution method and proportional
division technique (shared participation). These
methods are the deterministic analysis methods
with initially known types of models analyzed.
It should be noted that each level of the object
under study requires development of a system of
indicators allowing to assess adequately the level
of individual competitiveness components. Thus,
to use the proposed approach requires taking into
account specifics of the selected object to expand
the available base of statistical information to
perform the estimate.
Conclusions
The procedure developed by the authors
overcomes the earlier found shortcomings
and constraints of the existing methodological
approaches. It exhibits the following distinctive
features:
maximum representativeness of indicators
used to assess competitiveness of industrial
and regional socioeconomic systems,
and enterprises (it is recommended to
use indicators from official sources of
statistical information and financial
accounting of the enterprises);
adaptation of indices and indicators used
to the opportunities of the existing public
statistical accounting;
omprehensiveness of the estimate
providing for taking into account all most
important components of competitiveness
of the systems;
systematization of the estimate implying
consideration of interconnections between
the indicators used and between the levels
of objects of management (socioeconomic
systems);
use of weight coefficients attaching
different value to the indices when they
are aggregated into indicators;
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feasibility of building up the procedure
of estimating the competitiveness level
of systems by adding competitiveness
factors and aspects without reconstructing
the entire calculation algorithm;
consistency of the system of indicators and
indices with the objective of monitoring
and forecasting the economic and social
development of systems with different
management levels.
So, the procedure proposed is a comprehensive
approach to estimating the competitiveness of
socioeconomic systems of micro-, meso- and
macrolevel.
Nowadays competitiveness is the main index
of efficiency of policy pursued at the respective
management level. Competitive advantages of
a socioeconomic system it initially possessed
in the form of natural and labor resources,
advantageous geographic position, etc. is not
a guarantee of successful development. The
initially available potential may be not used or
lost. Socioeconomic development of a territory
is based on efficiency of the real sector, whose
successful functioning is provided for by the
measures of industrial policy. This raises the
question of the need to mould an adequate
industrial policy at the regional level and
structural policy to manage development of
industries and enterprises.
Efficiency of state influence on economy
depends on timely monitoring of processes
running within the socioeconomic system.
This requires systematic complex analysis
of socioeconomic indices, and competitive
advantages of the system. This is necessary to
find out negative trends in object development,
their timely elimination and create incentives for
positive changes in competitiveness of industrial
and regional socioeconomic systems.
References
1.
S.A. Aivazyan, V.S. Mkhitaryan, Applied statistics and fundamentals of econometrics (Moscow:
YuNITI, 1998), in Russian.
2. M. H. Best, New Competition. Institutes of industrial development (Moscow: TEIS, 2002), in
Russian.
3. A.I. Gavrilov, Regional Economy and Management (Moscow: YuNITI -Dana, 2002), in Russian.
4. A.G. Granberg, Fundamentals of Regional Economy (Moscow: Publishing House GU VShE,
2004), in Russian.
5. L.K. Gurieva, Competitiveness of Innovation-Oriented Region (abstract of doctoral (Economy)
thesis, Moscow, 2007), in Russian.
6. Ye.V.Zander, I.S. Ferova, Ye.V. Inyukhina, Yu.I. Startseva, «Approaches to Defining
Competitive Positions of a Territory to Select State Policy Priorities», Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo
Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta – Gumanitarnye nauki, Vypusk 6/1 (2006).
7. Ye.V.Zander, I.S. Ferova, Ye.V. Inyukhina, Yu.I. Startseva, «Integral Estimate of Determinants of
Competitiveness Of Regions», ЭКО, 11 (2007), 43 – 59.
8. Ye.V.Zander, Ye.V. Inyukhina, Yu.I. Startseva, «A study of competitiveness of socioeconomic
systems (by example of Siberian Federal District)», Regionalnaya economica: teoriya I practica,
10 (2009), 6 – 17.
9. Competitiveness of Regions: Theoretical Applied Problems, Edited by Yu.K. Persky, N.Ya
Kalyuzhnaya (Moscow: TEIS, 2003), in Russian.
10. M. Porter, Competition (Moscow: Williams, 2006), in Russian.
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11. M. Porter, Competitive Strategy. Methods of Analyzing Industries and Competitors (Alpina
Business Books, 2007), in Russian.
12. E. M. Hoover, F. Giarratani, An Introduction to Regional Economics (Regional Research Institute,
West Virginia University, 1999).
Мониторинг состояния социально-экономических систем
на основе оценки конкурентоспособности
Е.В. Зандер, Е.В. Инюхина
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Рассматриваются методологические вопросы анализа и оценки уровня конкурентоспособности
социально-экономических систем разного уровня (регионов, муниципальных образований, видов
экономической деятельности или отраслей, предприятий). Предложенная авторами методика
оценки уровня конкурентоспособности апробирована на примере социально-экономических
систем Сибирского федерального округа. Разработанный подход может служить основой
для выявления эффективных направлений промышленной политики в целях повышения
конкурентоспособности систем.
Ключевые слова: социально-экономическая система, конкурентоспособность, комплексная
оценка, метод главных компонент, мониторинг состояния, эффективные направления
промышленной политики, аспекты и факторы конкурентоспособности, объекты макро-,
мезо- и микроуровня.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 554-562
~~~
УДК 397.4
Indigenous Peoples of Krasnoyarsk Region:
Concerning the Question of Methodology
of Culture Studies
Natalia P. Koptzeva*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article deals with methodological and conceptual bases of cultural studies of the peoples living in
the North of Krasnoyarsk region.
The author considers the key terms accepted in the contemporary research works and substantiates
the use of «indigenous peoples» term applied for the North aboriginal inhabitants living in the territory
of Krasnoyarsk region.
The potential of John Barry’s conception of acculturation as a foundation of contemporary cultural
studies of the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North are narrowly discussed in the article. The
author thinks that today there is a cultural interaction between the Large pluralistic society and a
certain ethno-cultural group, but not between two rather separate ethno-cultural groups (the Russian
ethnos and that one of the peoples of Krasnoyarsk North).
This approach signifies that both of the sides influence on each other and change in the process of
acculturation. At present, the changes taking place in a local ethno-cultural group have been studied
best of all while the Large pluralistic society is also changed.
The author supposes that today Russia is going through a certain stage characteristic of the world
community and connected with the change for a new type of social and economic relations between the
state and the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North. This period is characterized by the transition
from fi xation of traditional way of life (allegedly characteristic of those peoples) to the search for
mechanisms of inclusion of those cultural standards in the market system.
This social and economic reality requires new cultural and anthropological approaches, in particular,
connected with the use of capacities of Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) for cross-cultural studies
of the North peoples living in Krasnoyarsk region.
Keywords: indigenous peoples, peoples of the North, Krasnoyarsk region, acculturation, HRAF,
methods of culture studies, cultural anthropology.
Key notions
The areas of Siberia and the Far East make
two thirds of the Russian land. Siberia takes 40% of
Asia while only one fifth of the Russian population
lives in Siberia. The vast majority of the population
*
1
is the Russians, who have been assimilating the
lands in the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East since the
end of the 16th century, as well as the Ukrainians,
the Byelorussians, and the representatives of other
nationalities of the European part of Russia.
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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The nationalities, which had been
existing here long before the migration of
the peoples living in the European part of
Russia, are variously termed by the scientists
as «aboriginals», «native-born population»,
«autochthonous nationalities», «aboriginal
inhabitants», «indigenous peoples».
Such words as «aboriginals» and «natives»
can be referred to the epoch of colonial seizures
and they bear the spice of disparaging attitude as
far as public conscience and science have been
under theory of evolutionism for a long time. It
was positively rejected by contemporary cultural
anthropology (ethnology) but it still secretly exists
as conceptual and methodological basis in many
scientific papers. In relation to social processes,
the main point of evolutionism is the thesis that
all ethno-cultural groups have similar stages
(from the lowest to the highest ones) in their
development. To speak plainly, there are three such
stages: «savagery», «barbarity» and civilization.
European culture as it was formed to the moment
of mass industrialization and urbanization is
represented as an ideal of civilization. The
extreme aspect of that conception of evolutionism
has brought to an idea that various human races
are different human species. It’s not a secret that
great Charles Darwin kept to this point of view.
But the socially political and cultural
consequences of this scientific hypothesis were
utterly negative. Various races took different
levels in the scale of «human evolution». Some
social and cultural systems were declared to be
the best, supreme, and perfect while the other
ones were inferior, dead-end, and defective.
At first, the only arguments in favour of equal
accomplishment and unique nature of all ethnic
cultures were those ones of Bible anthropology,
which referred to the Holy texts of the origin of all
people from Adam and Eve and three Noah’s sons
after the Deluge, of the tower of Babel which was
built after all people had spoken one language.
In the middle of the 19th century, there
appeared scientific communities in Britain,
German, France, and then in the United States and
other countries which developed exceptionally
scientific arguments besides references to the
Bible. There were formed scientific conceptions
connected with the denial of evolutionism and
recognition of independence, unique nature and
equality of all ethno-cultural groups in relation
to each other.
This scientific position was of special
importance in the years of war with the German
Nazism and American racism as well as in other
similar situations.
Cultural anthropology is a young science
in Russia as far as human and social sciences
were under Marxism paradigm for a long period.
It denied the consequence of ethno-cultural
differences and the main structural element of
social system was considered to be classes of
people differentiated according to the principle
of possession or non-possession of property for
capital goods. Thus, Y.V. Bromley wrote in the
14th essay «Ethno-social processes in the world
of socialism», the book «Essays on theory of
ethnos» (2009): «In comparison with interethnic
conflicts in the capitalist world, the achievements
in the sphere of national relations are especially
obvious in our state and many other countries of
the socialist commonwealth. It demonstratively
proves the well-known thesis of the founders
of Marxism that «hostility of nationalities
against each other will fall» together with the
disappearance of class antagonism» [2, p. 338].
However a continued disregard of significant
ethno-cultural dissimilarities in policy practically
can bring about the situation that those interethnic
relations could become a zone of grave social
risk. Ignorance of the inner functional structure
of one or another ethno-cultural group can be
resulted in a case that all political decisions would
be skidded around that group for many decades,
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all economic investments would be vain, and the
territory would be a zone of incessant and endless
war conflict. A bright example is the situation in
the North Caucasus.
Certainly, the territory of Siberia and
Krasnoyarsk region is not a zone of social and
political risk due to various reasons. But civilizing
development of the lands in Siberia, new
economic realias, and a new view on the laws of
social development make scientists change both
scientific terminology and scientific approaches
to investigations in culture and anthropology.
It seems to be that such terms as «natives»
and «aborigines» applied to the peoples of Siberia
are to be excluded from the scientific lexicon
because they contain the arrogance of «invaders»
explaining their invasive actions in theory of
evolutionism anticipatorily regarding the people,
who had been living in these lands, as inferior
in economic, political, and cultural respects,
including religion.
The term «autochthonous peoples»
(autochthones) means «primary and original
population living in a country of any land
or territory» and it is shifted from cultural
anthropology (ethnology) to biology thereby it
isn’t used also.
The term «native peoples» is fixed in many
international normative acts to start with the
first article (Part 1. General Policy) of С 169
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989,
International Labour Organization (ILO):
«(a) tribal peoples in independent countries
whose social, cultural and economic conditions
distinguish them from other sections of the national
community, and whose status is regulated wholly
or partially by their own customs or traditions or
by special laws or regulations;
(b) peoples in independent countries who
are regarded as indigenous on account of their
descent from the populations which inhabited
the country, or a geographical region to which
the country belongs, at the time of conquest or
colonisation or the establishment of present state
boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal
status, retain some or all of their own social,
economic, cultural and political institutions» [4].
J. Barry, A. Poortinga, M. Siegel, and
P.R. Dasen (2007) put forward another term –
«indigenous peoples» – peoples who «have
always been living here»; their roots are lost far
in the past, and there weren’t left any evidences of
any peoples who had been living there earlier and
whose descendants still exist in a population. The
main characteristic of indigenous peoples is their
continued inhabitancy in the territories forcibly
included in a large national state. The lands
they had were often diminished in size and that
reduced their chance to keep up their existence,
and finally they were considered to be another
«minority group» within a large pluralistic
society.
The term «indigenous peoples» has many
advantages:
1. It isn’t loaded with «colonial» meaning
like «aborigines» and «natives» terms.
2. It has scientific status, not that one of law,
like «native peoples» term.
3. It has a cultural and anthropological
meaning, not a biological one, like «autochthonous
peoples» term.
4. It is included into cultural and
anthropological scientific space where they use
the terms fixing not frozen state of ethno-cultural
group but a process of interaction of an ethnocultural group and so-called «big» (pluralistic)
society.
2. Indigenous peoples as an object
of cultural and anthropological research
There could be pointed out two positions
characterizing contemporary studies at culture.
The first position: an object of study is
particular cultures which are «independent,
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self-consistent and stable» with geographically
fixed location; they are not characterized by
globalization processes. If there can be fixed
any change inside those cultures, it is to be
connected with the process of interaction between
individuals within a certain culture, but it’s not a
result of contacts of cultures.
The second position: every ethnic group
has its own culture that’s why one mustn’t say
«culture of minority». Today there isn’t any
monocultural society. Various cultural groups
coexist together in one society. In the modern
world, there practically cannot be found any
society with one religion, language, culture, and
identity characterizing the whole population. The
modern society is pluralistic.
We chose the second position of John Barry
and his colleagues. Thereby, the contemporary
indigenous peoples interact not only with a single
ethno-cultural group (monocultural society)
but with pluralistic society consisting of many
cultural groups.
We can distinguish two viewpoints on
pluralistic society.
The first point: there is a «melting pot», an
only dominating society, «main stream» society
with minority groups around it. The fate of those
minority groups is double: they can be either
dissolved in the «main stream» society or remain
marginal groups set aside by the majority in that
society.
The second point is called as
«multiculturalism» by J. Barry and his
colleagues. There is a variegated palette of
ethno-cultural groups maintaining feeling of
their cultural onliness and taking their own
place in the social structure characterized by
some universal (conventional) norms: economic,
political and juridical agreements on how various
ethno-cultural groups can coexist together. Thus,
multiculturalism is characterized by two things:
maintenance of cultural unique nature of all
ethno-cultural groups and co-partnership of all
groups in one big pluralistic society.
The suggestion of John Barry and his
colleagues is of great interest for formation
of research position to indigenous peoples
in Krasnoyarsk region. They discern two
levels of study: group-cultural and individualpsychological. This subject matter requires a
special consideration, but it is already clear now
that this idea will allow scientific resources of
both social anthropology and cross-cultural
psychology to be attracted, and that will further
scientific reliability (validity) of results of studies.
Indigenous peoples as an object of
contemporary cultural and anthropological
research can be considered from all the scientific
viewpoints mentioned above. However it is
obvious that scientific points of view are closely
connected with socioeconomic and sociopolitical
interests of different countries.
3. Indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region
in the context of foreign experience
in interrelation between the state
and peoples of the North
Despite a large number of scientific and
popular publications on the Russian North peoples,
the main conceptual space of those articles has
clearly pronounced ethnographic or historical
and ethnographic nature. Serious cultural and
anthropological investigations are a matter of the
future. It is urgent to solve two serious problems
connected with the crisis in Russian human
sciences: 1) assimilation of the achievements of
foreign scientists stored for the last 120-150 years
since initiation of social (cultural) anthropology;
2) solution of the methodological problems the
world scientific community has to face with,
which are connected with negotiation of research
position of «intrusion of cultural standards of
one’s science as standards of the study of another
culture».
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It appears to be that the solutions of these
problems are interrelated and logic of development
of Russian cultural anthropology for the nearest
ten years is the following: concrete (local) studies
connected with elaboration of ethnographic
materials by means of the newest cultural
and anthropological approaches of brightly
pronounced cross-disciplinary character.
Thus, some very interesting investigations
of the indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region
can be carried on taking into account economic
studies when the first place is taken by the analysis
of social and economic situation of the indigenous
peoples of the Russian North, the mechanisms of
state control over processes of improvement of
social and economic conditions of the indigenous
peoples and old-time communities of the North
are studied, and the suggestions concerning
development of policy in traditional village
economic life and traditional life support of the
indigenous peoples in the places of their dense
living in Krasnoyarsk region are also analyzed.
For instance, A.A. Maximov’s research
«Realization of interests of the peoples of the
North in the situation of industrial development:
from foreign experience to the Russian model»
(2007) reveals three key periods in the history of
interrelations between Russia, Canada, the USA,
Scandinavian countries, and indigenous peoples
living in the North:
1. cooperation;
2. domination and assimilation;
3. formation of partnership relations.
In this connection, it is to be mentioned that
the situation in Russia is not an exception and it
falls under the general objective laws.
At the first stage, a state, which has
an intention to colonize a certain territory,
recognizes significance of economy of indigenous
peoples and their right for the land and autonomy.
Indigenous peoples prevail in number in large
territories and economic branches traditional
for those indigenous peoples predominate in
those territories. Indigenous peoples become
involved in exchange of goods, trading relations
and processes of political, economic and cultural
development.
At the second stage, development of new
economic branches is accompanied by the
explosion of non-indigenous population in the
lands of indigenous peoples. Policy of cooperation
with aboriginal peoples is replaced by policy
of domination and assimilation together with
demographic changes. The essence of new policy
is determined by the following key elements.
1. Indigenous peoples are deprived of their
lands and resources.
2. Policy of paternalism substitutes for selfgovernment of indigenous peoples.
3. The steps destructive for culture of
indigenous peoples are taken (Christianization,
a new system of education, courts and laws,
colonialist state language is forced into application
as the main language).
4. The ideology justifying political, economic
and cultural domination over indigenous peoples
is formed. This ideology obtains its name in the
second half of the 20th century: «assimilation
doctrine» or «colonialist theory». According
to the doctrine of assimilation, advantages and
profit obtained by indigenous peoples while using
resources of new lands appear to be a burden they
bear for economic and social progress. At the same
time, the destiny of indigenous peoples is archaic
way of life with according low level of material
production and consumption. The previously valid
agreements, laws or legal standards declaring
the rights of indigenous peoples for their lands
and autonomy and corresponding to relations
of partnership are considered to be a historical
anachronism insignificant at present.
5. Racial prejudices are spread around
including «domestic nationalism» corresponding
to the policy of paternalism and the doctrine of
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assimilation. Even humane ideas of self-value
of indigenous ethnic cultures and need of their
protection actually degrade representatives
of indigenous peoples and bring about racial
prejudices as far as they represent indigenous
ethno-cultural groups as special collectives able
to keep up the traditional way of life but incapable
of self-organization and self-development.
Having lost control over their lands and
resources, indigenous peoples weren’t able to
protect their culture and achieve equality to nonindigenous population in their share in economy
and level of wealth. Economic necessity,
dependence on foreign political decisions and
economic aid, and racial relations brought about
progression of mental and infectious illnesses as
well as social ones among indigenous peoples
(alcoholism, suicides, violence in a family,
criminality, apathy towards economic activity
and life on the whole).
Until the middle of the 20th century, the
high indexes of troubles of indigenous peoples
had been explained as specific features of their
physiology and social life while the processes
of assimilation and «dissolution» of indigenous
peoples in the society of migrants had been
estimated as objective and positive phenomena.
Finally, the last stage comes – about from
1960s and 1970s up to now – when in response
to the large-scale resource and hydroelectric
projects as well as to the attempts to liquidate the
Indian legal system in the USA and Canada, the
indigenous peoples of Alaska, the north territories
of Canada, Greenland, Sweden and Norway
publicly claimed the lands they had previously
inhabited and thought to be their motherland.
The organizations of indigenous peoples spoke
in support of such economic development that
wouldn’t destroy their community but strengthen
their autonomy and capacities for economic and
social progress. They brought in land lawsuits,
began to compile materials proving the right
of indigenous peoples to live as communities
and nations in their lands and structures of
government. The problems of north peoples
are of great importance in public and political
discussions. There has begun a dialogue of
indigenous peoples and federal organizations and
search for the ways of satisfaction of the rightful
claims of those peoples. The central part is taken
by the questions concerning the rights of property
in land and resources of settlement and territorial
communities of indigenous peoples and political
rights connected with autonomy.
Since A.A. Maximov’s research work
has a well-pronounced character, the author is
interested in such processes as institution of
indigenous peoples’ property rights for the lands
and resources, the processes of development of
the local self-government characterizing the
north territories, traditional economy and its
capacities for integration with market relations
in the context of self-development of indigenous
peoples of the Russian North.
It seems to be that A.A. Maximov’s statement
that, one way or another, the Russian indigenous
peoples living in the North are included in the
general world objective laws is substantiated and
proved by means of vast economic materials and
analysis.
4. The project of research program
on the study of the indigenous peoples
of Krasnoyarsk North.
It is necessary to draw some cultural and
anthropological conclusions, connected with the
change of the main research approach, from this
social and economic investigation.
1. It is necessary to refuse categorically
and radically to study ethno-cultural groups
of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North as
some separate cultural minority groups, but the
whole and dynamic process of acculturation is
to be considered as a CULTURAL CONTACT
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BETWEEN MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY
AND A CONCRETE ETHNO-CULTURAL
GROUP, NOT BETWEEN THAT GROUP AND
THE RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL URBANIZED
ETHNOS.
2. This approach implies a special research
program connected with: a) development
of a model of the Large pluralistic society
characterizing Russia at the beginning of the
21st century, including its form represented in
Krasnoyarsk city; b) the study of the processes
of acculturation inter-conditioned by the cultural
contact of changes taking place both in the
Large pluralistic society and in a certain ethnocultural group (considering two levels of that
process: group-and-cultural and individualand-psychological); c) elaboration of methodical
recommendations with respect to formation of
the multicultural society in Krasnoyarsk region.
3. It is necessary to cooperate with Yale
University in order to be able to use the data
of the card-index Human Relations Area Files
(HRAF) in our studies of indigenous peoples of
Krasnoyarsk North.
5. Capacities of Human Relations
Area Files (HRAF) for the cultural studies
of indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk North
The history of HRAF starts on 26th of
February, 1949 when the scientists of several
American universities (Harvard University,
Pennsylvania State University, Oklahoma
State University, Washington University, and
Yale University) gathered in the conference
in New Haven (Connecticut) to declare their
participation in a new non-commercial scientific
research organization which would be based
on Yale University. There was proclaimed the
mission of the new organization: «to develop and
spread the card index of organized information
connected with human communities and
cultures». The organization was called Human
Relations Area Files (HRAF). HRAF form is a
constantly growing card-file of comparative and
indexed ethnographic data sorted and arranged
according to geographic position and cultural
characteristics.
According to the information given in
2006, HRAF includes 20 members – the authors
taking part in filing and more than a hundred of
associated members. Now the access to HRAF is
available in the INTERNET.
HRAF databases have been worked out
for the purposes of promotion of cross-cultural
investigations taking into account the whole
variety of human life in order to explain human
behaviour from the point of cultural universals.
The unique indexation system «The Outline of
Cultural Materials» (OCM) has been worked
out.
For instance, the researchers seek an
answer to the question: how much do different
ethnic cultures depend on supplies of food
products? They evaluate the index «Keeping and
conservation of food». The search in this subject
will be connected with all the points describing
desiccated, smoke-dried, salted, chilled, frozen,
and canned food products as well as any other
ways of food products keeping used by people of
a certain type of culture.
HRAF was established for carrying out of
various investigations, but, first and foremost,
for comparative cultural studies (so-called crosscultural studies). At present, there is a description
of 350 cultures according to OCM indexes. It
is necessary to mention that ethnic cultures of
Krasnoyarsk North are represented extremely
deficiently here: only the Samoyeds, the Yakuts,
the Gilyaks, the Chukchee, and the Koryaks.
It seems that cooperation of Siberian Federal
University and HRAF would promote both the
further development of cross-cultural studies
and inclusion of Krasnoyarsk scientists’ cultural
investigation in the world context.
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References
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3.
4.
5.
6.
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8.
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Barry J., Poortinga A., Siegel M., Dasen P. Cross-cultural psychology. Studies and use. – Kharkov,
2007.
Bromley, J.V. Essays on theory of ethnos. – Moscow, 2009.
Human Relations Area files // http://www.yde.edu/hraf/
International Labour Organization (ILO), С 169 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention. –
1989. – http://www.gfbv.it/3dossier/diritto/ilo169-conv-en.html
Kasten, Erich (ed.) People and the Land. – 2002, Dietrich Reimer Verlag Berlin. – 257 p.
Koptseva, N.P. Cultural and anthropological project at social engineering (methodological
problem at modern applied culture studies). // Journal of Siberian Federal University «Humanities
and social sciences». – Vol. 3., №1. – P. 22-34.
Koptseva, N.P. Materials of the first session of educational, scientific and methodological seminar
«Theory and practice of applied culture studies» on the basis of Art History and Theory and
Culture Studies Department, Institute of Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk.
June 2nd, 2009. // Journal of Siberian Federal University «Humanities and social sciences». – Vol.
3., №2. – P. 194-232.
Koptseva, N.P., Reznikova, K.V. Selection of methodological principles for actual research on
culture. // Journal of Siberian Federal University «Humanities and social sciences». – Vol. 2.,
№4. – P. 491-506.
Maximov A.A. Realization of interests of the peoples of the North in the situation of industrial
development: from foreign experience to the Russian model. A thesis for a degree of candidate in
economics. – Syiktyivkar, 2007.
On guarantee of rights of small indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation: Federal law dated
30.04.1999 №82-FL.
People to people, nation to nation: Highlights from the report of the Royal Commissions on
Aboriginal Peoples. – Canada. Royal Commission on aboriginal peoples, 1996.
Sadokhin, A.P. Ethnology. – Moscow, 2008.
Tavadov, G.T. Ethnology. – Moscow: Project edition, 2004.
The elements of ethnology. / Ed. Pimenov, V.V. – Moscow: Moscow State University, 2007.
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Индигенные народы Красноярского края:
к вопросу о методологии культурных исследований
Н.П. Копцева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья посвящена методологическим и концептуальным основаниям культурных исследований
народов Севера Красноярского края.
Автор рассматривает основные термины, которые приняты в современных научных
исследованиях, и обосновывает применение термина «индигенные народы» применительно к
коренным народам Севера, проживающим на территории Красноярского края.
В статье подробно обсуждаются возможности концепции аккультурации Джона Берри
как основы для современных культурных исследований индигенных народов Красноярского
Севера. Автор полагает, что в настоящее время имеет место не культурное взаимодействие
двух достаточно обособленных этнокультурных групп (российского этноса и этноса,
принадлежащего к народам Красноярского Севера), а «Большого» плюралистического
общества и определенной этнокультурной группы.
Данный подход означает, что в процессе аккультурации обе стороны испытывают
воздействие друг друга и изменяются. В настоящее время лучше других изучены изменения,
происходящие в локальной этнокультурной группе, тогда как изменению подвергается и
«Большое» плюралистическое общество.
Автор полагает, что в настоящее время Россия переживает определенный этап, характерный
для мирового сообщества и связанный с переходом к новому типу социально-экономических
отношений между государством и индигенными народами Красноярского Севера. Этот период
характеризуется переходом от фиксации традиционного способа жизни, якобы характерного
для этих народов, к поиску механизмов вписывания данных культурных стандартов в рыночную
экономику.
