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212.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №3 2009

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
Journal of Siberian Federal University 2009
2 (3)
Гуманитарные науки
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН К.С.Александров
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
Editorial Advisory Board
Eugene A. Vaganov
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Valery L. Mironov
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Vladimir V. Shaidurov
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Editorial Board:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
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Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
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Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko
Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of
Its Revelations
– 295 –
Nataliya S. Dureeva
Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of
Globalization Becoming
– 301 –
Sergeу P. Dureev
Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of
– 305 –
Antonn U. Koltyrin
Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization
– 310 –
Maria V. Kozlova
Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the
Western Culture
– 316 –
Vladimir S. Luzan
Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies
– 323 –
Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin
avd Yekaterina V. Detlova
About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International
– 336 –
Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova
Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya
– 349 –
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Vladimir N. Ozeredenko
Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization as a
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Victoria L. Pfanenshtil
Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced
Globalization Alternatives
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Sergey Ju. Rjazancev
The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian
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Aleksandr M. Tajmulin
Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World
Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva
The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific
– 384 –
Michel P. Jacenko
Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of
History in Russia
– 391 –
Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil
Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect)
– 396 –
Nikolaj P. Parfentjev
About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of MusicalWritten Art of Xvi – the Beginning XVII Centuries
– 403 –
Ekaterina P. Stepanets and Alexander A. Khasin
Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times of the
Global Financial Crisis
– 415 –
Tamara V. Aref’eva
Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk
Branch of the All-Russia Theatrical Society
– 429 –
Alexander N. Andreev
Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
– 435 –
Svetlana N. Kulikovskih
Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
– 443 –
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 295-300
УДК 130.2
Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency
of its Revelations
Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Russian society reforming must be to a large extent correlated with globalization processes,
which determine the leading directions of human life. Though, globalization is one of the forms of
attempts to universalize the world society, and it is important to distinguish natural globalization
(Internet and so on) and artificial one (enforced) globalization. Though, to our mind, there lies
euro-centrism in the basis of globalization, and that is why in order to understand the essence of
modern globalization processes one needs to research euro-centrism as the ideological basis of
globalization. In the history of western civilization development, the myths, declaring a special
position of Europe, are known to be built up already on the educational system level. This widespread modern western society conception considers Europe not as a geographical notion, but
as a civilizational one. We can call euro-centrism to be a meta-ideology of the West, because
separate confronting ideologies being also developed within its frames (for example, Liberalism
and Marxism). It is important, that they proceed from one and the same world picture and one and
the same postulates about historical way of the West. To our mind, the euro-centrism becoming
and the symptoms of its crisis upon the modern conditions prove that the given process is closely
connected to globalization and crucially influences the process of reforming of all the aspects of
Russian social life renewal.
Keywords: euro-centrism; natural globalization; enforced globalization; meta-ideology; political
being and sphere.
It is important to estimate adequately the
historical way of euro-centrism, in order to
understand globalization processes as a natural
tendency to integration or to forcible pressure,
threatening to lose one’s socio-cultural identity.
As it is well-known, there was a gradually
forming euro-centric point of view in European
public opinion already in the colonial epoch.
It happened, when dynamic, creative and free
Europe fulfilled a civilizational mission towards
stagnant, totalitarian and fanatic East. Such a
point of view of the world was not only the result of
the situation in ХIХ century. As a social-political
phenomenon of opposing of «right and good»
Europe to the rest of the world, euro-centrism has
undergone a long evolution of fading and dying
under the influence of objective and subjective
factors, and that is most vividly revealed in the
conditions of globalization.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations
In the post-colonial period, euro-centrism
prevents spiritual decolonization of developing
countries and contributes to imposing western
patterns of development to these countries, not
taking into account their civilizational specifics,
all these can be of big advantage to the West,
but leads to drastic consequences for the East.
The appearance of such works as «The End of
History» by F. Fukuyama, who has announced
the western capitalism pattern to be the top of
the world evolution, can be one of the proofs of
such an approach. Here, we can see the ways,
wherein the principles of euro-centrism reveal
themselves, and which have been driven to
extremity in the modern Universalist conception,
which has recommended itself especially vividly
in the American variant of artificial globalism.
At present time, some scientists still stick
to the conception of European «faster growth»,
according to which underrunning of the East
is relative and contrast in comparison to the
West. We may say that the key to «the European
wonder» is in Europe itself, in its peculiarities
of economical, social, and political orders, in
European man’s moral and spiritual attitude, but
we can find this key only by means of comparative
analysis of Europe and non-European world,
which in its turn is also not homogeneous.
Till our days, traditional opinion still
dominates and causes the wide-spreading of the
notions, according to which global manageability
suggests if not the world government appearance,
so then at least some centre creation, which
performs some state functions in the planetary
scale. Such point of view is based on the principle
of world managing under the leadership of
some ruling subject – let it be even collegial
and democratic, though, world manageability
is not equal to world managing. Actually, world
manageability is expressed in a controlled
or managed development, but not at all in a
regulation of the ways of functioning of these
or those institutions or separate individuals’ or
people groups’ behavior.
Advancement of manageability, as the main
criterion of globalization, does not at all means
the reduction of the later up to only political
questions. This criterion is also important to
other non-political spheres, where we may
possibly speak about well-developed general
modernization criteria, such as rationalization,
reflexiveness and so on. Though, manageability
is present there as well in such a degree that while
achieving the set political goals, economical,
cultural and other specifics are also taken into
consideration. That is why social management
does not present by itself a one-way influence of
the managing social system over the managed
one, but a dialectic interaction between its subject
and its object, which consists of various direct
and reverse connections between them, and that
acquires special importance in the conditions of
domineering globalization as a special form of
world universalization.
In this connection we are to note that the
very notion of «euro-centrism» has an important
methodological meaning. If we want to estimate
the position of Europe more objectively with
respect to non-European world, then we need
a comparative analysis, i.e. we need to refuse
from euro-centrism as a historiographical
approach, whereby non-European countries’
development passes completely out of sight or is
considered exclusively through the perspective
of European development. L.N. Gumilyev
wrote: «Commonplace euro-centrism is enough
for philistine perception, but is not acceptable
for scientific understanding of the observed
phenomena variety» [1, p. 65], as far as it leads
«to creation of an imaginary image of Europe,
and on its basis a distorted picture of development
of the rest of the world» – М. Ferro noticed in his
turn [2].
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations
Though, many scientists are not satisfied with
such an unambiguous approach, and they raise the
question of inconsistency of euro-centrism cult
as a leading methodological basis for objective
research of social processes essence. For example,
К. Jaspers has suggested an alternative formula,
being based on the fact, that he defines the
divide epoch as a central period, comprising the
biggest part of I millennium B.C., when the main
spiritual and intellectual breakthroughs in four
world regions had brought to a highly developed
civilization: Jewish transition to monotheism;
Greek rational philosophy evolution; transition
from Vedas to Upanishads; Buddhism and Jainism
in India; appearance of Confucianism and Taoism
in China. Along with the secondary revolutions
(Christianity and Islam), intellectual and moral
traditions, which were set during these centuries,
supported the leading world civilizations in the
course of two thousand years. In spite of the fact,
that the breakthroughs, identified by К. Jaspers,
were transcendental, everything was seated in
the search of human immortality and saving,
to his mind [3, p. 65-66]. Nevertheless, unlike
euro-centrism, advantages of such an approach
are especially revealed first of all in initial equal
rights of all the civilizations.
We proceed from the fact, that consideration
of modern globalization ambitendency implies
theoretical understanding of euro-centrism,
which should be achieved, firstly, in the context
of comparing of a row of modern concepts of
native and foreign authors, secondly, basing on
the structure of notions of «political being»,
«political sphere», and «political time» and,
thirdly, tracing the transformation of modernism
into postmodernism. One of the first researchers
of the age of Enlightenment was J. Herder,
who undertook a sort of global approach to the
study of culture theory and history. Though,
he as well admitted the East to be the cradle of
human culture and, correspondingly, refused
from euro-centrism absolutization, he stated
that «new European culture could become only
the culture of people, the kind they were and
wished to become, the culture, being generated
by businesslike character, sciences, and arts».
Thus, modernization paradigm of the West was
forming social and cultural values on the basis
of priorities of rationalism, individualism, and
religious traditions secularization [4].
At the beginning of XX century, researchers
already raised the question of euro-centrism
consistency as the leading theory, defining not
only humanitarian sciences, but also political
life of the humanity. О. Spengler predicted –
and now we can observe this prognosis being
realized, – that «future cultures will consider it
to have been completely improbable», that this
scheme «with its naive straightforwardness, and
its senseless proportions» has not been open
to the question for a long time. Such serious
researchers, as О. Spengler and К. Jaspers were
perplexed concerning to that, that the widespread
chronological scale was euro-centric [5]. Along
with that, we can agree with McNeil, who has
noticed, that «… quite another aspect of their
work seems to be more important, as far as О.
Spengler and A. Toynbee have put European and
non-European civilizations in one row, while
revealing the cycles in the fixed written past. This
century historiography differs at least potentially
from the previous ones by really extreme
concentration of the past European triumphs,
which prevailed in XIX century. » [6, p. 20].
accustomed to «The End of History» by Hegel
or to «The Kingdom of Freedom» by Marks,
does not think about bringing together the future
and the past. Being unambiguously equated by
significant number of philosophers to the system
of western values’ development and consolidation,
the notion of historical progress is oftener and
oftener associated with «the end of history».
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Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations
Though, on the whole, being based on the values
of market and liberal democracy, Fukuyama’s
utopia conception of «the end of history» and of
«the panhuman state» does not hold water in the
face of sharpened national, cultural and religious
peoples’ self-identifications in the background
of global civilizational crisis of XXI century
[7, p. 67]. For example, being a scrupulous
all-round scientist, Hodgson at various times
criticized ethno-centric western historiography
and western cartography (Europe being placed
right in the centre of the world maps). He rejected
generally accepted explanations of the western
exclusiveness (including Max Weber’s defense
of the western rationalism), basing on the fact,
that special praising qualities, being observed in
the western culture history, could be found in the
history of non-western societies in plenty.
Globalization, the same as euro-centrism,
can be considered as a striving to realize in
practice the enforced progress conception in
those countries, where the share of traditions is
quite significant or prevailing. It is well known,
how painfully it is, when on the national ground
the society with rooted traditional moral and
living norms and forms of social order meets
the enforced implantation of foreign spiritual
and cultural values with co-current structures in
political and economical spheres.
A deep ethnological sense is hidden under the
wordplay of theological terms, which is traditional
for ideologists of the Universalist theories (of
euro-centrism and artificial globalization): the
Europeans have singled out themselves out of
the rest of humanity and contradistinguished
themselves to it, as it was done by the Arabians
and Chinese, and in ancient times by the
Hellenes, the Jews, the Persians and Egyptians.
Consequently, to L.N. Gumilyev’s mind, here
we observe the process of ethno-genesis, being
common for all the epochs and countries. And
if so, then we have a right «… to consider these
events neither as random coincidences, nor as a
political conspiration of the Europeans against
the Asians, but we must approach them as a
naturally proceeding process or objective law of
human ethnic history in that cruel epoch, when
the time of peoples’ crystallization has come, the
people living and acting up till now» [8, p. 278].
Not refusing from accusations against
the West on the whole and against the western
historical science of the sin of euro-centrism,
we should say at the same time, that it remains
to be the basis for globalization ideologists and,
nevertheless, acquires some new tendencies.
Firstly, globalization ideologists have primarily
borrowed euro-centrism ideas and methods of
artificial globalization justification. Secondly,
we observe a rift in the sphere of globalization
subjects, first of all, between the USA and
Europe, which vividly illustrates crisis
demonstrations in euro-centrism as a leading
ideology of XX century. New tendencies in social
science development are the proofs of the fact
to some extent. In his book «Beyond the Moral
Virtues», American philosopher A. Macintyre
has expressed a well-known scepsis according to
the potential possibilities of social sciences: «…
from time to time it is announced, that at last the
true law, controlling human behavior, has been
discovered. Though, all these supposed laws have
just one shortcoming – they are obviously so
false, that nobody believes in them, except social
scientists, who are weighed upon by traditional
science philosophy» [9, p. 122].
To A. Whitehead’s mind, the problem of
social life is a problem of individual actions and
their unionization limits [10, p. 417]. Individuals’
unionization limits appear to be a theoretical
problem, perceived as a problem of individual’s
delegation of some part of his authority to the state
institutions, and the state turns out to be lawfully
authorized to govern the society, including those
relations, which concern globalization processes
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Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations
and negative globalization pressure blocking as
Nevertheless, even today many scientists still
consider euro-centric-globalization tendencies to
be non-competitive. For example, Amitai Etzioni
proves that the East is moving in direction of the
western pattern. «The same happens with the
West, which is moving in the eastern direction –
not to the East as it is, but by means of narrowing
of the deficit of commonness (and of powers
authority) to some median position… we should
also note that, this movement does not go in
the direction of one common synthetic pattern.
It is more likely, that there is realized a whole
row of social projects, which have two common
important features: the society is becoming more
balanced, than in individualistic and authoritarian
variants, and the public order is more than ever
based on the force of persuasion» [11, p. 44].
The fact, that the USA does not try to
consolidate the world society, for example, on the
basis of some grandiose global panhuman project
(like energy space system creation and, thus, to
provide a steady development of humanity and
poverty surmounting) serves as an inconsistency
indicator of the goals, being set by globalization
subjects. Instead of the mentioned, the USA
suggests «the struggle against the international
terrorism», which will only aggravate the hatred
towards America and redouble the terroristic
threat» [12, p. 174].
In these conditions, the countries,
experiencing such a pressure, turn out to be
faced with the necessity of corresponding means
development of globalization process blocking,
and having taken their societies’ specifics in
consideration, they must develop some special
mechanisms on the basis of their traditions,
which will block the enforced globalization
as a consequence of non-constructive eurocentrism.
Thus, mankind’s survival guarantee
supposes some changing of globalization process
essence from aggressive to constructive one, and
on condition, that it is successfully theoretically
and practically studied, globalization process
can contribute to unlock positive potentials of
different types of societies.
L.N. Gumilyev. Ethno-Genesis and the Biosphere of the Earth / L.N. Gumilyev. – Moscow,
Quotations from: Europe Metamorphoses. Moscow, 1993.
Quotations from: V. Grin. The European and World History Divided into Periods / V. Grin // the
Time of Peace. Almanac. Issue 2. Structures of History. – Novosibirsk: The Siberian Chronograph,
I.F. Kefeli. The Social Nature of Globalism / I.F. Kefeli // Man’s Perspectives in the Globalizing
World/ edited by V.V. Parcvanij. St. Petersburg: the St. Petersburg Philosophical Society,
О. Spengler. The Dawn of Europe / О. Spengler. – Moscow: Mysl', 1993.
W. McNeil. Changing Image of the World-Wide History / W. McNeil // the Time of Peace.
Almanac. Issue 2. Structures of History. – Novosibirsk: The Siberian Chronograph, 2001.
I.A.Pfanenshtil’, L.N.Pfanenshtil’. Russia and Globalization: Problems and Perspectives /
I.A.Pfanenshtil', L.N.Pfanenshtil' // The Informational Society Culture. Krasnoyarsk, 2003.
L.N. Gumilyev. The Search of an Imaginary Kingdom TANAIS. Moscow, DI-DIK, 1994.
– 299 –
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Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations
A. Macintyre. Beyond the Moral Virtues: The Moral Theory Researching / A. Macintyre. –
Moscow: Akadem. Proekt; Ekaterinburg: Delovaja kniga, 2000.
10. A.N. Whitehead. Selected Philosophical Works / A.N. Whitehead. – Moscow, 1990.
11. A. Etzioni. From Empire to Association: a New Approach to International Relationships /
A. Etzioni. – Moscow: Ladomir, 2004.
12. V.I. Kudashov. Today’s Condition of the Russian National Idea and its Perspectives / V.I. Kudashov
// The Theory and History. – 2004. – №3.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 301-304
УДК 316.32
Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process
of Globalization Becoming
Nataliya S. Dureeva*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given article we consider globalization as a social phenomenon and its consequences for the
world society. We have made an attempt to show, that globalization is expressed in the formation of
an integral interdependent world, built on the principals of «a new world order». Preservation and
consolidation of national spiritual, moral and ethic values make difficulties on the way of globalization
Keywords: essence; phenomenon; process; society; mankind; globalization.
At the end of XX – at the beginning of XXI
centuries, globalization, as a social phenomenon,
becomes more and more important in the political
and economical spheres and has a significant
influence on spiritual life and moral values of the
In its broad sense, «globalization» is a
today’s process of planetary integration of all
the spheres of human life; it includes industry,
technology, commerce, culture, political and state
institutions, it controls the world finance and the
world banking (Mkrtchan, 2005).
At present time there are several points of
view of globalization:
–– it is a process of formation and further
development of the integral world-wide
finance-economical sphere on the basis
of new, mainly computer technologies
(Deljagin, 2003);
–– It is a steady civilizational tendency (and
a process) of the formation of integral
humanity, as a strongly interconnected
world society (Ursul, 2001);
–– It is an attempt to spread the integral
system of neo-liberal values (Inozemcev,
In spite of all the variety of points of views,
we must admit that, actually, the main tendency
of globalization development is the formation
of an integral interdependent world, interaction,
mutual influence of various societies, cultures
and organizations, and in which basis there is
power, accumulated in the hands of one certain
political elite.
Independently from its political and state
interests, elite maintains control over economy,
finance, resources, industry, education, culture
and other spheres of social life. Thereat, society
becomes double-poled: on one side there is ruling
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Nataliya S. Dureeva. Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming
elite, and on the other side there are people, who
subordinate the elite’s interest, and it does not
matter which exactly elite: the communist one,
democratic or liberal. That is why the process of
globalization develops in the elite’s interests.
One of the tasks of globalization is to
transfigure society, people, into a homogeneous,
untalented, uneducated and degrading «gray
mass». It is easier to rule such «masses» and to
control their activity in a necessary (for elite)
direction. And really, «masses» are easier to be
ruled, than clever and educated people, who have
their own point of view. Clever and educated
people quite comprehend what this or that elite
and its politics are leading to. They can make
their choice not in a favour of the given elite, if
they see some danger for the society development
in its activity. And it is simple and easy to
implant the necessary politics into the degrading
«masses», thereat not explaining its tasks, goals
and consequences, having only pointed at some
splendid perspectives and having created the
illusion of saving, of preservation, of some
«radiant future» and so on.
But there is one more specific social
stratum in this bipolar society «elite-people».
It is so called intelligentzia. The given social
group always acts (it is mainly verbal) in order to
please the present ruling elite. Elites can change,
but intelligentzia will stay. As soon as new elite
comes to power, the point of view of intelligentzia
changes correspondingly, intelligentzia begins
immediately praising the new government,
propagating its new political courses, and thus
implanting distemper in people’s minds.
In every state, there is its own ruling elite.
But the process of globalization brings to the
formation of single ruling elite, which will
subordinate the elites of all the rest of the states.
Today, it is already obvious, that the ruling elite
of USA will be «a new world governor». Its main
interest is the world domination by means of
«new world order» establishing. By its essence,
this «order» is expressed in a total control after
the world economy development, after natural
and human resources of the countries of the whole
world. And right for this purpose, after the events
of September 11, 2002, the American president
has announced a «global» politico-military
strategy: a world-wide struggle against terrorism
and has made the assertion: «Who is not with us is
against us». Thus, the leader of the USA elite has
begun confidently subordinating the elites of all
the countries for «the struggle against terrorism».
And in the result of the action, «the new world
order» has begun to be established, headed by the
American elite.
Moreover, in the modern society, there is
explicit orientation not only to implementation
of the political order, military strategy and
economical order according to the western
(American) pattern, but also to implantation of
«the western standards» into the culture of every
separately taken country of the world, and creation
of the so called world culture. Undoubtfully,
it results in demolition of self-sufficiency and
independence, in economical crisis, and what is
the main – in destruction of cultural, spiritual and
moral foundations, existing in a concrete society.
Implantation of the western order is quite
dangerous and destructive for the Russian
society, which has its own, peculiar way of
development, which is similar neither to the
western, nor to the eastern one. From the very
beginning of their historical development,
the Russians have accustomed to collegiality
and collectivity, and that is why they cannot
admit western individualism and time-serving.
Consequently, they cannot follow the way of
globalization and live according to the western
pattern. Though, the modern Russian elite does
not take it into consideration, and for Russian
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Nataliya S. Dureeva. Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming
people its behavior is very important (Valjanskij,
Kalljuzhnyj, 2006), as far as the fate as of the
whole society, so of various men depends upon
the elite’s political course. Just the same as the
elites of other countries, the modern Russian elite
is subordinated to the American elite as well.
For a particular example, we can consider
the reforms in the Russian classic education and
reorganization of classic state higher education
institutions into federal and national ones, where
the process of education passes according to
the western pattern. In the result of Bologna
agreement, now we do not prepare specialists,
but masters and bachelors. It will result in the
fact, that higher education will as such outlive its
usefulness and the people will gradually become
an ignorant controlled crowd. And bachelors,
the same as college graduates, will become man
power for producing goods and serving the elite.
In the Russian economy, an entrenchment
of the market system in exchange for the planned
one and of private enterprises, takes place. That is
unacceptable for Russian society. While working
at a private enterprise, the employee does not
have any means of production, he is deprived of
them. The main part of the profit is appropriated
by the owner. The employee gets the minimal
part of what he has earned. Thereat, the owner
can dismiss the employee at any moment, leaving
him without any means of living, and replacing
him by a more «obedient» or advantageous one
for his interests.
At a collective enterprise all the means of
production are in common property and that is
why all the products and all the profit belong to
the employees. That is why the planned economy
system is characterized by steady growth rates
of labour and by a constantly growing wealth of
the main population mass – the people (Chervov,
Speaking about the political life, we can
everywhere trace the transition to the western
democracy and affiliation to various parties.
In the Russian monarchical cathedral society
there was always only one ruler at the head of
the country – it was tsar (in Kievan Russia it
was konung). Later, after all the revolutionary
convulsions, there was established a collective
society simultaneously with the USSR formation.
And again it was headed by one political party –
the communist party. After the Soviet Union’s
disintegration the Russian society passed over
to democracy. It is very difficult to single out,
what precisely the advantages of democracy over
socialism are, which are used to be spoken about.
For example, in the Soviet Union, after graduating
from educational institutions, certified specialists
got their appointments to different enterprises,
which provided housing to their employees. But
democracy implies full freedom in choosing:
what to be, after having finished one’s education,
where to live and other alternatives. In other
words, employment and housing purchase is
one’s own problem of every man. In the result,
there appear more and more unemployed and
homeless people in our modern society. People
have to accommodate themselves to it, in order
to survive in the conditions of market capitalism.
Besides, modern people experience the change
of ideals, values and goals, their impressions
about the past are distorted in their conscious. It
was always so in Russia, that the state took care
about its people and the people took care about
their state, thus feeling stability and confident
about the future. The goal of every man was to
strengthen the state, wherein he and his children
would live, and spiritual and moral values were
based on that, that every person felt with pride to
be a part of one whole stable state. In the modern
globalised society with its liberal-democratic
values, man is «absolutely free» and takes care
of himself by himself. In the result, the main
goal of every man becomes his survival and selfprotection, as in a wild primitive society. Thus, it
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Nataliya S. Dureeva. Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming
is not the promised progress being awaited in the
globalised world, which is so much spoken about
and is actually remains virtual, but a regress,
degrading and becoming wild. It is nothing else,
but a progress of society’s self-destruction, which
is observed in the modern world.
Every country on our planet, including
Russia, can overcome the tragedy of globalization
consequences, if it preserves its nationality and
independence. Every country can forewarn itself
and its people from destruction, if it refuses
form crashing its for-ages-accustomed political,
economical, cultural, moral-ethic and spiritual
principals. Humanity can survive and save its
countries, if it comprehends, that the way of
development, leading some states to progress
and prosperity, leads others to backwardness and
S.S. Mkrtchan, V.N. Kirillov, S.I. Korochkova. Globalization at the Beginning of XXI Century.
Materials of the Extramural Interregional Scientific Workshop Conference «Russian National Security
in the Conditions of Globalization: Problems and Perspectives». – St. Petersburg: Publishing House of
the Management and Economics Institute, 2005, p. 10-15.
M.G. Deljagin. The World Crisis: the General Theory of Globalization. 2-d revised and enlarged
edition. – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2003. – 768 p.
A.D. Ursul. The Model of Education in XXI Century: Problems of Steady Development and
Security // Security of Eurasia. 2001. №4. p. 61-97.
V.L. Inozemcev. Westernization as Globalization and «Globalization» as Americanization //
Voprosy filosofii. 2004. №4. p.58-69.
S.I. Valjanskij, D.V. Kaljuzhnyj. The Russian Revolution Forgotten History. From Alexander I to
Vladimir Putin. – Moscow: Veche, 2006. – 352 p.
N.F. Chervov. Provocations against Russia. – Moscow: OLMA-PRESS Education, 2003. – 637 p.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 305-309
УДК 316.2
Management and Self-Management in the Conditions
of Globalization
Sergeу P. Dureev*
Krasnoyarsk Institute of Economics of the St. Petersburg Academy
of Management and Economics (NEI HPE),
70a Kirenskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 660100 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given article we prove that ontological society is an integral system and presents by itself a
self-governing system on any stage of historical development. Management is an inevitable feature
of any society. This feature has a general character and results from the society’s system nature,
from the social labour of society’s members, from the necessity of communication in the process of
labour. In the conditions of globalization, human society management is not already connected to the
evolutionary processes, when inheritance (traditions, folkways, customs) play a dominating role with
regard to variability, but is connected to the processes, when there happens a forceful demolition of
old mechanisms of inheritance and western values acquire the dominating meaning, they change the
basis of historical human being.
Keywords: being; creature; existence; object; subject; activity; management; self-managemen;
After the Cold War had finished, USA and
Western-European countries decided, that a
wide-scaled distribution of the market economy
principals and implantation of the Western
democracy model can become a regulating
and system-forming factor in the whole world.
In these conditions, the attempts to implant
artificially democratic institute of power and
management have become the instrument of
changing of the historically formed humane
existence mode. In this connection, it
becomes important to address the question of
management organization and the place of a
person in this process.
Lying in the basis of humane historical
existence and development, labour activity
specifies humane essence and is always performed
within the frames of public production. Man
cannot produce or be engaged in labour activity,
if he does not directly or indirectly enters social
relations, which summation forms the society.
We have to underline, that we are speaking
about the entire aggregate of social relations:
material and ideal (ideological), present
and bygone. This position has an important
methodological meaning, whereof it proceeds,
that man must not be understood from material
or idealistic point of view, but dialectically. In
other words, he must not be narrowed down only
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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to «the economical man» or only to «the rational
man» and so on. Man is a creature, who is, at
the same time, both producing, and rational,
and cultural, and moral, and political and so on.
He accumulates in himself all the spectrum of
social relations in more or less degree and, thus,
realizes his social essence. On the other hand,
in his broad sense, man is a result of human
history; he is a result of social-historical process
At the same time, man is not only the result
of society and social relations, he is also their
creator, and consequently, he turns out to be the
object and the subject of social relations at one and
the same time. In man there is realized the entity,
the equality of the object and the subject. There
exists a dialectic interaction between man and
society: man is a micro society, society revelation
on the micro level, and society is a man with his
social relations.
Thus, we may speak about man’s socially
active essence. Man cannot simply be a man,
being out of activity, out of social relations and
communication (as a form of their realization).
But man is not reduced to his essence.
It discloses itself in his existence by its real
revelation. And if man’s essence is a general
characteristic of the human race, then every man’s
existence is always individual in its concreteempirical expression and extends further than
his essence. Existence is a being of man as of an
integral creature in all its variety of forms, kinds,
and features of its revelation. This integrity is
expressed in the fact, that man is the entity of his
biological and his social parts. As a biological
creature, man is «in the highest degree a selfregulating and self-supporting, self-regenerating,
self-directing and even self-bettering system»
(Pavlov, 1951. p. 188). Thus, man is presented
as a bio-social system before us. Though, the
biological is not a determining part of man.
Being proper «human», the social is not acquired
by man from the moment of his birth (due to
his biological nature), but it happens during his
life: in the course of his activity, in the world
(society), having been transfigured by numerous
human generations, having been before him. That
is why man is a part of the social integrity as a
social, communal creature, but not owing to his
biological nature.
So, man is a communal, social creature, and
his natural (biological) part is only a prerequisite
for his communal, social essence realization.
This essence is defined, first of all, by its social
environment, by a concrete society, wherein this
or that man is living and developing. So, this
environment forms the qualities and features of
a concrete man, which are expressed in various
kinds of his activity. Activity is «a specific form
of human relation to the surrounding world,
which content is world’s expedient changing and
transfiguring. Activity is a condition of society’s
existence». (PED, 1989. p. 151).
Management is an obligatory feature of
society. «As an objectively existing process,
management appears only on the stage of materia
social self-movement, i.e. when man and society
appear» (Suvorov and others, 1984. p. 6). This
feature has a general character and results from
the system nature of society, from the social
labour of society members, from the necessity
of communication in the process of labour
and in the course of exchanging of products
of original nature’s «processing». In human
society, management is connected not only to
the evolutionary processes, when inheritance
(traditions, folkways, customs) play a dominating
role with regard to variability, but is connected to
the revolutionary processes, when there happens a
demolition of old mechanisms of inheritance, and
variability (innovations) acquires the dominating
meaning, as far as these innovations do not affect
the minor features, but the most part of the vital
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The theses about management birth,
which happened in the result of social labour
division into physical labour and mental labour
(К. Marks) and which brought to separation of
the management and the executive activities,
does not correspond the reality. In the infancy
of mankind, there were already features of
management, when the members of the tribe
(commonalty) followed their leader not because
of their conscious attitude, but in force of their
natural program of expedient behavior. Such
expedient behavior provided their lives’ security,
and later it was scientifically supported and
explained. That is why human labour is divided
into management labour and executive one.
In other words, in society there are managers
(management subject), who lead other people,
and there are performers (management object),
who execute the managers’ decisions (hired
workers). Thus, management labour, starting
from some level of social organization, becomes
the labour of social significance. So, initially
all the society turns out to be in dependence on
quite a narrow circle of managers of national
responsibility level, and in the modern,
globalized world – in dependence on the EuroAmerican conglomerate.
Let us take Russia for example: the system
of state management is being reformed, as far as
the state itself and the social relations are being
reformed. The reforms are caused by a certain
necessity; they are performed under a control
and the situation in the country is changing.
Sometimes, mass media and various political
technologists demonstrate quite convincingly
changes for the better. But in reality, they are
trying to change the picture in the people’s
conscious about the situation in Russia. At the
same time, the structures of state and local power
distance themselves from the people, prioritizing
international obligations. In the result of
reformative activity, this «gap» becomes deeper
and more painful for the society and for the state
on the whole.
It happens because the relations with the
people are built in «reality» and «in fact». And
these very relations «between «the reality» and
the life «in fact» put significant bounds to the
very possibility of reforming. As far as reforming
is performed in «reality», but in fact there is no
reforming at all, but there is something else, which
is implicit, not spoken about and not expressed in
the language of the theories, lying in the basis of
those reforms. The state will continue the reforms
in «reality», and in fact, people will still consider
it to be a new Moscow trick, but not a sincere act,
aimed in fact for collective betterment of Russian
life» (Kudashov, 2006. p. 107).
In Russia, power vertical building and local
self-government reforming must be directed «in
reality» so, that to find the most effective (from
the point of view of social development) interconnection, and in fact the idea of local selfgovernment has become a part and an instrument
of the administrative system and a form of the
democratic camouflage.
In «reality» the state power belongs to the
people (RF Constitution), and in fact the power
is in the hands of «economical elite». And the
biggest part of the state property and now of the
municipal property as well, after its privatization,
voucherization and corporalization, belong
precisely to them. And property is the basis, the
substance of power (A.G. Anikevich and others,
2001). That is why the ownership of property
brings the representatives of big, less frequently
of medium and small business to power. For
them, local self-government is not only the
sphere of citizens’ self-organization, but also a
specific level of power. They quite understand
that, the organs of local self-government are
rather important as organs of power in the system
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Sergeу P. Dureev. Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization
of state management, as a channel of the country
Here, we should remind that, while forming
the Moscow state in Russ, «in reality» there was
built a power vertical, but in fact this vertical
«rested on the basis of the communal form of
social life organization», besides, the society «was
preserved by the state as a condition of existence
on the whole» (Olejnikov, 2001. p. 130).
One can manage any objective process
only, if one knows all the inner and outer
factors, which condition the course of the
process, and that, in most cases, allows to
bring an objectively developing process to the
aim, having been subjectively chosen from a
lot of objectively possible variants of that very
process development. This is the main in the
notion content of «management». Management
is possible only when we are dealing with
objectively existing processes (objects). If there
is created an illusion of an objective process
existence, then there also appears an illusion of
the management process.
That is why organization of state
management and of local self-government must
be always built not as managing system’s onesided influence over the managed one, but as a
dialectic interaction of management subject and
object in the process of human activity. This
interaction must consist not only of various direct
connections, but also of inverse links as well, and
that will provide evolutionary development of
society and its betterment on the basis of nature
development objective laws.
Management subject and object’s existence,
their interaction are the main content feature
of management human activity. Besides, on
one hand, man is a management subject; on
the other hand, he is a management object.
Management object, as one of the parts in
the system of management activity, is rather
similar to management subject. This similarity
is caused by one the same magnitude of their
social nature. That is why there is no subject
and object in the system of management activity,
but there is two subjects’ interaction: managing
subject and managed activity subject (executive
subject). Thus, management activity object (of
management) is the subject of any other kind of
human activity, including local self-government
principals’ realization.
That is why organization of local selfgovernment must be also built «bottom-upwards»
and must proceed from people in the form of
society management power devolving. People
reserve the main management function – power
devolving execution control. In this case, there is
built a responsibility on every management level,
and there is formed a power vertical in the state.
This is the management, built on the principals of
grass-roots democracy, on the principals of selfregulation and self-management. These principals
are hardwired in man and lie in the basis of any
social education.
In Russia, it is inevitable to develop
management and self-management only in the
spirit of Russian originality, in the tideway
of its own historical traditions. The great
Russian philosopher I.A. Il’in has marked on
the subject: «...Everything great can be told by
a man or a people only in their own way and
everything genius can be born precisely within
one’s national experience, spirit and pattern, …
national depersonalization is a great disaster
and danger in the life of a man and people on
the whole. We must struggle with it persistently
and with inspiration. And this struggle must
be led from the very childhood» (Il’in, 1993.
p. 291). If Russia sticks to its historical way of
development, it will successfully solve all the
rest of the problems: both as its own, so the
global ones.
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I.P. Pavlov. Complete Edition of Works, V. 3, Book 2. / I.P. Pavlov – Moscow-Leningrad: Publishing
House: AS USSR, 1951. – 438p.
L.N. Suvorov, A.N. Averin. Social Management. Philosophical Analysis Experience. / L.N. Suvorov,
A.N. Averin. – Moscow: Mysl’, 1984. – 232p.
V.I. Kudashov. Russia in «reality» and in fact. / V.I. Kudashov // Theory and History. 2006. № 1.
p. 95-108.
A.G. Anikevich, V.G. Jakovlev. Power: Social-Philosophical Analysis. / A.G. Anikevich,
V.G. Jakovlev – St. Petersburg: Institute of Management and Economics, 2001. – 256p.
Ju.V. Olejnikov. Natural Factor of Russian Historical Being. / Ju.V. Olejnikov // Philosophy of
Society. 2001. №3. p.123-140.
Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary (PED). 2-d edition. / The Head Editor A.M. Prohorov. –
Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1989. – 815p.
I.A. Il’in. The Way to Obviousness. / I.A. Il'in – Moscow: Respublika, 1993. – 430p.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 310-315
УДК 130.3
Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization
Antonn U. Koltyrin*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given article we present a characteristic of the main directions of modern educational policy in
its connection with Russian civil society formation. Here, it is shown that the role of civil education on
the modern stage of the country development is defined by the tasks of Russia’s transition to democratic
society and constitutional state upon obligatory subjection to the national traditions.
We prove that in the modern Russian conditions, system of education must provide an efficient usage
of its resources – human, informational, material, and financial, and the state must guarantee the
foreground support of education. Thereat, social ideology being not yet formed, scientific notions
and instruments of social development status and forecast being poorly revealed and organized or
underdeveloped and social development being connected with education – all these factors contribute
to the fact that there appear contradictory strands of educational policy. In them there expressed
various positions of the society and of different social groups, being interested in realization of a
certain opinion of civil education in practice.
Keywords: civil education; civil society; education politicy; system of education; education
The processes, which take place in
education, are directly connected with social
processes. In this respect, the problematic of
education philosophy has a primary meaning
not only in science, but also in a constructive
sense. Scientific world-outlook level of education
policy, strategies and tactics of education system
development will depend upon the degree of
education philosophy development. That is why
education is one of the most important factors
of national security. It connects the activity of
state with the activity of its citizens through the
level of proficiency to the continuous process of
a new generation up-brining by means of family,
education and social surroundings. Precisely the
state has appealed to create the conditions for free
personal development, for most full meeting of
personal demands and interests, and the person
in his turn, as a carrier of social relations, is
appealed to preserve social integrity, to stand up
for its social and moral values and to provide their
realization by all his behavior.
Differences in the opinions take place in the
sphere of «one’s own» and «borrowed experience
in education». As it is underlined by American
philosophers Garnett and Naish, every social
group suggests through its own theoreticians
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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and demands building of its own conception of
education, wherein its notions about the good and
the evil, justice and freedom, its understanding of
the modern social processes and «a right-minded
and sound citizen as the main target of education
are reflected».
To the mind of the group of researchers
(G.V. Igonin, V.P. Kaznacheev, N.V. Nalivajko,
V.N. Turchenko), there can be distinguished two
directions and two educational tendencies. Firstly,
English-American (Western) orientation, when
education is considered as a personal concern of
every person, and the very system of education
presents an industry of educational services.
A newly-emerging business class of Russia is
more and more oriented exactly to this model of
education. The other model – so called GermanRussian – is based on the state’s responsibility
for education: responsibility for education
affordability to all the strata of population,
independently from its economical and social
status, responsibility for the growth of an average
educational census and so on. In spite of the fact
that the given educational model has been already
gaining its potential in the soviet period, it still
has such a level that keeps Russia in the number
of developed countries.
We should note that most philosophers do
not consider the policy in the sphere of education
as an independent strand, including it in the
structure of social or cultural policy. We suppose
that this circumstance and also a small amount
of special articles, dedicated to this theme in
philosophical literature, can be perceived as a
reflection of social under-estimation of the role
of education on the whole and its policy as well.
Thereat, we should distinguish two
contextually close, but not coinciding notions:
«educational policy» and «policy in the sphere of
education» [1].
Educational policy is a peculiar, separate
private sphere of the policy, being developed
only in connection with the given social sphere,
but deeply and in full detail. It is an educational
tactics, concrete goals, tasks, deadlines, people
and etc. concerning education policy and oriented
to a certain strategy, if it is correct.
Policy in the sphere of education is a general
policy of the state, but applied to a separate sphere
of the society, i.e. to education. It is general in
relation to education, anything that defines
the strategy of educational activity (the main
goals and tasks). It includes the whole complex
of measures, being performed by the state and
its organs in relation to education as a social
institution, including the impact of other strands
of the Russian inner policy (economical, social,
and informational) on education. Being always
present in the society and state, educational policy
is expressed in the following: it builds up its own
system of education: the kind of goals being set
in education organization, the ways educational
management system being organized, the kind
of social, state, personal and other interests
that prevail in educational policy, and the way
educational system being financed.
In the monograph «Education Philosophy as
an Object of Complex Research», N.V. Nalivajko
and V.I. Parshikov single out the following
education policy components: financial (the
level of financing, financial assets disposition
and usage), legislative (educational process
subjects’ behavior limitation, management
organs competence), cultural-ideological (social
consciousness orientations, which influence the
decision making) [2].
To our mind, philosophical analysis of
the problem, being raised in the article, can be
applied to the cultural-ideological component of
educational policy. And in connection with this, it is
important to make clear such significant questions
as education policy and ideology, education policy
and national idea of education, Russian education
modernization and civil education.
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Antonn U. Koltyrin. Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization
The goals of education are defined by the state
policy in the sphere of education and up-bringing
as follows: to define the goals of education and
the strategy of their achievement, legislation
elaboration and resources finding, pedagogic
initiatives support, all these in complex should
create favorable conditions for development and
spiritual-axiological orientation of oncoming
generations in accordance to human positive
interests and social demands. Setting foreground
goals of the Russian citizens’ education, general
principals of the modern education policy
are defined by the Education Law of RF, the
National Education Doctrine of the Russian
Federation for the period through to 2025, the
Federal Program of education development
for 2000-2005, the Federal Program of youth
development and patriotic up-brining for 20002005 and etc. [Constitution of the Russian
Federation; the Education Law of the Russian
Federation; Russian Education Modernization
Conception №1756-Р dated 29.12.2001 for the
period through to 2010, affirmed by the order
of the Russian Federation Government; №
24/1 «Strategy of Historical and Art-Historical
Education Development in General Education
Institutions»; RF EM Letter № 151/11«Civil
Education and Russian Federation Constitution
Study» dated 06.02.1995; RF EM Act № 479
«Russian Federation Constitution Study in
General Education Institutions» dated 09.12.1994.
RF EM Letter № 385/11 «Legal Culture and
Students’ Education Improvement in the Sphere
of Electoral Rights and Electoral Process» dated
07.04.1995; RF EM Informational-Methodical
Letter № 391/11 «Students’ Civil-Legal
Education in General Education Institutions of
the Russian Federation» dated 19.03.1996; RF
EM Informational-Methodical Letter № 13-5108/13 «Students’ Civil Education in General
Education Institutions» dated 15.01.2003; RF
Citizens’ Patriotic Up-Brining State Program
for 2001-2005 // Collected Legislation of the
Russian Federation, 2001. – №9.- P.2208 and
In accordance with the mentioned
documents, the main aim of the modern Russian
education is the up-bringing of a polymathic
citizen, acquainted with the native and world
culture, brought up within the modern system of
values and modern life requirements, being ready
to active social adaptation within the society and
to an independent vital choice, to the beginning
of his labor activity and to professional education
continuation, to self-education and self-perfection.
Developing society needs modern educated,
high-moral and enterprising people, who can
independently make decisions in the condition
of choice, able to collaboration, distinguished
by their mobility, dynamism, and constructivity,
ready to intercultural interaction, possessing a
sense of responsibility for the fate of the country
and for its social-economical prosperity. System
of education must prepare people, who can live
not only within civil society and constitutional
state, but also to create them.
In the process of education modernization
they are to provide, firstly, openness of education
as a state-social system, secondly, transition to the
model of mutual responsibility in the sphere of
education, to enforce the role of all the education
policy subjects and their interaction, and to
broaden society’s participation in making and
realization of legal and management decisions
in education. System of education is a sphere of
interaction of state’s and society’s interests in the
name of their institutes and citizens. Every of
the educational legal relationship subjects must
have a possibility to influence on the education
system functioning and development, but, at the
same time, to carry its share of responsibility
for creation of the circumstances, which are
necessary for education system fulfilling its
social and educational functions.
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On the modern stage of the country
development, the role of civil education is defined
by the goals of Russia’s transition to democratic
society, to constitutional state, and to market
economy, by the goals of danger overcoming
of Russia’s accruing underdevelopment from
the world tendencies of economical and social
development. The Russian system of education
is able to compete with the education systems
of advanced countries. Though, its advantages
can be easily lost, if general national educational
policy, being supported by a wide public, fails
to be formed, if the state fails to restore its
responsibility and its active role in this sphere,
fails to perform deep and all-round education
modernization, to provide all necessary resources
and to create the mechanisms of efficient usage.
Education policy is an important component of
general state policy, is an instrument of person’s
fundamental rights and freedoms for speeding
up the rates of social-economical and scientifictechnical development, and culture growth. On
the basis of social approval, education policy
sets fundamental goals and tasks of education
development and guarantees their implementation
into life by means of coordinated actions of
the state and society. Today’s primary goal of
education policy is to achieve a high quality of
the modern education, its correspondence to
actual and perspective demands of the person, of
the society and the state.
Reformed education must play the key role
in the steady and dynamic development of the
Russian society – the society with a high level
of living, and of civil-legal, professional and
economical culture. In order to realize modern
social requirements to the education system
and to make its social role more important, we
need, on one hand, to modernize the system of
education itself, and on the other hand, to change,
the attitude of the state, the society and the person
towards education.
While developing today historical education,
when Bologna process is of such a principal
meaning, it is important to take into consideration,
that if democracy means equality, then we are to
agree, that there is surely more social equality
in the United States, than somewhere else in
the West. «Though, this equality has not been
the result of equal rights, but of a surprisingly
undivided opinion.» [3]
And in fact, crucial changes of values
impact all the spheres of life in the western
society. The main feature of an individualized
mass society is its individualization without
producing any individuality, personality and
formation of an egoistic individual, who thinks
only of himself. The new individual becomes the
source of society’s fragmentation and perceives
even the events of his own life as a summary of
episodes, unrelated with each other. Today, most
western people can say that they have lived many
different lives in the result of fragmentation and
unattainability of the whole and that objectively
it is almost unsurpassable and is hardly overcome
by the efforts of consciousness. The collection of
episodes becomes not only the history of a personal
life, wherein, there is at best «a biographical
salvation of systematic contradictions», but it
also becomes the history of the society itself. Life
becomes a world of various worlds, and a man
of integrity is impossible in such circumstances,
if he fails to learn how to live in those worlds
simultaneously, having managed to harmonize
them to some extent. But this is hardly the task
of a mass man [4].
The question, whether western culture’s
experience can be adequately applied to the Russian
socio-cultural conditions, was historically raised
long ago. There were hot discussions in the period
of the Slavophils and Westernizers. Nowadays,
they are still quite topical. Je.V. Il'enkov, an
outstanding thinker, markes, that «…the boarders
between «the West» and «the East» do not at all
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go along Elba and the Berlin «Wall». It is situated
much deeper: the rift proceeds from the very heart
of all the modern culture, and do not at all coincide
with the geographical lines and political boarders
of the modern world. It lies not only between the
parties of one and the same country, but very often
it goes even through the mind and the heart of one
and the same man.» [5]
The problem of patriotism is also one of
the most important social-philosophic problems.
In philosophic context, patriotism is considered
as truly existing opinions, feelings (ontological
aspect); as a social reality reflection in the
consciousness of a man (epistemological aspect);
as an axiological and praxiological relation to
the world through its significance, spiritually
transforming relation to the reality (axiological
aspect). The typical features of patriotism are: a
mergence of the feeling of love to one’s «small»
motherland, to one’s nation with the love to
the whole country and deep respect to all the
nationalities living there; a combination of respect
and interest to the history of the country with
the respect to its striving for making the ideals
of freedom and democracy true in the modern
period; an efficient humane-creative character
of patriotism; an international character of
To our mind, civil education conception
must be one of the priorities of the state policy
in the sphere of education. It should be reflected
in the content and the programs of all the school
subjects. The entire educational field must be
targeted at the formation of a citizen-patriot.
But the most important role here belongs to
humanitarian subjects, first of all to literature,
social studies, history, and civic studies. Already
N.M. Karamzin asserted, that a member of the
public must read history. It reconciles him with the
imperfectness of visible order of things, as with
a common phenomenon both now and always, it
consoles him in state misfortunes, telling, that
similar things and much worse happened yet
before and the state managed to survive; it feeds
the moral sense and by righteous court it disposes
the soul towards justice, which confirms our good
and the approval of society [6].
Russian education policy strategic targets are
the following – to overcome social-economical
and spiritual-ideological crisis, to provide high
quality of people’s life and national security; to
restore the status of Russia as a superpower in
the world society in the spheres of education,
culture, science, high technologies and economy;
to create a basis for steady social-economical and
spiritual development of Russia.
Thus, civil education conception must be one
of the priorities of the state policy in the sphere of
education. In the sphere of education, culturalideological and legal policies must correspond
to the optimal finance policy; they presuppose
clear and deep understanding of education
development goals and ways of civil education
system formation.
Moreover, civil education policy must be also
built in accordance with the regional specifics.
Practical necessity of conceptual-systematic
analysis of the Russian civil education becomes
very topical.
Future global changes are so large-scale, that
no country and no people in the world are ready
to their perception. Some branches of production
disappear, others appear. The highest technologies
become meaningless and are replaced by new ones,
yet unknown; today’s prosperous territories will be
devastated, others will suffer from congestion of
population; modern values will become an object of
ridicule, and yesterday’s flaws will be the condition
of success. That is why today the whole world
speaks about the necessity «to open oneself anew»,
«to invent oneself anew» or at least «to become
conscious of oneself in the new world» [7].
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O.N. Smolin. Social-Philosophical Aspects of the State Educational Policy in Conditions of the
Russian Society Radical Transformation / O.N. Smolin. – Moscow, 2001.
2. N.V.Nalivajko. Philosophy of Education: Some Problems of Concept Formation / N.V.Nalivajko. –
Novosibirsk: GCRO publishing house, 2000. – 141p.
3. G. von Keizerling. America. The Dawn of a New World / G. von Keizerling. – St. Petersburg: the
St. Petersburg Philosophic Society, 2002. – P. 344.
4. V. G. Fedotova. The Factors of Axiological Changes in the West and in Russia / V. G. Fedotova //
The Questions of Philosophy. – 2005. – № 11. – P. 5–6.
5. Je.V.Il’enkov. Marx and the Western World / Je.V.Il’enkov //The Philosophy and Culture. –
Moscow: Politizdat, 1991.
6. N.M.Karamzin. Legendry of Centuries / N.M.Karamzin. – Moscow, 1990.
7. A. I. Jur’ev. Political Psychology of Terrorism / A. I. Jur'ev // The Philosophical Sciences. – 2005. –
№ 10. – P. 28.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 316-322
УДК 316.3
Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation
of the Western Culture
Maria V. Kozlova*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given article we show, that modern global civilization defines itself not so much in the terms of
culture, as in the terms of equipment. Determination of social and spiritual life, which earlier having
been going from general notions of duty, honor and conscience, of ethic and esthetic regulators, is
being progressively changed by technological determination. Being determined by culture, person
turns into a human factor, which is ruled by equipment. It is fragmentary and dependent. Initiative
and the final salvation of the questions of person’s interaction with external environment and other
people become the prerogative of equipment and technology. In the given article we underline, that the
crucial difference of a socio-cultural personality from the human factor is included in the following:
person is determined from the inside – from the side of assimilated cultural assets, which have become
inner, while the human factor is determined from the outside – from the side of socio-technical systems.
