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205.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №4 2011

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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2011
Journal of Siberian Federal University
4 (4)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
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??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
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????-????. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ????
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vladimir A. Kulagin
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
И.В. Павлов, О.А. Дружинин, Д.А. Мельчаков,
С.Е. Прошкин, В.П. Твердохлебов, Ф.А. Бурюкин,
Н.В. Гавголенко
l%???,!%"=?,?
2?.?%?%?,???*,.
?.??
C!%,?"%??2"=
="2%?%K,???/. K???,?%"
? 360 ?
В.М. Мелкозеров, С.И. Васильев,
А.Я. Вельп, Р.Н. Крылышкин, Д.И. Марьянчик
}*?C?3=2=?,%??/? ?"%L?2"= C%?,??!?/. ?%!K??2%"
? 368 ?
С.И. Васильев, В.М. Мелкозеров
q"%L?2"= *=!K=?,??/. C%!%C?=?2%" ? ?!?"???/?,
?=C%??,2?? ?, ?? 32?C???, ???%??%??!??/. ?!3?2%"
? 379 ?
Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin and
Valery M. Kiselev
Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties
Heterogeneity
? 388 ?
В.А. Кринин
??*2%?,*= -3??=???2= , %???*= !??3!?%" ??-2, ?!?*%???%"/. %2?%???,L ??"?!%-"%?2%*= g=C=??%-q,K,!?*%L
C?,2/ " C!????=. j!=??% !?*%?% *!=
? 398 ?
В.А. Поздняков, А.С. Мерзликина
b/?????,? ???2!3*2,"?/. ?%? " *=!K%?=2?/. "???-!,-?L?*,.
%2?%???, . b%?2%??%L q,K,!,
? 409 ?
???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?.?. ??????????
???????????? ??????? ?.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 19.08.2011 ?. ?????? 84x108/16. ???. ???. ?. 8,45.
??.-???. ?. 8,0. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 4605.
?????????? ? ?? ??? ???. 660041 ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82a.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
????????????? ???????? ???????
?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ???????
Editorial board for Engineering &
Technologies:
Yury D. Alashkevich
Viktor G. Anopchenko
Gennadiy I. Gritsko
Lev V. Endjievsky
Sergey V. Kaverzin
Vladimir A. Kulagin
Sergey A. Mikhaylenko
Vladimir V. Moskvichev
Anatoli M. Sazonov
Vasiliy I. Panteleev
Sergey P. Pan?ko
Peter V. Polyakov
Viktor N. Timofeev
Galina A. Chiganova
Oleg Ostrovski
Harald Oye
В.А. Поздняков, С.С. Худяков
nKA?*2?%-%!,??2,!%"=??=
2?.?%?%?,
?%??=?,
??L??%??%?%?,???*,. ?%????L " %2!=????/. , !=??? ??/.
"%??=.
? 418 ?
А.А. Сем?нов, В.М. Киселев
l%???,!%"=?,? !=K%2/ ?%!,?%?2=???/. ?*"=?,? " 3??%", .
??%??%!%??%?2, !=?C!??????, ?"%L?2" C?=?2=
? 428 ?
П.Н.Кузнецов, В.П.Твердохлебов, Л.И.Кузнецова,
А.В.Казбанова, Д.А.Мельчаков, Н.Н. Довженко
m%"/? *=2=?,?=2%!/ ?= %??%"? ?,%*?,?= ?,!*%?, ??
,?%??!,?=?,, =?*=?%" ??-2 ?/. -!=*?,L
? 437 ?
Anatoly V. Chashkov and Valery M. Kiselyov
Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology for Log Data Interpretation
? 452 ?
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
????? ???????? ? «???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????, ? ??????? ??????
???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?
????????? ????» (???????? 2010 ?.)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ????????!
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?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????
«?????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????????» ? «???????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????». ???????? ???? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????
????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????.
? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????, ???????????
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???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???? ? ??????
?????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? (?.?. ??????), ? ????? ????????????,
???????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????
(?.?. ????????? ? ??????????).
???? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
?????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? 0,3. ??? ?????????? ????? ?? 0,1 ? ?????????
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????? ????????????
????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????
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? ????? ?????????.
???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????.
???? ????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ????-3 ? ????-4, ?????????? 38 % ?? ?????
???????????? ??????? ???? ????????, ? ???? ?????????? ???????, ???????????????? ???????????
4 ? 5 ???????, ? ????? ???? 18 %. ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????,
????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? (? ?????? ?
72 %, ? ?????? ? 85 %, ? ??? ? 96 %), ???????? ????????? ???????????? (??????? ?????????
?????????), ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?, ??? ?????????, ??????? ???????
?????????????????.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
? ????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????
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? ???? ???, ?????????, ?.?.?.
?.?. ????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 361-368
~~~
??? 665.733.001.57
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???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
?. ?. ???????,
?.?. ???????? , ?.?. ??????????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????????,
?.?. ????????*, ?.?. ???????????
?
??? «???? ???»,
?????? 662110, ???????????? ????, ??????, ???????? ???
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ?. ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
?
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????
????? ?????????????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????????????? ????????????. ?????
??????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?1 ? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? 86,8 %, ? ???
????? ?2 ? 87,2 % ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ~96 %.
???????? ?????: ?????????????, ????????????, ????????????? ???????, ???????????????
???????.
????????
????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????
???????. ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ????? 50 % ?????????? ? ???? ?????, ? ???? ??????????
????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????.
???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ????????????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????
?????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? (?? ???????????
???????, 2011).
??? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????-???????? ???????????, ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????. ????????? ?? ??? ????????:
? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????;
? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????;
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: fbur@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 361 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? «? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????» (?? ??????????? ?????????????, 2008).
??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? (?? 96 %) ? ??? «???? ???» ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
???? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????
??????, ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?, ?????????????, ?????????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????.
????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???. 1. ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???
«???? ???» ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????, ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? (????? 70 % ??.).
??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?
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(????????????? ???????, ??????????, ??????? ?7 ? ????). ???????? ???????? ????????????
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(??????-?????????? ???????).
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?? ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? «??????? ????-92» ? «??????? ????-95»,
????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????-3 (????? 3 (??? I) ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????????), ?????????? ???? 27 % ????. ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????
????????????, ??? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????-4,-5. ? ?? ?? ?????
?????? ????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????-3, ??????????? ?? 31 ??????? 2011 ?.
?????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????? «???????-80» ??????? ? 2011 ?., ? ?
????????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? 16 % ????.
??? ????, ??? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ???????????????
????????? ????-3, ????????? ? 2005 ?., ?????????? ??????????????????????? ????????????
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?? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????????????
??????????????? ????????? ? ??? «???? ???» ? 2011 ?. ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????, ??????????????
??????????? ???????????.
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«???? ???» ? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????????.
???????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? «??????? ????-95» ? «????? ????-98», ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????-5 (????? 5 (??? III)), ??????# 363 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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???. 3. ???????????? ???????? ????? ?2 ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??? «???? ???»
?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????-3 (????? 3 (??? I)) ? ????-4 (?????-4 (??? II)). ??? ???????????? ?? ???. 2-3.
??? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????
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?????????? 7101 ???. ?.
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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(??? III)).
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??? ???? ? ???????????? ???????? 85,4 % ????. (1382,64 ???. ?/???) ?? ????? ?1 ??? 88,5 % ????.
(2127,66 ???. ?/???) ?? ????? ?2 . ?? ???? ??????? «????? ????-98» ?????????? ??????????
?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????.
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????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? 86,8 %, ? ??? ????? ?2 ? 87,2 % ??? ??????? ???????????
????? ~96 %.
?? ???. 4 ???????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ????.
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????????. ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????????
«????? ????-98». ?? ????? ?2 ???????????? ???? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????. ???? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? «??????? ????-95».
# 365 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
?????-98 (????-5) (????? ?1)
?????-98 (???? 5) (????? ?2)
???????-95 (????-5) (????? ?1)
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80
100
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???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? (?? ????? 35 % ??.) ?, ? ?????????,
??????? (?? ????? 1 % ??.) ? ???????? ????????.
??? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??? «???? ???» ?? ????? ?2 ?????????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? (????? ???? ?
???) ?? 4,73 % ????., ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ? 95 ??????? ??? ??????? «???????
????-95» ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????
??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????? (??) ?????????????????? ??????? ???????? ~93,5
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???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????
???????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? 1 % ????.
???????????? «??????????» ????? ?1 ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? «???? ???» ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?2 ? ? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ? ???? ???????, «??????????» ????? ?2 ????????? ?????????
?????? ?? 48 % ????. ?????????????????? ????????????? ??????, ? ??? ????? «????? ????98» ? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????.
??????
???????????? ??????????????? ????? ??? «???? ???» ?? ???????????? ?????????
???????? ????????:
1. ???????? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????,
??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?? ????????????????
??????????? ??????????.
# 366 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
2. ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????.
3. ????????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????
(?? 34,4 % ????. ?? ????? ?1 ? ?? 99,4 % ????. ?? ????? ?2 ?? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????) ?, ??? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????
????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ??????. ????
?????????? ???????????? ???? ? ??? «???? ???» ???????? ?? 5 ?? 8 ???, ? ????? ?????????
??????????? ???????? ? ??????? 35 990,00 ? 39 020,00 ??? ???. ?????????????? ??? ???? ?1
? ?2 .
??? ????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? 1 ? ?????????????? ???????
(??? ????????????????? ?? «??????? ????-95» ? «????? ????-98») ?????????? ?? 14,22 %
(????? ?1) ? 13,88 % (????? ?2) ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? 2009 ?. ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? 4853,27 ??? ???., ???
?? 23,48 % ??? ???????????? ????? ?1, ? ??? ?????????? ????? ?2 ? ?? 17103,93 ??? ???.,
??? 82,74 %.
???? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? (?? ????????? ?? ???? 2010 ?.).
????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??
????????? ???????? ???? ? ????? ? ???, ??? c 2011 ?. ? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ? ????????????????
?????????????.
????? ???????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ??? «???? ???» ??? ??????????? ??????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????.
?????? ??????????
?? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ? ?? ?????????
????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ?????, ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????
????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????: ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?32 ?? 28.01.2011
?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? «? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????: ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?118 ?? 27.08.2008 ?., ? ??????????? ?1 ??
25.09.2008 ?. (?712), ?2 ?? 30.12.2008 ?. (?1076)
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????
Modeling of Technological Schemes
for Production of Motor Spirits
Igor V. Pavlova,
Oleg A. Druzhinina, Dmitry A. Mel?chakova,
Sergey E. Proshkina, Vladimir P. Tverdokhlebovb,
Fedor A. Buryukinb, Nina V. Gavgolenkob
a
J.S.C. «Achinsk Oil Refinery of E. O. C .»
Achinsk, Industrial Area Refineries, Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Possible and most expedient directions of technological scheme of the oil refining factory providing
output of motor fuels in conformity with world environmental and operational requirements.are
determined. The yield of refined oils at implementation of the schema ?1 as a whole on plant will
compound 86,8 %, and for the schema ?2 ? 87,2 % at depth of petroleum refining of ~96 %.
Keywords: modeling , isomerization, motor spirits, high-antiknock fuel.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 369-379
~~~
??? 665.662.2
???????????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ?????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ?????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82 1
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????
????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????????? ??????, ??? ????? ? ?? ??????????? ???? ???
?????? ?????????????? ? ?????. ????????, ??? ??????? Unipolymer-? (?????????? ? ?)
????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????????, ??????????? ?
??????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????
????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ????????????, ?????????? ???????, ?????????????????? ??????,
????????????-???????? ????????, ????????? ???????????, ???????-????????????????
?????????, ??????????, ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????, ?????????????
?????????? ??????, ????????? ????, ?????.
????????
??? ??????? ????, ????????, ??????? ? ??????????????? ???, ???????????? ??????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????. ????????, ????????????
??????, ??????, ????, ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????
?? ???????, ????????????? ? ????????????? (???????????? ??????, 2008; ???????,
2007), ? ???????? ?? 4 ?? 30 ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ??? ??????
???????????. ????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? (Ro et al., 1998). ??????? ?????? ???????, ????? ??
????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????. ??????
???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????
? ??????? ???????????????. ??? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????,
?????????? ??????, ????????????, ?????? ? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ??????????. ? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ??????????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: s-vasilev1@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 369 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????????.
??? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ? ????????? ????????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? (???????????? ??????, 2008) ?? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?????. ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????, ??????? ?????
??????? ?????????? (84ч93 %), ?????? ?? 90 % ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????.
?????????? ???? ?????????? ? ?? ???????????? ???????. ? ???????? ???? ??? ????????????
????? ????? ???????, ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ?? 10ч20 ??,
??? ????? ???????? ?? 50 ?? 150 ??. ????????? ????????? ???????? 0,0070ч014 ?/??3 ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? 1 ?/??3.
????????????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????. ? ?????????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????-???????? ???????? (???) ? ?????????? ??????????? (??????????????,
????????-????????????, ??????????-????????????????? ???). ? ??????????? ??????????
??? ????? ??? 50,0 ????.? ????????? ??????????? ?????? (???. 1).
??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? (???) ?? 5,5 ?? 9,0 ???. ?.
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? 3,8 %. ? ? ??????? ?? 5,5 ????.? ????????? ???????????
????????????? (???. 2). ??? ? ??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????????
??????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? (???. 3). ?????????? ??? ?? 31,0 ?? 41,5 ????.? ???????????,
? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? 51 ????.? ????????? ???????????? (???. 4).