Данная социально-экономическая реальность требует и новых культурно-антропологических
подходов, связанных, в частности, с использованием возможности Human Relations Area Files
(HRAF) для кросс-культурных исследований северных народов Красноярского края.
Ключевые слова: индигенные народы, народы Севера, Красноярский край, аккультурация,
HRAF, методы культурных исследований, культурная антропология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 563-580
~~~
УДК 75.047
Landscape Painting Genre
of the Krasnoyarsk Art School
Natalia A. Bakhova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article is devoted to the study of the history of development and diversity of landscape painting of
the Krasnoyarsk art school at the end of 19th-beginning of the 21st centuries as a unique occurrence of
a regional culture. Landscape painting is one of the most popular genres in which Krasnoyarsk artists
fulfill their artistic concept visualizing peculiarities of the Siberian people’s mindset.
First of all specific processes of formation of landscape painting independence and inherent worth in
the hierarchy of ancient Chinese and West European history of art were studied and compared. The
first impulses of landscape pictures’ liberation from mythological, historical and everyday scenes have
been determined.
In this article the leading role of realistic landscape painting in the art of the Krasnoyarsk art school
is discussed which is based on the diversity and wealth of natural landscapes of the Central and
Eastern Siberia, plentiful landscape views. Closeness of nature allows the artist to grasp at maximum
the essence of the nature so kindred to him and present its original qualities. West European theory of
realistic landscape painting of the 19th century is prevailing for the landscape art of the Krasnoyarsk
art school. According to this theory realistic everyday life landscapes more correctly represent the
essence in each of the elements and events of everyday life, find the truly beautiful in it, require the
ability of seeing this seeming simple as significant one.
In the article for the first time art review and periodization of landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk
art school for the whole period of its existence is offered. Specific diversity of the genre has been
determined (epic and lyrical, historical and mythological landscapes, urban, industrial and rural
landscapes, ethnic landscapes). Possible periodization of landscape painting genre development is
determined in accordance with the change of priorities: artistic traditions, dominance of specific kinds
of the genre, current and historical events of the Krasnoyarsk Territory culture. Regarding each stage
of the regional landscape painting development representative art works demonstrating its peculiarity
have been selected. The periodization of the history of the Krasnoyarsk art school development allows
to follow the dynamics of the world landscape painting tradition development and formation of Siberian
landscape painting own concepts.
To sum it up the unique art qualities of the Krasnoyarsk landscape painting demonstrating the
peculiarity of Siberian region as a multicultural space have been formulated.
Keywords: landscape painting, concept of realistic landscape painting, theory of national landscape
painting, Krasnoyarsk art school, regional culture, culture of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, landscape
painting of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk artists.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: borisovakrs-k@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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POINT
1. Landscape painting genre in the history
of art: formation of independence and inherent
worth of landscape painting in the hierarchy of
art genres.
Landscape paintings first appeared in China
during the period of Six Dynasties (220-618). The
founder of the national landscape painting was
Wang Wei in the second half of the Tang Dynasty
(618-907). Retreating from the presentation of the
fantastic nature which served as a background for
the scenes from the Imperators’ life Wang Wei by
means of monochrome landscape style presents
the unity of natural landscape merging together
water and air spaces. Landscape painting is
being filled with religious and philosophic ideas
of Daoism and Buddhism. In the epoch of the
Northern Song (960-1127) landscape painting
acquires inherent worth and begins to prevail
in the hierarchy of genres. Academic landscape
painting of panoramic-monumental style of this
period demonstrates the cosmic world order
reaching its peak in works of Guo Xi. A unique
and concluding event in the history of Chinese
landscape painting becomes the art of «artistswriters» of the Northern Song epoch and Chan
art of the Southern Song (1127-1279) epoch
(Osenmuk, 2005). Landscape painting appears
as a synthesis of the realism of the external
visual range and conceptual philosophical and
religious depth. The absolute, supreme quality
of nature visualized in the form of emptiness is
defined which can as reveal and crystallize all
forms of being from itself, so it can dissolve a
whole variety of forms in itself, as the Fullness
of Being.
In the history of West European landscape
painting one of the first impulses of landscape
paintings’ liberation from mythological, historical
and everyday life scenes becomes the art of
the Northern Renaissance artists (Netherlands,
Germany). The world of nature according to
the philosophy of pantheism (from Greek «pan»
meaning «all» and «Theos» meaning «God»,
literally «All is God») in each of its phenomenon
and fragment shows the aspects of the absolute
most correctly, allows to define the presence of
close connection with God (Zhukovsky, 2006,
p.229). In the Netherlands special attention is
paid to landscape painting, however, images
of nature are only a part of the genre scenes
accompanying the narration. The representatives
of the «Danube School» in Germany in the
16th century work in the genre of romantic and
fantastic landscape, in which anthropomorphic
characters are dissolved in the natural space by
means of narrative and pictorial techniques. But
this kind of landscape painting didn’t completely
succeed in neutralization of the narrative story
and crystallization of the inherent worth of the
exclusively natural forms’ image as the most
lighted space of the essence.
West European art of the 19th century
becomes the next stage in the development of
landscape painting. Due to the formation of the
picturesque concept of realism in the works of
G. Courbet (1819-1877) in the second half of the
century, as well as due to the art of French and
British artists of this period (among them J.M.W.
Turner, J. Constable, T. Rousseau, C. Troyon,
J.-B. C. Corot) landscape painting gradually
becomes an independent and self-worth genre of
painting (Istomina, 2006). The fact of the origin
and the liberation of landscape painting genre
from historical and mythological painting related
to the events of the sacred history and dominating
the first half century due to the activities of the
French Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal
Academy of Arts (England), demonstrates the
use of natural elements such as symbols of a
divine world. Representation of nature is has been
preserving its majestic content, the phenomenon
of the divine world in the aspect of nature in
particular.
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2. West European theory of realistic
landscape painting as a fundamental one in
landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school
of the 20th century.
The priority genre in which the painting of
the Krasnoyarsk art school has been traditionally
developing is realistic landscape painting. The
concept of realistic landscape painting is formed
in the art of painting in Western Europe in the
19th century. Founders of realistic images of
nature were the English school landscapists, i.e.
William Turner (1775 – 1851) and J. Constable
(1776 – 1837), as well as the artists of Barbizon
school (a group of French landscapists working
in the countryside of Barbizon village in the
forest of Fontainebleau, near Paris), among them
T. Rousseau, J.–B. C. Corot, C. –F. Daubigny, K.
Troyon (Bogemskaya, 2002).
Realistic landscape according to the artistic
conception of the Barbizon school displays the
essence in each of the elements and events of
everyday life, thus being raised to the quality
of Being. On the contrary to the concept of
classicism of the 18th-19th centuries human nature
is not a reference repository of the divine content.
Land cultivation, the contemplation of nature,
natural human existence – this is how the actions
done by these few human characters introduced
by the artists can be characterized. In most cases,
however, the figure of the human is absent. This
means that the visual concept of art works is
focused on the phenomenon of the very essence
of the divine nature and the earth and the heavens
interrelate as totalities not related to the vanity of
human nature.
If the classic concept of the idealistic
landscape in depiction of nature was focused
on the quality of the universal, the realistic
landscape considers important the representation
of the features of real natural elements. The
absolute, the divine fills up every pore of the
matter of the surrounding world of nature, thus
the pantheistism in the image of particular
natural areas is demonstrated. The specifics of a
single image is the essence of the proximity of the
universal. Simple and ordinary representation of
nature reveals the truly beautiful in it, requires the
ability of seeing the seeming simple as significant
one.
The key figure in establishing the theory of
realistic national landscape painting has become
the creative programme of the English artist J.
Constable, «a natural painter» (Kenneth, 2004).
Unlike the concept of the idealistic landscape
painting common for the historical painting of
that time, the theory of the national landscape
painting of J. Constable asserts the uniqueness
of representation of a single landscape close to
the nature of the artist able to grasp the essence
of the nature which is most kindred to him. The
artist recreates one and the same motive: the area
where he was born in various conditions of light
and weather, time of the day. Nature in the art
works of J. Constable is not just the English land,
but the land of the south of England, the Dedham
Vale, the banks of the river Stour. A series of
«portraits» of trees (e.g. «The trunk of an elm
tree», 1824) becomes the visualization of this
theory.
National landscape painting of the English
art school is peculiar in such characteristics as
nebula, rain and humidity. The heaven space
appears as a source of the life of the World,
therefore windmills, rain and rainbow become
determining in the existence of the human and
organize his life according to the laws of the
divine, heavenly world. The movement of the
human is determined by the movement of natural
elements. The essence is manifested in the
phenomenon of daily, intimate, everyday existence
of the earthly world. The human is presented in
the indissoluble unity with the Earth’s space due
to the composition, the narrative character of the
peasant’s appearance and lifestyle, as well as due
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to the technique, he merges together with the
natural world into the single entity.
It is the heaven and the earth that come
into a relationship in J. Constable’s works as the
ultimate heroes and these relations constitute the
true story. The plot does not matter in the aspect
of private and transient events distracting from
the main event which is the event of interaction
between the Earth and the Heaven.
The Barbizon School artists depict
the neighborhood of Paris emphasizing the
representativeness of the nature of the village
of Barbizon. National realistic landscape
painting of the French art school is peculiar in
such characteristics as fullness with the light
and open horizon demonstrating the immensity
of the French pastures and emphasizing the
commonness of natural spaces by means of
including the everyday peasant’s life, as natural
as the depicted natural world. The world of the
French nature becomes the source of life and the
space for harmonious existence of the human.
The heavenly world is presented as divine one
under the cover of which the human exists.
The founders of realistic landscape painting
abandoning idealistic classical landscape
compositions proposed an open-air method and,
moreover, made it equivalent to working in the
studio. Open-air painting was discovered in 18091811 by J. Constable. At the beginning of the
1820s this principle was completely developed by
him on the basis of plenty of sketches drawn from
nature. On the reverse side of his sketches done
during the trips J. Constable made comments
on the weather, the direction of the wind, the
state and type of the clouds: «twilight after a
very bright day», «clouds clearing away after
the rain» (John Constable, 2005; R. Desnos,
2005). The sketches were written by oil making
the sketch and the completed painting equal in
value. Sketching, seeming incompleteness of
works demonstrate the most correct method of
presentation of the true structure of the world,
being not static but in constant movement of
spheres. This technique detects the state of unity
and flowing, mutual reflection of the elements of
nature, their coexistence. The method of open-air
painting allowed to present the essence of nature
in its air, luminous, transparent, moving and
changeable state.
West European theory of realistic national
landscape painting has significantly influenced
not only European artists of the 19th century – the
romantic, realist and impressionist painters, but
also significantly determined the development
of landscape painting of the late 19th century in
Russia. The classics and the guide for creating of
art works of the Krasnoyarsk art school will be
the works of Russian landscape painting of the
second half of the 19th century, i.e. the works of
A.K. Savrasov (1830-1897), I. I. Shishkin (18321898), A.I. Kuindzhi (1842-1910), F.A. Vasiliyev
(1850-1873) and I. I. Levitan (1860-1900).
Example
3. The natural wealth of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory as a factor contributing to the
popularity of the landscape painting genre in the
Krasnoyarsk art school. Landscape painting is one
of the most popular genres in which the painters
of the Krasnoyarsk art school have been fulfilling
their artistic vision starting from the end of the
19th century until present days. Moreover, artists
who were brought up outside of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory having arrived in the Territory, begin
to work in this genre. This fact can be explained
by the real wealth of Krasnoyarsk nature. The
geographical area of the Siberian region forms a
special mentality of Siberian people, through the
prism of natural forms the place of the human in
the world and the natural laws of his existence
are defined.
The Krasnoyarsk Territory stretches from
the Arctic Ocean to the foothills of the Eastern
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Sayan. In the south and in the east it is framed by
the mountains of Southern and North – Eastern
Siberia. The territory of the region has an extremely
complicated terrain: there are mountains, plateaus,
lowlands and valleys of various height and origin.
The length of the territory from the north to the
south predetermines the location of the territory
within three climatic zones: arctic, subarctic and
temperate. Thus, from the north to the south the
following change of natural zones is observed:
the polar zone, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, forest
steppe and steppe. The main waterway is the
Yenisei river which flows through nearly the entire
territory from the south to the north being one of
the largest rivers on the planet. Thus, the huge
area combines almost all the climatic and natural
areas. The human living in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory has the opportunity to visit and get
acquainted with various natural phenomena not
even going beyond its boundaries.
The Krasnoyarsk Territory is presented as
a multicultural space which includes the Evenki
and Taymyr autonomous districts in the north
where historically the small northern tribes
settled: Dolgans, Evenks, Nenets, Selkups, Kets,
Nganasans. It shares borders with distinctive
natural areas and original ethnic cultures, such as:
the Republic of Tuva (in the South), the Republic
of Khakassia Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets
autonomous districts (in the west) indicating the
relations with Asian neighbors. Assimilation
of cultural traditions of these ethnic groups
allows the culture of the region to absorb in
itself centuries-long mythology of nature of the
indigenous peoples of Siberia.
4. The peculiarity of the landscape painting
genre in the art of the Krasnoyarsk art school:
the periodization of the history of the landscape
painting genre, artistic traditions, types of
landscape painting, representational works. The
fundamental tradition of landscape painting of the
Krasnoyarsk art school is the concept of national
realistic landscape painting. The dominance of
realistic landscape painting is determined by the
diversity and richness of natural landscapes of
Central and Eastern Siberia, plentiful of diverse
landscape types.
The history of landscape painting of the
Krasnoyarsk art school displays all the diversity
of the genre. During the 20th century epic and
lyrical, historical and mythological landscapes
become dominant in works of regional artists. In
the middle of the century during the All-Russian
industrial constructions in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory and the construction of a regional centre
urban and industrial landscapes are in demand.
Periodically rural landscape becomes relevant in
works of individual artists. Ethnic landscapes –
the landscapes of Khakassia, Tuva, Taymyr,
Evenkia and Dudinka – are of the highest priority
in works of some artists of the Krasnoyarsk art
school throughout the history of its existence.
Possible periodization of the history of the
landscape painting genre development in the
Krasnoyarsk art school is determined by the
following criteria: 1) change of priorities in the
choice of artistic traditions; 2) dominance of
certain types of the landscape painting genre; 3)
focus on specific subjects of the landscape, and 4)
influence of current and historical events on the
artistic culture of the territory.
1910-1950. – the period of formation of the
landscape painting genre in the Krasnoyarsk
art school: art works of V.I. Surikov, D.I.
Karatanov, A.P. Lekarenko.
The history of landscape painting in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory started with the first
watercolour works of V.I. Surikov (1848-1916)
of the pre-academic period of 1862-1870. The
methodology of N.V. Grebnev, the teacher of
Vasily Surikov in 1856-1861 at the Krasnoyarsk
district school, was peculiar while painting from
nature was compulsory, and above all, en plein air
(from French «en plein air» meaning «open-air»).
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Fig. 1 «Minusinsk steppe» 1873, by V. I. Surikov, STG
Presentation of the colourful wealth of nature,
changes of colour in natural conditions and realism
become determinant at drawing lessons. In the
future, V. I. Surikov will preserve this technique
during the entire period of his career. While
studying at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine
Arts (1869-1875) V.I. Surikov regularly returns
to Krasnoyarsk, travels in Khakassia. He creates
a lot of landscape paintings of the steppe and
mountains of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk panoramic
views distinguished by realism. In landscape
painting of those years panoramic perspective
plans are combined with the precise depiction of
the details of the background (Lomanova, 2006).
In the work of V.I. Surikov Siberian
landscape will be the necessary component of
historical paintings of the 1890-1900s. In general,
the art of V.I. Surikov will become a professional
basis for the development of painting in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory: the tradition of realism,
open-air work, panoramic-monumental image of
Siberian nature.
The native Siberian D.I. Karatanov (18741952) having taken incomplete course at the
Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in the studio of
A.I. Kuindzhi will become one of those painters
who will continue the development of landscape
painting in the Krasnoyarsk art school in the
first half of the 20th century. The artist-historian,
a native of Khakassia, a regular participant of
research expeditions in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
and to the Far North will present in his works a
range of lyrical and epic landscapes distinguished
by documentary realism. Starting from D.I.
Karatanov’s art works Siberian taiga, Khakass
steppes and the Sayan mountains, nature reserve
«Krasnoyarsk Stolby», tundra of the Turukhansk
region, the nature of the Far North and Siberian
rivers will become the key themes in landscape
painting of the Krasnoyarsk art school in the
following years. Landscape painting becomes
the main genre in the art of D.I. Karatanov and
one of the principal in the education system of
Krasnoyarsk city school of painting (the first in
Siberia, opened in 1910) where the artist would
be the senior teacher.
In the epic landscapes of D.I. Karatanov
Siberian nature is distinguished by immensity,
majesty and savagery.
In the lyrical landscape sketches the artist
turns to the transition states of nature, the object
of his attention are unexplored areas of Siberian
nature with small streams and trails. The only
characters in such works are fishermen and
hunters as the most similar in their nature to
the savagery. Working en plein air, Krasnoyarsk
artist paints a number of sketches and paintings of
his favourite places – «vidovka» (an observation
point) at «Stolby» referring to the natural image
at different times of the day and year. Selected
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Fig. 2 «Eastern Sayan», 1946
Fig. 3 «Taiga landscape», 1972 by A.P. Lekarenko
works: «Windfall» (1934), «Taiga wilderness»
(1935-1936).
The new solution in the landscape painting
genre proposed in his works another Krasnoyarsk
artist A.P. Lekarenko (1895-1978). After
numerous and long-lasting visits to Evenkia,
the Turukhansk polar records expedition to the
Taymyr (1926-1928) the artist returns with a
series of landscape paintings devoted to the
northern theme. Numerous sketches will become
a kind of peculiar, visual-documentary report of
what he saw and, at the same time, the artistic
representation of constant cyclical variability,
dynamics and diversity of Siberian nature. The
desire to capture the multifaceted image of
Siberian nature will allow to work in series in
which richness and immensity of native wildlife
will be revealed most fully.
Later A.P. Lekarenko will make this method
of work the main one in his landscape art, thus
in 1946 after a long trip to the Eastern Sayan
the landscape paintings series about the Sayan
mountains will appear. Selected works: «Cedars
and distances», «Eastern Sayan».
1950-1970. – Crystallization of the realist
tradition of landscape painting in the art works
of B.Ya. Ryauzov, T.V. Ryannel, R.K. Ruyga,
Yu.I. Khudonogov, A.F. Kalinin.
Current historical events in the history of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory in the second half
of the 20th century influenced significantly the
development of the landscape painting genre. The
post-war period, the intensification of the industry
development, many all-union construction sites
in the region attracted the younger generation
from all regions of the country. Among them
were young artists not of Krasnoyarsk origin,
such as: B.Ya. Ryauzov (1919-1994), V.I. Meshkov
(born in 1919), T. Ryannel (born in 1921), A.F.
Kalinin (1922-2002), R.K. Ruyga (1923-2002)
and Yu.I. Khudonogov (1924-1967). Some will
arrive after completing studies at art schools. The
opening of Surikov’s Art School in 1958 and the
first art gallery will become historic events and
will determine the further development of art in
the region. This period will be called the «Golden
Age» of the Krasnoyarsk Art School (Lomanov,
1996).
The natural phenomenon in landscape
painting of 1950s was the landscape of military
and post-war theme. Artists-veterans having
come after the war to the Krasnoyarsk Territory
depict the nature exhausted, wounded and wornout by numerous bloody battles.
Much attention is paid to the places of heroic,
glorious military events («Land at war» 1979-
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Fig. 4 «Land at war», 1979 by B.Ya. Ryauzov
Fig. 5 «Mountain cedars», 1959 by T. V. Ryannel
1982, «Place of Alexander Matrosov’s heroic
deed», B.Ya. Ryauzov). Artists not participating in
military events represent through natural images
the atmosphere and the consequences of military
events in the already peaceful life of the region
(«Sunflowers. June 1946» Yu.I. Khudonogov).
Artists of the second half of the 20th century
achieve recognition through numerous epic and
lyrical landscape paintings series.
Epic landscapes of B.Ya. Ryauzov, T.V.
Ryannel of this period are notable for panoramic
compositions, monumental formats, Siberian
nature is mythologized («The path of giants»,
«Mongun-Taiga» («Saying farewell to the
mountain»), «Peak Grandiozny», «Siberia.
Eternity» in 1965 by T.V. Ryannel; «Powers of
nature» in 1972 by B.Ya. Ryauzov).
T.V. Ryannel in his art work «The birth of
the Yenisei» (150x130, 1958) presents a raging
stream breaking through the mountainous banks.
The artist depicting the Upper-Yenisei waterfall in
the Biy-Khem valley demonstrates the birthplace
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Fig. 6 «The Birth of the Yenisei», 1958 by T.V. Ryannel
of the powers of nature. Clouds of mist over the
waterfall in their picturesque representation are
like the ephemeral essence of clouds and water
elements at the same time. The light of the rising
sun over the top breakers of the turbulent flow
highlights the origin of the power of water,
reveals its divine nature. T.V. Ryannel depicts
the mythological story of the immense mountain
spring birth solemnly coming down from the
heaven. Stony banks are witnessing the absolute
inaccessibility of the Heavenly world where the
heavenly stream comes into the world from.
Through the variety of landscape painting
types, as well as through the series of works,
Siberian nature is revealed in many aspects
showing all the immensity and variety of its
manifestations. With all the traditions of the
development of Siberian realistic landscape
painting painters of this period actualize
particular kinds of the genre.
At the «Socialist Siberia» exhibition
(1969) devoted to the centenary of Lenin’s birth
the historic and revolutionary theme appears
in the landscape paintings of B.Ya. Ryauzov
(«Turukhansk series» 1949-1951. («The Historic
sites in Siberia connected with life and work of
Lenin»), the series «Surikov’s places»). These are
series of historic landscape paintings associated
with Siberian exile of Vladimir I. Lenin and with
the childhood of the great artist. The attention
of the Krasnoyarsk artist is focused on the recreating of the atmosphere of the bygone epoch
of Turukhansk, Shushenskoye and Krasnoyarsk
through the images of nature. Selected works:
B.Ya. Ryauzov «Shushenskoye» 1898. The
window of V.I. Ulyanov» (1973-1978)», «The
garden of Surikov» (1983-1986). In the works of
T.V. Ryannel landscape-portraits appear which
are new for Siberian landscape painting. «The
Birch of Waldman» in 1961, «The Old Friend»
in 1972. The peculiar portraits of nature are a
metaphor of the human world, nature and the
human are mutually revealing, are referring to
each other.
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Fig. 7, 8 Krasnoyarsk – a city at Red Jar, 1978 and «Here will be Sajano-Shushenskaja of HEPS», 1965,
T.V. Ryannel
Fig. 9 Homeland of the deer, 1973, V.I. Meshkov
T.V. Ryannel, R.K. Ruyga and V.N. Udin
turn to the topic of the exploration of Siberia (the
overlap of the Yenisei River, the construction of the
Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power plant,
construction of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric
power plant named after the 50th anniversary of
the USSR, 1955-1972; the construction of the
Municipal bridge across the Yenisei River (1962);
Krasnoyarsk becomes one of the largest industrial
centres in the country).
Industrial and urban landscapes are prevailing
in that period («The left-bank pit», «The rightbank basin», «Overlapping the Yenisei river in the
Sayan mountains», «The dam of the Krasnoyarsk
hydroelectric power plant» in 1968 by T.V. Ryannel,
«Here the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydro power
plant will be» 1964-1989 by R.K. Ruyga). The
«Severe style» of 1960s in the landscape painting
genre highlighted the spectacular narration about
strength, stamina and masculinity of the Siberian
man and Siberian nature.
In 1960s the graphic art is developing
(1961 – the first exhibition of prints, 1962 – the
workshop of graphics of Siberia and the Far East,
establishment of the printing studio). The mobility
of this kind of art able to respond quickly to the
accelerating dynamics of the modern life and the
events of time is in great demand.
R.K. Ruyga and V.I. Meshkov continuing the
tradition of the Siberian landscape painting work
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Fig. 10 «Khakassia of territory» 1963 by Yu.I. Khudonogov
Fig. 11 «View to Yenisei», 1963; Fig.12 «Landscape with the red house» 1968 A.G. Pozdeev
using the graphic techniques (pencil, ink, linocut,
woodcut, lithography): the series «AbakanTayshet» by R.K. Ruyga; the series of colour
linocuts «Evenk Series», «Around Taymyr» by
V.I. Meshkov.
Yu.I. Khudonogov and A.F. Kalinin reveal
in their paintings the pagan antiquity of Khakass
land, offer possibility of its coexistence with
modernity. Interrelation of Khakass steppes and
virgin lands, burial mounds and the construction
of new settlements is presented. In their early
works the artists attempt to detect the proximity
of ancient and modern rhythms, the harmony of
their coexistence. In later works they focus on
the stability and permanence of antiquity, assert
its superiority over the vanity of modernity
(«Plowed virgin land», «Town of virgin lands
plowmen», «Eagle steppe», «Awakened steppe»,
Yu.I. Khudonogov).
During this period declaring that realism is
a fundamental tradition the artists master a range
of other artistic traditions, among them English
and French realist landscape painting, tradition of
impressionism, expressionism («The Sayan rain»
in 1980, «Rocks on the shore of Lake Baikal» in
1982, «The morning on the Biryusa» in 1989 by
T.V. Ryannel). The object of the image becomes
the nature of the Krasnoyarsk Territory from the
Sayan ridges in Tuva to the Arctic Ocean.
1970-1990. – Traditions and innovations
in landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk
art school: art works of A.G. Pozdeev, V.F.
Kapelko, G.G. Gorensky, A.A. Dovnar and
V.A. Sergin
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Fig. 13 «Hut with holes» A.G. Pozdeev
Fig. 14 «At the mouth of the Ching river» V.F. Kapelko
The opening of Krasnoyarsk State Art
Institute and the Siberian-Far Eastern Branch of
the USSR Academy of Arts (art workshops) in
1986-1987 will determine the further development
of art in the region.
Graduates of the capital’s art schools
continue to come to Krasnoyarsk and bring
with them almost unknown artistic traditions
to the regional school, including West European
(traditions of Impressionism, Post-Impressionism,
Fauvism, Primitivism and others). Most clearly
the innovative techniques of landscape painting
are represented in works of A.G. Pozdeev (19261998), G.G. Gorensky (born in 1938), V.F. Kapelko
(1937-2000). Selected works: «In the prospect»,
«Red holiday» 1967-1969 by A.G. Pozdeev).
The impressionist art tradition becomes the
prevailing one: the colour and light interflowing
of natural areas, the breach of the classic
organization of the natural space, the play of
reflexes demonstrates the idea of the natural
world unity.
However, the realist tradition of Siberian
landscape painting is still preserved in the
works of the artists taught in the traditions of
the Krasnoyarsk art school, and these ones who
choose the Krasnoyarsk Territory to be the
space for their creative development and further
perfection.