All these aspects acquire special meaning in the conditions of globalization.
Keywords: сulture globalization; internationalization; westernization; culture homogeneity; sociocultural phenomenon.
In the modern conditions we can observe a
global merging of the inner and the outer, of one’s
own and of foreign spheres, the merging being
fraught with the total failure of human identity
mechanisms. Principal distancing from whatever
«grounds» (cultural, national, state) destroys the
process of identification, based on the opposition
of «we» and «they». Global person does not
differentiate «we» and «they» and axiologicalnormative pieces of codex, connected with it,
and puts out to the open sea of unregulated
transnational contacts. But, while entering the
interaction with other cultural environments’
participants, carrying different meanings and
evaluating the same events and phenomena in
a different way, the person, who does not have
his own identity, easily transforms into a person,
having no norms.
The realities of the formation process of
integral world-wide system of trans-individual
social historical organisms, which took place
in XVI century, corresponded to the notion
of «internationalization». To the beginning of
XX century this process had almost reached its
completion. From the latter half of XX century
we can observe how the system of social
organisms, varying by their social-economical
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture
order (slavery, feudalism and others), by this or
that economical sphere prevailing (agricultural,
industrial and others), by the form of government
(monarchy, republic and others), by their political
regimes (autocracy, democracy and others),
by the dominating confessions (Christianity,
Buddhism and others) and so on, turns into a
single and integral social organization. Complex
and contradictory processes of integration (of
peoples, cultures, civilizations and so on) into
one single and integral social organism with
its typical political-legal organization and upbringing-educational structures serve to show the
tendencies of «globalization» [1].
Modern globalization processes, presented
by the naturalistic process of the world’s growing
interdependency in the result of information
technologies expansion, volume and services
and goods nomenclature increase, expansion
of financial flows between the countries – all
these presuppose a special attitude to the past
as well. They use and successfully spread those
historical facts, within which bases there is
their «consumptive value», i.e. their excuses for
aggressive pretensions of the western civilization.
Even the history textbook are compiled according
to the principle of globalism: they not only pay
less attention to the eastern nations, than to any
other western country, but wrench in advance
the axiological scale, which has been historically
formed in the concrete society. It is connected
with the fact that according to N.M.Churinov’s
conception, «on the basis of the metaphysical
method, they have formed axiological and value
research approaches, methods of intuition,
idealization and etc.; they have also shaped a
notion of transcendental reality, which is formed
by such free objects in the modern science as…
«freedom of word», «freedom of conscious» and
so on» [2, p. 43].
It is paradoxically, but it is a fact: world system
globalization processes description speaks of the
fact that different authors differ in their choice
of primary axiomatic theories. Hence, we may
observe the variety of opinions and conceptions.
There are a lot of competing notions of one and
the same globalization process.
Sometimes, the consequences of these
processes have lasted for centuries for humanity,
civilization and culture and very often been
huge and global. For example, E. N. Ustjugova
represents those scientists, who are sure: «what
we call globalization today is the episode of
historical process, though qualitatively peculiar,
as everything in history is» [3, p. 56-57].
To our mind, in comparison with
internationalization, globalization presupposes
not only systematic orderliness and the merge
of industrial-economical structures of all the
countries, but also almost complete atrophy of
their political, socio-cultural and educational
sovereignty. Globalization processes begin to
capture also the sphere of spiritual production, what
is right now and especially well seen in the sphere
of education. Globalization creates a real threat to
the very existence of the national systems of upbringing and education in the result of increase
of international initiatives in the «format» of the
so called «Bologna process». Its targets coincide
with the highest theological goals of globalization
in industrial-economical and social-political
spheres and presuppose unification and, in reality,
a substitution of the existing variety of national
systems of up-bringing and education, – by the
Northern-American system, as the one, presenting
pattern examples of development as «the market of
educational services». On the whole, we may agree
with the authors, who assert, that if we abstract
away from the sophisticated argumentation of
the ideological «screen’s» propaganda campaign,
argumentation being dictated by far-fromman-loving, selfish intensions, then «Bologna
process» is presented in its true and a rather sleazy
appearance of transnational corporation, which
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strives to control the market of «goods» of spiritual
industry [4, p. 242].
As we can observe, in the modern world,
globalization processes bring to a number of social
transformations, for example, individualism is
being increased, which is so typical for the society
of consumption, characterizing the western way
of living and being imposed to the whole world
by globalization tendencies. It confirms the
conception of N. M. Churinov, who justly notices:
«… agnosticism was the epistemological basis of
the individualistic philosophy and, consequently,
the theory of representation is a theory of
cognition of the individualistic philosophy» [5,
p. 48].
Recently, the notion of «cultural
globalization», having been often mentioned in
the American studies of globalization, has turned
out to be un-adapted to the modern realities.
Instead of the cultural globalization we should
admit a complex and ambiguous process of the
global cultures’ formation, the cultures, which,
as a rule, take their origin from national and
regional roots.
Logical formal perfection of the western
laws do not at all coincide with the principals
of spiritual organization of the Being – with the
truth, warm-heartedness, generations’ reverse
interrelation, the worshipping of the highest
sacred things, but not of material power of
money, luxury, and material wealth. In reality, the
Apologists of panhuman culture preach implicitly
or directly the supremacy of the RomanicGerman (European) culture, and this way, in fact,
they (cosmopolitans) appear to be chauvinists,
imposing their national culture under the cover
of panhuman culture and panhuman values
considerations» [6, p. 156].
One of the peculiarities of living in culture, in
comparison with the pragmatism of civilization,
is the preservation and development of spiritual
ideals. If ideals disappear, then it does not mean
that the infancy or juvenility of a man or a nation
is over, but it means that their life in culture has
come to an end.
For several centuries, the abandonment of
the highest ideals has been camouflaged by the
clothes of humanism, which, at the beginning,
has been spontaneously preserving its strivings
for the celestial, the highest, and the divine.
As the highest value, man has been and still
stays to be the starting point for most extreme
conceptions – beginning from educational
and rationalistic to communistic and religious
ones. Being abstractly expressed by itself, the
principle of humanism is able to bring and has
been bringing to such consequences, which could
have never been forecast and thought about by its
theoreticians and apologists…
A. V. Gulyga has found out that I. Kant
disclosed the difference between the cultural and
civilizational forms in quite an explicit form;
actually, he defined this difference in its sense
relation and called them both culture. The external,
technical type of culture was called civilization.
Obviously, being much occupied with clear
forms of mind and formalisms of mathematical
knowledge, Kant felt how much the strivings of
formal and creative studies differed; though, in
the science analysis, he himself had never broke
his German deliberativeness and was ever sure
that there was as much truth in a certain branch of
science, as there was much mathematics. While
analyzing pure forms of thinking and categories,
he built a formal table of categories, which did
not yet contained any thought-over principles of
its integrity. But, while researching the proper
culture and in comparison with his predecessors
in esthetics, Kant proved that nature (organics) is
not only opposite to culture, but has some interior
cognation with it. Culture also lives, develops and
also possesses the qualities of an organic system.
According to Kant, state preserves the culture
of traditions, legislative norms and social orders,
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teachers to overcome the contradictions between
person and society; sometimes, state can be
antagonistic towards person, but harmony cannot be
achieved in any of organic systems. Nevertheless,
the search of system’s flourishing has always been
and still is the condition of system’s life, as far as
intensification of antagonisms inside the system
is dangerous for the very existence of state as a
system. Egoism of persons’ selfishness, illusion of
individual being self-sufficiency poisons the state
organism of common existence and anticipates the
ruin of the latter.
Kant’s foreknowledge of antinomy between
culture and civilization was much more revealed
in his opinion of nation as an organic system.
Society’s massovization, national culture
primitivization and attempts of mass conscious
control for the purpose of its orientation to foreign
primitive norm and values – all these is the main
target of informational war. Substitution of
cultural values with pseudo-ones and propaganda
of behavior models, being based on them.
Moreover, the process of society’s
massovization has always had its undersurface,
which turns the society, destructing its own
culture, into an uncontrolled environment,
devouring its creators. That is an involuntary
result of any kind of manipulation, as a form of
violence over the human conscious.
Values system destruction starts from
revealing of weak points in the conceptual sphere
of the opponent, searching for discordant facts,
stereotypes and notions, which are later given
some fundamental meaning with the help of
MSM propagandistic campaigns. Moreover, the
society is alternatively suggested a model of the
world, being based on illusions and stereotypes
of the given society, but which are not rooted in
its historical memory , national traditions and
inner psychological patterns and which are right
opposite to the social-historical conditions of its
Speaking about globalization in the sphere of
culture, we cannot fail to appeal to the impact of
mass technologies and means of communication
on the vital functions of society and culture. At
present time, we are to underline the fact that the
act of communication prevails and is preferred
to the content of the transferred matter – it is a
phenomenon of «society’s virtualization» [7].
Having been initiated by the forth
informational revolution, the integration
direction of culture genesis is being developed
in two spheres: in real and in virtual. «There are
enough bases to think that the latter influences
on the methods of presentation and interpretation
of true-life realias, thus giving birth to the
phenomenon of «trans-culture» – the culture
of cultures polylogue. «Trans-culture» is out of
territorial, historic-cultural, and mental boarders
and it is realized as a polyphonic integrity of
the multitude of «living cultures», having been
virtualized in the process of communication» [8,
p. 193].
«Trans- culturelization has been brought to
life by the processes of mediatization of cultural
spheres, by the ability of Diaspora cultures to assert
themselves by means of Internet communication
and to integrate themselves through the boarders of
national and state territories. In comparison with
acculturation, trans- culturelization underlines
the fact of cultural interaction «through» and «in
spite of» state territories, regions and boarders»
[9, p. 105-110].
«Globalization (horizontal) processes
have marked a temporal distance and mental
distinctions in the bases of modern cultures.
Large-scale involvement into culture- genetic
process, which has been intensified by the
informational revolution, has revealed that
the common cultural sphere is heterogeneous.
Having been caused by globalization, the
changes have influenced not only the forms of
cultures, but also the types of their perception
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and interpretation. As a result, being perceived
as a unification of material sphere of cultures, the
global homogeneity has revealed the difference
as in historical dynamics of values, so in their
hierarchic structure and has caused the crisis
of understanding as of its own, so of «other»
cultures. «Migration in time» or predominance
of pre-figural type of culture becomes to a greater
degree an inner expression of the territorial
migration. That is why the appeal to spiritual
potential of the culture, as to the method of
society’s adequacy preservation, is «the answer»
of the local culture to the global challenge. It
testifies of the strengthening of the culture’s role
in the over- and trans-territorial communications
and it also speaks of transformation of the
previous cultural landscape and of formation of
a new or some other one» [10, p. 185-186].
According to the scheme of single culture’s
domination, cultural homogeneity corresponds
to expansionist politics of countries. In the given
case, culture as a summation of values, world
outlook attitudes, and behavioral patterns is a
power, which destabilizes the socio-cultural
spheres of countries-opponents and countriesrecipients. Culture is a peculiar means of
neutralization of opponents, is «a soft power,
which is applied by the countries, leading at
present time in the globalization process». As A.
I. Utkin supposes: «Global culture will inevitably
resemble the dominating cultures of the past.»
[11, p. 175].
Amitai Etsioni is sure, that «… the world is
able and should obtain important lessons from
non-European countries as well – it concerns inner
politics and economy, international relations, and
also construction of a new global architecture.
This is especially true in such questions, as
respect to power, care for collective welfare and
preservation of social relations – though, only
in case, if such values and corresponding them
institutes will be much modified [12, p. 21-22].
The question of cultural universals has
acquired its true sharpness on the background
of a disappointingly simple thesis – panhuman
cultural integrity is a functional, but not a
historical notion, as far as humanity «is not a
cultural universal» [13, p. 247].
Cultures’ existence in the vectors of
«global» and «egoistic» can be as well explained
in the other way. Occupation of one culture by
another, dominating one can be an implicit or a
vivid wish of the culture, which has subordinated
to some other, foreign world picture, to feel
historically more comfortable. Rome had Europe
as its province, and its power swept away up
to Britain. Japan culture has built itself on an
explicit reversion of the main oppositions of
the Chinese world picture, having become its
expressive antithesis. Waves of assimilation and
dissimilation change each other, but when the
global process has started to gain a panhuman
character in the economic sphere, the opponents
of the process have begun to give their historical
and cultural arguments.
Globalisic position sticks to the world life
standardization, which creates a false-integral
reality. It has not any historical perspective,
and esthetic symmetry has it neither. But, there
is another type of reality – the world of pause,
interval and fragment. The fragmentary world
has a perspective to combine and to build new
integrative entities of different types. The standard
one does not have it; it is a dead symmetric world
[14, p. 41].
In the cultural sphere, we observe the
tendencies of unification and becoming of the
integral culture, which should bring to the
mankind unanimity – this is to the mind of
mondialism adepts. Though, the form of thinking
and realization of this unanimity quite reasonably
generate oppositions. Historical experience
testifies of the fact that non-European types of
culture are squeezed out of the world development
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and trampled on as unadjusted to the modernity.
In the global world, non-European cultures are
denied their own self-valuable status– they are an
expression of cultural exoticism, which is nothing
else, but curious. Though, to our mind, different
types of culture are understood not as forms of
integral human race existence, but as a disclosure
of heterogeneity of the mankind, consisting of
different types of people, who are far from being
equal according to the criteria of «the progress».
Hence, we may come to a dangerous conclusion
that there is a necessity of expansion of the only
type of person, being often identified with the
western «Faust-like» man. Actually, the terminal
point of such a movement will be the condition,
which can be characterized, as the blowing of the
whole out of proportion at the expense of its parts
If we speak of the content of the common
culture becoming, then the most precise way
to describe its essence will be in the terms of
universal technologism. Social life has turned
into a technologically regulated process, has
become a kind of techno-system. It inevitably
leads to mechanization of the real choice sphere
and to an utmost standardization of social
reactions. Now, the most undesirable qualities
are imprudence, being un-programmed,
spontaneity, unpredictability. And it is clear:
these qualities revelation can damage a well
coordinated work of the mechanism, being
called economics, which serving is the main
aim and sense of the society existence of
nowadays. Blocking of all these qualities goes
simultaneously on all the levels of the social
practice and is being fixed psychologically.
But, at the same time, with them disappears the
context, within which frames the human ability
to creation is being formed, as far as creativity
presupposes a certain moment of chaotization
of the social sphere and the inner world of
person [15, p. 178].
Global Sciences. Encyclopedia / under the editorship of I. Mazur, A.Chumakova. – Moscow,
N. M. Churinov. Perfection and Freedom / N. M. Churinov. – Krasnoyarsk, 2001.
E.N.Ustjugova. Globalization and Culture: Historical Context/ E.N.Ustjugova // The Philosophical
Sciences. – 2005. – №12.
Ch.S.Kirvel', V.I.Strel'chenko. Globalization of Education and Social Strategies of Modernity
/ Ch.S.Kirvel', V.I.Strel'chenko // The Dialogue of Generations and Cultures in the Context of
Globalization: Materials of the International Conference «The Conflict of Generations in the
Context of Informational Globalization». – St. Petersburg, Publishing House of the Polytechnic
University, 2007.
N. M. Churinov. Collectivism and Individualism, and Speculations on the Theme in the Western
Tradition / N. M. Churinov // The Theory and History. – 2004. – № 3.
A.A. Korol’kov. Spiritual Sense of the Russian Culture. – St. Petersburg: P.H. of RSPU named
after A.I. Herzen, 2006.
D.V. Ivanov. Virtualization of Society. Version 2.0. – St. Petersburg: The St. Petersburg Oriental
Studies. 2002.
V.A.Mamontova. Globalization in the Sphere of Culture: Vectors of Development/ V.A.Mamontova
// Credo -2006 -№1.
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Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture
Globalization and Multi-Culturalism. Executive editor: P.S.Karabaev. Moscow: P.H. of the
Russian University of Nations Friendship, 2005.
V.A.Mamontova. Globalization in the Sphere of Culture: Vectors of Development/ V.A.Mamontova
// Credo -2006 -№1.
A.I. Utkin. Globalization: the Process and Understanding. – The Logos, 2001.
A. Etsioni. From Empire to Society: a New Approach to International Relations. Moscow:
Ladomir, 2004.
Dm. Javorskij. World Outlooks Differentiation and Integration: Existential and Historical
Experience. International Readings of the Theory, History and Philosophy of Culture. St.
Petersburg, 2004. V. 20.
K.G. Isupov. Problems of Globalization on the Background of Russian Thought (preliminary
considerations) // Globalization: pro et contra: Materials of the International Conference «
Globalization Challenge to History on the Verge of Centuries: Priorities of the Russian Culture
and Art». St. Petersburg: Asterion, 2006.
15. O.A. Romanov. Globalization as a Subjective Reality: the Ideology and Practice of its Formation //
Globalization: pro et contra: Materials of the International Conference «Globalization Challenge
to History on the Verge of Centuries: Priorities of the Russian Culture and Art». St. Petersburg:
Asterion, 2006.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 323-335
УДК 304.4
Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies
Vladimir S. Luzan*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Culture is of more and more importance in consciousness and life activity of the modern society. And
culture is comprehended not only in the true sense of the word as a result of intellectual creation, but
it is understood at the level of common human sense: cultureness means decency, accomplishment,
tact, and intelligence.
It is the author’s opinion that nowadays «culture studies» are of particular importance as a scientific
discipline still being in a formative stage in spite of numerous investigations on culture both in Russia and
abroad. The author focuses his attention on consideration of two main approaches to the investigations on
culture: Western and Russian. Culture studies are formed adjoining many sciences integrating knowledge
of different sciences on culture into integral system, representing the ideas about essence, functions,
structure, and dynamics of culture as such, modeling cultural configurations of different epochs, nations,
confessions, classes, discovering and systemizing distinctive features of different cultural worlds.
Concerning realization of the creative potential of culture, the author pays a great deal of attention
to the necessity for integration of various kinds of knowledge about this sphere of spiritual life in the
context of integrated scientific discipline – applied culture studies as a peculiar bridge introducing an
individual or the human community into the world of culture.
The subject of applied culture studies is specified by cultural policy as a complex dynamic system of
interaction between state authorities, society, and culture (as an object of that policy) as complex of
points of view and activity in thorough modernization of society based on science, structural reform of
the whole system of institutions of culture, optimization of combination of state and social components
in socio-cultural life, scientific and educational support of the subsequent regulation of socio-cultural
processes, etc., on the whole, as conscious correction of the general content of culture.
The conclusion drawn in the end of the article is that cultural policy should be aimed at the
achievement of harmonious development of the country based on the correct scientific organization
and administration of the society; it is to eliminate inequality in cultural development of an individual
and society and reduce the level of irresponsiveness to culture and cultural dilettantism of the mass.
It should express interests of every individual and the entire nation, guarantee human rights of free
and independent development, correct balance of interests of different social groups.
Keywords: Cultural policy, applied culture studies, culture, anthropology, philosophy of culture
Culture is of more and more importance in
consciousness and life activity of the modern
society. And culture is comprehended not only in
the true sense of the word as a result of intellectual
and mental creation, but it is understood at the
level of common human sense: cultureness means
decency, accomplishment, tact, and intelligence.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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The lack or insufficiency of these qualities is
strongly felt in society bringing constant tension
into social life. It is possible to find these qualities
only on the base of access to culture, assimilation
of all the best things produced by the mankind
over a period of centuries and preserved by many
generations of people.
Nowadays culture is a certain level of
every human activities: it is impossible to create
highly developed industry without culture; it is
impossible to solve vital problems of the state
and society without political culture; there
won’t be solved social problems without cultural
human relationships based on understanding of
self-value of every person or a group of people
(small ethnic groups, national communities,
subcultures, etc.) [9].
Successful function both of the society as
a whole and any of its division is impossible if
a certain level of culture is not reached and the
understanding that highly developed culture
is the basis of civilized society is not formed.
Therefore, nowadays culture studies are of
particular importance still being at stage of
formation as a scientific discipline in spite of
abundance of investigations on culture both in
Russia and abroad. Cultural, social and structural
anthropology, «new culture history», semiotics,
ethno-linguistics, ethno-psychology, and social
studies still hold dominant positions at research
on culture in the West.
In Russia of the second half of the 19 th and
beginning of the 20 th centuries, culture studies
as an independent subject were gradually
transformed into specific trend at Russian
historical, philological, and philosophical
science. Historians P.N. Milyukov and L.P.
Krasavin played their own significant part
here: they had been carrying out their research
on cultural phenomena of the past and
analyzing cultures being under study as system
Study on culture from theoretical points
of view was carried out within the frames
of philosophy, aesthetics, semiotics, literary
criticism, and art criticism. However, by the end
of 1980s and beginning of 1990s, there appeared
realization of the necessity for system approach
to the study on culture in general and that one of
turning of culture studies into a separate scientific
discipline. That was promoted by the serious
theoretical elaboration of the whole complex
of both Russian and Western investigations
on culture and analysis of ideas, conceptions,
schools, and methods. Philosophy and social
studies had profound effect on formation of
culture studies. Culture was analyzed especially
productive in the context of philosophy of
culture, a discipline of philosophy oriented to
comprehension of culture as the universal and
integral phenomenon [10].
According to V.S. Malakhov, there can be
distinguished three plans wherein philosophy of
culture used to exist at the first third of the 20th
• methodological – philosophy of culture
as methodology of «sciences of culture»;
in contrast to «sciences of nature», this
approach was developed not only within
the frames of «philosophy of values»
by Baden Neo-Kantianism, but also
at «philosophy of life» (W. Dilthey)
contemporary ontology (N. Hartmann,
H. Freer);
• socio-critical – philosophy of culture
as critique of the modern European
civilization (O. Spengler, F. Stepun, H.
Ortega y Gasset, H. Bergson);
• theoretic-and-systematic – an attempt to
work out a universal theory of culture
(N. Hartman, R. Croner, J. Huizinga, O.
Spengler, A. Toynbee, E. Rothaker).
G. Simmel’s theory about conflict between
life and forms of culture, genealogical method
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of analysis of the cultural tradition offered by
F. Nietzsche, the idea of creative breakthrough
as a basis of culture creation (H. Bergson),
E. Cassirer’s philosophy of symbolic forms,
phenomenological description of structure of
the basic forms of culture (from language and
myth to history and science), and M. Weber’s
theory of ideal types, etc. – were of considerable
importance in formation of the main body of
ideas of philosophy of culture.
The basic features of postmodernism
philosophy of culture are: denial of striving for
the ideal of scientific objectivity and recognition
of significance and equality of different forms
of culture and sign systems expressing them;
elaboration of the basic theme «knowledge is
for authorities», defining constructing process
of cultural reality; study on intertextuality in
the context of consideration of the genesis of
the modern European novel; critical variant of
cultural-and-philosophical reflection.
Postmodernism philosophy of culture
finds its critique on the part of A. Giddenns, R.
Bernstein, J. Habermas. It is blamed for oblivion
of the values important for everybody and aimless
deconstructive game with the texts of culture.
Debates, held within the frames of different
branches of contemporary philosophy of culture,
had a considerable influence on the formation of
theoretic and methodological tools of research on
Philosophers of culture researched into the
problems of vital importance for culture studies:
culture as a specific human world created by a
human being; culture and civilization; crisis
of culture; symbolic forms of human activity –
language, myth, religion, science, art; value nature
of culture; interrelation of culture and history;
genesis of cultures; human being and culture; the
invariant structures remaining unchangeable in
the course of historical transformations; forms of
human cultural life; destinies of European culture
and civilization; dynamics of culture; logic of
science about culture [10].
At the end of 1940s and beginning of 1950s,
there was an increase of influence of «cultural
anthropology», ethnology, and empirical
researches on culture which E. Taylor, the English
researcher of the 19th century, defined as a body
of knowledge, beliefs, labor and behavioral skills
common to the members of a certain group. His
main aim was to reveal laws of development of
culture on the whole. He considered that evolution
as a natural historical process which happens
according to the objective principles.
The researchers’ reference to the heritage
of Leslie White, whose name is associated with
the idea of separation of culture studies as an
independent area of knowledge, had a great effect
on formation of culture studies as an independent
science [45].
However, for the first time, this term was
offered by German philosopher and chemist W.
Ostvald in 1909 and was used in many of his
subsequent works. It is important to notice that
Ostvald was really the first man who defined
culture as a phenomenon requiring a special
science in order it could be studied [10].
He considered culture as a complex of factors
serving for social progress and development of
man and society. According to his point of view,
science about culture is to study real processes.
Ostvald distinguishes culture studies from science
about society and uses the term «culture studies»
for description of the specific phenomenon
characteristic only of a man, defined as «culture»
term, and explored by the science called «culture
Leslie White referred to «culture studies»
term irrespective of Ostvald in 1939 and put it
into researches on anthropology, having used it in
his course of lectures. L. White applied «culture
studies» term to specify the sphere of knowledge
E. Taylor defined as science about culture.
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According to L. White, the use of «culture
studies» term was to advance the transition from
particular sciences to the integral research on
L. White considered culture studies as an
absolutely new (system) approach to research
on cultural events based on discovery of general
objective laws of cultural and historical process
and specificity of human culture.
In L. White’s book «Science about culture»
[45], there was raised the question of status and
character of the difference between culture
studies and the other sciences investigating on
culture; the researcher had made the first attempt
of analytic consideration of culture and had
defined the field of objects of culture studies; he
substantiated the use of «culture studies» term at
science of culture and defined the essence of a
new system approach to the research on culture.
His interpretation of culture as the integrated
whole of dynamic self-organizing system of
exobiological nature and as a source of support
of life of a certain species Homo sapiens and
analysis of importance of technologic sub-system
as a way of interaction of a human being with
the natural habitat and modeling as a method of
research on culture, had a determinative effect
on the development of culture studies. The turn
from special researches oriented to local cultures
to integral research on the world culture in its
diachronic and synchronous views took place
under that influence.
At the same time, there is not to be any
underestimation of the meaning of the whole
anthropological tradition within the frames of
which there had been laid theoretic foundations
of culture studies. The spectrum of disciplines
positing themselves by «anthropology» term is
extremely extensive. It comprises cultural (F.
Boas, E. Rothhacker, M.Landman), religious
(R.Nibur, G.Tilich, M.Buber, P. Florensky),
social (B. Malinovsky, A. Radcliffe-Brown),
biological (A. Gehlen, M. Portman), pedagogical
(O.F. Bolnov), psychological (R. Benedict, M.
Mead, E. Huges), structural, including cognitive
(K. Levi-Strauss, S. Bruner), and interpretive (K.
Giri) kinds of anthropology.
Each of these disciplines strives to solve
its problems by the way of turning to a person
in different spheres of his life activity. In virtue
of the universalism of its nature, anthropology
outlines integrating space for these sciences,
allowing us to conceive the mutually opposite
directions of human activity as some union.
Interpretative anthropology formed on the
base of Geertz’s works had considerable influence
both on the general development of the researches
on anthropology in the last quarter of the 20th
century and on the problematics of culture studies.
The core of this trend at American anthropology
was made by Geetz’s colleagues and students at
Chicago University and Princeton Institute of
high researches – D. Markus, M. Fisher, S. Ortner,
R.Rosaldo and also the scientists who weren’t
directly connected with the trend mentioned,
but agreed with its theoretic and methodological
program on many aspects (anthropologists M.
Stretern, E. Bruner, researchers on culture T.
Maranjano, V. Krapanzano, S. Trevik, etc.)
Interpretative anthropology took the
thesis stated by Geertz («anthropology is not
an experimental science looking for a rule but
interpretative one looking for sense»), and it
became clear that its successful development is
possible only on the condition of cross-disciplinary
synthesis, not out of philosophy, social studies,
political economics, and other spheres of human
and socio-scientific knowledge. Geetrz’s books
and lectures laid the foundation of this most
dynamic and intellectually oriented branch of
American anthropology at the end of 1970s and
beginning of 1990s. His work «Interpretation of
cultures», in which semiotic conception of culture
as the «web of meanings» is presented, takes its
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special place. According to Geertz, culture is a
sign system, but these signs are created and read
by a human being himself; they don’t exist out of
his activity. In any case, analysis of signs is the
analysis of person’s action and perception, but,
firstly, it is not experimental but comprehensive
and interpretative analysis, secondly, this analysis
is a dialogical one – there are subject and object
revealing the truth. Knowledge about cultures
is always the result of a certain intercultural
According to Geertz, the system approach to
culture implies it is to be analyzed as a complex
phenomenon from the complementary points
of view and discovery of underlying semantic
structures and objective laws. His approach is
interpretative and experimental in searching
for the meaning and experimental in searching
for the mechanism which makes that meaning
possible. Having refused analysis of culture as
indivisible and static model (that was specific for
anthropological school of Boas), Geertz developed
a concept of dynamic and interpenetrating systems
of culture. He considered culture not as a complex
of definite behavioral models but as a set of exogenetic control mechanism – plans, prescriptions,
rules, instructions (programs) – ruling emotions
of a person. According to Geertz’s conception,
at every society, the sphere of culture consists of
a number of cultural systems: religion, ideology,
politics, science, art, etc. Any of these systems
taken apart couldn’t provide normal functioning
of an individual at highly developed society [10].
Being interdisciplinary on their attitudes,
methods, material under investigation, and
conclusions, Geertz’s works had an effect on all
the spheres of human and social sciences including
anthropology and culture studies often treated as
a chance of return to the entire world from the
state of split and alienation as the conditions of
postmodernism, the intellectual movement which
included human and social sciences.
The works published in the French journal
called «The Annals» (nowadays it is called «The
Annals. History and social sciences» representing
the school of «The Annals» as one of the most
influential trends at theory of historical process
and culture) are of great importance for the
formation of culture studies. The formation of
that school was an effort to overcome the crisis of
traditional kind of history oriented to positivism.
The essence of «Copernican revolution» made by
this trend was the replacement of classical «history
as narration» with «history as problem» in order
to create «total history», i.e. history describing all
the connections existing in society – economic,
social, and cultural ones.
The object of study of the school of «The
Annals» is neither the actions of «great persons»
nor description of events, but it is research on one
whole society with variety of social relations and
deep structures taking long periods of time.
The representatives of «The Annals» school
raised a problem of investigation on culture in
its entirety as a system of world outlook and
complex of models of the world in consciousness
of members of society keeping human existence.
In substance, this kind of approach belongs to
anthropology and culture studies and carries out
a complex synthesizing description with the data
of different sciences involved and cognition of
internal historical and cultural processes through
penetration into self-consciousness of the people
of the period studied and conditions of their
everyday life.
Starting from 1960s, there is a formation of
a new type of theorizing at history which gets
such names as «narrative philosophy», «Modern
intellectual history», and «Modern philosophy of
history». The main accent is put on the specificity
of historical texts, methods of their organization,
and communication within social and cultural
space of human practice. Historiography becomes
the main subject matter.
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The turning-point at formation of the
problematics was H. White’s book «Metahistory:
historical imagination in Europe in XIX century»
and also works of T. Khun, W. Kuyain, R. Rorty;
there had been accomplished relativization of
classical epistemology and defended the position
of individual creative freedom and independence
of choice of cognitive and textual strategies.
There had also pointed out the significance of
cognitive features of language of historiography
and concrete historical and discursive speech
practice and there had been an investigation on the
Culture studies are formed on the border of
many sciences, integrating knowledge of different
science of culture into integral system and
representing ideas about the essence, functions,
structure, and dynamics of culture as such,
modeling cultural configurations of different
epochs, nations, confessions, and classes,
revealing and systematizing distinctive features
of different cultural worlds. Problematics of
culture studies is developed in different aspects:
researches on etnolinguistics and semiotics,
literary analysis of history of culture, history of
content of form of narrative sentences, discursive
statements and systems forming a text of research
on history. The works of the authors mentioned
suggest some new ways of study of texts, the
problem of denotation and translation of different
systems of meanings is under investigation,
and there is an assertion of a researcher’s
right to choose (freely and consciously) all the
components of construction and representation
of texts, combinatorics (combination of
«incommensurable» things in classical science
and eclecticism), and re-conceptualization of
the content of the basic notions. These positions
are close to the researches taking place in
contemporary human knowledge at post-colonial
discourse, «researches on culture», and culture
The logic in formation of culture studies as
self-actualization of culture of the 20th century
lies in transition from sciences investigating on
separate elements of culture (language, mythology,
systems of thinking, art culture, and symbolic
forms of human activity) to science about culture
of the mankind as a whole. According to G.S.
Pomerantz, its domain is interaction of the worlds
of culture being under conditions of globalization
process and appearance of one whole information
space. In particular, quite natural formation and
development of the new science is connected with
the appearance of that new reality.
mythological culture, researches from the points
of view of general theory of artistic culture and
social and cultural anthropology, researches
on culture of mentality and every day life, and
religious aspect of culture.
In reference to the same realia of culture and
investigating on the same cultural objects, culture
studies don’t substitute cultural and historical, art
historical, anthropological, and other kinds of
knowledge by itself, it just considers those objects
and realia from other points of view.
The tendency to the holistic point of view
on culture and integration of knowledge about
its different components appeared in Russia
in 60-80s of the 20th century. It promoted the
formation of the trend called «theory of culture»,
«theory and history of culture»; and that was an
indication of inclination of Russian tradition to
analysis of phenomenon of culture as wholeness
and exploration of the main objective laws of
its development, structures, functions, and
significance at social life.
There had been formed many trends of
research in this tendency: general-theoretical
problems of culture, methodology of research on
culture, morphology and dynamics of culture,
social studies of culture and art, civilization
theory, typology of culture, social and cultural
anthropology. As distinct from the West, «culture
studies» term was firmly implanted in scientific
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literature and scientific sphere in Russia in early
90s of the 20th century. First and foremost,
it was connected with considerable scientific
achievements made in this sphere and formation
of culture studies as cross-disciplinary field of
knowledge, actualizing the idea of synthetic
science characteristic of the 20th century with
integration of the results of research on culture as
its aim. System analysis of phenomena of culture
and system approach directed to integration of all
the fields of knowledge investigating on culture
become predominant. Culture is considered as
spiritual sense are to be united in one common
notion – that is «cultural concept».
The idea of phenomenon of culture as
system and the need for system approach to
study on culture at different levels arising from
that idea has already had its own tradition.
Different aspects of systems theory applied to the
problematics of culture studies were developed
by Belgian scientist and the Nobel prizewinner
I. Prigozhin, Russian scientists R. Yakobson, Y.
Tynyanov, Y. Lotman and others.
Using the system theory, scientists try to
a system; its essence, «system organization»,
structure, specific features, and characteristics
of its function and concrete realization are under
investigation in the context of that approach.
General-system analysis supports logic of
semantic interpretation of culture and all concrete
displays and embodiments of culture. This kind
of approach is carried out both at all the levels of
analysis of culture (culture as a whole, culture of a
certain period, culture of a concrete cultural area,
society, subcultures, and that one of individual)
and at the levels of its particular subsystems
(science, art culture, religion, etc.).
System is usually understood as some kind
of integration formed with a sum of elements
closely related and connected with each other.
Besides the features of coherence, usually
there is also a mention of hierarchy as the
most important characteristic of system and its
«system-formative factor». Y.S. Stepanov makes
mention of «concept» as a system-formative factor
of culture – that is a «clot of culture» in human
mental world and «collective unconscious».
As L.A. Mikeshina remarks, cultural and
historical approach leads Y.S. Stepanov to
considerable amplification of «concept» term, and
the instituted notion of conceptualized domain
at language and culture supposes that not only
words and mythologems, but also rites, things,
and material objects as symbols and carriers of
explain origin and existence of the extremely
complicated order characterizing the general
notion «culture studies». Reliance on the
principles of system approach allows integration
of knowledge about culture including various
materials to be provided.
Actualization of the creative potential of
culture dictates the necessity for integration of
various aspects of knowledge about this sphere
of spiritual life in the context of one scientific
discipline – applied culture studies as a peculiar
bridge leading into the world of culture of an
individual or the human community.
The purpose of applied culture studies
is introduction of a person into culture. The
content of this process is formed by sociocultural activity with cultural policy as one of its
components. Thus, one can define culture studies
as a complex of conceptions, methodological
principles, methods, and cognitive procedures
oriented to application at different spheres of
social cooperation and achievement of certain
practical effects in these spheres [41].
As far as the applied level of culture studies
supposes that the results of cognition are to
be applied in practice, the following trends
and characteristics of analysis are of special
importance: diagnostics and forecast of sociocultural dynamics developing in conditions of
spontaneous self-organization; rated change of the
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aspects and elements of socio-cultural dynamics
which could be transformed under influence
of purposeful management activity; and also
programming and planning of definite aspects of
practice able to be changed in an appropriate way
under influence of a many managerial steps.
Such elements of knowledge as a complex
of social technologies designed for experts and
practicians at different fields of social activity
become an essential component of applied culture
studies. The specificity of the applied level of
knowledge about culture is its integrative nature
suggesting that the more difficult requirements,
worked out on the basis of that kind of knowledge,
are to be used for the practical solutions.
Socio-cultural complex and sides of practice
require transition of specialists and administrators
to the intersectoral interaction, and that allows the
comprehension of their professional problems to
be deepened and adequate solutions to be worked
out. The main reasons of broadening of needs of
specialists and administrative staff are knowledge
of the results of analysis of culture, and that is
possible to reduce to several global factors:
• the development of intercultural contacts
and international tourism is intensive in
the world;
• the processes of implantation of sociocultural innovations have started being
strengthened in many countries;
• modernization phenomenon has become
actual for many traditional societies, and
that has affected not only technologies
of labor, spiritual values, and standards
of behavior, but also social institutes and
way of life on the whole;
• the relations between urban culture and
rural culture have been changed;
• the traditional type of individuality has
been transformed, and that has brought
to difficulties in the process of individual,
group, and social self-identification.
The applied level of knowledge of culture
studies had been developed for rather a long
period of time in the context of cultural-sectoral
approach in Russian scientific and social
practice of the Soviet period. In its turn, that
was connected with the theoretic postulates of
Marxism assigning a part of secondary role at
the level of superstructure to culture. That is why
culture was reduced to such fields of practice
as spiritual, educational, scientific, and art
activities in theory of culture of the Soviet period,
where was possible to use recommendations of
researchers on culture.
In 60-80s the most advanced levels of
applied culture studies were such branches of
analysis as social studies on artistic culture and
art, sociology of cultural activity [8].
In 80s there appeared the works proving the
necessity for use of knowledge of culture studies
as an independent cross-disciplinary branch
which includes theoretical and applied levels.
Nowadays it is possible to speak about the final
stage of formation of theoretical culture studies
while the applied level is under the process of
In the conditions of modernization, the
working out of integral cultural policy adequate
to the contemporary demands of Russian society
requires prevention of narrow-minded approach
to it and its formation on the large socio-cultural
Cultural policy is a complex dynamic system
of interaction between state authorities, society,
and culture (as the object of this policy) as a set
of scientifically based points of view, events on
comprehensive socio-cultural modernization
of society, structural reform of all the systems
of institutions of culture, optimization of
combination of state and social components in
socio-cultural life, scientific and educational
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support of the subsequent regulation of sociocultural processes etc., on the whole, as conscious
correction of general content of culture.
Cultural processes obey the deepest laws of
self-organization. That is why the administrative
influence on culture on the part of the state could
be perceived as the introduction of external action
into the process of system self-organization, and
not for submission of development of the system
but for increase of its inner activity hidden in the
logic of development of its creative potential.
The state cultural policy is to model
mechanisms of natural civilization process, act in
the context of its socio-synergetic laws and just
stimulate the accelerated development of society
in the direction of its own objective movement.
A.Y. Flier defines two levels of cultural
administrative activity in his consideration
of state policy in the sphere of culture: the
very cultural policy and operative control of
cultural-creative processes [16]. But this type of
classification conceals the danger of separation of
practice of administrative activity at the sphere of
culture from theoretical conceptualization of real
conditions, strategic aims, and actual problems
of process in culture. Only the unity of operative
actions and theoretical search for the optimal
ways and models of development of culture is
able to give productive abilities of function of a
process of culture and to provide the strategy of
self-development of culture.
On the other hand, cultural policy is a special
field of political activity directly oriented to the
values of life and culture and to the supreme
spiritual states of consciousness or will realized
by those values. The links established and
maintained by cultural policy are the connections
of life through co-presence and assistance at
some valuable and spiritually conceived realities
of culture, through reception and empathy
of axiomatic state of consciousness or will,
samples of presence and activity important for
an individual in valuable spaces of culture, and
through free co-participation in confirmation of a
chosen project and conception on life.
Some people think that cultural policy is
a complex of opinions based on science and
vast activity at socio-cultural modernization
of society and structural reforms of the whole
system of culture-formative institutions as a
system of new principles of proportion of state
and social components at social and cultural life,
as a complex of measures on the preliminary
arrangement of scientific and educational supply
for those principles and purposeful training
of personnel for efficient regulation of sociocultural processes in the future, and the most
important thing is conscious correction of the
general content of culture.
Control over the current cultural-creative
process is a complex of operative actions solving
vital problems of the existing culture-formative
institutions oriented to maintenance of enlarged
reproduction of actual forms of culture within the
bounds of financial assets, skilled workers, tools
and technologies existing at the moment.
At the level of contemporary scientific
ideas of the essence of culture, it is impossible
to make any global approaches to its problems
(in particular, statement of foreground tasks and
aims of cultural policy) without correlation of
culture with the main tendencies of development
of civilization.
The most important principle of statement
of tasks and aims of cultural policy lies in
comprehension of polysemic nature of culture,
its senses and content. None of the phenomena of
culture is monofuctional, it has a whole complex
of different social functions in itself; there is no
any phenomenon of culture with only one meaning
and spontaneous content, but it is a complex of
different meanings and contents both of actual
and memorial nature. It is connected with the
special difficulty of administrative strategy and
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tactics in the sphere of culture and the necessity
of multilevel approach to the regulation of sociocultural processes.
Today the state takes the most important part
in development of culture, which is to make the
greatest contribution to regulation of the sphere
of culture in Russian society, for the development
of exchange relations has been insufficiently
formed [36]. Thereby cultural policy of Russia
today is possible to be considered in three main
aspects: theoretical aspect when cultural policy
could be interpreted as an abstract ideal model of
skills and low social status of the branch
of culture;
• between advance of exchange relations
into the all spheres of life of the
contemporary society and unavailability
of culture to improve relations with
business sector;
• between introduction of innovative
technologies into life activity of the
society and absence of the possibility to
use them in valid institutions of culture;
• between new requirements of society in
intercourse of the authorities and culture; applied
aspect which reveals cultural policy as a system
of priorities of agencies of State power declared
in the corresponding plans of development
of culture at the federal and regional levels;
specifically-historical aspect when cultural policy
is considered as a real system of relations between
subjects of culture [46].
Nevertheless there are many contradictions
of Russian character interfering with realization
of the common state policy in the sphere of culture
in the present situation. They are:
• between contemporary demands of the
society for the value as orienting points
and inability of the formed cultural system
to their formation and translation;
• between the existing variety of cultures
characterizing country as a conglomerate
of different nations, and immature
integral image of Russian culture;
• between existence of different local
cultures and global processes of the
contemporary life leading to levelling of
cultural traditions and values;
• between the achieved level of creativity
and multiplicity of the world art and
condition of creative thought in artistic
• between the necessity for new skilled
workers possessing modern professional
formation of a new market of cultural
services and impossibility of the traditional
system of culture to fulfill it with the
offers adequate to the requirements.
In order to develop mechanism for the
marked contradictions to be surmounted, it is
necessary to form the only socio-cultural space
providing with promotion of creative initiatives
as the basis of stable and dynamic development
of Russia.
In this connection, cultural policy as the
subject of applied culture studies is to:
• be essential part of all the branches of the
state policy in general without exception,
reflecting its moral and normative
• become the most important component
of social policy which could only be
complex socio-cultural and educational
program at present;
• form the very cultural policy (in a narrow
sense of the word) as a special branch of
state and public services on stimulating
socially acceptable, spiritual valuable
and socially-normative displays of a
human being and forms of his social
and individual being regulated by the
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• maximally provide citizens with
constitutional law of access to benefits
of culture and realization of the principle
of freedom of creative work regardless of
• provide with state security of the objects
of cultural heritage;
• promote integration of Russia into the
international cultural community, and
that is stipulated by the necessity for
strengthening of the positive image of the
country abroad and also by inclusion of
obviously unites different cultures, and
that is topical for Russia.
The specific feature of cultural policy is that
culture is not only an object of this policy, but a
subject as well – first of all, because it is a selfdeveloping and self-regulating system; it doesn’t
matter what kind of subject of a decision in the
sphere of cultural policy, it still stays in the area
of a certain culture and appears to be a product
of it. Properly speaking, the question is about the
dialectic of administration and self-organization
in the context of the system of social regulation
the population into the available context
of cultural practices of the modern
• develop professional and amateur
art, and artistic education aimed at
formation and development of aesthetic
demands of the population, formation of
aesthetically developed and interested
audience of listeners and spectators,
training skilled workers ready for the
professional activity at the sphere of
culture and art, and maintenance and
transfer of the best traditions of Russian
professional education to the next
• maintain and develop multinational
material and non material cultural
heritage of the country. The very heritage
is the form with the specific protective
cultural functions or ideological support
of formation of a new tradition [47]. It
of culture.
The optimal cultural policy puts a person
with his needs and interests in centre, furthers the
absolute implementation of his generic essence.
The solution of such problem is provided with the
reliance on science, real estimation of everything
happening, professionalism, and competence
of those people who develop and implement the
Culture policy is to be aimed at achievement
of harmonic development of the country on
the basis of correct scientific organization and
administration with the society; it is to encourage
the removal of unequal development of a human
being and society by the way of coordination and
regulation; it is to reduce the level of immunity
to culture and cultural dilettantism of the mass.
It should defend interests of every person and the
whole nation, secure human rights of free and
independent development, and correct balance in
interests of different social groups.
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Arnoldov, A.I. Cultural policy: realia and tendencies. – Moscow: MSUCA, 2002.
Big encyclopedia. – M.: Big Russian encyclopedia – St. Petersburg: NORINT, 2001.
Biryukova, M.A. Globalization: integration and differentiation of cultures / M.A. Biryukova //
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5. Bogatyreva, T.G. Contemporary culture and social development. – Moscow, 2001.
6. Culture. New philosophical encyclopedia: 4 volumes. V.2. – Moscow, 2001.
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Culture in Soviet society. Problematics and perspective of development. – Moscow, 1988.
Culture Studies. College textbook / ed. B.A. Erengross. – Moscow, 2007.
Culture Studies. Encyclopedia / ed. S.Y. Levit. 2 volumes. V 1. – Moscow, 2007.
Culture Studies. XX century: dictionary. – St. Petersburg, 1997.
Culture Studies. XX century: encyclopedia: in 2 volumes. – St. Petersburg, 1998.
Culture Studies: Reading-book / ed. P.S. Gurevich. – Moscow, 2000.
Dragichevich-Sheshich, M. Culture: management, animation, and marketing. – Novosibirsk, 2000.
Evrasov, B.S. Social culture studies. – Moscow, 1996.
Flier, A.Y. Culture studies for researchers on culture. – Moscow: Academic project, 2000.
Fundamental problems of culture studies. 4 volumes. V.1. – Theory of culture. – St.Petersburg,
Glotov, M.B. Management at art culture / M.B. Glotov // Social studies. 2000.
Grushevickaya, T.G. Bases of intercultural communication. – Moscow, 2002.
Gurevich, P.S. Culture studies. – Moscow, 2002.
Ikonnikova, S.N. History of theories of culture: study guide for students of institutes of higher
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Ionin, L.G. Social studies on culture: study guide/ L.G. Ionin 3rd edition, revised and enlarged. –
Moscow, 2000.
Kagan, M.S. Selectas in 7 volumes. Vol. 3. Works on the problematics of theory of culture. –
St.Petersburg: Pertropolis, 2007.
Kiseleva, T.G. Socio-cultural activity: textbook/ T.G. Kiseleva, Y.D. Krasilnikov. – Moscow,
Komissarenko, S.S. Russian elite as a subject of Russian culture studies. // The questions of
culture studies. – 2007. – №7.
Koptzeva, N.P. A.P. Chekhov as a Philosopher: «Game» Phenomenon and «Existence in the Face
of Death» in his Dramas // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences.
V.1, №1. Krasnoyarsk, 2008.
Koptzeva, N.P. The Artistic Image as a Process and Result of Game Relations between a Work of
Visual Art as an Object and its Spectator// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities &
Social Sciences. V.1, №2. Krasnoyarsk, 2008.
Koptzeva, N.P. The Creation Problem in Fundamental Ontology of Martin Heidegger and Modern
Theory of Fine Arts// Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. V.1,
№3, Krasnoyarsk, 2008.
Koptzeva, N.P. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level// Journal of
Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. V.2, №1. Krasnoyarsk, 2008.
Kravchenko, A.I. Culture Studies: Dictionary. – Moscow: Academic project, 2000.
Kravchenko, A.I. Culture Studies: study guide. – Moscow: Academic project, 2001.
Kurbatov, V.I. Social projection: study guide. – Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2001.
Mamedova, E.V. Cultural policy. / E.V. Mamedova // Philosophical sciences. – 2000.
National-cultural policy in the Russian Federation // Orienting points of cultural policy.
Informational issue. – Moscow, 2003. – №1.
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35. Orlova, E.A. Socio-cultural conditions for modernization in Russia. – Yekaterinburg, Culture
studies high school, 2001.
36. Pavlovich, A.A. Contemporary culture of Russia and development of the regions // The questions
of culture studies. – 2007. – №6.
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39. Razlogov, K.E. Prospects for culture and state cultural policy in Russia. – Moscow, 2000.
40. Russia at the contemporary dialogue of civilizations. – St. Petersburg: Cultural revolution, 2008.
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42. Sorokin, P.A. About Russian public opinion. – St. Petersburg, 2000.