???. 1. ??????? ?????????? ????????????-???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???
????????? ????????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
???. 2. ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????????
??? ????????? ????????
???. 3. ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????????????
????????
????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? (K) ????????????-???????? ??????? ?
??????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ??????????? (w) ? ???????????? (G) ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????.
?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????-????????????????
?????????, ?????????? «?», ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? m ?/m?. ??????????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??? ????????
??????????????? ?? ????????????, ????????? ????? ?????????, ????????? (?????????????)
??? ? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????????? % ????????? ???????????? ????????.
# 371 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
???. 4. ??????? ?????????? ????????????-???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????
???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? «??????????-?» ??????????? ?? ????? ? ??????????????: ????????? ??????? (??????), ?????? ??-92, ?????? ?-76 ? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? (????????? d420
0,871ч0,873 ??/??3; ?????????? ????? 15,2 ??/?, ???? 0,09 ??/? ? ????, ????. % ? 1,5).
??????????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? 0,0067ч0,0140 ?/??3, ???????????
83,9 % ? ???????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? 0,06 ??3. ??????? ????????, ??? ???????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ?????? ?? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ????????
???, ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
???????.
???????????? ? ??????-?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????
????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? (???????,
2007), ??? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????????. ???????????
??? ? ??????? ??????????????? ? ????????. ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ????, ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????????.
??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? (??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????????? ???????????????) ???
??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? (??? ??). ???? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????
??????. ? ???????? ?????? (Margesin, 1999) ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????
?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? 5-7 % ??????, ? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????????. ???????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? (?????,
2005).
??????????? ??????????? ??????-????????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??
????? ????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??# 372 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
?????, ?? ? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????. ?????????????, ???????? ?????????
??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? («????????», «????????»,
«????????» ? ?.?.) ? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????, ?? ? ? ?????????????
????? ??????. ???? ??????, ??? ???????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????????????????
???????? ??????????????? (???) ? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????-???????????? ??
????????? 108 ? 1011 ?????? ?? 1 ?? (?), ???????? ??? ? ???? 100 -200 ?? ?? 1 ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ?? ??????? 10 ? 25 ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? 102 ? 103
?????? ?? 1 ? ?????. ??? ???????? ? 10000 ??? ??????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????? ???? ????????????????? ?????????
???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????
??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? (??????????, ????????, ??????, ???????? ? ?.?.). ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????
????? ??????????? ? ?? ????????-????????????? ???????, ???????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ???????? (????????, ?????????? ????, ?????????, ????, ?????? ??????, ?????? ? ?.?.)
??????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????
??????????? ??????????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????????????????? ????????? «?????»,
???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????, ??????????-???????, ?????????????????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????.
???? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????????????? ???????? «?????» ?????
?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ????. ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????????, ???????????? ??????,
???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ????????????.
???????????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????. ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? 0,76 ?? 400 ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????
?????????? ? ?? = 0,9 (? ???????? ?????? ?????) ?? ?? = 0,02 (??????? ?????). ?????????????,
????????, ??????? ??????? (~ 0,02), ???????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????,
??? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????, ???????? ??????????
??????.
????????, ? ????????-?????????? «?????» ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????
?? 20 ? 25 ?? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????. ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????: ?? ????????? ??????? ????????-?????????? ???????????
??????????? ????, ??? ?? ???????????, ???????? ?????????? ??????. ?????????? ????? ???
????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????
????????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????????.
?????????? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???????
# 373 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
q
5,67 � 108 T1 4 T24 � aO ,
??? 5,67·10 -4 ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ????, (??/??2)·?-4;
?? ? ???????????, ??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????, ????? (0,02?
0,99), ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ????, ?????;
?1 ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????;
?2 ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????.
????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ? = 1, ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ???????? «?????» ??? ????????????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? (????).
??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ???????? ???????? 87 % ????????
???, ??? ? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????????????. ????????,
????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????????.
??????? ? ????????-?????????? (????????????) «?????» ??????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????????, ????? ? ??????????????: ??????? 0,35 ? 0,40 %, ????? 0,0015 ? 0,0020 %,
?????? 0,0035 ? 0,0045 %, ????? ?????????? 30,0 ? 32,0 %, ????? ?????????? 0,20 ? 0,30 % ? ??
???????????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ? ??????????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????????, ???? ??????? ????????? n 108 ? 1011
??????/? ? ?????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????????? ? ?????????? ????????
(???????-?????????) ?? ?????????? ???????????? (????, ???????? ???????? ? ?????), ? ???
????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ?.?. ??? ?????????????.
????????? ????? ??????????????, ???????????? ????????? (?????????? ???????? ???
????????? 87 %) ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? (47-73 ? ???/?????) ? ??????? ??????
??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ?????????
? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????????????????????? ??????? ????. ??? ????
?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???, ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ? ???????????
«????????» ???? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ???????????????? ???????, ????????? ?
?????, ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ? ????. ????? ??????????
? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
? ????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????,
?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????
# 374 #
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?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????-??????????????? ??????????????
????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????. ???
???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? (???????, ????, ??????, ?????,
??????). ?????? ???????? «?????» ????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?
???????? ??????????????.
? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?
??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????. ? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?
??????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ??? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ?, ?????????????, ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ????? ????, ????? ?????????,
??? ??? ?????????????? ????? ???????????????, ???????? ? ???????????, ????????? ?? ??
??????, ??????? ?????????? ? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????.
????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ??? ??????????
???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????
(?????? ? ??., 2009; Ladygina et al., 2008).
?? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? (????? 5) ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????
???????????????. ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????????-? (????????????
??????, 2008; ???????, 1982; Helm, 1990; Ro, et al., 1998) ? ??????????????-???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????
?????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????????????????????? ???????????????. ????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ? 31 ??? ?? 23 ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????-???????????? ??????????? ? 2,8Ч105 ?? 1,95Ч108 ???/?. ??? ????
?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? 28,5 % ??? ?????????
???????? 0,8 % (Ladygina et al., 2008).
??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? (???). ????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????
????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????????? (????? ? ??., 1989).
???????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ??? ?????????????, ??? ? ?????????????????????
(???. 5), ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???? (??????? ????????????? ??????????? 90 %). ?? ???????,
??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????
?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ????.
?? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???? 0 °?,
? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? 3-4 ??????? ????, ??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? (Ladygina et al., 2008).
# 375 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
???. 5. ??????? ???????? ??????????-? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????
??????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????: 1 ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????,
???????????? ?????????; 2 ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????
?????????????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????? ???????????????-???????????? ???????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? 70 %.
???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?? 96,7 ??
167,2 ?/?? ????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????. ??? ??????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ?? 1ч5
??????????? ? ?????? ????? (?? ??????) ???????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????????
??????? ???????????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ????? ?????
?????. ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????
???????????????.
?????????? ? ??????????
?????????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??? (??????? ?????????
4-10 ?), ???????????? ???????????????, ???????, ??? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ???? nЧ104ч105 ???/??. ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ? ???????,
??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? 4ч10?. ???? ????????????????????? ???????????????
???? ??????? ? ????????? 95 % ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? (?????????, ???????????, 2002). ??? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ???????????
???? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????????. ?????? ?????
??????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????? ???? ??????, ?, ??????????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????. ??? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????????. ? ?????? ??????? ? ???
????????? ?????? ??????????? 7ч10 °?, ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????
????????? ???????.
# 376 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
? ????? ? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????
?????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????. ?? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? (?????, ??????? ? ?????), ?????????????
??????? ???????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ???
?????, ??? ? ?????????????????????, ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????????????.
????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????? 1 ? 5 ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??????????
??????? ?????????????. ??????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? 3,8·107 ???/??. ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ??
??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? 104 ??? ?????????? ? 103 ??? ?????????. ???
??????????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????.
?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????,
?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ????????????, ??????????, ? ????? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????-???????????? ???????????? ??????????-??????? ?????.
??????
1. ??????????? ??????????? ????????????-???????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????? ???????? 41,5 ????.
????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????.
2. ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?
????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????????????????? ???????????????.
?????? ??????????
???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????: ?????. ???????/ ????.: ?. ?. ???????,
?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????? ??????????: ??? ???, 2008. 519 ?.
???????? ?.?, ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????, ????? ? ???. ?.: ?????, 1997.
598 ?.
??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????? ???????????????? ?
?????????????? ????????? // ?????????????? ????????? ?????. 2002. ?9. ?. 20-23.
????????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ????? ???????????????, ?????????
? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? // ?????????? ????????
? ?????????????. 2002. ?. 38, ?5. ?. 513-517.
????????? ?.?. ???????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????????? ? ?????????? ????? // ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????. 1996. ?.32 ? 6.
?. 579-585.
??????? ?. ????????????? ????????????????????? ?????. ?.: ?????, 1982. 157 ?.
# 377 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????????????: ?????????? / ???.-????.:
?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ???????? ? ??.; ???. ?. ?. ??????????. ??????????:
????????? ??????????? ??-?; ??????????????? ??-?, 2007. 198 ?.
????? ?.?. ????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ???????????:
?????, 2005. 160 ?.
?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????????????
? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ????????? // ????????? ?????????????
??????. 2009. ?.16, ???. 1. ?. 29-35.
????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ???????????. ?.: ?????, 1989.
????????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???? // ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????.
2002. ?. 38, ?5. ?. 509-512.
??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ???????? ? ?????????? ???????
????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? // ?????????? ???????? ?
?????????????. 2000. ?. 36, ?6. ?. 666-671.
Alexander A., Helm H.-U. Ureaform as a slow release fertilizer: a review // Zeitschrift fьr
Pflanzenernдhrung und Bodenkunde. 1990. 153. P. 249-255.
Atlas R. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation // Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1995.
31. 178?182.
Cunningham C.J., Philp J.C. // Land Contamination and Remediation. 2000. V. 8. N 4. P. 261269.
Ladygina V.P., Trucey I.V., Gurevich Y.L. Bioremediation of the fuel oil contaminated subsurface
// The 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE 2008),
May 16-18, 2008 Shanghai, China. Vol V: Environmental Pollution and Public Health (2). http://www.
icbbe.org.
Margesin R., Schinner F. Biological decontamination of oil spills in cold environments // J. Chem.
Technol. Biotechnol. 1999. V. 74. P. 381?389.
Margesin R & Schinner F (2001) Bioremediation (natural attenuation and biostimulation) of
diesel-oil-contaminated soil in an alpine glacier skiing area // Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001. V. 67.
P. 3127-3133.
Johnson C.R., Scow K.M. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on phenanthrene
biodegradation in four soils // Biodegradation. 1999. V. 10. P. 43-50.
Ro, K. S., Breitenbeck G. A., Ghalambor A. Composting technology for practical and safe
remediation of oil spill residuals. Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator?s Office/Office of the Governor,
Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 1998.
Technical Report Series 97-009.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
Operation Capacity of Polymeric Sorbates
Vladimir M. Melkozerov,
Sergey I. Vasilev, Andrey Ya. Velp,
Roman N. Krylyshkin and Dmitry I. Marynchik
Siberian Federal University,
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The comparative characteristics of sorbing capacity of polymer sorbents (sorbates) for purification
of agricultural soils, subsurface and water surface under leakage of petroleum products and oil are
considered. It was shown that sorbent Unipolymer-M exerted a significant positive influence on the
growth of microorganisms participating in purification of oil contaminated soil under the condition of
stimulation of these microbes with additions of biogenic elements to balance their nutrition.
Keywords: oil capacity, the polymeric sorbate, the microbiological analysis, surface-active substances,
the multiplicity of foaming, conditional bottle density, porosity, oil-oxidizing microorganisms, sorbate,
bioremediation of disturbed land, groundwater, soil.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 380-388
~~~
??? 624.148.3
???????? ??????????? ???????????
? ?????????? ?????????????
??? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 82 1
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? (???) ??????????
?????????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????????????,
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????????.
???????? ?????: ????????????????? ?????????, ??????????????, ??????????? ?????????,
????? ????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????, ????????????, ?????? ???????
????????? ????????????, ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ?????????????????,
?????????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????.
????????
??????? ????????????? ??????? ??????, ????????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ?
????, ??? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???? ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? (?? 2 ? ????? ??????). ?????????????? 25 % ?? ???????? ??????
???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ??????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? ???????, ?? ????????? ? ??????, ???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????.
????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????????.
??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? (??????????) ??????????
??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? 10?15 %, ? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????-??????????? ???????????, ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ???????????????
??????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ? ?? 20 %.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: s-vasilev1@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 380 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?
??????????, ?? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????????,
???????? ? ???????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????????????. ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????????????
??????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????????? (???????? ?
??., 1989; ????????? ? ??., 2009).
??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????. ?????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ??-?? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????, ????????????
????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????. ????? ?? ????? ????????? ????????????
????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ???? ?????? ?????, ?????? ?????,
???? ????? ? ???? ??????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ????
????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????-???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???, ?? ??????????? ? ???????????. ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????
???????????? ???????????? ? ????????-???????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????
???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? (?????????? ? ??., 2010).
?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? (?????? ? ??., 1980).
??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????.
?????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?
?????????. ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? 90 ????????
?????? (????? ???. ?) ?? 100 ???. ? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????
??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (?????????? ? ??., 2010).
?????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????
???? ????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????. ?? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?????????????
??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????????????? ?? ????? ???????????????.
# 381 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
???? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
????????????????? ?????
??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ?? 2254-001-02067876-2009 «?????????? ??????????????» (??????????? ????????).
??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ?? ???????????
????????.
? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ?? ??????
???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? 2500 ??/??? ? ????????????? ???????????????