V.A. Sergin (born in 1945) works in
central Russia and paints landscapes of Pskov,
Vladimir, and landscapes of Moscow suburbs,
Fig. 15 «Autumn on the Yenisei», 1983 by V.A. Sergin
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Baltic landscapes, works in Central Asia, but
nevertheless he prefers the rugged wildness
of Krasnoyarsk nature. Pastous, relief in the
painting technique epic and lyrical landscapes
of V.A. Sergin maximum materialize the artistic
image of Siberian nature in front of the viewer
creating the optical effect of three-dimensional
image. Since 1997 the urban landscape appears
in the art of V.A. Sergin – Krasnoyarsk streets
and yards («Kirova Street», «Paris yard» 1998).
The artistic language of the painter is formed
on the basis of the realistic tradition of Siberian
landscape, as well as on the traditions of Russian
landscape painting (lyrical landscapes: the series
«Four seasons», «Winter twilight» in 1996; epic
landscapes: «My Siberia» in 1990, «The tale of
Siberia» in 1999, «The Tale of the Podkamennaya
Tunguska River» in 2000, «Taimyr silence» in
1982).
A.A. Dovnar (1939-2005) preferred the rural
landscape portraying the world of antiquity and
peace having been preserved and existing in
Siberian nature.
1990-2010. – Peculiarity of the present
stage of the development of the Krasnoyarsk
art school landscape painting genre: art works
of I.S. Danilov, A.A. Pokrovsky, V.N. Udin, S.V.
Forostovsky, V.P. Belinsky, E.A. Larionov.
Landscape painting genre in the art of
Krasnoyarsk art school has been one of the
dominant ones. The range of artistic traditions
expands significantly. Krasnoyarsk landscapists
actualize the entire spectrum of global and
domestic painting styles from realistic to
abstract.
The tradition of realistic Siberian landscape
painting becomes one of the many. However,
Siberian landscape painting has been the
Fig. 16 Village Samkovo. Leaf fall. 1989 and Fig. 17 Starlings have arrived. 1994 by A.A. Dovnar
Fig. 18 The village of Balai. 2006 by I.S. Danilov
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Fig. 19 Himalayas. India. 2005 by A.A Pokrovsky
prevailing and varied one: landscapes of central
and southern Siberia, landscapes of the North,
rural landscapes.
The new landscapes in the history of
landscape painting are the ethnic landscapes of
Tibet, China, India and Polynesia.
The variety of landscape topics not related
to Siberian nature is the fact of openness and
integration of the Krasnoyarsk art school into
the world artistic process, the opportunity to
discover the commonness and unity of the world
of nature, as well as an attempt to take a fresh look
at the nature of Siberia and see its uniqueness.
Selected works: «Ergaki. Lake of Artists» in 2006
by V.P. Belinsky, «The Church in the Olgino
village» in 2006 by E.A. Larionov, «The evening
bells. Ovsyanka village» in 2005 by V.N. Udin,
«Vavilova street in Krasnoyarsk» in 1991 by S.V.
Forostovsky.
Resume
Landscape painting genre continues to be
the most popular one in the work of Krasnoyarsk
school artists. The nature of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory appears to be a unique educational
space, when immersed in it the artists reveal
an inexhaustible source of creativity and appeal
to nature depiction throughout their art career.
Krasnoyarsk landscape painting during the whole
century illustrates the dynamic evolution of the
genre in all its diversity of kinds, a wide range
of artistic traditions. In the article a possible
periodization of the history of landscape painting
of the Krasnoyarsk art school is suggested
allowing to see the dynamics of the development
of the world landscape art tradition and the
establishment of the Siberian landscape painting
own concept.
Landscape painting of the Krasnoyarsk art
school reveals many aspects of Siberian nature
revealing all the immensity and complexity of
its polar and nuance expressions. The unique
artistic qualities of Siberian landscape painting
are realistic representation of its savage
majesty and unruliness and, at the same time,
lyricism and restraint which exposes the whole
complexity of the human self-determination in
the universe.
The plentiful of natural images of Siberia
(Siberian taiga, Khakass steppe, the Sayan
mountains, high-mountain Stolby, tundra, the
nature of the Far North, Siberian rivers, etc.)
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and their qualities fundamentally opposite to
each other; variable aspects of natural motives
offer the viewers uniqueness and wealth of
the region. Herewith, it is this visualization
of an equivalent diversity of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory nature, from monumental panoramic
landscapes of Siberia in which the earth and the
heaven interrelate as totalities to small, selected
aspects of Siberian nature, which reveals
the multicultural wealth of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory as its natural law of existence making
it clear to the viewer.
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100 pictures about the love for Krasnoyarsk: album. – Krasnoyarsk, 2007
A.A. Semyonova. Methodological recourses of theory of culture applied for analysis of modifications
of the Old-Russian concept «state» in Russian culture in the 21st century. // Dissertation abstract
for the degree of candidate of philosophy, speciality 24.00.01 – Theory and history of culture. –
Novgorod the Great, 2009.
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Natalia A. Bakhova. Landscape Painting Genre of the Krasnoyarsk Art School
Жанр пейзаж в искусстве
красноярской художественной школы
Н.А. Бахова
Сибирский федеральный университет,
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Cтатья посвящена исследованию истории развития и своеобразия пейзажной живописи
красноярской художественной школы в период кон.XIX – нач.XXI веков как уникального
явления региональной культуры. Жанр пейзажа является одним из востребованных, в
котором реализуют свою художественную концепцию красноярские живописцы, визуализируя
особенности мировоззрения сибиряков.
Первоначально
изучены
и
соотнесены
специфические процессы становления
самостоятельности и самоценности пейзажной живописи в иерархии жанров
древнекитайской и западноевропейской истории искусства. Определены первые импульсы
освобождения пейзажных картин от мифологических, исторических, бытовых сюжетов.
В статье обсуждается главенство реалистического пейзажа в живописи красноярской
художественной школы, что обосновывается разнообразием и богатством природных
ландшафтов Центральной и Восточной Сибири, обилием пейзажных видов. Близость
природы позволяет художнику максимально схватить сущность родственной ему природы и
представить её оригинальные качества. Западноевропейская теория реалистического пейзажа
XIX века является основополагающей для пейзажной живописи красноярской художественной
школы. Согласно этой теории реалистические обыденные пейзажи наиболее корректно
проявляют сущность в каждом из элементов и явлений повседневности, обнаруживают
истинно прекрасное в ней, требуют умение видеть кажущееся простое как значимое.
В статье впервые предлагается искусствоведческий обзор и периодизация пейзажной
живописи красноярской художественной школы на протяжении всей истории её
существования. Обнаруживается видовое многообразие жанра (эпические и лирические,
исторические и мифологические пейзажи, городской, индустриальный и деревенский пейзажи,
этнопейзажи). Возможная периодизация истории развития жанра пейзажа определяется в
соответствии со сменой приоритетов: художественные традиции, доминанта отдельных
видов жанра, актуально-исторические события культуры Красноярского края. Относительно
каждого этапа развития региональной пейзажной живописи подобраны репрезентативные
произведения, наглядно демонстрирующие его своеобразие. Периодизация истории развития
пейзажной живописи красноярской художественной школы позволяет увидеть динамику
освоения мировой художественной пейзажной традиции и становление собственной концепции
сибирского пейзажа.
В заключении сформулированы уникальные художественные качества красноярской пейзажной
живописи, наглядно демонстрирующие своеобразие сибирского региона как поликультурного
пространства.
Ключевые слова: жанр пейзажа, концепция реалистического пейзажа, теория национального
пейзажа, красноярская художественная школа, региональная культура, культура
Красноярского края, пейзажная живопись Красноярского края, художники Красноярска.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 581-592
~~~
УДК 377.031
Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk
Anastasia V. Kistova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
In the modern world art education is recognized as one of the most effective ways to get to know yourself
and the world you live in. The relevance and significance of the children art education problems
involve the priority role of individualization and innovativeness in the field of teaching technologies
aimed at the wholesome worldview formation of a creative individual that fits into the multifaceted and
rapidly changing reality of the 21st century.
Art education as a field of creativity and experimentation is highly consistent with the multifaceted
dynamics of the modern life which helps to focus on the effective way of social activity and balance all
the individual and social needs. Children art education has a special significance, since it is a basis
for the holistic personality growth building up all the main characteristics of the worldview that will
further develop and sharpen. This explains the need for the sustained guidance in the children art
education and taking care of the variety of ways and methods of art education corresponding with the
present multivariate dynamic way of social life.
In this article the specifics of art education, the possible ways of the educational process organization
at the children art school are discussed. A pedagogical system of subjects at the Krasnoyarsk Surikov’s
children art school No.1 is taken as an example.
Keywords: art education, methods and objectives of children’s art education, Krasnoyarsk Surikov’s
Children Art School No.1.
Point
1. The specifics of art education
In the modern research and educational
environment (philosophy, cultural studies,
cultural anthropology, pedagogy, psychology,
art, etc.) there is no unequivocal opinion on the
essence of art education. It is possible to find some
of the most debated aspects of the phenomenon’s
essence that are allocated due to the dissimilar
understandings of art education and its relevance
in the modern reality.
The fi rst aspect is related to the problem
of the insufficient formation of the spiritual
*
1
and moral compass in the modern educational
system and the possibility of its solution
through the artistic creation: "One of the main
ways of nurturing spirituality in children is
the analysis of their internal world necessary
even for the youngest students. At this stage,
art education might lend priceless support to
a growing person and may become the fi rst
lesson of spirituality" (Monakhova, 2004,
p.22). In this concept, artistic activity not only
exercises creativity and acquaints students with
the social significance of the spiritual values,
but also "reflects the personal experience and
Corresponding author E-mail address: kistochka7@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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an individual understanding of the discussed
phenomena and events of the children’s lives"
(Monakhova, 2004, p.22).
The second aspect is related to the emphasis
of the art education’s great importance in the
development of the person's creative powers and
hence the enrichment of his personality: "...it
is necessary to turn to the organization issues
of art education that develops an individual
creativity needed to successfully adapt to
changing technological and socio-cultural
conditions of life in the fast developing world"
(Bykasova et al., 2010, p.9). It is the specifics of
artistic creativity that play a special educational
role in the artistic culture as a space for creative
self-awareness and self-development: "There is
a risk of "drifting" from the culture of young
generations of the 21st century, therefore,
education is directed towards the artistic culture
that has tools for the human formation which is
the bearer of the human existence" (Bykasova et
al., 2010, p.10). An independent creative activity
here is preferred as the highest value of art
education.
The third aspect accentuates art
education as "a particularly important sphere
of a human activity vital for the development
of the Russian society as a process of the
person’s acquirement and acquisition of the
humanity’s artistic culture, one of the most
important ways of the holistic personality
development and formation, its spirituality,
creative individuality of the intellectual and
emotional wealth" (Order of Russian Ministry
of Culture No.1403 dated from December 28,
2001). It stresses the social importance of
art education for the national self-awareness
formation through the exploration of the
cultural heritage.
The fourth aspect refers to the ability
of art education to develop an aesthetic taste
and emotionally educate a human being
through the perception of various works of art
that are the bearers of aesthetic values: "By
introducing the rich experience of mankind
accumulated in the arts to a junior student it
is possible to foster a highly moral, educated,
versatile modern human being" (Pavlova,
2007, p.53).
The fifth aspect is related to the
communication skills of an art work which
through its perception allows a person to fi nd
his entity in collaboration with various facets
of the world: "Every work of art is an exclusive
model of the world, but not just the world, it is
a model of its human understanding. It is the
connection between a person and the world, a
person and another person, understanding of the
human essence. These are the three types of the
world outlook. <...> The art world flows through
a human’s feelings and emotions, enriches him
with new feelings, perceptions and ideas. So
through art all the human goes directly into a
person and the human world" (Zakhovaeva,
2005, p.21-22).
Thus, the essence of art education is
understood as a multifaceted and multifunctional
phenomenon that can develop a child’s
personality to the utmost. The specificity of art
education is associated with the creative process
conditions that are included in the educational
process. The main purpose of the children
education is the development of a wholesome
worldview that helps a self-knowing individual
to harmoniously fit into the socio-cultural space:
"A wholesome view and a holistic image are the
cornerstone of painting as well as of all kinds
of visual art in general. To be able to view and
depict objects, nature and human sufficiently
it is an obligatory quality of every true artist.
Only with this quality an artist can properly
convey his impressions of the outside world, fi nd
important things in it and measure unimportant
ones" (Makarova, 2009, p.62).
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2. Organization methods
of the educational process
in the children art education
The discussion on the essence of art
education is closely related to the methods of
structuring the educational process in the field
of artistic culture. Usually, this problem involves
the dialectics of traditions and innovations in
the art pedagogy. The main question is how to
organize the process of learning the artistic
creation methods and practices so that it would
lead not only to the mastery of certain artistic
techniques and skills, but also to the development
of the child’s wholesome worldview?
Researchers in the field of art education
history in Russia (Tumanov, 2008; Bykasova
et al., 2010) note that the interaction between
traditions and innovations in art education has
always existed either in a form of conflict (denial
of any creative moves beyond the proposed
methods in the middle 19th century in Russia;
denial of the creativity’s academic principles
that limited master’s freedom in the 1920s) or
in a fruitful alliance with each other when the
traditional academic framework of the artistic
creation is a strong base for the young artists’
own creative search (a modern stage of the art
education development in Russia). "The search
for new learning principles can and should be
done as long as the basics of learning (mastering
of art literacy) remain. According to the logic of
the educational process, we can be confident that
without the use of principles established by the
academic educational system the learning process
would be simply meaningless. On the other hand
the question is referred to a combination of
methodological principles that can modernize
the learning process and make it adequate to the
requirements of life". (Tumanov, 2008, p.43)
A space for such creative experimentations
and hence a basic element of art education as the
formation and development of a child’s creative
personality with a wholesome worldview, is a
subject of composition that is one of the key
subjects of contemporary children art education
in Russia.
The significance of "composition" as an
art of linkage, connection and construction of
a single whole from the essential and sufficient
components points to its fundamental importance
in the creative activity. In art education this
subject is traditionally considered as one of
the most complex and important ones, since it
is related to the need for a student’s individual
choice of the holistic image principles on a given
subject.
However, along with the ability to solve its
own objectives the subject of "composition" can
be an integral with respect to other subjects of
the children's art school curriculum (painting,
drawing, graphics, sculpture, art history). This
suggests that it is the composition learning
successfully combining traditional art education
and its own creative pursuits that is able to
demonstrate a students’ level of proficiency in
the fundamentals of artistic traditions, a level of
their own creativity development and the ability
to develop a wholesome worldview and selfawareness.
Example
The first Drawing school across the Urals
was established in the city of Krasnoyarsk on the
27th of January in 1910 which triggered the history
of professional art education in Siberia.
The school became a very successful
educational artistic environment. The first
graduating class of 1912 gave the Russian artistic
culture such famous names as the sculptor Georgy
Lavrov, the film artist Vasily Kovrigin, the painter
and graphic artist Alexey Voshchakin, one of the
leading artists and teachers in Siberia Andrey
Lekarenko. Among the famous graduates of later
years are Yuri Khudonogov, Andrey Pozdeev,
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Fig. 1. Composition assignment for the part-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. The 1960s
Anatoly Znak, Valentin Teplov, Vladimir Kapelko
and many others.
The Krasnoyarsk Art School starting from its
first teachers D. Karatanov and A. Lekarenko has
always been famous for its academic Surikov – like
traditions on the one hand, and innovative moves
in the art pedagogy on the other hand. However,
such an integrating and basic subject, in terms of
the holistic view formation, as "composition" was
introduced to the curriculum only in 1970.
Initially, art education at the Surikov’s
Children Art School has been focused on the
development of the academic basics of painting
and drawing in order to prepare Siberian artists
to enter the Academy of Arts. But along with this
there came the constant search for new methods in
teaching mainly related to the personal example of
the teaching artists. Subject of "composition" was
an optional creative assignment which showed a
greater level of artistic skills mastery.
The composition of the 1960s (Fig. 1) is a
striking example of the academic manner of
drawing. It demonstrates principles of realistic
methods relevant to the artistic culture of the
Soviet period: an accurate rendering of the
texture, an understated view – these are the
features typical for a creative method of socialist
realism in the form of "severe style".
In the 1970s the subject of "composition"
becomes mandatory in the full-time student’s
curriculum at the Surikov’s Children Art School,
but the works performed by the students continue
to represent the characteristics of "severe style":
an understated view in the composition, a theme
of heroic labor, a generalization of images,
romantic constructions in the composition and
color (Fig. 2).
Thus, the present works demonstrate a
common directive of art education during
the Soviet period to fit a future artist into the
priority art tradition in terms of the state. Little
attention is paid to the artist’s individual creative
search. They are limited by the traditional set
of composite structures, painting and graphic
techniques and storylines. Besides, the cohort
of the art school in the Soviet period consists
of adolescents and adults who have already
developed a worldview.
Since the 1990's children art education
at the Surikov’s Children Art School has been
organized according to three different educational
stages. Each of them has its age, content and
methodological characteristics.
Stage 1 – general aesthetic art education for
9-10 year-old children developing creative skills
in general.
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Fig. 2. Composition assignment for the part-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. The 1970s
Stage 2 – advanced level of art education
for children older than 11 years designed for a
4-year study of drawing, painting, sculpture,
composition and art history fundamentals.
Stage 3 – pre-professional art education for
high school students focused on special training
for entry into the art vocational and higher
institutions.
With such a variety of targets, teaching
methods and a content of education all three
levels are closely related to each other by the
principle of continuity and gradual complication
of education. All three stages are aligned in a
certain sequence by the elements of a complex
multilevel system of art education adopted at the
Surikov’s Art School.
One of the key characteristics of the school’s
educational system is the universality of the
education that is based on the formation of a
wholesome worldview but not just the acquisition
of special art skills.
Studying painting, drawing and sculpture
is focused more on the aesthetic-creative
development of students, on the opening and
improvement of methods of artistic understanding
of the world and themselves being a part of it.
Classes on the history of art develop skills of
reflection and analytical thinking, promotes
awareness of themselves as a person in certain
traditions, society, Space, and the future
professional self-determination of students.
Subject of "composition" develops the
basics of artistic space modeling and hence the
worldview by means of expressiveness of the
painting, drawing and sculpture. Exercising
composition contributes to the formation of a
wholesome worldview and realization of the
necessity of this wholeness as an inherent quality
of the world and self’s essence.
Thus, all subjects at the art school are now
organized not only to simply provide a variety
of artistic skills and knowledge but also to
consistently affect the formation of the personal
vision by means of the creative and analytical art
activity. It is well reflected in the children's work
on the subject of "composition".
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The work of the preparatory class is
distinguished by the compositions originality,
variety of techniques (materials) and themes.
When the teachers assign a task they put an
emphasis on the immediacy of a child's perception
of the world and its artistic expression, rather than
on learning of some certain creative techniques
which as a result leads to the lack of stylistic
features in the children's work (Fig. 3, 4, 5).
The compositions of the full-time students
are the works on given subjects (literary plots,
history, biblical themes, domestic scenes, etc.).
When the teachers assign a task for the students
they pay much attention to the students’ own
interpretation of the subject, the variety of
techniques (the experiments in mixed techniques
are welcomed) and the development of a selfportrait theme (Fig. 6, 7, 8).
The work of the Surikov’s Children Art
School No.1 graduate Nely Osmushkina (Fig. 8)
demonstrates a high degree of artistic techniques
mastery: integral coloring, selection of materials
Fig. 3. Composition assignment for the preparatory class at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2008
Fig. 4. Composition assignment for the preparatory class at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2009
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Fig. 5. Composition assignment for the preparatory class at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2008
Fig. 6. Composition assignment for the 1st grade full-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2006
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Fig. 7. Composition assignment for the 2nd grade full-time students at the Surikov’s Children Art School. 2009
Fig. 8. N. Osmushkina. 14 years old. Composition assignment for the 4th year full-time students at the Surikov’s
Children Art School. 2009
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Anastasia V. Kistova. Children’s Art Education in Krasnoyarsk
and techniques in accordance with the work’s
subject, complete compositional structure,
specificity and accuracy of strokes and lines. But
mainly, this work shows originality of the creative
self-vision in the outside world.
In genre terms this work represents a
synthesis of a self-portrait and a domestic scene
which allowed the author to combine themes of
self-determination and self-reflection, values of
the moment and fragility of life with a theme of
the refinement in the context of urban life with
a vivid display of the Krasnoyarsk urban nature.
Indeed, the work demonstrates a harmonious
combination of the individual and the social,
the traditional and the innovational, and most
importantly a wholesome harmonious worldview.
Such an outcome is the result of many years of
studying starting with the preparatory stage and
finishing with the senior 4th year.
Thus, the Surikov’s Children Art School
No.1 remains faithful to the ideological basis of
the universal art education based on a balance
of traditions and innovations in the art and on a
sequentially structured educational system with
the central subject of “composition”, and continues
to be the “cradle” of the creative individuals being
exactly what our great compatriot wanted it to be
and what a today's global thinking person of the
21st century needs.
Resume
The art education structured system of
subjects with a composition as an independent
subject that at the same time integrates the results
achieved while learning painting, drawing,
graphic art and art history fundamentals may
indeed be an effective way to organize an
educational process in the children art education.
The experience of the 100 year-old
Krasnoyarsk Surikov’s Children Art School shows
the possibility of harmonious interaction between
the traditional foundations of art education with
the new ways and methods of artistic practices
and teaching technologies.
The composition classes, based on a
combination of tasks on the development
of traditional skills of compositing with a
certain freedom in choosing themes, materials,
techniques and compositional solutions under the
guidance of a supervisor play a key role in the
formation of a child’s worldview.
Contemporary art works of the Krasnoyarsk
Art School graduates show both high level of art
literacy and originality of the students’ wholesome
vision of the world and themselves in this world.
Thus, the system of art education at the Surikov’s
Children Art School No.1 proves its effectiveness
and compliance with the requirements of the
modern world.
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Детское художественное образование в Красноярске
А.В. Кистова
Сибирский федеральный университет,
Россия 660041, Красноярск, Свободный, 79
В современном мире художественное образование признается одним из эффективных
способов освоения человеком себя и окружающего мира. Актуальность и значимость проблем
детского художественного образования связаны с приоритетной ролью индивидуализации и
инновационности в сфере педагогических технологий, которые нацелены на формирование
целостного мировоззрения разносторонне развитой творческой личности, соответствующей
многоликой и стремительно меняющейся действительности XXI века.
Художественное образование как пространство творчества и экспериментов в высшей
степени соответствует многогранной динамике современной жизни, нацеливая человека
на результативный деятельностный способ социальной активности, гармонизируя
индивидуальные и социальные потребности. Детское художественное образование
обладает особой значимостью, поскольку выступает основой для развития целостной
личности, формируя все основные характеристики мировоззрения, которые в дальнейшем
лишь развиваются и оттачиваются. Этим объясняется необходимость целенаправленного
руководства художественным образованием детей, проявления заботы о разнообразии
способов и приемов художественного образования, соответствующих современному
поливариантному динамичному способу социальной жизни.
В статье обсуждается специфика художественного образования, возможные способы
построения образовательного процесса в детской художественной школе. В качестве примера
рассматривается педагогическая система учебных предметов Детской художественной
школы № 1 имени В.И. Сурикова в Красноярске.
Ключевые слова: художественное образование; методы и цели детского художественного
образования; Детская художественная школа № 1 имени В.И. Сурикова в Красноярске.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 593-599
~~~
УДК 316.2
Russian Cultural-Philosophical Tradition
as a Factor in the Formation
of Modern Postnonclassic (Universum) Sociology
Valentin G. Nemirovsky* and Tatyana A. Fenvesh
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article is devoted to analysis of the influence, which was exerted by Russian cultural-philosophical
tradition on the formation of modern postnonclassic sociology. The authors analyze cultural and
theoretical premises for the development of humanitarian school in postnonclassic sociology – universum
approach. In this respect special attention is paid to the philosophy of Russian anthropocosmism and
All-unity. A wide range of cultural-philosophical opinions beginning with the proto-Slavic period of
their development is analyzed. Correspondences between similar points of view and typical features
of postnonclassic (universum) sociology are established.
Keywords: Russian culture, Russian philosophy, postnonclassic (universum) sociology, Russian
anthropocosmism.
A major feature of the modern period
in development of sociology in Russia is its
transition state. This is a conversion from classic
and non-classic theories and their distinctive
methodological techniques to postnonclassic
approaches and their distinctive methods. This
is true not only of sociology and philosophy. A
number of famous scientists suppose that modern
scientific knowledge deals with the limitation of
classic and non-classic methodological means of
research of complex systems in natural sciences,
humanities and social sciences. One of responses
to the modern situation is a postnonclassic science,
which is based on correlations between system
objects studied in modern sciences and changes
in scientific rationality. Today the place of simple
systems, which can be studied by one branch of
*
1
science, is taken by the problems of complex selfregulating and self-developing systems, which
require using of resources of interdisciplinary
and transdisciplinary approaches, non-classic
and postnonclassic methodologies [5].
Modern postnonclassic sociology has two
main methodologies: Christian Scientist (or
mathematically oriented) and humanitarian.
The first, for example, is represented by a number
of famous works by A.A. Davidov [1]. The second
is based on the universum paradigm. In this
article we shall consider the influence of Russian
cultural-philosophical tradition on the formation of
postnonclassic (universum) sociology. In general
it is typical of Russian philosophy to pay special
attention to the inner moral and spiritual world of
a person, his/her existential, religious and moral
Corresponding author E-mail address: valnemirov@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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problems. It considers both human and society
to be an inseparable part of nature and Cosmos,
tries to go beyond the limits of everyday life to
the limitless world of transcendentality. First of
all, we talk about Russian anthropocosmism and
philosophy of All-unity. To a great extent they
had anticipated the formation of a new scientific
outlook [4, p. 22].
Therefore works of A.V. Sukhovo-Kobylin,
N.F. Fedorov, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, A.F. Chizhevsky
and V.I. Vernadsky play an especially significant
role for the development of modern postnonclassic
principles in scientific knowledge. In western
countries similar principles and approaches are
developed nowadays within the framework of
synergy and other schools of system analysis.
It is widely accepted that Russian philosophy
has one thousand year history, beginning from
the time when Russia was baptized. For this
period Russian philosophic ideas have got firmly
established, have developed in a multitude of
schools, keeping at the same time unique original
integrity.
The present-day interest in ideas of Russian
philosophers, and in historical background in
general, concerns not only national cultural
traditions, it is linked to moral problems of
development of Russian spiritual culture, which
have arisen in front of modern Russian society
nowadays. It is worth of note here that in the second
half of the XIX century in Russian science the
ideas of “system thinking” became very popular.
