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198.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №8 2013

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2013
Journal of Siberian Federal University
6 (8)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
И.С. Гарматенко
l???3?=!%??/? ?2=??=!2/ %???*, 2%??%?2, ?=",?=?,%??%L
,?-%!?=?,,
? 863 ?
А.А. Бородин, В.Н. Самусенко, В.В. Лазукин
l?2%?%?%?,???*,L C%?.%? * !????,? C!%K???/ %K%??%"=?,
2!?K%"=?,L * ?,?2??? ,?????!?%-=.!%?!%??%?% %K??C????,
K%?"/. ??L?2",L =",=?,, bbq
? 867 ?
Sergey A. Nekrasov
Statistical Regularities of Chronology of Astronautics
? 876 ?
В.П. Кисел?в, А.Ф. Гоготов,
М.Б. Бугаенко, Л.А. Иванова,
В.Г. Дронов, А.А. Григорьева, Н.В. Кеменев
d%K="*= ??
K,23?= ?= %??%"? ?%?,-,?,!%"=??/.
?,?!%?,??/? ?,??,?%? .?%!%!?=?,???*,. %2.%?%" .,?,???*,.
C!%,?"%??2"
? 885 ?
Vladimir P. Kiselev,
Vladimir S. Filimonov, Maksim B. Bugaenko,
Nikolay V. Kemenev and Luidmila A. Ivanova
Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Coating
Binder by Settling Resin of Pyrolysis
? 895 ?
Elena G. Filatova,
Olga I. Pomazkina and Vladimir I. Dudarev
Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II),
(III) and Reuse of Sorbent Ipi-T
? 903 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 27.12.2013 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 11,5.
??.-???. ?. 11,0. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 4117.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering & Technologies:
Vladimir Kulagin ? Series Editor, Siberian Federal
University, Russia
Yury Alashkevich ? Siberian State Technological
University, Russia
Sereeter Batmцnkh ? Institute of Heat Engineering
and Industrial Ecology Mongolian Academy of
Sciences, Mongolia
Yuri Biba ? Dresser-Rand Company, USA
Carsten Drebenstedt ? Technische University
Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany
Yury Galerkin ? Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic
University, Russia
Gennady Gritsko ? Institute of Petroleum Geology and
Geophysics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian
Branch, Russia
Georg Guggenberger ? Institute of Soil Science Leibniz
University Hannover, Germany
Lev Endzhievsky ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Feng-Chen Li ? School of Energy Science and
Engineering Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Vladimir Makarov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Aleksandr Mineev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Vladimir Moskvichev ? Special Designing and
Technological Bureau ?Nauka? Krasnoyarsk
Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of
Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia
Bernard Nacke ? Institute of Electrotechnology Leibniz
University of Hannover, Germany
Oleksandr Nemchin ? CEO of the State Research
Institute of Innovative Technologies in Power
Energy and Energy Efficiency of the Fuel and
Energy Ministry of Ukraine, Ukraine
Valeriy Nikulin ? Kamsk Institute of Humanitarian and
Engineering Technologies, Russia
Oleg Ostrovski ? University of New South Wales,
Australia
Harald Oye ? Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Norway
Vasili Panteleev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Petr Polyakov ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Victor Timofeev ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
Ibragim Khisameev ? Kazan State Technological
University, Russia
Anatoly Shvidenko ? International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis, Austria
Galina Chiganova ? Siberian Federal University, Russia
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
????? ???????? ? «???????? ???????
????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????,
? ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????
????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
А.Н. Сочнев
l%?,-,*=?, ??.=?,??= ?!=K=2/"=?, C?!?.%?%"
??2?L o?2!,
? 911 ?
А.Л. Встовский,
М.Г. Архипцев, К.С. Федий
?%*, "???=C?%?% *%!%2*%?% ?=?/*=?,
"
?,?.!%??%? ????!=2%!? ? ?=??,2%.??*2!,???*,?
"%?K3????,??
? 920 ?
Г.К. Макаренко, А.М. Алешечкин
p=???2 C%?!???%?2?L %C!??????, *%%!?,?=2
2%??* 2?C?%",?,%??/. ,?%K!=???,L, C%?3?=??/.
C!, ?,?2=??,%??%? %K????%"=?,, 2?.?,???*%?%
?%?2% ?, "%??3??/. ?,?,L .??*2!%C?!??=?,
? 930 ?
А.Н. Пахомов,
М.Ф. Коротков, А.А. Федоренко
l%?=???/?
!??3? 2%!/
=?,?.!%??/.
.??*2!%C!,"%?%"
? 943 ?
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova,
Evgeny A. Sorokin and Anna S. Kaverzina
Influence of Increased Temperatures on Operability
of The Hydraulic Drive
? 953 ?
В.А. Макаров,
С.С. Сердюк, Б.В. Шибистов,
В.З. Мильман, Л.Н. Пузырева
g%?%2%?%??%?2? =???", ????3!??? o%?*=????%L
, m,???L ?3??3?*, , C?!?C?*2,"/ "/ "???,
*%!???/. ?%?%2%!3??/. %KA?*2%"
? 957 ?
С.С. Сердюк, В.А. Кириленко
c?%?%?, , C?!?C?*2,"/ ?%?%2%?%??%?2, ???%L
?=?2, ~??%-e?,??L?*%?% !3??%?% !=L%?=
? 968 ?
Б.В. Шибистов
a%*?,2/ , ?????%=???,?,?"/? !3?/ m,????%
o!,=??=!?
, C!%K???/ ,. *%?C??*??%?%
%?"%??,
? 995 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 863-866
~~~
??? 006:627.7:528.088
????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????
????????????? ??????????
?.?. ??????????*
??????-??????? ???????? ??. ???????? ?????
?????????? ????? ?.?. ?????????
?????? 197045, ?????-?????????, ?????????? ??????????, 17/1
Received 30.05.2013, received in revised form 16.10.2013, accepted 08.12.2013
? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????, ???????? ? ???????? «?????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????».
???????? ?????: ????????????? ??????????, ???????? STANAC 4278.
???????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????????? ????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ?????? ????, ? ????????????
??? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? STANAC 4278 ? ??? 3-? ????????,
???????? 3 ???? 1995 ???? [1].
??? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ??? ??.
??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????: ?????? (???????), ??????????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????, ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????.
??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????. ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????
? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ? ????????? STANAC 4278 ??? ????????
???????? ????????????.
???????? ???? ??????? ?? ????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ?
????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????. ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? [2].
??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????? STANAC 4278 ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ? ??? ?????? ????????
???????, ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????? ?????????????
????????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: garmatenkoigor@gmail.com
# 863 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????. ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
??? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? STANAC 4278 ???????????? ?=0,95
(95%-??? ???????????), ?????? ? ??? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ? 50, 63,2, 90, 95 ? 99 %.
? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? (????????) ????????????? ??????? ????????????:
? ???????? ????????? ??????????? LEP (LINEAR ERROR PROBABLE) ???????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????
50 %;
? MAS (MAP ACCURACY STANDARD) ???????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ????????
?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? 90 %;
? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? RMS (ROOT MEAN SGUARE) ???????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? 68 %. 2RMS ? 3RMS ????????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? 95,4 ? 99,7 %.
??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ????. 1.
? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????:
? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? DRMS (DISTANCE ROOT MEAN
SQUARED) ? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? 68,3 % ??? ?=0 ? 63,2 % ??? ?=1, ??? ? =?min/?max;
? ?min, ?max ? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????????;
DRMS = ? 2min + ? 2max = ? 2X + ? 2Y ,
(1)
??? ?X, ?Y ? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ??????? ?????????;
? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? 2DRMS (2 DISTANCE ROOT MEAN SQUARED) ?
????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????
95,4 % ??? ?=0 ? 98,2 % ??? ?=1;
??????? 1. ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? STANAC
4278
?
??
50 %
(LEP)
90 %
(MAS)
95 %
(????)
DRMS
50 %
(LEP)
90 %
(MAS)
95 %
(????)
RMS
2RMS
3RMS
1
2,4387
2,9059
1,4826
2,9652
4,4478
0,4100
1
1.1910
0,6079
1,2158
1,8237
0,3441
0.8396
1
0.5102
1,0204
1.5306
0,6745
1.6450
1,9600
1
2
3
2DRMS
0,3372
0.8225
0,9800
0.5000
1
1,5
3DRMS
0,2248
0,5483
0,0653
0,3333
0,6667
1
# 864 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????. ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
2DRMS = 2 ?2min + ?2max = 2 ?2X + ?2Y ;
(2)
? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? 3DRMS (3DISTANCE ROOT MEAN SQUARED) ?
????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????
99,7 % ??? ?=0 ? 1,0 ??? ?=1;
3DRMS = 3 ?2min + ?2max = 3 ?2X + ?2Y ;
(3)
? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??? (CIRCLE ERROR PROBABLE) ? ????, ?? ???????
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? 50 %;
CEP ??
? R 50 = 0, 6142? min + 0,5632? max ;
(4)
? ???????? ????????? ??????????? R95 (CIRCLE PROBABLE) ? ????, ?? ??????? ????????
?????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? 95 %;
R 95 = (1,960790C + 0, 004071C + 0,114276C2 + 0,371625C3 )?max .
(5)
????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? (?min/?max) ???????? ??????? ????? ??? 0,25.
??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????.
? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ? ????????? STANAC
4278, ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????
????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?
?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????????. ?????????????
? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????????.
??????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ? 0,35 ???? [3, 4].
???????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ??????? 95%-???? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??? ??????????
????????????? ????????????. ????? ????, ????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ????????, ????????? ?
????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? (IMO) [2].
?????? ??????????
[1] STANAC 4278. «Method of expressing navigation accuracies» Edition 3, NATO unclassified
North Atlantic treaty military agency for standardization. Bureau. 1995. 42.
[2] ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ???????. 1993. ? 4. ?. 47?49.
[3] ??????? ?.?. ?????? ????????????? ????????????. ???.: ??? ???, 2002. 325 ?.
[4] ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????. ?.: ?????????, 1970. 536 ?.
# 865 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????. ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
International Standards of the Assessment
of Accuracy of Navigation Information
Igor S. Garmatenko
Naval Academy Admiral Fleet
of the Soviet Union NG Kuznetsova
17/1 Ushakovskaya embankment,
St. Petersburg, 197045 Russia
This article describes the international standards for assessing the accuracy of navigation data taken
in STANAC 4278 standard ?methods of navigation accuracy?.
Keywords: accuracy of navigation, STANAC 4278.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 867-875
~~~
??? 623.6
???????????????? ??????
? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ???????????
?????? ???????? ??????? ???
?.?. ???????*?,
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????
?
???? ??? «??????-????????? ????????
??. ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ?.?. ????????»
?????? 394064, ???????, ??. ?????? ???????????, 54?
?
??????? ???????? ????????-??????????? ???????
????? ?.?. ??????
?????? 170022, ?????, ??. ????????, 50
Received 10.06.2013, received in revised form 26.07.2013, accepted 30.08.2013
??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??
?????????? ?????????? ???, ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
???????????, ? ?????? ???????? ???????????, ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????
?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ????????, ????????? ????????????, ??????, ???????????.
? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????.
? ????? ???????, ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? (????)
?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????.
? ?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? (?? ????? 12 %) ?
???????? ??????????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? ? ????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????,
??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????-??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? 20 % ?????????? ?????? ?????????-??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????-?????????????
?????? ? ???. ????? ????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: borodin.aleksei@mail.ru
# 867 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????-?????????????????
?????, ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???? ????????????? ????????????
?????????-??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????-????????????????? ?????????? (???)
???????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????-???????????? ???????????, ?? ? ????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???.
? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ??????
???????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????
???????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??.
????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????
?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????????.
?????????-??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????: ????????????? ??? ???????????????; ?????????????????
???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????; ??????????????? ??????????? ???????
? ??????????? ??????????; ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????; ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????; ?????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?
???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??
?????????? ???????????????? ??? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????-???????????? ? ??????-?????????????? ???????????. ??????? ???????????
?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????-???????????
??????????? ? ?? ?????????.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????
?????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ???????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ? ??????????????
?? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????. ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????
????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????-????????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ??????
???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????.
??????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????????, ? ???????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ???????????, ???????????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????? ?
????????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????, ?? ??????????? ?????????????.
# 868 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????-????????????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? (????) ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????
????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
??? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? F (F1 , F2 ,..., Fi ,..., Fm ) , ??? Fi (i Џ1, m) ? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? Fi (i Џ1, m) ???????????? ?????????? ????????? (x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ), ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???,
????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????
?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???, ? ????? ?????????
??????? ?? ????????? ? ??? ?????, ?. ?. Fi (x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ). ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?
?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ? ???? ?????? ?????????? ? X ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? x = (x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ?? n???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? n (? X ? E n ).
?????? ?????? x j ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? x j min ? ????????????
x j max ???????? ? ? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ?? ???. 1 ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????????
? ?????????? ????????????.
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? x = ( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ???, ?? ???. 1 ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? x1, ??????? ? x 2 , ???????? ? x3.
??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? n ????? ???????? ? n ? ??????
????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??.
??? ????????? ??????? ???????? x ? ??????? ?X ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????
Fi (x) = Fi ( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?F m???????? ????????????
X3
X 3 max
x
X
3
X 3 min
x
X 2 min
x
X 1 min
2
1
X1max
X1
X 2 max
X2
???. 1. ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? n = 3 ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????
E3(?X ? ?3)
# 869 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
? m (? F ? E m ) ?????????? ?????????? ???????? F, ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?X ????-
?????? ???????? ???????? x = (x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ? ???????????? ? m (? F ? E m ) ??????? ??????????? ???????? Fi (x) = Fi (x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ).
??????? ?F ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? Fi (i ?1, m) . ?? ???. 2 ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?F ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ?. ?. ????? i?1, m ??? m = 3.
?? ???. 2 ????????? ?????? F* = (F1* , F2* , F3* ) , ??????? ????????? ????????? ? F ?????????
??????, ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? Fi (x), ? i ?1,3 , ???????????? ??? ????? ? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? x ? ? X. ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? F ??? ?????? ????? m ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? m??????? ????????????
???????? ????? ??.
?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? x ? ?X ?? ?????????????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ?F ????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????? Fi(x) ??? ? i ?1, m
???????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? [1, 2].
?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ????????? ????????????
(????? ??? ?????????? ???????? Fi(x), ?????????? ???????????), ???? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? (????? ??? ?????????? ???????? Fi(x) ?????????? ?????????). ?? ???????? ??????
?????? ????????? ???????????? (???????????) ??????????? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ? ????? ?????????. ? ???? ?????? ??????????
????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ? ?????? ????????? ????????????
(???????????) ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? Fi(x), ??????? ???? ????????? (?????????),
???????? ??????????? [?Fi(x)], ? ??? ??? ???? ??????????? (?????????) [13].
???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? F = (F1 , F2 , F3 ) ,
??? F1 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) ? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????; F2 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ??????????; F3 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) ? ???????
F3
??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????
??????????? ????????
F
F3*
F
*
F1*
F2*
F1
F2
???. 2. ???????????? ??????? ?F ??????????? ???????????? E3(?F ? E3) ??? Fi , i ?1,3
# 870 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
??????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????.
? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????????
?? ???????????. ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????.
????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????,
????????????? ? ???, ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????
???????, ? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????.
? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? F1 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) , ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????, ???? ??????????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????. ?????????? F2 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) ?
F3 = ?( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) ????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????. ??? ???? ?????????? F2 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) , ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????, ?????
???????? ????????? ?? 0 ?? 1. ???????? ?????????? F3 = ?(x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) , ????????????????
????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????????????????
?? ????????? ???????.
?????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????
?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?X ?????????? ???????? ????????
x = ( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ? n??????? ????????? ???????????? ? n (? X ? E n ) ???????????? ????????
(??????????), ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????. ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?X ??????????
???????? ???????? x = (x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ?? ??? ???????????????? ??????? ???, ???
3
?X = ?X U ?X U ?X = U ?X .
1
2
3
i =1
i
(1)
? ????????? (1): ? X ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? (??????????)
1
X1 = ( x1 ,..., x l ) T ? x = ( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ,
(2)
??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???;
? X ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? k ??????????? ????????
2
X2 = ( x l+1 ,..., x l+ k ) T ? x = ( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ,
(3)
??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ???? ? ???????? ?? ??????????
?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???;
? X ? ??????? ?????????? (r = n ? l + k) ???????? ??????????? ????????
3
X3 = ( x l+ k+1 ,..., x n ) T ? x = ( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x n ) T ,
??????????????? ????????? ????? ?????.
# 871 #
(4)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
? ?????????? (2 ? 4) n??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?? l-?????? ??????
????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, k-?????? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ???? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?
r-?????? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???, ??? l + k + r = n.
? ???? ???????, ?????? X1 = (x1 ,..., x l ) T ????????????? ? ????
X 1 = (G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , G 4 , G 5 , G 6 ),
X 1 ? ? X1 .
(5)
?? ????????, ???????? ??????? X1 ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ??? ?????
?? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ? X ????? ???????? X1* , ???????, ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ? X ? ? X ,
???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????.
??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ???????.
?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????????
???????? (??????????) X1 (G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , G 4 , G 5 , G 6 ) ? ? X , ????????????? ??????? ? X ?? ?????????? ????????:
1
2
1
? 6 ( X1 / X 2 , X3 ) o min
3
1
(6)
X1Џ : X
1
??? ????????????:
?????(X1/X2 , X3 ) t ?????(??),
? ( X 1 / X 2 , X 3 ) d ? ????
X1 (G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , G 4 , G 5 , G 6 ) Џ : X1 ,
(7)
X 2 Џ : X2 ,
X 3 Џ : X3 ,
??? ?6 (X1 / X2 , X3 ) ? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ??????
???????? ???????;
?????(X1/X2 , X3 ), ?????(??) ? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????-
??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????;
? ( X 1 / X 2 , X 3 ), ? ???? ? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????????
??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????;
X1 (G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , G 4 , G 5 , G 6 ) ? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???;
X 2 ? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ????
? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
???;
X3 ? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????? ?????.
: X , : X , : X ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????.
1
2
3
# 872 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
??????? ??????????????? ?????? ???? (6, 7) ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?F,
???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??
. ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? (??????-???????????) ??????? : (??)
F
(??)
??????????? ??????? : F ? ?????? ???? (6, 7) ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????????
??????? ????. ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????.
???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? iЏ1, I ????????,
??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ? (??i ) , ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? j Џ 1, J ????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????
j)
?????????????? ??????? ? (????
.
? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????
? ij
? 11
...
? i1
...
? I1
...
...
...
...
...
?1 j
...
? ij
...
? Ij
...
...
...
...
...
? 1J
...
? iJ .
...
? IJ
(8)
(J)
?????? ??????? ??????? (8) ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ij (? (i)?? , T ????
).
??????? ??????-??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????, i Ч j ???,
??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? (6) ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????
X1 (G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , G 4 , G 5 , G 6 ) ? ? X , ? ????????? ??????????? ? ij , i Џ1, I, j Џ1, J .
??? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ????, ????????????? ?? ???. 3 ?
?????????? ????????????.
?? ???. 3 ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? (6, 7) ? ???????
(J)
????????? (? ??, 0, ?) ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? T ????
, ???????????? ? ? ???????
1
? (?J?)
?
? (? I?)
? (?i?)
(1 )
??
(1)
????
?
?
( j)
??
.
.
.
.
. .
?
(J)
????
j)
? (????
? (mijin)
???. 3. ??????? ??????????? (?? ??????) ???????
# 873 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
(J)
????????? (? ??, 0, ?) ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? T ????
, ?????????? ? ? ???????
(J)
????????? (? ??, 0, ?) ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? T ???? . ?????? ????? ? ??????????
Џ : F , ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????, ???????
???????????? ?? ???. 3 ??????????? ??????? : (??)
F
??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? X2 Џ :X , X3 Џ :X , ???? ?????????
i , j)
j)
(X1/X2 , X3 ), ?(X1/X2 , X3 ) ? ?(??i ) , ?(X1/X2 , X3 ) ? ? (????
),
?????? F ( i ) , ????????????? ??????? F (i ) = (C(min
X
(
G
,
G
,
G
,
G
,
G
,
G
)
??? ???? ???????? ???????????? ??????? 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????.
????? ?????? (6, 7) ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????
2
3
X 2 ? ? X , X3 ? ? X , ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????-??????????? ????????????, ?? ??2
3
????? ????, ??????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????. ?? ????? ???? ?????? (6, 7) ????????????
????? ?????? ??????????-???????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????-???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????
??????, ??????????????? ?????????? X 2 ? ? X ? ???? ?????? X 3 ? ? X . ??? ???? ????????????
???????????, ? ?????? ???????? ???????????, ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? (G 1 , G 2 ) , ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????
(G 3 , G 4 ) ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????
???????? (G 5 , G 6 ) , ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????-????????????
2
3
??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???.
????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????
??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????
?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????: ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ? ????? ???????; ??????????? ? ????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????; ????? ????????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ???????????; ????????????? ????????? ????????????????
??????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????; ??????? ???????????????
?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ???????????
? ????????????? ???????? ??????-??????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????;
????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?., ?????????? ?., ??????? ?. ??????????? ? ???????: ? 2 ??. ??. 1; ???. ?
????. ?.: ???, 1986. 346 ?.
[2] ????????? ?., ?????????? ?., ??????? ?. ??????????? ? ???????: ? 2 ??. ??. 2; ???. ?
????. ?.: ???, 1986. 320 ?.
[3] ????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????? ????????. ?.: ???-?? «???????», 1977. 768 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
Methodological Approach to Solving the Problem
of the Background of Requirements to System
of Engineering-Air Field Maintenance
of Operations of Aircraft of the Air Forces
Alexey A. Borodin?,
Vladimir N. Samusenko and Victor V. Lazukin?
a
VUNTs Air Force «Military and air academy
of a name of professor N.E. Zhukovskogo and Yu. A. Gagarin»
54 Starykh Bolshevikov Str., Voronezh, 394064 Russia
b
Military Academy of Aerospace Defense
of a name G.K. Zhukov
50 Zhigarevs Str., Tver, 170022 Russia
b
In article the methodological approach to the decision of a scientific problem of a background of
requirements to system of engineering-air field maintenance of operations of aircraft in constant air
stations of the Air Forces, representing ?ptimization a problem of structurally-parametrical synthesis
of investigated system which decision will allow to define optimum, within the limits of the accepted
restrictions, on-pine forest values of characteristics of system of engineering-air field maintenance of
operations of aircraft is presented.
Keywords: methodology, airfield, quotient space, vector optimization.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 876-884
~~~
??? 519.72: 681.3 (0.75.8)
Statistical Regularities
of Chronology of Astronautics
Sergey A. Nekrasov*
South Russian State Technical University
132 Prosvesheniya Str.,
Novocherkassk, 346428 Russia
Received 18.04.2013, received in revised form 24.08.2013, accepted 19.10.2013
In article chronological anomaly of astronautics is described and investigated by methods of
mathematical statistics. The binomial law of distribution of number of chronological coincidence is
proved. It is shown, that the probability of casual occurrence of considered coincidence is rather
small.
Keywords: astronautics, chronology, statistics, law.
Introduction
The founder of the doctrine about bio- and a technosphere V.I. Vernadsky noticed, that «the
science history is ? the tool of achievement new», and «repetition of the phenomena in time is one of
the brightest displays of law» [1]. He considered development of a science and technics as the process
which is subject to research by a natural-science method: «similar displays cannot be casual, and are
so subordinated to weight and a measure, as movement of astronomical objects or a course of chemical
reactions» [1].
The method of research applied in article, is based on the statistical analysis of chronology by
means of parametrization of dates of events. Parametres are used: conditional numbers of days from
the beginning of chronology N, from the beginning of year n and year?s number Y. For date 4/12/1961:
n(12.04) = 102, Y = 1961, N (4/12/1961) = 1960*365 + [1960/4] + 31 + 28 + 31 + 12 = 715992.
Properties of intervals of time between events ?N, ?n, ?Y are investigated.
Informative property (coincidence) ? the exact or approached frequency rate of intervals to
informative codes C: ?N M C, ?n M C, ?Y M C.
A.L. Chizhevsky is the founder of the solar biology. He one of the first investigated influence
of space factors on historical process [2]. He connected accidents in biosphere with the periods of
solar activity. The considerable contribution to development of space philosophy was brought by
K.E. Tsiolkovsky [3].
Codes, reflecting influence of the space factor. In article correlation of parametres of chronology
and factors of a gravitational constant is proved:
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Nekrasoff_Novoch@mail.ru
# 876 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Sergey A. Nekrasov. Statistical Regularities of Chronology of Astronautics
G = 6,67 ? ·10 ?11 N·m2/kg2 [4-6]. For informative research the greatest admissible integer codes
are used. Therefore the constant registers in a kind: G = 667 ? ·10 ?13 N·m2/kg2. Value of a mantissa
667 and the module of an order 13 we will accept for the basic informative codes. The code 666, as the
approached value for a code 667 is in addition considered.
Probabilities of performance of the informative properties are rather small. In detail probabilitytheoretic calculation is considered in item 2.
Multiple coincidence is priority and is allocated with underlining.
1. The Description of chronological anomaly
Anomaly ?centre? is dates of the outstanding historic figure.
A.S. Pushkin ? the great thinker, the academician of the Russian Academy, the historian (main
historiographer of Russia with 1831).
1.1. Pushkin and Space laws
According to publications of Pushkin societies of Russia, in 1829 on a way to Arzrum Pushkin
has left on storage (for 150 years) at his acquaintance, the known ataman of the Army the Don
D.E. Kutejnikov archive with the description of the laws of space opened by him. Subsequently,
allegedly, the descendant of the ataman became the keeper of legendary archive I.M. Rybkin (1904 ?