43. System: philosophical encyclopedia. – Moscow, 2000.
44. System study on culture. – St. Petersburg: Aleteya, 2009.
45. White, L. Science about culture // Anthology of researches on culture. – Moscow, 1997.
46. Zagrebin, S.S. Cultural policy in Russia today // The questions of culture studies. – 2008. – №3.
47. Zamyatin, D.N. Heritage image in culture; methodological approaches to study on «heritage»
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 336-348
УДК 930. 26 (571.51)
About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’
International Relations
Nikolai P. Makarova*, Aleksandr S. Vdovinb
and Yekaterina V. Detlovac
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V. P. Astafiev,
89 Lebedevoi st., Krasnoyarsk, 600049 Russia
Krasnoyarsk Local Lore Museum,
84 Dubrovinskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 600049 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
This article is devoted to Siberian archaeologists’ international relations in the late 19th century till
the 1st decade of 20th century. A great variety of sources that are kept in archives of Russia, Germany
and Finland are used here.
Keywords: archaeology history, international relations.
Lately Siberian archaeologists’ international
contacts have become an ordinary thing. Joint
expeditions and conferences are held. Foreign
scientists are invited to give lectures in Siberian
Universities. Russian scientists have opportunities
for training or work experience abroad. We
can’t say that we have a lot of contacts with
foreign archaeologists. Only in recent decades
Krasnoyarsk archaeologists have been taking
an active part in international integration. At the
same time relations of Krasnoyarsk scientists and
their foreign colleagues have deep roots.
The purpose of this article is representation
of the little-known, mostly not published materials
on history of the international contacts of the
Krasnoyarsk archeologists revealed in archives
of Russia, Germany, Finland.
Basic positions
Foreign researchers were always interested
in Siberian antiquities. First of all, we should
mention German scientists, who worked in Russia
at different times, e. g. D. G. Messerschmidt, G.
F. Miller, J. G. Gmelin, P. S. Pallas and others
(Borisenko, Hudyakov, 2005). The Swedes were
also interested in Siberian archaeology. Someone
from them happened to be in Siberia against their
own free will, e. g. I. F. Stralenberg or of their
own free will, e. g. F. R. Martin. In XIX century
the Finns are involved in the study of Siberian
ancient history most of all (M.A.Castren’s
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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studies, I.R. Aspelin, Ya. Appelgren-Kivalo and
A. O. Geikel’s expeditions) (Salminen, 2003).
They explore Siberian area, mainly the South
of Yeniseiskaya guberniya, to find ancestral
home of their nation. However, we can’t speak
about constant foreigners’ interest in Siberian
archaeology or about their constant contacts with
Krasnoyarsk scientists at the pre-revolutionary
First of all foreign researchers and travellers
were interested in supplement of their own
foreign collections. Private collecting became
a real danger for archaeological monuments
of the Yenisei area. A lot of foreign travellers
and scientists got antiquities from inhabitants.
Sometimes collections were rather impressive, e.
g. an Englishman, P. A. Boiling, had a collection.
According to N. M. Yadrintsev, this collection
consisted of 799 copper, stone, iron, bone and
cast-iron things. Fortunately, Boiling’s collection
was left in Russia and bought by a famous
Krasnoyarsk merchant, I. G. Gadalov. The latter
presented the main part of his collection to the
archeological museum of Tomsk University.
At the same time archaeological things were
constantly brought abroad. Antiquities from the
Yenisei area are kept in museums of Washington
D. C., London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest,
Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki and other countries.
At the pre-revolutionary period home
researchers successfully study Siberian ancient
history. These researchers are talented selfeducated persons, who treat archaeology not as a
job, but as a hobby. However, they made a great
contribution to the Siberian science development
of antiquities. The first collections and excavations
(they were carried out on an amateur level) were
made by these inquisitive persons. Some of them
managed to make Siberian antiquities recognized
by the world science society. In 1884 I. T.
Savenkov made sensational finds on the Afontova
hill. This monument of palaeolith attracted first of
all foreign researcher’s attention. Despite the fact
that this was not the only monument of the Old
Stone Age in Russia, in the books on specialized
subjects it’s mentioned just about the Afontova
hill as about the only location of palaeolith age
(Obermeier1, 1913: 79, 113).
It’s not by chance that at the international
anthropological congress (it was held in Moscow
in 1882) a French archaeologist, Baron de Baye,
called Savenkov’s report the most significant
event of that day.
On returning home de Baye presents a report
about finds in Krasnoyarsk to Paris Academy. He
ends it with the following words, «Gentlemen,
I’m finishing this report and I’m happy that I’ve
called you the name of scientist who works hard
for the science development on the banks of the
large Siberian river (Auerbach, 1928).
Friendly correspondence starts between de
Baye and Savenkov. De Baye visits the Yenisei
area twice. During his visits in 1896 and 1897 he
examines the Afontova hill, opens a palaeolith
site near Pereselencheskii point on the Yenisei’s
right bank. The scientist collects archaeological
materials of different eras, he finds them in
ancient settlements such as Bazaiha, Nyasha,
Ladeiki. He excavates the gravel hill near the
village Torgashino. Then he gives the part of his
materials and booklets in French to the municipal
museum. Among these things de Baye’s photo is
kept. There is an inscription on it for I. T. Savenkov
«To a lucky man and a voracious researcher of the
Yenisei’s valley in memory of congress of 1892 in
Moscow» (Makarov, 1989, 51).
However, the scientists didn’t manage to
meet in Krasnoyarsk. These years Savenkov
worked as a proctor of folk schools in Warsaw.
The French archaeologist also didn’t manage to
meet with N. M. Martyanov, the director of the
Minusinsk museum, which is famous abroad for its
archaeological collections. De Baye’s companions
were a conservative of the Krasnoyarsk museum,
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M. Ye. Kibort, who accompanied Savenkov
in archaeological expeditions, a teacher of
Krasnoyarsk grammar school for boys, P. S.
Proskuryakov, and others (Orehova, 2004).
Evaluating Siberians’ contribution to the study
of antiquities from the Yenisei area, de Baye
recommended them to French academy for
honorary title «Officier d’Academie». As a result
N. M. Martyanov and P. S. Proskuryakov were
awarded these honorable titles.
On returning in France, de Baye displays his
finds from Krasnoyarsk sites in Paris Museum
of natural history. At one of the meetings
of geographical society he recollects about
his journey to Russia. He describes stay in
Krasnoyarsk especially warmly. In fact de Baye
popularizes antiquities from the Yenisei area
abroad. Savenkov’s works are published in France
just thanks to de Baye (Savenkov, 2003).
Siberian palaeolith got wide scientific
resonance thanks to Savenkov and de Baye’s
work and collaboration. Siberia archaeology was
mostly known only in the field of the Stone Age
study up to 1920’s. However, the Iron Age has
become more studied in the 1st decades of the 20th
A. M. Tallgren’s2 (a famous Finnish scientist)
works were also very important for Siberian
archaeology. He researched Siberian antiquities
and Siberian archaeological culture much better
then his fellow countrymen. Tallgren’s travels
to Russia started since 1908. In 1915 he visited
Siberia. Unlike his predecessors his aim wasn’t
to find the Finns ancestral home, although there
were supporters of this theory, it was considered
to be old-fashioned already. According to
modern finish histonographers «there was a
little romanticism, desire to see with his own
eyes legendary Minusinsk steppes in this travel»
(Uino, 2005).
During the expedition Tallgren excavates
a number of archaeological monuments and
gets acquainted with Minusinsk museum
archaeological collections. At the same time he
visits Krasnoyarsk municipal museum. This
museum as a part of Krasnoyarsk subdivision
of RGO (Russian Geographical Society) was
a forming regional scientific center. Judging
by A. Ya. Tugarinov’s (he was a conservative)
letter of the 30th of November, 1918 we can say
that the Finnish scientist managed to see only a
little bit. «It is a pity you were in Krasnoyarsk
museum and didn’t have an opportunity to see
what you’d wished. Probably I could have showed
you something that would interest you. We can’t
display this material because of the museum
condition. As far as I know you were interested
in the collection from the Ishimka village of
Achinsk[ii] U[yezd] especially»3. This situation
happened because A. Ya. Tugarinov was in the
expedition at that time. In Krasnoyarsk A. M.
Tallgren was accompanied by N. A. Pikulevich,
who the Finnish scientist corresponded with
after that. Tallgren also knew V. A. Danilov, the
latter wanted Tallgren to get acquainted with his
significant archaeological collection4.
Carrying out local lore researches workers
of Krasnoyarsk museum paid a lot of attention to
the region archaeology. Thanks to their diligence
as well as the private collections of antiquities,
which were given to the museum in the 1st decade
of the 20th century, there was a great material
that archaeologists (who researched Siberia)
were interested in. The Finnish archaeologist
corresponded with Krasnoyarsk colleagues and
museum workers after his departure from Russia.
Several letters from A. Ya. Tugarinov, S. M.
Sergeev, N. K. Auerbach, G. P. Sosnovskii, V. G.
Kartsov5 are kept in Tallgren’s personal archive
in Finland.
A. Ya. Tugarinov played an important role
in strengthening and expansion of international
contacts. He often applied for the help of foreign
specialists to define collections. In the years of
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the First World War he enlisted people of creative
professions and scientists, who were in captivity,
to work in the museum. According to the archival
data of 1921 such specialists as I. I. Vodratska, F.
F. Doush, G. Pangerl, G. V. Merhart worked in
the museum6.
Significant achievements in the Siberian
archaeology field of those years were connected
with an Austrian. His name was Gero Merhart
von Bernegg7. First he was in a prison camp
in Chita, then he was sent to a prison camp
in Kansk. The acquaintance with the Kansk
museum collections, finds of antiquities in the
neighbourhood of the town aroused a desire to
work in the Siberia archaeology field. However,
there was no possibility for serious researches
in Kansk. That’s why in 1919 Merhart writes a
letter to A. Ya. Tugarinov and asks to give him
a position in Krasnoyarsk museum. Since the 3rd
of November he becomes its worker. He worked
in Krasnoyarsk from 1919 till 1921. First he
worked as a restore, then as the head of Ancient
History department. Merhart takes an active part
in putting in order, systematizing and restoring
of museum archaeological collections. In spring
and in summer of 1920 the researcher and his
colleagues hold archaeological excursions in the
neighbourhood of the town. As a result museum
collections were expanded, new palaeolithic sites
were discovered, significant observations were
carried out (Makarov and others, 2005; Detlova,
2006, 2007).
Merhart had close relations with Krasnoyarsk
scientists during their joint work and after it. We
should mention here G. P. Sosnovskii, a known
soviet archaeologist. Sosnovskii worked as an
assistant of Ancient History department and
soon he became «a bright assistant in the field»
for Merhart (Kuzminih and others, 2007). In
1920 the researchers hold a joint archaeological
reconnaissance in the Middle Yenisei area
(Vdovin and others, 2000). In autumn of 1920
G. P. Sosnovskii quits his job in museum and
leaves for Irkutsk. That time there was the only
department for training specialists-prehistorians
in Siberia. This department was headed by B. E.
Petri. Besides his classes in university Sosnovskii
works as a curator in Irkutsk Lokal Lore Museum
and in Irkutsk University Museum. He takes
an active part in the work of Ethnology Circle.
He also continues his communication with
Merhart, he writes him in details about his life in
Irkutsk, Irkutsk museums prehistoric collections,
researches, which he carries out in Zabaikalie.
Sosnovskii and Merhart’s correspondence
continues even when the latter returns home.
In the letters of 1923 till 1925 Sosnovskii
describes in details his work, which he carries
out in Priyeneseiskii krai. At that period his
aspirations as he said himself «were concentrated
on palaeolith»8. Later, the scientist’s interests are
expanded he is also interested in ancient metal
Through the young scientist letters we can
see that his opinion on Priyeniseiskaya Siberia
and Zabaikalie archaeology differs from B. E.
Petri’s (he was Sosnovskii’s mentor in Irkutsk)
opinion. Sosnovskii also criticizes the way
Petri carries out excavations. Merhart stays the
only authority and professional for Sosnovskii.
Sosnovskii adopted Merhart’s excavations
methods of European school and European
level, scrupulosity in describing monuments.
Austrian’s good relations and moral support
were very important for Sosnovskii, as he was a
beginner. Later on Merhart continues to interest
in Sosnovskii’s fortune. Through Sosnovskii’s
letters and correspondence with other colleagues
Merhart learns about his former assistant’s success
and follows Sosnovskii’s scientific career. Merhart
tries to organize Sosnovskii’s travel abroad,
where there are possibilities and conditions for
continuing education under the leadership of
best Europe archaeologists. Sosnovskii stays for
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Merhart the most accurate and active Russian
correspondent during the next decade. Their
correspondence that is kept in Merhart’s Marburg
archive, counts 17 letters. But these are not all the
letters. We can affirm that this correspondence
was much more intensive. We know this through
some facts from the letters mentioned above.
Sosnovskii’s last letter, to be exact a postscript
to a collective letter, to Merhart dated 1926.
Probably, the scientists’ correspondence breaks
off in the beginning of 1930’s, when Merhart
parts Sosnovskii and other Russian colleagues
because of fortune and policy9.
Merhart also corresponded with G. P.
Sosnovskii’s comrade, N. K. Auerbach (Auerbach
and Sosnovskii took part in excavations of
Krasnoyarskii krai archaeological monuments).
After graduating from Moscow Archaeological
Institute and from Moscow State University,
Auerbach returns to Krasnoyarsk and in 1918
he becomes a museum worker. When there were
job cuts in Yeniseiskaya guberniya institutions
after the end of the civil war, N. K. Auerbach
works voluntarily as the head of Archaeological
Auerbach’s 6 letters are kept in Merhart’s
private archive in Marburg. In the 1st letter of
the 24th of March, 1925 Auerbach suggests
corresponding regularly because this will be
mutually beneficial. Krasnoyarsk archaeologists
were interested in getting information about
foreign science novelties and they promised to
inform about new monuments, achievements
and Siberian archaeologists’ work. It was also
important for Merhart’s future researches. It
allowed Merhart to be well informed and work
successfully in the Russian science field.
These years Krasnoyarsk archaeologists pay
great attention to the excavations on the Afontova
hill. According to their words if they get «new
materials» from there that «will let them finish
a preliminary scheme of palaeolith development
in the Yenisei area»10. Researches are continued
there from 1923 till 1926 and later. Excavations
results were finds of thousands of palaeolithic
tools and rich bone materials (numerous fauna
remains and the first find of palaeolithic man’s
bones in Russia). The results of researches were
published in special information bulletins, some
of which were sent to Merhart.
Not only the Afontova hill attracts Siberian
archaeologists these years. In the letters of 1925 till
1926 Auerbach tells Merhart about his intention
to continue his work in the neighbourhood of
Krasnoyarsk. In the letter of the 24th of March,
1925 he says, «This year we have got money
for continuing excavations of the Afontova
hill and for systematic reconnaissance of sites
near the town. These sites are Kirpichnii sarai,
Voyennii Gorodok and Pereselencheskii point.
Besides, we are going to reconnoitre in Zikovo,
Batoye, Dolgovo and Kubekovo. In summer an
instrumental survey of Pereselencheskii point
and Kirpichnii sarai will be carried out. After
these we are going to carry out excavations near
Biryusinskaya site. By autumn we are going to
reconnoitre in Minusinskii uyezd and in Achinskii
uyezd. So, you see, doctor, our plans correspond
to your wishes11».
This extensive program was put into
practice by Auerbach and his colleagues. At the
same time great excavations were carried out in
Biryusinskaya site (there are a lot of strata there).
According to the report about museum work from
1926 till 1927 in the Biryusa area «about 100 m2
of the site were excavated. The collected material
appeared to be absolutely new in its scientific
significance speaking about the age of palaeolithic
and neolithic sites of this territory12». In the south
of the territory, sites of different eras («which
Sosnovskii and Merhart visited in 1920») were
again researched by Sosnovskii (Makarov, 1989:
47). New palaeolithic sites were discovered near
the Kokorevo village. Excavations of graves of
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Andronovskaya, Karasukskaya, Afanasiefskaya
cultures were carried out near the Orak ulus.
Excavations of Tagarsk gravel hills were carried
out near the Novoselovo village. Excavations of
the gravel hill with iron things finds were carried
out near the Kokorevo village. «Significant
material was got»13.
However, there are great difficulties at this
period. First of all, Siberian scientists don’t have
much information and they know nothing about
the world science achievements. In his letters
Auerbach complains, that there is almost no
literature on archaeology. He asks Merhart to
help them to get major works that they extremely
need, «We terribly need a new textbook, e. g.
the Dechelette14, to understand palaeolithic tools
terminology and a new report about palaeolithic
loessial site excavations. The last report is very
important for us to learn new foreign methods of
excavations and methods of publication»15.
Krasnoyarsk scientists got this text book and
probably some others. Auerbach is very thankful
to Merhart for this. Krasnoyarsk scientists and
Merhart exchange specialized literature on
archaeology. Merhart sends world editions as well
as his own works (1923b, 1924a, 1924b, 1926) to
the museum. As for Auerbach and Krasnoyarsk
scientists, they supply their Austrian colleague
with literary novelties, which are published in
Siberia and in Russia these years. They send a
few books and Auerbach explains, that there is
a little publication in the country and of course
in Siberia, «A few books are published, popular
brochures are published, there are a few scientific
articles»16. There is not only no possibility for
publications in the country. There is also lack of
research works financing, lack of professional
staff in Siberia, lack of conditions for training
specialists-prehistorians, numerous life problems.
In his letters, Auerbach expresses regret, «You’ve
written, doctor, we are near the archaeological
material of international significance. That’s
right, of course. But this international significance
can’t help us to work and publish. You see, doctor,
we spent 75 % of the time on excavations, but the
Germans would spent only 5 % of this time on
excavations. That’s why, doctor, we need your
unfailing desire to help us! We need this help.
There is no literature, no literature at all»17.
A lot of prehistorians have to combine
research activity and work that isn’t connected
with their profession. They have to work in the
institutions that are not connected with science.
Some have to work with ancient history as a
member of part-time staff and that is unpaid.
That happened also to Auerbach. He is not paid
for his scientific researches, services and huge
work carried out in the museum. He earned his
living lecturing at the Polytechnic school. That’s
why moral support from foreign colleagues was
very important for Siberian scientists. «Your
letters cheer us up. Your attention makes us
forget archaeological loneliness in Siberia, here
it is so difficult to work for science far away from
scientific centeres»18.
Moral support is not everything that Merhart
gives to Siberian archaeologists. He acts and that is
more important. He repeatedly suggests acting as
an intermediary between the Russian colleagues
and foreign institutions, press organs. He helps
to disseminate and publish Siberian materials
abroad, in particular he assists in «distribution of
the report of 1923»19 and that’s not all. In the letters
of 1926 Auerbach and Merhart discuss possible
publication of Afontova hill excavations report in
Europe. During 1926 Auerbach and his colleagues
prepare a report and some materials (results of
bones, wood, rocks analyses; negatives of the
finds, photos, sketches). They want «to make the
report more complete as foreign science requires
it»20. However, the Krasnoyarsk archaeologists
didn’t manage to publish it abroad. The Society
of Siberia productive forces study, which gave
money for excavations on the Afontova hill,
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«laid down a condition that the report had to be
published in Russia»21.
However, N. K. Auerbach took the
opportunity. He published the review on Siberia
archaeology «Archäologische Forschungen
in Sibirien 1917-1928» in a German magazine
of 1930, this magazine was called «Slavische
Rundschau» (Azadovskii, 1937).
In their correspondence, Merhart and
Auerbach pay great attention not only to
professional issues but to life themes also.
For many years after returning home Merhart
representative of Krasnoyarsk archaeologists had
to apologize to Merhart. But he found himself in a
difficult situation because V. A. Gorodtsov was his
teacher. Auerbach respected him and was devoted
to him. Nevertheless, he manages to admit his
teacher’s injustice and discourteous behaviour.
He tries to soften the situation and reconcile
them. «All museum workers are sorry that they
did nothing when Gorodtsov said such things
about you on 30-VIII 1924. It happened because
of the difference of the state of mind between the
Russians and foreigners. The Russians often say
had a great interest in Siberia. In his letters to
Krasnoyarsk scientists he constantly asks about
their success, sends his regards to them. Auerbach
tells him about museum work at that period, about
changes in Krasnoyarsk people lives. Speaking
about Merhart and Siberian scientists, we
should mention, that not always they had mutual
understanding. The conflict of 1924 between
the Austrian scientist and the head of Moscow
archaeologists, V. A. Gorodtsov is mentioned
in Merhart and Auerbach’s correspondence. In
summer of 1924 V. A. Gorodtsov went for a trip
to Siberia. His aim was to get acquainted with
Siberian museums archaeological collections
and with Siberian archaeology in general
(Vdovin, 2008). In his report about the results
of his trip Gorodtsov ventured a remark on the
Austrian colleague and called into question his
professional competence. It happened at joint
meeting board of Priyeniseiskii krai museum
and Krasnoyarsk department of RGO on the 31st
of August. When Merhart learnt about this, it
offended him. It offended him as a scientist and
as a man. Merhart demanded explanations and
excuses from Gorodtsov. He also demanded that
Russian colleagues had to sort out the situation.
He sent an angry letter to Krasnoyarsk museum
workers. In this letter he reproached them for
inaction and for the behaviour, which didn’t
deserve his colleagues’ behaviour. Auerbach as a
words and pay no attention to them. The Russians
listen to these words and don’t understand them as
foreigners do. The Russians know that these are
only «words». I think Gorodtsov didn’t want to
offend you. The museum workers still remember
you as a careful, voracious and devoted to science
scientist. You will get an official opinion of
Geographical society»22.
However, this incident didn’t influence the
Austrian scientist and his Siberian colleagues’
communication. The Second World War, that
divided Russia and Germany, also didn’t influence
Merhart’s attitude to the country and people,
who he reflected with love and respect. (Merhart,
1958, Merhart, 1959; Kuzminih and others, 2007).
Merhart’s main services to world science are the
fact that Siberian archaeology information has
become known in Europe. Western scientists
knew a lot about Greece, Rome, Egypt, Asia Minor
cultures and nothing about Russian and especially
Siberian ancient history. Concerning Siberia
the Afontova hill finds are often mentioned in
European literature. It is mentioned speaking about
palaeolith or «chudskii pits» of Minusinsk hollow
and these are later eras. After Merhart’s returning
home and after publishing of his works on Siberia
ancient history everything changes a little bit. His
works are used and quoted by the famous Siberian
prehistorians of Europe, Obermeier (Obermeier,
1928, 57), Tallgren (Tallgren, 1928, 71) and
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others. Thus, Merhart and his researches help not
only, as Auerbach said, Siberian «amateurs to be
close to foreign science»23. They help also foreign
archaeologists to be close to Russian science.
There is no doubt that Gero Merhart’s work was
and stays a rare case, when a West European
scientist devotes himself to Siberian archaeology.
It is also an example when the foreign scientist and
Krasnoyarsk archaeologists and museum workers
collaborate fruitfully for a long time. This fact is
confirmed with datum of reports on museum work
in the next years. In the report of 1927 till 1928 it is
with the Finnish scientist. After N. K. Auerbach’s
departure to Novosibirsk in 1926 V. G. Kartsov
headed the Krasnoyarsk museum Archaeological
department. In his letter V. G. Kartsov asks
to help him in getting Tallgren’s book on the
Ananian culture28. He tells, «I will be glad to
be useful to you. If there is any information on
works, materials, Krasnoyarsk museum and its
okrug collections, that you are interested in, I
will give you it»29.
From 1920’s till 1930’s a new point between
Russia and foreign countries started in the
said, that «the museum has no direct relations with
foreign institutions. There are relations with some
European scientists (doctor Merhart). Merhart
has published several works on Krasnoyarskii
krai archaeology in English (in America) and in
German (in Vienna). This report was based on
the Museum material»24. In the Siberian Lights
magazine Auerbach and Sosnovskii published
their review «New foreign literature on Siberia
prehistory» of Merhart’s works (Auerbach and
Sosnovskii, 1925).
In the Priyeniseiskii krai Municipal Museum
report of 1929-1930 it is said «relations with foreign
scientists were kept up with correspondence of
Tallgren (Finland), Minns (England) and professor
Tranin (France) (he had visited our museum)»25.
Among the scientists mentioned above
Tallgren continues the most active correspondence
with Siberian archaeologists. In one of his letter
he suggests Auerbach giving the report about the
excavations of 1923 on the Afontova hill to a delegate
«from Russian scientific societies to the international
congress in Denmark and making a report about
your excavations»26. Giving a preliminary consent
to publication Auerbach suggests foreign colleagues
exchanging literature. He also asks Tallgren «to send
him cards models of Archaeological department of
your museum catalogue»27.
Other young archaeologists (V. P. Levasheva
and V. G. Kartsov) also continue correspondence
archaeology field. Siberia Study Society (SSS)
and state office Novoexport organize excavations
in Siberia and sale, of the materials got, abroad.
A lot of famous scientists, who worked in
Siberia, took parts in collecting materials for
Novoexport. They were V. G. Kartsov and V. P.
Levasheva (in Minusinskii krai), S. M. Sergeev
(in Altai), V. I. Podgorbunskii30 (in the Angara
area), I. M. Myagkov31 (in Narimskii krai). The
palaeonthologic material processing was carried
out by V. I. Gromov. The anthropological material
processing was carried out by M. P. Gryaznov.
The collection on the Stone Age was made by N.
K. Auerbach (Vdovin and others, 2001).
In 1930 N. K. Auerbach collected more
than 20 addresses of foreign archaeologists, he
sent them offers on archaeological collections
purchases. Rough copies of the letters to foreign
researches are kept in the scientist’s archive.
These letters were addressed to G. Merhart, H.
Findeisen (Berlin), V. Ya.Tolmachev (Harbin –
Tariff – Model Museum of Eastern Chinese
railway), A. M. Tallgren (Helsingfors). Probably
N. K. Auerbach wanted to write letters to T.
Arne (Stockholm) and de Baye (Paris), whose
addresses V. A. Gorodtsov gave him32. The texts
of the letters are similar, there are only some
additions. For example, in his letter to G. Merhart
N. K. Auerbach suggests him excavating any part
on the Afontova hill. «I can organize excavations
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of the Afontova III (Neftesklad). It is 40 meters of
site area. I can enlist Sosnovskii and Gromov for
this work. We also can gather collections on the
Neolithic Age»33.
What happened to archaeological collections
that were got during the expeditions for
Novoexport is unknown yet.
The interest to archaeological monuments
from the Yenisei area was shown not only with
buying collections for museums. From foreign
countries (the USA and Japan) in 1930’s there
were suggestions and inquiries about carrying out
archaeological monuments excavations, first of all
in Minusinskii Krai. Political situation, which was
in the world, was not favourable to strengthening
and expansion of international contacts. At that
period Soviet Russia starts restricting Soviet
archaeologists and their foreign colleagues’
contacts, by the middle of 1930’s contacts with
foreign scientists are stopped entirely.
The difference of political regime and
ideologies became an insuperable obstacle
to contacts between Soviet and «bourgeois»
scientists. Foreign scientists couldn’t go to the
most part of Russia, including Krasnoyarsk,
until the Iron Curtain fell. According to a famous
archaeologist Hermann Müller-Karpe (he was
one of Gero Merhart’s students), neither he nor
other Merhart’s students (who inherited interest in
Russian archaeology and readiness for joint work
with Russian colleagues) did not manage to get
a visa for the USSR. However, they still had this
desire to work in this Siberia archaeology field.
Eurasian department was founded at Germanic
archaeological institution by their efforts. Study
of Siberia and Central Asia was one of the most
important subjects there.
International collaboration of Krasnoyarsk
and foreign archaeologists was resumed at
the Postperestroika period, when Siberia and
Krasnoyarsk had become permitted for foreigners’
visits. There was experience of successful
expeditions of German scientists, German
scientists’ long work in the south of Krasnoyarskii
krai, fruitful collaboration of Krasnoyarsk
archaeologists (who studied palaeolith) with
scientific-research and educational institutions of
the USA, Canada, Great Britain, France, Japan,
South Korea and other countries.
During the three centuries the foreign
archaeologists give their attention to the richest
in the archaeological attitude region. Their
expeditions have allowed greatly to enlarge the
amount of the sources on siberian archeology,
and their collections became a basis of many
special works. Herewith, the european science
had influenced vastly on the formation of local
scientific centres, incli\uding Krasnoyarsk, at the
end of the 19th – beginning of 20th centuries.
Now the foreign scientists have interest in
region archaeological researches, a number of
projects was carried out, there are wide plans for
the future. Taking into consideration everything
mentioned above, we can affirm that history of
international relations in the archaeology field in
Krasnoyarsk will continue.
M. Azadovskii, «N. K. Auerbach», Soviet Asia, books 1-2 (Moscow, 1931, 293-295).
N. K. Auerbach, G. P. Sosnovskii, «New foreign literature on Siberia prehistory», the Siberian
Lights magazine, issue 2 (Novonikolaevsk, 1925, 266-267).
N. K. Auerbach, «The first period of I. T. Savenkov’s archaeological work», Annals of State
Museum named after N. M. Martyanov, volume VI (Minusinsk: State Museum named after N. M.
Martyanov, 1928, 163-185)
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and researches XVIII – first thirds of XX centuries (Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986)
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XVIII-XIX (Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk University, 2005)
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Siberia area (XIX – the end of 1920’s)», Candidate’s (of history science) abstract of dissertation
(Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 1999)
A. S. Vdovin, N. P. Gulyaeva, «Work of Novoexport in Siberia», Materials of the scientificpractical conference «The problems of fighting against illegal excavations and illegal sale of the
archaeology, mineralogy and palaeontology things» (Krasnoyarsk, 2001, 26-28)
A. S. Vdovin, N. P. Gulyaeva, N. P. Makarov, «In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of G.
P. Sosnovskii. The beginning of scientific work (1918-1920)», The 5th historical reading in memory
of Mihail Petrovich Gryaznov, theses of All-Russian scientific conference reports (Omsk, 19th-20th of
October, 2000) (Omsk: Omsk State University, 2000, 26-27)
Ye. V. Detlova, N. P. Makarov, A. Erenfried, «G. Merhart and Krasnoyarsk museum» Archaeology
of South Siberia: ideas, methods, discoveries (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University,
2005, 268-270)
Ye. V. Detlova, «Gero von Merhart and Russian archaeology: the new in the researches» Modern
problems of Russia archaeology: The materials of All-Russian archaeological congress, volume 2,
(Novosibirsk: IAiE SO RAN, 2007)
Ye. V. Detlova, «Gero von Merhart’s letters to Krasnoyarsk museum», Yeniseiskaya province,
issue 3 (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 2007, 76-87)
L. Yu. Kitova, Siberian archaeology history (1920’s-1930’s): The study of monuments of the Iron
Age (Novosibirsk: Publishing house IAiE SO RAN, 2007)
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Siberia», Archaeological materials and researches of North Asia of ancient times and of the Middle
Ages (Tomsk: Tomsk State University, 2007, 160-174)
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asceticism Age (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk book publishing house, 1989, 131 -189).
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historical reading in memory of Mihail Petrovich Gryaznov, part I (Omsk, 1995, 57-61)
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H. Obermeier, «A prehistoric man», A man in his past and in his present, (St.Petersburg:
Brokgauz – Efron, 1913)
N. A. Orehova, «Le Baron de Baye: Siberian track», Yeniseiskaya province, anthology, issue 1
(Krasnoyarsk, 2004, 60-66)
I. T. Savenkov, «About remains of the Neolithic Age, that were found in Yeniseiskaya guberniya
(Eastern Siberia), on the bank of Yenisei, near the mouths of the Bazaiha and the Chadobets (A
preliminary report) (the translation from English by N. A. Orehova)», Priyeniseiskaya Siberia
antiquities, issue 2, (Krasnoyarsk: RIO KGPU, 2003, 87-90)
Siberia from the news of foreign travelers and writers, edited by M. P. Alekseev (Irkutsk: Irkutsk
regional publish house, 1941).
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P. Uino, «Finnish archaeologists’ researches in the territory of Minusinsk in the XIX till the
beginning of the XX», Martyanov’s local lore readings (2003-2004), the collection of reports, issue 3
(Minusinsk: Minusinsk Regional Local Lore Museum named after N. M. Martyanov, 2005, 80-83)
L. B. Us, Siberia international scientific contacts (the end of XIX – the beginning of XX),
(Novosibirsk: Sova, 2005)
Le Baron de Baye, De Moscou a Krannonarsk. Souvenirs d’une mission. Exsrait de la Revue de
guographie (Paris, 1987, p 38-52)
J. Dechelette, Manuel d’archeologie prehistorique et gallo-romaine (Paris: A. Picard et fills,
1908-1914, 2 tomes en 6 vol.)
G. Merhart, «The palaeolithic period in Siberia: Contributions to the prehistory of the Jenissei
region», American Anthropologist, vol.25 (USA: American Anthropological Association, 1923,
G. Merhart, Beiträge zur Urgeschichte der Jenissei-Gubernie. Bericht über die Öffnung yweier
Kurgane in der Abakansteppe (Helsingfors: Finska Fornminnesför, 1923, Tidskiftg 34, 1)
G. Merhart, Beiträge II. Die Gruppe der Kurgane mit Platten – Einzelngrab (Helsingfors: Finska
Fornminnesför, 1924, Tidskiftg 35, 2)
G. Merhart, Neuere Literatur über die Steinzeit Sibiriens (Wien: Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift,
1924, 11, 139-148)
G. Merhart, Bronzeit am Jenissei. Ein Beitrag zur Urgeschichte Sibiriens (Wien: Verlag von
Anton Schroll, 1926)
G. Merhart, «Einige Errinerungen an Sibirien«, Palaeologia, (Osaka, 1958, 227-229)
G. Merhart, Daljoko: Bilder aus sibirischen Arbeitstagen (Innsburg: Privatdruck, 1959)
H. Obermeier, Sibirien A: Paläolithikum, Reallexikon für Urgeschichte (Berlin: Verlag von Max
Ebert, 1928, 55-57)
A. M. Tallgren, L’epoque d’Ananino dans la Rssie orientale, vol. 31 (Helsingfors: SMYA, 1919)
A. M. Tallgren, Sibirien C: Paläolithikum, Reallexikon für Urgeschichte (Berlin: Verlag von Max
Ebert, 1928, 70-71)
H. Parzinger, Die frühen Völker Eurasiens vom Neolithikum bis zum Mittelalter (München: Verlag
von C. H. Beck, 2006)
T. Salminen, Suomen tieteelliset voittomaat. Venäjä ja Siperia suomalaisessa arkeologiassa
1870-1935, vol.110 (Helsinki: SMYA, 2003)
AAAKK – Archival Agency of Krasnoyarskii krai Administration;
AKKKM – Krasnoyarsk Local Lore Museum Archive;
AMU – Marburg University Archive;
AIAiE SO RAN – Archive of Archaeology and Ethnology Institution of siberian department of
Russian Science Academy;
SSS – Siberia Study Society;
ROBHU – Manuscript department of Helsinki University library;
RGO – Russian Geographical Society;
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Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations
KGPU – Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University SMYA – Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen
aikakauskirja. Helsinki.
1. By mistake H. Obermeier ascribes the Afontov palaeolith discovery to de Baye and F. K. Volkov.
This site is believed to date from the Mousterian Age that means he considers it to be much earlier
than it is. (Obermeier, 1913).
2. Aarne Michael Tallgren (1885-1945) is a Finnish archaeologist, professor at the universities of
Derpt (Tartu) and Helsinki. He is an author of numerous works on the Cooper and Bronze Ages
of the north and eastern parts of Siberia. But the main interest of this scientist was concentrated
in the field of east-russian Bronze Ages.
3. ROBHU, the collection 230-9 // The correspondence of A. M. Tallgren with Russian scientists. We
thank S. V. Kuzminih (IA RAN, Moscow) for the given materials.
4. In 1920 it was given to Krasnoyarsk museum, collection №131.
5. ROBHU, the collection 230-9// The correspondence of A. M. Tallgren with Russian scientists.
6. AAAKK, f.1380, l.1, d. 11, p 2.
7. Gero Merhart von Bernegg (1886-1959) is a famous European scientist, the first ordinary professor
of Germany primitive history, an author of Siberia archaeology publications.
8. Here and further – quotations from the letters of Merhart’s private archive at Marburg University
[Archiv des Vorgeschichtlichen Seminars der Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Nachlass G. v.
Merhart]. We thank the dean of prehistorical seminar of Marburg University, professor Claus
Dobiat, for the given materials.
AMU G. v. Merhart // G. N. Sosnovskii’s letter to G. Merhart of 22nd of May, 1921.
9. Sosnovskii and Merhart’s correspondence will be analyzed in details in another article.
10. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925.
11. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925.
12. AKKKM f.1608, 1, d. 365.
13. AKKKM f.1608, 1, d. 365.
14. Dechelette, 1908-1914.
15. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925.
16. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925.
17. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925.
18. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925.
19. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925.
20. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1926.
21. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 9th of September, 1925.
22. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925.
23. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925.
24. AKKKM f.1609,1, d. 366.
25. AKKKM f.1611, 1, d. 368.
26. Archive of IAE SO RAN, N. K. Auerbach’s fund, without number.
27. ROBHU, the collection 230-9 // Tallgren’s correspondence with Russian scientists.
28. Tallgren, 1919.
29. ROBHU, the collection 230-9 // Tallgren’s correspondence with Russian scientists.
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30. Corroboration of archaeological works is not found yet in the documents.
31. Corroboration of archaeological works is not found yet in the documents.
32. AIAiE SO RAN, N. K. Auerbach’s fund // V. A. Gorodtsov’s letter to N. K. Auerbach of 22nd of
November, 1930.
33. AIAiE SO RAN, N. K. Auerbach’s fund // V. A. Gorodtsov’s letter to G. Merhart of March,
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 349-360
УДК 902 (571.1/5)
Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture
Pavel V. Mandryka* and Polina O. Senotrusova
Siberian Federal University
79, Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
The article carries in scientific turn information about history and culture of medieval tribes of
Krasnoyarsk forest steppe which was received in the course of field work in 2008. Authors characterize
the results, define cultural and chronological attribute of materials, and reconstruct aspects of
economic life of population of ladeyskaya culture.
Keywords: archaeology, Siberia, Krasnoyarsk forest steppe, Middle Ages, fort, ladeyskaya culture,
Insufficiency of writing and ethnographic
materials about medieval history of
Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe does not allow
reconstructing ethnic and cultural processes
which happened on this territory without
attraction of archaeological sources. For the
region little number of archaeological sites with
closed complexes is known. It is explained by
both specific of soil accumulation in the area,
absence of special investigations of medieval
sites and destruction of known objects (for
example, Ladeyskoye, Yermolayevskoye,
Yesaulskoye forts and others). By this reason
many problems of medieval archaeology of
Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe stay unsolved
including the problem of distinguishing of
ladeyskaya culture which was put by V. G.
Kartsov as far back as 1929 (Kartsov, 1929b).
So discovery of each new medieval site
containing closed complexes has important
scientific significance.
In the article new materials about ladeyskaya
culture of medieval population of Krasnoyarsk
forest-steppe which was received for excavations
of Pakul fort are carries in scientific turn. The fort
was found by P. V. Mandryka and I. A. Lysenko in
20041. In 2006 reconnaissance works2 and in 2008
stationary excavations were made in the course of
which 160 square meters were excavated3.
Materials and methods
The fort is situated on cape-shape remain
of 9-11-metre terrace of left bank of Verhnyaya
Podyemnaya river in 3 km to north-east of
Pakul village of Bolshemurtinskiy district of
Krasnoyarsk range. From northern side the fort
is bordered by breakaway to the river and from
the east and southern ones – by slope to flood
plain (Fig. 1). From western side the cape unites
with fundamental bank and its surface fluently
rises to 16 meters. Here after the war state farm
dug two deep trenches for cattle crossing that let
to destruction of part of fort defensive system.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture
Fig. 1. Topographical plan of Pakul fort with indication of archaeological excavations
However from terrace side in 25 meters from
cape edge earth bank 25 meters by the length,
0,4 meters by the high, 0,3 meters by the depth
has been fixed. The bank width has not been
fixed because of destruction. General number
of defensive lines of the fort also has not been
defined; it is possible they had been two.
General size of the fort is 25x23 meters; its
square is 575 square meters. Five dwelling’s pits
have been tracked visually on work platform.
They are situated along terrace edges by two lines.
Two pits have been marked in northern line; three
ones have been marked in southern line. All pits
have rectangular form with sizes of 3,0-4,0x5,0
meters and 0,1-0,25 meters by high.
Central part of fortification construction and
northeast third part of internal fort square where
dwelling N2 had been situated were studied with
excavations. Two cultural layers were revealed in
result of works. There were medieval materials of
the fort in the first layer. They were found in darkgrey sandy loam under the sod. The second cultural
layer was fixed in contact of dark and light sandy
loam. It contained finds which beforehand have
been referred to Nizhneporozhinskaya culture of
Early Iron Age (Mandryka, 2008a:163).
Defensive construction of the fort is
deformed bank and ditch. A depth of the ditch
was about 1,4 meter. It was filled mixed soil with
loam. The bank consisted mixed sandy loam
(Fig. 2). Its width was about 3 meters and high
was about to 0,4 meters. Small oval pit N 1 with
18x30 cm by size and 10 cm by depth was fixed
on western side of bank from side of ditch. Dust
of sloping wood with 15 cm by diameter saved
in center of the pit which was filled friable darkbrown sandy loam with inclusion of charcoal
and pieces of burnt clay. Foundation of wood
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Fig. 2. Plan and section of excavated part of fortification system of Pakul fort. Figures on profile mark: 1 – sod,
2 – mixed sandy loam, 3 – dark sandy loam, 4 – light sandy loam, 5 – annealed red soil, 6 – sand, 7 – loam
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column which had been dug in pit of 25 cm by
diameter and 50 cm by depth with even bottom
was cleared on ridge of the bank among separate
charcoals and pieces of clay. Wood column of 1215 cm by diameter saved in center of the pit on
all its depth. The pit was filled mixed light sand.
Big number of finds was fixed in foundation of
the bank along all its excavated length. Moreover
they lay in spot of annealed soil of dark and red
color. Western border of finds concourse was
sharp. Burnt wood boards standing on ribs were
marked there. Length of saved wood fragments
was from 10 to 60 cm. Pit with rammed on depth
of 15 cm column with 12 cm by diameter was also
fixed there. Fragments of split and burnt bones
of large domestic animals, fragments of ceramics
without ornament, fragments of birch bark were
met there. Probably these artifacts are indicative
as rubbish which had been thrown out under the
fort wall.
Therefore cape fort Pakul from terrace side
had been defended by bank and ditch. Small high
of the bank and fragments of wood columns on
its ridge allow confirming about existence of
system of fortification and logs which had been
main element of defense. It is impossible to talk
about wall construction exactly, but probably it
had been palling (Mandrika P. V., Senotrusova P.
O., 2007:208). However it is impossible to exclude
existence of two lines of defense as it was noted
on Ladeyskoye fort (Kartsov, 1929).
The dwelling was remains of deepened pit
of sub-rectangular shape 3,8x3,5 by size that
corresponds to square about 13 square meters.
Walls of the building had been orientated on
cardinal points. Depth of the pit was 0,3 meter.
Floor of the dwelling was revealed on even bottom
of the pit according to density of soil and level of
lying of finds and hearth. Entry to the dwelling
was not defined. Probably it was on the ground
and had been made in passage of wall through
threshold. Column pits and remains of wood
overlapping also were not fixed. Ground from
the pit in time of its digging had been thrown
out to different sides behind dwelling perimeter
by ancient builders. Field observations shown
perhaps roofing had leaned on horizontal lying
logs as it had been in felling. Lower ends of the
felling had been poured with soil.
The hearth was round shape 50x50 cm
by size. It situated on ground bottom of the
pit. Comparatively dwelling walls it had been
displaced from center to north. In section the
hearth was lens of annealed soil to 3 cm by
thickness. Filling of the hearth was dark-grey
sandy loam with inclusion of small charcoals,
annealed clay and burnt bones. Small fragments
of burnt bones and iron peg of 1.1x0.4x0.1 cm by
size probably fragments of awl were found for
washing of soil from the hearth.
16 fragments of ceramics without ornament
which was similar to rest ware found on the site
and iron arrowhead were fixed in the dwelling.
The sub-rhombus shape arrowhead was flat. It
had been chopped of iron list. The sharpest edge
of form had been shaft. It saved torn outlines.
The edge of feather had been sharpened
because of forging. Sizes of the arrowhead are
1.2x4.8x0.1 cm (Fig. 4 d). Fragments of bones
of roe deer and large ungulate animal (horse?)
and some small pebbles among which certain
ones had been split by fire were also noted in
the dwelling. Small round pebble 2.4x2.1x0.5
cm by size could be used as tool (Fig. 4 m).
Whole perimeter of the stone has traces of
intensive polishing which could form in result
of using it as polisher. There were more finds
behind the dwelling on level of cultural layer
(Fig. 3). They are compared with artifacts from
the dwelling well. Two surges from the hearth
which were noted on annealed soil were also
fixed there.
The surge N 1 was fixed in east part of
excavation, to the north from dwelling N 5
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Fig. 3. Plan of the finds of the layer on excavated part of internal square of Pakul fort
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Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture
Fig. 4. Finds from Pakul fort: a-d – fragments of ceramics; e, f – iron arrowheads; g, h – iron implements; i, j, l,
m – tools for hide treatment; k – steel
where probably it had derived from. Size of oval
annealed spot was 45x30 cm. Its section was lensshape about 7 cm by thickness. Filling was lumpy.
It consisted of red-brown loam with inclusion
orange and light-brown spots, small burnt bones
and charcoals. Small fragment of some iron
item 2.0x0.4x0.2 cm by size was found among
small burnt fragments undeterminable bones for
washing of the filling.
The surge N 2 was cleared near south-east
corner of dwelling N 2. It was round form 80x75
cm by size. Thickness of annealed lens was about
15 cm. Pieces of burnt clay and small charcoals
were noted in lens-shape sandy loam filling of red
and brown color.
Iron implements were noted in the layer.
One of them was small peg 6.1x0.5x0.3 cm by
size perhaps fragment of awl. The implement had
been heavily corroded but its square section was
defined (Fig. 4 g). Iron plate with raised plane also
has unknown function. Its size is 10.8x2.8x0.6
cm (Fig. 4 h). Arrowhead with flat feather of
asymmetrical triangular shape and with broken
of end is interesting. Shaft is separated from
the feather by three small ledge-thorns. End of
the shaft is bended a little. Edges of the shaft
had not been treated and saved torn outlines of
chopping from list. Plane of feather is smooth,
edges had been sharpened. Size of the implement
is 5.1x1.5x0.2 cm (Fig. 4 e).
Ceramic of the layer is presented by
124 fragments. Majority of them (81 %) is
without ornament. Found 10 fragments of rims
demonstrate 4 vessels. They had been modeled
by hand. Sand and grog had been in dough.
Traces of rubbing with grass are noticeable on
external surface of few vessels. Ware had been
burnt on fire in oxidizing ambience. Ceramic is
thick, brown. Sometimes black layer is defined in
Form of the vessels is closed. Body is wide.
Bottom according to some fragments had been
round. Edges of rims are straight, round or cocked
outward. Certainly its plane had been decorated
with notches, nail pricks or finger pressing.
Shoulder of the vessels also had been decorated
mainly horizontal rows of rare finger pressing
inside of which nail print had been made (Fig. 4
a-d). Hypothetically diameter of the vessels had
not been more than 22 cm.
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30 small fragments of clay daub to 3.5x3.2x2.0
cm by size were found in the excavation. And
15 pieces have traces of slag. Their sizes are to
3.7x2.5x0.9 cm. In one case they lay in one place
perhaps they were remains of part of clay wall of
oven for melting of iron.
Stone tools of the layer are divided in two
categories: for hide treatment and metal treatment.
Three oval flat pebble without additional
treatment fall into first group. Their sizes are
4.0x3.8x0.8 cm, 2.8x4.5x0.4 cm and 5.6x3.6x0.4
cm (Fig. 4 i, j, l). Tracological analysis shown
fragments of large ungulate animal (perhaps
horse) also were found in the layer. Similar set
of bones remains was found in the dwelling
(general number is 194). Majority of them had
belonged to roe deer (166 fragments, minimum
of two specimens) and 15 bones perhaps had been
sheep’s. Typical percent correlation of animals
bones from whole site is presented in the Fig. 5.
they had been used as polishers for hide treatment
(Mandryka et al., 2009). Moreover rectangular
steel fragment of small grainsize sandstone of
3.5x2.7x1.2 cm by size was found in fort layer
(Fig. 4 k). It saved traces of intensive use-ware.
Three saved edge had been wiped very much,
have a lot of furrows and scratches. Probably it
had been used for sharpening and repairing of
blade of cutting metallic implements. Both planes
of the stone saved traces of typical polishing and
could be used as abrasive for polishing of planes
of metallic implements. Traces of polishing
on metallic arrowhead found in the dwelling
obliquely show on it.
presence of broken bones of domestic and
wild animals. Bones lay in each square of the
excavation. They were found in layer and on floor
of the dwelling. Herewith set of them did not
differ from one fixed behind the dwelling that is
in cultural layer of the fort.
Absolute majority of bones fragments from
the layer had belonged to wild animals. There had
been roe deer (713 fragments of tubular bones,
skulls, teeth of no less than two specimens), beaver
(1 bone), and water-vole (fragments of skull)
among them. Bone remains of domestic animals
had fallen into horse (22 fragments of tubular
bones and teeth of no less than two specimens –
old and young) and sheep (2 teeth). 64 bones
materials. As a whole artifacts which would allow
dating the fort was not found. But analysis of all
available data and radiocarbon dating allow to
determinate time of fort existence within IX-XIII
Stratigraphical location of the layer in 1015 cm lower than ground surface shows on it.
Presence of flat arrowheads made of sheet iron
analogues of which are found in taiga of West
Siberia on sites from end of the first millennium A.
D. to ethnographic modernity does not contradict
such dating (Solovyev, 1987:38). It is known that
Selkups have closest arrowheads but larger sizes
(Gumuyev et al., 1989: 53). Radiocarbon date
which was received with wood from column from
the fort bank, 990±80 (SBAS-6786) confirms the
age of the fort. It shows that true calendar age
after calibration lies within 892-1218.
