close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

200.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №5 2012

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2012
Journal of Siberian Federal University
5 (5)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
???????????? ?????
???????? ??? ?.?.???????
???????? ??? ?.?.?????????
???????? ??? ?.?.???????????
???????? ??? ?.?.???????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?.???????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ????. ????
?.?.??????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?.????????
????-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ????
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Д.А. Дектерев, А.А. Дектерев, С.И. Шторк
}*?C?!,???2=???%? , ?,?????%? ,?????%"=?,? C!?????,!3????%
",.!?"%?% ?!= " 3??%", . ?,???%L ?=*!32*, C%2%*=
? 487 ?
А.А. Романов, К.А. Рубанов
}--?*2,"?%?2?
??C=!=??2!,???*,.
*?=??,-,*=2%!%"
" 3??%", . ?,?,2,!%"=??%L %K3?=???L "/K%!*,
? 495 ?
Aleksej V. Bobrov, Vladimir I. Kirko,
Vladimir A. Tremiasov and Aleksandr V. Cherepanov
An Assessment of the Modern Wind-Power Engineering
Possibilities on Territory of the Taimyr, Dolgano-Nenets and
Evenk Autonomous Districts of the Krasnoyarsk Kray
? 507 ?
В.И. Мурко, В.И. Федяев,
В.И. Карпенок, Д.А. Дзюба
p??3??2=2/ ,?????%"=?, "!???/. "/K!%?%" C!, ??,?=?,,
?3?C???,%??%?% 3?%???%?% 2%C?,"=
? 512 ?
Г.Л. Пашков, С.В. Сайкова, В.И. Кузьмин,
М.В. Пантелеева, А.Н. Кокорина, Е.В. Линок
g%?/ C!,!%??/. 3???L $ ??2!=?,?,%??/L ?/!??"%L ,?2%??,*
!??*,. .?????2%"
? 520 ?
Ю.И. Сторожев, В.В. Леонов, А.К. Абкарян
q%*!=???,? "/K!%?%" o`r , ?=?,2= =?%??/. ?2/!?L %2
*%!!%?,, C!, -%!?,!%"=?,, "2%!,??%?% ?=?%%K?,?=????%?
=?%?=
? 531 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ???????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 20.09.2012 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 10,8.
??.-???. ?. 10,3. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 10650.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041 ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
Yury D. Alashkevich
Viktor G. Anopchenko
S. T. Batmunkh
Yury B. Galerkin
Gennadiy I. Gritsko
Georg Guggenberger
Carsten Drebenstedt
Lev V. Endjievsky
Sergey V. Kaverzin
Feng-Chen Li
Vladimir ?. Makarov
Alexander V. Mineev
Vladimir V. Moskvichev
Bernard Nacke
Oleksandr F. Nemchin
Valeriy A. Nikulin
Oleg Ostrovski
Harald A. Oye
Vasiliy I. Panteleev
Sergey P. Pan?ko
Peter V. Polyakov
Anatoli M. Sazonov
Viktor N. Timofeev
Ibragim Khisameev
Anatoly Z. Shvidenko
Galina A. Chiganova
Т.В. Пискажова, П.В. Поляков,
Н.А. Шарыпов, А.В. Красовицкий, С.А. Сорокин
`?=?,? !=?.%?= =?%??%L ?=??/ , .??*2!%.??!?,, ??
.??*2!%?,??!%" m=?"%,?*%?% =???,?,?"%?% ?="%?= ??2%?=?,
??%?%??!?%L ?2=2,?2,???*%L %K!=K%2*,
? 538 ?
Vera I. Bragina,
Natalyi I. Konnova and Lybov P. Pehova
Search for the New Form of Raw Material for the Alyumineevoy
Industry of Siberiaode
? 554 ?
Khamza R. Kazdaev,
Riza B. Abylkalykova, Ludmila I. Kveglis
Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in
Molybdenum at Ion Implantation
? 560 ?
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova
About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External
Rotational Magnetic Field
? 568 ?
С.В. Сайкова, Г.Л. Пашков,
М.В. Пантелеева, Е.В. Линок, И.В. Королькова
o%?3???,? *%K=??2?%??!?=?,. (??2=??,???*,., %*?,??/.)
?=?%?=?2,? ??2%?%? ?%??"%2?!?%?,?=
? 579 ?
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
????? ???????? ? «???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????, ? ??????? ??????
???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?
????????? ????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
Vladimir P. Isakov,
Anatoli N. Burenin and Marija V. Khudina
On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
? 585 ?
Р.А. Мейстер, А.Р. Мейстер
n?%K???%?2, ?"=!*, ?=?%=?C?!?%L ?3?%L ?2=??=!2?/?,
"%??-!=?%"/?, .??*2!%?=?,
? 592 ?
А.С. Каверзина, А.А. Мохаммад
o!%?*2,!%"=?,? "?=?/"=??,. 2!3K%C!%"%?%" ?,?!%?,?2??
?%K,???/. ?=?,?
? 601 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 487-494
~~~
??? 532.528
????????????????? ? ?????????
???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????
? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????
?.?. ????????*,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????
???????? ??????????? ??. ?.?. ??????????? ?? ???
?????? 630090, ???????????, ??. ???????????, 1 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
?????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????
???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????????
????????? ????. ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????
????????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????
PIV-???????. ????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????
DES, ????????????? ? ???????????? CFD-?????? Star-CCM+.
???????? ?????: ????????? ????????? ????, ??????????? ??????.
????????
? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? [1]. ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????
??? [2], ? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????????? ? ??. [3]. ???????,
??????????, ???????? ??????????? ? ?? ???? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????
??????? ?????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????????, ????????, ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???????????. ? ????????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???? (???). ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????, ?????????????, ? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ???, ????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ????????????
????????? ?????????????, ??? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???. ??????????? ??? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????? [4], ?????????? ???? ?????
???????? ??????? ???????? ? ???. ????? ????, ???? ???????????, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??
????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? [5]. ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?,
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: dekterev_da@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 487 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
??????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????. ?? ????
??????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??-???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????
?????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????
? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? S ??????? 1-1.5 [6, 7]. ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????????
????????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??????
??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? S=2.4.
????????????????? ????????? ? ?????? CFD
?????? ??????????? ?? ????????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? (???. 1?), ????????? ?? ???? ???????? 500 ? (1), ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?100-80-160?153 ??????????? ??????????????????? 100 ?3/? ? ??????? 3,2 ???
? ?????????? 22 ??? (2), ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? E2-8300-030H 22 ??? 380? (3),
???????? ????? (4), ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? (??80, ??100) (5), ??????????????
???? ? ???????????????? ???????? ??????-22 (6), ???????? ??????? (?????????????? ???????? ??????) (7) ? ??????? ????????? ???? (8).
????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???. 1?. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
???????? ??????: 1 ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???? ? ????? ???????? ??????????, 2 ?
?????, 3 ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? 4 ? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ?????-
(?)
(?)
???. 1. ????? ????????? (?) ? ???????? ?????? (?)
# 488 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
???. 2. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????, 1 ??? ?????
??? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????. ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????.
????????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ?c???????????? CFD-?????? STAR-CCM+.
????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 2) ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ? ????? ???????????
????? ?????? 1 ???, ? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????????? ?????.
? ?????? ????????? ? ??. [8] ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? (DES) ???
??????? URANS (?????????????? ????????? ?????-??????, ??????????? ?? ??????????). ? ??
?? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????????
?????? ?????????????, ????? ??? DNS (?????? ????????? ?????????????) ? LES (????????????? ??????? ??????), ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? RANS/LES ??????, ?
?????? DES-?????. ?? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????????
?????????????? ??????, ? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ? ????????. ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? k-e-??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????
DES-??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? SST Menter?s k-omega. ??? ???? ??? ?????????????
??????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????.
???????????? ??????
??? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????: 3 ?? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? KLM-532/h-3000, ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????
????? ???????????????? ? ?????? ???????? ???, ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????,
? ????? ???????? ?????????? CANON EOS 20D. ??? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????????
??????, ???????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????, ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?? ????
???????? ????????, ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????.
?? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????
????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????. ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????????
?????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????. ????? ????????,
??? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?????
???????????? ????-, ???????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ?????????
?????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ???, ?? ??? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? lambda-2 [9] ? ????????. ???????? ??????? ???????
# 489 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
(?)
(?)
???. 3. ?????????? ??????? ??????? (? ? ???????????, ? ? ??????)
? ?????????????, ????????????, ??? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???????
?? ?????????????? ???. ?? ???. 3 ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????
?????? ???????. ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????
????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????? lambda-2.
??????????? ????????? ????????????? ???
??? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????. ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????
??????? ???????? 014-??, ????????????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????.
??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????????, ??? ????????? ????????
?????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????????.
?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????-?????????????? ????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ?? ???. 4 ???????????? ????????????? ????????????????? (exp) ? ????????? (calc) ?????? ? ????????? (??????? ?? ???????) ? ????????????
(???????? ?? ??????????) ?????????. ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????
???????????.
?? ??????? ???. 4(?) ?????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ? ?????? ???. 4(?) ????????? ?? ??, ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???
???. 4. ????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? (?) ? ???????????? (?) ????
# 490 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
????????? ? ??????? ???????????????. ???????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ???????????, ??????????
??? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? S=1 [6].
???? ???????? ? ?????????????
????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? PIV
(Particle Image Velocimetry) ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ? ????????? ??????? ??????. ? ?????? ?????????????? PIV-??????? ?????,
?????????? ? ????: ??????? ?????????? Nd:YAG ????? POLIS v3.3 ? ?????????? ????????,
??????????? ???????? ???, ??? ??????????????????? ?????? 1MPix POLIS v1.0 ?? ???? ?????? «?????????-205-2001», ???????????????? ????????? POLIS, ? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????. ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????.
? ???????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? Dantec Dynamics
????????? 20 ???. ???? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?
?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ActualFlow.
?????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????, ??????? 12 ?3/? (Re=81700),
??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? 20 ?? ???? ??? ??????. ?? ???. 5 ???????? ??????, ??????????
PIV ???????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? (?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ????).
?? ???. 6 ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? PIV. ???????????, ???
????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????, ?? ? ??????????? ????????? ???? ? ????? ????. ??????
????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???? ???????
? ???????? ?????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????: ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ?? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????????
????? ?????; ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?? ???? ?????. ???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????????
(?)
(?)
???. 5. ??????? ??????? (?) ? ??????????????? ???? ????????????? (?)
# 491 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
(?)
(?)
???. 6. ????????????? ????????? (?) ? ????????????????? (?) ?????????-?????????????? ?????????
????????
???. 7. ????????????? ???????? x-, y- ? z-????????? ????????
????????????? ??? S=1 [6]. ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????: ???????????
1 ?/?, ? ???????????? 10 ?/?.
?? ???. 7 ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? x, y ? z-????????? ???????? ?????
?????, ???????????? ????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????? (???????? ????? ??
???. 6).
# 492 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
??????????
???? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????. ? ??????? ?? ????????????????? ?????, ????????????? ? ??????????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?
???????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????. ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? PIV-???????. ??? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????
DES ????????? ? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????
?????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ??
?????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????
?????????????? ???????? ???????? [10, 11].
?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? «??????? ? ??????-?????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?? 2009 ? 2013
????» ? ??? «???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? 2007-2012 ????», ???? (?????? ?? 11-08-01063, 1008-01096, 10-08-01093), ?????? ????????????? ?????? ? 11.G34.31.0046 ??? ???????????????
????????? ??????? ????????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? (??????? ?????? ? ?. ????????, ???).
?????? ??????????
[1] ????? ?., ???? ?., ?????? ?. ??????????? ??????. ?.: ???, 1987. 590 ?.
[2] Muntean S., Susan-Resiga R.F., Bosioc A.I. Proc. 3th IAHR International Meeting of the
Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinary and Systems, October 1416, 2009, Brno, Czech Republic.
[3] Okulov V.L., Sorensen J.N. // J. Fluid Mech. 2010. Vol. 649, pp. 497-508.
[4] Syred N. // Prog. Energy Combust. Sc. 2006. Vol. 32 (2), pp. 93?161.
[5] Derksen J.J. // AIChEJ., 2003. Vol. 49. No. 6, pp. 1359?1371.
[6] C.E. Cala, E.C. Fernandes, M.V. Heitor and S.I. Shtork // Exp. Fluids. 2006. Vol. 40, pp. 267276,
[7] Shtork S.I., Vieira N.F., Fernandes E.C. // Fuel. 2008. Vol. 87 (10-11), pp. 2314-2321
[8] ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. // ??????????? ? ????????????. 2011. ?1.
?. 81-93
[9] Jeong J., Hussain F. // J. Fluid Mech. 1995. 285: pp. 69-94/
[10] Alekseenko S.V., Kuibin P.A., Okulov V.L., Shtork S.I. // J. Fluid Mech. 1999. Vol. 382. pp. 195243.
[11] ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?, ?????? ?.?. ???????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ??????. ???????????: ?????, 2003. ?. 420-424.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????
An Experimental and a Numerical Study
of Precessing Vortex Core
in the High Swirl Number Flow Conditions
Dmitry A. Dekterev,
Alexander A. Dekterev and Sergey I. Shtork,
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, SB RAS
1 Lavrentieva, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
The paper is devoted to a numerical and an experimental study of non-stationary modes of the swirled
flow in the modeling vortex chamber with precessing vortex core (PVC) formation. The experimental
research of flow pulsationcharacteristics were spent with use of hydroacoustic sensors, high-speed
visualization and contactless PIV systems. Numerical simulations were spent with use of hybrid
turbulentDES (Detached Eddy Simulation) model realized in the commercial CFD packet StarCCM+.
Keywords: Swirled flows, precessing vortex core.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 495-506
~~~
??? 528.8:004.4
????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????
? ???????? ??????????????
????????? ???????
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????
???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????
????????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????
? ?????????????? ????????? ???????. ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????
???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ???????????? ??????
??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? (89,9 ?????? 86,2 %
?????? ??????? ????????), ?? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????
????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ????????????, ????????????? ???????, ???????????
?????????????, ????????? ????, ????? ??????? ????????.
????????
???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????? (???) ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????
??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????. ???????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????? ????????? ???????????????
????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ? ????????, ??????? ???
???????????????? ?????????, ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????. ???????????
?????? ???????????? ??? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ? ???????, ?????? ? ?????? ????????, ????????? ????????: ?????? ???????, ??????????,
????????????? ? ? ??????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???? ???????.
?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: arom_work@yahoo.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 495 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
???, ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ????
????????????. ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????,
??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????.
? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????. ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? (Maximum likelihood classifier,
MLC) ? ??????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?
????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? MLC ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????, ???? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????.
????????????? ????????? ???? (Artificial Neural Networks, ANN) ? ?????????????????
??????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
??????? ????????????? ???????. ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? (??) ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? 1990-? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????????????, ??? ???????, ?? ???????
?????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ??????????
????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?
?????? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??. ????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????
?????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????, ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????, ???
???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????.
????? ??????? ???????? (Support Vector Machine, SVM) ? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????. ?????????? ????????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?.?. ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????????
? ?????????????? ??????? [1]. ???????????? ?? ?????????? SVM ??? ????????? ?????? ???
????????, ??? ??????????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????
????????????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????? (Decision tree, DT),
???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????? [2,
3]. ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ? ?? ?????????? ????????, ???
?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????.
????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????????
????????? ???????.
??????
????????????? ????????? ????
???? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????, ????????? ??
???? ?????: ???????? (????????), ???????? ? ?????????, ? ??????????? ?? ???. 1.
# 496 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
???. 1. ??????????? ????????? ????
???. 2. ???? ????????? ????
???? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????
(????????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????) ? ???????? (?????????????? ???????) ???????, ? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? (????????), ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (???. 2).
? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????
???????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
? ?????? j-? ???? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????
pi, ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? hj:
c?????? ????:
?
,
(1)
??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ???? k, ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ok:
???????? ????:
?
.
(2)
? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? pi ??????????? ????????, ???????????? ??
???????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ????? ok ????????????? ?????, ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????. ???????? wji ? wkj ? ???????
# 497 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
????????????, ?????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????. ? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? f(S) ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????
,
(3)
?????????????? ?? ???. 3. ??????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????. ? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????
? ??????????? ????????????, ??????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????
?????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??, ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?
??????????? ????????? ?????????, ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????????
???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? [4].
???? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????? [5], ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ? ????????????
??????????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????. ???? ???????????,
??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????
??????.
?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????????
???? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????
???????? [6-10]. ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????
?????????????, ??? ????????? ???? [11].
?????? [12] ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????. ????? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ????????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????. ????????, ??????????? ????????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ????????
??, ?? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????????. ?????? ????????? ????????
????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????,
???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????.
?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? LANDSAT [9, 13], ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????
IKONOS [14]. ????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????
???. 3. ??????? ?????????
# 498 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
????????????????? ?????? ??? [15]. ? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????
?????? ???????????? AISA (?????? ??????? 1000 ?, 20 ???????????? ??????? ???????????
1 ?) ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????: ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? MLC ? 85,56 %
? ?? ? 83,61 %, ?????? ?????????????????? ? ? ?????? ????????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ? 48,83 ? 50,67 % ??????????????. ??????? ????????, ?????????? MLC, ??????????? ???,
??? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????
??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????????????? ?????????. ????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ??? ???????, ????? ???????
??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????.
????? ??????? ????????
????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????. ??????? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? (???), ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ???????????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????
??????? (???. 4). ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????, ???????? ??
??????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????? ? ???.
????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ???? {(x1, c1), (x2, c2), ..., (xn, cn)}, ??? xi ? ??? n-??????
???????????? ??????, ? ci ????????? ???????? 1 ??? -1 ? ??????????? ?? ????, ?????? ??????
??????????? ????? xi. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????: wx + b = 0, ??? w ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, b
???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ?????????. ??? ???
?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ? ?????????
? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????
?????????? ???????????: wx + b = 1 ? wx + b = -1, ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????
2/||w||.
???. 4. ????? ??????? ????????
# 499 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ???????, ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ???????, ?
????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????????.
??? ???????, ???
????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ? ???????????:
ci(w · xi + b)?1, 1 ? i ? n, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????. ? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????
???? ??????? ? ????
,
(4)
??? [? = (?]1, ?, ? n) ? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???, ???????????? ? 1963 ???? ?. ????????, ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????, ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????, ? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????????????? ???????? ?????
?? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??? ???? ????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? (????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????
????????????). ? ???? ?????? ????????? ???: ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?
???????????? X ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????
,
(5)
??? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???, ????? ? ????? ???????????? X ??????? ???? ???????
?????????. ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????: ??????????????,
?????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ???????.
?????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? SVM ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????, ??????????, ??? SVM ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ? ?????????????????
?????? ??? [16, 17, 18, 19].
????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ???? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? [20], ???????????????, ??? SVM ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????. ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????
?? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????: 1) ???? ??????? LANDSAT TM (???????? ? ???-???????) ?
??????? NDVI ? 2) ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????? LANDSAT TM ?
??????? NDVI. ? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?? 1?2 % ????, ??? ?????????? ??, ? ?? 2?4 % ???? ??????????? MLC. ? ?????? ????
?????????? ??????? ???????? SVM ????????? ?????????? MLC ?? 1?2 %. ??? ?? ????????
????????? ? ????????? ?????, ?? ? ??????????? ??????? SVM ???????? ?? ???????? ?????
??????????????, ??? ???? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????
???? ? ??? ???????, ????? ??????, ??????????????? ???????, ????? ????? ???????????.
# 500 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
? [21] ?????????? ????????? SVM, ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???? ?????: ????????? ??????????????? (????) ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? (?????) ? ??? 16-?????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ?????? ??????? AVIRIS (?????????????? 185 ???????).
???????? SVM ? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? 97 %, ? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ? 38 % (????)
? 95 % (?????). DT ? 74,75 %. ? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? SVM, ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????
??????, ??? ??.
????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????,
?????? ????????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ???, ?????????????
??? ????????????? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????. ????????????
[22] ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? SVM ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????
?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? IRS-1C LISS III (?????????? 23,5 ?, ?????? ???????????? ??????: 0,52?0,59, 0,62?0,68,
0,77?0,86,1,55?1,70 ??), ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? NDVI. ???????? ??????????????,
??????????? ?? SVM, ???????????? ? MLC ? ??????? ?????????????????? ???????????: ??????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????: ????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????. ? ????? SVM ???????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????, ??? MLC ?
?????, ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
? ?????? [23] ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? SVM ??? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????- ? ????????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????
???? ????????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????????: ???? ? MLC. ???? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ???????????: ????? SVM ??????????? MLC ? ?? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???
????? ??????? ??????. ????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????.
???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????,
????????? ????, ??? ??????????????? ?????????? MLC ? ?? ??? ????????????? ??????????
?????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ????????????? SVM ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????????, ?????????? ?????
??????? ????????????????? ??????, ??????????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? SVM ????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? MLC, DT
? ?? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????? (???????) ????????? 50.
??????
??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????????? ??????? SPOT 4, ?????????? ????? 2012 ???? ?? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? «???????????????????», ??????????
??????????? ??????????? (????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????). ????????
??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 5.
# 501 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
???. 5. ??????? ????????? ?????? SPOT 4
???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????:
? ??????? (????? ????? 0,50?0,59 ???) ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????;
? ??????? (????? ????? 0,61?0,68 ???) ? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ???
???? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????;
? ??????? ???????????? (????? ????? 0,78?0,89 ???) ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??
???????????? ??????????;
? ??????? ???????????? (????? ????? 1,58?1,75 ???) ? ???? ????????????? ? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????
?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????.
???????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? 20 ? (?????????????????? ?????
??????), ? 10 ? ? ???????????????? ?????.
?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ???????????
? ????-??????? 2009-2011 ?????. ????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????????, ??????????? 44 ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? 20 ?? 20 ? (? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????); ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? 18 ??????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????
???????? (??????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????????). ?? ?????? ???????
???????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????
??????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????:
???????????, ???, ????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???. 6.
# 502 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
???. 6. ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????
???????????
? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ENVI, ??????????????? ???
???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? SVM ? ??.
? ???????? ???? ?????? SVM ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
,
(6)
??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????. ???? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????
??????????. ??????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ????. 1.
?? ?????? ??????? ????. 1 ????????? ???????? ? ???????? (6). ???????? ?????? ??????????
?????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ????????, ? ?????????? ??????? ??????.
????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ?
??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ????????
???????? ??????.
?? ??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
??????????: ? = 0,5, ????? ? 2000, ???????? ?????? ? 0,25, ???????? ????????????? ??? ????
????????? 86,2 %.
? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?
???????? ????????? (3). ??? ? ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????, ???? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????.
??????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ????. 2.
?????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????. ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? (??) ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????. ????# 503 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
?
?
???????? ??????
???????? ??????
????????, %
1
2
3
4
5
0,25
0,25
0,5
0,5
0,75
100
1000
100
2000
1000
0
0,1
0,1
0,25
0,25
75, 25
76,10
82,02
86,20
84,26
??????? 2. ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????
?
1
2
3
4
5
??????????
????????
100
200
100
200
200
?????
???????????
0,01
0,02
0,04
0,02
0,1
???????????
????????
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,25
0,25
?????????????
???
0,1
0,3
0,25
0,25
0,5
????????, %
72,87
76,56
73,34
74,67
88,86
??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ??. ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????,
?? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ????. ???????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????
?? ? ?????? ???????????.
?? ????. 2 ?????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
??????????: ?????????? ???????? ? 200, ????? ??????????? ? 0,1, ??????????? ???????? ? 0,25,
????????????? ??? ? 0,5, ??? ???? ???????? ????????????? ????????? 88,9 %.
??????????
? ?????? ??????????????????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????
???? ? ??? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????.
?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????????????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????, ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ????????
??????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???, ???? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????
???????? ? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????????. ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?????, ??? ????? ????????????? ?????????????.
??????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?? ? SVM ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?? ???????? SPOT 4 ? ????????
# 504 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
???????????? ????????? ???????. ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????? SVM,
????????? 86,2 % (?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ????), ? ?? ????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ? 88,9 %. ????????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ????????, ??? ? ??????? ?? SVM ??????? ????????????? (c ?????? ????????) ? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????. ????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?
??????? ????????? 30 ??? ??? ????????? ???? ? 15 ??? ??? SVM. ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????
????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????.
????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????.
?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ? ??????
???????? ? 11.G34.31.0014 ????? ??????????? ??, ??? ? ???????-???????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????, ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????
?? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ?????????? ??? ????????????
??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????
???????????, ????????????? ????? ???, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ?? «???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????» (??????????? 1), ? ???? (11-05-98056).
?????? ??????????
[1] Vapnik V. N. The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995. 314 p.
[2] Gualtieri J. A., Cromp R. F. // In Proceedings of the 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances in
Computer Assisted Recognition. Washington, DC. 1998. P. 221?232.
[3] Watanachaturaporn P., Arora M.K., Varshney P.K. // In Proceedings of the ASPRS 2005
Annual Conference. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 2005. P. 242.
[4] ?????????? ?.?. ????????????? ????????????. ?????? ? ?????? ?????????
???????????. ?.: ??????????, 2010. C. 560.
[5] Decatur S.E. // Proc. Internat. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks. Washington, DC. 1989. Vol. 1.
P. 283?288.
[6] Paola J.D., Schowengerdt R.A. // IEEE Trans. Geoscience Remote Sensing 33. 1995. P. 981?
996.
[7] Hepner G.F., Logan T., Ritter N., Bryant N. // Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote
Sensing. 1990. Vol. 56. No. 4. P. 469?473.
[8] Key J, Maslanik J.A. Schweiger A.J. // Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote
Sensing Symposium IGARSS?90, College Park, Maryland, USA. 1990. P. 1277?1280.
[9] Bischof H., Schneider W., Pinz A. J. // IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.
1992. Vol. 30. P. 482?490.
[10] Kanellopoulos I., Varfis A., Wilkinson G.G., Megier J. // In Proc. IGARSS?91 Intern.
Geoscience Remote Sensing Symposium, IEEE, Espoo, Finland. 1991. Vol. 4. P. 2215?2218.
[11] Benediktsson J.A., Swain P.H., Ersoy O.K. // IEEE transactions on geosciencesand remote
sensing. 1990. Vol. 28. No 4. P. 540?552.
