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194.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №4 2014

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Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (4)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Г.Г. Крушенко, Л.И. Мамина, С.В. Беляев
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Р.К. Мысик, А.В. Сулицин, С.В. Брусницын, И.В. Ожгихин
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? 394 ?
В.А. Кечин
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Г.А. Косников
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В.Г. Бабкин, Н.А. Терентьев, А.И. Перфильева
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В.И. Никитин, К.В. Никитин
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И.О. Леушин, В.А. Решетов
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Ю.В. Горохов, С.В. Беляев,
И.В. Усков, И.Ю. Губанов А.А. Косович
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Editorial board for Engineering & Technologies:
Vladimir Kulagin ? Series Editor, Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Yury Alashkevich ? Siberian State Technological
University, Russia
Sereeter Batmцnkh ? Institute of Heat Engineering
and Industrial Ecology Mongolian Academy of
Sciences, Mongolia
Yuri Biba ? Dresser-Rand Company, USA
Carsten Drebenstedt ? Technische University
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany
Yury Galerkin ? Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic
University, Russia
Gennady Gritsko ? Institute of Petroleum Geology and
Geophysics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Russia
Georg Guggenberger ? Institute of Soil Science Leibniz
University Hannover, Germany
Lev Endzhievsky ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Feng-Chen Li ? School of Energy Science and
Engineering Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Vladimir Makarov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Aleksandr Mineev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Vladimir Moskvichev ? Special Designing and
Technological Bureau ?Nauka? Krasnoyarsk
Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia
Bernard Nacke ? Institute of Electrotechnology Leibniz
University of Hannover, Germany
Oleksandr Nemchin ? CEO of the State Research
Institute of Innovative Technologies in Power
Energy and Energy Efficiency of the Fuel and
Energy Ministry of Ukraine, Ukraine
Valeriy Nikulin ? Kamsk Institute of Humanitarian and
Engineering Technologies, Russia
Oleg Ostrovski ? University of New South Wales,
Australia
Harald Oye ? Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway
Vasili Panteleev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Petr Polyakov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Victor Timofeev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Ibragim Khisameev ? Kazan State Technological
University, Russia
Anatoly Shvidenko ? International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis, Austria
Galina Chiganova ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
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С.В. Беляев, Г.А. Королева, С.И. Лыткина
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Л.И. Мамина, С.В. Беляев, И.В. Чупров,
А.И. Безруких, В.Н. Баранов, И.В. Костин
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Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li,
Zhi-Ying Zheng, Feng-Chen Li,
Vladimir A. Kulagin and Dmitriy S. Likhachev
Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
? 474 ?
Andrey P. Prokopiev,
Vladimir I. Ivanchura and Ruric Т. Emelianov
The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic
Characteristics of the System Model Velocity Control
Vibrating Roller
? 480 ?
В.Ю. Половников, Е.В. Губина
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 381-393
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Received 30.12.2013, received in revised form 24.03.2014, accepted 25.04.2014
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*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: genry@icm.krasn.ru
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????????????, ? ??? ????? 10 ??????????????. ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?.?. ?????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?. ??????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????
??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????. ???, ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????-???????: ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ?????,
?.?. ???????. ?????? ???? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ??. ????????????? ?.?. ?????????,
??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????. ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????
????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?. ?. Me????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?.?. ???????.
????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????-??????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ???????, ??? ? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????.
? 2003 ?? 2010 ??. ? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????. ????. ????
????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? 1969 ?. ?? ????????????? «???????? ???????????? ??????
? ??????? ????????» ? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??
??????????? ????????. ? 1983 ?. ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????. ? 1994 ?? 2003 ??.
?.? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?
?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?? ???????????????? ? ?????????
??????? ??????? «???????? ????????????».
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??????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????????
# 386 #
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??? ???? ? ??? ?????; ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????? «?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????
??????? ?? ??????? ????? 3???». ?.?. ?????? ? ?????
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? ??? ????? 5 ???????????, ?????????? ??????????
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??????????????. ?? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?
??????????? ??????-?????????????? ????????????
?.?. ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????- ???. 7. ????????? ?????????????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ??- ??????
??????? ????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?
?. ???????????.
? 2011 ?. ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????., ?-? ????. ???? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ? ????????? ?????. ?.?. ?????? ???????
???? ? 1981 ?., ??????? ?????? ? ????????. ? 1992 ?. ?.?. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?. ?????. ?????????? ?
??????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????.
?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?
2009 ?. ? ????????? ??????????? ????????????.
??? ???????????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????
?.?. ???????. ?.?. ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? 135 ??????? ? ??????-???????????? ?????,
? ??? ????? 3 ??????????, 20 ?????? ? ????????, ???????????? ???, 36 ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??, 2 ??????? ???????, 25
??????-???????????? ?????. ?.?. ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ? 212.099.10 ?? ??????
?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????
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? ????????????????, ??????????????? ? ???????????
??????? ????????? ??????-??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?? (????????????? ?0400924). ?? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????-?????????????? ???????????? ?????????
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???. 8. ?????? ???????????? ??????
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? 2013 ?. ?? ??????? ???????? 14 ??????????????: ?-? ????. ????, ????. ?????? ??????
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???????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ???? ???????, ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????,
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?.?. ??????.
? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ????????? 50 ??? (? 1962 ??
2012 ??.) ?? ???????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????? 3091
??????? ?? ????????????? «???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????», ?? ??? 78 ???????? ?????? ? ????????. ???????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? 4 ??????? ??????????? ????:
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ? 18 ?????????? ??????????? ????:
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ??????????,
???. 9. ????????? ??????? «???????? ????????????», 2013 ?.: ????? (????? ???????): ???., ????. ????. ????
?.?. ???????????; ???., ????. ????. ???? ?.?. ?????, ????., ?-? ????. ????, ???. ???????? ?.?. ??????; ???.
???????????? ?.?. ???????, ???. ??????? ?.?. ???????????, ???., ????. ????. ???? ?.?. ????????. ?????:
????????? ?.?. ??????; ???????? ?.?. ?????; ????????? ?.?. ?????; ???????? ?.?. ??????; ?????????
?.?. ??????; ???., ????. ????. ???? ?.?. ?????; ???., ????. ????. ???? ?.?. ????????; ???. ???????????
?.?. ???????; ??????? ?.?. ?????????
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?.?. ?????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????.
??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????, ? ????? ??????? ?? ?????, ???
«???????????», ??? «???????????? ???????????????? ?????», ??? ????, ???? «???????», ????????????? ????? ???, ????????? ????? ???, ???????-????????? ???????????????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ???, ????? «???????? ??????», ???????? ????? ??? ? ??.
??? ??????????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????: B.?. ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? «????», ?.?. ???????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ?? «????», ?.?. ?????? ? ???. ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????, ?.?. ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????
«????????????????», ?.?. ?????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????, ?.?. ????????? ? ???. ????????? ???, ?.?. ????? ? ???????? ??? ????.
?? ?????????? ????? 40 ??? ???????? ???????????? ??? «?????????» ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? «???????? ????????????». ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?.?. ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ? 1980 ?.,
????????? ?????????????? ???? ?.?. ??????? (1975 ?.), ????????? ????????? ???? ?????
?.?. ???????? (1974 ?.), ??????? ?????????? ?.?. ??????? ? ?.?. ??????? (1978 ?.) ? ??. ??.
?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????.
???????? ???? ?????????? ??????? 2 ??????? 1948 ?. ? ?. ???????????. ? 1971 ?. ???????
???? (??????? «???????? ????????????»). ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ????????-???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????
????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????. ? 1980
?? 1990 ??. ??? ?? ????????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ?.?. ????? ? ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????, ????????????
????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ? 1991- 2007 ??. ? ?????? ??????????? ????????.
??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????????????
???????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ? ???????? ? ?????? ??? ?????.
?? ???????? ? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????????
?????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
?? 30 ?????? 2003 ?. ? 120 ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????. 10. ???? ?????????? ????????
???????? ?????? ????????? ??????.
????? ???????? ????????? ??????? 3 ?????? 1942 ?.
? ?. ?????????? (???????????? ????). ? 1964 ?. ? ???????? ??????? ???? (??????? «???????? ????????????»). ? 1973 ?. ??????? ???????????? (????, ?. ??????), ? ? 1988 ?. ??????????
(???, ?. ?????-?????????) ???????????. ?? ???????????? ?.?. ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????,
????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????-?????????????????? ???? ??????-??????????
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????
???. 11. ???? ??????????
????????
????????? (?. ????????? ???????? ???.; 1965-1974 ??.).
????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????????, ?????????? ????????, ???????, ??????????? ??
??????? ?????? ??????-??????????? ????????????????
????????????, ?. ??????????? (1974-1996 ??.).
? 1997 ?. ? ?? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? «???????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????????» ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????-
???, ????????? (1990 ?.), ??????????? ??????? ????? ?
??????? ?????????? ????????? (1993 ?.), ?????????????? ???? ???? (1995 ?.) ? ????????????? ????????
???. 11. ???????? ????????? ?????
???? ?????? ????? (1993 ?.), ???? ???-???????? ???????? (1994 ?.), ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????-???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? (1991-1996 ??.) ? ???? ??????????? ??????? «????????
?????. ??????? ???????????», ???? ??????????? ??????? «???????? ??????», ????????????
???????????????? ?????? ?.212.025.03 ?? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?
??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????. ????? ????? 300 ??????? ?????? ?
??????? ????????, 33 ??????????? ? ????????.
??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 23 ??????? 1942 ?. ????? ????????? ? 1964 ?. ????
(??????? «???????? ????????????») ??????? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????
?? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ? 1973 ?. ???????????? ???????????
?.?. ??????? ??????? ?? 1978 ?. ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????????????, ????????.
? 1978 ?. ?.?. ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??
???????? ??????? ? ????????, ???????????, ?????????? ???????? (? 1990 ?.). ?.?. ??????? ?
????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ? ???????. ?? ???? ???????? ????????
??? ??????????.
?? ????? ????? 450 ???????? ?????, ? ??? ?????
20 ??????????? ? ????????, 15 ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? «???????????? ????».
?.?. ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???, ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??? «???????????????? ? ??????????», ???????????? ???????? ??
???????? ????? ???, ???? ??????-????????????, ??????? ? ???? ?????????????????? ??????? ??????, ????
????????? ??????? «???????? ??????», ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????
? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ????????
???. 12. ???????? ???????? ???????
# 390 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??. ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????-????????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? «????????», ???????, «???????????????», ???.
???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? 1969 ?. ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????. ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???
??? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ? ????? ? 1979 ?. ????????????? ?????????????? ????-?????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? 6 ???????? ? 12 ??????????? ????????? 350 ?????????? ? ????????? 10 ????? ???????, ? ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ????? ?? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? 20 ?????? ??????.
? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????
?????????????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ? ??????. ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? (??????????????? ???????????), ??????????
??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??. ???????, ?????-????????????? ???????????
???????????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??. ??????, ????-????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????
??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??. ??????? ? 2009/2010 ???????? ???? ??
??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????. ????? ????????? 176 ?????????.
???????????-?????????, ?????????? ???? ???????, ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ????
??????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????.
??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????
???????? ????????.
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????????.
???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????:
1. ?????????? ????????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? (???????????? ????. ????. ????, ?????? ?.?. ????????).
2. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ??
??????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? (???????????? ?-? ????. ????, ????. ?.?. ??????).
3. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????? (???????????? ????. ????. ????, ?????? ?.?. ???????, ??. ??????. ?.?. ???????).
4. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? (???????????? ????. ????. ????, ?????? ?.?. ?????).
# 391 #
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??????. ???, ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ???????????
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??????? ??????, ???????? ? ???????. ? ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????
?????? ? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????-??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? 150 ????????? ???????????? ???? ? ???????? ? ??, ???????????? ????? 500 ?????? ? ?????? 20 ??????????. ? 2009 ?. ? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ? 212.099.10 ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????
? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????????? 05.16.04 ? ???????? ????????????. ?? ?????
??? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? 2 ???????????? ???????????. ? 2013 ?. ???
???????????? ????. ?.?. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????
???????, ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ??????.
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????? ????????-?????????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????-?????????? ??????
??????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? «???????? ????????????» ? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ????
????? ?????????????? ? ???????????, ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? (?? ??????????
???? ? ??????) ? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ? ????????, ?? ?? ??????????????? ???? ?
??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????-??????????, ? ??????:
? ??????????????: ?-?? ????. ????, ????. ?.?. ???????, ????. ?.?. ?????, ????. ????. ????,
???. ?.?. ???????, ??????? ?????????????? ?.?. ???????? ? ?.?. ??????????, ??????????? ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????? ? ??.;
? ??????? ???????????: ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????? ? ??.;
? ??????-???????????????? ?????????: ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????, ?????????? ?.?. ??????????????, ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????? ? ??.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????
The Foundry Engineering Department
of the Krasnoyask Institute
of Nonferrous Metals ? 50 Years
Genrih G. Krushenkoa,
Lyudmila I. Mamina b, Sergey V. Belyaevb
a
Institute of Computational
Modelling SB RAS,
Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The article deals with the main stages of development of the Foundry Engineering Department at the
Krasnoyarsk land.
Keywords: the Foundry Engineering Department, Krasnoyask Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Institute
of Nonferrous Metals and Materials Science.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 394-399
~~~
??? 669.3:621.74-022.324
???????? ????????????
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????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 620002, ?. ????????????, ??. ????, 19
Received 03.12.2013, received in revised form 21.02.2014, accepted 05.04.2014
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???????? ?????: ????, ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????, ?????????, ?????????.
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??????????, ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????????????? ? ????????? ?????
?????????. ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?
??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ????.
????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? [1]. ?????????
???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? [2, 3], ??
???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??
??????? ????????? ????? ?????????. ? ????? ? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????
????????? ?? ???? ????? ?00, ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kafedralp@mail.ru
# 394 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????
?????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????,
??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? UP-CAST, ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? 40 ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?
????????? ?? ???? ? ???????? ?????? 10 ??, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? 11201130 °?, ??????????? ????????? ? 300 °?. ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????
????????? 200 ??, ???????? ????? ???? 8 ?/?, ??????????? ????? ? 1160-1170 °?. ???????????
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? 17 ?? ??? ???????? ??????????? 6,5 ?/? ? ??????????? ????? 1160-1170 °?. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????
????? ???????? ????????? ????????? 8 ??, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? 4,5 ?/???, ??????????? ???????? ? 1170-1180 °?. ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? 120?70 ?? ??? ????????
????? 10 ?/??? ? ??????????? ????? 1120-1130 °?.
??? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????,
???????????? ?? ???. 1.
?
?
?
?
?
???. 1. ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ?00, ??????????
?????????? ????????? ?????: ? ? ?????? ????????? 40 ?? (?????????????? ?????); ? ? ?????????
????????? 17 ?? (??????????? ?????????????? ?????); ? ? ????????? ????????? 8 ?? (??????????? ?????
??????? ??????????? ?????); ? ? ?????? ?????????
200 ?? (??????????????? ?????); ? ? ?????????
???????? 120?70 ?? (??????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????)
# 395 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????
?????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????, ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????
???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????. ??? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ????? (??), ???????????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ????? ?
??? ??????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????. ? ???? ??????????????????? ???????
????????? ??????????? ????? ?????, ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? 40
??, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? 10, ??? ????????? ????? ?????????
????????? 17 ??, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ? 7,5, ??? ?????????
????? ????????? ????????? 8 ??, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????
?????, ? 7,6, ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? 200 ??, ?????????? ???????????????
??????, ? 6,7, ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? 120?70 ??, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ? 7,3. ?????, ??? ??????????
????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ??????????
??????????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????.
??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ????????
????????????-??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?
????????? ????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ? ??????????. ??????? ?????????, ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????
?????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????
?????????. ????? ?? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????. ????????? ????? ????????? ??
???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????
????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ????????
????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????.
??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? 10 ?? ??? ???????? 10 ??. ?????????
????????? ????????? ? 17 ??????, ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???
?????? ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ?????
???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 2.
? ???? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????? ????
????? ?????????? ?? ???????. ? ????? ? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????
?? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????, ???????????? ?? ???. 3.
# 396 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????
?
?
???. 2. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? (?) ? ?????
???????????? ?????????? (?)
a4
?1
a2
?
a3
?
???. 3. ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ???? (?) ? ?????
????????? ???????? ????????? (?)
?????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ???????????. ??? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????
????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? aijk, ??? i =1, 2, 3, 4 ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? (???.
3.), j = 1, 2,?6 ? ????? ????????? ?? ???????????, k = 1,2,3 ? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? (???.
2). ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? kHBijk ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
HBijk ? ???????? ???????? HB:
k HBijk
HBijk
1 n
¦ HBijk
n 1
,
??? n ? ????? ?????????? ?????????.
# 397 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????
??????? 1. ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????
??????????
jk
?????????
??, ???
??? i=1
kHBijk
?????????
??, ???
??? i=2
kHBijk
?????????
??, ???
??? i=3
kHBijk
?????????
??, ???
??? i=4
kHBijk
11
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440
1,03
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0,91
400
0,94
21
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1,06
470
1,10
390
0,91
390
0,91
31
440
1,03
450
1,06
370
0,87
460
1,08
41
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1,03
420
0,98
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0,91
370
0,87
51
500
1,17
500
1,17
420
0,98
420
0,98
61
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1,20
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1,10
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0,96
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12
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390
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22
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1,20
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1,10
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0,91
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0,91
32
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0,96
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0,91
330
0,77
340
0,80
42
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1,17
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0,91
390
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52
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?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ? ????. 1.
?? ??????? 1 ?????, ??? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ???????????? ????????
????????? ?? ?????????? 510 ???, ? ??????????? ? 330 ???, ? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? +20 ? -23 % ??????????????.