Cultural attribute of the fort is defined by
ceramics since available subject set had been
wide-spread in ambience of medieval population
of forest-steppe and taiga regions. Ceramics
of the fort finds close analogues with materials
of Ladeyskaya culture (VII-XIV centuries)
in which V. G. Kartsov included Ladeyskoye,
Yermolayevskoye and Achinskoye forts (Kartsov,
1928:562). Exactly ceramics from these sites
became foundation for allocating the culture.
According to works of V. G. Kartsov vessels
of closed shape with grading neck dominated.
Foundation for determination of cultural
and chronological attribute is analysis of received
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racdeen 88 %
large ugulate 6 %
harse 2 %
sheep 1,7 %
beaver 0,1 %
water vole 0,2 %
undeternihable 2%
Fig. 5. Typical percent correlation of animals bones which were found in Pakul fort
Vessels had been decorated on edge of rim, neck
and shoulders but no ornamented wares are known
too. Main elements of ornament had been finger
and nail pricks, prints of large-jagged comb, pit
pressings and scratched lines4. Similar vessels
with grading neck decorated with nail and finger
pricks were fixed on other sites in Kracnoyarsk
and Achinsk forest-steppe, for example, on
settlement Ladeyskoye-2 (Mandryka, 1998:71),
Karatanova street (Tarasov, Fokin, 2005:65),
in Birusinskaya cave, on forts Simonovskoye,
Berezovskoye and others (Belikova, 1996:132;
Fokin, 2007). Analogues of such ware are known
on sites adjacent territories on Kansk foreststeppe and Yenisey Priangarye.
V. G. Kartsov considered characteristic type
of sites of ladeyskaya culture in forest-steppe
areas was settlement complexes including forts.
He noted foundation of economy had been hunting
on roe deer and pasture cattle breeding with small
part of fishing. Iron, bone, antler and bronze had
been used widely. Formation of the culture was
involved by V. G. Kartsov with southern nomads
(Kartsov, 1929b:46).
Almost all scientists note significant
influence of nomadic nations (kyrgyzs) on
culture of aboriginal population of foreststeppe but degree and character of the influence
are considered differently. So D. G. Savinov
distinguished Krasnoyarsk and Kansk variant of
culture of Yenisey kyrgyzs. Herewith penetration
of southern nomads on territory of forest-steppe
he referred to X century and imputed it to tuvinian
population (Savinov, 1989:146). S. M. Fokin
keeps other standpoint. He considers penetration
of kyrgyzs to northern areas had begun from IX
century (Fokin, 2007:145). By main marker of
Kyrgyz presence in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe
scientists consider existence of burials with
rite of cremation, and also subjects of arms,
horse harness and bronze facing of belts with
plant ornament (Nikolaev, 1982). Unlike of this
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opinion S. G. Skobelev and O. A. Mitko consider
it is possible to involve spreading of cremation
not only with kyrgyz’s expansion but with
participation of native population of forest-steppe
in military campaigns of kyrgyzs as dependent
tribes (Skobelev, Mitko, 2007:217).
As a whole in Kyrgyz time change of ethnic
situation in region had led to rise of military
tension. In turn it had contributed of appearance
of forts which there had not been on the territory.
At present Pakul fort is one known fortification
settlement which is situated not on Yenisey bank
but on its tributary. Herewith layer of the fort
contains pure complex of ladeyskaya culture.
Taking into account small size of cultural
layer it is possible to suggest the settlement had
been seasonal or inhabited in small period of
time. It should be noted some particularities of
the material which define purpose and character
of activity of fort inhabitants. By square the
settlement had not been big. It had consisted of five
dwellings to 13 square meters. Because of this it is
possible to suggest number of its inhabitants had
not exceeded 20 people. The place for building
of the fort had been chosen very successfully: on
the cape surrounded by steep lowering from three
sides. Whole free from the forest open wide valley
of the river had been looked through from the
cape. The fort had been built by ladeysk people
in encirclement of accustomed for them steppe
space. It is possible to consider that situated on
the most northern periphery of the culture area
the fort had been outpost for defense of territories
of encroachment of northern taiga neighbors.
Arrowheads are interesting. They had been
made carelessly as if it had been in a hurry. They
had been cut of iron list and only feather that is
their striking penetrating part had been treated.
It can be explained that deficit of arrowheads had
been experienced and insufficiency of arsenal
had need its fast renewing in time of military
actions. Way out had been found in making arm
(arrowheads) of available materials which had
become forged iron list. Flat arrowhead could be
easily cut of it but hurry had not given time for
correction the form and care of base polishing.
The time had been only for sharpening of the
feather and making sharp edges of penetrate part.
Such arrowheads had been effective in hunting.
In that case hurry of making arrowheads can be
explained by short limited periods of hunting, for
example, in the period of roe deer migration when
hunting on it had been more effective.
Hunting of roe deer had occupied significant
place in life of the fort population. Prevalence
of bones of that animal on the site is shown
it. It is explained roe deer had been not only
wide-spread wild ungulate animal but the most
convenient object of hunting. According to data
of zoologists round-up hunting in which not less
than ten hunters take part is the most effective
way of roe deer catching (Timofeeva, 1985:204).
It is confirmed by ethnographic materials where
round-up hunting of kachints, sagayts and beltir
was shown. In result to 100 specimens it could
be killed. Moreover such hunting could last for
3-4 weeks (Potapov, 1957:186). It is important to
notice that roe deer had played big role in life of
native population of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe
in all times up to ethnographical modernity.
Kachints had had special arrows with iron head of
chisel-shape «kii ok» for hunting on this animal
(Potapov, 1957:184). According materials of G. F.
Miller meet of roe deer had been main feeding
ration of kachints. They had sewed clothes, shoes
and made utensil of its hides (Potapov, 1957190). Important place of roe deer in economy
of tribes of ladeyskaya culture is confirmed by
archaeological materials. Significant number of
bones of that animal was found on Ladeyskoye
fort (Kartsov, 1929:46). Moreover finds of roe
deer antlers with traces of treatment are known
on settlements of the culture: on Karatanova
street (Tarasov, Fokin, 2005:60), in Cholpon
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Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture
grotto (Mandryka, 1992:133), on Ladeyskoye fort
(Fokin, 2007:182, tab. 9).
Except hunting on roe deer cattle breeding
had played important role in economy system
of population of Pakul fort. Finds of sheep’s and
horse’s bones are shown on it. Valley of Verhnyaya
Podyemnaya River is good pasture land. It is
covered by wet flood plane meadows grass of
which is big feeding ration for cattle. These
places are still being used by local inhabitants
for free cattle herding and mowing. According
to information of G. F. Miller settlement of
presence in the layer pieces of burnt clay daub and
iron slag allows suggesting skill of ladeysk people
to make iron. Fragment of the steel and treated
metallic implements talk about skills of hot and
cold treatment of finished iron subjects.
From handcrafts of the fort inhabitants it
should be noticed treatment of hides with pebble
scrapers, hand modeling of ware and wood
arints had been situated on big meadow near
Podyemnoye village (Miller, 2005:183). They
had bred horses, sheep and large-horned cattle
(Dolgih, 1960:229). Obviously possibility of
breeding had attracted here and more ancient
karasuk population whose sites are also known
here (Mandryka, 2008b). Therefore the valley of
Verhnyaya Podyemnaya River had been available
for pasture breeding since antiquity and ladeysk
population had used this ecological niche. And it
had been convenient to control replacing of cattle
around the wide flood plane from situated on the
high cape Pukul fort.
Traces of fishing on the fort were not fixed.
It can be explained that the river is not rich by
fish and the fort inhabitants had not considered
fish important source of food. Such cultural
particularities are noticed for some nomadic
cattle breeders, for example, kachints who had not
eaten the fish considering it «bad» food (Potapov,
There are not direct witnesses of collecting
in materials of Pakul fort. It could play secondary
role like, for example, kachints and arints had used
cedar nuts, roots of lilies (Potapov, 1957:186).
Question about occupation of population of
ladeyskaya culture metallurgy stays unsolved. Had
it been local melting of iron or external coming of
used iron implements? Melting ovens were not
found in time of excavations of Pukul fort, but
of Pakul fort had differenced complex system
of providing. It had combined producing and
appropriating kinds of economy. Base of
providing had been cattle breeding and hunting
on middle ungulates (roe deer). Moreover they
had taken up collecting, hide and wood treatment,
used metallic implements and ware. This system
of economy had been greatly accommodated to
local conditions and met main needs of resettled
from forest-steppe area breeding population.
It is important to notice that excavations
of Pakul fort for the first time allow studying
of settlement of ladeyskaya culture. Received
materials allow increasing area of known sites
of ladeyskaya culture, completing existence
ideas about cultural genesis and economy of that
population lived in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in
Middle Ages.
Therefore economy of ladeysk population
To paleontologist c.b.s. N. D. Ovodov
(Institute of archaeology and ethnography
SB RAS, Novosibirsk) for determination of
osteological materials; c. g.-m. s. L. A. Orlova
(Institute of geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk)
for making of radiocarbon analysis and also
students of historical and philosophical faculty
of Humanitarian Institute of Siberian federal
university for help in making of archaeological
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Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture
Belikova O. B. Middle Prichulymye in X-XIII centuries. – Tomsk: TU, 1996. – 272 p.
Gumuev I. N., Sagalayev A. M., Solovyev A. I. Legends and stories of taiga region. – Novosibirsk:
Science, 1998. – 176 p.
Dolgih B. O. Generic and tribal structure of Siberian nations in XVII centuries/ B. O. Dolgih//
Works of institute of ethnography AS USSR. – M., 1960, V. IV. – 620 p.
Kartsov V. G. Ladeyskoye and Yermolayevskoye forts// Works of archaeological section of
RASRISS. – M., 1929a. – V. IV. – P. 559 – 567.
Kartsov V. G. Description of collections and materials of museum. Archaeological department.
Materials to archaeology of Krasnoyarsk region. – Krasnoyarsk, 1929 b. – 59 p.
Kartsov V. G. Achinsk fort // Collection of works of museum of Prichulymskiy region. – Achinsk:
of Prichulymskiy region, 1932. – V. I. – Issue 1. – P. 45-49.
Mandryka P. V., Zyryanov K. V. New speleological and archaeological sites on Mana river
// Problems of archaeology, ethnography, history and local history of Priyeniseyskiy region. –
Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 1992. – V. I. – P. 131-136.
Mandryka P. V. Ladeyskoye-2 settlement - New site of tagar culture inside of Krasnoyarsk //
Siberian inter-museum collection. – Krasnoyarsk: KRM, 1998. – P. 61-71.
Mandryka P. V. Complexes of early iron age of Yenisey Priangarye // Works of 2nd (XVIII) AllRussian archaeological congress in Suzdal. – M.: IA RAS, 2008a. – V. II. – P. 162-164.
Mandryka P. V. Samodelkin type of ceramics of final period of bronze age on Yenisey banks //
Archaeology, ethnography and anthropology of Eurasia. – 2008b. – N 1 (33). – P. 79-84.
Mandryka P. V., Knyazeva E. V., Senotrusova P. O. Using of river pebbles by ancient population
of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe (materials of Pakul fort) // Sociogenesis in northern Eurasia. – Irkutsk:
ISTU, 2009. – P. 192-196.
Mandryka P. V., Senotrusova P. O. Development of fortification buildings in southern taiga zone
of Middle Siberia and Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in early iron age and middle ages // Bulletin of NSU.
Series: History, philology. – Novosibirsk: NSU, 2007. – V. 6. – Issue 3. – P. 209-211.
Mandryka P. V., Yamskih A. A., Orlova L. A., Yamskih G. U., Golyeva A. A. Archaeology and
paleoecology of multilayer settlement Bobrovka on Middle Yenisey. – Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2003. – 138 p.
Miller G. F. History of Siberia. – M.: Eastern literature RAS, 2005. – V.I. – 630 p.
Nikolayev R. V. Kyrgyz burial in Bolshemurtinskiy district of Krasnoyarsk region // Archaeology
of northern Asia. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1982. – P. 131-134.
Potapov L. P. Origin and forming of Khakass nation. – Abakan, 1957. – 307 p.
Savinov D. G. Krasnoyarsk and Kansk variant of culture of Yenisey kyrgyzs // Problems of
studying of Siberia in scientific work of museums. - Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 1989. – P. 144-147.
Skobelev S. G., Mitko O. A. Burials of cremation rite on Kacha river near Krasnoyarsk and
their place in cultural tradition of medieval population of Yenisey// Bulletin of NSU. Series: history,
philology. – Novosibirsk: NSU, 2007. – V. 6. – Issue 3. – P. 212-220.
Solovyev A. I. The military of native population of Western Siberia. Mddle Ages. - Novosibirsk:
Science, 1987. – 192 p.
Tarasov A. U., Fokin S. M. Materials of early and developed middle ages of historical part of
Krasnoyarsk // Antiquities of Yenisey Siberia. - Krasnoyarsk: KSPU, 2005. – Issue 4. – P. 58-65.
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Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture
Timofeeva E. K. Roe deer. – Series: Life of our birds and beasts. – Issue 8. – L.: LU, 1985. – 224 p.
Fokin S. M. Caltural and historical processes in early and developed middle ages of Krasnoarsk
forest-steppe: Thesis … cand. hist. sciences. – Tomsk, 2007. – 216 p.
LA SFU – Laboratory of archaeology, ethnography and history of Siberia of Siberian federal
1. Lysenko I. A. Report about field research of reconnaissance group of Archaeological expedition
of Krasnoyarsk state university in Bolshemurtinskiy district of Krasnoyarsk range in 2004. –
Archive of LA SFU. R – 1 N 43 – 54 l.
2. Mandryka P. V. Report about results of archaeological reconnaissances in Bolshemurtinskiy,
Kazachinskiy and Kezhemskiy districts of Krasnoyarsk range in 2006. – Krasnoyarsk, 2007. –
Archive of LA SFU. R – 1 N 49.
3. Mandryka P. V. Report about results of archaeological excavations of Pakul fort in Bolshemurtinskiy
district and settlement Prospihinskaya shivera in Kezhemskiy district of Krasnoyarsk range in
2008. – Krasnoyarsk, 2009. - rchive of LA SFU. R – 1 N 63 – 150 l.
4. KRM, col. N 173,174.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 361-366
УДК 140.8
Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization
as a Form of the World Society Governing
Vladimir N. Ozeredenko*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Russian political system reforming is closely connected to the social transformations, being typical
for the modern world society, and which are the consequences of globalization processes. Along with
natural globalization, which supposes a lawful striving for humanity integration, we have become
witnesses of artificial globalization, which is dangerous for societies’ socio-cultural identity. That
is why the salvation of the modern educational system problems supposes taking into consideration
traditions, being typical for the Russian society.
In order to understand and to solve the given problem, we need to address the historical roots of
Russian consciousness formation, within which our society’s self-identification took place. Russia
takes an exclusive position among the most important world civilizations. Its main peculiarity is in the
following: in our country the triad – tradition-culture-civilization – does not make up an integral and
smoothly running system, which also determines the general type of society. Both eastern and western
civilizations use ideological means in order to blur over and to conceal their incongruity to their
traditions and, moreover, their culture. However, in both cases the symbolic depth of experience is not
opposed and does not confront with the material world, created by the civilization.
Keywords: form of government; the world society; self-management; social transformations; and
social evolution.
Globalization, as a naturally appeared sociocultural phenomenon, is the result of various
unplanned and hardly predicted transformations
and changes in technical, economical, political
and socio-cultural spheres. Globalization, as an
enforced (artificial) process, includes in itself an
element of direct or hidden (planned) violence,
i.e. an attempt to enforce by means of bribery,
deception, persuasion and indoctrination of
these or those values, world outlook, economical,
political notions and corresponding decisions.
Being artificially created and subordinated to
subjective arbitrary interests, globalization can
serve and serves as an instrument of dominating
position achievement in the structure of
international relations, of universalization of
one of the systems of values and of a model of
Historical past knowledge is very important
in order to confirm, among other things, that
globalization is not only an objective process.
Besides, it is also generated by subjective factors,
and by the purpose pursuing man’s activity.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization…
There is some anxiety that the possibilities of
globalization can be used and are used by these
or those social forces, but not in the interests
of humanity and social justice. Exactly that is
why we are inclined to consider globalization
processes as dubious ones: natural and enforced
Overstated aspirations are typical for an
emancipating person of the global world, and
that is why they are called overstated, as far
as everybody’s aspirations cannot be satisfied
without exceptions. Apparently, the person, who
has decided to make this principle be the centre of
his life strategies, must refuse from such qualities
as social responsibility, collective identity, and
civil duty. Moreover, he is directly interested
in weakening of social regulations and norms,
which provide socially approved behavior.
Besides, one of the necessary conditions
of global person’s existence is rigid population
segregation into two unequal parts: «the elected
minority» and «the rejected majority». Such
a world order strategy is destabilizing and
destructive by its essence. Industrial equipment
dismantlement and fundamental science collapse
can be explained and understood in the light of
the given logic.
In anthropological sense, globalism means
de-socialization, de-culturing and disintegration
of people. On one hand, it contributes to creation
of the wandering Diaspora of «citizens of the
world», – unprincipled outcasts, who have
chopped off their roots and do not know any
cultural, moral and other inner limitations. On
the other hand, globalization processes cause
degradation of «the rejected majority», which is
methodically deprived of the possibility to get
their education and so on.
Today’s experience is connected to the
striving of one country or groups of countries to
use globalization as an instrument of the world
supremacy project realization, to the attempt to
use informational technologies, transnational
capital and etc. in order to make the planet be
the zone of these or those «national interests».
All this testifies that globalization processes are
ambivalent. And the possibility of their fulfillment
not according, but despite of survival purposes,
and human historical perspectives proceed from
concrete historical and existing at present time
conditions of cultural and civilizational growth.
And they are such that allow suggesting with
quite a high degree of probability that the vectors
of cultural and civilizational evolution do not at
all coincide with each other and their correlations
vary in quite a wide range of distinctions, defining
the most important qualitative characteristics of
the society.
Russian political system reforming is closely
connected to the social transformations, being
typical for the modern world society, and which
are the consequences of globalization processes.
Along with natural globalization, which supposes
a lawful striving for humanity integration, we
have become witnesses of artificial globalization,
which is dangerous for societies’ socio-cultural
identity. That is why the salvation of the modern
educational system problems supposes taking
into consideration traditions, being typical for the
Russian society.
Informational process presupposes a
globalization process analysis, which shows that
at present time there is a whole row of problems.
As the main global problems there are singled
out the following ones: firstly, those of planetary
character; secondly, the ones, which threaten the
whole humanity either with death, or with serious
regress of further development; thirdly, those,
which demand an urgent salvation by the efforts
of the whole world society.
Becoming a nature-forming factor,
civilization accelerates the processes so much,
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that society’s adaptation possibilities can fail
to assimilate the speed of all these changes.
The natural course of evolution of all the selfdeveloping and self-organizing processes is
reflected by an exponential function. During last
decades, social evolution has been experiencing
radical metamorphoses, transferring most social
relations from material into the non-material
sphere – in which basis there lies the informational
resource, which substitutes by itself raw and
power resources – the basis of previous stages of
civilization development.
Our historical consciousness is damaged
so strongly that it leads to heavy, organic
deformations of the present. We can observe the
conflict of even several generations: grandfathers,
fathers, children, grandchildren do not speak
common language while discussing the questions
of good and evil, belief and disbelief, capitalism
and socialism, globalism and nationalism,
patriotism and liberalism, the East and the West,
private property and social intolerance.
In order to understand and to solve the given
problem, we need to address the historical roots
of Russian consciousness formation, wherein our
society’s self-identification took place. Russia
takes an exclusive position among the most
important world civilizations. Its main peculiarity
is in the following: in our country the triad –
tradition-culture-civilization – does not make up
an integral and smoothly running system, which
also determines the general type of society. Both
eastern and western civilizations use ideological
means in order to blur over and to conceal their
incongruity to their traditions and, moreover, to
their culture. However, in both cases, the symbolic
depth of experience is not opposed and does not
confront with the material world, created by the
There were known to be two main
impediments for economical life of other peoples:
their mentality (way of thinking, collective
psychology, and spiritual life intensity) and
very hard, inclement climatic conditions on the
territory, being not suitable for life. The abounding
territory became attractive for the neighboring
countries only after the Russian towns, roads
and systems of communication having been
built, and the basis of agriculture, industry, trade,
and science-intensive production having been
created. After all that, Russian vast territories
became an object of geopolitical disagreements,
bargaining, military aggression, quiet expansion,
and diplomatic subterfuges [1, p. 19].
This is precisely the fact, which is not
as a rule taken into consideration, when the
question of Russian power system reforming is
being raised. And that is why it is important to
differentiate the institutional and the functional
content of civilization and culture integrity, while
considering the peculiarities of self-management
system functioning, and on the whole we cannot
sacrifice for it the dialectics of singular and
general, the dialectics of structure and function.
Aristotle suggests a special method of deviation
in order to research the form of government. At
present time this method is very topical and not
only in political science. It is used for amplitudes
dynamic researching of system possible deviations
from some standard, from a steady condition with
allowance for possibility of system self-returning
to its normal functioning, of coming back to this
steady condition by its own forces, of deviation
expenditures overcoming, costs compensation,
and decompensation avoiding.
The specifics of the Russian society’s
historical consciousness is realized in the
following aspects: the Byzantine religious tradition
of historical life perception; Russian people’s
historical uniqueness, starting from Peter I and
in combination with Western-European culture
elements; theoretical attitude towards history,
which has been formed into a separate historical
science; imperial historical self-consciousness,
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which was given birth to during the Napoleon
France I opposition [2, p. 25-26].
A lot of myths have been created about Russia
in the result of somebody’s uttered opinions,
having been taken and perceived as a fruit of one’s
deep analysis. In most cases it has been connected
to the fact that «in our country, philosophy and
its existence are too much dependent upon the
acrobatics of bureaucratic mind» [3]. But nothing
appears just for fun, for no particular reason,
though, as it is known, philosophical thinking
succeeds the mythological one. We are to take
it into consideration in the process of all-thecountry management structures reforming.
In the course of his cosmological approach to
philosophy functions consideration, N. O. Losskij
wrote in «The History of Russian Philosophy»,
chapter «Russian Philosophy Typical Features»,
that in opposition to special sciences, i.e. sciences
researching some parts and aspects of the world,
philosophy bears the stamp of the characters
and the interests of those various peoples, who
have gone in for it. That is why we may speak
about national peculiarities of German, French,
English, American and Russian philosophy [4].
For example, «Russian civilization, so as Russian
culture as well, presents by itself a «rhizoma».
We are speaking about such a lot of various
phenomena, which do not subordinate to any
integrity and are characterized by heterogeneity,
equality of rights, mutual disruptiveness and
interconnection, and spontaneous changeability
and autonomy. Thereat, rhizoma disruptiveness
is considered to be «insignificant»; its
heterogeneity explains the gaps, but do not
exclude the interconnection of equal parts; the
interconnection does not reject its autonomy and
equality of rights, and its changeability does not
lead to integrity, but enlarges the gaps and enforces
the autonomy of integrity elements» [5, p. 250253]. Russia’s being on the border between the
East and the West, actually, generates its specific
«rhizomability», which cannot be reduced to one
common denominator, neither to European, nor
to Asian one [6, p. 8].
In the process of Russian social institutions
reforming, it is important to bear in mind, that
at various times history disproved the vain
attempts «to copy» Russian culture and ideology
according to the western pattern, and every time
these attempt turned out to be a failure and caused
enormous misery to Russian people. The matter
is in the following: native and western cultures
are incompatible and crucially different, as far as
they belong to different types of societies. Having
made this conclusion, we are to see once again
that the difference between collectivistic and
individual types of societies is actual, productive
and well-substantiated, and we comprehend the
need of studying of the Russian society as a
collectivistic one.
Nevertheless, while forming the modern
self-management system in Russia, it is important
to keep in mind that during the last decades the
following values of Russian spiritual culture have
been damaged:
• communal consciousness has been
damaged by means of implantation of the
unlimited cult of individualism;
• substitution of Russian culture traditional
priority of productive labour in favour of
the motherland for serving an unknown
country on the principle of mercantilism
and consumption;
• substitution of social interests authority
for personal ones, of Russian humanity
for Cosmo-political pan-humanity;
• substitution of friendship and brotherhood
of Russian peoples for ethnic strife;
• substitution of patriotism and love of
country for serving an unknown country
or a «world» government.
In order to understand the influence of
globalization over the Russians, we need to
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Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization…
consider as well the fact that «all the characteristic
features of Russian people prove that they are
not able to blend harmoniously with the modern
consumptive civilization and mass culture. The
Russian man cannot be wholly inspired by the
ideals of enrichment and consumption, which are
the stimulus to the modern civilization.» [7]
We can state that the most valuable and
fruitful ideas of the leading Russian thinkers are
contained in the doctrine of collegiality. One of
the foundation stones of «the Russian cosmism»
is known to be the conception of a symphonic
person, which is based precisely on the notion
of collegiality, having been developed as «one
of the most important theoretical considerations
of Russian ancient philosophy. Collegiality is
understood as «a feature of an overall connection
of social phenomena. It deciphers the human
word as some mosaic …» [8, p. 274], which
pieces are individuals, communities and social
phenomena. And only being taken all together
(thereat, not just mechanically, but in a certain
order) «these phenomena make up a mosaic
panel, which discloses the creative perfection of
the Creator.» [9]
Collegiality means the combination of
freedom and integrity of many people on the basis
of their common love to one and the same absolute
values. This idea has been clear to be used for
salvation of many difficult problems of social life.
The principal of collegiality means that neither
the patriarch, having the supreme power, nor the
spiritualty, nor even the oecumenical council is
the absolute carrier of the truth. Collegial state,
in its turn, fails to overrule spiritual power and,
thereat, not to whittle away the rules of law, not
to break the meaning of moral, ethic, ideological,
religious and other norms, to abolish the latest,
not to damage the institutional harmony of
collectivistic society.
The people, who have taken upon themselves
the solicitude of spirituality, who do care about the
other-worldly, the ideal and the perfect, – cannot
fail to possess an utopian consciousness, which
now helps them to survive in most difficult times,
then plays the mischief to them. Utopism and its
accompanying romanticism, credulity to wordmongering made Russian thinkers search the truth
of life either in the future (the western utopias of
communism and democratic paradise) or in the
past (the Slavophilic utopias of returning to the
Russian pleasant original pre-Peter I existence).
The ideas of theanthropism and of collegiality
cannot be realized up to their final limit, but they
are not at all fully speculative inventions of the
philosophizing dreamer, but quite acting factors
for the national spiritual integration [10].
Thus, Russian political system reforming
presupposes an analysis of the following crucial
moments. Firstly, the necessity of Russian
nationhood origin consideration and, besides,
self-management peculiarities demand to
proceed from the fact that the idea of at-oneness
with the universe takes a most important place
in the Russian scientific and philosophical system
of opinions and allows considering the world and
its objective laws as an indivisible whole. The
alternative approach, having been substantiated
in the works of Russian cosmism followers, fulfils
the methodological and world outlook functions,
thus restoring the connection within the system
of social and philosophical knowledge, what is
crucial for development of new management
systems in the conditions of globalization.
L. M. Marceva. Economical Development Peculiarities of Russian Civilization Spatial-Temporal
Boarders (the experience of comparison) / L. M. Marceva // Theory and History. – 2002. – №1.
– 365 –
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Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization…
2. A. L. Andreev. Peculiarities of Russian Historical Self-consciousness / A. L. Andreev // Theory
and History. – 2004. – №3.
3. V. N. Porus. Philosophical Congress Must Prevent Russian Philosophy Decay / V. N. Porus //
Vestnik RFO. – 2004. – №2.
4. N. O. Losskij. The History of Russian Philosophy / N. O. Losskij. – Moscow: Sovetskij pisatel’,
5. Zh. Deljoz, F. Gvattari. Rhizoma. Introduction. / Zh. Deljoz, F. Gvattari // KorneviWe OB. The
Book of Neoclassic Esthetics. Moscow, 1998.
6. I. V. Kondakov. «Beyond» Europe» / I. V. Kondakov // Voprosy filosofii – 2002. – №6.
7. V. Aksjuchic. Russian Character Apologia / V. Aksjuchic // Nezavisimaja gazeta. – 2000. – June,
8. N. M. Churinov. Perfection and Freedom / N. M. Churinov. – Krasnojarsk, 2001.
9. The same.
10. A.A. Korol'kov. Spiritual Meaning of Russian Culture. –St. Petersburg: The Publishing House of
RSPU named after A.I. Herzen, 2006. – P. 246.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 367-373
УДК 130.3
Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis
of Enforced Globalization Alternatives
Victoria L. Pfanenshtil*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given article we would like to show, that in the modern and quickly changing world there are a
lot of discussions of the essence of globalization, regionalization, localization and these discussions
go on with increasing sharpness and obviously reflect the major changes in the global economy forces
alignment and apparent aggravation of the international military and political situation. Will the
growth of hegemonism bring to globalization and mono-polar world becoming? Or shall we witness
some other fundamental processes of the world development?
We also pay special attention to the fact, that globalization is often depicted by scientists and publicists
as some universal process, which inevitably and successively subordinates «the periphery» of microsystem sphere to the laws of its development. These notions are sooner ideal-typical and they are free
from such «independent» factors, structuring humane micro-communities, as geo-climatic conditions,
national models of demographic reproduction, cultural-educational «capital» of the nation and its
intellectual and professional skills, the volume of its present natural resources, and economically
viable and adaptive potential of the society. Being used in different combinations, these qualitative
parameters finally form the nation’s ability to respond efficiently to transnational impulses – challenges,
which origin is beyond the limits of national political systems.
Keywords: hegemonism; globalization; regionalization; localization; micro-system sphere; subglobalization processes.
Outrushing changes of the world economy
were generated not only by economical, but,
first of all, by cardinal political shiftings, which
took place in the end of XX century. These
changes required a new approach to evaluation
of globalization and different countries groups’
place and role in this process. The notions of
«growth» and «development» became one of the
key notions in the second part of the previous
century, as far as various models of development
were tested with mixed success in the world
economic sphere.
In the second part of XX century the
dominant influence was gained not by the geopolitical paradigm (the paradigm of culturalhistorical types), but by the meaningfully
opposite one – «globalistic» («formational»,
«revolutionary») paradigm, which referred
us to such spiritually related phenomena,
as the conception of «global revolution»,
anti-globalism, the ideology of «the world
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives
communist revolution», the conception of
social-economical formations changing by K.
Marks, the idea of the world-wide freedom of
trading, the idea of «global directorate» (global
control of the world), and Enlightment progress
philosophies of XVII-XVIII centuries.
To our mind, the main direction
of globalization definition by means of
internationalization lies in the propaganda of
inevitable departure of sovereign States from
historical arena and their losing of the main
democracy requirement– powerful sovereignty
of people. In connection with the mentioned,
it is rather principle to separate the notions of
«globalization» and «regionalization», as far
as in the modern conditions it would be more
appropriate to use the notions of «economical
integration» or «economical interrelation»
as the main objective factors, predefining the
essence of globalism and globalization not only
in the economical interrelations of countries
and nations, but in all the spheres of their
Precisely that is why the idea of regionalization,
as a social-economical basis of the modern
enforced globalization alternatives, acquires
a greater popularity and gradually becomes a
paradigm of the modern scientific cognition and a
principle of the social practice. The matter is that
social instability, as a factor of socialization, can
be considered on three interrelated levels: society
on the whole, a group and a person. On the society
level, social changes are revealed in the form of a
crisis of the major part of normative-axiological
notions. «Comprehension of the existing norms
and values, as phenomena of the past, which have
been discredited by new tendencies, existing in
society, does not in abstracto lead to creation
of any of new ideas… On one hand, new social
groups appear to be the creators of new systems
of values, on the other hand – they are carriers of
these values…» [1, p. 152].
As V.Strada notices, as from the point
of view of the old, defeated communist
internationalism, so from the point of view of
the new and on-coming communistic globalism,
national question appears to be a survival of
times past. Internationalism considers it to be
permitted in the frames of its economical and
technological structures, and globalism supposes
it to be overcome due to new economical and
technological tendencies. Thereat, in both cases,
everything goes on independently and beyond the
borders of national states. The Italian researcher
is sure, that in the frames of the global context,
the national beginning does not disappear; it
constitutes the element of vital resistance to
cultural homogenization, which presence is
doubtless; and acquires new, less exclusive forms
in comparison with the past. [2, p. 60].
The world situation of our days confirms
that sovereign national state – particularly,
if we are speaking about minor states, which
do not possess any economical or military
predominance – loses many of its prerogatives
of the past and become relative within the
frames of wider contexts. The control over the
social-economical processes, which have local
regional character, is often depicted by scientists
and publicists as some universal process, which
inevitably and successively subordinates «the
periphery» of the micro-system sphere to the
laws of its development. These notions ignore
many factors, structuring humane microcollectives: geo-climatic conditions; national
models of demographic reproduction; cultural
and educational «capital» of the nation and its
intellectual and professional skills; the volume of
its present natural resources, and economically
viable and adaptive potential of the society. Being
used in different combinations, these qualitative
parameters finally form the nation’s ability to
respond efficiently to transnational impulses –
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Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives
challenges, which origin is beyond the limits of
national social-economical systems. The matter
is that globalization and the processes, being
generated by it, subject traditional behavior
models, the way of life, the types of world
vision, and also the values, being rooted in the
mass conscious, orientations, and prejudice to
the test of strength and adaptability [3, p. 92].
To N.Kosolapov’s mind, on the global level
the problem of coordination, regulation and
management subject and object has become one
of the main consequences of the intercrossing of
various globalization levels and processes [4, p.
In the result of enforced globalization the
principle features of social-economical basis
are subjected to a serious transformation. The
loss of these features is followed by systematic
tension and social panic, when the feelings of
self-perception, belief in one’s own social role
and its continuance pass away; «extrapolation
of the liberal regime tendencies development
(the regime which has been historically formed
in European countries) over the societies, being
different in time and in space, is fully groundless;
in the basis of modern states there are no young
and flexible types of ethnos, which are sensitive
to developed cultural forms, but there are
traditionally fixed social structures. Precisely,
that is why in the peripheral countries there can
be no building of a new social-economical basis
according to the European pattern without full
destruction of the old pattern. The consideration,
that today’s economical and technological power
of post-industrial countries will make them
invulnerable to expansion of foreign social
systems, is a dangerous illusion. To the mind of
the researchers V.Inozemcev and E.Kuznecova,
these premises must be the leading ones in the
attempts to evaluate possible development
scenarios of the on-coming inter-civilizational
conflict [5, p. 138].
The crisis of regional social-economical basis
is much deeper, than we could have supposed and
it has influenced almost all the countries. If we
are speaking of the ways of reappearance of the
social-economical self-sufficiency feeling, then we
should note that it is federalism and regionalism.
A.Zaharov is sure, that precisely «…federalism
and globalization do always accompany and
enforce each other: federal methods of decision
making are best suited for the world, where
everything is interconnected, while today’s world
dynamics generates and stimulates far and wide
federative kinds of practice and institutions. He
considers that federalism is political clothes of
globalization and to be a federalist is «considered
to be a common courtesy» in the epoch of
globalization [6, p. 166].
The starting point for us is the fact that region
population makes up a certain integrity, which
is characterized by special forms of symbioses
with nature, specific types of self-sufficiency,
commonness of behavioral features, having
been generated for centuries and formed in the
process of people’s adaptation in natural and
socio-cultural environment. All these in total are
qualified as regional peculiarities [7, 198-201].
N.Ja.Danilevskij has been the first, who has
suggested the model of multi-polar world order,
which is, to his mind, presents the necessary and,
at the same time, the only possible guarantee
of the world-wide balance keeping, the only
stronghold against the world-wide domination of
Two conditions of the world-wide balance
according to Danilevskij are the germ of the world
project, which is an alternative to the project of
the global monocracy. The first and the main
condition is the appearance of Slavonic states
around the Russian Federation («The OmniSlavonic Union» in terms of N.Ja.Danilevskij).
Today, the given condition has been altered; it
is present as a possibility of integration of the
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post-soviet states and, first of all, a possibility
of formation of the common economic territory
of Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine.
N.Ja.Danilevskij has formulated the second
condition of the world-wide balance as follows:
«The result of the Omni-Slavonic Union would
be… an equal and a fair distribution of power and
influence between…Europe, the Slavonic states
and America» [8, p. 458-459].
In XXI century, in Eurasia there are, of
course, more than three (as it was in the epoch of
the colonial world) potential participants of such
a geopolitical project. They are, at least 1) the
United States of America with its surrounding
South American zone of free trading; 2) the future
superpower – «the United States of Europe»;
3) Russia and the sates of CIS integrating with
it; 4) «Great China and the cultures of Southern
Asia, being kindred with it; 6) Japan; 7) the Islam
world; 8) this or that union of the South American
The importance of social-economical analysis
of the regions potentials is connected with the
fact that regions present by themselves a higher
level of generalization in comparison with ethnic
peculiarities, as far as regional communities can
include several types of ethnos, but this level is
lower than civilization peculiarities, as far as this
level presents only a part (in the given case – a part
of European) civilization. Regional peculiarities
create a certain stereotype of social behavior. At
the same time, within the frames of this common
stereotype there are ethnic communities, which
form the population of the region and possess
certain concrete features and unique qualities.
From the point of view of systematic approach,
regionality (as integrity) is that very new quality,
which is formed in the result of interaction and
mutual complement of ethno-cultural communities
(as elements), constituting this integrity. That is
why we suppose the research of dialectics of the
common and the peculiar to be an important part
of the region sociology. This is the part of research,
which is aimed for the analysis of the object’s
inner structure. But there is another part, which is
aimed for the outer environment of the object, for
the region’s position in the socio-cultural sphere.
Research of the structure of its interaction with the
environment is considered to be another important
part of the region sociology [9, p. 27-28].
comparatively new process, which has appeared
in the sphere of international relationships
after the Second World War. By the term of
regionalization we understand formation and
development of economical communities by
neighboring countries. There are agreements of
preferential character in the basis of such groups.
Though in practice, there are two different types
and one sub-type of regionalization: rebirth
(initiation) of regional empires, formation of
regional (integration) groups and appearance of
so called development triangles.
The first type is understood as an ability of
this or that rather large country to impose its will
on the neighboring and, as a rule, minor countries
by means of relatively peaceful, diplomatic
(as political, so economical) methods. In other
words, regional empire appearance and existence
originally presupposes significant inequality of
economical powers of the neighboring countries.
At the beginning, formation of such regional
groups pursues mainly political-economical
In the given situation, the key factor is a
constancy of external threats or (what is better) a
mutually advantageous character of economical
cooperation, formation of the common economy
elements, and mutual completability. Though,
to achieve such a quality of relations is not at all
easy, so usually only regional empire possesses
the main set of such elements.
At first sight, regionalization of the second
type is more stable and productive. Efficiency of
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such unions increases a relative equality of the
participating states’ potentials, and, as a rule, they
create a stronger juridical base of co-operation. It
is easier to the participants, which are comparable
in their power, to refuse from some part of
sovereignty to the benefit of supernational organs
and to provide there a sound and proportional
Nevertheless, we may observe a parallel
existence of regional empires and regional
integration groups. It seemed that on practice
obvious advantage of the old types of associations
does not lead to a mass outflow of minor countries
from under the cover of regional empires to these
associations. Probably, ascending waves of the
world business environment more encourage
regionalization of the second type [10, p. 8990].
Most modern authors pay special attention
to complication of the North-South relations, to
impossibility of identical evaluations in the result
of high dynamics of changes as in the world
economy on the whole, so in separate countries.
They are made closer by the strivings of their
authors to give an analysis of the globalization
modern stage, of its inner inconsistency and
various degrees of some countries’ involvement
in the process (there are the largest Eurasian
states in the centre of the research – India, China,
Russia), that allows seeing that the process has a
non-general character. The authors’ key opinion
is the following: «the degree of integrity and
manageability of the appearing world has been
exaggerated» [11, p. 6].
This position is topical in the connection
with the existing opinion of the total globalization
coverage of all and everything. Is it rightful that
on the given stage the idea of mono-polar world
or the presence of large economical sub-systems,
such as India, China, Russia, have significant
influence over the rate of globalization, creating
sorts of enclaves, which retard its distribution –
this is not only the problem of today, but the
problem of future as well [12, p. 199].
Obviously, in perspective, globalization
creates deep tendencies to consistency of the world
economical sphere, on the given stage it increases
the unevenness of development between separate
countries and also changes most of habitual, wellknown phenomena.
At the same time, within the frames
of globalization process there appear some
unidirectionality tendencies of commodity flows
and direct investments, and that leads to «the
appearance of peculiar regional governors», as
it has been successfully defined by the authors
[13, p. 145]. Actually, it causes the necessity
of correlation analysis of regionalization and
globalization, their parallelism, and subsequently,
their contradictions, when in the regional scale and
at a certain level of development of economical,
political and other kinds of bonds regionalism
becomes a globalization deterrent.
From our point of view and taking
into consideration economical efficiency,
globalization will never be able to involve into its
orbit all the countries without exceptions. There
has been defined a group of countries- outcasts,
which are scarily involved into the process of
internationalization and are connected with the
Centre mainly because of aid programs, being
performed by international organizations and
governments of developed countries in order not
to let a new social-economical crisis, a border
conflict and etc. generate new waves of refugees.
The problem is in the following: will the number
of such countries increase or decrease.
We are to agree with the authors, who assert,
that «…globalization definitions, such as an
accomplished internationalization, integration,
social transformation and other realities, on
the given stage of the history of mankind is
nothing else, but an utopia or illusion. That is
why the statement of the cutting of the modern
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Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives
globalization time in thousand times is hardly
reasonable in comparison with the previous
stages and the appearance of a new world-wide
civilization in the life period of just one generation
is hardly possible» [14, p. 88].
The main perspective of technological
development of the mankind is: to deepen the gap
and to make it unsurpassable, the gap between
developed and other countries, and also between
developed countries, creating new technologies,
and other developed countries; informational
technologies employees’ segregation into an inner
between USA and the members of NATO on the
whole and the rest of the world is so deep, that it
gives us grounds to think about a possibility of
realization of the idea of a super-empire, it could
be American or built around most developed
countries («golden billion») as an integral block.
If the idea were realized, global empire world
order would most probably suffer the fate of all the
empires-predecessors: having outlasted for some
time, it would be broken by the forces of inner
transformation and would for long give place to
the dominance of sub-globalization phenomena
«informational community» and its concentration
in developed countries; gradual concentration of
the world’s «informational community» together
with the whole world progress in «the most
developed» countries; termination of progress
beyond the limits of developed countries;
social and financial degradation of developing
countries; a potential sudden slowing down of the
process in the result of the global financial crisis
and destructive competition between USA and
European currency union. Socio-cultural identity
crisis prevention presupposes joining of various
societies’ efforts for preservation of the various
and motley human society.
To our mind, positive and negative lessons of
social development of XX century allow people
and countries, revealing their will, energy and
persistence, paying special attention to better and
optimal ways of self-development, using socioeconomical potentials of their regions.
Moreover, it is important not only to
proceed from the realities, existing in the world
community, but also to presuppose possible
scenarios of further events development. The gap
and processes of all the types and levels.
To our mind, the advancement of
manageability, as the man criterion of
globalization, does not at all mean the reduction
of the latter only to the political topics. This
criterion is important for other, non-political
spheres as well. Though, here, while achieving
the set political objectives, manageability is as
much present, as many economical, cultural
and other specifics are taken into consideration.
At the same time, there can be revealed special
imperatives and development bases for each of
the rest of reality projections – starting from
economy to culture.
Survival of the world, as a mono-polar
phenomenon, wherein there is no crisis of sociocultural self-identity, is possible only by means
of rebirth of local and regional values, as an
opposition to the global system of «pan-human
values», which carry in themselves the destruction
of socio-cultural identity as of separate nations,
so of the whole mankind.
Social Psychology in the Modern World / under the editorship of G.M.Andreeva, A.I. Doncov. –
Moscow: Aspekt press, 2002.
2. V.Strada. Globalization and History / V.Strada // The Modern and Contemporary History. –
2002. – №6.
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A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. Globalization: its Origin, Tendencies, and Perspectives / A.G.Volodin,
G.K.Shirokov // Polis. – 1999. – № 5.
4. N.A.Kosolapov. The Place of Geopolitics in the Epoch of Globalization/ N.A.Kosolapov // Vostok
(ORIENS). – 2003. – №4.
5. V.L.Inozemcev, E.S.Kuznecova. Global Conflict of XXI Century. Speculations of Origin and
Perspectives of Inter-Civilizational Contradictions/ V.L.Inozemcev, E.S.Kuznecova // Polis. –
2001. – №6.
6. A.E.Zaharov. Pluribus Unum. Essays of the Modern Federalism / A.E.Zaharov. – Moscow: The
Moscow School of Political Researches, 2003.
7. Federalism. Encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow, 1997.
8. N.Ja.Danilevskij. Russia and Europe / N.Ja.Danilevskij. – Moscow, 2003.
9. R.H.Simonjan. From National-State Communities to Regional Alliances / R.H.Simonjan // The
Questions of Philosophy. – 2005. – №3.
G.K.Shirokov. A.I.Salickij. Globalization and/or Regionalization? (Regionalization and its Types)
/ G.K.Shirokov. A.I.Salickij // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №5.
S.I.Lunev, G.K.Shirokov. Transformation of the World System and Major Countries of Eurasia /
S.I.Lunev, G.K.Shirokov. – Moscow: Academia, 2001.
E.A.Bragina. Is Globalization Global? / E.A.Bragina // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №5.
A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. Globalization: its Origin, Tendencies, and Perspectives / A.G.Volodin,
G.K.Shirokov. – Moscow: IOS RAS, 2002.
V.I.Karasev, A.G.Vas’kov. Globalization Phenomenon in the Social Context of Modernity /
V.I.Karasev, A.G.Vas’kov. – Moscow, 2002.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 374-378
УДК 1 (075.8)
The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice
of the Russian Federal Status
Sergey Ju. Rjazancev*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given work, we analyze today’s Russian problems, connected with violation of the principle of
powers separation in the process of the state governance of the society: the real place of the executive
power supreme body within the system of powers separation; practical rights of the head of the state;
federalism in the light of the requirements of the principle of powers separation; constitutional and the
real status of the Parliament
Keywords: the principle of powers separation; democracy; Parliament; President; Government;
Federation Subject; Federalism.
Nowadays, we may often observe a certain
anxiety in the articles of most native socialpolitical sphere researchers, the anxiety, which
concerns «the rolling back» of the Russian
democracy by means of the executive power
over-accretion in comparison to the constituent
and judicial powers [1], and, besides, this
process is connected with the increase of the
Russian parliament institutional weakness
[2]. On the basis of the analysis of the federal
status dynamics, of the place and the role of
various parties in the real politics, and changes
in the electoral system, the scientists come
to conclusions of a possibility of a significant
intensiveness already in the nearest future
[3]. On the whole, these fears are not baseless;
moreover, one of them is a violation of the
principle of powers separation.
In science and political practice, the
given principle is considered to be one of the
fundamentals of democratic society governance –
it is an axiom. Though, we should bear in mind
that in Lenin’s interpretation this principle was
presented as a method of deception of «the working
masses», as far as it was allegedly nothing else
but «a separation of the administrative labour»,
which veiled the exploitative essence of the
bourgeois federal status. And it is not excluded
that the lack of attention, having been paid to
the principle of powers separation in the native
social philosophy and political science, and,
moreover, in the practice of state administration
of the society, is to some extend determined by
the traditional mentality as of theoreticians, so
of practitioners. Of course, the citizens, for the
most their part, are as well not ready to percept
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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adequately the democratic governance, as far
as authoritarianism of their conscious has been
formed by the centuries of the empire and most
efficiently by the decades of the Soviet power and
it cannot be radically changed in the course of
two decades.
The main purpose of the principle of powers
separation is in the following: to exclude the
dominating position of one of three government
departments (in most cases – the executive one),
as far as it inevitably leads to dictatorship in this
or that form, and consequently, to denial of rights
and freedoms of the person. In the Constitution of
Russia there is a formal mechanism, appealed to
avoid possible conflicts between the constituent
and executive powers, to exclude the situation of
the executive power absolute domineering (for
example, President’s appointment of the Chairman
of the Government only with the sanction of the
State Duma, a possibility of motion of the vote
of censure to the Government by the lower house
of parliament), but, unfortunately, such a system
of checks and balances does not prevent the
executive power over-accretion.
The Constitution of Russia declares
the principle of powers separation as one of
the fundamentals of the country democratic
development (art.10). But the Constitution itself
fixes the conditions, under which the given
principle cannot fail to be violated. First of all, it
is a position of the Government within the system
of powers separation: in practice, it absolutely
depends on the Head of the State – in the process
of formation, functioning and resignation. Of
course, the Chairman of the Government is
assigned by the President only with the sanction
of the State Duma, but it is a purely formal
fragment of the system of checks and balances,
as far as if the State Duma thrice refuses to give
such a sanction, then it is dissolved by the Head
of the State – there is no any other alternative.
Consequently, if he wishes so much, the President
always can achieve an assignment of the person,
he needs, for the post of the Chairman of the
Government, though dissolution of the lower
house of parliament is a serious political crisis
for the whole country. Further, on the basis of
constitutional norms, the State Duma seems to be
able to control the superior body of the executive
power (in order it could not draw «the blanket of
power» over it too much) by means of censure
vote motion. But it is also nothing more, than a
formality, as far as if the Government is defeated
for the second time in the course of three months,
then it makes the President chose: whether
resignation of the Government, or dissolution
of the Duma. Deputies always understand quite
well, that the Head of the State has no reason to
dismiss the Government, which has been formed
by him and which is fully subordinated to him.
Possibly, precisely, in the force of «the instinct
of self-protection», the State Duma defeated the
Government (in 1995) and declared the vote of
censure only once for the whole history of the
new Russian federal status, but it looked more
like a farce, as far as it did not take the risk to
repeat it in three months, in order not to give the
President any lawful bases for dissolving it.