1994), the inhabitant of the Rostov area, the graduate of the North Caucasian power institute. In
150 years, in 1979 Rybkin, giving reason for necessity to execute Pushkin?s precept, has organised
disturbed the Soviet authorities and received wide popularity an exhibition on a theme of opening of
the ingenious thinker: Space laws, the device of cycles, history, the inorganic form of a life. According
to Rybkin in archive the knowledge of cycles in the nature and a society is ciphered (Rybkin I.?.
«Russian mathematical science». Taganrog. A Pushkin Science. 1997).
1.2. A phenomenon of a surname and Pushkin?s date
The surname of the thinker occurs from the word ?gun?. The jet artillery is related usual artillery
(the gun and a rocket on the device and an action principle have much in common). The artillery and
the rocket weapon traditionally unite in one sort of rocket armies and artillery. Pushkin is the genius
of the country of the first artificial satellite and the cosmonaut.
It is remarkable, that Pushkin?s dates are phenomenally connected with dates of history of artillery,
the rocket technics and astronautics.
Applied below a designation we will explain on an example of dates of a life of Pushkin: N1ASP = N
(6/6/1799), N2ASP = N (2/10/1837), n1ASP = n (6.06), n2ASP = n (10.02), Y1ASP = 1799, Y2ASP = 1837.
1.3. Chronological anomaly of history of rocket technics
Van Gu, the inventor of the first rocket flying machine (nearby 1500, China), was lost during tests
[4,5]: Y2ASP ? Y + 1 M 13*13.
The first large-scale application of the rocket weapon took place in India in 1792 and in a year
of a birth of Pushkin in 1799 [4,5]: Y2 ? Y1ASP M 13*13.
Tipu Sultan (11/20/1750 ? 5/4/1799), Indian prince, the organizer of the first rocket armies was
lost in a year of a birth of Pushkin in 1799:
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Y2 ? Y1ASP M 13*13, n1 ? n1ASP + 2 M 13*13.
G. Koanda (6/7/1886 ? 11/25/1972), the designer and the pilot of the first jet plane (Romania, 1910)
was born next day after an anniversary of a birth of Pushkin: n1 ? n1ASP ? 1 M 13*13.
The first start of a rocket with the liquid jet engine has been carried out in USA 3/16/1926: N ?
ASP
N1 + 1 = 13*13*137 * (?1 + 3).
R. Goddard (10/5/1882 ? 8/10/1945), the designer of this rocket:
N1 ? N2ASP + 2 M 667, N2 ? N1ASP ?1 = 13*1369*1*3.
The first Soviet rocket 11/25/1933 [4,5]: N ? N2ASP ? 1 M 667.
The first intercontinental ballistic missile USSR 8/21/1957: N? N2ASP = 667*66.
M.K. Tihonravov (7/29/1900 ? 3/4/1974), rocket designer: n1 ? n2ASP M 13*13.
S.P. Korolev (1/12/1907-1/14/1966), rocket designer: Y2 ? Y1ASP + 2 M 13*13.
M.I. Nedelin (11/9/1902 ? 10/24/1960), the first commander-in-chief of Rocket strategic forces:
N1 ? N2ASP ? 1 = 667*6*6.
M.V. Keldysh (2/10/1911 ? 6/24/1978), called in a press «the main theorist of astronautics»:
n1 ? n2ASP M 13*13.
?.P. Kamanin (10/18/1908 ? 3/12/1982), the known chief of group of cosmonauts (1966 ? 71):
N2 ? N1ASP M 13*13.
1.4. Correlation of Pushkin dates and founders of the theory of gravitation
Parametres of a gravitational constant are the basic informative codes. Gravitation has paramount
value for the rocket technics.
G. Galilej (2/15/1564 ? 1/8/1642) has opened laws of falling of bodies:
N1 ? N2ASP + 1 M 13*13, Y1ASP ? Y1 ? 1 M 13, Y2ASP ? Y1 M 13,
Y1ASP ? Y2 ? 1 M 13, Y2ASP ? Y2 M 13.
I. Newton (1/4/1643 ? 3/31/1727) has entered a gravitation constant:
N1ASP ? N2 ? 1 = 13*13*13 *(13?1), Y1ASP ? Y1 M 13, Y2ASP ? Y1 + 1 M 13.
Remarkable coincidence for Pushkin?s date of birth on old style:
N(5/26/1799) ? N1IN + 1 = 13*13*13*13*(?1 + 3).
The gravitation law is opened about 1667 [4,5]: Y2ASP ? Y ? 1 = 13*13.
1.5. Laws of history of space flights
«Explorer-1» 2/1/1958: N? N2ASP + 1 = 13*103*33 (the first USA?s satellite).
«Pioneer-1» (3/11/1960): N ? N2ASP ? 1 = 13*13*133*(?1 + 3) (the first interplanetary space
vehicle).
J.A. Gagarin (3/9/1934 ? 3/27/1968): Y2 ? Y1ASP = 13*13, Y2 ? Y2ASP = 131.
The first exit into an orbit of the Moon of piloted ship 12/24/1968:
N ? N2ASP M 13*13; Y ? Y1ASP = 13*13.
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The first flight with disembarkation to the Moon (1969):
Y ? Y1ASP ? 1 = 13*13.
The first space station and destruction of its expedition
Start of orbital station ?Salute? 4/19/1971 was the second achievement of the Soviet piloted
astronautics: N ? N2ASP ? 1 M 13*13.
Visiting expedition has begun work in Pushkin?s birthday 6/6/1971:
n ? n1ASP M 13*13.
Cosmonauts were lost at end of expedition 6/30/1971.
G.T. Dobrovolsky (was born 6/1/1928), the commander: N1 ? N2ASP + 1 M 667.
V.N. Volkov (was born 11/23/1935): n1 ? n1ASP ? 1 M 13*13, n1 ? n2ASP M 13.
V.I. Patsaev (was born 6/19/1933): N1 ? N1ASP + 1 M 13, n1 ? n1ASP = 13, n1 ? n2ASP + 1 M 13.
From the major events of a considered historical theme of coincidence are absent only for date of
flight of the first artificial satellite.
1.6. The first and largest accidents rockets and astronautics of the USA
The largest accident of rocket technics of USA 8/9/1965 (rockets explosion, 53 persons were lost):
N ? N1ASP + 1 = 13*667*(6?6 + 7).
1/27/1967 in a fire by the ship "Apollo-1" 2nd astronaut of the USA V. Grissom (was born 4/3/1926)
was lost: Y ? Y1ASP + 1 = 13*13, Y ? Y2ASP M 13.
Ship accident «Challenger» 1/28/1986: N ? N1ASP ? 1 = 13*1311*(1 + 3).
F.R. Skobi (was born 5/19/1939), the commander: N1 ? N2ASP ? 1 M 667.
Destruction of the astronaut in a year of 200-year-old Pushkin anniversary
Charlse Conrad (6/2/1930 ? 7/9/1999), the great astronaut, commander of 2nd crew which
has stepped into the Moon, was lost as a result of accident for 59319 day after Pushkin?s death:
59319 = 13*13*13*1*3*1*3*1*3.
1.7. The rocket technics and astronautics of the USSR
The largest accident of rocket technics of USSR 10/24/1960 (rockets explosion). In accident the
first commander of rocket armies M.I. Nedelin (its coincidence see above in section of history of
rocket technics) was lost.
V.V. Bondarenko (2/16/1937 ? 3/23/1961), 1st lost Soviet cosmonaut-verifier. He was born in 100
years after Pushkin?s death.
G.G. Neljubov, 2nd lost verifier 2/18/1966: Y2 ? Y1ASP + 2 M 13*13.
V.M. Komarov (3/16/1927 ? 4/24/1967) was lost at end of space flight:
Y ? Y1ASP + 1 = 13*13, Y ? Y2ASP M 13.
J.A. Gagarin (3/9/1934 ? 3/27/1968) was lost in an air crash: Y ? Y1ASP = 13*13.
P.I. Beljaev (6/26/1925 ? 1/10/1970), 3rd died among Soviet cosmonauts flying to space:
Y2 ? Y1ASP ? 2 M 13*13.
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1.8. Gagarin and Shepard ? space duel of the XX-th century
The duel?s theme is sign for Pushkin?s biography.
G. Dantes (2/5/1812 ? 11/2/1895), the French emigrant, his contender on the well-known duel.
The given feature of the biography of Pushkin will well be co-ordinated with the drama beginning
of history of piloted astronautics. Competition of the USSR and the USA in space had character of the
real duel.
Dates of flight of Gagarin and day of Pushkin?s duel are connected:
N (4/12/1961) ? N (2/8/1837) + 2 M 667.
The first cosmonaut of a planet was lost for 169th year after a birth, in 131 year after Pushkin?s
death: Y2 ? Y1ASP = 13*13, Y2 ? Y2ASP = 131.
A. Shepard (11/18/1923 ? 7/22/1998) ? the first astronaut of America. Conformity with Dantes?s
dates: N2 ? N2GD M 13*13, n2 ? n1GD + 2 M 13*13.
1.9. The second space duel of the USSR and the USA
In 1966 Gagarin in group L-3 had training preparation for flight on the Moon. However astronauts
of the USA became winners of new space competition. Flight dates to the Moon of the ship ?Apollo-8?
and Pushkin?s duel are connected: N(12/21/1968) ? N(2/8/1837) + 1 M 13*13.
J. Lovell (was born 3/25/1928), the pilot ?Apollo-8?, his dates correspond to Dantes: N ? N1GD + 1 M
13*13, N ? N2GD ? 2 M 13*13.
Gagarin was lost in a year of historical flight of astronauts (on 169th year after Pushkin?s birth):
Y ? Y1ASP = 13*13.
1.10. Unique duel of artificial satellites of Russia and the USA
2/10/2009 in an anniversary of death of Pushkin there was rather rare event ? collision (over
territory of Russia) two satellites (Iridium and «Cosmos-2251»): n ? n2ASP M 13*13.
1.11. Astronauts-Afro-Americans
Pushkin?s feature is his African origin.
Robert Lawrence (10/2/1935 ? 12/8/1967), the first astronaut-Afro-American, was lost in an air
crash: Y2 ? Y1ASP + 1 = 13*13.
Gijon Stewart Bluford (was born 11/22/1942), the first Afro-American who has made space flight:
n ? n1ASP = 13*13.
Frederik Drju Greg, 1st Afro-American ? the head of NASA, was born 1/7/1941 in 51714 days
after Pushkin?s birth: 51714 M 13*13.
F.D. Gregori has started to supervise over NASA in 2005: Y?Y2ASP + 1 = 13*13.
1.12. The first women-cosmonauts
V.V. Tereshkova (was born 3/6/1937), the first woman-cosmonaut was born in 100 years after
Pushkin?s death.
Sally Kristen-Ride (was born 5/26/1951), the first woman-astronaut of the USA. Her coincidence
on a Pushkin theme is phenomenal. S.Kristen-Ride ? the bachelor of the literature, the expert in poetry.
Conformity of dates S. K.-Ride and Pushkin it is perfect under the form: N ? N2ASP M 13*13*13.
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S. K.-Ride was born on May, 26th, and the poet ? also on May, 26th (on old style). Coincidence
for dates takes place also S. K.-Ride and sisters of poet O.S. Pushkina (12/31/1797 ? 5/14/1868):
N ? N1OSP ? 1 M 667.
1.13. Heads of the first national space programs
Eisenhower ? the founder of NASA
D. Eisenhower (10/14/1890 ? 3/28/1969), the US president, carried out the general management of
the first space program of the USA. He has ordered to catch up with the USSR in space competition. It
posesses idea of the prospecting artificial satellites. Phenomenal quantity of coincidence to Pushkin?s
dates:
N1 ? N2ASP M 13*13, N2 ? N1ASP M 13*13, Y2 ? Y1ASP ? 1 M 13*13,
Y1 ? Y1ASP M 13, Y1 ? Y2ASP ? 1 M 13, n1 ? n2ASP + 1 M 13, n1 ? n1ASP M 13.
NASA ? the largest organisation of space researches is founded 7/29/1958 by D.Eisenhower?s
decree: n ? n2ASP = 13*13.
John Kennedy ? the initiator of the lunar program of NASA
J. Kennedy (5/29/1917 ? 11/22/1963), the US president in 1961-63 has the direct relation to
astronautics. His name carries the well-known space centre on cape Canaveral (earlier cape Kennedy).
He declared space new border of the USA. For restoration of prestige of the USA he has proclaimed the
program ?Apollo? a national problem.
Phenomenal coincidence for dates of the president and
Pushkin: N2 ? N2ASP = 13*13*137*(?1 + 3); n2 ? n1ASP = 13*13;
N1 ? N1ASP + 3 M 13*13, N1 ? N2ASP M 13; n2 ? n2ASP + 1 M
/13; Y1 ? Y1ASP? 1 M 13.
The well-known clan Kennedy is widely known for that its representatives pursues a chain
of failures and tragedies. Dates of known representatives of the well-known clan it is abnormal are
connected with Pushkin?s dates.
Robert Kennedy (11/20/1925 ? 6/6/1968),
brother J.Kennedy, the senator of the USA. After
destruction of the brother he has headed a political clan Kennedy. He did not become the US president,
probably because has died as a result of attempt in 169th anniversary of a birth of Pushkin. Phenomenal
coincidence: Y2 ? Y1ASP = 13*13; n2 ? n1ASP M 13*13, n2 ? n1ASP + 2 M 13*13;
Y2 ? Y2ASP = 131; N1 ? N1ASP M 13.
Kennedy as Pushkin were lost in the prime of life from bullets of murderers.
Lee Harvi Oswald (10/18/1939 ? 11/24/1963), accused of murder of J.Kennedy ? symbolical
Dantes: N1 ? N2GD ? 1 M 13*13, N2 ? N1GD M 13.
He was born for 46642nd day after Dantes?s birth: 46642 + 2 = 13*13*138*(?1 + 3).
As well as Dantes he came to Russia where too married the Russian woman.
J. Kennedy and Tereshkova?s flight. In history of Pushkin duel the central place is occupied with
women, sisters Goncharovs. J.Kennedy ? the youngest in history of the USA the president and the hero
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of set of love novels. He was lost in a year of Tereshkova?s flight. Tereshkova?s dates and wives Dantes
E.N. Goncharova (4/22/1809 ? 10/15/1843) are connected:
N ? N2ENG + 1 = 13*1312*(?1 + 3).
M.N. Prusakova (was born 7/17/1941), the wife of Osvald ? ?Dantes?, corresponds to Tereshkova.
Coincidence to flight date: N ? NMNP = 667*(13?1).
The head of the first space programs of the USSR
L.I. Brezhnev (12/19/1906 ? 11/10/1982) supervised the first space programs of the USSR. His
name has been appropriated to ?Star?s town?. To him the rank of the Hero of Socialist Work [5] has
been appropriated. Conformity of dates of Brezhnev and Pushkin is remarkable:
N2 ? N2ASP + 1 M 13*13, N2 ? N2ASP + 1 = 13*1365*1*3; n1 ? n1ASP ? 1 M 13,
n1 ? n2ASP M 13, n2 ? n1ASP ? 1 M 13, n2 ? n2ASP M 13; Y2 ? Y1ASP ? 1 M 13.
Symbolical French-Russian flights in a year of Brezhnev?s death
Last year of a life of Brezhnev (symbolical ?Pushkin?) is noted to a similar case of J.Kennedy:
space flight was made by 2nd wom S.E. Savitskaya (symbolical wife Pushkin ?N.N. Goncharova?)
and 1st French cosmonaut Jean-Lu Kreten (symbolical ?Dantes?): Y ? Y1GD ? 1 = 13*13, Y ? Y1NNG ?
1 = 13*13.
Flight of Savitskaya has begun 8/19/1982. Corresponding informative coincidence
for date of the culprit of Pushkin duel of N.N. Goncharova (9/8/1812 ? 12/8/1863): N ?
N2NNG + 1 = 13*667*(6 + 6?7).
1.14. Lunar expeditions ? outstanding achievement of astronautics
12/24/1968 ?Apollo-8? for the first time in history delivered the person to an orbit of the Moon
[4-7]. Unique coincidence:
Pushkin: N ? N2 M 13*13; Y ? Y1 = 13*13, Y ? Y2 = 131.
Dantes: N ? N2 ? 1 = 13*137*15.
J. Kennedy: N ? N2 M 13*13; N ? N1 = 18837 M 13.
D. Eisenhower: N ? N1 = 13*13*13*13, Y ? Y1 M 13.
Ship creation «Moon rover ? 1» (start 11/10/1970, work 11/17/1970 ? 10/4/1971) was the answer of
the USSR. Corresponding coincidence also has abnormal character:
Pushkin: Y1 ? Y1ASP ? 2 M 13*13.
Brezhnev: n1 ? n2LIB M 13*13, N2 ? N1LIB + 1 M 667, N2LIB ? N3 + 1 M 13*13.
2. The Probability-theoretic and statistical analysis of anomaly
Probabilities of coincidence for one parametre. We assume, that dates of a life of people and
events are casual and independent from each other. Accordingly random variables are parametres of
dates Xj ( j = 1,2,3):
?N = |N ? N0 |, ?n = |n ? n0 |, ?Y = |Y ? Y0 |,
where the index 0 corresponds to the ?central? date.
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Event A (coincidence) is frequency rate of parametre to considered code C: A = Xj M C. Probabilities
and characteristics of such events were investigated on the COMPUTER. It is proved, that events ?N M
C, ?n M C, ?Y M C practically independent, and the probability of event Xj M C is equal 1/C [8-10].
Owing to independence of coincidence research of properties of dates is equivalent to sequence of
independent tests (Bernully?s scheme) [8-10].
Probabilities of coincidence for set of dates.
For Pushkin?s two dates and one investigated
date there are 6 parametres ?Ni, ?ni, ?Yi, i = 1, 2. Check of the informative properties for a number of
numerical codes from which the cores are codes 132, 666, 667 is carried out. The big codes of a kind
133, 13*13*13?1?2 ?, where ?1, ?2, ? ? decimal figures are considered also. For a code 132 checks for
6 parametres (with probability of exact coincidence p1 = 1/169), and for other codes ? for 4 parametres
?Ni, ?Yi, i = 1, 2 are carried out. The corresponding total probability for codes 666 and 667 is equal
p2 ? 2/666.
For m dates it is carried out 6m checks for a code 132. The probability not less k coincidence
with a margin error no more ? in the given series of checks is defined under the formula of binomial
probabilities [8-10]:
P(6m, k, p) = C(6m, k) pkq6m?k + ? + C(6m, 6m-1) p6m?1q +
+ C(6m, 6m) p6m,
p = (2? + 1) p1, q = 1 ? p. For each of codes 666 and 667 it is carried out 4m checks. The
corresponding probability is equal P (4m, k, p), where p = (2? + 1) p2.
As considered events are independent, the total probability is equal to product: P (6m, k, (2? + 1) p1)
P (4m, k, (2? + 1) p2).
Probabilities of coincidence for one parametre and codes of a kind 133, 13*13*13?1?2 ? are
accordingly equal: 1/2197 <<1 and 1/780 <<1.
Frequencies and probabilities of coincidence for various codes and that.
Detailed calculation is described in works [9,10]. For a code 132 anomaly takes place. Excess of
frequency of coincidence in comparison with norm much more unit. Corresponding probabilities there
is less than unit. For codes 666 and 667 anomaly less obvious. Total value of probability:
? ? 10 ?22 <<1, at ? ? 1; ? ? 10 ?21 <<1, at ? ? 2.
The given values of probability allow to assume, that considered coincidence is not casual. For
comparison it is expedient to notice, that in practice usually sufficient it is considered reliability 0,99
(probability of an error 0,01).
Conclusions
In article dates of history of rocket technics and astronautics are investigated. The research method
is based on the statistical analysis of chronological data by means of parametrization of dates of events
and check of the corresponding informative properties.
The phenomenon of steady correlation of dates of the major events of history of astronautics with
Pushkin?s dates takes place. It will be co-ordinated with remarkable conformity of his surname to a
theme of artillery, the related rocket technics. Coincidence has character of law, and the probability of
their casual occurrence is rather small.
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The phenomenon reason is influence of space system ETA. Chronological anomaly is special way
of an information transfer space systems. Results of research confirm ideas of the founder of space
philosophy K.E. Tsiolkovsky.
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? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????
???????? ????????????. ????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ???????????????
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?????? ????.
???????? ?????: ????????????, ??????????, ??????????, ??????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 885-894
~~~
??? 678.049.2
??????? ??? ??????
?? ?????? ????????????????
??????????? ????????
???????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????*?,
?
?.?. ?????? , ?.?. ???????????, ?.?. ????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
???????????? ????????????????? ?????????
??????????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 664074, ???????, ??. ??????????, 83
Received 23.12.2012, received in revised form 22.08.2013, accepted 30.08.2013
??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????
??????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????,
???????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????
?????????? (???). ??? ??????????????, ?????????????, ?????????????, ??????????????
? ?.?. ? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????????????????, ??????? ??
?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ????????.
? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????????
?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????, ??????????
?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?
??????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????, ?????-??????????????? ????????????????? ????????
?????????? ???.
????????
???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????.
??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????
??????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????, ???*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Lusya54@yandex.ru
# 885 #
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?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???). ??? ??????????????, ?????????????, ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ?.?.
[1]. ? ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????????????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ????????. ????????
??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????
???????? [2]. ?????? ??-?? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????, ????????????? ????????????? ???????????-????????
????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????????????????, ? ????? ???????, ? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????.
??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????, ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????? ???????????? [3]. ?? ??
??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????. ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????
???????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????? ??????????????? ????????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????????? ? ?????????? ????????. ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????
??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ???????? [4]. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????
?????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? (????????) ?????????. ?????????? ???????
? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????.
???????? ?? ?? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????, ????????
???????, ????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? (? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????????? ???????) ? ????????? ????? ? ??????
?? ???????? ? ?????????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????
? ???????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ??? ????? ??? ??, ??? ?????????, ? ?? ??????????? ?? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? [6?8]. ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????, ?????????
? ???? ? ? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????
[9?11].
???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? [5].
???????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????. ???
??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????
????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ??? ????????.
? ????? ????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???. ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? [12].
# 886 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ????????????
????????? ???????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? 46?52 % ? ?????????? 6,2 % ? ???????????????? ? ? 68,1 %; ? ? 6,4 %;
?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? 12,3 % ?????????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????
??????? ? ????????? ????? 2 ?? ? ? ?????????? 100 ? (? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????) ???????? ? ?????, ? ??????? ?????????????? ????? 1 ??3 ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????????
????? ?? 7,0 ?? 14,0 ?/??3 (??????????? ???????? 12?15 °?). ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????? 1?2 ?????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????? ??
??????????? pH. ????? ????? ?? ????????? 40?60 % ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????
?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 3,5 ?? 28,8 %.
??????? ??? ? ?????????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????????
????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? 50 ? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????????
? ????????, ????????? 200 ??3 ????, ????????? ?????????? ????, Na2SЧ9 H2O, ??????. ?????
????????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? 60?90 °? ? ??????????? 1 ???. ????? ???????
??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? 1 ??3 ????? ?????? 15 ????? ? ??????????? 3?4 ????.
??? ???? ???????????? pH (?????? ???? ?? ????? 8). ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? pH
??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ?? pH 2, ?????????, ????????? ????? ? ??????????.
???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??? ??????? ???.
???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????. ? ???????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ??????????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?????, ? ????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? 8267-82, ???? 10260-82, ???? 8268-82. ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? 8736-85. ???????????? ?
?????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ???????????
???????????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????
????????? ????????. ?????????, ???????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ???????,
?? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? 5 % ?? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?l2?3+Fe2O3 , ???????????? ? ?????? ??????, ?? ????????? 1,7 % ?? ?????.
?? ??????-???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????? ????? ??? 90/130
??? «???????? ???» ?????????????? ??????????? ???? 22245-90. ??????? ????????????????? ??????, ????????? ? ??????, ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???? 912897. ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ????? ???? ?, 2 ????? ??? II
???????-????????????? ???? (????????? ??????) ???????????? ?? ???? 9128-97.
??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????:
? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? «?????? ? ???» ?????????? ?? ???? 11506-73;
? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ???? 11508-74;
? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? 11507-78;
# 887 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
? ???????????? ??? +25 °? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ???? 11505-75;
? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? 11502-82.
???????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? 12801-98 «????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????. ?????? ?????????».
?????????? ???????????
??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? (???) ? ???
? ??????????? ???????????? (??) ??????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????,
?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????
???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????. 1.
??? ????? ?? ????. 1, ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?
??? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????. ???
???? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? [12]. ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? (???) ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????-???????????
????? ? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? (?? ????????? ? ????????
??????????? ????????) ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??
??????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????
???????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????.
??? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ?????-???????? ?????????
????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? (??????? 1). ?????
4,6
9,55
9,23
12,80
15,20
15,20
1,9
1,97
2,85
3,51
6,25
6,25
53,24
7,70
8,45
8,22
8,19
8,05
8,05
S, %
Cl, %
???????
?????????? ???,
%
1,2,3 ? ??? ? 9,76
1,2,3 ? ??? ? 17,90
1,2 ? ??? ? 9,83
1,3 ? ????? ? 11,90
1,2, ? ??? ? 12,80
1,2,3 ????-14,70
????? ? 14,70
NaOH, % ????.