Many scientists of that time tried to work out some
synthetic structures. So, I.M. Sechenov pointed
out the necessity to study human in the unity of
his “flesh, soul and nature”. This peculiarity of
Russian natural sciences provided guidelines for
a special frame of mind, which later was called
“Russian cosmism”. These tendencies in a certain
way influenced not only the patterns of priorities
of Russian science, but also influenced Russian
philosophical thought, which provokes inimitable
and original reflection on the philosophy of allunity. To understand and to realize oneself “in
general world order” (P.Ya.Chaadaev) and to plug
into the global world processes is impossible
without a fundamental culturological approach to
the history of Russian natural sciences and socialphilosophical thought, without searching for inner
regularities and guidelines for the establishment
and development of a special frame of thought,
which can be called by one capacious notion
“Russian philosophy”. Here one should refuse
to use selective inquiry into separate schools of
social-philosophical thought and refuse to declare
that they are the only ones that meet national
spirit. Aside from that, one should avoid using
unilateral approaches to Russian scientific and
philosophical heritage; such unilateralism can
be revealed, when scholars show interest only in
the conceptual (informative) side of the problem.
Russian scientific and philosophical thought have
been naturally developing into a combination of
nature and society history and its transformation
into integrated universal History of the World.
Of course, Russian philosophy has been
developing not in a notional and theoretical vacuum.
The philosophy of Russian anthropocosmism has
experienced substantial influence of Aristotle’s
ideas developed by Ioann Damaskin (John of
Damascus), hesychastic neoplatonism referring
to works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite,
ideas about divine energy by Gregory Palamas.
According to St. Gregory`s teaching, not only
the God (who is virtually incomprehensible)
descends its energy to the world, but also Man (as
a part of the created world) is able to physically
and spiritually rise over his nature, approaching
the Creator. In other words, the Creator and
his creation are connected in a complex (not
in unilateral) way. This idea can be found in a
famous quotation by St. Basil the Great: “God
became man so that man might become a god”.
The foundation of Russian philosophy cannot
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be separated from the adoption of Christianity
by Ancient Russia, which established a close
connection to Byzantine Empire. It was Byzantine
Empire which provided Russia with philosophical
ideas and writings of the antique and west
European thinkers. Questions on the universe,
human and his place in nature were mentioned
in ancient chronicles, legends, novels, teachings
and prayings, where they were interconnected
with different historical data and took a certain
religious form (Illarion`s “The Treatise on
the Law and Grace”, “Praying” by Daniel the
Cloister). Humanitarian and Social-Philosophical
ideas in Ancient Russia were practically oriented.
For example, arguments in support of including
Russian lands into the global historical process
are stated, main rules of human life activity are
described (Catechism by Vladimir Monomakh).
It can be said that the development of the
philosophy of Kiev Russia eventually resulted
in an outlook, regarding the world as God`s
creation, history of mankind as an arena, where
good and evil are absolute opposites engaged in
an eternal struggle for dominance. Human was
viewed as a double-sided creature, consisting of
the perishable body and immortal soul.
In the XVI century Russian philosophical
thought experienced substantial influence of a
religious school of Hesychasm (Greek hesychos,
quiet, silent), which involved the practice of silent
(“noetic”) prayer. This doctrine concerns the
relationship of God and the world and implies
a process of advanced study of human spiritual
nature; it resulted in the foundation of an outlook,
asserting that humans are created in God`s image,
whose labor is to support harmony and order of
the world (Maksim Grek).
The idea of unity of Man and the World
with the unconditional complete beginning, their
mutual striving one for another have determined
basic elements of Russian cultural and spiritualacademic traditions. Nowadays objective
evaluation of the historical past is on agenda,
when “serious thought of our time requires,
first of all, strict thinking and fair analysis of
moments, when nation`s life is revealed with
a certain depth, when its social principle is
revealed in all its clarity, because the future and
elements of its possible progress depend on it” [6,
p. 175]. It was a long time before the adoption of
Christianity in Russia, when a social principle of
the Russian nation revealed itself. Embodiments
of this principle in spiritual and material culture
provided continuity and solidity of its development
from philosophical-mythological ideas of our
Pre-Christian ancestors to the latest modification
of philosophical-cultural knowledge – Russian
anthropocosmism.
Every culture acts as a combination of
rational and irrational manifestations. To find a
precise definition for the notions of rational and
irrational is quite difficult, but it is absolutely
necessary for us. Our contemporaries look at
ancient cultures, certainly, from aside, “from
without”. This assessment is determined by his or
her personal experience and personal outlook. But
the subjectivity of outlook is not the only obstacle
for finding out what is irrational, unreasonable,
illogical or rational in a culture. The problem
lies in a tight interconnection existing between
these two poles. Irrational points of view of our
contemporaries, rituals and cultic festivals could
have such a substantial psychological impact on
certain people and a society in general that they
could overcome barriers, which seemed to be
insurmountable and performed heroic deeds. But
there were no religions on the earth, which had
no any evaluations of reality, which contributed
to the rational organization of labor and everyday
life.
How a culture in general is able to exist for
a long period of time? It can be explained by its
reproduction from one generation to another.
Children repeat deeds and thoughts of their
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fathers, grandfathers, grand grandfathers. This
reproduction-related feature is typical for any
society, and it provides for maintenance of the
society. However within a dialectical framework
this tendency is to be balanced by a need of
culture for renovation and development. The
dialectics of tradition and innovation is reflected
in
material-reasonable,
spiritual-creative,
traditional outlook-related aspects of life of a
society; they are developed and consolidated by
its entire history. A combination of these aspects
for every culture forms its national characteristic,
which reveals itself as a social principle. The
social principle is a tangle of a culture`s durability,
its embodiment in a social-cultural ambience,
providing for its organization, a certain order in
life of the society, its production and reproduction.
Implementation and specification of the principle
is being completed within certain outlook and
culture related and outlook and society related
frameworks, which have been formed in the
process of objective historical development of
every social entity and have determined such
characteristics of the world, which are to be
placed in the focus of human cognitive activity.
As it was stated above, traditionally it is
believed that Russia with its first capital Kiev – “
the mother of all Russian towns” – was formed in
the second half or the IX century A.D., whereas
Russian philosophical thought in its development
is always associated with the adoption of orthodox
Christianity. But when compared to those traditions
of Slavic culture, which originate from distant
in time antique-Scythian, Hyperborean-Aryan,
Sumerian-Arattian cultures, it becomes obvious
that the Slavic culture itself traces its roots back
to the remote Indo-European past. A solid basis
of material-economical, intellectual and spiritual
life of Russia was formed in more distant archaic
times, a long time ago before the adoption of
Christianity in Russia. According to the findings
of Russian historians and archeologists (V.N.
Danilenko, B.A. Rybakov, V.N. Toporov, Yu.A.
Shilov, B.D. Mikhailov, etc.), Slavonic people –
especially eastern – are successors and keepers
of the ethnocultural nucleus of Indo-European
nations, which created the ancient and “generally
optimal global civilization” [7, p. 219]. These
scientists (Yu.A. Shilov in particular) assume
that the territory of future Russia from the very
beginning belonged to the sphere of development
of one of ancient agricultural civilizations on our
planet. This substantial circumstance provides
a new look at the conceptual side and the very
essence of the historical process of forming
Slavic culture and later cultures, which inherited
its traits.
The organization form of social and
economic life of the analyzed historical period
was a collectivist formation (“primitive
communism”), which was determined by
objective
circumstances.
However
this
collectivist way of existence was a result of not
only economic reasons. Yu.A. Shilov supposes
that the ordering power of priest rulers (“protointellectuals”) underlay the collectivist way of
existence; the priest rulers were responsible for
spiritual order maintenance. Closed corporations
of the priest rulers of the Indo-European cultural
area created myths and written language,
developed calendars and rituals. A system of
sanctuaries – an observatory in the CircumPontic Region was built under their supervision.
The first communal state of Aratta (“Sun-like
Aratta”) appeared due to the efforts of these
“proto-intellectuals” in the Danubian region, the
Dnieper region and the plateau region of Iran.
Even nowadays traces of Arattian traditions can
be found (especially in India). An intellectual
dialogue of Man and the World formed the basis
of this ancient statehood; the dialogue was aimed
at the maintenance and development of natural
harmony and contributed to the avoidance of
cosmic and social cataclysms.
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Maintenance and reproduction of spiritual
and social order was provided by the stability of
outlook conceptions. A world model underlying
these conceptions presented the world as a
Universum, where Man acts as a rationalist living
creature. This is a reason of high responsibility
of human for his thoughts and deeds, which are
directly interspersed in the live fabric of cosmic
life. Perception of the world and disclosure of its
traits within the frame of cosmic model implies
the absence of objects and phenomena, which
are absolutely isolated from others. Everything
is in everything. This principle underlay archaic
technological practices, formed on the territory
of Indo-European (proto-Slavonic in particular)
cultures. When creating a new item a master
repeats all operations, which the Creator of the
Universe performed at the beginning of the
World. Thus, the master reproduces the eternal
order, creates a world. Materials used for the
creation of new items were raw materials for the
creation of the world and human himself. This is
why techniques used by gods underlay traditional
technologies. The master manufactured an item,
it means that he not only created it, but made
it “alive”, fixed it in accord with the existing
everliving world. All these stages took a lot of
time, involved a multitude of irrational moments,
which, from the point of view of modern people,
resulted in redundancy of technological processes.
In fact the Master performed a cosmic ritual of
creation, creation of a useful and necessary in
the world thing, which finishes a natural process
of the correct original scheme. Fixing can be
viewed as a process of harmonization (in accord
with cosmic schemes) of everything material
or spiritual created by Man. A sensory image
formed by elements of the outer world and the
general idea coincided, which resulted in identity
of the material world and its reflection, a spiritual
image, created by Man. This attitude to reality as
a way of perception and explanation of the world
demonstrated by our Indo-European predecessors
determined the place of Man in the world; it
formed the feeling of confidence, congruence, and
harmony of human actions in the general cosmic
order. Human strived to avoid contradictions with
nature: when creating all necessary things for
himself he kept on searching for ways of being in
harmony with nature through such notions as life,
happiness and purity. Within the material and
spiritual production framework it was a way of
the least resistance with the maximum outcome
of necessary product, since when applying
such a production technology Man did not face
any natural resistance – human activity was
performed in harmony and accord with the world.
Consequently, the level of traumatism caused to
the natural substance by anthropogenic factors
was minimal. Actually, the principle of harmony
was a natural and necessary condition of existence
and development of proto-Slavs. A type of socially
vital activities also developed in full accordance
with this principle; major characteristics of the
type were cooperation, solidarity, and ability to
make friends. Such competent scholars as V.N.
Danilenko, Yu.A. Shilov. B.A. Rybakov assume
that the primitive communal system in protoSlavic Aratta was followed by a long period of
non-military, sacred democracy – when not
warriors, but priests were leaders of a society. It
is not a coincidence that within the paradigm of
postnonclassic (universum) sociology spirituality
is a force, which provides a developmental impetus
for moral progress of mankind (not material or
scientific and technical progress, but moral).
Those societies (even though they had a decent
level of scientific and technical development),
which trampled down emerging elements of this
quality in people, stayed at a level of animal [3,
p. 63]. Priests were responsible for keeping the
balance between Cosmos and Society, which was
being done on the basis of the harmony principle.
Social horizon (family, group, ethnic group)
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is determined by an uninterruptable process
of harmonization, establishment of internal
and external correspondences, elimination of
contradictions in functioning of the universe and
a society. When keeping harmony of Man and
the environment, which was complicated by a
transition from gathering economy to producing
economy, priest-rulers (the intellectual elite of
Sun-like Aratta) focused their attention on a
contradiction between existence and nonexistence
[7, p. 225]. So, guidelines of the institute of
Saviorship (self-sacrifice for the common good)
were formed in agricultural Aratta. The mythic
ritual of Saviorship asserted that human soul
was immortal and was inseparable from the
cosmic whole; the ritual provided solidity and
congruence of creative activities of a society.
This Indo-European (proto-Slavic) understanding
of God kept by ancient Russia underlay self
submission of humans to the objective laws of
the universe; God was understood as a piece of
Luck – a part – a common destiny, which depends
on the Common Whole [7, p. 241]. Thus, it can
be assumed that not class struggle or economic
violence underlay the development of agricultural
primitive communism in proto-Slavic society,
but continuous intellectual and spiritual efforts,
an intense dialogue of Man and the universe
maintained existence and provided a promising,
long-term development of proto-Slavic society.
Yu.A. Shilov supposes that this is a reason
for its optimality, stability of its existence and
reproduction of basic principles of sociality in the
further historical development of ethnocultural
ambience.
Religious aspects of Russian culturalphilosophical traditions have reflected the fact
that postnonclassic sociology being atheistic in its
essence (without any doubt as any other science)
uses transpersonal approaches and methods.
We can`t help but agree that as a result of deep
changes in modern culture the place that was
typical of the Age of Enlightenment and revealed
confrontation between scientific ideology and a
religious, primitive and common consciousness
is now being taken by the understanding of an
existing need for their synergetic interaction [5].
Since the emergence of postnonclassic
approaches in sociology is connected with the
foundation of a new scientific outlook, universum
sociology has the following peculiarities:
• development of an interdisciplinary
and complex approach to social reality
analysis;
• synthesis of humanities, social studies
and natural sciences;
• application
of
polyparadigmal
approaches;
• study of social reality in the unity of all
its rational and irrational aspects;
• broadening the concept of sociology and
erasing interdisciplinary borders with
other social and humanitarian sciences;
• application of modern methods of system
analysis (synergetics, diatropics, fractal
object, etc.;
• application of ideas from traditional
oriental philosophy and Russian
philosophy, transpersonal psychology;
• analysis of socium dynamics, taking all
natural and cosmic factors into account
[2, p. 68].
Practically, all these peculiarities in
this way or another were predetermined by
writings of Russian philosophers, belonging to
different schools and trends, but were unified
by one common Russian cultural-philosophical
tradition.
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References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Davidov A.A. System Sociology: Ultra Large Scale Holistic Simulation” http://www.isras.ru/
index.php?page_id=1008
Nemirovskiy V.G. The Interdisciplinary Perspectives of the Contemporary Post-Non-Classical
Sociology / The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. Vol. 2, Num. 1, 2007.
pp. 65-77.
Nemirovskiy V.G., Nevirko D.D., Grishaev S.V. Sociology. Classic and Postnonclassic Approaches
to Social Reality Analysis (Moscow, Russia, 2003) – P. 63.
Nemirovskiy V.G. Modern Sociology and Russian Cultural Traditions // Sociological Studies.
1994. № 3. – P. 23-29.
Comprehending the World: Philosophy, Religion, Culturology. Edited by L.P. Kiyaschenko and
V.S. Stepin. (Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 2009). – 672 p.
Chaadaev P.Ya. Apology of a Madman // From the History of Russian Humanitarian Thought
(Moscow, Russia, 1993). – P. 173-180.
Shilov Yu.A. Prehistory of Russia (Moscow, Russia, 1999). – P. 86.
Русская культурно-философская традиция
как фактор формирования современной
постнеклассической (универсумной) социологии
В.Г. Немировский, Т.А. Феньвеш
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья посвящена анализу влияния русской культурно-философской традиции на
становление современной постнеклассической социологии. Рассматриваются культурные
и теоретические предпосылки развития гуманитарного направления постнеклассической
социологии – универсумного подхода. В этой связи особое внимание уделено философии
русского антропокосмизма и Всеединства. При этом в статье рассмотрен широкий спектр
направлений культурно-философских воззрений, начиная с протославянского периода их
развития. Установлены соответствия между подобными воззрениями и характерными
особенностями постнеклассической (универсумной) социологии.
Ключевые слова: русская культура, русская философия, постнеклассическая (универсумная)
социология, русский антропокосмизм.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 600-609
~~~
УДК 659.1
Creative Thinking in Advertising Communication:
Cultural Aspect
Elena A. Nozdrenko*
Siberian Federal University
82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
Modern advertising is a phenomenon which to this or that extent affects the nature of social, economic,
political and other interactions in the society. Tendencies of advertising communication system
development involve integrated use of ATL-and BTL-tools to effectively represent the product at the
market relevant for such product. The main requirement for the various tools of advertising is their
efficiency including the ability to deliver a creative content of the message in accordance with the
pragmatic goals of advertising communication. But, as practice shows, today these tools do not allow
to achieve the desired goals without creativity. Advertising creativity can be defined as an imaginative
cover of tools for informative and persuasive forms of communication designed to solve pragmatic
business problems. Such factors of market environment as aggravation of competition, growth of
financial and intellectual potential, globalization of information flows become a sufficient reason for
appealing to the methods and sources of innovative solutions development, the search for innovative
and creative ideas in order to increase the effectiveness of various institutions’ functioning in the
society. Nowadays the understanding of the advertising success through the prism of creativity which
provides opportunities to single out the product in the variety of market offers is quite obvious. The
development of the informative and persuasive forms of communication in Russian contemporary
history defines the rising tide of interest in disclosing the mechanisms of creative activity.
Creativity is always primary and fundamental. However, in the creative advertising product it
pursues a pragmatic purpose – to change the consumer behaviour of the target audience. One should
understand that creativity in advertising is only a technology of the creative process organization that
is fruitless out of the context of the culture in which it is carried out. Today in order to overcome the
cover, a person builds to protect himself from a huge flow of information, we need to use the stimuli
involving the appeal to the collective unconscious. Consequently, the issues of creativity should be
considered from the prospective of different elements of culture (lifestyle, values and mentality) which
determine the specifics of advertising within.
An important condition for the development of creative thinking in advertising communication is
an emotional and sensitive component, the development of which is designed to guarantee sensory
perceptions and create emotional and axiological attitude to the objects of interest. This process
includes entering into a situation of emotional experiences given in the advertising text which enables
to actually experience emotions and feelings and get emotional and rationally provided images that
promote accumulation of emotional and sensory experience and the development of emotional and
imaginative component of thinking. The main component of the creative process in this case is a
pragmatic element that is the original understanding of why advertising should be created, for whom
it should be created (distinct identification of the target audience), how it should be created (the choice
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: elena.nozdrenko@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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of a relevant technology) and, basically, what exactly should be created (a qualitative approach in
determining the form and content of advertising text). Every culture can be represented as a set of
hierarchical values shared by the majority of its representatives. Since advertising reflects the world
and is a product of its time, the prevailing value orientations in each culture can be determined by the
advertising content. Thus, a social role of advertising is to advance the basic spiritual values that are
essential to the society.
If the behaviour patterns and value orientations are set within the mentality of the society, then
advertising not only transmits them but also affects their quality change suggesting a different pattern
of behaviour and correcting value orientations. In this case it is necessary to take into account the
fact that the social differentiation of mentalities reflects the existing division into social groups with
the inherent material interests, lifestyle, which is definitely reflected in the formation of the collective
image of the target audience. The secret of creativity in this process lies in the methodology of values
creating, the involvement of a particular culture’s mentality that is innovative, beyond the existing
technologies, commonly accepted standards and regulations.
Creativity in advertising is a combination of search and implementation of such an extent of
information freshness which will strike the target audience and draw its attention. Cultural aspect
of this search is quite fundamental because it is important that an advertising image is based on
archetypes, stereotypes and myths present consumers' minds taking into account mentality, values,
lifestyle and other components of culture. In this case it does not cause rejection but is perceived as
something already familiar. In many cases such recognition inspires trust, and, as a consequence,
increases the efficiency of advertising communication. Consequently, cultural approach in advertising
communication is an integral part of creative positioning where an effective advertising idea can
change something in the thinking of the target audience in a certain problem field with its cultural
codes.
Keywords: advertising, advertising communication, creativity, creative thinking, advertising creativity,
lifestyle, values, creative advertising idea, cultural approach.
Point
Advertising as an object of study has a
scientific value. The first issue to draw one’s
attention is the extremely high social significance
of advertising which involves many spheres
of human life, including not only the economy
and business, but also morality and art. The
discussion about the essence of advertising and
where it is implemented (whether in business or
artistic endeavour) is quite relevant. The current
debate about advantages and disadvantages of
advertising from the perspective of everyday
awareness states the need for scientific analysis
so that a particular position associated with social
significance of advertising could be reasonable
and advertising itself could be subjected to
forecasting and modeling in the spirit of social
optimism. There is an opinion that advertising
in its many manifestations reflects ideological,
aesthetic and moral principles of Russian society
and becomes an ideology of mass consumption.
This tendency causes progressively increasing
interest precisely to the creative part of the idea
and its embodiment in the advertising product.
Therefore, the understanding of creativity
principles can be defined as a factor of the efficient
advertising communication.
Advertising communication exists in
an inextricable connection with a cultural
worldview which integrates in it as an internal,
so an external contexts of the communication
process. The internal context includes the value
system, cultural identity, mentality, etc. The
motivation of consumers belonging to another
culture is often different, which determines their
consumer behaviour. As the external context we
can mention the time factor, location, conditions
of communication, etc. Advertising can be
quite efficient only if it takes into account the
substantive aspects of both internal and external
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Fig. 1. An internal and external context of advertising communications
contexts of communication. Thus, advertising
should be high-context, i.e. implying context of
another culture in its message, appealing to the
consumer’s basic ideals of a particular culture
with consideration of the national and cultural
specificity.
Cultural approach in advertising is an
integral part of creative positioning, where an
effective advertising idea can change thinking of
the target audience in a certain problem field with
its cultural codes. According to B. Malinowski,
the elements of culture can continue to exist only
if they are surrounded by an aura of satisfaction
for the society members (conjugated with the
balance of pleasure and pain, in which the first one
prevails). [3] The underlying structures of culture
which have historically and socially engrained
in minds and behaviour of many generations are
now integrated into advertising, influencing the
historical and cultural evolution. If each culture
has its own language system, then the language
of advertising in the process of social interaction
acts as a conductor which allows to attach an
intersubjective, cultural significance to the
subjective, individual experience as a translator
of socially important ideas giving them a
common, sharable meaning. Creative advertising
contributes to the creation of a new reality defined
by the increasing integrity of culture, traditions,
values, etc., thus fulfilling its cultural function.
Example
The issues of the main approaches to
the formation of creative thinking should be
considered starting with the specification of
the concepts used in this work. Let us consider
the object of research, that is advertising
communication, clarifying the concept of
communication in this context as a “socially
conditioned process of information transmitting
and receiving in terms of interpersonal and mass
communication on different channels with the
help of different means of communication” [7,
p.23]. In general sense, thinking is an indirect and
generalized reflection of reality, a kind of mental
activity, involving the cognition of the essence of
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things and phenomena, natural connections and
relations between them. Thinking originally has
creative nature, and a truly motivated person can
generate new ideas.
The basis of creativity in the advertising
communication is a creative thinking which is
the ability to create new relevant knowledge and
forms embodied in an advertising text (both on
verbal and nonverbal levels) that has a social and
economic effect through the synthesis of dissimilar
elements. Creativity is always primary and
fundamental. However, in the creative advertising
product it pursues a pragmatic purpose – to
change the consumer behaviour of the target
audience. One should understand that creativity
in advertising is only a technology of the creative
process organization that is fruitless out of context
of the culture in which it is carried out. Today in
order to overcome the cover a person builds to
protect himself from a huge flow of information,
we need to use the stimuli involving the appeal
to the collective unconscious. Consequently, the
issues of creativity should be considered from
the prospective of different elements of culture
(lifestyle, values and mentality) which determine
the specifics of advertising within.
The detection of consumer preferences which
define the concept of advertising leads us to the
concept of a life form or a lifestyle. According to
the scientific sources, the concept of the "lifestyle"
is derived from Weber’s Lebensführung – a
way of maintenance and organization of life.
Speaking of the style in advertising, it is a
specific content in the way of presentation,
language and composition of an advertising
message which reflects the way of life and ways
of expression of the target audience. The content
always finds a well-ordered common expression
through a form (in this case – advertising). In
other words, individual experiences, motives and
goals turn into social facts that run into the flow
of social interactions in the process of advertising
communication. An intellectual component of the
above described content cannot be underestimated
in this process. Resolving the problem of the
relationship of creativity and intelligence in many
ways contributes to understanding of creativity’s
nature: the first one is the product and the result
of creativity’s expression, and the intelligence is
the integral expression of the cognitive abilities
implementation. The problem is that the creator
must generate and adopt new ideas at the same
time, i.e. recognize their originality, have a clear
picture of how to use them in advertising.
The
lifestyle
demonstrated
by
advertising is based on the system of social
values, social priorities, standards, worldviews,
etc. appropriate for each particular culture.
Thus, if in the process of generating creative
ideas a crucial role belongs to creativity, then
their adoption and implementation are involved
with the manifestation of cognitive abilities of
the target audience. David Ogilvy, a well-known
expert in the field of advertising, says that “you
cannot bore your consumers into buying your
product, you can only interest them into doing
so” [5], which means that you should find the only
one true motivation which will allow to satisfy
an unmet human need and offer an effective
way to satisfy it in a way relevant to modern
lifestyles. In respect to advertising, the lifestyle
can be defined as a social status because it is a
function of the typical for the target audience
characteristics having been formed in the process
of its social interactions. Lifestyle as a definition
which explains the uniqueness of a human and
features of consumer behaviour is a subject to
changes. One of the factors of this change can be
creative advertising that transmits the idea of selfexpression in order to have a conscious choice
of the popular product or a behaviour model
including symbolic cultural codes. In this process
it is important not to be mistaken in the notion of
the potential target audience lifestyle and to affect
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its changes in the context of cultural peculiarities
where the advertising communication is carried
out.
In the advertising practice the in-demand
form of the advertising message is a kind of
television commercial “lifestyle” in which the
emphasis is done not on the advertised product
but on its user. To become understandable for
the target audience advertising must speak the
language of their time – in this sense, advertising
becomes both the carrier of the dominant and
the instrument of creating a new style. In this
context we can say that advertising reproduces
style features of the product. The objective of
creativity here may be considered as achievement
of an effective association of the suggested
lifestyle with the advertised product. Thus, the
social function of advertising in this context is to
create a lifestyle relevant to the value orientations
of the modern society which, as a consequence,
becomes a strategy for its consumer behavior.
The concept of the style is directly connected
with the concept of values. The world of culture
is the world of values where each culture is
represented as a set of values being shared by
the majority of its representatives. According
to the opinion of many researchers, the basis of
any culture is the value. Therefore, if there is a
substitution of fundamental values in the society
the type of culture changes as well. Consequently,
if the type of culture changes the transformation
of informative and persuasive types of
communication occurs in it. Thus, in the basis
of an advertising unit design, the transmitting
of which supposes appeal to the problems of the
society, the system of universal values becomes
the uniting element. Nevertheless, the factor
of cultural variety of each society should be
considered.
The values present in each culture direct
the human activity in a determined way. We can
suppose that it is the value that influences the
choice of the behaviour alternative representing
the desired. The human definition of the
reality depends on the subjective idea, about
the values as well. Notwithstanding that the
human independently determines the halidoms
important for him, there is a number of spiritual
absolutes equal for all people (good and evil,
beautiful and ugly, right and wrong etc.). The
modern advertising not only takes into account
the worldview and value orientations of the target
audience but creates them in some respect building
a specific consumer ideology. Creative thinking in
this process functions on the basis of combining
rational and logical, emotional and image
components of the advertising communication.
It should be noted that advertisement, as well as
the values, cannot be referred to the concept of
“truth” and is related to ideal, desired, standards;
it brings assessment into understanding of the
reality. The axiological approach is inevitable
to all phenomena of the culture (advertisement
included).