# 505 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????
[12] Fierens F., Kanellopoulos I., Wilkinson G.G., Megier J. // International Geoscience and
Remote Sensing Symposium, Pasadena, California, USA. 1994. P. 1880?1882.
[13] Lee J., Weger R.C., Sengupta S.K., Welch, R.M. // IEEE Trans. Geoscience Remote Sensing.
1990. Vol. 28. P. 846?855.
[14] Keramitsoglou I., Sarimveis H., Kiranoudis C.T., Sifakis N. // Intern. Jour. Rem. Sens. 2005.
Vol. 26. No. 9. P. 1861?1880.
[15] Shafri H.Z.M., Suhaili A., Mansor S. // Jour. Comp. Science. 2007. V. 3. N. 6. P. 419?423.
[16] Gualtieri J. A., Cromp R. F. // Proceedings of the of the SPIE, 27th AIPR Workshop: Advances
in Computer Assisted Recognition. Washington, DC. 1998. P. 221?232.
[17] Gualtieri J.A., Chettri S.R., Cromp R.F., Johnson L.F. // The Summaries of the Eighth JPL
Airborne Earth Science Workshop. 1999.
[18] Foody G.M., Mathur A // IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2004. Vol.
42. No. 6. P. 1335?1343.
[19] Foody G.M., Mathur A. // Remote Sensing of Environment. 2004. Vol. 93. No. 1?2. P. 107?
117.
[20] Huang C., Davis L. S., Townshed J. R. G // International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2002.
Vol. 23. P. 725?749.
[21] Watanachaturaporn P., Arora M. K., Varshney P. K. // American Society for Photogrammetry
& Remote Sensing (ASPRS) 2005 Annual Conference. Baltimore, MD, USA. 2005.
[22] Watanachaturaporn P., Arora M.K., Varshney P.K. // Photogrammetric Engineering and
Remote Sensing. 2008. Vol. 74. P. 239-246.
[23] Pal M., Mather P.M. // Proceedings of Map India 2003, 6thAnnual International Conference
and Exhibition. New Delhi, India. 2003.
The Effectiveness of Non-Parametric Classifiers
in a Limited Training Set
Aleksey A. Romanov and Kirill A. Rubanov
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the method of support vector
machine and artificial neural networks for classification of satellite images medium spatial resolution
as an example of a high degree of heterogeneity and limited training data. The results of field-based
researches have been used for test cases generation. Neural network approach showed the best result
for classification accuracy (89,9 % vs. 86,2 % support vector), but was significantly less speed.
Keywords: remote sensing, pattern recognition, supervised classification, neural networks, support
vector machine.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 507-511
~~~
??? 621.311.245(571.51)
An Assessment of the Modern Wind-Power
Engineering Possibilities on Territory
of the Taimyr, Dolgano-Nenets
and Evenk Autonomous Districts
of the Krasnoyarsk Kray
Aleksey V. Bobrova, Vladimir I. Kirkoa,
Vladimir A. Tremiasova and Aleksandr V. Cherepanovb
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Krasnoyarsk State Educational University
89 A. Lebedeva st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
In the given article we present the results of our research of the power energetic component of Taimyr
and Evenkiya populated localities of the Krasnoyarsk Kray. On the basis of theoretical analysis of
the obtained research results we suggest to construct untraditional and renewable sources of power
in remote communities (URESOP). Besides, we have made a calculation of capital expenditures and
economical efficiency of the wind-electric power stations.
Keywords: Taimyr, Evenkiya, the Siberian Federal University, URESOP, wind energetics, windelectric power stations.
The northern territory of the Krasnoyarsk kray is a region rich in natural resources and minerals.
The development of the local infrastructure will give possibilities to improve the living standards of
the population including natives and increase volume of output from traditional activities.
Increasing the living standards of the population is possible at the cost of their involvement into
the innovation activities and realization of modern innovative technologies in various fields. Uniting
specialists of different professions allows realizing a skilful science and industry integration. The
Siberian Federal University (SFU) is dealing with the task solution. A cooperation of SFU with the
local territory administrations and financial and industrial groups will give an opportunity to carry
on the innovation activities on the northern territory of the Krasnoyarsk kray with the maximum
efficiency [1, 2].
A comprehensive analysis of population centers of Taimyr and Evenk autonomous districts of the
Krasnoyarsk kray was carried out by employees and students of SFU. And there were identified basic
problems and lines of their development [3].
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: director.nifti@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 507 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Aleksey V. Bobrov, Vladimir I. Kirko? An Assessment of the Modern Wind-Power Engineering Possibilities on Territory?
Table 1. Social and economic description of Essey, Nosok and Karaul
Settlement
Nosok, Karaul
Essey
Population
700
500
Fuel consumption, t/y
650
179,2
Diesel fuel price, Rubles/l
42,5
30,74
2 096,8
578,1
Winter on-peak demand, kW-hour
550
400
Sale price, Rub/kW-hour
20
20
Electric power consumption volume, MW-hour
There has been shown that the energetics is a basis for developing social and industrial structures
of the northern settlements and involvement of the native people into the innovation activities.
There are plenty of population centers having decentralized power supply from local diesel
engine power plants on the territory of Taimyr, Dolgano-nenets and Evenk autonomous districts of the
Krasnoyarsk kray. The first cost of the power generation comprises 12 to 20 roubles per kilowatt-hour
depending on settlement remoteness.
Information on the electric power consumption volume in 3 northern settlements of Evenk (Essey)
and Taimyr (Nosok and Karaul) autonomous districts is presented in Table 1.
Using Unconventional and Renewable Energy Sources (URES) is a power efficient solution
of the electric power supply to the remote settlements. It is the most perspective solution under the
existing energy policy of the Russian Federation especially in settlements and industrial plants with
the decentralized electric power supply. The URES usage is a power efficient solution utilizing local
energy resources without periodical fuel delivery. On the northern territory of the Krasnoyarsk kray
wind energy is the most perspective URES to be used.
The settlements in Table 1 are looked at as the most perspective to be in the first place equipped
with wind-driven powerplants (WDPs) being implemented in the local decentralized power systems.
There has been carried out analysis of different manufactures? WDPs. The preference has been given
to those manufactured by Nordwind Energieanlagen GmbH Company [5].
Firstly, there was revealed that Nordwind?s WDPs are realised with hydraulic rotational energy
converter. This innovation technology allows reaching a higher output power compared to other
manufacturers? WDPs of the same class. Secondly, the Nordwind Company develops WDPs suitable
for the arctic climatic conditions with the temperature to ?40є? according to the manufacturer's data.
The Nordwind?s technology will give an opportunity to avoid the equipment being put out of action by
low temperatures as it has happened to the WDP in the settlement Levinskie peski and arctic WDP in
Vorkuta. Thirdly, the technology allows mounting and dismounting WDPs without using extra crane
equipment. And finally, Nordwind is a relatively young and developing company and its pricing policy
is rather liberal.
There has been calculated the capital expenditure and assessed economic implementation
efficiency of the WDPs in Karaul, Nosok and Essey. From WDPs offered by Nordwind one suggests to
use 3 WDPs NW 28-150 HY-D for settlements Nosok and Karaul and 3 WDPs NW 24-120 HY-D for
Essey. Their specifications are presented in Table 2.
# 508 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Aleksey V. Bobrov, Vladimir I. Kirko? An Assessment of the Modern Wind-Power Engineering Possibilities on Territory?
Table 2. Specifications of Nordwind?s WDPs
WDP type
NW 24-120 HY-D
Nominal wind
speed, m/s
10,6
Nominal
power, kW
120
Tower
height, m
35
Rotor
diameter, m
24
Running
voltage, kV
0,4
Line
frequency, Hz
50
NW 28-150 HY-D
10,9
150
42
28
0,4
50
Table 3. Capital expenditures for building WDPs
Settlement
Essey
Investments, rub.
68 251 894
15 600 800
46 802 400
Karaul (Nosok)
79 245 022
18 356 000
55 068 000
Cost of equipment unit, rub.
Cost of 3 WDPs, rub.
Custom clearance (5%), rub.
2 340 120
2 753 400,00
18% VAT, rub.
8 424 432
9 912 240,00
Cost of delivery to the area, rub.
3 600 000
3 600 000,00
Basement construction cost, rub.
2 340 120
2 753 340,00
Cost of erection works, rub.
2 340 120
2 753 340,00
Insurance, rub.
1 404 070
1 404 702,00
Designing, rub.
1 000 000
1 000 000,00
Table 4. Engineering-and-economical efficiency data of the WDP implementation
Settlement
Essey
Karaul, Nosok
Annual generation of electrical
energy by WDPs, MW-hour
756,72
First cost of the electric
power, Rub./kW-hour
3,71
Consumed diesel fuel
equivalent, t
234,58
1 440
3,27
446,40
Technically the WDPs above are suitable for inland regions of low wind-energetic potential.
Nosok and Karaul are situated close to each other, have similar characteristics of the wind-energetic
potential and electric load. The WDPs for Essey were chosen taking into account a kindergarten and
school being planned for putting into operation. Capital expenditures for building the wind-driven
powerplants are presented in Table 3.
The expected generation of electrical energy by WDPs in the settlements above was determined
according to the technique in paper [6]. The calculation was done taking into account the tower
height for the surface roughness type ?0? that corresponds to the local relief of the arctic desert
[7]. The WDPs are suggested to be situated on an elevation at the distance of 150 to 200 m from a
settlement. The WDPs are directly connected to the local power supply system. An extra substation
is not planned to be built. The calculation results of the expected electrical energy generation are
presented in Table 4.
There has been carried out the investment analysis of the WDP implementation taking into
account all possible economic risks. The calculation was done on assumption that all electric power is
# 509 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Aleksey V. Bobrov, Vladimir I. Kirko? An Assessment of the Modern Wind-Power Engineering Possibilities on Territory?
sold to the customer at the price of 20 rub./kW-hour. The profit tax rate is 20%. The real rate of return
is 18.24 %.
The calculation of the real rate required was done at the following indicators:
? the refinancing interest rate of CB ? 8 %;
? the annual inflation prediction ? 8 %;
? the real risk-free rate, calculated on the Fisher formula ? 0 %;
? the real risk-adjusted rate ? 15 %
The real rate of return is figured out as a sum of the real risk-adjusted rate and the real risk-free
rate and equals 15 %. The start-up moment of the WDPs in the local power-supply system is taken as a
point of departure for the net present value (NPV) calculation. On the assumption of the results one can
make a conclusion that the payback period of the WDPs in Nosok and Karaul will be 7 to 8 years and
in Essey 12 to 13 years taking into account all possible financial risks. The project is profitable for the
Krasnoyarsk kray administration since the WDPs implementation will allow reducing grants from the
territorial budget for the diesel fuel purchase. Moreover the reduced rates will lead to the development
of the local industry, that is, to the emergence of new tax bearers.
The project can be of interest to a private investor, too, especially if there will be support from
the authorities. The payback period can be decreased to 5-6 years in Nosok and Karaul and 8-10
years in Essey. This is possible if there will be tax remissions or grants as well as the VAT recurrence
for companies supporting the life level of the northern territory native population and implementing
ecologically pure energetic URES-based industry. And it will be attractive for private investors upon
the government support.
The project is innovative and has no analogues in the modern world power industry. This is caused
by the region remoteness, severe climate, social and legislative aspects. The technological solutions of
the industry have to be obtained by the cooperation of scientists, manufacturers, financiers, lawyers
and social workers. Their joint effort will allow reaching the greatest power efficiency saving the
culturological constituent of the ethnic population.
Conclusions
1. A comprehensive analysis of population centers of Taimyr and Evenk autonomous districts
revealed 3 settlements as the most perspective for the modern wind-driven powerplants implementation.
This will make it possible to improve the social and economical level of the population and contribute
to the local industry development.
2. The project has low payback periods of 5 to 13 years. It becomes investment attractive in case
of its support by the local and territorial administrations.
3. For the projects to be realised effectively and proffessionally and complex technological support
to be organized one can recommend to create an association of enterprises and institutions based on
the specialized technological platform of Siberian Federal University.
References
[1] ???????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?., ???? ?. ?. // ?????????. 2010. ? 10. ?. 1?5.
[2] ????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ???? ?. ?. // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities
& Social Sciences (2011 4). 8. 1127-1131.
# 510 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Aleksey V. Bobrov, Vladimir I. Kirko? An Assessment of the Modern Wind-Power Engineering Possibilities on Territory?
[3] ???????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. // Journal of Siberian Federal University,
Humanities & Social Sciences (2011 4). 8. 1127-1131.
[4] ?????? ?. ?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?. ?. // ?????????. 2009. ? 3. ?. 74?77.
[5] Information resource: http://www.nordwind-energieanlagen.de
[6] ?????? ?. ?., ???????? ?.?. // ??????? ??????????. 2008. ? 9-10/1. ?. 36?42.
[7] ??????? ?., ????????? ?. ????? ?????? ??????. M.: «Mojaisk-Terra», 2000. 560 ?.
?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????????
?? ?????????? ??????????? (???????-?????????)
? ???????????? ????????????? ???????
????????????? ????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
???????????? ???????????????
?????????????? ???????????
?????? 660049, ??????????, ?. ????????? 89?
? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????
??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????. ?? ?????? ?????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????
?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? (????). ???????? ??????
??????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????, ???????, ?????????
???????????????, ??????????????????? ?????????.
???????????
???????????,
????,
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 512-519
~~~
??? 662.6.9, 628.5
?????????? ????????????
??????? ????????
??? ???????? ??????????????
????????? ???????
?.?. ?????*, ?.?. ??????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????
??? «??????-???????????????? ??????????? «?????????????»
?????? 654000, ???????????, ?????? ??????????, 2 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????
????? ??? ????????? ? ??????-???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
?????????????? ????????????? ??????? (???). ????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????
???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????
??????? ? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?
?????? ??????-???????????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??
???????? ???????????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????? (???? 2010-218-02-174 «?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????
??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?? ???????
??????????????»).
???????? ?????: ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ?????, ?????? ??????????,
???????? ????????, ??????? ???????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????
??????? ? ????? ? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ? ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???
??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ????????
???? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????. ? ?????
???????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????
????????????? «????????? ??????». ????? ????, ?????? ????? NOX ????????? ? ???????????
??????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????.
???? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ???? ? ???? ??????????????
????????????? ??????? (???). ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: sib_eco@kuz.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 512 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????
???? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????.
????????????????? ?????
????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ?????????????????? ???? (????????? ?????), ???? ? ????????-??????????????.
?????????????? ????? ? ??????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??????
???, ????????? ? ????. 1.
???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????
??????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ?????????
??? ??? «?????????????» [1]. ????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????
????????? ????? ? ?????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????????.
??????? ??? ? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???. 1 ? 2 ??????????????.
???????? ?????? ???????? [2] ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????
? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ????????
?????. ???????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ???, ??? ??????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????
??? ???????????? ?????? ???????????. ????? ????, ?? ???? ??????????????? ????? ???????
????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????.
??????? 1. ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???
???????? ????????
??????? ????????
????? ???????
??????? (??????),
???????, %
???/?? (????/??)
?????, %
?????????, %
????? ????? «??»
8,5
14,5
27,2
25,97 (6204)
????? ????? «?»
11,8
17,3
43,0
21,19 (5060)
???? ????? «???»
13,0
23,0
27,4
21,06 (5030)
30,0
23,2
22,9
18,07 (4315)
36,1
26,5
36,2
14,85 (3546)
14,0
28,0
8,0
34,75 (8300)
???? ????? «??»
(?? ??? «??????????»)
???? ????? «??»
(??? «??????????»)
???????? (???????)
????? ???? (????????)
28,2
11,1
54,0
14,07 (3360)
??????????????? ???? (????????)
24,8
20,0
59,0
15,11 (3609)
??????????????? ??????
??????????????
(?? «????????????»)
39,9
32,9
26,3
12,48 (2980)
# 513 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???
???. 2. ????? ?????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????
??????? 2. ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????
???????????? ?????????
???????????
???????????
Q?.?
?3/?
330 ? 550
???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???
???
???
(???/??2)
0,1471 ? 0,1961
(1,5 ? 2,0)
?????? ???????
??
??/?
30 ? 130
?????? ????????? ???????
????????
??????????? ??????? ???????
?
-
3,3 ? 3,9
??????????? ????? ? ?????
t?
°C
900 ? 1200
??????????? ????? ????? ??????
t??
°C
690 ? 800
??????????? ????? ????? ?????
t??
°C
230 ? 275
???????? ???????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????,
???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????. ????? ????, ????????? ???????? ????????????
? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ???????, ??? ?????
???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????.
? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ??????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? 40 %, ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???.
??????? ?? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ?
??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????.
?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????. ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????, ???????? ???
? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?
?????????????. ??? ????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????????
???????????. ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????.
????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? (??, NOX, SO2) ? ????????
????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????????? Testo 300XXL, ???????
??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ? 17271-05 ? ???????
? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?
????. 2.
?????????? ? ?? ??????????
?????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?
?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ?? 60 ?? 65 % (????. 1). ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??
?????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? 47 %, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
????? ? ???????? ????. ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ?
?? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????
? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????
??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????.
# 515 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????
?????????? ??????? ???????, ??/?
3
700
?????????? ??
600
?????????? N?x
500
400
300
200
100
0
820
830
840
850
860
870
880
890
900
910
920
???????????, °?
???. 3. ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????
????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????
???? [3], ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????
SO2. ????????? ?????????? SO2 ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????? ????? ?
?????? ?? ??? «??????????». ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? SO2 ?? ??????????? (? ????????? 900ч1000 °?).
?????????? ?? ??? ????????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????, ? 1,5-3,0 ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????? [4]. ????????, ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????????
??????????? ???????? (???. 3).
?????????? NOX ????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? [5]. ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? NOX ??????????????? ?????????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ??
??????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????? (???. 3).
?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ????. 3. ?????????? ? ?????????
??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ???. 4.
????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ???
???????? ???, ???????????:
? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????;
? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? (?, ??????????????, ?????? ??????????) ??????
???????????? ??? ? ???? ???????.
??????????
??????????? ???????????? ????????:
? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????;
# 516 #
3
2
1
270
0
NOX2, ??/?3
SO23, ??/?3
??????????? ???????? ?? ? ?? ????? 375 ??/?3 (???? 28193-89).
??????????? ???????? NOX ? ?? ????? 750 ??/?3 (???? 28193-89).
??????????? ???????? SO2 ? ?? ????? 750 ??/?3 (???? 28193-89).
320
??1, ??/?3
-
0
80
219
1050
1,8
50
-
???????? ???, ???
900
320
-
??????????? ? ?????, °?
14,99
(3580)
64
20,89 (4990)
82
????? ????? ??
(??????? ? ????)
?????? ??????? ????????, ???/??
(????/??)
???????? (??? ???????? ?????? 81 ?-1),
???Ч?
?????? ???, ?/?
???????? ???? ??????? ????, %
???????????? ??????????
??? ?? ???? ?????
? (???????)
??? ?? ??????
????? ???
(???????)
0
280
210
1100
1,7
60
355
16,18
(3865)
64,5
??? ?? ??????
?? ???
«??????????»
(???????)
30
244
110
1050
1,5
60
563
16,01
(3823)
62,6
??? ??
?????? ???
«??????????»
(???????)
0
245
165
950
1,5
100
380
12,21
(2916)
62,5
??? ?? ?????????
(???????)
0
173
112
980
3,2
30
470
15,18
(3625)
64,5
??? ?? ?????
????? (????????)
47
252
248
900
1,3
130
850
8,361
(1997)
47
480
105
140
1000
1,7
80
370
15,31
(3656)
62
??? ?? ??????????????? ?????
(????????)
?????????? ???????? ?????? ???, ??/?3, ??????????????? ?? ??????
??????? 3. ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ? ??????
??? ?? ???? ??
«????????????»
(???????)
0
122
1,8
1150
1,5
95
385
15,07
(3600)
63
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????
500
480
??, ??/?3
450
NOX, ??/?3
SO2, ??/?3
350
320
280
219
248
245
244
240
250
232
210
200
173
165
140
150
112
110
100
117
105
80
47
50
30
??? ?? ????? ?????
(????????)
0
??? ?? ??????-????
?? "????????????"
2,1
0
??? ?? ?????????
(???????)
0
??? ?? ?????? ???
«??????????»
(???????)
0
??? ?? ?????? ?????
??? (???????)
????? ????? ??
(??????? ? ????)
0
??? ?? ???? ????? ?
(???????)
0
0
??? ??
???????????????
????? (????????)
300
??? ?? ?????? ??
??? «??????????»
(???????)
?????????? ??????? ???????, ??/?
3
400
???. 4. ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ???
? ?????????? ???? ? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????, ? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?
???????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. // ?????. 2003. ? 6. ?. 53-54.
[2] http://www.pem-energo.ru/szhiganie_vod
[3] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???? ???? ???. // ?????. 2007. ? 10. ?. 59-60.
[4] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. // ????????? ?????. 2008. ? 1. ?. 38-39.
[5] ????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. // ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????.
2009. ? 1. ?. 21-24.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????
The Emission Results During
the Suspension Coal Fuel Burning
Vasily I. Murko, Vladimir I. Fedyaev,
Victor I. Karpenok and Dmitry A. Dzuyba
Scientific-Production Company «Sibecotechnica
2 Kommunarov str., Novokuznetsk, 654000 Russia
The article is about the results of harmful substances concentrations results in the off-gases at bench
and pilot tests of vortex technology of suspension water-coal slurry (WCS) burning. It is shown that
the worked out technology of liquid coal fuel burning let significantly reduce the harmful substances
emission into the atmosphere. The article is written during the implementation project of private-state
partnership in the sphere of implementation of a complex project of creating a high-tech production
under financial support of the Government of the Russian Federation (code 2010-218-02-174 «The
development of technology and the creation of a pilot sample of automated power generating complex
working on coal-enrichments wastes»).
Keywords: slurry hydrocarbon fuel, coal tailings, enrichment waste, vortex burning, emissions.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 520-530
~~~
??? 546.05: 546.264, 661.183.3
???? ????????? ????? ? ??????????????
???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ???????????*, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????
?
???????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???,
?????? 660049, ??????????, ??. ?. ??????, 42
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????
?????. ???? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????
????????? ?????? ????????. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????, ?????? ????????, ????????.
H? ???????? ?????? ???????? «?????? ????????», «?????? ???????», ??????, ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? (???????) ? ??? ?????? ????- ? ???????????????????
(10 -2 ? 10 -7 ????. %) ???????????? ???????????????, ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????,
?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????.
?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????????. ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????
2500. ??????? ?????? ????, ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????. ? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????.
??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??
?????? ?????? ?????.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????
?????????. ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? (???????????) ???????
?????? ?????, ????????? ?? ??????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? (??? ??????????????????) ?.?. ??????? ????????? (1933 ?.) ???????? ??????? (? ????? ????????????? ????????? ??. ?. ??????). ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????, ??? ? ???????
?? ?????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: vp414@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 520 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????????? ?????? ??????? (Sc, Ge, Ga, In, Tl, Re, Se, ??) ?? ????? ??????????? ??????
?????????????, ???? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????. ?
??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????:
??????, ?????, ????, ??????, ????????, ????? ? ??., ?.?. ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????
«?????????-??????????». ? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????:
? ????????? ???????????????? ???? (Li, Rb, Cs, Ge, Sr);
? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? (Re, V, Ge);
? ??????? ? ????? ????, ??????????? ????????? ???????? (Ge);
? ???????????? ?????? (Sc, Y, Ga, Be, Li ? ??.).
????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? Ge ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????????,
?? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?. ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? (GeO ? GeS) ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ???
???????? ?????.
????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????. ? ????? ????? ??????
????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ????????????, ???????? ? ????????????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ? ???? ?????.
????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????
???????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????, ?????????, ?????????, ??????????, ??????? ??????, ???????, ????????, ??????; ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? (????????, ???????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????) ?????????? ??????? (????, ?????) ? ???????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ? ??????????
?????????? ?????????-??????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????? ? ????????????
?????? ??????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????. ???????? ? ????
?????????? ????? 700 ??? ? ???????????? ???????. ? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ???
?????? ??????? ? ????????????, ??????????????? ? ????????????.
???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????. ???? ???????? ? ????? ?????, ?????????? ?? 20 % ???, ???????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? ??????, ? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? Fe2?3, Al2O3 ? SiO2
?????????? 80-90 %. ??????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????,
??????????????? ? ?????, ??? ? ????????????????? ? ???????? ????????. ???????? ??????
????????????? ????????, ???????, ??????, ?????; ????? ? ???????, ??????. ?? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????????????, ??????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????? ???????
????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? (??????????) ?????????.
?????? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????
???????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????? ????? (???????) ??????? ?? ???? ?????. ??????
?????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???? ?????????? ????? 5 %. ??? ???????????? ???????????,
?????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ???? ? ???? ???????????????
???????????? ??????, ???? ? ???? ????????? ? ????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????.
# 521 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????????, ? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????????. ???? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????
?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ????????, ????????, ????????? ??????.
? ?????? ????? ? ?????????. ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????
??????????-??????????????????. ?????????????, ?????? ????????, ??? ? ???? ?????
???????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ? ?????? ?????????: ????????, ???????, ???????? ? ??.
? ?????? ????? ? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????
???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? (????????????) ?????? ????????????????. ?????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ???????, ??????? ? ????? ??????
????? ??????? ????????, ??????, ??????. ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???? ????? ????? (?? 50 %).
? ?????? ????? ? ?????????????. ? ??????? ?? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?
???????????? ????????? ????? (???? ???????, ???????), ????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????, ??????, ?????? (??????? ????3,
??????? CaMg(C?3), ??????? F???3 ? ??.), ??????? FeS2, ?????????? Al2(OH)4[SiO5],
?????????? Fe3(H2O)8[P?4]2 ? ??. ???? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????, ??????????
?????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????????.
? ????????? ????? ? ???????????. ??? ???? ??, ??? ???? ????? ? ???????????? ????????
«????». ??????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????
??????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ??????, ?.?. ?????, ??????? ?????, ?????, ?????,
??????, ?????? ? ??. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????-???????, ?????????????? ? ?????. ?? ??? ??? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????
?????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????. ????????,
????, ?????????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ????? 1-3 ?/? ???????? ?
10-20 ?/? ??????.