37,0/0
67,9/2,8
70,2/3,5
67,8/7,3
62,7/10,2
55,8/14,2
55.8/14,2
S, % ????.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
??????????
???????????????
??? ??? ? ???
???????/
??????????, % ????.
?????????? ????? ?
???????, % ????.
Na2S ?????????,
% ????.
????? ???????
??????? 1. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???
2,56
4,2
5,4
6,8
9,2
9,6
0,9
0,9
1,3
2,2
2,8
3,2
78,0
77,0
100
100
100
100
100
???????
???????????
??? ? ??? ?
??????????? ??
*??? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????; 1,2,3 ? ??? ? 1,2,3 -?????????????; 1,2 ? ??? ? 1,2 ? ????????????;
1,3 ? ????? ? 1,3 ? ????????????; ????? ? ????? ???.
# 888 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????, ????? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ??????????? ???????????????
????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? -2,8 (??????? 2) ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???. ? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?? 23 % ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????. ??????? ????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ? ??????????
????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? 3,5 % ????. (??????? 3) ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???. ?????????? ???????????? (??????? 6 ? 7) ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????
??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
?????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? 14,2 % ????. (??????? 6 ? 7) ????????
???????????, ????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???.
??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????. ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????????? ??????, ???? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????: ????????????, ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????, ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?
??????? ?????? ???.
?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????????
????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????, ??????? ???? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????.
?????????? ???????????? ??????-???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????. 2 ? 3. ??????? ????????, ??? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ? ???????? ???????
??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?
???? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? 6,75 ?? 12,75 %. ??? ?????????,
??????????
??? 25 °?,
0,1??
???????????
???????????,
°?
?????
?????, %
??????????
??? 25 °?,
0,1 ??
???????????
???????????,
°?
3
4
5
6
????? ???90/130 (?)
?+ ???????? ???????????
??????
?+ ???????????-??????? ? 3
?+ ???????????-??????? ? 4
?+ ???????????-??????? ? 5
?+ ???????????-??????? ? 7
????? ????????
(163 °? ? 5 ?????)
?? ????????
??????????
??????? ?
???????,
% ?? ?????
1
2
??? ?????????????
????????
????? ???????
??????? 2. ??????-???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????
?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?
?????????????? ??????????? ????????
100
5 (?????? ? 95)
128
121
43,0
45,0
2,14
2,03
112
112
50,5
50,5
5 (?????? ? 95)
5 (?????? ? 95)
5 (?????? ? 95)
5 (?????? ? 95)
115
118
118
104
46,5
45,0
46,0
48,5
2,10
2,20
2,50
2,90
106
108
98
90
51,0
49,5
51,0
52,5
*??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????; ?????? ??????????????????????
????????????? ?????? ????. 1.
# 889 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????
???????
??????? 3. ??????-???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?
????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????????
??????????? ????????
??????
????????????? ????????
???????????
????????? ??
??????, °? *
????????? ?
???????? ??
????????????
??????? ? 2
???????????
?????????
??????????? ?????
????????, °?
7,5
1
????? ???????? ??? 90/130
20,6
?? ! 17
2
????? + 5 % ????. ?????????
???????????? ???????
????? + 5 % ????.
????????????-??????? ? 3
????? + 5 % ????.
????????????-??????? ? 4
????? + 5 % ????.
????????????-??????? ? 5
????? + 5 % ????.
????????????-??????? ? 7
-20,9
???????????
5,5
-21,8
???????????
4,5
-21,5
???????????
4,5
-21,0
???????????
5,0
-21,6
???????????
4,0
3
4
5
6
* ? ????????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????????
???????? ?? ???? 22245-98 ??? ?????? ????? ??? 90/130 *??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????
??????????? ??????; ?????? ?????????????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????. 1.
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????????
????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????.
??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??? ? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? (????. 2). ????????? ??????????
??? 25 °?, ??????????? ??? ???? ???????????????? ????????, ????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????. ??? ???????????????? ???????? ???????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? (???????????? ?? ?????? ? ????). ??? ???????? ??????
?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????. ?????????? ??????? ?
????? ????????? (??? ???????? ??????) ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?, ??????????????,
??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ? «????????» ? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ? ?????????????????? ??????????.
??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????, ?????? ??. ?????? ????????? ?
????. 3. ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ????????.
??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? 18,6 °?. ??? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????: ????? 20,9?21,8 °? (?? ????
222245-90 ?? ????? ????? 17 °?). ??? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? 2, ?.?. ?? ??????????, ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ? ????. ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? 22245-90 ? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ????? 1,0 ?? +1,0, ???????????? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ????? 70 ??. ?? ?????? ?????? ???60190 ? ???????? ?????????
# 890 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? 5 % ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (% ?? ?????):
?????? ??????????????? 5?10 ??
18
?????? ??????????????? 10?40 ??
17
??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????
65
????? ??? 90/130 + ??????? (?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???) ? 5 % ?? ?????
7 (????? 100).
??????-???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???? 12801-98. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????. 4. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? 20,
50 °? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????.
???????????? ???????????????? (??) ? ??????????? (??.??) ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? 9128-97 ??? ???? ????????. ???????-???????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ? ??.??. ???, ??????????, ???????? ?? ????????????
???????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????.
??????
1. ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????
??????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ? ????? ??????, ? ??????????????
??????????? ????????.
2. ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????
????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????.
3. ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????.
4. ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???, ?????????
????????????? ??????????? ???? 9128-97. ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????
???????? ????????. ??? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????.
4,83
4,70
3,95
3,86
3,78
3,92
?????????, %
?? ??????
0,59
0,64
0,67
0,79
0,76
0,66
????????
?????, ?/??3
2,34
2,34
2,32
2,33
2,31
2,32
3,8
4,2
4,4
4,1
4,0
3,9
R20
1,04
1,06
1,04
1,07
0,99
1,06
R50
9,6
9,8
10,0
10,6
11,4
9,2
R?
??? ????????????, °?
? ??????????????
?????????
????????????????
????????? R?
R??
3,3
2,9
4,4
3,7
4,3
3,6
4,02
3,2
3,8
3,4
3,6
2,9
?????? ????????? ??? ??????, ???
*??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????; ?????? ????????-????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????. 1.
1. ?????-100
2. ?+.???. ???? ?????? (5 %)
3. ?+?-???. ? 3 (5 %)
4. ?+?-???. ? 4 (5,0 %)
5.?+ ?-???. ? 5 (5 %)
6. ?+?-???. ? 7 (5 %)
??? ????????
?????????????, %
?? ??????
0,86
1,04
0,98
0.98
0.95
0,92
??
0,76
0,87
0,82
0,78
0,84
0,76
??.??
????????????
?????????????
??????? 4. ??????-???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???
?????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ?????, ??????????, ??????????? ? 2000. ???????????? ????? ? ??????????»: ??. ??????? ??????. ???????: ????.
2000. ?. 89?97.
[2] ??????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ????? ? ?????????? ???????????????????
??????????. ?.: ?????, 1991. 272 c.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ?.: ????????. 1977. ?. 33.
[4] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. // ????? ? ????????? ???????????
????????. 2001. ? 4. ?. 9. ?. 541?546.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ?????????????. 2000.
? 9. ?. 45?49.
[6] ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? // ???????: ????????. ?????? ???. 2004. ? 6.
URL: pressa.irk.ru/kopeika/2004/05/004002.html.
[7] ??????????? ?????? // ????????? ??????: ????????. ?????? ???. 2008. ???. 282. URL:
http://www.og-irk.ru/vp282/neugomonniy_lignin/view_5292.html.
[8] ???????? ? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? [??????????? ??????] //
??????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????, 2005. URL: http://www.irkobl.ru
[9] ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ? ???????. 2009. ? 1. ?. 26?27.
[10] ?????? ?.?. // ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????. 2007. ? 5. ?. 3?7.
[11] ??????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. // ????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?
?????. 2006. ? 2. ?. 33?34.
[12] ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???. 2376275 RU.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????
The Additive for the Bitumen on the Basis
of the Modified Hydrolytic Lignin
of the Organochlorine Wastes
of the Chemical Industries
Vladimir P. Kiseleva,
Alexey F. Gogotov , Maksim B. Bugaenkoa,
Luidmila A. Ivanovaa, Viktor G. Dronovb,
Anna A. Grigorevab and Nikolay V. Kemeneva
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
National Research
Irkutsk State Technical University
83 Lermontov?s Str., 664074 Irkutsk
b
In the production of the epichlorohydrin from the propylene by means of the chlorination, as well as the
other similar industries such as the manufacture of the vinyl chloride, chlorallylene, dichloroethane
form a large number of the accessory chlorinated organic compounds (ChOCs). These are the
monohlorpropen, dichloropropane, dichloropropene, trichloropropane and so on. Because of its
toxicity the chlorinated organic compounds are not utilized by the microorganisms, so their disposal
is the major technological and ecological problems. In order to improve the efficiency of the process
the banding of the toxic chlororganic compounds by the lignin to obtain the modifying additive for the
bitumen, possessing the increased compatibility of the lignin with the bitumen, the lignin is activated
with the chlorine water and polysulphides.
Keywords: bituminous concrete, bitumen modification by organochlorine wastes of Angarsk ANC.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 895-902
~~~
??? 691.327:666.964.3
Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified
Asphalt Coating Binder
by Settling Resin of Pyrolysis
Vladimir P. Kiselev,
Vladimir S. Filimonov, Maksim B. Bugaenko,
Nikolay V. Kemenev and Luidmila A. Ivanova*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Received 14.05.2013, received in revised form 24.07.2013, accepted 08.09.2013
The quality of binder in asphalt mixes largely determines the characteristics of road surface. In the
present study the possibility of modifying the binder by introducing the settling resin of pyrolysis
of wood raw material into bitumen is considered in order to improve adhesion of bitumen to stone
materials and to improve the quality of asphalt concrete.
Keywords: road surface, asphalt, resin pyrolysis, adhesion, bitumen, stone materials.
Introduction
Modern quality of pavements in Russia leaves to desire their significant improvement [1].
Due to the large amount of spending materials needed for production of road surface in the form
of crushed stone, gravel, binder composition and the presence of substantial quantities of various
dead-end waste of various industries, such as legnina, rubber, wood waste, etc. there is a need to
use them in road construction. Problems that arise therewith attract the attention of researchers and
experts. Creation of asphalt mixtures that satisfy the consumers for their operational characteristics
results in the long-term use of road surface, in reducing repair works, also in using the waste of
various productions and, consequently, in significant reduce of road construction costs. One of
important aspects in improving the quality of pavements is bettering the characteristics of the
binder. From the literature [2-14] it is known that the use of block co-polymers such as styrenebutadiene-styrene (SBS), also known as bivinyl- styrene thermoplastic elastomer (DST-30-01 in
RF, Kraton D 1101 in the Netherlands, Finapren in Belgium) enables to improve the properties of
a polymer-bitumen binder: to expand plastic range when reducing the temperature of brittleness
and increasing the temperature of softening, and also to increase the strength characteristics of
asphalt concrete, its fracture strength, stability to shears etc. The thermoplastic polymers such as
polyethylene are used for producing a polymer-bitumen binder. As the authors of papers [4-7, 1315] assert, the adhesive ability of a polymer-bitumen binder is higher than the initial bitumen. The
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Lusya54@yandex.ru
# 895 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Kiselev, Vladimir S. Filimonov? Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Coating Binder?
cohesive strength of the material ? it means, its ability to resist the breaking load of the material
itself also increases.
In our opinion, adding the butadiene to blocks of aromatic units of styrene really promotes to
hardening the binder while improving its elasticity, i.e. increases the cohesive energy (Wc). However,
the following should be considered. As a rule, the finished rubber products based on rubber and
thermoplastic elastoplasts have a small quantity of adhesion. That would suggest that even uncured
elastoplasts being added to the mass of bitumen are not able to increase the adhesion of the modified
binder to the mineral materials significantly.
In this case the nature of the mineral material is irrelevant since in the majority of thermoplastic
reactive groups are not included. To test this hypothesis the experiments were conducted to study
the adhesive properties of modified bitumen. It is of a great interest to study the effect of introducing
the sediment resin of pyrolysis of wood raw material into the bitumen on increasing the adhesion of
bitumen to stone materials and improving the quality of asphalt concrete.
Experimental procedure
In a mixture the crushed stone is used obtained in the result of breaking the massive rocks and
which meets the requirements of the State standard (the StSt) 8267-82, StSt 10260-82, StSt 8268-82.
Natural and crushed sands, meeting the requirements of the StSt 8736-85, were used to prepare the
mixture. The mineral powder used for making to asphalt is a product of crushed limestone, dolomites
and other carbonate rocks with limited clay impurities (not more than 5 % by mass). The total amount
of sesquioxides Al2O3 + Fe2O3 in the rock did not exceed 1.7 % by mass.
We used sediment resin of pyrolysis by humidity 7-12 % obtained upon thermal destruction
of hydrolysis lignin (HL) or the pine nut shells (PNS) at the temperature of 450-500 °C in an
inert atmosphere. Modification of bitumen of Achinsk petroleum refinery, brands BND 90/130
the StSt 22245-90 was carried out at the temperature of technology of asphalt production ?
170 °C.
At studying the composition of the original bitumen and modified binders the standard test
methods were used:
? the temperature of softening by the ?ring and sphere? method was determined according to the
StSt 11506-73; the adhesion of bitumen with the sand and marble was defined by the StSt 11508-74;
the temperature of brittleness by Fraas was determined according to the StSt 11507-78; extensibility
at +25 °C and 0 °C was measured in accordance with the StSt 11505-75; penetration was determined
according to the StSt 11502-82; elasticity, characterized by the ability of modified bitumen binder
(MBB) to reversible deformation, was determined by reduce of the sample length, pre-stretched up to
the rupture. Elasticity of binder was calculated by the formula
(
( D25 3) L1
� 100% ,
D25 3
(1)
where D25 ? extensibility at 25 0C, cm; L1 ? the sum of two parts of the sample (the final measurement),
cm; 3 ? the constant of the instrument.
Investigations of samples of organic compounds were carried out according to the StSt 12801-98
?Materials based on organic binders for road and airfield construction. Test methods.? The content
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Vladimir P. Kiselev, Vladimir S. Filimonov? Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Coating Binder?
of asphalt in the mixture made 6.5 % from the weight of the mineral (over 100). Samples of asphalt
concrete mixtures studied in the paper agreed with the requirements of the StSt 9128-97.
Results and discussion
Increasing the adhesion of the hydrophobic binder bitumen to sufficiently water-soaked stone
materials of acid (granite) and basic (marble, limestone, dolomite) rocks can be achieved by introducing
the asphalt binder into the composition binder of surface-active substances. Potential modifiers of oil
bitumen are resins of pyrolysis of the plant or wood raw material being formed in the amount of about
10 % at obtaining charcoal. Phenolic substances in the settling pyrolysis tar, as it is shown in previous
papers [16,17], are able to slow the processes of thermooxidative destruction of tars and bitumen what
predetermines their use as inhibitors. Availability of functional groups in the settling pyrolysis tar
which are characteristic of surface-active material [SAM] supposes also a demonstration of surface ?
active properties in this type of resins. All the above listed factors make for successful use of this
product as an effective modifier, modifying properties of which are practically not studied.
An important indicator which determines the suitability of any additive into the binder is its impact on adhesion with the stone components of the asphalt. Studying the adhesion of modified by crude
settling resin of pyrolysis (SRP), of hydrolysis lignin (HL) and pine (cedar) nutshells (PNS) of bitumen
with stone material by the method according to Technical requirements (TQ) RosdorNII 5718-004052044773-95 showed a rather weak adhesion degree.
Adhesion of the initial bitumen as well as of the composition: bitumen BND 90/130 + SRP from
HL; bitumen BND 90/130 + SRP from the SNH was rather weak:
A B = 38 %; AB+SRP from HL = 58 %; A B+SPR of CPN = 53 %;
where A ? the surface share of mineral material covered with bitumen after boiling in a soda solution.
According to the method RosdorNII TQ 5718-004-052044773-95 the A-value <50 % corresponds to
the unsatisfactory adhesion of a binder to the surface of the mineral material, the value of A = 51-70 %
corresponds to the satisfactory adhesion, the value of A = 71-90 % agrees with a good adhesion and the
value of A = 91 ? 100 % ? with an excellent one.
When warming up the SRP at 170 C° (the temperature of the cooking process of asphalt) for
1 hour in the oven the results of complex thermal analysis show that the bound water and volatile
components are removed. Using the heated up to 170° C tars of pyrolysis of HL and SRP we prepared
samples of the modified binder. Testing of adhesion to the surface of the mineral material has shown
that it is assessed practically as a very good one:
A/ B + SRP from HL = 91 %; A/ B + SRP of CPN = 85 %
Thus, these results clearly show that using SRP for the preparation of the modified binder it is
needed to remove remnants of water and volatile organic compounds from it which reduce the quality
of the road coating. Since the adhesion of a binder modified by settling resin pyrolysis HL was higher
later in the experiments then the SPR HL was used as the surface-active additive the SPR HL.
Indicators of physical and mechanical properties of the original bitumen BND 90/130 and bitumen,
a modified by SRP HL are shown in the Table 1. As it can be seen from the Table 1, the adding the
tar of pyrolysis (a more a liquid component) to the bitumen results in reducing its viscosity, what is
# 897 #
116
2
3
4
5
6
Bitumen + 0,5 % mass SRP
Bitumen + 1 % mass SRP
Bitumen + 1,5 % mass SRP
Bitumen + 5 % mass SRP
Bitumen +10 % mass SRP
40,5
43
46
47
47.5
-----Not more than 43
47,5
Softening
temperature °?
> 100
> 100
100
95
-23,5
-24,5
-23,5
-22.5
Temperature of
Extensibility at 25°?,
brittleness by Fraas,
?m
°?
65
- 18.5
----------Not more than 60
Not more than ? 17
90
-21,5
Satisfies
the requirements
Satisfies
the requirements
Does not satisfy
the requirements
Adhesion with
marble in the control
sample ? 2
Satisfies the requirements
------------------Satisfies the requirements
Satisfies
the requirements
Satisfies the requirements
32
60
8
6,5
Crushed stone from quarry "Mazulsky". Fractions
15-5mm
Crushed sand, fractions 5-0mm
Mineral powder *
Organic binder ** (Over 100 %)
* As a mineral powder the limestone powder was used.
** The organic binder ? bitumen modified by additives used in this study.
Content by mass, %
The name of asphalt component
Table 2. Composition of the fine-grained asphalt mixes of the type B, brand 2 for II road-climatic zone
* The numerator shows the physical and mechanical properties of bitumen, the denominator ? the requirements of the StSt 22245-90 for the bitumen of the BND 90/130 brand.
138
130
120
114*
-----90 ? 130
114
Penetration at
25 oC, 0.1mm
1
Sample
number
Initial bitumen BND90/130
The composition
of organic binder
Table 1. Physical and mechanical properties of the original bitumen and the bitumen modified by SRP
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Kiselev, Vladimir S. Filimonov? Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Coating Binder?
characterized by the deeper penetration of the needle into the asphalt (penetration) ? at 25 °C., and
also by a lower temperature of softening. Apparently, due to the presence of tars and oils in SRP it
plays the role of a plasticizer. It should be noted that with SRP increasing in the bitumen in the sample
? 1 ? sample ? 6 series the penetration and temperature of softening of the modified binder changes
to a greater extent, but these changes do not go beyond the StSt 22245-90. The positive fact is that
at modifying the bitumen by settling resin of pyrolysis in the frames of studying its extensibility
somewhat increases at the temperature 25oC, i.e, the modified bitumen has a better plasticity.
Brittleness temperature of bitumen at adding SRP decreases within limits regulated by the StSt
22245-90. This is a quite natural phenomenon at adding the plasticizing agents to the binder. The results
in the Table 1 show that the optimal number of settling resin of pyrolysis for modification of bitumen
should be not more than 5 %. With increasing it up to 10 % the adhesion of a binder with marble gravel
which is determined by the photograph of the sample number 2 does not meet the standard. In order
to evaluate the impact of SRP in the binder on the quality of asphalt concrete the samples of asphalt
concrete mixtures were prepared according to the recipe of the Table 2. The properties of the samples
are given in the Table 3.
The data in the Table 3 shows that the samples of asphalt concrete mixtures prepared with a
modified SRP binder, including also the sample number 5, for the preparation of which the bitumen
with 5 % SRP was used correspond to the StSt 9198-97. However, the strength characteristics in
the dry and water-saturated condition (after a brief ? 1 day, and prolonged saturation by water ? 14
days) exceed the requirements of the StSt 9128-97 and the respective indices of the ideal sample ?
1 which is based on the original bitumen. Rather good quality indicators have the sample number 6
with 10 % SRP. He has only one slightly reduced parameter, it is the coefficient of a long-term water
saturation which influences the frost resistance of the asphalt concrete. Its decline is evident from the
introducing a large number of plasticizing additive the role of which in the mixture the SRP realizes.
An appropriate loosening of the material structure takes place here. This is seen by reducing density,
by increasing swelling and volumetric water saturation of road material. Presence of compounds in
SRP, containing active functional groups, apparently, promotes a better adhesion of the asphalt binder
to stone materials of asphalt and effects on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete. This effect
shows itself when the SRP amount in the bitumen makes up to 5 % wt.
In the exploitation course of roads the destruction of composite materials happens. An
organic binder is exposed to corrosion, the stone materials, however, are practically not destroyed.
Stability of properties after heating the 4 mm thick layer at the temperature 163 oC during 5
hours is an indirect characteristics of the organic binder resistance to the ?aging?, it means to
the thermal-oxidative destruction caused by impact of temperature fluctuations, solar radiation,
weather conditions.
The standard allows the temperature change of bitumen softening in the ?Ring and Sphere (R&S)?
after heating as compared with the initial value of not more than by 6 oC. After testing for ?aging? also
the penetration and the temperature of softening the initial bitumen and modified SRP of bitumen were
defined. The test results are shown in the Figure1.
As it can be seen from the Table 1 and the Figure 1 (a & b), the difference in the temperature of
softening before and after the test, also the bitumen modified by SRP in the amount of 0,5 % and 1,0
and 1,5 % by mass make respectively 3; 2,5; 2 °C, what confirms the inhibiting role of the SRP in the
# 899 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Table 3. Physical and mechanical parameters of organic compounds on the basis of bitumen, modified SRP identified by the StSt 12801-98 methods
2,44
2
6,5
2,44
1,86
0,39
3,00
1,38
7,2
0,95
0,77
3
6,5
2,45
2,01
0,42
3,62
1,40
7,6
0,98
0,76
4
6,5
2,43
2,15
0,56
3,64
1,42
8,2
0,99
0,78
5
6,5
2,40
2,75
0,59
4,12
1,48
7,9
0,88
0,76
6
6,5
2,36
3,15
0,98
223,34
1,35
8,8
0,85
0,57
Swelling, %,
volume
6,5
Content of
binder, % wt.
(Over 100)
1
1,69
1,5 y 4,0
Number of the
sample in the
Table 1
Water
saturation,
% in volume
Factors of water
resistance
Average
density, g/cm3
Breaking point at compressing
the dry specimens, MPa
0,39
R50oC
R 20oC
R0oC
K w.
K w. prot.
3,20
1,15
7,0
0,87
0,77
---------------------------------Not more Not more Not more Not more Not more
than 2,20 than 1,0 than 12,0 than 0,85 than 0,7
?
?
tp, q?
120
120
116
114
114
108
110
98
100
1
2
3
Value aream P25
corresponding to BND90/130
brand bitumen by the StSt22245-90
55
P25 130
0.1, ??
50,5
50
47,5
49,5
47,0
48,0
46,0
45
40
90
35
80
30
1
2
Value area tp
corresponding to the BND90/130 brand
bitumen by StSt22245-90
* The numerator shows the physical and mechanical parameters of prepared asphalt based on the BND 90/130 bitumen, the
denominator shows the requirements of the StSt 9128-97 for asphalt of the type B, of the brand 2 for the second road-climatic
zone.
3
Fig. 1. Penetration (a) and temperature of softening in the ?Ring and Sphere? (b) of organic binders .? ? before
heating and ? ? after heating at the temperature 163 єC for 5 hours.
1 ? bitumen of the BND 90/130 brand, containing 0.5 % wt. of SRP.
2 ? bitumen, containing 1.0 % wt of. SRP.
3 ? bitumen, containing 1.5 % wt. of SRP.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Kiselev, Vladimir S. Filimonov? Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Coating Binder?
oxidative process of «aging» of a binder. The bitumen used in this study (Tables 1 and 5) fails in the
test for ?ageing? (? t soft. = 7 ??).
Changes in penetration tested for ?aging? of bitumen samples also do not go beyond the BND 90/130
bitumen brand of the StSt 22245-90. It should be noted that at the ?aging? of bitumen the complex
chemical and physical diffusion processes take place. The processes of surface evaporation in existing
or being formed at the ?aging? of low-boiling components of petroleum bitumen run, the structure of
the bitumen is compacted due to the formation of asphaltenes from resins and oils. The loss of mass is
an important characteristic of the bitumen resistance to destruction at its heating under test conditions.
The weight loss of samples of initial bitumen and modified bitumen with 0,5 %, 1 %, 1.5 % by mass,
5 % and 10 % by mass of SRP was determined during the test. It made 1,10 % 0,88 % 0,75 % 0,68 %
1,15 % and 2,28 %, respectively. As it can be seen from the data of dependence of weight loss of
organic binders with different SRP amounts on heating time under the test conditions the adding the
5 and 10 % mass of resins result in a greater weight loss after heating than in the original bitumen.