???????????, ??? ?????????, ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??? ?????, ???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????. ????????, ??? ??????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????
???????????? [4]. ????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????
????? ????, ????????? ? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???
???????????? ????????? ????? ???? ? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ??????????????.
? ????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ??? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????
???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ??????????, ????????? ?????
# 398 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????
?????????. ??????? ??? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???? ? ?????????????????????? ?
?????????????????? ???????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????????? ? ??. // ???????? ??????. 2009. ? 7.
?. 3437.
[2] ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????????? ? ??. // ???????? ?????. 2009. ? 3.
?. 5058.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ???????? ??????. 2008. ? 3. ?. 2527.
[4] ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? // ???????? ??????. 2008. ? 10.
?. 3638.
Problems of Copper Cast Bars Production
Raisa K. Mysik, Andrey V. Sulitsin,
Sergey V. Brusnitsyn and Ilya V. Ozhgikhin
Ural Federal University,
19 Mira Str., Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia
In this article results of copper cast bars structure produced by different cast methods are presented.
It is shown that independently of the cast method in the cast bar structure large column crystals are
formed. The comparative analysis of the cast copper macrostructure parameters using a ratio of grain
shape is carried out. Hardness of continuous copper cast bar is defined by the cross section is defined.
It is found that the hardness as defined in different directions relative to the direction of grain growth
significantly different. The way of copper cast bars structure and properties controlling is proposed.
Keywords: copper, cast bar, continuous casting, structure, hardness.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 400-408
~~~
??? 621.74.01
?????? ? ????????
????????????? ?????????????
????????????? ?????????
?.?. ?????*
???????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.?. ? ?.?. ??????????,
??????, 600000, ????????, ??. ????????, 87
Received 28.11.2013, received in revised form 30.12.2013, accepted 15.03.2014
???? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
?? ????????? ?????????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????????-?????????????????????????????? ????????????? (???-???????) ????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????
? ?????????????? ?????????-???????? (Ti, Zr, Mn). ??????????? ???????? ??????????
?????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? (Mg-Ti-X, Mg-Zr-X, Mg-Mn-X).
???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ????????, ????????????
????????, ????????? ????????.
??????????? ?????????? ? ??????-?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????
????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?
?????????? ??????????.
???????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????, ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????-?????????? ?????????.
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ????? ?
??????????????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????????? ??? ???????? ? ????. 1.
???? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ? ??? ???????????
? ?????????? ?????????.
???????????? ????????????? (?-???????) ???????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ???.
?-??????? ????????? ? ??? ??????:
? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? (?) ???????????? ??????? ? ?????
??????? ?????? (?1, ?2), ?.?. ? ? ?1 + ?2;
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kechin@vlsu.ru
# 400 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
??????? 1. ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ?? ????
???????????? ????????
????????????
?????????????-????????????
???????????? ????
????????????
???????????-??????????????????
???????????-???????????????
?????????????????-????????????
?????????????-????????????
?????????????-?????????????????????????????
??????????? ????
?
??
??
??
??
???
??????? 2. ??? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? (?) ? ???????? (?)
1
?-???????
2
??-???????
??????? ??????????
????????????? ???????
???????
?????????? ????????
? ??????? ????????????
?1 + ? 2
?????? ????
(t ???? ? t???)
?1 + ?
3
??-???????
?1 + ?
~ t?? ???????
4
??-???????
5
??-???????
?1 + ?
?1 + ?n?m
?1 + ? 2
~ t ????
(t ???? ? t???)
~ t ????
6
???-???????
?1 + ?
?1 + ?n?m
?1 + ?x?y
~ t ????
?/?
??? ????????
??????? ????????
??????
Pb ? Cu
Zn ? Pb
Al ? Si, Al ? Fe,
Mg ? Mn, Zn ? Fe
Al ? H2, Mg ? H2,
Cu ? H2
Pb ? Cu ? S
Al ? Zn ? Fe,
Al ? Mg ? Fe
Mg ? Fe ? Ti,
Mg ? Fe ? Zr,
Pb ? Bi ? Ca
? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ??? ??????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ? ??????, ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???.
?? ??????????? ????????????? ?-???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????
?????????. ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?-???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ?? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????. ? ????. 2 (?. 1) ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????????
???????? ?-???????? ????????????? [1-3].
???????????-?????????????????? ????????????? (??-???????) ???????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????.
??-??????? ????????? ? ??? ??????:
? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? (?) ???????????? ??????? ? ?????
?????? (?1) ? ?????? ??????? (?) ??????, ?.?. ???1 + ?;
# 401 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????.
? ????????? ? ???????? ??-???????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????:
????? ??????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????;
???????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ????; ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????, ??? ???????? ? ??????????
???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????????.
??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????. ???????????????? ??? ??-???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ????????. ? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????? (?),
??????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ???? (????. 2, ?. 2). ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????
??????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? (?) ????? ????????????????? ? ??????????????? ????, ? ?????? ????
???????? ????? ?????? ? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ? ??????????????
??????????? ??? ??? ??-???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????
???????????. ? ????. 2 (?. 2) ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? [1, 3-5].
???????????-??????????????? ????????????? (??-???????) ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????
? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????, ?.?. ????????? ??-??????? ? ???????????
????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ???????????? ????. ????????, ??? ??-???????
????????? ????? ? ??? ??????:
? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? (?) ???????????? ??????? ? ?????
?????? (?1) ? ?????? ???????????? (?) ??????, ?.?. ???1 + ?;
? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????.
????? ???????, ???????? ??-???????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????, ???
???????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????.
????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????
???????????? ????? ????????. ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? «??????????????» ????????. ? ????. 2 (?. 3) ????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????????
???????? ??-???????? ????????????? [2, 6, 7].
Kp?c?a???????????-???????????? ?????????????_(??-???????) ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????, ??? ??????? ? ????????? ???????.
??? ??-???????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ????? ????? ????? ???
???????? ?????????????. ? ?????? (???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????) ??????# 402 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????; ?? ?????? (???????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????) ? ????????? ??????? ??????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??-???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????
???????-???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????????
??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ? ????. 2 (?. 4) ????????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??-???????? [1, 3, 4]. ????????
??-???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ?????????
? ?????? ?????? ? ??????????? ~ 0,06 % ?u ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???
400 °?. ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ? ??????, ? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? Cu2S, ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????,
????????? ?? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ?? 0,001 ? 0,002 %.
?????????????-???????????? ????????????? (??-???????) ???????? ?? ?????????????
?????????? ??????? (?) ?? ???????? (?) ? ??????? ??????????? (?). ?????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ????????????, ?? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????; ??? ????? ??????
??????????? (?? ?????? ?????????) ??? ????? ????????????? ??????? (?) ? ????? ?????????
??????????? (??)? : (??)? = ?, ??? (??)? ? ???????????? ??????? (?) ? ???????? (?) ????? ??????????; (??)? ? ???????????? ??????? (?) ? ???????????, ?.?. ???????????? (?); ? ? ??????????? ?????????????.
??? ??-???????? ?????, ????? ???????????? (?) ??? ? ?????? ?????????. ?????????????
?? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????
????????? (???1+ ?2).
? ????. 2 (?. 5) ????????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????.
???????? ??-???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????
???????? ?? ?????? [4, 8].
?????????????-?????????????????-???????????? ????????????? (???-???????) ?????
????? ??? ??? ??????, ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? (?????????????) ???? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????.
????? ??????????, ????????, ????? ??????? ?????????-??????? ??????????? ? ???????
?? ?????? ?????????? [9]. ???????? ???-????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????
? ?????? ? ??????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????? (?) ?? ??????? (?) ? ??????????? ???????????
(?) ???????? ? ????????? ????????:
? ?????? ????
?(?)? + ?(?)? ?? ? +?(?)??;
(1)
? ?????? ? ??????? ?????
?(?)? + ??? ?? ? + ?n?m,
(2)
?(?)? + ??? ?? ? + ?x?y;
(3)
?(?)? + ??? ?? ? + ?(?)??.
(4)
?? ??????? ???
?? ???? ??????? ???????, ??? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? (?) ? ????????? ???????? (?) ??????? (?) ????? ???? ???????????????? (??????????????) ? ?????? ???? (1), ?
# 403 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? (2) ? ??????????? (3) ????????, ? ????? ? ?????
???????? ???????? (4).
????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????-???????? ???????????? Ti, Zr ? Mn (????. 2, ?. 6).
? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????
????????, ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ??????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????.
Mg(?)? + ? ?Mg? + ??nBm (??),
(5)
??? B ? ??????? (Fe, Si, Ni, Mn); C ? ???????????? ???????? (Ti, Zr, Mn); ?nBm ? ????????
??????????????.
????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? (Ti, Zr, ? Mn) ??????? ? ???????????? (???????????? ???????? ?????????) ? ?????????????? (?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????) ??????. ????????? ????????? ?????? ? Ti, Zr, ?
Mn (???. 1) ???????????????? ???? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????
??????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?
?????? ????????? ???????????, ?? ????????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???? ? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
??????.
??? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? Ti, Zr, Mn ? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? (????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????) ??? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????? Mg-Ti-X, MgZr-X, Mg-Mn-X ????????, ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? >>1, ?.?. ? ??????? ??
?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? [10,11].
???. 1. ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? (1), ????????? (2) ? ????????? (3)
# 404 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
??????? 3. ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????
???????
Mg-Ti-X
Mg-Zn-X
Mg-Mn-X
??????? (?)
????????????
???????, %
Fe
0 ? 0,04
Cu
0 ? 0,1
Ni
1 ? 0,1
Si
0 ? 0,04
1767
Fe
0 ? 0,06
4630
Cu
0 ? 0,2
Ni
1 ? 0,2
Si
0 ? 0,06
1530
Fe
0 ? 0,04
1900
Cu
0 ? 10
Ni
1 ? 10
Si
0 ? 0,04
???????????, °?
Wxc
5540
720
780
720
2,6
11,2
0
233
0,8
3,64
574
? ????. 3 ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? (W?X ? ? ??????? ?????).
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????
??????. ?????????????, ???????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ??? ? ??????.
????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ? ??????. ??????
?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ??????.
????????????? ? ??????? Mg-Fe-Ti ???????? ???-???????? ????????????? ?????? ??
?????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ?????:
? ?????? ????
Mg(Fe)? + Mg(Ti)? ? Mg? + ? ? Fe(Ti)??;
(6)
? ??????
Mg(Fe)? + ? ? Ti?? ? Mg? + TiFe2??.
(7)
? ??????? ?????
Mg(Fe)? + ? ? Ti?? ? Mg? + TiFe??;
(8)
?? ??????? ???
Mg(Fe)? + ? ? Ti?? ? Mg? + ? ? Fe(Ti)??.
(9)
??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? (6) ?? (9).
??????? ?????? ?? ???? ? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? (Ti, Zr, ?n), ???? ?? ??????????
??????????????, ??????????? ??????????. ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??, ???
? ???????? Mg-Ni, Mg-Cu ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
Mg2Ni, MgNi2, Mg2Cu, MgCu2.
# 405 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
???. 2. ??????? ?????????? ???????? (?), ???????? (?) ? ?????? (?) ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??
????????
?????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? Ti, Zr ? Mn ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? (???. 2). ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????
??????? (?),
????
???? ?????
????
? ?????
(10)
??? ? ? ??????? ???????, %; X??? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????, %; X??? ? ??????????
??????? ?????? ????? ???????, %.
?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????
????????? ????????? (???. 2). ??? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????.
??????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????.
?? ???. 3 ?????, ??? ??? ???????? 0,10 ? 0,15 % ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ? 0,035 ?? 0,004 %. ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????
0,01 ? 0,015 %.
# 406 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
???. 3. ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????
??????????
1. ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????
????????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????????????.
2. ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????????? (?, ??, ?? ? ??) ? ?????????????????????????? (??, ???) ????????????? ????????????? ?????????.
3. ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? Ti, Zr ? Mn.
4. ???????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???-????????
??? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????????? ?????????. ?.: ???????????, 1971. 504 ?.
[2] ????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ???????? ??????. ?.: ???????????, 1986. 246 ?.
[3] ?????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ? ?????. ?.: ???????????, 1982. 352 ?.
[4] ?????????? ????????? ???????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ????????. ?.: ???????????, 1981. 280 ?.
[5] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ??????? ???????????. ?????????????????. 1971. ? 1. ?. 40?41.
[6] ?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????. ?.:
???????????, 1974. 192 ?.
[7] ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ???? ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?.:
???????????, 1982. 176 ?.
[8] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ??????? ???????????. ???. ?????. 1981. ? 1. ?. 45-46.
[9] ?????? ?.?. ??????-?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????????. ?.: ???????????, 1973. 224 ?.
# 407 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????
[10] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????? ?.?. //??????? ???????????. ???. ?????. 1976. ? 4.
?. 57-62.
[11] ????? ?.? // ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????. 2007. ? 2.
?. 169-175.
Theory and Practice
of Liquation Refining of Molten Metal
Vladimir A. Kechin
Vladimir State University n. a. A.G. and N.G. Stoletovs,
87 Gorky Str., Vladimir, 600000, Russia
The characteristic of the type of liquation refining process of molten metals depending on the impurity
elements is given. The efficiency of extraction-crystallization- liquation refining (EKL process) of
magnesium molten metals depending on the metallic impurity using additive elements (Ti, Zr, Mn) is
showed. Values of the interaction parameters in these ternary systems (Mg-Ti-X, Mg-Zr-X, Mg-Mn-X)
were fitted. The effect of addition of titanium, zirconium, and manganese feedings on the iron activity
is showed.
Keywords: liquation refining, molten metal, refining feedings, impurity elements.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 409-415
~~~
??? 621.74:669.018.9
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????
?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
?.?. ????????*
?????-????????????? ???????????????
??????????????? ???????????,
??????, 195251, ?????-?????????, ??. ???????????????, 29
Received 12.10.2013, received in revised form 24.03.2014, accepted 15.04.2014
??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?
?????????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????
????????????????????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????
? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????.
????????
?????:
??????????????
?????????????,
???????????
??????????,
???????????????????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ?????????, ???????????????
?????, ?????????????, ?????????.
???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ??????? (???) ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????
????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ????
?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????.
? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? (ex-situ-????????) ??? ????????????
? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? (in-situ-????????, «??????????? ?????»). ??? ????, ???
???????, ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????, ????????, ???????, ???????? (???????? ????? SiC, Al2O3, B4C,
TiC). ?????????? ??????? in-situ, ??????????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????
????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????. ?????????????? in-situ-?????????
????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?
???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? [1].
???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ???????, ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ???????, ?????? ???????????????? ?
??????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????,
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: genkosnikov@mail.ru
# 409 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????. ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???. ??? ???? ? ???? ???????
????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????, ? ??????? ????????????
????????? ?????????? ???????????.
?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ???:
? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???
????????????????????????? (???) ??????????????;
? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????;
? ?????????? ??????????.
?? ??????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????
?????????, ??? ??? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????, ?.?. ??????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ???.
???????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???, ?? ??????????
?? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ????????????. ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????.
????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ???
???????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ??? ? ???????????????, ????????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.
???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???, ?? ?
? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????.
??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????
???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????
?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????.
?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? (???) ?????????? ??????
???? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? «???????-???????» ????????????, ??????? ???????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????
??????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????.
?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????????????
?????????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ex-situ- ? in-situ-????????? (???????????????). ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????, ??????????, ??????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????????
??????????????? ??? (????). ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ??????????# 410 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
???? ?????????, ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ????
??????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????, ?????????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????, ??????
???????? ? ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? Al-Mg-Sc-Zr ? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????????? ??????????? [2].
????????, ????????? ???? ???????? ? ????? ??????, ?????????????? ????????????????
??????????? (??????????????? ???????????? ?? 2011?2015 ??. ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????; ??? «???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????
???????? ??????-???????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? 2007?2013 ????»; ??????? ????????????, ????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??? ??????????; ???????????,
?????????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 9
?????? 2010 ?. ? 218 ? ??.), ? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????.
? ?? ????????? ????????? ????, ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ? ??? ??. ?.?. ??????? ???,
?????, ????????? ??? ??. ????. ?.?. ?????????, ?????, ??????.
??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????????. ???????????? SiC ????????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????
?????, ? ??????????? SiC ? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????
? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? [3]. ???????????
SiC ? Al2O3 ?????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????????
??????????, ? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? SiC ? Ti ?????????? ??????????? ???? TiC [4]. ????????????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ???????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? [5].
?????????? ?? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????????????? ?????,
??? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ????????
?????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ?????.
?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???-??????????? ??????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ????? ????????????
????, ? ???? ????????, ????????, ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ???? ????????????? ??????????
?????????????? ?????????? (????), ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? [6].
????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ???????????????
???-?????????????? [7, 8]. ??????????????? ???-????????????? ??????????????????
# 411 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
???????, ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? [9]. ? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????
??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????.
?????? ????????????? [10] ? ?????????? [11] ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??
?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????. ?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ??????????????
????????? ? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??-????????? ????????? ? ???-??????????????. ??????
???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????????? ?????????
???????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ? ????????. ???
????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????,
? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ?????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????.
??? ???????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ????? (Compocasting), ??? ???? ??????????
??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ???? ????? ????????????????? ????? [12] ? ?????????? [13].
???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????.
??? ????????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? (???????? ? ??????? ?????????
????, ?????????? ????????? ? ??.), ?? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????
???????? (???-??????????????, ??-?????????). ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????
????????????????. ? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ??
?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????????
??????????? [14].
?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ??????????, ?? ???? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ??31 [15] ????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????????.
???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?60, ??????????,
# 412 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
???????????, ????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????????????
????? (????????) [16-18].
???????? ????????? ????????????? (??????????, ??????????????) ??????????, ??? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????
?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? «???????????» ??????????? ??? ??????????????.