??????? ? ??????? 3 ? 5 ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? 8 ? 10 ???, ??? ???????? ?
?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???? ?? ??????????
??????? ????? ? ???? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ???
?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? 0,08 ???. ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ???-?, ??? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? 25 ? 40 ??. ??. ? ????????????
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????
???????????? ??????????? ? 10?12 % ????????????? ??????? ?3PO4. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????? ? ???????
40±5 ??? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????.
? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????, ?????? (????? ?????? ? ???? ? ??????????? 1:1), ???? ????? ? ????? ? ???????? ?????? 0,25 ? 1,00 ??. ????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? (???)
?? ????????? (??????? ? ??., 1995) ??? ????????? ????????: ??????????? 200 ??, ???????? 4
???, ????? ???????? 60 ?. ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ? ???????
????????. ????? ???????????? ?????? (????? 1 ?) ????? ????????. ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??
?????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????.
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? 0,25 ? 1,00 ??. ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? 10 ?? 70 ???. %.
????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????.
?????????? ? ??????????
??? ?????????? ?????? ????. 1, ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????,
??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ???????
?? ??????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????????.
# 382 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????????
??? ?????? ?????????? q = 0,05 ? ????? ???????? ??????? f = 2 ???????, ??? ???????? ????????
????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ???????.
??????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? (???) ?? ?????????? ???????????? (?):
??? = 0,1991 ? 0,0123 ? + 0,0005 ? 2, R 2 = 0,937,
(1)
??? R 2 ? ????????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? (1) ??? ?????? ?????????? q =
0,05 ????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????????. ????????? (1) ????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????.
????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????
75 ???. % ??????? ??????? 0,25 ? 1,00 ??, ?????????? 2,09 ???, ????????????????? ????????
??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? 1,93 ???, ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? (1) ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????
(????. 1). ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????? ??????????
?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? 50 ???. % ????????? ????????????.
????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??
??????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????. ??????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???, ??? ??? ????????????? ????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????
??????????? (?????? ? ??., 1980; ?????????? ? ??., 2010). ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????.
????????, ??? ? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????? (??????). ? ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? (????????,
1987).
?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????
? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? (????????, 1987). ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????, ???
???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ????????????????? ????????????? (????. 1). ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????
??????????????? ?????????????. ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
# 383 #
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?? (??????????? ???????).
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????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????????????
????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ???????????? ? ????
????????, ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ?????????
?????????? (????????, 1987; ??????? ? ??, 1995). ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????
??-???????? ?????? ????? ?? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? (???. 1).
??? ??????? ?? ???. 1, ? ??-??????? ???????????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? 400 ? 4000 ??-1.
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????:
? ????????????? ?????? ? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? (?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??=? ??? 1717,7 ??-1, ?????? ? ??????? 1264 ? 1225 ??-1 ?? ???? ????????? ??-? ? ?????????????? ????????? ??-? ??????????????? ??????);
# 384 #
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???. 1. ??-??????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? (1) ? ????? ????????? ????????????? (2)
? ??????? ??????? ?????? (?????? ?????????? ? ??????? 1058,6 ? 1033,5 ??-1 ?? ???? ????????? ??-?-? ?????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??????);
? ????????? ?????? (?????? ?????????? ??? 1058,6, 1113,3 ? 1161,8 ??-1 ?? ???? ?????????
??-? ????? ? ?????????, ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????).
?? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ?????????
???????, ? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? 1608,0 ??-1 ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????-?????????? ?????? ?=? ? ????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? 1515,2 ??-1 ??????????????? ? ????? ???? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???. ????
?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ???????????????
???????? (? ?????????, ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????) ???????????? ??????????,
??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? (?????????? ? ??.,
1991).
??? ?????????? ?????? ???. 2, ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ?????? ?
?????? ?????, ???? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ?????,
?????????????? ? ???.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????.
????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???? ????????????? ????????????: ?????? ????? < ?????? ????? < ???? ?????<????????? ??????? ????????. ???????????, ???
??? ???????????? ???? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ?????????????? 1 %-? ????????? NaOH, ? 32,42 ? 53,00 % ??????????????. ????????, ??? ????????? ??# 385 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
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???. 2. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????
?????????? ???????????: 1 ? ?????? ?????; 2 ? ?????? ?????; 3 ? ???? ?????; 4 ? ???????? ???? ???????
????????
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??????????:
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???? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????, ?????, ?????????????? ???????, ?????????????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? (???????, 2007).
??????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? (? ????????? ?????????????) ??????? ? ??????????????????? ????????? ??????????.
????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ?? ???. 3
# 386 #
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?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????????
???????? ??????????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? (?????????? ??????????? 30 ???. %).
??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? 0,25 ?? 1,00 ??.
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????
???????. ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????
????????? ????? ??????????.
??????
1. ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????
????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ?? ??????????????
??????? ????????? ??????
2. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????????
??????????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????????
??????????, ???????? ???????? ?? 0,25 ??.
3. ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? 50 ???. % ????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????
??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? // ????: ????? ? ????????. 2008. ? 1. ?. 19.
????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ?1217854, 1986 ??. ?10.
?????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1980.
222 ?.
???????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? // ????? ?????????. 1987. ? 5. ?.
???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????// 1989. ?11. ?. 46 ? 48.
??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????? ??????? ???????????????????
????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? // ????? ????????? ??????????. 1995. ? 6. ?. 20-25.
?????????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?
??????. ?. ? ??????: ???????? ???????????? ????????????, 2006.
?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?. ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? // ?????? ??????????
????? ? ???????????? ?????????. 2010. ? 8. ?. 34 ? 39.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
?????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ? ?????????. ?.: ????????, 1991. 319 ?.
?????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????????????: ?????????? / ???.-????.:
?.?. ??????????, ??. ????????, ?.? ???????? ? ??.; ???. ?.?. ??????????. ??????????: ????????? ??????????? ??-?; ??????????????? ??-?, 2007. 198 ?.
????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????????
??????????? ?????????? // ????? ???????? ???????. 2009. ? 5. ?. 42.
????????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 1988. 216 ?.
??????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????????????? ?? 2254-001-02067876-2009 (???????
? 28.12.2009?)/ ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????.
Properties of Carbamide Cellular Plastics
with Wood Fillers for Heat Insulation
of Seasonlly Frozen Grounds
Sergei I. Vasilev and Vladimir M. Melkozerov
Siberian Federal University,
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The article describes a technology of obtaining carbamide foam heat insulations by joining with a
labilized wood fillers using the method of explosive autohydrolysis (EAH). It presents characteristics
of the modificated foam heat insulations possessing high mechanical properties that reduce the cost of
insulation of seasonally frozen grounds and secure the fire safety.
Keywords: heat-insulated materials, foam heat insulation, carbamide cellular plastics, method of
explosive autohydrolysis, mechanical strength, formaldehyde, size of the fraction of wood fillers,
ecological safety, waste products of wood processing, insulated frozen ground, fractional composition
of the filler.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 389-398
~~~
??? 550.8.05
Simulation Modeling Accounting
for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
Petr V. Dokunova,
Roman A. Oshmarin and Valery M. Kiselevb*
a
Schlumberger
3 Oborony Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660017 Russia
b
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, Russia 660041 1
b
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
Current article deals with fluid properties heterogeneity. The reasons of this phenomenon are analyzed.
3D digital modeling of formation, saturated with oil having variable properties (density and viscosity)
is performed. It is compared with model, built in the frameworks of classic approach, where oil has
constant density and viscosity. It is shown, that accounting for oil properties heterogeneity allows
making oil field design and planning of different activities more precisely.
Keywords: viscosity, density, oil properties, reservoir simulation
Introduction
Geological and simulation modeling are an important parts of oil fields development process.
Models are used for different engineering calculations, prediction of field performance, 3D visualization,
reserves estimation etc. In modern oil industry both oil companies and research institutes widely apply
reservoir modeling.
In the frameworks of classic approach, reservoir fluid properties in model are defined as constant
values. This means, that density, viscosity etc are the same for all formation modeled. Values of abovementioned parameters are usually taken as averaged fluid samples laboratory investigation results.
However, it is proved and described in a number of sources, that reservoir hydrocarbons may
have properties variation with depth due to many different reasons (Goncharov, 1986; Huc et al., 1999;
Schulte, 1980; Vandecasteele, 2008; Wenger, 2002, 2002?). Obviously, this effect will influence on oil
field performance and individual well behavior.
In the frameworks of this work reservoir fluid alteration processes are examined, together with
both conditions for appearance of such phenomena and consequences for further oil field development.
The latter is clearly shown by creation of two simulation models for comparative analysis: base case
model, which is built with classical approach and modified model, which accounts for fluid properties
gradient.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kvm@akadem.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 389 #
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Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
Review of reservoir fluids alteration processes
According to L.M. Wenger (Wenger, 2002?) main primary controlling factors on oil chemical
composition and properties are source rock characteristics:
1. Organic matter type
2. Depositional environment
3. Maturity level
Each of these parameters defines initial density, viscosity, gas/oil ratio, impurities content etc. For
instance, shales as a source rocks generate lighter oil with less sulfur, than marls. Source rock level of
maturity may define density and viscosity of oil ? the more mature rock, the lighter and sweeter oil.
(Wenger, 2002)
Therefore, determination of potential source rocks, migration path and timing is of critical
importance in order to understand all processes, affecting initial oil properties.
After migration into a reservoir, oil may become affected by in ? reservoir alteration processes,
which are biodegradation, phase separation, water washing, gravity segregation (Huc et al., 1999) etc
(Fig. 1). There should be favorable conditions for these processes, which will be described later. It
should be noted, that additional influx of new generated oil will also influence oil quality in reservoir
that is why it is important to reconstruct oil generation process.
The most interesting and less studied is process of biodegradation. It may cause significant
variations in oil and gas density and viscosity both vertically and laterally. In the frameworks of this
article biodegradation of oil is examined for instance.
Biodegradation of hydrocarbons usually occurs in reservoirs which have temperature lower than
80 °C (Wenger, 2002?). Degradation decreases presence of saturated hydrocarbons and increases
concentration of asphaltene components. Thus, changing in oil quality can be described as: lowering
API gravity, increasing viscosity, sulfur and carbon dioxide, moreover, changing in all of these
oil properties affects on a reservoir recovery efficiency, which reduce economic value of fluid due
Fig. 1 In-reservoir alteration processes (Schulte, 1980)
# 390 #
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Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
Fig. 2. Dead Oil Chromatogram (Left ? conventional oil, Right ? biodegraded oil)
to increasing wastes for refining. In additional, Biodegradation increases value of acids in oil and
downstream technical problems can occur because of corrosion effects.
Reservoir gas cap and solution gas also can be subjected by Biodegradation. The first components
which devoured by anaerobic bacteria are ethane, propane and n ? butane (Wenger, 2002?). Only
presence of methane increases and gas is getting drier. Also, percentage of carbon dioxide increases
with increasing value of bacteria activity, which affect on equipments using in oil production due to
occur risk of steel corrosion.
Recent studies show that iron, fermenting, oxide and sulfate reducing bacteria can exist only in
the absence of dissolved oxygen (Wenger, 2002). Anaerobic bacteria use free or connected water for
their living activities. Also, presence of adequate size of pores is required. Thus, place of activities of
living organisms exist not only near from oil water contact, but throughout all hydrocarbon column.
Irreducible water (if it is enough for living) can provide necessary volume of water and anaerobic
living forms will use side of pores for their existence.
The impact of biodegradation on oil-quality parameters can be significant. Fig. 2 presents
Gas Chromatograph illustration of conventional oil sample and oil which has been affected by
Biodegradation process.
To summarize, recognizing and accounting for oil properties heterogeneity, caused by reservoir
alteration processes, is essential in order to decrease exploration, production and other kinds of risk and
downstream oil refinery problems. The most critical are production risks, affecting not only production
characteristics, but also producing equipment and facilities, caused by increased proportion of acids,
CO2, sulfur and metals content in the oil.
Simulation of hypothetical case study
As an example, geological (static) and simulation (dynamic) models of one of the Eastern Siberia
oil fields was taken as a base case. Sector was cut from original geological model and used for
simulation.
Main purpose of modeling in the frameworks of this work concludes in attempt to set fluid
properties (density and viscosity) variation in modified model and compare with a base case model
with constant (average) value of these properties for the entire reservoir.
# 391 #
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Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
The problem of modeling fluid properties heterogeneity is not trivial, since simulation software
doesn`t allow to set this variability in the model explicitly. All models are wrong, but more or less
correct and physically explainable modeling requires a certain workflow to be followed to account fluid
properties trends. It should be noted, that static geomodel is useless in the frameworks of this project,
since variability of properties will impact dynamic behavior of the field. Dynamic simulation model
in contrast can provide evaluation and comparison of such important parameters, as water cut, oil
production rate, total oil production etc. Besides, visualization of fluids distributions before and some
time after production starts can be performed.
Three dimensional digital geological models include volume grid in X, Y, Z coordinates where
every cell characterized by set of properties such as net to gross, porosity, permeability and so on.
Lateral dimension of 3D grid in X and Y direction is 100 meters and in Z direction is 0.4 meter. Total
number of cells is about 15 millions.
Saturation of given geological model includes three phases: water, oil and gas cap. Thickness of
oil saturation part of reservoir is 45 meters and gas cap is 15 meters in the thickest part of formation.