? ????? ????? ? ????????????????. ? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????, ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????
?? ??????????? ???????. ??? ????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ? ????? ????????
??????? ?? ????????? ???. ???? ? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????, ?? ? ??????? ???? ??
????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ZnS, ????? FeS2.
??????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????. ???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? D=C?/C?, ??? ?? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? ???? (????????? < 1,2 ?/??3),
??????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ?? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? (????????? > 1,6 ?/??3), ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ???, ???????????? ?????
???????? ??? ? ???????????? ?????? ???? (D > 1), ??? ? ???????????? ???????????? (D < 1).
??? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ???
Ge
W
Ga
Be
Nb
Mo
Sc
Y
La
Zn
Pb
2,6
2,2
1,7
1,1
0,7
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,2
0,03
0,02
# 522 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? 1. ???????? ?????? (?/?) ? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? (??) ????????? ?????? ????????
?????
????????
?????
????????
???? ?????
???????
??*)
Li
?????
?????????
?????, ?/?
55
20,0 ± 7,0
25,0 ± 8,0
80 ± 15
150 ± 90
115
2
Sc
11
2,0 ± 0,4
3,0 ± 0,2
15 ± 2
20 ± 2
17
1,5
???????
????
????
Y
28
7,0 ± 1,0
6,0 ± 1,0
37 ± 6
47 ± 10
42
-1,5
Yb
2,7
0,9 ± 0,2
0,8 ± 0,2
5±3
7±1
6
2,2
Ga
17
7,0 ± 1,0
7,0 ± 1,0
36 ± 4
51 ± 5
43
2,5
Ge
1,4
1,5 ± 0,3
2,9 ± 0,3
9 ± 3,7
20 ± 4
14
10
*)?? ? ??????? ????? ???? ?????/ ????? ????????? ?????.
????? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ? ????????, ?????????, ??????, ????? ??? ???????, ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????.
?? ?????? ????. 1 ?????, ??? ???????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????
????????? 2-10-???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ????,
??? ? ????? ??????? ????????. ?????????? ????? ?????????, ????????, ??????? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????, ??????????, ??? ? ??????, ????????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ???? ? ?????? ?????.
?? ????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????. ???, ????????, ? ?????? (??????? ???????) ?????????? ???????? ????????? 22 ?/?, ??????? ???? ??? ? ??????? (????????????? ??????) ? 650 ?/?.
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????:
? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????, ??????, ???????, ??????, ?????;
? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????????????, ????????, ????????????????? ? ??.;
? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????????;
? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? (??????, ??????, ???????? ?????, ??????? ? ??.);
? ????????????? ?????? ????, ??????? ????????? ??? ???????.
????????? ??????-??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???
???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????? [2, 3]. ???? ??
??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ? ??????
???? 6.10 -4 % (?? ?????). ? ?????????????? ??????????? (????? 0,5 %) ??????? ?????????? ??
?????? ????????? (????????????, ????????????, ???????? ?????, ???????? ? ??.). ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? Sc2Si2?7, ?????????? 30?40 % Sc2O3, ? ?????????
Sc(P?4).2?2?.
???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????# 523 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????, ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ?????????? Sc2?3 ?
???? ????????? ?? 0,0005 ?? 0,3 % (????? ??????).
? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ScP?4.2?2?, ? ????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????? [2]. ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????. ???????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? (????????, ?????????) ?????
??? ???????????. ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?
????????????? ?????????.
??????????????????? ???????? ??????? ? Fe, ? ????? ? Y ? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ??? Sc3+ ? Y3+ (? ???) ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ? ??? Sc3+ ? Fe2+ ? ???????????????.
?? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????? o??ee
?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????. ? ???????? ?? 50 ??? ???????? ????? ????? 50 ?? ????? ???????????. ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????
???????? ?? ???????????.
?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????????? (?? 6 % Sc2O3). ? ??? ?????????: Sc-?????????????, Sc-????????, Sc-????????, ????????. ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? (0,00n?0,n %), ?????????????? ?????????? ??????
(?????????, ?????, ???????? ? ??.). ????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ???????
??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? (U, Al, Ti, Zr, ?, W, Sn, TR ? ??.). ?????
?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????.
??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???. ????? ??? ????????
????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????: 1) ???? ???????? ? ??? ????????????; 2) ???? ???????? ?????????????. ??? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? 0,005 ?? 0,01 % ???????. ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????
??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????????
?????????.
???????, ????????? ? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????, ???? ???????????? ??????? ? ??? 0,005?0,01 % (????? ??????). ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????? 0,03?0,1 % ???????. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? Ti,
Al, Zr, U, P ? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????. ???
??? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ?????. ??? ??? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????????, ???????? ???????????????
??? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? [3].
????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ????, ????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, ???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????
(?? ????? 50 %). ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? 75-85 %-???
?????????? ???????, ?? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????
# 524 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? (??????, ????????, ?????????? ? ??.).
???? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????
???????????? ?????????????.
????????????????? ?????
??? ???????????? ???????????? ????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????????????? ??????? 750-800 °?; ???? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????. ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????
? ????. 2.
?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ? : ? =100 ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????? ??????????? (?? ????? ?????????????? 5) ? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? (????????????
????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? 10 -3- 10 -4 ????/?).
?????????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ???? ?? ????????,
????????? ? ?????????? [1], ? ?????? ???????? (????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????
?? ?????? ???? ??° = 4) ? ? ????? ??????? ?????? (??????????? 60 °?, ????????? ???????? ??°=2,5). ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???? ? ???????
?????? (??????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????????, ???? ? ????. 3) ????????, ??? ???????? ???? ????????????????????? ???????? (95 %) ????????? ? ???? ?????? ??
30-60 ???. ??????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????
????.
??????????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????
????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ???????, ?? ? ?????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ????????? ??????.
??? ????? ?? ???????????, ??????????? ? ????. 2, ???????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???? ? ???? ??????, ???????? ???? ??????? (?????????? ????????
???? ??????? ? ???? ?? ????????? 0,5 % ??? ???????? 5,2 %), ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?
???????? ???????. ??? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????. ? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????
?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?
????. 3 ? 4.
??????? 2. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????, %
??????? ????
???? ????????
???? ????? ????????????? ??? t = 20 °C, ?H =
4,0, ?H??? = 4,5
???? ????? ????????????? ??? t=60 °C, ?H =
2,5, ?H??? = 2,0
??????
??
Fe
Al
Mg
?
Sr
Sc
>5,2
2,2
4,9
>0,8
1,0
0,5
0,0026
3
8
2
0,5
-
0,1
0,0020
0,5
5
-
0,2
0,1
-
0,0010
# 525 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? 3. ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????, ???????????? ?? ????, ?? ??????? ???????? (??°= 2,5,
t = 60 °?)
?????
???????? ???? ???????, %
???????? ?????????
??
Sc
Fe
Sc/Ca
15 ???
66
40
27
-
Sc/Fe
30 ???
84
48
31
5.10-4
1,2.10-4
1 ???
88
49
31
-
-
3 ???
90
55
32
-
-
7 ???
90
55
33
2,510-4
2.510-3
??????? 4. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ??????? (0,025 ?????/?) ?
??????? (2 ?????/?), ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? ? : ? = 5:1
? ?????
???????????? H2S?4,
????/?
??????? ??????????, %
???????
???????
1
0,1
1
3
2
0,3
10
5
3
0,5
38
7
4
5
0,6
0,8
44
70
11
17
??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ????? (?? 0,4 ?? 10 % ???) ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????????.
??????????, ?????????? ??? 2 %-?? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ? ????. 6.
? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??
????????? ? ????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?12?3, Fe3?4 ? CaS?4,
??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????. ??? ????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ??????? ? 10 ??
???????? ???????? ??????? (? = 8 10 -4 ?) ? ??????? 3 ?. ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ? ????, ???????????? 6 ? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????. ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?
???????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????
???????????? ? ????. 7.
?????????? ???????????
?? ??????? ??????????? ????. 2 ?????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ????
???????????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ????????. ???, ???? ??? ?? = 4
??????????? ????? ? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????, ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? (??=2).
????????, ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ???????.
# 526 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? 5. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??-????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ? : ? = 5:1
?????? ???????
?
?????
??
?????????
??
????????
???????
??????????
???????, %
5,0
2,0
74
1
???????????? H2SO4,
????/?
0
2
0,01
0,99
2,5
1,7
76
3
0,10
0,90
1,7
1,5
98
4
0,02
0,18
2,2
1,7
38
???????????? Na2SO4,
????/?
1
??????? 6. ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????
(2 % ???)
???????? ???? ???????, %
? ?????
?????
?????????????, ?
? ????
1
0,25
2
1
3
4
? ??????
? ????????
70
3,3
26,7
74
4,2
21,8
3
82
4,7
13,3
3*
90
3,9
6,1
* ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? ? 4 ???? ????? 1 ? ?????????????.
??????? 7. ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????
? ?????
????????
??????? ?? ???????, ?????/? .10 -4
1
Fe2?3
0,5
2
?l2?3
0
3
CaSO4
1,0
4
????
80,0
5
???? ????? ????????? ????????
0,1
6
??-2-8
80,0
???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? (??. ????. 3) ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????, ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ????. ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
Sc/Ca ? ?????? ?????????, a Sc/Fe ? ??????.
???????, ??? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????, ??????????? ?? ????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ????????.
?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????
???????.
????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ??? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????# 527 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????. ????????, ? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????. ????? ????,
??? ????????, ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ????????, ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ????????. ????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????????
?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ???????
????????? ??? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ?? ???????? ?????, ? ????????? ??????. ???, ? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? Fe/Sc ? 2000 ? ???? ????????? ?? 14 ? ??????, ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
65 %. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????
??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? 85 %, ????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ????
?????????? 5 .10 -4 %. ????????, ???? ????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ??
??????. ????? ??????????????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????.
???????, ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????
?? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ????, ? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????.
?????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? Ca-Sc-????? ?????? ?????? ????????
(??. ????. 4), ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??
??????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ???????. ???????????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
?? ???????-????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ????????????
98 %-??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? 0,9 ? ?? ???????? ?????? ? 0,1 ? ?? ?????? ???????.
?????? ??? ???? 30 % ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????? ??? ? ?????? ???? (? ???????????? 2,7.10 -6 ????/?), ??? ? ? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????
0,0008 ? 0,001 % (???).
???????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????, ?? ???????. ???,
????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? Sc-????? ?? 2 % ???, ?????? ???????? ? ?-?????
????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? (? 2,7 10 -7 ?? 5,6 10 -6 ????/?) ?, ???
?????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? (??
0,02 %).
?????????? ????????????? ???? ???????, ???????????? ? Sc-????? ????? ?? 0,07 % ???
(??. ????. 6), ????????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????????? 50 % ??????? ??????? ?? ??????, ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ? 1,5?2 ???? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? (??, Fe, ?1 ? Mg) ???????? ???????? ??? ??, ??? ? ??? ?????????????
?-????? ??????. ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ? Sc-????? ?? 0,04 % ??? ?? ??????????
?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????. ?????????? ??????????,
????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??-2 ? ????? ???????.
# 528 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? 1200 °? ????????? ??????????????, ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????????????. ???????????????? ???????????? ???? ????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???? 830 °? ?????????????
??????????, ??????????????? ???????? ????, ? ?????????? ??????????, ????????????????
?????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????,
? ????????? ??????????. ? ?????????? [2] ???? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ??? ??????????? ????????
???? ?????? 800 °? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????.
????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????, ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ????????, ????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? CaS?4 (0,001 ?????/?), ??? ??
??? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????. ????????, ??????? ????????????????????, ?
??????, ? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????????
????????. ???? ?? ???????????? ??????, ?????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???????, ????? ???? Fe-?????????? ????????. ???, ???????? [3], ??? ? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????? ???????
????.
??????
? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??-2-8 ?
??????????? ???????? ????????? 85 %. ??? ???? ? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????
???????, ?? ???? ????? ??????, ?.?. ????????? Fe/Sc, ?????? 2000 ? ????, ????????? ?? 15 ? ????
??????.
?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????, ??? ??????? 98 % ??????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? 70 % ??????? ???????? ? ??????. ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? 0,04 % ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ? ??????
????????????? ? ??? ????????? ??-2-8.
?????? ??????????
[1] ??????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. // ??????? ???????. 1995. ? 10.
?. 44-46.
[2] ?????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????
// ??????????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????????: ???????? ?????????? ????
????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ?., 1987. ???. 2. ?. 1-6.
[3] ???? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?, ?????????? ?. ?., ??????? B. C. // ??????????? ? ?????? ???????: ??????? ??????. ?????. ????????. ????. «???-94». ??????, 1994. ?. 1. ?. 50-51.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
Natural Coal Ash ?
Unconventional Source of Rare Elements
Gennady L. Pashkova, Svetlana V. Saikovab,
Vladimir I. Kuzmina, Marina V. Panteleevaa,
Alla N. Kokorinaa and Elena V. Linoka
a
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS
42 K. Marx st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
The present paper is concerned with the actual problem ? all-round application of the mineral part
of the native coals. The ash-slag wastes derived from coals are characterised as nontraditional raw
materials of the rare metals. Some chemical and technological problems of scandium extraction from
coal ashes are considered.
Keywords: ash, rare elements.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 531-537
~~~
??? 669.71:628.395
?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ??????
?? ???????? ??? ????????????
?????????? ????????????????? ?????
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????
???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????????
????????????? ????????. ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????
?????, ? ??? ????? ? ?????????, ????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????
?????. ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????
? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????-????????, ????????????? ?? ????????????.
??? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????. ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ????????, ??????? ?????, ??????? ?????, ????????????
????????, ???????????? ???????.
? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????(?)?????? ? ?????????? ?????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ????(?)?????? ??? ????????????
???????? ???????? ??????????????? ???, ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????. ??????? ??? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ? ????????
???????????? ?????? ?????????? 15-20 % ?? ???? ???, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? (???. 1) ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????
????? ?????????? ?????.
?????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????????
??????? ??????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????,
???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????.
?? ?????? [1], ?????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ? ???????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: abkaryan_artur@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 531 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
???. 1. ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????
???????????? ? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? 2 ?? 3 ??/? Al, ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????? ??-?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ?? ????????????. ???
???? ???????? ??????? ????(?)?????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 75 % ?? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????????.
? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??
?????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????.
1. ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????.
2. ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????.
3. ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
4. ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????.
5. ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????.
6. ????????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????.
?????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? [2]. ? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????. ??
??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??
??????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? 18-28 %.
?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????
????? ??? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????:
? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????;
? ?????????? ????????????????? ? ?????;
? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????;
? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ?????????????
???.
# 532 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
?????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? «????? ??????????», ???????? [3],
??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ????????? 50-60 ??, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ?? ??????????, ?? 10-15 %, ??????? ?????????
???????, ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? 40 %.
?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?? ????????????, ???????
???????????? ??????? ?????????? «???????», ?.?. ???????????? ??????, ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ?, ??????????????,
?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????
????? ? ????? ? ??????????. ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????, ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???? 2,0-3,0 % ???. ????????
????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????? ???????????.
? ?????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????,
??????? ??????????? ????? 900 ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????, ?????????? ???? ???????, ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????,
???????????? ?? ???? ? ??????? ?????. ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????
??????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ?????. ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????
?????? ? ????? ?????, ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ????????-?????, ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????. ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????
??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ? ???? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ???
??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????-?????.
????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?????
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????????
????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????????
???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????.
????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ??? ??? ???????????????, ?? ????????
??? ???????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????:
? ????????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????,
? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??????????????? ? ?????,
? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????.
????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????
??????????? ??????? (???. 2). ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ??????
?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????????: ??????????? ???????????,
?????????? ?????, ???????? ????, ???, ??????? ? ??????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????
?????.
# 533 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
???. 2. ?????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????, ???????? ???? ??? ??????
? 1,5 ????, ?? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????????, ? ????? ? ??? ???????????
???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? [4].
?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????
??????, ??????, ??????? ? ??????????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? (14-20 % ????). ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????. ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?
???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ?????,
???????????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????, ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????
??????. ???????? ??????????????? ? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????:
2Al + 3S =Al2S3.
??? ??????? ??? ???????????? 700 ?? ? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? [5].
????? ????, ?? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ???
?????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????
2Al + 3FeS =Al2S3? +3Fe.
? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ?????, ???????? ????????????? [6], ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????????? 0,5-2,5 % ?? ?? ????. ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????, ???????????? ? ??????? ?????, ? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????. ?????????? ??????????? ??????
? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????????
# 534 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
???. 3. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????
???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ? ???? ?????, ????????????
?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????
? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????.
?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? (???. 3).
??????? ?????? ????? ??????? 75 ??, ?????? 150-160 ??, ??? 1,1 ??, ????????? 1500?
1600 ??/?3. ????? ?????? ????? ??????? 39 ??, ?????? 20?25 ??, ??? 40 ? ? ??????? 20 ??,
?????? 19?20 ??, ??? ????? 10 ?, ????????? 1600?1700 ??/?3.
??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?
??????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????-???????? ? ?????.
??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????-?????????? (???. 4) ?? ??????? ?????
? ???????? ????????????? ????????. ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? (>700 0?) ???????????? ???????? ?????????????, ????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ?
?????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? Al2S3. ??????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????. ????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????? ? ???? ????? ? ????? ? ?????. ?????????????? ?? ????????? ?????
??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????.
???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ????????, ?????????
????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?? 4,8 ????/? ???????? ? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????
?????? ? 1,3 ???? [6].
????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????-??????????? ?
?????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? «????? ??????????» ??????????? ? 55-60 ??? ???/???.
# 535 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
???. 4. ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????: 1 ? ?????????; 2 ? ??????? ?????????????
???????; 3 ? ??????????? ???????; 4 ? ??????; 5 ? ????; 6 ? ??????????? ??????????; 7 ? ???????
?????????; 8 ? ????????
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????. ???, 2005. 275?.
[2] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??
??????????? ???????// ??????? ???????. 1990. ? 6. ?.55-59.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? // ???????-????????????? ??????? ??????. 2005. ?11. ?.5-14.
[4] ???. 2183695 ??. ?????? ????????? ???????? / ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????; ?.?. 2000, ? 17.
[5] ??????? ?.?. ????? ? ?????????????? ?????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 1981. ?. 451-462.
[6] ???. 2388851 ??. ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? / ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????; ?.?.
2010, ? 13.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
Reduction of Emissions Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
and Protection of Anode Probes Against Corrosion
at Formation of the Secondary Self-Burning Anode
Yriy I. Storozhev,
Viktor V. Leonov and Artur K. Abkar?an
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
It is suggested to use compressed unbaked brings of anode paste with milled aluminum and low
quantity of binder for the tarry matter discharge reduction while secondary anode formation and
corrosion-prof protection of anode spikes. The cylindrical brings were made with pressure equipment,
the dimensions of some of them match grains in the near-spike anode paste. Small dimensions of
brings allow machine load in near-spike holes with measuring pocket used in production process. It
was suggested to use extruders for mass brings production. There was tested aluminum foil isolation
of anode spikes.
Keywords: tarry matter, anode paste, anode spikes, milled aluminum, compressed brings.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 538-553
~~~
??? 669:51-7
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????
? ?????????????? ??? ??????????????
??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????
?.?. ??????????*, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
??? «?????????? ??????????? ?????»,
?????? 186430, ????????, ??. ?????????, 1 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????
???????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ?? ???????-????????????? ?????????? ????????????
?????????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????
? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ???????
????????????. ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?????????, ??????
??????? ?????, ?????? ??????????????.
????????
? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????????
???????-????????????? ??????????? (???), ? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????? ? ??????????. ??????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????
???????-????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????, ??????????, ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????.
???????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????
????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? [1]. ?? ???????? ????????????
?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????, ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? (????????????????????). ??? ??????? ???????????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ?, ?????????????, ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ????. ? ???? ????????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: Piskazhova@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 538 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
????? ?????????? ????????? (???), ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????????.
???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????????????????, ???????? ????????????????? ??? [1], ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ???????, ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????
??????? ????????? [2?4].
????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????
x1, ? xr ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????
x1
l11??1 ... l1r ?? ? ;
(1)
...
xr
lr 1??1 ... lrr ?? ? ,
??? ? ????????? ?????
X L � ??,
??? X
§ x1 ·
Ё ё
Ё ё; ??
Ёx ё
© r№
(2)
§ ?? 1 ·
Ё
ё
Ё ё ? ??????-???????; L
Ё ?? ё
© r№
l ij ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? r u r ; ??1,?
?? r ? ????????????????? (?????????????) ????????????? ????? ??????????. ??? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????.
????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ???? (1) ????? ??? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? xi: D[ x i ] li21 ... lir2 , i 1, r; ??????? ???????? l2ij ????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ??i? ????????? ?????????? xi, ? l12 j ... l 2rj ? ??????? ?????????? ??j ?
????????? ????????? ???? ??????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??1 ?????????? x1, ? xr
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????????, ?????????? ????????????
??????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??2 ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????
x1, ? xr, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????????? ? ??1. ??3 ?
????????????? ???????? ?????????? x1, ? xr ??? ??????? ??????????????????? ? ??1 ? ??2.
? ???????????? ?????????????, ????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ? ????????? ?? ?????????????, ????? ???????, ??????????? «??????» ????????????. ????? ???????
????????? ??? ????????? ? 1901 ?. ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
(1933 ?.).
?????????????? (1) ? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????: ????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? x1, ? xr. ???? ?????????? x1, ? xr ???????????? ? ???????????, ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? Q? ?????
??????????????? ? ???????. ???????? [1, 2], ??? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ??1,?
?? r ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? uj ??????? Q, ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?j.?1>?2>?>?r.
?? j
1 T
uj x
?j
(3)
# 539 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
??? ? ????????? ??????
1
? 2 UT X ,
??
(4)
??? ? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, U ? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???????????
????????.
??????? ?? (4) ?????? X, ????????
1
X
U?2 ?? .
(5)
??????????? (5) ? (2), ???????? L
?? (1)
lk
1
2
U? , ? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?? ? ?????-
?k � uk .
????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? (4) ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????:
1) ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? x1, ? xr ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??1, ? ?? r ? ???????????? ? ???????? (1);
2) ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??? ????? ? ???? ?????????
???????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ?.?. ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ????????
??????????;
3) ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ???????
?? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ?? ????????;
4) ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????-?????????????? ?????????? ?
????? ????????????? ?? ??????????
Y???
a 1?? 1 a 2 ?? 2 ... a r ?? r ,
(6)
??? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??s, ? ?? r;
5) ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????????
? ?? ???? ????????? (6), ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? Y??? ?? ?????????? ??-???????????.
?? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? (4) ? (6).
1. ??????? ??????
?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ??????? ????????
??????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? (??) ? ?????, ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????
(???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2). ? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????
????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????. ????? ???????, ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????
????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????-????????????. ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????
?????? ? ????? 2009 ?? ??????? 2010 ?. (20 ??????????) ? 20 ?????????? (18 ???????? ? 2 ???,
????. 1).
# 540 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
??????? 1. ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??
??? ?????????
????????
???????????????*
(???)
???????? ?????????
????????? ??;
?????????? ???? ? ??;
????? ???????;
??????????? ??????????? ??;
??????????? ???????????;
??????? ???????????;
?????? ?????? ?????;
??????????? ????????? (??) ??;
????????? ????????? ??;
???????? ????????? ??;
???????????? ????????? ??;
?????????? ??;
????? ????????????? ??;
???????????? ??;
??????????? ??;
???????? ???????????????????? (???) ??;
??????? ????????? ????;
???????? ????? ???????? ????
????? ?? ????;
?????? ??
????????
???????????
As
S
Vol
Ts
BT
BL
ha
Cf
Da
Dr
Ms
P
CO2_dest
CO2_oxid
CO2_dust
R
CDa
Dust
CE
CC
* ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ? ??, ??
???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????.
??????? 2. ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????????
??? ?????????
????????
???????????????*
(???)
???????? ?????????
???? ????;
????? ?? ???? (???);
??????? ??????? ???????? (???);
???? ??????;
???????? ????? ???????? ????;;
??????????? ???????????;
??????????? ????????? (??);
??????? ???????;
?????? ??????????????
????????
???????????
CS
CE
AEF
PL
Dust
BT
CR
ML
EC
* ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ? ??, ??
???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????.
??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? 8 ?????????? (????. 2) ? 46 ?????????? (?????? ? ?????? 2007 ?? ??????? 2010 ?.). ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?
???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2.
?????????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ?? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????. ????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? [5] ????? ?????# 541 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
???? ?? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ???????????????. ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????
????? [6-8].
2. ??????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?? Statistica ? ??
MSExcel. ? ????. 3 ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????.
??? ????? ?? ????. 2, 10 ?? ????????? ??? 95,76 % ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????
? 1 ? 96,04 % ????? ????????? ??? ???? ? 2, ? ?? ?? ????? 18 ?? ????????? ??? ?????????
???????? ??????.
??????? 4 ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????. ? ????
?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? 8 ??, ????? ??? 4 ?? ????????? ???
~90 % ???????? ??????.
? ????. 5 ? 6 ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? 5 ??. ?????? ????????????? ????? ?
?????? ??, ?.?. ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? (? ?????
?????? 5 ?? ????????? ~75-76 % ????????? ??????).
??????? 3. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? (??????? ????????? ??)
???? ? 1
???? ? 2
?????
???????????
???????
?????????????
???????????
???????
?????????????
??
????? ?????????
??????????? ???????
????? ?????????
??????????? ???????
1
26,397
26,397
22,691
22,691
2
19,632
46,029
19,374
42,064
3
14,936
60,965
14,172
56,237
4
8,828
69,793
10,343
66,579
5
6,474
76,267
8,729
75,308
6
5,480
81,748
6,323
81,631
7
4,567
86,315
4,859
86,490
8
3,838
90,152
4,001
90,491
9
3,139
93,291
3,102
93,593
10
2,466
95,757
2,444
96,037
11
1,277
97,034
1,032
97,069
12
1,167
98,201
0,985
98,055
13
0,648
98,848
0,841
98,895
14
0,605
99,453
0,554
99,449
15
0,384
99,838
0,366
99,815
16
0,140
99,978
0,135
99,949
17
0,019
99,997
0,046
99,995
18
0,003
100
0,005
100
# 542 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
??????? 4. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? (??????? ??? ???????
??????? ??????????????)
???? ? 1
??????
??
???? ? 2
???????????