????????? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????
? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????.
? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????. ??? ??????????????? ????????????, ??? ???????, ???????????? ?????- ???
??????????????? ??????????? [19]. ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????
?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????, ? ???????? ?????,
???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????????.
??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? (?????????????, ??????-????? ?????????
? ?????? ???????? ????, ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?
??????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????????, ??????, ????????????
?????????).
??????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???????
??????????, ????????, ? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??????-????????????????? (???????????????) ????????????.
??????????
1. ????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????, ???????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???. ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????????, ?
????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????????????? ??????????????.
2. ?????? ??????????????? ????????????????, ? ????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ???????,
? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????.
3. ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ?? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? (???????), ????? ?? ?????????, ???????????
???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????.
# 413 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
4. ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????
??????? ?? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????????:
? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????,
?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????;
? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????-????????? (????, ??????????
???????) ? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????, ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????;
? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???-????????????? ?
??-?????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????;
? ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? (??????????, ??????????????, ?????????????? ?????);
? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ???????? ????
??????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????, ????????? ? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????;
? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????, ? ?????? ??????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????, ???. ??????????? ?????. 2007. ? 2(20). C. 77.
[2] ??????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????. 2009.
? 1. ?. 24.
[3] Lilian Ivanchev, Sigqibo Templeton Camagu, Gonasagren Govender // J. Solid State
Phenomena. 2013. Vol. 192193. P. 61.
[4] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. //???????? ??????. 2008. ? 7. ?. 42.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????. 2007. ???. 3(16). ?. 103.
[6] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ????????????.
2012. ? 2. ?. 4.
[7] ??????? ?.?. // ?????????. 2008. ? 11. ?. 102.
[8] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ????? VII ?????? ?????????? ??????. ???????????, 2005.
?. 1. ?. 298.
[9] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?.. ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????
?????????. ????? ???????????? ??????????. ?.: ???-?? ???? ??. ?.?. ???????, 2010.
223 ?.
[10] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?
??????????????. ?.: ????-?, 2006. 688 ?.
[11] Michael De Cicco, Lih Sheng Turng, Xiao Chun Li, John H. Perepezko // Proceedings of
10th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of the Alloys and Composites S2P 2008,
# 414 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?????)
September 16th-18th, 2008 Aachen, Germany and Liege, Belgium. Ed. G. Hirt, A. Rassili, A. BuhrigPolaczek. TTP Trans Tech Publications LTD, Switzerland
[12] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ????????????. 2010. ? 3.
?. 12.
[13] ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ????????????. 2009. ? 11. ?. 6.
[14] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ?????. 2012. ? 3. ?. 32.
[15] ???????? ?.?., ??????? C.?. // ???????? ??????. 2007. ? 4. ?. 28.
[16] ????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. // ???????????? ????????. 2010. ? 2.
?. 264.
[17] Prokhorov V.M., Blank V.D., Pivovarov G.I., Solovyeva L.F. // Proc. Int., Sci. Conf. New
promising materials and processes of their preparation (NPM-2004). Volgograd, 2023 Sept., 2004.
P. 124
[18] ??????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????.
2009. ? 1. ?. 29.
[19] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ? ??. // Actual Conference. 2011. ? 1(70). ?. 44.
Liquidphase Production Technologies
of Alumomatrix Nanocomposit Billets (Review)
Gennady A. Kosnikov
St.Petesburg State Politechnical University,
29 Politechnicheskaya Str., St.Petersburg, 195251, Russia
Liquidphase production technologies of alumomatrix nanocomposit billets are considered. Complex
using of magnetohydrodynamic stirring, ultrasonic treatment of suspension during liquid and
liquidsolid states and thixoforming advantages are proposed.
Keywords: alumomatrix nanocomposities, liquidphase technologies, magnetohydrodynamic stirring,
ultrasonic treatment, semicontinious casting, thixoforming, billets.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 416-423
~~~
??? 621.315.5
????? ????????????????
?????????????? ?????????
??????????????????? ??????????
?.?. ??????*,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 15.11.2013, received in revised form 03.12.2013, accepted 25.04.2014
??????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????????????
?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???? (??), ??????????? ???????????
???????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ? ????????. ????????? ???????
??????????? ?????????????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ???,
???????????? ????????, ??????????????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????, ????????? ???????????????, ?????????????, ???, ??????????, ????????? ????????? ? ?.?. ? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????? ??? ??
???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????. ????????,
?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????
????????, ????????, ??????, ?????, ?????? [1], ? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? Al-Zr [2]. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????? ??????? ??
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ?????????
?? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????
???.
? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????-???????????? ????? ????????????????
?????????????? ??????????. ? ?????? [3] ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????????. ?? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? < 15 ??? ? ??????? ???? ??? ???????????
??????????????? ???????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ????? ???????-??????????? ?????????? Cu-WC ????????? ??????? ??*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: lpiomd@mail.ru
# 416 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????
???? ???? ?? 17-40 %, ? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? 94-98 %, ??? ?????????????
???????????, ????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????. ?????? ? ??? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????, ????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????
?????????????? ?????????. ? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? in-situ, ?.?. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? [4-6]. ? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ?, ??????????????, ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? [7].
????????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ??????????
??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????
??????????????? ??????? ??? ? ???????. ?????????? ??????? IV-VI ???????? ?????????????
??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ???????
? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????. ?????????? ???????, ????????
Ti, Cr ? Zr, ????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????????. ??? ?????
????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ? ????, ? ????????????? ???????? ? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ????.
? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????
????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ?????????.
?????? ????????? ??????????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????????, ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? [8].
???????? ????????????, ?? ??? ??????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ????, ??????????????? ? ???????? ? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? (?????? ? ??????? ??) ???
?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ???????????????????, ???????? ????????????????? ???????? ???? C2Al3B48. ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?
????????? Al ? Cu ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????? (B, C), ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????, ??? ? ???????? ? ????. ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????
?? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????. ?????????? ????????
???????????? ? ????. 1.
???????? ?G°T ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?
????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????????, ? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????.
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?G°T=f(T) ? lg K=f(T) ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ? ??????? Al-C-(Zr, Ti)
???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????, ??? ???? ????
1000 ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????. ????????, ? ??????? Al-C-B
?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????# 417 #
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?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????
??????? 1. ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????
????????? ??????????? ???
? ?/?
???????
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lg K
1
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-196,780+0,00921?
10273/? ? 0,481
2
TiT + CT = TiCT
-184,889+0,0125?
9652/? ? 0,655
3
4Al ? + 3?? = Al4C3 T
-265,150+0,095?
13842/? ? 4,960
4
3CrT + 2CT = Cr3C2 T
-79,130-0,017?
4131/? + 0,922
5
4BT + CT = B4CT
-41,533+0,0055?
2168/? ? 0,291
6
3Al ? + Ti = TiAl3 T[9]
-37,5+0,0106?
1958/? ? 0,553
7
Al ? + 2B = AlB2 T
-69,119-0,0278?
3138/? + 1,451
????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? (5). ??? ??????????? ???? 1250 ? ??????????????????? ?????
???????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????
4AlB12+2C=C2Al3B48+Al
? ???????????? «??????????????? ????» (C2Al3B48), ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? (??., ????????, [10]).
???? ?? ????????????????? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? Cu-C-?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? 1, 2, 4 ? 5.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ? ????????? ???????? ? ????. ????????
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? [11-13]. ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????. ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???. 1 (?,
?). ????, ????????? ?? ????????????????? ? ????????? (TiC, B4C) ? ???????? (TiB2, ZrB2),
?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? 130-140°. ?????? ? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????.
??? 1100 °? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? Cr3C2 ? CrB2 ?????????? 45 ? 25° ??????????????,
??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????
(???. 1).
??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? 900-950 °? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????, ????????
? ????, ? ??? ???????????? ???? 1000-1050 °? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????????
?? ???? (???. 2). ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ????? (??., ????????, [11]), ??? ???????
? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????
??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ? ???????? ?????? ? ????????, ???????????? ?? ??????????
??????????? Wa=??(1+cos?) ??? ???????????? 1100-1350 °?, ????? ? ?? ????????? 300 ???/?2
[11], ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???. ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? Cu-TiC(ZrC)
? Cu-TiB2(ZrB2) ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????????-???????? ??????????, ?????# 418 #
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?)
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???. 1. ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????: ?) ???????? (1 ? B4C; 2 ? TiC;
4 ? Cr3C2) ? ????????? Cu+2Cr ??????? ?????? ? 3 [11] ? ?) ??????? [12]: 1 ? ZrB2, 2 ? TiB2, 3 ? W2B5,
4 ? CrB2.
???. 2. ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????: 1 ? B4C, 2 ? ZrC,
3 ? TiC
??? Cr. ??????? ??????? Cu ? 2 ???. % Cr ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????
1200 °? (??. ???. 1, ?, ?????? 2). ?????????? ???? ????????? Cr3C2 ? CrB2 ???????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ??????????-???????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?? ? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ????????. ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ???????, ???????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??-?? ? ??????????? ?? ????????????
? ????????.
????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ? ????????
?????. ? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????
???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? Al (Cu) ? ?????????? ???????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????.
? ????. 2 ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? CuTiC ? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????, ? ?? ???. 3 ? ??????????????
??????????????? ?????????.
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?????? ????????.
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11,1
-
5,4
-
0,0345
-
??????? 3. ???????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????
????????? ?????????
??, ???
?, %
?
??
???????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????
160
25
-
40
????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? Cu-TiC
350
10
16
-
????????? ?? ??????????? ???? (????????? ??????????
90 %)
450
3
35
125
?? ????. 3 ???????, ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????
????? ???????? ????? ??? ? ??? ????, ??? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ????????????-???????? ??????.
?? ???. 3 ????????, ??? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????. ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????
? ?????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????
??????? Ti ? V, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????. ???????? ???? ? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
Ti ? V, ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? TiB2 ? VB2, ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????????. ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? Ti ? V, ????????
? ??????????? ?????? C2Al3B48 ?? ????????????? ???????.
??? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? «??????????????? ????» ?? ?????????????????? ? ??????-???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????,
?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???. 4 (?, ?).
????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? 1-2 ???, ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? 1 ???, ? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????.
# 420 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????
???. 3. ?????????????? ?? ?? ?????? ????, ???????????? ??????????? ????????? TiC (?200)
?) ??? 0,15 ???. % ???????? ????
?) ??? 0,3 ???. % ???????? ????
???. 4. ?????????????? ?? ?? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ????????? C2Al3B48 ??? ??????????
?200
???????????? ???????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ????????? ? ?????
???????? (????????? ?????????? 60 %) ????????? ? ????. 2.
? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?? ?? 0,3 ???. % ?????? ????????? ??
?????? (??) ????????????? ????? ??? ?? 30 %, ? ????? ???????? ? ????? ??? ? 2 ???? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ?????? C2Al3B48, ??????????? ? ???????? ? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ??
??????? ???????. ??????? ????????, ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (????? 60 %)
??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? (?=6-7 %). ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?? ?? 0,6 ????.% ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???
?? 60 %, ?????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? 5,4 % ? ??????????? ?????????????
????????????????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????????????
??????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????
????????? 0,3 ???. %. ???????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
??????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????
?????????????? ????. ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????# 421 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????
????? ?????????? ?? 7 % ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? C2Al3B48. ????????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????????????, ?????? ???????
?????????????????? ? ??????? C-Al-B ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????
??????? ???? ? ???????? ??-?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???
???????????? [13].
????? ???????, ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?
??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ? ????????, ? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????. ?.: ??? «????», 2012. ? 8. ?. 102.
[2] ??????? ?.?. // ?????????? ????? ???????. 2011. ? 1. ?. 2228.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ????????. ?.: ?????, 2010. ? 5.
?. 96.
[4] Davidson D.L. // Journal of Metals. 1997. ? 8. P. 34.
[5] Alkin R.M. Jr. // Journal of Metals. 1997. P. 3539.
[6] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ?????. 2004. ? 4.
?. 2326.
[7] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????. 2011. ? 4.
[8] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. // ???????? ????????????.
2011. ? 11. ?. 1517.
[9] Kattner U.K., U.R. Kattner, I.?C. Lin and V.A. Chang // Metallurgical and materials transactions.
August 1992. Vol. 23. N 8. P. 2081?2090.
[10] ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????. ?.: ?????????, 1975. 376 ?.
[11] ????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. // ??????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????. 1986. ???. 16.
?. 22-25.
[12] ?????????? ?.?. // ??????? ????? XIII ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????
???????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????. ????: ??-? ??????? ????????????????, 1980. ?. 72-78.
[13] ????????? ?.?. // ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????. 2009. ? 6. ?. 45-48.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????????
Cast Metal Matrix Composite Materials
of Electrotechnical Purpose
Vladimir G. Babkin,
Nikita A. Terentev and Alina I. Perfilieva
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The ways of manufacturing, structure and properties of cast metal matrix composite materials
based on aluminum and copper (CM), reinforced by dispersed high-modulus refractory particles
synthesized in the melt were explored. Due to high electrical conductivity and strength in
combination with the necessary plasticity promise for electrical applications instead of the
traditional aluminum and copper alloys doped with transition and rare earth metals were
proposed.
Keywords: metal matrix composite materials, reinforcing phase synthesis, mechanical properties,
electrical conductivity.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 424-429
~~~
??? 621.74
???????? ? ??????????
??????? ??????????? ????????????????
? ??????????? ???????
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 443100, ??????, ??. ?????????????????, 244
Received 30.12.2013, received in revised form 25.02.2014, accepted 28.05.2014
??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????
? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????
??????????? ??????? «???????? ? ????????????????? ??????????» ??????????
???????????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????
??????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
? ???????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ??????????? ????????????????, ??????????? ??????, ????????,
???????????????????? ????????, ??????????????, ???????????? ????????, ????????,
??????????? ??????????.
??????? ??????????? ???????????????? (???) ??? ??????? ??????????? «????????????????
? ????? ???????» ?????????????? ? ?????? 1970-1995 ??. ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????,
?????????????, ?? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ??
???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????.
? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???
???????????? ???????????????, ??????????? ?????????????????? ? ???????? ????????,
???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? «??????????????????? ????????
??????» (??? ??????????????????????») [1-3].
?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? (?????????
???????, ????????, ???????? ? ?.?.) ????????? ? 1960-1970 ??. ?? ???????? ???????
????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?.?. ??????? ? ?.?. ????????.
? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? (?.?. ?????, ?.?.
???????????, ?.?. ????????? ? ??.), ? ????? ????????? ??????? (?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????).
???? ??????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ??????????????
??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????,
? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?
??????????? ??????? [4].
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kvn-6411@mail.ru
# 424 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????
? 80-90-? ??. ?? ???? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????-?????????? ?
?????????, ???????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ??????-???????????
???????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? («?????????»), ? ???????????-?????????????
(«????????????? ? ???????? ????????») ? ? ?????????-?????? («???????????????? ? ?????
???????»). ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????,
??????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???????, ???????????
? ??????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????
?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????
????????????? ??????. ?????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????
???????????????? ? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?.?.
????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????? ? ??. [1, 3, 5-7].
? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????
??????????? ????????????????, ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????
???????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????? (????. 1). ? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??????????????
???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????
??????????? ? ??????? «??????????????????????». ???????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????,
?????????? ????????????????? ?????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????
????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ? ????????????? ?: ??????? Mn, Fe, Ni ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????; ??????? Ti ????????
? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????? (2-?
??????????????). ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????
????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? Al-Fe (Mn, Ni) ??? ?????? ????????? [7].
???????? ??????????????, ? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????, ?? ??? ??? ????????
?????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???. ???????, ? ????????, ???????? ????????????
??????? 1. ???????? ?????????????? ???
??????????????
??????
??????
??????
?????????
?????
????????? ???????????????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ????????
???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????-???????????
??????????, ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????
? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????? (????????
????????? ???????? ? ???) ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????
?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????
?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????????
? ??????? «????? ? ??????? ? ????? ???????» ??????????? ???????
(??????????????), ????? ????? (???????) ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ???
?????????
# 425 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????
???????, ???????? ? ????????????-????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????,
?????????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????. ?????????????????? ?????? ?????
?????????????? ??? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
????????????????? ?????? ? ???, ????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ???????.
? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? [1, 3] ? ??????? ? ???????-??????????
?? ????????? ???????????? [2] ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????????? ??????? ???????, ????????: «??????????? ????????????????», «???», «??????
?????????», «?????????? ?????? ?????????». ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?
????????? ????????????? ????????? [8] ? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? [9], ? ???????
??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????
???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ??
???????? ??????? ? ????? ???????. ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? 1991 ?.
???????? ??????? ?????????? «???????????????? ? ????? ???????», ?????????? ??????????
???? ? ???????????? ??????.
????????????, ??????????? ? 2010-2013 ??., ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????
????????? ??????- (?) ? ???????????????????? (?) ?????, ?????????? ???????? ? ???????
???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????-?????????? ???????? ??????
??6?2 ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??
??????????????????? ???????? ???????-???????? [10].
???????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????
?????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????
??????, ??????????? ?? ?-?????, ????? ?????? ????????. ???????? ???? ???????
???????????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 1: ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????????
?????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? (d L) ? ??????? (d S)
?????????? ??????.
????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????
??????? (????) AlTi5, AlTi5B1 ? AlSr10. ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????. ? ?????? ??????????
????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? (???????)
???????????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? [11]. ???????????, ???
??????????????? ?????????????? ???? Al3Ti ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????
????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????.
??????? ????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????
???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? Al-Si ???????? ?? ???. 2, 3.
????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ??????-????????????????? ????? ????????
??????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? 2010-2013 ??. ?????
???????? ?????????.
1. ???????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????
????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ??? «???????» ? ?????????? ??????-????????????