In addition to models, as a hard input data pressure gradients, measured in two wells were used
(Fig 3). Values of fluid density change from top reservoir to bottom and situated approximately on one
level of depth.
Although, average density can be estimated as 850 kg/m3 (for base case model), it is obvious that
variation of oil density in wells sufficiently large and using average value should be very careful due to
ability of non correct estimation of production rate or economic value of flowing fluid.
In general, simulation model grid consists from 610560 cells and has dimension 48 x 53 x 240 and
it responses a square 5 thousand meters on side and about 96 meters of thickness. Model characterized
by the following attributes:
? Oil water contact situated at 1645 meters below sea level
? Free water level situated at 1655 meters below sea level
Fig. 3. Pressure gradients for real wells A and B (X axis ? Pressure, kPa; Y axis ? Absilute Depth, Meters)
# 392 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
Fig. 4. Regions with different PVT properties
? Gas oil contact ? 1600 meters below water level
? Average density in reservoir conditions is 850 kg/m3, at standard condition is 903 kg/m3
? Initial solution gas oil ratio equals to 50 m3/m3
? There is live oil in the reservoir
? There is an active aquifer in the formation V
Also, active analytical Carter ? Tracy aquifer was used, which has thickness about 40 meters and
permeability, which is equals to 450 mD. For reducing number of active cells only one layer of aquifer
have been lost, all cells with 100% water saturation have been cut and changed on constant inflow.
There were set up 4 wells in highlighted section. Simulation was made during 40 years and the
following basic parameters were obtained: FOPR (Field Oil Production Rate), FPR (Field Pressure),
FWPR (Field Water Production Rate), FOPT (Field Oil Production Total), FWPT (Field Water
Production Total), FGPR (Field Gas Production Rate), FGPT (Field Gas Production Total), FWCT
(Field Water Cut). Also all these parameters are available for each well.
The modified model was separated into 4 regions with different PVT properties according to
measured pressure gradients (Fig 4):
Region 1- 1602 -1608 meters with density 780 ? 810 kg/m3
Region 2 ? 1608 ? 1618 meters with density 825 ? 845 kg/m3
Region 3 ? 1618 ? 1629 meters with density 850 ? 872 kg/m3
Region 4 ? 1629 ? 1645 meters with density 880 kg/m3
Having done regression on mole fractions of hydrocarbons, tables of Live Oil and Dry Gas
can be obtained for using in the modified simulation model. These tables reflect changing chemical
# 393 #
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Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
composition throughout part of the reservoir, which was chosen for simulation model. Hence, three
table of Live Oil were created.
The API Tracking option (Beraldo et al., 2007) facility enables the model to mix different types
of oil. Without the API Tracking facility, the presence of different types of oil in the reservoir could be
handled with the aid of PVT region numbers. Oil in PVT region 1 would have its properties determined
from PVT table number 1, and so on. However, this method cannot model the mixing of oil types. Oil
flowing from region 1 into region 2 would appear to take on the properties associated with region 2.
The API Tracking (Beraldo et al., 2007) facility essentially replaces the concept of PVT regions
for oil. The PVT tables used for determining the oil properties are selected at each time step according
to the average API of the oil in each grid block (or to be more precise, its average surface density). A
mass conservation equation is solved at the end of each time step to update the oil surface density in
each grid block, to model the mixing of the different oil types.
Based on chemical composition, for each region appropriate live oil table was created. Having
calculated range of densities in every region, average value was chosen for every area of propagation.
This method gives opportunity to take into account vertical distribution and variation of oil density.
Moreover, every region has different viscosity of oil and thus, fluctuation of viscosity is also takes into
account. As well, this type of presentation used different PVT tables, which can be interpreted as more
exact method for accounting rate and economic value of oilfield.
Comparison of Results
Having done with both simulations model in Eclipse (c) software (see Fig. 6 and Fig.7), results
can be compared.
As imaged in Fig. 5, when density of oil has constant value, all part of perforations will be working
and depletion of reservoir will be uniform. But when there is a difference in density between parts of
reservoir (Biodegradation effect), flow will be also different. It is obvious that part of formation with
lower density and viscosity will be depleted greatly than part with higher density and viscosity after
defined time interval. Since average permeability of formation is very high, viscous forces will be
dominated. This situation can explain all differences which occur in the models. Next perforations
interval has been chosen: 4 meters below GOC and 2 meters above OWC.
Fig. 5. Schematic explanation of fluid flow (Q ? Flow Rate, m3; ? ? viscosity of the fluid, sp; ? ? density of the
fluid, kg/m3; GOC ? Gas-Oil Contact; OWC ? Oil-Water Contact)
# 394 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
Fig.6. Base Model Results: (FPR ? Field Pressure; FWCT ? Field Water Cut; FWPR ? Field Water Production
Rate; FLPR ? Field Liquid Production Rate; FGPR ? Field Gas Production Rate)
Field Pressure
It is necessary to mark that only 4 wells were in models and pressure maintains is not required
(sector is about 5 square km). Pressure behavior in both models is almost the same and a little difference
in modified model explained by high flow rate of oil.
Field Water cut and Field Water Production Rate
Base model gives high value of production water relates to oil production. It explained by that fact,
when magnitude of perforations the same in the both cases, in the base model all part of the reservoir
is working and in the model with density variation almost only part with lower value of density gives
flow of oil and water. At the same time, lower part of the reservoir (where density is higher), almost
doesn?t working and OWC stays at initial position. Thus, value of mobile water is greater in the first
case than in the second one.
Field Oil Production Rate
Since in modified model there is density of oil which less than average value, in equal conditions
(depression, perforation and etc.) oil with lower density will be flowing instead of oil with higher density.
Thus, rate of production will be differed in to the large side. Higher value of viscosity and density in the
lower part of the formation bring to reducing mobile. And it seems in the case of industrial production,
there is a danger to lose oil in that part.
# 395 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
Fig.7. Modified Model Results (FPR ? Field Pressure; FWCT ? Field Water Cut; FWPR ? Field Water Production
Rate; FLPR ? Field Liquid Production Rate; FGPR ? Field Gas Production Rate)
Field Gas Production Rate
Early gas breakthrough occurs in the both cases. There is only difference between models in
the peak and length of production gas rate. In the first model, oil near from gas oil contact has higher
density and gas breakthrough starts a little earlier than in the second model where there is ?layer? of
oil with less density. In the case of heavy oil near from gas oil contact, gas almost not dissolved in
oil and that is why gas conning occurs early and has great peak. Also for the second model Field Gas
Production Total has the greater value.
In conclusion, it is necessary to add that in the beginning modified model starts at the higher
flow rate and during 40 years FOPR higher for the second model and FWCT and FLPR is less than in
the first model, but tendency the following: during time interval difference in activities decreases and
after one critical moment, the first model will be more economic attractive than the second one. This
tendency not so obvious in this case due to small number of active wells, but for case with hundreds
wells it will be more noticeably.
Conclusions
The main conclusions can be marked after review of the effect of oil properties heterogeneity and
its modeling:
- fluid properties alteration gives density and viscosity fluctuation in the reservoir which affects
production rate, watercut and other parameters of production;
- there is a risk to lose resource with heavy oil density;
# 396 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
- primary flow rate of oil higher in case of using different oil densities in the reservoir;
- after defined interval of time, model with average value of density gives higher flow rate and
less watercut;
- lateral trends of changing density and viscosity are also possible in addition to vertical trends;
- it is possible to get gas conning and water conning due to heavy oil in the reservoir;
- it is desirable to perforate interval at least 10 meters below gas oil contact and 5 meters above
water level for prevention of water and gas breakthrough;
- using formation fluid sampling it is possible to construct 3D distribution of density for more
precise modeling.
References
Beraldo V.T. et al. Streamline Simulations with API tracking option // SPE 107496-MS. ? 2007. ?
7 pp.
Goncharov I.V. On gas solubility variation within oil formation (West Siberia example) /
I.V. Goncharov, N.K. Vinokurov, M.P. Bodryagina //Geochemistry of oil and gas formation and
accumulation processes, ZapSibNIGNI works, ?208, Tyumen, 1986. ? P. 56-76.
Huc A.-Y., Carpentier B., et al. Geochemistry in a Reservoir and Production Perspective // SPE
53146 ? 1999. ? 9 ?p.
Schulte A. M. Compositional Variations within hydrocarbon column due to Gravity // SPE 9235MS. ? 1980. ? 10 pp.
Vandecasteele Jean-Paul. Petroleum Microbiology. Concepts. Environmental Implications.
Industrial Applications // Editions Technip, Paris. ? 2008.
Wenger Lloyd M. Control of hydrocarbon seepage intensity on level of biodegradation in sea
bottom sediments. Elsevier Science/Organic Geochemistry. ? 2002.
Wenger Lloyd M. Multiple Controls on Petroleum Biodegradation and Impact on Oil Quality/
Wenger Lloyd M., Cara L. Davis, and Gary H. Isaksen // SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering. ?
October, 2002. ? P. 375-383.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Petr V. Dokunov, Roman A. Oshmarin? Simulation Modeling Accounting for Reservoir Fluid Properties Heterogeneity
???????? ?????????????????
?????? ?????????????
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?.?. ????????,
?.?. ??????? , ?.?. ????????,
?
?????????
?????? 660017, ??????????, ??. ???????, 3
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?*
? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????.
????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? ?
??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (????????? ? ??????????). ????????? ????????????? ?
???????, ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????
? ????????? ??????. ????????, ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????
???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????
????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ????????, ?????????, ???????? ?????, ????????????????? ?????????????.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 399-409
~~~
??? 553. 982. 2
????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????
?????-??????? ?????????
??????-??????? ???????-????????? ?????
? ???????? ????????????? ????
?.?. ??????
??? «???????????»,
??????, 660077, ?. ??????????,
??. 78 ??????????????? ???????, ?. 15 1
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????????????
???????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????-????????? ?????. ??? ?????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????
?? ??????????. ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????-????????? ?????
???????-?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????
????????? 960 ??? ?, ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????.
?????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
?? ??????? ????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????, ? ??????????????? ??????
????????????? ???? ????? ????. ? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? ????????? ?????
??????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?? 2 ?? 15 ??? ?.
??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????
??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ?????????, ?????????,
?????????, ???????, ?????????????, ?????????????, ???????, ??????, ?????.
????????
??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ? ???? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????, ????????
?? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????. ? ???? ?????? ??
?????????? ? ???????-????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????????? ??????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ???????
???? ??????? ??????????, ? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: v_krinin@vankoroil.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 399 #
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?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? «?????» ??? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ? ????.
????????????? ?????????????
? ???????? ?????????? ???????-????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????
???? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????
? ?????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?, ? ???? ???????, ?????????????? ?? ???
??????????? ?????. ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ????? ?
??????? ??????????, ? ??????? ? ????????????????????? ??????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????-???????????? ???? ???????? ????????????????????? ???????????
???????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????. ????????? ????? ????? ?? ?????
????????????? ????????, ? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????.
?????????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????
????????, ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ? ????????? ????? ? ??????????
?????????????? ???????-????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????
????? ??????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????: ?? ??? ? ?????????? 150,
????? 1, ?? ??????? ? ????????? 316; ? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????????
???????????? («???????»), ??????????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????.
??? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????? ????, ????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????-???????
????????? ????????? ????? ???????-????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????.
?? ?????? ?. ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?? ?????
??? ?????-??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? 105-110 ?? (???. 1). ??????, ???????? ?????????
??????????????? ????????? 316 ? ????????? 2485-2800 ?, ?? ????? ??????????????, ?????
????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????????????????? ???????? (??????????
??????? 1450-1700 ??? ???).
??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????,
????????????? ? 150 ?? ????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? 90 ??, ? ????? ?? ??????
???????, ??????????? ????? ? 20 ?? ???????? ??????. ?? ?????????, ??? ????? ?? ???????????
?????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?
?. ?????????.
????? ???????, ??????????-???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ???????-????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????????????
? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???, ??-????????, ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????????
???? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????.
????? ???, ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????
?. ?????? (???. 1).
?????? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ????-????????????? ?????????, ????????????
????????????????????? ???????????. ???????????? ???? ??????, ??? ??????????? ?????
# 400 #
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???. 1. ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????-????????? ????? ???????-????????? ?????: 1 ? ???????
???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? (??????? ????????? ?????????
? ???????-????????? ?????): ? ? ?????-??????????? ??????, ? ? ??????????? ??????-????; 2 ? ???
????????????: ? ? ??????? ??????? (???????), ? ? ??????? ??????? (????????????? ????); 3 ? ???????
?????????????: ? ? ??????? ??????? (??????), ? ? ??????? ??????? (?????????????? ?????); 4 ? ???
?????????????: ? ? ??????? ??????? (1 ? ????????????-??????????? ??????, 2 ? ?????????? ??????), ? ?
??????? ??????? (3 ? ???????-??????????????? ??????????????? ?????, 4 ? ????????? ??????????????
????, 5 ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????). ??????? ????????: 5 ? ?????????????? ??????? (I), 6 ?
????????????-??????????? ?????? (II), 7 ? ???????-??????????????? ??????????????? ?????. 8 ? ???????????????? ???????: III ? ?????????, IV ? ?????????????; 9 ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????,
????????? ????????????? ?????????; 10 ? ????????? ???????? ? ?????-??????? ?????: 1 ? ?????????,
2 ? ????????-???????, 3 ? ???????????, 4 ? ????????????, 5 ? ??????????, 6 ? ???????????, 7 ? ?????,
8 ? ???????-????????, 9 ? ???????????, 10 ? ????????, 11 ? ??????????, 12 ? ???????, 13 ? ?????????, 14 ?