So, in practice the lower house of parliament
turns out to be unable to control the supreme
body of the executive power and the upper
house of parliament – neither. The matter is that
the Federation Council is formed with a gross
violation of the principle of powers separation,
which presupposes a distinct differentiation of
government departments according to the means
of formation, structure and functions, not allowing
«mixing» of powers in one and the same organs.
Though, in our country half the members of the
upper house of parliament are representatives of
the executive power of the Federation subjects,
having been assigned personally by the leaders
of the executive power supreme bodies of
regions, districts, and republics. But, these chief
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Sergey Ju. Rjazancev. The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status
executive officers of the subjects of Federation
are personally suggested by the President and
are always assigned without a hitch by regional
Actually, from the part of the President it
is a control over the Federation Council with a
help of the instrument of governors assignment,
but it is precisely what makes the function of
constitutionalization control of the Federation
Council senseless.
Right on the basis of the mentioned comments
we can come to a conclusion of institutional
weakness of the Russian parliament, which is not
able to play its role in the system of democratic
state powers separation, and consequently, it is
quite in order to raise the question of our federal
status democraticity on the whole.
The attitude to the principle of powers
separation in the state management practice
can be seen on the example of dynamics of the
native federalism. The RF Constitution declares
the authority of Federation (art.77). In the world
science and practice, federalism is perceived as a
variety of parts within the frames of the integral,
defining separate common features. First of all,
this variety concerns the ways of regulation of
the inner organization subjects. These subjects
must be free in their choice of a most suitable
model of inner power-management structure (of
course, this freedom is limited by the interests of
the federal integrity). Federalism presupposes a
significant heterogeneity of constitutional models
of the Federation subjects. This heterogeneity
contributes to a maximal adaptation of regional
power structures to specific conditions of concrete
subjects, and such kind of pluralism optimizes
a healthy competition among the Federation
subjects, and it stimulates all-round development
as of the regions, so of the federal integrity.
Precisely, such an understanding of federalism
gives positive practical results to the peoples of
Germany, USA, Canada and others.
In modern Russia, population of the
Federation subjects does not elect the governors
(the presidents of republics), and it is already a
violation of constitutional rights of the citizens
and the Federation subjects’ status. According to
the latest legislation, the President of RF proposes
a candidacy for the post of the governor to the
parliament of a corresponding Federation subject.
Outwardly, deputies of the regional parliament
are free in their choice of voting «for» and
«against», but having thrice rejected the proposed
candidacies, the «stubborn» regional parliament
is dissolved by the President. Moreover, the head
of the state has a right to remove the governor
from his post by reason of «the loss of confidence»
(and the interpretation of this reason can be rather
The right of the President to dissolve regional
parliaments, before their term is over, is similar
to his right to dissolve the State Duma, after it
has thrice defeated a candidacy for the post of
prime-minister, proposed by the head of the state
(art.111 the RF Constitution). But, dissolution of
the regional parliaments is provided neither by
the letter, nor by the spirit of the Constitution.
In practice, up to this day, all the candidacies
for the post of region heads, having been proposed
by the President, were «elected» by the regional
parliaments, thereat, by the majority of deputies’
voices. Today’s situation is formally characterized
by the fact that the head of the state does not
appoint the heads of Federation subjects, but only
proposes candidacies, while local parliaments
elect them. In fact, taking into account possible
sanctions, the heads of the regions are appointed
by the President, and regional parliaments are
dependent on the President. Right here, we can
observe the Russian approach to the principle of
powers separation.
General conception analysis of our
federalism, as it has been perceived in the
Constitution, and later on detailed and realized
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Sergey Ju. Rjazancev. The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status
in to life, proves that: after the legislative reforms
have been done, the influence of the Centre (first
of all, of the President) on the regions has become
so strong, that there has been left very little of our
A detailed research of the Russian presidential
powers brings to the conclusion that in this
country the regime of the personal power of the
head of the state has been built and is constantly
strengthened. Some researchers consider it to be a
normal process in the light of historical, political
and cultural traditions of our nation (the necessity
of «a strong hand», «a host»), but political history
knows one more «tradition»: an extreme personal
power usually becomes a dictatorship. That is
why democratic regime is in so much need of the
principle of powers separation, in order to create
quite strict institutional limitations, being able to
check as «the will to power», so «the traditional
According to the letter of the Constitution,
President of Russia is the head of the state,
and consequently, he enters neither of the
government departments, as far as he himself
forms the Government and exercises general
leadership of its activity. In fact, today the
executive power supreme body is the apparatus
of the head of the state. In reality, the President
may repeal any enactment of the Government
not only by reason of its inconformity with the
law, but with the presidential decree as well; the
President approves the structure of the executive
power supreme bodies; appoints the members
of the Government and forces them to resign.
That is why article 10 of the Constitution looks
like a typical formality, the article, which has
announced the principle of powers separation:
«The organs of the constituent, executive and
judicial powers are independent».
So, this brings up a natural question: should
we explain a constant accretion of the executive
power (= presidential power) only by the drawbacks
of the constitutional regulation? We suppose that
all the politics of the ruling elite of the country is
aimed for it. Its result is an institutional weakness
of the parliament, «the pocket government»,
absence of an independent judicial power, as far
as the judges of all three of the supreme courts
of the country – the Constitutional, Supreme
and Supreme Arbitration Courts are appointed
by the upper house of parliament according to
the proposal of the President, while a half of the
upper house of parliament consists of «the people
of the President».
We also consider the latest reforms of the
election legislation to be rather dangerous for
the democratic future of the country. First of all,
we should note that these reforms demonstrate a
vivid tendency to mono-party membership (while
formally we preserve our multi-party system). It
is the rising of the lower-house-of-the-parliament
parties’ passing barrier from five to seven percent.
In December, 2007, the State Duma Elections
proved the efficiency of this measure for the
ruling elite: «the ruling party» is unrivaled, the
communist party has relatively a few places and
is not dangerous for the regime, because it is
not so popular among younger generations and
people of the middle age, the Liberal Democratic
Party has also few places, besides it is highly
adaptive and, as a last resort, it can be just
fictitious-oppositional, and the youngest party is
a «pocket» one from the very beginning. Thereat,
the most oppositional parties have turned out to
be «outboard».
Besides, the cancellation of the State
Duma’s half the membership election according
to the majoritarian electoral system is also
rather illustrative – today, elections go on only
according to the party lists. It gives a possibility
to get rid of so-called independent deputies
in the lower house of parliament, who can be
uncontrolled and can form an opposition to the
power. But, this is not the end of the story. Even
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the deputies, having been elected on the majorityproportional basis (party lists), lose the remnants
of their deputative independence, as far as the law
introduces elements of «the imperative mandate»,
i.e. having deserted his party faction, the deputy
automatically loses his deputy mandate of the
lower house of parliament.
Such measures as, prohibition of regional
and interregional parties, and also of party blocs
(which, we should underline, are a common
phenomena abroad), set one thinking. Blocs
are obviously very dangerous for the powers:
they can become too popular among people and
form an opposition to the powers or become
«the ruling party» competitors. We should also
underline the fact, that the modern election
legislation presupposes more than forty reasons
for registration rejection or striking off separate
candidates and party lists.
Let’s repeat: the principle of power
separation is one of the fundamentals of the
democratic political regime. But, according to
K. Popper, democracy inevitably presupposes
bloodless change of government in the result
of free election. There, where such a change is
impossible, there is no democracy. We would
find difficulty to quarrel with this statement. But,
«bloodless change of government» presupposes a
free competition between political elites (parties),
and a real dependence of the parties, having won
in the elections, upon the electorate: they will
not be re-elected, if they are not able to govern
the county efficiently, and, as a consequence,
the citizens will stop trusting them. But, it is
impossible to speak about free competition
in the conditions of real and legally provided
domineering of one of the parties. And likewise,
it is impossible to speak about democratization of
the state governance in the conditions of so strong
accretion of the executive power at the expense of
constituent and judicial powers.
Having so highly-illustrative lessons of
our history before us, we, the Russians, should
understand better than others, that violation of
the principle of powers separation, an excessive
concentration of power in one centre can result
in «the rollback» of the forming civil-society
elements, in the total violation of the citizens’
rights, i.e. in a complete destruction of the existing
elements of the modern democracy.
S. Ryzhenkov. Dynamics of the Russian Political Regime Transformation and its Perspectives //
The Emergency Stock. 2006, № 6 (50).
O. Gaman-Golutvina. Russian Parliamentarizm in Historical Retrospective and in Comparative
Perspective (article II) // Polis. 2006, №3.
B. Makarenko. Russian Political Regime: Neo-Institutional Analysis Experience // the World
Economy and International Relationship. 2007, №2.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 379-383
УДК 130.1
Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order:
Social-Philosophical Analysis
Aleksandr M. Tajmulin*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
There are two opposite tendencies in political researches: on one hand, there is striving for
preservation of political order integrity, on the other hand, one common political order represents a
variety of local discursive practices, as far as any attempt of political world’s integral presentation
starts to be considered as a comeback to the totalitarian ideology, where scientific discussions perform
a function of legitimating narratives. We proceed from the fact, that globalization is a process, which
we can actually witness ourselves, and that is why the form of its apprehension must be the most
adequate and effective. To our mind, globalization and regionalization are the leading tendencies of
the modern world order, which reveal themselves in corresponding forms. Modern researchers’ works,
being different by the character of investigation and the style of rendering, are very often united by
the common idea: globalization is considered as complexly evolving open system, raising before the
world a lot of problems, which solution, and consequently, the prospective of modern civilization
development depend upon revealing and deep analysis of these problems.
Keywords: globalization; regionalization; world order; local; westernization; internationalization.
In spite of there is a variety of approaches
to the globalization essence research, it appears
as a process of becoming of the human world’s
real value in its spiritual and all its material
meanings. Thus, the perceived globalization is
not limited by the planetary, physical, social and
cognitive spaces, but it captures the inner world
of society and man, and that is why it inevitably
includes psychological, ideological and cultural
components. History is considered to be just a
drawing up of material being and means available
to the man in order to come nearer to this idea,
i.e. up to necessity and possibility to build one’s
activity, proceeding from admitting of the world’s
integrity in all its aspects, starting from spiritual
up to ecological. It appears to be quite a strictly
determined process, upon such an understanding
of globalization; though, it develops in a
complicated way through the interchange of
breakthroughs and backrushes, ups and downs
[1, p. 139]. What we call globalization today is an
episode of historical process, though qualitatively
peculiar, as everything in history is [2, p. 56-57].
I.I.Lukashuk: suggests more generalized
definition of globalization, noting: «Globalization
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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presents by itself a worldwide process, which
institutions into one common economical
and social system» [3, p. 1]. In this respect,
globalization process essence reflexion by mean of
finding of interrelation peculiarities between two
categories of «civilization» and «globalization» is
an important branch of the modern globalization
research as one more attempt to universalize
the world community. L.Karapetjan thinks the
attempts to draw parallels between civilization and
globalization to be unpersuasive in the aspect of
admitted civilization criteria and their variations.
M.Jepshtejn is sure, that we should introduce and
use a new notion of «globosophy». Thereat, its
most important components will be geosophy,
biosophy and sociosophy. But, we hardly should
rely upon the answer of A.Chumakov [4] that
this is not the task of philosophers to study the
problems of globalization, as far as the answer
to the question «to be or not to be» is already
given by the fact of writing of the books about
While analyzing globalization, many
authors proceed from differentiation of two
types of modernization – westernization and
catching-up modernization. For example, V.M.
Mezhuev considers that, «today, on the West,
modernization is admitted to be an old-fashioned
and useless model of development», «the project
of modernization … has given its place to a new
global project, wherein the life of people within
the economical system is perceived not on a
national, but on a world-wide scale» [5, p. 17].
Most often there are singled out several
such borders and, correspondingly, several
understandings of globalization as a phenomenon
in the western and the Russian literature.
According to one of them, globalization is an
exceptionally modern phenomenon, dating
back approximately to the middle of 1980-s,
and it is also «international», taking place and
developing exceptionally in the international
life – communications, economics, and politics.
In this respect, globalization is interpreted as
especially large-scaled internationalization,
having broken forth through all the known
frames and being supplemented by informational
technologies of the period. Being understood
this way, globalization is rather often directly or
implicitly connected to the crisis and dissolution
of the USSR, which has given the way to USAcentric world determination, and by extreme
estimations – to transference of the whole world
into American super-colony (with only exception
of China).
According to A.S.Panarin’s mind, the
main meanings of globalization ideology are
the following: the position of gradual going
away from all the local interests, norms and
traditions, the trampling upon the state as a
carrier of regionalism; the refusal from most
of achievements in economics, politics and
other spheres; the singling out of one side of the
process – the resources planning availability to
the benefit of mighty states and to the prejudice
of peripheral ones and so on. Globalism appears
to be as an opposition of the minority, having
acquired the highest mobility, to the inert majority
of people [6, p. 5-26].
And only some of the researchers
define globalization, denoting «economical
internationalization», «social internationalization»,
«cultural internationalization» and so on. Thus,
according to Ju.Shishkov, globalization is a
spatial characteristic of mankind’s economical
life internationalization at the present stage, while
today’s integration is the highest degree of just the
same internationalization [7]. G.H.Shahnazarov
considers globalization and internationalization
to be equal notions [8, p. 185]. To the mind of
A.P.Butenko, though, there are a lot of definitions
of the considered phenomena, all the authors, who
write about globalization, explain it as «today’s
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form of economical life internationalization, and
it was spoken about in the course of all the ХХ
century» [9, p. 3]. We think that the main direction
and a certain implication of the definition of
globalization through internationalization are
hidden in the propaganda of inevitable exit of
sovereign states from the historical arena and
the loss of the main democratic requirement –
powerful sovereignty of the nation.
The attempt to systemize different
conceptions and quite different definitions
of the notion of «globalization» are given in
the monograph of V.P.Vawekin, I.A.Muntjan,
A.P.Ursul «Globalization: What is it?», where the
proper world vision is given through the notion
of «globalization»: «… globalization – is… a
camouflage form of globalism ideology, which
uses world development objective tendencies
for substantiation of egoistic national interests
priorities of the modern international relation
«grands», for justification of hegemonies politics
in international affairs» [10, p. 76-77].
The given approach resonates with the
fundamental research work of M. Deljagin, who
has commented the current situation the following
way: «The bitter truth for every analytics lies
in the fact, that modern global contest is led
by heterogeneous and partially unobservable
subjects, existing on different surfaces, striving to
irreconcilable targets and acting by heterogeneous
methods. They are not able to understand (and
sometimes even to notice) each other, because
of fundamental distinctions within the system of
values and the line of action, and that deprives
them very often of the very opportunity to come
to not a tactical, concluded for the sake of some
local target, but to a long-lasting agreement»
[11, p. 330]. That is why globalization research
demands special efforts and is hardly possible
without a systematic analysis.
In the article «Globalization in a New
Civilization Strategy» A.D.Ursul and T.A.Ursul
pay special attention to a socio-natural vision of
globalization, which, according to their point
of view, «allows to understand more deeply
the essential features of this civilizational
and, at the same time, planetary evolutional
process» [12, p. 26]. Considering globalization
as an objective law, being expressed in a
global integrity appropriation by the system of
«man-society-nature», the authors disclose the
socio-natural contradiction of the process and
prove it to be caused by the market-economy
centric model of unsustainable development,
which lies in the basis of the modern stage of
L.N.Moskvichev singles out two points
of view of the modern globalization process
vision: 1) globalization as an assemblage of
political, economical, organizational, and
cultural-ideological measures, taken by the
Largest Western Economies (first of all USA)
for the purpose of semination of western values,
institutions, way of life and way of thinking all
over the world; 2) globalization as an assemblage
of objective-subjective fundamental processes,
significantly changing the basis and the image
of civilization and adumbrating a new stage of
the mankind development. Comparing the first
analysis level with the visible part of the iceberg,
the author rightfully thinks globalization in
its essential, civilizational key to be the main
object of philosophical reflection and dedicates
the major part of the work to the second analysis
level. Generally, we share the given approach
and consider it inevitable to single out the main
qualitative distinction of globalization from
the former forms of international connections.
It consists in the following: being basically a
complex of informational, technological and
economical processes, it causes qualitative
changes in other social spheres, and what is the
main thing – in the way of life and thinking of
huge masses of people [13].
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The complex essence of globalization is
revealed in the articles of K.H.Dalokarov and
F.D.Demidov « Globalization and the Problems
of Nonlinear Civilizational Development» and
V.V.Krylov «Global Transformations in the Context
of Synergetic Paradigm». The authors of the first
article proceed from globalization interpretation
as of a becoming reality, being in the process of
development and having many forms and ways of
manifestation. To understand the modern stage of
globalization means, to their mind, to understand
the essence of civilizational transformations, taking
place in the world under the influence of various
factors, especially geopolitical, economical, and
scientific-technological. And substantiating the
thesis, that multidimensionality, complexity and
difficult predictability of globalization process
are the result of its openness and nonlinearity, the
authors think one of the main reasons of today’s
civilizational crisis to be the attempts of industrially
developed countries, especially USA, to apply the
linear scheme of world development in a variety
of ways and to manage this complex, unstable
reality from one single centre. The authors affirm
inappropriateness of the linear-forceful solution to
local and regional conflicts, which has become the
leading practice of the last decades, and they also
pay attention to the fact that, on one hand, the world
is really in need of common targets elaboration for
solving global problems and overcoming the crisis
of basic civilizational values, but, on the other hand,
its growing complexity makes it difficult to manage
so complex, open and unstable systems [14, p. 56].
A.G.Volodin and G.K.Shirokov fairly underline
that globalization as a many-sided phenomenon is
not the result of transient or sudden changes, but
a gradual, nonlinear process, with some periods
of acceleration and moderation. In the course of
their research work, the authors rightfully strive
to «correlate economical and political aspects of
globalization» [15, p. 14]. Though, other researchers,
for example E.Bragina, do not quite agree with
such an approach: «shall we nevertheless pay
attention to the instability of most organizations
and associations of this group of the countries,
which have partially ceased their existence or lost
their influence, when the opposition between USA
and USSR has become impossible» [16, p. 201].
That is why the scientific task within the
considered problem is the following: to reveal the
main parameters of globalism influence over the
main tendencies of social progress on the basis
of objective analysis of globalism phenomenon
and to work out scientifically substantiated
recommendations on the optimal organization
of international interrelations in all the spheres
of their life activity. The role of science is also
to anticipate the subjectivism of the leading
countries’ politicians in their ambition to speed up
the evolutionary objective laws of globalism and
to perform globalization at their sole discretion,
and, at the same time, to anticipate the attempts of
developing and hindward countries to counteract
this objective process [17, p. 47]. It is also
important to take into consideration that studies
of globalization, as contrasted with philosophy,
investigate the most general objective laws of the
mankind development in its quantitative form
and, what is not at all the sphere of philosophical
interests, they construct quantitative models of a
viable controlled world order in conditions of the
anthropogenously overloaded Earth. Studies of
globalization harmoniously combine fundamental
and applicative investigations and research works
[18, p. 57].
We can come to a conclusion, that the models
of globalization, created by western sociologists
and philosophers, actually suggest the transition
to a structurally homogeneous society by means
of structures unification and with minimal
external social multiformity. Regionalization can
become a real alternative to such a world order.
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N.A. Kosolapov. The Role of Geopolitics in the Epoch of Globalization/ N.A. Kosolapov // Vostok
(ORIENS). – 2003. – №4.
E.N.Ustjugova. Globalization and Culture: the Historical Context / E.N.Ustjugova // Filosofskie
nauki. – 2005. – №12.
I.I.Lukashuk. Globalization, State, and Law. XXI century / I.I.Lukashuk. – Moscow, 2000. p. 1.
A.N.Chumakov. Globalization. Contours of the Integral World / A.N.Chumakov. – Moscow: TK
Velbi, Prospekt Publishing House, 2005.
V.M.Mezhuev. Modernization and Globalization: Two Projects of «the Modern Epoch» /
V.M.Mezhuev // Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor
K.H.Delokarov. Moscow: КМК, 2005.
A.S.Panarin. the Temptation by Globalism / A.S.Panarin. – Moscow, 2000.
Ju.Shishkov Heterogeneity and Development Stages of Globalization Studies / Ju.Shishkov //
MEiMO. – 2001. – №2.
G.Shahnazarov. Globalization and Globalization Studies – the Phenomenon and the Theory. Pro
et Contra / G.Shahnazarov. – Osen' 2000. Vol. 5. – №4.
A.P.Butenko. Globalization: its Essence and Today’s Problems / A.P.Butenko // SocialHumanitarian Knowledge. – 2001. – №3.
N.I.Vawekin, M.A.Mutjan, A.D.Ursul. Globalization and Steady Development / N.I.Vawekin,
M.A.Mutjan. – Moscow, 2002.
M.G.Deljagin. the World Crisis: the General Theory of Globalization / M.G.Deljagin. – 3-d revised
and enlarged edition. – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2003.
A.D.Ursul, T.A.Ursul. Globalization in a New Civilizational Strategy / A.D.Ursul, T.A.Ursul
// Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. –
Moscow: КМК, 2005.
L.N.Moskvichev. Globalization – Two Analysis Levels / L.N.Moskvichev // Globalization and
Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. – Moscow: КМК, 2005.
K.H.Delokarov, F.D.Demidov. Globalization and the Problems of Nonlinear Civilizational
Development / K.H.Delokarov, F.D.Demidov // Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern
Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. – Moscow: КМК, 2005.
A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. Globalization: its Beginning, Tendencies, and Perspectives /
A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. – Moscow: IV RAN, 2002.
E.A.Bragina. Is Globalization Global? / E.A.Bragina // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №5.
L.M.Karapetjan. About the Notions of «Globalism» and «Globalization» / L.M.Karapetjan //
Filosofskie nauki. – 2003 – №3.
V.V.Olen'ev, A.P.Fedotov. Globalization Studies on the Verge of ХХI Century / V.V.Olen'ev,
A.P.Fedotov // Voprosy filosofii. – 2003. – №4.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 384-390
УДК 008
The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
Tatiana A. Yakovleva*
South-Ural State University,
76 Lenin, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Transition states of culture are the most interesting to scientific research. However in a cultural science
has no uniform rationally built concept of transitivity. The theories of transitivity developed within the
limits of natural sciences not can be complete applied to a cultural reality owing to its specificity.
Therefore it is necessary to investigate specificity of culturological understanding of transitivity, to
estimate possibilities of cultural science in development of adequate knowledge of a modern reality of
Keywords: transition state of culture, transitivity, metasystem transition, Self-reflexion, existential
unity, «time-and-place» of culture, «mytho→logy» of culture.
The modern culture passes through a
condition which modern thinkers define as
«threshold», «transgressive» or «transitive».
Already increase of such quantity of synonyms
testifies to the raised research interest to this
condition of culture and a society.
This situation in culture possesses own
difficult, original, inconsistent characteristics,
and can be considered as a special transition state
of culture (or as the transitive type of culture). In
this condition dynamism and the internal logic
of development of culture is shown. It makes
given similar conditions the most interesting and
significant for cultural research.
The transitional state of culture is such
fragment of cultural-historical process when
the cultural reality has already overstepped the
bounds of a former qualitatively certain cultural
condition (culture type), but has not reached still
the characteristic of integrity of the new type, new
system level, definiteness and self-identity of new
quality. The culture endures such situation today,
and thus, the modern cultural condition can be
comprehended only in its logician of transitivity.
However it is possible to assert that there
is no general theory of transitivity in a modern
science. In a theoretical reflexion of a transition
state of modern culture there is a situation which
can be named «a hermeneutical circle»: on the
one hand, initial plurality of concepts of «crisis»
of the culture, increasing interest to studying of
typologically similar cultural epoch, on the other
hand – absence complete, rationally built the concept
of transitivity or universal explanatory model,
and, as consequence, absence of fundamental
proceedings, monographies in this field of a
science. Especially, it is possible to assert that
the modern science does not own the mechanism
of management of transients. Thus necessity of
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
scientific, rational, objective understanding of
the validity of transition for the purpose of
mastering by management mechanisms by this
process does not cause doubts.
But it is difficult, because a science
(and especially science of culture), passing
together with culture a transition state, gets
to an extraordinary situation. This situation is
expressed in a «crisis of true». The science is in
«interparadigmal» space. Criteria of scientific
character and rationality are not established
or washed away. The irrational and mystical
way of thinking gets into a science. Accents in
understanding of the objective and subjective
have changed.
From the point of view of a classical science,
the objective understanding of a transition
state of culture is connected with necessity of
theoretical abstraction from this condition. For
reception of objective knowledge it is necessary
to refuse subjective and emotional empathy to
culture. However the condition of a finding of the
researcher within the limits of a studied cultural
condition calls possibility of such abstraction into
question. Transitivity of modern culture leaves
the mark on scientific thought
The science of culture is becoming sphere
of knowledge and is the form of a self-reflexion
of culture. Thereby it incorporates, reflects and
expresses all contradictions of a condition of
modern culture. The science of culture should
comprehend a reality of a modern transition
state and itself in this transition, should realise
own possibilities in a rationalistic reflexion of a
phenomenon of transitivity and a condition of
development of practical knowledge about it.
Revealing of a problematics
of transitivity in a context of complete vision
of cultural-historical process
Modern researchers understand the
importance of transitive conditions for culture
development. But several decades ago the similar
point of view was not general. Own problematic
of transitivity has appeared only in the XX-th
century in which gnoseological space principles
«classical», «nonclassical» and becoming
«postnonclassical» paradigms are interfaced. To
track history of its formation, we will address
to corresponding concepts of cultural-historical
The idea of development or evolution
became unconditional achievement of classical
European thought. Putting forward the concept
of cultural-historical process as developments,
the European philosophical thought builds two
basic conceptual models: evolutionary model and
dialectic model.
Both these models inevitably built the
vision of movement of history of a society and
culture according to concept of «future» and
mythologeme of «the end of way». The first model
is yet capable to allocate transitive conditions
as independent and self-valuable fragments of
cultural history, that is why and as significant
objects of a philosophical reflexion.
From the point of view of evolutionary
model all cultural-historical process appears as
huge gradual transition from a wild primitive
condition through barbarity to civilization tops.
The second model allocates transitive conditions
as the independent moments of development
and defines them as dialectic jumps, however
they contact the future condition which should
be inevitable better, «more absolutely» previous
that is why both «past» and jump lose own
«Nonclassical» cultural philosophy does not
reject idea of development, tries to clean idea of
«ending» and «purpose» from vision of culturalhistorical process. It considerably expands and
enriches understanding of cultural-historical
process, first, forcing to include in area of cultural
and philosophical reflexion spatially-geographical
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
aspect and to consider real variety of cultures,
and secondly, helps to realise convention of any
schemes created by scientific consciousness.
Within the limits of a «nonclassical»
paradigm the general principle «seizing» of
reality in its «temporality» (V. Diltej), variability,
dynamics is formulated. On this way are created
the concepts which presented in proceedings of
O. Spengler (the concept of cyclic development of
local cultures) and A. Bergson (the concept of «a
vital impulse» and a stream continuity of «pure
Analyzing their ideas from the point of
view of a transitivity problematics, it is possible
to notice that the circuitry of cultural-historical
process offered by the concept of local cultures,
does not provide existence of «transitive forms»
as independent, localized in time and space as
«transitivity» is perceived only in categories of
Evolutionism. Model of «creative evolution»,
the absolutising continuity of development,
also does not recognize objectivity of transitive
conditions, considers as their costs of human
perception: transition is represented as an empty
interval in a tape of «shots» of human perception
as a concession of inability of daily and scientific
consciousness to perceive pure duration, a life
stream is direct.
The nonclassical philosophical thought could
not realize «transitive states» as independent
yet, the moments of cultural-historical process
possessing own maintenance owing to the
specificity. But this transition state has been
given the European consciousness in a first-hand
experience of crisis of culture.
Experience by culture of a transition state
turns around dissociation, a fragmentariness
of human consciousness, loss by the person
and culture of self-identity, self-identity, selfconcentration. The complete sight at the world is
necessary to the person and culture for the selfidentity maintenance. The cultural science is born
as one of answers to necessity of understanding
of a transition state of culture and restoration of
complete vision of a reality. The culturological
knowledge gets to action of a force field of a
becoming «postnonclassical» paradigm.
The modern model of culture is built on
the basis of principles of the system approach,
cybernetics and synergetrics. She allows to reveal
transitive conditions as the necessary moments of
cultural-historical process and to present them as
the significant objects of research possessing own
If to be based on this model, it is possible to
define a culture transition state as a phenomenon
of a cultural reality which existence is caused,
on the one hand, specificity of human perception
(ability simultaneously to articulate and complete
reflexion of the validity), and on the other hand,
objective laws of the development of culture,
as a phenomenon which visually embodies a
remedial associativity previous, the past and
the future, projective condition of culture. Such
definition of a transition state allows to establish
that connection (-distinction) between structural
levels, temporal conditions of culture which is
necessary for, dynamically-complete vision of
cultural-historical process.
The basic methodological approaches
to research of transitive states
of culture Aspects of studying
of a phenomenon of transitivity
The recognition of a phenomenon of
transitivity as significant object of research has
caused of its versatile and multidimensional
studying. The most considerable results have
been reached on positions of the Philosophicalhistorical approach, combined efforts of
Phenomenology of culture and Existentialism,
and also the Struktural-semiotical approach.
The Philosophical-historical approach
concentrates on evolutionary aspect of dynamics
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
of culture. This approach applies laws of dialectic
philosophy on a reality of cultural-historical
process. On the basis of the analysis of concrete
historical types of culture, he allows to present a
transition state as independent type of culture. As
criteria of allocation of actually transitive epoch
are offered qualitative transformation semantic
kernel of culture (its outlook, language, a myth),
loss by culture of self-identity and coexistence
forms, styles (that is most brightly traced in
aesthetic aspect at studying of specificity of art
and art creativity in the conditions of this type
of culture), cultural practices, before were on
culture periphery.
culturalphilosophy of Existentialism, attaching
the greatest significance to anthropological and
gnoseological aspects of research of transitivity,
have allowed to reveal interface in it of two levels
of life: onto- and phylogenetic, personal and
cultural. This correlation is seen in awakening
in transitivity of own nature of thinking. As the
person is considered as the subject of cultural
creativity, in refusal of automatism of thinking,
orientations on itself and in aspiration to
understanding of unfamiliar maintenances, to
sense finding the transition state essence comes
to light. «Transitive» from the point of view of
this approach it is realised as «boundary», than
intensity of experience of transitivity and its
«humanity» as the image of «threshold» is always
interfaced to idea of «prestanding» is underlined:
in this sense occurs some kind of absolutization of
the moments of transition as moments of «original
life», thereby, in understanding of transitivity it
is brought valuable categories thinking and an
investigating mainly sign-language (semiotics)
aspect of transitivity (and incorporating thus
achievements hermeneutics and information
theories), comprehends a transitivity situation as
actualisation in culture hermeneutical situations
of plurality of senses and sense interpretation,
co-existing among themselves both in dialogue,
and in opposition. This approach owing to most
intermediary the sign nature expands concept of
transitivity to almost any forms of intermediary.
Mechanisms of transition are comprehended
as inversion and mediation, thus inversion changes
can be carried to intersystem changes, mediative
changes and are, as a matter of fact, metasystem
transition interesting us first of all – a birth of
wider and general system level uniting some of
similar systems – in semiotics treatment – a metalanguage. Besides, the reference within the limits
of this approach directly to structure of human
consciousness allows to consider the binarity
characteristic as necessary and for the process
of thinking as a whole, and for understanding of
specificity of thinking in a transition situation.
Research of a phenomenon of transitivity
from the point of view of various approaches
allows not only to prove it as significant and
multilevel object of research, but also to reveal
necessity of interface of various levels and aspects
of understanding of transitivity more convincing.
That more clearly designates prospect of necessity
of synthesis of versatile knowledge in complete
understanding of a phenomenon of transitivity in
a context of complete vision of the culture.
«Time» and «place» existential
characteristics in a cultural reflexion
of a phenomenon of transitivity
At attempts to synthesize different levels
and aspects of knowledge of a phenomenon of
transitivity there is a question: what can be a basis
for creation within the limits of cultural science
complete concept of transitivity? If we allocate a
transition state as objectively existing phenomenon
of a cultural reality, as independent structure of
cultural-historical process, independent type of
culture such phenomenon by definition should
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
possess own existential localisation and own
representation about a finding in space and time,
own reflexion of «place» and «time». These
positions unite in concept of the existential unity
(«time-and-place» unity), allowing to see any
condition of culture as whole.
Thus, it is necessary to approach to complete
studying and interpretation of a phenomenon of
transitivity from a position of a recognition of
presence at a transition state of own time and
space, and, thereby, own semantic maintenance.
The reference to phenomenology of modern
culture and to modern cultural and to philosophical
consciousness allows to trace specificity of a
reflexion of time-space of transitivity, and to
see in it actualisation of the metaphors directly
connected with existential characteristics
of transitivity and its semantic filling: such
metaphors are: «threshold» (M. Heidegger, V.
Bibler), «a crossroads of cultures» (V. Bibler, G.
Knabe), «fold» (G. Deleuze), «labyrinth» (U. Eko),
«emptiness» or «anything» (M. Heidegger, G.-P.
Sartre), «primary chaos» (M. Eliade), «ways» and
«crossroads» (F. Girenok), «intermirror-space»
(V. Kruglikov), etc.
In modern culture and in a modern theoretical
reflexion is reproduced the archetypical circuitry
of rite of passage (initiation). It allows to tell
about present existence of concept of transitivity
mainly as mytho-cultural-logical metaphor.
The sense of this metaphor, as well as sense of
transition, is realized as a meeting (interface) of
various cultural forms, traditions, an expert by
means of various forms of their interaction (and
not just the dialogical form) in transitivity timespace. In this sense turning of culture back, in the
past, can be understood as memory actualization,
revival of former experience by means of which
projective forms of culture arising are deduced
from a latent condition.
Thus, transitivity realizes the major function
of initiation toward culture and the person.
However experience of transition marginalizes a
current state of culture, reproduces characteristics
absence of distinctions (G. Baudrillard),
of syncretic unity and immerses a human
consciousness in atmosphere of a myth of «ends»
and «beginnings».
Mystification of a transitive reality it
is inevitably reflected in theoretical thought
that forces to ask a question on possibility
and conditions of actually scientific, rational
understanding of transitivity. The cultural science
positions itself as essentially new science, called
to synthesize knowledge of culture, to realize
culture as whole. Thus, the problem of scientific
understanding of transitivity puts before it. For
revealing of possibilities of such synthesis it is
necessary to address to the nature and specificity
of culturological knowledge.
Consciousness of culture in a transition state:
Cultural science between a «myth»
and «logos»
Cultural science formation as essentially
new level of humanitarian knowledge is directly
connected with a transition state of a modern
society and culture. Transitivity is given modern
consciousness in a first-hand experience. The
transition state as a reality phenomenon is
perceived and endured by the person. It requires
the description and an explanation. If we perceive
it as a phenomenon of a cultural reality, the
problem of its complete, system research is put
before cultural science.
The cultural science is not simply a science
about culture, and it is represented as the form of
a self-reflexion of culture (along with mythology,
art, religion, philosophy) and as a meta- language
of humanitarian knowledge. Its formation in
itself is metasystem transition from languages
the special humanitarian disciplines (which are
studying specific spheres of culture) to formation
of the uniform language. Its necessity is proved
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
by requirement of understanding of logic of
culture as whole.
The culturological thought is capable to
come nearer to understanding of a transition
state of culture. The cultural science becomes the
intermediary-translator, dialogue means in culture
and person dialogue. It is not only language by
means of which the person speaks «apropos»
cultures, but it is language by means of which the
person can become copresent to culture that is
overcome «estrangement» from culture.
At the same time, completeness and integrity
(organic interrelation of elements, their strict
structural sequence and accurate distribution
of functions) culturological knowledge remains
more likely wished today, rather than its cash
condition. It is expressed in remaining uncertainty
of base concepts, in neosyncretic merge of art,
scientifically-philosophical, mystical, daily
ways of perception of a cultural reality, and in
methodological eclecticism. The cultural science
as the form of consciousness of culture, certainly,
possesses some integrity, but this special type of
The cultural science in this sense represents
more likely «mytho→logical» knowledge can
be defined as «mytho→logy» of culture (the
implication sign is used by us not casually). Such
strange definition demands the explanatory. The
term «mythology» can be used in two senses: as a
science about myths and as a system of myths. To
cultural science both definitions are applicable.
First, positioning itself as a science about
senses, the cultural science inevitably comes
to the limiting basis of any sense – to a myth.
Secondly, the culture becomes the main object
of mystification. The culture is represented as a
certain «metasubject». The culture assimilates to
the person: it has a body, the soul; it lives certain
age, stages of formation of the person, aspires
to self-sufficiency and self-determination and
possesses ability of a self-reflexion.
Probably we observe a birth of a new myth.
This is the Myth about culture. It helps to find
integrity to culture and cultural science. This
myth initiates aspiration to understanding of
logic of culture.
In a sense, science synthesis about culture
is «primitive» and «monstrous» today. The
culturological understanding of transitivity is
substantially metaphoric that, however, is a
necessary gnoseological stage on a way of rational
understanding of a transition state.
Besides, «the transitive», «intermediary»
nature of the cultural science allows to assert
that the culturological knowledge is not «ready»
or «complete» knowledge. But it is allows the
modern person most to make transition from
separated, fragmentary «initial intuitions» about
the world (about actually human world, that is,
about culture) to forming of own outlook, pledge
of unity and which integrity is integrity of the
In general it is possible to tell that the global
purpose of our epoch consists in not simply
to overcome a transition state, but to live it, to
comprehend it, to receive transitivity experience.
Thus, the cultural science executes the same
function, as transitivity. It is a function of an
initiation. Direct experience-myth about culture
provokes interest to it, and its variability clears up
requirement for a rational reflexion with a view of
adequate interaction with a cultural reality, with a
reality of cultural transition.
V. Bibler, From the doctrine of science to a logic of culture: two philosophical introductions in
the XX-th century (Moscow,1990)
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Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion
D. Carr, Place and time: on the interplay of historical points of view // Agency after postmodernism,
(Middletown, Conn., 2001), pp. 153-167.
Changing times: Reflections on the development of self and culture: Special issue // Culture &
psychology, Vol. 6, № 2. (London, 2000), pp. 99-272.
Crisis of a modern civilisation. A choice of way. The collection of reviews, edited by F. Girenok
(Moscow, 1991)
Culturological researches"03: the Collection of proceedings, edited by G. Schedrina, (St.Petersburg, 2003)
M. Kagan, To a problem of transitive type of culture//the System approach and humanitarian
knowledge: Selected articles (Leningrad,1991)
А. Pelipenko, I. Yakovenko, The system of culture: Structural morphology of culture (Moscow,
J. Stern, Кnowledge by metaphor // Midwest studies in philosophy, 24: Figurative language
(Oxford, 2001), pp. 187-226.
V. Turchin, The phenomenon of science: the cybernetic approach to evolution (Moscow, 2000)
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 391-395
УДК 130.1
Globalization as a Form of Historical Process
and Axiology of History in Russia
Michel P. Jacenko*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
In the given article we consider peculiarities of historical cognition under the conditions of globalization,
of which one of the most important characteristics is a forceful interpretation of history. Here, we
prove that it is performed in the interest of the subjects of globalization, i.e. leading western countries
on the account of the countries of «the Second and the Third World», and that is why the ideologists of
globalization are not interested in objective study of the historical Past. They use history in its eurocentric variant, in which basis there are mondialistic tendencies, justifying aggressive ambitions of
globalization initiators, and the result of it becomes the menace that separate societies can loose their
socio-cultural essences. In the given situation, consideration of axiological peculiarities of Russia
becomes of special importance and substantiates its place in the globalized world society upon the
basis of its own historical traditions.
Keywords: axiological setups; «Russian way»; of historical cognition; culture globalization;
westernization; internationalization; historical bases of globalization
In the conditions of modern Russia,
axiological content of historical cognition, as a
quality being immanent to it, makes actual those
national values, which find their social-political
expression in national interests and further are
concretized in national objectives, and all that
defines the involvement of historical cognition in
the sphere of national security of Russia.
The proofs of historical experience inventory
necessity in the conditions of the new world
formation under the influence of globalization
is also an attempt of creation of united federal
European state foundation by means of conclusion
of a constitutional agreement, which would take
into account a gradual refusal from national
parliaments and institutions. It has exactly
demonstrated that it is too early to speak about one
common European nation and, correspondingly,
there cannot be any speaking about common
European state [1, p. 12].
That is why, basing on their history, Russian
citizens become more and more convinced, that
there is no need to compete with modern Europe
in everything. «We did a lot of our own mistake
in our own history, especially in ХХ century.
Do not fill our ill and recessionary society with
«temptations»… May be, there is some advantage
in the fact, that our people feel some more
ashamed. There is its own benefit in conservatism
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Michel P. Jacenko. Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia
of the modern Russians. Do not transfer the
struggle for human rights into the ploughing of
the field of grief and emptiness of life. Today,
the rights of man are much more important
for us in their primeval, humanistic sense». [2,
p. 3]. Exactly positive and negative conclusions
(lessons) of social development in ХХ century
allow peoples and countries, using their will,
energy and persistency, focusing on more perfect
and optimal ways of self-development [3].
Our native philosopher N. Fedorov
understood well the essence of collectivistic
society and the necessity of its consolidation.
He considered historical process from the point
of view of «the common cause», criticizing
both capitalism and socialism. Patrofication is
supposed to return fathers to life, though in a
new body, but in a transfigured way and having
a possibility of body’s self-creation from nonorganic materials. In perspective, the humanity
must learn how to control not only the movement
of the Earth, its atmosphere, but the Sun system,
and the Universe as well. For centuries Russia
took upon itself the heavy historical duty of
placation of the errant East and the agonistic
West, of gathering lands and nations together, and
uniting them in to one common whole. Russian
state has a watch, guarding character. On its way
of centuries-old assertion, it has gathered huge
powers, concentrated in itself such qualities as
solidarity, force, which can be and must be used
for the common cause of struggle against blind
powers of nature [4].
Today, world historical science experiences
the change of paradigms, methodological
setups, becoming closer to psychology, and
moving towards the history of social notions and
mentalities [5, p. 149]. Inventively using the ideas
of world social studies, our scientists return, but
this time having weighted it more carefully and
with due respect, to real (but not speculative)
demands of Russia and possibilities of their
realization, to the problem of alternativeness of
the Russian historical process on its different
From the point of view of the West,
peculiarity of the historical way of Russia has
been quite often considered as our country’s
falling out from the world-wide context, though,
as a matter of fact, the striving to accumulate
positive experience of Europe and Asia has
meant to be quite perspective for collectivistic
society. In this respect, the publishing of the
volume, dedicated to Russia, of the voluminous
«History of Mankind», issued under the aegis
of UNESCO, – is a significant event not only
for the Russian historiography, but for the entire
country on the whole. For the first time Russia
has been thoroughly written in to the context of
the world civilization, and the fact is principally
important in today’s conditions. More over, the
authors have had to face a difficult dilemma, as
far as the problems of integration and variability
of historical process are treated differently in
various theories of social development. Besides,
the classical concept of modernization is also
based on the version of evolutionary approach,
which is not flexible enough for variable changing
of history.
From the point of view of leading native
scientists, history is a fundamental process of
human development, of which criteria are the
following: betterment of the quality of people’s
life, of their way of life, personal development,
progress, which means people’s movement
«towards welfare, conveniences, comfort, towards
precise and reliable creature comforts, towards
material wealth, towards cultural and spiritual
development, towards personal perfection and
betterment of the quality of life on the whole
in all its material and spiritual manifestations»
[6, p. 2]. Usage of the basic parameters data
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Michel P. Jacenko. Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia
allows considering the history of countries and
peoples as organic components of global human
development. Thereat, the denoted parameters
appear to be indicators of the degree of integration
of separate historical currents in the panhuman
process of civilization, and that principally
contradicts the modern stage of globalization,
which is fully based on the system of «western
Necessity to realize a historical chance, on
the basis of a collectivistic society, can be also
explained by the fact that Western Europe turned
out to be incapable to incarnate the Christian ideal
of life integrity, as far as it has over-estimated the
logical way of cognition and rationality. And up
till now Russia has not managed to bring this
ideal to life, because the full and all-embracing
truth develops slowly by its essence and also
because of the fact, that Russian people pay
too little attention to development of the logical
way of cognition, which, to the opinion of N.
Losskij, must go together with the super-logical
understanding of reality [7, p. 41].
Considering cycles of the Russian history,
А. Zubov writes: «Hell and high water, which
fall to the share of the society in a period of
political disturbances, as a rule, generate moral
reflection, causing the feeling of repentance for
father’s deeds, and increasing religious moods.
Before the period of disturbances, the society is
characteristic of eudaimonist values, orientation
for the goods of earthly life, indifference towards
eternity and towards saving in God. In predisturbance time religion becomes the server of
earthly wealth, its ideological supporter, loosing
its self-valuable significance in the eyes of the
majority, and clams up into an all-sufficient rite.
And visa verse, while coming out of political
disturbances religion takes the central place in
life orientations… Though, growing stronger,
both power, and people begin to pay more and
more attention to eudemonistic tasks of political
and domestic character. Gathering all the powers
for restoring its previous grandeur and even
insensibly surpassing it in its new annexations,
Russia inevitably pays for its external powers’
growing in the gold of faith and piety, having been
gathered in first decades of political disturbance
overcoming. People gradually turn from the state
activity goal into the means of national grandeur
achievement, and the faith transforms form the
pledge of Kingdom of Heaven into a consolidatingpeople political ideology» [8, p. 162].
In the conditions of globalization before
historians there appear at least two problems,
which concern the structure and the elements of
historical action, and precisely: 1) the necessity
of reconsidering of the problem of historical
action subject, who forms modern development
processes on the background of national state
model crisis. We need define the degree and
the meaning of organized elites’ activity, their
confrontation and efficiency of their influence
over the politics; 2) evaluation of the sovereign
state conception survivability under the
conditions of globalization and informational
technologies development, and also establishing
of the connection between the elites’ activity
and «the spirit of the nation», esprit genera [9, p.
147-148]. To our mind, such approach is possible
only on the basis of the dialectic approach, which
realizes collectivistic axiological setups, and that
is why it is important to bear in mind that «the
understanding of importance of stable social
interconnections and interactions as a factor,
which determines, stipulates and, at the same
time, limits humane activity, has not appeared
immediately. It constitutes the content of many
legends and myths and is an important element of
any culture, especially on its initial development
stages» [10, p. 81]. According to P. Boyko, under
modern conditions «… the time itself becomes
anti-metaphysic and anti-dogmatic, requiring an
unflattering forum of dialectic mind in respect of
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philosophy of history of ХХ century.» [11, p. 18].
A certain optimism in salvation of the problems,
connected to historical choice of the Russian
way and the way of the whole world, is observed
by most scientists in the fact that «the national
historical science experiences a new fruitful
period, when one can find not a re-writing, but a
re-thinking of the history of Russia in the works
of its best representatives» [12, p. 125].
One more important aspect appears in the
conditions of globalization. Nation and citizenship
in Russian interpretation have not always coincided
with Western-European stereotypes. It is known,
that precisely Russian pedagogical intelligentsia,
basing on firm historical background, has
appeared to be the carrier of ideas and traditions of
international understanding and mental tolerance.
Though, as it is marked by specialists, «as it
has been proved by mass educational practice,
upperclassmen familiarization with opposite view
points of history development without necessary
system of methodical operations does not always
contribute to students’ integral worldview
formation» [13, p. 51].
A modern historian, especially working in
regions, being far from the capital, has always been
an authority, a Russian nationhood keeper within
the ethnic upbringing system. Native historians,
especially tutors of historical disciplines, have
always had their own view points of the problems,
formulated by the following categories: «nation
and power», «monarchy, autocracy, democracy,
dictatorship in the Russian history», «democratic
experience of Russia», ideas of collegiality and
so on. In the conditions of values’ re-estimation,
Russophobia and nationalism, the task of the
historian is in the following: to keep on trying
to draw historical parallels at every lesson and
that gives the possibility to students to get rid
of complexes («the prison of nations», «the
sanguinary past» and so on.). The time has come
to compile the true history of Russia [14].
We can come to a conclusion, that heuristic
worldview essence of historical cognition and, as
a consequence, its important moral-upbringing
component finds it’s fullest expression in the
modern educational-historical literature, which
forms moral and social-political position of the
new generation, and that defines youth’s life
activity in the future. Worldview essence of
historical cognition determines the process of
educational variants’ creation of states’ national
history on the post-soviet territory, and that is a
special way of reconsideration of the place and
the role of the local ethnic cultures in the past and
in the present, it shows the influence of the given
literature over domestic and foreign political
aspects of Russian national security.
Only multipolar world can stop the American
globalism, revealing itself as a non-constructive
and forceful imposing of its system of values to
all the world society, up to the loss of its sociocultural identity, and precisely in such a world
Russia has its chance not to lose its sovereignty
and identity. National culture preservation and
development will also help the process.
Thus, general course of thinking is
appropriate of all the nations, involved in historical
movement; it is constant and continuous, having
tendencies to growth, though, in some periods
history can slow down and contain as panhuman,
so individual features, being typical of every
separate ethnos, though, there is one common
human nature in the basis of everything.
V. Zajffert. What Will Happen to European Union? / V. Zajffert // Literaturnaja gazeta. – 2006. –
22–28 February. (№ 7–8).
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2. A. Cipko. The Third Medievalism / A. Cipko // Literaturnaja gazeta. – 2006. – 29 March – 4
3. V. Semenov. Lessons of XX Century and The Way to XXI Century: (social-philosophic analysis
and prognosis) / V. Semenov. – Moscow, 2000.
4. M. V. Arhipov. Social-Utopian Cosmism by N. F. Fedorov / M. V. Arhipov // Russia: the past, the
present, the future: materials of All-Russia scientific-practical conference, St. Petersburg, 16–19
December 1996 г. – St. Petersburg, 1996.
5. A. M. Dubrovskij. Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zimin: A Difficult Way of Seeking / A. M.
Dubrovskij // Otechestvennaja istorija. – 2005. – № 4.
6. The History Of Mankind: 8 volumes. Volume VIII. Russia / general editorship by corresponding
member of RAS A. N. Saharov. – Moscow: Publishing House «MAGISTR-PRESS», 2003.