# 426 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????????? (?), ????????? ? ?????? (?)
? ??????? (?) ?????????? ?????? ??6?2: ? ? ? ? ?????- ? ????????????????????? ?????; 1-4 ? ???
?????????, ????????????? ? ?????????, ??????? ? ???????? 20 ???, ???????? 40 ???, ??????????????
?
?
?
?
?
?
???. 2. ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????? (Ч100): ?,?,? ? ?? ????????????????
??9?, ??6?2, ??10?2?, ??????????????; ?, ?, ? ? ???????????????? ??9? (0,015%Sr), ??6?2
(0,02%Sr), ??10?2? (0,02%Ti)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????
???. 3. ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??6?2 (?6) ?
??10?2? (?2): 1, 4 ? ??? ???????????????; 2, 5 ? ??????? AlTi5 (0,02%Ti); 3, 6 ? ??????? AlSr10
(0,02%Sr)
????????? ?? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
????????? ? ?????1.
2. ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ??? ??????? ???????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? [12-14]. ????????????
????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ??????
??????? ????????.
3. ????????????? ????????? ??? «??????? S7.???» ??? ??????????? ????? ???????
?????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????
????? (?. ????????????) [15].
4. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????
???????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?
??????????????????? ??????????2.
5. ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????3.
1
2
3
????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? «???????» ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? 20122016 ??.
?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? «??????? ? ??????-?????????????? ????? ????????????? ??????
?? 2009-2013 ??.»; ??????????????? ???????? ? ?181 ?? 2010-2011 ??.
?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? «???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????
???????? ??????-???????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? 2007-2013 ????»; ??????????????? ????????
? 14.513.11.0042.
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????? ?.?. ???????????????? ? ????? ???????. ??????: ??????, 1995. 248 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?. ???????-?????????? ?? ????????? ????????????. 2-? ???. ?.:
??????????????. 2001. 464 ?.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????????? ? ????? ???????. ?.: ??????????????-1.
2005. 476 ?.
# 428 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????
[4] ??????? ?.?. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ??????????: ????, 1972. 195 ?.
[5] ???????? ?.?. ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????. ????????: ???, 2000.
260 ?.
[6] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. Liquid metal processing: application to aluminium
alloy production. Taylor&Francis.L.; N.Y., 2002; Gordon&Breach. L.; N.Y., 2004. 268 p.
[7] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?. ?. ???????? ???????? ??? ??????
???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ????????????: ??? ???, 2005.
369 ?.
[8] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????????: ???????
??????? ??? ?????, 2-? ???., ???????. ? ???. ? ?.:?????, 2006. 228 ?.
[9] ?????? ???????? ?????????: ???????/ ?.?. ????? ? ??.; ??? ???. ?????? ??. ?????????:
«??????». 2008. 580 ?.
[10] ??????? ?.?. ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. //
????????????? ???????? ??????????. ????? 6-? ????????. ??????-????. ????. ?: ???????????
??????? ? ??????, 2011, ?. 74-76
[11] ??????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ????????: ????, 2003. 32 ?.
[12] ???. ?? ?2365651/ ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ???????
?.?. ?????? ??????????????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ????????????????
??????????-?????????? ????????. ?????. 27.08.2009. ???. ?24.
[13] ???????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ? ????.????.????. ????????: ????, 2011. 23 ?.
[14] ?????? ?? ?2448180/ ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????
????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????-?????????? ????????. ?????. 20.04.2012.
???. ?11.
[15] ????????????? ? ???.???. ?????. ??? ??? ?2012661037 ?? 5.12.2012.
Development and Application
of the Phenomenon of Structural Heredity
in Aluminum Alloys
Vladimir I. Nikitin and Konstantin V. Nikitin
Samara State Technical University,
244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara, 443100, Russia
The short analysis of history and development of the phenomenon of structural heredity in aluminum
alloys is submitted. New results of the researches executed by scientific personnel of ?Foundry and
Highly Effective Technologies? chair of the Samara state university are given. The perspective of
further development of the phenomenon of structural heredity as a basis for creation of technologies
of genetic engineering in alloys is shown.
Keywords: phenomenon of structural heredity, aluminum alloys, melts, microcrystalline master alloys,
microstructure, mechanical properties, viscosity, structural information.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 430-435
~~~
??? 669 (075.8)
???? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
? ??????????????? ??????????
????????? ????????????
?.?. ??????*, ?.?. ???????
????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????
??. ?.?.?????????
??????, 603950, ?????? ????????, ??. ??????, 24
Received 13.01.2014, received in revised form 21.03.2014, accepted 05.06.2014
???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?
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???????? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? (????).
???????? ?????: ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????
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???????? ????????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ???????, ?????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???????
?? ???????????-????????????? ?????? ? ????????????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????
??????????, ? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????????, IT- ?
RP-??????????.
? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????, ????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????
? ??????? ????????. ??? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????
??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ????????????.
?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????????
???????, ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????: ?????????, ???????????, ?? ???????, ???????, ?????????, ?????? ? ?.?. ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: igoleu@yandex.ru
# 430 #
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?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????. ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????
???????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????. ?????? ??? ??????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????
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??? ??????????-?????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????
??????? [1].
? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????
????????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ??????????????, ????????????? ? ??????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????
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??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? IT-??????????.
? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? [2].
????????? ???????????, ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????
?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ????? ???
ANSYS ? NASTRAN. ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ?
?????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????? ?????????????,
??? ? ? ?????? ????????????. ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????,
??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ?? ? ?????????? ?????
??????? ???.
??? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????????????
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? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?, ???????, ???????????
?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ????????.
????? ?????, ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? 3D-?????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??-?? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????.
??? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????.
? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? (POLYCAST, POLYFORM ??????,
?. ?????-?????????), ??? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????.
?????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????, ? ????? ???????????????? ??????????????.
??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????, ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????-?????????. ???? ????????????? ??????????
?????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????????
# 431 #
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????? ??-?? ??????? ???? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????, ? ????? ????????? ????????.
????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ? ??????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????????, ?, ??????????????,
??????????. ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????.
????? ???????? ????????? (???) ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ?????,
??? ???? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????-??????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ????????. ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????? (?????????????, ?????????????? ? ?.?.). ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ?
???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????. ? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????
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????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????
? ????? ?????.
????? ???????? ????????? (???) ? ????? ???????? ??????? (???) ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????????? ? ???????????? ????. ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????
?? ????????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????
???????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????. «?????????» ???????????? ????????? ?? ???
??????, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?
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??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ? ???????????? ??? ? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ???.
????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ? ???, ?? ??? ???????????
? ??????? ???????? [3, 4]. ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???. ?????????????, ???
??????? ?????, ?????????, ????????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ????????? ????????????
???????? ???????? ?????? ????????????. ????????????? ??? ? ???????? ??????? ????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?, ?????????????, ? ??????? ????????????????? ????????????? ???????.
? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????:
? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????;
? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????;
? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????.
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????. ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????
??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? PDM/CAPP, ????????
?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? CAD-??????, ????? ??? Siemens NX, ADEM ? ??.
??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????
?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????, ???? ?? ??????????. ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???? Autodesk Inventor, ???????????????
?? ??????? «???????????? ?????».
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?
?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? (RP-????????).
??? ???? ????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????????? «????????????»
???????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????, ????????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????.
? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????,
????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????
????????, ? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????-??????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????????????.
? ???????? RP-???????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????, ??????? ???????:
? SLA (Stereo Lithography Apparatus), ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??????;
? SLS (Selective Laser Sintering) ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????;
? FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) ? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????????
????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????.
????? ????, ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????????? ???????????? ? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????
???? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????????
?????????.
??????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?? ??? ??????, ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????
? ????????????? ?????????? ?????.
??????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? (??? ??). ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
MagmaSoft ? ??????????? Procast, ? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ???????????? Solid?ast,
??????? CastCAE ? ???????? WinCast. ????? ????, ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????:
? Polycast (??????? ??????-????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????, ?. ??????????????) ? ??????????????? ????, ?????????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????:
# 433 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????. ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????
?? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????-???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? (???????, ????????????? ?
?????, ????????? ?? ???????, ??????????? ?????????) ? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????-??????????? ????????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????;
? «???????» (?????, ?. ?????-?????????) ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????????, ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????; ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????; ????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????
?????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???
????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????;
? LVMFlow (??????????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ?. ??????) ? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???
??????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ? ????? ???
?????????;
? ProCast (VES.Inc, ???) ? ????????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????; ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????;
? MAGMASOFT (MAGMAGmb, ???) ? ? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ?????? (????? ??? ?????????, ????? ? ?????????? ?????, ????? ??????);
? AFS Solidification System (???????????? ???????? ??????????, ???) ? ????????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????, ?? ???????????? ???????, ? ??????, ??? ?????????;
? EUCLID (MATRA, ???????) ? ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????,
? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ?????????. ?????????? Simular ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ?????, ? ??????, ?? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ???
??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????, ??????, ???????????, ?????? ? ??????????? ???????.
??? ??? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????
???????? ????????.
?? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? LVMFlow. ?? ???? ????????????? ???????? ????????
?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????.
????????????? ????? LVMFlow ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????
?????????-???????? ??????.
??? ?? LVMFlow ????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????, ???
????? ?? ???????????? ???????, ????? ? ?????, ? ??????, ?????????, ????? ??? ?????????.
?? ?????????????? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????, ? LVMFlow
??????????????? ???????????????????????, ?????? ? ???????????????, ???????, ???????# 434 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????. ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????
????????? ????????. ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????,
??? ????? ??? ????? ? ?????? ? ??? ?????????.
??????? LVMFlow ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ????? ? ??????? ? ?????, ?????????????? ?????? ????, ????? ????????? ? ????????,
??????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????. ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????
????????????? ? ???????? ????????? «??????» ???????.
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????, ?? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??????????????? ?
?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????,
?? ?????????: ????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? SLS-??????????,
????????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????.
???????????? ?? ??????? ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ???????
????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ???????????. ?.: ?????;
?????-?, 2013. 208 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????? ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????. ?. ????????: ????, 2002. 253 ?.
[3] ????????? ?. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????. ?.: ???, 1979. 392 ?.
[4] ???????? ?.?. ????????? ??????. ?.: ?????, 1978. 512 ?.
The Use of Mathematical Modeling
in Technological Preparation of Foundry
Igor O. Leushin and Vladimir A. Reshetov
Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev,
24 Minin Str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia
The basic principles of the system of mathematical modeling in the technological preparation of foundry
and examples of these systems are presented. The necessity of integration the available packages of
mathematical modeling in software complex computer-aided design (CAD) is showed.
Keywords: automation of technological preparation of production, foundry, mathematical modeling.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 436-442
~~~
??? 621.777: 621.777:22
???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
????? ? ???????????
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?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 22.01.2014, received in revised form 10.03.2014, accepted 12.04.2014
? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????
? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ???????. ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ???
???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????.
????????
??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ???????
??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????-????????? ????????? (???), ??????????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????????? ?????. ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????? 80 % ?????? ?????? ?? ????????????, ? ?????? ??????? ? ?? 100 %. ??????????? ?
???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????
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? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????
? 1856 ?. ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????
????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ????? [1]. ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ? ????? ?
??? ????? ?????????. ? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????
??????? ???????????? ?????. ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??-?? ??????
?????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????, ???
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: 244812@mail.ru
# 436 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
?
?
??c. 1. ????? ????????? ????????: ? ? ???????-?????????? ????????; ? ? ????? ????????? ??? ????????????
?????: 1 ? ?????????? ????; 2 ? ??????????? ????; 3 ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????; 4 ? ???????;
5 ? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????; 6 ? ????????? ????; 7 ? ??????????? ?????????; 8 ? ???????;
9 ? ?????????? ???????; 10 ? ??????????? ??????; 11 ? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????;
12 ? ????????????? ?????; 13 ? ??????? ?????????
????????? ? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????. ? 1947 ?. ????????? ?. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????. ????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ??????????
?? ?????? ????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ???????????????
?????????, ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ? 12-17-???????? ????????? ???? ? ????????????? ??
???????? 8ч15 ?? [2].
? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ? ???????? ???????? [2]. ??????? ??????? Southwire c ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? (SCR) ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??
???? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????. ??? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????
???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ???????. ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? Southwire ???????? ?????? Contiroid, ??????? ?????????? ???,
??? ? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? (???? ???????????? ?
???????) ? ????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????? (?????? Hazelett). ?????????
?????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? 120x50 ??. ???? ?????? ????????
??????? ???????????????????. ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?? 15 °?. ???????? ???????? ????? 11 ?/???. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????
????-??? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ???? ? ? ????? ??????????? ??? ???
?????, ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????. ? ????? ????? ?????????????
????????? ???? ???????? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ? ????????????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ? ???????? ?????, ? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ??????.
# 437 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
???. 2. ????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? Upcast: 1 ? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????
???????; 2 ? ????; 3 ? ???????????? ?????????? ????; 4 ? ?????; 5 ? ????; 6 ? ?????????????? ? ????????
??????????; 7 ? ??????? ??????????; 8 ? ?????? ?????????; 9 ? ??????????????? ??????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????
Deep-Forming. ? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????
????????????? ????? ???????. ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????
????????? ????????? ? 10,3 ?? 9,6 ??. ????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????. ????? ????????? ????????? 16 ?? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ??? ???????????
600ч700 °?. ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????. ????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????
??????, ??? ??? ??????, ?, ??????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????. ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? 22 ?/?, ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? 12 ?/? [2].
?? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? Upcast ??????? ?????? Outokumpu
(???. 2).
? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? 10ч50 ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????????. ?????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????. ????????????? ???? ?????????? ???
?? ???????? ????? ??????????????, ? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????.
???????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? 1 ?/???. ???? ???????? ????? ????????
????????? ? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ???????, ???????? ?? ??????, ???????, ?????? ? ??.
? ???? ? 60-? ??. ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ????? 1,5 ?/?. ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? 0,2 ?/?, ? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????
????????? 4,8 ?/?.
?? ????????? ?? 2012 ?. ??????? ??????????? ????? ????????-????????????? ????????? (???) ??????????? ????? ??? ? 6 ???? ????., ? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????
?????????? ????? 20 %. ???????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????
???????, ?? ??? ?????????? ????? 45 % ?????????. ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? 35 %. ????????? ???? ?????? ?????, ? ????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ?? ????? 20 %. ????? ????????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????
????????-????????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ???, ??? ????? 70 % ????????????? ? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????. ??
??????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? 14 % ??????????? ?????, ? ????????? 86 % ?????# 438 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????????????. ?? ?????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ????
? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??? «??
?????», ??? «?????????», ??? «?????????????. ????????????? ?????», ??????? «????????», ??? «?????????-???????», ??? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? «Continius
Properzzi».
??????????? ??????? ????? «Continius Properzzi» ??? ???????????? ????? ? ????????
??????????? ??????? ????????? 9 ?? ? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??????????
?????? 1500 ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? 2880 ??2 ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? 2,22,5 ??/???. ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ???????????????, ?????????
??????? ???????? ??????. ? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????. ????? ??????
??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????. ???? ??????? ?? 17 ???????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ??????. ?? ??????
?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ????????????
? ???????? ?????? ??????. ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???????.
????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????, ????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ???????
????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????.
?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????, ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????
???????????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ?????. ??? ????????????? ??????????
??????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????. ?????????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ??-?? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????????. ??? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????
? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????. ????? ????, ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?
???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????. ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????. ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ? ???
????????? ???? ?? ????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? [3], ? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????
?????-???????. ??????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????-??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???
????????? «???????» [3]. ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ??????? Babcock
Wire Equipment ? Holton Machinery LTD ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????
?????? ?? ????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????.
?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????, ????????
# 439 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
???. 3. ????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????: 1 ? ????-?????? ? ?????????
2 ? ??????????????; 3 ? ????????? ??????? 3; 4 ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????; 5 ?
???????; 6 ? ??????; 7 ? ???? ?????????????? ???????; 8 ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????
???????; 9, 10 ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????; 11 ? ?????? [4]
??????????? ???????? ???????, ? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ???????
??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????.
?? ?????? ????????????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????? «????????? ???????? ?????????» ? «???????? ????????????» ?????????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? [3], ? ?????????? ???? ???????
????????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??????-??????????????? ???????????? ????, ?????
??????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???. 3 [4].
?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? 2, ???????????
? ???? ?????. ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? (?? ??????? ?? ???????) ????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? 1 ? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? 3, ??????????? ?? ???????
????? ????? ??????????????? 2. ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? 3 ??? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????
???????? ??????????????? 2. ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? 8 ????????????? ?????? ???????????, ????????????????? ? ????????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ??????? 3. ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? 8 ?? ??????????? ?????????????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ??????? ??
???????? ????????? ??????? 3. ????? ????????????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? 3 ??
???? ???????? ??????????????? 2 ????????? ??????? 6 ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
# 440 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
???????? 4, ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? 3
? ????????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ?????-??????? 12 ?????
??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? 5.
????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ???? ??????????
??? ???????????? ???????????. ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????,
??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ????-???????????. ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????????-??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?
?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? (??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????????????????? ????????? ? ?.?.), ??????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?
??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????
???? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????-????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????: «??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????», «?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????
????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????», «?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????», ??? ??????????? ? ????
?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????????? ? ?????????? ????????
??? ??? [5-8].
??????
??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ??????????
? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????
??????????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?. // ?????? ???????. 1985. ? 12. ?. 3-8.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? / ??? ???.
?.?. ????????. ?: ???????????, 1988. 408 ?.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????? ?????????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????????? ????????. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2013. 224 ?.
[4] ???. 111659 ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?22D 11/06, ?21? 23/00.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ???. ???. ?????. ??? ??? ?2010613104
(2010).
[6] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ???. ???. ?????. ??? ???
?2011610265 (2011).
# 441 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
[7] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ???. ???. ?????. ??? ???