???????????; 11 ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????; 12 ? ???????????? ???????????? ????????;
13 ? ???????????????? ???????
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?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
(??????????? ? ??., 1973), ??-????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????-????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? (???. 1). ????? ? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????????, ????????, ???????????????
?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? (????????-??????? ??????,
??????-??????? ??????? ????????).
???????????????? ????? ??????????-???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?. ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????.
?????????, ???????? ???????-??????????? ????????? 1 ? ????????? 2610-2727 ?, ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ?? ????????, ????????, ????????????? ????-??????? ???????. ??
?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????-??????????? ?????????
????????? ??????, ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? 1, ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? 1665 ? ? ???????????? ????? ????????? 240 ?.
??????????-????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????-??????????????? ????, ?????????????? ???????? ??????????
? ???????????? ????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????????
??????? ?? ??????????, ???????????????, ????????????????, ???????????, ????-??????????
????????.
? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? (??????-?????????? ???) ????????? ?????????
??????? ???????? (??????-??????? ???????), ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?
??????????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????, ????????
?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??
???????? ???????, ????????????? ?? ?. ??????????? ???????? ? 35 ?? ?? ?????.
??????? ???????, ?????????????? ????? ?. ?????? ?? ?????? ?. ?????? ?? ??????
?. ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ?????-??????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????????????????-???????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????
???? ??????? (??????, 1998).
????-???????????? ?????? ??????-??????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????
??????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????
150, ????????? ???????????????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???????-????????????? ???? ???????????????? ???????. ?????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????-?????.
????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????? ? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????
?????? ???????????, ??? ?? ???????, ??? ? ? ????????????. ?? ????????????? ????? (???. 1) ?????, ??? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????????
????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????-?????: ?????????????? ???????,
????????????-??????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????????? ????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????.
???????? ????????????? ????? ???????????????????? ? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??
??????? ??? (?????????????, ????????, ??????????? ????), ????? ??????? ?????????????
# 402 #
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?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????, ? ??????? ??? (????????? ??? ? ????????), ?????
??????????????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????
?????. ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????
?????????, ???????????? (?????? ?? ?????????? ???????) ????????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????????? ???????? ???????
(??????, 2010).
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????, ????????????? ?? ??????? ????????, ???????? ? ????????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????.
??????????? ?????????????????
? ???????????? ? ???????, ??????????? ????? ?????????? (?????????, ?????? ? ??.),
?? ????????? ?? 01.01.1993 ?. ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???-?????????
??????????????? ??????? ????????? 551,3 ??? ?.
????????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?? ????? ? ??? ? 2003 ?. ?? ??????????, ? ?????
? ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? 760 ??? ?, ??? ? ????????????
??????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????.
?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????-????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????. ? ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????
(???. 2, 3).
??? ??????????-???????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????? ? ????.
? ???????? ????????????-??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????. ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???? ????????????? ???????, ????????
?????? ?? ???????, ????????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????? ????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????. ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? (???) ?? ????????????? ????? ???????? ? ????? (??????????????) ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????. 1.
????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????
?? ??????, ???????????? ? ???????-??????????????? ??????????????? ????? ? ?????????
?????????????? ???? ??????????.
????? ????, ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????
(????. 1).
??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ???? ???
?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??# 403 #
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???. 2. ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????-????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????: ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????????: 1 ? ??????????????????? 1-??
?????????, 2 ? ??????????????????? 2-?? ?????????, 3 ? ????????????? 1-?? ?????????, 4 ? ?????????????
2-?? ?????????, 5 ? ?????????????????, 6 ? ????????????????; 7 ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
I? ? ?????????? ??????? ????, ? (?? ?????????? ???? ?????????, 2005 ?.). ?????????????: 8 ?
??????? ? ????????????????, 9 ? ????????, 10 ? ???????????? ? ?????????????????????; 11 ? ?????????
???????? ? ?????-??????? ?????: 1 ? ???????????, 2 ? ????????????, 3 ? ???????????, 4 ? ???????????????, 5 ? ?????, 6 ? ???????????, 7 ? ???????, 8 ? ?????????, 9 ? ???????????; 12 ? ??????? ?
???????? ????????? ???????; 13 ? ???????????????? ???????
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
???. 3. ????? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????-????????? ????? ???????????????? ?????: ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????????: 1 ? ?????????????, 2 ?
????????????????? 1-?? ?????????, 3 ? ????????????????? 2-?? ?????????, 4 ? ????????????????; 5 ?
???????? ??????????? ????????? II? ? ?????????? ??????? ???, ? (?? ?????????? ???? ?????????,
2005 ?.). ?????????????: 6 ? ???????, 7 ? ????????????????, 8 ? ????????, 9 ? ????????????; 10 ?
????????? ???????? ? ?????-??????? ?????: 1 ? ???????????, 2 ? ????????????, 3 ? ???????????, 4 ?
???????-????????, 5 ? ?????, 6 ? ???????????, 7 ? ???????, 8 ? ?????????, 9 ? ???????????; 11 ? ???????
? ???????? ????????? ???????; 12 ? ???????????????? ???????
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?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
??????? 1. ??????? ????? ???????? ???
??????? ?????, ??? ?
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154,6
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??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????, ? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? 4, ??????????
11, ?????????? 8. ? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ??????.
?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????. 2.
? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? 185 ??? ?.
??????????, ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????. ?????????? ?????????? ???????-??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????-?????????
320, ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?? ????????????????? (??????, 2003).
?????????????, ?? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????????, ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????????.
????????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? (????) ?????????????? ?????, ??????????????? ????????????????? ???????.
# 406 #
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?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
??????? 2. ??????? ????? ??????? ???
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????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????; ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????.
?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????? ? ????.
3. ???? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????, ????????, ???????
????? ?? ????????, ?? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????? 30 %, ??
????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? 78 ??? ?.
??????
????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????. ? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ? ??????-????????? ????? ???????-??????????
# 407 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
???????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ????, ????????????? ?????
69°00? ? 65°20? ???????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? 263 ??? ?. ?????
????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????, ?????
????????? ????? 960 ??? ?.
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????, ? ??????????????? ??????
????????????? ???? ????? ????. ? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?? 2 ?? 15 ??? ?.
????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??
??????????????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
??????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? (???????????? ????) // ????? ???????????. ???.68. ??????, 1973. 184 ?.
?????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????? ???-????????? ????? ???????-????????? ?????
// ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? / ????????. ??????????, 1998.
?. 95-97.
?????? ?.?. ?????????????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ????????
????????????? ????? ? ???? ? ?????? ?????-????????????? ???????? // ???????? ? ?????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????: ????????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ???????????. ??????????: ???-?? ??? «????????????????????», 2010. ?. 22-29.
?????? ?.?. ???????? ? ????????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??
??????-??????? ???????-????????? ??????????????? ????????? // ???????? ? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ??????. ???. 4 / ????????. ??????????, 2003. ?. 200-203.
Basement Tectonics and Oil Resources
Estimation Referred to Jurassic-Cretaceous Deposits
of Northern-Eastern Part of West-Siberian Plate
Within Krasnoyarsk Region
Vladimir A. Krinin
CJSC ?Vankorneft?
19 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
According to results of deep oil-and-gas exploration wells drilling and regional seismic data interpretation close relationship between sedimentary cover and West-Siberian plate basement was determined. It allowed conducting oil-bearing capacity prospects overestimation with accounting tectonic regionalization by basement. Initial cumulative recoverable oil reserves of Northern-Eastern
part of West-Siberian oil-and-gas basin within Krasnoyarsk region can be 960 million tons, that
biggest than previous evaluations.
# 408 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ??????. ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????-??????? ????????? ??????-????????
These estimation results are the basis for considering that probability of discovery of oil field with
unique reserves, comparable to Vankor Field, is low in Krasnoyarsk region. In most cases hypothetical new fields will have reserves between 2 and 15 million tons.
Oil-bearing prospects regionalization conducted indicates priority directions for new oil field
seeking.
Keywords: oil-and-gas bearing basin, deep drilling, basement, tectonics, structure, trap, field, regionalization, resources, reserves, oil.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 410-418
~~~
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Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
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*
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Corresponding author E-mail address: vap@kgf.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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??????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????????????? ????????? ???????? (???????) ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? 2D ?
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? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????.
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?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????, ???????????? ? ????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????
???????-????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????
?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ???.
?????? ??????????
????? ?., ????? ?., ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????? ?????????????
???????????? ???????? ????? ? ????????-???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????
(????????? ?????????) // ?????????? ??????????????. 2008. ?3. ?.19?28.
??????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? // ?????????. 2004. ?2. ?. 23?29.
# 417 #
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?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????. ????????? ????????????? ??? ? ??????????? ????-????????? ???????????
???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? //?????????.-2004. ?2. ?. 8?20.
????????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????????-????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? // ??????? ???, ???.
?????????. 2005. ?.34-40.
????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????? 3D ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? // ?????????? ??????????????.-2009.-?3.-?.
83-86.
??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????? ?????????/?????????
?? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????? // ???????? ? ?????????. 2003. ?8. ?. 819827.
??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???-??????????????. ?.: ??????.-1992. ?2834 ?92?. 14?.
Pozdnyakov V.?., Tcheverda V.A., Safonov D.V. Focusing Transformation ? The Reliable Way To
Search For Safe Location For Nuclear Waste Disposal // Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. USA, Reno: EEGS. 1997. P.33-41.
Pozdnyakov V.?., Tcheverda V.A. Application of Focusing Transformation to Environmental
Geophysical Problems // The Netherlands: NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publichers.-1998.Vol.18.-P.161-168.
Pozdniakov V.?. Reliable Imaging of Subseismic Object by Means of Focusing of Seismic Scattering Energy // Abstracts 69?th EAGE Conference and Technical Exhibition.- London: EAGE. 2007.
?273. 5??.
Cheverda V.A., Reshetova G.V., Pozdnyakov V.?. Generation of Scattered Waves by Cavernous/
Fractured Reservoirs // Proceedings EAGE Conference KazGeo 2010 ? Where Geoscience Meets the
Silk Road. Almaty: EAGE. 2010. B007. 5pp.
Location of Destructive Zones in Carbonate Vendian ?
Riphean Deposits in Eastern Siberia
Vladimir A. Pozdnyakov and Anastasiya S. Merzlikina
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
In the carbonate Vendian-Riphean deposits in Eastern Siberia zones of increased fracturing are of
particular interest as possible traps of hydrocarbon. Application of traditional methods of seismic data
processing as a rule does not allow to identify such geological objects confidently. With areas of high
fracturing mild energetic anomalies of wave field are associated. These anomalies can be revealed by
variations of the seismo-acoustic properties and interpreted as local geological objects. The paper
presents an approach to the recovery of local geological objects in the field of scattered seismic waves.
The results of application of the Focusing Transformation for imaging in scattered waves.
Keywords: destructive zone, fracturing, scattering, seismic exploration.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 419-428
~~~
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Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
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????????-??????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?.?.
???????????? (1998). ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????????-??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????
(??????? ? ??., 2004; ?????????, 2005; ?????????, ???????, 2005).
???????? ???????? ????????-??????????????? ?????????? (???) ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???. 1. ????? ????????? ??????: 1 ? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????-??????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????; 2 ? ???????
?????????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????; 3 ? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ???????; 4 ? ????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? (?????), ??????? ?????????????-????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
??????. ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? «????» (??????? ? ??., 2002).
? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? (1 ???????) ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????, ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? (F-) ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????. ????????-?????????????? F-????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?
?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? (?????????, ???????, 2005). ??????????? ?????
*
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Corresponding author E-mail address: huss@geola24.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ??? MapInfo, ArcGis, ???? AutoCad (??????? ?
??., 2002; 2004).
??????
? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?
?????? ????????-??????????????? ???.
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????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????
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??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ????????????
????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????-??????????????? ??????????//
????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????: ???. ????. I ??????. ???????????: ?? ???,
2002. 4 ?.
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?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????. ????????-??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ????????
??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? // ????????? (??????????). ????. 2004. ?. 23-29.
?????????? ?.?. ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? //
?????????. 1998. ?5. ?. 3-12.
????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???? ?????? «??????????????» / ????. ?
2003620128 ?? 24.06.03. ?.: ?????????.
????????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????????-????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? // ??????? ???, ???.
?????????. 2005. ?. 34-40.
????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????????-????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????-???????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? // ???????? ????? ? ????. 2005. ?2. ?.21-27.
????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ???????????????????: 10 ??? ? ????? 30 ????? ????????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ????? // ??????????: ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????. 2009. ?3. ?. 44-47.
??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ??????????????? ???????-????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????-??????????????? ????????????????? ??????? // ????????? (?????????? ?????????????? ? I). 2002. ?. 80-83.
??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ????????????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ????????-??????????????? ??? // ????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????, ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ? ????. ?.: ????, 2002. ?. 175-178.
??????? C.C., ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????? ???????-????????? ????????? ????
???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? //
?????????? ??????????????. 2004. ?2. ?.35-37.
Object-Oriented Technology of Creation
of Seismogeological Models
in the Reflected and Scattered Waves
Vladimir A. Pozdnyakov and Sergey S. Khudyakov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Solving the problem of integration of algorithms and programs of focusing transformations of wave
fields into the object-oriented geographic information system within unified technology of seismic data
processing.