It is obvious that the appearance of new
spiritual absolutes in history is inevitable when
social realities change. W. Windelband says
that disintegration of previous life forms and
occurrence of new value motives lead to the
state of searching and detecting which require
expression. According to the philosopher’s
opinion, appearance of a new epoch requires,
at least, new value orientations which give birth
to a completely changed structure of life. W.
Windelband writes: “when we speak about true
cultural values we never act like individuals
or even representatives of our kind, but always
as treasurers and carriers of superempirical
… functions of the mind” [1, pp.13-14]. The
culture is determined by the established values
while in various cultures we can observe the
same values, but their priority is positioned
differently. Advertisement in this context draws
attention to social values shared by the majority
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of this or that culture/subculture representatives
in order to change the behaviour pattern in the
society or its segment. The values transmitted
by advertising are always connected with the
temper of the epoch and the consumer behaviour
significantly depends on the culture prevailing in
each particular society.
One of the topical creative thinking strategies
in this context is the “Big Idea” concept as a
long-term strategy of creative positioning aimed
at involvement of the maximum mainstream
audience due to offering appreciated values
and appealing to socially important tendencies.
In today advertising activities the “Big Idea”
is a specific and practical creative technology
which allows to establish efficient advertising
communication. In this creative technology
(which is outlined by variety, long duration,
uniqueness and sociability) we find the axiological
approach as well, while the “big advertising idea”
does not offer some specific product, but always
life values (up-to-date in each specific culture)
connected with this product.
Each culture can be presented as a set of
hierarchically established values shared by
the majority of its representatives. One can
determine the value orientations prevailing in
each culture by the contents of the advertising
while the advertising reflects the world and is the
product of the time. The process of advertising
creativity always has some sensual component
and it is the feeling which becomes a specific
image reflecting its rational essence and sensual
perception. The connection of emotional
perception and logical understanding of things
synthesises the occurrence of such feelings
which can become irreplaceable guidelines
while looking for the solution and the guarantee
for realising the possibility to understand an
instinctively found advertising idea. The critics
of modern advertising say that it influences the
system of human values in a negative way, while
it promotes the way to happiness though things’
acquisition and not through spiritual, ethic and
intellectual development. But in any culture with
various systems of values the modern human is
relatively free in his/her choice determining the
limit for the aspiration to satisfy desires, needs
and fantasies in accordance with his/her own
ideals.
Values are always estimated in relation to
some ideal and involve personality, structure of
self-consciousness, i.e. personal needs as well.
The attention paid to wealth does not reject
spiritual or cultural values. Moreover, this
creates favourable conditions for the development
of these values while according to A. Maslow’s
theory of needs motivation the fulfilment of high
aspirations is possible only when lower, basic
needs of the person are satisfied. D. Pivovarov
thinks that active raising of spiritual ideals is
more preferable for human activities while it will
inevitably lead to understanding of the matter
and flesh value, unlike the irrestrainable worship
of only material goods (by means of advertising
as well) which can transform the ideal into an idol
and can make the human life itself meaningless
and frustrated [6].
Therefore, the social role of advertising is
in perfection of the basic spiritual values vitally
needed by the society. The value characterises
human measurement of social consciousness
presenting the existentially felt being. Cultural
values do not die due to objectivization in texts
while they are constantly getting new meaning.
In advertising communication the type level of
advertisement understanding is connected with
a personality type, a typical motive, a typical
situation which together compose everydaylife practical version of a social structure of
a particular culture. Conversational level of
advertisement understanding is connected with its
substantial content, building of its meaning on the
basis of existing knowledge of the text’s meaning
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in the particular culture and understanding of the
message which can be expressed in a particular
action. The values present in each culture
projected in advertising which not only spreads,
but also forms them, direct human activity in
a particular way, thus, being the vector of the
society development.
One of the elements of the axiological
attitude is the first layer of desires, aspirations and
preferences forming the initial level of the mass
consciousness – the mentality. From numerous
research works we know that within the mentality
various oppositions are presented – natural and
cultural, emotional and logical, rational and
irrational, individual and collective. Mentality
as a collective-individual formation is a set of
stable spiritual values, deep guidelines, skills,
automatisms, latent habits, long-term stereotypes
considered within particular spatial-time limits
which are the basis of behaviour, lifestyle and
conscious perception of particular occurrences
of reality. This definition is determined as
“psychological furniture” (M. Bloch), “symbolic
paradigms” (M. Eliade), “prevailing metaphors”
(P. Receour), “archaic residues” (Z. Freud) or
“archetypes” (C. Jung), “...the presence of which
is not explained by the individual life of the
person but comes from the aboriginal inherent
and inherited sources of the human mind” [9, p.
64]. This definition is used in modern literature
at cultural and philosophic analysis of social
reality and culture as a whole.
Thus, mentality allows to unite analytical
thinking, developed forms of consciousness with
semi-conscious cultural codes the advertising
communication contains. Creative thinking
includes as the conscious, so the unconscious
components (intuition). David Bernstein, one
of the leading specialists of Great Britain in
creativity, thinks that the creative process in
advertising is a transformation of an offer into
an idea and the main skills of people involved in
advertising are the skills of arguing. According to
such understanding of this definition creation of
efficient advertising, first of all, requires intensive
logical thinking based, more likely, on the facts
estimation than on ideas “pulled out of a hat”.
Creative thinking is fed by lively impressions,
interesting events, behavioural clichés and other
typical and extraordinary facts which are always
present at various levels of the memory [8, p.65].
Advertising projects a worldview including in its
message, for example, the idea of the personality
and its attitude to the society, ideas of freedom,
equality, honour, of good and evil, truth and
labour, of the family and sex relationships, of
the course of history and the value of the time,
of the ratio of new and old, of death and soul.
Mentality in advertising communication dates
back to different ethnic and civilization origins
connected with historical destiny, geopolitical
interests in axiological and semantic space of
the culture. According to the opinion of OctaveJacques Gérin “advertising gets control over the
consumer, modifies his/her tastes and habits
involving the consumer into the continuous
process of the cognition, transforming his/her
mentality” [2, p. 98].
If the behaviour patterns and axiological
guidelines are given within the limits of the
society’s mentality, the advertising not only
transmits them but can also influence their
qualitative change offering another behaviour
model and correcting axiological guidelines. At
the same time, it should be taken in consideration
that social differentiation of mentalities reflects
present in the society division into social groups
with typical material interests, lifestyle which
definitely influence building of the collective
image of the advertising target audience. The
secret of creativity in this process is in the
methodology of values establishment, inclusion
of mentality of a particular culture which is
innovative and is beyond the limits of existing
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technologies, commonly accepted standards
and regulations. The result of creativity is clear,
traditional and is estimated easily and quickly.
The way of obtaining this result itself is nontraditional and this is where the effect lies.
Resume
Thus, today we can speak about such a
semiotic system functioning in the society as
the advertising discourse. Creative thinking
in advertising communication is formed in
the conditions of globalization changing and
adapting cultures, basing on separate elements
(lifestyle, values, mentality, etc.). The power of
advertising communication lies in the attention
which makes us to turn not to the advertisement
itself (as a text) but to the big (creative) idea which
it contains. One can interpret “advertising” as
the derivative from Latin “ad verter” which
stands for “to attract attention to”. The next stage
in perception in advertising communication
is the interest, qualitative content of which
determines continuity of the following units of
the chain – desire and action (according to the
AIDA model of advertisement perception). It is
commonly known that this chain can break off
at any of its units: attention can be not attracted,
interest can disappear soon and then attention
will be drawn to other information (another
interesting advertisement, for instance), the
desire can transform to the following step –
the action. In modern conditions of intensive
information environment (advertising as well)
one can attract the audience using technologies
based on creativity. Creativity in advertising is
a combination of search and implementation of
such an extent of information freshness which will
strike the target audience and draw its attention.
The cultural aspect of this search is fundamental
while it is important that the advertising image
is based on archetypes, stereotypes and myths
present in minds of consumers taking into
consideration mentality, values, lifestyle and other
components of culture as well. Only then it does
not cause rejection and is perceived as something
familiar. This type of recognition most of the time
inspires trust and, as a consequence, increases the
efficiency of advertising communication.
Notwithstanding
the
fundamental
cultural aspect of creative advertising, the
priority of economic component of advertising
communication still remains important while,
as it is commonly known, creativity always
presupposes deriving benefits (this makes it
different from art) and the main function of
advertising is to sell (products, ideas, images).
Obviously, the most creative advertising is only
an art work (exciting, beautiful, tempting) if
it does not fulfil this function. It is ironic, but
when applied non-creative advertising can also
fulfil economic function successfully enough.
But we can assume that we will observe such
facts in the future less frequently. The influence
of advertising can never be predicted for 100%,
no matter how creative it is. Constant changes
in the society (socio-economic, political,
etc.) constantly require fresh advertising
decisions, new approaches, new creative ideas.
With advance of creative technologies in our
culture the human will be more sensitive to art
pragmatism. Then it would be possible to call
successful only such an advertisement which has
creative selling idea based on relevant needs of
the target audience.
References
1.
Windelband, W. Philosophy of culture and transcendental idealism [Text] / W. Windelband //
International annual collection on philosophy of culture.– Moscow, 1910. – book 2. –ppс.13-14 –
ISBN: 5-7333-0179-1.
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2.
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Golovleva E.L. Fundamentals of advertising [Text]: studying materials / E.L. Golovleva. –
Moscow: Academic Project, 2008. – 330 pages. – 4,000 copies. – ISBN: 978-5-8291-1002-4.
Malinowski, B. A scientific theory of culture [Text] / B. Malinowski; translation from English. –
Moscow: OGI (Nation and culture), 2005. – 184 pages. – 3,000 copies. – ISBN 5-94282-308-1.
Maslow A. Self-actualizing and Beyond. – In: Challenges of Humanistic Psychology. N. Y., 1967.
Ogilvy D.O. On advertising [Text] / D. Ogilvy; translation from English. – Moscow: EKSMO,
2007 – 232 pages. – 4,000 copies. – ISBN: 978-5-699-21961-2.
Pivovarov D.V. The problem of the ideal image carrier: operational aspect [Text] / D.V. Pivovarov –
Sverdlovsk: Edition of Ural University, 1986. – 129 pages.
Romat E.V. Advertising [Text] / E.V. Romat – Saint Petersburg: Piter, 2008. – 208 pages with
illustrations. – 4,000 copies. – ISBN 5-469-00671-9.
N.V. Tkachenko. Creative advertising. Technologies of design [Text]: studying materials for university
students majoring in Advertising / N.V. Tkachenko, O.N. Tkachenko edited by L.M. Dmitrieva. –
Moscow.: YUNTI – DANA, 2009. – 335 pages, – 2,000 copies. – ISBN 978-5-238-01568-2.
Jung C.G. Archetype and symbol [Text] / C.G. Jung – Moscow: Renaissance, 1991. – 304 pages. –
30,000 copies. – ISBN 5-7664-0462-X.
Креативное мышление в рекламной коммуникации:
культурологический аспект
Е.А. Ноздренко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а
Современная реклама является феноменом, который в той или иной степени влияет на характер
социального, экономического, политического и иного взаимодействия в социуме. Тенденции
развития системы рекламной коммуникации предполагают комплексное использование ATL- и
BTL-инструментов с целью эффективного представления продукта на актуальном для него
рынке. Основное требование, предъявляемое к различным инструментам рекламы, – это их
эффективность, в том числе способность передать творческое содержание сообщения в
соответствии с прагматическими целями рекламной коммуникации. Практика показывает,
что сегодня без креатива эти инструменты не позволяют достичь обозначенных целей.
Рекламный креатив можно определить как образную оболочку инструментов информативноубеждающих видов коммуникации, призванных решить прагматические задачи бизнеса. Такие
факторы рыночной среды, как обострение конкуренции, рост финансового и интеллектуального
потенциала, глобализация информационных потоков, выступают достаточным
основанием обращения к методам и источникам создания нетрадиционных решений, поиску
инновационных, креативных идей с целью увеличения эффективности функционирования
различных институтов в обществе. Сегодня очевидным является понимание успешности
рекламной деятельности через призму креативности, предоставляющей возможности
выделения продукта из многообразия рыночных предложений. Развитие информативноубеждающих видов коммуникаций в новейшей истории России определяет возрождение
интереса к раскрытию механизмов творческой деятельности.
Творчество всегда первично и фундаментально. Однако в креативном продукте рекламной
деятельности оно подчинено прагматической цели – изменить потребительское поведение
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целевой аудитории. Нужно понимать, что креативность в рекламе – это только технология
организации творческого процесса, которая бесплодна сама по себе, вне контекста той
культуры, в которой она осуществляется. Для того чтобы преодолеть защиту, которую
выстраивает современный человек от большого потока информации, сегодня необходимо
использовать раздражители, связанные с апелляцией к коллективному бессознательному.
Следовательно, проблематику креативности целесообразно рассматривать сквозь призму
составляющих культуры (жизненный стиль, ценности и ментальность), определяющих
специфику рекламы в ней.
Важным условием развития креативного мышления в рекламной коммуникации является
эмоционально-чувственный компонент, развитие которого призвано систематически
обеспечивать чувственно-образное восприятие и формировать эмоционально-ценностное
отношение к изучаемым объектам. Данный процесс включает в себя организацию вхождения
в ситуацию эмоциональных переживаний, предложенных в рекламном тексте, дающих
возможность непосредственного проживания эмоций и чувств, возникновения эмоционально
и рационально обусловленных образов, способствующих накоплению эмоциональночувственного опыта и развитию эмоционально-образного компонента мышления. Главной
составляющей креативного процесса в данном случае выступает прагматический элемент,
то есть изначальное понимание, зачем нужно создавать рекламу, для кого нужно ее создавать
(четкая идентификация целевой аудитории), как нужно ее создавать (выбор актуальной
технологии) и, собственно, что именно нужно создавать (качественный подход в определении
формы и содержания рекламного текста). Каждую культуру можно представить как набор
иерархически выстроенных ценностей, разделяемых большинством ее представителей. По
содержанию рекламных сообщений можно определять господствующие в каждой культуре
ценностные ориентации, так как реклама отражает мир и является продуктом своего
времени. Таким образом, социальная роль рекламы заключается в совершенствовании базовых
духовных ценностей, жизненно необходимых обществу.
Если образцы поведения и ценностные ориентиры задаются в рамках ментальности
общества, то реклама не только транслирует их, но и может влиять на их качественное
изменение, предлагая иную модель поведения и корректируя ценностные ориентиры. При
этом необходимо учитывать тот факт, что социальная дифференциация ментальностей
отражает существующее в обществе разделение на общественные группы с присущими
им материальными интересами, образом жизни, что определенно отражается на
конструировании собирательного образа целевой аудитории. Секрет креативности в данном
процессе заключается в самой методологии создания ценностей, включенности ментальности
конкретной культуры, которая и является инновационной, находится за пределами
существующих технологий, общепринятых норм и правил.
Креатив в рекламе – это совокупность поиска и воплощение той степени оригинальности подачи
информации, которая поразит и привлечет внимание целевой аудитории. Культурологический
аспект такого поиска является фундаментальным, так как важно, чтобы рекламный образ
опирался на архетипы, стереотипы и мифы, содержащиеся в сознании потребителей, учитывая
ментальность, ценности, жизненный стиль и иные составляющие культуры. Тогда он не
вызывает отторжения, и воспринимается как нечто уже знакомое. Этот режим узнавания
во многих случаях внушает доверие и, как следствие, – повышает эффективность рекламной
коммуникации. Следовательно, культурологический подход в рекламной коммуникации –
неотъемлемая составляющая креативного позиционирования, где эффективная рекламная
идея может что-то изменить в мышлении целевой аудитории в обозначенном проблемном
поле с заложенными в нем культурными кодами.
Ключевые слова: реклама, рекламная коммуникация, креатив, креативное мышление,
рекламный креатив, образ жизни, ценности, креативная рекламная идея, культурологический
подход.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 610-614
~~~
УДК 32.0
Four Actors in Search of Security in Eurasia:
a Presentation to the First Forum of European
and Asian Media (FEMA)
Moscow, December 8-10, 2009
Nicolai N. Petro*
Department of Political Science, University of Rhode Island
Washburn Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 USA 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article deals with Issues of security on the Eurasian continent. Being both the source and the
crossroads of the world’s energy resources, as well as much of the current ethnic and religious
dissatisfaction with modernity and globalization, Eurasia will be the battleground where the
conflicting dynamics of religion, globalization, nationalism and modernization will be fought. The
article discusses the possible approaches of Russia, China, European Union and the United States to
these problems.
Keywords: Eurasia, cultural security, Chinese foreign policy, Russian foreign policy, U.S. foreign
policy, foreign policy of the European Union.
Eurasian security is vital to humanity.
Being both the source and the crossroads of the
world’s energy resources, as well as much of the
current ethnic and religious dissatisfaction with
modernity and globalization, Eurasia will be the
battleground where the conflicting dynamics
of religion, globalization, nationalism and
modernization will be fought.
The global scope of these issues, which
are threatening to erode established patterns
of governance in many parts of the region, has
pushed China into a more active role in Central
Asia; it has pushed European integration, in an
effort to gain added weight for Europe in world
affairs; and it has fostered U.S. intervention in
the region’s conflicts. Given the history of the
*
1
past decade, it is probably no exaggeration to say
that – the outcome of these efforts to resolve the
problems of security in Eurasia will determine
the success or failure of the 21st century.
All too often, however, when we consider
the size of the region and the magnitude of the
challenges it faces, the actual people who reside
there disappear. Many western analysts argue that
existing boundaries, cultures, and populations
will all be swept along by the inexorable forces
of global commerce and democratization. In this
view, made popular by Francis Fukuyama in the
early 1990s, the collapse of the USSR removed
the last obstacle to this.
But the collapse of the USSR has also left
an unexpected void at the heart of Eurasia. This
Corresponding author E-mail address: nnpetro@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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void has become not only the source of Russia’s
security concerns, but of the security dilemmas
of every other nation in this vast region. If this
void is not filled we can expect the 21st century to
be no less bloody than the 20th
The major powers on Eurasia’s periphery
have each proposed their own solutions to how to
fill this security void.
The Chinese solution envisions a long
term, gradual binding of more and more Eurasia
countries into a Greater Chinese Co-Prosperity
Sphere. In Southeast Asia local Chinese elites
already exert effective control over domestic
politics, which essentially guarantees a Chinese
veto over political initiatives deemed undesirable –
a more intrusive variant of what was once known
in Europe as “Finlandization.” While undeniably
successful in co-opting local elites, this model
has also spawned resentment among the middle
class in these nations that suspect they are not
deriving as much benefit as the elite from this
arrangement. It has therefore never been applied
successfully to civilizations that are not in some
way derivative or dependent on China. When
these meet they clash, and political scientists
like Samuel Huntington have predicted just such
a clash with China’s main economic rival, the
United States.
The Chinese solution for Eurasian security
therefore suffers from the fact that it is not a truly
consensual model based on an equal partnership.
Because of this fundamental inequality it will
do little to resolve the sources of insecurity in
Eurasia, which involve the reassertion of cultural
and religious identities. Its strength, however,
lies in a subtly crafted diplomacy that apparently
respects the status quo and does not demand that
local traditions change, while binding countries
with ties that benefit them economically;
The European solution has worked very well
within the northwestern corner of Eurasia. But
while it promotes itself as a potentially universal
model, it is actually the result of a unique history
of industrialization and colonialism that spread
commercialism intensely throughout the world.
This model survived the collapse of the British
Empire only because of the rise of the USSR,
which forced the United States to take over
Britain’s global role in propagating consumerism
and Western culture. Finally, the policy of
containment provided Western Europeans with a
common purpose that pushed them to integrate
much further and more quickly than anyone had
imagined possible.
But Western Europe’s success in forging
a common civilizational framework has also
distanced it from its neighbors, making Europe’s
integration into Eurasia much more difficult. Just
crossing the Bosporus has proved impossible for
Europeans, and there is no stomach for tackling
the even more radical challenge of addressing
security issues from Vancouver to Vladivostok,
and from Mumbai to Murmansk. The model works
well for those already live within it, but since it
cannot be expanded and is therefore inadequate
to the growing external threats that Europe now
faces. Its strength lies in providing a successful
example of how institutional integration can,
in fact, erode centuries of hostility and forge
stability and prosperity.
The American solution is, perhaps, the
simplest of all. In the short run it has sought to
replace Russia, not to defend regional security,
but to promote stable energy supplies and remove
the strategic weapons that threaten American
security. In the long term it has promoted political
institutions and ideas that reflect America’s view
of economics and politics as sources of long term
stability in Eurasia. American neo-conservatives
unabashedly saw the void created by the collapse
of the USSR as an opportunity for reshaping the
region. This led to rather blatant US intervention
in several CIS countries, with results that very few
in Washington today, however, find satisfactory.
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The American solution to this rests on
the popularity of its well known commercialcultural symbols, the brands that dominate
global commerce, entertainment, and politics.
Thanks to this dominance private enterprise,
individualism, and global commerce have
come to be seen as crucial to national
competitiveness. As neo-conservatives like
to point out, America’s presence throughout
the globe, has become the de facto basis of
world government. What they do not like to
admit is that in the process, social tensions
have been unleashed that they can no longer
control. Unleashing the power of the individual
has been America’s greatest legacy, while the
failure to link individual interests back to the
common good has been its greatest failure. As
a result, the once popular notion that this model
represents the aspirations of all mankind is no
longer so widely accepted, and as America’s
cultural dominance becomes less pronounced,
it is likely to fi nd fewer and fewer admirers.
Russia’s solution to Eurasia’s security
dilemmas is the most sketchy. As I understand it,
it is based on the following syllogism:
1/ Modernization is essential for Russia’s
survival;
2/ Russian foreign policy must create
conditions that allow Russian to modernize;
3/ Peace, stability and prosperity in Eurasia
are critical to success.
All of these are true statements, but there is
as yet no strategy that connects them. What has
emerged is a set of ad hoc measures, in different
areas, that are meant to change the tone of
relations in the region. So far, however, their only
selling point is that they come from the Russia –
the one indispensable actor in Eurasia.
One related measure is the recently proposed
Grand Euro-Atlantic Treaty, which is modeled
on the analogy of the CSCE, but goes further
in specifying conflict resolution mechanisms.
But that is where the similarities end. Whereas
the CSCE arose out of protracted negotiations
between two relatively evenly matched blocks,
Russia today, while stronger than it was ten years
ago, is still weak and unable to exert its influence
effectively throughout the region.
For many in the West this means that Russia’s
interests can be dismissed when discussing a
strategy for Eurasian security. One example is the
way in which President Medvedev’s declaration
of “privileged interests,” has been totally
misinterpreted, its potential as a starting point
for dialogue with other nations in Eurasia lost.
Unless Russian policy becomes more focused
and assertive, the Euro-Atlantic Treaty will likely
suffer the same fate.
Still, the fact that Russia’s strategy is
disjointed is not all bad. It also means that it is
the most susceptible to adaptation and growth,
including untapped resources. Compared with
the other major powers Russia has the advantage
of sharing a common cultural sphere with many
other nations in the region, a legacy of the both
the Soviet and Russian empires. Then, there is the
obvious advantage of Russia’s wealth of energy
resources. To date, Russia has not linked these
particular advantages to an overall Eurasian
strategy, and as a result its attempt to exert
influence seem heavy-handed and often lead to
counter-reactions. Conceivably, however, it could
develop the soft power skills needed to advance
its regional influence in ways that will guarantee
the desired outcome without appearing to force
concessions, in the same way that the United
States does with respect to Canada, Mexico or its
European allies.
Russia’s singular advantage, however is
that it has already recognized that the region’s
problems are interrelated, and of such magnitude
that no single nation, or group of nations,
can solve them. It has therefore been at the
forefront of creating the regional structures and
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relationships that are needed, rather than merely
working within the existing institutions that are
clearly inadequate to the task.
>>>>>
To sum up, no major power has yet devised a
good model for dealing with the security problems
of Eurasia, and it is certainly arguable that these
problems are so great that they defy any broad
strategy.
Still, I would like to think that there are
elements in the approaches I’ve just discussed
that overlap, and that could be combined and
coordinated in ways that mutually reinforce
positive tendencies, rather than multiplying
negative ones by acting at cross purposes, as is
currently the case.
Such a strategy would focus on the
following:
1/ A diplomacy that is reassuring – that
respects the international status quo and does
not gratuitously threaten stability by challenging
local traditions and cultures in the name of
universal rights, but that also sets the stage for
transforming that status quo through consensual
mechanisms;
2/ Successful examples of institutional
and cultural interaction, especially ones that
have succeeded in reducing religious and ethnic
hostilities, eventually setting the stage for the
codification of standards of civilized behavior
toward one’s own citizens;
3/ Integration of nations and regions into the
global economy, providing an increased role for
both individual and collective enterprise, leading
eventually toward treaties that expand basic
liberal principles in domestic and international
relations that will foster economic and social well
being;
The difficulty of each one of these tasks
is exacerbated not just by reluctance of elites
to change, but also by the fact that, in order
to be successful, in each arena there must
be breakthrough that leads to a qualitative
transformation in international relations, one that
stresses mutual responsibility over individual
security.
Therefore, the final requirement for such a
strategy is understanding that existing institutions
are insufficient to address these complex issues,
and that new ones must replace them. In much the
same way that the discussions of global climate
change have slowly begun to affect international
relations, by pointing to the need for all nations
to take responsibility, the same must occur if
security in Eurasia is to become a reality.
I speak of creating the pre-conditions for a
diplomacy of longue duree, one that sacrifices low
priority shor term benefits for high priority long
term objectives; I speak of security arrangements
based on mutual vulnerability; I speak of financial
structures that take global social, environmental,
and social costs into account when defining
profit.
One way to do this is to defi nes true
security as a function of cultural pluralism, both
within nation-states and among them. It is no
longer possible to reduce security to the level of
the nation-state, because a society is more than
the sum of its parts. Confusing the nation-state
with society can lead to serious errors when
identifying threats since, particularly after the
Cold War, society has been more threatened
that the state. The unique security challenges
of the 21st century arise from the simultaneous
appearance of BOTH subnational and
metanational challenges, and yet we have seen
time and again in recent years that the security
that is most threatened today is not sovereignty,
but identity—both at the subnational level,
where it cohesion and loyalty are essential for
a society’s survival, as well as the metanational
level, where security threats have arisen that
existing nation-state system cannot deal with.
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The solution is to encourage the formation
of overlapping identities that do not coincide
with the boundaries of nation-states. These can
be cultural, tribal, religious, linguistic, familial,
even metapolitical, as in the case of the European
Union.
As I see it, the pre-conditions for cultural
security in Eurasia involves three steps. First,
the creation of a political image that resonates
within the existing political order and national
cultures. Second, the promotion of this political
image so that, over time, alternative political
identities can emerge that can overcome the
void left by the collapse of old identities. And,
third, ensuring that this new political identity
is institutionalized and incorporates the basic
liberal values that permit unity in diversity,
so that a larger and unifying Eurasian identity
emerges as an additional layer of national
identity, rather than in opposition to it.