Probably after the addition of such an amount (5 % and especially 10 %) of resin the bitumen is diluted
and the processes of evaporation of low-boiling fractions such as bitumen and tar are dominating.
Conclusion
Thus, the addition of settling resin of pyrolysis (SRP) into the asphalt in order to modify its properties enables to obtain the asphalt of the required by StSt 9128-97 quality, increases the adhesion of
oil bitumen to the surface of mineral components of asphalt concrete, reduces the intensity of ?ageing?
of the bitumen under road coating exploitation. Optimal SRP amount in the modified asphalt binder
must be not more than 5 % by mass.
References
[1] ????????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ?????????????. 1994. ? 3. ?. 48-52.
[2] ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?.:
?????????, 1994. 280 ?.
[3] Bahia H.U., Hanson D.I., Zeng M. and all. Characterization of modifi ed asphalt Binders in
Superpave mix design NCHRP report 459, Transportation research boardnational research council.
National research press. Washington D. C. 2001. 80 p.
[4] Renker P., Lobach Th., Bьckler S., Hanger T. // Forch. Strassnbau und Strassenferkehrstecht.
2003. ? 862. P. 1-84.
[5] Proteau M., Paguin Y. // Revue general des Routes. 2001. ? 793. ?. 34-40.
[6] Chabern D., Triguigneaux J.-P., Vaniscote J.-C. // Revue general des Routes. 1998. ? 761.
?. 53-57.
[7] Wegan V., Brule B. // Bull. lab. Ponts et chausses. 1999. ? 219. ?. 3-16.
[8] ?????? ?.?., ????? ?., ??????? ?. // ??????, ??????? ? ??????????. 2001. ? 5. ?. 72-76.
[9] ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.T., ??????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????.
?????????????. 1997. ? 7. ?. 51-54.
[10] Pass F. // Asphalt. 1996. V. 30. ? 6. ?. 33-39.
[11] Gokhman L.M., Basurmanova I.V., Ryadovsky B.S., Brain V.V. // Highways. 1989. ? 7.
?. 12-14.
# 901 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Kiselev, Vladimir S. Filimonov? Improving the Quality of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Coating Binder?
[12] Roland C.M. // Polimer Data ?andbook, Oxford University Press. 1999. ?. 158 162.
[13] Akhmedzadeh P. // Science and Technology in the road sector. 2004. ? 4. ?. 18 21.
[14] Radziewski P., Ziolkowski R. // J. Civ. Eng. and Mag. 2003. 9, ? 1. P. 20 24.
[15] C???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. // ?????? ?????????? ?????. 2002.
75. ? 9. ?. 1559 1562 .
[16] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ????? ????????????? ?????. 2002. ? 3.
?. 5 12.
[17] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? C.B. // ????? ????????????? ?????. 2002. ? 3.
?. 13 18.
????????? ????????
????????????????? ??????????
???????? ????????????????? ????????
????????? ?????? ????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
???????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????
?????????????? ????????? ????????. ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????
??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ????
???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?
????????? ???????? ??????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????, ????????, ?????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 903-910
~~~
??? 581.522.5
Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater
from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse of Sorbent Ipi-T
Elena G. Filatova*,
Olga I. Pomazkina and Vladimir I. Dudarev
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University
83 Lermontova, Irkutsk, 664074 Russia
Received 13.06.2013, received in revised form 28.08.2013, accepted 20.10.2013
The sorption method of wastewater cleaning from ions of Fe (II) and (III) using carbon sorbent IPI-T
synthesized in the Irkutsk State Technical University. Particular attention is paid to the regeneration
of the carbon sorbent saturated with ions of Fe (II) and (III),by the chemical treatment method. Was
studied the reuse of the sorbent for the purification of galvanic wastewater.
Keywords: water treatment, galvanic wastewater, adsorption, carbon sorbents, Fe ions (II) and (III).
1. Introduction
One of the most pressing environmental problems of engineering companies, having in its
production cycle electroplating processes, the problem is a deep cleaning of waste water from heavy
metal ions. Water treatment of Fe ions (II) and (III), is traditionally carried out by transferring them
into water-insoluble compounds, which are then removed by sedimentation, flotation, filtration and
other methods of separation of solid and liquid phases. Translated into the solid phase is mainly carried
out by introducing alkali with the formation of hydroxides, hydroxo-carbonates, carbonates. However,
the use of reagents for the withdrawal of metal ions from the liquid phase leads to an increase saline
in a purified water and makes it difficult to use in circulating water systems businesses. The priority
method of neutralization of waste water from heavy metal ions are the physico-chemical, which include
electrochemical and sorption methods of wastewater treatment. Sorption methods are one of the most
effective methods of disposal of waste water from heavy metal ions.
Objective: To study the main regularities of the sorption process of cleaning galvanic wastewater
from Fe ions (II) and (III) by using carbon sorbents IPI-T, synthesized in the Irkutsk State Technical
University [1].
2. Experimental procedure
Carbon adsorbents IPI-T is a black granules of irregular shape with an average particle size of
from 2 to 5 mm, with a specific surface area 480 m2/g, total pore volume is 0,65 cm3/g, micropore
volume ? 0,28 cm3/g.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: efila@list.ru
# 903 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
As objects of investigation used a waste water containing from 1 to 34 mg/l of Fe ions (II) and
from 1 to 36,5 mg/l of Fe ions (III). It is known that the ions of Fe (II) are stable in water with low
oxygen content. In the contaminated waste water of dissolved oxygen, or does not exist at all, or its
concentration does not exceed 0,5-1 mg/l. The concentration of Fe (II) was controlled by a standard
permanganat-metric quantitative analysis [2], the relative measurement error did not exceed ±0,1%.
The concentration of Fe (III) was controlled the spectrophotometric method of analysis using the
sulfosalicylic acid [3].
The study of the adsorption capacity of the sorbent with respect to the ions of Fe (II) and (III) in
static conditions was performed using isotherms and kinetic curves of adsorption. We used the method
of variable portions (2 g, 1 g, 0,75 g, 0,5 g, 0,25 g) and constant concentration. Kinetic experiments
in static conditions determined the time to establish equilibrium in the system carbon adsorbent ?
solution of metal salt. The magnitude of adsorption in static conditions (A, mmol/kg) was calculated
by the formula
c? c k
A
�V ,
m
where cu and ck ? initial and final metal concentration in solution, mmol/l; V ? volume of solution, l;
m ? portion of adsorbent, kg.
Dynamic activity of the sorbent was characterized by the time from the beginning of the
adsorptive transmission to the «breakthrough», ie till appearance him after sorbent layer. The
process of sorption under dynamic conditions was carried out in a column with an inner diameter
of 16 mm. The column was filled with the sorbent in an amount of 10 g (layer height ? 12 cm). The
optimum flow rate of the adsorbate through the sorbent layer was 5-7,5 ml/ min, which corresponds
to a linear velocity in the industrial conditions of 1,5-2,0 m/h.
The degree of desorption of metals was calculated by the formula
?? � V?
H?
� 100%
m� A
where ?? ? the concentration of metal in the passed volume, mg/l, V? ? the passed volume, l; m ? portion
of adsorbent, g; A ? the capacity of the adsorbent, mg/g.
3. Results and discussion
We found that the maximum adsorption of ions of Fe (II) by carbon sorbents IPI-T happened in a
weakly acidic medium at pH = 3.9 [6]. The maximum value of the adsorption of Fe (III) from wastewater
is achieved at pH = 1.79 [7]. Further study of the sorption in the dynamic and static conditions was
carried out at the optimum pH.
In Fig.1. shows the adsorption isotherm of Fe (II), constructed from experimental data obtained
under static conditions at a temperature of 293K.
As can be seen from Fig. 1., the shape of the curve corresponds to the adsorption of a multilayer
or poly-molecular, adsorption. In Fig. 2. shows the adsorption isotherm of Fe (III) at a temperature of
293K.
From Fig. 2. shows that the shape of the adsorption of ions of Fe (III) is similar to the form of
isotherms for Fe ions (II). For multilayer adsorption isotherms can be applied the BET theory. The
isotherm equation of BET adsorption:
# 904 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
Fig. 1. Adsorption isotherm of Fe (II): 1 ? the curve of adsorption; 2 ? desorption curve
Fig. 2. Adsorption isotherm of Fe (III): 1 ? the curve of adsorption 2 ? desorption curve
A
Af � C � (? / ?0 )
,
(1 ? / ?0 ) � [1 (C 1)(c / c0 )]
where A ? the value of adsorption, mmol/kg; A? ? ultimate adsorption capacity of the monolayer,
mmol/kg; C ? constant for a given adsorption system, directly related to the heat and entropy of adsorption; c, c0 ? the equilibrium and initial concentration of Fe (II) and (III), mmol/l.
The equation of BET adsorption in linear form:
c / c0
A(1 c / c0 )
1
C 1
� c / c0 .
Af � C Af � C
The adsorption isotherms of Fe (II) and (III) were constructed for the study of IPI-T sorbent
(Fig. 3.) using the equation of the BET adsorption in the linear form.
# 905 #
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Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
Fig. 3. Sorption isotherms of the linear form of BET equation 1 ? for the ions of Fe (II); 2 ? ions to Fe (III)
Table 1. BET equation constants for the study of IPI-T sorbent
The equation
Ions
c / c0
A(1 c / c0 )
f (c / c 0 )
Fe (II)
c / c0
A(1 c / c0 )
0,186 (c / c0 ) 0,006
Fe (III)
c / c0
A(1 c / c0 )
0,036 (c / c0 ) 0,012
Max. sorption capacity
of the monolayer ??,
mol/kg
Constant
?·10 -3
Coefficient
of
corellation
0,052
32,0
0,980
0,021
4,0
0,933
From the linear dependence shown in Fig. 3., using the tangent of slope of the straight lines and
the value of segments crossed with the straight axis, was measured maximum sorption capacity of the
monolayer A? and a constant C (Table 1).
In connection with the fact that the constant C in equation BET is the ratio of two equilibrium
constants ?=k1/k2, it can also be regarded as the equilibrium constant, ie to calculate the standard
Gibbs energy can be used equation
?G0C = ? R·T·ln C = ? R·T·ln k1/k2.
Thus, for ions of Fe (II) ?G0C = ? 25,7 kJ/ mol, and for the ions of Fe (III) ?G0C = ? 20,5 kJ/
mol, ?G0C reflects the standard Gibbs energy of pure adsorption as a result of interaction between the
adsorbate and the surface of the adsorbent.
In the course of the work performed studied the effect of temperature on the sorption of ions of Fe
(II) and (III) IPI-T sorbent, the results presented in Fig. 4. and 5.
# 906 #
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Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
,
p
g
Fig. 4. Kinetic curves of sorption of Fe (II)
Fig. 5. Kinetic curves of sorption of Fe (III)
From Fig. 4. shows that with increasing temperature is increased the adsorption of Fe (II).
However, physical adsorption is exothermic and reversible, and the increase in temperature should lead
to a decrease in speed, however, the experimental data indicate that the temperature increases the rate
of process. Consequently, the adsorption of ions of Fe (II) takes place activated adsorption. We found
that the maximum adsorption occurs at 343 K, a further increase in temperature leads to a decrease in
the adsorption of ions of Fe (II) sorbent of IPI-T.
From Fig. 5. shows that with increasing temperature at first is an increase in the adsorption of
Fe (III), as the heat always helps to speed up the establishment of equilibrium in the system. Further,
when the temperature increase adsorption, corresponding to the equilibrium state decreases. Thus, the
kinetic curves of adsorption of ions of Fe (III) at different temperatures cross each other, as shown in
Fig. 5.
The obtained temperature dependence of the adsorption of ions of Fe (II) and (III), confirms
the fact that the Fe hydroxide (II) is a strong base, so the ions of Fe (II) is characteristic of activated
# 907 #
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Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
adsorption. Hydroxide, Fe (III), is a weak base, it is reflected in the fact that the salts of Fe (III) is
strongly hydrolyzed and Fe ions (III) is characterized by physical adsorption.
In this paper we studied the adsorption of Fe (II) and (III) in dynamic conditions. Established
that the protective effect of IPI-T sorbent for sorption of Fe (II) is two hours, then within an hour
the concentration of ions of Fe (II) of the adsorbent layer remains within the MPC. The time of the
protective action of IPI-T sorbent for sorption of Fe (III) was slightly less than two hours. The time,
during which the concentration of the substance in the filtrate changes from the adsorbate concentration
at an acceptable breakthrough, corresponding to the concentration of Fe (II) and (III) within the MPC
to the initial concentration was about 6 hours.
4. Desorption and reuse of sorbents
Sorption method for the extraction of metals economically rational only if used the repeated use
of sorbents. Therefore, the regeneration of carbon sorbents is one of the main issues arising from the
sorption method of extraction of metals from waste water. The purpose of regeneration is, on the one
hand, the desorption of adsorbed ions, or the destructive removal and, on the other hand, the recovery
of the adsorption capacity of the sorbent.
In this paper we studied the regeneration of the carbon sorbent IPI-T, saturated with Fe ions (II)
and (III), by the method of chemical treatment. Capacity of the saturated sorbent IPI-T for Fe (II) was
3,41 mg/g, and the Fe (III) ? 1,16 mg/g . The process of desorption of the saturated sorbent IPI-T ions
of Fe (II) and (III) (mass portions ? 0,5 g) was carried out with solutions of hydrochloric acid (acid
volume ? 40 ml) of various concentrations under static conditions, regeneration time was 120 minutes,
the results in Tables 2.
The data in Table. 2 that the maximum desorption of ions of Fe (II) occurs when using 0,56 M
hydrochloric acid solution, and the maximum desorption of ions of Fe (III) ? by using 0,74 M solution.
Since the desorption process is endothermic, then it should be lead at an elevated temperature. An
increase in temperature is an effective means of increasing the depth of the desorption of carbon
Table 2. Results of regeneration IPI-sorbent with hydrochloric acid at T 298 K
Concentration ??l,
Dilution ??l
%
mol/l
1:2
12,0
3,2
Ions of Fe (II)
Ions of Fe (III)
Concentration
Degree of
Concentration
Degree of
in eluate, mg/l desorption, % in eluate, mg/l desorption, %
18,3
21,3
3,4
31,6
1:4
7,2
1,9
19,4
21,1
6,1
56,3
1:6
5,1
1,4
20,0
21,8
6,4
59,2
1:8
4,0
1,1
18,8
20,6
7,5
69,5
1:10
3,3
0,87
21,1
23,1
7,6
70,5
1:12
2,8
0,74
21,7
23,7
9,2
85,6
1:14
2,4
0,64
24,0
26,2
7,7
71,5
1:16
2,1
0,56
24,3
26,5
7,3
68,0
1:18
1,9
0,51
22,9
25,0
6,2
57,7
1:20
1,7
0,46
22,3
24,3
4,1
37,7
# 908 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
Fig. 6. The curves of desorption of ions of Fe (III) by carbon sorbent IPI-T
sorbents. The process of desorption of the carbon sorbent IPI-T was performed in the temperature
range 303-353 K using a 0,74 M solution of Fe (III), the results are shown in Figure 6.
From Fig. 6. it follows that the degree of desorption of ions Fe (III) at 353K up to 99,6%. Carrying
four cycles «sorption-desorption» showed a reduction of sorption activity of the carbon sorbent IPI-T
for about 4%.
5. Conclusions
1. Was established the possibility of galvanic treatment of Fe (II) and (III) using the carbon sorbent
IPI-T synthesized in the Irkutsk State Technical University.
2. In the study of adsorption in static conditions, was defined the limited adsorption capacity of
monolayer of carbon sorbent IPI-T by the sorption isotherms of the linear form of BET equation: for
the ions of Fe (II) A? = 0,052 mmol/kg; for ions of Fe (III) A? = 0,021 mmol/kg.
3. In the study of adsorption under dynamic conditions, it was found the protective effect of IPI-T
sorbent for the sorption of ions of Fe (II), is two hours, then within an hour the concentration of ions
of Fe (II) of the adsorbent layer remains within the MPC. The time of the protective action of IPI-T
sorbent for sorption of Fe (III) was slightly less than two hours.
4. The optimum concentration of acid to regenerate the carbon adsorbent IPI-T: for the extraction
of Fe ions (II) is better to use 0,56 M solution of hydrochloric acid for the extraction of Fe (III) ? 0,74
M solution.
5. Desorption, using the optimum concentration of hydrochloric acid, saturated with carbon
sorbent IPI-T ions of Fe (III) at 353 K is 99,6%. Carrying four cycles «sorption-desorption» showed a
reduction of sorption activity of the carbon sorbent IPI-T for about 4%.
References
[1] ?????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????? ? 2098176 ??. / ?????. 10.12.97.
[2] ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????. ?.: ?????, 2002. 366 c.
[3] ??????????? ?.?. ??????-?????????? ?????? ???????. ?.: ?????, 1988. 367 c.
# 909 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Elena G. Filatova, Olga I. Pomazkina? Sorption Cleaning of Galvanic Wastewater from Fe Ions (II), (III) and Reuse?
[4] ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????
??????? ???. ?.: ???????, 1989. 199 c.
[5] ????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?????. ?.: ?????, 1971. 456 ?.
[6] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ????? ???? ??? ???? // ???? ? ??????????.
2010. ? 8. ?. 42-46.
[7] ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ??????? ?????, 2011. ? 2.
?. 156-158.
??????????? ??????? ??????????????
?? ?????? (II), (III)
? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???-?
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????
???????????? ?????????????????
????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 664074, ???????, ??????????, 83
?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ?????? (II) ? (III) ??????????
????????? ???-?, ??????????????? ? ?????. ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? (II) ? (III) ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
??????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ????, ??????????????, ?????????????, ?????????, ??????????
????????, ???? ?????? (II) ? (III).
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 911-919
~~~
??? 519.711.3
??????????? ?????????
???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
?.?. ??????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 02.08.2013, received in revised form 04.09.2013, accepted 29.09.2013
? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????. ???????? ???? ????????????? ???????
??????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
??????? ??????. ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????
??????????. ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????
????? ???????????? ????????? ????. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????
????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????.
???????? ?????: ???? ?????, ??????? ??????????, ???????? ?????, ???? ????????.
1. ????????
??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? c ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????????? ??????, ?? ? ????????? ?
???????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ?.?.
??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????, ???????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????.
??????????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????.
???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????
?? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??????????. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????? [1]. ????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??, ??? ??? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????????, ????????????, ??????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ???????, ? ????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????.
?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ? 60-? ????? XX ????. ? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????
????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ???????????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: lesek@mail.ru
# 911 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
????????????? ??????. ? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????.
2. ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????
?????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? [2]
R = {P, T, D, ?0},
??? P = {pi} ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????, i 1, n ; T = {tj} ? ???????? ????????
????????? ?????????, j 1, m ; D = D+ ? D? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????;
?0 : P?R+ ? ????????? ?????????? ????; R+ ? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????;
n ? ?????????? ???????; m ? ?????????? ?????????.
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ????:
?[k + 1] = ?[k] + D · u[k],
??? u[k] ? ??????-??????? ????? m, ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? j,
?????? 1 ?, ??????????????, ????????????, ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????
??????????.
??????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ???:
D? · u[k] ? ?[k].
? ??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
?? ?????????. ??? ???????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????.
???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????,
??????????? ?? ???. 1.
P >0@
P >k @
D � u>k @ d P >k @
u>k @
P >k 1@ P >k @ D � u>k @
z 1
???. 1. ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????
# 912 #
P >k 1@
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
??? ?????, ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????
?????????????, ?? ????????? ???????. ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????
????????????? ???????????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ???????
? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????. ???????????? ? ???????????
????????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????
?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????.
3. ???????????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ???? ?????
????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????
????? ? ???????????? ????????? [3]. ? ????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? (???. 2).
?? ???. 2 ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? f(u[k],s). ??????????? ?????, ??? ?? ??? ? ??????, ?? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????, ?.?. ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???
??????????? ??????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????
????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ????? ??????? (????????) ??????????? ? ??????????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????.
??? ???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?? ????????? ???????? ????, ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ?????
???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????????
?????????? (???. 3).
?? ???. 3 ???????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? x[k]. ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????? x[k] ????? ????????????
????????? ???????:
x[k] = (?[k], ?[k], ?[k].
??????? ???????? ??????????????.
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????
s
u*>k@
u [k ]
f ( u [ k ], s )
P >k 1@ P >k @ D � u * >k @
u>k @
P >0 @
D � u>k@ d P>k@
P >k @
z 1
s ?????? ?????????? ?
???. 2. ????? ???????????????? ???? ????? ? ????????????? ?????????
# 913 #
P >k 1@
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
?
(?
)
x>k @
u>k@
u [ k ] M (u[ k ], x[ k ])
u>k @
P >0 @
z 1
x >k 1@
P>k 1@ P>k @ D � u*>k @
P >k 1@
P >k @
D � u>k@ d P>k@
z 1
???. 3. ????? ???????????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ??????
x>k @
y>k @
f ( x[k ])
y>k @
u*>k@ M(u[k], y[k])
u*>k@
u >k @
???. 4. ????? ???????????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ??????
?j[k] = ?j[k?1] + 1, ???? uj*[k] = 1, j = 1, m.
????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
?j[k] = ?j[k?1] + ?j, ???? uj*[k] = 1, j = 1, m,
??? ?j ? ????? ?????????? j-?? ????????.
??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????
J j [k ]
E j [k ]
, j
W
1, m , j = 1, m,
??? ? ? ????????? ?????.
???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? u*[k] = ?(u[k], x[k]), ????????????
??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? [4]. ?? ???? ???? ???????? ??????
????????? ???? x[k] ? ?????? ???????? ????????? u[k], ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? u*[k]. ??? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????.
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??????: ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? (???. 4). ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
4. ?????? ????????????. ???????????? ??????
? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????-????????????????? ??????
???????????????? ???????? (?? ???), ???????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ??? «????????? ??????????? ???????????» ? ??????????????? ??? ????????
# 914 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
???. 5. ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????? (?? ???)
????????? ????????? CAD/CAM-??????????, ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ?
???????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???) ????????????.
? ?????? ?? ??? ??????: ?????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???-250, ??? ?????????????????? ?????? 16?20?3 ? ???????? ??? 2?22, ???????? ?????? Haas TL-1, ?????????
?????? Haas TM-1 (???. 5).
??? ??????????? ?????-??????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???. ????????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?????
????????? ???????????? ? ???????? (??????), ?????? 0,01 ???, ??? ????????? ?????? ?????
??????? ??? ?????????????. ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????
???????. ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????????.
??????????????, ??? ???? ? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????. ????????? ???? ??????? ??????????
??????????.
??? ???????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????????: ????????? ????
???????? ????????? (?), ????????? ????????? ????????? (?), ????????? ???? ???????? ?
????? ????????? ????????? (?-?), ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? (?-?),
????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? (?-?-?).
?????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????. ???
???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ? 1 ? 2. ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?. ?? ???.
6 ???????????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ???????????. ? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????? (?, ?, ?-?, ?-?, ?-?-?). ???????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????, ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????. ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????# 915 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
???? ???????? ???????. ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????????? ?
????? ???????. ??? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???
??????? ???? ???????. ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ????.
5. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??????
???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?
??????????? ?? ????????? ???????. ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????????. ??????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????
???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? (?, ?, ?-?, ?-? ?
?-?-?).
????????? ???? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????. ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? (????????
?????????? ????????). ??? ???????, ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??
??????? «?????????? ???????? ???»: ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ? ????.
???? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ? ???????? ? ?????????. ???????? ???? ?????
?????????? ???? ????????. ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????
T
T
P
5
0
0
T
T
P
10
0
P
0
T
T
P
P
14
0
T
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0
T
P
T
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6
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16
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# 916 #
P
T
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0
?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
?????????, ? ?????? ????? ?????? ???. ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????
?????????????? ????????.
????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? Neural Network
Toolbox. ??????? ????????? Matlab ??????????? ????. ???????? ???????????:
? ? ? ????????? ?????? (?1, ?2, ? , ?5 ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????
????????????, ?6, ?7, ?8, ?9, ?10 ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?, ?, ?-?, ?-? ? ?-?-?
??????????????);
? ? ? ???????? ??????;
? y ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????.
??????? ?????????
p=[[0;0.1;0.5;0.2;0.8;0.2;0.1;0.3;0.3;0.1] [0.5;0;0.8;0.3;0.1;0.3;0.5;0.05;0.05;0.1] [0.1;0.3;0.5;0.1;
0.1;0.4;0.2;0.1;0.1;0.2] [0.2;0.4;0.3;0.6;0.2;0.6;0.1;0.1;0.1;0.1] [0.8;0.8;0.2;0.7;0.5;0.3;0.2;0.2;0.1
;0.2] [0.1;0.2;0.1;0.4;0.2;0.5;0.1;0.1;0.2;0.1]];
p%????????? ???????
%???????? ? ???????????? ?????????
%???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? [2 3]
??? ????????????? ??????? ????????
netKOH=newsom([0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1;0 1],[2 3]);
netKOH.trainParam.epochs=2000;%???????????? ????? ?????? ????????
netKOH.trainParam.goal=1e-3;%?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
netKOH=train(netKOH,p);
a=[[0;0.8;0.5;0.8;0.8;0.2;0.1;0.2;0.3;0.2] [0.5;0;0.1;0.2;0.4;0.6;0.1;0.1;0.1;0.1] [0.1;0.3;0.8;0.1;0.6
;0.1;0.1;0.4;0.2;0.2] [0.2;0.04;0.1;0.9;0.2;0.2;0.3;0.1;0.2;0.2] [0.8;0.3;0.2;0.7;0.05;0.4;0.2;0.1;0.