7. N. O. Losskij. The History of Russian Philosophy / N. O. Losskij. – Moscow: Sovetskij pisatel’,
8. A. B. Zubov. Cycles of Russian History / A. B. Zubov // Philosophical Questions. – 2003. – № 2.
9. S. I. Dudnik. History and Historical Consciousness / S. I. Dudnik // I (A. Slinin) and WE. – St.
Petersburg: St. Petersburg Philosophical Society, 2002. – Edition X.
10. B. F. Porshnev. Social Psychology and History / B. F. Porshnev. – Moscow, 1991.
11. Bojko P.E. The Idea of Russia in Russian Historical Philosophy. Moscow: Publishing House
«Social’no-politicheskaja MYSL’’». 2006.
12. Asian Russia in Geopolitical and Civilization Dynamics. XVI–XX Centuries / V. V. Alekseev, E.
V. Alekseeva, K. I. Zubkov, I. V. Poberezhnikov. – Moscow: Nauka, 2004.
13. P. A. Baranov. Tendencies of Modern Development / P. A. Baranov // History Teaching. – 2001. –
№ 3.
14. V. Poljakov. In Warm Blood Lenin and Tritskiy We’ve Loved. Is it the end of «Ogon’kov’s» Prompt
Course of Russian History? / V. Poljakov // Literaturnaja gazeta. – 2007. – 4-10 April.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 396-402
УДК 316.32
Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect)
Michel P. Jacenko* and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Modern condition of historical gnoseology is the result of a complex process of differentiation, which
has been going and is going now, differentiation of historical cognition and the birth of historical
science. There can be singled out two directions in philosophy of history: one of them generates
knowledge, addressed to historical reality, the other is the knowledge, revealing logical structure and
methodological bases of historical cognition itself.
Historical gnoseology involves all the forms of cognition, all the axiological structures, which are
present in common knowledge, in artistic, philosophical, political and scientific cognition. Problems
appear, when we start constructing historical knowledge classifications, synthesizing empirical
(or descriptive-historiographical) and theoretical levels (philosophy of history, theoretical history,
sociology) of investigative activity, as far as here, the historian must possess qualities of philosopher
to the full extent, be able to investigate, if not to solve a complicated knot of axiological and ontological
History plays a principal role in reproduction of «the collective memory», in the possibility to connect
the interests of personality formation and a whole row of basic historical categories (ethnos, world
society, and civilization) in history making, what acquires a special meaning in the conditions of
Keywords: historical cognition; historical gnoseology; cognitive structure; dynamics of historical
cognition; differentiation of historical cognition; historical bases of globalization.
The approach, according to which
development of humanity is characterized by
principal integrity, is rather well-spread in
science. This approach has been expressed in
the evolutionistic paradigm. We may refer the
formational theory to one of its variants with an
element of conventionality. Classical conception of
modernization is also based on the evolutionistic
approach version, which is not sensitive enough
to the variable changing of history. That is why
the statement of E. Morena sounds rather topical:
«The matter is not in the fact that we are to refuse
from cognation of parts in favour of cognation
of integrities or to refuse from analysis in favour
of synthesis; we need to combine both of them.
This is the challenge to complexity, which we are
inevitably to face in the period of our planetary
era». Understanding of the depth of global
problems provokes in the society a challenge to
uncertainty, which is first of all revealed in the
loss of future: «In XX century, people found out
that they had lost their future, as far as they had
proved, that their future was unpredictable…
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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The future still stays open and unpredictable».
Moreover, people have perceived that «history
does not at all present by itself a linear evolution
… history is a complicated knot of order, disorder
and organization» [1, p. 16-19].
«Historicity» of knowledge is measured by
the time of events and can be understood as its
other dynamics, being different from the linear
one. Thus, «the picture of history» is defined
by the existential condition of conscious (epoch
mentality, spirit of time and so on. Cognitive
intentions of conscious are also included in
the fabric of history. Thereat, social reality
conditions become historical to the extent to
which the situation contains the act of appearing
of something new. Being used in the historical
cognition, notions are more often not so strict in
their logical sense. The historian more often deals
with concepts instead of notions. For example,
the notion of «history» itself is transformed into
a concept. We may also refer to such concepts
as «community», «revolution», and «farmer»
and so on. They differ from their notions by
their flexibility, poly-semanticity, and polyfunctionality and in this form they are not so
strict in the logical scale.
Problems appear, when we start constructing
historical knowledge classifications, synthesizing
empirical (or descriptive-historiographical)
and theoretical levels (philosophy of history,
theoretical history, sociology) of investigative
activity, as far as here, the historian must possess
qualities of philosopher to the full extent, be able
to investigate, if not to solve a complicated knot of
axiological and ontological problems. And as far
as «the combination of qualities of a historian and
a philosopher in one person is quite a rear case»
[2, p. 331], moreover, these qualities in classic
rationality have been referred to different types
of activity – factual knowledge and theoretical
knowledge – so, they are sooner turn out to be
differentiated in different disciplines (proper
historical disciplines and theoretical disciplines:
methodology and philosophy of history), than in
synthesized ones. That is why classical rationality
cannot manage the dilemma of historical
cognition, when it is impossible to admit without
significant concessions the scientific character of
descriptive historiographical works, where there
are no «general compact thinking constructions
(actually, theories and conceptions), able to serve
for integral conceptualizations, understanding
and explanation of piles of various data and facts,
growing as a snow ball, there are no any «objective
laws of society’s historical development» [3, p.
138] and there is not any corresponding categorialnotional apparatus. Though, a vivid image of the
past is revealed in the emotional experience; and
human understanding of the past senses appears
already in the present.
Nevertheless and unfortunately, the attention
of historians is not so concentrated on revelation
of new possibilities of historical cognition and
creative activity conditions, which are forming
the history, as on «negative consequences»,
erasing the border between history and literature,
between objective truth (facts being proved by
the references to a source) and subjective fiction
(free interpretations of the facts, being not
substantiated by any sources). Here, the matter
is not only in the unwillingness of historians to
refuse from the accustomed understanding of
their «crafts», but also in their anxiety to lose
their professional sovereignty, to lose the power
of the historian-ideologist. Nevertheless, a new
expanded interpretation of knowledge historicity
vice a versa allows raising the status of historical
cognition (and scientific cognition on the whole),
though it presupposes modernization of the
profession of a historian.
On the basis of the mentioned, we formulate
theses, which are beyond the limits of classical
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notions of historical knowledge and methods of
its explication in other classifications: the theses
about the uniqueness of historical knowledge,
which is typical for various epochs upon «peculiar
circumstances» and with «individual sense»
(Hegel); about the non-linear dynamics of historical
knowledge; about the dynamics of social reality,
defined by the present time; about people, included
in to the situation as agents, forming social reality;
about history, self-creating through generation of
senses in the present unique situations; about the
possibility to act freely in a certain social situation,
creating a condition-content of generation of other
ideas; about organization of historical knowledge
as an open system.
Precisely, this is the moment, when historical
knowledge becomes the means of search of
possible variants of social processes’ further
development, and the instrument of this search
is thinking in its operation-procedural form. In
this case, historical knowledge is organized in
projects and forecasts in accordance with possible
alternatives of situation development on the basis
of chosen priorities.
It is especially important, because future
global changes will be so deep and so large, that
none of the countries and none of the peoples
on the Earth are ready and able to admit them.
Some branches of industry appear, others –
disappear. The most modern technologies will
become useless and will be changed by new ones,
yet unknown; prospering territories of today
will devastate tomorrow, other lands will suffer
from over-population; today’s moral virtues will
become an object of mockery, and yesterday’s
sins – a condition of success. That is why today
the whole world is speaking about the necessity
«to open oneself anew», «to invent oneself
again» or at least «to understand oneself in the
new world» [4, p. 28].
For example, in her search of an integral
point of view of the world, L.Starodubceva
considers three main means of the world
cognition – theological, philosophical and
scientific. At present time, as it seems to her,
development and differentiation of these three
spheres of knowledge have reached catastrophic
proportions: «… using today the notions of
«theology», «philosophy» and «science», we may
not forget even for a moment that behind each of
them there is a boundless spectrum of schools
and trends, which are quite far from each other,
but sometimes they fancifully intercrosses» [5,
p. 193-194].
Nevertheless, it would be wrong to consider
that integrity of humanity can be reduced to
the leading constants of human existence and
considered as a changeless condition, being
out of history. In various epochs, humanity
possessed its integrity, which differed by its
quantity and quality in the content volume and
revelation form. For a long time, spatial-territorial
disintegration, displacement and dispersal of
tribual-generic communities over the surface
of the earth prevailed in the human history.
This tendency was only partially controlled by
direct communication of separated collectives.
Transition from the appropriating economy
to the producing one («Neolithic revolution»
according to G. Child), from the nomadic to the
domiciled way of life, vivification and growth
of towns, expansion of constantly functioning
communications, territories of towns and later
of empires with the world supremacy messianic
ideology on the basis of the idea of monotheism –
all these brought to a turning point in the course
of the world history, to the oncoming of «the axial
time» (according to К. Jaspers). The process of
divergence, detaching specialization of ethnocultural and ethno-political communities, has
been gradually changed by convergence, which
makes the communities closer to each other by
means of universalization of methods of their
reproduction, what goes most actively in the
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spiritual sphere as far as world religions are
propagated. Objective domination of convergence
over divergence has been fixed in the epoch of
industrial civilization and capitalistic social
stratum becoming. And if on the stage of stratum
formation the tendency to national separation, to
formation of national-regional economy, markets
and states is temporarily increased, then on the
ephebic stage of its development the following
tendencies finally dominate: the tendency of
the world economy formation (international
labour specialization and cooperation), of the
world market (international circulation of capital
and goods) and of the states-empires of a new
type, their coalitions, which share the territory
of geosphere economically, politically, and
ideologically among themselves.
Evolutionary paradigm is opposed by multilinear theories, which followers underline the
variableness of models and stages of development.
The given approach has been vividly revealed
in the theory of local civilizations, which pays
special attention to the peculiarities of separate
civilizations’ or cultures’ dynamics. In the
basis of the second approach, there lies the idea
of plurality of civilizational laws. Thereat, the
tendencies of humanity development disappear,
though the idea of historical integrity is factually
In its today’s bourgeois-liberal variant, the
conception of post-industrialism does not present
any real alternative to the ecologically destructive
industrialism, to the instrumentally using-people
attitude to the world. Though, the main danger
is in the following: as globalization is now
spreading in the horizon of subjective interests
meeting, it leads to changing and, in its tendency,
even to elimination of national cultures, which
up till now have been the basis of civilizational
variety of the mankind [6, p. 233-238].
Though, at present time, the content, goals
and tasks of the world education are more and
more falling behind of the global tendencies
of the informational society’s becoming. And
firstly, it is expressed in the fact that educational
services have got their concrete monetary value
in the result of commercialization, and that has
defined a pragmatic, utilitarian approach towards
education. This approach is expressed in its «being
taken down to earth», in its «fixation» on solving of
practical tasks. But a person, living in the modern
world, is appealed to solve rather complicated
and diversified problems, which demand not
only professional training, but qualitative
fundamental and humanitarian education as well.
In this context, history acquires an exceptional
position. The status of history is raised sharply in
connection with the fact that today the problem
of education humanitarian crisis is especially
acute in the whole world. The given crisis can be
overcome by means of changing of the economical
consumptive paradigm for a new, humanistic one,
including the sphere of education as well. In the
basis of the new humanistic paradigm, there lies a
powerful humanitarian component, which is able
to alter the person, his world outlook, his system
of values, moral and ethic attitudes, his intellect
and education.
In the conditions of globalization, historians
face at least two problems, which concern
structures and elements of historical action, they
are: 1) the necessity to reconsider the problem of
subject of historical action, forming the modern
processes of development in the conditions of
national state’s model crisis; 2) estimation of
the sovereign state conception viability in the
conditions of globalization and informational
technologies development, and also establishment
of elites’ activity connection with «the spirit of
people», esprit genera [7, p. 147-168].
Modern condition of historical gnoseology is
the result of a complex process of differentiation,
which has been going and is going now,
differentiation of historical cognition and the
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birth of historical science. Here, we can single
out two directions in philosophy of history:
one of them generates knowledge, addressed to
historical reality, the other – knowledge, revealing
the logical structure and methodological bases of
historical cognition itself.
Historical gnoseology embraces all the
forms of cognition, all the axiological structures,
which are present in common knowledge, in
artistic, philosophical, political and scientific
cognition. As far as «…logics of history is the
first to reveal the deepest essence of the logical
on the whole, it cannot be limited only by the
sphere of history, but it must involve the whole
world, consequently, the whole nature… but
common logic of natural sciences can be only
the logic, gliding along the surface of thinking,
which is reduced to a meditated impression and
its separating reflection, the logic, which does
not take into account mutual intermediation of a
flexible reality in its parts and on the whole. This
kind of logic can be an abstract reflexion, which
prescinds everything singular from the authentic
vital integrity, isolates it in reflexion and then
units it outwardly into the known integrity» [8,
p. 214].
Historical gnoseology has its own
specifics, which is first of all connected with
the informational field multi-layerness, which
concludes in itself the notion of «history». O.
Shpann noticed: «History is a sensible hierarchy
of periods, being in the condition of mutual
correlation. These periods unfold various
structural elements of the humanity, i.e. cultures,
which develop various spiritual tendencies and
possess different speed of unfolding and that is
why they are on different stages of the unfolding
process» [9, p. 359]. To the mind of L. P. Karsavin:
«In its narrow and precise sense of the word,
history presupposes and studies development
there, where it is revealed most of all. And it does
not reveal itself immediately in the material-
spatial being, but with a big difficulty and with
a help of certain metaphysical positions, which
are presented unconsciously and instinctively by
philosophically uneducated natural scientists, and
systematically and reasonably by philosophy»
[10, p. 81]. As we can see, quite different thinkers
notice that the historical past impact on the person
and the society has various aspects, especially in
the conditions of globalization. All these aspects
acquire high significance in the conditions of
One more typical tendency of the modernity
is in the following: the correlation between the
social and mental history also changes in the world
historical science. Poly- disciplinarian approach
is becoming more and more popular. They
undertake the attempts to achieve a new historical
synthesis, which presupposes to refuse from the
idea of the global determinism. Professional
historians pay special attention to new theoretical
approaches: civilizational, culturological and
anthropological. Finally, all these lead to refusing
from the unitary universal doctrine of historical
process. In their turn, the specialists in the sphere
of science theory and methodology remark that
there can be singled out three levels of scientific
knowledge, which differently influence on the
cultural self-definition of any nation: paradigmic,
methodological, and concrete-scientific.
The mechanism of society’s choice of this or
that historical way variant inevitably includes in
itself the procedure of social-historical experience
analysis, not only and not so proper one (acquired
by the whole society or by its significant
social strata in the course of various historical
collisions), but also translated by other social
systems (borrowed, acquired by other people
in the same way. The second type of influence
is connected with the analysis and digestion of
other peoples’, states’ and cultures’ experience.
The question of «external» experience efficiency,
its limitations and usage still stays open.
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The presence of other people’s appropriately
interpreted historical experience makes much
easier for the elite, being responsible for the
decision making, to render this decision to the
masses. In this case, the necessity of theoretical
substantiation of the chosen way is significantly
reduced; sometimes, it is quite enough to give
just references to the society’s sound sense and
some positive examples.
From the point of view of the leading native
scientists, history is a fundamental process
of mankind development, which criteria are:
perfection of people’s life quality, their way
of life, development of personality, progress,
which means the movement of people «to the
well-being, conveniences, comfort, to steady and
reliable life necessities, to material wealth, to
cultural and spiritual development, to perfection
of personality and to improvement of the life
quality on the whole in all its material and
spiritual revelations» [11, p. 2]. The usage of basic
parameters data allows considering the history of
nations and countries as organic components of
the mankind global development. Thereat, the
mentioned parameters are used as integration
degree indicators of separate historical flows in
the panhuman civilizational process. On this
background, the notion of «panhuman values»
causes much polemics.
Some scientists consider, «the principle of
panhuman values priority is not simply a wish
of good or a phrase-mongering statement, but it
is an axiological imperative, … and the mankind
will cease its existence without it»[12, p. 96,97].
Though, most of the Russian modern philosophers
doubt such a presentation of the problem, as far
as it goes against history, first of all. «And what
concerns the theory of panhuman values, which
exaggerates the meaning of individualistic
society’s ideals and life standards, it is internally
indefensible in the given exaggeration. Firstly,
the valuable is something, always concerning the
relation to the subject from the number of many
subjects; consequently, the valuable excludes the
panhuman. Secondly, axiological, using relation to
the world content is one of the possible relations to
it, and that is why, being traditional for the West,
such relation actually turns out to be inappropriate
in other regions of the word, particularly there,
where there is traditionally a more far-seeing
attitude to the internal and external world of
people. Thirdly, axiological relation to the content
of the world is veiled by the position of the world
unapprehensiveness; it is a cynical contemptuous
attitude to the objective laws of nature and society
(in particular, to the laws of objective dialectics),
to the laws of micro- and macrocosmos. Fourthly,
axiological relation to the world content and
pragmatism and egoism imposing to the whole
world have brought in practice to expansion of the
planet tragedy under the name of global problems
of the modernity. And it has become obvious,
that it is impossible to solve the mentioned global
problems from the position of the world content
axiological relation» [13, p. 264].
Thus, history plays a principal role in
reproduction of «the collective memory», in the
possibility to connect the interests of personality
formation with a whole row of basic historical
categories (ethnos, world society, civilization)
in historical making, what acquires a special
meaning in the conditions of globalization.
E. Morena. Cognation Principles of the Complex in the Science of XXI Century.// The Challenge
to Cognation: Modern World Science Development Strategies /Executive editor: N.K.Udumjan.
Moscow, 2004.
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Petersburg: The St. Petersburg Philosophical Society, 2002. – Edition X.
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O. Shpann. Philosophy of History. St. Petersburg: The St. Petersburg University Publishing House,
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 403-414
УДК 78.01 ( 470 )
About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master
of Musical-Written Art of Xvi – the Beginning XVII Centuries
Nikolaj P. Parfentjev*
Southern-Ural State University,
76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Historical conditions in Russia of XVI century have prepared growth in a society of interest to
creativity of musical – written chanting art’s masters of various regions. Ancient historical writings
and documents show, that the special aura of reverence surrounded the name of Moscow master
Feodor Krest’ janin. Studying of this composer’s (raspevshik) and teacher’s (didaskal) life and activity
history shows, that he was one of the most outstanding representatives of professional – musical art
of Russia XVI – the beginnings XVII centuries. The high natural gift, the received knowledge at the
best teachers, acquaintance to outstanding masters of that epoch and their products have allowed
him to develop own creativity and to deserve a recognition at contemporaries. Not casually, Russian
tsars, since Ivan Terrible, trusted training and education of the chanting clerks (diaks) to him. The
history of opening chants in Krest’ janin’s singsongs shows indefatigable interest of researchers to
them. However only few from the outstanding master’s creations are investigated till now.
Keywords: ancient (old) Russian musical – written chanting art, data on activity of masters, author’s
Feodor Krest’janin’s (Christianin) name is,
perhaps, the most known and today among masters
of old Russian musical-written chanting art. For
the first time researchers have learned about
activity of this master-composer (raspevshik) in
1846, when the well-known writing on history
of the Russian music was opened, written at
participation of Krest’janin’s pupils – «Foreword,
from which and from what time the beginning was
of eight-echoes chanting in our Russian ground».
Then «the ancient book» in which there was
«Foreword» «was delivered» by V.D. Piskarev to
M.P. Pogodin, issuing magazine «Moscvitianin»
(«Muscovite»). It was told in the ancient author’s
writing about activity of Russian raspevshiks –
among which Feodor Krest’janin’s (Christian)
name was especially allocated. At once the
publisher has estimated highly the value of the
found narrative source for the old Russian churchchanting art history and has hastily published it
in a little bit reduced kind, having undertaken
unsuccessful arrangement of punctuation marks
and having admitted discrepancies in statement
of the text (Pogodin, 1846, 173-174).
V.M. Undol’skiy’s work, devoted to the
publication of sources on the «history of church
chanting in Russia», has appeared in the same
year. The scientist has anticipated these sources
by «remarks» in which brief, but documentary
proved history of old Russian musical-written
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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chanting art has appeared for the first time.
He has anew published «Foreword», except
for archival documents, having noted, that it is
reproduced by M.P. Pogodin «not absolutely
truly». V.M. Undol’skiy has specified, that the list
published by him is found out in the manuscriptcollection which was the Goritskiy monastery
archimandrite Feodosiy’s private book. In
opinion of the scientist, «Foreword» is written
«about middle of XVII century», and frequently
used expression «we are sinful» testifies, that it
has come from clergy environment. (Undol’skiy,
1846, 6-8, 19-23).
So the name of the outstanding Russian
master-raspevshik Feodor Krest’janin has come
in a science together with «Foreword». Since then
Krest’janin was mentioned in works about ancient
church znamennoe (neumatic) chanting, according
to the data available in «Foreword», as the author
of singsongs, serving at tsar Ivan Terrible court.
Sometimes groundless assumptions, expressed
character of his court service, are extended in
the subsequent works. Scientists addressed to
studying «Foreword» and publishing its new lists
too, specified dating its creation. Reference of its
occurrence time to 20-30 years of XVII century
is the most convincing to us (Smoljakov, 1980,
53-58; Protopopov, 1989, 21-23).
The features of Krest’janin’s creativity have
interested researchers too. Already I.P. Saharov
has noted, that «new epoch of the Moscow church
chanting» is connected to his name, and there is
the historian’s task to define a circle products of
this chanting, to show their independence and
influence on Russia (Saharov, 1849, 60-61). D.V.
Razumovsky, attentively having studied other
outstanding musical-historical resource – «The
Notice… for wishing to study in chanting» (see.
Parfentjev, Guseynova, 1996), has found out,
that Krest’janin and other masters at chanting of
some signs of the notation gave them own «local
value»; contemporaries knew authors of melodies,
specifying in manuscripts their «residence»:
«Krest’janin’s chanting (raspev), named differently
Moscow» (Razumovsky, 1868, 162, 189). S.V.
Smolensky marked, working with ancient
chanting manuscript collections, that «Usol’skiy»
singsongs (raspevs) were especially ratified
in them (Smolensky, 1887, 8). V.M. Metallov
mentioned in his works «Krest’janin’s translation»
among numerous musical «translations» of the
chants, appeared in second half of XVI century,
too. (Metallov, 1915, 47-48).
Later scientists began to specify an exact
site of chants, entering them in a scientific
revolution, accompanying with remarks and
comments, offering the technique of their analysis
(Brazhnikov, 1974; Guseynova, 1980; Frolov,
1981; Parfentjeva, 1997).
Let’s note it was not kept almost
documentary sources about Krest’janin’s life and
activity. Therefore the basic data on him are in
written resources of narrative character, musicaltheoretical treatises, marks, accompanying his
products in chanting manuscripts.
The story about master represents special
value among narrative sources in already
mentioned «Foreword, from which and from what
time the beginning was of eight-echoes chanting
in our Russian ground». We learn about events of
the early period of Feodor Krest’janin’s life from
this source. And informed data have exclusive
reliability as find acknowledgement in numerous
sources, including documentary.
As follows from «Foreword», Feodor
Krest’janin «told his pupils, that there were the
old masters in Great Novgorod – Sava Rogov and
his brother – Vasily, in monasticism Varlam –
by origin korelyane [from town Korela]. Also
see that then Varlam was metropolitan in Great
Rostov. He hold in reverence and was the man
of wisdom very much, he was the great chanter,
the raspevshik and the creator of znamennoie
and three-lines and demestvennoie [styles] of
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chanting. And his brother Sava had pupils:
priest Feodor betrothed the Christian, and Ioann
Nos, and Stefan nicknamed Golish» (citing on:
Parfentjev, 2003, 47).
We do not know, what place Feodor
Krest’janin was from, but the initial stage of his
chanting activity, connected, as it is seen, to Great
Novgorod, to Savva Rogov’s school of church
chanting, where the future master comprehended
professional subtleties of art. Undoubtedly,
Savva Rogov was one of the best teachers in the
Russian state of that epoch. In «Foreword» his
pupils are listed who could play an outstanding
role in development of Russian medieval music
and its basic art directions – schools. Skill of the
future master was formed, first of all, in creative
dialogue with all these people.
Feodor Krest’janin’s teacher Savva Rogov
and his brother Vasily occurred from Korela –
the second-largest city of the Novgorod ground.
There were 267 court yards in the beginning
of XVI century and Russian population lived
basically – the trading quarter’s and war people,
nobility, clergy and others (Chechulin, 1889,
35). There is opinion meeting in the scientific
literature that brothers were on Karelians
nationality, but it is hardly truly. We can not fix
exactly, when they have lodged in Novgorod and
when Savva’s pedagogical activity began. It is
possible to believe, taking into account all data
on well-known Savva’s pupils, that they stayed in
his school approximately at the end of 30 – first
half 40-th years of XVI centuries.
Vasily Rogov, comprehending subtleties of
chanting art, most likely, also at senior brother
Savva, has taken of monastic vows and also new
name Varlaam soon after that (but not later the
beginning of 50th). Obviously, they were close
on age with Feodor Krest’janin. Anyway, hardly
Varlaam was more senior than Feodor for 3-5 years.
Outstanding Krest’janin’s abilities to mastering
not only usual, but also the musical letter, found
out in Savva Rogov’s school, have allowed him
to begin church career. As against Varlaam he
carried out the service in the environment of
secular clergy. There were important changes
in life of both masters in the beginning of 60th.
Varlaam became the Father-Superior (1560-1561,
1563-1564) of one of the largest northern Russian
monasteries – Kirillo-Belozerskiy (Nikol’sky,
1910, 162). Approximately then Feodor
Krest’janin should receive a dignity of «priest»
as under that time legislation the applicant could
be accomplished to take up the duties of priest
not earlier achievement by him of thirty-year age
(see: Stoglav, 1911, 59).
Further Varlaam Rogov’s life was filled
with various events. With approach in Russia
«oprichnina» (Ioann Terrible’s terror) time,
he deserted Father-Superior post in 1564 and
«has departed on rest», living as simple singer
of choir («he was the great singer») first in
Zosimo-Savvatieva hermitage, then in Kirillov
monastery (Stroev, 1870, 55; Parfentjev, 1991а,
35). However he has called up to become the
Father-Superior of Solovetskiy monastery in 1569.
Frequently Varlaam went from here to Novgorod,
sometimes – to Moscow «to Tsar». He went
round and monastic ancestral lands, collecting
in treasury «salt» and other monetary incomes.
The established sum – 20 altin (0,6 rubles) – was
brought by Varlaam in 1578 in monastery treasury
for «sorokojusti» – «after his brother, Sava», on
reading of prays within 40 days from the date
of Savva’s death. Thus, monastic documents
inform us the date of Sava’ death who was Feodor
Krest’janin’s and other outstanding masters’
teacher of chanting. Some years later, Solovetskiy
monastery’s elder Protasiy has received 10 rubles
and «was sent to see off up the ex-Father-Superior
Varlam to Kirillov monastery» in June, 1581 (see:
Parfentjev, 2003, 48).
Varlaam Rogov has gone through the senior
brother and the teacher for 25 years. For this time
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he was again, and twice, the Father-Superior of
Kirillo-Belozerskiy monastery (1581-1582; 15841587), and also he was appointed as archimandrite
of Christmas monastery in Vladimir (1583). This
monastery was playing an outstanding role in
politics and culture of that time. At last, he was put
in archbishop of Rostov in 1587. He participated
in this dignity in 1589 in Moscow in election
of the first patriarch of Russia, and was erected
by the patriarch in the Rostov’s metropolitan in
the same year. Varlaam Rogov was presented
and on the Moscow synod of 1598, where Boris
Godunov was elected as Russian tsar, and has
undersigned on the back of the affirmative letter.
He has died March, 25, 1603 and was buried in
Rostov’s Assumption cathedral (about him see
also: Protopopov, 1995, 143-148; Parfentjevа,
1997, 87-124).
Varlaam Rogov’s chants, obviously, were
sung the first by choruses of headed by him
monasteries, and later – by archbishop’s chorus
of Rostov. We shall remind, it is marked in
«Foreword», that Varlaam was the great church
singer, the composer (raspevshik) and the
«creator» of the «znamennoie» and three-lines
and «demestvennoie» chanting. Hence, the
master created chants not only in usual style
of Znamenniy singsong («raspev»), but also in
Demestvenniy style raspevs as monody as threelines polyphonic. Master’s life was connected
more all with Kirillo-Belozerskiy and Solovetskiy
monasteries. It is quite possible, that there are
also his creations among chants of anonymous
Frequently Varlaam was in Moscow, being the
chapter of large Russian monasteries, and then
one of the most significant dioceses, participating
in church synods, in affairs of nation-wide value.
Undoubtedly, he met Feodor Krest’janin here
who was taking place in those time on court
service, and his pupils who showed interest to
«Varlaamovskiy» singsongs of chanting.
However we shall return to «Foreword»
in which it is spoken also, that «Ioann Nos and
Ctefan Golish» have passed training to chanting
art in Great Novgorod at Savva Rogov together
with Feodor Krest’janin.
Stefan Golysh, named the last in this number
of masters, having left Novgorod, «came through
the towns ant taught pupils in the Usol’skaia
region. And he lived in Stroganov’s estate
and taught Joann Lukoshko, who has taken of
monastic vows and also new name Isaya. His
teacher Stefan Golish has sung (and explained)
a lot of Znamennoie chanting. And his pupil
Isaya has extended and filled a lot of Znamennoie
chanting too». The becoming a special creative
direction in a sacred music of Russia XVI–XVII
centuries was connected with names of both
outstanding masters, Stefan Golish and Ivan
(Isaya) Lukoshkov, about whom it is written
down in «Foreword» from Feodor Krest’janin’s
words. This creative direction is named as the
Usolskaja (Stroganovskaja) school of «masterchanting». Activity and creativity the masters
of this school are appreciably investigated (see:
Parfentjev, 1985; Parfentjev and Parfentjevа,
1993; Parfentjevа, 1997).
Data on Ivan Nos was kept very little. He
was one more Feodor Krest'janin's associate on
the Novgorod period of life. Probably, he, as well
as Stefan Golish, went «through towns», being
engaged in training to chanting art or any other
work which the competent person could carry out
right after training at Savva Rogov. There were
to us data on activity certain «young» monastic
servant Ivan Nos in documents of one of the
most important monasteries of Russia – IosifoVolokolamskiy. It is quite probable, that the
known subsequently master-raspevshik and this
monastic employee – one person.
Iosifo-Volokolamskiy monastery was based
in 1479 near to Moscow. It became very quickly
one of the centers appreciably influencing political
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and cultural life of Russia. Monastic scribes –
copyists, writers-publicists were especially
glorified. The monastery contained a large-scale
enterprise, having many villages and crafts,
did business following precepts of saint Joseph
(Sanin), who was the founder, the ideologist and
the defender monastic landed properties. Monastic
elders knew various branches of a facilities. The
competent people, but not being by monks, were
employed for supervision of a separate villages
facilities. Usually they were called «monastic
servants», less often – «bailiffs», «stewards».
They were appointed in this or that village to
strictly certain term after which expiration were
sent in other village.
So, November, 26, 1548 monastic treasurer
Lavrentiy «gave keys» to servants, including
«in village Otchishevo to Ivan Nos – a key as
was for icon painter Vasiliy, term was spring
saint Nicolas day». This archival record is Ivan
Nos’s first mention in monastic documents. It
is interesting, that he has replaced on service
of an art trade representative – the master-icon
painter. Nos has given out salaries about 40
altins (1,2 rubles) in April, 1549 among «young
servants». He was appointed in different villages
(Ivanovo, Lukovnikovo, Novoe) in subsequent
time. Sometimes he was trusted with reception
of the serving staff’s salaries – the yard keeperdvornik’s and woman-dvornik’s, «stokers’». The
service at a monastery brought to its servants not
bad incomes (for example, monastic servants’
monetary contributions made 90-100 rubles for
record in the remembrance of the dead book – «to
remember in the daily list how long the monastery
stands»). Ivan Nos was mentioned in IosifoVolokolamskiy monastery’s documents the last
time in February, 1557, when his ordinary service
life has expired and another servant was appointed
in village Novoe. We have not found out of data
on him in monastic documents of further time
(see: Parfentjev, 2003, 50-51). It is only marked
in the inventory of monastic library in 1573, that
Nos has given chanting book «Heirmologion» as
the contribution (Lihachev, 1991, 89). But it was
impossible to establish, when the contribution is
made. The following data on Ivan Nos concerns
already to time of their joint stay with Feodor
Krest’janin in Alexandrovskaya large village.
Krest’janin, probably, was familiar in the
Novgorod period of life and with one more
outstanding raspevshik, about whom he has told
the pupils the following: «And Psalter was sung
in Great Novgorod. Somebody was monk named
Markel Bezborodiy, and he has sung it. And
he has combined Kanon in honor of Novgorod
archbishop Nikita, Kanon is graceful». Markel
Bezborodiy, except for Psalter, «has put» on
«Krukovaya» (neumatic) notation sticheras and
glorifications and divine services from September
up to the end of August in honor of «new» Russian
saints, who were canonized in XVI century. We
have known about it under the certificate of other
source (Findeyzen, 1928, 139).
Very few data were kept about Markel
Bezborodiy. He has created Savva Storozhevskiy’s
hagiography, not later 1552, being already the
monk, on «command» of All-Russia metropolitan
Makariy. Markel accompanied to Moscow
with Novgorod archbishop, who participated in
Novgorod-Hutinskiy monastery’s Father-Superior
introducing into the place of Kazan archbishop
in 1555. The master was put as the prior of this
monastery after returning. Markel has left «on
rest» in Antoniev monastery in October, 1557,
having left the post. In this monastery he has
stayed 6 months and has written hagiography
and Kanon in honor of Nikita Novgorodskiy
(which Feodor Krest’janin estimated as «it is
very graceful») then has gone to Moscow. It is
not known about the Moscow period of master’s
life. Probably, he was much more senior than
Krest’janin and his associates and has died soon
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after arrival capital (see also: Stroev, 1870, 50;
Bilinin, 1985, 224-226; Parfentjev, 1991а, 33-34).
Feodor Krest’janin has noted composition
of singing variant Psalter in Markel Bezborodiy’s
creativity not casually. It is known, that pupils
were trained in the letter under texts Psalter since
olden days. Brief, but capacious verses-psalms
under the maintenance of cognitive and moral
value were quickly remembered together with
their spelling. This property of chants, apparently,
should promote acceleration of mastering
musical notation too. «Psalter chanting» was
masters-teachers in training. Feodor Krest’janin
has sung in own way some lines of psalms
later, drawing of the Moscow chanting clerks
(«diaks»)’s attention by this.
We marked the chanting masters whose
creative activity has influenced Feodor Krest’janin
already in Great Novgorod. He will meet some of
them and further. The circle of masters, certainly,
is not full.
The following period of Feodor Krest’janin’s
life is connected not simply with Tsar’s Court, but
with master’s sojourn in Alexandrovskaya large
found frequently in manuscripts, since second
half of XVI century. It represented the chanting
of elected verses from psalms of kathismas 1-8,
10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20. As a rule, all of them
were included completely in special section of the
daily chanting book «Obikhod». Till now it is not
revealed indications that these church chants are
set to music by Markel Bezborodiy. But, as notices
N.D. Uspensky, «there are not any certificates
on other chanting masters’ work above Psalter»
(Uspensky, 1973, 154-155). Markel’s creativity
has fallen to that time of XVI century, when the
authorship of products was not yet accepted for
The analysis of the «kathismas» cycle,
undertaken by N.D. Uspensky, shows,
that outstanding master worked above this
cycle, reached a high degree of intonational
expressiveness and owning as various art means.
The number of composite principles allows to
recognize «Psalter chanting» as the manual too. It
is interesting, that the Moscow Synod «Stoglav»
(1551) has decided to give children to schools «on
the training to the letter and on the training of
book writing, and church Psalter chanting and
church reading» (Stoglav, 1911, 60). Probably,
Markel Bezborodiy has sung the Psalter till 1551,
and metropolitan Makariy, preparing decisions of
the Synod has had time to get acquainted with it
too. Obviously, «Psalter chanting» was used by
village. It is marked in «Foreword» especially, that
«that Joann Nos and priest Feodor Krest’janin»
lived during tsar Ivan Vasil’evich and were
«with him in his favorite village, in large village
Alexandrov» (see: Parfentjev, 2003, 53).
«Tsar Ivan Vasil’evich’s favorite village» –
the future Alexandrovskaya large village – has
arisen for a way from capital in the TrinitySergiev monastery. Grand-ducal palace and
main, Pokrovskiy, cathedral were built up here
in 1508-1513. Grand duke Vasily III, father of
tsar Terrible, has celebrated house warming «in a
court yard came» in December, 1514. Henceforth
he frequently was here, making trips on prayer to
Pereslavl and the Trinity-Sergiev monastery. The
large village called «Alexandrov New Village»
up to the middle of XVI century (Stromilov, 1883,
6-26). Ivan Vasil’evich was here also frequently
after death of parents in environment court. For
example, the heroes of Livonskaya war were
celebrated here in 1558.
As is known, Ivan Terrible, having left
Moscow, has moved finally to the «favorite
village», Alexandrovskaya large village, in
December, 1564. Oprichnina’s horrors were
imminent in Russian and the large Village became
its actual capital. There was a well-known chorus
of tsar’s chanting diaks in structure of the Court.
New «from the common people» tsar’s servants
were pulled here. There is nothing surprising,
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that Feodor Krest’janin whose nickname gives
out his «low» social origin has appeared here (the
word «Krest’janin» – in Russian as Peasant).
Tsar Ivan had his residence in
Alexandrovskaya large village, continuing
war with Livonia. Frequently he left to Great
Novgorod in second half 60 – the beginning
of 70th, where «assiduously prayed» in local
churches, was engaged «in the order of regiments»
and eradication of «treason» (Karamzin, 1845,
69). Chanting diaks chorus accompanied with
tsar on such trips also. So, under the certificate of
The master took the fourth place in staff of his
associates and his monetary salary was the
third on the sizes. However he was named with
a patronymic, that, undoubtedly, testifies, that
by then he had significant authority at court.
Probably, Ivan Nos appeared on tsar’s service
before Krest’janin and his age was a little bit
more senior than Krest’janin’s age. It is known
from «Foreword», that he has sung «Triodion»,
and also «many sticheras and slavniks in honor of
saints», «bogorodichni and chrestobogorodichni»
from chanting book Menaia in the large Village.
annals, «Moscow diaks» sang kanons and many
verses being with tsar Ivan in Novgorod, July,
23, 1571 during procession with icons, and then
they «sang bogorodichni (in honor of the Virgin)
chants» in the Sofia cathedral (see: Parfentjev,
2003, 53). Obviously, tsar has got acquainted with
Feodor Krest’janin’s chanting art during such trip,
having taken then him in the large Village. Priest
Feodor, most likely, was determined on service
in tsar’s «domestic» Troitskiy (Trinity) church
which was a place of the basic service tsar’s
chanting diaks in the large Village (in Moscow
they served at tsar’s domestic Blagoveshchenskiy
(Annunciation) cathedral).
We do not know whether Feodor Krest’janin
was accepted on tsar’s service before Ivan Nos.
By later documents, Nos was taken at the tsar’s
«chrestovie» diaks staff, who were carrying out
chanting and other functions in time of tsar’s
«domestic pray» in his apartments or in special
chamber («Chrestovaya») as against Krest’janin,
having a church dignity (about «chrestovie»
diaks staff is more detailed, for example, see:
Parfentjev, 1991б, 54-55).
The only one master was named full
name – Ivan Jur’ev Nos – from nine persons in
a regular list of «chrestovie» diaks from March,
20, 1573 (Al’shits, 1949, 35). Tsar Ivan «has
marked» to him «the salary» as monetary in 10
rubles and «for cloth» in 48 altins (1,44 rubles).
However it is not found any this master’s singsongs
in chanting manuscripts. Most likely, time of their
creation does not leave for frameworks of XVI
century, therefore they have filled up anonymous
chants circle. Awakening of interest to author’s
creativity has fallen to the beginning of XVII
century. Its active formation at court choristers is
connected to Krest’janin’s name, with his activity
in Moscow directly.
Under the certificate of «Foreword»,
Krest’janin, after stay in the large Village, «was
famous and great master of Znamennoie chanting
here in capital city Moscow and many pupils were
taught by him». The basic place of Krest’janin’s
service became tsar’s Blagoveshchenskiy
(Annunciation) cathedral with crossing the
Court to Moscow. The best in Russia masters
of «a chanting affair» – tsar’s singing diaks –
were looked after Krest’janin. He created the
singsongs for their chorus, trained young singers.
The authority of melodos and teacher was huge
among diaks. They named him «teacher»,
«master». His from common people nickname
Krest’janin (Peasant) was replaced with more
general «Christianin» at Court.
The kept records of the chants and their
fragments were written by one of chanting diaks.
Sometimes they were accompanying rather vast
notes, which give representation how Feodor
Krest’janin’s activity proceeded at tsar’s diaks
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chorus. The records dated concern to 1598-1607,
covering the last decade of the master’s life.
Probably, choristers of the main chorus of
Russia spent the most part of time on service.
There was special «chanting chamber» at the
Tsar’s Court Yard where diaks were at o’clock
when were not borrowed with performance of
the duties. Singers had a rest and worked in this
chamber, filling up the repertoire of chants and
singsongs, writing out and learning by means of
the master vast «explanations by simple signs»
(razvods) of complex signs and melodic formulas.
They received «food and drink» here quite often,
wrote «state chanting translations». Training
young choristers to the letter and chanting art was
carried out usually in the other room (Parfentjev,
1991б, 103).
The alive atmosphere of all event in «chanting
chamber» is transferred with the mentioned
records also. So, diaks sang some chants in
November, 27, 1598 under Feodor Krest’janin’s
direction for mastering razvods of complex
signs and formulas, and also, most likely, special
«master’s marks», specifying a high-altitude
parity of neumas-signs and occuring in the court
choristers’ environment too. As the first example
it was executed the end of slavnik (variety
of stichera) by 8-th echos «Dushepoleznuyu
sovershivshe» – a line «Prihodya vo imya
Gospodne tsar Izrailevo» with vast razvod of
the last word (59 signs). «The master has told
about this singsong: That is fita [kind of formula]
gromoglasnaya [loud voice]». This slavnik was
executed on divine service in Lazar’s Saturday,
in eve of Palm Sunday, on the sixth week of the
Great Post, in the spring. Its singing in November
had, obviously, educational character only (see:
Parfentjev, 2003, 55).
Studying of ancient chanting manuscripts
shows, that razvod’s lists of this slavnik appeared
not earlier the beginning of XVII century.
Chanting practice and especial training of
young singers is have demanded from teachers
not only «oral» transfers of skills in singing of
the complex melodic formulas, but fixation of
their razvods directly in records of chants also.
Author’s features of these razvods were shown
clearly now, appreciated by pupils and the more
broad audiences of contemporaries, becoming
one of conducting creative principles of chanting
masters (raspevshiks). (see: Parfentjevа, 1997).
«Dushepoleznuyu sovershivshe», having various
variants of singsongs, have appeared even at
Feodor Krest’janin’s life. These records are
executed by Christofor – the known theorist of
chanting art, the chanter of Kirillo-Belozerskiy
monastery’s choir in 1604. Monk Christofor
has placed in the collection of his writing two
singsongs of the slavnik (without the note and in
style of «the Big neumas»), and also separately
its «end» executing «on an arbitrariness», at will
(Brazhnikov, 1983, 145, 275). We shall note, that
the melodic maintenance of all three variants
of the slavnik’s final line from Christofor’s
collection differs from variant, «sung» by
Feodor Krest’janin with chanting diaks. It gives
us the basis to assume, that the master showed
to court singers an own singsong of the «fita
gromoglasnaya (loud voice)». The razvods, which
have appeared after Krest’janin, differ from its
variant (1598) also, however it is possible to find
out in them the melodic sites close or identical to
the master’s singsong.
It is obvious, then, November, 27, 1598,
after slavnik’s line diaks «sang» two evangelical
sticheras – 5-th and 10-th (accordingly on 5-th
and 6-th echos). Both church chanting are given
also in record in the most detailed statement with
disclosing the melodic maintenance not only
«litso» and «fita» formulas, but also complex
signs, and sometimes from above their tracings.
Other chanting diak’s records, who carefully
collected that Krest’janin performed (including
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his own products), also specify, under what
circumstances and when it was possible to fix
church chanting. Undoubtedly, they deserve
careful studying in a context of old Russian
chant hand-written tradition. There are some of
marks accompanying records: «the Master sang,
Christianin, summers 7108 [1600] March 21»,
«These additional heirmoses [kind of chants]
are taken at Krest’janin, and he wrote them
himself, and the znamia [neumas] was imposed
on them by him again» (1606); «the Master sang
so in 7115 [1607]», «This [chanting] was sang by
Christianin, and I has put [neumatic] znamia»;
«the Master sang all verse in 4-th echos, the
end – in 8-th echos»; «August, 7115 [1607] in 4
day, Tuesday, Christianin sang so to pupils» (see:
Parfentjev, 1991а, 97).
Christianin’s sons Feodor and Ivan are
mentioned in a number of records as followers
of their father’s affair: «This verse is taken
at Christianin, znamia [neumatic notation]
of his son Feodor, and he made the razvod»;
«Young Feodor has given him his hand written
Fitnik [Phytnik; «fitas» or «phyts» formulas
collection]»; «The son Feodor sang so… the son
Ivan sang so… the Master himself sang so… ».
Most likely, «young» Feodor was the Master’s
senior son. He was registered on deacon of the
same Blagoveshchensk (Annunciation) cathedral
where Krest’janin served as the priest. In January,
1585 Tsar Feodor has welcome him cloth that he
«proclaimed» the Acclamations chants for many
tsar’s years in 1584-1585 «on hours» in Christmas
and Christening (Additions, 1846, 197). It was
kept his singsong in the mentioned records
for 1607 – the «stichera» devoted to «Three
prelates», – «Pokrovo tvoi Prechistaya» (see:
Parfentjev, 1991а, 97). The second Krest’janin’s
son – Ivan Feodor son Popov (of Priest), was
registered in 6-th, «little», «stanitsa» (part of
tsar’s chorus), among chanting diaks teenagers,
beginning career, in 1584-1585. He has served
in this chorus till 1635, participating in chanting
during ceremonies of the state value, for example,
on Vasily Shujskiy’s and Michael Romanov’s
crownings, on Patriarch Filaret’s «taking holy
orders», in time of «tsar’s pleasure» – weddings,
christenings of successors etc. The master’s son is
mentioned among singers who «learned to chant
small chanting diaks» since 1617 (Parfentjev,
1991б, 332-333).
Rough events of the beginning XVII
century have not bypassed Feodor Krest’janin
also. He had to participate in some of them. He
becomes archpriest of the Blagoveshchenskiy
(Annunciation) cathedral by May, 1606 and,
hence, according to ancient tradition – the tsar’s
confessor. The throne was occupied by PseudoDmitriy at this time. His wedding was held May, 7.
Among others archpriest Feodor invited PseudoTsar in the Uspenskiy (Assumption) cathedral,
prepared for ceremony, and, having taken off
from himself chasuble, transferred «crown» from
a palace there. After the termination of liturgy
he has made a ceremony of wedding (Parfentjev,
1991а). Krest’janin’s name is not mentioned in
documentary records after 1607. Obviously, it
was the last year of his life.
Training Tsar’s singers, all more deeply
comprehending bases of chanting art, Feodor
Krest’janin, as well as others Russian teachers,
created own singsongs, and also razvods
(interpretation) of complex musical formulas and
separate «lines» of chants. All this was recognized
at his contemporaries. Products of the master were
distributed in lists of the first half of XVII century.
Perhaps, there was no such old Russian chanting
book on which elite church chants he would not
create the own versions of singsongs.
Slavniks from chanting book Sticherarion
liturgical cycles on great holidays have involved
master’s attention. There were, first of all, slavniks:
«Honestly your Christmas» («Vsechestnoe tvoe
Rojdestvo») to Christmas of the Virgin, «David
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proclaim» («David provozglasi») to Introduction
of the Virgin in the Temple, «In the manger
there was settled» («Vo vertepo voselilsja»)
to Christmas of Jesus, «Troparias Jordanian»
(«Tropari Iordanskiya») to Epiphany. Krest’janin
also has wrote the variant of singsong for
Russian hymnography poets’ verse in honour of
princes Boris and Gleb «Will come new Russian
Christians» («Pridite novochreshchenii Rustii
sobori»). Part on the Great Post Sticherarion is
submitted in creativity of the master by singsongs
to stichera «See you the creature» («Vidyashchi
master has composed anew chant-«blazhenna» of
1-st echos «Food for the sake of» («Snedi radi»)
(Parfentjev, 1991а).
One more chanting cycle in Krest’janin’s
singsong has reached us in two lists with the
indication «There are additional heirmoses
[…]» from church chanting book Hiermologion.
This cycle consists of the following chants:
«Foreseeing in the spirit Avvakum» («Providya
duhome Avvakumo»), «Fiery mind)» («Ognennyi
um»), «By angel adolescents» («Angelomo
otroki»), «Tsar’s children pray» («Tsarskih detei
Tya tvari»), chant-«zadostoynik» «Light, light,
new Jerusalem» («Svetisya, svetisya, Noviy
Ierosalime») and chant-«kondak» «Even if in
coffin went down» («Asche i vo grobo snide») (on
Easter) (see: Parfentjev, 1991а, 2003).
Feodor addressed to the chanting book
«Obikhod», containing the church chanting, most
frequently used («everyday») in divine service.
We find his singsongs to chant «Be silent some
flesh» («Da molchit vsyaca plot»), it was sung
instead of Cherub song, and «Revive My God»
(instead of Alleluia) in section of the Liturgy.
He has created a singsong to chant-«prokimen»
«Praise name God» for special parts of service –
Polyeleos. Close studying of carelessly executed
or badly kept notes to chants, for example, to
a verse «Blessed immaculate» («Blazhenni
neporochenii») and to exclamation «Praise name
of God. Alleluia», written down by one of chanting
diaks, allows to connect their singsongs with the
master’s name also (see: Parfentjev, 2003,).