??????? ?????
?????????
?????????????
???????????
???????
???????????
??????? ?????
?????????
1
47,499
47,499
48,810
48,810
2
15,662
63,161
18,192
67,002
3
14,856
78,017
14,321
81,323
4
11,334
89,351
8,523
89,846
5
5,084
94,435
5,074
94,920
6
3,870
98,305
3,076
97,996
7
1,246
99,552
1,620
99,616
8
0,448
100
0,384
100
?????????????
??????????? ???????
??????? 5. ????? ?????????? ? ?????? 5 ?? ??? ???? ? 1
????????
??1
??2
??3
??4
??5
???
0,032
0,131
0,001
0,050
0,003
???. ?????????
0,006
0,012
0,166
0,104
0,013
??????????
0,145
0,001
0,048
0,043
0,012
????
0,000
0,001
0,169
0,001
0,086
????? ?????????????
0,047
0,063
0,169
0,010
0,037
????????????
0,015
0,098
0,138
0,016
0,000
???????????
0,063
0,018
0,108
0,072
0,061
????????? ?????????
0,085
0,068
0,016
0,097
0,022
???????? ?????????
0,001
0,142
0,036
0,030
0,089
????? ???????
0,004
0,050
0,014
0,026
0,439
??????????? ???????????
0,013
0,181
0,019
0,032
0,007
??????????? ????????? (??)
0,085
0,014
0,001
0,142
0,046
?????????
0,008
0,135
0,005
0,075
0,088
???????? ????? ???????? ????
0,085
0,001
0,021
0,174
0,040
??????? ????????? ????
0,119
0,009
0,001
0,052
0,013
??????????? ???????????
0,149
0,004
0,002
0,015
0,009
??????? ???????????
0,031
0,062
0,043
0,014
0,028
?????? ?????? ?????
0,112
0,011
0,043
0,047
0,006
?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? (??1) ??? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ???, ??? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????: ??????????, ???????
????????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????????. ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ??1 ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ? ?? ?????? ? ???????????.
# 543 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
??????? 6. ????? ?????????? ? ?????? 5 ?? ??? ???? ? 2
????????
??1
??2
??3
??4
??5
???
0,041
0,132
???. ?????????
0,008
0,012
0,004
0,054
0,001
0,212
0,002
0,075
??????????
0,143
0,006
0,082
0,030
0,011
????
0,000
0,000
0,184
0,067
0,003
????? ?????????????
0,091
0,076
0,112
0,000
0,004
????????????
0,028
0,111
0,113
0,002
0,015
???????????
0,113
0,021
0,060
0,005
0,021
????????? ?????????
0,096
0,078
0,029
0,008
0,052
???????? ?????????
0,000
0,117
0,048
0,000
0,189
????? ???????
0,010
0,051
0,019
0,175
0,038
??????????? ???????????
0,009
0,183
0,037
0,000
0,008
??
0,067
0,028
0,003
0,048
0,164
?????????
0,009
0,135
0,016
0,089
0,003
???????? ????? ???????? ????
0,013
0,006
0,002
0,419
0,012
??????? ????????? ????
0,147
0,008
0,016
0,062
0,002
??????????? ???????????
0,151
0,026
0,009
0,000
0,055
??????? ???????????
0,002
0,009
0,001
0,001
0,263
?????? ?????? ?????
0,073
0,003
0,053
0,037
0,084
?????? ??????????? (??2) ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????
??????? ?????: ???, ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ? ????? ????????.
? ??3 ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????: ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ?
??, ????? ????????????? ? ????????????. ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????.
??4 ??????????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????? ????.
????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????. 7 ? 8.
?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? (??1) ??? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ???, ??? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????: ???? ????, ????
??????, ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? (? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????
?????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ????).
?????? ??????????? (??2) ??????????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????: ???????? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ??
????.
? ??3 ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????: ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ?
??, ????? ????????????? ? ????????????. ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????# 544 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
??????? 7. ????? ?????????? ? ?????? 5 ?? ??? ???? ? 1
????????
??1
??2
??3
??4
??5
???? ????
0,198
0,006
0,010
0,135
0,172
???
0,102
0,011
0,036
0,491
0,007
???
0,015
0,330
0,320
0,042
0,251
???? ??????
0,206
0,008
0,086
0,018
0,072
????? ????
0,002
0,203
0,539
0,056
0,085
??????????? ???????????
0,178
0,023
0,005
0,080
0,168
??
0,062
0,416
0,000
0,120
0,216
??????? ???????
0,237
0,003
0,005
0,059
0,030
??????? 8. ????? ?????????? ? ?????? 5 ?? ??? ???? ? 2
????????
??1
??2
??3
??4
??5
???? ????
0,184
0,000
0,006
0,270
0,126
???
0,099
0,138
0,002
0,470
0,123
???
0,008
0,001
0,794
0,005
0,049
???? ??????
0,210
0,003
0,032
0,000
0,062
????? ????
0,001
0,529
0,043
0,156
0,092
??????????? ???????????
0,179
0,008
0,005
0,065
0,487
??
0,076
0,315
0,117
0,001
0,061
??????? ???????
0,242
0,005
0,001
0,033
0,001
??? ????? ????? ???????????. ? ?????? ??????? 3 ?? ????????? ???????? 80 % ????????? ?
???????? ??????.
??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?? ???. 1 ? 2, ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????????.
????????? ?? ? ??? ????? (????????) ???????????? ????????????. ?? ???????? ?????? [9]
????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????
????????, ??????? ???????????????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????, ??????
?????? ???????.
?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?? ?? ???. 1 ? 2 ??????????, ??? ??? ???? ? 1 ?????
???????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????? ?????????:
I ???????? ? ?????? ??, ????? ?????????????, ????????????, ???????????, ???????????
???????????, ????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ????;
II ???????? ? ??????????, ????? ????, ??, ???, ?????????, ???????????? ?????????;
III ???????? ? ????? ?? ????, ???????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ?????, ??????? ???????????;
# 545 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
? ? ??????????????? ?????????? (CC?CE)
? ? ??????????????? ?????????? (CC?CE)
???. 1. ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??1 ?
??2 ??? ???? ? 1
???. 2. ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??1 ?
??2 ??? ???? ? 2
IV ???????? ? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????.
?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????, ?? ???? ?????????? I ? III ?????????, II ? IV ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????.
??? ???? ? 2 ????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????:
I ???????? ? ?????????, ???, ??????????, ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????, ????? ????;
II ???????? ? ?????? ??, ????? ???????, ????? ?????????????, ????????????, ???????????, ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ????;
III ???????? ? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????;
IV ???????? ? ????? ?? ????, ?????? ?????? ?????, ???????? ?????????.
????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????: ?????? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????????, ????????????, ???????????, ??????????? ???????????, ??????
??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? ? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????, ???????? ????????? ??, ?????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ???????????.
????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??
???. 3 ? 4.
?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?? ?? ???. 3 ? ???. 4 ??????????, ??? ??? ???? ? 1 ????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????? ?????????:
II ???????? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ????, ?????? ??????????????, ???? ??????;
III ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????;
IV ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????, ????? ?? ????, ???? ???? ? ??????? ???????.
?????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????, ?? ???? ?????????? I ? III ?????????, II ? IV ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????.
# 546 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
? ? ??????????????? ?????????? (EC)
? ? ??????????????? ?????????? (EC)
???. 3. ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??1 ?
??2 ??? ???? ? 1
???. 4. ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??1 ?
??2 ??? ???? ? 2
??? ???? ? 2 ????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????:
III ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ????, ???? ??????, ?????? ??????????????;
IV ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????, ???? ????, ??????? ???????.
????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????: ?????? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ??????
???????? ????? ???? ? ???? ?????? ????????????? ? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????.
????? ???????? ???-??????, ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ? ???????? ?? ??
??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???????, ??? ?? ??
????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
????? ?????. ????????? (7) ? (8) ???????????? ????? ???-?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2 ??????????????.
CC1 502,71 13,5 � ??1 5,07 � ?? 2 0,04 � ?? 3 8,28 � ?? 4 2,02 � ?? 5 6 ,19 � ??6 5,44 � ??7 3,98 � ?? 8 4,81 � ?? 9 1,77 � ??10 4,42 � ??11 3,02 � ??12 1,03 � ??13 (7)
5,73 � ??14 2,77 � ??15 0,26 � ??16 ;
CC 2
500 ,47 11,42 � ??1 3,72 � ?? 2 3,09 � ?? 3 2,09 � ?? 4 0,34 � ?? 5 3,36 � ??6 7 ,26 � ??7 4,58 � ?? 8 7 ,28 � ?? 9 0,84 � ??10 6 ,92 � ??11 0,13 � ??12 4,36 � ??13 (8)
2,05 � ??14 3,77 � ??15 1,18 � ??16 ,
??? ??1 ? ??2 ? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2 ??????????????;
??1???16 ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???-??????.
????????? (9) ? (10) ???????????? ????? ???-?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????????
???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2 ??????????????.
EC1 15165,1 90,3 � ??1 64,6 � ?? 2 91,4 � ?? 3 245,6 � ?? 4 31,1 � ?? 5 79,5 � ??6 7 ,6 � ??7 0,6 � ?? 8;
# 547 #
(9)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
EC2 15228,9 158,5 � ??1 191,4 � ?? 2 17 ,2 � ?? 3 207 ,1 � ?? 4 62 � ?? 5 46 ,7 � ??6 13,5 � ??7 0,7 � ?? 8.
(10)
???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? (7)
R =0,923, ??? ????????? (8) R 2=0,978, ? ?????? ????????? (9) R 2=0,929 ? ??? ????????? (10)
R 2=0,907. ???????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????
?????????????? ? ????????? ????? 90 %.
????????? (7)-(10) ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????, ???? ? ?????????
???????????? ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ? ????? ???? ???????????
??????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??.
2
??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??, ?? ???????? (4) ?
(6) ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????.
CC1
502,71 0,91 � R 5,65 � Ms 3,25 � P 7 ,14 � S 2,51 � CO 2 _ dest 1,69 � CO 2 _ oxid 5,24 � CO 2 _ dust 4,13 � D r 5,82 � Vol 5,93 � Ts 9,86 � As (11)
5,77 � Dust 8,58 � CD a 5,94 � BT 4,53 � BL 15,01 � h a ;
CC2
500,47 2,35 � R 11,28 � Ms 2,2 � P 8,28 � S 0,08 � CO 2 _ dest 2,17 � CO 2 _ oxid 6 ,07 � CO 2 _ dust 4,67 � D r 10,94 � Vol 6 ,34 � Ts 10,22 � As (12)
0,53 � Dust 8,84 � CD a 8,09 � BT 5,69 � BL 13,39 � h a ;
EC1 = 15165,1+130,36·CS- 529,29·CE+ 59,10·AEF-62,19·PL+
29,33·Dust+ 29,76·BT- 64,68·CR+ 98,81·ML;
(13)
EC2 = 15228,89 +31,98 � CS-331,93 � CE+18,32 � AEF-1,85 � PL+
(14)
8,2 � Dust+ 27 ,52 � BT-43,89 � CR+15,82 � ML,
??? ??1 ? ??2 ? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2 ??????????????;
E?1 ? E?2 ? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ? 1 ? ???? ? 2 ??????????????;
??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????. 1 ? 2. ????? ??????, ??? ??????????
?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?
?????????????????? ????????????.
?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ????????
???????? ?? (???. 5 ? 6). ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????
??, ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 7 ? 8.
??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??
???. 9 ? 10. ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???. 11 ? 12.
???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? (????. 9). ? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????
?? 3 ???????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????????? (3?) ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ? ????????????
? ??????????? (11) ? (12) ??? ?????? ????????. ???, ????????, ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?? 15,7 ??/??2 ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? 16,9 ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????
? ?? 33,8 ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? 7 ????????
# 548 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
???. 5. ????????? ??????? ?? ? ???????,
??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ? 1
???. 6. ????????? ??????? ?? ? ???????,
??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ? 2
???. 7. ??????????? ???????????????? ???????
?? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ? 1
???. 8. ??????????? ???????????????? ???????
?? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ? 2
???????? ? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? 17,8 ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? 24,3 ?? ?? ??????
??????? ???????.
??? ????? ?? ????. 9, ????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ? CO2 ??? ???? ? 2.
???????, ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? (13)?(14) ??? ??????? ??????????????, ?????
??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ???????
????????? ?? 3? (????. 10). ? ????????? ??????? ????. 10 ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? [7, 12]. ??? ????? ?? ???????, ???????? ???????
# 549 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
???. 9. ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?
???????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ? 1
???. 10. ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?
???????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ? 2
???. 11. ??????????? ???????????????? ???????
???????????????? ????????? ??? ???? ? 1
???. 12. ??????????? ???????????????? ???????
?????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ? 2
? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????.
??????
??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????
??????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ????? ???????
????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??
? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????. ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????
??????? ?? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????. ?? ???????? ????????
# 550 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? 9. ????????? ??????? ?? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????
????????
?????????
?? 3 ???*
?????????
??????? ??,
??
????????
?????????
?? 3 ???
?????????
??????? ??,
??
?????????
??????? ??
????????????
??????
???? ?2
???????
?????????
???? ?1
???
????·?
-6,026
-2,716
-6,026
-7,065
?**
-15,717
16,941
-15,717
33,845
(+)***
-0,988
9,757
-0,988
6,612
(+|-)****[6]
-0,078
21,424
-0,078
24,840
(+|-)[10]
????????
???. ?????????
??/??
??????????
%
????
%
????? ?????????????
??/?? ·?
-5,559
-7,528
-5,559
0,244
(-)*****[6, 11]
????????????
??/??2·?
-2,951
-5,076
-2,951
6,520
(-)[6, 11]
???????????
??/?? ·?
-3,555
-15,717
-3,555
-18,215
(-)[6, 11]
???????? ?????????
?/??3
-0,025
-12,396
-0,025
-14,020
(+)[6, 11]
????? ???????
%
-3,397
17,448
-3,397
32,823
(-)[12, 11]
??????????? ???????????
°?
-6,414
17,792
-6,414
19,031
(-)[6]
2
2
2
?????????
%
-0,075
-29,575
-0,075
-30,662
(-)[12]
???????? ????? ???????? ????
??/? Al
-16,365
-17,306
-17,009
-1,592
(-)[6]
??????? ????????? ????
?/??
-0,015
25,735
-0,015
26,509
(-)[6]
??????????? ???????????
°?
-6,965
-17,811
-7,658
-24,266
(-)[6]
??????? ???????????
??
-3,048
-13,579
-2,573
-17,077
(-)[6]
?????? ?????? ?????
??
-11,473
45,029
-10,447
40,158
?
2
* ??? ? ???????????????????? ??????????.
** ? ? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????.
*** (+)? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????.
**** (+|-) ? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??.
*****(-) ? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????.
??????? 10. ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?
??????
?????????
???????
??????????????, ???·?/? Al
????????
?????????
?? 3 ???
?????????
???????
??????????????, ???·?/? Al
????????? ???????
?? ????????????
?????? [7,12]
???? ????
????? ?? ????
???
???? ??????
????? ????
??????????? ???????????
??
??????? ???????
????????
?????????
?? 3 ???
????????
???? ?2
???????
?????????
???? ?1
??
%
??./???.
???.
??/? Al
°?
???? ??.
??
-3,436
-5,105
-0,749
-29,324
-15,540
-9,572
-0,201
-10,145
-391,08
1782,88
-177,29
186,58
-87,99
-89,28
194,04
-296,42
-3,436
-5,288
-0,778
-30,079
-13,686
-9,805
-0,212
-9,924
-95,95
995,79
-54,95
5,55
-24,61
-82,55
131,66
-47,46
(+)
(-)
(+)
(-)
(+)
(+)
(-)
(+)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
?????????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????????. ????????
???-?????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????;
?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????; ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? 3 ???.
??? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????
????????????.
???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????, ??, ??? ???
??????????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ?????????? ?. ?., ?????????? ?. ?. ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????????????: ??????? ??? ?????. ?. I. ???.: ???-?? ???????, 2009. 147 ?.
[2] ??????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????: ???????. ?.:
???????????? ???, 2010. 600 ?.
[3] ????? ?., ???????? ?. ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????? / ???. ? ???????????
?. ?. ???????????????. ?.: ???, 1967. 144 ?.
[4] ??????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. ? ??. ?????????? ??????????: ????????????? ? ???????? ???????????: ?????. ???. / ??? ???. ?. ?. ????????. ?.: ??????? ? ??????????, 1989. 607 ?.
[5] Jayson Tessier, Carl Duchesne, Gary P. Tarcy // Light Metals. 2011. P. 407.
[6] ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????. ?.: ???????????, 1972. 208 ?.
[7] Grjotheim K., Kvande H. Introduction to aluminium electrolysis. Understanding the HallHeroult process / K. Grjotheim, H. Kvande (Editors), 2nd Edition, Aluminium-Verlag. Dusseldorf,
1993. 260 P.
[8] ???? ?. ?. ????? ??????????? ??????????????. ?.: ???????????? ??? «???? ? ???????», 2001. 681 ?.
[9] ???????? ?. ?????? ??????????? ??????. ????????????: ???????????? ???? ???,
2004. 160 ?.
[10] Oye H. A. Control of Anode Consumption during Aluminium Electrolysis // «Fundamental
Issues in Control of Carbon Gasification Reactivity», J. Lahaye and P. Ehrburger, Eds. NATO ASI
Series E. Applied Sciences, Vol. 192. Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands 1991.
P. 573.
[11] ???????? ?. ?. // ???????-????????????? ??????? ?????. 2001. N 3. C. 4.
[12] ????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ? ??. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????????????. ???????????: ?????. ????????? ???????????? ????? ???, 1999. 295 ?.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????
Anode Paste and Energy Consumptions Analysis
for Nadvoitsy Aluminium Smelter
Reduction Cells Using Multivariate
Statistical Processing Methods
Tatyana V. Piskazhova,
Peter V. Polyakov, Nikita A. Sharypov,
Alexander V. Krasovitsky and Sergey A. Sorokin
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Nadvoitskiy Aluminum Plant
1 Zavodskaya, Nadvoitsy, 186430 Russia
Based on principal component analysis for the period under review revealed the most significant
variables that influenced the techno-economic performance of aluminum electrolytic. The statistical
models relating anode paste consumption and energy consumption with the parameters of raw materials
and technology for the horizontal stud Soderberg reduction cells was obtained. The variation of the
anode paste consumption and energy consumption when the individual analyzed parameter in three
standard deviations was calculated.
Keywords: multivariate statistical analysis, principal component analysis, the anode paste consumption,
energy consumption.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 554-559
~~~
??? 622.7
Search for the New Form of Raw Material
for the Alyumineevoy Industry of Siberiaode
Vera I. Bragina,
Natalyi I. Konnova* and Lybov P. Pehova
Siberial Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
This article presents the results of research into rational schemes ore enrichment Bazybajsk deposit
(Krasnoyarsk region). Optimal conditions for sillimanit and quartz concentrates.
Keywords: quartz-sillimanite schists, sillimanite concentrate, quartz concentrate, Bazybajsky district,
flotation, wet magnetic separation, gravity-flotation-magnetic and magnetic- flotation- magnetic
circuits.
Introduction
The urgency of the given work is connected with necessity of involving for sphere of industrial
use of new kinds of aluminum raw materials in Siberia. The reconnoitered stocks of aluminum raw
materials in Siberia, and in Krasnoyarsk region in particular, are great enough. However now nepheline
ores are developed only. And, from more than 100 known nepheline ores deposits in Siberia the industry
masters only one ? the Cue-Shaltyrsky, which is in a complex processed on Open Society «Achinsk
aluminous industrial complex» from 1971. For today the Cue-Shaltyrsky deposit is substantially
fulfilled, and, according to the All-Russia Aljuminievo-magnesian Institute, can provide industrial
complex with alumina raw materials only till 2020.
On Bazybay look-ahead resources of ore even according to the most conservative estimates
exceed 410 million tons that is equivalent to 65 million tons of alumina.
Problem of the given researches was studying of material structure and washability of sillimanite
ores of the Bazybajsky deposit for the purpose of finding-out of possibility of its industrial complex
use.
Materials and methods of researches
The institutes Irgiredmet, in Mehanobr, Irkutsk polytechnical institute and the Kazan branch of
the Academy of Sciences earlier were engaged in studying ???????????? sillimanite ores. The basic
attention was given to two deposits ? Kjahtinsky and Kitojsky in which ores depending on material
structure, dispersion of minerals and character of their accretion can be enriched on gravitation*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kni757@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 554 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vera I. Bragina, Natalyi I. Konnova? Search for the New Form of Raw Material for the Alyumineevoy Industry?
flotation,magnetic-flotation or to other combined schemes. However any of these deposits isn?t started
up in operation.
We study sample of quartz- ore of a district Bazybajsky, containing 74 % of quartz, 19 % of
sillimanite and in small quantities (to 0,5 %) a pyrite, rutile, a topaz, a magnetite, iron hydrooxides. The
maintenance of oxide of chemical elements in sample has made: ?l2?3 ? 13,7, Si?2 ? 80,6, Fe2?3 ? 1,25,
Ti?2 ? 0,7 %.
Sillimanite is presented by two varieties: lamellar and needle (fibrolite), which prevailing sizes in a
diameter fluctuate from 0,04 to 0,2 mm (prismatic) and from 0,002 to 0,02 mm (needle).
Thin dispersion of sillimanite has defined the necessity of application first of all a flotation method
of enrichment. Flotation researches were spent on the initial ore crushed to size of 100 % ? 0,074 mm.
The mechanical floatation machine FM-187 was used for flotation.
Studying of influence of reagents on flotation factors were spent by a classical method and a method
of statistical planning of experiment by means of the multilevel factor plan 33/9.
On the basis of our previous researches as the collector for sillimanite flotation soap distilled oils
(SDTO), a regulator ?? pulps ? soda, a burden depressor ? alkali silicate was used.
At selection of a reagent conditions and number of floatation machine impeller turns spent only
the rough flotation. In experiences on studying of influence of the expense of reagents on factors of
enrichment pulp density at agitation 50 %, at flotation ? 20 % supported, number of impeller turns at
agitation ? 2200, at flotation ? 2000 rpm.
Results of researches
Expense SDTO changed from 170 to 1300 g/t. For the optimum expense 170 g/t (Fig. 1) at
which maintenance ?l2?3 in a foamy product (a concentrate of the rough flotation) has made 16 % at
extraction ? 97 % is accepted.
At the optimum expense of the collector (170 g/t) influence ?? pulps (Fig. 2) on flotation factors
was studied. Level ?? was created by soda (the expense from 300 to 1800 g/t), thus ?? changed from
Fig. 1. Influence of the expense of the collector on flotation factors
# 555 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vera I. Bragina, Natalyi I. Konnova? Search for the New Form of Raw Material for the Alyumineevoy Industry?
Fig. 2. Influence of the expense of a regulator ?? pulps on flotation factors
8,2 to 10,2. The highest factors of enrichment are received at the expense of soda 1500 g/t (?? = 9,5).
Thus maintenance ?l2?3 in a concentrate has made 16,2, extraction ? 99,1 % accordingly.
Influence of alkali silicate (Fig. 3) on results of flotation was investigated at the optimum expense
of the collector (170 g/t) and soda (1500 g/t). The best factors of flotation are received at the expense
of alkali silicate 120 g/t. Thus maintenance ?l2?3 in a concentrate has made 16,5 %, extraction ?
98,84 %, that is alkali silicate doesn?t raise results of flotation.
Research of influence of density of a pulp and number of turns at agitation and flotation on
enrichment factors was spent at expense SDTO 170g/t, soda ? 1500 g/t, alkali silicate ? 120 g/t. The
highest the maintenance and extraction of sillimanite in a foamy product are received at originally
chosen values (at agitation and flotation) pulp density (accordingly 50 and 20 %) and numbers of turns
(accordingly 2200 and 2000 rpm).
For the purpose of elimination of influence of the collateral factors appearing at long researches,
statistical planning of experiment has been applied. For research of influence of entrance factors (the
expense of soda, SDTO, alkali silicate, pulp density at agitation and flotation, numbers of impeller turns
at agitation and flotation) for the outlet parameters (extraction and maintenance Al2O3) and for reception
of mathematical models the multilevel factorial design 33/9 which is orthogonal concerning model of
the main effects has been used that allows to estimate the main effects of all factors independently
from each other has been used.
Optimum values of expenses of reagents are defined: soda (1300 g/t); SDTO (400 g/t); alkali
silicate (120 g/t); pulp density at agitation (50 %) and flotation (25 %); numbers of turns at agitation
(2250 rpm) and flotation (2000 rpm). Thus maintenance Al2O3 in a concentrate and its extraction in a
concentrate practically don?t differ from the received results by classical method.
Results discussion
The analysis of flotation factors by various conditions shows that process is steady and can be
easily carried out in industrial conditions.
# 556 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vera I. Bragina, Natalyi I. Konnova? Search for the New Form of Raw Material for the Alyumineevoy Industry?
Fig. 3. Influence of the expense of a depressor on flotation factors
By earlier spent researches [3] it is revealed that for the purpose of decreasing the maintenance
of harmful impurity (ferric oxide, titan dioxide) in concentrates including in sillimanite one, it is
expedient to apply wet magnetic separation in the stronger field. It was used by working out of schemes
of enrichment. Using an optimum mode of flotation, enrichment of initial ore under two schemes is
spent: gravitation and flotation-magnetic and magnetic and flotation-magnetic.
The gravitation and flotation-magnetic scheme includes separation of initial ore with size 100 % ?
0,074 mm (on a screw separator), the rough sillimanite flotation from easy separation fraction with
the subsequent 4 cleaner flotations of a foamy product and wet magnetic separation a sillimanite
concentrate in the stronger field. The sillimanite concentrate contained aluminum oxides 52,8, iron ?
0,55, titan dioxide ? 1,5 % at extraction of an aluminum oxide 54,3 %.
Under the magnetic and flotation-magnetic scheme the sillimanite concentrate was allocated as a
result of wet magnetic separation of initial ore in the stronger field and the subsequent rough flotation of
not magnetic fraction with 4 cleaner flotation of a foamy product. The concentrate of the fourth cleaner
flotation was exposed to separation in the stronger field for the purpose of decrease in the maintenance
of harmful impurity in a final concentrate. Under the scheme with the closed cycle (Fig. 4) is received
a sillimanite concentrate in number of 20 % with the maintenance of an aluminum oxide 52,6, iron ?