2;0.1] [0.2;0.2;0.1;0.2;0.2;0.2;0.4;0.2;0.1;0.1]];
y=sim(netKOH,p);y
y=sim(netKOH,a);y
gensim(netKOH);%?????? ????
plotsom(netKOH.layers{1}.positions)%???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
????????
%?????? ??????? ???????
plotsom(netKOH.iw{1,1},netKOH.layers{1}.distances)
????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????, ????????????
???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ? ?????? Simulink [5] (???. 7).
??????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????:
y = (4,1) 1
(1,2) 1
(2,3) 1
(6,4) 1
(5,5) 1
(6,6) 1
# 917 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
??? ??????? ? ???, ??? ? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ????????, ??????? (?????????), ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ? ??????? ??????? ???????
?????? ??????? ???????, ?? ??????? ? ??????, ? ???????? ? ???????, ? ?????????? ? ??????, ?
?????? ? ?????, ? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ??????.
??????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????:
y = (5,1) 1
(6,2) 1
(2,3) 1
(6,4) 1
(5,5) 1
(3,6) 1
? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ? ??????,
? ???????? ? ??????, ? ?????????? ? ???????, ? ?????? ? ?????? ? ?????, ? ??????? ? ??????
? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????
???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????.
??? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????.
? ?????? [6] ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????
?????. ? ?????? [4] ? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????.
6. ??????????
???????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ? ????????????. ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????
???. 7. ????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???? ? ????? ?????????? ????????
# 918 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????
??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????, ??????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??????
????????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????????.
??? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ???? ?????.
??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????, ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ? ???. ?.: ??????????????, 1990. 256 ?.
[2] ????? ?. ?. ???? ?????. ?.: ?????, 1984. 160 ?.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????????: ? 9 ??. ??. 5. ????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ? ??????
?????????????????? ???????????: ????. ??????? ??? ??????. ?.: ????. ??., 1986. 175 ?.
[4] ?????? ?.?. // ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ?.: ??? ???, 2011. ???. 33.
?. 198-217.
[5] ??? ?., ??????? ?., ?????? ?.. Matlab ? ?????????????? ?????????????. ?: ???, 2001.
346 ?.
[6] ?????? ?.?. // ?????? ???. ???. «??????? ? ??????????». 3 (2010 3) 356-368.
Modification of the Petri Nets
Transition Firing Mechanism
Alexey N. Sochnev
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article describes a modified mechanism of state changes in the simulation models based on Petri
nets. The basic idea is to provide additional feedback on the selected state variables network model.
Activated transitions are selected based on the analysis values of these variables. It is proposed to
solve the problem management of change states Petri nets by using a neural network. An example of
generating the classifier based on the states of the model of the neural network.
Keywords: Petri nets, control system, feedback, Kohonen network.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 920-929
~~~
??? 621.313.322:621.3.012.1
???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????
? ?????????? ??????????
? ???????????????????? ????????????
?.?. ?????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 20.03.2013, received in revised form 22.08.2013, accepted 14.11.2013
? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?
???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????
????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????????????, ????????.
?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? (???) ? ?????????????????????, ????- ? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? 100?150 ???. ??? ???????
??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????
????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????????????. ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????????.
??????????? ?????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????,
????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ???????
??????.
??? ???????????????? ???????? [1] ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? (????) ? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? [2], ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? 85?
250 ??/???.
??? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????? [3] ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ?????????, ?????, ????????? ? ?????? ???????????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????. ?????????????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: fediy_K@mail.ru
# 920 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? 10-20 ???
???????????.
? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????.
? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ???????.
??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????? [4], ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????.
? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????: ???? ????????? ????????????? ???????. ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????
?????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????: ???????????? ????????? ?????????????, ?
??? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ???? ??????????. ????????????? ????????? ?????
?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????.
? ????????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????????. ? ???????????? ? ????? ?????????????? ????? ????????????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????
????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ????????? ????. ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????
??????? ???????????, ?. ?. ????????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ????
?? ???????. ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???? ????????
??????????? ?? ????????.
????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (m1 ? 3) ? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????
???????? ???????. ???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ????????????, ????????? ?????
??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?, ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????
????????? ??????, ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????.
??????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ? ??????, ?????????
????????????? ? ????????????. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????. ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ???????????
???????? ?????? ???? ?????????.
?????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? (??????) ????????? ?
??????? ???????? (???????).
??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????
????????
# 921 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
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-u q
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d? q /dt ?? d r? iq °
°
d? fd /dt r fd i fd
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d? fq /dt r fq i fq
0 d?1d /dt r1d i1d
0 d?1q /dt r1q i1q
ѕ
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(1)
??????? ????????? (1) ????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????
??
? J
d?
,
dt
(2)
??? MB ? ??????? ????????? ??????, ? ? ???????????????? ??????; J ? ?????? ???????
??????????? ???? ??????, ? ? ??????? ???????? ??????.
???????????????? ????????? (1), (2) ????????????? ????? ????? ????????????, ??????
? ????????????????? ??????. ? ??? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????????, ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????
???????. ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????
???????? ? ??? ????????? ????, ??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ?, ?????????????, ?? ??????????? ??????. ?? ???. 1 ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????.
?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????: ? ??????????? ???????????? (???. 2?), ????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????? (???. 2?), ????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? (???. 2?).
?????? ????????????? ? ????? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????????
????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? xq, xd.
???. 1. ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
# 922 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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?)
?)
?)
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????????????? ?????????? ?????? R?d ??? ?????? ??d ????? ?????
R?d
F?dm
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2 � ? 0 � ? � l? � k ?d � k d
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?
(3)
?d
?????????? ??????? ????????????? R?d ??? ?????? ??d
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F?qm
??q
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2 � ? 0 � ? � l? � k ?q � k q
1
.
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?q
????????????? ???????? ?????? R?d ??? ?????? ??d ????? ?????
R??
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2 � ? 0 � ? � l? � k ?? � k ?
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# 923 #
(6)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
Rs
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1
?s
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.
?
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s
????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????
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V
????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????, ????? ???????, ??? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ?
???????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ? ??
??????????????? ??????, ? ? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????.
??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????. ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ????????????? ?????
? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????????, ??????? ???????????????? ????????? (1) ????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????:
-u q(?)
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°
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u fd (?)
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u fq(?)
? � ? fq(?) r fq i fq(?)
-u d (?)
0
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? � ?1d (?) r1d i1d (?)
? � ?1q(?) r1q i1q(?)
(9)
??? ud(p), uq(p), ufd(p) ? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ??????;
?(?) ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????; i(?) ? ??????????? ?????.
????? ??????? ????????? (9) ???????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
id (?) є
Є
x
x
ad
ad
u (?)� Z (p) u (?)� x (p) U (?)� «« p �
(p)� Z (p)
(p)� x (p)»»
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q
q
q
f
q
q
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r px
»
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f
f
f
f
ј
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Z (p)� Z (p) x (p)� x (p)
d
iq(?)
¬
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d
q
є
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x
x
ad
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u (?) � x (p) u (?) � Z (p) U (??� «« p �
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q
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f
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r px
»
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f
f
Z (p)� Z (p) x (p)� x (p)
d
q
d
f
f
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(11)
q
??? Zd(p) = r1 + p · xd(p), Zq(p) = r1 + p · xq(p) ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????.
? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?
?????????. ????????? ????? ?????????
F2(p) = Zd(p) · Zq(p) + xd(p) · xq(p) = 0.
# 924 #
(12)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
??? ??? xd(p) ? xq(p) ? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? (12) ????????? ???????:
F2(p) xd (p) � xq(p)Є« p 2 p � r §Ё x (p) x (p)·ё /
1©
¬
d
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q
· / § x (p) � x (p)· r / § x (p) � x (p) 1·є
ё Ё d
ё 1 Ё d
ё»
q
q
№ ©
№
©
№ј
2
(13)
0.
?????????
2 · xd(p) · xq(p) / xd(p) + xq(p) = x2(p)
(14)
???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????????.
??????????? x2(p) ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????
???? ??????????? ???, ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????
d ? q ??????, ?. ?. ????? x2(p) ?????????? ????? xd(p) ??? xq(p). ????? ???????????????????
????????? (14) ????????? ?????????????? ? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????
xd(p), xq(p) ? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????.
????? ????????? (13) ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????
????????, ?. ?. rf ? 0. ??????????? ????????????? xd(p) = x'd , xq(p) = xq.
x2(p) 2 � x'd � xq /(xd xq ) x2 .
(15)
????????? (13) ????????? ???
F2(p)
xd (p) � xq(p)Є« p 2 p � 2 � r /x r 2 / §Ё x' � x ·ё 1є»
q№
1 2
1 © d
¬
ј
0.
(16)
????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????????? xd(p) ????? ?????????? ??????? T'd ? Td0:
xd (p)
??? T
d0
Td'
Td 0
xd §Ё1 pTd' ·ё / 1 pTd 0 ,
(17)
©
№
xf
? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????;
rf
x'd
xd ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?
??????????? ??????????.
??????????? xd(p) ? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? (17) ? ????, ?????????????? ???????
p1
1
Td'
,
r1
(18)
p2 ,3
p'
r /x x2
r
2
1
2
r /x 2
1
2
1 r 2 / §Ё x' x ·ё ,
1
© d q№
1 r 2 / §Ё x' x ·ё
1
© d q№
# 925 #
i.
(19)
(20)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????? ? ????????? (20) ?????? p'
????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????????? r /x 2 ? r 2 / §Ё x' x ·ё ??? ??????????????? ????1 © d q№
1 2
??????? ????????? ?? 50 ??? ????? ????. ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ???????
?????????? ? ????????? (19) ?????? ? ?????? ?????????.
??? ??? ?????????? ???????
x
2
r
T? , ?????
1
p2 ,3
1
r p'.
T
(21)
?
???? ????? ??????????????????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? id(?), iq(?). ????? ???? ?????????????? ???????
> Eo >1/xq exp ?/Ta sin ? @.
id ? Eo 1/xd 1/x'd 1/xd exp ?/Td' 1/x'd exp ?/Ta cos ?
iq ? @
(22)
(23)
?? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? 5 ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? 220/380 ? ? ???????? ???????? 250 ??/???.
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????:
i'??
? 1
1
?
? x'
x
d
? d
??? I 'm = Eo ? ?
'
Im
exp t/Td' cos ?t ,
(24)
?
? ? 2 ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?????????.
?
?
?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???. 3.
?? ??????? (???. 3) ?????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????. ???????????? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ???? ????? 0,1 ??, ????????? ???????? ????? 2I?.
???. 3. ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
# 926 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
????????? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???
ikm
I m cos ?t .
(25)
???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????, ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????. ????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???
ik
>
@
I la t I `m exp t/T d' I m cos ?t .
(26)
??????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????????
?? ???. 4. ????????? ??????????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? 2I?. ??????????????
???????? ???? ??????????? ? 0,1 ?.
??? ???????? ?????????, ????? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????, ????? ????????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ?
?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ????
????????? ?????????. ????? ????????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????????????
???? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????. ????? ????????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ????
?? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????
???????? ???????. ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????
??????? (???. 3) ? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????
??????????. ??? ???? ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?
?????????? ??????? T'd, ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???? (???. 3) ???????? ? ??????????
??????? Ta ??????? ???????.
????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????.
?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? (???. 4?) ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???, ??? ????????
?? ???. 4?. ??? xq = xd ????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????,
?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????. ????? ????, ? ?????????
?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????. ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????.
?????????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????, ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????.
? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ???? «???????», ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????,
?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??
???????? ???????????, ? ????????? ????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ??????????# 927 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
>
@
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
k
la
d
?)
(?)
???. 4. ??????? ??????????????? (?) ? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? (?)
?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????. ? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ? ????????????? ???? ??????????.
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????, ????? ????? ??????? ????????, ?? ? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????
???? ??????, ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????. ???????? ?????????
? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // IV ????????????? ??????-???????????? ???????????
«??????????????????? ??????????????? ???????»: ??. ??????. ?????, 2009. ?. 127?136.
[2] ???? ?.?. ????????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????. ?.: ????. ??., 1990. ?. 304.
[3] ?????? ? 2246168 ?? // ?????. 10.02.05, ???. ? 2.
[4] ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????? (??????????? ????). ?.: ????. ??., 1987.
?. 287.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
Sudden Short-Circuit Currents
in a Synchronous Generator
by Magnetoelectric Stimulation
Aleksey L. Vstovskiy,
Maksim G. Arhipcev and Konstantin S. Fediy
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article presents a mathematical model of the mechanical synchronous generator with permanent
magnet excitation for the study of transients and the influence of short-circuit currents in the
machine.
Keywords: front synchronous generator (FSG), micro-HPS, wind power installation.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 930-942
~~~
??? 629.7
?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ?????????????? ???????????,
?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????
???????????? ?????????
????????? ????? ???????????????
?.?. ?????????*, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 16.07.2013, received in revised form 27.08.2013, accepted 08.12.2013
? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????
????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????
???????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????, ? ?????? ??????? ?????????
????? ???????????????. ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????.
????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?
????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????
???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
????? ?????????????? ???????????. ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????
????????????? ???????, ? ???????????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????
??????????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????
???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ???????????, ????????????????, ?????????????????, ?????
???????????????, ??????????????.
????????
? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? (??) ???????????????
?????????? ????? 120 ???. ?? [1]. ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????. ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????????
????????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????????, ??? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ????? ???????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: MakarenkoGK@gmail.com
# 930 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??-2 ??? ??-8 ? ???????????? ???? ?????????
?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??, ?? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????????????
??????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????. ??? ???????, ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? «?????» ?????????
?? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? (100?150 ? ?? ??????????? ?????) ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????. ????????? ??? ?????? ????????, ?????????
??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? 100?120 ??/?.
????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????????
???????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?
????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????, ??????????
????????? ?????????? ?????.
????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? [2] (???. 1), ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??
?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????. ???
???????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????, ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? [3].
?????????? ????????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????, ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? (??). ??? ????????
???????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ?????. ?????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.
??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??
??????????? ???????, ??? ???????, ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????. ???????? ?????? ? ???????
a)
?)
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# 931 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
[4, 5] ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??, ???????????? ? ???? ??????????? ??, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? (????) ? ???????? ????????? ????- ? ?????????????? ???????????. ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????. ????? ?????????? ????- ?
?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ????????. ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? [4, 5].
???? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? [4, 5].
? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????:
? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????- ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????
??????????????? ?????????????;
? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????;
? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????.
???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ????- ? ?????????????? ???????????
??? ???? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??, ? ????? ??????
??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????, ???????????? ? ??????? [4, 5]. ????-????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????
????????? ?? ???. 2.
? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????, ???????, ??????, ??? ????????? ?
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????-???? ?????????????? ??????????.
??? ? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??, ??
????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????: ?????? ? lat; ??????? ? lon; ?????? ? h;
?????? ? az; ???? ????? ? um; ???? ? kr, ? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ? ax; ay ?
?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ? dh, ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ???????????????.
????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????, ? ?????????:
? ?dh ? ???????????????????? ?????????? (???) ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??
??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????;
? ?lat, ?lon ? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????
????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? (????);
# 932 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
lat , lon, h, dh, az, um, kr , ax, ay, i Џ 0 4
§ ax ·
§ ay ·
dx tgЁ ё, dy tgЁ ё
©2№
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ks0
kni
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§
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ё
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ё, ks2
Ё 1-dx2-dy2 ё
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Ё 0 ё, ks1
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dx
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Ё 1-dx2-dy2 ё
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dx
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ё
dy
Ё
ё, ks4
Ё 1-dx2-dy2 ё
©
№
-dx
§
·
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ё
dy
Ё
ё
Ё 1-dx2-dy2 ё
©
№
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Ё cos(um)�cos(az)�ks ( cos(kr)�sin(az) sin(kr)�sin(um)�cos(az))�ks (sin(kr)�sin(az) cos(kr)�sin(um)�cos(az))�ks
ix
iy
iz
Ё
Ё cos(um)�sin(az)�ks (cos(kr)�cos(az) sin(kr)�sin(um)�sin(az))�ks ( sin(kr)�cos(az) cos(kr)�sin(um)�sin(az))�ks
ix
iy
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Ё
Ё
sin(um)�ksi sin(kr)�cos(um)�ksi cos(kr)�cos(um)�ksi
Ё
x
y
z
©
dh
ri
kn i
xni
LRlat
2S
R0 � (1 e 2 )
3
(1 e 2 � sin 2 (lat )) 2
Bi lat ·
ё
ё
ё
ё
ё
ё
№
z
ri � kn i
, LRlon 2S
R0
� cos(lat )
(1 e � sin 2 (lat )
2
xni � 360
xni � 360
x
, Li lon z
, Hi
LRlat
LRlon
h xni
z
???. 2. ????-????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????
? ?h ? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????????
????;
? ?az, ?um, ?kr ? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ???? ????? ?
????? ??.
??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????, ???? ????? ? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????????# 933 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ????
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«
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0
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0 ».
2 »
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??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ???. 2.
? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ????? ??????,
????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? [4, 5].
?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? i=0, 1, 2, 3 ? 4 ??????????????.
???????? ???????????? ?? ???. 2 ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?
?????????? ??????????? [4, 5], ?????????? ? ????? ??, ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ???????? (??) ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??
? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? (????). ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????
? ????????? ? ?? ??????? ????????? (??) ? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? [6].
??????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????? ??.
????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? i-? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ???? (knix, kniy, knix) ????? ??? [5]
cos( um ) � cos( az ) � ks i ( cos( kr ) � sin( az ) sin( kr ) � sin( um ) � cos( az )) � ks i x
x
y
(sin( kr ) � sin( az ) cos( kr ) � sin( um ) � cos( az )) � ks i ,
z
kn i
cos( um ) � sin( az ) � ks i (cos( kr ) � cos( az ) sin( kr ) � sin( um ) � sin( az )) � ks i y
x
y
( sin( kr ) � cos( az ) cos( kr ) � sin( um ) � sin( az )) � ks i ,
z
kn i
sin( um ) � ks i sin( kr ) � cos( um ) � ks i cos( kr ) � cos( um ) � ks i .
y
z
x
z
kn i
(2)
??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ???? ????? ? ????? ?? ?az, ?um, ?kr,
??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ????? ? ????? az, um, kr, ????????? (2) ????????? ? ????
kn i
x
' kn i
x
cos( um ' um ) � cos( az ' az ) � ks i ' ks i x
x
·
§
( cos( kr ' kr ) � sin( az ' az ) sin( kr ' kr ) � sin( um ' um ) � cos( az ' az )) � Ё ks i ' ks i ё y№
y
©
(sin( kr ' kr ) � sin( az ' az ) cos( kr ' kr ) � sin( um ' um ) � cos( az ' az )) � ks i ' ks i ,
z
z
kn i ' kn i
y
y
cos( um ' um ) � sin( az ' az ) � ks i ' ks i
x
x
§
·
(cos( kr ' kr ) � cos( az ' az ) sin( kr ' kr ) � sin( um ' um ) � sin( az ' az )) � Ё ks i ' ks i ё y
y №
©
( sin( kr ' kr ) � cos( az ' az ) cos( kr ' kr ) � sin( um ' um ) � sin( az ' az )) � ks i z ' ks i ,
z
§
·
sin( um ' um ) � §Ё ks ' ks ·ё sin( kr ' kr ) � cos( um ' um ) � Ё ks
' ks ё ix №
iy №
© ix
© iy
cos( kr ' kr ) � cos( um ' um ) � §Ё ks ' ks ·ё.
iz №
© iz
kn
iz
' kn
iz
# 934 #
(3)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
????????? (3) ?????????????? ? ??? ???????. ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ???? ????? ? ????? ? ?????? ???? ????? ????
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????.
??????? ? ????????? (3) ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????
??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? i-? ????? ???????????, ???????
?????? ???????? ? ????????? ????
Є'kn є
ix»
«
« 'kn y »
i »
«
'
kn
i z ј»
¬«
Є wkni
x
«
« waz
« wkni
y
«
« waz
« wkn
iz
«
« waz
¬
wkn
ix
wum
wkn
iy
wum
wkn
iz
wum
wkn
i x є»
wkr »
wkn » Є 'az є
iy » «
� 'um »» .
wkr » «
wkn » «¬ 'kr »ј
iz »
wkr »
ј
(4)
?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? i-? ????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?????????
Pkn i
Є wkni
x
«
« waz
« wkn i
y
«
« waz
« wkni
z
«
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¬
wkn i
x
wum
wkn i
y
wum
wkni
z
wum
wkni є
x»
wkr »
wkn i »
y»
� P?
wkr »
wkni »
z»
wkr »
ј
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x
«
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y
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z
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¬
wkn i
x
wum
wkn i
y
wum
wkni
z
wum
wkni є
x»
wkr »
wkn i »
y»
wkr »
wkni »
z»
wkr »
ј
T
Є
« 2
«V
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x
«
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« kni
xy
«
«
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i xz
«
¬
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i xy
V2
kni
y
V kn
i yz
є
»
»
i xz » ,
»
»,
V kn
i yz »
»
»
2
V
»
kni »
z ј
V kn
(5)
??? Pkni (3Ч3) ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? i-? ????? ?????? ? ????. ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? Pkni ????????? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ????, ? ??? ?? ? ??????????????
??????? ????? ????????????; P? ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ? (1).
???????? ???????????? ?? ???. 2 ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ??????
????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????
?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????
ri
dh
,
kn i
z
(6)
??? i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ???????????.
??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? dh ? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????????????, ?????????
????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? (?????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????). ?????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????# 935 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
?????? ??????? ?????? ? z-???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? i-? ????? ??????
? ???? ???????????? ? ????
ЄV 2
0 є
».
« dh
«¬ 0 V kni z »ј
??? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?dh, ?kniz ????????? (6) ????????? ???
Pdh_kn i
dh 'dh
.
kni z 'kni z
ri 'ri
(7)
(8)
??? ????????? ??????? ????????? (8) ????? ?????????????? ? ??? ???????. ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? i-? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???
'ri
Є wri
«
«¬ wdh
wri
wkni z
є Є 'dh є
»�«
».
»ј ¬'kni z ј
(9)
????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ? z-???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? i-? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?Ri:
?R i
Є
« 1
« kn
iz
«
¬
є
»
.
2»
kn i »
z ј
dh
(10)
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? i-? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????
?????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????
V r2
i
?R i � Pdh_kn � ?R i T .
i
(11)
?? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? (???. 2)
???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ????, ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????
xni x
ri � kni x
xni y
ri � kni y .
xni z
ri � kni z
(12)
????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????
????? ?????? ? ???? ?? x, y-???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? i-? ????? ???????? ??????????????????.
??? ??????? ???????????? ?knix, ?kniy, ?r ????????? (12) ??? xnix ????????? ???
r 'ri �§Ё kni 'kni ·ё .
xni 'xni
x i
x
x
x№
©
(13)
?????????? (13) ? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? xnix:
# 936 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
'xni
wxni
wxni
x �'r x
i wkn �'knix .
wri
ix
x
(14)
????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (14) ????????? ???
'xni
x
kni �'ri ri �'kni .
x
x
(15)
??????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? (15) ????? ??????????
????????? ???????????? ??????????? x-???????????? ????????? i-? ????? ?????? ?
????:
xni
x
MЄ 'xni 2 є kn 2 � V 2 r 2 � V 2
,
«¬
x »ј
ix
ri i
kni
x
V2
(16)
??? MЄ« 'xni x 2 є» ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? (?????????? ??????????????? ????????) ??¬
ј
??????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????.
??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????
y-???????????? ????????? i-? ????? ?????? ? ???? xniy:
2
V xn
i
kni y 2 � V r2i ri 2 � V 2kn .
y
(17)
iy
??? z-???????????? ????????? i-? ????? ?????? ? ???? xniz ????????? (16) ?????????
? ????
'xni z 2
kn i 2 �'ri 2 ri 2 �'kni 2 2�kn i �ri �§Ё 'ri �'kni ·ё ,
z
z
z ©
z№
(18)
??? ?????????????? ?????? ????? (?ri · ?kniz) ??????????? ????? ??? (10)
R ' r �' kn
i
iz
Є
« 1
є
Є
M ' ri �' kni
M«
' dh
«¬
z »ј
« kn i z
¬
Є
dh
M «'ri � 'kn 2
«¬
iz
kn 2
iz
dh
�' kn 2
2
iz
kn
iz
є
»
»
»
ј
(19)
є
dh
» .
�V 2
kni
»ј kn 2
z
iz
????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? z-???????????? ????????? i-? ????? ??????
? ???? xniz ???????????? ???
V2
xni
z
>
M 'xni
z
@ kniz 2�'ri2 ri2�'kniz 2 2�ri �V kn2 i
.
(20)
z
????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? i-? ????? ?????? ? ????,
??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ????? ????????????
??.
??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? i-? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??.
# 937 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ????? lat. ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?lat ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?
????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?Rlat:
R 0 � (1 e 2 )
Rlat 'Rlat
3
'lat )) 2
(21)
,
(1 e 2 � sin 2 (lat ??? R0 ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????, e ? ?????????????? ??????????.
????????? (21) ?????????????? ? ??? ???????. ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????
'Rlat
wRlat
� 'lat .
wlat
(22)
??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (22) ????? ????????
wRlat
wlat
.