Perhaps, top of Krest’janin’s creativity is
the cycle «Sticheras evangelical» including 11
chants in style of the Big («Bolshoy») singsong
(see: Brazhnikov, 1974; Parfentjeva, 1997). As
a rule, this cycle was located as the special unit
of chanting book Octoechos. For Octoechos the
molitva»), «Thee is more than mind» («Tya pache
uma») (echos 5, songs 4, 5, 7-9) and «From a belly
of hell» («Iz chreva adova», echos 8, song 6).
Preliminary research has shown, that the master
has composed this chants, having taken them,
apparently, from ancient not chanting books
(Parfentjev, 1993а, 2003).
So, studying of history of life and activity the
composer and chanting teacher Feodor Krest’janin
shows, that he was one of the most outstanding
representatives of professional-musical art of
Russia in XVI – the beginning of XVII centuries.
The high natural gift, the received knowledge at
the best teachers, acquaintance to outstanding
masters of that epoch and their products have
allowed him to develop own creativity and to
deserve a recognition at contemporaries. Not
casually Russian tsars, since Ivan Terrible,
trusted training and education of the chanting
diaks to him.
The history of opening chants in Feodor
Krest’janin’s singsongs shows indefatigable
researchers’ interest to them. However only
few from the listed creations of the outstanding
master are investigated. Undoubtedly, available
materials allow to devote to his creativity special
monographic work.
Work is executed at financial support The Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund, project
№ 09-04-85401а/У.
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M.P.Pogodin, Again found data for a history of church chanting in Russia, Moskvitianin. 1846.
№ 6. – (in Russian).
V.M.Undol’sky, Remarks for a history of church chanting in Russia (Moscow, 1846). – (in
B.G.Smoljakov, Two editions «Forewords…», Monuments of Fatherland, 1980. № 1. – (in
V.V.Protopopov, Russian idea on music in XVII century. (Moscow, 1989). – (in Russian).
I.P.Saharov, Researches about Russian church chanting (S.-Petersburg, 1849). – (in Russian).
N.P.Parfentjev, Z.M.Gusejnova, Alexander Mezenets and others. «The Notice... for wishing to
study in chanting», 1670 (Chelyabinsk, 1996). – (in Russian).
D.V.Razumovsky, Church chanting in Russia (Moscow, 1868). V.2. – (in Russian).
S.V.Smolensky, The General essay of historical and musical value of Solovetsiy monastery’
library chanting manuscripts (Kazan, 1887). – (in Russian).
V.M.Metallov, The Essay of Orthodox church chanting history in Russia (Moscow, 1915). – (in
M.V.Brazhnikov, Feodor Krest’ janin. Sticheras, Monuments of Russian musical art (Moscow,
1974). V.3. – (in Russian).
Z.M.Gusejnova, To a question about attribution products of old Russian chanting art, the Source
study of the literature of Ancient Russia (Leningrad, 1980). – (in Russian).
S.V.Frolov, Feodor Krest’ janin’s “Big” raspev (singsong), Works of the Department of the old
Russian literature of Institute of the Russian literature (Pushkinskiy House) АS the USSR (Leningrad,
1981). V.36. – (in Russian).
N.V.Parfentjeva, Creativity of old Russian chanting art masters. (Chelyabinsk, 1997). – (in
N.P.Parfentjev, Outstanding Moscow raspevshik (composer) XVI – the beginning XVII centuries.
Feodor Krest’ janin and his) products, Culture and art in monuments and researches. (Chelyabinsk,
2003). № 2. – (in Russian).
N.D.Chechulin, Cities of the Moscow state in XVI century. (S.-Petersburg, 1889). – (in Russian).
N.K.Nikol’sky, Kirillo-Belozerskiy monastery and his device up to the second quarter of XVII
century (S.-Petersburg, 1910). V.1. № 2. – (in Russian).
Stoglav. (Kazan, 1911). – (in Russian).
P.M.Stroev, Lists of hierarchies and priors of the Russian church monasteries (S.-Petersburg,
1870). – (in Russian).
N.P.Parfentjev, Old Russian chanting art in spiritual culture of the Russian state: Schools. The
centers. Masters. (Sverdlovsk, 1991а). – (in Russian).
V.V.Protopopov, Rostov metropolitan Varlaam (Rogov) – «znamennoe chanting composer
(“raspevshik”) and creator», The history and culture of Rostov ground: Collection of scientifically
works. (Rostov, 1995). – (in Russian).
N.P.Parfentjev, Usol’skaya school in old Russian chanting art of XVI-XVII centuries and its
masters products in manuscripts. Monuments of the literature and public idea of epoch of feudalism.
(Novosibirsk, 1985), 52-69. – (in Russian).
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N.P.Parfentjev, N.V.Parfentjeva, , Usol’skaya (Ctroganovskaya) school in Russian music of XVIXVII centuries. (Chelyabinsk, 1993). – (in Russian).
D.S.Lihachev , The book centers of Ancient Russia: Iosifo-Volokolamskiy monastery as the book
center (Leningrad, 1991). – (in Russian).
N.F.Findejzen, Essays on a history of music in Russia from most ancient times up to the end of
XVIII century. (Moscow, 1928). – (in Russian).
V.K.Bylinin, Russian acrostics of the grown-up time (up to XVII century.), Russian versification:
Traditions and problems of development. (Moscow, 1985). – (in Russian).
N.D.Uspensky, Old Russian chanting art. (Moscow, 1973). – (in Russian).
N.S.Stromilov, Alexandrivskaya large village, Readings in the Society of Russian History and
antiquities (Moscow, 1883). V.2. – (in Russian).
N.M.Karamzin. A history of the state Russian. (S.-Petersburg, 1845). V.9. – (in Russian).
N.P.Parfentjev, Professional musicians of Russian state XVI-XVII вв. (Chelyabinsk, 1991б). – (in
D.N.Al’shits, the New document on people and orders of Ivan Terrible Oprichnina’s court yard
after 1572, Historical archive. (Moscow– Leningrad, 1949). V.4. – (in Russian).
M.V.Brazhnikov, Hristofor. A znamenniy (neumatic) key, 1604, Monuments of Russian musical
art (Moscow, 1983). V.9. – (in Russian).
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 415-428
УДК 338.28(075.8)
Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy
in Times of the Global Financial Crisis
Ekaterina P. Stepanetsa and Alexander A. Khasinb*
Erfurt School of Public Policy University of Erfurt
63 Nordhäuser Strasse, Erfurt, D-99089 Germany
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
9 Institutskii, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
This paper develops a model for the evaluation of the financial needs of innovative companies on the
«seed» and «start-up» stages of their projects. In the model, the demand for finance is calculated with
regard to the target performance of the industry set in «The Concept of Long-Term Socio-Economic
Development of the Russian Federation» (17 November 2008). The study reveals certain problems
that have impeeded the process of establishing a venture industry in Russia. These setbacks include
a lack of venture entrepreneurship experience, an insufficient amount of private investment in the
early stages of innovative projects and the absence of a functioning infrastructure. In order to tackle
these problems a new concept of «seed» finance is proposed. The suggested scheme, which involves
the OJSC «RVC» and «RUSNANO», seeks to stimulate innovation development in universities, regions
and technological clusters and increase the efficiency of budget spending. The key parameters of the
scheme are also described in the work.
Keywords: innovative companies, «seed» stage, «start-up» stage, venture industry, private investment,
stimulate innovation development.
At the moment the government of the
Russian Federation undertakes a number of
measures designed to encourage innovation in the
development of the economy. In times of the global
financial crisis and declining growth of the world’s
output, the transition to innovative development
is especially important as it will increase the
competitive capacities of the Russian economy
and create a good basis for a technological and
economic breakthrough after the crisis is over.
The worsening economic conditions limit the
government’s capability to interfere and demand
more efficient allocation of public funds. The question
of accelerating the process of transformation of the
economy into an innovative one cannot be put off,
since any delay will give other countries the chance
to occupy prospective markets.
This paper revises the state of affairs in
the innovative industry in Russia and describes
possible courses of action for eliminating existing
barriers that impede the appearance of innovative
Russian products on the market and the creation
of new opportunities within it.
The first part of the document deals with
the current situation, discusses the historical
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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and socio-econmic factors that have shaped
the development of the innovative industry in
Russia thus far, identifies and analyzes various
stakeholders and their interests, describes the
framework of an innovative project and considers
typical problems on every stage.
The second part focuses on four policy
options. Each option is described and assessed
on the basis of four criteria, which are outlined at
the beginning of the chapter.
The final part draws conclusions and
recommendations for policy action and contains
suggestions for further research.
The methods of research used include desk
research and interviews with individuals who
participate in the market.
Features of the Russian Innovation Sector
«The Concept of the Long-Term SocioEconomic Development of the Russian
Federation»(CLD)1, worked out by the Ministry
for Economic Development and approved by the
government, rests upon the innovative scenario
of the development. This means an intensive
expansion of the share of innovative products in
Russian output: it should reach 25 % of the GDP
by 2020. In 2007 it was only 5.5 %. The weight
of Russian high technology products in the world
export is planned to become 2.0 % in 2020, while
the forecast figure for 2009 is 0.42 %.
In order to achieve these ambitious goals
a lot needs to be done. The current state of
the innovative industry is far from being
satisfactory, as recognized by government
officials, such as the Russian President, Dmitry
Medvedev. A few months ago, he admitted that
in the sphere of innovation «almost nothing has
been done»2.
17 November 2008, later in the text: CLD
11 November 2008,
Since the end of the 1980’s until the beginning
of the twenty first century, the environment limited
the development of innovation in Russia: key
macroeconomic figures declined and the political
situation was not stable. The rapid reduction of
investments into the real sector and the breakdown
of old economic ties led to the abolishment of
cooperation between industry and science and,
hence, the reduction of demand for development.
The economic growth of the last eight years
was caused by rapidly increasing world prices for
natural resources. It did not, however, produce
proper incentives to improve the efficiency of
corporations. The focus on the extraction industry
led to a dramatic reduction of production in the
spheres that did not bring immediate high returns
and were not competitive on the global market.
As a result, the Russian economy is now facing
significant imbalances and is hardly diversified.
The situation has been further aggravated
by non-economic issues such as corruption,
criminalization of some industries, and illegal
Nevertheless, the modern Russian reality
reflects a number of preconditions which can
allow for a relatively fast integration into the
world economy. These include:
• Good quality of human capital and
Russian fundamental science despite
many years of remaining underfinanced
and neglected by the society;
• Financial capital, amassed by both the
Russian government and corporations
during the previous years of growth;
• A sufficient level of industrialization,
as evident in the existence of transport,
communication and other infrastructure
Stakeholder Analysis
In this part each stakeholder is described
from the following perspectives:
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1. Who constitutes a stakeholder?
2. What is the role of the stakeholder in the
3. What problems does the stakeholder
4. Which interests does the stakeholder
• Organizations
departments; non-profit organizations
financed and controlled by the
The State creates public value by establishing
and maintaining the institutional framework for
the realization of a policy, by working out and
fulfilling strategies for development in the sphere
of innovation and by evaluating results.
The questions regarding government policy
in the sphere of innovation are being dealt with:
On the federal level, through the actions of
the president of the Russian Federation and his or
her administration, committees and commissions
of the upper and lower chambers of the parliament,
and also coordinating bodies aimed at ensuring
the consistency of a policy.
The Council for Science and High
Technologies, directly surbordinative to
the President, informs him or her about the
state of affairs in government innovation
policy, maintains cooperation with research
organizations and scientists, and works out
proposals for priorities.
The strategy of the scientific and
technological development for the short and
medium term is defined by the president on the
basis of the special report of the government. At
the moment, there are three main ministries that
formulate and implement innovative policy: the
Ministry for Economic Development, the Ministry
for Education and Science, and the Ministry for
Communication and Connection. Each contains
numerous committes and agencies.
On the regional level, through the
cooperation of the local government and the
federal ministries.
Currently, main institutions and other forms
of financial and professional support for the
improvement of the industry of innovations have
already been established. These include venture
funds, business-incubators, techno parks, etc.
The structure of this system unexpectedly
coincides with those of the countries that are
leaders in innovative economies - Finland, Israel,
and Singapore. However, the actuality of the
system reveals its ineffectiveness in accelerating
or transformating the economy from traditional
to innovative. Government regulations and
policies on innovative development in Russia
are severely lacking in coordination. As a result,
budget funds are used inefficiently. Initially,
these funds are allocated, with a similar purpose,
but pass through different channels, resulting in
a diffusion of responsibility for building up the
national innovation system.
The state, in its aim to meet the demands
of its society, is interested in the development
of the innovative sector, as it will diversify the
Russian economy and ensure profits and welfare,
especially in the long-term.
• Organizations with the main purpose
of producting goods or services for
sale; non-commercial organizations
rendering services to above-mentioned
Entrepreneurs use governmental and private
resources to produce goods and services to
meet demand of markets. They receive profits,
provide jobs and pay taxes. While considering
the business sector from the point of view of the
development of the innovative industry, it makes
sense to distinguish between:
Large industrial corporations, which form
the demand for innovative products, obtain
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funds and can use these funds for research and
development (R&D), and
Innovative companies, typically small
and medium enterprises (SME) that produce
innovative products.
The most pressing problem with large
industrial companies lies in low incentives to
invest in innovation due to high incomes, which
have been caused by the sharp incline in world
prices. As a result, innovative companies suffer
from insufficient investment, lack of personnel
and other problems, which will be discussed in
the next part of the analysis.
The business sector will greatly benefit from
the development of the innovation sector, as this
will diversify the economy, not only creating
opportunities within a new growing market, but
also improving the competitive power of Russian
products on the world market.
Higher Vocational Sector
• Universities and other institutions of
higher education, scientific research, and
The higher vocational sector serves as
a supplier of personnel for research and as a
producer of research itself. It suffers from the
lack of funds and the fact that its performance
does not reflect the needs of the business
The development of the innovative industry
is unambiguously connected to the development
of the higher vocational sector.
Non-Commercial Sector
• Organizations, which do not aim
at generating a profit (professional
societies, unions and associations, public
organizations, funds, etc.).
The non-commercial sector promotes
development of the innovative sector by
attracting attention of the general public and the
government to the importance of the industry, by
creating professional networks and enhancing
communication, and by promoting education and
providing funds for research.
The primary problem here consists of the
overall low level of the civil society’s influence
on the political agenda in Russia; especially, in
the sectors that do not generate immediate high
This stakeholder’s most important concern
is to promote a more educated community and
to create scientific potential and business ties,
with the goal of creating a more prosperous and
developed society.
Citizens of the Russian Federation
• People holding Russian citizenship.
The society of the whole is interested in
higher living standards. This can only be reached
by sustainable economic development, which
is impossible without diversification of the
The World
• All other countries.
The world market will benefit from the
products of Russian innovative companies
because increased supply intensifies competition,
usually leading to improved quality.
Innovative Project Framework
and Problems Within It
Innovative Project Framework
The distinctive feature of the innovative
business sector is that SME provide the
best environment for the development of
«breakthrough» ideas and serve as a driving
force of the industry. Emergence and global
expansion of their products are also possible
within big corporations, but the first stage of
commercialization, in most cases, can only be
successful within SME. That is why among
western companies there is a wide-spread
practice of spin-offs, i.e. the detachment of
specific products into independent companies,
as well as takeovers of small and medium
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innovative enterprises for further product
Today, the share of innovative enterprises in
the small business sector in Russia is 1.3 %, while
in Germany it amounts up to 59 %, in Iceland –
52 %, and in Ireland – 47.2 %.
With regard to this, support of SME should
be one of the main priorities of government policy
in order to stimulate innovation development.
For a better understanding of the barriers
that small businesses encounter, it is important
to know an innovative company's stages of
development and key actions implemented in
each phase.
There are three major stages of such a
1. «Generation of knowledge», which
icludes fundamental and applied scientific
2. «Venture phase», which consisits of two
a. «Seed phase», during which any
additional research is conducted,
the product is developed, the
team is formed, a business-plan is
created, intellectual property rights
are registered, and prototypes and
experimential samples are produced;
b. «Start-up», during which a shortrun production, a certification of
products and licensing of production
are executed, results of the first sales
are received, and serial production is
3. «Late stage», which includes expansion
of the business and production, market
development, building up a distribution
system, and enlargement of key assets
and capital.
The problems of the late phase are not
considered here, since an innovative company
functioning in this stage represents a working
business, the government regulation of which
should be done on a common basis.
Generation of Knowledge
In order to estimate the state of affairs in
the system of knowledge generation, one should
look at the volume of money spent on research,
consider its amount, quality and commercial
In comparison to the countries with developed
innovative economies, the expenditures on R&D
in Russia, in  % of GDP, appear to be relatively
sufficient (they are lower, but have the same order
of magnitude – Fig. 1).
As revealed by statistics, the number of
researchers per one million inhabitants is also
lower in Russia than in western countries, but the
difference is not tremendous (Fig. 2).
The difference in the number of patents
registered is more striking, but not striking
(Fig. 3).
Alltogether, this data gives a positive
impression about the quantity of the scientific
activities in Russia. Nonetheless, a consideration
of the commercial use of developments is
frustrating: as estimated by of the Ministry for
Education and Science, in the Russian Federation
less than 1 % of the results of scientific work are
used for commercial production. In the United
States and the United Kingdom this figure
amounts up to 70 %.
Another observation demonstrating that
Russia is far behind other innovative economies,
is the extremely low number of patents, as
registered by the Russian developers in the
European Patent Office (Fig. 4).
Considering the sufficient amount of
scientific work and its commercial potential,
raises the question: What is preventing the
current system of academia and industry from
effectivily transforming financial resources into
the development of goods competitive on the
global innovation arena?
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A primary line of reasoning explains that
Russian companies invest significantly less
in R&D than their western counterparts. As
a necessity then, academia is to a large extent
financed by the government. Due to a lack of
ties to the market, scientific results cannot be
produced for commercial use.
Venture Phase
The main objectives of this stage include the
development of a commercial product, working
out a market entry strategy and obtaining the
first results of sales. In order to fulfill these
Fig. 1. Expenditures on R&D in 2006,  % GDP1
Fig. 2. Researchers per one million inhabitants, 20062
Fig. 3. Number of patents, registered by residents of
the country, per one million inhabitants, 20063
1 2 3
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Data Centre, http://stats.
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Data Centre, http://stats., data for the US is for 2005.
WIPO Statistics Database,
tasks, a company needs financial resources and a
favourable environment.
Financing innovative projects, which are
characterized by a high level of risk in the early
stage, is typically arranged through venture
funds. Often, venture investors have experience
and business connections, which allows for the
reduction of risks and for helping companies to
develop faster and with fewer losses.
The amount of money invested into Russian
companies in the venture phase is much less than
that of the countries with advanced innovative
economies (Fig. 5).
This result is not surprising since the
numerous less risky investment opportunities
exist in Russia.
To increase the flow of money into the
industry, the Russian government has already
initiated a number of measures:
• Foundation of the Russian Venture
Company (RVC) with a nominal capital
of 30 billion rubles1, under which two
venture funds were created and five are in
the process of establishment;
• The
«RUSNANO» was established with a
nominal capital of 130 billion rubles. Its
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1 US dollar=36 rubles, 1 Euro=46 rubles on the 5th of
March 2009. It is important to note, that at the moment
Russian Central Bank is pursuing the policy of gradual
devaluation of the ruble.
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Russia, 2007-2010
EU, 2007
USA, 2007
Fig. 4. Number of patents, registered by different
countries in European Patent Office, per one million
inhabitants, 20061
Fig. 5. Total amount of financing of innovative projects
from seed stage to expansion and growth (venture capital,
business angels, governmental funds), billion dollars1
goal is to support the development of
nanotechnology in Russia;
• The venture fund «RIFIKT» was created
with a capital of 1,45 billion rubles;
• 21 regional venture funds were
established with the cooperation of the
Ministry of Economic Development and
the regional governments, making up a
total capitalization of more than 6 billion
These actions coincide with the global
practice of stimulating the venture industry.
As long as these financial resources are going
to be spent during the next five-ten years, they
seem to suffice. The effectiveness of the funds’
allocation, however, will depend on the people
involved in the sector. Considering the historical
lack of entrepreneurs and investors in Russia, it
is necessary to attract new specialists. Without
them there is a risk that the created funds will
turn into financial institutions that provide
money for the building of factories rather than
invest into the commercialization of prospective
Moreover, the functioning of these funds
primarily serves to finance the second sub-stage
of the venture phase – start-up, when the product
and prototype have already been developed. As
for now, the only source of finance for the seed
phase is the Fund for Support of the Development
of Small Enterprises in the Scientific-Technical
Sphere (belonging to the Ministry for Education
and Science), which gives out one billion rubles
per year in forms of grants. The Association of
Business Angels of Russia estimates that private
seed investment is about 0.5 billion rubles a year.
Thus, the total amount of seed investment is 1.5
billion rubles - an obvious imbalance with the
financing of the start-up stage.
The necessity of additional seed investment
was acknowledged by the Minister of Economic
Development, Ms. Nabiullina, but no actions
have been taken yet. The global financial crisis
and the declining economic growth challenge
the government to spend money economically
and efficiently. Under such conditions investment
into the mechanism of seed investment appears
to be worth undertaking: with a relatively low
level of use of financial resources one can tackle
system problems in the sphere of innovation and
lay the foundation of the future prosperity. The
main point here is not to increase government
WIPO Statistics Database,
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Seventh EBAN Congress, presentation of the company
«New Vantage Group»: data PWC Money Tree 2007,
data of the National Association of Business Angels
(Russia), European Investment Fund (EIF) Annual Report 2007, European Business Angel Network (EBAN).
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spending, but to create an environment which
would attract private investment.
Coming back to the important conditions
for the development of an innovative company
in the venture phase, the second component –
environment – is to be deliberated. The first
aspect that comes to mind in regard to this
is physical infrastructure, and the Russian
government has already taken a number of steps
to cope with this issue: business incubators,
technoparks and technology centers have been
set up. The latter requires special attention: the
creation of centers of collective use has proved
its effectiveness in the world practice, and it is
necessary to further establish and improve the
work of the existing ones on the territory of the
Russian Federation.
However, even the best infrastructure
means little if people do not utilize it. It is wellknown that entrepreneurial culture, especially
in the sphere of innovation, has been weaker in
Russia than in the western countries. Moreover,
if developers are not entrepreneurs by nature then
they require professional business support, which
is usually delivered by business incubators.
Unfortunately, a poll conducted by the Russian
Public Opinion Research Centre revealed that the
current structure of professional support does not
satisfy the needs of the market neither in terms of
quantity nor quality.
A primary reason for this is the short period
that has passed since the measure was put into
practice. Nevertheless, it does not lessen the
importance of paying attention to the provision
of professional support because the key task of it
is to attract the most qualified specialists in order
to ultimately build the future of the industry.
Lastly, taking care of supply does not make
much sense without demand on the market.
Unfortunately, Russian companies have not shown
much interest in Russian innovative products,
while western companies have been ready for a
dialogue and consideration of the production of
Russian innovative SME. Stimulating internal
demand, a decisive factor for the existence of
SME, should become one of the priorities of
government policy.
Policy Options
In this part, policy options are described and
assessed based on the criteria:
1. Compliance of the policy with long-term
economic goals:
a. Compliance with the goal of promoting
an innovative economy in the Russian
b. Volatility of the economy to external
2. Capabilities to achieve short-term
economic goals, i.e. to cope with the
current crisis:
a. Creation of jobs;
b. The ratio of potencial increase in
GDP with regard to the amount of the
required investment.
Intensive scenario: seed investment
as a driver for the innovative industry
Seed investments constitute the money
provided for the initial stages of a new venture;
for instance, to conduct research, develop the
prototype of a product, or test if an idea is workable
or economically viable. In order to stimulate
these types of investments, the government has
to share the burden of high risks on this stage.
This can be done in two ways:
• Government and private financial capital
are accumulated into funds. These funds
then invest into projects;
• Private investments are attracted for
particular projects into which government
invests as well.
In both cases private investors should be
allowed to buy the govenmental part of a project.
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The first scenario has been realized in the work
of the RVC and regional venture funds. In most
cases investors in such ventures are institutional
and are not interested in the operations of the
companies; therefore, the financial resources
are directed to the later phases. The use of this
method, however, is not sutiable for encouraging
seed investment, especially during the financial
crisis, when investors are prone to choose lowrisk projects.
The second scheme of mixing private and
public investment in a particular project to boost
seed investment has been successfully realized
in Israel1 and Singapore2. A similar structure
can be used in Russia to tackle the problem of
professional support and financial resources in
the seed stage. Such a framework may involve
four major types of agents: a governmental agent,
service organizations, private investors and
innovative developers or SME. A governmental
agent forms a seed investment fund, while service
organizations discover prospective technologies/
projects, assist companies with finding and hiring
specialists, attracting private investment and
support a company throughout the venture phase.
Within the current structure of the innovation
sector, the fund can be based on resources of the
RVC and RUSNANO. The suggested framework
implies that the seed fund gives up to 75 % of
required financial resources, providing that a
company already obtains the rest 25 % in private
investment. In this way service companies are
responsible for forming flow of deals, attraction
of the private investment and provision of
professional support to the companies, while the
fund, or a special commission within it, approves
the companies that recieve financial help.
The Technological incubators program, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, Israel, retrieved on the 28th of
Febtuary from:
Irene Tham, NSTB to invest S$50m seed funding in 100 start-ups, retrieved on the 28th of
The proposed scheme is flexible and allows
using different elements of the innovative
infrastructure. There are many actors which can
become a service company:
• Management companies of business
incubators and technoparks;
• Management companies of venture
• Organizations which are hired by
industrial corporations;
• Organizations which are hired by regional
In some regions of Russia there already exist
companies that act as service organizations, but
their number is insufficient. Further companies
can be established with the financial resources
of local governments or mutual funds of a
municipality and the Ministry for Economic
The annual budget of a service company is
20-30 million rubles3. Key cost items are salaries
and expertise of projects. As mentioned above,
the money can come from the municipal budget,
or be combined with those form the Ministry
for Economic Development, as is done for the
venture funds. It is estimated, that the size of
the fund in 2009 should be 4.4 4 billion rubles.
If we take for example that an average service
company obtains an investment budget of 500
million rubles5, then in 2009 there should be
approximately 9 service organizations. Then the
maximum expenditures on the establishment
of the service organizations will amount up
to 270 million rubles. This is a relatively low
investment in comparison to the amount needed
for innovative infrastructure.
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Expert estimation
Calculation based on the Model 1, Appendix 1: the forecast figure for 2008 is 7.8 bln roubles. 1.5 bln are already
in place in forms of grants and private investment, then
the additional money needed: (7.3-1.5)*0.75=4.4 (assumption: government provides 75 % of the needed investment, the rest should be private)
Expert estimation
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Stimulating seed investment may have a
substantial impact on the development of the
innovative industry on the whole as it will tackle
system problems. Service organizations will solve
the problem of lack of entrepreneurial experience
in the industry and will help to create a class
of innovative specialists. This may lead to an
increased number of professional teams, capable
of running innovative projects. Moreover, the
work of a service organization in the region may
improve the effectiveness of the utilization of the
infrastructure and reduce the operational costs
necessity to control performance of the service
organizations. Delegating the responsibility to
the local governments can be a way to overcome
such barries.
Another question that arises is how to
motivate a service organization to search and select
prospective projects. Providing the opportunity
for a service company to buy a certain share in
the business can help in turning it from being a
bureaucratic structure into a profit-oriented unit.
The control of the seed investment fund
should be made similar to the control of the
of innovative companies (by allocating portfolio
companies in business incubators, use of the
centers of collective use, use of the governmental
financial support, etc.).
The seed investment fund and the flow
of deals are likely to encourage small private
investors to act more actively, which should lead
to an increase in the number of business angels,
who are almost absent on the Russian market
today. As a comparison, in the countires with
advanced innovative economies these actors play
one the most important roles on the early stages
of innovative projects.
This scenario fully coincides with the longterm goal of establishing an innovative economy
in Russia and should lead to a remarkable
decrease in the dependence on external factors,
such as world prices for raw materials.
The policy option may serve to create jobs
not only for the group of developers and people
involved in working for service organizations,
but also for potential serial production.
It is important to point out that the relatively
low level of investment seems to be feasible even
during the times of the global financial crisis. It
cannot only create new opportunities, but also
may improve the return on investment that has
been made.
The risks of this option are mostly associated
with the complication of the system and the
existing venture funds.
Passive scenario: invest into later stages
and infrastructure
This option implies further support of the
establishment of venture funds, technology
centers, business-incubators and techno parks
and maintaining the existing ones.
At the moment there are 56 centers on the
territory of the Russian Federation that possess
equipment for 7 billion rubles1. However, most
of them are physically and morally old and can
hardly be used effectively. Moreover, new centers
of collective use should be created.
Building techno parks is an expensive
activity (for example, for the techno park in
Dubna the total investment made up to $470
million, from which governmental part was $88.5
million (or 19 %)), but results are often worth the
money spent: techno parks reduce operational
and transactional costs, and even let businesses
benefit from the interaction of employees in the
informal atmosphere out of offices.
Without a precise calculation, the total
amount of investment into the later phase and
infrastructure amounts to billions of rubles, that
is noticeably more than seed investment. As with
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Centers of Collective Use, Seventh Framework Programme of the EU, retrieved on the 26th of Febtuary
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any large investment, main risks are associated
with relatively long time for the return and the
risk that the result of investment will not be used
As well as the first scenario, this one fully
reflects the goals of the long-term development,
as it contributes to the establishment of the
innovative economy in Russia and reduction of
its dependence on the world raw material prices.
It also obtains a scope for creation of jobs, which
may, however, be limited at the moment because
of the deteriorating economic climate and, as a
During the crisis the government may
find it hard to decrease taxes and introduce
the requirement for a share of innovative
products, that a corporation has to consume.
Still, the current situation may unexpectedly
create incentives to increase the demand for
innovations. Falling prices mean diminishing
profitability of businesses, what will stimulate
them to implement innovations, pursuing the aim
of improving efficiency and finding new ways of
organizing the processes.
The implementation of this scenario on
result, declining amount of investment .
its own contains risks of inefficient use of the
investments, that have already been made into
the innovative industry in order to deal with the
problems related to infrastructure, availability of
financial resources and professional support to
Formation of the internal demand
for innovation
The goal of stimulating the internal demand
for innovations is usually achieved by providing
tax remissions for the companies that invest in
and/or implement the result of R&D.
The problems related to getting access
to large corporations, which innovative SME
might encounter, can be also solved by service
organizations, proposed in the policy option 3.1.
Another strategy is to introduce the
requirement for companies working on
governmental orders to have a certain share of
Russian innovative products in their procurement
structure. This is a widely applied measure,
for example, in the United States, where
private companies that participate in tenders
for governmental orders have to attract small
companies as subcontractors.
The high priority of this policy option for
the long-term success of switching to innovative
economy is indisputable, since without it the
results of any or both scenarios discussed above
will be almost useless.
Talking about creation of jobs, the growing
demand for innovation should contribute to the
increase in jobs in the innovative sphere and is
supposed to expand investments.
Inertial scenario: concentrate
on export of raw materials
Pursuing this scenario means that Russia
continues the economic path based on extraction
of the resources and orientation on the export of
them. Even with regard to the fact that Russia
possesses large fossil resources, the high costs
of extraction makes the future of this strategy
questionable. Compared to the options listed
above, this policy option does not eliminate in
any way the dependence of the economy on prices
on the external markets and does not comply
with the long-term economic goal of establishing
innovative economy in the Russian Federation.
The impact of the sector on the GDP is
significant and should not be omitted. However, the
investments that are needed for further expansion
are high, while profitability has relied on the
prices. With the prices at a low rate it is time to
improve efficiency in the industry, and here, again,
innovations can play an important role.
Concentrating solely on this scenario leads
to the neglecting of investments into innovative
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industry that already have been made, what bring
the risk of inefficient use or even total loss of them.
The role of this sector in jobs creation in
Russia is momentous. However, during the crisis,
further jobs creation is unlikely to take place.
On the contrary, the industry may suffer jobs
cuts as it was announced that they would have to
decrease output in 2009.
It may sound astonishing, but the crisis
should be perceived as an opportunity for
Russian innovative sector to develop significantly
with government support. Without understating
the importance of stimulating internal demand
for innovation and improving infrastructure,
launching the mechanism of seed investment
appears to be the key factor to allow Russian
developers and entrepreneurs to create products
competitive on the global market. By the time the
crisis loses its severity in 2-3 years and investors
become more optimistic about the market, the
companies will be able to attract investment
for the products, they will have developed due
to the seed investment. This can be the time of
establishment of venture industry in Russia.
If the development of seed investment is
postponed, the government money that has been
invested so far is likely to be lost. There is a
risk that private capital, which came during the
previous years, will leave because of the crisis.
That means that the created infrastructure will
not start functioning, because there will be no
real use out of it. In this case, providing that the
seed stage is not supported, in a few years’ period
the industry will be lacking new ideas and there
will be hardly anything to invest in.
The estimation of costs for additional
seed investment and establishment of service
organizations may require further scrutiny.
Christian Gianella, William Tompson, Stimulating innovation in Russia: the role of institutions
and policies, OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 539, Retrieved on the 25th of February
Derzhin, I. G., Saltykov, B.G., Mekhanismy stimulirovaniya kommercializacii issledovaniy i
rasrabotok (The Mechanisms to stimulate commercialization of research and development), Insitute
of Economics in Transition, Moscow: 2004
Rashkin V.F., Nekotorye aspekty gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya innovacionnoy deatelnosti v
Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Some aspects of governmental regulation of innovative activity in the Russian
Federation), retrieved on the 6th of December from:
Koncepciya dolgosrochnogo socialno-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii do 2020
goda (The Concept of Long-term Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation till 2020),
Ministry for Economic Development, retrieved on the 10th of February from:
Russia in figures, Federal State Statistics Service, retrieved on the 10th of Febtuary from: http://
Gokhberg, L.M., Novaya innovacionnaya sistema dlya «novoy ekonomiki» (New innovative
system for «new economy»), Questions in Economics, Moscow, 2003, №3 (pp. 26-44)
Gorin, A.A., Mindeli, L.E., Gosudarstvennoe finansirovanie issledovaniy I razrabotok v usloviyah
perehodnoy ekonomiki (Public Financing of Research and Development during Economic Transition),
Centre for Science Research and Statistics, 1998
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Audretsch, David B., Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth, Cheltenham, Elgar,
World Patent Report: A Statistical Review, World Intellectual property Organization (WIPO),
retrieve on the 1st of March from:
UNESCO Institute of Statistics Data Centre, data retrieved on the 1st of March from: http://stats.
Between Invention and Innovation. An analysis of Funding for Early-stage Technology Development, National Institute of Standards and Technology, US, retrieved on the 26th of February from:
Centers of Collective Use, Seventh Framework Programme of the EU, retrieved on the 26th of
February from:
Innovacionnoe maloe I srednee predprinimatelstvo: problemy rasvitiya (Innovative Small and
Medium Entrepreneurship: Problems of Development), Russian Public Opinion Research Center, retrieved on the 26th of February from:
The Technological incubators program, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, Israel, retrieved
on the 28th of February from:
Irene Tham, NSTB to invest S$50m seed funding in 100 start-ups, retrieved on the 28th of February from:,39042972,13025877,00.htm
Appendix 1
Model 1: Dynamics of the need of the Russian innovative industry in financial resources during
the period 2008-2020 to meet the goals of CLD1.
The assumptions and logic of the model:
• Innovative products are produced by large and medium enterprises;
• Large enterprises are those that have existed on the market for a relatively long period of time
and can produce not only innovative products. Besides working on their own developments
they can take over small innovative companies. The share of large enterprises in total
production is 80 %;
• Medium enterprises grow from innovative start-ups after goning through the whole «venture»
phase. A medium enterprise produces only innovative products. In ten years time it either
becomes a large enterprises or is taken over by a large enterprise;
• The amount of innovation production in each year (specified in the CLD) defines the
number of medium enterprises needed to produce this certain volume. On the basis of that
the number of companies in the seed and start-up phases during the previous years can be
calculated. Then, with regard to the amount of investment needed on the different stages of
the life cycle of an innovative company, required investment can be estimated;
• The annual income of a medium enterprise is assumed to be 500 million rubles, annual rate of
growth – 15 % during the first 10 years. This is an optimistic scenario for income and sales,
what allows to minimize the required financing;
Author: Alexander Khasin, General Manager «EcoInvest»
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• The seed and venture phases are taken to last two and three years respectively, the need in
financial resources is assumed to be 20 million rubles in the seed stage and 100 million rubles
in the venture stage (these figures are taken on the basis of the US statistics, which gives
the following intervals (depending on the year): seed investment - $0.5 – 1.5 million, start-up
investment - $3.2 – 6.1 million).
• It is supposed that 30 % of the companies go through the seed stage, and 20 % - through the
venture stage, this means that only 6 % of the initial number of companies survive, the figure
that is reflected by empirical data.
In accordance to the CLD, the share of innovative production should reach 25-35 % of GDP by
2020. The average rate of growth of GDP is assumed to be 6.5 %. Extrapolation of the macroeconomic
parameters for 5 years longer, to 2025, with consideration of the trend during 2008-2020, provides the
requirement for financial resources during the period 2008-2020.
The results are presented on the char (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6. Dynamics of the need of the Russian innovative industry in financial resources during 2008-2020, billion
Although the model is rather rough, it gives an idea about the order of magnitude of the
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 429-434
УДК 792
Professional-Creative Direction in Activity
of the Chelyabinsk Branch of the All-Russia Theatrical Society
Tamara V. Aref’eva*
South-Ural State University,
76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
Professional-creative direction as the main one in the work of Chelyabinsk Branch of All-Russian
theatrical society helped the outstanding and the starting actors in their creative work in the aim of
propaganda of the theatrical art of the South-Ural region and of the country as a whole. Laboratories,
seminars, conferences on questions of theory and practice of the scenic art were organized to help the
workers of the theater and theatrical collectives to improve their professional level. Much attention
in this work was paid to the creative section such as art – staged section, criticism section etc. Newly
formed Department of the creative youth helped to organize professional study in the theatres of the
region. The research of the archival documents helps to come to the conclusion that the professional
creative activity was carried out with the help of various forms and methods of cooperating with the
actors of the theatre and it had the educational aspect.
Keywords: All-Russian theatrical society, Chelyabinsk Branch, the basic directions and forms of work,
professional-creative activity.
The organization of the Chelyabinsk
branch of the All-Russian theatrical society has
been already formed on the prepared ground.
This process was preceded with the creation of
professional theatres in the region. Only with
their presence the necessity for the establishment
which would organize, direct and supervise
their work could appear (Aref’eva, 2008). The
Soviet state expected from All-Russian theatrical
Society not simply centralized management
but «the association of all drama, musical
and children’s theatres, in one, ideologically
connected establishment»1.
In the given research the professionalcreative direction is allocated as one of the basic
in activity of all-russian theatrical society. It
is understood as a line of work of a branch of
all-russian theatrical society in accustoming
outstanding actors and only starting actors to
the creativity with the aim of propaganda of the
theatrical art of the South-Ural region and the
country as a whole.
The Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian
theatrical society formed in 1946 became stronger
year by year both quantitatively and qualitatively
(in 1946 – 50 persons, accordingly further:
1950 – 80, 1960 – 170, 1965 – 200, 1970 – 297,
1980 – 364)2. In different years Garyanov (since
1946), Udzanov (194?-1961), Mazurov (19611963), Ageev (1963-1974), Kuleshov (1975-1978),
Gorbunov (1978-1980) and others supervised the
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch…
With the purpose of giving all-round aid to
workers of the theatre and theatrical collectives
in their professional perfection, central allrussian theatrical society organized laboratories,
seminars, conferences on questions of the
theory and practice of scenic art, directs the
experts – advisers, critics, lecturers to various
regions of the country4. This work becomes
more active in 1960th. So in 1965 the candidate
of art criticism, critic V. Vanslov (Moscow)
was sent to Chelyabinsk. He held a creative
seminar for actors of theatres of Chelyabinsk
and the region, and participated in seeing the
performances of the Chelyabinsk opera house. In
the creative report about performances «Eugeny
Onegin» and «Carmen» V. Vanslov stated «that
the performance «Eugeny Onegin» is bad and
old. It goes languidly, without enthusiasm. The
conductor conducts the performance poorly. The
orchestra rattles and frequently muffles singers.
The performance should be removed and staged
again. The performance «Carmen» is good,
especially on the musical level». N. Shaidarova –
«Carmen» gives an interesting meaning of the
image, not imitating uncountable other «Carmen».
I. Zak conducts the opera with the big skill. The
orchestra sounds clearly, expressively with true
tempoes. The chorus sounds well»5. Undoubtedly
the arrival of the critics had positive effect on
work of theatres; however the attitude to the critics
was ambiguous. On the one hand the professional
estimation of the done work was necessary, on
the other hand critics came seldom, they did not
see the development of the theatre and actors that
is why their estimation was not always objective.
There were remarks to Chelyabinsk Branch of
all-russian theatrical society that it was necessary
to think of fastening two or three critics from the
centre to the Ural region: «it is very important
for the critics to come each two or three months.
(…) Let them come to look at the theatre, actors
and let them tell if we grow and do not. (…) If the
critic did not come at once but from time to time
he would speak about our work and we would not
react so painfully»6.
The organization of work of professional
collectives at theatres became very important7.
The big place in the organization of such work
was allocated to creative sections both working
and newly formed. So in September, 1965, newly
created art – staged section had its first classes.
The winner of the state premium the artist –
Andzhan A.I. (Moscow film studio) was invited
to conduct classes. He gave some practical
classes working with a make-up, the lecture «The
application of new materials in hairdresser’s
work». The positive feature in the work of the
section was the fact that make-up artists visited
each other on workplaces and adopted something
for work. Classes were held in Tsvilling’s theatre
and make-up artists from all theatres of the region
attended them8.
In November, 1965, Chelyabinsk branch
made a request for the organization of classes
on scenic speech. In this connection the adviser
of all-russian theatrical society Elistratova A.A.
(Moscow) came to Chelyabinsk. She admitted
that the speech culture in Chelyabinsk region was
very poor, especially in Zlatoust. Elistratova’s
arrival served as a good push for the activation
of individual work of actors at the speech culture.
Lectures «The modern literary pronunciation»
and «Speech culture of the theatre» were
organized by her. The individual work was a very
positive feature in her technique9.
To increase the professional skills stage
managers of Chelyabinsk and the region trained
in creative laboratories in Moscow since October
till December, 1965: the main producer of
Chelyabinsk drama theatre Sapegin B. V. was
trained by Tovstonogov, the main producer of the
theatre of a young spectator Scomorovskij B.A.
was trained by Pluchek, the main producer of
the opera house people’s artist of RSFSR Dautov
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Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch…
N.K. was trained by Pokrovskij10. As we see, the
process of vocational training was carried out
under a precise management of the central allrussian theatrical society.
Since May 1968 till November 1970 all work
of all-russian theatrical society was directed to
the organization of a worthy celebration of a 100anniversary of V.I. Lenin’s birthday and XXIV
congress of the CPSU. The main emphasis in
work was made on the actions connected with
the increase of ideological and professional
level of workers of the theatre: for example, in
Tsvilling’s theatre in Chelyabinsk the seminar
on aesthetics and the lecture «Lenin in art» were
held; in Magnitogorsk in Pushkin drama theatre
there was a political education on Marxist –
Lenin aesthetics and the lecture «The image
of a woman – communist on the Soviet stage»,
in Zlatoust drama theatre there was a lecture
«Theoretical Lenin’s heritage in literature and art»
and a political class «The history of the CPSU»11.
According to the plans of the centralized actions
the expanded session of Presidium of the Council
of all-russian theatrical society «The image of
the communist on the Soviet stage» was held
in Ulyanovsk. The purpose of the given action
was the generalization of the theory and the
practice of work in staging the performances the
basis of which was the image of the communist
as an example of a person selflessly devoted
to the people, to the party to the ideals of the
constructions of a communist society.
Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical
society had the review of performances at various
theatres of the region and invited the best directors,
producers and actors to the exit session of the
Presidium of all-russian theatrical society12.
Comprehensive work of Chelyabinsk branch
of all-russian theatrical society with the artistic
youth was systematically carried out. Review
of the young actors, two regional reviews of
the creative youth devoted to a 100-anniversary
of Lenin’s birthday, regional contest of readers,
zone conference «Producer’s work with an actor
in the conditions of a city theatre», creative
meetings of young actors with each other were
held together with the Regional committee of
Leninist Young Communist League of the Soviet
Union. Branch of all-russian theatrical society
insisted on having daily work with the youth at
the theatres: «It is necessary to form the outlook
of our young actors, – a member of all-russian
theatrical society, producer B.A. Skomorovskij
said, – for them to understand what they do, what
ideas they have»13.
In 70-s the party-state leaders of the country
strengthened ideological influence on the process
of cultural construction. There were more various
forms and methods of such influence, the role of
a public opinion in questions of culture raised;
discussions became the norm of spiritual life of
the Soviet society. Discussions and conferences
on themes «For close connection of literature
and art with life of people», «The role of art in
Communist education of Soviet people», were
developed on pages of newspapers and magazines
(«The Soviet culture», «Art», etc.). Many themes
were connected with the youth, among them are:
«Art is the important means of the education of
the youth», «The civic position and the creative
growth of a young actor» (Shalunovsky, 1969;
Civic position…, 1960). Correspondents marked
that the absence of good plays on up-to-date
themes limits opportunities of the young actors.
In spite of the fact of being busy young actors in
Chelyabinsk and Magnitogorsk theatres did not
have worthy roles for 2-3 years14.
In March, 1969 under the initiative of
Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical
society the review – competition of theatrical
youth was held. 67 persons who played in 36
performances of all genres of classical and
modern dramatic art took part in it. The purpose
of the competition was the acquaintance with
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Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch…
young creative talents, their civic position and
strengthening high communist spiritually moral
norms in lively scenic images15. Critics and the
press estimated a professional level of young
actors positively. Alongside with the positive
moments lacks were also marked. In the review
the significant work of a young actor or an actress
in the creation of the image of a young Soviet
positive hero was not noticed. The art authorities
of many theatres did not care of giving young
actors interesting and art significant roles16.
In February, 1971, the Department of the
creative youth was formed at Central all-russian
theatrical society. The Department was engaged
in all-round analysis of work of the theatrical
organizations of RSFSR with the creative youth,
maintenance of the further improvement of the
contents, methods and forms of ideological
education and professional work (The status of
the Department…, 1971). Chelyabinsk branch of
all-russian theatrical society started to cooperate
with the newly – created organization. To
improve the professional skill of the theatrical
youth it tries to organize professional study at
the theatres of the region. Together with the main
producers, branch of all-russian theatrical society
developed the curriculum where the individual
work with the actor was emphasized. Teachers of
Chelyabinsk institute of culture on scenic speech,
voice training and characteristic dance Lukjanova
L.N., Dikopolskaya V.A., Bejlin V.I., were invited
to conduct classes17.
The participant of a seminar on aesthetics in
Moscow, the candidate of philosophical sciences
G.N. Zatevahina did a big professional – creative
work with the youth. Actors said that «the major
quality of her lectures was the skill to coordinate
the abstract aesthetic categories with daily life of
our theatres»18. Organized at Chelyabinsk Branch
of all-russian theatrical society art-staged section
from the first years of existence (1965) and during
all the creative way saved up a certain experience
in conducting the classes on the improvement
of professional skills of workers of stage shops.
Therefore it addressed to the popularization of the
section. For this purpose two exhibitions «Stage
properties» and «Creativity of young artists of
the theatre» were organized. The exhibition drew
the attention of the diversified spectator layers.
One of the records in the visitor’s book spoke
convicingly about its success. «This exhibition
is good with the novelty. Works are creatively
interesting, there are no hardened dogmas in
them, each work is a new discovery»19. Definitely
such exhibitions were stimulus to the further
creativity. They revealed original, gifted artists.
By February, 1975, with the approval of the
Region committee of the party the section of
criticism was formed which was headed by the
chairman Zatevahina G.N. A small stuff of the
section was given a task to popularize the work
of the theatre in the press as much as possible,
to discuss urgency questions of theatrical life,
to print creative portraits, to publish pressing
articles. For example at one of the sessions of
the critics’ section the works published in the
collection «Ural theatrical» were discussed:
Zatevahina had the review of the performance
«Vigorous people», Morgules had the review
of the performance «Shveik» and «Til», critic
Letyagina had the review of the performance
«Ivanov», critic Stul wrote about Magnitigorsk
puppet theatre20. On one of the creative critics’
meetings with actors of the theatre it was told that
they want to see in critics «first of all people who
would be aware of cares, excitements and plans
of the theatre». The informal creative approach to
the estimation of theatres’ work, genuine interest
to the processes, taking place inside theatrical
collectives made the section of critics the leading
one in the structure of Chelyabinsk Branch of allrussian theatrical society21.
It paid a lot of attention to the organization
of the creative activity and the proof of the plans
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Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch…
of work can be found in archival sources. The
basic items of the plans were: the organization of
evenings of art reading of young actors, evenings
of the not played roles, review of the best films of
the Soviet and Foreign cinema, the organization of
leisure and rest of creative workers22. The actor’s
club, having become an integral part of life of
many actors, organized meetings with workers
of the enterprises. It is necessary to admit that
because of the absence of the place for the actor’s
club, the hall of the theatre and the «red corner»
on the territory of an enterprise could be a place
holding such meetings. Actors and workers
exchanged with greetings, had quizzes. In breaks
between the performances of the theatre there
were dances and talks with a cup of tea23.
Thus, professional-creative activity of the
Chelybinsk Section of all-Russian theatrical
society in 1960-1970-th was carried out in
conditions of strengthening ideological partystate influence. The politics of «cultural
construction» was carried out by means of a
theatrical art through variety of forms and ways
of interaction of the party-state institutes with
directors, actors, artists and art critics. This
activity carried in itself also the educational
aspect shown in education of figures of theatre
from positions of soviet-patriotic values. At the
same time Chelybinsk Section of all-Russian
theatrical society aspired to render to figures of
theatre and theatrical collectives all-round aid in
their professional-creative perfection.