Ultimately, a space needs to be created in
which existing societies and cultures cannot
be reduced to the confines of the present
international state system, or merely to the
functioning of global markets. Instead, it must
be an international regime whose primary task is
cultural dialogue, with structures adapted to the
specific conditions of cultural exchange, and can
shift the political incentives that define security
from ones of short term advantage, to ones of
long term mutual responsibility.
Russia is at the heart of this process, or
perhaps I should say, at its bull’s eye. Being at the
periphery would be easier, but Russia’s destiny
as the heartland of Eurasia is determined by
geography and not by choice. To thrive, Russia
will need to offer a vision of Eurasian security
that exceeds her capacity; a vision comparable to
that of Jean Monnet, the father of the EU, when
he said: «the unification of Europe is not the end
goal, but merely one step toward the organized
world of the future.»
If Russia can do this, it will save itself and
save the world. If it fails, then both may perish.
Четыре державы в поисках безопасности.
Доклад для первого Форума европейских
и азиатских СМИ.
Москва, 8-10 декабря 2009
Н.Н. Петро
Кафедра политических наук, Университет Род-Айленда
Уошберн Хол, Кингстон, Род-Айленд, США
Статья посвящена проблемам безопасности на евразийском континенте. Евразия является
одновременно источником энергоресурсов глобального значения и протестных настроений
различных религиозных и этнических групп, недовольных процессами модернизации и
глобализации. Всё это предопределяет судьбу Евразии как поля битвы, на котором
столкнутся представления о религиях, глобализация, национализм и модернизация. В статье
рассматриваются возможные подходы России, Китая, Европейского союза и США к этим
проблемам.
Ключевые слова: культурная безопасность, Евразия, внешняя политика Китая, внешняя
политика России, внешняя политика США, внешняя политика Европейского союза.
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~~~
УДК 1.14
In the Trace of Human Identity
Jelena Petrucijova*
University of Ostrava
5 Mlynska, Ostrava 701 03 Czechia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The article is focused on the issue of human being and human identity (both collective and individual
one). Two methodilogical approaches – essential and existential – are considered to be so called
traditional approaches of the philosophical antropology. An interpretative/narrative approach are
the current state in the analysing of the identity issue. The mentioned approaches are used in the
special sciences: social and cultural anthropology, psychology, etc., as well. The author emphasizes
a cultural dimension of identity reflecting the human situation in globalized, multicultural world (e.g.
the conceptions of multiple identity, sliced identity, split identity).
Keywords: human identity; inclusive identity; exclusive identity; multicultural society.
We are living in the multicultural society
in the period of globalization. And to typical
features of globalization we may refer unification
of various spheres of our life. Some manifestations
of unification are supported by us (for example,
we would like to live «as well, as in the West»
from the view point of our welfare), and we resist
the others (first of all, because we are afraid of
losing our unique peculiarities, which determine
our identity). Multiculturalism is closely
connected with globalization, though, for the first
sight, they seem to be opposite (multiculturalism
presupposes multiplicity, variety, in comparison
with globalization, which claims for unification
and universality), though if we take for attention
the amplitude and the intensity of acculturation
processes, then multiculturalism turns out to be
a powerful means of globalization. Paradox of
each globalization project is in the following: on
one hand, it is targeted for erosion of the national
*
1
identity, and, on the other hand, it indirectly leads
to its revitalization and renewal.
The mentioned processes and symptoms
actualize the problem of identity and its
preservation as on the local cultural level, so on
the individual one.
In the European culture, the problem of
man has become a subject of philosophical
reflection, and, first of all, it happened in
the periods of social-cultural instability and
radical changes. And the present time is not
an exception. Historically, the answer to the
question «What is man?» has been connected
to the attempts to define the essence of man. In
philosophical anthropology it has corresponded
to the so-called Essential approach. The essence
of man was accepted as something, preceding
to a concrete person, something aprioristic to a
certain degree, super-temporal and unchangeable
(and only Hegel disclosed historical status of
Corresponding author E-mail address: jelena.petrucijova@osu.cz
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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the individual). The question was about generic
essential definition of man. The truth of man as
such was equal to the knowledge of his essence,
and the truth of a concrete man was connected to
the degree of realization, materialization of this
eidetic essence. The situation drastically changed
with the appearance of the existential philosophy.
Sartre formulated the thesis «existence precedes
essence» and wrote that existential definition of
man was always his individual definition (taking
into consideration the difference between the
essence, which was perceived as eidos, i.e. a
general form of the existing nature, and the
substance, which was perceived as morfé, i.e.
a concrete form of the creation). In his lection
«Existentialism is humanism» Sartre formulated
the so-called first principle of existentialism: man
is nothing at the beginning, and only in some time
he becomes what he makes of himself. The truth
of man is connected with him himself. And its
criterion is his responsibility for himself and for
the whole humanity. The world has become that
very space, which is created by the deeds and the
words of people. Man differs from the anonymous
existence of other creatures by his necessity «to
reveal that he is in his unique peculiarity, in
his deeds and his words» [3. P. 197]. Deeds and
words indicate at the fact of humane existence
and reveal the truth of his identity as much, as
there is somebody, who is able to comprehend the
meaning of these words and the senses of these
deeds. Person «loses his reality» out of the sphere
of Otherness [3. P. 58].
In ХХ century, philosophу began to
understand more and more that the human world
was not the light of objective facts, existing
independently from the determinating humane
activity. And first of all, it was the world of symbols
and senses, being an integral part of humane
understanding, interpretation, expression, i.e.
being the consequence of humane conscious. If
the world exists in the parameters of symbols,
meanings and senses, by which means people
not only cognate, but also create, then this world,
which they share and which they speak about,
exists in the form of a cultural construct, created
by the people. And, consequently, if humane
identity is created in the result of interaction with
thus understood world, then communication (or,
to be exact, narrative and interpretive activity)
is the means of its creation, i.e. we are speaking
about narrative identity.
If in classical metaphysics the statement that
everything is identical and synonymous to itself,
is an axiom, then philosophy of ХХ century
discloses a paradox and makes it absolute. In
connection with the notion of identity, thinking
mixes up two notions: identity in relation to the
equal, similar, and identity in relation to oneself
(«I»). Antinomy is concluded in the fact that
usage of one and the same word for denoting of
the person from his birth to his death presupposes
that there is some unchangeable bases, but
humane experience denies the existence of
person’s unchangeable bases [15].
One can also find the mentioned approaches
from the sphere of philosophic anthropology on
the level of special humane sciences. At the end of
ХIХ – at the beginning of ХХ century, the essential
approach was prevailing (for example, they used
the notions of Volksgeist, «nation’s character»,
«nation’s soul» in philosophy; Berdyaev spoke of
«the soul of Russia»; and it was «ethno-cultural
identity» by Wilhelm Wundt in psychology). One
can find essentialism tendencies even in history,
if history is perceived as a way of nation to
self-realization in a national state, and nation is
conceived as a super-historical, eternally existing
phenomenon, gradually coming to self-cognition
and self-reflection.
In the meanwhile, we come across essentialism
revelations in social and cultural anthropology
in connection with the Ruth Benedict notion of
cultural pattern (patterns of culture are dominating
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psychological qualities and ways of behavior,
which are peculiar to the representatives of some
culture), in connection with the R. Linton theory
of basic types of personality (basic personality),
with the А. Kardiner notion of “basic personality
structure” and others. At the same time, the R.
Lynton theory of social roles caused significant
complications in the problem of identity. It raised
a question, whether identity was a sum of certain
roles or one and the same person was used to have
many identities.
In response to the one-sided essentialism
there appeared theories, which denied the
possibility of group, collective identity existence
(cultural, national and so on.). For example, in their
work «Social Construction of Reality» Berger
and Luckmann argued about collective identity
understanding in the vein of Durkheim sociology
and anthropological school «Personality and
Culture».
These days can be sooner characterized
by the tendency of searching of an adequate
measure of balance between collective/group and
individual identities. They differ significantly,
being under the condition of constant tension and
mutual interaction.
There are a lot of conceptions of identity
in the modern social-scientific (philosophic,
sociological,
psychological,
socialanthropological and other) literature. In spite of
terminological differences, some conceptions of
«I»-identity give an opportunity to define several
leading methodological principals: «I» consists
of two parts (internal and external), which create
more or less consistent integrity, being the result
of humane interaction with the society and within
the society. One of the component parts of this
interaction is the process of self-identification
with the help of «symbolization» (G.H. Mead)
and self-identity correction with the opinion and
attitude of «Others» (Ch.H. Cooley «lookingglass» identity conception – the looking-glass
self ). The main factors of the personal «becoming»
are as the tension between «I» and social, cultural
sphere (the mentioned authors, and also R. Linton,
M. Mead, R. Benedict and others), so «the key
contradiction» between spontaneous internal «I»,
on one hand, and external «I», being subjected to
social limitations and prohibitions, on the other
hand (contradiction between internal «I» and
external «me» can be found in the works of M.
Mead and E. Goffman). Goffman also sticks to
the so-called dramaturgic version of the symbolic
interactionism, which conceives the world as one
colossal theatre, wherein man has to play not only
different performances for various communities
in correspondence with their demands and
expectations, but also in correspondence with his
(man’s) choice of some of the institutionalized
roles and in correspondence with the quality of
their performance. Investigating the problem of
identity and identification in connection with the
theory of primary and secondary institutions,
Berger and Luckmann prove that in the process
of socialization one can observe as unification/
identification with the only possible world of
«important Others» (for example, parents)
and then «generalized Others» [6. P. 42-50], so
creation/appearance of symmetry between the
subjective and objective «I» realities as a result of
the processes of internalization, externalization
and objectivation, going on by means of the
social institutions net. The authors write: «In
reality, identity is objectively defined as a place
in some concrete world and subjectively it can be
perceived only simultaneously with this world.
In other words, all the identifications go on the
boarders, defining a certain social world... to get
one’s identity means for one to get a given certain
place in the world» [6. P. 50].
An important moment of the «I» identity
theory is the processual character of «I» (we
come across it already in Sigmund Freud’s
works). R. Jenkins sticks to the point that we can
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avoid a huge gap between the activity and the
structure thanks to the fact that social identities
are conceptualized by the notion of process [13.
P. 26].
Cultural identification plays one of the main
roles in definition of human identity. Geertz
writes, that one of the most important truths of
us is that one, that we are prepared by nature to
live thousands kinds of lives, but in reality we
live only one life in one culture [10. P. 57]. Thus,
culture is an image (construct) of reality (one of
possible definitions of culture), existing between
the man and the world, coordinating, limiting,
and stimulating inter-human relations. And this
image does not exist out of the conscious of its
carriers and their activity. It is the bases as of
stability, so of changes as well. The world of
culture is given to us in the form of symbolic
models, which include more or less coherent
narration about what kind of world it is, what it
consists of, and where it moves. Sloterdijk sais that
mythomotorics is a summation of identification
stories-narrations, being necessary for integrity
and fullness of sense of some culture [17. P. 36].
Since Humboldt’s times we have been coming
across the opinion that languages differ not on
the level of symbols and phonemes, but, first
of all, on the level of world outlooks. A certain
completion of this thought could be seen as in
the Sapir-Whorf theory of linguistic relativism,
so in the thesis of L. Wittgenstein «the boarders
of my language are the boarders of my world».
«The real world is mainly built subconsciously on
the bases of linguistic norms of a certain group.»
[16. P. 57]. Every language is determined not only
by that, what gives the speaker an opportunity to
express himself, but also by that, what (formally
and contextually) makes him speak. «Subject
does not perceive or reflect the things; order,
being their autonomic self-reflection, is that, what
metaphysics calls to be subject» [9. P. 34]. Cultural
identity is that very order. Identity of every person
is connected to understanding «becoming» of this
order and is legitimated by its anticipation. Order
is the space, wherein understanding takes place;
it is the criterion of obviousness and heresy [7]. It
gives sense to our existence. Expansion of certain
behavior and linguistic codes goes on in the sphere
of socio-cultural institutions, where the process
of self-identification and identification formation
(by means of collisions, acceptance and being
accepted by «Others») takes place. Institutions
are represented and legitimized in the modes
of thinking, and, just the same way, identity is
inseparable from the situation of human thinking,
from human ability to separate and to integrate
by means of language, attributing categories,
«giving labels» (labelling) to other people, who
are defined as «we», «they» or «a good-looking»,
«a jerk» and so on.
Being specific constructions of reality,
cultures (these variously structured and
differentiated spheres) predetermine the sense
of humane existence in culture. «If there is any
specific, peculiar sense, then this sense is possible
only within the frames of the differentiating
structure itself... all the sense determinancy is
based on its distinctions» [9. P. 63].
In cognitive anthropology, culture is
defined as «cognitive map», which gives all
the representatives of a certain culture some
«instructions», which determine their ways of
behavior in standard situations and which let
explain and understand complicated situations.
Representatives of a certain culture differentiate
on the latent level of thinking some common
patterns of thinking, on which bases they perceive
and interpret the world. These patterns of thinking
are revealed in their real inter-relations, «saturate»
their social statuses and roles. But people are not
just «products», patterns carriers; first of all,
they are patterns creators. Being representatives
of one and the same culture, people do not
possess its absolute identical models. We live
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in a heteronomous cultural reality, and that is
why, being caused by individual psychological
dispositions, aspirations, values, and «existing on
the edge» of various subcultures, our individual
world model is a summation of cognitive maps.
«Culture does not offer identical maps, but it
sooner suggests certain complexes of principals
of maps creation and navigation. Various cultures
are like different navigational schools, which
serve for various landscapes and seas crossing»
[8. P. 6-7]. In symbolic anthropology, such an
approach is developed by means of the following
notions: «reality patterns» – its interpretation
and «patterns for reality» – its organization
instructions [10].
We consider the modern world to be multicultural and of many faces. Every concretehistorical culture is a result of not only
internal inventions, but also of the processes of
acculturation and migration, which cause foreign
(new) cultural elements to be saturated and
processed. But, while in preceding epochs the
role of tradition was explicitly prevailing, at the
present time, the intensity of innovative changes
is so high (let us recollect Childe’s considerations
concerning «hot» and «cold» cultures), that it is
a threat to cultures’ existence, as far as it violates
cultural entirety and inner integration. And the life
of a person becomes a life on the edge of cultural
collisions, on the «boarder» of cultural worlds
with their pluralism of axiological orientations
and life styles (Czech author V. Belogradsky uses
the metaphors «an intermediate world» and «in
the gap between the worlds»).
Identification degree of different persons
is always various, as far as it is connected
as with psycho-social data of the person, so
with the historical «character» of the culture
itself, and also with the degree of its openness
or Withdrawnness? One can observe a
contradiction between the individual «cognitive
pattern» (a consistent system of knowledge,
beliefs, moral mind sets and ideals) and facts
of the new objective reality in the course of
fast cultural changes, when transformation of
traditional institutional structure of culture takes
place (i.e. transformation of external reality).
This contradiction can be connected with a
disintegration of the current system of «cognitive
maps», and it can even lead to disintegration of
the individual in some extreme cases. Giddens
writes: «To a large extend, self-understanding
is determined by the stability of the individual
social position in the society. But even there,
where traditions are forgotten and where man
has a choice of his life style, human «I» is not
free» [12. P. 27]. That is why the ability of each
of us to preserve our personal entirety becomes
the leading factor, and this ability is the bases
of cultural identity of the opened and changing
phenomenon, which determines our humanness.
But when we are speaking about the
phenomenon of multiculturalism, we also come
across other opinions. Thus, P. Adler underlines
the role of changes and sticks to the point that
new type of multicultural man, being born in the
multicultural reality, is the type of man, who has
not any cultural roots, and who is able to change
his identity and features that way, that he can
exist and function amid cultures. [1] А. Vattimo
even considers that post-modern man will not
think about the problem of identity at all and will
cease to perceive himself as a steady entirety [19.
P. 223].
The time of post-modern has really made the
problem of identity more complicated. Individual
identity is very sensitive to the impacts and
changes of its environment; group/collective
identity is more inert (its stability degree has
been historical caused by specifics of its inner
development, by the character and intensity
of its relations with the environment). Most of
people have situational individual identity, while
collective identity is steadier and longer-lasting.
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Multiplicity becomes a typical sign of individual
identity.
«I» is understood as something constantly
changing,
multilayered,
poly-dimensional
(multiple identity, sliced identity), but, at the same
time, split (split identity). For example, multiple
identity conception presupposes that identities
can be not only different, but even «potentially
opposite, they can reveal in different time and in
different places, thereat, they are not necessary
to form any uniform and coherent entirety» [5.
P. 387]. They change in correspondence with
the changing of social statuses and roles of the
human, his contacts with various socical goups
and his behavior within the changing social and
cultural environment. And the subjective factors
of identification become of very high importance:
«I am the one, whom I want to be», but so far, as
«I» is accepted by the environment.
Actually, identity becomes a summation of
«situational» identities. That is why, «grasping»
itself, defi nition of «I» identity, as its entirety,
becomes a problem, because it is one of the
variations of the eternal methodological
problem, how «to capture and to freeze» the
changing with the help of a word. As a metaphor
of the modern situation of man in relation
towards himself, towards his life journey,
towards the world/worlds, which surround him,
we come across with the image of labyrinth
both in special scientific literature, (Wallace
defi nes the situation of humane identity as
«a way in the labyrinth – mazeway»), and in
fiction (J.L. Borges considers the image of
labyrinth as a synthesis of the metaphor of the
way, of the open space and changing with the
metaphor of closed space and constancy and it
is one of the most favorite ones). Changeability
becomes a feature not only of individual, but
also of collective identity. Multiculturalism
raises a row of questions, being connected
as «with indefi niteness and variety, so with
possible ways (or their absence) of one’s own
identities’ construction» [20. P. 6].
One of the most widely-spread conceptions
is an inclusive understanding of identity (compare
it with the exclusive identity). Exclusive identity
is based on cognition of one’s own way by means
of non-acceptance, refusal from «otherness» as
being «foreign»). We can meet this conception in
the works of some thinkers, including Giddens.
While the inclusive approach is considered to be
not only as a purely theoretical one, but also as an
expected form of social communication between
cultures and societies.
In connection with all the mentioned, we
find the identity conception, which has been
formulated by Tajfel and Turner, to be very
interesting [18]. The authors write that our Selfconscious is based on our perception of ourselves
as a component part of some group (ethnic,
national, linguistic, gender and so on). To define
«I» means to realize «We» and to be accepted by
these «We». As much a person perceives him(her)
self as a member of different groups, as much his
(her) identity can change depending on which
group he (she) is identified with. Each of these
identities is connected to certain expectations,
belief, behavior and corresponding norms of
the given group. Identification with the group is
one of three stages of the process... The next two
are categorization (2) and comparison (3). With
the help of categorization (2) the surrounding
world gets its sense. Real content and ways of
categorization, which are a specific construct (in
the cultural space and historical time), are based
on historical experience of every culture and are
fixed by its tradition. Cultural identity grows
from the common past (as a rule, we are proud
of it), from the present and the common «plans»
for the future. «Social capital» of every culture
also includes mechanisms of adaptations to a
new cultural environment. The individual can be
a member of some culture to as much extend, as
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much he shares his cultural experience with other
members of this culture. The man preserves his
ties with the culture he has been brought up in
the course of all his life. These ties help him to
«cope» better with the inter-cultural situation.
The idea of social comparison (3) is connected
with the following: we compare our group with
other groups in order to define our own (and
ourselves). We need «Them» to define «We». We
search for compatible, but first of all, distinctive
features and signs. We need «foreignness»,
«peculiarities» (otherness) in order to conceive
«ours» and «mine».
In most cases, the members of a certain
group/culture make their comparison as follows:
first of all, they estimate positively themselves
(compare with МаcGarty [14]), as far as they
use categories, being advantageous for their
group. Positive self-estimation contributes
to strengthening of the group self-conscious,
solidarity and group integration. And it becomes
the bases of generation of positive and negative
stereotypes (also including prejudices). That is
why identity is very often defined as something
negative. To be identified with a certain group
means to exclude other groups (that is the socalled exclusive understanding of identity, which
is closely connected with ethnocentrism). To the
mind of Murdock, ethnocentrism is an emotional
and intellectual basis of the ethnic dualism,
according to which everything, that exists and has
a positive meaning for the society, is connected to
its own group, and everything, that is problematic,
is ascribed to other, very often unknown groups.
Intolerance towards «Otherness», being not yet
assimilated, is a defense of one’s own existence,
as far as everything «other», «foreign» is
perceived as a threat, and it means that it meets
an aprioristic repulse. In the course of previous
epochs, collective social/cultural identities were
mainly formed on the basis of the tendency to
social exclusion of «Otherness», and it was
connected to the ethno-centric world outlook
(including Europe-centrism, West-centrism
and others). According to the mind of already
mentioned Vattimo, cultures of the Western
word are cultures of conflicts, as far as their
identity presupposes a constant reconstruction
in the process of conflicts. But, in the situation
of cultural pluralism, «our identity is a constant
game of disintegration. Being thus constructed,
identity does not vanish, but, turning backwards
from violence and hegemony of one culture over
another, it accepts other cultures to have a right
for freedom and contacts, thereat not derogating
their systems of value. For the post-modern
individual, there will appear conditions for his
authentic citizenship development, being not
already based on violence» [19. P. 224].
The question is in the following: shall there
be formed other identities, which will be based on
the opposition «We» and «They – other, foreign».
When identity is considered in the context of the
problem of relation towards «Otherness», then
inclusive identity cultivation is considered to be
the means of anticipation and overcoming of social
conflicts. (Though, this concept has its opponents,
as far as there is a real danger that inclusion can
be understood as absorption, i.e. assimilation.)
Cultural relativism is a theoretical approach, which
explains the possibility of inclusive identity. This
approach started to be developed in the previous
century by representatives of cultural and social
anthropology – it was a critical response to Eurocentrism (de facto to any form of Ethnocentrism).
According to cultural relativism, every culture is
an original, unique phenomenon. And it should
be perceived by the «view», being purified
from the stereotypes, which are typical for our
culture, i.e. by «the eyes of a stranger». Cultural
relativism has to deal with a row of problems, for
example, cultural agnosticism (every culture is
such a unique phenomenon, being concentrated
in itself, that it is impossible to cognate it*) or
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axiological and moral relativism. That is why one
can hear some critical opinions regarding to it in
the modern literature. But, appeal to the necessity
of overcoming of stereotypes and prejudices, as
«a horizon of pre-understanding» of the foreign
culture, remains to be the axis of our relation to
«Otherness». New optics of the world perception
gives one a possibility to see oneself by the eyes
of some other person, and to see the other person
as oneself, every action is experienced as a moral
collision, and one’s own existence is not taken as
once and for all «given existence», but as an act of
choice. Possibly, here is the sense of the famous
utterance of Rimbaud: «I am an Other».
Though, in the situation of cultural
pluralism, new «foreign» structures of symbols
penetrate in the sphere of our culture with its
peculiar cultural patterns, with its system of
cognitive maps and unique symbolic structure.
These foreign structures pretend to be the
deciphering codes of our experience. And there
appears a situation of antagonism between
alternative defi nitions of reality, which can lead
to the paradox of «overfilling vacuum», when
human identity vanishes by itself and freedom
becomes ineffably easy. To the mind of Augé,
attitude towards the other person, which is
very important for any identity becoming,
loses its bases, as far as the modern world is
characteristic of predominance of the situational
and individual. Life consists of multitude,
detached, various episodes [4. P. 59].
Society comes across with a serious problem:
tyranny of identities or crisis of legitimacy. The
crisis of legitimacy is connected to understanding
of relativism of our world’s image and our method
of living. Under the tyranny of identities we mean
as revelation of ethnocentrism (do we still need
«barbarians» in order to feel ourselves to be the
representatives of «European Civilization»?), so
absolute paternalism in the form of acceptance
of minorities’ peculiarities, which contains in
indirect form the mind set of superiority towards
«Others».
A principal possibility of cultural contacts
and multiculturalism as a historical phenomenon
do not mean that such contacts and creation
of inter-cultural phenomenon exist in reality.
«Heterogeneity can impact the attempts to
change...identity, but it is not an obstacle by
itself» [11. P. 47]. Cultures may be territorially
close, but so-called «weak» members of closed
societies turn out to be on the periphery, and their
distinctions and closedness are intensified by
their economical and social levels. Predominant
cultures may make certain paternalistic steps,
but this paternalism underlines and, thus and
at the same time, intensifies their distinctions,
according to the mind of some authors, it is a
violation of the principle of freedom (Friedmann),
i.e. it leads to «violence» over human identity.
Huntington also writes that the policy of support
and development of various cultural identities
may lead to USA disintegration and contradicts
the idea of individual freedom.
***
The question is in the following: will the
multicultural civilization create new cultural
identities, being connected with the existing
identities changing, or create a society without
identities and without any depth in that sense that
cultural identity will refer to the private sphere
of human life (viz. The problem of correlation
of cultural and civil identities in multicultural
societies)? In any case, the future is connected
with «the coming back to man» (to know the
other presupposes to believe oneself) and with
a constant dialogue as a means of searching
for agreement. The time requires that the man
takes responsibility for his own becoming and
existence, without any absolute guarantee for
his unmistakable behavior and without any
possibility to correct his mistakes.
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Comments:
*
Human identity is considered to be a
cultural construct, which cannot be transferred
from one culture to another. But, in this case,
there appears a question: are cultural contacts
possible in general, in the global, multicultural
light? According to D. Allen, we remain to be
prisoners of Euro-Atlantic understanding of
«I» as an atomized, self-defi ning creature [2.
P. 3-26].
References
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4.
5.
6.
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19.
20.
Adler, P. Beyond cultural identity: reflections on cultural and multicultural man. // Cultural
learning: Concepts, application and research. Ed. R.W. Bristian. Honolulu, 1997.
Allen, D. Social Construction of Self: Some Asian, Marxist and Feminist Critique of Dominant
Western View os Self // Culture and Self. Philosophical and Religious Perspectives, East and
West. Ed. D. Allen. Boulder, 1997. P. 3-26.
Arendt, H. Human Condition. Chicago, 1958.
Augé, M. Pour une anthropologie des mondes contemporaines. Paris, 1994.
Barker, C. Cultural studies. Theory and practice. London, 2000.
Berger, P.L., Luckmann,T. The Social Construction of Reality. // Contemporary sociological
theory (eds. C. Calhoun et al.). Oxford, 2002. P. 42 – 50.
Foucault, M. The Subject and Power. // Dreyfus, H. – Rabinow, P. Michel Foucault: beyond
Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago, 1982. P. 208-254.
Frake Ch. O. Plying Frames Can Be Dangerous: Some Reflections on Methodology in Cognitive
Anthropology. // Quartely Newsletter of the Institute for Comparative Human Development 1977,
№ 3, Р. 3-34.
Frank, M. What is neostructuralism? Minnesota, 1989.
Geertz, C. The interpretation of cultures. Selected essays. NY, 1973. 227 p.
Giddens, A. Modernity and self-identity. Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge,
1991.
Giddens, L. The Reith Lecture. London, 1999.
Jenkins, R. Social Identity. NY – London, 1996.