3 � e 2 � R 0 � cos(lat ) � sin(lat ) � e 2 1
>1 e
2
� sin (lat )
2
@
5
(23)
2
?????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?Rlat:
2
V Rlat
>
M 'Rlat 2
@
2
§ wRlat ·
2
Ё
ё � V lat .
© wlat №
(24)
????????? ?????????? (21)-(24), ????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????
2
V Rlon
>
M 'Rlon 2
@
2
§ wRlon ·
2
Ё
ё � V lat .
© wlat №
(25)
????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? i-? ?????
??????. ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? lat ? xnix
???????? ???????????? ?lat ? ? xnix
§ xn 'xn ·�360
Ё i
ix ё№
Bi 'Bi (lat 'lat ) © x
.
2S �Rlat 'Rlat (26)
????????? (26) ?????????????? ? ??? ???????. ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????
'Bi
wBi
wBi
wBi
�'lat �'xni �'Rlat .
x wRlat
wlat
wxni
x
(27)
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (27)
'B
i
'lat 360�xni
360
x � 'Rlat .
� 'xn ix 2S �Rlat 2
2S �Rlat
# 938 #
(28)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
?????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ????? ????????? (27):
2
2
2 § 360�xni ·
§ 360 · §
Ё
ё
2
x
·
2
� 'Rlat2 'Bi
'lat Ё
ё � Ё 'xni ё Ё
ё
2
x
©
№
�
Rlat
2
S
Ё
ё
©
№
© 2S � Rlat №
1802 �xni
360
x
x.
2 � 'lat � 'xn �
2 � 'lat � 'Rlat�
2 � 'xn � 'Rlat
i x 2S � Rlat
ix
2
2
3
2S � Rlat
S �Rlat
360�xni
(29)
????????? (29) ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? i-? ?????
?????? ???????????? ???
2
2
§ 360�xni ·
360
§
·
Ё
ё
2
2
2
x
2
V
Ё
�V 2 M Є'Bi є V
ё � V xn Ё
ё
«¬
»ј
Bi
Rlat
2
2
S
�
Rlat
Ё
ё
№
lat ©
ix
© 2S � Rlat №
(30)
2�
360 � xn i
x � M >' lat � ' Rlat
2 S � Rlat 2
@,
??? M[?lat · ?Rlat] ? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????,
???????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????:
wRlat 2
� V lat
(31)
wlat
????? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? i-? ????? ??????
M>'lat � 'Rlat@
???????????? ???
V2
Bi
2
2
§ 360 � xni ·
§ 360 ·
2
2
2 Ё
ё
2
x
Є
є
V
Ё
� V Rlat
M 'Bi
ё � V xn Ё
«¬
»ј
i x © 2S � Rlat 2 ё№
lat © 2S � Rlat №
2�
360 � xn i
2
2
x � 3 � e � R 0 � cos( lat ) � sin( lat ) � e 1 � V 2 .
5
lat
2 S � Rlat 2
1 e 2 � sin 2 ( lat ) 2
>
@
(32)
???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? (32) ?????? ?????????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? i-? ????? ??????. ??????? ? ??????????
??????????? ?? ????? ??????????:
V2
B
i
2
§ 360 � xni ·
Ё
ё
§ 360 ·
2
2
x
M Є 'B 2 є V 2 Ё
ё � V xn Ё
ё � V Rlat .
«¬ i »ј
2
2
�
S
Rlat
©
№
Ё 2S � Rlat ё
lat
i
x ©
№
2
(33)
??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?
?????? i-? ????? ??????.
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? i-? ????? ??????
2
§ 360� xni ·
2
Ё
ё
y
§ 360 ·
2
ё �V 2 .
V 2 MЄ« 'L 2 є» V 2 Ё
(34)
ё �V xn Ё
L
i
Rlon
2
¬
ј
Rlon
S
2
�
Ё
№
©
2S � Rlon ёё
i
lon
i
Ё
y ©
№
# 939 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? i-? ????? ??????
MЄ 'H 2 є V 2 V 2 .
(35)
«¬
i »ј
h
xn
i
i
z
????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??-
V2
H
?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ???????????.
?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ????- ? ?????????????? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? [4, 5], ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????.
? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?r ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?
???????????? ? ??????????
Vr
V 2X V Y2 V Z2 ,
(36)
??? ?X, ?Y, ?Z ? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? (?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????, ??????? ? ?????? ??
?????? ????????? ???????????).
????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????,
?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????
????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? (???) ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????. ????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
??????????.
??????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????:
? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??, ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????:
?????? lat = 56°0' ?.?.; ??????? lon = 92°0' ?.?.; ?????? h = 400 ?; ?????? az = 0° ? 360°; ????
????? um = 0°; ???? kr = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°;
? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? TH7102 NEC [0]: ax = 29°; ay = 22°;
? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? dh = 100 ?, ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ???
???????????????.
? ?dh = 10 ? ? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????;
? ?lat = 0,032??, ?lon = 0,058?? ? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? (????????? ???????? ?lat ? ?lon ????????????? ??? ??????????? ? = 1 ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ? ?????????????? ?????????);
? ?h = 10 ? ? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????;
# 940 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
19
Vr , ?.
18
17
16
15
az,q
0
60
120
180
240
300
360
???. 3. ??????????? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??
??????? ??
? ?az = 10?, ?um = 20?, ?kr = 20? ? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ???? ????? ? ????? ??;
? z = 1000 ? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??.
??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? ?r ?? ??????? ?? ? ????????? 0?360° ??? ??????? ????????? ?????
????????? ?? ???. 3.
??????????? ?? ???. 3 ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????
??????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ??????, ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????
?????????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????????.
??????
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????, ??????????,
??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? 1 %, ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????
?? ??????? ??????????, ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ????? ????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????? (??? ????????? ???? ?????????????), ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] URL: http://www.fsk-ees.ru/about.html.
[2] ??????? ?.?. // ?????????. 2008. ? 4. ?. 20?22.
# 941 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????
[3] ????? ?.?. ??????????? ???? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????. ?.: ???????????????, 1982. 312 ?.
[4] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ??????????? ???????? ????????????????: ??. ????.
??. ??????????: ???. ?????. ??-?, 2012. C. 33?37.
[5] ????????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????, 2011. ? 7. C. 58?62.
[6] ????????? ?.?. ?????????????????????. ?.: ????. ??., 1986. 351 ?.
[7] URL http://www.analyzers.ru/teplovizori/necth7102/.
Calculation of Error in Determining
the Coordinates of Points Thermal Images Obtained
with Remote Technical State Survey
Overhead Power Lines
Grigoriy K. Makarenko and Andrey M. Alesheckin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
In the present paper was developed and investigated based on numerical simulation method of
calculation errors in determining the coordinates of points of thermal images. These images can
be used for remote investigation of the technical condition of some facilities of electric networks,
especially overhead power lines. The article describes in detail the analytical method developed by
the error estimates of coordinates of points given thermal images. The main sources of errors in
determining the coordinates of points of thermal images are errors in determining the coordinates
and angular orientation of objects ? carriers of diagnostic equipment. The developed method makes
it possible based on the specified number of errors of measurement characteristics of the primary
parameters to calculate the values of mean square errors in determining the coordinates of the given
point thermal images. A comparison of errors obtained by an analytical method with the results of
error estimates obtained by the method of statistical modeling, which confirmed the correctness of the
calculated ratios.
Keywords: radio navigation, error positioning, power generation, power transmission lines, aerial
photography.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 943-952
~~~
??? 621.318.562.5
????????? ??????????
??????????? ???????????????
?.?. ???????,
?.?. ????????*, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 19.03.2013, received in revised form 29.08.2013, accepted 11.10.2013
????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????
??????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.
???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????????
????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????? MatLab.
???????? ?????: ????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????????? ????, ?????????
???????.
1. ????????
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????-????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? [1, 2]. ??????? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????
?????????? ???????????, ??? ???????, ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????
????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ??????
???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ????????
????????????. ? ???? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????-???????????? ????????????
?????????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?
????? MatLab.
? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????-??????????
?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ????????? ? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????
??????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????. ?????
????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ????????? ???*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: hamsterboo@mail.ru
# 943 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????????
???????? k p.
2. ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????
?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? (??) ? ????? ???? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? u-v, ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?k, ????? ??? [2, 3]
k2 p p
Ѕ
k2
1
1
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ReTe
Te
T2 ReTe
ReTe
°
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k2 p p
di1v
k2
1
1
u1v i1v < 2v Z< 2u Zk i1u ; °
dt
ReTe
Te
T2 ReTe
ReTe
°
°
d < 2u
1
°
R2 k2i1u < 2u (Zk p p Z)< 2v ;
ѕ,
dt
T2
°
°
d < 2v
1
R2 k2i1v < 2v (Zk p p Z)< 2u ;
°
dt
T2
°
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3p p k 2
1
d Z 3p p k 2
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i1u < 2v M s .
i1v < 2u 2J
2J
J
dt
°ї
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dt
(1)
??? u1u, u1v, i1u, i1v, ?2u, ?2v ? ???????? ?? ??? u ? v ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? u1, ???? ??????? i1, ??????????????? ?????? ?2 ??????????????; ? = ?el / pp ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????; ?el ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????? ????; Ms ? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ???? ?????????. ???????????
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????? ? [1, 2, 3].
????????? ???????? ?? ? ????????-????????? ????? ????? ???
X = F(X, G),
(2)
??? X ? G ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????:
X
§ i1u ·
Ё
ё
Ё i1v ё
Ё < 2u ё ? G
Ё
ё
Ё < 2v ё
Ё Z ё
©
№
§ u1u ·
Ё
ё
Ё u1v ё .
Ё Zk ё
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ё
© M cs №
(3)
??????????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????-????????? ????? ????????? ?????????
?X = A?X + B?G,
(4)
??? A ? B ? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????????;
?X ? ?G ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????.
# 944 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
???????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? (1) ? ??? ???????. ?????
??????? A ? B ??????????? ? ????
A
wF
? B
wX G G0
wF
,
wG G G0
X X0
(5)
X X0
??? X0 ? G0 ? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ??????
(?????? ??????????), ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????.
???? ??????????? ?? ????????? (1) ?? ??????????????? ??????????, ?????, ??? ??????? A ? B ????? ??????? ???????. ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?k ??????? ????????? u-v ? ?????????????? ??? u ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??.
????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? u-v ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????
???? ?k = ?0el, ??????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?2 = ?2u, ?2v = 0. ?????????? ?k = ?0el ? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?0el = f(i1v, ?2u, ?), ?.?. ??? ??? ??
???????? ??????? ????????????.
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????????, ?.?. ???????
Ms = 0. ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????? k p. ???? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????,
??????? ???????
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A Ё
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(6)
?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????????: ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??. ?????
???????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? [1].
???????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? (6) ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????
?? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????????.
??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????
A1
§ 1
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# 945 #
§ kp ·
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ё
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Ё 0 ё
©
№
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
§
1
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Ё
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?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ????
G p
p � E Ai Bi � K D p ,
(7)
??? K ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????; E ? ????????? ???????; D(p)? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????.
????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????? D(p)=0 ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????. ????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????
??????? K ?????????? ?????????? ???, ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????
????????????? ?????? ??????????????????? ????????.
3. ?????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?
????????????? ????? [1]. ??? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????
n-?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????? D 0 ? ??????????? ????????
?????
p n C1 � Zb � p n 1 ... Ci � Zib � p n i ... Cn 1 � Zbn
0,
(8)
??? ?? ? ??????? ??????? (???????????????????? ??????)
Zb
n
Dn
; Ci
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n
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.
???????? ????????? (8) ?? Z?n ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????
C0 � S n C1 � S n 1 ... Ci � S n i ... Cn 1 � S 1 0
? ????????????? ?????????? S
p
Zb
(9)
d
? ????????????? ???????? ? = ?b · t.
dW
?????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????: ????????????????? ? = 4,5 %, ? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?pp = 2,8 ?? ?1. ?????????????
???????? ????????? ????? ??? [1]
S 2 2 � S 1.
(10)
????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ????????? (7) ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? p,
# 946 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????
a11 a22 C0
§
·
Ё
ё
b
§ K11 · Ё
11
ё.
Ё
ё
2
© K12 № ЁЁ a22 C1 � a22 C0 a12 � a21 ёё
Ё
ё
a21 � b11
©
№
(11)
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??. ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? (S + 1)n: ????????????????? ? = 0 %, ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?pp = 4,8 ?b ?1.
??? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
? ??????? ???????? ????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????
???????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? (?????? ??????). ?????? ???????????
???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ???????.
?????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???. 1. ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????.
? ?????????? ?? ???. 1 ???????? ????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????
?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?? ?????? ix ? ???????????? iy ???? ???????? ? ???? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????
(??? ? ???). ???????? ??????? U?1x ? U?1y ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? UA, UB ? UC
??????? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? iA, iB ? iC , ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ?
??? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? [4].
?????? ?????? (m4) ???????? ?? ???. 2. ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????????
?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ? ????
??? T2
L2c
k2
R2c ;
F
Lm
ix ,
T2 p 1
(12)
Z
k2 R2ix
<
(13)
Lmix
,
T2 <
Lm
.
L2c
?????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? x. ?????? ? ???? ???????????
??? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??? y. ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????
???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? x ?? ??????? ?2.
# 947 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
< 2sp
Zsp
k2u
Ms
???
BK
U ?1x U ?x
U ?1y
ix U ?y
iy
Z0
k1u
kp
ux
kp
uy
uD
uE
uD
UA
uE
UB
Z
iA
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M
UC
T
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m4
Monitor
m2
T
Z0
M
<
ix
ix
iy
iy
Monitor
Monitor
iA
T
iD
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iB
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Monitor
K11
K12
K 21
K 22
???. 1. ?????????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????
??????????
M
3
p? k2
2
x
<
<
Z0
T
Z
1
p
Lm
T2
y
Lm
T2 p 1
ix
iy
pp
Z
???. 2. ?????? ??????
????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?0el, ??????????? ??????? ????????? (x, y) ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? (?, ?), ? ????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ?. ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ??
# 948 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
????? ??? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ???????
???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????. ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????
???????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? sin? ? cos?.
???????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ???. 2, ????????? ?????.
4. ???????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ??????????????
???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? MatLab ????? The MathWorks, Inc.
?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? (???. 3), ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????
???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??.
? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????: AD ? ?????? ??, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? (1); k1u, k2u ? ???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??; m1, m3, m5 ? ????? ??????????????? ?????????,
????????????? ?? ??????????
cos T
ix
iy
iD � cos T iE � sin T; Ѕ°
ѕ;
iD � sin T iE � cos T;°ї
uD
uE
u x � cos T u y � sin T;Ѕ°
ѕ ; cos T
u x � sin T u y � cos T; °ї
F
Fxr
Fxr 2 Fyr 2
Fyr
Fxr 2 Fyr 2
Fxr 2 Fyr 2 .
Ѕ
;°
°
°
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;ѕ .
°
°
°
°
ї
BK ? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ??????????
U cx
U cy
R �T Ѕ
U c1x i y � Z0 � e e ; °
kp °
ѕ,
R �T
U c1y ix � Z0 � e e ;°
k p °ї
??? Ucx, Ucy ? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????.
?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??, ? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????. ?? ???. 4, 5
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ???????.
5. ??????????
?? ???. 6 ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????
?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? (???. 3). ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????
?????????. ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
# 949 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
k1u
< 2sp
k1u
Zsp
BK
U ?1x
U ?x
U ?1y
ix
i y U ?y
Z0
m5
kp
ux
kp
uy
AD
Z
M
iD
iE
< xr
< yr
uD
uE
Ms
m3
p
R2 k2
K11
K12
K 21
K 22
???. 3. ?????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????
???. 4. ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????
Monitor
m1
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 5. ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
???. 6. ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????
? ??????? ???????? ????. ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ??, ???????
??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????, ????? ???? ???????????? ??????
??????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????. ?, ???????, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??.
???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ?????????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ??? ? ???????????, ??? ? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????????????: ???????. ?.: ???????????? ????? «????????», 2005. 304 ?.
[2] ??????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ????????? ??????????????:
???????. ?.: ???????????? ????? «????????», 2006. 272 ?.
[3] ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????????? ???????? ????????-??????????? ???????????????: ????. ???????. ????: ??????????, 1985. 92 ?.
[4] ?????????? ?.?. ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????. ???????:
?????????? ???. ?????. ??-? ??. ?.?. ??????, 2008. 298 ?.
Modal Control Asynchronous
Electric Drive
Alexander N. Pakhomov,
Maxim F. Korotkov and Alexander A. Fedorenko
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The technique of synthesis of modal regulators of co-ordinates of vector system the converter of
frequency-induction motor is resulted by a method of the standard equations. Evaluation test of
processes of regulation of co-ordinates by the analysis of results of imitation modeling of system in the
environment of MatLab is given.
Keywords: modal controller, asynchronous electric drive, vector system.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 953-956
~~~
??? 62-82:53.096
Influence of Increased Temperatures
on Operability of The Hydraulic Drive
Almohammad A. Mohammad*, Nataly P. Kulikova,
Evgeny A. Sorokin and Anna S. Kaverzina
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Received 15.06.2013, received in revised form 24.08.2013, accepted 06.10.2013
In articles the issue of improvement of quality and efficiency of operability of hydraulically operated
cars is investigated at influence of increased temperatures of working liquid and environment. The
problem ensuring operability of a hydraulic actuator of the cars operated in wide temperature range,
and increase of their efficiency is one of the most actual in domestic mechanical engineering.
Keywords: hydraulic actuator, means of cooling of working liquid, multiple-pass heater, experimental
stand.
In hydraulic systems of self-propelled cars temperature of working liquid and environment
changes over a wide range: from -50 °C to +90 °C and above. The bottom limit of temperatures
is defi ned minimum temperature and a climatic zone in which the car works. The top limit of
temperature of working liquid depends on the maximum ambient temperature, speed of a wind,
level of solar radiation, duration of light day, design features of a hydraulic actuator and a mode of
its work [1, 2].
To design features carry the capacity and standard sizes of pumps, quantity and types of hydraulic
resistance, throttles and valves, capacity and the area of a heat transfer of hydraulic tanks. Regime
characteristics are an efficiency of nominal pressure and period of operation of a hydraulic actuator
under loading, the frequency of switching of the managing director and the regulating equipment.
Constructive and regime characteristics can become the reasons of emergence of the increased
temperature in a hydraulic actuator that has a great impact on viscosity of working liquid, physical and
mechanical properties of materials, from which the hydraulic equipment is made, on deformation of
units hydraulic actuator, changing gaps and interferences in interfaced details.
Operating experience of hydraulically operated cars and results of stand tests of hydraulic
actuators show that temperature increase of working liquid more than + 50 °C causes the following
undesirable phenomena.
1. The increase of friction in the hydraulic equipment due to weakening of protective properties
of oils and formation of details of zones of dry friction on the surface of contact of details. Therefore
there is big contact tension and temperature, bringing to increase in intensity of wear of rubbing
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: alnaef@mail.ru
# 953 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? Influence of Increased Temperatures on Operability?
details of the hydraulic equipment (in particular linear wear of plunger of axial and piston pumps
[1, 3]), to a gripping of metals in axial and piston pumps and a fatigue spalling (pitting) of teeth in
gear pumps.
In research [1, 47] when studying dependence of friction force and friction force of sliding of
consolidations of hydraulic cylinders, slide valves of distributors from temperature, the increase in
friction forces was shown at temperature increase higher than + 200 °C. It is also noted that artificial
support of temperature (viscosity) of working liquid in the optimum range in which energy losses
on friction are minimum, it is possible to reduce significantly losses on friction in the hydraulic
equipment [1].
2. Reduction of volume efficiency of hydraulic pumps and dispenser owing to increase in internal
leakages of working liquid. It leads to decline in production of cars.
Temperature increase of working liquid from +300 ° to +800 ° C leads to decline in production of
shovels to 35 % due to increase in time of a running cycle. At an overheat of working liquid to 1000 °
C decrease in working speeds of rods of hydraulic cylinders, increase by 2-3 times of time of a running
cycle, forcing pressure drop with 75 to 60 kgfs/cm2, reduction of hour technical productivity more than
in two [8, 9] is caused. The raised thermal mode of a hydraulic actuator influences time of continuous
operation of hydraulically operated cars. The general losses of productivity for change because of the
compelled idle time of the excavator, in this case are reached by 15-18 %.
The volume efficiency of the pump affects productivity during all work of a hydraulic system both
at low, and at high temperatures. In work [10] when studying change of duration of a running cycle of
the excavator of the Excavator of the fourth dimensional group it was shown that at decrease in volume
efficiency of the pump 223.25 twice productivity of the car decreases four times. Dependence of volume
efficiency of pumps on temperature (viscosity) of working liquid is presented also in researches [11].
Both raised, and the lowered temperature reduce volume efficiency of various pumps. However axial
and piston pumps possess higher and stable volume efficiency at positive temperatures. At increased
temperatures reduction of efficiency is caused by internal leakages of the pressure head line in soaking
up, through face, radial and axial gaps [12]. In this case except direct link ? influence of reduction of
efficiency on increase in working temperatures, exists also feedback owing to which high temperature
of working liquid causes decrease in efficiency of a hydraulic actuator.
3. The increase in external leakages of working liquid through mobile and demountable
connections contradicts ecological safety of the hydraulically operated self-propelled car, reduces
volume efficiency, worsens appearance of cars as in places of leaks the dust sticks.
The increase in intensity of oxidation of working liquid (oil aging) and its chemical decomposition
results from oxidation by its oxygen of air, temperature, not dissolved air in liquids and abrasive
particles thus have catalytic effect. Therefore corrosion wear of hydraulic units is caused. Temperature
increase on everyone 8... 10 °C is doubled by oxidation of working liquid.
4. The increase in intensity of relaxation processes, is irreversible reduces working capacity
polymeric details of hydraulic equipment.
Temperature change from +200 C to 800 C causes intensity of volume destruction of rubber
consolidations that is caused by reduction of hardness of rubber, easing of protective properties of oils
and formation of zones of dry friction So, excessive ware of lip seals increases by 1,5 times, rings of
round cross section ? by 1,4 times [1,13, 14].
# 954 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? Influence of Increased Temperatures on Operability?
5. Owing to thermal expansion at influence of ambient temperature the linear sizes of heated
elements and a deviation in system of admissions that can lead to violation of kinematic communications
of system change. There is a danger of jamming of details of precision execution.
Three above mentioned factors ? viscosity of liquid, physical and mechanical properties of
materials and gaps (interferences) in the interfaced details, changing under the influence of increased
temperatures, lead to deterioration of a condition of the hydraulic equipment. That in turn conducts
to reduction of operational productivity of hydraulically operated self-propelled cars (at temperature
more than + 50 °C the hydraulic actuator becomes inefficient, and at further change of temperature (it
is above +70 °C) non operable.
Thus, there is a problem of increase of efficiency of operability of hydraulically operated
cars at influence of increased temperatures of working liquid and environment. The solution is
conducted now in four main directions. First, new materials and designs of details of the hydraulic
equipment are applied. Secondly, working liquids of the summer grades are used. They are
characterized with raised index of viscosity .Thirdly, level of maintenance of hydraulically operated
cars raises. Fourthly, regulation of temperature of actuating liquid in a hydraulic actuator is
applied.
It is necessary to remember that all four specified ways of increasing of efficiency of operability
of hydraulically operated cars don?t exclude and don?t replace each other, and are organically combined
among themselves and supplement each other. Therefore at design of hydraulic actuators of the cars
intended for operation in areas with sharp continental climate, it is necessary to consider possibility of
a combination of all ways.
Reference
[1] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????. ??????????, 1998. 240 ?.
[2] ??????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ... ????. ???. ????. ??????????, 2008. 17 ?.
[3] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ?????? ? ???????????. ??????????. 1977. ???. 2.
?. 73?76.
[4] ???????? ?.?. ???????. ???. ... ????. ???. ????. ??????????, 1969. 16 ?.
[5] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ??????????????. 1969. ? 2. ?. 86?89.
[6] ??????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ???????? ??????. 1973.
? 9. ?. 36?38.
[7] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ??????????????. 1968. ? 4. ?. 88?92.
[8] ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ?????? ??????????????. 1983. ? 6. ?.19.
[9] ????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ???????? ??????. 1981.
? 1. ?. 16?17.
[10] ??????? ?.?. // ???????????? ? ???????? ??????. 1986. ? 1. ?. 11?12.
[11] ????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????????????. 1974. ? 9. ?. 711.
[12] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????????. 1985. ?.8-17.
[13] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ?????. ??????????????. 1969. ? 2. ?. 86?89.
[14] ???? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????, ??????????? ??? ????????????. ?.:
?????. 1980. 288 ?.
# 955 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Almohammad A. Mohammad, Nataly P. Kulikova? Influence of Increased Temperatures on Operability?
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????
??????????????? ???????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????????????
????????????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?
?????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????
????????????, ????????????????? ?????.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 957-967
~~~
??? 5530.041
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? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 05.04.2013, received in revised form 12.07.2013, accepted 21.09.2013
?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????
????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????
????????? ??????????. ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????
???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
???????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??
???????????????????? ?????????? .
???????? ?????: ????????? ??????????????, ?????? ??????, ????????? ?????????,
???????????? ???? ???????? ??????????.
????????
?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? XIX ? ?????? XX ??., ? ? ???????? ?. ????? ? 1908 ?. ?????????????????
???????????? ???????. ? 1916-1917 ??. ?? ???????? ?. ?????? ???? ?????? ????? 60 ?? ??????
??? ??????? ??????????? 0,67-2,89 ?/?3, ??? ???????? ?. ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?