?2011611626 (2011).
[8] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ???. ???. ?????. ??? ???
?2011616675 (2011).
Development of the Combine Continuous Process
of Foundry and Extrusion
Yury V. Gorohov,
Sergey V. Belyaev, Igor V. Uskov,
Ivan Y. Gubanov and Alexandr A. Kosovich
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The main stages of development of the continuous processes for production of wire and rolled wire
out of the nonferrous metals and alloys are described in the article. Further improvement of this
processes is the combine continuous process of the foundry and extrusion by the method Conform. The
theoretical and technological design bases are established for this process.
Keywords: combine continuous process of the foundry and extrusion by the method Conform.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 443-448
~~~
??? 621.746,621.74.002
????????????? ?????????? ??????,
????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
?.?. ??, ?. ??, ?.?. ???????*
????????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
??????, 680035, ?????????, ??. ?????????????, 136
Received 05.02.2014, received in revised form 14.03.2014, accepted 22.05.2014
? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????-??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????
????????????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????,
????????????? ????????, ? ??????? ?? ??????????, ? ??? ????- ? ???????????????
????????. ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? (Al, Cu, Ni, Sn) ?? ?????????
????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????, ????? ????? ???????, ?????????, ??????????? ??????,
????????????????, ??????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ??????.
? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????, ????.%: 1,9?2,0 ?; 0,9?1,0 Si;
0,5 Mn; 0,1 S ? P; 8,0 Cr. ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????: Cu (0,1?1,0 ???.%); Ni
(0,5?2,5 ???.%); Al (0,5?2,0 ???.%); Sn (0,1?1,0 ???.%).
??? ??????????? ???????? 1500 °? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????
3 ?? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????????? Q-1000. ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? 10 ????/??? ?? ???????????
900 °?. ??? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? 20, 40 ? 60 ???. ??? ????
????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????
?T??? = f(T????) [???], ????? ?m = f(T, ?) ? ???????? ????????? V?m = f(T, ?) [??]. ?? ?????????
???? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ??????
????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ??????? S ( ?m S ,?/?2).
?????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ?? ??????????? 150 °? ???????? ??? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?
???????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? 440 °?. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? (??). ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
??? (??????? I ?? ?????? ???) ? ??????????? ????? ???????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: equalgod88@gmail.com
# 443 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??, ?. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
?? ??????? II ?????? ??? ? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? 758 °?. ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? (Fe, Cr)7C3.
?? ??????? III ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? (??) ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????
???????????????? ???????.
?? ??????? IV ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
850 °? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ?? 900 °? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? (Fe, Cr)7C3.
??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????, ????? ?? 1,0 ???.% ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???:
? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????, ??? ? ??????????
(~200 °?); ???? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????;
? ?? ?????????? ???? 0,5 ???.% ?????? ??? (??????? II) ????? ????? ??????? ????????
(????????); ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????????, ?.?. ????????????? ????????? ??????????;
? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????
???????? ??? (????? ??????? I) ????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? (0 % Cu ?
440 °? ? 1,0 ???.% Cu ? 500 °?);
? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????: ???
0 % Cu ? 850 °?; ??? 0,75?1,0 ???.% Cu ? 810?820 °?.
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???
??????????? ?????????? ?????? Ni, Sn, Al.
????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? t ?1 ? ?????
t ??1 ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ????????
?????-??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ????????????????
???????? t? (???. 1, ?-?). ??? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????
?
?????? ? Cu ? Ni (???. 1, ?-?) ? ??????????? t ?1 ? t ?1 ?????????. ??????? ??????????? ???????
???????????????? ???????, ??????????????, ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????????
Cu ? Ni.
?
?
??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? t ?1 ? t ?1
?? 0,5 ???.% Sn. ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
??????? ???????????????? ??????? t? (???. 1, ?). ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????????
?????? Cu, Ni ? Sn ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????.
??????? ????????-????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????: ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? 0,5 ???.% Al, ? ?????
?? ???????? ?? 1,0 ???.% Al (???. 1, ?). ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????. ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????, ??? ??????# 444 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??, ?. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
?
?
???. 1. ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? t ?1 ? ????? t ?1 ?????????????
??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? t?
????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? t?, ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ? Fe3AlC3, ?? 1,0 ???.% Al ? ???????????? ??
?? ???? ??????.
?? ???. 2, ? ? ?, ? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ????? ?? ?????????????
(????? ????? ???????) ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ????
?? 0,5 ???.% ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? 1,0 ???.% Cu. ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? (800?900 °?), ???
??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ????????????
????. ??? ???????????? ????????? 500?700 °? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
??? 0,25?0,5 ???.% Cu.
??????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? 40-60 ??? (900 °?) ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? 0,25 ???.% Cu (???. 2, ?, ?-?). ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? 20 ?? 60 ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 43 ?? 94 ?/?2.
??????? ????? ??????? ? 0,25 ???.% Cu ?????????? 25 ?/?2 ? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????????.
??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? (???. 2, ?, ?-?) ? ??????? (???. 3, ?,
?-?). ???????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????? 600?700 °? ??? 0,25 ???.% Sn ? 1,0 ???.% Ni.
# 445 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??, ?. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
???. 2. ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????: ? ? ????;
? ? ?????
? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????
??? 0,5 ? 1,5 ???.% Al ??? ???????????? ????????? 700?900 °?, ? ??? ??????????????????
?????????? (600?700 °?) ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? 1,5 ???.% Ni (???. 3,
?, ?-?).
????? ???????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? (0,25?0,5 ???.%), ??????? (0,25 ???.%), ?????? (0,5 ???.%) ?
????????? (0,5 ???.%). ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????????, ??? ?????????
????? ?????.
# 446 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 3. ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ??????: ? ? ??????;
? ? ????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??, ?. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
Heat Resistance of Chrome Iron Doped
with Graphitizer
Ernest H. Ri,
Hosen Ri and Mikhail A. Ermakov
Pacific National University,
136 Pacific Str., Khabarovsk, 680035, Russia
The methods of penetrating gamma radiation and thermal analysis are used for determining the
beginning of eutectoid transformation temperature, and also a method of thermographic analysis
to detect the fact of the process, the temperature range in which it occurs and endo- and exothermic
characters. The effect of the graphitizer (Al, Cu, Ni, Sn) to improve the heat resistance of chrome white
iron is established.
Keywords: heat resistance, decrease the mass of the sample, eutectoid, thermal analysis,
thermogravimetry , endothermic effect, exothermic effect.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 449-455
~~~
??? 669.234
????????????? ????????
????????? ??????????? ??????
?.?. ?????*, ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 19.01.2014, received in revised form 26.02.2014, accepted 13.03.2014
? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????
??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????????
????????????????? ??????. ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????
???????? ? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????
??????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ????????? ??????, ???????????, ??????????????, ?????????
?????????.
??? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????
? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???
?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????? [1].
?????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????????:
? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????;
? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????;
? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????. ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????-??????????? ???????, ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????.
????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????? [2].
??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????. ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ?? ???. 1 ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ????? ?????? ??????????
??????????? ????????? ????????. ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????????? ???????????
????????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: 244812@mail.ru
# 449 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
???. 1. ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????? [3]
???????-??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????, ????????, ?????????? ?
???????. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
?????????.
?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????
???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????.
????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????
??????? ?? ?????? ???????? 900-? ? 950-? ????, ??????? ?????? ?? ???????, ????????????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ?????? ? ???, ? ?????????? ?
????????? ???????????, ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ? ??????? ?????????? ???????.
???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????????? ????????
?????. ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????: ??????????????, ?????? ? ????????? ? ???
?????????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ????????????? [4].
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? [3] ????? ???????, ?????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????.
?? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????
????????? ?? ????????, ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ???????, ???????
???? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????
??? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????????
????????????????? ??????.
# 450 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
??????? 1. ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ???????????
????????? ? ??????????????
?????
?????????? ????????, %
??????????? (??????), °?
Pd
Cu
Ag
Sn
????????
???????
?1
90
4
3
3
1515
1442
?2
95
3
1
1
1529
1485
?3
90
-
5
5
1517
1430
?4
95
-
2
3
1535
1480
?5
95
1,95
3,05
-
1532
1505
?6
90
3,89
6,11
-
1512
1458
?7
95
1,45
2,55
1
1537
1509
?8
90
3,39
5,61
1
1517
1468
???. 2. ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????. 1
?? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???????? [5], ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ????. 1, ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ??
???. 2.
??? ??????? ? 5-8 ??????????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????
? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????,
??? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????. ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????
????????? (232 °?) ??????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? (2595 °?), ??? ?? ???????? ?????
?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?
???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??-??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????.
# 451 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
???????, ??????? ????????, ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????????.
????, ??? ? ???????, ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ???
?????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????.
??????????? ? ??????? ? ????????? 900-? ? 950-? ???? ????????, ????, ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????.
?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ????. 2. ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ????. 3.
????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????????-???????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ? ??????????????????. ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
????????.
????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ????? ??????????
?????????????? ????????????. ??? ??????? ?????, ???????????? ? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????.
??????? 2. ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ???????????
????????? ? ??????????????
?????????? ????????, %
?????
???????????, °?
?????????,
???/??2
Pd
Cu
Ag
Si
????????
???????
1?
95
4,8
-
0,2
1516,9
1451,55
154
2?
95
-
4,85
0,15
1532,61
1514,13
127
3?
90
9,6
-
0,4
1479,8
1350,7
181
4?
90
-
9,7
0,3
1512,13
1488,06
150
??????? 3. ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ???????????
????????? ? ??????????????
?????????? ????????
???????????, °?
?????
Pd
Cu
Ag
Si
????????
???????
?????????,
???/??2
1?
95
4,9
---
0,1
1465
1440
122
2?
95
---
4,9
0,1
1470
1445
135
3?
90
---
9,9
0,1
1464
1431
115
# 452 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
????? 1?
????? 2?
????? 3?
???. 3. ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????. 3
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? (???. 3) ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????
???????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????,
?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????.
????????? ?????? (???. 3, ????? 1?) ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????
??????? ???? ? ??????? ? ????????. ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ????????, ? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
? ????????? ???????????? ?????? (???. 3, ????? 2?) 950-? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ?
????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ????
?????????? ?????, ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????.
? ??????????? ?????? 900-? ????? (???. 3, ????? 3?), ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????
9,9 % ? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????, ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ??
????????????? ???????, ????????, ??? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????, ??????????? 95 % ????????, 4,8 % ???? ? 0,2 % ???????, ?????????? ??????????????, ????? ?? ??????????, ????? ????? ????. ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????, ??????????? 95 % ????????, 4,85 %
??????? ? 0,15 % ???????, ?????? ?????, ? ????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ???????. ?????,
?????????? 90 % ????????, 9,6 % ???? ? 0,4 % ???????, ?????? ???????, ????? ??????????,
????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????, ?? ???????? ??
??????????. ?????, ?????????? 90 % ????????, 9,7 % ??????? ? 0,3 % ???????, ?????? ???????, ????? ??????????, ????? ?? ??????????, ????? ????? ????? ????, ? ??????? ???????????
????????? ?????????? ??????.
?????? ??????? Pd-Ag-Si ????????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? Pd-Cu-Si ????? ??????? ?????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????.
???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????
?????? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????: ??????????????
(???????????), ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?
# 453 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
???? ? ??????. ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????????
?????????? ??????????: ????, ???????. ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????
?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????: ?????, ???????, ????????,
?????, ????, ???????.
?????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
(?????????) ????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????
????? ????????????? ???????????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????, ?? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? PdAg-Cu [6], Pd-Ag-Sn, Pd-Ag-Si [7] ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????????
50, 80, 85, 90 ? 95 ???????? ?????????. ?? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
???????????? ????? ????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ????????? ??????????? ???
???????? ????????????? ??????????????, ?? ???? ? ??????????????? ???? ???????????
??????????.
??????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????, ? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????????
???????? ? ???????. ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????, ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????, ???, ????????, ??????? ? ????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????????
? ??????? ?????????.
? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? Pd-Ag-Si ? PdCu-Si ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? 0,1ч0,3 ???. % [7]. ??? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????????. ????? ????,
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????? (?????? ? 206???).
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????: ???. ? ????. / ??? ???. ?.?. ?????????. ?.: ???????????, 1980. 254 ?.
[2] ?????? ?.?. ?????? ???????. (???????? ????????. ????? ???????????). ?.: ???????????, 1984. 160 ?.
[3] ??????????? ???????: ?????????? / ??? ???. ?. ?. ?????????. ?.: ???????????, 1984.
592 ?.
[4] ????????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?.:
?????, 2005. 376 ?.
# 454 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
[5] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????????????. ??????????????
???????? ? ??? ???????: ??????? ??????? / ??????. ??????????, 2007. 152 ?.
[6] ???. 2479655 ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?22? 5/04. ????? ?? ?????? ???????? 500
?????/ ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????????? ? ??. (??) - ? 2011145753/02; ?????. 10.11.2011;
?????. 20.04.2013, ???. ? 11.
[7] ???. 2479656 ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?22? 5/04. ???????? ????????? ?????
?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? / ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????????? ? ??. (??) /
? 2012109037/02; ???. ? 11.
Jewelry Casting Alloys
with a High Palladium Content
Igor V. Uskov, Vladimir V. Moskvichev,
Sergei V. Belyaev and Danil I. Uskov,
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
In article the method for the development of palladium-based alloys, based on the analysis of the phase
diagrams of binary alloys and construction, based on them, polytermic cuts multicomponent systems
is proposed. The high convergence of the results of theoretical calculations and experimental data on
the crystallization range of multi-component systems is established.
Keywords: palladium, jewelry alloys, alloying, microstructure, phase diagrams.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 456-461
~~~
??? 621.74.001.2(0758)
«????????» ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????
???????? ????????? ????????-???????????? ????
????????? ??????? ???
?.?. ????????*?, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
??? ???-??????????,
??????, 662150, ??????,
??????? ????? ????????, ???????? 1
Received 25.02.2013, received in revised form 15.03.2014, accepted 28.04.2014
? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????.
??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??2-??????? ? ?????? ????? ? ?????????????
??????????? ???????? ?????. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? «????????» ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???
??????? ???? ????????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ?????, ???????? ???????, ?????? ???????????.
? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ???? ??
???????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????. ???????????
?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????. ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????
????????????? ???????, ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????. ??
??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????
? ?????????? ?? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????. ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????
??????? ??? «???-??????????» ? ?. ???????. ? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ??
?????? ??????????? ?????????? 850 ? ? ?????, ?? ??? ? 2014 ?. ??????????? ????????? ??? ??
17 ???. ? ? ???. ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????????????, ???????? ????????????
????????? ???? ????????? ? ???????? ? ????????????.
? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ????????
????????? ??2-???????. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??2 ???????? ? ???????????
? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: g1248@mail.ru
# 456 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? «????????» ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????; ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????.
????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????,
???????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????.
???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????, ?????
??? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????????????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????
???????????? ????????.
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????, ???
????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????
???? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????. ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????
????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?
?????????? ???????? [1].
? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????, ? ???
????????? ?????????????? ????, ????????? ????????????. ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????
??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ???????, ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????.
? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? (???), ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? (?old-box???????); ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? (N?-bake-???????) [2].
Cold-box-???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??
??????, ?????, ??????? ???????. ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????
????????????? (????????????????????) ????? ???????????????? ???? ? ????????????.
??????-??????? ????? (????-????????? ?????) ? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????????. ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??
???????????. ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? ????? ? ???????????. ?????? ??????????
????????????????-4,4?-??????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? (???????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? 2), ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?N=C=O. ???????????
???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? (????????? ??????). ????? ??????????? ?
???????? ?????????????. ? ?????????, ??? ??????????? (???), ??????????????? (????); ???????????????????? (????).
??????? ????? ?????????-??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????:
OH
~
B
OH
~
CH2 O CH2
~
e
e
e
e
HO CH2
B
OH
e
e
CH2
B
~
e
CH2OH
e
n
m
+
O
C
NRN
CO
(Amin)
NC OROCNRNCO R
~
H
~
O
~
~
O H
# 457 #
~
H
~
O
n
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? «????????» ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????? 1,2 ? 1,8 ???. ? ?? 100 ???. ? ?????.
???????????? Cold-?ox-???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????
????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ????????????. ???????????? ????? ????? ??????????????.
? ??????????? Cold-?ox-???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????, ?????????
????????? ??????, ? ????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????.
?????-???-??????? (????????????? No-bake-????????) ??????????? ??? ????????????
???????? ?????? ?? 100 ??. ????????? ? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? (???????????) ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????:
?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????, ????? ?? ???????? ????. ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????????, ?-???????????? ??? ????????????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????
???????? RCOOR?. ? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?
?????????? ???????. ? ?????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?
???????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? (???) ?????????? ? ????????????? (???). ?
?????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????
? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
??????????? ??????:
??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? 1,3 ? 1,8 % ??
?????????? ?????, ? ?????????? ??????????? ? 20 ? 25 % ?? ?????????? ?????. ????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?? 24 % ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ???????? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????
???????????, ? ?? ??? ???????????. ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???? ?????
????? ?? ????? ??????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????. ??????????????????? ????? ????? ???????, ? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????.
# 458 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? «????????» ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ?-set-????????: ????????????? ??? ?????? ? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????????
????????? ? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ????????????????, ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?
??????????? (?????????? ? ??????), ??????? (?? ????????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ????????????
?????????, ? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????) ??????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????? ?-set-????????: ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? (??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????).
?????????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?
?????. ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? 2,4 ? 2,5. ??????????? ?
?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????????, ?????-???????????? ??? ????????????????.
?????? ?????? (??????? ??????) ?? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ?
???????? ????????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ????????
????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?????: ??? ????????? ? ??????????, ? ???????