McGarty, C., Haslam, S. A., Hutchinson, K. J. & Turner. The effects of salient group memberships
on persuasion. // Small Group Research, 1994, № 25. Р. 267-293.
Ricoeur, P. Le conflit des interpreétations. Essais ďhermeneutique. Paris, 1969.
Sapir, E. Culture, Language and Personality. Berkeley, 1964.
Sloterdijk, P. Falls Europa erwacht. Gedanken zum Programm einer Weltmacht am Ende des
Zeitalters ihrer politishen Absence. Frankfurt a. M., 1994.
Tajfel, H. & J.D. Turner. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. // W.G. Austin and S. Worchel
(eds.) The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, 1979.
Vattimo, G. Rozdiely, konflikty, kultúrny minimalizmus. // Aspekt, № 2, 1997.
Woodward, K. (ed.) Questioning Identity. London, 2000. Р. 6-42.
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По следам человеческой идентичности
Е. Петруцийова
Остравский университет,
Чехия 701 03, Острава, Млинска, 5
Статья посвящена анализу проблемы человеческой идентичности (индивидуальной и
коллективной). Эссенциальный и экзистенциальный подходы рассматриваются в качестве
традиционных подходов философии человека. В современной литературе проблема
идентичности человека всё чаще анализируется в контексте интерпретативного/
нарративного подхода. Упомянутые подходы используют и специальные науки о человеке,
например, социальная и культурная антропология, психология и др. Особое внимание автор
уделяет анализу культурной димензии идентичности, в которой отражается ситуация
человека в глобальном, мультикультурном мире (концепции множественной идентичности,
расслоённой идентичности и др.).
Ключевые слова: человеческая идентичность; инклюзивная (включающая) идентичность
зксклюзивная (исключающая) идентичность; мультикультурное общество.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 625-632
~~~
УДК 821.161.1
Reading Solzhenitsyn’s
“One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”:
Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives
Helen Stuhr-Rommereim*
Siberian State Aerospace University
31 Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia
Fulbright Program
14 Tverskoy Bulvar, building 1, Moscow 125009 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
A discussion of the difficulties in translation “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich” into English.
Specific aspects of the original text are compared with the English translation and analyzed. The
article is oriented toward the benefits for students of Russian, in terms of both linguistic and cultural
knowledge, of reading “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich” and closely comparing the Russian
text with the English translation.
Keywords: translation; Solzhenitsyn; language learning; Russian Language; linguistics.
In “One Day In the Life of Ivan Denisovich,”
Solzhenitsyn details a world with its own rules.
He outlines the complicated social structure
and dynamic of Soviet labor camps and the
lives of those imprisoned there. The story is
emphatically not driven by plot. It is not a story
of grand emotions and dramatic events. Rather,
Solzhenitsyn focuses on filling in the details of
the characters and minutiae of camp life. Though
small in physical size and deceivingly small
even in scope, there are obvious reasons why
this novel has become accepted as an important
work of modern world literature. In “One Day
in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” Solzhenitsyn
wastes no words or thoughts. The novel is
compactly and precisely written, with carefully
crafted language. In this article, I will discuss the
*
1
various difficulties presented by reading the book
in the original Russian for a speaker of Russian
as a foreign language, as well as difficulties in
translating the book from Russian into English.
I am approaching this problem from the
perspective of a student of Russian language and
culture. My aim is to highlight what makes the
book both difficult and rewarding for a student
of Russian. Additionally, I am examining how
the difficulties of the novel show the particular
expressive strengths and weaknesses of the
Russian and English languages, as well as how a
close comparison of the Russian and English texts
helps a language learner to better understand the
particularities of Solzhenitsyn’s writing style.
Susan Bassnett and André Lefevere state
in the preface to Translation as social action:
Corresponding author E-mail address: hstuhrro@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Russian and Bulgarian perspectives, “the study
of the manipulative processes of literature as
exemplified by translation can help us toward a
greater awareness of the world in which we live.”
[Zlateva, 1993, p. vii]. A “greater awareness” of
the world is precisely what I am seeking in my
comparison of the Russian and English texts
of “One Day.” In Translation as Social Action,
the editor Palma Zlateva discusses the different
perspectives found in Western European
discussions of translation versus Russian and
Bulgarian translation traditions. Namely that, in
the West, translation holds a controversial position
as both an absolutely necessary and inevitable—
in order to communicate and to take in the
literature of the world—as well as an inherently
impossible exercise. Zlateva discusses how in
the West the question of whether or not it is at all
possible to translate a work into another language
has plagued the discipline for centuries, while in
Russian intellectual spheres translation has long
been regarded as a creative endeavor in its own
right, and so the question of “translatability” has
not been so pressing [Zlateva, 1993, p. 1].
In this article I am looking at “One Day” from
a more Western perspective—examining how
successfully the English translation replicates the
Russian original and paying particular attention
to linguistic disparities between the two texts in
order to better understand the Russian. Because
I am discussing the novel from the perspective
of a Russian learner, I am concerned with the
English translation primarily as a tool to help
in understanding the Russian translation, rather
than as a work in itself.
Narrative peculiarities
When contemplating the book from the
perspective of a Russian learner, it is both
approachable and intimidating. It is of much
less daunting length than other novels in the
Russian canon, but at the same time it contains
a complicated and specialized lexicon, as well as
constant, carefully detailed movement that doesn’t
settle into a broad, easy to follow plot. There are
elements within the structure of the novel that
make it more difficult for a reader to latch onto
a broad narrative understanding that assists in
making his or her way through a foreign text.
The narrative has no climax, no central
problem, no highs and lows. It is concerned with
the small difficulties involved in the hard life
of a victim of Stalin’s GULAG. There is great
emphasis on the mundane qualities Shukhov’s
situation. At the same time, each element of the
story, each small moment Solzhenitsyn describes,
uncovers different aspects of the burden that is
every day life in the camps. Particular time is
spent on detailing the time that prisoners spend
milling about, being counted, recounted, and
herded from place to place. While nothing is
happening in these moments, they represent a
time when the prisoners are most obviously at the
mercy of their wardens.
The lack of narrative arch leads to an almost
predictable lack of conflict. For example, when
Shukhov is being searched, he hides a tiny piece
of metal from the camp guards. The reader
understands that the guard won’t find the knife.
It would be inconsistent with the narrative for a
catastrophe to befall Shukhov at that moment.
But one nonetheless understands the stress of the
constant threat of further punishment. This is not
the story of one disastrous day in the life of Ivan
Denisovich, rather the story of one very average
day in the life of a very average person, caught
in the larger humanitarian disaster of Stalin’s
camps.
One of the difficulties in reading the novel,
both in English and in Russian, is that the actual
space of the camp remains abstract. Solzhenitsyn
devotes his descriptions to the tiny actions that
Shukhov takes to survive—where and how he
hides his bread and his spoon, the pleasure he
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takes in his work and in eating his meager rations,
his acute observations of those around him, and
his knowledge of what one needs to do to survive
in the camps. While life in the camp is detailed
completely, the layout of the camp and descriptions
of rooms and pspaces are barely touched on. The
distance from one place to another, the appearance
of the prisoners’ barracks, and the basic physical
space they occupy is never completely clear. This
leaves the reader scrapping together the world the
zeks inhabit through non-visual details, paying
close attention to small actions and interactions.
The zeks seem to occupy a colorless, shapeless
space.
This characteristic comes across both in
English and in Russian. However, when the two
versions of the novel are compared, it becomes
clear what an important role the tone and word
choice in Russian plays in Solzhenitsyn’s
characterization of camp life.
Comparing the Russian and English texts
Those same characteristics of Solzhenityn’s
prose which make it difficult for a foreign reader
to understand are the very elements in his style
that give “One Day” its particular tone. A few
specific stylistic elements stand out when directly
comparing passages in Russian with their English
translations. In this study, I’ve used the original
translation by Robert Parker.
Scenes such as those in the camp canteen
require particular attention from the reader.
Shukhov maneuvers through other zeks and
camp guards in order to procure as much food
as possible. At the core of the canteen scenes
are minute and specific movements. The zeks
discretely pass items between each other, they
hide dishes, and position themselves in order to
receive as much food as possible:
“Договорились.
Донёс тот до места, разгрузил, Шухов
схватился за поднос, а и тот набежал, кому
обещано, за другой конец подноса тянет.
А сам щуплей Шухова. Шухов его туда же
подносом двинул, куда тянет, он отлетел к
столбу, с подноса руки сорвались. Шухов–
–поднос под мышку и бегом к раздаче”
[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 192].
“They came to an understanding.
S280 carried his tray to the table and
unloaded the bowls. Shukhov immediately
grabbed it. At that moment the man it had been
promised to ran up and tried to grab it. But he
was punier than Shukhov. Shukhov shoved him
off with the tray—what the hell are you pulling
for?—and threw him against a post. Then putting
the tray under his arm, he trotted off to the serving
window” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 113].
In this passage, Solzhenitsyn’s sentences
lack pronouns and sometimes even objects.
Where in the original Russian, zek S280’s identity
is completely left out, in English it is necessary
to include his name and repeatedly include a
pronoun. The focus of the passage is on movement,
and most of the information is found in the verbs
and their forms. Solzhenitsyn uses verbs that
require several words to replicate in English, such
as “схватился” versus “immediately grabbed.”
A one letter prefix—a property in Russian not
shared by English—takes the place of an adverb,
conveying the same idea with one word. This
economy of words lends a speed and choppiness
to the prose that is missing in the English version.
Even the simple difference between the word
“договорились” and the English equivalent “they
came to an understanding” slows down the prose.
Simultaneously, this kind of writing presents
particular difficulties for a foreign reader. Leaving
out pronouns and objects removes much of what
helps a foreign reader understand the action. In
the English, prisoner S280 “unloaded the bowls,”
while in Russian he simply “разгрузил,” his
identity and the specific object he is unloading
are not repeated.
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This elimination of all but the absolutely
necessary words is evident in many instances
throughout the novel:
“И чтобы брюхо не занывало, есть не
просило, перестал он думать о лагере, стал
думать, как письмо будет скоро домой
писать”
[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 128]
«And to prevent it complaining and begging
for food, he stopped thinking about the camp
and let his mind dwell on the letter he'd soon be
writing home [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 36]”»
In the English, the pronoun appears three
times, while in Russian only once. Additionally,
Parker has been forced to place the awkward
pronoun “it” in the beginning of the passage. No
pronoun is necessary in Russian, but what is being
referred to is somewhat ambiguous. To maintain
this ambiguity Parker chooses the pronoun “it,”
rather than “his stomach” or something more
specific.
Another example of how Solzhenitsyn’s
economic language loses much of its character
and impact in English comes in the beginning of
the novel after Shukhov is unable to be relieved
from work due to illness:
“Шухов ничего не ответил и не кивнул
даже, шапку нахлобучил и вышел.
Тёплый зяблого разве когда поймёт?”
[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 118].”
“Shukhov said nothing. He didn’t even nod.
Pulling his hat over his eyes, he walked out.
How can you expect a man who’s warm to
understand a man who’s cold?[Solzhenitsyn,
1972. p. 7]”
“Тёплый” and “зяблого” become “a man
who’s warm,” and “a man who’s cold.”
A part of Solzhenitsyn’s careful and
economic word choice is the use of specialized
camp vocabulary, presenting the greatest difficulty
for both a translator and a Russian learner.
These words are essential to Solzhenitsyn’s
characterization of the camp, and it is impossible
to maintain their cultural and linguistic
connotations in translation. Without a preexisting
knowledge of camp vocabulary or someone with
whom to discuss complicated historical words,
this novel would be nearly impossible to read for
a Russian learner.
In the passage below, one word, “shouted,”
is used for two Russian words, while Pavlo’s
emphatically Ukrainian speech is completely
lost in the English translation, replaced with a
somewhat characterless phrase:
“Раствору!––орёт Шухов через стенку.
Да––е––мо!––Павла кричит.”
[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 162]
“ ‘Mortar!’ Shukhov shouted over the wall.
‘Coming up!’ shouted Pavlo.” [Solzhenitsyn,
1972. p. 79]
This example points to one of the primary
problems in translating “One Day,” both in the
case of special camp vocabulary and dialect, and
the extra words demanded by the grammatical
necessities of English. Solzhenitsyn’s word
choice, when compared to the English, is
in many cases much more specific than the
resulting English translation. More general
words and sentiments emerge in the English,
losing many aspects of the cultural specificity
contained in Solzhenitsyn’s language. Here is a
further example:
“Бывает, и я им помогу?” Шухов сам у
Павла работу просит.
“Поможить” Павло кивает [Solzhenitsyn,
2000. С. 143]
«Shall I give 'em a hand?» Shukhov
volunteered
«Yes, help them out,» said Pavlo with a nod.
[Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 56]
Pavlo’s accent is lost, and the exchange
has an almost forced politeness about it, rather
than the comfortable familiarity in the Russian
version.
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In another instance, the specialized language
of the camps is replaced with a common English
swear word:
“Хромой грёбаный… в лоб тебя драть!...”
[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 189]
“You f---ing Limper, we’ll fi x you”
[Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 111]
The cultural specificity of the exchange is
completely lost, all that is maintained is the basic
roughness of Pavlo’s speech.
When examined side-by-side with the
original Russian, such examples are easily found
throughout the English translation. Much of the
camp’s characterization and the specificity of the
prisoners’ individual speech are lost.
Many of the difficulties in maintaining the
tone of the translation can be blamed on basic
grammatical differences between Russian and
English, and the way that Solzhenitsyn takes
advantage of certain aspects of Russian grammar.
The linguistic necessity in English to include
pronouns and objects to be understood removes a
layer of force that is present in the original Russian.
As demonstrated in previous examples, a greater
amount of contextual information is contained in
the form of the verb in Russian, while additional
helping words are necessary in English. Because
of the use of cases, which puts more information
into the form of the words, as well as the fact that
in past tense the gender and number of the subject
is indicated in the verb form, one Russian word in
a particular form often requires several English
words to be completely translated. Solzhenitsyn’s
writing and word choice is emphatically precise
and spare, and he makes careful use of these
grammatical qualities. His carefully constructed
sentences often become much more mundane in
English.
A deeper understanding through comparison
The purpose of this article, however, is not
simply to criticize the English translation, or to
say that it is impossible to translate “One Day”
effectively. A work in translation is necessarily
a different piece of writing from the original.
Translation always presents numerous difficulties,
particularly when translating specialized speech.
It is impossible to replicated Russian GULAG
slang in English.
Rather, by looking at the Russian sideby-side with the English, the comparison
allows a student of Russian to better appreciate
Solzhenitsyn’s style and tone, and come closer
to a complete understanding of the book as it is
written in the original, and how it might sound to
a native speaker.
An instance of how this comparison can help
lead to a deeper understanding of the text is the
use of the word “Воля,” which has a multiplicity
of meanings in Russian that lead to its translation
into English as one of several words, depending
on context.
In the example below, the translator has
chose two different English words for the one
word “воля”:
“Своими ногами––да на волю, а?”
«To step out to freedom, just walk out on
your own two feet.» [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 57]
«хотя на воле…» [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С.
185]
“Although when he had been at liberty…”
[Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 106]
The first dictionary definition of the word
воля is usually “will,” but in the context of
“One Day,” it more frequently means “freedom,”
or “liberty.” Though these three words (will,
freedom, and liberty) are closely connected in
meaning in English, they have slightly different
meanings. “Will,” in particular, is concerned with
an individual’s internal ability to make choices.
The English concept of “will” is not something
that one loses due to physical confinement. A
prisoner is still, to a degree, able to make choices
for himself. A prisoner decides to be alive, decides
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to eat, and exercises “will power” in numerous
ways.
The phrase “на волю,” frequently used
throughout “One Day” to refer to living
in freedom as opposed to in captivity, is
interesting and somewhat surprising for an
English speaker. The expected phrase would
be “на свободе.” The use of воля in this way
deepens a Russian learner’s understanding of
the specificities of the word and the complex
of meanings it contains. Because it can be
translated as both “freedom” and “will” it
implies both internal and external freedom.
The concept of “will” in Russian differs from
its English equivalent. Specifically concerning
“One Day,” looking closely at the use of this
word and the words that the translator has
chosen to replace it with in English helps an
English speaker to understand the concept of
freedom for a GULAG prisoner.
Anna Wierzbicka writes in her essay
“Russian ‘national character’ and Russian
language”:
“…common Russian words, such as, for
example судьба, душа, or тоска, reflect and
suggest certain values and attitudes; and that
so do certain aspects of Russian grammar, such
as the rich system of expressive derivation.”
[Wierzbicka, 1998, p. 51]
Воля can be added to this list as a word
that represents a basic and important cultural
concept, present in virtually all cultures, but
simultaneously has different and potentially
broader cultural connotations in Russian than
its English equivalents. Wierzbicka also sites the
expressive qualities of Russian grammar, which
Solzhenitsyn in particular makes ample use of
in “One Day.” The basic structure of a language
reveals important truths about culture, and
through carefully analysing the use of different
words, a student can gain insite into the culture
he or she is studying.
For example, the Russian language has
no word for “privacy,” a difference made
famous during an exchange between former
U.S. President Richard Nixon and Nikita
Kruschev in 1959. The exchange took place at
an exhibit on U.S. consumerism in Sokolniki
Park in Moscow. Nixon asserted that the ideas
that made the U.S. powerful could be seen in
the privacy of homes, in the private lives of
citizens. Nixon’s argument rested on the idea
of the home, and he specifically emphasized
the kitchen, as a private, non-political site.
But the very word on which he was relying
was impossible to translate, and the kitchen
in Soviet Russia, the common space in a
communal apartment, had a very different
cultural connotation [Baldwin, 2004]. The
exchange highlights how the walls between
languages, if carefully examined, can be used
to increase cross-cultural understanding. It is
precisely these places where languages do not
match up, rather where they conf lict with each
other, that help us most in using language to
intimately understand another culture.
Understanding the cultural context
It is important to understand all texts within
their historical context, and the impact of “One
Day” at the time of its publishing is particularly
important. Such a historically specific work
is bound to have a different cultural meaning
for Russian readers and for foreign readers.
There are many reasons why the novel is a part
of curriculums in both Russia and the United
States, and its historical importance is not a small
one. In studying a language, the importance of
understanding the history and culture of the
people who speak that language should not be
overlooked.
Upon the publication of the first English
translations, the American press reacted with
enthusiasm to the book and praised its literary
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merit. Reviewers approached it as a book that
was important to read in its revelation of the
humanitarian tragedies of the Stalin era. Philip
Rahv wrote in the New York Review of Books
“the more readers this book has the better” [Rahv,
1963].
But ultimately, readers continue to come
back to “One Day” not because of its socialhistorical importance, but because it has all of
the qualities of great fiction. It isn’t simply a
historical document, and one doesn’t need to be
a student of Soviet history to enjoy it (although
some background knowledge will certainly help
in understanding it). Solzhenitsyn carefully
avoids didacticism, and yet presents ideological
and philosophical problems through his
characters’ dialogues, as in Tsezar’s discussion
of Eisenstein’s Ivan the Terrible with another
zek [Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 153]. The thread
of human triumph and the power of the simple
goodness of the Russian peasant is traceable
throughout the book. In one scene, as Shukov
eats, Solzhenitsyn outlines his mood:
“Сейчас ни на что Шухов не в обиде:
ни что срок долгий, ни что день долгий, ни
что воскресенья опять не будет. Сейчас он
думает: переживём! переживём всё, даст
Бог кончится.[Solzhenitsyn, 2000. С. 193]”
The fact that in his detailing of a dark and
at the time somewhat taboo topic in Russian
history, Solzhenitsyn maintains threads of classic
Russian literary themes has helped the book
maintain its place in the contemporary literary
canon, and undoubtedly helped it to be published
at the time.
In studying this novel, a Russian learner must
understand the complex of history and politics,
and also literary history that surrounds the book.
“One Day” can be an extremely effective lens
through which a student can learn much more
about Russian culture and history.
Conclusion
In English, the final sentence of the novel
is “We’ll survive. We’ll stick it out, God willing,
till it’s over” [Solzhenitsyn, 1972. p. 115]. It’s the
kind of simple strength and determination that
cannot help but uplift a reader.
“One Day” is a small and deceivingly simple
book that presents a multitude of ideas and
perspectives. As such, it is particularly rewarding
for those studying Russian to read. A Russian
learner can use the difficulty of the text to his or
her advantage by analyzing what is particularly
complicated about Solzhenitsyn’s style, as well
as looking closely at how the tone in Russian
differs from the tone in English. The reader is
left with a stronger ability to confront difficult
texts in Russian, and a working knowledge of the
colorful vocabulary of Soviet zeks as a bonus.
Such analysis will lead to a deeper understanding
of the novel and the Russian language.
Beyond the specific needs of a student of
Russian language and the specific task of reading
and understanding “One Day in the Life of Ivan
Denisovich,” this novel provides a particularly
good study of broader differences between
Russian and English. The language of the book
is inextricably tied with the ideas it contains. As
I have discussed, the particularities of Russian
vocabulary and grammar have meanings that
differ from their counter parts in English. In
order to fully comprehend and produce Russian,
a student must understand these particularities.
Examining the complexes of meanings associated
with particular words and the way that certain
grammatical forms are transformed in English
significantly helps a learner in achieving a greater
facility in Russian. Comparing the Russian text
with the English translation helps a learner
to better understand the particular expressive
strengths of both languages, as well as the
specificities of Solzhenitsyn’s writing.
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References
A. Baldwin, “The Radical Imaginary of The Bell Jar,” [electronic resource], Novel (A Forum on
Fiction), October 1, (2004), URL: eLibrary
P. Rahv, “House of the Dead?” [electronic resource], New York Review of Books, February 1,
(1963), URL: http:// nybooks.com/articles/13780
H. Salisbury, H. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich [electronic resource], New York Times
Book Review, January 22, (1963), URL: http:// nytimes.com/books/98/03/01/home/solz-ivan.htm
A. Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, trans. from Russian to English by Ralph
Parker (Signet, 1972)
A. Solzhenitsyn, “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich,” in There is Light Everywhere… (Есть
Всюду Свет…), ed. S. Vilensky, (Vozraschenie,
2000), 105-210, in Russian.
A. Weirzbicka, “Russian ‘national character’ and Russian language: A rejoinder to H. Mondry
and J. Taylor,” in Speaking of emotions: conceptualization and expression, ed. A. Athanasiadou, E.
Tabakowska (Mouton de Gruyter, 1998), 49-55.
P. Zlateva ed. Translation as social action: Russian and Bulgarian perspectives, (Routledge,
1993), vii-7.
Читая Солженицына:
лингвистические и культурологические перспективы
Х.Р. Стур-Роммерайм
Сибирский государственный аэрокосмический университет
31 Красноярский рабочий пр., Красноярск, 660014
Программа Фулбрайта
14 Тверской бульвар, дом 1, Москва, 125009
В статье анализируется перевод повести А.И. Солженицына «Один день Ивана Денисовича»
на английский язык. Обсуждаются некоторые особенности языка Солженицына, вызывающие
затруднения при переводе, а также то, как процесс перевода помогает иноязычному читателю
глубже понять известное произведение.
Ключевые слова: перевод; Солженицын; русский язык; изучение языков; лингвистика
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2010 3) 633-646
~~~
УДК 81’374
Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary
of Scientific Terminology
(on the Example of Fire Science Vocabulary)
Tatiana M. Sofronova*
Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University
89 Lebedevoy st., Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia1
Received 5.08.2010, received in revised form 12.08.2010, accepted 19.08.2010
The paper focuses on conception and technology of a scientific glossary creation which could contribute
to coordination of terms within the language and harmonization of terms between the languages.
There are examples of logical-conceptual schemes for systematization of Fire Science terminology,
detailed description of the glossary structure, and a comparative analysis of Russian and English
terminological fields in Fire Science.
Keywords: terminology, glossary, fire science, coordination of terms, harmonization of terms
Introduction
Development of any science follows the
paradigm: “normal science” explaining each
new phenomenon from the point of view of the
dominant paradigm; extraordinary science with
various scientific schools and contrasting ideas
and approaches; and “revolutionary science”
with systematized ideas and approaches which
are approved to exist and eliminate existence
of contrasting paradigms (Kuhn, 1962). Many
modern sciences, including the Fire Science,
are on the second, “extraordinary”, stage in
their development. Different scientific schools
and trends, each suggesting its own terms and
notions of existing terms, create detrimental
terminological confusion which leads to data
garbling and misunderstanding among scientists
of different scientific schools and countries.
Coordination and harmonization of terms and
*
1
notions is a long impending issue in present
fire science due to integration and globalization
and is a key recommendation of the Food and
Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United
Nations for the near future. This was pointed out
in the report of a FAO Forestry Officer Petteri
Vuorinen at the IV International Wildland Fire
Conference held in Spain in May, 2007. During
the last several years, attempts are undertaken
to mechanically compare fire science terms in
different languages. As a result, it breeds more
confusion. Therefore, a linguistic approach is
needed to solve this problem.
In our modern time of “an information
outbreak”, the number of dictionaries grows;
however, the value of each reference material
can be hardly assessed by a specialist or
translator (Krupnov, 1987). Therefore special
importance should e given to the creation of
Corresponding author E-mail address: tatianasofronova@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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comprehensive bi- and multilingual electronic
dictionaries or glossaries in each field of science
and industry.
By
“comprehensiveness”
we
imply
multifuncionality of a dictionary which could
satisfy the needs of both specialists (of our country
and abroad) and translators. The contemporary
stage of terminography development is
characterized by creation of new types of
dictionaries rich in content owing to the fact that
official state standards lost their monopoly in
development of terminological dictionaries and
official lexicographical instructions. Presently,
computer technologies allow diversifying and
differentiating the structure of dictionaries and
increase their size (Tatarinov, 2006).
The aim of our research is to develop a model
of an electronic glossary which would coordinate
and harmonize scientific terminology in the field
of Fire Science.
Materials and Methods
Sources for the research are the following
reference materials:
A) Terminological glossaries:
1. Glossary of wildland fire management
terms used in the United States. – Society
of American Foresters, 1990. (About
1,500 terms in an alphabetical order)
2. Glossary of forest fire management
terms / Canadian Interagency Forest Fire
Centre. – Manitoba, 2003. (About 1,000
terms in an alphabetically nested order)
3. Wildfire Glossary / Prepared by rural and
land management group for Australasian
Fire and Emergency Services Authorities
Council Agencies. January 2009. (About
560 terms in an alphabetical order)
4. Scott, J. H. and E.D. Reinhardt, compilers.
2007. FireWords Version 1.0: Fire Science
Glossary [electronic]. U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky
Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences
Laboratory (Producer). (About 300 terms
in an alphabetically nested and thematic
order)
B) Encyclopedic dictionaries:
1. Encyclopedia of Forestry ( Moscow,
2006).
2. Forest Encyclopedia (Moscow, 1985).
3. Forestry: Terminological Dictionary, ed.
by A,N. Filipchuk (Moscow, 2002).
C) Bilingual forestry dictionaries:
1. Russian-English Forestry and Wood
Dictionary (1966) / Compiled by Williams
Linnard. Commonwealth Agricultural
Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks.,
England.