????????? ?????? ?? 0,2-0,5 ?? 1,5-3,4 ?/?3. ?????? ? ???????? ?????? (-0,25 ??), ??????????,
????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????.
? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????, ? ???????? ???????? ?.?.
???????? [3] ???????? ????-??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? (???. 1).
???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????? 1:200 000. ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? (???. 2).
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????.
???, ? ????????? ?. ??????? (???. 3) ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ? 120 ?????? ?? ??.
????????????, ???????, ????????, ??????, ??????, ? ?????? ????? ???????. ?????? ? ???????
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: VMakarov@sfu-kras.ru, tolkien1988@mail.ru
# 957 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????????
???. 1. ????? ???????????? ? ??????????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????
?????????. ???????? ???????????: 1 ? ?????? ????? ?????????; 2 ? ??????????? ????? ??????????
????????? (?2-?1); 3 ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? (?2-?1);
4 ? ????????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????; 5 ? ??????????? ?????????; 6 ? ??????-?????????
?????? ????; 7 ? ???????????? ? ??????-????????????? ?????????: ? ? ??????????, ?? ? ??????????????????, ?? ? ????-???????????, ?? ? ???????-?????????, ? ? ??????????; 8 ? ????????????
??????? (????? ? ??????? 1-5): 1 ? ??????????????, 2 ? ?????????, 3 ? ???????????, 4 ? ??????-????????,
5 ? ???????????; 9 ? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????;
10 ? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????; 11 ? ????????? ?????????; 12 ? ??????????????? ???????
???????????? ??????????? ??????; 13 ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????
???. 2. ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????: 1 ? ?????????????? ??????;
2 ? ???????? ????? ? ???????; 3 ? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????; 4 ? ????????
????? ? ??????? ? ????????????; 5 ? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ? ??????????; 6 ? ???????? ????? ?
??????? ? ?????????? ?????; 7 ? ??????? ????????? ????-??????
????????? ????? ????????? ?????. ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? 1-3, ???? ?? 8-10
?????? ?? ????? (0,2 ?3), ?????? ? ??????? ??. ???????, ???? ? ???????? ??? ????????? 15-17,
?. ???????????? ? ?? 54, ?. ?????????? ? ?? 64, ? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?. ????????? ? 106
??????.
????? ?????????? (????? 200 ????) ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ??????
?. ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?. ???? ?? ????????, ? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ?
???????, ??????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????, ?????, ???? ? ??. ??????? ??????????
?????? ? ????? ? ?????? ????? ?? 10 ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?. ??????????? (?? 80 ?????? ? ?????) ? ??????? ? ?????? ???????
?. ?????? (?? 240-250 ??????). ? ?????? ?. ???? ? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????.
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??
???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????
???????? ??? ??????????. ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????. ? ??
?? ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? [2, 6].
# 959 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????
???. 3. ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?. ???????. ???????? ???????????: 1 ? ???????? ?????
? ???????; 2 ? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????; 3 ? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ?
??????????; 4 ? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????
????????, ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ? ??????? ?????????????
?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????.
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????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????? ????????????, ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? 4 ???? ????????: ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????,
????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? (????????? ????????),
?????????? ? ??????????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????????? (T3-J1, K1-N). ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? 9 ???????????? ?????.
???????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ????????? (J1)
??????????? ????????????????????? ???????????? ? ???????-???????? ?????????
??????? ? ???-????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ? ?????????? ?????. ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ???????, ? ????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????????, ?? ???? ?????????, ???????? ????????????? ???????????,
???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??????? J1ck ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????.
??? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?. ????? ? ??????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? 70100 ??/?3 ? ??????? ?? 0,3-0,6 ?/? ? ????????? ???????.
# 960 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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???? ??????????? ????????????
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???????:
1. ???????????????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????: ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? 30 ?.
2. ??????????? ???? ????????????: ??????? ? ????????? ????-????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????-???-????????? ????? ???????. ???? ????????????, ???????? ????????? ????????.
3. ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????: ?????????, ?????????????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????. ??????? ?
??????-???-????????? ????? ?????????.
4. ???????? ???? ????????????: ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? 10 ?.
5. ????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?
???-????????? ????? ?????????. ????????????? ???????-????????-????????? ??????????? J1.
6. ??????????? ???? ????????????: ??????? ?????????????????? ?????, ?????? ????????????, ????????? 1-30 ?. ??????????? ?? ???? ??????????.
7. ?????????????-???????????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??. ??????, ????, ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????. ????????????, ????????????????????????? ?????.
?????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?? ?. ??????, ???????, ????????.
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?????, ????.
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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(??????????? ???) ? ??????????? ?????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????, ????????, ?????????; ?? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????????? ?????????????.
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?????????-??????????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ?. ?. ????????????? ? 2012 ?. ? ?????????????? ?????-????????? ???? (???????? ????). ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????
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?? 0,2 ?? 7,4 ?/?, ?????????? ??????? ? ?? 1,4 ?/?. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????????????? ????????: ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????,
??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ? Ag, Hg, Cu, Pb, Sn, Sb, Fe,
???; ??? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ???????????, ???????????? ?
?????????-????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ?????? (??????????? ??????????, ?????-??????????, ???????????), ?????????? ? Fe, Pd, Cu, As, Pb.
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????.
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?????????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ????????? ?.?. ???????? [1]. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????-????????
?????????????. ?????????? ????? Au+Pt+Pd ? ????????-??????? ????? ?????-????????
????????????? ????????? ?? 2,3 ?/? ? ????? ??????? ?? 41,8 ?/? ? ????? ???????????. ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????????????
(???????).
?? ?????????? ????-??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????? ? ??????????? ????? D3 (?????????, ????????? ? ??.). ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????
?????????? ???????? ??????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????.
????????????? ??????????
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???????? ? ????, ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????.
? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????????. ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????-???????
?????, ????????????? ? ???-????????? ????? ?????????? ????. ?? ??????? ?? ????????????
??????????????? ??????????, ????????? ????????????????-???????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????-?????????????? ??????????? ?????. ? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????
????????, ?????-???????? ? ?????????????-?????-???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????, ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?
????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????-??????????????? ????. ????? ?? ????????
?????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??.
? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????
???? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???-???????? ????? ???????????
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# 963 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????
???????????, ??????-????????, ????????? [4, 5]. ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
?????????????? ???? ????????.
??????????-?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??. ??????? ? ?????? ?
?????????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????. ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????-???????????????? ? ?????????
?????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????-????????? ????, ???????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????? ????. ?????? ????? ?? ????????, ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ????? ????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ?????-?????????????
??????????????????? ??????-???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???,
??????-??????????? ???????? ?. ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????-?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????
??????? ????????????????. ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? (?. ??????? ?? ???? ??????????, ??????, ????, ??????, ?????, ???????????, ??????, ?????, ??????????? ????????) ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????, ?????? ? ????????? (?. ?????),
??????????, ??????????? (?. ?????). ???????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????
???? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?. ??????. ????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????
??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??. ?????, ?????????, ????, ??????. ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????, ??????????????
??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????.
????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? [5], ?????????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????, ????????? 44,7 ? ? ????????? ??????????? 1 ?/?3. ???????? ??????? ??????
??????? (??????? ??????-???????????) ? ?????? (??????, ??????, ?????, ????????, ??????,
????).
?????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??. ??????????? ? ??????
(???????????? ??????????????? (???????) ???????) ?????????? 3 ? ?? ????????? ?3.
??????-???????? ???????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??. ???????? ???? ? ?????
????, ???????? ????????? ? ??????????-?????????? ? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ? ????????? ??????? ???????.
???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????-???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? 1-16 ??????, ?????? ?? 24 ?????? ?? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?
??????? ??. ???????, ????? ????, ????????, ?????, ?????, ? ????? ? ????????? ?. ?????.
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ?? ?. ?????. ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????. ?? ?. ???????? ? ???????? ??????
????????? ??????? ? ?????.
???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???. ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????-???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????. ?????????? ????, ?? ?????????
??????, ???????? ?? 1 ?/? ??????? ? ?? 0,49 ?/? ?????? [5]. ????? ????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????-??????????? ??????????
??????????. ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ?. ????. ? ??????????-?????????? ? ?????-?????????? ????? ?????????
# 964 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????
???????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? 1,6-2,1 ?/?, ??? (?? 0,15 ?/?), ??????? (?? 0,05 ?/?). ?
????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? 5,5 ?/? (????????? ??????).
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?. ???????, ? ??????-??????? ?? ???????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????? ?
??????????? ? ??????-????????? ????? ????????-????????????? ?????????? (0,08-0,1 ?/?),
???????????? ???????????????? ???? ?????-?????????? ??? (0,1 ?/?), ? ????? ? ???????????
?????-????????-????????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????????????
??? ? ??????????? ?????????????? (?????????? ?? ???? ?????? 0,4 ? 1,3 ?/?; ? ???????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????).
????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ? ??. ???????, ????????????, ???????, ????????,
??????, ??????, ????, ????????, ??????????, ?????????. ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????????? ???. ??????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????
????? ???????? ?? 94 ??????, ? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????, ?
?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? 132 ??????. ?????? ? ???????? ????????????, ?????????????, ?????? (0,1-0,3 ??).
?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?. ??????? ????? (???????????? ??????????????? ???????, ?????? ????? ???????), ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?3 4 ?.
????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?. ????. ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? (??.
????, ???????, ??????) ?????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????
? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????????-???????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????-1 ? 2
???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?.
???? [7]. ? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? 0,1-0,2 ?? (4 ?????)
? 0,7?0,3 ?? (1 ?????), ????????? ??????? (0,2 ??). ????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????
?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? (???????????) ????? (????????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ???? ???????? ?????) ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? [2]. ???????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????, ?????????????, ??????. ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ?. ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????
????, ?????????? ????????? ??????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ???????, ???????????? ??
?????????? ???????? ???? ? ?. ?. ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????. ??? ??? ???????????? ? ??????????-??????????? ??????????
???????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ????????? 47 ?????? ?? ????? (????? 60 ?, ??? (? ????????? ?? ?????)
15 ?/?). ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? 1100-1260 ? [2].
??????
?????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????,
???????????? ? ????-??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ??????. ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????
# 965 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????
??????????-??????????, ???????????, ????????? ? ??????-???????? ???????? ????????????
?????????-????????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??
??????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????
????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????-??????????? ????? ??
?????????????? ?????.
?????????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????????,
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????, ??????
???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ?????? ????. 2011. ? 12. ?. 8-16.
[2] ?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ????? ???? ????????:
1:200000. ???? O-47-III. ?., 1976.
[3] ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????. ??????????,
????????, 1997. ?. 89-183.
[4] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ????????????????
?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????. ??????????: ????????????????????, 1999.
?. 32-34.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????.
??????????, ????????, 2000. 88 ?.
[6] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????????
????????????? ????. 1975. ???. 3. ?. 116-119.
[7] ???????? ?.?. ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ????? ???? ???????? 1:200000. ???? O47-I. ?., 1981.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????
Gold Mineralization-Bearing Alluvium
at the Interfluve of Podkamennaya
and Lower Tunguska and the Prospects
for Detection of Indigenous Gold Deposits
Vladimir A. Makarov,
Sergey S. Serdyuk, Boris V. Shibistov,
Vadim Z. Milman and Larisa N. Puzyreva
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article is carried out the data generalization over gold-bearing placers at the central part of
Siberian platform and analysis of possible detection of different indigenous types gold ores. Alluvial
gold contamination is presented within all main water streams of the area. The perspectives for gold
ore deposits are revealed. The first stages of estimation at the region for precious metals ore deposits
are designated.
Keywords: gold-bearing placer, gold ore deposits, Siberian platform, gold ore formations types.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 968-994
~~~
??? 553.3.078 (571.51)
???????? ? ???????????
?????????????? ????? ?????
????-??????????? ??????? ??????
?.?. ??????*, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????,79
Received 13.06.2013, received in revised form 04.09.2013, accepted 22.10.2013
???????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????????
????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????????. ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????,
???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????, ?????? ??????, ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????,
?????????????? ??????, ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????, ?????????????
???????, ????-?????????? ?????? ?????.
????????
?? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? «??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????» [3, 4], ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???, ????????????? ?
?. ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????-?????????
????????? ? ?. ????????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???-500 ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???, ????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ? ??????, ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ????????.
? ?????? ?????????? ? ????-?????????? ?????? ?????? (?-???) ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????-???????? ????
??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? 350?500 ? [5, 6].
?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????-????????????? ????? ????-???????????
????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ??????
????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: geosss1@mail.ru, tolkien1988@mail.ru
# 968 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????
??????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ????
????????? ? 1843 ?. ?. ???????? [1]. ??? ????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ????, ?? ? ????????? ??????. ?????? ????????????
????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ???????? ? 1886 ?., ? ??????? ??????? ?. ?????? (?????? ???? ????????????? ?????????????). ??? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????
????????? 1,4 ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? 51 ?/?.
???????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????
? ????????? 40?50 ???.
????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????-????????? ??????? ???????? 1:200 000 ? 1:50 000 (?.?. ??????, 1965; ?.?. ????????????, 1972; ?.?. ???????????, 1985).
???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?.?. ????????? (1959), ?.?. ???? (1973), ?.?. ??????? (1976), ?.?. ??????? (1977),
?.?. ???????? (1978), ?.?. ??????? (1980), ?.?. ??????????? (1990), ?.?. ?????????
(1995), ?.?. ???????????? (1971, 1985), ?.?. ???????? (1977), ?.?. ????????? (2006) ? ??.
? ?????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ???????, ?????????????, ?????????, ???????, ???????? ? ??????
??????????????.
? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????- ? ???????? ??????: ???????????????, ?????????????, ???????????????, ????????????? ???????????? ???????
(???).
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????
?? ????????? ???????: ???????? ? ???????????????, ??????????????? (??, ??, ???, ????),
?????-?????????????, ??????????? ????????????? (??????: ?????????????????? (????, ?????,
?????, ?????), ??????????????????, ??????????????????).
????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????:
?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ? ??????????????? ???????????.
????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????, ???
??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????,
???????, ???????, ????, ??????, ?????, ??????, ?????????, ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ??????????.
???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????????????
?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????????????.
????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??
???????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? 3 ?. ???????? ???????????? ????????????
????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???????, ??????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
???????? ??????????? ?????: ??????-???????? (????? ??????), ??????-???????? (?????? ??????) ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? (????? ??????), ??????????????? ?????# 969 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????-??????????
?????.
???????? ????? ?????? (????-???????????? ??) ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????????
??????????????-??????????? (????????????? ?????) ????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????????? (???????????? ????????) (???. 1, ????. 1).
?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????????-??????????? (?????????? ?????), ?????????? (????????????, ??????????, ??????????? ?????), ????????????????????????? ??????????? (????? ???????? ? ???????????, ????????????, ??????????, ????????? ?????), ??????????-??????????? (???????????????, ?????????? ?????) ???????????
???????????????? ???????????. ??? ????????????? ???????????? (?????????? ?????) ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????.
?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????
??????????, ????????????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????. ? ??? ????????
????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??
??????? ????? ???????? ????????-??????????? ?????????.
?? ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????????? (???); ?????? ? ?????????????
(????????-?????), ??????????? ???????????? (????????-??????), ??????????? (??????; ??????????? ?????) ? ??????? ??????????? (????????????, ??????????-????????????, ????????????? ? ??.; ??????, ??????????-???????).
?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????????
????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????
? ??????????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????????, ?????? ???????? ? ???-??????? ??????
????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?. ?????? (??? ??? ????? ??????
????? 5 ??) ?? ?. ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ?????? (?????? ???? ????? ????? 10 ??).
??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?. ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??? ??????? ?????????
??????? ??????????? ?????, ?? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????????
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??????-??????????-??????????? ??????????????-???????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ????????.
????-?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? (?????? ??????????), ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????-?????????????
??????? ????. ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? (?????), ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????.
????????????????? ????????????? ????-??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ? ????-????????????? ?????? ?????.
# 970 #
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??????????? ? ??., Q11-1?)
??????????? (???????
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???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????: ??????????????? (????????????, ????????), ???????????????? (?????????????, ?????????????, ???????, ???????, ????????????).
???????????? ?????? ???? (???) ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????: ?????????????, ??????????????, ????????, ????????, ?????????????. ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????-????????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????, ???? ??????????
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? ???????? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? (?-???) ???????????? ???????? ??????
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?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? (???????????? ???).
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????????? (?????????? ????????) ???????.
????????????. ?????. ?????????? ????? (R1kd). ????? ???????? ????? 50 % ???? ???????
? ?????????? ? ?????? ?. ??????. ??? ????????? ?? ??? ????????.
??????????????? ???????? (R1kd1) ??????? ?? ??????????? ?. ??????, ? ???????? ??. ???.
??????? ? ??????? ? ???. ??????????. ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? «????????» ????????-??????????? ??????, ???? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ?
??????????-????????? ??????. ???????? ???????? 430 ?.
???????????????? ???????? (R1kd 2). ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ? ??????
???. ?????????????? ? ? ????????? ?????????? ?. ??????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?
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650?750 ?.
???????????????? ???????? (R1kd3) ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????
?. ?????? ? ???????????? ????????-???????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????????? ????????????. ???????? ???????? 900?960 ?.
???????????? ????? (R 2qr) ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????, ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ??????????
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# 975 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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????? ? ??????-????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ?????????????? ?? ??? ?????:
?????? (R 2qr1) ? ????????? ? ??????? (R 2qr2) ? ??????????-?????????. ???????? ?????
1150 ?.
?????????? ????? (R 2ud) ?????????????? ?? ??? ????????: ?????? ? ???????.
??????????????? ???????? (R 2ud1). ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????-????? ???????.
?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??? ?????: ?????? (R 2ud 11) ? ?
????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????? (R 2ud 12), ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????. ???????? ???????? 420?500 ?.
???????????????? ???????? (R 2ud 2). ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ???????? ???????? 810?900 ?.
?????????? ???????. ??????????? ????? (N2kr). ????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ???. ???????, ??????? ??????????-?????? ???????????, ???????, ???????, ??????????? ????????????-????????? ? ??????????????, ???????. ????????? ???????????. ???????? ????? 42 ?. ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????.
???????-????????????????? ????????? (N2-QI). ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?????, ???????????-??????? ?
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???????????? ???????. ?????????????????? ????? (QIII). ???????????? ???????? ????????????, ???? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????, ?????? 3, 2,
1 ???????????? ?????? ?. ??????. ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????.
??????????? ????????? (QIV). ??????? ??????????-????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?? ??????? (????? ?
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????????????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? (???????????? ???), ????????? ? ?? ????????? ? ????????????????? ???????. ? ??? ?????? ???????????????? (?????????????) ? ??????????????
???????????-????????? (??????????) ???? ??????????.
???????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?? 40 ?? ??? ?????? ?? 30 ??. ??
???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????
??? ???? ???????? ??????????: ????????????, ????????????, ????????????? (????. 2).
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???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????
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????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????. ??????? ????? ??????? ?????-??????, ??????? ????????????? ???????? (?????????), ?????? ? ????-?????????????? ???????? ? ?????- ? ???????????? ?????? ???????????, ???????????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.
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????????, ??????????, ????????? ? ?????????????, ????????? ?? 20?30 ? ?? 100?200 ? ? ?????. ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ???-????????? (???????? ?????), ??????-????????? (??????????? ?????) ? ????????? (????????? ?????) ??? ?????? 45?85° ? ? ????? ???????? ? ??????????
????????. ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? 1500 ?, ?? ??????? ? ?? 400?650 ?.
???? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????
???????????? ?????????? 200?600 ?, ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????-??????-???????? ???????????.
??? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????????????? ????, ?
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?????????? ??????????????-???????????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????-????????? ??????-??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????????? ???? ?????????????.
??????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????, ????????, ???????????, ???????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????, ??????? ????, ?????????, ?????????.
????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ??????, ????????, ?????, ????.
????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ? ???????????? ?. ?????? ?????
???. ??????????? ? ???????, ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????.
??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????, ???????????????, ?????-??????????? ??????????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????????, ??????????? ? ?????????????????.
?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? 900 ?, ????????????? ?? ??????? ? ??
300 ?.
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????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????.
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15?20 ?/?, ? ??????? ????? 3,5 ?/?.
# 979 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?. ?????? ? ?? ?????? ???????
?. ???. ??????? ? 3?5 ?? ????? ?. ??????????. ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????????
????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ?????-???????????????????? ??????????????, ????????? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ? ?? ?????????????. ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????????. ??? ?????????? ?? 3000 ? ??? ???????? 20?150 ?.
????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?????, ???????????, ???????????,
??????. ?????????? ????????? ????????? 10 %. ?????? ???????????????, ??????? ? ??????????,
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?? 0,3 ?? 22,8 ?/?.
??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???. ????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????? ? ????????-???????? ????????????? ? ????????-??????????-??????????
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???????????? ???????, ?????????????, ???? ?????????????, ??????????, ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????? 0,7?8,4 ?/?, ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? 4 ? ? 3,4 ?/?.
?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???. ?????????? ? ??? ?????? ???????, ? 2,5 ?? ??????-????????? ?. ??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ????????.
???? ????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???????????
?? 2,5 ??.
??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????????? ??????????
? ????? ??????-???????????? ???????????? ??????-?????????? ???????????, ?? ????????
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??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ? ???????
????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? 200?500 ?, ???????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? 100 ? ?????. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?
???????? ?? 0,22 ?? 1,79 ?/?.
? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? 5?10 ??/?.
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?. ???????. ??? ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????. ? ????????
?????????? ? ?????? ??????, ??????????, ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 0,1 ?? 0,4 ?/?. ?????????? ??????? ???????-????????? ?????? ? ???????
? ??????????? ?????? 0,1?0,2 ?/?. ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???????? ??????? ? ??????.
? ?????? ?. ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? 3000 ?. ???
??????????? ?????????? ???? ????????-???????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????
???????? ??????????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? 1,48 ?? ??
1000 ?3 ????? ? ?????????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ????.
# 980 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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?????, ????????, ??????????????? ???????.
???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?. ?????? ? ?????? ?. ??????????.
? 1932 ?? 1936 ??. ????????????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????, ????????????????? ??? ?? 1965 ?. ???? ?????? 56,8 ???. ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? 3,79 %.
???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? (?????????, ???????-????????? ??????, ?????????????????? ??????????), ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????-?????????? ???????????, ?
??????????????? ????????? ????????? ???, ??????? ????????? ??????????.
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? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ???-???????? ???????? ?????. ??????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?????? ?? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????.
???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ? 1, 2 ? 2-??? ????????
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??????-????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????, ? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ?? 0,4 ?? 1,7 ?, ???? ?? ???????? ??????.
???????????? ?????? ???: ?????????, ?????????, ?????, ???????????, ????????, ????????, ???????????, ??????? ????, ?????????? ?????? ? ???????, ????????, ???????, ???????,
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? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? (??????????
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????? ?????? ??? ? 1, 2 ? 2 ??? ???????? ??? 14 ????????? ???, ????? ??????? ???? ????
???? ? 6 ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????.
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?? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ? 1 ? 2 ? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? 3 ? 4, 5 ? 15, 6, 10 ? 11 ???, ??????????????
???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????.
? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????, ????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????
????????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????? (?.?. ??????, 1937), ??? ???? ????????
?????????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ???????, ?????????? ??????????
?????? ?? ?????? 0,1?5,0 ?/?. ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ??????, ??????????
# 981 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ???? «?????» ? «???????????». ????????????? ????????? ????????: ?????, ?????????????????? ??????, ?????????, ?????,
???????????.
?.?. ???????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ? ???? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ????????,
?????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????. ?????? ????? ??
???????? 0,005 ??.
? ????? ??????? ????? (1980?1990 ??.) ???????? ????????? ??? (?.?. ??????, 1980;
?.?. ???????????, 1990) ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????-??????????
? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? (?????????????, ?????????????, ???????, ??????? ? ??.).
???????? ?.?. ??????? (1980) ?? ???-???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? 1 ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ??????????????????? ????????? ? ????? ????????
????????-????????? ??????? ???????? ????. ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????
????????. ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? 342 ?, ??? ???????? ????????? ?? 3
?? 14 ?. ???????? ???????????? ???????, ?????????????, ??????????, ???? ?????????????,
??????????, ?????????, ???????????, ???????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? 0,4?1,8 ?/?, ??? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??
2?3 ?/?. ?? ??????-????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 0,1 ?? 1,0 ?/?.
?????????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?. ????????, ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ???? ? ??????-?????????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????.
??????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?. ???????? (???????? 2,
3, 4, 5, 6) ? ????????????? ?? 0,005 ?? 0,4 ?/?, ?????????????? ?? 200?300 ?? 500?900 ?, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????????????, ????????????? ?
??????????? ?????? ?? 0,1?1,5 ?? 7,3?11,4 ?/?.
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?.?. ??????? (1953), ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ? 1 ? ???-???????? ??????????? ????????
???? ? 9 ?? ?. ???????. ?????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? 320 ?, ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? (0,15?1,5 ?). ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? 0,01?0,044 %.
????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????: ???????? ????????, ????????????, ??????? ??
????????? ??????????????? ???, ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?? 5 ?. ?? ??????? ???? ??????????
??????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????.
????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???, ??? ????????????? (?????, ???????????), ????????? ??? ? ??? ?????????????.
?????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????.
# 982 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???, ? ????? ???????? ???????????????
???????????? ???? ? ????, ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????.
???????? ??????? ???????-??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????-?????????? ????????????? ?????????????, ????? ????????????????, ?? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????, ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ? ???????????
? ?????? ?????????? (??????? ?. ?????? ? ?? ???????? ??. ??????????, ???????, ??????????)