Keywords: destructive zone, scattering, seismogeological model, data base, geoinformation system.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 429-437
~~~
??? 622.245.723
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? ???????? ??????????????
????????????? ??????? ??????
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????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
??????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????
? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????-??????????. ???????? ??????
??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????
???????. ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????
?????????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????
?????, ?????????????????, ?????????? ?????????????.
????????
????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? (Butler, 1994; Joshi, 1991). ? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????-????? ????????,
? ????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ???????????? ?
???? ????????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????
???????.
? ???? ???????????? ????? (> 1 ??) ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????-?????????? ??????????. ?????
????, ? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? (????? ?????, ???? ?
????). ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????
????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????? (??????? ? ??., 2009). ? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ICD (Inflow Control Device) ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?
??????????????? ??????.
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1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kvm@akadem.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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???? ?????? ??????: ??????????, ????????????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????. ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? Q f a1...an . ???? ?????
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??? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????? (?????????????? ???????????? ??????????-????????????? ???????????? (??????? ? ??., 2009; ??????? 2010)), ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????
?????????:
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??????? (1) ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ??
?????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????????
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?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? pi(x) ? ????????? ??????????? Psf (x) = P wf (x). ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? q(x) ? ????????. ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ? ? ??? ??????????
?? ?????????? ???????? (??? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????). ????? ???????????
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?????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????. ????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ? ??????
????????.
?? ?????? ????????? ??????? (????????? ? ??., 2007), ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????
????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? (??? ?????? ?? ??????????,
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?? ??????? ??????-?????? Psf (x) (???. 1b) ? ??????? qo(x) (???. 1?). ????? ???????, ??????????
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2007. ??? 11. ?.33-37.
2. ??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? / // ???????? ?????????. 2009. ???. 11. ?. 20-23.
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????????????? // ??????-??????????? ??????? ??? «?? «????????». ?.: ??? «???-?? «???????? ?????????». 2009. ?2. ?. 25-29.
4. ??????? ?.?. ????????????? ? ????????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? // ?????????????? ????????????? ? ??????# 436 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????. ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????????
?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????: ????????? ? ?????? ???????? 3-? ????.?????. ???????????. ? ?.: ??? «???????????? «???????? ?????????», 2010. ?. 63.
5. ?????? ?.?. ????????? ? ??????? ???????????. ??????????? ???????. ???????????. ???????????: ???, 2004.
6. Butler R.M. Horizontal wells for the Recovery of Oil, Gas and Bitumen. Calgary, Canada:
The petroleum society of the Canadian Institute of Mining, 1994.
7. Joshi S.D. Horizontal well technology. Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA: PennWellBooks, 1991.
8. Mjaavatten A., Aasheim R., Saelid S., Gronnong O. A model for Gas Coning and RateDependent Gas/Oil Ratio in an Oil-Rim Reservoir // SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering,
October 2008.
Horizontal Well Performance Modeling
in the Case of Reservoir Properties Heterogeneity
Andrey A. Semenov and Valery M. Kiselev
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, Russia 660041
In this paper different approaches to the mathematical modeling of horizontal well performance in the
case of reservoir heterogeneity are considered. Influence of Inflow Control Device (ICD) installation
is analyzed. All models are used on the examples of the Vankor horizontal wells.
Keywords: horizontal wells, Inflow Control Device, multiphase flow, gas coning, Vankor oil field.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 438-452
~~~
??? 541.128.13:542.952.1:547.313.4:546.831 226
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?
???????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???,
?????? 660049, ??????????, ??. ?. ??????, 42
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
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?????? 662110, ???????????? ????, ?????????????? ?????,
???????? ??? ??? «???? ???» 1
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????
???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????,
????????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????
?????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?
??????? ?????????????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?-???????
?4-?7. ????????, ??? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????
????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????. ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ????????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ???????????? ???????, ??????? ????????, ????????????,
???????? ? ????????? ???????????????.
??????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????, ? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????????. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????
?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????, ????????????? ? ????????????, ???????????
????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? «? ??????????? ?????????????», ? ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????????????
????????????? ?? ? 609 ?? 12.10.2005, ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????????
????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ??????????,
??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?? ????????????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kpn@icct.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 438 #
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
? ????????-????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????
????????????? «????????» ? ??? «???????? ????????????????????? ?????» ? ???????
??????????? ????? 7 ??? ?. ? ??? «????????? ??????????????? ????????» ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? 12 ??? ? ????? ? ???. ????????? ????? ????????? ????-??????? ??
???????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????. ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ? ????????????
? 1982 ?. ?? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? 63 %. ???
«????????? ??????????????? ????????» ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????????? ??????????? ??????, ? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????
9,5 ??? ?, ??????? ??????????? 76 %. ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????
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? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ????
???????? ??????. ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????? ? ????? ? ?????????? ???? ?
??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???? (??????) (??????????, 2002;
?????????? ? ??., 2006; ??????????, ???????, 2009; ?????????? ? ??., 2008). ????? ??? ?????
????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????? (??????????, 2006; ??????????? ????????, 2002; ???????, ??????, 2009; ????????, 2010). ??? ???? ?????????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????-????????? ?????. ???, ??????????
??????? ?????? ?? ????????????, ??????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????, ? 2 ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?
2 ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? (????. 1) (???????? ? ??., 2008;
??????? ? ??., 2010).
? 2009 ?. ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ? ?????? ???????-????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????. ? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????-?????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????
? ???????? ???. ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????
??? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? 80-180 ?? ? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????????
?????????? (??????? ? ??., 2010). ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? C7-C8 ? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ?? 34-35 % ???. ?????? 43-44 % ??? ?????????? ?? ???????-?????????
?????, ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? (? ???????, ?? 1 % ???.). ??????????? ????
?????????????, ?, ??????????????, ????????? ?????? ????????. ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??-??
????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ?????????
?????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????.
??????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????,
?.?. ???????? ??? ?????, ??? ? ????????? ???. ?? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????
??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ???????? ??????, ???????? ? ???????. ?????
?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
0,38 % (?? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ? 0,57 %) (??????????, ???????, 2009;
??????????? ????????, 2002; ???????, ??????, 2009)).
??????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ????? ??????? 169 ????????????? ?????, ??? ???? ?? ???
???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????? (???????????, ???????????? ? ?????# 439 #
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
??????? 1. ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? (???. %) ?????????? ??????? ???180 0?
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35,5
15,7
16,7-14,4
12,2
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36,6-44,3
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30,4
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36,0-31,6
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?????????????? ? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????
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??????? ??????????? ?????????? (??????????, ???????, 2009; ?????????? ? ??., 2008).
? ????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ????????????? ???????????
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??????????. ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????, ?.?. ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????, ?? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????.
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
???????????? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? (HS-10 ????? ???, I?-632 ???????????? ????????? ?????,
??????????? Hysopar ????? Sud-Chemie, ????????????? ??????????? ??-1 ??? «????????»)
? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? (???????????? ??? I-8;
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2005; ???????? ? ??., 2005; ???????? ? ??., 2007; ????????, ??????????, 2002). ????????? ????
???????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? LPI-100 ????? ??? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???-2? ????? ?????
? ??-2 ??? «????????» (????????? ? ??., 2005). ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????-?????????? ??????? ?????.
?? ???????? ??? ? 2008 ?. ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????-?????????? ??????? (??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???) ?? ???????????????
????????? ????????. ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????.
?????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ? ??????? ????????????????? ? ????,
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??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????
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? ???????????? ????????? ???????????. ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????
??????? ??????????? ?? ????? 3-15 % (? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????), ? ????????????? ????????????? (???????) ?? ????? 3 %.
?? ????????? ?????? ? 2010 ?. ??????? ??????? CKS ISOM ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????
Hysopar (??????? ? ??., 2010). ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????????????. ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? (???? 250300 0?), ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????????? ????????.
? ????????? ???? ? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????
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?????????? ????????, ??, ??? ? ???????, ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ???????????. ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ?????? ? ??????-?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????, ? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? (???????? ? ??., 2007; ????????, ??????????, 2002; ??????? ? ??., 2010; ??????, ??????,
2000; ??????? ? ??., 2010; ???????? ? ??., 2005; ???????? ? ??., 2010). ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????
??????????? ? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????.
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# 441 #
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ? ????????????
?????????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????????????? ???????? WO42- ? ???42- (???????? ? ??., 2007; ??????? ?
??., 2010; ???????? ? ??., 2010).
? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????, ????????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????-??????? ????????? ???????. ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????, ??? ? ????????? ?????????. ?
???????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? Fe3+, Y3+ , Al3+ , Mn3+ ? Sc3+ ? ??????????? ?? 0,5 ?? 25 ??. %. ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????. ???????????
????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? 350 ?
870 °?. ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? (??????): 5Al3+/Zr600 ? ??????? ????????,
??????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? 5 ??. % (? ??????? ?? ????? ????????)
????? ???????????? ??? 600 0?; 6SO42-/5Al3+/Zr600 ? ??????????????? ???????, ??????????
6 % SO42--?????.
?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ????????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????
???????? ???????? ????????
??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????
?????????????????:
[Zr(H2O)8]4+ +2H2O ? [Zr(H2O)6(OH)2]2+ + 2H3O+.
4[Zr(H2O)6(OH)2]2+ ? [Zr4(H2O)16(OH)8]8+ + 8H2O.
??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????
????????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? [Zr4O8-?(OH)2??H2O]n.
?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ZrOx(OH)4-2x ???????? ????????????????
???????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?? 420 ?2/? ?? ????????????????????
???????? ??????-?????? 3-4 ??. ?????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????????
??? ??????????? ????? 350 °? ? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? (?) ? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?). ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? 600 0? ?-ZrO2 ???????????? ???????
??????? ? ?-?????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
?-????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????.
???????? ????????????? (Garvie, 1965; Gopalan et al., 1995; Mercera et al., 1990), ??? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???? ZrO2 (?????????????? ? ??????????) ??????????, ? ???# 442 #
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
???. 1. ??????????? ???? ? ? ????? ZrO2 ? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????-??????????
? Zr4+. ???????????? ???????? 1,5 ??.%, ??????????? ???????????? 600 ??
?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????????
(???? 700-800 0?) ??????? ? ???, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????????, ????????????
????????????????????? ????????? ??????. ????? ??????????? ?-????? (????? 25-30 ??), ?
??????? ?? ????????????????????? ??????, ???????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?-????? ??-?? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ????????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????????????? ???? ????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ZrO2 (??????, ??????, 2000).
???? ??????? ??????? ???????? Y3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Sc3+ ?? ???????????? ??????????????
???? ZrO2 (???????? ? ??., 2009). ?? ??????? 1 ???????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???
???????????? ??????? ZrO2, ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ?????, ??? ?????
????? ??????? ??????????????. ??????? Sc3+ ???? ? ????? ?????? (0,83 ?°), ??????? ? ???????
Zr4+ (0,87 ?°), ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? Al3+, ??? ? ???????
Y3+ ? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ??????? Zr4+. ??? ??????? Al3+/Zr600 ????????????
?????????? ?-????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????? 13-14 ?? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? Al3+ 5-10 ??. %. ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????
????????? ????????? ???????? ????.
???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ????????
??????? SO42-/Zr?2. ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ? ????????-??????????, ?????
???????????? ???????????? ?-????? ZrO2 ??? ???????????? (???????? ? ??., 2010; ???????? ?
??., 2004; ????????, 2007; Babou et al., 1995). ??? ????? ?? ???. 2, ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??? 600 0? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? SO42--????? 5-7 ????.%, ??????? ? ?????????? ????# 443 #
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
2-
?????????? S?4 , ????.%
???. 2. ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?-????? ZrO2 ?????
???????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??? 600 ??
???????? ???????? ??????????? ZrO2 (6 ????.% SO42-). ??? ?????????? ???????????? SO42- ????? 8 ????. % ?????????? ?-????? ?????????? ???????????: ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ????????. ??????? ?????? ????????????
???????????? ?-????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 15-18 ?? 10-11 ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????
SO42--????? ?? 20 ????.%.
?? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ZrO2 ???
????????? ???????? SO42--?????. ?? ???. 3 ?????, ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????, ??????????
????? 13,8 % SO42-, ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ????????, ????????? ?????????
??? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?? 4 ?? 8 ??, ? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? 3-4 ??. ???????????? ???????? ??????????? (100-110 ?2/?), ??????????? ??????? ???????
?????? (9,0-10,0 ??) ? ??? (5,5-6,5 ??) ???????? ??? ?????????? 5-7 % SO42- (???. 4). ?????
??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? 0,19-0,23 ??3/?, ? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????
0,01 ??3/?.
????????? ?????????????? (??????? SO42-/??3+/Zr) ????????? ???????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????? ?-????? ZrO2 ? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? (???????? ? ??., 2010; ???????? ? ??., 2004; ????????, 2007).
??????? WO42-/Zr?2. ??????? ?????????????? ?-????? Zr?2, ?????????????????
??????????-????????, ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????, ?.?. ?????? WO42-, ?
????????? ? ???????? SO42-, ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? (???????? ? ??., 2010). ????? ???????????? ??? 700 0? ?????????? ?-?????
????? ?????????? ? ???????, ?????????? 12,9 ????.% W?42- (???. 5). ??? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? 8 ?????? W/?? 2, ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (6,3 ?????? W/?? 2). ????????????? ?-????? ZrO2, ??????????