T.V. Aref’eva, Chelybinsk Section of all-Russian theatrical society, its organizational-structural
device, the basic purposes and tasks of activity in 1930-1950-th, Science SUSU: Materials of 60-th
anniversary scientific conference (Chelybinsk, 2008) V.1. 56-69.– (in Russian).
V. Shalunovsky, The art is the important means of education of the youth, The Soviet culture,
1969, June 17, 3. – (in Russian).
Civic position and creative growth of the young actor, Art, 1960, № 2, 78. – (in Russian).
The status of the Department of the creative youth and the formation of the theatrical organization
of the RSFSR. Moscow, 1971. – (in Russian).
USCAR – The United State Archival Organization of Chelyabinsk region
RSALA – Russian State Archival Organization Literature and Art
1. RSALA. F. 450. In. 21. B. 11. P. 24.
2. RSALA. F. 970. In. 20. B. 762. P. 30.
3. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 8. P. 7.
4. RSALA. F. 970. In. 20. B. 677. P. 20.
5. RSALA. F. 970. In. 14. B. 831. P. 34-35.
6. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 134. P. 31.
7. RSALA. F. 970. In. 14. B. 832. P. 9.
8. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 98. P. 4.
9. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 98. P. 10.
10. USACR. F. P-1655.In. 1. B. 104. P. 3.
11. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 136. P. 2.
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Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch…
12. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 142. P. 40.
13. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 136. P. 4.
14. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.150. P. 7.
15. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.150. P. 8.
16. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.150. P. 17.
17. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.135. P. 8.
18. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.135. P. 4.
19. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.135. P. 11.
20. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 105. P. 38.
21. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 105. P. 45.
22. RSALA. F. 970. In. 20. B. 677. P. 4.
23. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.105. P. 46-47.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 435-442
УДК 282
Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
Alexander N. Andreev*
South-Ural State University,
76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
The article opens various aspects of history of Catholic communities in Russia under Peter the Great.
Some questions of distribution of Catholicism in Russia, quantities of Catholics, national and social
structure of parishes are investigated. For this aim author analyzed many published items and archival
sources. To these sources can be related the documents of Most Holy Governing Synod, memoirs of
contemporaries, reports of Jesuits in Russia and other materials. In consequence of the investigation
author had revealed the geography of the Russians catholic parishes and traced the process of catholic
churches founding.
Keywords: the epoch of Peter the Great, Catholic Church in Russia, Roman Catholic priesthood and
their flock in Russia.
Catholic communities did not play significant
role in religious life of Russia till the end of 17thbeginning of 18th centuries. With the beginning
of Peter’s reign the government started creation
of favorable conditions for the unorthodox
Christians to enter the country. As a result several
Roman Catholic communities were settled in the
country. Catholics were inspired with rationalist
views of the first Russian Emperor, which led
to his abruption with the Russian traditional
godliness and gave a hope on Catholic services
allowance and Catholic and Orthodox Churches
reunion (Andreev, 2007).
In the first part of the 18th century the amount
of Catholics in the country were filled up mainly
by foreigners, moved to Russia. Economically
fast-developing country desperately needed
specialists; therefore the questions of their
confession were not considered. The guarantee
of Catholic services no disturbance for all
immigrants entering Russia for business purposes
was Proclamation «On invitation of foreigners
to Russia with giving them the freedom of
conscience» dated April 16th 1702 (Legislation
of Peter the First, 1997). As a consequence of
Proclamation realization, the amount of Roman
Catholics in the first quarter of 18th century
increased drastically. There was the following
data on the increasing amount of Roman Catholics:
there were 40 Catholics in Russia in 1691, 400 in
1698, 600 in 1721 and over 1000 in 1723 (Winter,
1964). Letters and reports of Jesuits prove this
statistics. The report of Moscow Jesuit mission in
1709 informs that there were over 450 Catholics in
Russia in general (Letters and reports of Jesuits,
1904, 191). Some of the authors report that there
were 2000 Catholics in Russia by 1725 (History
of religions in Russia, 2002). Percentage rate of
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
Catholics to the Russian population in 20-s, 18th
Century, was approximately 0, 013% (Andreev,
2006). Protestantism confidently dominated
over Catholicism, because only the amount of
Lutherans was over 20 000 in the first quarter
of 18th Century. Nevertheless, the existence of
such amount of Catholics may be considered as
relatively new phenomenon in the Russian history,
because Catholic community in late middle ages
was represented by only several dozens of people.
Bearing in mind traditionally negative attitude to
Catholics as to people, distorting governmental
and social basis of the country the appearance of
2000 people of Catholic confession in Russia was
a significant development in the country religious
life (Andreev, 2008).
Archival data, contemporaries’ memoirs,
letters, reports, complaints, let us identify social
and national structure of Russian Catholics in the
first part of 18th Century. There was a significant
amount of Catholic foreigners doing military
service in Russia, foreign officers of the middle
and the highest levels. The report of the Military
Board in 1722 informs: «there were only five
Catholic officers among 10 dragoon regiments»1.
However a lot of Catholic officers served at
fleet. Reports of Military Board Admiralties
prove that there were 43 Catholics serving at
fleet2. Demographer A. Hupel also pointed out
significant number of officers and foreign officials
in Russia in the first part of 18th century: Scottish,
English, and mainly German (Hupel, 1786).
Besides military Catholics, serving in
Russia, there were different European specialists
and merchants in Russian Catholic communities.
In 1684 Moscow Catholics signed a request to
build a Roman Catholic Churches, which proves
the existence of merchants in Moscow Catholic
community (Tzvetaev, 1886, 4; Tolstoy, 1876,
126). However the amount of foreign merchants
among Russian Catholics was relatively small.
In total all trading operations were conducted
by 28 Austrian merchants, about 10 French and
several Italian (Zakharov, 1998). The structure of
Catholic community in St. Petersburg testifies that
military officers, specialists and other officials
were dominant in congregation. A lot of church
members are named in official documents as
masters of stone carving, journeymen, chemists,
«His Majesty architects», artists3. Among famous
Catholics of St. Petersburg one should know
architect Domenico Trezzini, who was a church
monitor in the local Catholic community during
a long time, his colleague Jean-Baptiste Leblon
(1679-1719), sculptor Carlo Rastrelli, sculptor,
master of stone carving Nicolas Pinot (1684-1754),
artist Louis Karavak4 (Baklanova, 1966). Catholic
community in Astrakhan in 1719 counted 90
households and consisted «partially of Austrian
gardeners, partially of Bavarian soldiers, who
had been captured along with Swedish people»
(Weber, 1738).
The most significant factor for the Catholic
mission development was congregants-officers,
because they essentially supported community
in moral and material way. Jesuit Franciscus
Emillian (Pater Franciscus Milan or Aemilianus)
at the beginning of 18th Century pointed out poor
conditions of Catholic Community in Moscow
in one of his letters and he associated it with the
fact that a lot of Catholic officers were killed or
captured and only masters, widows and orphans
were left (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904,
52). Emillian named in details all officers killed at
Narva battle, meaning that these people altogether
were the basis of Catholic Community: colonels
Kragen, Turlavil, Antonij Skhada, Franciscus
Kostanka, Lev Gio, Ivan Yust and others (Letters
and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 55). Later on in 20-s of
18th Century all Catholic priests and congregants
had protection of colonel Peter Gordon, son of
general Patrick Gordon (Tzvetaev, 1886, 48).
The national structure of Catholics in Russia
was very divers. French, Polish, German and
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Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
Italian congregants were the most numerous. In
St. Petersburg in the first quarter of 18th Century
each of these four groups of congregants was
relatively independent, had its own priest what
often led to conflicts and confrontation between
them5. Catholics in Astrakhan were represented
mainly by Austrian and Armenian merchants6.
Austrian resident in Moscow Player mentioned
German, Italian and Dutch congregants – ship
constructors (Player, 1874).
The most numerous Catholic parishes were
located in Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 17231724 congregants (parishioners) of Catholic
Church in St. Petersburg sent a request to the
Russian Government to allow Franciscan Yakov
Deolegio (Pater Giacomo d’Oleggio) officiate
at the service. Swiss Capuchin Apollinaris von
Weber (Apollinaire da Suit, former the head of
parish) opposed to Deolegio. As one can tell
looking at the request, 183 church-members
supported Deolegio7. However the Apollinaris
party was not less numerous, it had protection
of commodore Luka Demyanov and some other
foreign officers8. Apparently by the end of Peter
the First reign one could count no less than 300
of Catholic congregants in the northern capital
city of Russia. Catholic community in Moscow
consisted of 200 people and more in 1709 (Letters
and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 191).
Catholicism was getting popular not only
in the Capital cities, but also in the regions. At
the times of Peter the First the Catholic parish
in St. Petersburg covered cities Kronstadt, Riga,
Revel. Catholic priests constantly officiated at the
services in the named cities9. In 1725 there were
about 60 Catholics in Revel10. Catholics lived also
in Azov, Tula, Kazan, Astrakhan and other cities
(Tolstoy, 1876, 137). According to the data of Jesuit
mission in 1709 there were over 200 Catholics in
Moscow, over 50 Catholics by the Azov Sea, 70 in
St. Petersburg by the Finnish gulf, 8 in Voronezh,
7 in Astrakhan, and 5 in Kazan. Also there were
15 Catholics in Archangelsk, 100 people in tsar
troop (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 191). A
lot of Catholic communities (in Azov, Taganrog,
Kazan) were formed by Jesuits interested in
catholic communities’ structure in those cities at
the beginning of 18th Century (Tzvetaev, 1886a;
Litzenberger, 2001, 47). Catholic cleric also
permanently was on duty in Voronezh by shipbuilders from Venice (Tzvetaev, 1886a).
At the beginning of his reign Peter the
First did not allow Catholics to build catholic
churches and invite Catholic priests to officiate at
the services. However as soon as Roman priests
had moved to Russia they initiated the process
of Catholic cathedrals building in German
settlement (Nemetskaja Sloboda) with help of
honorable foreigner Patrick Gordon and Italian
negotiant Franz Guasconi. Catholic Church in
Moscow was mentioned in historical documents
for the first time in 1688 (David, 1968). It was
a wooden Church, which was later illegally
made out of stone in 1694-1695. A pleader by
the Ambassadorial Department Ivan Yakimov
reported on June 3-d that Catholics had partially
built a stoned Church (Tzvetaev, 1886, 44). As it
appeared to be later on the request of Franciscus
Leffler and Paulus Yarosh (Jaros) to build a new
stoned Catholic Church the Russian Government
in 1695 allowed the construction of only wooden
Church. That Church was built in 1695-1696 and
was active only for several years. In the beginning
of 18th Century it was burnt away in fire (Korb,
1906; Schlafly Jr., 2007). The Church was located
on the shore of the river Yauza at the crossroad
of German street and Starokirochniy (The Old
church’) lane (former Kirochniy lane) and was
named after Saint Peter and Paul (Tzvetaev, 1886,
5-6; Litzenberger, 2001, 44).
The Order of Peter the First dated December
12, 1705 granted unlimited Catholic Church
building out of stone (Tolstoy, 1876, 137). As a
result Moscow Jesuits absolutely lawfully in
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1706 built Church of Holy Trinity on the place
of burnt wooden Church named after Saint Peter
and Paul, what made Moscow Jesuit community
one of the main Catholic centers in Russia
(Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 144-159).
Kammer-Junker Friedrich-Wilhelm Berkholz in
1722 described stoned Church of Holy Trinity as
a prosperous one (Berkholz, 1860). Given Stoned
Catholic Church was consecrated in June of 1707
and in 1812 was burnt away in fire (Schlafly Jr.,
Catholic Church building gradually became
widespread in Russia. The head of the Jesuit
Order Mission Elias (Ilya) Brogio reported
to Vatican in 1707 about foundation of many
Catholic Churches in Moscow (Theiner, 1859).
Memoirists Peter Henry Bruce and Friedrich
Christian Weber also confirmed the fact of the
first Catholic Churches appearance in Petersburg
(Bespjatykh, 1991). Evidently, construction of
the first unorthodox Churches took place without
prior notification of the government, which is
proved by the Order dated May 22, 1721 «On
informing Synod about unorthodox churches»11.
As a result of spontaneous churches construction,
several prayer halls, where services took place
as well, were founded in St. Petersburg, besides
already existed Catholic Church. The house of
famous architect Domenico Trezzini became
the first public prayer hall in 1705 (Hankovska,
2001). The first Catholic Church appeared in St.
Petersburg in 1710, when foreign court gardener
Peter van der Gaar presented piece of land
purchased by him for 300 rubles to Catholics,
living in Greek village (Grecheskaya Sloboda)12.
This Church was active until the great fire in 1735
in Greek Street, between river Moyka, Tsaritsin
Lug (now Marsovo Pole) and German street (now
Millionnaya Street)13. In July of 1735 Petersburg
Catholic services were officiated by four
preachers, namely Felucca, Stephan Defondo,
Peter Klein and Carlo de Luca14.
Besides Catholic Church in Greek Street
in St. Petersburg in 20-s of 18th century there
was one more special place – a small chapel for
French church-goers. Franciscan Peter Ceillot
served there in 1725 as the French notice shows15.
Probably exactly that chapel was mentioned as a
Catholic Church in French Street on Vasilyevskiy
Island16. More than that one Catholic Church in
Kronstadt was also active17. And of course private
worships took place at the houses of rear-admiral
Matvey Zmaevitch, master of carving Pinot, earl
Rastrelli18. Franciscan Condillier (Koldimer)
from Paris officiated at service at Rastrelli house,
Franciscan Michael Angelus de Vestigné from
Turin officiated at service at Zmaevitch house
(Uspensky, Shishkin, 1990, 202). Kronstadt also
had its own prayer hall in 1714 where captured
Sweden officer was in charge of worshipping
sacraments (Bespjatykh, 1997).
Starting in 1718 Catholic worships took place
in Astrakhan on a regular basis. By authorization
of the Astrakhan Governor the Catholic Cathedral
of the Repose of the Virgin was built in 172219.
It was the biggest Catholic Cathedral in Russia
after the one in Moscow. In 1734 the Astrakhan
Church had deteriorated and was knocked down.
A new Catholic Church was built on that place
and named after the Repose of the Virgin as
At the beginning of the 18th Century all
Catholic Priests and missioners in Russia were
mainly Jesuits. They worked practically in every
Catholic community of the country: in Kazan,
Azov, St. Petersburg, Astrakhan, Archangelsk
and Voronezh21 (Reiche, 1841). The Jesuit Order
was founder of the biggest mission in Moscow,
which existed until the Order deportation from
Russia in 1719. The most active representatives of
that Mission were Austrians Franciscus Emillian
(Pater Franciscus Milan) and Johann Birulla, who
had been working in Moscow from 1698 till 1719.
They left detailed correspondence with their
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Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
regional managers (Emillian and Birulla were
subordinated to Johann Miller, the head of the
Jesus community in Bohemian province)22. Jesuits
related to Lithuanian province of the Order also
founded a missionary location in St. Petersburg
in 1713. The head of the Jesuits in St. Petersburg
was Daniel Zhirovsky. In 1725 an Austrian Jesuit
Johann Bayer arrived at the Northern Capital as
an assistant to Zhirovsky23. In September of 1725
Michael Engel came to Petersburg with references
from Liefland bishop Schembeck 24
Astrakhan Catholic services were officiated
by Italian Capuchins in the first quarter of 18th
Century. Generally speaking Italian Capuchins
outstood with their academic activity and
scholarship. We should especially point out
Patricius from Milan (Pater Patricius da Milano).
He lived in Astrakhan in 1710-1713 and in 17161718 and after that was appointed Superior over
the all Catholic Missioners in Russia and officiated
services in St. Petersburg and in Moscow.
Bonaventura da Città di Castello and Giovan
Battista Primavera da Norcia lived in Astrakhan
in 1716-1718, Antonius Maria d’Amelia Lualdi
lived there in 1718-1723 (Uspensky, Shishkin,
1990, 105).
After the Jesuits exile in 1719 Capuchins,
Franciscans and Dominicans were in charge of
ministerial work. Right after Jesuits exile from
Russia Peter the First issued a special Chart in
order to invite Roman Capuchins to serve at
Russian ward25. On June 11th in 1720 Swiss Pater
Theodosius arrived at St. Petersburg at the head
of six capuchins delegation (after having several
disputes between Franciscans and Capuchins at
St. Petersburg ward Theodosius moved to Moscow
and became Superior)26. In July of 1720 catholic
priests from Order of Capuchins Pater Udalricus,
Pater Ficelis, Pater Casimir and Pater Romanus
came to Moscow from Kiev27. On June 27th 1732
three more Capuchins arrived at Moscow headed
by Pater Felice28.
Some catholic monks and members of
secular clergy were not only at Russian catholic
churches and communities, but also in private
houses. In the first half of eighteenth century a
plenty of the Roman priests lived in Smolensk
nobility’s (shlyakhta’s) houses29.
influence upon Russian society and Russian
religious life was determined by number of
clergy and certainly by its material prosperity.
During the 18th century the proceeds of Russian
catholic missions and parishes repeatedly varied.
Catholic communities and missions existed
due to donations of parishioners, among which
there were some rich patrons (Gordon, 1852). In
the end of 17th century general Patrick Gordon
had mentioned about «subscribing» reached
up to 47, 5 roubles (Gordon, 1841). Thereto the
Moscow Jesuits periodically were supported
from Viennese Imperial Court (David, 1968).
However the financial help to Russian Catholic
communities and missions from the European
Catholic States was more likely exception,
than a rule. More often many communities had
no maintenance from abroad of Russia. The
Kammer-Junker Berkholz was writing in 1722:
«The church services there (in the Moscow
Catholic church) were making by the Jesuits, who
received from the Roman Emperor annually the
sum of 800 roubles; but now the local Capuchins
do not receive anything» (Berkholz, 1860).
The payments of the maintenance to the
Moscow Jesuits from the Austrian government
were not regular. Austrian diplomat Player in
1710 reported that Moscow Jesuit mission is in
a pitiful state. The cause of such state was the
local donators’ death. Player made to emperor
an offer to pay the annual maintenance to the
Moscow catholic clerics. Thus, Player testifies
that the Austrian payments to Russian Jesuits
have stopped (Player, 1874). Russian Jesuits
informed to Rome about the extremely miserable
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Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
state and asked for aid (Letters and reports of
Jesuits, 1904, 57, 77, 147). And even the activity
of the Moscow catholic school which enjoyed
respect among local nobility, did not bring the
income perceptible. Jesuits wrote that they are
ready to teach children free of charge if only to
have a favour from Russian tsar30. Nevertheless,
the financial embarrassment had not prevented to
build a grand Holy Trinity’s church.
After deportation of Jesuits from Russia
the financial possibilities of catholic parishes
have worsened (Russia and Spain, 1991)31. The
given circumstance was making difficult the
missionary work and catholic proselytism in
Russia (Turgenev, 1842). Only with change of the
legal status of Catholic Church in Russia (after
the divisions of Poland) the financial possibilities
of catholic parishes have been improved.
A.N. Andreev, The Catholicism and society in Russia in the 18-th century (Chelyabinsk, 2007),
140, 220-221. – (in Russian).
Legislation of Peter the First (Moscow, 1997), 535-536. – (in Russian).
E. Winter, Papacy and tsarism (Moscow, 1964), 146. – (in Russian).
Letters and reports of Jesuits on Russia of the end of 17-th and the beginnings of 18-th centuries
(St.-Petersburg, 1904). – (in Russian and Latin).
History of religions in Russia (Moscow, 2002), 282. – (in Russian).
A.N. Andreev, Roman Catholics in Russia in the first half of the 18-th century, Culture and art in
monuments and researches (Chelyabinsk, 2006), vol.4, 54-65. – (in Russian).
A.N. Andreev, Russian Jesuit A.Ju. Ladyzhensky: the unexplored episode in the history of Russian
Catholicism in the 18-th century, Native history (Moscow, 2008), vol.3, 143-154. – (in Russian).
A.W. Hupel, The Church statistics of Russia (Riga, 1786), 307. – (in German).
D.V. Tzvetaev, From the history of foreign confessions in Russia in the 16-th and the 17-th centuries
(Moscow, 1886). – (in Russian).
D.A. Tolstoy, The Roman Catholicism in Russia (St.-Petersburg, 1876), vol.1. – (in Russian).
V.N. Zakharov, West-European merchants in Russia. The epoch of Peter I (Moscow, 1998), 3642. – (in Russian).
N.A. Baklanova, The cultural communications of Russia with France in the first quarter of 18th century, The international communications of Russia in 17-18-th centuries (Economy, policy and
culture) (Moscow, 1966), 312-313. – (in Russian).
F.Ch. Weber, The changed Russia (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1738), vol.1, 336. – (in German).
O.A. Player, About a present condition of the government in Moscovia. Otton Player’s report in
1710 (Moscow, 1874), 11-12. – (in Russian).
D.V. Tzvetaev, History of first Catholic Church’s building in Moscow (Moscow, 1886a), 118-119. –
(in Russian).
O.A. Litzenberger, The Catholic Church in Russia: a history and a legal status (Saratov, 2001). –
(in Russian).
I. David, Modern condition of Great Russia, or Moscovia, The questions of history (Moscow,
1968), vol.1, 130. – (in Russian).
I.G. Korb, A diary of travel to Moscovia (1698 and 1699) (St.-Petersburg, 1906), 55. – (in
– 440 –
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Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
Daniel L. Schlafly Jr., Peter the Great and Jesuits, Peter the Great (Moscow, 2007), 146. – (in
Berkholz, The Diary of Kammer-Junker Berkholz (Moscow, 1860), vol.2, 157-158. – (in
A. Theiner, Historical monuments concerning to reigns of Russian tsars Alexey Mikhailovich,
Fyodor III and Peter the Great, taken from archives of Vatican and Naples (Rome, 1859), 409. – (in
Italian and Latin).
Yu.N. Bespjatykh, Petersburg of Peter the First in the foreign descriptions (Leningrad, 1991),
108, 164. – (in Russian).
R. Hankovska, St. Catherine’s church in St.-Petersburg (St.-Petersburg, 2001), 21. – (in Russian).
B.A. Uspensky, A.B. Shishkin, Trediakovsky and Yansenists, The Symbol (Paris, 1990), vol.23. –
(in Russian).
Yu.N. Bespjatykh, The Petersburg of Anna Joannovna in the foreign descriptions (St.-Petersburg,
1997), 304. – (in Russian).
B.F. Reiche, Peter the Great and its epoch (Leipzig, 1841), 277. – (in German).
P. Gordon, The Diary of General Patrick Gordon (St.-Petersburg, 1852), vol.3, 253. – (in
P. Gordon, The papers of Peter Ivanovich Gordon, The Papers of Russian people (St.-Petersburg,
1841), 114. – (in Russian).
Russia and Spain. Documents and materials. 1667-1917 (Moscow, 1991), vol.1, 132. – (in
A.I. Turgenev, The historical Russian monuments taken from ancient foreign archives and
libraries (St.-Petersburg, 1842), vol.2, 298-302 – (in Latin).
CSHA SPb – The Central State Historical Archive of St.-Petersburg;
RSAAA – The Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (in Moscow);
RSHA – The Russian State Historical Archive (in St.-Petersburg).
1. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 2, file 563, p.2.
2. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 244, p.2-3.
3. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.14-17.
4. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 453, p.11-12.
5. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.4-37.
6. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 37, file 90, p.23.
7. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.15-17.
8. Ibidem, p.47-48.
9. Ibidem, p.25, 37.
10. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 6, file 126, p.6.
11. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 286, p.1-2; schedule 4, file 661, p.2.
12. RSHA, collection 821, schedule 125, file 1032, p.31.
13. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1719 year), file 1, p.1-2.
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Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great
CSHA SPb, collection 19, schedule 122, file 298, p.26.
RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.71.
RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 286, p.12-13.
RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 128, p.12.
RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 286, p.13-14; RSAAA, coll. 152, sch. 1 (1719 year),
file 1, p.2-3.
19. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 37, file 90, p.23; schedule 1, file 744, p.9-10.
20. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 37, file 90, p.23.
21. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1716 year), file 2, p.2.
22. Ibidem, p.2-3.
23. Ibidem, p.3-5.
24. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1715 year), file 1, p.1.
25. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1719 year), file 4, p.1.
26. Ibidem, p.1.
27. RSAAA, collection 158, schedule 2 (1717 year), file 11, p.31.
28. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1719 year), file 4, p.1.
29. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 17, file 394, p.2.
30. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1718 year), file 1, p.2.
31. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 3, file 1294, p.4; schedule 4, file 540, p.19.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 443-451
УДК 621:658 + 623(09)
Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
Svetlana N. Kulikovskih*
South-Ural State University,
76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1
Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009
At the beginning of XIX century with the purpose of increasing amount of made Russian fire-arms and
enhancing its quality already working armories in Tula, Sestroretsk and Izhevsk were exempted from
manufacture of side arms. At Zlatoust iron factory on the Urals the construction of special factory
«affair of the white weapon» began. Its arrangement at Zlatoust factory was promoted by a number of
objective reasons. One of which the activity in Zlatoust private factory on manufacturing of «German»
products or «a German fabrication». After some time the Armory, strategically important enterprise
of Russia, has received the status of the state enterprise. The foreign experts invited from the known
weapon centers of the Western Europe, in treaty provisions took «in training» local workers. It promoted
not only the development of new manufacture, but has brought to Ural bases of the European culture
and art that has influenced formation of bases Zlatoust school of art metal treatment. In the first half of
XIX century from small private «a German fabrication» at Zlatoust state factory the powerful weapon
manufacture which has brought the world popularity to the Ural Armory and glory to its masters has
Keywords: blades manufacture, craftsmen and experts, blade and ornamented side arms, art, school
Zlatoust armory, which official opening was
held in 1815, became an original point of a support
on which strongly there is «building» of modern
weapon art of the Urals. The manufacture new to
the Urals region – weapon has arisen not on an
empty place. To the moment of official opening
at Zlatoust Armory a special factory of an affair
of white weapon in Russia already there had been
a wide experience and traditions. The Urals was
not the ancestor of the Russian cold front and
decorated weapon, but became the continuer of
already stated remarkable traditions (Pavlovskij,
1975, 79).
For the first time the theme about Zlatoust
manufacture was opened the public in P.P.Svin’in’s
in the first third of XIX century, by the publisher
of «Russian notes», the author of a series of
articles about Zlatoust armory and its production,
the eyewitness and the contemporary, not only has
presented the important historical material, but
also has supplied the publication with statistical
tables of production (Svin’in, 1825, 1826). In
Russian historiography of XX century researchers
paid the greatest attention to the analysis of
questions of technology, engineering and ways of
decorating steel blades, creativity of gun makers
and artists – engravers of the Ural factory, their
works promoted the formation of the image of the
universal enterprise and maintenance of attention
to a historical heritage of its craftsmen (Denisova,
Corresponding author E-mail address: zlat–
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
1947; Glinkin, 1967; Pavlovskij, 1975; Abolskaya,
1986). The Russian historiography of last decades
was enriched with new documentary certificates,
diligence of historians – arms researchers lift
the big layer of a history of the Urals factory
and blades art, new historic facts (Мiller, 2000;
Sukhanov, 2000, 2002, 2004; Kulinskij, 1994,
2005). Unknown materials of Zlatoust archive
funds are entered into a scientific, archival
sources central fund stores and museums, in
particular, the Military – historical museum of
artillery. Expansion of geography of resettlement
of foreigners to Russia has allowed to involve
earlier unknown to us sources published abroad.
The question is not only the special literature
of researching character (Müller, Köllig, 1981;
Schöbel, 1983), but also about publications of
German historians of 1930th (Wehersberg A.,
1930; Busch L., 1939). The revealed materials
deepen the data of questions connected to
resettlement of the West-European gun makers
and experts to Zlatoust, considerably expand time
and territorial frameworks of research, inform
the actuality of considered problem.
The idea of creation of the specialized
domestic weapon centre has arisen at the end of
XVIII century. In 1807 Alexander I immediately
has enjoined the Senate «to start construction of
a factory and at the same time to invite private
factory owners to prepare and hand over in state
treasury fund the weapon» (Burmakin, 1912,
240). By this time at Zlatoust factory steel, a
material necessary for manufacturing side arms
was already produced (Kulinskij, 1994, 159).
It is remarkable, that from 1798 to 1811
last owner of Zlatoust iron and a steel factory
became the Moscow merchant of 1-st guild who
have accepted the Russian citizenship, Andrey
Andreevich Knauf. Then he rented some more
factories at G.A.Stroganova’s column and at
broken I.P.Osokina. A.Knauf has decided to carry
out «technical modernization of the acquired Urals
factories and to start his own weapon business»
(Nekhlyudov, 2002, 283). As «the official Report
of the Moscow first guild merchant» Knauf says,
he «had a demand in people knowing tool and
other works of art»1. To solve this problem the
smart owner invited «from Izhevsk Armory to
Zlatoust» foreign craftsmen with their families
who had lived in Izhevsk. Basically, there were
his compatriots, natives of Germany. From 52
persons arrived to Zlatoust only nineteen could
work in «a German fabrication»2.
Newcomers were diligent and hardworking.
About efficiency of foreign experts at factory of
«German» products certifies «The remark on
sale of German hand-made articles of present
year (1813 – S.К.) in Makarjevo fair» made by
the inspector of « a German fabrication» Gavrila
Zahk. He gives rather extensive list of the most
demanded and well sold goods among which are
specified: steel for knifes and steel saws, different
types of knives. Foreign toolmakers made the big
assortment of scissors: garden, tailors, ladies’,
for paper, canvas, wool. Necessary tools for
footwear and carpenter works were delivered to
the market. Zlatoust Germans surprised buyers
with the various tiny tools for «watch and gold
craftsmen», also anvils for «silver works»3.
To A.Knauf, the third and last owner,
belongs a merit of supply Zlatoust factory with
experts and skilled craftsmen, representatives
of some European states who had to adjust
manufacturing of a cold steel on «German of
manners». However, in 1811 «eternal rent» of the
last owner was finished, Zlatoust factory from
private possession was handed to the state with
establishing Zlatoust state mountain district. The
Armory, being a component of Zlatoust plant
and mountain district, submitted to Department
of mountain and hydrochloric affairs (since
1863 – mountain Department) of the Ministry of
Finance. The new page in a history of the Russian
arms manufacture from now on begins.
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Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
The project about «creating» in Russia the
arms enterprise as per the sample of Solingen
factory and establishing the specialized factory at
Zlatoust state plant is developed and submitted in
1811 for «the Highest approval» by the Minister
of Finance to whom factory belonged4. For Russia
time has come to get the new enterprise.
However the military actions begun by the
army of Napoleon against Russia, have stopped
the plans. The construction of the factory of
white weapon affair at the Urals has started
only after victorious end of Patriotic war of
1812 and final victory over the French army in
1814. Bergrat Alexander Eversman has taken the
trouble to renew contracts with gun makers of
well-known arms centers of Europe and to sign
new «conditions» for their resettlement to the
Urals. From the point of view of attracting to the
Urals factory the West-European immigrants and
the organization of the specialized arms centers
Zlatoust had advantage because by the moment
of the official opening Armory in 1815 here
has already developed big German community
(Kulikovskih, 2006, 34). Negotiations with
craftsmen and artists of Solingen factory have
passed successfully, terms signed in Lennepe in
1814 have opened before the West-European gun
makers the borders of Russia (Busch, Die Heimat,
1939, 25-26).
For the organization of special manufacture
the Russian government invites foreign gun
makers and experts, «having accepted in respect
that advantage which should take place from
developing in Russia arts via invited from Solingen
craftsmen to make the white arms and different
domestic things of steel» which would not be
worse than known samples, «made in Solingen
as the most famous place in Europe, under the
superiority of institutions of this sort <…>»5.
Initial plans of the government «by inviting» gun
makers from Solingen were limited only «strong
landing in Russia of their arts», and the factory
«in all continuation of this term was forced
to be the school»6 which only would promote
development on Russian ground the traditions
of the European arms art. In other words, the
factory organized at the Urals as it was supposed,
first of all, should prepare the workers and teach
Russians, distributing experience of the advanced
centers. As we see, projecting activity of the new
enterprise at the Urals, the Russian government
considered Zlatoust armory as specific school,
from which activity a certain result and benefit
was expected, namely, that «the art of known in
Europe arms factory by resettlement of masters
to Russia remained in it for ever»7. The «Best»
craftsmen in that case could be, certainly, only
It is pertinent to notice, that craftsmen of
Solingen even before were differed by greater
mobility. So, when in XVI-XVII centuries the
demand on Spanish blades has increased, many
craftsmen have gone to Spain where adopted the
experience and craft in workshops of Toledo (Lents,
1908, 38.). The West-European Renaissance has
given to Solingen men inquisitiveness, aspiration
to find and occupy more advantage grounds. In
1661 they were moved in the area of Ruhr, then in
1740 Fridrih Great has brought blades craftsmen
to Eberswalde near Berlin. Ten years earlier,
in 1730 Solingen craftsmen have built up in
Alsace, the French city of craftsmen Klingental’
(Grotkamp-Schepers, Joeriβen, 1997, 70). In
XVII century of the craftsmen of Solingen have
gone on coast of foggy Albion. So, Johan Kindt
and Johannes Hoppe, having arrived in 1629 in
Hounslow, nowadays London, have involved the
English workers in arrangement of a manufactory
on production of blades (Grotkamp-Schepers,
Joeriβen, 1997, 71).
In XIX century, movable by search of the
best conditions in life and privileges, despite of
difficulties of moving, Solingen craftsmen have
left to Russia. Similar historic fact has surprised
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Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
German researchers of the middle of XX century.
Miners of Germany have emigrated during last
two centuries, for example, in Northern or South
America, and it was natural, but the fact, that
sometimes for western Europeans Russia can
become «the purpose of their aspirations», was,
in their opinion, strange step of their compatriots
(Westdeutsche Neue Presse, 1953. 10 January).
In the first days of July, 1815 was issued
Position of Committee of ministers about the
establishing of Armory according to which all
projects about management of Zlatoust factories
and Armory «in all force and details» are left at
the authority of the Committee8. Official opening
of Zlatoust Armory was held «by the Highest
approval in the 15 day of December, 1815»
(Kulikovskih, 2006, 41).
Russia has not accidentally paid attention to
Solingen. Industrial region of the Western Europe
where within centuries manufacture of a cold
steel and knifes has been developed, and the great
amount of armories, which history coincided in
due course crusades, was concentrated, provided
almost all Europe with remarkable blades. In
XVI – XVIII centuries blades craftsmen, whose
surnames we will meet in Zlatoust: Wilhelm
Wehersberg, Wilhelm Kirhgof, Peter Gottfried
Hoppe and others. (Kulinskij, 2000, 38-39).
Favorable conditions of resettlement to
Russia were given to foreign experts, for what
they were obliged «to teach Russian people
without any reserve and diligently» to make them
«in this subject modern and best craftsmen»
(Kulikovskih , 1996, 184). Almost forty families,
having left the native center, came to the Urals
for establishing «Solingen factory» of blades and
knives. Among them there were blade smiths,
polishers, hammerers, specialists on hardening
and gilding blades (Solinger Tageblatt, 1938. 9
August. S. 61).
In the forwarded list to each worker the
estimation of his skill was given. For example,
Daniel Oliger, the specialist on sharpening knives,
is considered as one of the best workers. The same
characteristics was given to the etcher Wilhelm
Melchior and Fridrich Wehersberg, whereas about
Peter Wehersberg, the blade smith, it is written
that «he is jumping from one thing to another»
(Zeitschrift des Bergischen Geschichtsvereins,
1939, 68-71). The similar remark was more an
exception, as many from arrived in 1814 were
really «good workers». Some of them, as for
example, the smith on swords Daniel Vol’ferts,
worker on swords Johann Sneider, the specialist
on hardening Fridrich Kirkhov, the specialist
on knives Johann Galbah and others (Solinger
Tageblatt, 1938. 9 August. S. 61) for long decades
have connected their destiny and lives of the
descendants with Russia and Zlatoust.
Being in Luebeck «His imperial majesty
vice-consul Charles fon – Shletser» has willingly
taken up «request to deliver from Germany
skilful workers»which, it is necessary to
notice, some years was engaged «with delivery
to Russian both state, and private factories
workers» (Stolpyanskiy, 1925, 91). Without his
attention there were also experts of Solingen, his
compatriots to whose departure to the Urals he
also promoted (Kulikovskih, 2003, 96-97).
According to the seventh clause of Contract
of January, 1, 1814 on resettlement to Russia
foreign masters «have no right, and their children
not hired to work to leave factory before each
of them will not train even one person in such
a manner that he will be capable to take a place
of the master» (Busch, Die Heimat, 1939, 25).
As the arrived foreigners have got practically
in the native environment the specified item,
probably, has been forgotten on the occasion of
pleasure of finding the roof, permanent and well
paid work. Only under pressure of new director
of the Armory of Anton Furman in December,
1817 German specialists have started urgently to
performance the specified item of «the term».
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Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
Representing even in the spring 1816 to
the office of the Armory «The offers on the
necessary constructions and available to be
made in the current year»9, the first director
Alexander Eversman took into account all given
circumstances. But thus he did not forget and
about items, before signed by his compatriots,
namely about the item concerning training to «the
arts» of local workers. Therefore in «The offers
…», offering «some smithies for the necessary
tools», A.Eversman though and between times,
but marks, «as the main goal of this institution –
to train Russian craftsmen» in each smithy it is
necessary to establish two forges instead of one.
In his opinion, the it is more convenient, as all
smithies would be in «continuous continuation
one next to another» and besides training master
can observe the pupil, «without leaving his own
work»10. Making the given offer, the director of the
Armory believed a problem of training Russian
to be solved, and the compatriots from the further
performance of «the term» can be free.
It is remarkable, that foreign experts accepted
for training «crafts» the best pupils among
whom, for example, there were representatives
of families of hereditary Urals metallurgists
and gun makers. Probably, because of this
circumstance the training proceeded only one
month, namely, from December, 1, to January, 1,
1818. So, at «marks: comprehension – diligence –
good, behavior – good», senior master Iogann
Germes allowed «to Egor Svertelov to work as
the collective master», and Evdokim Shvetsov,
having on «comprehension – satisfactory», has
remained «to work as an assistant in a forge»11.
During period of beginning the production at
the Armory the only specialists in ornamentation
of the blades only father and son Schaafy were
officially admitted. In the homeland, in Solingen,
they were known as experts «of ornamentation
of blades with inscriptions and pictures with
gold and silver» and they arrived to Russia as
«the first in the art of gilding» (Glinkin, 1967,
4). According to «Lists of arms masters with the
indication which work to be done», made at the
beginning of 1816, it is specified sixty names of
foreign masters, in particular, it is marked, that
son Ljudvig Schaaf is engaged «with blades
etching», and father Nikolay Schaaf – the expert
of gilding, also specialist in gilding and silvering
appears to be Shmits, Peter Kolfgauz, blades
forging and hilts – Iakov Berger , in casting of
green copper – Peter Vaterkamf 12.
The foreign experts who have located in
Zlatoust, did not want to open secrets of arms,
however the number of Russian specialists «well
trained» monthly increasing. So, by January, 1,
1819 there were 125 people, in the next year –
200 specialists, «who are not worse in art than
foreigners»13, moreover, «pupils work not worse
than the teachers and without their slightest
Representatives of Zlatoust Armory not
only have tested influence of foreign experts,
but also actively introduced new technologies in
the process of manufacturing and ornamentation
of cold steel. So, Ivan Bushuev especially «has
become famous for his art in blades gilding»,
he is not only «has adopted it in perfection
from Schaaf <...>, but has even improved this»
(Svin’in, 1826, 244). Undoubtedly, the innovation
shown by leading master, the artist – engraver
and gun maker I.N. Bushuev, has influenced the
further development of such phenomenon in the
Urals and Russian art as Zlatoust school of the
author’s cold decorated arms and art of metal
treatment as a whole. Application of new to gun
makers of Zlatoust, «different» from German
masters, drawing with a brush, new ways of
etching, forging sources of which came deep
into centuries of the European cultural tradition
of metal treatment, it is possible to consider as
certification of indissolubility of Russian and
world art traditions.
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Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
The manner of ornamenting blades Schaafs
brought to Russia. They owned the technique
of etching, engraving and gilding. Knowing the
basic ways and technology of blade ornamentation
Schaafs undoubtedly were good handicraftsmen.
Activity of Wilhelm Nikolaus Schaaf and his
elder son Ljudvig till 1818 can be determined
(but it is only conditional) as the first stage in
development of the Ural arms art. The given
period is the shortest, but the basis of technique
in manufacturing and art blades ornamentation in
Zlatoust was incorporated. Then natural process
department of decorated arms», made in 1818 by
new director of the Armory A.F. Furman17.
In factory settlement foreign experts had
lived in two big streets which received the
appropriate names kept till 1920th : Big German
and Small German streets (An der Grenze Asiens
stehen bergische Fachwerkhäuser // Westdeutsche
Neue Presse, 1953. 14 Januar). It is pertinent
to notice, that foreign masters though «were
registered» in the Armory, but made all works
in the workshops arranged in court yard of their
houses. However, according to P.P.Anosov’s true
of interference of two global cultures began, and
formation of a creative power of local masters of
plastic arts (Kulikovskih, 2006, 72-73) began.
Arm manufacturing at the Urals factory
gathered force. Artistic properties of products
and rates of production have increased. From
March to June, 1818 «pupils» of foreign experts
have decorated 300 sabers and swords, whereas
«teachers» within two previous years – a little
more than 100 blades (Bokov, 1913, 524). The new
enterprise «at duties» to be a school remained those
only during 1815 and 181615, that in many respects
explains that special position with which foreign
masters in Zlatoust armory had. Exclusiveness of
their stay at the Urals factory consisted in free
visiting factory and an opportunity to work in
the workshops located at the house, having thus,
according to the staff managing positions, high
salaries and certain privileges.
Followed in 1817 «change of purpose»of
factories which consist in «adding» to the
enterprise duty also repair the side arms, has
caused transformation «factories from simple
school into working institution»16. These
transformations demanded from Department of
mountain and hydrochloric and administration
of Zlatoust armory additional efforts and works
on erection of new structures, strict division
of works and operations on manufacture of the
arms. It became vital introduction of «Rules on
remark, such «an image of constructions could
not be <...> comprised with the purpose of the
institution» (Anosov, 1954, 175). Work of foreigners
and volume of the work executed by them was not
almost supervised. Exclusiveness of their stay at
the Urals factory consisted in free visiting factory
as all foreign experts were under protection and
trusteeship of director Alexander Eversman.
The foreigners who have lived in Zlatoust
factory, unfortunately, have not made independent
creative community as we can see a little bit later
at local representatives of the Armory. Besides,
almost all natives of Europe were at the head
of shops or sites of the enterprise. So, in shop
of etching and gilding which was supervised
by Wilhelm Nikolaus Schaaf, a young talented
people from local «craftsmen children» who will
define shortly a direction of development of the
Urals arms art were concentrated, and will be true
founders of local school of metal art treatment.
Blades of an initial stage of activity of
Armory generally already decorated Russian with
pupils of Solingens who, unfortunately, still long
time had no right to sign the products created by
them (Kulikovskih, 2006, vol. 4).
The new period begins from 1818 in a history
Zlatoust Arms manufacture. By the beginning of
1820th Russia has received the capable factory
of side arms production, the demand for which
production was great.
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Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
For a history ten years, as a time interval,
is a scanty piece. However in activity of such
enterprise as Zlatoust armory ten years are rather
important and significant. Private «German
fabrication», organized by smart German, has
involved his compatriots at which participation
the basis of development of metal working at
the Urals factory was incorporated. During
transformations connected with transfer of
Zlatoust factory to a state department, arms
manufacture was oriented on output of qualitative
blades according to a sample of factory in Solingen.
Moving the experts of blades from Europe to
the Urals can be considered as international
phenomenon. It promoted not only to formation
of new manufacture, but has brought the bases
of West-European culture that has influenced
the development of artistic traditions of Zlatoust
school of arms art and art metal treatment and
certainly to mutual enrichment of cultural
traditions of peoples. The process of transition
from handicraft manufactures to industrial began
at the factory, in South Ural gathered force new
and unique in the sort the state enterprise.
B.V.Pavlovskij, Arts and crafts of industrial Ural (Moskow, 1975). – (in Russian).
P.P. Svin’in, Zlatoustovsky a factory, Domestic a note (St.Petersburg, 1825, № 22, 23; 1826,
№ 26). – (in Russian).
M.M.Denisova, Art the weapon of XIX century Zlatoust armory, Works of the State Historical
museum (Moskow, 1947), vol. 18, 207-251. – (in Russian).
M.D. Glinkin, Zlatoust an engraving on steel (Chelyabinsk, 1967). – (in Russian).
T.I. Аbolskaya, Zlatoust the artistic arms (Leningrad, 1986). – (in Russian).
Juri A. Miller, Stahl. Glanz. Gold (Münster: Ardey-Verlag, 2000). – (in German).
I.P. Sukhanov, Аrtistic arms. Masterpieces of the Navy museum of Russia (St.Petersburg, 2000). –
(in Russian).
I.P. Sukhanov, Weapon relics of the Russian fleet. From a collection of the Central naval museum
Russia (St.Petersburg, 2002). – (in Russian).
I.P.Sukhanov, Masterpieces of blades (St.Petersburg, 2004). – (in Russian).
A.N. Kulinskij, Russian a cold steel of military, sea and civil grades of 1800-1917 years: the
Determinant (St. Petersburg, 1994). – (in Russian).
A.N. Kulinskij,Russian cold steel (St.Petersburg, 2005). – (in Russian).
H. Müller, H. Köllig, Europäische Hieb- und Stichwaffen aus der Sammlung des Museums für
Deutsche Geschichte (Berlin, 1981). – (in German).
J.Schöbel, Prunkwaffen. Waffen und Rüstungen aus dem Historischen Museum Dresden (Berlin,
1983). – (in German).
A. Wehersberg, Solinger Klingen-und Messerhandwerker in Ruβland, zunächst in Slatoust,
Die Heimat (Solingen, 1930, 14 Februar). – (in German).
L. Busch, Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte der Solinger Auswanderung nach Ruβland im zweiten
Jahrzehnt des 19. Jahrhunderts, Die Heimat Beilage zum «Solinger Tageblatt» (Solingen, 1939), 2526, 37-38. – (in German).
A.S. Burmakin, Historical data on introduction of manufacturing of a cold steel in Zlatoust
factory German masters, Mountain magazine (St.Petersburg, 1912), vol. 4, volume 10-11, 240 – 267. –
(in Russian).
– 449 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture
E.G. Neklyudov, Foreigner at private factories of Ural in the beginning of XIX century , the
Fourth Tatischev readings: Theses of reports and messages / (Ekaterinburg: the Russian Academy of
Science, 2002), 281–286. – (in Russian).
S.N. Kulikovskih, Zlatoust school of the author’s cold decorated weapon. Becoming and
development (1815 – 1860) (Chelyabinsk, 2006). – (in Russian).
E. Lents, The imperial Hermitage. The index of branch of Middle Ages and Renaissance. Assembly
of the weapon (St. Petersburg, 1908), Part 1. – (in Russian).
B. Grotkamp-Schepers, P. Joeriβen, Deutsches Klingenmuseum Solingen (Köln. 1997). – (in
Westdeutsche Neue Presse, 1953. 10 Januar. – (in German).
A.N. Kulinskij, A cold steel of the German states: the Directory (St.Petersburg, 2000). – (in
S.N. Kulikovskih, Zlatoust engraving on steel, Russia and the Western Europe: interaction of
industrial cultures. 1700 – 1950. Reports of participants of the International scientific conference
(Ekaterinburg,1996), vol. 1, 184-190. – (in Russian and in English).
Solinger Tageblatt, 1938. 9 August. – S. 61. – (in German).
Zeitschrift des Bergischen Geschichtsvereins. 67 Band, Jahrgang 1939, 68-71. – (in German).
P.N. Stolpyanskiy, Life and a life of the Petersburg factory. 1704-1914 (Leningrad, 1925). – (in
S.N. Kulikovskih, Art metal of Zlatoust XIX – the beginnings XXI century: synthesis of technology
and art, The First Bushuev readings (Chelyabinsk, 2003), 95-98. – (in Russian).
P.P. Svin’in, Zlatoustovsky a factory, Domestic a note (St.Petersburg,1826) vol. № 26, 229-245.–
(in Russian).
В. Bokov, German smiths in Zlatoust factory (St.Petersburg,1913), № 11-12. С. 289–295, 353–362,
519–529, 602–615. – (in Russian).
An der Grenze Asiens stehen bergische Fachwerkhäuser, Westdeutsche Neue Presse Solingen,
1953, 14 Januar. – (in German)
P.P. Аnosov, The collected works (Moskow, 1954). – (in Russian).
S.N. Kulikovskih, Blades with «figures» of first third XIX in./ Culture and art in monuments and
researches (Chelyabinsk, 2006), vol.4, 152-160. – (in Russian).
АVIMA – Archive of the Military – historical museum of artillery, engineering armies and armies
of communication (connection);
ZGAO – Archival department of administration of Zlatoust;
RGIA – Russian state historical archive.
1. ZGAO. Ф. И19. Оп.1. Д. 4. Materials about foreign experts. 1811. Л. 48
2. ZGAO. Ф. И19. Оп. 1. Д. 4. Л. 28-30 about.
3. ZGAO. Ф. И19. Оп. 1. Д. 4. Л. 342-342 about.
4. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д.1402. Л. 36. About production of the white arms at Zlatoust armory.
– 450 –
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5. АVIMA. Ф.3. Оп.5/7. Д.1. Л. 139 An extract from Magazine of Committee of ministers. July
of 3-rd day 1815.
6. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 37.
7. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 37.
8. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп.5/7. Д.1. Л. 139 An extract from Magazine of Committee of ministers. July
of 3-rd day 1815.
9. ZGAO. Ф. И24. Оп.1. Д. 40. Л.23-37 about.
10. ZGAO. Ф. И24. Оп.1. Д. 40. Л. 27.
11. ZGAO. Ф. И24. Оп. 1. Д. 90. Л. 17-18.
12. ZGAO. Ф. И24. Оп.1. Д. 8. Л. 56-57.
13. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 37 about.
14. RGIA. Ф. 37. Оп. 11. Д. 124. Л. 11. 1816.
15. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 36 about-37
16. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 37
17. ZGAO. Ф. И24. Оп. 1. Д. 101.
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