??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????????, ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????
(??=10-12). ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? (??) ?? ???????? 5-7 ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????. ??? ???????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ???? ? ?????? ??????. ???????
??????? ???????? ??, ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????????????
??????? ???????.
?2SiO3 ? SiO2? +H2O.
??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ? ?????. ???
??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????.
R-COO ? R + NaOH ? RCOONa + ROH.
???????? ???? ??????? ??????:
? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??-?? ????????????? ????? ??????;
? ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ??????
??-?? ?? ??????? ??????????????;
? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????;
? ??????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???????.
?? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ????
??????? ???????????, ? ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? «?????????» (?. ?. ?????????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????????).
?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? (??????? ???????????): SiO2 / Na2O: 30 / 10 = 3. ??
???? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ????????? ???????, ???
# 459 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? «????????» ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????. ???????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????.
??????? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????????.
??????? ?????????? ????????? ? NaOH:
C3H5(OOCCH3)3 + 3NaOH ? 3CH3COONa + C3H5(OH)3.
??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????????.
????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????.
??? ?????????? ? ????? 5 % ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? 0,35 %.
???????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????: ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ??2?????????, ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?, ??????????????, ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ????????????.
?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??????: ????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????????
????????????, ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????.
????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? (??????????????? ????? ????? ????????????
??????????). ??????, ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????
????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ?????????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ? ????????? ????????????. ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????????,
?????????-????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????.
????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??2-???????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???, ???? ???????????????? ????????? ???????:
??????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????, ?????????, ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????;
????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????, ?????????????;
????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????.
???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ???
????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ????????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????,
# 460 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? «????????» ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????
?????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (?????-???-???????).
??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?
??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ??????. 2004. ???. 2. ?. 1019.
[2] ?????????? ????????? ????????????: ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? / ??? ???. ?.?.
??????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ? ??. ??????: ????, 2002. 270 ?.
«Cold» Cores ? Perspective Quality
Improvement Foundry Product of Repair Base
of Achinsk Branch RIC
Galina S. Sanachevaa,
Irina V. Dubovaa, Natalia M. Vostrikovaa,
Evgeny G. Leontievb and Tatiana R. Gilmanshinaa
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
RUS-Engineering Inc.,
1 Building, South Industrial Area, Achinsk, 662150, Russia
In this article possible ways to improve the quality of repair castings are discussed. The CO2-process
used in the enterprise is analyzed and concludes that it is impossible to ensure the quality of castings.
Authors offered modernization of production technology rods through the use of ?cold? rods as the
most appropriate for this type of production.
Keywords: repair casting, cold bars, liquid hardener.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 462-466
~~~
??? 622.7
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????*,
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 15.01.2014, received in revised form 25.02.2014, accepted 18.04.2014
??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????? (??????????, ????????????? ? ?????????)
? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ???????. ????
???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????????????????? ??????, ??????????, ?????????????, ?????????,
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????.
???????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? (? ??????? 83 %) ????????????? ???????:
??????????????, ????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ????????? ? ???? ????? ???????? ??????,
??????????????? ? ???????? ????????, ???????? ? ???????? ????????. ?????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????. 1.
?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????????????? ?
?????????? ?????????? ???????. ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????
?????????????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????- ? ????????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????. ?????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??
??????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????????????? ?????.
??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????
????????? ????????. ????????????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????, ???? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ???
????????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????
??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ? 0,08 ??, ? ??? ??????? ? ???, ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????????. ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? [1?3].
??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????
? ????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????????????????, ??????????????? ???????, ????????????????? ??????????, ????????-??????????? ?????????,
??????????, ??????, ?????????, ???? ? ?.?.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: gtr1977@mail.ru
# 462 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???-2 (?)
?????
???????
?????????, %
???-2 (?)
15-20
Fe
5,6
S
1,0
?????????? ???????, %
Si
Al
Ca
K
1,8
1,1
2,2
???????????
??????
Ti
0,7
0,16
????? (SiO2);
??????? (CaCO3);
??????? ?????? (FeS);
???????? (Si3AlO10(OH)2);
???????? (Al2Si4O5(OH)4)
? ???????? ????????;
? ???????????????
????????
???-2 (3)
??????????????? ? ??? (????? ?, ?, ?) ??? ??? ??? (????? ?, ?)
??????????????????
?, ?
????????? ????
?????? ?????????????
?
?????????????
? ???????
???????????? ???
????????? ????
?
? ?
?????????? ??????????
?????????????????? ?????????
?
?, ?,
?????????
?????? ???
?????????????
? ???????
???????????? ???
?, ?
?????????
???????? ???
?????
?????????????
???????????????
????? ? ? ???-1? (????????? 12 %)
????? ? ? ???-0? (????????? 4-6 %)
????? ? ? ???-0? (????????? 3-5 %)
????? ? ? ???-0? ? ???-1? (????????? 6-12 %)
????? ? ? ???-1? (????????? 11-13 %)
?????????
?????? ???
????? ? ? ???-1??
????? ? ? ???-0??
????? ? ? ???-0??
????? ? ? ???-0? ? ???-1?
????? ? ? ???-1??
???. 1. ????? ?????????? ?????????????????????? ???????
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??-?? ??? ?????????-??????????? ????????????.
????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????????
??? ??????????. ??????? ???? ??? ?????????????????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????
??????? ??????????, ??? ????????????, ???????????????, ?????????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????, ????????????? ????????????? ? ?? ????????? (???. 1).
????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ??????? ? 20?25 ?? 1?10 % ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????.
???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ?? ? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ????, ?????????????? ????????????
??????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????
# 463 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
?????? (?????????? ???? (S) = 0,8?1 %
1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7
???????????????
??? ??? (1, 2, 5, 6, 7) ???
??? ??? (????? 3, 4) (??)
8
7
????? ?????????
??????? ????? (?)
7 (?? + ?): S = 0,05 %
8 (?): S = 0,15?0,16 %
5 (?? + ??? + ??): S = 0,15?0,16 %
6 (?? + ??): S = 0,06?0,21 %
9 (??): S = 0,26?0,27 %
10 (??? + ??): S = 0,2?0,21 %
9
10, 11
6
5
3, 4
?????????? ??????????
(?)
5, 10
????? ??????????????
????????????? (??)
3 (?? + ?): S = 0,75?0,8 %
???????????????????????
????????? (???)
11 (???): S = 0,25?0,26 %
12
4
2
1
??????????????????
????????????? (?)
2 (?? + ?): S = 0,75?0,80 %
4 (?? + ? + ?): S = 0,95 %
12 (?): S = 0,75?0,8 %
1 (??): S = 0,82?0,91 %
???. 2. ????? ????????????? ???????: 1?12 ? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????????
????????? ??????. ? ????? ? ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????? (???. 2).
?????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????
??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????, ????? ????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
??????? (??????????????? + ????????????? ?????; ??????????????? + ????????????? ????? + ????????????? ?????????????; ??????????????????????? ????????? + ?????????????
?????????????; ??????????????? + ??????????????????????? ????????? + ?????????????
?????????????) ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? 0,05 %.
??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????????
?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????.
? ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????.
????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ????????
??? ????????? ? ??????????. ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
????? ??? ???? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ? ?????????????-??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? [4].
? ???????, ??? ? ? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ?????? ????? ?????? ??????
????, ?? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????, ???-???-???????????. ? ????? ????????
????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ????# 464 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
???. 3. ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????
???? ????? ? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????. ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????
«????????????????? ?????????? ?????????», ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?
«????????????????», ????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ? «??????????» [5].
??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? (???. 3).
? ?????, ????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????. ???, ??? ??????????
???????, ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???? ?? 0,05 %. ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????,
??? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? 3?5 %, ? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? 0,05?1 % ? ??-?????
? ??????????????? ????????????????. ??? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????. ????????? ??? ???????
? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
??? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????? [6].
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?. ???. ? ?-?? ????. ????. ??????????, 1989. 426 ?.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ????.... ????. ????. ????. ??????????, 2005. 131 c.
[3] ??????????? ?.?. ???. ? ????. ????. ????. ?????????, 2004. 136 ?.
[4] ?????? ?.?. ? ??. // ????? ??????. ????.-???. ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????. ??????????: ??? ????, 2006. ?. 276278.
[5] ???????????????? ?????????? [??????????? ??????]. ????? ???????: http://femto.
com.ua/articles/part_1/1386.html
[6] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. // ???????? ????????????. 2003. ? 2.
?. 16-18.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
Promising Ways of Preparing Graphite
Ludmila I. Mamina ,
Tatiana R. Gilmanshina, Sergey V. Belyaev,
Galina A. Koroleva, Svetlana I. Lytkina
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The individual (enrichment, desulphuration and oxidation of cryptocrystalline graphite) and
complex ways to improve the quality of cryptocrystalline graphite are developed and first used. The
recommendations by the use of developed technology in the future depending on the application of
graphite are given.
Keywords: cryptocrystalline graphite, enrichment,
of preparation of graphite.
desulphuration, oxidation, complex technology
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 367-373
~~~
??? 621.762:69.2
????????????????? ????????? ?????????
? ??????????????
???????????????????? ??????????
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????*,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 30.12.2013, received in revised form 15.03.2014, accepted 25.04.2014
????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????????. ???????????,
??? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????
?? ??????-???????????? ???????? (????????? ? ?????????). ? ???????? ????????????
???? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????
????????????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????
??????????, ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? 40-50 % ? ??
????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ????????? ?????????, ???????????????, ????????
???????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????????, ??????????????? ???????, ??????????
???????????.
????????
????????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ? ????? ?????? [1].
? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ? ???????? ????????? ?????, ? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???
?????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ? ??.
??? ??????????? ??????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????,
??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? 3 % [2], ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????-????????????
???????? ??????? ???????.
???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????: 1) ????? ??????? ? ???????????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: 244812@mail.ru
# 467 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
???. 1. ????????????????? ???????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????; 2) ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????; 3) ????????
???????? ??? ??????????? 0,7 ? 0,8??? ????????? ??????????; 4) ??????? ??????????? ???????
?? ??????????? ????????? (??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????); 5) ???????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????.
? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????-???????, ??????????? ? ?????????
???????????? ????? ? ????????-??????????? ? ????? (???. 1).
?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????????
? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ??-1 (???? 5279-74) ? ???-2 (???? 5420-74). ????? ??????????
????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????
??????-???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? (?????????, ?????????), ??? ? ???????
??????????????? ???????? ?????????.
????????, ??? ???????????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????, ???????? ?? ????????????????? ?????????? (????????? ???????, ?????????,
????????) ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? [3?5]. ??? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?
????????????? ???? ???????? ????, ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? (?? ???? ????????
????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????????), ? ? ?????????? ?????????????
????, ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????
???????, ??? ?????????? ????. ?? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
???????? ??????-?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????, ???
??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ??????, ? ??? ??????-???????????? ????????. ? ???? ??, ??? ???? ???????? ?.?. ??????? [6], ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????????????? ?? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ?? ???? ??? ??????# 468 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????, ?.?. ??????????????? ?????
???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????.
?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????????????? ???????? ???-2. ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????
???????, ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????? [7?9].
???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? 750-800 °? ? ??????? 8-15 ??? ??? ????? ????????????????????? ???????????????? ??????? (??-1) ??? ????, ????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ???????. ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??, ??????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????.
???????? ??????????? ????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????-???????? (???. 2). ??? ???? ??????? ???????
???????????? ????? ?????????????? «????????» ????????? 20 ?? ? ??????? 4-7 ??.
?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????.
???????, ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????. 1, 2.
??????????? (????. 2), ??? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? (???. 3, 4), ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????. ??? ?????????????
? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? «????», ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ? ?????????????, ????????? ????????? ? ????????????
????????????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????.
? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??-1 ? ???-2 ? ?????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? 1:3, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????
???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? (???. 5).
??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? (???????? Al-Ni, ??????, ??????) ??
???????????? ???????? ?????-?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ? ?????????
?
?
???. 2. ?????-??????? ??? ??????????? ???????-??????????? ?????????: ? ? ????? ???; ? ? ??????
?????-???????
# 469 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? 1. ??????? ?????-?????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????
?????
???????
Cu, %
??, %
???, %
Al-Ni, %
Ti, %
Pb, %
1
96
3
1
0
0
0
2
96
1
3
0
0
0
3
96
2
2
0
0
0
4
90
2
2
6
0
0
5
92
1
3
3
1
0
6
88
3
3
5
1
0
7
89
1
3
3
0
4
8
92
0
4
0
0
4
??????? 2. ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????-?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????
???????????? ?????????
??????????????? ??????
?????
????????
? ????, ???
?????????, ??
??????
?????????
?? ??????, ???
1
10
63,9
82
2
10
76
116
3
10
68
78
15
56,3
94
15
71,1
133
????? ???????
4
5
????????
?????????
???????????,
???
261 ? 299
???????????
????????, °?
740 ? 770
6
15
46,6
59
7
30
64,5
80
8
25
51,7
55
???. 3. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
???. 4. ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
???. 5. ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????
???????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????
????. ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????, ??????? ?? ?? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????.
?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????. ???
?? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????: ???????? ??????? ????? ???3 ??
# 471 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
??????? 3. ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????
????? ???????
?????? ?????????
Fe, %
??, %
???, %
?????????, ??
9
96
1
3
161
10
92
2
6
154
11
98
0,5
1,5
175
???? 9849-86, ?????? ???????? ????????????????????? ????? ???-2 ?? ???? 5420-74, ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??-1 ?? ???? 5279-74.
?????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????????. ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????-???????
??? ????????? 299 ???. ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????-???????, ?? ??????? ??? ???????????
1000 °? ? ??????? 20 ??? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????. ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????
(??????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????) ??? ????????? ? 892??? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?
500 °?.
????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ? ????. 3.
??? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ? 1,5-2 ????
??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????-??????????? (????. 3), ??? ??????????? ??? ???????
?????????? ???????? ??????, ??? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? (?? 6,67 %), ?,
??? ?????????, ???????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????.
??????????
?????????? ?????? ????????? c ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????.
??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????
(?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????) ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????, ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????? ?? 4-6 % (? ??????, ? ??????????????? ????????) ??? ??????????
??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????.
? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? 15-20 ???. ?????????? ?????????? ???????
???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
????????????????? ??????????.
????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????-?????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????-?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????
???? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????.
# 472 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????????. ?.: ???????????, 1980. 496 ?.
[2] ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????: ????. ??? ?????. ?.: ???????????, 1987. 792 ?.
[3] ???????? ?.?. ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????. ?.: ?????, 1988. 208 ?.
[4] ?????? ?.?. ???. ? ?-?? ????. ????. ??????????, 1989. 426 ?.
[5] ??????? ?.?. ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????. ?.: ??????????, 1972. 238 ?.
[6] ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? / ??? ???. ??. ?????, ?.
?????. ?.: ???????????, 1977. ?. 107-127.
[7] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 7 (2012 5) 737-743.
[8] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ??????. 2010. ? 11.
?. 41-44.
[9] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ? ?????: ?????? XXI ????:
??. ?????????? ??????. ?????. ????. ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??????: ? 7 ?. ?. 7/ ????.
?.?. ????????. ??????????, 2009. ?. 255-257.
Metal-Graphite Sintered Composites
with Using Mechanically Activated Materials
Ludmila I. Mamina , Sergey V. Belyaev,
Igor V. Chuprov, Alexander I. Bezrukih,
Vladimir N. Baranov and Igor V. Kostin
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
The studies of the creation of low-cost metal-graphite inserts press-matrix used in the combined
casting and rolling compaction are made. It`s founded that the mechanoactivation of starting materials
improves sinterability of samples and increases their mechanical properties (strength and hardness).
Being the study formulations provide high operational properties metal-graphite inserts was designed.
The technological modes of preparation and sintering materials that reduce process time by 40-50 %
and do not require the creation of special protective atmosphere are developed.
Keywords: metal-graphite sintered composites, mechanical activation, the combined processes of
casting and rolling compaction, anti-friction insert, powder metallurgy.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 474-479
~~~
??? 621.311
Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
Marina P. Baranovaa,
Qian Lib, Zhi-Ying Zhengb, Feng-Chen Lib,
Vladimir A. Kulagina* and Dmitriy S. Likhachevc
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology
Harbin city, 150001, China.
c
Zhejiang University
Yuhangtang Road, Xihu District, Hangzhou,
Zhejiang Province, 866, 310 058, China
Received 12.12.2013, received in revised form 24.02.2014, accepted 05.06.2014
The opportunity of technological and modified lignosulphonate wastes, process water, oxygenized
brown coal with high content huminic acid (to 60 %) with alkali usage as plasticizer agent in the
coal-water slurry (CWS) production technological process was checked. The CWS stability scheme
in alkali additives interaction was suggested. The bituminous and brown coal mixture (10 : 90) CWS
was investigated. The anthracite and brown coal relation is from 5 to 95. The discovered regularities
demonstrated the slurry properties optimization opportunity in industrial conditions by combined
changing of additive quantity and coal physical-chemical composition. The suggested CWS production
technology allows solving some questions of ecological safety and resource-saving at the expense
of the sources of raw materials assortment expansion. The CWS production industrial scheme on
production run equipment without its modernization is developed.
Keywords: brown coal, coal-water slurry, technological scheme.
Introduction
The coal-water slurry (CWS) production with its future transportation and usage as energy fuel
is one of the perspective ways of conversion of coal into a liquid state for ensuring ecological demands
for toxic ejections during solid fuel combustion and also for fuel oil replacement in the industrial heatand-power engineering installation.
In the process of the CWS production, the possibility of non-quality coal and coal mining and
processing wastage and other production usage allows to solve ecological problems and resource-saving.