??????????-??????, ?????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? (?? 870 0?), ??? ????????????????. ? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????-??????? ? ????????? ??????????
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???????
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?????? ? ??? ZrO2 ? ??????????? ?? ??????????
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???. 5. ??????? ??????????-??????? ??
?????????? ? ? ZrO2 ????? ????????????
?????????????????? ????????? ??? 700 ??
???????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????
???????????.
??????????????? ZrO2 ??????????-???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ??? 700 0? ?? 15 ?? 75 ?2/? (???. 6). ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????
WO42-/ZrO2, ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ????????? ? ????????? 14?20
??, ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? (13-16 ??).
?????????????? ???????? ????????????????????? ???? ZrO2
? ????????? ???????????? ?-???????
???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????, ????????????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????
????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?-??????? ?? ?4 ?? ?7, ??????# 445 #
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ZrO2 ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? SO42- ???
200 ??
?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ?-??????? ? ???????? (10 %) ? ???????? (10 %).
??????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??-??
????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??????????????
?? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????.
?????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????
? ??????? ???????????? ?-?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??
???????????? SO42-?????. ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ???? ???????, ?????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? 6-7 ????.% SO42- (???. 7) (???????? ? ??., 2010; ????????, 2007; ???????? ? ??., 2005). ?????????????? ????????????????? ZrO2 ????????? Fe3+ ?
Al3+ ???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? (???????? ? ??., 2010; ????????, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2009). ????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? 1,5-5,0
??. % Al3+. ?? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?-?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????
145-175 0C ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ????????? (???????? ? ??., 2005; ????????,
2007; ???????? ? ??., 2005).
???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?-??????? ? ??????????? ??????-??????????
???????? ??????? (????????, 2007). ???, ??? ???????????? ?-??????? ??? 150 0? ? ????????
???????? ?????? 2,1-3,4 ?-1 ????????? ?????????? 74,0-77,3 % ? ?????????????? ?? ??????????
?? ????? 97,2 %, ? ?? ????? ???????? ?4-?5 ????? 98 %. ??? ???????????? ????????????
??????-?????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? 1,0 ??? ??? 150175 0? ????? ??????????? ????????? 96-99 %. ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? 11,7-12,2 ??????? (?? 72,2 ?? 83,9-84,4 ?? ?????????????????? ??????). ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???
???????????? ????????????.
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??? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? 300 0?. ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????
????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? 17,6 ????. % (???. 8).
????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? 95 %. ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? 200-250 0? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? 5 %.
???????????? ?-??????? ?? Pt/WO42-/ZrO2 ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? 200 0?. ?????
???????? ???????, ??? ? ? ??????? ? ?-???????, ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?
???????????? 17,6 ???. % WO42- (???. 8). ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? (??? ??????????
???????? ?????? ????? ?? 3 ?? 1 ?-1) ????? ??????????? ??? 200 0? ????????? 80 % ? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?? 99 %.
??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????????? ?-??????? ?? ??????????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????????
??? ????? ?????? ??????????? 170 ??. ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ????? 82,3 % ??? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????.
????????? ????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? 0 (??? ???????) ?? 60 ??????? (?? ?????????????????? ??????). ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 200 0? ??????? ??????????? ?-??????? ????????? 95 %. ?????? ????????????? ??
???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? 46 % ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????.
????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?-??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? (10 %) ? ??????? (10 %). ??? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????
????????? ????????????, ??????????????, ? ???????????????? (47 %) ? ??????????? (53 %) ?
???????????????? (38 %) ? ?????????????????? (62 %).
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???????????, ??? ????????????????.
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ?????? ??-???????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????
??????????? ????????????, ??? ???? ???????????????? ZrO2 ???????? ??????????? ??????
??????? ? ??????? ??????????? (???) ? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? (???), ??? ????????????????? (????. 3). ????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ZrO2 ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?4-?6 ? ????????? ???????. ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????????????? ?-??????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????. ?? ????????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????
????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????.
??????????
????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?
????????????? ? ?????????. ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? 65 % ????????????? ?????????????, ???????
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? ????????? ??????????, ??? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?7. ?
2008 ?. ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? «? ??????????? ? ????????,
?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????», ? ??????? ???????????????
????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????-2, 3, 4, 5. ????????
??????????, ? 1 ?????? 2012 ?. ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????
????-4 ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? 35 %, ? ??? ????? ??????? ?? 1 %. ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????
???????????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?5-?6.
? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?5-?6 ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????? ????????, ? ????????? ????
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????? ?????? ????????? ????? (????????, ?-?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????,
? ?-?????? ? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????????) ? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????.
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??????????? ??? ??????, ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????????????, ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????
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? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ?? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ? ??? ?????
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???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
?????????? ?.?. ????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????// ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????. 2002. ?.72. ? 3. ?.206-221.
?????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? ???? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???# 449 #
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???? ??????// ????? ????? ? ????: ????????? VI ????????????? ??????????? ?????. ??????.
2006. ?.5-8.
?????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????// ??????????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ? ??????????. 2009. ? 1. ?.12-16
?????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?, ???? ?.?. ????? ???????? ???????.
????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?????- ? ???????????????// ????? ??????. 2008. ? 6. ?.21-28.
??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????: ? 2 ??. ??. 1/??? ???. ?.?. ??????. ??????????: ????????, 2002. 620 ?.
??????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?.//????????? ??????? ????????????? ????. 2009. ? 4. ?.30-41.
???????? ?.?.//????????? ??????? ????????????? ????. 2010. ? 5. ?.26-28.
???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ??????????? ???????? ?????????????
????????? ????????????? ????// ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ??????? ?
??????????. 2008. ?. 2. ?.168-180.
??????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?-35/11-1000 ??? ??????????? ? ??? «????» ?????? ??????????????
? ???????????? ?????????????// ???????????????? ? ??????????. 2010. ?1. ?. 3-9.
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?.3-9.
???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????// ?????????? ????? ? ????. 2005. ?.38. ? 3. ?.20-31.
???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ??. ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????????????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????// ?????????? ?????????? ??????. 2007. ?. LI. ?.4. ?. 75-84.
???????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????// ??????? ? ??????????????.
2002. ? 2. ?.86-88.
??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????? ?.?. ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
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?. 21-52.
??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? Pt/SO42--ZrO2-Al2O3. I. ??????? ??????????? ???????
?? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? SO42--ZrO2-Al2O3// ???????? ?
??????? 2010. ?.51. ?3. ?. 457-462.
???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????????? ??????
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?2. ?.7-14.
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???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??
????????????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????// ????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????. 2010. ?. 18. ?3. ?. 299-311.
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?.?. ?????????. ???????????: ???. ?? ??? (?????????????? ??????? ?? ???; ???. 19), 2009.
?.68-86.
???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. ???????? ???????????????? ????????
? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ???????????????? ??????????? ????????//
?????????? ??????????. 2004. ? 1. ?.2-6.
???????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????: ???. ? ????. ???. ????:
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???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????// ????????
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?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
Novel Zirconia Based Catalysts for the Isomerization
of Alkanes of Petroleum Fractions
Peter N. Kuznetsov?*, Vladimir P. Tverdokhlebovb,
Ludmila I. Kuznetsova?, Anastasia V. Kazbanova?,
Dmirty A. Melchakovc, Nikolay N. Dovzhenkob
?
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS,
Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia.
c
Achinsk refinery,
promzona NPZ OAO «ANPZ VNK», Krasnoyarsk areay,
Bol?sheuluyskiy rayon, 662110 Russia
The data on the study of the formation of phase composition and textural properties of the catalysts
based on zirconia promoted by sulphate and tungstate anions and metal cations depended on the
composition of catalyst precursors and preparation conditions are presented in the paper. Catalytic
activity for the reaction of skeletal isomerization of C4-C7 n-alkanes are evaluated. Sulphated zirconia
catalysts are shown to behave high catalytic activity for isomerization of C4-C6 n-alkanes. However, the
tungstated zirconia based catalysts were mostly effective for selective isomerization of C6 -C7 n-alkanes
into branched isomers with high octane numbers.
Keywords: gasoline, alkane isomerization, catalysts, zirconia, anion and cation promotion.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 4 (2011 4) 453-462
~~~
??? 550.832
Use of the Cluster Analysis
and Artificial Neural Network Technology
for Log Data Interpretation
Anatoly V. Chashkova, Valery M. Kiselevb*
a
OJSC Verkhnechonskneftegaz,
295 B Baikalskaya St., Irkutsk, 664050 Russia
b
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 5.08.2011, received in revised form 12.08.2011, accepted 19.08.2011
Methods of the cluster analysis and artificial neural networks implemented in Schlumberger
Techlog software modules were used for processing and interpretation of data on wells from the
Verkhnechonskoe Oil and Gas Condensate Field. It was demonstrated that clusterization of data
allows for significant improvement in reliability and accuracy of lithotype determinations as well
as porosity and permeability of rocks.
Keywords: cluster analysis, artificial neural networks, well logging, lithotypes, porosity,
permeability.
Introduction
The following assumptions shall be taken into account for justification and development of
a technique for well logging interpretation for reservoir delineation, assessment of saturation
mode, and determination of reservoir properties. Firstly, the developed technique shall allow for
the completeness, self-descriptiveness, and quality of a standard logging suite conducted in the
present field. Secondly, it is essential to know the reservoir model, i.e. the type of the reservoir,
its pore geometry, material composition, the structure of skeletal and cementing parts, variation
range of the main reservoir properties, etc. (Dobrynin et al., 2004; Latysheva et al., 1986). Such
data are obtained as a result of the lab core analysis. On the basis of these data main petrophysical
relations and boundary values of the reservoir properties are established (Vendelshtein et al., 1978;
Dobrynin et al., 2004).
Permeability index ????? is one of the most important reservoir properties in productive
formations. It can be determined either based on a core analysis made in laboratory conditions, or as
a result of well tests. If such techniques fail to cover the depth of the productive stratum (or horizon),
then log data are used to determine the porosity index ???? . Functional relation ????? ? €????? ? is
revealed based on the available lab core analysis data.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kvm@akadem.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
When a productive horizon has complex and inhomogeneous geology, it is reasonable to start
from splitting log and core data into main typical classes and establish petrophysical relations for each
individual class (Itenberg et al., 1984; Lider et al., 1986). This task can only be solved using the cluster
analysis methods (Pospelov, 1988).
One of productive terrigenous horizons of the Verkhnechonskoe Field in East Siberia was reviewed
as a target of research. This geological object has a complex structure due to severe salinization and
anhydritization of productive strata and presence of tectonic dislocations which split the geological
structure in a large number of blocks. Moreover, there is a high degree of variability in the thickness
of productive strata and presence of extensive areas of reservoir substitution with impermeable rocks.
All this lead to a number of problems related to determination of the in-place permeability by using
traditional methods of log and core data interpretation. Such problems can be basically solved by using
cluster analysis technique.
1. Preparation & Processing of Data
Preparation and preliminary processing of log data were carried out in Schlumberger Techlog
software for core and log data processing. Log data from one of the productive horizons of the
Verkhnechonskoe Field were processed pointwise. Processing included the following stages:
? uploading of log data;
? correlation of curves and 'joining' them in isolation intervals when necessary;
? entering the data stratigraphic arrangements, directional survey data, core analysis data, and
well test results in the Techlog data base;
? setting up the processing flow for the parameters of the estimated target (entering of interpretation
algorithms, petrophysical relations, criteria, etc.);
? lithological heterogeneity of the cross-section;
? removal of reference values for normalization of acoustic logging (AL), gamma-ray logging (GR),
neutron gamma-ray logging (NGL), bulk density logging (DL) and potassium concentration (P);
? identification of thickness value based on logging data (general, effective, and effective and oil
and gas saturated);
? determination of porosity and permeability based on logging data;
? comparison of acquired results with coring data.
The data on more than 100 wells that penetrated one of the productive horizons of the
Verkhnechonskoe Field were used in our investigation.
2. Classification of Rocks through Cluster Analysis
Cluster analysis is the process of splitting certain sample objects into subsets called clusters in
such a way that each cluster would consist of similar objects, whereas objects from different clusters
would be considerably different. The task of making clusters pertains to statistic data processing
(Pospelov, 1988; Jain Anil et al., 1996). Regardless of the object under study, application of cluster
analysis implies the stages as follow (Kohonen, 1982):
? selection of samples for clusterization;
? determination of range of variables that will be used for evaluation of sample objects;
? calculation of values of certain similarity between the objects;
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Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
? splitting of the sample to a certain number of clusters;
? verification of clusterization results.
A sample set of around 104 points in 5D space with coordinates associated with AL, GR, NGL,
DL, and P was selected for study.
Requirements to input data for cluster analysis were consolidated in (Pospelov, 1988; Parsaye,
1998). First, input data must be non-dimensional and have no runouts. It can be easily achieved through
preliminary simple processing of input data. Second, sets of input data must be uncorrelated and their
distribution must comply with normal distribution law at least approximately. Checking if the data
meet these requirements has to be done in practice.
Cluster analysis method is effective enough, since being an analytical method it has no subjective
judgement associated with visual analysis of graphic objects (Pospelov, 1988; Parsaye, 1998; Jain Anil
et al., 1996; Kohonen, 1982). Dozens of various clusterization algorithms have been proposed lately,
but all of them produce almost identical results. Hence, there is no basis for favouring certain method
(Herrick et al., 1998; Naeeni et al., 2010; Nashawi et al., 2010; Rezazadeh et al., 2010).