0,6, the titan dioxides ? 1,54 at extraction of an aluminum oxide 74,1 % accordingly. The concentrate
can be used in manufacture of high-clayey fire-resistant materials, in which maintenance Al2O3 not
less than 45 %, or for manufacture of aluminum and its alloys, or in the petrochemical industry for
reception of the synthetic catalyst. And, in 70 th years of the last century scientists of the Moscow
institute of the petrochemical and gas industry the new effective catalyst for petrochemistry and oil
refining with use of sillimanite mineral was developed.
The reject of the flotation enrichment containing 95 % SiO2, represent a quartz product, suitable
for use as raw materials for the fire-resistant and ceramic industries.
# 557 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vera I. Bragina, Natalyi I. Konnova? Search for the New Form of Raw Material for the Alyumineevoy Industry?
Fig. 4. An enrichment Circuit diagram of sillimanite slates of district Bazybajsky
Conclusions
1. Researches on studying of material structure of sillimanite ore and products of its enrichment
are conducted.
2. The influence on flotation factors is studied: concentration of SDTO, soda, alkali silicate,
density of a pulp and number of impeller turns. Optimum indicators of enrichment are received at the
expense of the collector 170 g/t, soda ? 1500 g/t, liquid glass ? 80 g/t, pulp density at agitation of 50 %
firm, at flotation ? 20 %, numbers of impeller turns at agitation 2200 and 2000 rpm at flotation.
3. Comparative enrichment of initial ore under two schemes is spent: Gravitation and flotationmagnetic and magnetic and flotation-magnetic.
4. The magnetic and flotation-magnetic scheme of enrichment of ore of Bazybajsky district is
recommended.
5. A sillimanite concentrate, with the maintenance of an aluminum oxide 52,6, iron ? 0,6, the
titan dioxides ? 1,54 at extraction of an aluminum oxide 74,1 % accordingly, can be used in manufacture
high-clayey fire-resistant materials, for manufacture of aluminum and its alloys, in the petrochemical
industry for reception of the synthetic catalyst.
6. Reject of enrichment can be used as a quartz concentrate. On the conclusion of institutes
Sibtsementniiproekt (Krasnoyarsk) and VNIISTROM the quartz concentrate can be used as an active
mineral and correcting siliceous additive by manufacture Portland. On the conclusion of East institute
# 558 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vera I. Bragina, Natalyi I. Konnova? Search for the New Form of Raw Material for the Alyumineevoy Industry?
of grogs (Ekaterinburg) the quartz concentrate can be a component furnace charge by manufacture of
silicate building materials and in the fire-resistant industry ? as a siliceous component of silica mortar
powder.
7. The offered technology allows to organize the rational complex of enrichment of ore of the
Bazybajsky district with reception of valuable commodity products: sillimanite concentrate (S?) for
the aluminous industry and extremely scarce quartz sand for Krasnoyarsk region and other economic
region of Siberia.
Thus, ore of the Bazybajsky district can be a new kind of raw materials for the aluminum industry
and quartz sand for various industries.
References
[1] Abramov A.A. Flotation enrichment methods: the textbook for HIGH SCHOOLS. ?.4 ? ?:
MSTU, 2008. 707p.
[2] Algebraistova N.K. Feature of material structure and technology of enrichment of bauxites of
the Timansky deposit/N.K. Algebraistova, S.A.Markova, N.V.Filenkova, L.I.Sviridov, A.A.Labutina,
E.A.Groo, A.V.Smolkova//the Mountain information-analytical bulletin (scientific and technical
magazine). 2009. ? 6. P.201-211.
[3] Research for the purpose of enrichment working out of titaniumcontent sillimanite slates of
the Kjahtinsky deposit (report). Pogodaev M. A, etc. Funds of institute «???????????????????»,
Krasnoyarsk, 1958.
[4] Popova N.V. Feature of territorial structure of a power production cycle of Sibirean aluminum
// Geography and natural resources. 2006. ? 1. P.96-104.
[5] Smirnova T.A. Condition of a raw-material base of Russian and world aluminum industry //
Economic problems and decisions. 2005. ? 4. P. 49-60.
[6] Sokolov V.M. Assessment of prospects of manufacture and aluminum consumption in Russia
// Economic problems and decisions. 2005. ? 4. P. 61-70.
????? ?????? ???? ?????
??? ??????????? ??????????????
?.?. ???????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 791
? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????
?????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? (???????????? ????). ??????????
??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ????????????.
???????? ?????: ????? ? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????
??????????, ??????????? ?????????????, ????????, ?????? ????????? ?????????,
?????????????-???????????-????????? ?????, ????????-??????????? ????????? ?????.
# 559 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 560-567
~~~
??? 539.21:539
Regularities of Formation
of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum
at Ion Implantation
Khamza R. Kazdaeva,
Riza B. Abylkalykova and Ludmila I. Kveglisc*
a
The Space Investigations Institut?,
??menskoe plato, Almaty, 050020 Kazakhstan
b
East Kazakhstan State University. Amanzholova
34 30th Guards Division Str., Ust-Kamenogorsk,
070020 Republic of Kazakhstan
?
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
b
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
Is shown, that the character of structural-phase transformations in molybdenum at ion implantation
by the elements of the interstitial phase is defined, in the main, by the size factor, i.e. by the ratio of the
atomic sizes of implanted elements and atoms of metal. The researches are carried out on molybdenum
monocrystals at implantation by ions of Ar, C, N, O, B, Si, P, S.
Keywords: Ion Implantation, Structural-Phase Transformations, Kinetic Parameter.
The authors thank the laboratory IRGETAS for help with the experiment
Introduction
One of radiation methods of a surface metals modification resulting in change structures and
chemical composition of surface layers is the method of ion implantation. The perspectives of wide
practical application of this method depends on the solution of questions as technological character
connected to reception of high concentration of an introduced impurity in implanted layers and increase
of them thickness, and scientific one, expressing in an establishment of principal mechanisms of rise
and disintegration of phases at ion implantation. The majority of experimental works [1-3], directed on
the solution of the second sort of tasks, was carried out, in the main, by electron diffraction method ?on
transmission? in case of thin films or ? on «reflection» in case of massive samples. In that and another
cases, receive an integrated picture of phase transitions on the top of a surface and in ion implanted
volume. In the given work, the researches on ion implanted molybdenum carried out by a method of
the X-ray analysis with a use of a glancing beam and photographic method of registration. The using
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kveglis@list.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 560 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
of this method, in our opinion, has allowed to distinguish the processes of phase formation directly in
implanted volume and to receive rather simple regularities.
Samples and Research Methods
As an initial material is used molybdenum monocrystals of purity 99.96 %, cut out on a plane
(110), by the sizes 8x1,5x1 mm3. After mechanical processing samples were exposed to electrochemical
polishing with the purpose of removal of the deformed layers. The ion implantation of argon, boron,
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorus and sulfur with energies of 110, 35, 40, 45(140), 90,
100 (300) and 105 keV, accordingly. The implantation with doses of 5x1017?1018??-2 was carried out in
vacuum (1,3x10 -3 Pa) at density of a current not exceeding several ???cm-2. The energies of acceleration
of ions were chosen so that theoretical profiles of their distribution [4] without the account of effects
of sputtering and swelling were about identical for all elements. Thermal isochronal annealing was
carried out in vacuum (6,6x10-3 P?) through 1000? in a range of temperatures 200-1200 0? during
1hour. The identification of implanted layers structure was carried out on X-rayograms, received with
use of a narrow beam monochromatic CuK? ? radiation directed under glancing (30) corner to a sample
surface [5]. At formation of texture phases the additional measurements were carried out at corners of
3, 6, 9 and 150 and the identification was carried out on set of all received reflections. The research of
accumulation processes of an implanted impurity was carried out with the help of a RBS-method at
energy of protons 500 keV.
Experiment
Argon. X-rayograms received on samples of molybdenum implanted by ions of argon show,
that during implantation in researched layers a phase with hexagonal structure (?=3.01Е, ?=4.71Е)
arises (Fig. 1). Subsequent annealing up to 600 0? results, simultaneously with the beginning of
disintegration of the registered phase, in appearence another hexagonal structure with lattice
parameters of molybdenum carbide ??2? (?=2.99Е, ?=4.72Е) [6]. At 700 0?, the phase that has
arisen at implantation completely disappears. At the further increase of annealing temperature on
X-rayograms remain only reflections from a phase ??2?, to that at 1000 0? the lines of polycrystalline
molybdenum are added.
Most interesting is the fact of appearence, during implantation, of hexagonal structure, that
at heating is transformed in molybdenum carbide. It is possible to assume, that it is the phase with
structure ??2?, in that the part of atoms of carbon is substituted by the third element. Atoms of
carbon are implanting in researched layers by a method of recoil from an atmosphere of residual gases
of the accelerator and adsorbed on a surface of a samples. The third element, taking into account
conditions of implantation, can be nitrogen or oxygen (the results of similar character are observed
also at implantation of nitrogen ions). Thus, implantation of inert gas does not result in formation of
the ordered structures directly with its participation.
Oxygen. X-ray researches that have been carried out on molybdenum samples implanted by
oxygen show (Fig.2) that during implantation arises a bcc-structure with parameter of a lattice ?=3.46Е,
that differs from similar parameter of molybdenum (?=3.14Е) almost on 10 %. Subsequent isochronal
annealing up to 5000? does not bring in essential changes to an observable picture. At 6000C, the
bcc-structure disappears and instead of its a polycrystalline phase ??2?3 arises, to that at 8000? the
# 561 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
small quantity of a polycrystalline phase ???2 adds. The formed structures is stable up to temperature
12000?, annealing at that results in their complete disintegration.
The analysis of the results, received on oxygen, in view of the known data on system ??-O
[7] allows to make the following conclusions relatively of observable processes. Despite of the high
chemical activity, the atoms of oxygen in process of implantation do not form chemical compound
with molybdenum, and only, being placed in an initial lattice, form superstructure. The appearence
superstructure with increased, in relation to molybdenum, parameters of a lattice causes a pressure in
a crystal that partially relaxes by transition in a polycrystalline state.
Annealing results in to diffusion of oxygen from implanted layers and segregation it in separate
regions (most likely on borders of crystallites) with the subsequent formation of chemical compound.
It is possible also, that segregation occurs directly at implantation. This conclusion follows from
composition of an arising phase Mo2O3. As to a phase ???2, appearing in small quantities after
annealing, it arises at achievement of threshold temperature (700-8000?) in those regions of an initial
material, where owing to diffusion and segregation processes is created necessary composition. Thus,
the time of annealing at temperatures exceeding threshold value in this case can render essential
influence on formation of oxides.
As to literary data of other authors relatively processes of phase formation in molybdenum at
implantation of oxygen, in them it is possible to find various results. For example, in work [8] in result
of implantation by various dozes of mono- and polycrystalline samples of molybdenum are received
low (???2), intermediate (????, where 2<?< 3) and highest (???3) oxides. At the same time, results
received in work [8] at implantation by oxygen of molybdenum films well correlate with results
submitted in the given section, except the fact of appearence of superstructure after implantation and
formation of phase ???2 at annealing.
Carbon. At introduction of ions of carbon in molybdenum arise a texture phases of carbide
(??2?) and monocarbide molybdenum (??-???) with hexagonal structures. Subsequent annealing
up to 1200 0? results in disintegration of the monocarbide molybdenum (800-9000?) and increase
of the particles sizes of the carbide molybdenum. At the same time at temperatures 800-9000?
appearence of a phase ??2? in not texture, but in a polycrystalline state, is marked. As have shown
additional experiments on annealing of unimplanted samples, this phase is formed on a molybdenum
surface at the expense of carbon presenting in an atmosphere of residual gases of the furnace at
annealing.
The analysis of the received results, that have been carried out in view of the known data on
system Mo-C [7] allows making conclusions concerning observing processes. In works [9,10] by an
electron diffraction method investigated mono- and polycrystalline film of molybdenum, implanted
by ions of carbon ions. Is shown, that during implantation in researching layers polycrystalline phases
carbide (??2?) and monocarbide (?-???) of molybdenum of hexagonal structure appears. Subsequent
thermal annealing at 10000? resulted in strengthening of intensity of the reflexes. The results of
the given work also show the formation of similar phases at implantation. However, alongside with
appearence of molybdenum carbide is formed not low-temperature ?-, but high-temperature ??-???
phase, that disintegrates at annealing in a range of temperatures 800 ? 9000?. About a ??-phase is
known only that it is formed in process of carboning at low temperatures and transforms with increase
of temperature to a usual ?-phase [11].
# 562 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
Fig. 1 X-rayograms of a molybdenum surface before
(1) and after implantation (2) by argon ions, and annealing at temperatures 900(3) and 12000?(4) at angles
? 30 (1-3) and 150 (4).
Fig.2 X-rayograms of a molybdenum surface after implantation by oxygen ions (1), and annealing at temperatures 6000 (2), 800 (3) and 12000C (4). ? = 30.
Regularities of phase formation
Analyzing the received experimental data (Table 1), is possible to notice, that character of
processes, proceeding at implantation, depend on the atomic sizes of introduced elements only. In
process of their increase occurrence superstructure (oxygen), formation of introduce phases (nitrogen,
carbon) and, at last, disordering of researched layers (boron, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur). The synthesis
of the compounds in last case is observed only at the temperatures exceeding certain threshold values.
As to inert argon, it has propensity at an irradiation to segregate and to form a bubble; therefore, the
disordering of a molybdenum lattice is not observed.
The revealed regularities well correlate with a rule of Hagg [12], according to that if the ratio of
radius of nonmetal atom (rX) to radius of metal atom (rM) is less than the critical value (~ 0.59), the
simple structures are formed. They represent introduce phases, in that nonmetal atoms is possible to
consider as inserted in an atomic lattice of metal. Thus the introduced atoms or fill an insignificant part
of interstices (austenite, introduce solutions on a basis of bcc ? lattice), or, at the large concentration
of an impurity, the lattice of the metal ? solvent suffers polymorphic transformation, more often in a
sequence bcc-hcp/fcc [13]. Comparing peculiarities of introduce phases formation with the regularities
of structural ? phase transformations at ion implantation, revealed in the given work, it is possible
to note, that a decisive role in researched processes at a stage of implantation plays the size factor. If
radius of introduced nonmetal atoms correlates with a Hagg rule, the solid solutions or compounds of
introducing having simple close packed structures are formed. Thus composition of compounds will
be determined by the achieved concentration of implanted atoms and presence of such compounds
# 563 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
Table 1. Phase transformation in ion implanted molybdenum
Ions
E, keV
O
50
N
45
C
40
Phases
Mo(O)
Mo2O3
MoO2
?-MoN
?-Mo2N
??-MoC
Mo2C
Temperature, 0C
Structures
bcc
rhombohedr.
monoclynic
hexagonal.
fcc
hexagonal.
hexagonal
Formation
at implant.
600
800
at implant.
at implant.
at implant.
at implant.
Decay
600
>1200
>120
700-800
800-900
800-900
>1200
r x/rMo [24]
0.43
0.51
0.55
in the corresponding phase diagrams. So, for example, the implantation of oxygen in interstices of a
molybdenum lattice results in appearence of the ordered solid solution without formation of compounds.
In a case implantation of nitrogen or carbon, compounds of introducing with simple close packed
structures arise. They can be received by usual methods at increase of an impurity concentration up
to values determining polymorphic transformation of a lattice of the metal ? solvent. Thus, because of
wide diapason of homogeneity, the formation of the compounds should be observed in the rather large
range of dozes.
It is necessary to note, that, as the method ion implantation is thermodynamically nonequilibrium,
the synthesized structures can be metastable, as is observed in experiments. At using of usual methods
they are received by hardening, that has resulted, in our opinion, in appearence of models of ion
synthesis containing idea of formation along a track of an implanting particle or at the end of its
high-temperature ranges, cooling down with the large speed (thermal peaks or peaks of displacement
[14, 15]). Other reason of arising of this models is stipulated for receipt of a lot of experimental data
showing of formation during implantation at room temperatures and lower not only simple, but also
rather complex structures.
Such approach to mechanisms of ion synthesis from the point of view of thermal peaks or peaks of
displacement apparently is not right on several reasons. First, on our data during introduction arise only
simple close packed structures, that formation proceed by polymorphic transformations at the expense
of pressure created in a lattice of the metal by introduced particles. Secondly, any correlation between
mass and energy of bombarded particles determining temperature of peaks, on the one hand, and
arising of most probable from phase diagrams structures ? with another, was not founded. Transition
to heavier ions, that should create more high-temperature peaks of displacement at the expense of
increase of losses of energy at elastic collisions in smaller volume, do not result to ion synthesis, and
cause disordering of implanting layers only. It is observed in a case of implantation of boron, sulfur,
phosphorus and silicon, that size factors (rX/rM) much more exceed critical value determined by Hagg
(Table 1).
The received results give the occasion to conclude, that, the process of disordering in this case
is caused not by fast cooling of high-temperature peaks, but accumulation of the structural defects
formed at the expense of effect of presence of introduced atoms with the rather large atomic radiuses
in a lattice of metal. The concentration of these defects in metal is determined not kinetic parameters
of implanting atoms, but their quantity and atomic sizes.
# 564 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
To answer a question, why on the data of other authors at ion implantation frequently arise complex
structures, for formation of that it is necessary to involve models of peaks, it is necessary to pay
attention first of all to objects of researches, used techniques for structural researches and conditions
of experiments. During ion implantation the surface of an sample is exposed to sputtering; swelling;
implantation by recoil method of uncontrollable impurity, adsorbed on a surface from an atmosphere
of residual gases of the accelerator; ion-stimulating chemical processes on top layers of the surface
etc. Among them is necessary to distinguish last process that has been not connected directly with
implantation of concrete kinds of ions, however capable to render essential influence on interpretation
of results on structural ? phase transformations. The speech goes about ion ? stimulated chemical
reactions of atoms of metal on a surface of a sample with adsorbed elements or appeared on a surface
implanted atoms owing to effect of sputtering, that proceed on other laws, rather than in volume.
At the same time the main part of works performed in this direction, is carried out by an electron
diffraction method. The thickness of researched layers in this case not exceed 10 nm at measurements
on «reflection» and 100 nm ? at measurements on ?transmission?. At measurements on ?transmission?
is registered an integrated diffraction picture, independently of a site of an arising phase ? on top layers
of the surface or in implanted volume of a material. In result, the processes of phase formation in the
top layers of a surface frequently attribute to the phenomena caused by ion implantation in deeper
implanted layers. At using of a method on «reflection», the uncertainty grows, as is sounded only upper
layers in some nanometers. The same concerns and to the phase analysis by a method of Mosbauer on
conversion electrons, where the integrated picture is observed and the depth of sounding is not more
100 nm.
In this respect X-ray method of register with glancing x-ray beam practically does not feel upper
layers in some nanometers and gives the data only about the volumetric phenomena. As the proof it
is possible to adduce the unpublished data on research of molybdenum, implanted by ions of carbon,
with electron diffraction method «on reflection». They showed appearing, alongside with molybdenum
carbides, number of structures that are not registered by an X-ray method. At the same time, the
differentiation of top surface and volumetric effects allows to explain appearing of observed structures
without attraction of models of thermal peaks not only at ion implantation, but also at other kinds of
radiation.
Thus, in the given work is not revealed of obvious dependence of character of ion synthesis
from physical-chemical properties of implanted elements, that begin to act only at transition formed
by ion implantation metastable structures in an equilibrium state at heating. In result, arise, in the
main, expected from the phase diagrams, structures. Synthesized high-temperature interstitial phases
(superstructure, carbides, nitrides) at annealing are disintegrating with formation of low-temperature
phases. In case of other elements (boron, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur) are observing formation of lowtemperature phases with various structures (Table. 1), kind of that is determined by concentration of
the implanted atoms, and processes of their diffusion and segregation. Last conclusion follows from
consideration of composition of received compounds that can differ from expected ones. Thus, for ion
synthesis of the compounds with necessary composition the performance of the following conditions
is necessary. First, ? the receipt in ion implanted layers of the appropriate concentration of implanted
impurity taking into account processes of sputtering and swelling of implanting layers, that in this
case can become restriction of a used method. Secondly, it is necessary to take into consideration the
# 565 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
diffusion processes that in most cases do not give possibility to keep of the achieved concentrations of
the implanted impurity at heating up to temperatures of phase transitions. One of ways of the solution
of a problem in the latter case is the creation of diffusion barriers behind of implanting layers.
The main regularities of formation of the ordered structures at implantation of molybdenum by
elements forming an interstitial phases (B, C, N, O, Si, P, S) are revealed. According to them the
character of structural ? phase transformations in molybdenum at ion implantation is determined not
kinetic parameters of bombarding particles and their chemical activity, but the size factor rX/rM (ratio of
atomic radiuses of implanted elements and atoms of a matrix). At change of its values, can be observed:
formation of superstructures (rX/rM < 0.43), polymorphic transformations with arising simple close
packed structures (0.43 < rX/rM < 0.69), disordering of a lattice of an initial matrix up to amorphisation
of implanted layers (rX/rM > 0.69).
Conclusions
2. The direct dependence between mechanisms of structural ? phase transformations and
processes of accumulation of an implanted impurity in researched layers is established. For example,
at implantation of nitrogen in molybdenum, leading to formation of nitrides in process of implantation
(rN/rMo = 0.51 < 0.59), its concentration in implanted layers rises with dozes up to a certain level. The
superfluous atoms of nitrogen are forced out in the neighboring regions with smaller concentration,
owing to what the phenomenon of disordering is not observed. Implantation of phosphorus
(rP/rMo = 0.77 > 0.59) leads to continuous increase of its concentration in implanted layers with a doze
and disordering initial lattice of molybdenum.
References
[1] P.V.Pavlov, L.I.Tetelbaum,E.V.Kurilchik et al. // FXOM, 1987, N. 4. P. 16.
[2] Ma E., Liu D. X., Chen X., Li M. D. // Thin solid films, 1987. V.14. P. 49.
[3] G.V.Afanasjev, E.M.Diasamidze, N.M.Kucija // Poverhnostj, 1986. N. 12/ P. 72.
[4] A.F. Burenkov, F.F. Komarov, M.A. Kunakov et al. // In Raspredelenie probegov uskorennyh
ionov. Misheni ??, ?l, ??, Preprint IAE-3592/11. ?., 1982. 59 p.
[5] A.V. Abashina, M.T. Akchulakov, K.K. Kadyrjanov, H.R. Kazdaev et al. // Poverhnostj. 1987.
N.4. P. 62.
[6] ASTM. Difraction Data File; ASTN, Filadelphia. 1969.
[7] Molybdenum: Physica-chemical properties of its compounds and alloys, special issue, ed. L.
Brewer // Atomic energy Review. Vienna, 1980, 714 p.
[8] N.V. Alov, G.A. Grigorjev. // XVII Vsesousnoe soveshanie po vzaimodejstviu zaragennyx
chastics kristallami. Moskow. MGU, 1987. P. 309.
[9] I.G. Gverdcitely, A.I. Guldamishvili. E.M. Diasamidze et al.// VANT, 1982. N.1. P. 32.
[10] P.V. Pavlov, D.I. Teteljbaum, A.V. Pavlov, E.I. Zorin. // DAN SSSR, 1974. N. 217. P. 330.
[11] R. Kiffer, P. Shvarckopff, in Tverdye materialy. M.: Metallurgizdat, 1957.
[12] G. Hagg // Z. Phys. Chem. 1930. V. 6. P. 221.
[13] R.A. Andrievsky, Ja.S. Umansky. M: Nauka, 1977. 240 p. R.B. Abylkalykova, L.I. Kveglis,
K.R. Kazdaev, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering &Technologies, 2011, 4, P. 303-309.
[14] J.S. Koehler, F. Seitz. // Conf. on Defects in Crystall Solids. Bristol. 1954. P. 152.
# 566 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Khamza R. Kazdaev, Riza B. Abylkalykova? Regularities of Formation of the Ordered Structures in Molybdenum?
[15] J.A. Brinkman //Appl. Phys. 1954. Vol. 25. N 8. P. 961.
?????????????? ????????????
????????????? ???????? ? ?????????
??? ?????? ???????????
?.?. ????????,
?.?. ?????????????, ?.?. ????????
?
???????? ??????????? ????????????,
????????? ?????, ??????, ?????????
?
????????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ??????????
?????????? ????????? 070020, ?. ????-???????????
??. 30-? ??????????? ???????, 34
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041,??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
????????, ??? ???????? ??????????-??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??? ??????
??????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????,
?. ?. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????. ????????????
??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? Ar, C, N, O, B, Si, P, S.
???????? ?????: ?????? ???????????, ??????????-??????? ???????????, ????????????
?????????.
?????? ?????????? ??????????? I?????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 568-578
~~~
??? 621.74.011
About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal
with External Rotational Magnetic Field
Toksan A. Zhakatayeva* and Klara Sh. Kakimovab
a
E. A. Buketov Karaganda State University
28 Universitetskaya Str., Karaganda, 100028 Kazakhstan,
b
Karaganda State Technical University,
56 Bulvar Mira, Karaganda, 100016 Kazakhstan 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
Physical justification of a hypothesis that liquid metal in a melting bath and in a converter can be mixed
with external rotational magnetic field is carried out. Numerical solution of the kinetic equations for
casual collisions with use of free path length and of effective sections of atoms shows that concentration
of impurities can decrease to a desired level in time interval ranging from units of minutes to several
seconds. This proves the need forbetter mixing of molten metal with use of magnetic field for increased
efficiency of production cycle. It is assumed that free atoms of carbon C and oxygen O in liquid metal
don?t lose kinetic energy as a result of potential interactions with atoms of Fe. Therefore this model
works approximately. Procedure for exact integration of equation of motion for a Brown particle in
three-dimensional case is shown.