At present time there are practically no theoretical methods allowing to select CWS formulate
and production regimes. Each coal type demands individual approach in CWS production which
characterized experimentally.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: v.a.kulagin@mail.ru
# 474 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li? Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
The creation and improvement technology of the CWS from the different metamorphism stage
coal represents highly actual and economically perspective [1].
The CWS introduction allows:
? distribute the thermal power station on ecological save distances;
? use the dirty mine, opencast mine and residential waste water for the CWS production;
? provide with uninterrupted stable quality fuel in seasonal and daily regimes;
? except the coal loss and its self-ignition in transportation and storage;
? provide with full technological process automation of fuel production, transportation and
usage;
? improve the labor conditions.
Coal-water slurry is structural two-phase systems showing non-Newtonian flow. Their properties
depend on physical and chemical coal characteristics, chemical additives, flocculation tendency and
other factors. The CWS has Bingham liquid properties such as ductility, pseudo- ductility, and swell
ability, thixotropic rheological time properties.
The main CWS performance properties (ductility, stability, the CWS solid phase, distribution in
grain-size) identify the multiple-factor system; the research of that system conduction mechanism in
factors changes which influence on that system allows controlling and modeling the system mechanism
that permit to decrease the CWS cost price.
The CWS production technology allow to use the run-of-mine coal ridings, concentrating mill
coal wastes, coal mining fine fractions as solid phase; different production liquid technological wastes
as carrying agent.
The brown coal CWS production characteristic property is metamorphism low degree. At the
same time, high reaction ability allows using it as the CWS solid phase simultaneously with more low
reaction coal or coal wastes.
The results of experimental research
The usage opportunity of oxygenized brown coal with high content huminic acid (to 60 %) with
alkali as CAA similarity (coal-alkali agent) is researched in the work. In this circuit, the humate
natrium which has not only plasticizer effect but stabilizer effect is produced in the CWS production
process in grinding apparatus. It allows us to simplify the process of additive production and thus
take away the production, transportation and storage processes. The initial components are delivered
simultaneously on milling stage in grinding apparatus. The oxygenized coal and alkali usage
effectiveness was checked on the bituminous coal mark D CWS. The alkali percentage remains
the same as in separate CAA production that is 16?20 % on oxygenized brown coal dry basis or
0.1 % bituminous coal mass. The oxygenized brown coal fraction is 0.5 % on the bituminous coal
dry basis. The oxygenized coal with alkali usage reduces the bituminous coal CWS viscosity from
1.1?1.3 to 0.64?0.77 Pa·s. Initial coal ash content doesn?t render significant influence on viscosity
decreasing. This shows the opportunity of usage of oxygenized coal additive with alkali for low-ash
the bituminous coal CWS production.
The opportunity of production wastes usage as plasticizer agent in the CWS production
technological process is checked. In the CWS production process the Krasnoyarsk pulp and paper mill
wastes technological (TLS) and modified (MLS) lignosulphonate were used as chemical additives. The
# 475 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li? Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
LS and MLS characteristics are: MLS 1 ? ?? = 9,3 Cs = 45 %; MLS 2 ? ?? = 8, Cs = 52 %; MLS 363 ?
?? = 6,5, Cs = 50 %; MLS 364 ? ?? = 5.0, Cs = 50. The additives compositions were also used.
Discussion of results
With the introduction of researched additives the brown coal CWS fluidity is increasing.
Characteristic flux index (n) < 1 for each CWS shows that used chemical additives didn?t change the
slurry flow pseudo-plastic character (Fig.1).
The liquid phase alkalinity shows significant influence on the brown coal CWS rheological
properties, so turn-down ?? of the used lignosulphonate additives (from 5 to 10) ? the brown coal
CWS structural viscosity reduces twice is determined. The (amount, quantity) natrium hydroxide
depend on coal ash content is determined (Fig. 2).
It is necessary to raise the hydroxide natrium from 0.2 to 0.5 %, with the increasing of the solid
phase mineral matter percentage from 4.6 to 7.6 %. The CWS stability is decreasing due to ash content
reduction.
The additive influence on slurry properties on different circuit introduction was examined and so it
could considerably influence on additive effectiveness. The additives were added both on wet crushing
stage simultaneously on aqueous phase and beforehand received slurry on homogenization stage.
In the lignosulphonate usage the greater viscosity decrease is attained on homogenization stage.
In the mechanical-chemical break-down process the additive polymeric structure destruction is taken
place and additive effectiveness is receding. It is necessary to use these additives on homogenization
stage.
The significant part of the CWS plasticizer additives has alkaline medium (lignosulphonate
additives, coal-alkali agent and other). The alkali influence nature on brown coal CWS stability isn?t
practically researched and discussed. Formally, alkali is a simple CWS plasticizer additive.
Tangential stress ,Pa
80
60
2
40
1
20
0
0
50
Shearing speed, s-1
Fig. 1. The CWS flow rheogram: 1 ? Cs = 40.5 %, 2 ? Cs = 37 %
# 476 #
100
150
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li? Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
Structural viscosity, Pa ·s
1,6
1,4
2
1,2
1
1
3
0,8
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
NaOH quantity,%
Fig. 2. Plot CWS structural viscosity against putting natrium hydroxide quantity (Cs ? 46 %). (Coal ash content
1 ? 4.6; 2 ? 5.3; 3 ? 7.6 %)
The dependence of the CWS structure viscosity from injecting alkali concentration has extreme
character with minimum in the alkali concentration value interval from 0.2 to 0.5 % (Fig. 2) [2]. With
coal ash content increasing from 4.6 to 7.6 % it is necessary to raise the natrium hydroxide from
0.2 to 0.5 % for viscosity support and slurry stability. The alkali content raise to 1 % leads to slurry
separation with hard sediment formation.
The extreme dependence nature could be explained as alkali concentration and its influence on the
CWS viscosity. The aqueous alkali reacting with brown coal on the first stage transport the huminic
acid in aqueous phase in natrium salt form:
NaOH + (HO-Humin)coal ? (NaO-Humin)water + H2O,
(1)
where (HO-Humin)coal ? huminic acid in coal, (NaO-Humin)water ? dissolved natrium salt of huminic
acid.
The natrium salt of huminic acid is in true solution form in aqueous solution and exactly this
composition has the CWS aqueous phase with high alkali concentration (more than 0.5 %,( Fig. 2)
providing full transition of huminic acid to corresponding salt.
In small alkali concentration its first interaction with coal is on the equation (1), then comes the
stage of natrium salt of huminic acid hydrolysis and sodium ions migration from solution to coal solid
phase:
(NaO-Humin)water+(HO-Humin)coal ? (HO-Humin)gel+(NaO-Humin)coal
(2)
The process (2) can only proceed on small alkali concentration and that leads to huminic acid
coagulation, conversion from natrium salt of huminic acid true solution to colloidal solution, huminic
acid gel. Formed in such way gel stabilizes the CWS and decreases its viscosity. The process (2)
couldn?t be proceed on high alkali concentration because all himin acid groups are deprotonated and
that leads to hard sedimentation at alkali concentration about 1 % ( Fig. 2).
# 477 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li? Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
The alkali optimum consumption for CWS plasticization grows with the used coal ash content
increasing. This has as minimum two conditions: (?) the active alkali binding by coal ash content
components, e.g. in sodium silicate and (b) at the same time with the huminic acid content in coal
the ash content frequently increasing; and all this in accordance with suggested slurry stabilization
mechanism leads to alkali quantity increasing which is necessary for its dissolution and coagulation.
The alkali usage as additive on experimental-industrial level showed stable decreasing of brown
coal mixture structural viscosity from 1,88 to 0,770,80 Pa·s.
The initial wet coal predrying allows raising the CWS solid phase content on average 10 %. The
highest CWS coal content meanings were received in B2 coal predrying to 6?14 % and B1 coal to
8?13 % humidity, which is equilibrium moisture content.
The bituminous and brown coal mixture (10: 90) CWS was investigated. The anthracite and
brown coal relation is from 5 to 95. On high-ash riddling basis anthracite and brown coal the high
concentrated slurry with solid phase percentage 49?62 % and combustion specific heat 11.7?15.6 MJ/
kg could be prepared. The 25 % anthracite content the solid phase percentage 50?60 % and the 12?15.3
MJ/kg heat value CWS is more rheological indexes appropriating and fuel calorific value.
In large-capacity production the technology control was carried out on processing line shown on
Fig. 3. The CWS production regimes were developed on run-of-mine coal in 90?150 TPH production
ball mill. The CWS production water discharge is 65?110 cubic meter/h.
The ?? = 8.2?9.4 and high alkali (2.0?2.8 milligram-equivalent per litre) process water was used
as liquid phase for the CWS production. The result of water and coal mixing in mill is humate which
are the plasticizer additive of analogous alkali.
The Beryozovskii coal-field run-of-mine brown coal was used. The slurry was received in twostage grinding regime. The production fluctuates from 4 to 12 TPH.
In experimental-industrial scale the CWS production on mixture base was held on scheme without
classifier usage and recirculation in two stages. The mixture with relation Bituminous coal: Brown
80:20 was used for CWS production as solid phase.
Fig. 3. The brown coal CWS production technological scheme on industrial equipment: 1 ? raw-material storage;
2 ? crane; 3 ? apron feeder; 4 ? belt conveyor; 5 ? primary crushing grinding-mill; 6 ? fine crushing grindingmill; 7 ? loading bin; 8 ? belt weigher; 9 ? ball grinder; 10,13 ? mixer; 11,14 ? pump; 12 ? rod mill; 15 ? storing
tank; 16 ? additive measurer
# 478 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li? Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
Conclusion
Thus, the Kansk-Achinsk brown coal CWS production opportunity with salvages and dirty
production water is shown in large-capacity production.
The discovered regularities demonstrated the slurry properties optimization opportunity
in industrial conditions by combined changing of additive quantity and coal physical-chemical
composition.
The suggested CWS production technology allows solving some questions of ecological safety
and resource-saving at the expense of the sources of raw materials assortment expansion. The CWS
production industrial scheme on production run equipment without its modernization is developed.
References
[1] Zaidenvarg V.E., Trubetskoi K.N. and Murko V.I. The coal-water fuel production and usage.
M.: Akademia gornyh nauk, 2001. (In Russue).
[2] Baranova M.P., Kulagin V.A., Taraban?ko V.E. // Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, June
2011, Volume 84, Issue 6, pp 939-944.
[3] Baranova M.P., Kulagin V.A. // The 7th International Symposium on Coal Combustion (The
7th ISCC); July 1720. ? Harbin, P.R. China, 2011.
????????????? ??????????????
????????????? ???????
?.?. ?????????, ???? ???, ???-?? ?????,
???-???? ???, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
????? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????,
?????????? ??????????????? ????????,
?????, 150001, ??????
?
??????????? ???????????
?????, 310058, ???????, ????????? ???????, 866
????????? ???????????? ????????? (???) ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????????
? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????
? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????
???????? ? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????, ? ????? ??? ?????? ??????
? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????????. ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????
????????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ? ??????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?? ???? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ????? ?????, ???, ??????????????? ?????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 480-488
~~~
??? 625.084/085:625.855.3
The Analytical Solution
and the Dynamic Characteristics
of the System Model Velocity Control
Vibrating Roller
Andrey P. Prokopiev*,
Vladimir I. Ivanchura and Ruric ?. Emelianov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 27.12.2013, received in revised form 14.01.2014, accepted 02.02.2014
Operation is devoted a problem of identification of dynamic system of the volume hydraulic actuator
of the running gear of a vibrating roller. The mathematical model of control process by speed of
driving of a vibrating roller taking into account dynamics of hydrostatic transmission and a moment
of resistance to roller driving is observed. Assay values of dynamic responses, a frequency analysis of
a model of a guidance system are resulted by speed of driving of a vibrating roller.
Keywords: a vibrating roller, hydrostatic transmission, a mathematical model, a state space, dynamic
responses, a frequency analysis.
Introduction
Most common in modern technologies of road construction in the final compaction of Hot Mix
Asphalt (HMA) were vibrating road rollers. The need to improve the compaction asphalt concrete
pavement process is the development of automated control vibrating roller on the basis of modern
science and technology [1].
The purpose of research is to develop a model of the process speed control vibrating roller and
analysis of the dynamic responses in preparation for the task of system synthesis control modes of
compaction.
The original mathematical description
of the system and the formulation of the problem
Roller is a machine, which consists of: engine, the front and back frames, the cabin, the mechanism
of asphalt concrete edging. The working body of the roller is smooth metal drum with vibrations [2].
The hydraulic actuator of a driving of the vibration road roller with two power-driven rollers,
Fig. 1, includes the variable capacity pump of the course drive and in parallel joint two hydromotors.
The hydraulic actuator of the roller as control system, it is possible to present in the form of two
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: prok1@yandex.ru
# 480 #
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Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
16
17
Fig. 1. Hydraulic circuit design VHT of the drive of the mechanism of movement [2]: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 ? back-pressure
valves; 4, 13 ? relief valves; 7, 11 ? the spool-type allocator; 8, 10 ? a cooler; 9 ? the pump; 12 ? an actuator; 14 ?
the feed pump; 15 ? a release valve; 16 ? the variable capacity pump; 17 ? noncontrollable hydromotors
subsystems: the hydraulic and the hydromechanical. The state variable characterising a hydraulic
subsystem, magnitude of hydraulic pressure P(t) of a stream of the operating fluid, created by the
pump concerning pressure in a drain forecastle is. The state variable characterising a hydromechanical
subsystem, magnitude ?m(t) of speed of twirl of the hydromotor, under the pressure influence of a fluid
stream is.
The volume hydrostatic transmission (VHT) the drive of a driving of a running roller (Fig. 1)
switches on the variable capacity pump 16 and two noncontrollable hydromotors 17 connected in
parallel to a hydraulic line.
As a result of transformations the mathematical model in terms of state-space presenting working process of system of automatic control by speed of driving of a vibrational running roller [3] is
gained.
Analytical transformation of transfer functions
For the purpose of reduction of gained models transfer functions [3] to the shape of the most
matching to conditions of computer (imitative) simulation of processes in the volume hydraulic actuator
of the road roller following analytical transformations are executed.
Transfer functions [3] be presented two types of transfer functions W1(s) or W2(s):
W1 ( s)
W2 ( s )
2
K1
;
(1)
K 2 � ( s ?)
.
(2)
s 2 � ? � s ?2 ?2
2
s 2 � ? � s ?2 ?2
Here K1, K2 ? factors; ?, ?, ? ? the real positive numbers. Numbers ? and ? define the real and
imaginary parts of poles, and ? ? value of null of a matching transfer function.
# 481 #
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Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
Impulse response k1(t) and step response h1(t) performances for W1(s) are defined by an inverse
transformation method of Laplace (transition from images to originals):
K1 ?�t
�e
� sin(? � t );
?
k1 (t )
h1 (t )
K1
2
?� ? ?
2
?2 ?2 � sin §Ё© ? � t arctg §Ё© ?? ·ё№ ·ё№ ?»єј .
Є
� «e?�t
¬
Impulse response k2(t) and step response h2(t) performances for W2(s) are defined by an inverse
transformation method of Laplace:
K 2 ?�t
�e
(? ?) � sin (? � t ) ? � cos (? � t ) ;
?
K2
? � ?2 ?2
� Є ? � ? e?�t Є ? 2 +? 2 � sin (? � t ) ? � (? � sin (? � t ) +? � cos (? � t )) є є .
¬«
ј» ј»
¬«
From expressions for time responses follows, that value ? defines fading, and value ? ? an angular
frequency of dynamic processes.
Through factors of the state- space equation [3] express as follows:
?
(a11 a22 )
; ?
2
a22 ; ??m
? pu
Є ?2 a � a a � a є ;
12 21
11 22 »ј
«¬
a11 ;
a12 � b22 ;
K pu
b11 ; K pm
K?u
a21 � b11 ; K?m b22 .
Definition of transfer functions of installation of control on the basis of transfer functions W1(s) or
W2(s) gained by an analytical method:
W pu ( s )
W pm ( s )
K pu � ( s ? pu )
2
s 2 � ? � s ?2 ?2
W?u ( s) W?m ( s) K pm
;
(4)
K?u
;
(5)
K?m � ( s ??m )
.
(6)
2
s 2 � ? � s ?2 ?2
s 2 2 � ? � s ?2 ?2
2
(3)
;
s 2 � ? � s ?2 ?2
Here Wpu(s) ? a transfer function defining change of pressure concerning change of control action;
Wpm(s) ? a transfer function defining change of pressure concerning change of dithering impact;
W?u(s) ? a transfer function defining change of an angular velocity of twirl of rollers concerning
# 482 #
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Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
change of control action; W?m(s) ? a transfer function defining change of an angular velocity of twirl
of rollers concerning change of dithering impact; Kpu, Kpm, K?u, K?m ? factors; ?, ?, ?pu, ??m ? the real
positive numbers. Numbers ? and ? define the real and imaginary parts of poles, and ?pu, ??m ? value of
null of a matching transfer function.
Impulse response k pu(t) and step response hpu(t) performances for Wpu(s):
k pu (t )
h pu (t )
K pu
� e?�t � (? pu ?) � sin (? � t ) ? � cos (? � t ) ;
?
K pu
? � ?2 ?2
� Є ? pu � ? e?�t � Є ? 2 +?2 � sin (? � t ) ? pu � (? � sin (? � t ) +? � cos (? � t )) є є .
«¬
¬«
ј» »ј
Impulse response k pm(t) and step response hpm(t) performances for Wpm(s):
k pm (t )
h pm (t )
K pm
?
� e?�t � sin(? � t );
K pm
2
?� ? ?