2. English-Russian and Russian-English
Dictionary of Forestry and Forest
Industries / Compiled by Mozhayev D.V.,
Novikov B.N., Rybakov D.M. (Moscow,
1998).
D) State standards:
Nature Conservation. Forest Protection.
Terms and Definitions. State Standard 17.6.1.01–
83 (Moscow, 1983).
Unfortunately, the enumerated reference
materials represent Fire Science terminology
incompletely and lack systematization. Therefore,
other sources for research are specialized
Fire Science works (monographs, papers,
dissertations), which contain rich terminological
material and significantly supplement the Fire
Science, for example:
1. N.P. Kurbatsky, “Terminology of Forest
Fire Science”, in Questions of Forest Fire
Science (Krasnoyarsk, 1972).
2. I.S. Melekhov, Wildland Fire Impact on
Forest (Moscow, Leningrad, 1948).
3. I.S. Melekhov, Forest Fire Science
(Moscow, 1978).
4. M.A. Sofronov et al., Wildland Fire
Danger (Krasnoyarsk, 2005).
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5. A.V. Volokitina et al., Surface Fire
Behavior Prediction Using Vegetation
Fuel Maps (Krasnoyarsk, 2005).
6. A.V. Volokitina, and M.A. Sofronov,
Vegetation Fuel Classification and
Mapping (Novosibirsk: SO RAN, 2002),
in Russian.
According to one of the founding fathers of
lexicography Kh. Kasares (1958), “alphabetical
order is organized disorder” (Grinyov, 1993).
Therefore, thematic principle should be given
preference to revealing the notional structure of
a field and, correspondingly, systematic links
among terms in the coordinated terminological
systems. Field theory and field modeling in
linguistics (Ufimtseva, 1961; Shchur, 1974;
Karaulov, 1976; Grinev, 1993; etc.) can be of
much benefit for creation of this glossary. Study
of terminological fields and selection of notions
that are part of them are integral for creation of
special dictionaries.
The current is based on structural and
systematic description of the vocabulary,
creation of terminological fields, and comparison
of terminological notions and terms between
languages. Comparative method, field method,
and lexicographical method are applied.
Results
Russia has no special glossaries in this field
so far. The idea and the first attempt to create
a brief terminological glossary on fire science
were published in 1972 (Kurbatsky, 1972).
About 300 terms were thematically arranged
by N.P. Kurbatsky. Branch terminological State
Standards (1983) can be of help in Russian
glossary creation; however, their quality is not
always high for they are frequently made up
privately by not well-known and sometimes
insufficiently competent authors. In branch
encyclopedias, a corresponding article for a term
is usually ordered only to one expert who gives
only one version of it revealing his/ her personal
point of view (Sofronova, 2007a).
In view of integration of the Russian
Fire Science into the world science there is an
urgent need to create a special glossary with the
following features:
Terminology:
Fire Science:
Method of field modeling
Inventory
Systematization
Coordination and
adjustment
Harmonization
Method of creating
dictionaries
Carrying out library and
archive research on fire
nature and management
Further training and
study of innovations on
the analyzed topic
Field experiments and
observations
• Language – bilingual (Russian↔English)
• Subject – special (wildfire science
terminology)
• Time – modern
• Scope – reference – interlingual
• Address – for specialists
• Function – inventory and standardizing
• Volume – small (up to 500 basic terms
without nomenclature)
• Order – thematic with alphabetical and
nested indices in appendices
Each dubious term or a pair of terms in both
languages should be accompanied by a comment
provided by a linguist-translator, who is at the
same time a specialist in the given field and works
in cooperation with highly qualified experts
(Sofronova, 2007a; Sofronova et al., 2007). Or
the experts in the field of science or technology,
terminologists and translators should join their
attempts. Only then one can expect improvement
of notions and definitions (Krupnov, 1987).
An electronic output of a glossary can be
made with the help of a system for elaboration of
technical documentation MadCap Flare, US. This
program helps to structuralize the database and
provide a user-friendly format: electronic HTML
document of a minimum size with maximum
information; publication of the glossary on the
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Table 1. Current logical-conceptual scheme of the Fire Science (Sofronova et al., 2007).
Macrofields
Microfields
1. General terms
2. Nature of wildfires
2.1. Problem of wildfires, fire statistics
2.2. Vegetation fuels (VF)
2.2.1. VF properties
2.2.2. VF classification
2.2.3. VF combustion
2.3. Structure of a wildfire
2.4. Characteristic and classification of wildfires
2.5. Wildland fire danger (fire danger, fire hazard, fire risk and their estimation)
3.1. Wildfire protection arrangement
3. Wildfire management
3.2. Wildfire detection
3.3. Means and methods of fire suppression
3.4. Information database
3.5. Wildfire behavior prediction
3.6. Fire prevention measures
4. Wildfire effects
4.1. Characteristic and classification of areas over which a wildfire has spread
4.2. Prediction of wildfire effects
5. Use of the positive fire role 5.1. Prescribed burning in clear cut areas
5.2. Prescribed burning in forests
website; and a printout document in doc-format.
The program was used to create the model of the
bilingual glossary of fire science terminology.
Logical-conceptual analysis of special texts
(Melekhov, 1948, 1978; Sofronov et al., 2005;
Volokitina and Sofronov, 2002; Volokitina et al.,
2005) allowed us to create a logical structure of the
Fire Science (Table 1 “Current logical-conceptual
scheme of the Fire Science”) (Sofronova, 2007b;
Sofronova et al., 2007). Its logical-conceptual
system considerably differs (italic stands for new
structural elements of the Fire Science) from the
structure suggested by N.P. Kurbatsky (1972)
since fire science does not cease to develop.
Thematically classifying modern US, Canadian
and Australian terms we came to the conclusion
that the paradigmatic structure of the Fire Science
in Russia corresponds to that in the US, Canada
and Australia.
Since the Russian Fire Science developed
rather independently, Russian terms are not
always found equivalents in the international
terminological systems. For example, there
are at least three terms to differentiate kinds
of post-fi re territories in Russia, whereas the
US and Canada apply only a general term and
additional characteristic is introduced through
attributes. Fig. 1 “Classification of post-fi re
areas in relation to time of their existence” and
Table 2 “Example of a glossary entry content
oriented towards English speaking recipients”
shows an example of the glossary entry content
on the thematic group “Post-fi re territories”
(Sofronova et al., 2007). This proves the need
to create special bilingual electronic glossaries
of coordinated and harmonized notions and
terms.
The developed by us multifunctional
bilingual electronic glossary of Russian and US
Fire Science terminology fulfills four typological
lexicographical functions:
• systematizing function which is realized
by means of the thematic classification
of terms together with their alphabetical
order as well as logical-conceptual
schemes of specific terminological
fields and hyperlinks providing links
both within one terminological system
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Time
Pozhar ishche
Fre
gorel
(P >
before a
sh
nik
0.2
fire)
Gar’
(P ” 0.2)
Gorelnik
(tree mortality > 25 pct,
P > 0.2)
Young tree stand
(P • 0.3)
Old gar’
(P ” 0,2)
Two-storey stand
Old gorelnik (P> 0.2)
Ordinary forest (tree mortality < 25 percent)
or
non-forest vegetation plot
Fig. 1. Classification of post-fire areas in relation to time of their existence (P – relative basal area of a tree
stand)
Table 2. Example of a glossary entry content oriented towards English speaking recipients
RUSSIAN TERMS
ENGLISH TERMS
POZHARISHCHE (“fire site”) – a vegetation site over which a fire has
BURN or BURNED AREA
recently spread so that combustion traces are evident on the soil (e.g. ashes, (US, Canada)
carbons, firebrands). Fresh gar’ is an unwanted term 1.
an area burned over by wildland
GORELNIK (i.e. “fire-disturbed forest”) – a post-fire forest site with died fire 2, 3.
(dead-standing) trees (tree mortality is over 25 percent) and relative basal
area over 0.2 falling on live trees1.
This term is absent (is missing)
GAR’ (“open burnt area”) – post-fire forest site with died (dead-standing)
in the Australian Glossary10
trees (tree mortality over 80 percent) and relative basal area of 0.2 and less
(or 0.3 and less in young tree stands) falling on live trees1.
Comments.
▪ Available definitions of POZHARISHCHE in Russia: a site where a wildfire took place 4, 5. This
interpretation is too broad and indefinite since it involves all vegetation plots ever passed by a fire, and traces
of wildfires, take for example ancient ones, can be found almost everywhere.
▪ Available definitions of GORELNIK in Russia: 1) synonym to GAR’ 6; 2) sites with partially died tree stands
after a wildfire 4, 7, 8. Gorelnik always has trees, fire-damaged forest, and GAR may be devoid of trees as a
result of repeated fires.
▪ Available definitions of GAR’ in Russia: 1) any forest site over which a fire has spread 6, 9; 2) pozharishche
(forest area) with totally died off trees 4, 5, 7, 8. One should take into consideration a forest inventory definition
of “gar”, since the forest inventory gives information about burnt areas: during forest inventory “gar” is
referred to “area not covered by forest vegetation” 8. This means that “gar” may have even live trees on
condition that their relative basal area does not exceed 0.2 (or 0.3 in young stands).
▪ In the US and Canada a generalized term is used for all post-fire areas: BURN or BURNED AREA.
Therefore, in English-Russian translation one should resort to specification, and in Russian-English translation
– to descriptive rendering of the term.
Sofronov and Volokitina, 2007
Glossary of wildland fire management terms used in the United States, 1990
3
Glossary of forest fire management terms, Canada, 2003
4
Ozhegov, 1999
5
Kurbatsky, 1972
6
Melekhov, 1946
7
State Standard, 1983
8
Encyclopedia of forestry, 2006
9
Forest Encyclopedia, 1985
10
Wildfire Glossary, 2009
1
2
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and between terminological systems of
different languages;
• reference function is realized through
translation and through additional
encyclopedic information which helps
to reveal all nuances of the considered
notions and terms and to compare them
with related notions and terms in the
same field;
• educational function is realized through
the glossary structure, comparison of
terminological systems in different
languages, and discussion of additional
encyclopedic material;
• standardization function is provided
through the specific use of terms, which
is recommended in the discussion section
and in the translator’s comments.
The Glossary model focuses on the topic
“Fire Classification” and is created to test its
flexibility to be used both as a monolingual and
bilingual reference material, i.e. as:
1) US Fire Science Glossary;
2) Russian Fire Science Glossary;
3) Comparative Fire Science Glossary of the
US and Russian terminologies;
4) Russian-English Dictionary;
5) English-Russian Dictionary
6) Small encyclopedia of the US and Russian
Fire Science.
The content of the terminological field
“Fire Classification” is created according to the
following scheme in the Russian and English
languages:
• General information
• General terms
• Fires by an object of burning
• Fires by human attitude
• Types of fires
• Kinds of fires
• Fires by fire intensity
• Special kinds of fires
• Misleading terms
“General information” gives logical
schemes of the studied terminological field in
Russia (Fig. 2 A “Logical-conceptual schemes
of the terminological field ‘Fire Classification’
in Russia”) and in the US (Fig. 2 B “Logicalconceptual schemes of the terminological
field ‘Fire Classification’ in the US”). As far as
possible, each term is provided with an illustration
(pictures, schemes). The way the glossary entry
looks in the electronic glossary is shown in Fig. 3
“General view of the electronic glossary entry”.
The anatomy of a glossary entry is similar
to the FireWords Glossary entry (Scott and
Reinhardt, 2007); however, some additional parts
have been introduced to realize the bilingual
feature of this glossary. Each entry consists of the
following parts:
• Title. The title is the term to be defined or
the topic to introduce general.
• Short definition. The short definition
begins with the part of speech (noun,
verb, etc.). If the short definition ends with
a citation, then the definition was taken
verbatim from that reference. However,
the short definition is not always sufficient
to discern the important differences from
similar terms; therefore the following
structural element was included.
• Discussion. In the discussion section the
author relates the term to similar terms or
thematically related terms, discusses its
use (and misuse), perhaps its origin, and
more. When a related glossary term is
used in the discussion section it appears
as a link – clicking the link displays
either a pop-up window displaying the
short definition for that term or a popup minimized window of the whole
term entry. Clicking outside the pop-up
closes the window. The glossary includes
one more additional function – “Screen
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Fig. 2 (A). Logical-conceptual schemes of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia
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Fig. 2 (B). Logical-conceptual schemes of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in the US
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Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology...
Fig. 3. General view of the electronic glossary entry
Tip”. If you set your mouse cursor on the
hyperlinked term, a small window with
translation of this very term appears.
To view the full glossary entry of these
related terms, use the “See Also” section.
Besides, forestry terms in the Russian
glossary are colored green and have their
definition entries in a subglossary. The
definition of a forestry term appears as a
pop-up window. Only the first paragraph
or two of
the discussion is shown. If more discussion
has been written, click on the “More...”
link to display the full discussion.
• Units. The units section indicates
standard choices for both scientific papers
and fire management documents. In most
cases conversion factors are included for
converting between commonly used units
for the term.
• References. All literature cited in the
glossary entry is listed under this
heading.
• See also. Links to the full glossary entry
of terms used in this entry are listed
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under this heading in a table. The table
displays terms of both languages and this
way links the US and Russian glossaries
• Notes. The notes section includes entries
for an author or translator of the entry and
a date the entry was added or last edited.
• Translation/ Original. The translation
version or original version appears as a
new window if clicked on the hyperlink.
This window can be cascaded with the
main window for comparative analysis.
• Translator’s comments. This part is
included in the Russian Glossary to
reveal translation challenges (e.g.,
translator’s false friends) and suggest a
variant of translation. Besides, variants
of translation suggested by two RussianEnglish Forestry Dictionaries are
demonstrated to highlight the importance
of this very glossary creation.
Search for terms can be done by four ways:
1. Look up a term by topic. In the table of
contents terms are thematically arranged.
Using this section you can browse all
the entries pertinent to each fire science
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Tatiana M. Sofronova. Model of Bilingual Electronic Glossary of Scientific Terminology...
section. Each term appears in one or more
topics.
2. Look up a term in the index. The index
tab (top of navigation pane, at left) is
used to look for a particular term. The
term can be written either in English or
in Russian. The index term may have
the following abbreviations at the end:
ru = Russian original, en-tr = English
translation of the Russian original, rutr = Russian translation of the English
original. The terms of the English original
have no abbreviations at the end. Each
term is listed in alphabetical order and in
alphabetical-nested order, for example,
the English term “surface fire” is listed as
both:
• surface fire
• type of fire : surface fire
3. Search the text or term list for a particular
word (s). The search tab (top of navigation
pane, at left) is used to search for terms.
The search includes an additional option –
it takes into account synonyms (which
might be not a part of the index), and
displays similar, confusing or misleading
terms in the search result. Double-click
on a term from the search results pane
displays the glossary entry in the main
window.
4. Follow a hyperlink from another term.
Each reference to another Glossary term
within an entry is hyper-linked to that
related term:
• Links to related terms in the discussion
section display the short definition for
that term in a pop-up window. This
link is used to view a quick definition
of the related term without leaving the
current entry.
• To view the full definition including
annotation, illustration, etc, the link
in the See Also section is clicked.
Clicking the back button returns you
to the current term.
Discussion
The volume of the terminological field
“Fire Classification” differs in Russia and in
the US (Table 3 “Quantitative comparison of
the terminological field “Fire Classification”
in Russia and the US”). For example, Russia
has a more developed terminological group
naming surface and crown fi res while the US
has a more developed group naming crown
fi res. Some specific terms have not been created
for some notions. For instance, the Russian fi re
science terminology has no equivalent terms
for “fi re-use-fi re”, “fi re severity”, “underburn”,
“lethal underburn”, “stand-replacing fi re”. The
US terminology has no equivalents for the
following special lexical units: homogeneous
and heterogeneous fi re, simple and complex fi re,
understory-shrub fi re, bole fi re, steady surface
fi re, etc.
After a brief analysis of 118 fire classification
terms in both languages it turned out that 41
terms are unique national terms and 45 terms
are often misused or easily confused within or
between languages. That is the probability of
misinterpretation and misunderstanding between
the two countries on this topic reaches almost
75% (Table 3 “Quantitative comparison of the
terminological field “Fire Classification” in
Russia and the US”).
Analysis of Russian-English specialized
dictionaries shows that misunderstanding is
dramatically increased by the fact that in our
case 39 Russian terms out of 64 analyzed cannot
be found in dictionaries at all and 12 terms are
provided with erroneous translations. Thus, 80%
of fire classification terms are simply lost in
translation (Table 4 “Analysis of Russian-English
Forestry Dictionaries in covering the special
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Table 3. Quantitative comparison of the terminological field “Fire Classification” in Russia and the US
Fire classification
(Russia)
Fire classification
(USA)
Total
%
Number of terms analyzed
64
54
118
100
Specifically national terms
24
17
41
35
Terms often misused or easily
confused within or between
languages*
17
28
45
38
*Examples: types and kinds of fires; fires by intensity and severity; wildfires, wildland fires, vegetation fires,
landscape fires, etc.
Table 4. Analysis of Russian-English Forestry Dictionaries* in covering the special vocabulary of the
terminological field “Fire Classification”
Examples
Number of Russian terms
analyzed
Terms absent in dictionaries Type of fire, landscape fire, structure fire, slash fire, etc.
Terms wrongly translated
Total
64
39
underground fire → ground fire
surface fire → creeping (ground) fire
12
escaped fire → incendiary fire
low-intensity fire → hangover (holdover) fire; sleeper fire
%
100
61
19
* Dictionaries: 1. Russian-English Forestry and Wood Dictionary (1966) / Compiled by Williams Linnard.
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks., England, 107 p. 2. English-Russian and RussianEnglish Dictionary of Forestry and Forest Industries /Compiled by Mozhayev D.V., Novikov B.N., Rybakov D.M.
- Moscow: Russo, 1998. - 857 p.
vocabulary of the terminological field ‘Fire
Classification’”).
Moreover, there is a need to coordinate
fi re classification terms within each language
(Table 5 “Unsettled issues regarding
coordination of notions and terms within each
terminological field “Fire Classification” in
Russia and the US”). For example, disputable
notions in the Russian terminology include
running vs. steady surface fi res, spot fi res,
bole fi res, etc. The US terminology has the
following challenging notions as fi re-use fi re,
shrub-canopy fi re, prescribed fi re vs. prescribed
burning, etc. Besides, no classifications of
surface and ground fi res were found in the US
terminology unlike the Russian one and most
terms on fi res classified by vegetation as an
object of burning are absent in the official US
fi re management glossaries.
It should be noted that notions and terms
differ not only between Russia and the US
but also among major fi re science Englishspeaking countries: US, Canada and Australia.
Therefore, the bilingual glossary should
include comparative analysis of the usage
of fi re science terms in these three countries
(Table 6 “Kinds of fi re barriers according to the
official fi re science glossaries”). For instance,
in the Australian glossary, “control” line is a
synonym to “fi reline” while other countries
treat these terms as different. The Canadian
glossary does not include the term “barrier”
at all. Natural barrier as a term is included
in the US glossary (while absent in all other
glossaries!) but the term “constructed” or
“man-made barrier” or “anthropogenic barrier”
is not, although it should be present as an
opposing notion for systematization. Barriers –
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Table 5. Unsettled issues regarding coordination of notions and terms within each terminological field “Fire
Classification” in Russia and the US
Terminological issues in Russia
Terminological issues in the US
Running / steady surface fires: fast/ slow or
superficial/ deeper-seated fires?
Spot fires – a type of fire or fire behavior?
Fire-use fire: to be or not to be?
Shrub-canopy fire: is it a type of fire or a description
of vegetation as an object of burning?
Prescribed fire and prescribed burning: is there any
difference?
Different severity fires: theory and practice
Understory-shrub fires or sapling-shrub fires?
Bole fires – do they exist?
Simple/complex fires and homogeneous/
heterogeneous fires: useful or useless terms?
Landscape fires and vegetation fires: terms of
application to be specified
Is there a classification of surface and ground fires?
Why terms on fires classified by vegetation as an
object of burning (steppe fire, duff fire, slash fire) are
absent in official fire management glossaries?
Table 6. Kinds of fire barriers according to the official fire science glossaries
Terms
Control line
USA
Canada
Australia
Russia*
+**
+
= fireline
-
Barrier
+
-
+
+
Natural barrier
+
-
-
+
Constructed barrier
-
-
-
+
Linear barrier
-
-
-
+
Polygon barrier
-
-
-
+
Fuelbreak
+
= firebreak
+
“fire shield”
Firebreak
+
= fuelbreak
-
+
Fireline
+
+
= control line
“mineralized stripe”
Fireguard
-
+
-
-
* There is no official glossary of fire management terms in Russia. This column shows application in fire science
literature.
** Legend: “+” – the term is present, “–“ – the term is absent, “=” – the term is a synonym to another term.
any obstructions to fi re spread – can be both
linear- and polygon-shaped according to the US
and Australian glossaries whereas in Russian,
a barrier can be only linear. The terms “linear
barrier” and “polygon barrier” are not included
in any glossaries. Fuelbreaks and fi rebreaks are
absolute synonyms in the Canadian glossary
whereas other countries differentiate these
terms. The term “fi rebreak” is missing in the
Australian glossary. The Canadian glossary
also uses the term “fi reguard” as an inclusive
term for fi rebreaks and fi relines made during
a fi re.
Conclusion
Brief conclusions are as follows:
• Russian and English Fire Science
terminology is poorly systematized at
present.
• Field modeling can provide considerable
help in coordination and harmonization
of the studied terminology.
• The results of this research will be used to
create a full version of the multifunctional
glossary of fire science terminology.
We would like to hope that the idea of creating
an electronic extended fire science glossary will
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find further support and joint effort to make it first
bilingual with the future prospect of developing it
into multilingual reference material. Further studies
of the fire science vocabulary will contribute to not
only a deeper understanding of the terminology
which has not been involved in the linguistic
analysis before but also will help to systematize the
fire science terminology both in Russia and abroad.
Acknowledgements
The model of the bilingual glossary of
fire science terminology was created within
the framework of the Fulbright Faculty
Development Program (2008-2009). Special
gratitude should be addressed to Dr. Kevin Ryan,
Research Forest Ecologist from the Missoula
Fire Science Laboratory in Montana, and Dr.
Ronald Wakimoto, Fire Science Professor at the
University of Montana, for scientific editing of
the developing glossary. The compilers of the
US Fire Science Glossary “FireWords”, Dr. Joe
Scott and Dr. Elizabeth Reinhardt from the US
Forest Service, provided us with the software to
elaborate the electronic version of the glossary
and shared their database as a legacy for the
developing bilingual glossary.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Encyclopedia of Forestry (Moscow: VNIILM, 2006), Volume 1, in Russian.
Forest Encyclopedia (Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciclopedia, 1985), Volume 1, in Russian.
Forestry: Terminological Dictionary, ed. by A,N. Filipchuk (Moscow: VNIILM, 2002), in
Russian.
Glossary of Forest Fire Management Terms, Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (Manitoba,
2003).
Glossary of Wildland Fire Management Terms Used in the United States (Society of American
Foresters, 1990).
S.V. Grinev, Introduction into Terminological Science (Moscow: Moskovsky Litsey, 1993), in
Russian.
Yu.N. Karaulov, General and Russian Ideography (Moscow: Nauka, 1976), in Russian.
V.N. Krupnov, Lexicographical Aspects of Translation (Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1987), in
Russian.
T.S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1962).
N.P. Kurbatsky, “Terminology of Forest Fire Science”, in Questions of Forest Fire Science
(Krasnoyarsk: ILiD SO RAN SSSR, 1972), 171-231, in Russian.
I.S. Melekhov, Wildland Fire Impact on Forest (Moscow, Leningrad: Goslestekhizdat, 1948), in
Russian.
I.S. Melekhov, Forest Fire Science (Moscow: Moskovsky Lesotekhnichesky Institut, 1978), in
Russian.
Nature Conservation. Forest Protection. Terms and Definitions. State Standard 17.6.1.01– 83
(Moscow: Gos. Komitet SSSR po Standartam, 1983), in Russian.
J.H. Scott, and E.D. Reinhardt, compilers, FireWords Version 1.0: Fire Science Glossary
[electronic] (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer), 2007). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/fmi
Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary, ed. by A.M. Prokhorov (Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciclopedia,
1985), in Russian.
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16. M.A. Sofronov, and A.V. Volokitina, Technique of Fire Science Examination and Description of
Post-Fire Areas (Krasnoyarsk: IL SO RAN, 2007), in Russian.
17. M.A. Sofronov, J.G. Goldammer, A.V. Volokitina, and T.M. Sofronova, Wildland Fire Danger
(Krasnoyarsk: IL SO RAN, Max Planck Institute (Germany), SibGTU, 2005), in Russian.
18. T.M. Sofronova, “Necessity of Harmonization of Fire Science Terminology”, Proceedings of
the International Scientific Conference “Social Variants of Language – V”, April 19-20, 2007
(Nizhniy Novgorod: NGLU, 2007a), 76-80, in Russian.
19. T.M. Sofronova, “Fire Science Terminology in the Light of Field Theory”, Proceedings of the
International Scientific Conference “Problems of Intercultural Verbal Interaction and Technology
of Foreign Language Education, May 15-16, 2007 (Khabarovsk, 2007b), 291-296, in Russian.
20. V.A. Tatarinov, General Terminological Science: Encyclopedic Dictionary (Moscow: Moskovsky
Litsey, 2006), in Russian.
21. G.S. Schur, Field Theory in Linguistics (Moscow: Nauka, 1974), in Russian.
22. T.M. Sofronova, A.V. Volokitina, M.A. Sofronov, “Necessity of Coordination and Adjustment of
Wildfire Science Terminology: Russian-English Glossary”, Proceedings of the 4th International
Wildland Fire Conference, May 13-17, 2007, Seville, Spain.
23. A.A. Ufimtseva, “Theories of a Semantic Field and Their Application in Lexicographical Studies”,
in Issues of Language Theory in Modern International Linguistics (Moscow: Nauka, 1961), 3063, in Russian.
24. A.V. Volokitina, M.A. Sofronov, T.M. Sofronova, Surface Fire Behavior Prediction Using
Vegetation Fuel Maps (Krasnoyarsk: SibGTU, 2005), in Russian.
25. A.V. Volokitina, and M.A. Sofronov, Vegetation Fuel Classification and Mapping (Novosibirsk:
SO RAN, 2002), in Russian.
26. Wildfire Glossary, prepared by rural and land management group for Australasian Fire and
Emergency Services Authorities Council Agencies. January 2009, Australia.
Модель двуязычного электронного глоссария
(на примере пирологической лексики)
Т.М. Софронова
Красноярский государственный педагогический университет
им. В.П. Астафьева
660049 Красноярск, ул. Лебедевой, 89
Статья посвящена описанию концепции и технологии создания глоссария научной терминологии,
который способствовал бы согласованию терминов внутри языка и гармонизации терминов
между языками. Даны примеры логико-понятийных схем упорядочиваемой терминологии,
подробное описание структуры глоссария и словарной статьи, а также представлен
сопоставительный переводческий анализ русских и английских терминов.
Ключевые слова: терминология; глоссарий; пирология; согласование терминов; гармонизация
терминов.
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