?????????????? ??????????.
??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? 1200 ? ? ???-??????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ? ??????????? ????? ???. ????????? ? ???????????, ??-????????, ? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????
???????????????.
???????????????? ???? ????????????? «???????» ???????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????, ? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ????.
????????????? ???????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????-?????? ?????????? ?????
300 ?, ????????????? ?? ??????? 150?200 ? ? ?????, ???????? ????????? ?? 5?7 ?? 30?60 ?.
?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ?? 1,3 ?? 37 ?/?. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??
5,2 ?? 6,4 ?/?.
??????? ?????? ????????: ????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????, ???????, ????????,
???????????, ???????????, ??????? ????, ?????????, ?????????.
????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????.
????????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?. ??????????,
?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????. ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????: ??????, ???????, ?????????, ??????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? 0,1 ?? 0,3 ?/?, ???? ?? 0,4 ?? 0,8 ?/?. ??????? ????????
??????? ???? ????????? ? ????????????. ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? 0,1?0,2 ?/?.
? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??. ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? (??????, ?????) ??????????? ????????? ????
? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? 15 ?? 130 ? ? ????????? ?? 0,5 ?? 1?2 ?. ??????????? ??? ?????-??????-?????????, ???????? ??????-????????. ?????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????
0,07?0,44 %.
?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? (??????? 10 ?, ??????? ?. ??????????) ? ??? ???????????
????????????? ?????-????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??????? ????????????? ????????????. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? (?????? ??????????? 60є, ??????? ??????-???????? ??? ????? 65?70є).
????? ????? ???????????????, ?????? ????????????, ? ?????????? ???????????, ? ???????
??????????? ??????.
# 983 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
????????????? ???. ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???. ?????????????? ? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
????????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????. ??? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?
????-?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????-????????? ?????????????
?????? ???.
?? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? 300 ?. ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???: ?????, ???????????. ?????????? ????????? 13,5 %. ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? (?? 1,3 %). ?????? ?????????
? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????
??????????? ??????, ???????, ??????. ?????? ????, ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????-??????????????? ??????????? ? ???-????????? ??????? ??? ????? 70?85°. ????????????? ?????? ???
?? ??????????? ?????????? 560?1100 ?, ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? 300?320 ?. ????????
?????? ??? ?????????? ?? 0,7 ?? 50,0 ?, ?????????? ?????? ????????? 64,8 ?/?, ? ??????? ?? 4,4
?? 10,6 ?/?.
????? ????????? ????????? (?2+?1) ??????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? 49 ? ??????.
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????. ?? ?????? ????????????????? ????? (???????????, 1990 ?.), ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????
???? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? (????. 3).
? ????? ??????? ????? [2] ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????
?1+?2+?3 ????????? ??? 396,1 ? (????. 4).
??? ?? ?? ????????? ?? 01.01.2003 ?? ????????????? ??????? ???? ? ????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ?1+?2 ? ?????????? 200 ?, ? ??? ????? 70 ? ?? ????????? ?1 ??
?????????????? ?????????????, ?? ??? ? 6 ? ??? ? 2?100 ? ?? ????????? ?2, ??? ? 5?30 ?
????????? ?2.
?? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? 110 ?, ?????????? ??????? ?? ???. ?1,+ ?2 ? 190 ?.
??????? 3. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? 1990 ?.
???????????? ???????
???????
??????, ?
1. ???????????? ?????? ????
100-300
????????????? ?????????????
100-300
????????? ????????, ?
?1
?2
?1+?2+?3
102,6
61,5
41,1
82,8
61,5
21,3
??????? ??????????????
300
4,2
-
4,2
????????????? ??????????????
300
15,6
-
15,6
200-300
51,3
46,3
5,0
300
-
12,5
5,0
2. ???????????? ?????? ????
2.1. ???????????? ?????????????
2.2. ??????? ?????????????
????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ????
200
33,8
33,8
-
100-300
153,9
107,8
46,1
# 984 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
??????? 4. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? 2000 ?.
???????????? ???????
?????????? ??????? ??????, ?
?1+?2+?3
?1
?2
?3
???????????? ????, ?????
396,1
71,6
124,9
199,6
- ? ??? ?????:
????????????? ?????????????
155,7
64,7
36,0
55,0
- ????????????? ????????????
44,4
6,9
1,9
35,6
- ????????????? ???????
131,0
-
81,0
50,0
?????? ???????
65,0
-
6,0
59,0
??????? 5. ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? (2012 ?.)
?????? ???.
?1+?2, ?
????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????, ?
?1+?2
???????????? ?? (???????? ?????)
???????????? ?? (????? ?????)
?????
?3
201
149 (?????????????, ????????????,
???????)
149
200
200
201
????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??
?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?3 ? 201 ?.
????? ????????? ????????? (??????+???????) ????????????? ??????? ???? ???????????
(?? ????????? ?? 01.01.2012) ? ??????????: ?1+?2 ? 149 ?, ?1+?2 ? 200 ?, ?3 ? 201 ? (????. 5).
????-???????????? ?????? ????
????-???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ? 20 ?? ???-???????? ????????????? ??????? ????.
?????? ???? ????? ??????? 10?15 ?? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????-?????????????? ?????????. ??? ? ???????? ??????????-??????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????,
?????????? ???????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ?
??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????-????????????? ?????????????.
????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????-???????????? ????????? ???????? 12?5 ?? ? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ? ????? ?????. ? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? 40 ?? ????????, ? ???????? ? ????? ?
??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? «??????» (??????-????????? ???), «??????»
(??? ???????????? ??? ????????????), ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????.
???????????? ??????? ???????? ?. ????? ???????? ???????? ? 1878 ?., ????? ????????
?????????? ?? ??. ???????????. ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? 1939 ?. ??????? ?????????
# 985 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????: «.?????????????? ????????? ?????? 400?500 ? ??
???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????. ??????? ????? ???????? ????????
1 ?2. ?????? ???????: ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ????? ????? ? ????????? ???????. ????? ??????????, ??-????????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????. ???????
?????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????, ??????. ????? ??????????, ?????, ???????????.
? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????».
?? ?. ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???? ??
??????? ?? 1000 ?? 100 ??/?? ? ???????? ????. ????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??-?? ?????????????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????? ?. ??????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ????? ?. ?????? ? ???? ???? ????? ?. ?????????. ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????.
? 1977 ? 1985 ??. ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ???????,
??????????? ????? ?? ???????. ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ? 7 ??
??????? 30 ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? 166 ??/?3(?????????, 1977), ? ???????? ? 9 ???????? 42 ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? 19 ? (???????????, 1985).
? ???????? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????-????????? ??????????????, ???? ????????? ??? ? ?? ????????, ???????????????? ????????? ?????, ?
??????? ??????????? ??????, ??????, ?????? (?? 0,2 %), ?????????? ???????? ??????, ????,
???????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????, ?????????????, ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????.
?? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? 2001 ?. ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? 1:50 000 ???????????, ??? ????-???????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????????
? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??? ?????????-?????????. ???????? 14
???????, ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????-???????????? ?????????, ????????
???????????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? «???????????» ??????? ???????? ??????, ????????
??? ??????? ????????-??????????? ???????????. ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????
????????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????-????????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ????????, ?
??????? ???. ????????, ????? ??????-????????-???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????????
????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ????, ??????? ??????????
?? ??????????? ?? 1900 ? ? ?? ??????? ?? 200 ?. ???????? ???? 400?600 ?. ??????? ?? ?????,
??????-?????? (3500-200), ???? ??????? 40?650. ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????-?????????? ??????????? ????-????????????
?????????.
???? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? 9,0
? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????? 0,2?0,5 ?. ????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?
?????????? ?? 14 %, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????, ?????????, ????????????, ????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????. ????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????
# 986 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ? ??????? ? ? ??????? ? ????? ????????????, ? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????. ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? 7,7 %,
?????? ? 8,2 ?/? (???. 110, ??. 61,5 ?). ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????
????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ????? (???????? ? 9 ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????), ?????, ????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? 21 ????? ?? 1
???????? ???? ?????.
?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? 0,1 ?? 8,2 ?/?. ??? ??????????????? ? ???????????
???????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? 40?50 ?, ???????????? ?? ??????? ?? 70 ? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ????? 200 ?. ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????. ?
???????? ???????????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? (????. 6).
????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ???????-???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????????
? ?????????? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????. ????? ? ???????? ???? ????????
??????????? ???, ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ?
???????????????? ??? ????????????? ????.
?? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? (2003 ?.) ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?2 ? ?????????? 20 ? (?????? ???? ????????).
??????????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ???? ????? ????????????
????????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ????-????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??
??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????
??????? ??????????????????-????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? (???????????? ?????? ????, ?????????????????? ?????? ????), ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ?? ???????? ??? ????????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????-????????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?
???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????
?????? ? ???????? ????? ?-46-57-?.
????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? 10 170 ????,
???? ??????????? 500?50 ?. ??????? ???????? ???????? 100 ?.
????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ?3
?????????? 125 ?.
# 987 #
????????????????
????????
?????????? ????
??????????-????????????? ??????????????
????????? ????, ??????-???????????
????.
??????, ???????????, ?????????, ?????????,
????????, ?????, ???????????.
????????? ?????? ??????, ???????,
?????????, ???????
???????????? ???? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????-??????????????????
??????????? ? ??????-?????????? ?????.
(???????????? ???)
???????????????? ??????, ???????, ????????.
(???????????? ???) ????????? ?????? ??????, ???????
???????????????
??? ????????
??????????
Sb-7,7 %
??????????????
??? ?????? ????
(?????????,
??????????)
?.?.
3-6
?? 8,2
???????
??????????
Au, ?/?
1
??????????
?????? ??? (???)
??????? 6. ?????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????-????????????? ??????? ????
?????? ?????
?????? ???? ?
400-600
?????/????????????
??????????????
??????????????
?????? ???? ?
1900/200
?????????????
????????
?????? ??? ??
??????
???????????/??
???????????, ?
???????, ?
40-50
200 /70
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
??????? 7. ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????
???????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ??????? ?????? (??????, 2012 ?.)
????????????? ???????
???????????? ??
?1+?2
?3
149
200
201
20,0 (????????, ?2)
125
220
326
????-???????????? ??
?????
?????????? ???????, ?
?????? ???.
?1+?2, ?
149
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?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?. // ?????? ??????. 1844 ?. IV. ? II.
[2] ????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ?????????????? ????????? ??????????-????????? ????????? ????????????? ????. ??????????: ????????, 2000. ?. 192-203.
[3] ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ??????????-???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ??????????: ??? «????????????????????», 2007. ?. 10-26.
[4] ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?? ????????????? ?????????;
???. ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ??????????. ??????????: ????????, 2004. 235 ?.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ??????????-???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ??????????: ??? «????????????????????», 2010. ?. 63-82.
[6] ?????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. // ??????????: ???, 2010. 584 ?.
Geology and Prospects Zolotonosnosti
South-Yenisei Mining District
Sergey S. Serdyuk and Valentina A. Kirilenko
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Analysis of geology and zolotonosnosti South-Yenisei mining district.The gold mineralization, typing
an ordering criteria and indications of its localization. Estimated probable reserves of gold, identified
promising areas and the priority areas for prospecting.
Keywords: zolotonosnost?, gold ore, types and criteria of the gold mineralization, litohimi?eskie halos,
geophysical anomalies, possible reserves, promising areas, South-Yenisei.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 8 (2013 6) 995-1002
~~~
??? 553.04
??????? ? ????????????????? ????
??????? ??????????
? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
?.?. ????????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
Received 16.08.2013, received in revised form 24.09.2013, accepted 30.10.2013
????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
????????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ??????, ????????? ???????, ??????,
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??????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????
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98 ??? ?. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????? (????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ?????????). ???????
? ????????????????? ???? ???????? ????? 8 % ???????? ??????, ??????, ???????, ?????????????? ????????.
???????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????
???????? ???????????? ???????? (?? «?????????» ?????????), ?? ? ??????????? ???????????
?????????????????? ????? ? ??????????, ????? ????????, ????? ??????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ?.?. ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????.
??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????
??????????. ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????
????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: tolkien1988@mail.ru
# 995 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
???????? ?????
????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???-???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ????????? ??
??????? ???? ?? ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? 1915 ?. ??????????? ?.?. ????????? ?? ?. ??????? (?????????? ????). ? 1934 ?. ?.?. ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???????
????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????.
? 1950-60-? ??. ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????, ??? ? ? ???-???????? ????? ????????? ?????????. ? ??????????
??????????-???????? ???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ???????? ? ????????? ???
?????? ?????????????: ??????????, ????????? ? ????????????. ??????????? ?????? ????????
(??????????) ?????????? 98 ??? ?. ????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???, ???????
???????? ?????? ???? ????????, ????????? 500 ??? ?.
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????, ?? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????.
???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?. ???????. ?????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ?????????????: ???????????, ????????? ?
????. ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????????????, ?? ?????????????? ?????????????
????????.
???????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????,
?????????? ? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?????????
???????????? ? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ? ??????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????????
???????? ?????? ?????, ????? ? ???????. ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????,
???????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????.
????????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ????. ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ????.
?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????????
(?????????) ???????, ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????. ? ??????? ?????
?????????? ??? ?????????. ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????. ??????? ??? ????
???????? ??????-?????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????
(?? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???? «??????????» ?? ??????). ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?????
?????????????? ? ????? ?????? ???, ????????? ?? 33 ?, ????????????? ????? ????.
??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????????. ????????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????.
# 996 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
????? ?? ????????????? ???????? 29 ?????? ???. ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????
10,3 ?, ??????? ???????? ??????? ? 11,9 ?, ??????????? ??????? ? 1,15. ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????: ?? 403 ???????, ?????????? ? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????? 11. ??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ???? ??????
????? ?? 29.
?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????.
??????? ?????????? (%): Al2O3 ? 35,84, Fe2O3 ? 29,37, SiO2 ? 6,64, TiO2 ? 8,41, P2O5 ? 0,702. ??????????? ?????? ????????: ???????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ???????, ????????, ??????, ????????,
?????, ???? ????????, ?????????, ??????, ?????. ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ????????.
????????? ?????? ???? ? ?????????? (????????) ????? ? ??????? ??????????, ?????????, ?????????, ???????, ? ???????? ?????????, ????????, ???????? ????? ??????????, ?????????, ??????, ?????????, ?????. ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?
???????? ?????????, ?????? ? ??????. ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????
????? ????????????? ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ????????, ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????.
????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?
?????. ?? ????????????? ???????? 35 ??????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????????
???????. ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? 63 ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????
10,6 ?. ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????. ???????
?????????? Al2O3 ? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? (%): 39,51, SiO2 ? 10,20, Fe2O3 ? 26,45,
TiO2 ? 4,46. ?? ????????????? ???? ???????? 25 ??????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?
????????????. ?????? ??????? ?? 1-4 ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? 15,8 ?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? (%): Al2O3 ? 37,85, SiO2 ? 9,81, Fe2O3 ? 28,74, TiO2 ?
4,38, ?.?.?. 18,70.
?? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???? ??????
? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????.
?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
28 % ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? 2,1. ?????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????? ?, ?1 ?
?2. ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? 47,9 ??? ?. ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? 84,9 % ?????????? ???????, ? ????????????? ????????? ? 10,4 %,
???? ? 4,7 %. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????
(%): Al2O3 ? 36,36, SiO2 ? 7,10, Fe2O3 ? 28,90, TiO2 ? 7,88, ?.?.?. 18,48. ????????? ?????? ????????
? ??????? 5,1. ??????? ????????? ? ????? ?-8.
?????????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????. ?? ??????
??????? 222 ????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????: V2O5 ? 0,14 %, Ga ? 73,2 ?/?, Ge ?
8,5 ?/?, Nb2O5 ? 0,108 %, Sc ? 0,0076 %, Ta2O5 ? 0,0018 %. ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????
??????, ????? ? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? 0,365 % ?????? ??????.
??????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????. ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????, ? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????# 997 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
???????? ?????????, ???????????????? ?? ??????? ??????. ?????? ?????????? ? ???????
????????????? ???? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? 82:18.
??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (1978 ?.) ?????????? ?? ???????????? 400 ???. ? ????????? ? ??? (? ??? ????? 320 ???. ? ? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????), ? ????????
??????? ????????????? 8,5 ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? 100 ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????
???. ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????
?????????????, ?? ???????? ? ? ?????? ??????????? ???, ?? ???????? ? ????? ?? ??? ??
?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ? ????????????? ???????? 70-? ??. ???????? ???? ?????
???????????? ???? ?? ??????????????????. ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???
??????????????? ???????? ?? 5,6 ????, ??????? ?????????????? 18 %.
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????,
? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????. ?? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????.
?????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????. ?????????? ????, ?? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ??????????
?????? ?????. ????? ?? «???????» ???????? 8-10 ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????????-???????????????
?????, ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????????????? ?????. ?????????? ????????
??????????? ? 100 ?? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??? ? ? 150 ?? ? ???-?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????? 200 ?? ?? ???????????? ? ????????????
????????????? ????????????? ???????. ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
?????? ?? ????-??????? ? 300 ??.
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????-???????? ????, ????????????? «??????????» ????????? ???? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????.
???????, ??? ????????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ????????
?????? [3]. ? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????
8,41 %. ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????
?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????. ??
????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? TiO2 ??? ????: ??? ????????? 12-16 %. ?
?????????, ? ??????????? ????????????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? 11 %.
? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????????. ???????????
? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????. ? 1996 ?. ? ?????? ????
??????? 76,5 ???. ? ????????? ??? ? ????????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????
?? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????, ?????? ????? ? ??????-?????????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????-????????? ????????, ?? ?
????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??? ????? ? ??????????? [7].
# 998 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ??????????-???????? ???? ?? ?? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????????
??????-????????????????? ? ??????-???????????? ????? (?????????, 1999). ? ???? ???????
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????
?????? ????????????? ??????. ??? ?????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
?????? ? ?????????? ??????? (?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????) ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????.
?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????
????? ???? ????????????? ?????????. ??? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? 320 ???. ? ????????? ? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? 81,2 ???. ? ???????? ??????. ???
???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????. ?
?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????????????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???? ???.
???? «????????????» ??? ? 1964 ?. ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ??
???????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ????? 700 ? (??????? ? ??., 1964 ?.). ?????????? Al 2O3 ? ?????
?????????? 41,01 %, TiO2 ? 7,70 %, Fe2O3 ? 15,95 %. ????? ???????? ? ????? ???????????? ?
???????? ????????? (91,8 %), ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? (97,0 %), ?????? ? ??? ????????????? (96,7 %). ????????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ????????? (40 % ? ??????
?0,010 ??).
?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ?????? ? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????.
?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ???????. ? ????? ???? ????????: 1) ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? 53,7 % ? ??????????? 90,1 %;
2) ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????? 97,91 % ? ??????????? 79,8 %; 3) ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? 90 % ???????
????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ??????? ??????????????. ??, ? ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????
??????????? ????????.
??????????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???.
???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????, ????????, ?????? ?
?????? (??????? ? ??., 1964 ?.). ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????. ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??-?? ??????????
????????????.
? 1964-1968 ??. ?? ???????????? ?????? «????????????» ? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? [6]. ????
??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????.
# 999 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
?????? ????????? ??? ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ?? ????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????
??????????? ?????? «?????????????».
??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????. ? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????:
??????, ?????????? ?????, ?????????. ?? ???????? ????????????????? ???? ??????????
????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????????????????? ???????? [4; 5]. ??? ????????? ?? ????????????????? ?????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ? 2,9 ????, ? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????: ?????? 29 ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ????????????????? ???, ?
??????????? ??????? ????????? ? 1,15 ?? 0,2 [8; 9].
? 1989-1990 ??. ????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??? «??????????????????» ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????????????? ???????? (???????? ? ??., 1990 ?.). ? ?????? ????????????????? ??? ????
???????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????? 1,0. ?????? ?????????????????? ?????
????????????? ????????? 106,4 ??? ? (?????? 40,7 ??? ? ????????; ?????????? ? 2,5 ????).
??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? (%): Al2O3 ? 29,14, SiO2 ? 11,70, Fe2O3 ? 32,68, TiO2 ?
8,66, ?.?.?. 15,45; ????????? ?????? 2,5. ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? 9,48 ??
18,8 ??? ? (? 2 ????).
? ?????????? ?????? 28 ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (120 ??) ?
??????? ???? ? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ?????, ? ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???? ????????: 1) ?????????????? ? ???????????, ?????? ??????, 16,7-19,2 % ???????, 1,1-2,1 % ????????, 3,6-5,8 % ??????, 0,3-0,6 %
??????? ? 2,1-2,6 % ???????? (??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????); 2)
??????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????? ? 49,3-53,3 %, ????? ??????? ? 37,3-39,5 %.
???????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? CaO.Al2O3, ???????
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? 85-97 %.
??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????.
????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? Al2O3 ? 3,6-6,4 %, CaO ?
40,0-42,5 %, SiO2 ? 3,0-5,1 %, Fe2O3 ? 0,23-0,31 %, ??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??? ??????????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????.
???????????? ??????????? ??????????. ????????????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? 1 ? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?? 20-30 % ???? ????????????????.
????? ????, ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????- ? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????.
?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ???# 1000 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
??: ????????? ? ????????????. ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????,
?????????????? ? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 28,1 ??? ?. ??????? ??
???????? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????, ???????????, ??????-?????????, ???????? ? ????????????.
??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????????
16 ??? ?.
??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????????. ??????????????? ???????????? ? ???? ??????????? ?? ???????????, ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????
??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????. ? 1947 ?. ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 3,2 ?/?. ????????????? ????? ?? ????????
????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? «??????»
?? 0,4-0,8 ?/? (???????, 1953 ?.). ? 1991 ?. ?. ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ? 1997 ?. ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??????? [2]. ? ??????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
?????? ?? 2,5 ?/?. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?
???? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????.
???????? ??? ????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ?
????????????? ??????????-???????? ?????, ?????????? ????????????? ????, ????? ? ????,
??????, ???????, ???????????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ????????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????
???????? ??????. ????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????,
??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????-???? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????.
??????
????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????, ????????? ???????, ??????, ?????? ??? ??????????
???????????, ?????????? ?????.
???????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????
??? ? ??????-?????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????.
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????
????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???. ????? ???????? ?????????????
???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? [1].
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????. ??????? ? ????????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ???????? ? ?????? ????. 2010.
? 9. ?. 9-15.
[2] ?????? ?.?. // ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ??????????, 1998.
?. 100-103.
[3] ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????; ???.
?.?. ?????????. ?.: ?????, 1978. 608 ?.
[4] ?????? ?.?. // ????. 1984. ?. 132-139.
[5] ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ??????????-????????
???? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ????????????????? ??? / ???????
? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????????????. ?.: ?????. 1988. ?. 47-51.
[6] ????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ???? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ?????. ??????? ???????????. 1968.
[7] ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????? ? ??????????? ????????
??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? / ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????
????. ??????????: ????????, 1998.
[8] ???????? ?.?. ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????? / ?????????? ????? ??????. ???????????: ?????, 1990.
[9] ???????? ?.?. ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????. ??????????: ???-?? ????????, 2000. 203 ?.
Bauxite and Iron-Aluminum Ore
of the Low Angara Region
and their Complex Development Problems
Boris V. Shibistov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Bauxite-bearing rocks of the Low Angara Region are complex iron-aluminum ore presented itself as a
raw materials for production of alumina, gallium, vanadium, iron, cement, rare-earth elements. Into
the complex reworking the Chuktucoh niobium ? rare-earth ore deposit must be included. Complex
reworking of mineral resources must be based on the reasonable use of the energetic potential of the
Boguchana PES.
Keywords: Low Angara Region, bauxite, iron-aluminum ore, complex reworking, alumina, gallium,
niobium, iron, cement, energetic resource, Boguchana PES.
?????
????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ????, ??????? ??????????
?? ??????????? ?? 1900 ? ? ?? ??????? ?? 200 ?. ???????? ???? 400?600 ?. ??????? ?? ?????,
??????-?????? (3500-200), ???? ??????? 40?650. ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????-?????????? ??????????? ????-????????????
?????????.
???? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? 9,0
? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????? 0,2?0,5 ?. ????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?
?????????? ?? 14 %, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????, ?????????, ????????????, ????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????. ????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????
# 986 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????????. ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????-??????????? ????????
??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ? ??????? ? ? ??????? ? ????? ????????????, ? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????. ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? 7,7 %,
?????? ? 8,2 ?/? (???. 110, ??. 61,5 ?). ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????
????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ????? (???????? ? 9 ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????), ?????, ????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? 21 ????? ?? 1
???????? ???? ?????.
?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? 0,1 ?? 8,2 ?/?. ??? ??????????????? ? ???????????
???????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????? 40?50 ?, ???????????? ?? ??????? ?? 70 ? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ????? 200 ?. ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??????????. ?
???????? ???????????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????? ??? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? (????. 6).
????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ???????-???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????????
? ?????????? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????. ????? ? ???????? ???? ????????
??????????? ???, ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ?
???????????????? ??? ????????????? ????.
?? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? (2003 ?.) ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?2 ? ?????????? 20 ? (?????? ???? ????????).
??????????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ???? ????? ????????????
????????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ????-????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??
??????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????
??????? ??????????????????-????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? (???????????? ?????? ????, ?????????????????? ?????? ????), ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ?? ???????? ??? ????????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ?? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????-????????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?
???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????????.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ????-????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????????
?????? ? ???????? ????? ?-46-57-?.
????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????? 10 170 ????,
???? ??????????? 500?50 ?. ??????? ???????? ???????? 100 ?.
????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ?3
?????????? 125 ?.
# 987 #
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??????? 7. ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????
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