2
Є
� «e?�t �
¬
?2 ?2 � sin §Ё© ? � t arctg §Ё© ?? ·ё№ ·ё№ ?јє» .
Impulse response k?u(t) and step response h?u(t) performances for W?u(s):
k?u (t )
h?u (t )
K?u
?
� e?�t � sin(? � t );
K?u
2
?� ? ?
2
Є
� «e?�t �
¬
?2 ?2 � sin §Ё© ? � t arctg Ё©§ ?? ё№· ·ё№ ?јє» .
Impulse response k?m(t) and step response h?m(t) performances for W?m(s):
k?m (t )
h?m (t )
K?m ?�t
�e
� (??m ?) � sin (? � t ) ? � cos (? � t ) ;
?
K?m
2
?� ? ?
2
� Є ??m � ? e?�t � Є ? 2 +? 2 � sin (? � t ) ??m � (? � sin (? � t ) +? � cos (? � t )) є є .
¬«
ј» ј»
¬«
Computing Experiment
For check of gained models (3), (4), (5), (6) time dynamic characteristics of matching transfer
functions are defined.
Type of road roller DU-96 [2] Open Joint Stock Company «Raskat» (Rybinsk, URL: http://www.
raskat.yaroslavl.ru): vibrational with two power-driven rollers. Running roller mass: mk1 ? operation,
mk2 ? constructive: mk1 = 7200 kg; mk2 = 6600 kg.
Diameter Db smooth ??????: Db = 1,07 m.
Width ?????? Lb (width of an obturated strip): Lb = 1,5 m.
Linear pressure smooth ?????? accordingly P1b ? fast-head, P2b ? back:
# 483 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
P1b = 23000 Nm?1; P2b = 24000 Nm?1.
Factors and their values for the state-space equation of a hydraulic subsystem (the hydraulic
pump, the drive of rollers and a transmitting hydraulic line): Kel ? factor of pressure of a
transmitting hydraulic line, Kel = 3·10 ?11m3Pa ?1; K loss ? the factor considering pressure losses
in a hydraulic line, K loss = 9,843·10 ?11m3Pa ?1s ?1; ? e ? a propeller angular velocity, ? e = 293,2 s ?1;
q p ? the maximum swept volume of the pump, q p = 35,8·10 ?6 m3; qm ? the maximum swept volume
of a hydraulic engine of the drive roller, qm = 287·10 ?6 m3; J b ? a running roller moment of inertia,
J b = 2058 kg m 2.
Factors of mathematical model [2] vibrational running rollers ??-96 counted on the basis of
specifications:
for the first state-space equation
a11
K loss � K el 1
3, 281 s 1 ; a12
2 q m � K el 1
b11
q p � ?e � K el 1
3, 49904 �108 kg m 1s 3 ,
1, 9133 � 10 7 Pa ;
for the second state-space equation
2 qm � J b 1
a21
J b 1
b22
2, 78912 �10 7 m � kg 1; a22
1 s 1 ;
0, 00049 kg 1m2 ; ? nmax 14 �103 N m .
Following values of factors and real numbers are gained
1
?=
( a11 a22 )
; ? = Є ( a12 � a21 a11 � a22 ? 2 ) є 2 ; ? pu
¬
ј
2
K pu
b11 ; K pm
a12 � b22 ; ? ?m
a11 ; K ? u
a22 ;
a21 � b11 ; K ? m
b22 ;
Computing experiment with following initial data is put:
time range (s) process t = 0?6/?, a time step 1/100 s;
? = 2,14 s 1 ; ? = 2, 009 s 1 ; ? pu
K pu
K ?u
3, 499 � 108
kg
m � s3
; K pm
97, 592 s 3 ; K ? m
1, 0 s 1 ; ? ? m
3, 281 s 1 ;
9, 297 � 103 m 3 s 2 ;
4, 859 � 10 4 m 2 kg 1 .
Calculations are executed with application of mathematical program MathCAD.
Graphs of the time responses are presented in Fig. 2, 3, 4, 5.
Calculation of time responses of change of pressure as operating and disturbing affecting
k p (t ) k pu (t ) k pm (t ) , h p (t ) h pu (t ) h pm (t ).
The time responses of changes of pressure to controlling and to disturbing affecting are presented
in Fig. 2.
# 484 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
kp(t), Pa � s-1
hp(t), Pa
k p (t )
hp ( t )
0
4u10
8
3u10
8
2u10
8
1u10
8
0
1u10
8
0
1
2
3
t, ts
Fig. 2. The time responses of changes of pressure to controlling and to disturbing affecting
kZ(t), s-2
hZ(t), s-1
15
k Z ( t ) 10
hZ ( t )
0
5
0
5
10
0
1
2
3
t, s t
Fig. 3. The time responses of change of an angular velocity to controlling and disturbing affecting
Calculation of time responses of change of an angular velocity to controlling and disturbing
affecting at Mnmax(t) = 14·103 N · m
k? (t ) k?u (t ) k?m (t ) � M nmax (t ), h? (t ) h?u (t ) h?m (t ) � M nmax (t ).
The time responses of change of an angular velocity to controlling and disturbing affecting are
presented in Fig. 3.
Let's define system frequency responses on the channel of speed concerning control action. We
will make change of a variable s = i · ?. As a result of transformations, we will gain:
W?u ( s )
97,59
; W?u (?)
2
s 4, 28 � s 8,62
97,59
2
? 4, 28 � i � ? 8,62
.
We build a logarithmic amplitude?frequency response (L?FR) and a logarithmic phase frequency
response (LPFR): frequency varies over the range ? = 0,1 ? 100 s?1
L?u (?)
20 log W?u (?) , ??u (?) arg (W?u (?))
# 485 #
180
.
?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
LZu(Z), dB
log ?uc. f .
MZu(Z), degr.
100
LZu ( Z )
M Zu ( Z )
0
180
0
100
200
1
0
1
2
3
log ( Z )
Fig. 4. Logarithmic frequency responses of system for the channel of control action ? speed
Logarithmic frequency responses of dynamic system for the channel of control action ? velocity
are displayed on Fig. 4.
Crossover frequency: log ?uc. f . 0,992; ?uc. f . 10 0,992 9,83 rad /s.
Vibration frequency of asphalt running rollers usually makes from f1 = 30 Hz to f2 = 70 Hz [4]. At
a speed control of driving of a running roller vibration is a handicap. Values L?FR for this frequency
range have made: L?u (2? f1 ) 51, 2 dB ; L?u (2? f 2 ) 65,9 dB.
At frequencies over the range from 30 Hz to 70 Hz influence of control action on speed is relaxed
in hundreds and thousand times in relation to influence in crossover frequency.
Let?s define system frequency responses on the channel of speed concerning disturbing affecting,
having made of a variable s = i · ?
W?m ( s )
0, 00048591( s 3,281)
2
s 4, 28 � s 8,62
, W?m (?)
0, 00048591� i � ? 0,00159427071
?2 4, 28 � i � ? 8,62
.
We construct a logarithmic amplitude and phase frequency responses: frequency ranges
? = 0,1 ? 100 s?1
180
L1?m (?) 20 log W1?m (?) 14000 , ?1?m (?) arg (W1?m (?))
.
?
Logarithmic frequency responses of system on the channel disturbing affecting ? velocity are
presented in Fig. 5.
0,89
7, 8 rad /s.
Crossover frequency: log ?mc. f . 0,89; ?mc. f 10
Values L?FR for this frequency range have made:
L1?m (2? f 2 ) 36, 21 dB.
# 486 #
L1?m (2? f1 )
28,85 dB
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
L1Zm(Z), dB
log ?uc. f .
M1Zm(Z), degr.
50
L1Zm ( Z )
M
1Zm ( Z ) 50
180
0
0
100
150
200
1
0
1
2
3
log ( Z )
Fig. 5. Logarithmic frequency responses of system on the channel disturbing affecting ? velocity
At vibration frequencies over the range from 30 Hz to 70 Hz moment influence vibration for the
velocity is relaxed in tens and hundreds times in relation to influence of this moment in crossover
frequency.
Conclusions
The problem of construction of mathematical model of control process by velocity of movement
of an asphalt roller, taking into account dynamic responses of system of the volume hydraulic drive
of transmission and a roller movement resistance on a rigid pavement is solved. Analytical methods
of working out of mathematical model of a control system are applied. Results of research of the
time responses and frequency responses on channels are gained: control action ? velocity of motion;
disturbing influence ? velocity of motion.
At frequencies over the range from 30 Hz to 70 Hz that is characteristic for systems vibration
running rollers, influence of control action on speed is relaxed in hundreds and thousand times in
relation to influence in crossover frequency.
At vibration frequencies over the range from 30 Hz to 70 Hz moment influence vibration for
the speed is relaxed in tens and hundreds times in relation to influence of this moment in crossover
frequency.
The gained transfer functions can be used for research of dynamic responses of systems of the
drive of a motion of the road roller and automatic-control system model building by working process
of the vibration roller.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Andrey P. Prokopiev, Vladimir I. Ivanchura? The Analytical Solution and the Dynamic Characteristics of the System?
References
[1] ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ????????
??????. 2012. ? 9. ?. 39 ? 45.
[2] ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??-96. ????? ????????????
??????????????? ????????? ??-97. ??????????? ?? ????????????. ??-96.000.000 ??2.
???????: ??? «??????», 2012. 86 ?.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????.
??????? ? ??????????. 2013. ?. 6. ? 2. ?. 192 ? 202.
[4] ?????????? ?.?. ????????????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ?.: ????? ?
?????, 2001. 431 ?.
????????????? ???????
? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????
????????????? ?????
?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????, 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????
?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ???????
???????????? ?????????????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ?????, ????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????,
???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????????, ????????? ??????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2014 7) 489-496
~~~
??? 621.643.001:536.2
????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????,
?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????
?.?. ??????????*, ?.?. ??????
???????????? ?????????????????
??????? ??????????????? ???????????
??????, 634050, ?????, ??. ??????, 30
Received 07.02.2014, received in revised form 21.03.2014, accepted 09.06.2014
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????
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?????????????? [1]. ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ? ????????????????
???????? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????
[2?4].
? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????
????????????? [2], ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????????????
? ??????????? ???????? [3] ? ????????????????? ??????????? [4] ???????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ??? ???? ? [2?4] ?? ??????????? ???????
??????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????.
????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?
?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? «?????? ????? ? ???? ????????» ? ???????? ??????????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: polov@tpu.ru
# 489 #
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?????????? ??????
??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? [5], ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????. ??????????????,
??? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????, ??? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? [3]. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? (???. 1) ????? ?????????? ????????. ? ??????
???????, ???????? ?? ????, ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? R1 (???. 1) ???????????????
???????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????????????, ? ?? ??????? ??????? «?????? ????? ? ????
???????? ????????» R2 ?????????? ????????? ?????. ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????
???? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? R3. ?????????? ???????
? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ????, ? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????.
? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????
??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? «?????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????????????» ? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????
??????????? ????????. ??? ?????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? R1
???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????, ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? R3 ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? (???. 1). ?? ??????? ??????? R2 «?????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????» ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? R2 ????????
????????? ?????? ?????, ? ?? ??????? R3 ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????
(???. 1) ? ?????????? ??????.
?????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????:
1. ?? ??????? ??????? «?????? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????» ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????.
2. ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????????, ? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? [6], ? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????.
???. 1. ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????: 1 ? ?????????????; 2 ? ?????? ?????; 3 ? ????
????????; 4 ? ?????????? ?????
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???????.
4. ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ????????????? ? ????? (???. 1).
5. ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????????
(???. 1).
???????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????
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???????????: T ? ???????????, ?; ? ? ?????, ?; r ? ??????????, ?; R ? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?; ? ? ??????????? ????????????????, ??/(?·?); ? ? ?????????, ??/?3; c ? ????????????,
??/(??·?); Q ? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??/??; j ? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??/(?2·?); ? ? ??????????? ???????????, ??/(?2·?); D ? ??????????? ????????, ?2/?; ? ? ????????????? ????????
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T W , R2 ??? a ? ??????????? ???????????; Ps ? ???????? ?????????, ??; Pp ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ??; Rg ? ??????? ??????????, ??/(?????·?); ? ? ???????????? ?????
?????, ??/????.
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? [8]
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??????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????? [11]. ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????
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???????? «????????» ? ???????? [13]. ??????????? ??????? ?????? (1)?(10) ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? «?????? ????? ? ???? ???????????
????????» ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? (5).
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????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? [3] ?????????? ?????? ? = 11 ??/(?2·?). ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ???? ? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????
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?????????? ????? ? ?ex =0.
? ????. 1 ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? [6, 15] ???? ???????? ???????? ? ?????
?????????, ???????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
?????????? ????????????
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?? ???. 2.
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?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????. ??????????? ?? ???????
??????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? 0,5 %, ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? [2, 3].
? ????. 2 ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? (???. 1) ? ????????, ????? ???????? ?? ????????? Qdry; ???????? ????????? Qwet; ????????
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1 ? 0,1·103 c.; 2 ? 0,5·103 ?.; 3 ? 1,5·103 ?.; 4 ? 5·103 ?
??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???? Qdif, ? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????.
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ????. 2, ??????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?in.
?????? ????. 2 ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????:
? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????
????????? (Qwet) ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? 80 % ?? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????? ????? ???????? (Qdry) ??? ??????????????? ? ??????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???????????, ??????? ? ??? ????????
????????);
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??? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????.
???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????????
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????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? [6]) ?, ??????????????, ? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? 8,1 %
(????. 2).
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?? ???. 2 ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?in =383 ?.
?????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????
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?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ???. 2, ??????? ? ???, ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ? ??????? 1,5 ?,
??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????
(????. 1). ?? ??????? ???. 2 ?????, ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????, ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
(???. 2) ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ? ???? ? ???????????? ???????? [16] ??????????????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? (???. 2) ????????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ???
? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????????? ????? ??????????.
??????????
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????????.
???????????, ??? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? 83,6? 88,0 %.
????????, ??? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????.
???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ???????
? 12-08-00201-? ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ? ??-1652.2013.8.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?.?. // ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????. 2013. ?. 16. ? 20. ?. 350?352.
[2] ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. // ???????????????? ? ??????????????. 2007. ? 6. ?. 37?
39.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. // ???????????????. 2008. ? 5. ?. 60?64.
[4] ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. // ???????????? ??????????. 2010. ? 7. ?. 43?45.
[5] ?????????? ??????????????. ?????????????? ???????? ????? / ???. ?.?. ????????.
??????: ????????, 2010. 357 ?.
[6] ???? ?.?. ??????? ??????????????? ??????????. ???????????: ???????????, 2002.
300 ?.
[7] ???????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. ???????? ??????. ?.: ???????, 1976. 392 ?.
# 495 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????
[8] ????? ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????. 2003. ?. 306. ? 4.
?. 60?63.
[9] Reid R.C., Prausnitz J.M., Poling B.E. The properties of gases and liquids. New York, 1987.
753 pp.
[10] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????? ??????. ?????? ? ????????. ???.: ????????,
1998. 146 ?.
[11] ?????????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?.-?.:
?????????, 1962. 456 ?.
[12] ??????? ?.?. ???????????????. ?.: ???-?? ???, 2005. 549 ?.
[13] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????. ?.: ???????
???, 2000. 316 ?.
[14] ?? 41-103-2000. ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????.
?.: ???????? ??????, 2001. 42 ?.
[15] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????. ?????:
????? ? ???????, 1971. 268 ?.
[16] ??????-??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????- ? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????. ?.: ???????????????, 1983. 193 ?.
Numerical Analysis of Evaporation
and Moisture Diffusion Effect on heat Losses
of heat Pipeline in Conditions of Isolation Moistening
Vyacheslav Yu. Polovnikov and Ekaterina V. Gubina
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University
30 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Results of numerical simulation of thermal regimes of heat pipeline in conditions of evaporation and
moisture diffusion in moistening isolation were completed. Values of heat losses of heat pipelines
insulation in conditions of evaporation and moisture diffusion in moistening isolation were established.
Contribution of evaporation effect to total heat losses and need to consider volume fractions of water
and steam into the structure of thermal insulation in calculation of effective thermal conductivity
were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem can be
ignored.
Keywords: heat losses, heat pipeline, thermal insulation, evaporation, diffusion.
al safety and resource-saving at the expense
of the sources of raw materials assortment expansion. The CWS production industrial scheme on
production run equipment without its modernization is developed.
Keywords: brown coal, coal-water slurry, technological scheme.
Introduction
The coal-water slurry (CWS) production with its future transportation and usage as energy fuel
is one of the perspective ways of conversion of coal into a liquid state for ensuring ecological demands
for toxic ejections during solid fuel combustion and also for fuel oil replacement in the industrial heatand-power engineering installation.
In the process of the CWS production, the possibility of non-quality coal and coal mining and
processing wastage and other production usage allows to solve ecological problems and resource-saving.
At present time there are practically no theoretical methods allowing to select CWS formulate
and production regimes. Each coal type demands individual approach in CWS production which
characterized experimentally.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: v.a.kulagin@mail.ru
# 474 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Marina P. Baranova, Qian Li? Utilization Slurry Coal-Water Fuel
The creation and improvement technology of the CWS from the different metamorphism stage
coal represents highly actual and economically perspective [1].
The CWS introduction allows:
? distribute the thermal power station on ecological save distances;
? use the dirty mine, opencast mine and residential waste water for the CWS production;
? provide with uninterrupted stable quality fuel in seasonal and daily regimes;
? except the coal loss and its self-ignition in transportation and storage;
? provide with full technological process automation of fuel production, transportation and
usage;
? improve the labor conditions.
Coal-water slurry is structu
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