Keywords: melted, metal, mixing, magnetic, field, circular, impurity, interaction, speed, particle,
Brown, travel.
Introduction
Development and implementation of new technologies for effective mixing of liquid metal is
still a vital problem. It is known that duringmixingprocess various ingots are formed with different
physical and chemical properties. Development of a new theoretical method for calculation of
chemical reaction rate of various impurities in liquid metal is an important task in metallurgy.
Various atoms and molecules in liquid metal move on trajectories similar to trajectories of Brown
particles. Thus when considering motion of atoms and molecules all degrees of freedom need to be
considered equally.
Liquid metal (molten metal of crude-iron and steel) can have density around 7000 kg/m3 at the
temperature of about 1600 °C [1 ? 3]. Processes of carbon oxidation in liquid metal play very important
role, ?+? = (CO). It is known that carbonization already begins at temperatures of 400 ? 600 °C [1-3].
As the process of carbonization goes on the temperature of molten metal goes down. The melting
temperature of iron containing 4.3 % carbon can go down to 1147 °C.Carbon oxide plays an important
role in reduction reactions of iron [1-3]:
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: Toksanzh@yandex.kz
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 568 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
3Fe2O3 CO 2 Fe3O4 CO2 53740 J/mol,
Fe3O4 CO 3FeO CO2 36680 J/mol,
FeO + CO = Fe +CO2 - 16060 J/mol.
(1)
Methods and equipment
Numerical calculations were carried out on PC using Maple 15 package are used. We expanded an
analytical (theoretical) solutionof the differential equation for a Brownian particle into general threedimensional case.
Results
We have received the following new differential model for calculation of interaction rate of ? and
? atoms in liquid metal
dn c
dt
S � d12,2 � n c � n o � v rel ,
(2)
dn o
dt
S � d12,2 � n c � n o � v rel ,
(3)
where d1,2 d 2,1 rc ro ? effective diameters of interacting atoms, rc 0.76 � 1010 m-radius of a
carbon atom, ro 0.58 � 1010 m-radius of an oxygen atom, t ? time, s.
&
&
&
&
Average speed of relative motion is defined byequation v rel v 2 v1 . In our case v 2 v c ?
&
&
absolute speed of a carbon atom, v1 v o ? absolute speed of an oxygen atom.
In molten liquid metal atoms of oxygen and carbon can move freely, so their movements can
be described as in molecular-kinetic?s theory. If atoms are partially ionized, then oscillating motion
within one crystal cell will be accompanied by transition of potential energy to kinetic energy and
back. However, total chaotic movement of atoms will be like movement of a Brownian particle.
Average kinetic energy of atoms remains constant and is not lost to potential energy of interaction with
atoms.Excluding moments of time where atoms collide, their motion can be described as in molecularkinetic?s theory.The definition equation for relative speed of motion looks like [4]:
1
v rel
Є 8RT § 1
1 ·є 2
ЁЁ
ёё» ,
«
S
P
P
c №ј
© o
¬
(4)
where R =8.31 J / (mol*K) ? a universal gas constant; ? ? absolute temperature, K; P o , Pc ? molarmasses
of atoms, kg/mol.
The equations (2) and (3) form a nonlinear system of equations, whose analytical solution is:
nc
n?
>
n c,0 � exp S � d12,2 � n ? � v rel � t
@
@
,
,
n ?,0 � exp S � d12,2 � n c � v rel � t ,
>
(5)
(6)
Where n c, o ? initial value of concentration of impurity carbon atoms, n o, o ? initial value of
concentration of impurity oxygen atoms.
The system of equations (2) and (3) was solved on Maple 15 package. According to solution drop
of concentration of carbon and oxygen atoms from level nCO, nOO (100 %) to a level of 2 % occurs in
# 569 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
Fig. 1. Change of concentration of carbon ? 1 and oxygen ? 2 atoms in liquid metal as a function of time
very small time interval t~10 -11 -10 -10 s, Fig. 1. Fig. shows change of relative concentration of carbon
and oxygen atoms as a function of time. Element, which has higher initial concentration than the other,
decreases more slowly.
If initial concentration of oxygen atoms is taken very small, so that only one collision (one
interaction) of ?+? is considered at a time, then an estimated time of reduction of carbon concentration
can increase up to 1012 s. By performing calculations at various initial concentrations no, an estimated
time (for reduction of a level of carbon nCO to 0.5 %) equal to 3 minutes is obtained. Thus it is possible
to reduce time of technological processing of liquid metal to level of 1-3 minutes.
Careful attention needs to be paid to the fact that our calculations and results correspond to an
ideal case: arrangement of impurity atoms is uniform throughout the volume; there are no retarding
factors, such as the inverse reaction of CO decomposition;there are no convective currents (loss of
atoms);absence of stagnation zones in molten metal;impurity atoms have equal initial concentrations
(nc=no) and so on. In reality not every collision of a carbon atom with an oxygen atom results in
formation of a CO molecule.
We have done calculations for 1 m3 of liquid metal with the following initial conditions.
Liquid metal has three components: n ob n Fe n C n O , ?f = 7000 kg/m3, ?=1873 K ? density and
temperature of liquid metal, n C =0.04* n ob (at 4 %) ? mass concentration of carbon, N Fe 7.467 � 1028 ,
N C N O 1.394 � 1028 ? initial total quantity of iron, carbon and oxygen atoms in 1 ?3 of liquid metal. For
a carbon atom we obtain: free path length Oc 6.714 � 10 11 m; average speed v c 1810.41 m/s; diffusion
coefficient D? = 4.051Ч10 -8 m2/s. Similarly, for atom an oxygen atom we receive: O o 7.916 � 10 11;
D? = 4.137·10 -8 m2/s; v o = 1567.71 m/s, v rel 2395.82 m/s.
Thus the problem of more intensive and uniform mixing of all volume of liquid metal, so that all
atoms of C and O could enter into reaction simultaneously and in the shortest possible time, is pressing.
We see the solution of a problem in application of rotating variable magnetic field.
# 570 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
Fig. 2. Penetration of magnetic field through a piece of a brick
?? ? winding 1, ?? ? winding 2, ?? ? winding 3, 1, 2 ? external and internal walls
of a melting bath, 3 ? molten metal
Fig. 3. Scheme of an arrangement of three-phase winding on external side of a case of a melting bath or converter
Fig. 2 shows magnetic field penetrating a brick with finite wall width. These bricks are used in
converter walls or in a melting bath in the metallurgical furnace. Apparently at vertical position of a
brick the magnetic disk does not fall at all under action of gravity, it is kept with the force of magnetic
attraction. This means that magnetic field possesses significant penetrating capacity through a brick.
In Fig. 3 the scheme of an arrangement of external windings around a case of a melting unit
is shown. This arrangement of winding generates alternative rotating magnetic field. Thus we
suggest a new application of rotating magnetic field, which is used widely in three-phase windings
&
of electromagnetic motors ? [5-7]. The vector of magnetic induction B f ( t ) rotates around an axis O
with the fixed frequency ?.
Resultant magnetic field is rotating because magnetic field is generated in three windings 1, 2, 3
with phase shift of 120o degrees ? [5-7]
B1
Bm sin Zt ,
B2
Bm sin( Zt 120 o ) ,
B3
Bm sin( Zt 240 o ) ,
(7)
# 571 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
where Bm ? amplitude of a magnetic field vector, T.
The magnitude of a vector of magnetic induction B does not depend on time and is equal [5-7]
B
3
Bm .
2
(8)
&
The effect of rotation of B( t ) in space results from
and By
3
Bm cos Zt , so tgD
2
Bx
By
S
phase shift of projections Bx
2
3
Bm sin Zt
2
tgZt .
Kinematic viscosity of steelmaking slags changes in the range of v = 3*(10 -6ч10 -4) m2/s and
kinematic viscosity of liquid steel changes accordingly in the range of 4?10 -7ч8?10 -7 m2/s [1-3]. For water
this parameter is equal to 9?10 -7 m2/s. It appears that liquid metal has low viscosity.
&
By penetrating into depth of liquid metal periodically rotating magnetic field B( t ) will drag behind
itself and cause to rotate some layer of liquid metal. The given method is good in that the magnetic field
will rotate layers of liquid metal which adjoin or stick to an internal wall of a converter or a melting
bath. Thus layers of molten metal, which are the least involved in mixing before, will be mixed the
most.
Fig. 4 is the photo of a constant magnet with which we have conducted experiments using thin
metal grit. Distortion of magnetic field by thin layer of a metal sheet was studied. As experiments have
r
shown, flat thin iron sheets do not weakennoticeably magnetic field B . Similar experiments were done
using the ring magnet in Fig. 2. Thus thin layered metal sheets on external sides of melting baths and
converters will not reduce substantially penetration of magnetic field into internal volume of liquid
metal.
r
Interaction of an external exciting magnetic field B with the magnetic fields of currents I1 and I2
is shown in Fig. 5. The current I1 is generated when magnetic flux ?=B·S increases, and the current I2 is
induced when flux decreases. It follows from Faraday?s law of induction for boundary parts of external
magnetic field vector, which are shown in Fig. 6, part 1 and 3. In these boundary parts of external
&
&
&
magnetic field the doughnut-shaped internal induced field Bp B1 + B2 turns to 90o and ?sticks? to a
wall of a melting bath 2 (Fig. 5). This phenomenon is similar to Helmholtz vortices observed in fluid
Fig. 4. the source of cylindrical magnetic field
# 572 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
Fig. 5. Interaction scheme of external and of induced internal magnetic fields in a melting bath
&
1 ? windings for generation of an external magnetic field B , 2 ? wall of melting bath, 3 ? direction of rotation
& & &
of a vector B , B1 , B2 ? induced magnetic fields, OOc ? the axis of a melting bath
mechanics. We note that currents I1 and I2 are results of superposition of two currents: I1 = I1,e + I1,i
I2 = I2,e + I2,i. The index ?e? corresponds to current of free electrons and the index ?i? corresponds to
current of positive or negative ions.
r
In the central (constant) part of the external magnetic field B (Fig. 6, part 2) the direction of currents
r
I1 and I2 depends on a direction of rotation of the vector B , a designation 3 in Fig. 5. The direction of
currents can be determined by the rule of the right hand. Direction of the magnetic volumetric force
acting on an element of volume can be defined by the left hand rule. Interaction of the internal induced
r
r
magnetic field vector Bp with the external magnetic field vector B leads to attraction, repulsion or
r
cross-sectional (relative to B ) movement of some finite layer of liquid metal. As a result this volume
of liquid is involved in mechanical motion and there will be mixing of various layers of liquid metal.
The thickness of layer of liquid involved in motion depends on the cross-sectional size of a winding 1
in Fig. 5. Hence rotating magnetic field and volume of liquid metal brought to motion by this field has
finite cross-sectional sizes.
The proposed method of intensification of intermixing of liquid metal does not only apply for
interaction of ?+?. It is possible to apply the method to improve mixing and to increase the rate of
chemical reaction of all other impurities in various molten metals and their species.Calculation of
mixing rateof impurities plays an important role in the manufacture of semiconductor crystals, which
are widely used in electronic industry.
There are particles composed of several atoms and molecules within liquid metal, for example,
such as CO, SO, FeC, CaO, NO. There are also large enough particles of slag and structures composed
of severalatoms of external impurity. All of these particles and even single atoms in liquid metal can
move like Brownian particles. Analysis of the equations describing motion of Brownian particles is
vital for the metallurgical branches. In [4, 8, 9] the following equation for calculation of distance
traveled by a Brownian particle along X axis is received:
x2
kTt
,
3SPa
(9)
# 573 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
&
Fig. 6 ? Cross-sectional distribution of external magnetic field vector B
1,3 ? gradient (boundary) part of the magnetic field, 2 ? constant (central) part of the field
where ?-dynamic viscosity of liquid, a ? particle radius, ? ? absolute temperature, t-time.
In literature equation for one-dimensional motion of a Brown particle is presented [4, 8]
m
d2x
B
dt 2
dx
Fx ( t ) ,
dt
(10)
Alsoin literature three-dimensional equation is given [9]
m
&
d2 r
B
dt 2
&
dr
F( t ) ,
dt
(11)
&
where r r ( x, y, z) ? radius-vector of a particle, F (t) = F(t)=(Fx,Fy,Fz) ? force casual in magnitude and
direction. This force characterizes casual wandering trajectories of particles [4, 8, 9],
(12)
B 6SPa
&
coefficient in the Stocks' equation for drag resistance force Fc
&
B � v , v ? speed of a moving particle. For
&
simplification purposed equation (12) is multiplied in scalar way on r and after some transformations
the scalar equation turns out [9]
m d2 2
d
r B� r2
2 dt 2
dt
& &
mv 2 F( t ), r .
(13)
Let?s average out the given equation on set of particles and then we will receive
m d2 2 B d 2
r � r
2 dt 2
2 dt
3kT ,
(14)
as mv 2 2 3kT 2 ? according to the theorem of uniform distribution of thermal energy on degrees of
& &
freedom and F( t ), r 0 ? force averaged over time is equal to zero.
The analysis carried out by us has shown that the equation (14) can't be integrated twice ifintegration
is done from t = 0 up to the arbitrary time moment t, and then both parts of the result are dividedby a time
interval t, as it is done in [9]. In this case after the first integration the equation turns out to be [9]
m d 2 B 2
r �r
2t dt
2t
(15)
3kT .
# 574 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
This equation can?t be integrated in time any more as a denominator with t is present ? [9].
We found that the three-dimensional equation (14) can be integrated successfully twice in time if
a technique for integration of the one-dimensional equation (10)used in [8] is implemented.According
to this method first we will accept a designation z
d 2
r . Then (14) will be rewritten as
dt
m d
B
z � z 3kT .
2 dt
2
(16)
This is ordinary differential equation of the first order ? [10]
y c p( x ) y q ( x )
whichhas the solution
· є
§ v
·Є
§ x
x
ё »
Ё
ё«
Ё
y expЁ p( x )dx ё « y o Q( v) expЁ p(u )du ёdv» .
ё »
Ёx
ё«
Ё x
xo
№ ј
© o
№¬
© o
і
і
і
(17)
From (16) and (17) we will receive precisely
d 2
r
dt
6kT
.
B
(18)
Integrating (18) and using (12) and using initial conditions ro 0 at t=0 from (18) we will easily
receive
r2
6kT
B
kTt
.
SPa
(19)
Equation (19) is the solution of a given problem and shows an averaged square of radius-vector of
three-dimensional motion of a Brownian particle.The same result can be obtainedfrom the equation (9)
if following assumption is made [4,8]
x2
y2
z2 .
(20)
Then the equation (19) follows from the fact that r 2
x 2 y 2 z 2 [8,9].
Discussion
As is known, metallurgical manufacture is a set of complicated interconnected technologies and
processes demanding considerable material inputs. We hope that equal consideration of fundamental
and applied sides during the solution of the important scientific and technical problem will lead to
increasedprobability of success. Therefore we invite for cooperation all interested foreign partners and
colleagues.
Theoretical proof that it is possible to mix liquid metal on the basis of influence of an external
rotational magnetic field was given. The magnetic field rotates on a circle similarly to how the magnetic
field in a stator of electromagnetic motors and generators rotates. Laboratory experiments have shown
that magnetic field can pass through a brick. Numerical calculations which show asymptotic decrease
# 575 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
Fig. 7. Scheme ofa Brownian particle movement. Atoms C, O
in concentration of carbon Nc and oxygen No atoms in time are carried out. The model is constructed
on an assumption that frequency of interaction of these atoms approximately corresponds to frequency
of casual collisions under the theory of effective sections. Free atoms of carbon C and oxygen O in
liquid metal don?t lose kinetic energy as a result of potential interactions. Therefore the given model
works approximately. Procedure for exact integration of the equation of motion for the Brown particle
in three-dimensional case is shown.
Let two particles be within the liquid environment and be at initial time t? at distance d from each
other. It is possible then to assume that particles are distributed evenly over all liquid volume with step
size of d, Fig. 7. Let each particle after some time t to travel to a new position at distance r = d/2. In
this case external borders of two volumes will overlap, Fig. 7. Distance r can be calculated with the
equation (19) as distance traveled by Brownian particle. From there it is possible to find time t. From
time it is possible to calculate average frequency of collisionor impact and from there probabilities of
interaction of Brown particles. Equation (19) can be used for calculation off v rel , then model (2-3) will
improve.
We stress distinctive and useful points of our conclusion. 1) ? the detailed solution of the threedimensional equation (13, 14) has universal value, unlike when the one-dimensional equation (10) is
considered only. In three dimensionalcase it is not necessary to do the assumption (20), and this causes
projections of a displacement vector to be independent and to have any value. It is easy to pass from
r
consideration of r toconsideration of its components x, y, z. In equation (19) numerical coefficients
have values: 1/3, 2/3, 1.0; 2) ? In this case it is not necessary to search for (or to select empirically) some
partial solution of the non-uniform equation ? [9]
y2
4kT § m ·
Ёt ё .
B ©
B№
(21)
When using a boundary condition ro = 0 it is not necessary to apply a condition that Wo Bm d 10 8
has very small size ? [8]; 3) ? Based on probability (frequency) of collisions and on chemical interaction
of Brown particles it is possible to solve an inverse problem ? to find value of viscosity of the liquid.
Conclusions
1. The hypothesis that rotating variable magnetic field can be used to intensify mixing of molten
metal in a melting bath or converter is offered and physically proved.
2. The numerical solution of kinetic equations for casual collisions with use of free-path length
of atoms shows that concentration of impurities can decrease to desired level in time interval ranging
# 576 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
from about several seconds to units of minutes. This shows necessity for improvement of mixing of
molten metal with the use of magnetic field, which can also increase efficiency of the technological
process.
3. Procedure for exact integration of the equation of motion for the Brownian particle in threedimensional case is shown.
References
[1] Voskobojnikov V.G., Kudrin V.A., Yakushev A.M. General metallurgy. ?.: I?C «?c?d??books»,
2005. 6-ed., edited. 768 p.
[2] Chelishchev E.V., Arsentyev I.P., Jakovlev V.V., Ryzhonkov D.I. General metallurgy. ?.:
Metallurgy, 1971. 480 p.
[3] Linchevskij B.V., Sobolevskij A.L., Kalmenev A.A. Metallurgy of black metals.-?.: Metallurgy,
1986. 360 p.
[4] Matveev ?.N. Molecular physics. ?.: the Higher school, 1981. 400 p.
[5] Molchanov A.P., Zanadvorov P.N. Course of electro-technology and radio-technology. ?.: The
Science, 1976. 479 p.
[6] Kasatkin A.S., Nemtsov M.V. ?. Electrician engineering: The Higher school, 2002. 542 p.
[7] Evsukov A.A. Electrician engineering. ?.: Education, 1979. 248 p.
[8] Anselm A.I. Statistical physics and thermodynamics bases. M.: The Science, 1973. 424 p.
[9] Sommerfeld A. Thermodynamics and the statistical physics. M.: IL, 1955. 481 p.
[10] Smirnov V.I. Higher mathematics course.- ?: The science, 1967. V.2. 655 p.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Toksan A. Zhakatayev and Klara Sh. Kakimova. About Possibility of Mixing of Liquid Metal with External Rotational?
? ??????????? ?????????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
???????? ????????? ?????
?.?. ????????a, ?.?. ?????????
?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??. ?.?. ????????
????????? 100028, ?????????, ??. ???????????????, 28,
?
?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????
????????? 100016, ?????????, ??????? ????, 56
?
????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????
???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????, ??????????,
??????????? ?? ????? ????????? ????. ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???
????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????
????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????
?? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ?.?.?. ???????????????? ?????.
???????, ??? ????????? ????? ???????? C ? ????????? O ? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????
???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? Fe. ???????
?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????. ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???
??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ??????, ??????, ?????????????, ????????? ????, ????????, ???????,
??????????????, ????????, ??????? ???????????, ????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 579-584
~~~
??? 621.762
????????? ?????????????????
(?????????????, ????????) ??????????
??????? ???????????????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????,
?.?. ?????????? , ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????????
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
???????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???,
?????? 660036, ??????????, ?????????????, 50, ???. 24 1
?
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??(??)2 ? ?????????
???????????? ??????: ???????? ? ??????????? ??????. ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????
??????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????
????????? ??????????. ? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????
????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? (120-125 ??), ?????????????????
?????? ??????? ????????, ? ????? ??? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
????????????????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????, ????????????????,
??????????? ? ???????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ????????? ???????? (II), ??????????????, ???????????.
? XXI ???? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? 100 ??, ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????
??? ?? ??????????. ? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????, ????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????, ????????? ????????????? [1].
? ????????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ?
???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?-??????????? ?????????? ???????? (?). ?-??????????? ?????????? ???????? (II) ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????
????? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ????. ????? [2, 3] ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?-??????????? ?????????? ???????? (II), ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????-????????? ???????????? ??????? ??-17-8
? ??-?????. ?-??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????,
????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ? ??????? ????, ??*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: ssai@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 579 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????????????????? (?????????????, ????????) ???????????
????????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????
? ????????. ????????? ?????? «??????» ? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????
???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ????
?????????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?
????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????.
???????????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???, ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? [4].
???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????,
??? ? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? (???????????). ???
????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????,
??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????.
????????????????? ?????
? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??-17-8 ? ??-?????, ???????
??????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????.
???????? ???????? ???????? ? ??-????? ???????? ??????? ? [5].
? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?-??(??)2
????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????
m? ??
C CoAn � VCoAn � 2
,
COE
(1)
??? C???n ? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????, V?oAn ? ????? ???????? ????????. ?????
??????? ???????? ? ??-????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ????????? 0,25 ? ????????? ???? ??
(II) (25 ??) ? ???????????? (25 ?? 0,25 ?) ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????? (?????? ???
???? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????). ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ????
(??????? ????????? 0,25 ??), ?????? ????????????????, ????????? ????? ? ??????????
??? 80 °?.
????????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??(??)2
? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????????
?????????????????? ?-??(??)2, ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? 15 ?? ?????1 ?? 0,5 ? ??????????. ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ? = 400 °? ? ????????
????????????? ? ??????? 15 ?. ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? (? ??????????? ??????????????????) ?????????? ???????? ??????? (?? ????? 10-15 ???) ? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 80 °?.
??????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????, ????????? ??????????????????? ??????
(???????????? ????????????? X'Pert PRO PIXcel ????? PANalytical, ????????? ?uK?, ?????
????? 1,5405980 Е), ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????. ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ????? 2?.
1
? ?????? ????????????: ????? ????????? ????? ??-6 (?? 38.401-58-3-90), ?????????????? ?-40 (???? 20799-88)
? ???????????????? ?? (?? 38.1011025-85).
# 580 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????????????????? (?????????????, ????????) ???????????
???????????? ???????? ??????? ??-????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??-????????????????? Vector 22 ????? Bruker, ??????????? ?? ??????? ±1??-1 ? ??????????? 2 ??-1, ?
??????????? ??????????? ? ? ??????? Hitachi S5500.
?????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ????
?????????????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?-??(??)2, ????????????????? ???????????????? ??????. ??????????? ??
???????????? ??????, ? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? (???? = 194,5 °?), ?? ?? ???????????????? ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????????????? ?-??(??)2. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ????????
????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????. ????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????.
?? ?????? ???, ? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ???? ?????????????? ??, ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??? (???. 1). ???????? ????, ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ????????, ????????
??????????????? ??????????? ????????.
?? ??-???????? (???. 2) ????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?-40 ? ??-6, ??????????? ??? ???
3433 ??-1, ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??-????? ??????????. ?????? ??????????
24
???. 1. ?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???????? (II)
? ????????? (?), ?????????????? (?) ? ???????????????? (?) ??????
# 581 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????????????????? (?????????????, ????????) ???????????
?
?
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
???????? ?????, ??-1
1500
1000
500
???. 2. ??-??????? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ??-6 (?) ? ?-40 (?)
???. 3. ??????????????? ????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ? ????????? (?) ? ??????????????
(?) ??????
??? 600 ??-1 (???. 2?) ????????? ? ?????????? ????? Co-? [6]. ????????? ?????? ??????????
????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????
???????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????.
?? ?????? ??????????-????????????????? ???????????? (???. 3) ??????? ????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ?-40 ? ??-6, ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????. ? ?????????, ? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????? 120-125 ??. ? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????, ?????????
?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????. ????????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????,
??? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????.
??? ??????? ????, ????? ? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ?????????
?? ??????????? 350 °?, ???? ??????? ??? ? ???????????, ??? ? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????# 582 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????????????????? (?????????????, ????????) ???????????
???? ?????? ??????????? ??????? [7], ? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????????:
??(??)2 + ?2 = ??0 + 2?2?.
????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????
(??????????????) ???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????.
???? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? [8, 9]. ???????? ?????????
????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????, ???
????????? ?????? ? ???????????, ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????????? ? ?.?. ???? ????? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????, ?? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
???????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ???????? [10].
????, ???? ???????? ????????????????? ???????????, ????????????????? ??????????
???????, ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????
?????????? ???????? (II).
?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????
02.740.11.0269.
?????? ??????????
[1] Tarasov K.A., Isupov V.P., Bokhonov B. B. Formation of nanosized metal particles of cobalt,
nickel, and copper in the matrix of layered double hydroxide // Journ. of materials synthesis and processing. 2000. Vol. 8. ? 1. P. 21-27.
[2] ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? // ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????. 2001. ? 9. ?. 57-60.
[3] ????????? ?.?, ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????
(II) ? ??????? ???????? ??-17-8 ? ??- ????? // ????? ? ?????????? ??????????. 2005. ?. 48,
? 8. ?. 1232-1243.
[4] Nethravathi C., Ravishankar N., Rajamathi M. Nanocomposites of ?-hydroxides of nickel
and cobalt by delamination and co-stacking: Enhanced stability of ?-motifs in alkaline medium and
electrochemical behavior // Journ. Power Sources. 2007. ? 172. P. 970?974.
[5] ??????? C.?, ?????????? ?.?., ?.?. ??????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? (II) ? ??????? ???????? ??-17-8 ? ??- ????? // ???.
2002. ?. 75, ? 11. ?. 1823-1826.
[6] ?????????? ?.?. ??-?????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? (III) ?