In the present study, classes of rocks were identified using the so-called «method of K-average»
(Pospelov, 1988) which was implemented in Ipsom module of Techlog software for core and log data
processing. Algorithm of this method implies splitting of a set of elements in vector space into a predetermined number K of clusters so that variability inside clusters can be minimized and distance
between clusters can be maximized.
At the first stage of algorithm, each element xi of a set is assigned random probability Pij, which
shows that this element belongs to j cluster (j = 1,2, ?K). At the second stage, centres of mass for each
cluster are calculated,
?
???
?? ? ? ??
љ ?,
?
where Q ? factor that enhances scores of points found near the centres of mass. For our calculations we
accepted Q = 1,2. Then, re-calculation of probability was conducted from equation
?
?? ? ? ?
?
”?? ???
?
”??
where Pnm probability of the fact that element xn belongs to cluster number m,
”?? ? ?љ? ? ?? ?? ”?? ? ?љ? ? ?? ?.
If calculated probabilities do not coincide with the previous ones, they are used for identification of
new centres of mass until this iterative process provides convergence.
This algorithm uses the number of clusters as an input parameter. In order to determine the
optimum number of clusters, it is required to use the information which is prior to the input data. In
our case input data were represented by vectors with coordinates that correspond to adjusted results
of AL, GR, NGL, DL and P. Prior information was represented by seven lithotypes identified upon
core tests for 4 wells of the Verkhnechonskoe Field with 100 % core recovery in the interval of horizon
under study. In 2009-2010, Specialists of Department for Core and Formation Fluid Storage and Study
of Tyumen Oil Research Institute conducted detailed sedimentological cores studies with identification
of rocks that have similar petrophysical parameters.
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Error of lithotypes prediction
Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
Num
mber of clusterrs
Fig. 1 Error of lithotypes prediction depending on the number of clusters
There were determined normalized errors of lithotype forecast based on log data for various
numbers of clusters. The result is shown in Figure 1 that makes it obvious that when number of clusters
exceeds 19, forecast error does not decrease significantly. Using less than 19 clusters may result in
insufficient compartmentalization of a section for log data versus core data, cases when the number
of clusters exceeds 19 are likely to account technical logging features rather than geological and
geophysical properties of formation.
3. Result of Cluster Analysis and Application of Neural Network
In other wells of the Verkhnechonskoe Field that were drilled with core extraction but without
sedimentological analysis, splitting rocks into clusters based on log data was conducted using Artificial
Neural Network Unit. During the study neural network can identify complex relationships between
input data and output data as well as can make synthesis. It means that in case of successful training,
network can generate correct result on the basis of the data that were missing in the training sample
as well as incomplete and/or noisy, partially corrupted data (Herrick et al., 1998; Naeeni et al., 2010;
Nashawi et al., 2010; Rezazadeh et al., 2010).
For training and using Artificial Neural Network Unit for clusterization on the basis of logging
data, there was used module «K.mod» of Techlog software. Core and log data from four wells that
were studied in detail were taken as a training sample. Results of clusterization and core lithology are
provided in Fig. 1.
After splitting the wells? sections into clusters based on log data, the data were aligned with
available lab test core data, well sampling data, and with log data. All of that allowed assigning certain
clusters to reservoir or non-reservoir and describing clusters in terms of argillite, salt, and gravelite
content. Finally, 19 clusters formed seven groups associated with seven lithotypes (Table 2). Groups
1-5 fall into the category of reservoir, while Groups 6-7 are non-reservoir category.
4. Determination of a Porosity Index
The main logging method for determination of the terrigenous deposits porosity is the acoustic
logging that was carried out almost in all drilled wells in the field. By the AL results the interval time
is determined ?t, the function of which is the porosity index Kpor. Following the results of the AL data
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Table 1. Description of lithological types of rock and corresponding to them geophysical characteristics by the
result of the cluster analysis. ?JAL , ?JGRL , ?JP, ?JNGL , ?JDL ? normalized readings of acoustic log, gamma-ray log,
potassium concentration, neutron gamma-ray log and bulk density log respectively.
Cluuster
num
mber
ЁJJAL
ЁJGRL
ЁJP
Ё
ЁJJNGL
ЁJDL
Ё
Lithology baased on core
1
Completely saaline coarsegrained saandstone
2
Salline coarse-graained sandstonne
3
Moderately saaline coarsegrained saandstone
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
10
P
Poorly saline coarse-grained
c
d
sandsstone
Mostly coarrse-grained
sanndstone with good
g
porosity &
permeability
y properties
Cooarse-grained sandstone witth
goood porosity & permeabilityy
propeerties
Silty arrgillite
d sandstone wiith
Meedium-grained
aveerage porosity & permeabiliity
propeerties
d sandstone wiith
Meedium-grained
goood porosity & permeabilityy
propeerties
d sandstone wiith
Meedium-grained
goood porosity & permeabilityy
propeerties
1
11
Siltsttone
1
12
Siiltstone to argiillite, very fine
1
13
Fine-grained
d sandstone
1
14
Siilty argillite, sandy
s
in places
1
15
Argillite
1
16
Arggillite with rarre inclusions of
o
gravel grains
1
17
g
Muddy gravelite
1
18
Gravelite reservoir
1
19
Saline grravelite
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
Table 2. Cluster groups
#
Group name
Cluster
number
Core photo
Mineral composition, %
I
Sandstones with good porosity &
5, 6, 9, 10
permeability properties
quartz: 84; feldspar: 5; halite: 3;
anhydrite: 2; calcite: 4; dolomite:
2; siderite: 0; clay: 0.
II
Gravelites (reservoir)
18
quartz: 71; feldspar: 14; halite: 5;
anhydrite: 3; calcite: 2; dolomite:
5; siderite: 0; clay: 0.
III
Sandstones with average
porosity & permeability
properties
8
quartz: 92; feldspar: 5; halite: 0;
anhydrite: 0; calcite: 2; dolomite:
1; siderite: 0; clay: 0.
IV
Sandstones with poor porosity &
permeability properties
13
quartz: 76; feldspar: 3; halite: 0;
anhydrite: 2; calcite: 9; dolomite:
0; siderite: 1; clay: 9.
V
Saline sandstones (reservoir)
3, 4
quartz: 74; feldspar: 13; halite: 3;
anhydrite: 2; calcite: 3; dolomite:
5; siderite: 0; clay: 0.
VI
Saline sandstones (nonreservoir)
VII
Argillites
1,2,19
7, 11, 12,
14, 15, 16,
17
quartz: 72; feldspar: 11; halite:
11; anhydrite: 3; calcite: 1;
dolomite: 3; siderite: 0; clay: 0.
quartz: 70; feldspar: 7; halite: 0;
anhydrite: 0; calcite: 2; dolomite:
1; siderite: 6; clay: 14.
processing, the acquired functional relations Kpor = f(?t) for the reviewed cluster groups are presented
in Table 3.
It is known that the open porosity values determined using the core samples, as well as the total
porosity estimated by geophysical methods shall practically coincide for intergranular reservoirs
(Vendelshtein et al., 1978; Latysheva et al., 1986). Fig. 2 gives the results of a comparison of porosity
indexes determined by the acoustic logging data (Kpro AL) with the use of equations of Table 3, and by the
results of measurements using the core (Kpro core) for wells of the Verkhnechonskoe field with more than
70 percent of core recovery. Correlation factor between the data of Kpro AL and Kpro core equals to 0.92.
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Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
Table 3. Determination of porosity index ?pro by the AL data for different reservoir groups
Clusters
number
Group name
Dependence ?pro = f(?t)
I. Sandstones with good porosity
5, 6, 9, 10
& permeability properties
II. Gravelites (reservoir)
18
III. Sandstones with average
porosity & permeability
properties
IV. Sandstones with poor
porosity & permeability
properties
8
Kpor ?
??????? ? 32264 ? ?t ? 311 ? ?t2 ? 1?3 ? ?t3 ? 0?002 ? ?t4
1 ? 1261 ? ?t ? 9?8 ? ?t2 ? 0?02 ? ?t3
Kpor ?
????? ? ???? ? ?t ? ??? ? ?t2 ? ??? ? ?t3 ? 0?00? ? ?t4
1 ? 1??? ? ?t ? 9?? ? ?t2 ? 0?02 ? ?t3
13
V. Saline sandstones (reservoir)
3, 4
25
K
??
%
por????,
core, %
20
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
5
K
?por
??
p ??,
AL, %
Fig. 2 Comparison of the porosity index measured using the core (Kpro core) with the porosity index determined by
the AL (Kpro AL)
5. Determination of a Permeability Index
The forecast of permeability as a function of porosity leads to considerable errors in its evaluation.
This is explained by the fact that one value of porosity corresponds to the wide range of permeability
change (up to 2 orders of magnitude) as the latter is controlled not only by the porosity, but above all by
the perfection of the pore space structure (coarsening of grains of the skeleton, improvement of sorting
and packing, increase of filtration channels radii, reduction of their tortuosity, etc.)
It is known that the splitting of relation Kperm = (Kpro) into individual lithological regressions
leads to the considerable improvement of the permeability forecast Kperm. Therefore in our case for
each of 5 selected lithotypes the individual regressions were established Kperm = (Kpro) that were used
in future for forecasting the permeability as functions of porosity and reservoirs lithology (drawing
# 459 #
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Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
Table 4. Dependence of permeability index ?perm on porosity ?pro for different reservoir groups
Group name
Clusters number
Dependence ?perm = f(?pro)
I. Sandstones with good porosity
& permeability properties
5, 6, 9, 10
’‡”Џ ? ??? ? ???
???
18
???? ? ???? ? ???
???
8
???? ? ???? ? ???
???
13
???? ? ???? ? ????
???
3, 4
???? ? ???? ? ????
???
II. Gravelites (reservoir)
III. Sandstones with average
porosity & permeability
properties
IV. Sandstones with poor
porosity & permeability
properties
Kperm, mD
V. Saline sandstones (reservoir)
Clusterrs 3, 4
Clusterr 13
Clusterr 8
Clusterr 18
Clusterrs 5, 6
Kpor, %
Fig. 3 Comparison of porosity index and permeability index with splitting rocks into classes
3). Table 4 gives the obtained relations for various groups of reservoirs rocks. Fig. 3 demonstrates
that permeabilities differing by 3 orders of magnitude correspond to the various lithotypes of the
same porosity.
Conclusion
As a result of the conducted studies the following results were obtained:
? by means of the cluster analysis of materials of special core studies, five lithological classes of
reservoirs were determined as well as the average values of petrophysical features corresponding
to them;
? an algorithm of neural networks for identification of lithotypes on the basis of logging suite
was adjusted; the expert evaluation and correction of adjustment results were conducted; the
analysis of a reliability of lithological classes of rock prediction was done;
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Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
? the improved methodology for evaluation of the reservoir rock permeability as a function of
their porosity and lithology was developed.
By virtue of the conducted target-oriented core analysis, we achieved a possibility to detect
distinctive lithofacies categories visible not only in the space of porosity and permeability but as well
characterized by the high degree of homogeneity in terms of their petrophysical features. The acquired
lithological information may be successfully applied for populating geological models with data on
porosity and permeability properties of the reservoir.
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Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Anatoly V. Chashkov, Valery M. Kiselyov. Use of the Cluster Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Technology?
????????????? ??????????? ???????
? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????
??? ????????????? ??????
????????????? ???????????? ???????
?.?. ???????*, ?.?. ????????
?
??? «???????????????????»,
?????? 664050, ???????, ??. ???????????, 295?
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
?????? 660041, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ????????????? ? ???????
???????????? ????????? Techlog ???????? Schlumberger, ???????????? ??? ????????? ?
????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????
?????????????. ????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????
?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
?????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ????????? ????, ?????????????
???????????? ???????, ????????, ??????????, ?????????????.
?? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ?????, ??? ?????
????? ??????? ??????????????. ??????? Sc3+ ???? ? ????? ?????? (0,83 ?°), ??????? ? ???????
Zr4+ (0,87 ?°), ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????? Al3+, ??? ? ???????
Y3+ ? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ??????? Zr4+. ??? ??????? Al3+/Zr600 ????????????
?????????? ?-????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????? 13-14 ?? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? Al3+ 5-10 ??. %. ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????
????????? ????????? ???????? ????.
???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ????????
??????? SO42-/Zr?2. ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ? ????????-??????????, ?????
???????????? ???????????? ?-????? ZrO2 ??? ???????????? (???????? ? ??., 2010; ???????? ?
??., 2004; ????????, 2007; Babou et al., 1995). ??? ????? ?? ???. 2, ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??? 600 0? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? SO42--????? 5-7 ????.%, ??????? ? ?????????? ????# 443 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
24
100
22
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?????? ????????????, ??
?????????? ? - ?????, ???. %
?.?.????????, ?.?.????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????
2-
?????????? S?4 , ????.%
???. 2. ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?-????? ZrO2 ?????
???????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??? 600 ??
???????? ???????? ??????????? ZrO2 (6 ????.% SO42-). ??? ?????????? ???????????? SO42- ????? 8 ????. % ?????????? ?-????? ?????????? ???????????: ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ????????. ??????? ?????? ????????????
???????????? ?-????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 15-18 ?? 10-11 ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????
SO42--????? ?? 20 ????.%.
?? ?????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ZrO2 ???
????????? ???????? SO42--?????. ?? ???. 3 ?????, ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????, ??????????
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