???????????????? // ???????????? ???????. 2010. ? 3. ?. 93-95.
[7] ???????? ?.?. ???????????????? ?????. ?.: ???????????????, 1983, 296 ?.
[8] Jiao J., Seraphin S., Wang X. Preparation and properties of ferromagnetic carbon-coated Fe,
Co, and Ni nanoparticles // J. Appl. Phys.1996. V.80. ?. 103-108.
[9] McHenry M.E., Majetich S.A., Artman J.O. Superparamagentism in carbon-coated Co particles produced by the Kratschmer carbon arc process // Phys. Rev. B. 1994. Vol.49. ?. 11358-11363.
# 583 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????????????????? (?????????????, ????????) ???????????
[10] Lee J-K., Choi S. Synthesis and Surface Derivatization of Processible Co Nanoparticles //
Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.2003. Vol. 24. ? 1. P. 32-36.
Synthesis of Cobalt Nanoparticles
by Solvothermal Process
Svetlana V. Saikovaa,
Gennady L. Pashkov , Marina V. Panteleevab,
Yelena V. Linokb and Irina V. Korolkovab
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS,
50/24, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
b
New chemical synthesis procedure has been developed for obtaining of nanoparticles of metal cobalt
and cobalt oxide. The method based on delamination and solvothermal degradation of intercalated
cobalt hydroxide into organic media ? vacuum oil, transformer or industrial oils. The products were
investigated by chemical analysis, TGA, X-ray diffraction, IR-spectroscopy and electron microscopy.
Keywords: cobalt, cobalt oxide (II), nanoparticles, oil.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 585-591
~~~
??? 621.928.2
On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Vladimir P. Isakov*,
Anatoli N. Burenin and Marija V. Khudina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
In this article, an attempt on theoretical justification of design of a multi-wave separator for dispersion
of ultrafine powders is made. The advantages of such separator, as compared to the ordinary one,
are specified. The characteristics of materials appropriate for creation of real designs of multi-wave
screen-separators are considered.
Keywords: multi-wave screen, ultrafine powder, non-isometric particles, Van der Pol oscillator,
aramid fiber, diamond powder, carbon-containing stock.
Introduction
Dispersion of loose materials into conditioned fractions is a very frequently encountered
technological operation in many production processes. Technical devices used for this purpose are
called industrial or laboratory screens. Presently there are several dozens of various modifications
of screens different in the type of power drive, dimensions, performance and features of their
design. Despite considerable differences, all common modifications of screens are characterized
with a general fundamental drawback ? an extremely low coefficient of efficiency. The coefficient of
efficiency of most screens made in Russia and abroad is not more than 1-2 %. First of all, it is caused
by single-frequency nature of oscillations of working mesh, presence of a massive rigid frame for
its attachment, and great losses of power consumed by the drive motor. However, the mesh of an
ordinary screen oscillating with the drive frequency does not actually screen particles but simply
distribute them over its surface until all particles with dimensions less than the dimension of the
working mesh cells pass through it under action of gravity. In most cases such process is very timeand power-consuming.
When dispersing ultrafine materials using screens of common designs, there are problems
connected with permanent clogging of mesh with non-isometric particles; besides, when screening
galvanic materials, particles stick together under Coulomb force making hard-separate aggregates. In
order to overcome the above difficulties, we have made an attempt to create a multi-wave vibration
screen.
Adhesion effects increase with decrease in degree of material dispersion, that is why screening of
particles with dimensions about 10 micrometers and less using common design screens is impossible.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: isakov42@bk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 585 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
To overcome the above difficulties, in year 2000, a group of authors suggested an original design of
multi-wave vibration separation system and a vibration screen including the system [1].
The suggested method of multi-wave vibration separation has a number of principal advantages as
compared to any traditional single-frequency methods used before. It makes it possible to considerably
increase the efficiency of dispersion of ultrafine materials, enhance coefficient of efficiency of vibration
separators by 15-20%, decrease their energy consumption several times, completely solve the problem
of plugging of meshes with non-isometric particles and at the same time exclude the possibility of
formation of secondary adhesive aggregates in powders being dispersed.
At the same time, the principle of excitation of multi-wave separator system with a single vibration
source realized in this invention led to an excessive complication of design resulting in a considerable
decrease of its reliability and significant increase in the cost of multi-wave separators produced by
Kroosher Technologies.
Considering this, a possibility is offered below to simplify and upgrade the design of a highperformance multi-wave vibration separator preserving basic principal advantages of the above
prototype but, as distinguished from it, excited with several independent low-power generator-type
vibration sources.
Materials and methods
The mechanical characteristics of the most important elements of design of modified multifrequency vibration separator are specified in study [2]. Among such design elements, first of all, there
are elastic carbon rods forming the basis for a modified vibration system and determining its geometry,
and also, elastic aramid fibers collectively forming the working mesh of a multi-frequency vibration
separator.
The principal features of this vibration system include the absence of rigid massive frame with
metal working mesh pulled on it and attachment of electromechanical vibrators of external lowpower excitation source directly on its elastic elements. It is offered to use a modified generator of
low-frequency electric oscillations on the basis of two electrically connected Van der Pol oscillators
with synchronously changing parameters as an excitation source of the multi-frequency (multi-wave)
vibration system. The generator executive devices are two electromechanical vibrators with magnetic
coupling between their electric and mechanical elements.
The multi-frequency vibration system excited with several (two in the case being considered)
sources of nonlinear mechanical oscillations is a complex dynamic system. Theoretical study of
such oscillatory systems is quite complicated and difficult in most cases when there are quasi-elastic
mechanical couplings between the design elements of such systems. Until now only few Russian papers
have been published dealing with theoretical research of simple models of such mechanical systems
and their units [3-8].
An example of the offered system may be an elastic fiber of the working mesh of a vibration system
attached at the ends of rectilinear rods of circular section forming its structural basis. In their turn, the
ends of the rods are attached in special suspensions with identical quasi-elastic characteristics. This
dynamic system is excited with two sources of energy the executive elements of which are rigidly fixed
at the opposite rods in their geometric centers. To be definite it is assumed that the quasi-elastic rods are
excited by means of sinusoidal random impulses of external forces applied to the center of each rod.
# 586 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Results
The differential equation system describing the dynamics of this oscillatory system is as follows
[5,8]:
(1)
,
.
where
(2)
Points above the values in (1) mean differentiation with respect to time t.
Here f(q) is a function characterizing nonlinearity of characteristics of quasi-elastic suspensions;
q is the displacement of small fiber element; ? is the natural oscillation frequency of the elastic fiber;
m is the weight of the fiber?s unit of length; ? is the angular coordinate of fiber horizontal deviation in
the vertical plane; ? is the frequency of impact of the external force in a small period of time; I1 is the
impulse of impact force of the first excitation source; I2 is the impulse of impact force of the second
excitation source; M 1 (M ) is a function characterizing the dependence of dynamic characteristic of an
excitation source (rod) on the speed M , of coordinate change; M 2 (T) is a function characterizing the
dependence of dynamic characteristic of an excitation source (rod) on the speed T , of external force
impact change; N (M ,T) and N (M , T) are functions characterizing the dynamics of elastic stresses of
1
2
the first and second sources in a fixed moment of time; ?, h, v1, v2 are dimensionless coefficients; ? is
a small parameter; E is the fiber elasticity modulus; m is the weight of the unit of fiber length; l is the
fiber length; F is the external force influencing the system; k is the fiber damping coefficient; k1 is the
rods damping coefficient; E1 is the rods elasticity modulus; l1 is the rods length; ? is the rods rigidity
coefficient; m1 is the weight of the rods unit of length.
The most active interaction of this dynamic system with the sources of power is in the frequency
domain of the main resonance [6, 7].
?
?
2
?? .
(3)
Let?s consider the system oscillatory motion in this frequency domain. For this purpose it is
convenient to introduce new variables.
q
a cos \, K q
aZ sin \, M ?, T
:, where \
T
[ is the resonance frequency of this
2
resonance domain. Then
M 1 (M )
N1 (M , T )
M 1 (?), M 2 (T )
M 2 (:), N1 (?, :) ? N 2 (M , T )
N 2 (?, :) .
Besides, to be definite, in the initial system (1) it is necessary to specify a function f(q) characterizing
the nonlinearity of characteristics of quasi-elastic couplings.
# 587 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Let?s assume that at the first approximation the function f(q) can be expressed in the form [7]
characteristic of many quasi-elastic materials.
.
(4)
As the rods have circular section, the characteristic function (4) takes the following form in the
new coordinate system
.
(5)
After introduction of new variables, consideration of relation (5), and standardization by means of
commonly used averaging operation a new system of equations is obtained equivalent to (1):
(6)
.
Equations (6) make it possible to study both transient processes in the dynamic system and the
stationary oscillations.
The numerical study (modeling) of the dynamic system described with these differentiable firstorder equations is complicated with the fact that for this purpose it is necessary to assign the explicit
forms of functions M1, M2, N1, and N2 describing dynamic characteristics of each of the excitation
sources. The analytic forms of these functions can be determined only experimentally with the relevant
physical model of this dynamic system with its real excitation sources.
However, when there are two excitation sources identical in their dynamic characteristics, it is
possible to suppose with the relevant degree of accuracy that in the frequency domain of the main
resonance (3) the condition [8] is satisfied
(7)
and functions N1 and N2 are also approximately equal.
.
(8)
In this case, if conditions (7) and (8) are satisfied, the condition [8, 9] is also met.
(9)
.
Considering the equation (7)-(9) let?s sum up the third and the fourth equations of the system (6),
and obtain an equivalent equation instead of them
.
# 588 #
(10)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
In the case of the dynamic system excitation with two identical sources of energy it can come into
resonance only providing the following condition is met:
.
(11)
It is possible only in case when function M (?)has the following form:
.
(12)
In this case the system of equations (6), considering (11) and (12), takes the following form:
,
,
(13)
.
The system of equations (13) by means of substitution
.
(14)
is transformed to a well-known Lorentz system of equations
(15)
in which, in this case, the dimensionless coefficients ?, r, and b take the following values
.
(16)
For a case of identical frame-forming rods these coefficients take the following form
(17)
gning the relevant magnitudes of values included in expressions (17) for a model structure of multiwave screen with carbon rods and aramid fibers, that is l = l1 =1m; m = 3,2 · 10 ?3 kg; m1 = 5,4 · 10 ?2 kg;
? = 0,047; F = 0,1 N;
I1 = 9,8 kg · m2; ? ? 3,1416, we obtain the values of dimensionless coefficients ? ? 10; r ? 177.8; b ? 2,
with which this dynamic system is in the state of main parametric resonance.
With these values of ?, r, and b the phase diagram of Lorentz attractor is shown in Fig. 1, and with
the values ? = 10; r = 164.3; b = 2.7 it is shown in Fig. 2, from which it can be seen that Lorentz attractor
preserve its properties in quite a wide variation range of parameters ?, r, b.
Lorentz equations (1) can be comparatively easily solved and studied using numerical modeling
by means of mathematics package Maple 7.0.
# 589 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
In the course of their operation multi-wave screens are permanently in the resonance domain that
is in a frequency domain where vectors of external exciting forces and displacement of the vibration
system itself coincide. When particles of loose material are on the surface of the working mesh of a multiwave screen each particle immediately finds its resonant frequency as a great variety of frequencies is
present on the mesh and distribution of such frequencies over the surface of the mesh changes dozens
of times per second. Its high efficiency is due to constant mixing of loose material under the influence
of quickly changing dynamic moments having effect on every particle with a frequency coinciding
with the natural resonant frequency of such particle. In the result small particles able to pass through
the mesh are not blocked by large ones but freely reach the surface of the mesh and pass through it,
even if they initially were in upper layers of the material. It conditions high technological efficiency of
multi-wave screen.
Duscussion of risalts
An essential condition for making real designs of multi-wave screens is a selection of appropriate
construction materials suitable for manufacturing of working meshes and rods of their structural basis.
The results of numerical modeling of the relevant dynamic operating modes of a multi-wave screen
show that for this purpose the materials are necessary with unique physical mechanical properties.
More specifically, their high strength (>1000 MPa) shall be combined with high elasticity modulus,
low temperature coefficient of elasticity modulus, high frequency quality factor, low elastic hysteresis,
stability of these properties, wear resistance, corrosion resistance close to similar characteristics of
best strain-hardening metal alloys of type 40?????.
However, as distinguished from them, such materials shall have far higher fatigue strength.
A study has been made on synthetic fiber ?Carbolon?, carbon fibers type ???-4 and ?Kulon?,
and aramid fiber ?Avco?, which have been found suitable for manufacturing of elements of a laboratory
multi-wave vibration screen.
Conclusion
This study represents the first experience of research of multi-wave dynamic systems. The results
obtained evidence the possibility of creating multi-wave separators able to disperse loose media
# 590 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
with the dimensions of particles in the order of units of micrometers. Such devices may be used in
different sectors of industry such as chemical, pharmaceutical, and many others. We are planning
to use the device for dispersing ultrafine diamonds. In our Department of Nanophase Materials and
Nanostructures of Institute of Engineering Physics and Radioelectronics a method has been developed
for obtaining diamond powder by means of explosion technology with characteristic dimensions of
diamond particles and their coagulation conglomerates from 4 to 2000 nm, where such particles are
resistant to ultrasound disintegration due to their extremely high surface energy. Besides, due to specifics
of the technology used, carbon-containing stock, which is the main product of explosion synthesis of
nanodiamonds, contains not only nanodiamonds, but ferrous carbides, nanotubes, fullerenes, and other
admixtures. To simply the process of their extraction from the stock it is offered to flow it through a
multi-wave separator with extraction of fine fractions of necessary dimensions.
References
[1] ???? ?., ?????? ?. ???. RU ? 2256515 (2000) // ?????????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????.
[2] ????? ?. ??????????????? ?????????. ?.: ???, 1978. 336 ?.
[3] ????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ?.: ?????,
1980. 360?.
[4] ?????? ?.?. ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????. ?.: ?????, 1980. 240 ?.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???. ?? ????. ???.1977. ? 4. C. 65
[6] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???. ?? ????. ???. 1981. ? 6. ?.52
[7] ????? ?. ????????????? ???????????? ??????. ?.: ???, 1979. 429 ?.
? ???????? ????????????? ????????
?.?. ??????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????. ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
?? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????,
?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ??????, ???????????????? ???????, ????????????????
???????, ???????????????? ????????????, ???????, ?????????? ??? ??? ????, ?????????
???????, ???????? ???????, ?????????????????? ????? .
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 592-600
~~~
??? 621.791.755
??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
????????????
????????????? ???????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660074, ??????????, ??. ??????????, 26 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1-2,5 ?? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ? ????? ??? ???? ???? 4-10 ?. ?????????? ??????? ???? ??
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? 0,180,5 ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????????
??????????? ?????, ????, ??????, ???????? ???????? 0,06-0,2 ?? ? ???????, ???????????
??????? ???????, ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????
?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? 2,5-9 ?. ?? ????? ?????
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????, ????????????
????????, ?????? ????????, ?????? ? ???????? ????, ????????? ????, ????, ????????
??????????, ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ????????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????. ??-????????, ? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ????? ????.
?????????, ??? ???? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????
???? 10-15 ? ????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????, ????
????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? 0,3 ??. ????????, ???? ? ?????????? ????????? 0,16 ?? ????????? ??? ???? 1 ? [1]. ?? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????.
?? ?????? [2], ??????????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????
????????? ?????????????. ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ????
???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????. ????? ?????????? ??????*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: evangelist1@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 592 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????????????? ????????? [3], ? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ????
???????? ??????? ? ??? [4]. ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ???
???? ???? 2,5?3 ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? [2].
??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ? ??????????
?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? 10-25 % ??????? ??????????? ?????? [5],
??? ????????? ??????????? ??????.
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? 0,24 ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? 0,6 ??, ? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? 0,47 ?? ? 0,3 ?? [1].
???????? ? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????. ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? 2-3 ???? ??????, ??? ??? ????????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ???, ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ?????
??????, ??? ? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????, ???????????
?????? ????????? ?? ????????? [6].
? ??????? [7, 8] ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? 1-5
?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ? ??????, ????? ? ????? ???
???? ???? 1-3 ?.
?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????
1-2,5 ?? ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? 10 ?, ????? ???? ???????
?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? 0,18-0,5 ?? ??? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? 0,06
?? ? ????????, ???????????? ??????????????? [5].
??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???? 75-100 ?. ??? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???? ????? 20 ? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????????. ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????,
????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????????. ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? 9-8, ? ??????????????
??????????? ???? ?? ????????? 30 ???/?.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????? 0,18, 0,5, 1 ?? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 2,5
?? ? ????? ??????? 60 ????. ?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? 0,5-1 ??, ?????? ?????? 5-6 ?/???, ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????????? ?????.
?? ???. 1 ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? 0,5
?? ??? ????????? ???????: I?=7-8 ?, U?=17 ?, V??=3,78 ?/?.
?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? (???. 2).
???????????? ??????? ???????? 0,5 ?? ???????? ?? ???. 3.
??? ??????? ???????????? ??????? 0,18 ?? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ???
???? ???? 4 ? ? ?????????? ???? 15 ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????
????? (???. 4).
# 593 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ???????? ?????????? ? ??????
?)
?)
???. 2. I?=11 ?, U?=16.5 ?, V??=3.78 ?/?: ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ???????? ???????
?)
?)
???. 3. I?=10-11 ?, U?=16,5 ?, V??=3,78 ?/?, ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????
?)
?)
???. 4. ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
???. 5 . I?=11 ?, U?=16.5 ?, ?????????? ????????
1
2
4
3
5
???. 6 . I?=9 ?, U?=16 ?, ?????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ???. 5 ? 6.
????????????? ???????? ??????? ????, ???????????????? ??????????? ???. 6, ????????
?? ???. 7.
?? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????
[9?11]. ?? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????
[9, 12].
# 595 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
???. 7. ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????????
????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1 ?? ???????? ?? ???????????????? ????? ?18?9?, ????, ??????, ????????. ?????? ???? ?????????
5 ?/???, ?????????????? ????? ???? 0,5-1 ??.
????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ? ??? ??????? ??????????????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ???, ?? ? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????
??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???.
??? ??????? ??????? 0,05-0,2 ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? 0,3-1 ??. ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ? ???????? 0,5-1 ?? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????.
??????? ?? ????? ?18?9? ???????? 0,2 ??, ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????, ???????
?? ???. 8.
????? ?????? ??????????? «?????????????? ???», ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? 0,1 ?? ? ?????? ? ????? (???. 9).
?? ???. 10 ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? 62 ???????? 0,06 ??.
??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????? ???????? 0,1 ?? ? ?????? ? ??????????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? (???. 11).
??? ?????? ???????? ???????? 0,16 ?? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? «??????????????» ??? (???. 12).
??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? 0,06-0,3 ?? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? 1 ??, ?????????? ?? ????, ?? ???????????? ???????????? (??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???) ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????
???. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????.
??????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????? [13], ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
??????? ???????? 0,1-0,5 ??.
# 596 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 8 . I?=3 ?, U?=28 ?
?)
?)
???. 9 . ? ? ?????, I?=5 ?; ? ? ????, I?=3.8 ?
???
???. 10 . I?=5 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 11. I?=4.5 ?, U?=29 ?
?)
?)
???. 12. ???????, ????????? ? ???????????: ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????. I? = 4,5 A, U? = 15 ?, ???????
??????? 0,2 ??
?)
?)
???. 13. ???????, ????????? ? ???????????: ?) ??? ??????, ?) ??? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
??????? 1
????????
???????, ??
???? ????, ?
???????? ???
??????
0,1
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,1
0,1
0,05
0,06
2,5
5,2
5
3
7,5
4,5
3,5
5
?????
?????
?????
????
?????
????
????
?????
????????
0,16
9,4
?????
????????????????
?????
????? ?18?9?
????
??????? ?????????? (4?0,7 ??) ?? ????????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????
???????? 0,06 ?? ?? ?????????? ? ??????.
?????? ??????: ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? 0,5 ??, I?=3 ?,
U?=18 ?, ???????? ?????? 7,7 ?/?.
??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???. 13.
«??????????????» ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ???
??????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ????????????? [14, 15].
?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????. 1.
??????
1. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1?2,5 ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? 10 ?.
2. ????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? 0,18 ? 0,5 ??.
3. ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? 0,06?
0,2 ?? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????.
4. ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
5. ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????, ?. ?., ????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 1999. ? 1. ?. 1517.
[2] ???????, ?. ?., ????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 2000. ? 4. ?. 68.
[3] Radio-frequency-free arc starting in gas tungsten arc welding // Weld. J. 1986. 38. ? 2.
P. 3341.
[4] ????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????, ????????? «Welding the world together»:
??????? // Lincoln electric. The welding experts, 2006.
[5] ?????? ????? ???????????? ???? / ??? ???. ?.?. ?????. ?.: ??????????????, 1977.
128 ?.
# 599 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
[6] ??????, ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ????????? ????????????. 1974. ? 4.
?. 2324.
[7] ???????, ?. ?., ???????, ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 2006. ? 7. ?. 2831.
[8] ???????, ?. ?., ???????, ?. ?. ???. 2251473 ?? (2003) // ?. ?. 2005. ? 13.
[9] ??????, ?. ?. ????????????? ????????? ????. ?.: ??????????????. 1970. 335 ?.
[10] ???????, ?. ?. ????????? ?????. ????????: ???, 2007. 14 ?.
[11] ?????, ?. ?. ???????. ???. ? ?-?? ????. ????. ?????????, 2004. 39 ?.
[12] ??????, ?. ?. ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ?? ????????????. ?.-?.:
?????????????, 1961. 320 ?.
[13] ?????, ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ????????? ????????????. 1979. ? 2.
?. 1213.
[14] ????????, ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 1988. ? 8. ?. 3639.
[15] ????????, ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 1989. ? 12. ?. 3739.
Special Features of Welding by a Low-Ampere Arc
with Tungsten Electrodes
Robert A. Meyster and Andrey R. Meyster
Siberian Federal University,
26 Kyrenskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia
When the arc is powered by a single-phase rectifier with a condenser voltage multiplier using tungsten
electrodes with a diameter of 1-2,5 mm, the arc ignites and burns in argon and nitrogen with a current
of 4-10 A. Stable arc burning at a reverse polarity provides full penetration of aluminum sheets with
a thickness of 0,18-0,5 mm without outflow of a molten pool. In welding of end connections made of
low-carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, brass, aluminum with a thickness of 0,06-0,2 mm, with a gap
larger than sheet thickness, in argon and nitrogen of high grade, the weld is formed by cylindrical and
rectangular electrode at the current of 2,5-9 A. At these low currents Intensive wandering of the active
spots are detected.
Keywords: mig welding, non-consumable electrode welding, non-consumable electrode, tungsten
electrode, aluminum welding, welding in shielding gases, welding arc, nitrogen, weld end connectioin,
cylindrical electrode, rectangular electrode.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 601-606
~~~
??? 62-82(07)
?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????? ????????? ?????
?.?. ?????????*, ??????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????????????? ????????,
?????? 660073, ??????????, ??????????, 26 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?
????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ????
?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ???????????, ????????????????? ??????, ????????
?????????, ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ????????.
????????
????????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????:
? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????
???????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??????? ????, ????????????????? ????????? ???, ?????? ????????? ????????;
? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????;
? ?????? ?????? ????????????;
? ????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????.
? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ???????????????????? ???????, ????????-?????????? ????????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????
????????????? ??????????????? ????. ???????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????????????, ??? ? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????:
? ?????????? ??????? ????????;
? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????;
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: Kas_05@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 601 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
? ???????????? ??????????? (????????) ??????? ????????;
? ?????????? ??????? ????????;
? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????;
? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????;
? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????;
? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????;
? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????;
? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????;
? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????.
?????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????.
???????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????????? ????? ????? ?????
??????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????,
? ??????, ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ????????????? ? ????????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????? (?????) ?, ? ???????? ?????, ?
?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????
?? 2-3 ????, ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ???????
???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ?? ???. 1 ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
1. ?????????? ?????????
???? ??????????? ??????
???????
2.?????????? ??????? ?
????????? ?????
???????????? ?????????
3. ?????????? ?????
???????????? ????????????
4.???????? ???????
????????????? ????????????
????????????
5.?????????? ????????
???????????? ????????????
6. ?????????? ?????????? ?
????????? ????
????????????
7. ?????????? ??????? ??
??????????? ????????????
8. ??????????? ????????
??????? ????????
9. ??????????
????????????? ??????????
??????????? ?????
10. ????????? ???????
????????
???.1. ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
# 602 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
?
?
?
???. 2. ????? ??????????? ?????????: ? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????; ? ? ????????? ??? ????? 30 ? 45?;
? ? ????? ???????????? ?????
1. ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????????, ? ???
?????? ???????????? (???? ? 10 ??) ?? ???????? ??????. ??????? ?? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???,
????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ?????, ??? ?? 0,5 ? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????, ?????
?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????
h g p , ??? h ? ?????? ??????????; g ? ????????? ?????????? ???????; p ? ????????? ????????.
2. ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????
??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ?? ???. 2 ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????????. ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????
??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????.
?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? 30 ? 45? ??????????? (? 1,4 ? 1,6 ????) ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? (???. 2, ?). ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????
??????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????.
3. ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????. ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????????
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????
????????????. ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????. ????????????? ? ??????????
????????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ?? ??????????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? 2,5 ?
(?????????????) ?? 3,5 ? (??????????????????? ??????).
# 603 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
???. 3 ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????: 1 ? ?????? ?????????; 2 ? ?????;
3 ? ??????????? ????????; 4 ? ?????; 5 ? ????????; 6 ? ?????????? ??????; 7 ? ??????; 8 ? ???????
?????
4. ???????? ??????? ?????????????
????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ???????????
??????, ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????. ??? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ????????????. ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????,
????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????????.
5. ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????
????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????. ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????, ???
????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????. ????????????
??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? 0,8 ?/?.
6. ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ????????????. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????. ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????
? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????
?????????????.
7. ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????. ?? ???.
3 ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????.
??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????. ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? 0, 35 ???, ? ??? ??????
???????????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????????. ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????????????
?? ??????????? ????? ??????. ????? ???????? ?? ????? 4 ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
????? 5. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? 3, ?? ???? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????.
8. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????.
??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????, ? ??? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? (??????? ? ???????) ? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????. ????????????????
???????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? (10-65)?10 -6 ?2/? ??? ????????????? ? ?????????-?????????? ???????? ? (50-2500)?10 -6 ?2/? ??? ?????????????
? ???????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????.
9. ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????.
????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ???
?????? ????????????, ????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? l ?????? ????????. ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ???????????
?????? ??? ????????.
10. ????????? ??????? ????????.
????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????, ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????
????? ?? ???????????. ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????????.
??????????
????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ???. 1 ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?, ???????? ?.?. ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ???????? // ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???, 2009.
C. 76-82.
[2] ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????? // ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???, 2009.
C. 93-97.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
Projection of the Suction Pipe Hydraulic Systems
of Mobile Machines
Anna Kaverzina and Almohammad Alnaief Mohammad
Siberian Federal University,
Polytechnic institute
26 Kirensky, Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia
This elaboration is the first in this direction and to a greater extent refers to the volumetric hydraulic
drive self-propelled machines, however, some of its recommendations can be taken into account when
designing the hydraulic drives of machine tools and other stationary machines.
Keywords: the suction ability, hydroficated machines, the development of cavitation, application of
ejection, degassing of a working liquid, optimization of the viscosity.
????????? (?????????????, ????????) ???????????
[10] Lee J-K., Choi S. Synthesis and Surface Derivatization of Processible Co Nanoparticles //
Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.2003. Vol. 24. ? 1. P. 32-36.
Synthesis of Cobalt Nanoparticles
by Solvothermal Process
Svetlana V. Saikovaa,
Gennady L. Pashkov , Marina V. Panteleevab,
Yelena V. Linokb and Irina V. Korolkovab
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
b
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS,
50/24, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
b
New chemical synthesis procedure has been developed for obtaining of nanoparticles of metal cobalt
and cobalt oxide. The method based on delamination and solvothermal degradation of intercalated
cobalt hydroxide into organic media ? vacuum oil, transformer or industrial oils. The products were
investigated by chemical analysis, TGA, X-ray diffraction, IR-spectroscopy and electron microscopy.
Keywords: cobalt, cobalt oxide (II), nanoparticles, oil.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 585-591
~~~
??? 621.928.2
On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Vladimir P. Isakov*,
Anatoli N. Burenin and Marija V. Khudina
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
In this article, an attempt on theoretical justification of design of a multi-wave separator for dispersion
of ultrafine powders is made. The advantages of such separator, as compared to the ordinary one,
are specified. The characteristics of materials appropriate for creation of real designs of multi-wave
screen-separators are considered.
Keywords: multi-wave screen, ultrafine powder, non-isometric particles, Van der Pol oscillator,
aramid fiber, diamond powder, carbon-containing stock.
Introduction
Dispersion of loose materials into conditioned fractions is a very frequently encountered
technological operation in many production processes. Technical devices used for this purpose are
called industrial or laboratory screens. Presently there are several dozens of various modifications
of screens different in the type of power drive, dimensions, performance and features of their
design. Despite considerable differences, all common modifications of screens are characterized
with a general fundamental drawback ? an extremely low coefficient of efficiency. The coefficient of
efficiency of most screens made in Russia and abroad is not more than 1-2 %. First of all, it is caused
by single-frequency nature of oscillations of working mesh, presence of a massive rigid frame for
its attachment, and great losses of power consumed by the drive motor. However, the mesh of an
ordinary screen oscillating with the drive frequency does not actually screen particles but simply
distribute them over its surface until all particles with dimensions less than the dimension of the
working mesh cells pass through it under action of gravity. In most cases such process is very timeand power-consuming.
When dispersing ultrafine materials using screens of common designs, there are problems
connected with permanent clogging of mesh with non-isometric particles; besides, when screening
galvanic materials, particles stick together under Coulomb force making hard-separate aggregates. In
order to overcome the above difficulties, we have made an attempt to create a multi-wave vibration
screen.
Adhesion effects increase with decrease in degree of material dispersion, that is why screening of
particles with dimensions about 10 micrometers and less using common design screens is impossible.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: isakov42@bk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 585 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
To overcome the above difficulties, in year 2000, a group of authors suggested an original design of
multi-wave vibration separation system and a vibration screen including the system [1].
The suggested method of multi-wave vibration separation has a number of principal advantages as
compared to any traditional single-frequency methods used before. It makes it possible to considerably
increase the efficiency of dispersion of ultrafine materials, enhance coefficient of efficiency of vibration
separators by 15-20%, decrease their energy consumption several times, completely solve the problem
of plugging of meshes with non-isometric particles and at the same time exclude the possibility of
formation of secondary adhesive aggregates in powders being dispersed.
At the same time, the principle of excitation of multi-wave separator system with a single vibration
source realized in this invention led to an excessive complication of design resulting in a considerable
decrease of its reliability and significant increase in the cost of multi-wave separators produced by
Kroosher Technologies.
Considering this, a possibility is offered below to simplify and upgrade the design of a highperformance multi-wave vibration separator preserving basic principal advantages of the above
prototype but, as distinguished from it, excited with several independent low-power generator-type
vibration sources.
Materials and methods
The mechanical characteristics of the most important elements of design of modified multifrequency vibration separator are specified in study [2]. Among such design elements, first of all, there
are elastic carbon rods forming the basis for a modified vibration system and determining its geometry,
and also, elastic aramid fibers collectively forming the working mesh of a multi-frequency vibration
separator.
The principal features of this vibration system include the absence of rigid massive frame with
metal working mesh pulled on it and attachment of electromechanical vibrators of external lowpower excitation source directly on its elastic elements. It is offered to use a modified generator of
low-frequency electric oscillations on the basis of two electrically connected Van der Pol oscillators
with synchronously changing parameters as an excitation source of the multi-frequency (multi-wave)
vibration system. The generator executive devices are two electromechanical vibrators with magnetic
coupling between their electric and mechanical elements.
The multi-frequency vibration system excited with several (two in the case being considered)
sources of nonlinear mechanical oscillations is a complex dynamic system. Theoretical study of
such oscillatory systems is quite complicated and difficult in most cases when there are quasi-elastic
mechanical couplings between the design elements of such systems. Until now only few Russian papers
have been published dealing with theoretical research of simple models of such mechanical systems
and their units [3-8].
An example of the offered system may be an elastic fiber of the working mesh of a vibration system
attached at the ends of rectilinear rods of circular section forming its structural basis. In their turn, the
ends of the rods are attached in special suspensions with identical quasi-elastic characteristics. This
dynamic system is excited with two sources of energy the executive elements of which are rigidly fixed
at the opposite rods in their geometric centers. To be definite it is assumed that the quasi-elastic rods are
excited by means of sinusoidal random impulses of external forces applied to the center of each rod.
# 586 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Results
The differential equation system describing the dynamics of this oscillatory system is as follows
[5,8]:
(1)
,
.
where
(2)
Points above the values in (1) mean differentiation with respect to time t.
Here f(q) is a function characterizing nonlinearity of characteristics of quasi-elastic suspensions;
q is the displacement of small fiber element; ? is the natural oscillation frequency of the elastic fiber;
m is the weight of the fiber?s unit of length; ? is the angular coordinate of fiber horizontal deviation in
the vertical plane; ? is the frequency of impact of the external force in a small period of time; I1 is the
impulse of impact force of the first excitation source; I2 is the impulse of impact force of the second
excitation source; M 1 (M ) is a function characterizing the dependence of dynamic characteristic of an
excitation source (rod) on the speed M , of coordinate change; M 2 (T) is a function characterizing the
dependence of dynamic characteristic of an excitation source (rod) on the speed T , of external force
impact change; N (M ,T) and N (M , T) are functions characterizing the dynamics of elastic stresses of
1
2
the first and second sources in a fixed moment of time; ?, h, v1, v2 are dimensionless coefficients; ? is
a small parameter; E is the fiber elasticity modulus; m is the weight of the unit of fiber length; l is the
fiber length; F is the external force influencing the system; k is the fiber damping coefficient; k1 is the
rods damping coefficient; E1 is the rods elasticity modulus; l1 is the rods length; ? is the rods rigidity
coefficient; m1 is the weight of the rods unit of length.
The most active interaction of this dynamic system with the sources of power is in the frequency
domain of the main resonance [6, 7].
?
?
2
?? .
(3)
Let?s consider the system oscillatory motion in this frequency domain. For this purpose it is
convenient to introduce new variables.
q
a cos \, K q
aZ sin \, M ?, T
:, where \
T
[ is the resonance frequency of this
2
resonance domain. Then
M 1 (M )
N1 (M , T )
M 1 (?), M 2 (T )
M 2 (:), N1 (?, :) ? N 2 (M , T )
N 2 (?, :) .
Besides, to be definite, in the initial system (1) it is necessary to specify a function f(q) characterizing
the nonlinearity of characteristics of quasi-elastic couplings.
# 587 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Let?s assume that at the first approximation the function f(q) can be expressed in the form [7]
characteristic of many quasi-elastic materials.
.
(4)
As the rods have circular section, the characteristic function (4) takes the following form in the
new coordinate system
.
(5)
After introduction of new variables, consideration of relation (5), and standardization by means of
commonly used averaging operation a new system of equations is obtained equivalent to (1):
(6)
.
Equations (6) make it possible to study both transient processes in the dynamic system and the
stationary oscillations.
The numerical study (modeling) of the dynamic system described with these differentiable firstorder equations is complicated with the fact that for this purpose it is necessary to assign the explicit
forms of functions M1, M2, N1, and N2 describing dynamic characteristics of each of the excitation
sources. The analytic forms of these functions can be determined only experimentally with the relevant
physical model of this dynamic system with its real excitation sources.
However, when there are two excitation sources identical in their dynamic characteristics, it is
possible to suppose with the relevant degree of accuracy that in the frequency domain of the main
resonance (3) the condition [8] is satisfied
(7)
and functions N1 and N2 are also approximately equal.
.
(8)
In this case, if conditions (7) and (8) are satisfied, the condition [8, 9] is also met.
(9)
.
Considering the equation (7)-(9) let?s sum up the third and the fourth equations of the system (6),
and obtain an equivalent equation instead of them
.
# 588 #
(10)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
In the case of the dynamic system excitation with two identical sources of energy it can come into
resonance only providing the following condition is met:
.
(11)
It is possible only in case when function M (?)has the following form:
.
(12)
In this case the system of equations (6), considering (11) and (12), takes the following form:
,
,
(13)
.
The system of equations (13) by means of substitution
.
(14)
is transformed to a well-known Lorentz system of equations
(15)
in which, in this case, the dimensionless coefficients ?, r, and b take the following values
.
(16)
For a case of identical frame-forming rods these coefficients take the following form
(17)
gning the relevant magnitudes of values included in expressions (17) for a model structure of multiwave screen with carbon rods and aramid fibers, that is l = l1 =1m; m = 3,2 · 10 ?3 kg; m1 = 5,4 · 10 ?2 kg;
? = 0,047; F = 0,1 N;
I1 = 9,8 kg · m2; ? ? 3,1416, we obtain the values of dimensionless coefficients ? ? 10; r ? 177.8; b ? 2,
with which this dynamic system is in the state of main parametric resonance.
With these values of ?, r, and b the phase diagram of Lorentz attractor is shown in Fig. 1, and with
the values ? = 10; r = 164.3; b = 2.7 it is shown in Fig. 2, from which it can be seen that Lorentz attractor
preserve its properties in quite a wide variation range of parameters ?, r, b.
Lorentz equations (1) can be comparatively easily solved and studied using numerical modeling
by means of mathematics package Maple 7.0.
# 589 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
In the course of their operation multi-wave screens are permanently in the resonance domain that
is in a frequency domain where vectors of external exciting forces and displacement of the vibration
system itself coincide. When particles of loose material are on the surface of the working mesh of a multiwave screen each particle immediately finds its resonant frequency as a great variety of frequencies is
present on the mesh and distribution of such frequencies over the surface of the mesh changes dozens
of times per second. Its high efficiency is due to constant mixing of loose material under the influence
of quickly changing dynamic moments having effect on every particle with a frequency coinciding
with the natural resonant frequency of such particle. In the result small particles able to pass through
the mesh are not blocked by large ones but freely reach the surface of the mesh and pass through it,
even if they initially were in upper layers of the material. It conditions high technological efficiency of
multi-wave screen.
Duscussion of risalts
An essential condition for making real designs of multi-wave screens is a selection of appropriate
construction materials suitable for manufacturing of working meshes and rods of their structural basis.
The results of numerical modeling of the relevant dynamic operating modes of a multi-wave screen
show that for this purpose the materials are necessary with unique physical mechanical properties.
More specifically, their high strength (>1000 MPa) shall be combined with high elasticity modulus,
low temperature coefficient of elasticity modulus, high frequency quality factor, low elastic hysteresis,
stability of these properties, wear resistance, corrosion resistance close to similar characteristics of
best strain-hardening metal alloys of type 40?????.
However, as distinguished from them, such materials shall have far higher fatigue strength.
A study has been made on synthetic fiber ?Carbolon?, carbon fibers type ???-4 and ?Kulon?,
and aramid fiber ?Avco?, which have been found suitable for manufacturing of elements of a laboratory
multi-wave vibration screen.
Conclusion
This study represents the first experience of research of multi-wave dynamic systems. The results
obtained evidence the possibility of creating multi-wave separators able to disperse loose media
# 590 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir P. Isakov, Anatoli N. Burenin? On Creation of Multi-Wave Screens
with the dimensions of particles in the order of units of micrometers. Such devices may be used in
different sectors of industry such as chemical, pharmaceutical, and many others. We are planning
to use the device for dispersing ultrafine diamonds. In our Department of Nanophase Materials and
Nanostructures of Institute of Engineering Physics and Radioelectronics a method has been developed
for obtaining diamond powder by means of explosion technology with characteristic dimensions of
diamond particles and their coagulation conglomerates from 4 to 2000 nm, where such particles are
resistant to ultrasound disintegration due to their extremely high surface energy. Besides, due to specifics
of the technology used, carbon-containing stock, which is the main product of explosion synthesis of
nanodiamonds, contains not only nanodiamonds, but ferrous carbides, nanotubes, fullerenes, and other
admixtures. To simply the process of their extraction from the stock it is offered to flow it through a
multi-wave separator with extraction of fine fractions of necessary dimensions.
References
[1] ???? ?., ?????? ?. ???. RU ? 2256515 (2000) // ?????????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????.
[2] ????? ?. ??????????????? ?????????. ?.: ???, 1978. 336 ?.
[3] ????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ?.: ?????,
1980. 360?.
[4] ?????? ?.?. ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ????. ?.: ?????, 1980. 240 ?.
[5] ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???. ?? ????. ???.1977. ? 4. C. 65
[6] ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. // ???. ?? ????. ???. 1981. ? 6. ?.52
[7] ????? ?. ????????????? ???????????? ??????. ?.: ???, 1979. 429 ?.
? ???????? ????????????? ????????
?.?. ??????,
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????. ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????
?? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????,
?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????? ??????, ???????????????? ???????, ????????????????
???????, ???????????????? ????????????, ???????, ?????????? ??? ??? ????, ?????????
???????, ???????? ???????, ?????????????????? ????? .
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 592-600
~~~
??? 621.791.755
??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
????????????
????????????? ???????????
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660074, ??????????, ??. ??????????, 26 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????
? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1-2,5 ?? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ? ????? ??? ???? ???? 4-10 ?. ?????????? ??????? ???? ??
???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? 0,180,5 ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????????
??????????? ?????, ????, ??????, ???????? ???????? 0,06-0,2 ?? ? ???????, ???????????
??????? ???????, ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????
?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???? 2,5-9 ?. ?? ????? ?????
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????, ????????????
????????, ?????? ????????, ?????? ? ???????? ????, ????????? ????, ????, ????????
??????????, ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ????????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????. ??-????????, ? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ????? ????.
?????????, ??? ???? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????
???? 10-15 ? ????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????, ????
????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? 0,3 ??. ????????, ???? ? ?????????? ????????? 0,16 ?? ????????? ??? ???? 1 ? [1]. ?? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????.
?? ?????? [2], ??????????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????
????????? ?????????????. ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ????
???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????. ????? ?????????? ??????*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: evangelist1@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 592 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????????????? ????????? [3], ? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ????
???????? ??????? ? ??? [4]. ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ???
???? ???? 2,5?3 ? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? [2].
??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ? ??????????
?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? 10-25 % ??????? ??????????? ?????? [5],
??? ????????? ??????????? ??????.
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? 0,24 ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? 0,6 ??, ? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? 0,47 ?? ? 0,3 ?? [1].
???????? ? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????. ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? 2-3 ???? ??????, ??? ??? ????????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ???, ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ? ?????
??????, ??? ? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????, ???????????
?????? ????????? ?? ????????? [6].
? ??????? [7, 8] ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? 1-5
?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ? ??????, ????? ? ????? ???
???? ???? 1-3 ?.
?????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????????
? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????
1-2,5 ?? ? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? 10 ?, ????? ???? ???????
?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? 0,18-0,5 ?? ??? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? 0,06
?? ? ????????, ???????????? ??????????????? [5].
??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???? 75-100 ?. ??? ??????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???? ????? 20 ? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????????. ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????,
????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????????. ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? 9-8, ? ??????????????
??????????? ???? ?? ????????? 30 ???/?.
??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ???????? 0,18, 0,5, 1 ?? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 2,5
?? ? ????? ??????? 60 ????. ?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? 0,5-1 ??, ?????? ?????? 5-6 ?/???, ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????????????? ?????.
?? ???. 1 ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? 0,5
?? ??? ????????? ???????: I?=7-8 ?, U?=17 ?, V??=3,78 ?/?.
?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? (???. 2).
???????????? ??????? ???????? 0,5 ?? ???????? ?? ???. 3.
??? ??????? ???????????? ??????? 0,18 ?? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ???
???? ???? 4 ? ? ?????????? ???? 15 ? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????
????? (???. 4).
# 593 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 1. ???????? ?????????? ? ??????
?)
?)
???. 2. I?=11 ?, U?=16.5 ?, V??=3.78 ?/?: ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ???????? ???????
?)
?)
???. 3. I?=10-11 ?, U?=16,5 ?, V??=3,78 ?/?, ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????
?)
?)
???. 4. ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
???. 5 . I?=11 ?, U?=16.5 ?, ?????????? ????????
1
2
4
3
5
???. 6 . I?=9 ?, U?=16 ?, ?????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ???. 5 ? 6.
????????????? ???????? ??????? ????, ???????????????? ??????????? ???. 6, ????????
?? ???. 7.
?? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????.
??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????
[9?11]. ?? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????
[9, 12].
# 595 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
???. 7. ????????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????????
????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1 ?? ???????? ?? ???????????????? ????? ?18?9?, ????, ??????, ????????. ?????? ???? ?????????
5 ?/???, ?????????????? ????? ???? 0,5-1 ??.
????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ? ??? ??????? ??????????????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ???, ?? ? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????
??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???.
??? ??????? ??????? 0,05-0,2 ?? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? 0,3-1 ??. ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ? ???????? 0,5-1 ?? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????.
??????? ?? ????? ?18?9? ???????? 0,2 ??, ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????, ???????
?? ???. 8.
????? ?????? ??????????? «?????????????? ???», ??????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? 0,1 ?? ? ?????? ? ????? (???. 9).
?? ???. 10 ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? 62 ???????? 0,06 ??.
??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????? ???????? 0,1 ?? ? ?????? ? ??????????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? (???. 11).
??? ?????? ???????? ???????? 0,16 ?? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? «??????????????» ??? (???. 12).
??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????? 0,06-0,3 ?? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? 1 ??, ?????????? ?? ????, ?? ???????????? ???????????? (??????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???) ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????
???. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????.
??????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ??????????????? [13], ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
??????? ???????? 0,1-0,5 ??.
# 596 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 8 . I?=3 ?, U?=28 ?
?)
?)
???. 9 . ? ? ?????, I?=5 ?; ? ? ????, I?=3.8 ?
???
???. 10 . I?=5 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 11. I?=4.5 ?, U?=29 ?
?)
?)
???. 12. ???????, ????????? ? ???????????: ? ? ??? ??????, ? ? ??? ?????. I? = 4,5 A, U? = 15 ?, ???????
??????? 0,2 ??
?)
?)
???. 13. ???????, ????????? ? ???????????: ?) ??? ??????, ?) ??? ?????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
??????? 1
????????
???????, ??
???? ????, ?
???????? ???
??????
0,1
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,1
0,1
0,05
0,06
2,5
5,2
5
3
7,5
4,5
3,5
5
?????
?????
?????
????
?????
????
????
?????
????????
0,16
9,4
?????
????????????????
?????
????? ?18?9?
????
??????? ?????????? (4?0,7 ??) ?? ????????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????
???????? 0,06 ?? ?? ?????????? ? ??????.
?????? ??????: ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ????? 0,5 ??, I?=3 ?,
U?=18 ?, ???????? ?????? 7,7 ?/?.
??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???. 13.
«??????????????» ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ???
??????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ????????????? [14, 15].
?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????. 1.
??????
1. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? 1?2,5 ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? 10 ?.
2. ????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? 0,18 ? 0,5 ??.
3. ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? 0,06?
0,2 ?? ? ?????? ? ????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????.
4. ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
5. ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
[1] ???????, ?. ?., ????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 1999. ? 1. ?. 1517.
[2] ???????, ?. ?., ????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 2000. ? 4. ?. 68.
[3] Radio-frequency-free arc starting in gas tungsten arc welding // Weld. J. 1986. 38. ? 2.
P. 3341.
[4] ????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????????, ????????? «Welding the world together»:
??????? // Lincoln electric. The welding experts, 2006.
[5] ?????? ????? ???????????? ???? / ??? ???. ?.?. ?????. ?.: ??????????????, 1977.
128 ?.
# 599 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????
[6] ??????, ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ????????? ????????????. 1974. ? 4.
?. 2324.
[7] ???????, ?. ?., ???????, ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 2006. ? 7. ?. 2831.
[8] ???????, ?. ?., ???????, ?. ?. ???. 2251473 ?? (2003) // ?. ?. 2005. ? 13.
[9] ??????, ?. ?. ????????????? ????????? ????. ?.: ??????????????. 1970. 335 ?.
[10] ???????, ?. ?. ????????? ?????. ????????: ???, 2007. 14 ?.
[11] ?????, ?. ?. ???????. ???. ? ?-?? ????. ????. ?????????, 2004. 39 ?.
[12] ??????, ?. ?. ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ??????? ?? ????????????. ?.-?.:
?????????????, 1961. 320 ?.
[13] ?????, ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ? ??. // ????????? ????????????. 1979. ? 2.
?. 1213.
[14] ????????, ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 1988. ? 8. ?. 3639.
[15] ????????, ?. ?. // ????????? ????????????. 1989. ? 12. ?. 3739.
Special Features of Welding by a Low-Ampere Arc
with Tungsten Electrodes
Robert A. Meyster and Andrey R. Meyster
Siberian Federal University,
26 Kyrenskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia
When the arc is powered by a single-phase rectifier with a condenser voltage multiplier using tungsten
electrodes with a diameter of 1-2,5 mm, the arc ignites and burns in argon and nitrogen with a current
of 4-10 A. Stable arc burning at a reverse polarity provides full penetration of aluminum sheets with
a thickness of 0,18-0,5 mm without outflow of a molten pool. In welding of end connections made of
low-carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, brass, aluminum with a thickness of 0,06-0,2 mm, with a gap
larger than sheet thickness, in argon and nitrogen of high grade, the weld is formed by cylindrical and
rectangular electrode at the current of 2,5-9 A. At these low currents Intensive wandering of the active
spots are detected.
Keywords: mig welding, non-consumable electrode welding, non-consumable electrode, tungsten
electrode, aluminum welding, welding in shielding gases, welding arc, nitrogen, weld end connectioin,
cylindrical electrode, rectangular electrode.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 5 (2012 5) 601-606
~~~
??? 62-82(07)
?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????? ????????? ?????
?.?. ?????????*, ??????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????????????? ????????,
?????? 660073, ??????????, ??????????, 26 1
Received 06.09.2012, received in revised form 13.09.2012, accepted 20.09.2012
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???? ??????????? ? ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?
????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ????
?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ???????????, ????????????????? ??????, ????????
?????????, ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ????????.
????????
????????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????:
? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????
???????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??????? ????, ????????????????? ????????? ???, ?????? ????????? ????????;
? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????;
? ?????? ?????? ????????????;
? ????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????.
? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ? ???????????????????? ???????, ????????-?????????? ????????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????
????????????? ??????????????? ????. ???????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????????????, ??? ? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????:
? ?????????? ??????? ????????;
? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????;
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: Kas_05@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 601 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
? ???????????? ??????????? (????????) ??????? ????????;
? ?????????? ??????? ????????;
? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????;
? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????;
? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????????;
? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????;
? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????;
? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????;
? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????.
?????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????.
???????? ????????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????????? ????? ????? ?????
??????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????,
? ??????, ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ????????????? ? ????????
???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
???? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????? (?????) ?, ? ???????? ?????, ?
?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????????
?? 2-3 ????, ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ???????
???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ?? ???. 1 ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
1. ?????????? ?????????
???? ??????????? ??????
???????
2.?????????? ??????? ?
????????? ?????
???????????? ?????????
3. ?????????? ?????
???????????? ????????????
4.???????? ???????
????????????? ????????????
????????????
5.?????????? ????????
???????????? ????????????
6. ?????????? ?????????? ?
????????? ????
????????????
7. ?????????? ??????? ??
??????????? ????????????
8. ??????????? ????????
??????? ????????
9. ??????????
????????????? ??????????
??????????? ?????
10. ????????? ???????
????????
???.1. ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
# 602 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????. ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
?
?
?
???. 2. ????? ??????????? ?????????: ? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????; ? ? ????????? ??? ????? 30 ? 45?;
? ? ????? ???????????? ?????
1. ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????????, ? ???
?????? ???????????? (???? ? 10 ??) ?? ???????? ??????. ??????? ?? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???,
????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ?????, ??? ?? 0,5 ? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ?????????????? ????????????? ????????????
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа