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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Журнал Сибирского федерального университета Journal of Siberian Federal University 2009 2 (3) Гуманитарные науки Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН К.С.Александров академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.С. Соколов Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Kirill S. Alexandrov Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Veniamin S. Sokolov Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva Contents / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations – 295 – Nataliya S. Dureeva Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming – 301 – Sergeу P. Dureev Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization – 305 – Antonn U. Koltyrin Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization – 310 – Maria V. Kozlova Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture – 316 – Vladimir S. Luzan Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies – 323 – Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin avd Yekaterina V. Detlova About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations – 336 – Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture – 349 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 28.08.2009 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,9. Уч.-изд. л. 12,4. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 1/086. Отпечатано в ИПК СФУ. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Hasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgenia V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук», по экономике; по истории; по философии, социологии и культурологии Vladimir N. Ozeredenko Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization as a Form of the World Society Governing – 361 – Victoria L. Pfanenshtil Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives – 367 – Sergey Ju. Rjazancev The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status – 374 – Aleksandr M. Tajmulin Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis – 379 – Tatiana A. Yakovleva The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion – 384 – Michel P. Jacenko Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia – 391 – Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) – 396 – Nikolaj P. Parfentjev About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of MusicalWritten Art of Xvi – the Beginning XVII Centuries – 403 – Ekaterina P. Stepanets and Alexander A. Khasin Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times of the Global Financial Crisis – 415 – Tamara V. Aref’eva Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch of the All-Russia Theatrical Society – 429 – Alexander N. Andreev Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great – 435 – Svetlana N. Kulikovskih Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture – 443 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 295-300 ~~~ УДК 130.2 Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of its Revelations Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Russian society reforming must be to a large extent correlated with globalization processes, which determine the leading directions of human life. Though, globalization is one of the forms of attempts to universalize the world society, and it is important to distinguish natural globalization (Internet and so on) and artificial one (enforced) globalization. Though, to our mind, there lies euro-centrism in the basis of globalization, and that is why in order to understand the essence of modern globalization processes one needs to research euro-centrism as the ideological basis of globalization. In the history of western civilization development, the myths, declaring a special position of Europe, are known to be built up already on the educational system level. This widespread modern western society conception considers Europe not as a geographical notion, but as a civilizational one. We can call euro-centrism to be a meta-ideology of the West, because separate confronting ideologies being also developed within its frames (for example, Liberalism and Marxism). It is important, that they proceed from one and the same world picture and one and the same postulates about historical way of the West. To our mind, the euro-centrism becoming and the symptoms of its crisis upon the modern conditions prove that the given process is closely connected to globalization and crucially influences the process of reforming of all the aspects of Russian social life renewal. Keywords: euro-centrism; natural globalization; enforced globalization; meta-ideology; political being and sphere. Point It is important to estimate adequately the historical way of euro-centrism, in order to understand globalization processes as a natural tendency to integration or to forcible pressure, threatening to lose one’s socio-cultural identity. As it is well-known, there was a gradually forming euro-centric point of view in European public opinion already in the colonial epoch. It happened, when dynamic, creative and free * 1 Europe fulfilled a civilizational mission towards stagnant, totalitarian and fanatic East. Such a point of view of the world was not only the result of the situation in ХIХ century. As a social-political phenomenon of opposing of «right and good» Europe to the rest of the world, euro-centrism has undergone a long evolution of fading and dying under the influence of objective and subjective factors, and that is most vividly revealed in the conditions of globalization. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 295 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations Example In the post-colonial period, euro-centrism prevents spiritual decolonization of developing countries and contributes to imposing western patterns of development to these countries, not taking into account their civilizational specifics, all these can be of big advantage to the West, but leads to drastic consequences for the East. The appearance of such works as «The End of History» by F. Fukuyama, who has announced the western capitalism pattern to be the top of the world evolution, can be one of the proofs of such an approach. Here, we can see the ways, wherein the principles of euro-centrism reveal themselves, and which have been driven to extremity in the modern Universalist conception, which has recommended itself especially vividly in the American variant of artificial globalism. At present time, some scientists still stick to the conception of European «faster growth», according to which underrunning of the East is relative and contrast in comparison to the West. We may say that the key to «the European wonder» is in Europe itself, in its peculiarities of economical, social, and political orders, in European man’s moral and spiritual attitude, but we can find this key only by means of comparative analysis of Europe and non-European world, which in its turn is also not homogeneous. Till our days, traditional opinion still dominates and causes the wide-spreading of the notions, according to which global manageability suggests if not the world government appearance, so then at least some centre creation, which performs some state functions in the planetary scale. Such point of view is based on the principle of world managing under the leadership of some ruling subject – let it be even collegial and democratic, though, world manageability is not equal to world managing. Actually, world manageability is expressed in a controlled or managed development, but not at all in a regulation of the ways of functioning of these or those institutions or separate individuals’ or people groups’ behavior. Advancement of manageability, as the main criterion of globalization, does not at all means the reduction of the later up to only political questions. This criterion is also important to other non-political spheres, where we may possibly speak about well-developed general modernization criteria, such as rationalization, reflexiveness and so on. Though, manageability is present there as well in such a degree that while achieving the set political goals, economical, cultural and other specifics are also taken into consideration. That is why social management does not present by itself a one-way influence of the managing social system over the managed one, but a dialectic interaction between its subject and its object, which consists of various direct and reverse connections between them, and that acquires special importance in the conditions of domineering globalization as a special form of world universalization. In this connection we are to note that the very notion of «euro-centrism» has an important methodological meaning. If we want to estimate the position of Europe more objectively with respect to non-European world, then we need a comparative analysis, i.e. we need to refuse from euro-centrism as a historiographical approach, whereby non-European countries’ development passes completely out of sight or is considered exclusively through the perspective of European development. L.N. Gumilyev wrote: «Commonplace euro-centrism is enough for philistine perception, but is not acceptable for scientific understanding of the observed phenomena variety» [1, p. 65], as far as it leads «to creation of an imaginary image of Europe, and on its basis a distorted picture of development of the rest of the world» – М. Ferro noticed in his turn . – 296 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations Though, many scientists are not satisfied with such an unambiguous approach, and they raise the question of inconsistency of euro-centrism cult as a leading methodological basis for objective research of social processes essence. For example, К. Jaspers has suggested an alternative formula, being based on the fact, that he defines the divide epoch as a central period, comprising the biggest part of I millennium B.C., when the main spiritual and intellectual breakthroughs in four world regions had brought to a highly developed civilization: Jewish transition to monotheism; Greek rational philosophy evolution; transition from Vedas to Upanishads; Buddhism and Jainism in India; appearance of Confucianism and Taoism in China. Along with the secondary revolutions (Christianity and Islam), intellectual and moral traditions, which were set during these centuries, supported the leading world civilizations in the course of two thousand years. In spite of the fact, that the breakthroughs, identified by К. Jaspers, were transcendental, everything was seated in the search of human immortality and saving, to his mind [3, p. 65-66]. Nevertheless, unlike euro-centrism, advantages of such an approach are especially revealed first of all in initial equal rights of all the civilizations. We proceed from the fact, that consideration of modern globalization ambitendency implies theoretical understanding of euro-centrism, which should be achieved, firstly, in the context of comparing of a row of modern concepts of native and foreign authors, secondly, basing on the structure of notions of «political being», «political sphere», and «political time» and, thirdly, tracing the transformation of modernism into postmodernism. One of the first researchers of the age of Enlightenment was J. Herder, who undertook a sort of global approach to the study of culture theory and history. Though, he as well admitted the East to be the cradle of human culture and, correspondingly, refused from euro-centrism absolutization, he stated that «new European culture could become only the culture of people, the kind they were and wished to become, the culture, being generated by businesslike character, sciences, and arts». Thus, modernization paradigm of the West was forming social and cultural values on the basis of priorities of rationalism, individualism, and religious traditions secularization . At the beginning of XX century, researchers already raised the question of euro-centrism consistency as the leading theory, defining not only humanitarian sciences, but also political life of the humanity. О. Spengler predicted – and now we can observe this prognosis being realized, – that «future cultures will consider it to have been completely improbable», that this scheme «with its naive straightforwardness, and its senseless proportions» has not been open to the question for a long time. Such serious researchers, as О. Spengler and К. Jaspers were perplexed concerning to that, that the widespread chronological scale was euro-centric . Along with that, we can agree with McNeil, who has noticed, that «… quite another aspect of their work seems to be more important, as far as О. Spengler and A. Toynbee have put European and non-European civilizations in one row, while revealing the cycles in the fixed written past. This century historiography differs at least potentially from the previous ones by really extreme concentration of the past European triumphs, which prevailed in XIX century. » [6, p. 20]. Modern historical consciousness, accustomed to «The End of History» by Hegel or to «The Kingdom of Freedom» by Marks, does not think about bringing together the future and the past. Being unambiguously equated by significant number of philosophers to the system of western values’ development and consolidation, the notion of historical progress is oftener and oftener associated with «the end of history». – 297 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations Though, on the whole, being based on the values of market and liberal democracy, Fukuyama’s utopia conception of «the end of history» and of «the panhuman state» does not hold water in the face of sharpened national, cultural and religious peoples’ self-identifications in the background of global civilizational crisis of XXI century [7, p. 67]. For example, being a scrupulous all-round scientist, Hodgson at various times criticized ethno-centric western historiography and western cartography (Europe being placed right in the centre of the world maps). He rejected generally accepted explanations of the western exclusiveness (including Max Weber’s defense of the western rationalism), basing on the fact, that special praising qualities, being observed in the western culture history, could be found in the history of non-western societies in plenty. Globalization, the same as euro-centrism, can be considered as a striving to realize in practice the enforced progress conception in those countries, where the share of traditions is quite significant or prevailing. It is well known, how painfully it is, when on the national ground the society with rooted traditional moral and living norms and forms of social order meets the enforced implantation of foreign spiritual and cultural values with co-current structures in political and economical spheres. A deep ethnological sense is hidden under the wordplay of theological terms, which is traditional for ideologists of the Universalist theories (of euro-centrism and artificial globalization): the Europeans have singled out themselves out of the rest of humanity and contradistinguished themselves to it, as it was done by the Arabians and Chinese, and in ancient times by the Hellenes, the Jews, the Persians and Egyptians. Consequently, to L.N. Gumilyev’s mind, here we observe the process of ethno-genesis, being common for all the epochs and countries. And if so, then we have a right «… to consider these events neither as random coincidences, nor as a political conspiration of the Europeans against the Asians, but we must approach them as a naturally proceeding process or objective law of human ethnic history in that cruel epoch, when the time of peoples’ crystallization has come, the people living and acting up till now» [8, p. 278]. Not refusing from accusations against the West on the whole and against the western historical science of the sin of euro-centrism, we should say at the same time, that it remains to be the basis for globalization ideologists and, nevertheless, acquires some new tendencies. Firstly, globalization ideologists have primarily borrowed euro-centrism ideas and methods of artificial globalization justification. Secondly, we observe a rift in the sphere of globalization subjects, first of all, between the USA and Europe, which vividly illustrates crisis demonstrations in euro-centrism as a leading ideology of XX century. New tendencies in social science development are the proofs of the fact to some extent. In his book «Beyond the Moral Virtues», American philosopher A. Macintyre has expressed a well-known scepsis according to the potential possibilities of social sciences: «… from time to time it is announced, that at last the true law, controlling human behavior, has been discovered. Though, all these supposed laws have just one shortcoming – they are obviously so false, that nobody believes in them, except social scientists, who are weighed upon by traditional science philosophy» [9, p. 122]. To A. Whitehead’s mind, the problem of social life is a problem of individual actions and their unionization limits [10, p. 417]. Individuals’ unionization limits appear to be a theoretical problem, perceived as a problem of individual’s delegation of some part of his authority to the state institutions, and the state turns out to be lawfully authorized to govern the society, including those relations, which concern globalization processes – 298 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations and negative globalization pressure blocking as well. Nevertheless, even today many scientists still consider euro-centric-globalization tendencies to be non-competitive. For example, Amitai Etzioni proves that the East is moving in direction of the western pattern. «The same happens with the West, which is moving in the eastern direction – not to the East as it is, but by means of narrowing of the deficit of commonness (and of powers authority) to some median position… we should also note that, this movement does not go in the direction of one common synthetic pattern. It is more likely, that there is realized a whole row of social projects, which have two common important features: the society is becoming more balanced, than in individualistic and authoritarian variants, and the public order is more than ever based on the force of persuasion» [11, p. 44]. Resume The fact, that the USA does not try to consolidate the world society, for example, on the basis of some grandiose global panhuman project (like energy space system creation and, thus, to provide a steady development of humanity and poverty surmounting) serves as an inconsistency indicator of the goals, being set by globalization subjects. Instead of the mentioned, the USA suggests «the struggle against the international terrorism», which will only aggravate the hatred towards America and redouble the terroristic threat» [12, p. 174]. In these conditions, the countries, experiencing such a pressure, turn out to be faced with the necessity of corresponding means development of globalization process blocking, and having taken their societies’ specifics in consideration, they must develop some special mechanisms on the basis of their traditions, which will block the enforced globalization as a consequence of non-constructive eurocentrism. Thus, mankind’s survival guarantee supposes some changing of globalization process essence from aggressive to constructive one, and on condition, that it is successfully theoretically and practically studied, globalization process can contribute to unlock positive potentials of different types of societies. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. L.N. Gumilyev. Ethno-Genesis and the Biosphere of the Earth / L.N. Gumilyev. – Moscow, 1989. Quotations from: Europe Metamorphoses. Moscow, 1993. Quotations from: V. Grin. The European and World History Divided into Periods / V. Grin // the Time of Peace. Almanac. Issue 2. Structures of History. – Novosibirsk: The Siberian Chronograph, 2001. I.F. Kefeli. The Social Nature of Globalism / I.F. Kefeli // Man’s Perspectives in the Globalizing World/ edited by V.V. Parcvanij. St. Petersburg: the St. Petersburg Philosophical Society, 2003. О. Spengler. The Dawn of Europe / О. Spengler. – Moscow: Mysl', 1993. W. McNeil. Changing Image of the World-Wide History / W. McNeil // the Time of Peace. Almanac. Issue 2. Structures of History. – Novosibirsk: The Siberian Chronograph, 2001. I.A.Pfanenshtil’, L.N.Pfanenshtil’. Russia and Globalization: Problems and Perspectives / I.A.Pfanenshtil', L.N.Pfanenshtil' // The Informational Society Culture. Krasnoyarsk, 2003. L.N. Gumilyev. The Search of an Imaginary Kingdom TANAIS. Moscow, DI-DIK, 1994. – 299 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasiya A. Gerasimenko. Globalization as the Universalist Theory and Ambitendency of Its Revelations 9. A. Macintyre. Beyond the Moral Virtues: The Moral Theory Researching / A. Macintyre. – Moscow: Akadem. Proekt; Ekaterinburg: Delovaja kniga, 2000. 10. A.N. Whitehead. Selected Philosophical Works / A.N. Whitehead. – Moscow, 1990. 11. A. Etzioni. From Empire to Association: a New Approach to International Relationships / A. Etzioni. – Moscow: Ladomir, 2004. 12. V.I. Kudashov. Today’s Condition of the Russian National Idea and its Perspectives / V.I. Kudashov // The Theory and History. – 2004. – №3. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 301-304 ~~~ УДК 316.32 Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming Nataliya S. Dureeva* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given article we consider globalization as a social phenomenon and its consequences for the world society. We have made an attempt to show, that globalization is expressed in the formation of an integral interdependent world, built on the principals of «a new world order». Preservation and consolidation of national spiritual, moral and ethic values make difficulties on the way of globalization development. Keywords: essence; phenomenon; process; society; mankind; globalization. Point At the end of XX – at the beginning of XXI centuries, globalization, as a social phenomenon, becomes more and more important in the political and economical spheres and has a significant influence on spiritual life and moral values of the society. In its broad sense, «globalization» is a today’s process of planetary integration of all the spheres of human life; it includes industry, technology, commerce, culture, political and state institutions, it controls the world finance and the world banking (Mkrtchan, 2005). At present time there are several points of view of globalization: –– it is a process of formation and further development of the integral world-wide finance-economical sphere on the basis of new, mainly computer technologies (Deljagin, 2003); * 1 –– It is a steady civilizational tendency (and a process) of the formation of integral humanity, as a strongly interconnected world society (Ursul, 2001); –– It is an attempt to spread the integral system of neo-liberal values (Inozemcev, 2004). In spite of all the variety of points of views, we must admit that, actually, the main tendency of globalization development is the formation of an integral interdependent world, interaction, mutual influence of various societies, cultures and organizations, and in which basis there is power, accumulated in the hands of one certain political elite. Independently from its political and state interests, elite maintains control over economy, finance, resources, industry, education, culture and other spheres of social life. Thereat, society becomes double-poled: on one side there is ruling Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 301 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya S. Dureeva. Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming elite, and on the other side there are people, who subordinate the elite’s interest, and it does not matter which exactly elite: the communist one, democratic or liberal. That is why the process of globalization develops in the elite’s interests. One of the tasks of globalization is to transfigure society, people, into a homogeneous, untalented, uneducated and degrading «gray mass». It is easier to rule such «masses» and to control their activity in a necessary (for elite) direction. And really, «masses» are easier to be ruled, than clever and educated people, who have their own point of view. Clever and educated people quite comprehend what this or that elite and its politics are leading to. They can make their choice not in a favour of the given elite, if they see some danger for the society development in its activity. And it is simple and easy to implant the necessary politics into the degrading «masses», thereat not explaining its tasks, goals and consequences, having only pointed at some splendid perspectives and having created the illusion of saving, of preservation, of some «radiant future» and so on. But there is one more specific social stratum in this bipolar society «elite-people». It is so called intelligentzia. The given social group always acts (it is mainly verbal) in order to please the present ruling elite. Elites can change, but intelligentzia will stay. As soon as new elite comes to power, the point of view of intelligentzia changes correspondingly, intelligentzia begins immediately praising the new government, propagating its new political courses, and thus implanting distemper in people’s minds. Example In every state, there is its own ruling elite. But the process of globalization brings to the formation of single ruling elite, which will subordinate the elites of all the rest of the states. Today, it is already obvious, that the ruling elite of USA will be «a new world governor». Its main interest is the world domination by means of «new world order» establishing. By its essence, this «order» is expressed in a total control after the world economy development, after natural and human resources of the countries of the whole world. And right for this purpose, after the events of September 11, 2002, the American president has announced a «global» politico-military strategy: a world-wide struggle against terrorism and has made the assertion: «Who is not with us is against us». Thus, the leader of the USA elite has begun confidently subordinating the elites of all the countries for «the struggle against terrorism». And in the result of the action, «the new world order» has begun to be established, headed by the American elite. Moreover, in the modern society, there is explicit orientation not only to implementation of the political order, military strategy and economical order according to the western (American) pattern, but also to implantation of «the western standards» into the culture of every separately taken country of the world, and creation of the so called world culture. Undoubtfully, it results in demolition of self-sufficiency and independence, in economical crisis, and what is the main – in destruction of cultural, spiritual and moral foundations, existing in a concrete society. Implantation of the western order is quite dangerous and destructive for the Russian society, which has its own, peculiar way of development, which is similar neither to the western, nor to the eastern one. From the very beginning of their historical development, the Russians have accustomed to collegiality and collectivity, and that is why they cannot admit western individualism and time-serving. Consequently, they cannot follow the way of globalization and live according to the western pattern. Though, the modern Russian elite does not take it into consideration, and for Russian – 302 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya S. Dureeva. Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming people its behavior is very important (Valjanskij, Kalljuzhnyj, 2006), as far as the fate as of the whole society, so of various men depends upon the elite’s political course. Just the same as the elites of other countries, the modern Russian elite is subordinated to the American elite as well. For a particular example, we can consider the reforms in the Russian classic education and reorganization of classic state higher education institutions into federal and national ones, where the process of education passes according to the western pattern. In the result of Bologna agreement, now we do not prepare specialists, but masters and bachelors. It will result in the fact, that higher education will as such outlive its usefulness and the people will gradually become an ignorant controlled crowd. And bachelors, the same as college graduates, will become man power for producing goods and serving the elite. In the Russian economy, an entrenchment of the market system in exchange for the planned one and of private enterprises, takes place. That is unacceptable for Russian society. While working at a private enterprise, the employee does not have any means of production, he is deprived of them. The main part of the profit is appropriated by the owner. The employee gets the minimal part of what he has earned. Thereat, the owner can dismiss the employee at any moment, leaving him without any means of living, and replacing him by a more «obedient» or advantageous one for his interests. At a collective enterprise all the means of production are in common property and that is why all the products and all the profit belong to the employees. That is why the planned economy system is characterized by steady growth rates of labour and by a constantly growing wealth of the main population mass – the people (Chervov, 2003). Speaking about the political life, we can everywhere trace the transition to the western democracy and affiliation to various parties. In the Russian monarchical cathedral society there was always only one ruler at the head of the country – it was tsar (in Kievan Russia it was konung). Later, after all the revolutionary convulsions, there was established a collective society simultaneously with the USSR formation. And again it was headed by one political party – the communist party. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration the Russian society passed over to democracy. It is very difficult to single out, what precisely the advantages of democracy over socialism are, which are used to be spoken about. For example, in the Soviet Union, after graduating from educational institutions, certified specialists got their appointments to different enterprises, which provided housing to their employees. But democracy implies full freedom in choosing: what to be, after having finished one’s education, where to live and other alternatives. In other words, employment and housing purchase is one’s own problem of every man. In the result, there appear more and more unemployed and homeless people in our modern society. People have to accommodate themselves to it, in order to survive in the conditions of market capitalism. Besides, modern people experience the change of ideals, values and goals, their impressions about the past are distorted in their conscious. It was always so in Russia, that the state took care about its people and the people took care about their state, thus feeling stability and confident about the future. The goal of every man was to strengthen the state, wherein he and his children would live, and spiritual and moral values were based on that, that every person felt with pride to be a part of one whole stable state. In the modern globalised society with its liberal-democratic values, man is «absolutely free» and takes care of himself by himself. In the result, the main goal of every man becomes his survival and selfprotection, as in a wild primitive society. Thus, it – 303 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nataliya S. Dureeva. Political and Economical Elites’ Influence Over the Process of Globalization Becoming is not the promised progress being awaited in the globalised world, which is so much spoken about and is actually remains virtual, but a regress, degrading and becoming wild. It is nothing else, but a progress of society’s self-destruction, which is observed in the modern world. Resume Every country on our planet, including Russia, can overcome the tragedy of globalization consequences, if it preserves its nationality and independence. Every country can forewarn itself and its people from destruction, if it refuses form crashing its for-ages-accustomed political, economical, cultural, moral-ethic and spiritual principals. Humanity can survive and save its countries, if it comprehends, that the way of development, leading some states to progress and prosperity, leads others to backwardness and destruction. References S.S. Mkrtchan, V.N. Kirillov, S.I. Korochkova. Globalization at the Beginning of XXI Century. Materials of the Extramural Interregional Scientific Workshop Conference «Russian National Security in the Conditions of Globalization: Problems and Perspectives». – St. Petersburg: Publishing House of the Management and Economics Institute, 2005, p. 10-15. M.G. Deljagin. The World Crisis: the General Theory of Globalization. 2-d revised and enlarged edition. – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2003. – 768 p. A.D. Ursul. The Model of Education in XXI Century: Problems of Steady Development and Security // Security of Eurasia. 2001. №4. p. 61-97. V.L. Inozemcev. Westernization as Globalization and «Globalization» as Americanization // Voprosy filosofii. 2004. №4. p.58-69. S.I. Valjanskij, D.V. Kaljuzhnyj. The Russian Revolution Forgotten History. From Alexander I to Vladimir Putin. – Moscow: Veche, 2006. – 352 p. N.F. Chervov. Provocations against Russia. – Moscow: OLMA-PRESS Education, 2003. – 637 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 305-309 ~~~ УДК 316.2 Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization Sergeу P. Dureev* Krasnoyarsk Institute of Economics of the St. Petersburg Academy of Management and Economics (NEI HPE), 70a Kirenskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 660100 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given article we prove that ontological society is an integral system and presents by itself a self-governing system on any stage of historical development. Management is an inevitable feature of any society. This feature has a general character and results from the society’s system nature, from the social labour of society’s members, from the necessity of communication in the process of labour. In the conditions of globalization, human society management is not already connected to the evolutionary processes, when inheritance (traditions, folkways, customs) play a dominating role with regard to variability, but is connected to the processes, when there happens a forceful demolition of old mechanisms of inheritance and western values acquire the dominating meaning, they change the basis of historical human being. Keywords: being; creature; existence; object; subject; activity; management; self-managemen; globalization. Point After the Cold War had finished, USA and Western-European countries decided, that a wide-scaled distribution of the market economy principals and implantation of the Western democracy model can become a regulating and system-forming factor in the whole world. In these conditions, the attempts to implant artificially democratic institute of power and management have become the instrument of changing of the historically formed humane existence mode. In this connection, it becomes important to address the question of management organization and the place of a person in this process. * 1 Lying in the basis of humane historical existence and development, labour activity specifies humane essence and is always performed within the frames of public production. Man cannot produce or be engaged in labour activity, if he does not directly or indirectly enters social relations, which summation forms the society. We have to underline, that we are speaking about the entire aggregate of social relations: material and ideal (ideological), present and bygone. This position has an important methodological meaning, whereof it proceeds, that man must not be understood from material or idealistic point of view, but dialectically. In other words, he must not be narrowed down only Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 305 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergeу P. Dureev. Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization to «the economical man» or only to «the rational man» and so on. Man is a creature, who is, at the same time, both producing, and rational, and cultural, and moral, and political and so on. He accumulates in himself all the spectrum of social relations in more or less degree and, thus, realizes his social essence. On the other hand, in his broad sense, man is a result of human history; he is a result of social-historical process development. At the same time, man is not only the result of society and social relations, he is also their creator, and consequently, he turns out to be the object and the subject of social relations at one and the same time. In man there is realized the entity, the equality of the object and the subject. There exists a dialectic interaction between man and society: man is a micro society, society revelation on the micro level, and society is a man with his social relations. Thus, we may speak about man’s socially active essence. Man cannot simply be a man, being out of activity, out of social relations and communication (as a form of their realization). But man is not reduced to his essence. It discloses itself in his existence by its real revelation. And if man’s essence is a general characteristic of the human race, then every man’s existence is always individual in its concreteempirical expression and extends further than his essence. Existence is a being of man as of an integral creature in all its variety of forms, kinds, and features of its revelation. This integrity is expressed in the fact, that man is the entity of his biological and his social parts. As a biological creature, man is «in the highest degree a selfregulating and self-supporting, self-regenerating, self-directing and even self-bettering system» (Pavlov, 1951. p. 188). Thus, man is presented as a bio-social system before us. Though, the biological is not a determining part of man. Being proper «human», the social is not acquired by man from the moment of his birth (due to his biological nature), but it happens during his life: in the course of his activity, in the world (society), having been transfigured by numerous human generations, having been before him. That is why man is a part of the social integrity as a social, communal creature, but not owing to his biological nature. So, man is a communal, social creature, and his natural (biological) part is only a prerequisite for his communal, social essence realization. This essence is defined, first of all, by its social environment, by a concrete society, wherein this or that man is living and developing. So, this environment forms the qualities and features of a concrete man, which are expressed in various kinds of his activity. Activity is «a specific form of human relation to the surrounding world, which content is world’s expedient changing and transfiguring. Activity is a condition of society’s existence». (PED, 1989. p. 151). Management is an obligatory feature of society. «As an objectively existing process, management appears only on the stage of materia social self-movement, i.e. when man and society appear» (Suvorov and others, 1984. p. 6). This feature has a general character and results from the system nature of society, from the social labour of society members, from the necessity of communication in the process of labour and in the course of exchanging of products of original nature’s «processing». In human society, management is connected not only to the evolutionary processes, when inheritance (traditions, folkways, customs) play a dominating role with regard to variability, but is connected to the revolutionary processes, when there happens a demolition of old mechanisms of inheritance, and variability (innovations) acquires the dominating meaning, as far as these innovations do not affect the minor features, but the most part of the vital ones. – 306 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergeу P. Dureev. Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization The theses about management birth, which happened in the result of social labour division into physical labour and mental labour (К. Marks) and which brought to separation of the management and the executive activities, does not correspond the reality. In the infancy of mankind, there were already features of management, when the members of the tribe (commonalty) followed their leader not because of their conscious attitude, but in force of their natural program of expedient behavior. Such expedient behavior provided their lives’ security, and later it was scientifically supported and explained. That is why human labour is divided into management labour and executive one. In other words, in society there are managers (management subject), who lead other people, and there are performers (management object), who execute the managers’ decisions (hired workers). Thus, management labour, starting from some level of social organization, becomes the labour of social significance. So, initially all the society turns out to be in dependence on quite a narrow circle of managers of national responsibility level, and in the modern, globalized world – in dependence on the EuroAmerican conglomerate. Example Let us take Russia for example: the system of state management is being reformed, as far as the state itself and the social relations are being reformed. The reforms are caused by a certain necessity; they are performed under a control and the situation in the country is changing. Sometimes, mass media and various political technologists demonstrate quite convincingly changes for the better. But in reality, they are trying to change the picture in the people’s conscious about the situation in Russia. At the same time, the structures of state and local power distance themselves from the people, prioritizing international obligations. In the result of reformative activity, this «gap» becomes deeper and more painful for the society and for the state on the whole. It happens because the relations with the people are built in «reality» and «in fact». And these very relations «between «the reality» and the life «in fact» put significant bounds to the very possibility of reforming. As far as reforming is performed in «reality», but in fact there is no reforming at all, but there is something else, which is implicit, not spoken about and not expressed in the language of the theories, lying in the basis of those reforms. The state will continue the reforms in «reality», and in fact, people will still consider it to be a new Moscow trick, but not a sincere act, aimed in fact for collective betterment of Russian life» (Kudashov, 2006. p. 107). In Russia, power vertical building and local self-government reforming must be directed «in reality» so, that to find the most effective (from the point of view of social development) interconnection, and in fact the idea of local selfgovernment has become a part and an instrument of the administrative system and a form of the democratic camouflage. In «reality» the state power belongs to the people (RF Constitution), and in fact the power is in the hands of «economical elite». And the biggest part of the state property and now of the municipal property as well, after its privatization, voucherization and corporalization, belong precisely to them. And property is the basis, the substance of power (A.G. Anikevich and others, 2001). That is why the ownership of property brings the representatives of big, less frequently of medium and small business to power. For them, local self-government is not only the sphere of citizens’ self-organization, but also a specific level of power. They quite understand that, the organs of local self-government are rather important as organs of power in the system – 307 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergeу P. Dureev. Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization of state management, as a channel of the country government. Here, we should remind that, while forming the Moscow state in Russ, «in reality» there was built a power vertical, but in fact this vertical «rested on the basis of the communal form of social life organization», besides, the society «was preserved by the state as a condition of existence on the whole» (Olejnikov, 2001. p. 130). One can manage any objective process only, if one knows all the inner and outer factors, which condition the course of the process, and that, in most cases, allows to bring an objectively developing process to the aim, having been subjectively chosen from a lot of objectively possible variants of that very process development. This is the main in the notion content of «management». Management is possible only when we are dealing with objectively existing processes (objects). If there is created an illusion of an objective process existence, then there also appears an illusion of the management process. That is why organization of state management and of local self-government must be always built not as managing system’s onesided influence over the managed one, but as a dialectic interaction of management subject and object in the process of human activity. This interaction must consist not only of various direct connections, but also of inverse links as well, and that will provide evolutionary development of society and its betterment on the basis of nature development objective laws. Management subject and object’s existence, their interaction are the main content feature of management human activity. Besides, on one hand, man is a management subject; on the other hand, he is a management object. Management object, as one of the parts in the system of management activity, is rather similar to management subject. This similarity is caused by one the same magnitude of their social nature. That is why there is no subject and object in the system of management activity, but there is two subjects’ interaction: managing subject and managed activity subject (executive subject). Thus, management activity object (of management) is the subject of any other kind of human activity, including local self-government principals’ realization. That is why organization of local selfgovernment must be also built «bottom-upwards» and must proceed from people in the form of society management power devolving. People reserve the main management function – power devolving execution control. In this case, there is built a responsibility on every management level, and there is formed a power vertical in the state. This is the management, built on the principals of grass-roots democracy, on the principals of selfregulation and self-management. These principals are hardwired in man and lie in the basis of any social education. Resume In Russia, it is inevitable to develop management and self-management only in the spirit of Russian originality, in the tideway of its own historical traditions. The great Russian philosopher I.A. Il’in has marked on the subject: «...Everything great can be told by a man or a people only in their own way and everything genius can be born precisely within one’s national experience, spirit and pattern, … national depersonalization is a great disaster and danger in the life of a man and people on the whole. We must struggle with it persistently and with inspiration. And this struggle must be led from the very childhood» (Il’in, 1993. p. 291). If Russia sticks to its historical way of development, it will successfully solve all the rest of the problems: both as its own, so the global ones. – 308 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergeу P. Dureev. Management and Self-Management in the Conditions of Globalization References I.P. Pavlov. Complete Edition of Works, V. 3, Book 2. / I.P. Pavlov – Moscow-Leningrad: Publishing House: AS USSR, 1951. – 438p. L.N. Suvorov, A.N. Averin. Social Management. Philosophical Analysis Experience. / L.N. Suvorov, A.N. Averin. – Moscow: Mysl’, 1984. – 232p. V.I. Kudashov. Russia in «reality» and in fact. / V.I. Kudashov // Theory and History. 2006. № 1. p. 95-108. A.G. Anikevich, V.G. Jakovlev. Power: Social-Philosophical Analysis. / A.G. Anikevich, V.G. Jakovlev – St. Petersburg: Institute of Management and Economics, 2001. – 256p. Ju.V. Olejnikov. Natural Factor of Russian Historical Being. / Ju.V. Olejnikov // Philosophy of Society. 2001. №3. p.123-140. Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary (PED). 2-d edition. / The Head Editor A.M. Prohorov. – Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1989. – 815p. I.A. Il’in. The Way to Obviousness. / I.A. Il'in – Moscow: Respublika, 1993. – 430p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 310-315 ~~~ УДК 130.3 Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization Antonn U. Koltyrin* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given article we present a characteristic of the main directions of modern educational policy in its connection with Russian civil society formation. Here, it is shown that the role of civil education on the modern stage of the country development is defined by the tasks of Russia’s transition to democratic society and constitutional state upon obligatory subjection to the national traditions. We prove that in the modern Russian conditions, system of education must provide an efficient usage of its resources – human, informational, material, and financial, and the state must guarantee the foreground support of education. Thereat, social ideology being not yet formed, scientific notions and instruments of social development status and forecast being poorly revealed and organized or underdeveloped and social development being connected with education – all these factors contribute to the fact that there appear contradictory strands of educational policy. In them there expressed various positions of the society and of different social groups, being interested in realization of a certain opinion of civil education in practice. Keywords: civil education; civil society; education politicy; system of education; education philosophy. Point The processes, which take place in education, are directly connected with social processes. In this respect, the problematic of education philosophy has a primary meaning not only in science, but also in a constructive sense. Scientific world-outlook level of education policy, strategies and tactics of education system development will depend upon the degree of education philosophy development. That is why education is one of the most important factors of national security. It connects the activity of state with the activity of its citizens through the level of proficiency to the continuous process of a new generation up-brining by means of family, * 1 education and social surroundings. Precisely the state has appealed to create the conditions for free personal development, for most full meeting of personal demands and interests, and the person in his turn, as a carrier of social relations, is appealed to preserve social integrity, to stand up for its social and moral values and to provide their realization by all his behavior. Example Differences in the opinions take place in the sphere of «one’s own» and «borrowed experience in education». As it is underlined by American philosophers Garnett and Naish, every social group suggests through its own theoreticians Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 310 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonn U. Koltyrin. Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization and demands building of its own conception of education, wherein its notions about the good and the evil, justice and freedom, its understanding of the modern social processes and «a right-minded and sound citizen as the main target of education are reflected». To the mind of the group of researchers (G.V. Igonin, V.P. Kaznacheev, N.V. Nalivajko, V.N. Turchenko), there can be distinguished two directions and two educational tendencies. Firstly, English-American (Western) orientation, when education is considered as a personal concern of every person, and the very system of education presents an industry of educational services. A newly-emerging business class of Russia is more and more oriented exactly to this model of education. The other model – so called GermanRussian – is based on the state’s responsibility for education: responsibility for education affordability to all the strata of population, independently from its economical and social status, responsibility for the growth of an average educational census and so on. In spite of the fact that the given educational model has been already gaining its potential in the soviet period, it still has such a level that keeps Russia in the number of developed countries. We should note that most philosophers do not consider the policy in the sphere of education as an independent strand, including it in the structure of social or cultural policy. We suppose that this circumstance and also a small amount of special articles, dedicated to this theme in philosophical literature, can be perceived as a reflection of social under-estimation of the role of education on the whole and its policy as well. Thereat, we should distinguish two contextually close, but not coinciding notions: «educational policy» and «policy in the sphere of education» . Educational policy is a peculiar, separate private sphere of the policy, being developed only in connection with the given social sphere, but deeply and in full detail. It is an educational tactics, concrete goals, tasks, deadlines, people and etc. concerning education policy and oriented to a certain strategy, if it is correct. Policy in the sphere of education is a general policy of the state, but applied to a separate sphere of the society, i.e. to education. It is general in relation to education, anything that defines the strategy of educational activity (the main goals and tasks). It includes the whole complex of measures, being performed by the state and its organs in relation to education as a social institution, including the impact of other strands of the Russian inner policy (economical, social, and informational) on education. Being always present in the society and state, educational policy is expressed in the following: it builds up its own system of education: the kind of goals being set in education organization, the ways educational management system being organized, the kind of social, state, personal and other interests that prevail in educational policy, and the way educational system being financed. In the monograph «Education Philosophy as an Object of Complex Research», N.V. Nalivajko and V.I. Parshikov single out the following education policy components: financial (the level of financing, financial assets disposition and usage), legislative (educational process subjects’ behavior limitation, management organs competence), cultural-ideological (social consciousness orientations, which influence the decision making) . To our mind, philosophical analysis of the problem, being raised in the article, can be applied to the cultural-ideological component of educational policy. And in connection with this, it is important to make clear such significant questions as education policy and ideology, education policy and national idea of education, Russian education modernization and civil education. – 311 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonn U. Koltyrin. Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization The goals of education are defined by the state policy in the sphere of education and up-bringing as follows: to define the goals of education and the strategy of their achievement, legislation elaboration and resources finding, pedagogic initiatives support, all these in complex should create favorable conditions for development and spiritual-axiological orientation of oncoming generations in accordance to human positive interests and social demands. Setting foreground goals of the Russian citizens’ education, general principals of the modern education policy are defined by the Education Law of RF, the National Education Doctrine of the Russian Federation for the period through to 2025, the Federal Program of education development for 2000-2005, the Federal Program of youth development and patriotic up-brining for 20002005 and etc. [Constitution of the Russian Federation; the Education Law of the Russian Federation; Russian Education Modernization Conception №1756-Р dated 29.12.2001 for the period through to 2010, affirmed by the order of the Russian Federation Government; № 24/1 «Strategy of Historical and Art-Historical Education Development in General Education Institutions»; RF EM Letter № 151/11«Civil Education and Russian Federation Constitution Study» dated 06.02.1995; RF EM Act № 479 «Russian Federation Constitution Study in General Education Institutions» dated 09.12.1994. RF EM Letter № 385/11 «Legal Culture and Students’ Education Improvement in the Sphere of Electoral Rights and Electoral Process» dated 07.04.1995; RF EM Informational-Methodical Letter № 391/11 «Students’ Civil-Legal Education in General Education Institutions of the Russian Federation» dated 19.03.1996; RF EM Informational-Methodical Letter № 13-5108/13 «Students’ Civil Education in General Education Institutions» dated 15.01.2003; RF Citizens’ Patriotic Up-Brining State Program for 2001-2005 // Collected Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2001. – №9.- P.2208 and etc.»]. In accordance with the mentioned documents, the main aim of the modern Russian education is the up-bringing of a polymathic citizen, acquainted with the native and world culture, brought up within the modern system of values and modern life requirements, being ready to active social adaptation within the society and to an independent vital choice, to the beginning of his labor activity and to professional education continuation, to self-education and self-perfection. Developing society needs modern educated, high-moral and enterprising people, who can independently make decisions in the condition of choice, able to collaboration, distinguished by their mobility, dynamism, and constructivity, ready to intercultural interaction, possessing a sense of responsibility for the fate of the country and for its social-economical prosperity. System of education must prepare people, who can live not only within civil society and constitutional state, but also to create them. In the process of education modernization they are to provide, firstly, openness of education as a state-social system, secondly, transition to the model of mutual responsibility in the sphere of education, to enforce the role of all the education policy subjects and their interaction, and to broaden society’s participation in making and realization of legal and management decisions in education. System of education is a sphere of interaction of state’s and society’s interests in the name of their institutes and citizens. Every of the educational legal relationship subjects must have a possibility to influence on the education system functioning and development, but, at the same time, to carry its share of responsibility for creation of the circumstances, which are necessary for education system fulfilling its social and educational functions. – 312 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonn U. Koltyrin. Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization On the modern stage of the country development, the role of civil education is defined by the goals of Russia’s transition to democratic society, to constitutional state, and to market economy, by the goals of danger overcoming of Russia’s accruing underdevelopment from the world tendencies of economical and social development. The Russian system of education is able to compete with the education systems of advanced countries. Though, its advantages can be easily lost, if general national educational policy, being supported by a wide public, fails to be formed, if the state fails to restore its responsibility and its active role in this sphere, fails to perform deep and all-round education modernization, to provide all necessary resources and to create the mechanisms of efficient usage. Education policy is an important component of general state policy, is an instrument of person’s fundamental rights and freedoms for speeding up the rates of social-economical and scientifictechnical development, and culture growth. On the basis of social approval, education policy sets fundamental goals and tasks of education development and guarantees their implementation into life by means of coordinated actions of the state and society. Today’s primary goal of education policy is to achieve a high quality of the modern education, its correspondence to actual and perspective demands of the person, of the society and the state. Reformed education must play the key role in the steady and dynamic development of the Russian society – the society with a high level of living, and of civil-legal, professional and economical culture. In order to realize modern social requirements to the education system and to make its social role more important, we need, on one hand, to modernize the system of education itself, and on the other hand, to change, the attitude of the state, the society and the person towards education. While developing today historical education, when Bologna process is of such a principal meaning, it is important to take into consideration, that if democracy means equality, then we are to agree, that there is surely more social equality in the United States, than somewhere else in the West. «Though, this equality has not been the result of equal rights, but of a surprisingly undivided opinion.»  And in fact, crucial changes of values impact all the spheres of life in the western society. The main feature of an individualized mass society is its individualization without producing any individuality, personality and formation of an egoistic individual, who thinks only of himself. The new individual becomes the source of society’s fragmentation and perceives even the events of his own life as a summary of episodes, unrelated with each other. Today, most western people can say that they have lived many different lives in the result of fragmentation and unattainability of the whole and that objectively it is almost unsurpassable and is hardly overcome by the efforts of consciousness. The collection of episodes becomes not only the history of a personal life, wherein, there is at best «a biographical salvation of systematic contradictions», but it also becomes the history of the society itself. Life becomes a world of various worlds, and a man of integrity is impossible in such circumstances, if he fails to learn how to live in those worlds simultaneously, having managed to harmonize them to some extent. But this is hardly the task of a mass man . The question, whether western culture’s experience can be adequately applied to the Russian socio-cultural conditions, was historically raised long ago. There were hot discussions in the period of the Slavophils and Westernizers. Nowadays, they are still quite topical. Je.V. Il'enkov, an outstanding thinker, markes, that «…the boarders between «the West» and «the East» do not at all – 313 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonn U. Koltyrin. Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization go along Elba and the Berlin «Wall». It is situated much deeper: the rift proceeds from the very heart of all the modern culture, and do not at all coincide with the geographical lines and political boarders of the modern world. It lies not only between the parties of one and the same country, but very often it goes even through the mind and the heart of one and the same man.»  The problem of patriotism is also one of the most important social-philosophic problems. In philosophic context, patriotism is considered as truly existing opinions, feelings (ontological aspect); as a social reality reflection in the consciousness of a man (epistemological aspect); as an axiological and praxiological relation to the world through its significance, spiritually transforming relation to the reality (axiological aspect). The typical features of patriotism are: a mergence of the feeling of love to one’s «small» motherland, to one’s nation with the love to the whole country and deep respect to all the nationalities living there; a combination of respect and interest to the history of the country with the respect to its striving for making the ideals of freedom and democracy true in the modern period; an efficient humane-creative character of patriotism; an international character of patriotism. To our mind, civil education conception must be one of the priorities of the state policy in the sphere of education. It should be reflected in the content and the programs of all the school subjects. The entire educational field must be targeted at the formation of a citizen-patriot. But the most important role here belongs to humanitarian subjects, first of all to literature, social studies, history, and civic studies. Already N.M. Karamzin asserted, that a member of the public must read history. It reconciles him with the imperfectness of visible order of things, as with a common phenomenon both now and always, it consoles him in state misfortunes, telling, that similar things and much worse happened yet before and the state managed to survive; it feeds the moral sense and by righteous court it disposes the soul towards justice, which confirms our good and the approval of society . Resume Russian education policy strategic targets are the following – to overcome social-economical and spiritual-ideological crisis, to provide high quality of people’s life and national security; to restore the status of Russia as a superpower in the world society in the spheres of education, culture, science, high technologies and economy; to create a basis for steady social-economical and spiritual development of Russia. Thus, civil education conception must be one of the priorities of the state policy in the sphere of education. In the sphere of education, culturalideological and legal policies must correspond to the optimal finance policy; they presuppose clear and deep understanding of education development goals and ways of civil education system formation. Moreover, civil education policy must be also built in accordance with the regional specifics. Practical necessity of conceptual-systematic analysis of the Russian civil education becomes very topical. Future global changes are so large-scale, that no country and no people in the world are ready to their perception. Some branches of production disappear, others appear. The highest technologies become meaningless and are replaced by new ones, yet unknown; today’s prosperous territories will be devastated, others will suffer from congestion of population; modern values will become an object of ridicule, and yesterday’s flaws will be the condition of success. That is why today the whole world speaks about the necessity «to open oneself anew», «to invent oneself anew» or at least «to become conscious of oneself in the new world» . – 314 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonn U. Koltyrin. Civil Education in the Conditions of Globalization References 1. O.N. Smolin. Social-Philosophical Aspects of the State Educational Policy in Conditions of the Russian Society Radical Transformation / O.N. Smolin. – Moscow, 2001. 2. N.V.Nalivajko. Philosophy of Education: Some Problems of Concept Formation / N.V.Nalivajko. – Novosibirsk: GCRO publishing house, 2000. – 141p. 3. G. von Keizerling. America. The Dawn of a New World / G. von Keizerling. – St. Petersburg: the St. Petersburg Philosophic Society, 2002. – P. 344. 4. V. G. Fedotova. The Factors of Axiological Changes in the West and in Russia / V. G. Fedotova // The Questions of Philosophy. – 2005. – № 11. – P. 5–6. 5. Je.V.Il’enkov. Marx and the Western World / Je.V.Il’enkov //The Philosophy and Culture. – Moscow: Politizdat, 1991. 6. N.M.Karamzin. Legendry of Centuries / N.M.Karamzin. – Moscow, 1990. 7. A. I. Jur’ev. Political Psychology of Terrorism / A. I. Jur'ev // The Philosophical Sciences. – 2005. – № 10. – P. 28. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 316-322 ~~~ УДК 316.3 Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture Maria V. Kozlova* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given article we show, that modern global civilization defines itself not so much in the terms of culture, as in the terms of equipment. Determination of social and spiritual life, which earlier having been going from general notions of duty, honor and conscience, of ethic and esthetic regulators, is being progressively changed by technological determination. Being determined by culture, person turns into a human factor, which is ruled by equipment. It is fragmentary and dependent. Initiative and the final salvation of the questions of person’s interaction with external environment and other people become the prerogative of equipment and technology. In the given article we underline, that the crucial difference of a socio-cultural personality from the human factor is included in the following: person is determined from the inside – from the side of assimilated cultural assets, which have become inner, while the human factor is determined from the outside – from the side of socio-technical systems. All these aspects acquire special meaning in the conditions of globalization. Keywords: сulture globalization; internationalization; westernization; culture homogeneity; sociocultural phenomenon. Point In the modern conditions we can observe a global merging of the inner and the outer, of one’s own and of foreign spheres, the merging being fraught with the total failure of human identity mechanisms. Principal distancing from whatever «grounds» (cultural, national, state) destroys the process of identification, based on the opposition of «we» and «they». Global person does not differentiate «we» and «they» and axiologicalnormative pieces of codex, connected with it, and puts out to the open sea of unregulated transnational contacts. But, while entering the interaction with other cultural environments’ participants, carrying different meanings and * 1 evaluating the same events and phenomena in a different way, the person, who does not have his own identity, easily transforms into a person, having no norms. Example The realities of the formation process of integral world-wide system of trans-individual social historical organisms, which took place in XVI century, corresponded to the notion of «internationalization». To the beginning of XX century this process had almost reached its completion. From the latter half of XX century we can observe how the system of social organisms, varying by their social-economical Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 316 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture order (slavery, feudalism and others), by this or that economical sphere prevailing (agricultural, industrial and others), by the form of government (monarchy, republic and others), by their political regimes (autocracy, democracy and others), by the dominating confessions (Christianity, Buddhism and others) and so on, turns into a single and integral social organization. Complex and contradictory processes of integration (of peoples, cultures, civilizations and so on) into one single and integral social organism with its typical political-legal organization and upbringing-educational structures serve to show the tendencies of «globalization» . Modern globalization processes, presented by the naturalistic process of the world’s growing interdependency in the result of information technologies expansion, volume and services and goods nomenclature increase, expansion of financial flows between the countries – all these presuppose a special attitude to the past as well. They use and successfully spread those historical facts, within which bases there is their «consumptive value», i.e. their excuses for aggressive pretensions of the western civilization. Even the history textbook are compiled according to the principle of globalism: they not only pay less attention to the eastern nations, than to any other western country, but wrench in advance the axiological scale, which has been historically formed in the concrete society. It is connected with the fact that according to N.M.Churinov’s conception, «on the basis of the metaphysical method, they have formed axiological and value research approaches, methods of intuition, idealization and etc.; they have also shaped a notion of transcendental reality, which is formed by such free objects in the modern science as… «freedom of word», «freedom of conscious» and so on» [2, p. 43]. It is paradoxically, but it is a fact: world system globalization processes description speaks of the fact that different authors differ in their choice of primary axiomatic theories. Hence, we may observe the variety of opinions and conceptions. There are a lot of competing notions of one and the same globalization process. Sometimes, the consequences of these processes have lasted for centuries for humanity, civilization and culture and very often been huge and global. For example, E. N. Ustjugova represents those scientists, who are sure: «what we call globalization today is the episode of historical process, though qualitatively peculiar, as everything in history is» [3, p. 56-57]. To our mind, in comparison with internationalization, globalization presupposes not only systematic orderliness and the merge of industrial-economical structures of all the countries, but also almost complete atrophy of their political, socio-cultural and educational sovereignty. Globalization processes begin to capture also the sphere of spiritual production, what is right now and especially well seen in the sphere of education. Globalization creates a real threat to the very existence of the national systems of upbringing and education in the result of increase of international initiatives in the «format» of the so called «Bologna process». Its targets coincide with the highest theological goals of globalization in industrial-economical and social-political spheres and presuppose unification and, in reality, a substitution of the existing variety of national systems of up-bringing and education, – by the Northern-American system, as the one, presenting pattern examples of development as «the market of educational services». On the whole, we may agree with the authors, who assert, that if we abstract away from the sophisticated argumentation of the ideological «screen’s» propaganda campaign, argumentation being dictated by far-fromman-loving, selfish intensions, then «Bologna process» is presented in its true and a rather sleazy appearance of transnational corporation, which – 317 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture strives to control the market of «goods» of spiritual industry [4, p. 242]. As we can observe, in the modern world, globalization processes bring to a number of social transformations, for example, individualism is being increased, which is so typical for the society of consumption, characterizing the western way of living and being imposed to the whole world by globalization tendencies. It confirms the conception of N. M. Churinov, who justly notices: «… agnosticism was the epistemological basis of the individualistic philosophy and, consequently, the theory of representation is a theory of cognition of the individualistic philosophy» [5, p. 48]. Recently, the notion of «cultural globalization», having been often mentioned in the American studies of globalization, has turned out to be un-adapted to the modern realities. Instead of the cultural globalization we should admit a complex and ambiguous process of the global cultures’ formation, the cultures, which, as a rule, take their origin from national and regional roots. Logical formal perfection of the western laws do not at all coincide with the principals of spiritual organization of the Being – with the truth, warm-heartedness, generations’ reverse interrelation, the worshipping of the highest sacred things, but not of material power of money, luxury, and material wealth. In reality, the Apologists of panhuman culture preach implicitly or directly the supremacy of the RomanicGerman (European) culture, and this way, in fact, they (cosmopolitans) appear to be chauvinists, imposing their national culture under the cover of panhuman culture and panhuman values considerations» [6, p. 156]. One of the peculiarities of living in culture, in comparison with the pragmatism of civilization, is the preservation and development of spiritual ideals. If ideals disappear, then it does not mean that the infancy or juvenility of a man or a nation is over, but it means that their life in culture has come to an end. For several centuries, the abandonment of the highest ideals has been camouflaged by the clothes of humanism, which, at the beginning, has been spontaneously preserving its strivings for the celestial, the highest, and the divine. As the highest value, man has been and still stays to be the starting point for most extreme conceptions – beginning from educational and rationalistic to communistic and religious ones. Being abstractly expressed by itself, the principle of humanism is able to bring and has been bringing to such consequences, which could have never been forecast and thought about by its theoreticians and apologists… A. V. Gulyga has found out that I. Kant disclosed the difference between the cultural and civilizational forms in quite an explicit form; actually, he defined this difference in its sense relation and called them both culture. The external, technical type of culture was called civilization. Obviously, being much occupied with clear forms of mind and formalisms of mathematical knowledge, Kant felt how much the strivings of formal and creative studies differed; though, in the science analysis, he himself had never broke his German deliberativeness and was ever sure that there was as much truth in a certain branch of science, as there was much mathematics. While analyzing pure forms of thinking and categories, he built a formal table of categories, which did not yet contained any thought-over principles of its integrity. But, while researching the proper culture and in comparison with his predecessors in esthetics, Kant proved that nature (organics) is not only opposite to culture, but has some interior cognation with it. Culture also lives, develops and also possesses the qualities of an organic system. According to Kant, state preserves the culture of traditions, legislative norms and social orders, – 318 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture teachers to overcome the contradictions between person and society; sometimes, state can be antagonistic towards person, but harmony cannot be achieved in any of organic systems. Nevertheless, the search of system’s flourishing has always been and still is the condition of system’s life, as far as intensification of antagonisms inside the system is dangerous for the very existence of state as a system. Egoism of persons’ selfishness, illusion of individual being self-sufficiency poisons the state organism of common existence and anticipates the ruin of the latter. Kant’s foreknowledge of antinomy between culture and civilization was much more revealed in his opinion of nation as an organic system. Society’s massovization, national culture primitivization and attempts of mass conscious control for the purpose of its orientation to foreign primitive norm and values – all these is the main target of informational war. Substitution of cultural values with pseudo-ones and propaganda of behavior models, being based on them. Moreover, the process of society’s massovization has always had its undersurface, which turns the society, destructing its own culture, into an uncontrolled environment, devouring its creators. That is an involuntary result of any kind of manipulation, as a form of violence over the human conscious. Values system destruction starts from revealing of weak points in the conceptual sphere of the opponent, searching for discordant facts, stereotypes and notions, which are later given some fundamental meaning with the help of MSM propagandistic campaigns. Moreover, the society is alternatively suggested a model of the world, being based on illusions and stereotypes of the given society, but which are not rooted in its historical memory , national traditions and inner psychological patterns and which are right opposite to the social-historical conditions of its existence. Speaking about globalization in the sphere of culture, we cannot fail to appeal to the impact of mass technologies and means of communication on the vital functions of society and culture. At present time, we are to underline the fact that the act of communication prevails and is preferred to the content of the transferred matter – it is a phenomenon of «society’s virtualization» . Having been initiated by the forth informational revolution, the integration direction of culture genesis is being developed in two spheres: in real and in virtual. «There are enough bases to think that the latter influences on the methods of presentation and interpretation of true-life realias, thus giving birth to the phenomenon of «trans-culture» – the culture of cultures polylogue. «Trans-culture» is out of territorial, historic-cultural, and mental boarders and it is realized as a polyphonic integrity of the multitude of «living cultures», having been virtualized in the process of communication» [8, p. 193]. «Trans- culturelization has been brought to life by the processes of mediatization of cultural spheres, by the ability of Diaspora cultures to assert themselves by means of Internet communication and to integrate themselves through the boarders of national and state territories. In comparison with acculturation, trans- culturelization underlines the fact of cultural interaction «through» and «in spite of» state territories, regions and boarders» [9, p. 105-110]. «Globalization (horizontal) processes have marked a temporal distance and mental distinctions in the bases of modern cultures. Large-scale involvement into culture- genetic process, which has been intensified by the informational revolution, has revealed that the common cultural sphere is heterogeneous. Having been caused by globalization, the changes have influenced not only the forms of cultures, but also the types of their perception – 319 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture and interpretation. As a result, being perceived as a unification of material sphere of cultures, the global homogeneity has revealed the difference as in historical dynamics of values, so in their hierarchic structure and has caused the crisis of understanding as of its own, so of «other» cultures. «Migration in time» or predominance of pre-figural type of culture becomes to a greater degree an inner expression of the territorial migration. That is why the appeal to spiritual potential of the culture, as to the method of society’s adequacy preservation, is «the answer» of the local culture to the global challenge. It testifies of the strengthening of the culture’s role in the over- and trans-territorial communications and it also speaks of transformation of the previous cultural landscape and of formation of a new or some other one» [10, p. 185-186]. According to the scheme of single culture’s domination, cultural homogeneity corresponds to expansionist politics of countries. In the given case, culture as a summation of values, world outlook attitudes, and behavioral patterns is a power, which destabilizes the socio-cultural spheres of countries-opponents and countriesrecipients. Culture is a peculiar means of neutralization of opponents, is «a soft power, which is applied by the countries, leading at present time in the globalization process». As A. I. Utkin supposes: «Global culture will inevitably resemble the dominating cultures of the past.» [11, p. 175]. Amitai Etsioni is sure, that «… the world is able and should obtain important lessons from non-European countries as well – it concerns inner politics and economy, international relations, and also construction of a new global architecture. This is especially true in such questions, as respect to power, care for collective welfare and preservation of social relations – though, only in case, if such values and corresponding them institutes will be much modified [12, p. 21-22]. The question of cultural universals has acquired its true sharpness on the background of a disappointingly simple thesis – panhuman cultural integrity is a functional, but not a historical notion, as far as humanity «is not a cultural universal» [13, p. 247]. Cultures’ existence in the vectors of «global» and «egoistic» can be as well explained in the other way. Occupation of one culture by another, dominating one can be an implicit or a vivid wish of the culture, which has subordinated to some other, foreign world picture, to feel historically more comfortable. Rome had Europe as its province, and its power swept away up to Britain. Japan culture has built itself on an explicit reversion of the main oppositions of the Chinese world picture, having become its expressive antithesis. Waves of assimilation and dissimilation change each other, but when the global process has started to gain a panhuman character in the economic sphere, the opponents of the process have begun to give their historical and cultural arguments. Globalisic position sticks to the world life standardization, which creates a false-integral reality. It has not any historical perspective, and esthetic symmetry has it neither. But, there is another type of reality – the world of pause, interval and fragment. The fragmentary world has a perspective to combine and to build new integrative entities of different types. The standard one does not have it; it is a dead symmetric world [14, p. 41]. In the cultural sphere, we observe the tendencies of unification and becoming of the integral culture, which should bring to the mankind unanimity – this is to the mind of mondialism adepts. Though, the form of thinking and realization of this unanimity quite reasonably generate oppositions. Historical experience testifies of the fact that non-European types of culture are squeezed out of the world development – 320 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture and trampled on as unadjusted to the modernity. In the global world, non-European cultures are denied their own self-valuable status– they are an expression of cultural exoticism, which is nothing else, but curious. Though, to our mind, different types of culture are understood not as forms of integral human race existence, but as a disclosure of heterogeneity of the mankind, consisting of different types of people, who are far from being equal according to the criteria of «the progress». Hence, we may come to a dangerous conclusion that there is a necessity of expansion of the only type of person, being often identified with the western «Faust-like» man. Actually, the terminal point of such a movement will be the condition, which can be characterized, as the blowing of the whole out of proportion at the expense of its parts development. Resume If we speak of the content of the common culture becoming, then the most precise way to describe its essence will be in the terms of universal technologism. Social life has turned into a technologically regulated process, has become a kind of techno-system. It inevitably leads to mechanization of the real choice sphere and to an utmost standardization of social reactions. Now, the most undesirable qualities are imprudence, being un-programmed, spontaneity, unpredictability. And it is clear: these qualities revelation can damage a well coordinated work of the mechanism, being called economics, which serving is the main aim and sense of the society existence of nowadays. Blocking of all these qualities goes simultaneously on all the levels of the social practice and is being fixed psychologically. But, at the same time, with them disappears the context, within which frames the human ability to creation is being formed, as far as creativity presupposes a certain moment of chaotization of the social sphere and the inner world of person [15, p. 178]. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Global Sciences. Encyclopedia / under the editorship of I. Mazur, A.Chumakova. – Moscow, 2003. N. M. Churinov. Perfection and Freedom / N. M. Churinov. – Krasnoyarsk, 2001. E.N.Ustjugova. Globalization and Culture: Historical Context/ E.N.Ustjugova // The Philosophical Sciences. – 2005. – №12. Ch.S.Kirvel', V.I.Strel'chenko. Globalization of Education and Social Strategies of Modernity / Ch.S.Kirvel', V.I.Strel'chenko // The Dialogue of Generations and Cultures in the Context of Globalization: Materials of the International Conference «The Conflict of Generations in the Context of Informational Globalization». – St. Petersburg, Publishing House of the Polytechnic University, 2007. N. M. Churinov. Collectivism and Individualism, and Speculations on the Theme in the Western Tradition / N. M. Churinov // The Theory and History. – 2004. – № 3. A.A. Korol’kov. Spiritual Sense of the Russian Culture. – St. Petersburg: P.H. of RSPU named after A.I. Herzen, 2006. D.V. Ivanov. Virtualization of Society. Version 2.0. – St. Petersburg: The St. Petersburg Oriental Studies. 2002. V.A.Mamontova. Globalization in the Sphere of Culture: Vectors of Development/ V.A.Mamontova // Credo -2006 -№1. – 321 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Maria V. Kozlova. Modern Globalization Processes as a Manifestation of the Western Culture 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Globalization and Multi-Culturalism. Executive editor: P.S.Karabaev. Moscow: P.H. of the Russian University of Nations Friendship, 2005. V.A.Mamontova. Globalization in the Sphere of Culture: Vectors of Development/ V.A.Mamontova // Credo -2006 -№1. A.I. Utkin. Globalization: the Process and Understanding. – The Logos, 2001. A. Etsioni. From Empire to Society: a New Approach to International Relations. Moscow: Ladomir, 2004. Dm. Javorskij. World Outlooks Differentiation and Integration: Existential and Historical Experience. International Readings of the Theory, History and Philosophy of Culture. St. Petersburg, 2004. V. 20. K.G. Isupov. Problems of Globalization on the Background of Russian Thought (preliminary considerations) // Globalization: pro et contra: Materials of the International Conference « Globalization Challenge to History on the Verge of Centuries: Priorities of the Russian Culture and Art». St. Petersburg: Asterion, 2006. 15. O.A. Romanov. Globalization as a Subjective Reality: the Ideology and Practice of its Formation // Globalization: pro et contra: Materials of the International Conference «Globalization Challenge to History on the Verge of Centuries: Priorities of the Russian Culture and Art». St. Petersburg: Asterion, 2006. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 323-335 ~~~ УДК 304.4 Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies Vladimir S. Luzan* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Culture is of more and more importance in consciousness and life activity of the modern society. And culture is comprehended not only in the true sense of the word as a result of intellectual creation, but it is understood at the level of common human sense: cultureness means decency, accomplishment, tact, and intelligence. It is the author’s opinion that nowadays «culture studies» are of particular importance as a scientific discipline still being in a formative stage in spite of numerous investigations on culture both in Russia and abroad. The author focuses his attention on consideration of two main approaches to the investigations on culture: Western and Russian. Culture studies are formed adjoining many sciences integrating knowledge of different sciences on culture into integral system, representing the ideas about essence, functions, structure, and dynamics of culture as such, modeling cultural configurations of different epochs, nations, confessions, classes, discovering and systemizing distinctive features of different cultural worlds. Concerning realization of the creative potential of culture, the author pays a great deal of attention to the necessity for integration of various kinds of knowledge about this sphere of spiritual life in the context of integrated scientific discipline – applied culture studies as a peculiar bridge introducing an individual or the human community into the world of culture. The subject of applied culture studies is specified by cultural policy as a complex dynamic system of interaction between state authorities, society, and culture (as an object of that policy) as complex of points of view and activity in thorough modernization of society based on science, structural reform of the whole system of institutions of culture, optimization of combination of state and social components in socio-cultural life, scientific and educational support of the subsequent regulation of socio-cultural processes, etc., on the whole, as conscious correction of the general content of culture. The conclusion drawn in the end of the article is that cultural policy should be aimed at the achievement of harmonious development of the country based on the correct scientific organization and administration of the society; it is to eliminate inequality in cultural development of an individual and society and reduce the level of irresponsiveness to culture and cultural dilettantism of the mass. It should express interests of every individual and the entire nation, guarantee human rights of free and independent development, correct balance of interests of different social groups. Keywords: Cultural policy, applied culture studies, culture, anthropology, philosophy of culture Point Culture is of more and more importance in consciousness and life activity of the modern society. And culture is comprehended not only in * 1 the true sense of the word as a result of intellectual and mental creation, but it is understood at the level of common human sense: cultureness means decency, accomplishment, tact, and intelligence. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 323 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies The lack or insufficiency of these qualities is strongly felt in society bringing constant tension into social life. It is possible to find these qualities only on the base of access to culture, assimilation of all the best things produced by the mankind over a period of centuries and preserved by many generations of people. Nowadays culture is a certain level of every human activities: it is impossible to create highly developed industry without culture; it is impossible to solve vital problems of the state and society without political culture; there won’t be solved social problems without cultural human relationships based on understanding of self-value of every person or a group of people (small ethnic groups, national communities, subcultures, etc.) . Successful function both of the society as a whole and any of its division is impossible if a certain level of culture is not reached and the understanding that highly developed culture is the basis of civilized society is not formed. Therefore, nowadays culture studies are of particular importance still being at stage of formation as a scientific discipline in spite of abundance of investigations on culture both in Russia and abroad. Cultural, social and structural anthropology, «new culture history», semiotics, ethno-linguistics, ethno-psychology, and social studies still hold dominant positions at research on culture in the West. In Russia of the second half of the 19 th and beginning of the 20 th centuries, culture studies as an independent subject were gradually transformed into specific trend at Russian historical, philological, and philosophical science. Historians P.N. Milyukov and L.P. Krasavin played their own significant part here: they had been carrying out their research on cultural phenomena of the past and analyzing cultures being under study as system wholeness. Study on culture from theoretical points of view was carried out within the frames of philosophy, aesthetics, semiotics, literary criticism, and art criticism. However, by the end of 1980s and beginning of 1990s, there appeared realization of the necessity for system approach to the study on culture in general and that one of turning of culture studies into a separate scientific discipline. That was promoted by the serious theoretical elaboration of the whole complex of both Russian and Western investigations on culture and analysis of ideas, conceptions, schools, and methods. Philosophy and social studies had profound effect on formation of culture studies. Culture was analyzed especially productive in the context of philosophy of culture, a discipline of philosophy oriented to comprehension of culture as the universal and integral phenomenon . According to V.S. Malakhov, there can be distinguished three plans wherein philosophy of culture used to exist at the first third of the 20th century: • methodological – philosophy of culture as methodology of «sciences of culture»; in contrast to «sciences of nature», this approach was developed not only within the frames of «philosophy of values» by Baden Neo-Kantianism, but also at «philosophy of life» (W. Dilthey) contemporary ontology (N. Hartmann, H. Freer); • socio-critical – philosophy of culture as critique of the modern European civilization (O. Spengler, F. Stepun, H. Ortega y Gasset, H. Bergson); • theoretic-and-systematic – an attempt to work out a universal theory of culture (N. Hartman, R. Croner, J. Huizinga, O. Spengler, A. Toynbee, E. Rothaker). G. Simmel’s theory about conflict between life and forms of culture, genealogical method – 324 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies of analysis of the cultural tradition offered by F. Nietzsche, the idea of creative breakthrough as a basis of culture creation (H. Bergson), E. Cassirer’s philosophy of symbolic forms, phenomenological description of structure of the basic forms of culture (from language and myth to history and science), and M. Weber’s theory of ideal types, etc. – were of considerable importance in formation of the main body of ideas of philosophy of culture. The basic features of postmodernism philosophy of culture are: denial of striving for the ideal of scientific objectivity and recognition of significance and equality of different forms of culture and sign systems expressing them; elaboration of the basic theme «knowledge is for authorities», defining constructing process of cultural reality; study on intertextuality in the context of consideration of the genesis of the modern European novel; critical variant of cultural-and-philosophical reflection. Postmodernism philosophy of culture finds its critique on the part of A. Giddenns, R. Bernstein, J. Habermas. It is blamed for oblivion of the values important for everybody and aimless deconstructive game with the texts of culture. Debates, held within the frames of different branches of contemporary philosophy of culture, had a considerable influence on the formation of theoretic and methodological tools of research on culture. Philosophers of culture researched into the problems of vital importance for culture studies: culture as a specific human world created by a human being; culture and civilization; crisis of culture; symbolic forms of human activity – language, myth, religion, science, art; value nature of culture; interrelation of culture and history; genesis of cultures; human being and culture; the invariant structures remaining unchangeable in the course of historical transformations; forms of human cultural life; destinies of European culture and civilization; dynamics of culture; logic of science about culture . At the end of 1940s and beginning of 1950s, there was an increase of influence of «cultural anthropology», ethnology, and empirical researches on culture which E. Taylor, the English researcher of the 19th century, defined as a body of knowledge, beliefs, labor and behavioral skills common to the members of a certain group. His main aim was to reveal laws of development of culture on the whole. He considered that evolution as a natural historical process which happens according to the objective principles. The researchers’ reference to the heritage of Leslie White, whose name is associated with the idea of separation of culture studies as an independent area of knowledge, had a great effect on formation of culture studies as an independent science . However, for the first time, this term was offered by German philosopher and chemist W. Ostvald in 1909 and was used in many of his subsequent works. It is important to notice that Ostvald was really the first man who defined culture as a phenomenon requiring a special science in order it could be studied . He considered culture as a complex of factors serving for social progress and development of man and society. According to his point of view, science about culture is to study real processes. Ostvald distinguishes culture studies from science about society and uses the term «culture studies» for description of the specific phenomenon characteristic only of a man, defined as «culture» term, and explored by the science called «culture studies». Leslie White referred to «culture studies» term irrespective of Ostvald in 1939 and put it into researches on anthropology, having used it in his course of lectures. L. White applied «culture studies» term to specify the sphere of knowledge E. Taylor defined as science about culture. – 325 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies According to L. White, the use of «culture studies» term was to advance the transition from particular sciences to the integral research on culture. L. White considered culture studies as an absolutely new (system) approach to research on cultural events based on discovery of general objective laws of cultural and historical process and specificity of human culture. In L. White’s book «Science about culture» , there was raised the question of status and character of the difference between culture studies and the other sciences investigating on culture; the researcher had made the first attempt of analytic consideration of culture and had defined the field of objects of culture studies; he substantiated the use of «culture studies» term at science of culture and defined the essence of a new system approach to the research on culture. His interpretation of culture as the integrated whole of dynamic self-organizing system of exobiological nature and as a source of support of life of a certain species Homo sapiens and analysis of importance of technologic sub-system as a way of interaction of a human being with the natural habitat and modeling as a method of research on culture, had a determinative effect on the development of culture studies. The turn from special researches oriented to local cultures to integral research on the world culture in its diachronic and synchronous views took place under that influence. At the same time, there is not to be any underestimation of the meaning of the whole anthropological tradition within the frames of which there had been laid theoretic foundations of culture studies. The spectrum of disciplines positing themselves by «anthropology» term is extremely extensive. It comprises cultural (F. Boas, E. Rothhacker, M.Landman), religious (R.Nibur, G.Tilich, M.Buber, P. Florensky), social (B. Malinovsky, A. Radcliffe-Brown), biological (A. Gehlen, M. Portman), pedagogical (O.F. Bolnov), psychological (R. Benedict, M. Mead, E. Huges), structural, including cognitive (K. Levi-Strauss, S. Bruner), and interpretive (K. Giri) kinds of anthropology. Each of these disciplines strives to solve its problems by the way of turning to a person in different spheres of his life activity. In virtue of the universalism of its nature, anthropology outlines integrating space for these sciences, allowing us to conceive the mutually opposite directions of human activity as some union. Interpretative anthropology formed on the base of Geertz’s works had considerable influence both on the general development of the researches on anthropology in the last quarter of the 20th century and on the problematics of culture studies. The core of this trend at American anthropology was made by Geetz’s colleagues and students at Chicago University and Princeton Institute of high researches – D. Markus, M. Fisher, S. Ortner, R.Rosaldo and also the scientists who weren’t directly connected with the trend mentioned, but agreed with its theoretic and methodological program on many aspects (anthropologists M. Stretern, E. Bruner, researchers on culture T. Maranjano, V. Krapanzano, S. Trevik, etc.) Interpretative anthropology took the thesis stated by Geertz («anthropology is not an experimental science looking for a rule but interpretative one looking for sense»), and it became clear that its successful development is possible only on the condition of cross-disciplinary synthesis, not out of philosophy, social studies, political economics, and other spheres of human and socio-scientific knowledge. Geetrz’s books and lectures laid the foundation of this most dynamic and intellectually oriented branch of American anthropology at the end of 1970s and beginning of 1990s. His work «Interpretation of cultures», in which semiotic conception of culture as the «web of meanings» is presented, takes its – 326 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies special place. According to Geertz, culture is a sign system, but these signs are created and read by a human being himself; they don’t exist out of his activity. In any case, analysis of signs is the analysis of person’s action and perception, but, firstly, it is not experimental but comprehensive and interpretative analysis, secondly, this analysis is a dialogical one – there are subject and object revealing the truth. Knowledge about cultures is always the result of a certain intercultural consensus. According to Geertz, the system approach to culture implies it is to be analyzed as a complex phenomenon from the complementary points of view and discovery of underlying semantic structures and objective laws. His approach is interpretative and experimental in searching for the meaning and experimental in searching for the mechanism which makes that meaning possible. Having refused analysis of culture as indivisible and static model (that was specific for anthropological school of Boas), Geertz developed a concept of dynamic and interpenetrating systems of culture. He considered culture not as a complex of definite behavioral models but as a set of exogenetic control mechanism – plans, prescriptions, rules, instructions (programs) – ruling emotions of a person. According to Geertz’s conception, at every society, the sphere of culture consists of a number of cultural systems: religion, ideology, politics, science, art, etc. Any of these systems taken apart couldn’t provide normal functioning of an individual at highly developed society . Being interdisciplinary on their attitudes, methods, material under investigation, and conclusions, Geertz’s works had an effect on all the spheres of human and social sciences including anthropology and culture studies often treated as a chance of return to the entire world from the state of split and alienation as the conditions of postmodernism, the intellectual movement which included human and social sciences. The works published in the French journal called «The Annals» (nowadays it is called «The Annals. History and social sciences» representing the school of «The Annals» as one of the most influential trends at theory of historical process and culture) are of great importance for the formation of culture studies. The formation of that school was an effort to overcome the crisis of traditional kind of history oriented to positivism. The essence of «Copernican revolution» made by this trend was the replacement of classical «history as narration» with «history as problem» in order to create «total history», i.e. history describing all the connections existing in society – economic, social, and cultural ones. The object of study of the school of «The Annals» is neither the actions of «great persons» nor description of events, but it is research on one whole society with variety of social relations and deep structures taking long periods of time. The representatives of «The Annals» school raised a problem of investigation on culture in its entirety as a system of world outlook and complex of models of the world in consciousness of members of society keeping human existence. In substance, this kind of approach belongs to anthropology and culture studies and carries out a complex synthesizing description with the data of different sciences involved and cognition of internal historical and cultural processes through penetration into self-consciousness of the people of the period studied and conditions of their everyday life. Starting from 1960s, there is a formation of a new type of theorizing at history which gets such names as «narrative philosophy», «Modern intellectual history», and «Modern philosophy of history». The main accent is put on the specificity of historical texts, methods of their organization, and communication within social and cultural space of human practice. Historiography becomes the main subject matter. – 327 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies The turning-point at formation of the problematics was H. White’s book «Metahistory: historical imagination in Europe in XIX century» and also works of T. Khun, W. Kuyain, R. Rorty; there had been accomplished relativization of classical epistemology and defended the position of individual creative freedom and independence of choice of cognitive and textual strategies. There had also pointed out the significance of cognitive features of language of historiography and concrete historical and discursive speech practice and there had been an investigation on the Culture studies are formed on the border of many sciences, integrating knowledge of different science of culture into integral system and representing ideas about the essence, functions, structure, and dynamics of culture as such, modeling cultural configurations of different epochs, nations, confessions, and classes, revealing and systematizing distinctive features of different cultural worlds. Problematics of culture studies is developed in different aspects: researches on etnolinguistics and semiotics, literary analysis of history of culture, history of content of form of narrative sentences, discursive statements and systems forming a text of research on history. The works of the authors mentioned suggest some new ways of study of texts, the problem of denotation and translation of different systems of meanings is under investigation, and there is an assertion of a researcher’s right to choose (freely and consciously) all the components of construction and representation of texts, combinatorics (combination of «incommensurable» things in classical science and eclecticism), and re-conceptualization of the content of the basic notions. These positions are close to the researches taking place in contemporary human knowledge at post-colonial discourse, «researches on culture», and culture studies. The logic in formation of culture studies as self-actualization of culture of the 20th century lies in transition from sciences investigating on separate elements of culture (language, mythology, systems of thinking, art culture, and symbolic forms of human activity) to science about culture of the mankind as a whole. According to G.S. Pomerantz, its domain is interaction of the worlds of culture being under conditions of globalization process and appearance of one whole information space. In particular, quite natural formation and development of the new science is connected with the appearance of that new reality. mythological culture, researches from the points of view of general theory of artistic culture and social and cultural anthropology, researches on culture of mentality and every day life, and religious aspect of culture. In reference to the same realia of culture and investigating on the same cultural objects, culture studies don’t substitute cultural and historical, art historical, anthropological, and other kinds of knowledge by itself, it just considers those objects and realia from other points of view. The tendency to the holistic point of view on culture and integration of knowledge about its different components appeared in Russia in 60-80s of the 20th century. It promoted the formation of the trend called «theory of culture», «theory and history of culture»; and that was an indication of inclination of Russian tradition to analysis of phenomenon of culture as wholeness and exploration of the main objective laws of its development, structures, functions, and significance at social life. There had been formed many trends of research in this tendency: general-theoretical problems of culture, methodology of research on culture, morphology and dynamics of culture, social studies of culture and art, civilization theory, typology of culture, social and cultural anthropology. As distinct from the West, «culture studies» term was firmly implanted in scientific – 328 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies literature and scientific sphere in Russia in early 90s of the 20th century. First and foremost, it was connected with considerable scientific achievements made in this sphere and formation of culture studies as cross-disciplinary field of knowledge, actualizing the idea of synthetic science characteristic of the 20th century with integration of the results of research on culture as its aim. System analysis of phenomena of culture and system approach directed to integration of all the fields of knowledge investigating on culture become predominant. Culture is considered as spiritual sense are to be united in one common notion – that is «cultural concept». The idea of phenomenon of culture as system and the need for system approach to study on culture at different levels arising from that idea has already had its own tradition. Different aspects of systems theory applied to the problematics of culture studies were developed by Belgian scientist and the Nobel prizewinner I. Prigozhin, Russian scientists R. Yakobson, Y. Tynyanov, Y. Lotman and others. Using the system theory, scientists try to a system; its essence, «system organization», structure, specific features, and characteristics of its function and concrete realization are under investigation in the context of that approach. General-system analysis supports logic of semantic interpretation of culture and all concrete displays and embodiments of culture. This kind of approach is carried out both at all the levels of analysis of culture (culture as a whole, culture of a certain period, culture of a concrete cultural area, society, subcultures, and that one of individual) and at the levels of its particular subsystems (science, art culture, religion, etc.). System is usually understood as some kind of integration formed with a sum of elements closely related and connected with each other. Besides the features of coherence, usually there is also a mention of hierarchy as the most important characteristic of system and its «system-formative factor». Y.S. Stepanov makes mention of «concept» as a system-formative factor of culture – that is a «clot of culture» in human mental world and «collective unconscious». As L.A. Mikeshina remarks, cultural and historical approach leads Y.S. Stepanov to considerable amplification of «concept» term, and the instituted notion of conceptualized domain at language and culture supposes that not only words and mythologems, but also rites, things, and material objects as symbols and carriers of explain origin and existence of the extremely complicated order characterizing the general notion «culture studies». Reliance on the principles of system approach allows integration of knowledge about culture including various materials to be provided. Actualization of the creative potential of culture dictates the necessity for integration of various aspects of knowledge about this sphere of spiritual life in the context of one scientific discipline – applied culture studies as a peculiar bridge leading into the world of culture of an individual or the human community. The purpose of applied culture studies is introduction of a person into culture. The content of this process is formed by sociocultural activity with cultural policy as one of its components. Thus, one can define culture studies as a complex of conceptions, methodological principles, methods, and cognitive procedures oriented to application at different spheres of social cooperation and achievement of certain practical effects in these spheres . As far as the applied level of culture studies supposes that the results of cognition are to be applied in practice, the following trends and characteristics of analysis are of special importance: diagnostics and forecast of sociocultural dynamics developing in conditions of spontaneous self-organization; rated change of the – 329 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies aspects and elements of socio-cultural dynamics which could be transformed under influence of purposeful management activity; and also programming and planning of definite aspects of practice able to be changed in an appropriate way under influence of a many managerial steps. Such elements of knowledge as a complex of social technologies designed for experts and practicians at different fields of social activity become an essential component of applied culture studies. The specificity of the applied level of knowledge about culture is its integrative nature suggesting that the more difficult requirements, worked out on the basis of that kind of knowledge, are to be used for the practical solutions. Example Socio-cultural complex and sides of practice require transition of specialists and administrators to the intersectoral interaction, and that allows the comprehension of their professional problems to be deepened and adequate solutions to be worked out. The main reasons of broadening of needs of specialists and administrative staff are knowledge of the results of analysis of culture, and that is possible to reduce to several global factors: • the development of intercultural contacts and international tourism is intensive in the world; • the processes of implantation of sociocultural innovations have started being strengthened in many countries; • modernization phenomenon has become actual for many traditional societies, and that has affected not only technologies of labor, spiritual values, and standards of behavior, but also social institutes and way of life on the whole; • the relations between urban culture and rural culture have been changed; • the traditional type of individuality has been transformed, and that has brought to difficulties in the process of individual, group, and social self-identification. The applied level of knowledge of culture studies had been developed for rather a long period of time in the context of cultural-sectoral approach in Russian scientific and social practice of the Soviet period. In its turn, that was connected with the theoretic postulates of Marxism assigning a part of secondary role at the level of superstructure to culture. That is why culture was reduced to such fields of practice as spiritual, educational, scientific, and art activities in theory of culture of the Soviet period, where was possible to use recommendations of researchers on culture. In 60-80s the most advanced levels of applied culture studies were such branches of analysis as social studies on artistic culture and art, sociology of cultural activity . In 80s there appeared the works proving the necessity for use of knowledge of culture studies as an independent cross-disciplinary branch which includes theoretical and applied levels. Nowadays it is possible to speak about the final stage of formation of theoretical culture studies while the applied level is under the process of formation. In the conditions of modernization, the working out of integral cultural policy adequate to the contemporary demands of Russian society requires prevention of narrow-minded approach to it and its formation on the large socio-cultural basis. Cultural policy is a complex dynamic system of interaction between state authorities, society, and culture (as the object of this policy) as a set of scientifically based points of view, events on comprehensive socio-cultural modernization of society, structural reform of all the systems of institutions of culture, optimization of combination of state and social components in socio-cultural life, scientific and educational – 330 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies support of the subsequent regulation of sociocultural processes etc., on the whole, as conscious correction of general content of culture. Cultural processes obey the deepest laws of self-organization. That is why the administrative influence on culture on the part of the state could be perceived as the introduction of external action into the process of system self-organization, and not for submission of development of the system but for increase of its inner activity hidden in the logic of development of its creative potential. The state cultural policy is to model mechanisms of natural civilization process, act in the context of its socio-synergetic laws and just stimulate the accelerated development of society in the direction of its own objective movement. A.Y. Flier defines two levels of cultural administrative activity in his consideration of state policy in the sphere of culture: the very cultural policy and operative control of cultural-creative processes . But this type of classification conceals the danger of separation of practice of administrative activity at the sphere of culture from theoretical conceptualization of real conditions, strategic aims, and actual problems of process in culture. Only the unity of operative actions and theoretical search for the optimal ways and models of development of culture is able to give productive abilities of function of a process of culture and to provide the strategy of self-development of culture. On the other hand, cultural policy is a special field of political activity directly oriented to the values of life and culture and to the supreme spiritual states of consciousness or will realized by those values. The links established and maintained by cultural policy are the connections of life through co-presence and assistance at some valuable and spiritually conceived realities of culture, through reception and empathy of axiomatic state of consciousness or will, samples of presence and activity important for an individual in valuable spaces of culture, and through free co-participation in confirmation of a chosen project and conception on life. Some people think that cultural policy is a complex of opinions based on science and vast activity at socio-cultural modernization of society and structural reforms of the whole system of culture-formative institutions as a system of new principles of proportion of state and social components at social and cultural life, as a complex of measures on the preliminary arrangement of scientific and educational supply for those principles and purposeful training of personnel for efficient regulation of sociocultural processes in the future, and the most important thing is conscious correction of the general content of culture. Control over the current cultural-creative process is a complex of operative actions solving vital problems of the existing culture-formative institutions oriented to maintenance of enlarged reproduction of actual forms of culture within the bounds of financial assets, skilled workers, tools and technologies existing at the moment. At the level of contemporary scientific ideas of the essence of culture, it is impossible to make any global approaches to its problems (in particular, statement of foreground tasks and aims of cultural policy) without correlation of culture with the main tendencies of development of civilization. The most important principle of statement of tasks and aims of cultural policy lies in comprehension of polysemic nature of culture, its senses and content. None of the phenomena of culture is monofuctional, it has a whole complex of different social functions in itself; there is no any phenomenon of culture with only one meaning and spontaneous content, but it is a complex of different meanings and contents both of actual and memorial nature. It is connected with the special difficulty of administrative strategy and – 331 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies tactics in the sphere of culture and the necessity of multilevel approach to the regulation of sociocultural processes. Today the state takes the most important part in development of culture, which is to make the greatest contribution to regulation of the sphere of culture in Russian society, for the development of exchange relations has been insufficiently formed . Thereby cultural policy of Russia today is possible to be considered in three main aspects: theoretical aspect when cultural policy could be interpreted as an abstract ideal model of skills and low social status of the branch of culture; • between advance of exchange relations into the all spheres of life of the contemporary society and unavailability of culture to improve relations with business sector; • between introduction of innovative technologies into life activity of the society and absence of the possibility to use them in valid institutions of culture; • between new requirements of society in intercourse of the authorities and culture; applied aspect which reveals cultural policy as a system of priorities of agencies of State power declared in the corresponding plans of development of culture at the federal and regional levels; specifically-historical aspect when cultural policy is considered as a real system of relations between subjects of culture . Nevertheless there are many contradictions of Russian character interfering with realization of the common state policy in the sphere of culture in the present situation. They are: • between contemporary demands of the society for the value as orienting points and inability of the formed cultural system to their formation and translation; • between the existing variety of cultures characterizing country as a conglomerate of different nations, and immature integral image of Russian culture; • between existence of different local cultures and global processes of the contemporary life leading to levelling of cultural traditions and values; • between the achieved level of creativity and multiplicity of the world art and condition of creative thought in artistic practice; • between the necessity for new skilled workers possessing modern professional formation of a new market of cultural services and impossibility of the traditional system of culture to fulfill it with the offers adequate to the requirements. In order to develop mechanism for the marked contradictions to be surmounted, it is necessary to form the only socio-cultural space providing with promotion of creative initiatives as the basis of stable and dynamic development of Russia. Results In this connection, cultural policy as the subject of applied culture studies is to: • be essential part of all the branches of the state policy in general without exception, reflecting its moral and normative aspects; • become the most important component of social policy which could only be complex socio-cultural and educational program at present; • form the very cultural policy (in a narrow sense of the word) as a special branch of state and public services on stimulating socially acceptable, spiritual valuable and socially-normative displays of a human being and forms of his social and individual being regulated by the state; – 332 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies • maximally provide citizens with constitutional law of access to benefits of culture and realization of the principle of freedom of creative work regardless of residence; • provide with state security of the objects of cultural heritage; • promote integration of Russia into the international cultural community, and that is stipulated by the necessity for strengthening of the positive image of the country abroad and also by inclusion of obviously unites different cultures, and that is topical for Russia. The specific feature of cultural policy is that culture is not only an object of this policy, but a subject as well – first of all, because it is a selfdeveloping and self-regulating system; it doesn’t matter what kind of subject of a decision in the sphere of cultural policy, it still stays in the area of a certain culture and appears to be a product of it. Properly speaking, the question is about the dialectic of administration and self-organization in the context of the system of social regulation the population into the available context of cultural practices of the modern civilization; • develop professional and amateur art, and artistic education aimed at formation and development of aesthetic demands of the population, formation of aesthetically developed and interested audience of listeners and spectators, training skilled workers ready for the professional activity at the sphere of culture and art, and maintenance and transfer of the best traditions of Russian professional education to the next generations; • maintain and develop multinational material and non material cultural heritage of the country. The very heritage is the form with the specific protective cultural functions or ideological support of formation of a new tradition . It of culture. 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Socio-cultural conditions for modernization in Russia. – Yekaterinburg, Culture studies high school, 2001. 36. Pavlovich, A.A. Contemporary culture of Russia and development of the regions // The questions of culture studies. – 2007. – №6. 37. Pashenko, V.Y. Social philosophy of Eurasian being. – Moscow, 2000. 38. Philosophy of culture. Formation and development / ed. M.S. Kagan, Y. Petrov. – St. Petersburg, 1998. 39. Razlogov, K.E. Prospects for culture and state cultural policy in Russia. – Moscow, 2000. 40. Russia at the contemporary dialogue of civilizations. – St. Petersburg: Cultural revolution, 2008. 41. Saveliev, V.V. Essays on applied culture studies: Genesis, conceptions, contemporary practice. P.1. – Moscow, 1993. 42. Sorokin, P.A. About Russian public opinion. – St. Petersburg, 2000. 43. System: philosophical encyclopedia. – Moscow, 2000. 44. System study on culture. – St. Petersburg: Aleteya, 2009. 45. White, L. Science about culture // Anthology of researches on culture. – Moscow, 1997. 46. Zagrebin, S.S. Cultural policy in Russia today // The questions of culture studies. – 2008. – №3. 47. Zamyatin, D.N. Heritage image in culture; methodological approaches to study on «heritage» concept. // Observatory of culture. – 2007. – №8. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 336-348 ~~~ УДК 930. 26 (571.51) About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations Nikolai P. Makarova*, Aleksandr S. Vdovinb and Yekaterina V. Detlovac a Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia b Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V. P. Astafiev, 89 Lebedevoi st., Krasnoyarsk, 600049 Russia Krasnoyarsk Local Lore Museum, c 84 Dubrovinskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 600049 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 This article is devoted to Siberian archaeologists’ international relations in the late 19th century till the 1st decade of 20th century. A great variety of sources that are kept in archives of Russia, Germany and Finland are used here. Keywords: archaeology history, international relations. Introduction Lately Siberian archaeologists’ international contacts have become an ordinary thing. Joint expeditions and conferences are held. Foreign scientists are invited to give lectures in Siberian Universities. Russian scientists have opportunities for training or work experience abroad. We can’t say that we have a lot of contacts with foreign archaeologists. Only in recent decades Krasnoyarsk archaeologists have been taking an active part in international integration. At the same time relations of Krasnoyarsk scientists and their foreign colleagues have deep roots. The purpose of this article is representation of the little-known, mostly not published materials on history of the international contacts of the * 1 Krasnoyarsk archeologists revealed in archives of Russia, Germany, Finland. Basic positions Foreign researchers were always interested in Siberian antiquities. First of all, we should mention German scientists, who worked in Russia at different times, e. g. D. G. Messerschmidt, G. F. Miller, J. G. Gmelin, P. S. Pallas and others (Borisenko, Hudyakov, 2005). The Swedes were also interested in Siberian archaeology. Someone from them happened to be in Siberia against their own free will, e. g. I. F. Stralenberg or of their own free will, e. g. F. R. Martin. In XIX century the Finns are involved in the study of Siberian ancient history most of all (M.A.Castren’s Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 336 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations studies, I.R. Aspelin, Ya. Appelgren-Kivalo and A. O. Geikel’s expeditions) (Salminen, 2003). They explore Siberian area, mainly the South of Yeniseiskaya guberniya, to find ancestral home of their nation. However, we can’t speak about constant foreigners’ interest in Siberian archaeology or about their constant contacts with Krasnoyarsk scientists at the pre-revolutionary period. First of all foreign researchers and travellers were interested in supplement of their own foreign collections. Private collecting became a real danger for archaeological monuments of the Yenisei area. A lot of foreign travellers and scientists got antiquities from inhabitants. Sometimes collections were rather impressive, e. g. an Englishman, P. A. Boiling, had a collection. According to N. M. Yadrintsev, this collection consisted of 799 copper, stone, iron, bone and cast-iron things. Fortunately, Boiling’s collection was left in Russia and bought by a famous Krasnoyarsk merchant, I. G. Gadalov. The latter presented the main part of his collection to the archeological museum of Tomsk University. At the same time archaeological things were constantly brought abroad. Antiquities from the Yenisei area are kept in museums of Washington D. C., London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest, Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki and other countries. At the pre-revolutionary period home researchers successfully study Siberian ancient history. These researchers are talented selfeducated persons, who treat archaeology not as a job, but as a hobby. However, they made a great contribution to the Siberian science development of antiquities. The first collections and excavations (they were carried out on an amateur level) were made by these inquisitive persons. Some of them managed to make Siberian antiquities recognized by the world science society. In 1884 I. T. Savenkov made sensational finds on the Afontova hill. This monument of palaeolith attracted first of all foreign researcher’s attention. Despite the fact that this was not the only monument of the Old Stone Age in Russia, in the books on specialized subjects it’s mentioned just about the Afontova hill as about the only location of palaeolith age (Obermeier1, 1913: 79, 113). It’s not by chance that at the international anthropological congress (it was held in Moscow in 1882) a French archaeologist, Baron de Baye, called Savenkov’s report the most significant event of that day. On returning home de Baye presents a report about finds in Krasnoyarsk to Paris Academy. He ends it with the following words, «Gentlemen, I’m finishing this report and I’m happy that I’ve called you the name of scientist who works hard for the science development on the banks of the large Siberian river (Auerbach, 1928). Friendly correspondence starts between de Baye and Savenkov. De Baye visits the Yenisei area twice. During his visits in 1896 and 1897 he examines the Afontova hill, opens a palaeolith site near Pereselencheskii point on the Yenisei’s right bank. The scientist collects archaeological materials of different eras, he finds them in ancient settlements such as Bazaiha, Nyasha, Ladeiki. He excavates the gravel hill near the village Torgashino. Then he gives the part of his materials and booklets in French to the municipal museum. Among these things de Baye’s photo is kept. There is an inscription on it for I. T. Savenkov «To a lucky man and a voracious researcher of the Yenisei’s valley in memory of congress of 1892 in Moscow» (Makarov, 1989, 51). However, the scientists didn’t manage to meet in Krasnoyarsk. These years Savenkov worked as a proctor of folk schools in Warsaw. The French archaeologist also didn’t manage to meet with N. M. Martyanov, the director of the Minusinsk museum, which is famous abroad for its archaeological collections. De Baye’s companions were a conservative of the Krasnoyarsk museum, – 337 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations M. Ye. Kibort, who accompanied Savenkov in archaeological expeditions, a teacher of Krasnoyarsk grammar school for boys, P. S. Proskuryakov, and others (Orehova, 2004). Evaluating Siberians’ contribution to the study of antiquities from the Yenisei area, de Baye recommended them to French academy for honorary title «Officier d’Academie». As a result N. M. Martyanov and P. S. Proskuryakov were awarded these honorable titles. On returning in France, de Baye displays his finds from Krasnoyarsk sites in Paris Museum of natural history. At one of the meetings of geographical society he recollects about his journey to Russia. He describes stay in Krasnoyarsk especially warmly. In fact de Baye popularizes antiquities from the Yenisei area abroad. Savenkov’s works are published in France just thanks to de Baye (Savenkov, 2003). Siberian palaeolith got wide scientific resonance thanks to Savenkov and de Baye’s work and collaboration. Siberia archaeology was mostly known only in the field of the Stone Age study up to 1920’s. However, the Iron Age has become more studied in the 1st decades of the 20th century. A. M. Tallgren’s2 (a famous Finnish scientist) works were also very important for Siberian archaeology. He researched Siberian antiquities and Siberian archaeological culture much better then his fellow countrymen. Tallgren’s travels to Russia started since 1908. In 1915 he visited Siberia. Unlike his predecessors his aim wasn’t to find the Finns ancestral home, although there were supporters of this theory, it was considered to be old-fashioned already. According to modern finish histonographers «there was a little romanticism, desire to see with his own eyes legendary Minusinsk steppes in this travel» (Uino, 2005). During the expedition Tallgren excavates a number of archaeological monuments and gets acquainted with Minusinsk museum archaeological collections. At the same time he visits Krasnoyarsk municipal museum. This museum as a part of Krasnoyarsk subdivision of RGO (Russian Geographical Society) was a forming regional scientific center. Judging by A. Ya. Tugarinov’s (he was a conservative) letter of the 30th of November, 1918 we can say that the Finnish scientist managed to see only a little bit. «It is a pity you were in Krasnoyarsk museum and didn’t have an opportunity to see what you’d wished. Probably I could have showed you something that would interest you. We can’t display this material because of the museum condition. As far as I know you were interested in the collection from the Ishimka village of Achinsk[ii] U[yezd] especially»3. This situation happened because A. Ya. Tugarinov was in the expedition at that time. In Krasnoyarsk A. M. Tallgren was accompanied by N. A. Pikulevich, who the Finnish scientist corresponded with after that. Tallgren also knew V. A. Danilov, the latter wanted Tallgren to get acquainted with his significant archaeological collection4. Carrying out local lore researches workers of Krasnoyarsk museum paid a lot of attention to the region archaeology. Thanks to their diligence as well as the private collections of antiquities, which were given to the museum in the 1st decade of the 20th century, there was a great material that archaeologists (who researched Siberia) were interested in. The Finnish archaeologist corresponded with Krasnoyarsk colleagues and museum workers after his departure from Russia. Several letters from A. Ya. Tugarinov, S. M. Sergeev, N. K. Auerbach, G. P. Sosnovskii, V. G. Kartsov5 are kept in Tallgren’s personal archive in Finland. A. Ya. Tugarinov played an important role in strengthening and expansion of international contacts. He often applied for the help of foreign specialists to define collections. In the years of – 338 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations the First World War he enlisted people of creative professions and scientists, who were in captivity, to work in the museum. According to the archival data of 1921 such specialists as I. I. Vodratska, F. F. Doush, G. Pangerl, G. V. Merhart worked in the museum6. Significant achievements in the Siberian archaeology field of those years were connected with an Austrian. His name was Gero Merhart von Bernegg7. First he was in a prison camp in Chita, then he was sent to a prison camp in Kansk. The acquaintance with the Kansk museum collections, finds of antiquities in the neighbourhood of the town aroused a desire to work in the Siberia archaeology field. However, there was no possibility for serious researches in Kansk. That’s why in 1919 Merhart writes a letter to A. Ya. Tugarinov and asks to give him a position in Krasnoyarsk museum. Since the 3rd of November he becomes its worker. He worked in Krasnoyarsk from 1919 till 1921. First he worked as a restore, then as the head of Ancient History department. Merhart takes an active part in putting in order, systematizing and restoring of museum archaeological collections. In spring and in summer of 1920 the researcher and his colleagues hold archaeological excursions in the neighbourhood of the town. As a result museum collections were expanded, new palaeolithic sites were discovered, significant observations were carried out (Makarov and others, 2005; Detlova, 2006, 2007). Merhart had close relations with Krasnoyarsk scientists during their joint work and after it. We should mention here G. P. Sosnovskii, a known soviet archaeologist. Sosnovskii worked as an assistant of Ancient History department and soon he became «a bright assistant in the field» for Merhart (Kuzminih and others, 2007). In 1920 the researchers hold a joint archaeological reconnaissance in the Middle Yenisei area (Vdovin and others, 2000). In autumn of 1920 G. P. Sosnovskii quits his job in museum and leaves for Irkutsk. That time there was the only department for training specialists-prehistorians in Siberia. This department was headed by B. E. Petri. Besides his classes in university Sosnovskii works as a curator in Irkutsk Lokal Lore Museum and in Irkutsk University Museum. He takes an active part in the work of Ethnology Circle. He also continues his communication with Merhart, he writes him in details about his life in Irkutsk, Irkutsk museums prehistoric collections, researches, which he carries out in Zabaikalie. Sosnovskii and Merhart’s correspondence continues even when the latter returns home. In the letters of 1923 till 1925 Sosnovskii describes in details his work, which he carries out in Priyeneseiskii krai. At that period his aspirations as he said himself «were concentrated on palaeolith»8. Later, the scientist’s interests are expanded he is also interested in ancient metal monuments. Through the young scientist letters we can see that his opinion on Priyeniseiskaya Siberia and Zabaikalie archaeology differs from B. E. Petri’s (he was Sosnovskii’s mentor in Irkutsk) opinion. Sosnovskii also criticizes the way Petri carries out excavations. Merhart stays the only authority and professional for Sosnovskii. Sosnovskii adopted Merhart’s excavations methods of European school and European level, scrupulosity in describing monuments. Austrian’s good relations and moral support were very important for Sosnovskii, as he was a beginner. Later on Merhart continues to interest in Sosnovskii’s fortune. Through Sosnovskii’s letters and correspondence with other colleagues Merhart learns about his former assistant’s success and follows Sosnovskii’s scientific career. Merhart tries to organize Sosnovskii’s travel abroad, where there are possibilities and conditions for continuing education under the leadership of best Europe archaeologists. Sosnovskii stays for – 339 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations Merhart the most accurate and active Russian correspondent during the next decade. Their correspondence that is kept in Merhart’s Marburg archive, counts 17 letters. But these are not all the letters. We can affirm that this correspondence was much more intensive. We know this through some facts from the letters mentioned above. Sosnovskii’s last letter, to be exact a postscript to a collective letter, to Merhart dated 1926. Probably, the scientists’ correspondence breaks off in the beginning of 1930’s, when Merhart parts Sosnovskii and other Russian colleagues because of fortune and policy9. Merhart also corresponded with G. P. Sosnovskii’s comrade, N. K. Auerbach (Auerbach and Sosnovskii took part in excavations of Krasnoyarskii krai archaeological monuments). After graduating from Moscow Archaeological Institute and from Moscow State University, Auerbach returns to Krasnoyarsk and in 1918 he becomes a museum worker. When there were job cuts in Yeniseiskaya guberniya institutions after the end of the civil war, N. K. Auerbach works voluntarily as the head of Archaeological department. Auerbach’s 6 letters are kept in Merhart’s private archive in Marburg. In the 1st letter of the 24th of March, 1925 Auerbach suggests corresponding regularly because this will be mutually beneficial. Krasnoyarsk archaeologists were interested in getting information about foreign science novelties and they promised to inform about new monuments, achievements and Siberian archaeologists’ work. It was also important for Merhart’s future researches. It allowed Merhart to be well informed and work successfully in the Russian science field. These years Krasnoyarsk archaeologists pay great attention to the excavations on the Afontova hill. According to their words if they get «new materials» from there that «will let them finish a preliminary scheme of palaeolith development in the Yenisei area»10. Researches are continued there from 1923 till 1926 and later. Excavations results were finds of thousands of palaeolithic tools and rich bone materials (numerous fauna remains and the first find of palaeolithic man’s bones in Russia). The results of researches were published in special information bulletins, some of which were sent to Merhart. Not only the Afontova hill attracts Siberian archaeologists these years. In the letters of 1925 till 1926 Auerbach tells Merhart about his intention to continue his work in the neighbourhood of Krasnoyarsk. In the letter of the 24th of March, 1925 he says, «This year we have got money for continuing excavations of the Afontova hill and for systematic reconnaissance of sites near the town. These sites are Kirpichnii sarai, Voyennii Gorodok and Pereselencheskii point. Besides, we are going to reconnoitre in Zikovo, Batoye, Dolgovo and Kubekovo. In summer an instrumental survey of Pereselencheskii point and Kirpichnii sarai will be carried out. After these we are going to carry out excavations near Biryusinskaya site. By autumn we are going to reconnoitre in Minusinskii uyezd and in Achinskii uyezd. So, you see, doctor, our plans correspond to your wishes11». This extensive program was put into practice by Auerbach and his colleagues. At the same time great excavations were carried out in Biryusinskaya site (there are a lot of strata there). According to the report about museum work from 1926 till 1927 in the Biryusa area «about 100 m2 of the site were excavated. The collected material appeared to be absolutely new in its scientific significance speaking about the age of palaeolithic and neolithic sites of this territory12». In the south of the territory, sites of different eras («which Sosnovskii and Merhart visited in 1920») were again researched by Sosnovskii (Makarov, 1989: 47). New palaeolithic sites were discovered near the Kokorevo village. Excavations of graves of – 340 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations Andronovskaya, Karasukskaya, Afanasiefskaya cultures were carried out near the Orak ulus. Excavations of Tagarsk gravel hills were carried out near the Novoselovo village. Excavations of the gravel hill with iron things finds were carried out near the Kokorevo village. «Significant material was got»13. However, there are great difficulties at this period. First of all, Siberian scientists don’t have much information and they know nothing about the world science achievements. In his letters Auerbach complains, that there is almost no literature on archaeology. He asks Merhart to help them to get major works that they extremely need, «We terribly need a new textbook, e. g. the Dechelette14, to understand palaeolithic tools terminology and a new report about palaeolithic loessial site excavations. The last report is very important for us to learn new foreign methods of excavations and methods of publication»15. Krasnoyarsk scientists got this text book and probably some others. Auerbach is very thankful to Merhart for this. Krasnoyarsk scientists and Merhart exchange specialized literature on archaeology. Merhart sends world editions as well as his own works (1923b, 1924a, 1924b, 1926) to the museum. As for Auerbach and Krasnoyarsk scientists, they supply their Austrian colleague with literary novelties, which are published in Siberia and in Russia these years. They send a few books and Auerbach explains, that there is a little publication in the country and of course in Siberia, «A few books are published, popular brochures are published, there are a few scientific articles»16. There is not only no possibility for publications in the country. There is also lack of research works financing, lack of professional staff in Siberia, lack of conditions for training specialists-prehistorians, numerous life problems. In his letters, Auerbach expresses regret, «You’ve written, doctor, we are near the archaeological material of international significance. That’s right, of course. But this international significance can’t help us to work and publish. You see, doctor, we spent 75 % of the time on excavations, but the Germans would spent only 5 % of this time on excavations. That’s why, doctor, we need your unfailing desire to help us! We need this help. There is no literature, no literature at all»17. A lot of prehistorians have to combine research activity and work that isn’t connected with their profession. They have to work in the institutions that are not connected with science. Some have to work with ancient history as a member of part-time staff and that is unpaid. That happened also to Auerbach. He is not paid for his scientific researches, services and huge work carried out in the museum. He earned his living lecturing at the Polytechnic school. That’s why moral support from foreign colleagues was very important for Siberian scientists. «Your letters cheer us up. Your attention makes us forget archaeological loneliness in Siberia, here it is so difficult to work for science far away from scientific centeres»18. Moral support is not everything that Merhart gives to Siberian archaeologists. He acts and that is more important. He repeatedly suggests acting as an intermediary between the Russian colleagues and foreign institutions, press organs. He helps to disseminate and publish Siberian materials abroad, in particular he assists in «distribution of the report of 1923»19 and that’s not all. In the letters of 1926 Auerbach and Merhart discuss possible publication of Afontova hill excavations report in Europe. During 1926 Auerbach and his colleagues prepare a report and some materials (results of bones, wood, rocks analyses; negatives of the finds, photos, sketches). They want «to make the report more complete as foreign science requires it»20. However, the Krasnoyarsk archaeologists didn’t manage to publish it abroad. The Society of Siberia productive forces study, which gave money for excavations on the Afontova hill, – 341 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations «laid down a condition that the report had to be published in Russia»21. However, N. K. Auerbach took the opportunity. He published the review on Siberia archaeology «Archäologische Forschungen in Sibirien 1917-1928» in a German magazine of 1930, this magazine was called «Slavische Rundschau» (Azadovskii, 1937). In their correspondence, Merhart and Auerbach pay great attention not only to professional issues but to life themes also. For many years after returning home Merhart representative of Krasnoyarsk archaeologists had to apologize to Merhart. But he found himself in a difficult situation because V. A. Gorodtsov was his teacher. Auerbach respected him and was devoted to him. Nevertheless, he manages to admit his teacher’s injustice and discourteous behaviour. He tries to soften the situation and reconcile them. «All museum workers are sorry that they did nothing when Gorodtsov said such things about you on 30-VIII 1924. It happened because of the difference of the state of mind between the Russians and foreigners. The Russians often say had a great interest in Siberia. In his letters to Krasnoyarsk scientists he constantly asks about their success, sends his regards to them. Auerbach tells him about museum work at that period, about changes in Krasnoyarsk people lives. Speaking about Merhart and Siberian scientists, we should mention, that not always they had mutual understanding. The conflict of 1924 between the Austrian scientist and the head of Moscow archaeologists, V. A. Gorodtsov is mentioned in Merhart and Auerbach’s correspondence. In summer of 1924 V. A. Gorodtsov went for a trip to Siberia. His aim was to get acquainted with Siberian museums archaeological collections and with Siberian archaeology in general (Vdovin, 2008). In his report about the results of his trip Gorodtsov ventured a remark on the Austrian colleague and called into question his professional competence. It happened at joint meeting board of Priyeniseiskii krai museum and Krasnoyarsk department of RGO on the 31st of August. When Merhart learnt about this, it offended him. It offended him as a scientist and as a man. Merhart demanded explanations and excuses from Gorodtsov. He also demanded that Russian colleagues had to sort out the situation. He sent an angry letter to Krasnoyarsk museum workers. In this letter he reproached them for inaction and for the behaviour, which didn’t deserve his colleagues’ behaviour. Auerbach as a words and pay no attention to them. The Russians listen to these words and don’t understand them as foreigners do. The Russians know that these are only «words». I think Gorodtsov didn’t want to offend you. The museum workers still remember you as a careful, voracious and devoted to science scientist. You will get an official opinion of Geographical society»22. However, this incident didn’t influence the Austrian scientist and his Siberian colleagues’ communication. The Second World War, that divided Russia and Germany, also didn’t influence Merhart’s attitude to the country and people, who he reflected with love and respect. (Merhart, 1958, Merhart, 1959; Kuzminih and others, 2007). Merhart’s main services to world science are the fact that Siberian archaeology information has become known in Europe. Western scientists knew a lot about Greece, Rome, Egypt, Asia Minor cultures and nothing about Russian and especially Siberian ancient history. Concerning Siberia the Afontova hill finds are often mentioned in European literature. It is mentioned speaking about palaeolith or «chudskii pits» of Minusinsk hollow and these are later eras. After Merhart’s returning home and after publishing of his works on Siberia ancient history everything changes a little bit. His works are used and quoted by the famous Siberian prehistorians of Europe, Obermeier (Obermeier, 1928, 57), Tallgren (Tallgren, 1928, 71) and – 342 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations others. Thus, Merhart and his researches help not only, as Auerbach said, Siberian «amateurs to be close to foreign science»23. They help also foreign archaeologists to be close to Russian science. There is no doubt that Gero Merhart’s work was and stays a rare case, when a West European scientist devotes himself to Siberian archaeology. It is also an example when the foreign scientist and Krasnoyarsk archaeologists and museum workers collaborate fruitfully for a long time. This fact is confirmed with datum of reports on museum work in the next years. In the report of 1927 till 1928 it is with the Finnish scientist. After N. K. Auerbach’s departure to Novosibirsk in 1926 V. G. Kartsov headed the Krasnoyarsk museum Archaeological department. In his letter V. G. Kartsov asks to help him in getting Tallgren’s book on the Ananian culture28. He tells, «I will be glad to be useful to you. If there is any information on works, materials, Krasnoyarsk museum and its okrug collections, that you are interested in, I will give you it»29. From 1920’s till 1930’s a new point between Russia and foreign countries started in the said, that «the museum has no direct relations with foreign institutions. There are relations with some European scientists (doctor Merhart). Merhart has published several works on Krasnoyarskii krai archaeology in English (in America) and in German (in Vienna). This report was based on the Museum material»24. In the Siberian Lights magazine Auerbach and Sosnovskii published their review «New foreign literature on Siberia prehistory» of Merhart’s works (Auerbach and Sosnovskii, 1925). In the Priyeniseiskii krai Municipal Museum report of 1929-1930 it is said «relations with foreign scientists were kept up with correspondence of Tallgren (Finland), Minns (England) and professor Tranin (France) (he had visited our museum)»25. Among the scientists mentioned above Tallgren continues the most active correspondence with Siberian archaeologists. In one of his letter he suggests Auerbach giving the report about the excavations of 1923 on the Afontova hill to a delegate «from Russian scientific societies to the international congress in Denmark and making a report about your excavations»26. Giving a preliminary consent to publication Auerbach suggests foreign colleagues exchanging literature. He also asks Tallgren «to send him cards models of Archaeological department of your museum catalogue»27. Other young archaeologists (V. P. Levasheva and V. G. Kartsov) also continue correspondence archaeology field. Siberia Study Society (SSS) and state office Novoexport organize excavations in Siberia and sale, of the materials got, abroad. A lot of famous scientists, who worked in Siberia, took parts in collecting materials for Novoexport. They were V. G. Kartsov and V. P. Levasheva (in Minusinskii krai), S. M. Sergeev (in Altai), V. I. Podgorbunskii30 (in the Angara area), I. M. Myagkov31 (in Narimskii krai). The palaeonthologic material processing was carried out by V. I. Gromov. The anthropological material processing was carried out by M. P. Gryaznov. The collection on the Stone Age was made by N. K. Auerbach (Vdovin and others, 2001). In 1930 N. K. Auerbach collected more than 20 addresses of foreign archaeologists, he sent them offers on archaeological collections purchases. Rough copies of the letters to foreign researches are kept in the scientist’s archive. These letters were addressed to G. Merhart, H. Findeisen (Berlin), V. Ya.Tolmachev (Harbin – Tariff – Model Museum of Eastern Chinese railway), A. M. Tallgren (Helsingfors). Probably N. K. Auerbach wanted to write letters to T. Arne (Stockholm) and de Baye (Paris), whose addresses V. A. Gorodtsov gave him32. The texts of the letters are similar, there are only some additions. For example, in his letter to G. Merhart N. K. Auerbach suggests him excavating any part on the Afontova hill. «I can organize excavations – 343 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations of the Afontova III (Neftesklad). It is 40 meters of site area. I can enlist Sosnovskii and Gromov for this work. We also can gather collections on the Neolithic Age»33. What happened to archaeological collections that were got during the expeditions for Novoexport is unknown yet. The interest to archaeological monuments from the Yenisei area was shown not only with buying collections for museums. From foreign countries (the USA and Japan) in 1930’s there were suggestions and inquiries about carrying out archaeological monuments excavations, first of all in Minusinskii Krai. Political situation, which was in the world, was not favourable to strengthening and expansion of international contacts. At that period Soviet Russia starts restricting Soviet archaeologists and their foreign colleagues’ contacts, by the middle of 1930’s contacts with foreign scientists are stopped entirely. The difference of political regime and ideologies became an insuperable obstacle to contacts between Soviet and «bourgeois» scientists. Foreign scientists couldn’t go to the most part of Russia, including Krasnoyarsk, until the Iron Curtain fell. According to a famous archaeologist Hermann Müller-Karpe (he was one of Gero Merhart’s students), neither he nor other Merhart’s students (who inherited interest in Russian archaeology and readiness for joint work with Russian colleagues) did not manage to get a visa for the USSR. However, they still had this desire to work in this Siberia archaeology field. Eurasian department was founded at Germanic archaeological institution by their efforts. Study of Siberia and Central Asia was one of the most important subjects there. International collaboration of Krasnoyarsk and foreign archaeologists was resumed at the Postperestroika period, when Siberia and Krasnoyarsk had become permitted for foreigners’ visits. There was experience of successful expeditions of German scientists, German scientists’ long work in the south of Krasnoyarskii krai, fruitful collaboration of Krasnoyarsk archaeologists (who studied palaeolith) with scientific-research and educational institutions of the USA, Canada, Great Britain, France, Japan, South Korea and other countries. Conclusions During the three centuries the foreign archaeologists give their attention to the richest in the archaeological attitude region. Their expeditions have allowed greatly to enlarge the amount of the sources on siberian archeology, and their collections became a basis of many special works. Herewith, the european science had influenced vastly on the formation of local scientific centres, incli\uding Krasnoyarsk, at the end of the 19th – beginning of 20th centuries. Now the foreign scientists have interest in region archaeological researches, a number of projects was carried out, there are wide plans for the future. Taking into consideration everything mentioned above, we can affirm that history of international relations in the archaeology field in Krasnoyarsk will continue. References M. Azadovskii, «N. K. Auerbach», Soviet Asia, books 1-2 (Moscow, 1931, 293-295). N. K. Auerbach, G. P. Sosnovskii, «New foreign literature on Siberia prehistory», the Siberian Lights magazine, issue 2 (Novonikolaevsk, 1925, 266-267). N. K. Auerbach, «The first period of I. T. Savenkov’s archaeological work», Annals of State Museum named after N. M. Martyanov, volume VI (Minusinsk: State Museum named after N. M. Martyanov, 1928, 163-185) – 344 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations Yu. G. Belokobilskii, The Bronze and the early Iron Ages of South Siberia: the history of ideas and researches XVIII – first thirds of XX centuries (Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986) A. Yu. Borisenko, Yu. S. Hudyakov, The study of South Siberia antiquities by German scientists XVIII-XIX (Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk University, 2005) A. S. Vdovin, «The history of organization of the archaeological researches in the Priyeniseiskaya Siberia area (XIX – the end of 1920’s)», Candidate’s (of history science) abstract of dissertation (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 1999) A. S. Vdovin, N. P. Gulyaeva, «Work of Novoexport in Siberia», Materials of the scientificpractical conference «The problems of fighting against illegal excavations and illegal sale of the archaeology, mineralogy and palaeontology things» (Krasnoyarsk, 2001, 26-28) A. S. Vdovin, N. P. Gulyaeva, N. P. Makarov, «In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of G. P. Sosnovskii. The beginning of scientific work (1918-1920)», The 5th historical reading in memory of Mihail Petrovich Gryaznov, theses of All-Russian scientific conference reports (Omsk, 19th-20th of October, 2000) (Omsk: Omsk State University, 2000, 26-27) Ye. V. Detlova, N. P. Makarov, A. Erenfried, «G. Merhart and Krasnoyarsk museum» Archaeology of South Siberia: ideas, methods, discoveries (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 2005, 268-270) Ye. V. Detlova, «Gero von Merhart and Russian archaeology: the new in the researches» Modern problems of Russia archaeology: The materials of All-Russian archaeological congress, volume 2, (Novosibirsk: IAiE SO RAN, 2007) Ye. V. Detlova, «Gero von Merhart’s letters to Krasnoyarsk museum», Yeniseiskaya province, issue 3 (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 2007, 76-87) L. Yu. Kitova, Siberian archaeology history (1920’s-1930’s): The study of monuments of the Iron Age (Novosibirsk: Publishing house IAiE SO RAN, 2007) S. V.Kuzminih, Ye. V. Detlova, T. Salminen, «Gero von Merhart and his last recollection about Siberia», Archaeological materials and researches of North Asia of ancient times and of the Middle Ages (Tomsk: Tomsk State University, 2007, 160-174) N. P. Makarov, «About the history of study and exhibition of archaeological collections», The asceticism Age (Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk book publishing house, 1989, 131 -189). N. P. Makarov, A. S. Vdovin, N. P. Tcherbakova, «N. K. Auerbach as an archaeologist», The 3th historical reading in memory of Mihail Petrovich Gryaznov, part I (Omsk, 1995, 57-61) V. I. Matyutchenko, Siberian archaeology is 300, volume I (Omsk: Omsk State university, 2001) H. Obermeier, «A prehistoric man», A man in his past and in his present, (St.Petersburg: Brokgauz – Efron, 1913) N. A. Orehova, «Le Baron de Baye: Siberian track», Yeniseiskaya province, anthology, issue 1 (Krasnoyarsk, 2004, 60-66) I. T. Savenkov, «About remains of the Neolithic Age, that were found in Yeniseiskaya guberniya (Eastern Siberia), on the bank of Yenisei, near the mouths of the Bazaiha and the Chadobets (A preliminary report) (the translation from English by N. A. Orehova)», Priyeniseiskaya Siberia antiquities, issue 2, (Krasnoyarsk: RIO KGPU, 2003, 87-90) Siberia from the news of foreign travelers and writers, edited by M. P. Alekseev (Irkutsk: Irkutsk regional publish house, 1941). – 345 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations P. Uino, «Finnish archaeologists’ researches in the territory of Minusinsk in the XIX till the beginning of the XX», Martyanov’s local lore readings (2003-2004), the collection of reports, issue 3 (Minusinsk: Minusinsk Regional Local Lore Museum named after N. M. Martyanov, 2005, 80-83) L. B. Us, Siberia international scientific contacts (the end of XIX – the beginning of XX), (Novosibirsk: Sova, 2005) Le Baron de Baye, De Moscou a Krannonarsk. Souvenirs d’une mission. Exsrait de la Revue de guographie (Paris, 1987, p 38-52) J. Dechelette, Manuel d’archeologie prehistorique et gallo-romaine (Paris: A. Picard et fills, 1908-1914, 2 tomes en 6 vol.) G. Merhart, «The palaeolithic period in Siberia: Contributions to the prehistory of the Jenissei region», American Anthropologist, vol.25 (USA: American Anthropological Association, 1923, 23-55) G. Merhart, Beiträge zur Urgeschichte der Jenissei-Gubernie. Bericht über die Öffnung yweier Kurgane in der Abakansteppe (Helsingfors: Finska Fornminnesför, 1923, Tidskiftg 34, 1) G. Merhart, Beiträge II. Die Gruppe der Kurgane mit Platten – Einzelngrab (Helsingfors: Finska Fornminnesför, 1924, Tidskiftg 35, 2) G. Merhart, Neuere Literatur über die Steinzeit Sibiriens (Wien: Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift, 1924, 11, 139-148) G. Merhart, Bronzeit am Jenissei. Ein Beitrag zur Urgeschichte Sibiriens (Wien: Verlag von Anton Schroll, 1926) G. Merhart, «Einige Errinerungen an Sibirien«, Palaeologia, (Osaka, 1958, 227-229) G. Merhart, Daljoko: Bilder aus sibirischen Arbeitstagen (Innsburg: Privatdruck, 1959) H. Obermeier, Sibirien A: Paläolithikum, Reallexikon für Urgeschichte (Berlin: Verlag von Max Ebert, 1928, 55-57) A. M. Tallgren, L’epoque d’Ananino dans la Rssie orientale, vol. 31 (Helsingfors: SMYA, 1919) A. M. Tallgren, Sibirien C: Paläolithikum, Reallexikon für Urgeschichte (Berlin: Verlag von Max Ebert, 1928, 70-71) H. Parzinger, Die frühen Völker Eurasiens vom Neolithikum bis zum Mittelalter (München: Verlag von C. H. Beck, 2006) T. Salminen, Suomen tieteelliset voittomaat. Venäjä ja Siperia suomalaisessa arkeologiassa 1870-1935, vol.110 (Helsinki: SMYA, 2003) Sources Abbreviations: AAAKK – Archival Agency of Krasnoyarskii krai Administration; AKKKM – Krasnoyarsk Local Lore Museum Archive; AMU – Marburg University Archive; AIAiE SO RAN – Archive of Archaeology and Ethnology Institution of siberian department of Russian Science Academy; SSS – Siberia Study Society; ROBHU – Manuscript department of Helsinki University library; RGO – Russian Geographical Society; – 346 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations KGPU – Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University SMYA – Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakauskirja. Helsinki. 1. By mistake H. Obermeier ascribes the Afontov palaeolith discovery to de Baye and F. K. Volkov. This site is believed to date from the Mousterian Age that means he considers it to be much earlier than it is. (Obermeier, 1913). 2. Aarne Michael Tallgren (1885-1945) is a Finnish archaeologist, professor at the universities of Derpt (Tartu) and Helsinki. He is an author of numerous works on the Cooper and Bronze Ages of the north and eastern parts of Siberia. But the main interest of this scientist was concentrated in the field of east-russian Bronze Ages. 3. ROBHU, the collection 230-9 // The correspondence of A. M. Tallgren with Russian scientists. We thank S. V. Kuzminih (IA RAN, Moscow) for the given materials. 4. In 1920 it was given to Krasnoyarsk museum, collection №131. 5. ROBHU, the collection 230-9// The correspondence of A. M. Tallgren with Russian scientists. 6. AAAKK, f.1380, l.1, d. 11, p 2. 7. Gero Merhart von Bernegg (1886-1959) is a famous European scientist, the first ordinary professor of Germany primitive history, an author of Siberia archaeology publications. 8. Here and further – quotations from the letters of Merhart’s private archive at Marburg University [Archiv des Vorgeschichtlichen Seminars der Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Nachlass G. v. Merhart]. We thank the dean of prehistorical seminar of Marburg University, professor Claus Dobiat, for the given materials. AMU G. v. Merhart // G. N. Sosnovskii’s letter to G. Merhart of 22nd of May, 1921. 9. Sosnovskii and Merhart’s correspondence will be analyzed in details in another article. 10. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925. 11. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925. 12. AKKKM f.1608, 1, d. 365. 13. AKKKM f.1608, 1, d. 365. 14. Dechelette, 1908-1914. 15. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925. 16. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925. 17. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925. 18. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925. 19. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925. 20. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1926. 21. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 9th of September, 1925. 22. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 4th of May, 1925. 23. AMU G. v. Merhart // N. K. Auerbach’s letter to G. Merhart of 24th of March, 1925. 24. AKKKM f.1609,1, d. 366. 25. AKKKM f.1611, 1, d. 368. 26. Archive of IAE SO RAN, N. K. Auerbach’s fund, without number. 27. ROBHU, the collection 230-9 // Tallgren’s correspondence with Russian scientists. 28. Tallgren, 1919. 29. ROBHU, the collection 230-9 // Tallgren’s correspondence with Russian scientists. – 347 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolai P. Makarov, Aleksandr S. Vdovin… About the History of Krasnoyarsk Archaeologists’ International Relations 30. Corroboration of archaeological works is not found yet in the documents. 31. Corroboration of archaeological works is not found yet in the documents. 32. AIAiE SO RAN, N. K. Auerbach’s fund // V. A. Gorodtsov’s letter to N. K. Auerbach of 22nd of November, 1930. 33. AIAiE SO RAN, N. K. Auerbach’s fund // V. A. Gorodtsov’s letter to G. Merhart of March, 1930. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 349-360 ~~~ УДК 902 (571.1/5) Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture Pavel V. Mandryka* and Polina O. Senotrusova Siberian Federal University 79, Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 The article carries in scientific turn information about history and culture of medieval tribes of Krasnoyarsk forest steppe which was received in the course of field work in 2008. Authors characterize the results, define cultural and chronological attribute of materials, and reconstruct aspects of economic life of population of ladeyskaya culture. Keywords: archaeology, Siberia, Krasnoyarsk forest steppe, Middle Ages, fort, ladeyskaya culture, economy. Introduction Insufficiency of writing and ethnographic materials about medieval history of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe does not allow reconstructing ethnic and cultural processes which happened on this territory without attraction of archaeological sources. For the region little number of archaeological sites with closed complexes is known. It is explained by both specific of soil accumulation in the area, absence of special investigations of medieval sites and destruction of known objects (for example, Ladeyskoye, Yermolayevskoye, Yesaulskoye forts and others). By this reason many problems of medieval archaeology of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe stay unsolved including the problem of distinguishing of ladeyskaya culture which was put by V. G. Kartsov as far back as 1929 (Kartsov, 1929b). So discovery of each new medieval site containing closed complexes has important scientific significance. * 1 In the article new materials about ladeyskaya culture of medieval population of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe which was received for excavations of Pakul fort are carries in scientific turn. The fort was found by P. V. Mandryka and I. A. Lysenko in 20041. In 2006 reconnaissance works2 and in 2008 stationary excavations were made in the course of which 160 square meters were excavated3. Materials and methods The fort is situated on cape-shape remain of 9-11-metre terrace of left bank of Verhnyaya Podyemnaya river in 3 km to north-east of Pakul village of Bolshemurtinskiy district of Krasnoyarsk range. From northern side the fort is bordered by breakaway to the river and from the east and southern ones – by slope to flood plain (Fig. 1). From western side the cape unites with fundamental bank and its surface fluently rises to 16 meters. Here after the war state farm dug two deep trenches for cattle crossing that let to destruction of part of fort defensive system. Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 349 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture Fig. 1. Topographical plan of Pakul fort with indication of archaeological excavations However from terrace side in 25 meters from cape edge earth bank 25 meters by the length, 0,4 meters by the high, 0,3 meters by the depth has been fixed. The bank width has not been fixed because of destruction. General number of defensive lines of the fort also has not been defined; it is possible they had been two. General size of the fort is 25x23 meters; its square is 575 square meters. Five dwelling’s pits have been tracked visually on work platform. They are situated along terrace edges by two lines. Two pits have been marked in northern line; three ones have been marked in southern line. All pits have rectangular form with sizes of 3,0-4,0x5,0 meters and 0,1-0,25 meters by high. Central part of fortification construction and northeast third part of internal fort square where dwelling N2 had been situated were studied with excavations. Two cultural layers were revealed in result of works. There were medieval materials of the fort in the first layer. They were found in darkgrey sandy loam under the sod. The second cultural layer was fixed in contact of dark and light sandy loam. It contained finds which beforehand have been referred to Nizhneporozhinskaya culture of Early Iron Age (Mandryka, 2008a:163). Results Defensive construction of the fort is deformed bank and ditch. A depth of the ditch was about 1,4 meter. It was filled mixed soil with loam. The bank consisted mixed sandy loam (Fig. 2). Its width was about 3 meters and high was about to 0,4 meters. Small oval pit N 1 with 18x30 cm by size and 10 cm by depth was fixed on western side of bank from side of ditch. Dust of sloping wood with 15 cm by diameter saved in center of the pit which was filled friable darkbrown sandy loam with inclusion of charcoal and pieces of burnt clay. Foundation of wood – 350 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 2. Plan and section of excavated part of fortification system of Pakul fort. Figures on profile mark: 1 – sod, 2 – mixed sandy loam, 3 – dark sandy loam, 4 – light sandy loam, 5 – annealed red soil, 6 – sand, 7 – loam Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture column which had been dug in pit of 25 cm by diameter and 50 cm by depth with even bottom was cleared on ridge of the bank among separate charcoals and pieces of clay. Wood column of 1215 cm by diameter saved in center of the pit on all its depth. The pit was filled mixed light sand. Big number of finds was fixed in foundation of the bank along all its excavated length. Moreover they lay in spot of annealed soil of dark and red color. Western border of finds concourse was sharp. Burnt wood boards standing on ribs were marked there. Length of saved wood fragments was from 10 to 60 cm. Pit with rammed on depth of 15 cm column with 12 cm by diameter was also fixed there. Fragments of split and burnt bones of large domestic animals, fragments of ceramics without ornament, fragments of birch bark were met there. Probably these artifacts are indicative as rubbish which had been thrown out under the fort wall. Therefore cape fort Pakul from terrace side had been defended by bank and ditch. Small high of the bank and fragments of wood columns on its ridge allow confirming about existence of system of fortification and logs which had been main element of defense. It is impossible to talk about wall construction exactly, but probably it had been palling (Mandrika P. V., Senotrusova P. O., 2007:208). However it is impossible to exclude existence of two lines of defense as it was noted on Ladeyskoye fort (Kartsov, 1929). The dwelling was remains of deepened pit of sub-rectangular shape 3,8x3,5 by size that corresponds to square about 13 square meters. Walls of the building had been orientated on cardinal points. Depth of the pit was 0,3 meter. Floor of the dwelling was revealed on even bottom of the pit according to density of soil and level of lying of finds and hearth. Entry to the dwelling was not defined. Probably it was on the ground and had been made in passage of wall through threshold. Column pits and remains of wood overlapping also were not fixed. Ground from the pit in time of its digging had been thrown out to different sides behind dwelling perimeter by ancient builders. Field observations shown perhaps roofing had leaned on horizontal lying logs as it had been in felling. Lower ends of the felling had been poured with soil. The hearth was round shape 50x50 cm by size. It situated on ground bottom of the pit. Comparatively dwelling walls it had been displaced from center to north. In section the hearth was lens of annealed soil to 3 cm by thickness. Filling of the hearth was dark-grey sandy loam with inclusion of small charcoals, annealed clay and burnt bones. Small fragments of burnt bones and iron peg of 1.1x0.4x0.1 cm by size probably fragments of awl were found for washing of soil from the hearth. 16 fragments of ceramics without ornament which was similar to rest ware found on the site and iron arrowhead were fixed in the dwelling. The sub-rhombus shape arrowhead was flat. It had been chopped of iron list. The sharpest edge of form had been shaft. It saved torn outlines. The edge of feather had been sharpened because of forging. Sizes of the arrowhead are 1.2x4.8x0.1 cm (Fig. 4 d). Fragments of bones of roe deer and large ungulate animal (horse?) and some small pebbles among which certain ones had been split by fire were also noted in the dwelling. Small round pebble 2.4x2.1x0.5 cm by size could be used as tool (Fig. 4 m). Whole perimeter of the stone has traces of intensive polishing which could form in result of using it as polisher. There were more finds behind the dwelling on level of cultural layer (Fig. 3). They are compared with artifacts from the dwelling well. Two surges from the hearth which were noted on annealed soil were also fixed there. The surge N 1 was fixed in east part of excavation, to the north from dwelling N 5 – 352 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 3. Plan of the finds of the layer on excavated part of internal square of Pakul fort Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture Fig. 4. Finds from Pakul fort: a-d – fragments of ceramics; e, f – iron arrowheads; g, h – iron implements; i, j, l, m – tools for hide treatment; k – steel where probably it had derived from. Size of oval annealed spot was 45x30 cm. Its section was lensshape about 7 cm by thickness. Filling was lumpy. It consisted of red-brown loam with inclusion orange and light-brown spots, small burnt bones and charcoals. Small fragment of some iron item 2.0x0.4x0.2 cm by size was found among small burnt fragments undeterminable bones for washing of the filling. The surge N 2 was cleared near south-east corner of dwelling N 2. It was round form 80x75 cm by size. Thickness of annealed lens was about 15 cm. Pieces of burnt clay and small charcoals were noted in lens-shape sandy loam filling of red and brown color. Iron implements were noted in the layer. One of them was small peg 6.1x0.5x0.3 cm by size perhaps fragment of awl. The implement had been heavily corroded but its square section was defined (Fig. 4 g). Iron plate with raised plane also has unknown function. Its size is 10.8x2.8x0.6 cm (Fig. 4 h). Arrowhead with flat feather of asymmetrical triangular shape and with broken of end is interesting. Shaft is separated from the feather by three small ledge-thorns. End of the shaft is bended a little. Edges of the shaft had not been treated and saved torn outlines of chopping from list. Plane of feather is smooth, edges had been sharpened. Size of the implement is 5.1x1.5x0.2 cm (Fig. 4 e). Ceramic of the layer is presented by 124 fragments. Majority of them (81 %) is without ornament. Found 10 fragments of rims demonstrate 4 vessels. They had been modeled by hand. Sand and grog had been in dough. Traces of rubbing with grass are noticeable on external surface of few vessels. Ware had been burnt on fire in oxidizing ambience. Ceramic is thick, brown. Sometimes black layer is defined in break-in. Form of the vessels is closed. Body is wide. Bottom according to some fragments had been round. Edges of rims are straight, round or cocked outward. Certainly its plane had been decorated with notches, nail pricks or finger pressing. Shoulder of the vessels also had been decorated mainly horizontal rows of rare finger pressing inside of which nail print had been made (Fig. 4 a-d). Hypothetically diameter of the vessels had not been more than 22 cm. – 354 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture 30 small fragments of clay daub to 3.5x3.2x2.0 cm by size were found in the excavation. And 15 pieces have traces of slag. Their sizes are to 3.7x2.5x0.9 cm. In one case they lay in one place perhaps they were remains of part of clay wall of oven for melting of iron. Stone tools of the layer are divided in two categories: for hide treatment and metal treatment. Three oval flat pebble without additional treatment fall into first group. Their sizes are 4.0x3.8x0.8 cm, 2.8x4.5x0.4 cm and 5.6x3.6x0.4 cm (Fig. 4 i, j, l). Tracological analysis shown fragments of large ungulate animal (perhaps horse) also were found in the layer. Similar set of bones remains was found in the dwelling (general number is 194). Majority of them had belonged to roe deer (166 fragments, minimum of two specimens) and 15 bones perhaps had been sheep’s. Typical percent correlation of animals bones from whole site is presented in the Fig. 5. they had been used as polishers for hide treatment (Mandryka et al., 2009). Moreover rectangular steel fragment of small grainsize sandstone of 3.5x2.7x1.2 cm by size was found in fort layer (Fig. 4 k). It saved traces of intensive use-ware. Three saved edge had been wiped very much, have a lot of furrows and scratches. Probably it had been used for sharpening and repairing of blade of cutting metallic implements. Both planes of the stone saved traces of typical polishing and could be used as abrasive for polishing of planes of metallic implements. Traces of polishing on metallic arrowhead found in the dwelling obliquely show on it. Osteological collection demonstrates presence of broken bones of domestic and wild animals. Bones lay in each square of the excavation. They were found in layer and on floor of the dwelling. Herewith set of them did not differ from one fixed behind the dwelling that is in cultural layer of the fort. Absolute majority of bones fragments from the layer had belonged to wild animals. There had been roe deer (713 fragments of tubular bones, skulls, teeth of no less than two specimens), beaver (1 bone), and water-vole (fragments of skull) among them. Bone remains of domestic animals had fallen into horse (22 fragments of tubular bones and teeth of no less than two specimens – old and young) and sheep (2 teeth). 64 bones materials. As a whole artifacts which would allow dating the fort was not found. But analysis of all available data and radiocarbon dating allow to determinate time of fort existence within IX-XIII centuries. Stratigraphical location of the layer in 1015 cm lower than ground surface shows on it. Presence of flat arrowheads made of sheet iron analogues of which are found in taiga of West Siberia on sites from end of the first millennium A. D. to ethnographic modernity does not contradict such dating (Solovyev, 1987:38). It is known that Selkups have closest arrowheads but larger sizes (Gumuyev et al., 1989: 53). Radiocarbon date which was received with wood from column from the fort bank, 990±80 (SBAS-6786) confirms the age of the fort. It shows that true calendar age after calibration lies within 892-1218. Cultural attribute of the fort is defined by ceramics since available subject set had been wide-spread in ambience of medieval population of forest-steppe and taiga regions. Ceramics of the fort finds close analogues with materials of Ladeyskaya culture (VII-XIV centuries) in which V. G. Kartsov included Ladeyskoye, Yermolayevskoye and Achinskoye forts (Kartsov, 1928:562). Exactly ceramics from these sites became foundation for allocating the culture. According to works of V. G. Kartsov vessels of closed shape with grading neck dominated. Discussion Foundation for determination of cultural and chronological attribute is analysis of received – 355 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture racdeen 88 % large ugulate 6 % harse 2 % sheep 1,7 % beaver 0,1 % water vole 0,2 % undeternihable 2% Fig. 5. Typical percent correlation of animals bones which were found in Pakul fort Vessels had been decorated on edge of rim, neck and shoulders but no ornamented wares are known too. Main elements of ornament had been finger and nail pricks, prints of large-jagged comb, pit pressings and scratched lines4. Similar vessels with grading neck decorated with nail and finger pricks were fixed on other sites in Kracnoyarsk and Achinsk forest-steppe, for example, on settlement Ladeyskoye-2 (Mandryka, 1998:71), Karatanova street (Tarasov, Fokin, 2005:65), in Birusinskaya cave, on forts Simonovskoye, Berezovskoye and others (Belikova, 1996:132; Fokin, 2007). Analogues of such ware are known on sites adjacent territories on Kansk foreststeppe and Yenisey Priangarye. V. G. Kartsov considered characteristic type of sites of ladeyskaya culture in forest-steppe areas was settlement complexes including forts. He noted foundation of economy had been hunting on roe deer and pasture cattle breeding with small part of fishing. Iron, bone, antler and bronze had been used widely. Formation of the culture was involved by V. G. Kartsov with southern nomads (Kartsov, 1929b:46). Almost all scientists note significant influence of nomadic nations (kyrgyzs) on culture of aboriginal population of foreststeppe but degree and character of the influence are considered differently. So D. G. Savinov distinguished Krasnoyarsk and Kansk variant of culture of Yenisey kyrgyzs. Herewith penetration of southern nomads on territory of forest-steppe he referred to X century and imputed it to tuvinian population (Savinov, 1989:146). S. M. Fokin keeps other standpoint. He considers penetration of kyrgyzs to northern areas had begun from IX century (Fokin, 2007:145). By main marker of Kyrgyz presence in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe scientists consider existence of burials with rite of cremation, and also subjects of arms, horse harness and bronze facing of belts with plant ornament (Nikolaev, 1982). Unlike of this – 356 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture opinion S. G. Skobelev and O. A. Mitko consider it is possible to involve spreading of cremation not only with kyrgyz’s expansion but with participation of native population of forest-steppe in military campaigns of kyrgyzs as dependent tribes (Skobelev, Mitko, 2007:217). As a whole in Kyrgyz time change of ethnic situation in region had led to rise of military tension. In turn it had contributed of appearance of forts which there had not been on the territory. At present Pakul fort is one known fortification settlement which is situated not on Yenisey bank but on its tributary. Herewith layer of the fort contains pure complex of ladeyskaya culture. Taking into account small size of cultural layer it is possible to suggest the settlement had been seasonal or inhabited in small period of time. It should be noted some particularities of the material which define purpose and character of activity of fort inhabitants. By square the settlement had not been big. It had consisted of five dwellings to 13 square meters. Because of this it is possible to suggest number of its inhabitants had not exceeded 20 people. The place for building of the fort had been chosen very successfully: on the cape surrounded by steep lowering from three sides. Whole free from the forest open wide valley of the river had been looked through from the cape. The fort had been built by ladeysk people in encirclement of accustomed for them steppe space. It is possible to consider that situated on the most northern periphery of the culture area the fort had been outpost for defense of territories of encroachment of northern taiga neighbors. Arrowheads are interesting. They had been made carelessly as if it had been in a hurry. They had been cut of iron list and only feather that is their striking penetrating part had been treated. It can be explained that deficit of arrowheads had been experienced and insufficiency of arsenal had need its fast renewing in time of military actions. Way out had been found in making arm (arrowheads) of available materials which had become forged iron list. Flat arrowhead could be easily cut of it but hurry had not given time for correction the form and care of base polishing. The time had been only for sharpening of the feather and making sharp edges of penetrate part. Such arrowheads had been effective in hunting. In that case hurry of making arrowheads can be explained by short limited periods of hunting, for example, in the period of roe deer migration when hunting on it had been more effective. Hunting of roe deer had occupied significant place in life of the fort population. Prevalence of bones of that animal on the site is shown it. It is explained roe deer had been not only wide-spread wild ungulate animal but the most convenient object of hunting. According to data of zoologists round-up hunting in which not less than ten hunters take part is the most effective way of roe deer catching (Timofeeva, 1985:204). It is confirmed by ethnographic materials where round-up hunting of kachints, sagayts and beltir was shown. In result to 100 specimens it could be killed. Moreover such hunting could last for 3-4 weeks (Potapov, 1957:186). It is important to notice that roe deer had played big role in life of native population of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in all times up to ethnographical modernity. Kachints had had special arrows with iron head of chisel-shape «kii ok» for hunting on this animal (Potapov, 1957:184). According materials of G. F. Miller meet of roe deer had been main feeding ration of kachints. They had sewed clothes, shoes and made utensil of its hides (Potapov, 1957190). Important place of roe deer in economy of tribes of ladeyskaya culture is confirmed by archaeological materials. Significant number of bones of that animal was found on Ladeyskoye fort (Kartsov, 1929:46). Moreover finds of roe deer antlers with traces of treatment are known on settlements of the culture: on Karatanova street (Tarasov, Fokin, 2005:60), in Cholpon – 357 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture grotto (Mandryka, 1992:133), on Ladeyskoye fort (Fokin, 2007:182, tab. 9). Except hunting on roe deer cattle breeding had played important role in economy system of population of Pakul fort. Finds of sheep’s and horse’s bones are shown on it. Valley of Verhnyaya Podyemnaya River is good pasture land. It is covered by wet flood plane meadows grass of which is big feeding ration for cattle. These places are still being used by local inhabitants for free cattle herding and mowing. According to information of G. F. Miller settlement of presence in the layer pieces of burnt clay daub and iron slag allows suggesting skill of ladeysk people to make iron. Fragment of the steel and treated metallic implements talk about skills of hot and cold treatment of finished iron subjects. From handcrafts of the fort inhabitants it should be noticed treatment of hides with pebble scrapers, hand modeling of ware and wood treatment. arints had been situated on big meadow near Podyemnoye village (Miller, 2005:183). They had bred horses, sheep and large-horned cattle (Dolgih, 1960:229). Obviously possibility of breeding had attracted here and more ancient karasuk population whose sites are also known here (Mandryka, 2008b). Therefore the valley of Verhnyaya Podyemnaya River had been available for pasture breeding since antiquity and ladeysk population had used this ecological niche. And it had been convenient to control replacing of cattle around the wide flood plane from situated on the high cape Pukul fort. Traces of fishing on the fort were not fixed. It can be explained that the river is not rich by fish and the fort inhabitants had not considered fish important source of food. Such cultural particularities are noticed for some nomadic cattle breeders, for example, kachints who had not eaten the fish considering it «bad» food (Potapov, 1957:186). There are not direct witnesses of collecting in materials of Pakul fort. It could play secondary role like, for example, kachints and arints had used cedar nuts, roots of lilies (Potapov, 1957:186). Question about occupation of population of ladeyskaya culture metallurgy stays unsolved. Had it been local melting of iron or external coming of used iron implements? Melting ovens were not found in time of excavations of Pukul fort, but of Pakul fort had differenced complex system of providing. It had combined producing and appropriating kinds of economy. Base of providing had been cattle breeding and hunting on middle ungulates (roe deer). Moreover they had taken up collecting, hide and wood treatment, used metallic implements and ware. This system of economy had been greatly accommodated to local conditions and met main needs of resettled from forest-steppe area breeding population. It is important to notice that excavations of Pakul fort for the first time allow studying of settlement of ladeyskaya culture. Received materials allow increasing area of known sites of ladeyskaya culture, completing existence ideas about cultural genesis and economy of that population lived in Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in Middle Ages. Conclusion Therefore economy of ladeysk population Acknowledgements To paleontologist c.b.s. N. D. Ovodov (Institute of archaeology and ethnography SB RAS, Novosibirsk) for determination of osteological materials; c. g.-m. s. L. A. Orlova (Institute of geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk) for making of radiocarbon analysis and also students of historical and philosophical faculty of Humanitarian Institute of Siberian federal university for help in making of archaeological excavations. – 358 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture References Belikova O. B. Middle Prichulymye in X-XIII centuries. – Tomsk: TU, 1996. – 272 p. Gumuev I. N., Sagalayev A. M., Solovyev A. I. Legends and stories of taiga region. – Novosibirsk: Science, 1998. – 176 p. Dolgih B. O. Generic and tribal structure of Siberian nations in XVII centuries/ B. O. Dolgih// Works of institute of ethnography AS USSR. – M., 1960, V. IV. – 620 p. Kartsov V. G. Ladeyskoye and Yermolayevskoye forts// Works of archaeological section of RASRISS. – M., 1929a. – V. IV. – P. 559 – 567. Kartsov V. G. Description of collections and materials of museum. Archaeological department. Materials to archaeology of Krasnoyarsk region. – Krasnoyarsk, 1929 b. – 59 p. Kartsov V. G. Achinsk fort // Collection of works of museum of Prichulymskiy region. – Achinsk: of Prichulymskiy region, 1932. – V. I. – Issue 1. – P. 45-49. Mandryka P. V., Zyryanov K. V. New speleological and archaeological sites on Mana river // Problems of archaeology, ethnography, history and local history of Priyeniseyskiy region. – Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 1992. – V. I. – P. 131-136. Mandryka P. V. Ladeyskoye-2 settlement - New site of tagar culture inside of Krasnoyarsk // Siberian inter-museum collection. – Krasnoyarsk: KRM, 1998. – P. 61-71. Mandryka P. V. Complexes of early iron age of Yenisey Priangarye // Works of 2nd (XVIII) AllRussian archaeological congress in Suzdal. – M.: IA RAS, 2008a. – V. II. – P. 162-164. Mandryka P. V. Samodelkin type of ceramics of final period of bronze age on Yenisey banks // Archaeology, ethnography and anthropology of Eurasia. – 2008b. – N 1 (33). – P. 79-84. Mandryka P. V., Knyazeva E. V., Senotrusova P. O. Using of river pebbles by ancient population of Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe (materials of Pakul fort) // Sociogenesis in northern Eurasia. – Irkutsk: ISTU, 2009. – P. 192-196. Mandryka P. V., Senotrusova P. O. Development of fortification buildings in southern taiga zone of Middle Siberia and Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe in early iron age and middle ages // Bulletin of NSU. Series: History, philology. – Novosibirsk: NSU, 2007. – V. 6. – Issue 3. – P. 209-211. Mandryka P. V., Yamskih A. A., Orlova L. A., Yamskih G. U., Golyeva A. A. Archaeology and paleoecology of multilayer settlement Bobrovka on Middle Yenisey. – Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 2003. – 138 p. Miller G. F. History of Siberia. – M.: Eastern literature RAS, 2005. – V.I. – 630 p. Nikolayev R. V. Kyrgyz burial in Bolshemurtinskiy district of Krasnoyarsk region // Archaeology of northern Asia. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1982. – P. 131-134. Potapov L. P. Origin and forming of Khakass nation. – Abakan, 1957. – 307 p. Savinov D. G. Krasnoyarsk and Kansk variant of culture of Yenisey kyrgyzs // Problems of studying of Siberia in scientific work of museums. - Krasnoyarsk: KSU, 1989. – P. 144-147. Skobelev S. G., Mitko O. A. Burials of cremation rite on Kacha river near Krasnoyarsk and their place in cultural tradition of medieval population of Yenisey// Bulletin of NSU. Series: history, philology. – Novosibirsk: NSU, 2007. – V. 6. – Issue 3. – P. 212-220. Solovyev A. I. The military of native population of Western Siberia. Mddle Ages. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1987. – 192 p. Tarasov A. U., Fokin S. M. Materials of early and developed middle ages of historical part of Krasnoyarsk // Antiquities of Yenisey Siberia. - Krasnoyarsk: KSPU, 2005. – Issue 4. – P. 58-65. – 359 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Pavel V. Mandryka and Polina O. Senotrusova. Pakul Fort and Problem of Distinguishing of Ladeyskaya Culture Timofeeva E. K. Roe deer. – Series: Life of our birds and beasts. – Issue 8. – L.: LU, 1985. – 224 p. Fokin S. M. Caltural and historical processes in early and developed middle ages of Krasnoarsk forest-steppe: Thesis … cand. hist. sciences. – Tomsk, 2007. – 216 p. Sources Abbreviation: LA SFU – Laboratory of archaeology, ethnography and history of Siberia of Siberian federal university 1. Lysenko I. A. Report about field research of reconnaissance group of Archaeological expedition of Krasnoyarsk state university in Bolshemurtinskiy district of Krasnoyarsk range in 2004. – Archive of LA SFU. R – 1 N 43 – 54 l. 2. Mandryka P. V. Report about results of archaeological reconnaissances in Bolshemurtinskiy, Kazachinskiy and Kezhemskiy districts of Krasnoyarsk range in 2006. – Krasnoyarsk, 2007. – Archive of LA SFU. R – 1 N 49. 3. Mandryka P. V. Report about results of archaeological excavations of Pakul fort in Bolshemurtinskiy district and settlement Prospihinskaya shivera in Kezhemskiy district of Krasnoyarsk range in 2008. – Krasnoyarsk, 2009. - rchive of LA SFU. R – 1 N 63 – 150 l. 4. KRM, col. N 173,174. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 361-366 ~~~ УДК 140.8 Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization as a Form of the World Society Governing Vladimir N. Ozeredenko* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Russian political system reforming is closely connected to the social transformations, being typical for the modern world society, and which are the consequences of globalization processes. Along with natural globalization, which supposes a lawful striving for humanity integration, we have become witnesses of artificial globalization, which is dangerous for societies’ socio-cultural identity. That is why the salvation of the modern educational system problems supposes taking into consideration traditions, being typical for the Russian society. In order to understand and to solve the given problem, we need to address the historical roots of Russian consciousness formation, within which our society’s self-identification took place. Russia takes an exclusive position among the most important world civilizations. Its main peculiarity is in the following: in our country the triad – tradition-culture-civilization – does not make up an integral and smoothly running system, which also determines the general type of society. Both eastern and western civilizations use ideological means in order to blur over and to conceal their incongruity to their traditions and, moreover, their culture. However, in both cases the symbolic depth of experience is not opposed and does not confront with the material world, created by the civilization. Keywords: form of government; the world society; self-management; social transformations; and social evolution. Point Globalization, as a naturally appeared sociocultural phenomenon, is the result of various unplanned and hardly predicted transformations and changes in technical, economical, political and socio-cultural spheres. Globalization, as an enforced (artificial) process, includes in itself an element of direct or hidden (planned) violence, i.e. an attempt to enforce by means of bribery, deception, persuasion and indoctrination of these or those values, world outlook, economical, political notions and corresponding decisions. * 1 Being artificially created and subordinated to subjective arbitrary interests, globalization can serve and serves as an instrument of dominating position achievement in the structure of international relations, of universalization of one of the systems of values and of a model of development. Historical past knowledge is very important in order to confirm, among other things, that globalization is not only an objective process. Besides, it is also generated by subjective factors, and by the purpose pursuing man’s activity. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 361 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization… There is some anxiety that the possibilities of globalization can be used and are used by these or those social forces, but not in the interests of humanity and social justice. Exactly that is why we are inclined to consider globalization processes as dubious ones: natural and enforced globalization. Overstated aspirations are typical for an emancipating person of the global world, and that is why they are called overstated, as far as everybody’s aspirations cannot be satisfied without exceptions. Apparently, the person, who has decided to make this principle be the centre of his life strategies, must refuse from such qualities as social responsibility, collective identity, and civil duty. Moreover, he is directly interested in weakening of social regulations and norms, which provide socially approved behavior. Besides, one of the necessary conditions of global person’s existence is rigid population segregation into two unequal parts: «the elected minority» and «the rejected majority». Such a world order strategy is destabilizing and destructive by its essence. Industrial equipment dismantlement and fundamental science collapse can be explained and understood in the light of the given logic. In anthropological sense, globalism means de-socialization, de-culturing and disintegration of people. On one hand, it contributes to creation of the wandering Diaspora of «citizens of the world», – unprincipled outcasts, who have chopped off their roots and do not know any cultural, moral and other inner limitations. On the other hand, globalization processes cause degradation of «the rejected majority», which is methodically deprived of the possibility to get their education and so on. Example Today’s experience is connected to the striving of one country or groups of countries to use globalization as an instrument of the world supremacy project realization, to the attempt to use informational technologies, transnational capital and etc. in order to make the planet be the zone of these or those «national interests». All this testifies that globalization processes are ambivalent. And the possibility of their fulfillment not according, but despite of survival purposes, and human historical perspectives proceed from concrete historical and existing at present time conditions of cultural and civilizational growth. And they are such that allow suggesting with quite a high degree of probability that the vectors of cultural and civilizational evolution do not at all coincide with each other and their correlations vary in quite a wide range of distinctions, defining the most important qualitative characteristics of the society. Russian political system reforming is closely connected to the social transformations, being typical for the modern world society, and which are the consequences of globalization processes. Along with natural globalization, which supposes a lawful striving for humanity integration, we have become witnesses of artificial globalization, which is dangerous for societies’ socio-cultural identity. That is why the salvation of the modern educational system problems supposes taking into consideration traditions, being typical for the Russian society. Informational process presupposes a globalization process analysis, which shows that at present time there is a whole row of problems. As the main global problems there are singled out the following ones: firstly, those of planetary character; secondly, the ones, which threaten the whole humanity either with death, or with serious regress of further development; thirdly, those, which demand an urgent salvation by the efforts of the whole world society. Becoming a nature-forming factor, civilization accelerates the processes so much, – 362 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization… that society’s adaptation possibilities can fail to assimilate the speed of all these changes. The natural course of evolution of all the selfdeveloping and self-organizing processes is reflected by an exponential function. During last decades, social evolution has been experiencing radical metamorphoses, transferring most social relations from material into the non-material sphere – in which basis there lies the informational resource, which substitutes by itself raw and power resources – the basis of previous stages of civilization development. Our historical consciousness is damaged so strongly that it leads to heavy, organic deformations of the present. We can observe the conflict of even several generations: grandfathers, fathers, children, grandchildren do not speak common language while discussing the questions of good and evil, belief and disbelief, capitalism and socialism, globalism and nationalism, patriotism and liberalism, the East and the West, private property and social intolerance. In order to understand and to solve the given problem, we need to address the historical roots of Russian consciousness formation, wherein our society’s self-identification took place. Russia takes an exclusive position among the most important world civilizations. Its main peculiarity is in the following: in our country the triad – tradition-culture-civilization – does not make up an integral and smoothly running system, which also determines the general type of society. Both eastern and western civilizations use ideological means in order to blur over and to conceal their incongruity to their traditions and, moreover, to their culture. However, in both cases, the symbolic depth of experience is not opposed and does not confront with the material world, created by the civilization. There were known to be two main impediments for economical life of other peoples: their mentality (way of thinking, collective psychology, and spiritual life intensity) and very hard, inclement climatic conditions on the territory, being not suitable for life. The abounding territory became attractive for the neighboring countries only after the Russian towns, roads and systems of communication having been built, and the basis of agriculture, industry, trade, and science-intensive production having been created. After all that, Russian vast territories became an object of geopolitical disagreements, bargaining, military aggression, quiet expansion, and diplomatic subterfuges [1, p. 19]. This is precisely the fact, which is not as a rule taken into consideration, when the question of Russian power system reforming is being raised. And that is why it is important to differentiate the institutional and the functional content of civilization and culture integrity, while considering the peculiarities of self-management system functioning, and on the whole we cannot sacrifice for it the dialectics of singular and general, the dialectics of structure and function. Aristotle suggests a special method of deviation in order to research the form of government. At present time this method is very topical and not only in political science. It is used for amplitudes dynamic researching of system possible deviations from some standard, from a steady condition with allowance for possibility of system self-returning to its normal functioning, of coming back to this steady condition by its own forces, of deviation expenditures overcoming, costs compensation, and decompensation avoiding. The specifics of the Russian society’s historical consciousness is realized in the following aspects: the Byzantine religious tradition of historical life perception; Russian people’s historical uniqueness, starting from Peter I and in combination with Western-European culture elements; theoretical attitude towards history, which has been formed into a separate historical science; imperial historical self-consciousness, – 363 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization… which was given birth to during the Napoleon France I opposition [2, p. 25-26]. A lot of myths have been created about Russia in the result of somebody’s uttered opinions, having been taken and perceived as a fruit of one’s deep analysis. In most cases it has been connected to the fact that «in our country, philosophy and its existence are too much dependent upon the acrobatics of bureaucratic mind» . But nothing appears just for fun, for no particular reason, though, as it is known, philosophical thinking succeeds the mythological one. We are to take it into consideration in the process of all-thecountry management structures reforming. In the course of his cosmological approach to philosophy functions consideration, N. O. Losskij wrote in «The History of Russian Philosophy», chapter «Russian Philosophy Typical Features», that in opposition to special sciences, i.e. sciences researching some parts and aspects of the world, philosophy bears the stamp of the characters and the interests of those various peoples, who have gone in for it. That is why we may speak about national peculiarities of German, French, English, American and Russian philosophy . For example, «Russian civilization, so as Russian culture as well, presents by itself a «rhizoma». We are speaking about such a lot of various phenomena, which do not subordinate to any integrity and are characterized by heterogeneity, equality of rights, mutual disruptiveness and interconnection, and spontaneous changeability and autonomy. Thereat, rhizoma disruptiveness is considered to be «insignificant»; its heterogeneity explains the gaps, but do not exclude the interconnection of equal parts; the interconnection does not reject its autonomy and equality of rights, and its changeability does not lead to integrity, but enlarges the gaps and enforces the autonomy of integrity elements» [5, p. 250253]. Russia’s being on the border between the East and the West, actually, generates its specific «rhizomability», which cannot be reduced to one common denominator, neither to European, nor to Asian one [6, p. 8]. In the process of Russian social institutions reforming, it is important to bear in mind, that at various times history disproved the vain attempts «to copy» Russian culture and ideology according to the western pattern, and every time these attempt turned out to be a failure and caused enormous misery to Russian people. The matter is in the following: native and western cultures are incompatible and crucially different, as far as they belong to different types of societies. Having made this conclusion, we are to see once again that the difference between collectivistic and individual types of societies is actual, productive and well-substantiated, and we comprehend the need of studying of the Russian society as a collectivistic one. Nevertheless, while forming the modern self-management system in Russia, it is important to keep in mind that during the last decades the following values of Russian spiritual culture have been damaged: • communal consciousness has been damaged by means of implantation of the unlimited cult of individualism; • substitution of Russian culture traditional priority of productive labour in favour of the motherland for serving an unknown country on the principle of mercantilism and consumption; • substitution of social interests authority for personal ones, of Russian humanity for Cosmo-political pan-humanity; • substitution of friendship and brotherhood of Russian peoples for ethnic strife; • substitution of patriotism and love of country for serving an unknown country or a «world» government. In order to understand the influence of globalization over the Russians, we need to – 364 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization… consider as well the fact that «all the characteristic features of Russian people prove that they are not able to blend harmoniously with the modern consumptive civilization and mass culture. The Russian man cannot be wholly inspired by the ideals of enrichment and consumption, which are the stimulus to the modern civilization.»  We can state that the most valuable and fruitful ideas of the leading Russian thinkers are contained in the doctrine of collegiality. One of the foundation stones of «the Russian cosmism» is known to be the conception of a symphonic person, which is based precisely on the notion of collegiality, having been developed as «one of the most important theoretical considerations of Russian ancient philosophy. Collegiality is understood as «a feature of an overall connection of social phenomena. It deciphers the human word as some mosaic …» [8, p. 274], which pieces are individuals, communities and social phenomena. And only being taken all together (thereat, not just mechanically, but in a certain order) «these phenomena make up a mosaic panel, which discloses the creative perfection of the Creator.»  Collegiality means the combination of freedom and integrity of many people on the basis of their common love to one and the same absolute values. This idea has been clear to be used for salvation of many difficult problems of social life. The principal of collegiality means that neither the patriarch, having the supreme power, nor the spiritualty, nor even the oecumenical council is the absolute carrier of the truth. Collegial state, in its turn, fails to overrule spiritual power and, thereat, not to whittle away the rules of law, not to break the meaning of moral, ethic, ideological, religious and other norms, to abolish the latest, not to damage the institutional harmony of collectivistic society. The people, who have taken upon themselves the solicitude of spirituality, who do care about the other-worldly, the ideal and the perfect, – cannot fail to possess an utopian consciousness, which now helps them to survive in most difficult times, then plays the mischief to them. Utopism and its accompanying romanticism, credulity to wordmongering made Russian thinkers search the truth of life either in the future (the western utopias of communism and democratic paradise) or in the past (the Slavophilic utopias of returning to the Russian pleasant original pre-Peter I existence). The ideas of theanthropism and of collegiality cannot be realized up to their final limit, but they are not at all fully speculative inventions of the philosophizing dreamer, but quite acting factors for the national spiritual integration . Example Thus, Russian political system reforming presupposes an analysis of the following crucial moments. Firstly, the necessity of Russian nationhood origin consideration and, besides, self-management peculiarities demand to proceed from the fact that the idea of at-oneness with the universe takes a most important place in the Russian scientific and philosophical system of opinions and allows considering the world and its objective laws as an indivisible whole. The alternative approach, having been substantiated in the works of Russian cosmism followers, fulfils the methodological and world outlook functions, thus restoring the connection within the system of social and philosophical knowledge, what is crucial for development of new management systems in the conditions of globalization. References 1. L. M. Marceva. Economical Development Peculiarities of Russian Civilization Spatial-Temporal Boarders (the experience of comparison) / L. M. Marceva // Theory and History. – 2002. – №1. – 365 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir N. Ozeredenko. Russian Self-Management Idea Origin and Globalization… 2. A. L. Andreev. Peculiarities of Russian Historical Self-consciousness / A. L. Andreev // Theory and History. – 2004. – №3. 3. V. N. Porus. Philosophical Congress Must Prevent Russian Philosophy Decay / V. N. Porus // Vestnik RFO. – 2004. – №2. 4. N. O. Losskij. The History of Russian Philosophy / N. O. Losskij. – Moscow: Sovetskij pisatel’, 1991. 5. Zh. Deljoz, F. Gvattari. Rhizoma. Introduction. / Zh. Deljoz, F. Gvattari // KorneviWe OB. The Book of Neoclassic Esthetics. Moscow, 1998. 6. I. V. Kondakov. «Beyond» Europe» / I. V. Kondakov // Voprosy filosofii – 2002. – №6. 7. V. Aksjuchic. Russian Character Apologia / V. Aksjuchic // Nezavisimaja gazeta. – 2000. – June, 27. 8. N. M. Churinov. Perfection and Freedom / N. M. Churinov. – Krasnojarsk, 2001. 9. The same. 10. A.A. Korol'kov. Spiritual Meaning of Russian Culture. –St. Petersburg: The Publishing House of RSPU named after A.I. Herzen, 2006. – P. 246. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 367-373 ~~~ УДК 130.3 Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives Victoria L. Pfanenshtil* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given article we would like to show, that in the modern and quickly changing world there are a lot of discussions of the essence of globalization, regionalization, localization and these discussions go on with increasing sharpness and obviously reflect the major changes in the global economy forces alignment and apparent aggravation of the international military and political situation. Will the growth of hegemonism bring to globalization and mono-polar world becoming? Or shall we witness some other fundamental processes of the world development? We also pay special attention to the fact, that globalization is often depicted by scientists and publicists as some universal process, which inevitably and successively subordinates «the periphery» of microsystem sphere to the laws of its development. These notions are sooner ideal-typical and they are free from such «independent» factors, structuring humane micro-communities, as geo-climatic conditions, national models of demographic reproduction, cultural-educational «capital» of the nation and its intellectual and professional skills, the volume of its present natural resources, and economically viable and adaptive potential of the society. Being used in different combinations, these qualitative parameters finally form the nation’s ability to respond efficiently to transnational impulses – challenges, which origin is beyond the limits of national political systems. Keywords: hegemonism; globalization; regionalization; localization; micro-system sphere; subglobalization processes. Point Outrushing changes of the world economy were generated not only by economical, but, first of all, by cardinal political shiftings, which took place in the end of XX century. These changes required a new approach to evaluation of globalization and different countries groups’ place and role in this process. The notions of «growth» and «development» became one of the key notions in the second part of the previous century, as far as various models of development * 1 were tested with mixed success in the world economic sphere. In the second part of XX century the dominant influence was gained not by the geopolitical paradigm (the paradigm of culturalhistorical types), but by the meaningfully opposite one – «globalistic» («formational», «revolutionary») paradigm, which referred us to such spiritually related phenomena, as the conception of «global revolution», anti-globalism, the ideology of «the world Corresponding author E-mail address: IPhanenstil@sfu-kras.ru © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 367 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives communist revolution», the conception of social-economical formations changing by K. Marks, the idea of the world-wide freedom of trading, the idea of «global directorate» (global control of the world), and Enlightment progress philosophies of XVII-XVIII centuries. To our mind, the main direction of globalization definition by means of internationalization lies in the propaganda of inevitable departure of sovereign States from historical arena and their losing of the main democracy requirement– powerful sovereignty of people. In connection with the mentioned, it is rather principle to separate the notions of «globalization» and «regionalization», as far as in the modern conditions it would be more appropriate to use the notions of «economical integration» or «economical interrelation» as the main objective factors, predefining the essence of globalism and globalization not only in the economical interrelations of countries and nations, but in all the spheres of their activity. Precisely that is why the idea of regionalization, as a social-economical basis of the modern enforced globalization alternatives, acquires a greater popularity and gradually becomes a paradigm of the modern scientific cognition and a principle of the social practice. The matter is that social instability, as a factor of socialization, can be considered on three interrelated levels: society on the whole, a group and a person. On the society level, social changes are revealed in the form of a crisis of the major part of normative-axiological notions. «Comprehension of the existing norms and values, as phenomena of the past, which have been discredited by new tendencies, existing in society, does not in abstracto lead to creation of any of new ideas… On one hand, new social groups appear to be the creators of new systems of values, on the other hand – they are carriers of these values…» [1, p. 152]. Example As V.Strada notices, as from the point of view of the old, defeated communist internationalism, so from the point of view of the new and on-coming communistic globalism, national question appears to be a survival of times past. Internationalism considers it to be permitted in the frames of its economical and technological structures, and globalism supposes it to be overcome due to new economical and technological tendencies. Thereat, in both cases, everything goes on independently and beyond the borders of national states. The Italian researcher is sure, that in the frames of the global context, the national beginning does not disappear; it constitutes the element of vital resistance to cultural homogenization, which presence is doubtless; and acquires new, less exclusive forms in comparison with the past. [2, p. 60]. The world situation of our days confirms that sovereign national state – particularly, if we are speaking about minor states, which do not possess any economical or military predominance – loses many of its prerogatives of the past and become relative within the frames of wider contexts. The control over the social-economical processes, which have local regional character, is often depicted by scientists and publicists as some universal process, which inevitably and successively subordinates «the periphery» of the micro-system sphere to the laws of its development. These notions ignore many factors, structuring humane microcollectives: geo-climatic conditions; national models of demographic reproduction; cultural and educational «capital» of the nation and its intellectual and professional skills; the volume of its present natural resources, and economically viable and adaptive potential of the society. Being used in different combinations, these qualitative parameters finally form the nation’s ability to respond efficiently to transnational impulses – – 368 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives challenges, which origin is beyond the limits of national social-economical systems. The matter is that globalization and the processes, being generated by it, subject traditional behavior models, the way of life, the types of world vision, and also the values, being rooted in the mass conscious, orientations, and prejudice to the test of strength and adaptability [3, p. 92]. To N.Kosolapov’s mind, on the global level the problem of coordination, regulation and management subject and object has become one of the main consequences of the intercrossing of various globalization levels and processes [4, p. 145]. In the result of enforced globalization the principle features of social-economical basis are subjected to a serious transformation. The loss of these features is followed by systematic tension and social panic, when the feelings of self-perception, belief in one’s own social role and its continuance pass away; «extrapolation of the liberal regime tendencies development (the regime which has been historically formed in European countries) over the societies, being different in time and in space, is fully groundless; in the basis of modern states there are no young and flexible types of ethnos, which are sensitive to developed cultural forms, but there are traditionally fixed social structures. Precisely, that is why in the peripheral countries there can be no building of a new social-economical basis according to the European pattern without full destruction of the old pattern. The consideration, that today’s economical and technological power of post-industrial countries will make them invulnerable to expansion of foreign social systems, is a dangerous illusion. To the mind of the researchers V.Inozemcev and E.Kuznecova, these premises must be the leading ones in the attempts to evaluate possible development scenarios of the on-coming inter-civilizational conflict [5, p. 138]. The crisis of regional social-economical basis is much deeper, than we could have supposed and it has influenced almost all the countries. If we are speaking of the ways of reappearance of the social-economical self-sufficiency feeling, then we should note that it is federalism and regionalism. A.Zaharov is sure, that precisely «…federalism and globalization do always accompany and enforce each other: federal methods of decision making are best suited for the world, where everything is interconnected, while today’s world dynamics generates and stimulates far and wide federative kinds of practice and institutions. He considers that federalism is political clothes of globalization and to be a federalist is «considered to be a common courtesy» in the epoch of globalization [6, p. 166]. The starting point for us is the fact that region population makes up a certain integrity, which is characterized by special forms of symbioses with nature, specific types of self-sufficiency, commonness of behavioral features, having been generated for centuries and formed in the process of people’s adaptation in natural and socio-cultural environment. All these in total are qualified as regional peculiarities [7, 198-201]. N.Ja.Danilevskij has been the first, who has suggested the model of multi-polar world order, which is, to his mind, presents the necessary and, at the same time, the only possible guarantee of the world-wide balance keeping, the only stronghold against the world-wide domination of Europe. Two conditions of the world-wide balance according to Danilevskij are the germ of the world project, which is an alternative to the project of the global monocracy. The first and the main condition is the appearance of Slavonic states around the Russian Federation («The OmniSlavonic Union» in terms of N.Ja.Danilevskij). Today, the given condition has been altered; it is present as a possibility of integration of the – 369 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives post-soviet states and, first of all, a possibility of formation of the common economic territory of Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. N.Ja.Danilevskij has formulated the second condition of the world-wide balance as follows: «The result of the Omni-Slavonic Union would be… an equal and a fair distribution of power and influence between…Europe, the Slavonic states and America» [8, p. 458-459]. In XXI century, in Eurasia there are, of course, more than three (as it was in the epoch of the colonial world) potential participants of such a geopolitical project. They are, at least 1) the United States of America with its surrounding South American zone of free trading; 2) the future superpower – «the United States of Europe»; 3) Russia and the sates of CIS integrating with it; 4) «Great China and the cultures of Southern Asia, being kindred with it; 6) Japan; 7) the Islam world; 8) this or that union of the South American countries. The importance of social-economical analysis of the regions potentials is connected with the fact that regions present by themselves a higher level of generalization in comparison with ethnic peculiarities, as far as regional communities can include several types of ethnos, but this level is lower than civilization peculiarities, as far as this level presents only a part (in the given case – a part of European) civilization. Regional peculiarities create a certain stereotype of social behavior. At the same time, within the frames of this common stereotype there are ethnic communities, which form the population of the region and possess certain concrete features and unique qualities. From the point of view of systematic approach, regionality (as integrity) is that very new quality, which is formed in the result of interaction and mutual complement of ethno-cultural communities (as elements), constituting this integrity. That is why we suppose the research of dialectics of the common and the peculiar to be an important part of the region sociology. This is the part of research, which is aimed for the analysis of the object’s inner structure. But there is another part, which is aimed for the outer environment of the object, for the region’s position in the socio-cultural sphere. Research of the structure of its interaction with the environment is considered to be another important part of the region sociology [9, p. 27-28]. Economical regionalization is a comparatively new process, which has appeared in the sphere of international relationships after the Second World War. By the term of regionalization we understand formation and development of economical communities by neighboring countries. There are agreements of preferential character in the basis of such groups. Though in practice, there are two different types and one sub-type of regionalization: rebirth (initiation) of regional empires, formation of regional (integration) groups and appearance of so called development triangles. The first type is understood as an ability of this or that rather large country to impose its will on the neighboring and, as a rule, minor countries by means of relatively peaceful, diplomatic (as political, so economical) methods. In other words, regional empire appearance and existence originally presupposes significant inequality of economical powers of the neighboring countries. At the beginning, formation of such regional groups pursues mainly political-economical aims. In the given situation, the key factor is a constancy of external threats or (what is better) a mutually advantageous character of economical cooperation, formation of the common economy elements, and mutual completability. Though, to achieve such a quality of relations is not at all easy, so usually only regional empire possesses the main set of such elements. At first sight, regionalization of the second type is more stable and productive. Efficiency of – 370 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives such unions increases a relative equality of the participating states’ potentials, and, as a rule, they create a stronger juridical base of co-operation. It is easier to the participants, which are comparable in their power, to refuse from some part of sovereignty to the benefit of supernational organs and to provide there a sound and proportional representation. Nevertheless, we may observe a parallel existence of regional empires and regional integration groups. It seemed that on practice obvious advantage of the old types of associations does not lead to a mass outflow of minor countries from under the cover of regional empires to these associations. Probably, ascending waves of the world business environment more encourage regionalization of the second type [10, p. 8990]. Most modern authors pay special attention to complication of the North-South relations, to impossibility of identical evaluations in the result of high dynamics of changes as in the world economy on the whole, so in separate countries. They are made closer by the strivings of their authors to give an analysis of the globalization modern stage, of its inner inconsistency and various degrees of some countries’ involvement in the process (there are the largest Eurasian states in the centre of the research – India, China, Russia), that allows seeing that the process has a non-general character. The authors’ key opinion is the following: «the degree of integrity and manageability of the appearing world has been exaggerated» [11, p. 6]. This position is topical in the connection with the existing opinion of the total globalization coverage of all and everything. Is it rightful that on the given stage the idea of mono-polar world or the presence of large economical sub-systems, such as India, China, Russia, have significant influence over the rate of globalization, creating sorts of enclaves, which retard its distribution – this is not only the problem of today, but the problem of future as well [12, p. 199]. Obviously, in perspective, globalization creates deep tendencies to consistency of the world economical sphere, on the given stage it increases the unevenness of development between separate countries and also changes most of habitual, wellknown phenomena. At the same time, within the frames of globalization process there appear some unidirectionality tendencies of commodity flows and direct investments, and that leads to «the appearance of peculiar regional governors», as it has been successfully defined by the authors [13, p. 145]. Actually, it causes the necessity of correlation analysis of regionalization and globalization, their parallelism, and subsequently, their contradictions, when in the regional scale and at a certain level of development of economical, political and other kinds of bonds regionalism becomes a globalization deterrent. From our point of view and taking into consideration economical efficiency, globalization will never be able to involve into its orbit all the countries without exceptions. There has been defined a group of countries- outcasts, which are scarily involved into the process of internationalization and are connected with the Centre mainly because of aid programs, being performed by international organizations and governments of developed countries in order not to let a new social-economical crisis, a border conflict and etc. generate new waves of refugees. The problem is in the following: will the number of such countries increase or decrease. We are to agree with the authors, who assert, that «…globalization definitions, such as an accomplished internationalization, integration, social transformation and other realities, on the given stage of the history of mankind is nothing else, but an utopia or illusion. That is why the statement of the cutting of the modern – 371 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives globalization time in thousand times is hardly reasonable in comparison with the previous stages and the appearance of a new world-wide civilization in the life period of just one generation is hardly possible» [14, p. 88]. The main perspective of technological development of the mankind is: to deepen the gap and to make it unsurpassable, the gap between developed and other countries, and also between developed countries, creating new technologies, and other developed countries; informational technologies employees’ segregation into an inner between USA and the members of NATO on the whole and the rest of the world is so deep, that it gives us grounds to think about a possibility of realization of the idea of a super-empire, it could be American or built around most developed countries («golden billion») as an integral block. If the idea were realized, global empire world order would most probably suffer the fate of all the empires-predecessors: having outlasted for some time, it would be broken by the forces of inner transformation and would for long give place to the dominance of sub-globalization phenomena «informational community» and its concentration in developed countries; gradual concentration of the world’s «informational community» together with the whole world progress in «the most developed» countries; termination of progress beyond the limits of developed countries; social and financial degradation of developing countries; a potential sudden slowing down of the process in the result of the global financial crisis and destructive competition between USA and European currency union. Socio-cultural identity crisis prevention presupposes joining of various societies’ efforts for preservation of the various and motley human society. To our mind, positive and negative lessons of social development of XX century allow people and countries, revealing their will, energy and persistence, paying special attention to better and optimal ways of self-development, using socioeconomical potentials of their regions. Moreover, it is important not only to proceed from the realities, existing in the world community, but also to presuppose possible scenarios of further events development. The gap and processes of all the types and levels. Resume To our mind, the advancement of manageability, as the man criterion of globalization, does not at all mean the reduction of the latter only to the political topics. This criterion is important for other, non-political spheres as well. Though, here, while achieving the set political objectives, manageability is as much present, as many economical, cultural and other specifics are taken into consideration. At the same time, there can be revealed special imperatives and development bases for each of the rest of reality projections – starting from economy to culture. Survival of the world, as a mono-polar phenomenon, wherein there is no crisis of sociocultural self-identity, is possible only by means of rebirth of local and regional values, as an opposition to the global system of «pan-human values», which carry in themselves the destruction of socio-cultural identity as of separate nations, so of the whole mankind. References 1. Social Psychology in the Modern World / under the editorship of G.M.Andreeva, A.I. Doncov. – Moscow: Aspekt press, 2002. 2. V.Strada. Globalization and History / V.Strada // The Modern and Contemporary History. – 2002. – №6. – 372 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Victoria L. Pfanenshtil. Regionalization as a Social-Economical Basis of Enforced Globalization Alternatives 3. A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. Globalization: its Origin, Tendencies, and Perspectives / A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov // Polis. – 1999. – № 5. 4. N.A.Kosolapov. The Place of Geopolitics in the Epoch of Globalization/ N.A.Kosolapov // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №4. 5. V.L.Inozemcev, E.S.Kuznecova. Global Conflict of XXI Century. Speculations of Origin and Perspectives of Inter-Civilizational Contradictions/ V.L.Inozemcev, E.S.Kuznecova // Polis. – 2001. – №6. 6. A.E.Zaharov. Pluribus Unum. Essays of the Modern Federalism / A.E.Zaharov. – Moscow: The Moscow School of Political Researches, 2003. 7. Federalism. Encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow, 1997. 8. N.Ja.Danilevskij. Russia and Europe / N.Ja.Danilevskij. – Moscow, 2003. 9. R.H.Simonjan. From National-State Communities to Regional Alliances / R.H.Simonjan // The 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Questions of Philosophy. – 2005. – №3. G.K.Shirokov. A.I.Salickij. Globalization and/or Regionalization? (Regionalization and its Types) / G.K.Shirokov. A.I.Salickij // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №5. S.I.Lunev, G.K.Shirokov. Transformation of the World System and Major Countries of Eurasia / S.I.Lunev, G.K.Shirokov. – Moscow: Academia, 2001. E.A.Bragina. Is Globalization Global? / E.A.Bragina // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №5. A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. Globalization: its Origin, Tendencies, and Perspectives / A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. – Moscow: IOS RAS, 2002. V.I.Karasev, A.G.Vas’kov. Globalization Phenomenon in the Social Context of Modernity / V.I.Karasev, A.G.Vas’kov. – Moscow, 2002. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 374-378 ~~~ УДК 1 (075.8) The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status Sergey Ju. Rjazancev* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given work, we analyze today’s Russian problems, connected with violation of the principle of powers separation in the process of the state governance of the society: the real place of the executive power supreme body within the system of powers separation; practical rights of the head of the state; federalism in the light of the requirements of the principle of powers separation; constitutional and the real status of the Parliament Keywords: the principle of powers separation; democracy; Parliament; President; Government; Federation Subject; Federalism. Point Example Nowadays, we may often observe a certain anxiety in the articles of most native socialpolitical sphere researchers, the anxiety, which concerns «the rolling back» of the Russian democracy by means of the executive power over-accretion in comparison to the constituent and judicial powers , and, besides, this process is connected with the increase of the Russian parliament institutional weakness . On the basis of the analysis of the federal status dynamics, of the place and the role of various parties in the real politics, and changes in the electoral system, the scientists come to conclusions of a possibility of a significant intensiveness already in the nearest future . On the whole, these fears are not baseless; moreover, one of them is a violation of the principle of powers separation. In science and political practice, the given principle is considered to be one of the fundamentals of democratic society governance – it is an axiom. Though, we should bear in mind that in Lenin’s interpretation this principle was presented as a method of deception of «the working masses», as far as it was allegedly nothing else but «a separation of the administrative labour», which veiled the exploitative essence of the bourgeois federal status. And it is not excluded that the lack of attention, having been paid to the principle of powers separation in the native social philosophy and political science, and, moreover, in the practice of state administration of the society, is to some extend determined by the traditional mentality as of theoreticians, so of practitioners. Of course, the citizens, for the most their part, are as well not ready to percept * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 374 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey Ju. Rjazancev. The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status adequately the democratic governance, as far as authoritarianism of their conscious has been formed by the centuries of the empire and most efficiently by the decades of the Soviet power and it cannot be radically changed in the course of two decades. The main purpose of the principle of powers separation is in the following: to exclude the dominating position of one of three government departments (in most cases – the executive one), as far as it inevitably leads to dictatorship in this or that form, and consequently, to denial of rights and freedoms of the person. In the Constitution of Russia there is a formal mechanism, appealed to avoid possible conflicts between the constituent and executive powers, to exclude the situation of the executive power absolute domineering (for example, President’s appointment of the Chairman of the Government only with the sanction of the State Duma, a possibility of motion of the vote of censure to the Government by the lower house of parliament), but, unfortunately, such a system of checks and balances does not prevent the executive power over-accretion. The Constitution of Russia declares the principle of powers separation as one of the fundamentals of the country democratic development (art.10). But the Constitution itself fixes the conditions, under which the given principle cannot fail to be violated. First of all, it is a position of the Government within the system of powers separation: in practice, it absolutely depends on the Head of the State – in the process of formation, functioning and resignation. Of course, the Chairman of the Government is assigned by the President only with the sanction of the State Duma, but it is a purely formal fragment of the system of checks and balances, as far as if the State Duma thrice refuses to give such a sanction, then it is dissolved by the Head of the State – there is no any other alternative. Consequently, if he wishes so much, the President always can achieve an assignment of the person, he needs, for the post of the Chairman of the Government, though dissolution of the lower house of parliament is a serious political crisis for the whole country. Further, on the basis of constitutional norms, the State Duma seems to be able to control the superior body of the executive power (in order it could not draw «the blanket of power» over it too much) by means of censure vote motion. But it is also nothing more, than a formality, as far as if the Government is defeated for the second time in the course of three months, then it makes the President chose: whether resignation of the Government, or dissolution of the Duma. Deputies always understand quite well, that the Head of the State has no reason to dismiss the Government, which has been formed by him and which is fully subordinated to him. Possibly, precisely, in the force of «the instinct of self-protection», the State Duma defeated the Government (in 1995) and declared the vote of censure only once for the whole history of the new Russian federal status, but it looked more like a farce, as far as it did not take the risk to repeat it in three months, in order not to give the President any lawful bases for dissolving it. So, in practice the lower house of parliament turns out to be unable to control the supreme body of the executive power and the upper house of parliament – neither. The matter is that the Federation Council is formed with a gross violation of the principle of powers separation, which presupposes a distinct differentiation of government departments according to the means of formation, structure and functions, not allowing «mixing» of powers in one and the same organs. Though, in our country half the members of the upper house of parliament are representatives of the executive power of the Federation subjects, having been assigned personally by the leaders of the executive power supreme bodies of regions, districts, and republics. But, these chief – 375 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey Ju. Rjazancev. The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status executive officers of the subjects of Federation are personally suggested by the President and are always assigned without a hitch by regional parliaments. Actually, from the part of the President it is a control over the Federation Council with a help of the instrument of governors assignment, but it is precisely what makes the function of constitutionalization control of the Federation Council senseless. Right on the basis of the mentioned comments we can come to a conclusion of institutional weakness of the Russian parliament, which is not able to play its role in the system of democratic state powers separation, and consequently, it is quite in order to raise the question of our federal status democraticity on the whole. The attitude to the principle of powers separation in the state management practice can be seen on the example of dynamics of the native federalism. The RF Constitution declares the authority of Federation (art.77). In the world science and practice, federalism is perceived as a variety of parts within the frames of the integral, defining separate common features. First of all, this variety concerns the ways of regulation of the inner organization subjects. These subjects must be free in their choice of a most suitable model of inner power-management structure (of course, this freedom is limited by the interests of the federal integrity). Federalism presupposes a significant heterogeneity of constitutional models of the Federation subjects. This heterogeneity contributes to a maximal adaptation of regional power structures to specific conditions of concrete subjects, and such kind of pluralism optimizes a healthy competition among the Federation subjects, and it stimulates all-round development as of the regions, so of the federal integrity. Precisely, such an understanding of federalism gives positive practical results to the peoples of Germany, USA, Canada and others. In modern Russia, population of the Federation subjects does not elect the governors (the presidents of republics), and it is already a violation of constitutional rights of the citizens and the Federation subjects’ status. According to the latest legislation, the President of RF proposes a candidacy for the post of the governor to the parliament of a corresponding Federation subject. Outwardly, deputies of the regional parliament are free in their choice of voting «for» and «against», but having thrice rejected the proposed candidacies, the «stubborn» regional parliament is dissolved by the President. Moreover, the head of the state has a right to remove the governor from his post by reason of «the loss of confidence» (and the interpretation of this reason can be rather wide). The right of the President to dissolve regional parliaments, before their term is over, is similar to his right to dissolve the State Duma, after it has thrice defeated a candidacy for the post of prime-minister, proposed by the head of the state (art.111 the RF Constitution). But, dissolution of the regional parliaments is provided neither by the letter, nor by the spirit of the Constitution. In practice, up to this day, all the candidacies for the post of region heads, having been proposed by the President, were «elected» by the regional parliaments, thereat, by the majority of deputies’ voices. Today’s situation is formally characterized by the fact that the head of the state does not appoint the heads of Federation subjects, but only proposes candidacies, while local parliaments elect them. In fact, taking into account possible sanctions, the heads of the regions are appointed by the President, and regional parliaments are dependent on the President. Right here, we can observe the Russian approach to the principle of powers separation. General conception analysis of our federalism, as it has been perceived in the Constitution, and later on detailed and realized – 376 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey Ju. Rjazancev. The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status in to life, proves that: after the legislative reforms have been done, the influence of the Centre (first of all, of the President) on the regions has become so strong, that there has been left very little of our federalism. A detailed research of the Russian presidential powers brings to the conclusion that in this country the regime of the personal power of the head of the state has been built and is constantly strengthened. Some researchers consider it to be a normal process in the light of historical, political and cultural traditions of our nation (the necessity of «a strong hand», «a host»), but political history knows one more «tradition»: an extreme personal power usually becomes a dictatorship. That is why democratic regime is in so much need of the principle of powers separation, in order to create quite strict institutional limitations, being able to check as «the will to power», so «the traditional mentality» According to the letter of the Constitution, President of Russia is the head of the state, and consequently, he enters neither of the government departments, as far as he himself forms the Government and exercises general leadership of its activity. In fact, today the executive power supreme body is the apparatus of the head of the state. In reality, the President may repeal any enactment of the Government not only by reason of its inconformity with the law, but with the presidential decree as well; the President approves the structure of the executive power supreme bodies; appoints the members of the Government and forces them to resign. That is why article 10 of the Constitution looks like a typical formality, the article, which has announced the principle of powers separation: «The organs of the constituent, executive and judicial powers are independent». So, this brings up a natural question: should we explain a constant accretion of the executive power (= presidential power) only by the drawbacks of the constitutional regulation? We suppose that all the politics of the ruling elite of the country is aimed for it. Its result is an institutional weakness of the parliament, «the pocket government», absence of an independent judicial power, as far as the judges of all three of the supreme courts of the country – the Constitutional, Supreme and Supreme Arbitration Courts are appointed by the upper house of parliament according to the proposal of the President, while a half of the upper house of parliament consists of «the people of the President». We also consider the latest reforms of the election legislation to be rather dangerous for the democratic future of the country. First of all, we should note that these reforms demonstrate a vivid tendency to mono-party membership (while formally we preserve our multi-party system). It is the rising of the lower-house-of-the-parliament parties’ passing barrier from five to seven percent. In December, 2007, the State Duma Elections proved the efficiency of this measure for the ruling elite: «the ruling party» is unrivaled, the communist party has relatively a few places and is not dangerous for the regime, because it is not so popular among younger generations and people of the middle age, the Liberal Democratic Party has also few places, besides it is highly adaptive and, as a last resort, it can be just fictitious-oppositional, and the youngest party is a «pocket» one from the very beginning. Thereat, the most oppositional parties have turned out to be «outboard». Besides, the cancellation of the State Duma’s half the membership election according to the majoritarian electoral system is also rather illustrative – today, elections go on only according to the party lists. It gives a possibility to get rid of so-called independent deputies in the lower house of parliament, who can be uncontrolled and can form an opposition to the power. But, this is not the end of the story. Even – 377 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey Ju. Rjazancev. The Principle of Powers Separation in the Practice of the Russian Federal Status the deputies, having been elected on the majorityproportional basis (party lists), lose the remnants of their deputative independence, as far as the law introduces elements of «the imperative mandate», i.e. having deserted his party faction, the deputy automatically loses his deputy mandate of the lower house of parliament. Such measures as, prohibition of regional and interregional parties, and also of party blocs (which, we should underline, are a common phenomena abroad), set one thinking. Blocs are obviously very dangerous for the powers: they can become too popular among people and form an opposition to the powers or become «the ruling party» competitors. We should also underline the fact, that the modern election legislation presupposes more than forty reasons for registration rejection or striking off separate candidates and party lists. Resume Let’s repeat: the principle of power separation is one of the fundamentals of the democratic political regime. But, according to K. Popper, democracy inevitably presupposes bloodless change of government in the result of free election. There, where such a change is impossible, there is no democracy. We would find difficulty to quarrel with this statement. But, «bloodless change of government» presupposes a free competition between political elites (parties), and a real dependence of the parties, having won in the elections, upon the electorate: they will not be re-elected, if they are not able to govern the county efficiently, and, as a consequence, the citizens will stop trusting them. But, it is impossible to speak about free competition in the conditions of real and legally provided domineering of one of the parties. And likewise, it is impossible to speak about democratization of the state governance in the conditions of so strong accretion of the executive power at the expense of constituent and judicial powers. Having so highly-illustrative lessons of our history before us, we, the Russians, should understand better than others, that violation of the principle of powers separation, an excessive concentration of power in one centre can result in «the rollback» of the forming civil-society elements, in the total violation of the citizens’ rights, i.e. in a complete destruction of the existing elements of the modern democracy. References S. Ryzhenkov. Dynamics of the Russian Political Regime Transformation and its Perspectives // The Emergency Stock. 2006, № 6 (50). O. Gaman-Golutvina. Russian Parliamentarizm in Historical Retrospective and in Comparative Perspective (article II) // Polis. 2006, №3. B. Makarenko. Russian Political Regime: Neo-Institutional Analysis Experience // the World Economy and International Relationship. 2007, №2. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 379-383 ~~~ УДК 130.1 Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis Aleksandr M. Tajmulin* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 There are two opposite tendencies in political researches: on one hand, there is striving for preservation of political order integrity, on the other hand, one common political order represents a variety of local discursive practices, as far as any attempt of political world’s integral presentation starts to be considered as a comeback to the totalitarian ideology, where scientific discussions perform a function of legitimating narratives. We proceed from the fact, that globalization is a process, which we can actually witness ourselves, and that is why the form of its apprehension must be the most adequate and effective. To our mind, globalization and regionalization are the leading tendencies of the modern world order, which reveal themselves in corresponding forms. Modern researchers’ works, being different by the character of investigation and the style of rendering, are very often united by the common idea: globalization is considered as complexly evolving open system, raising before the world a lot of problems, which solution, and consequently, the prospective of modern civilization development depend upon revealing and deep analysis of these problems. Keywords: globalization; regionalization; world order; local; westernization; internationalization. Point In spite of there is a variety of approaches to the globalization essence research, it appears as a process of becoming of the human world’s real value in its spiritual and all its material meanings. Thus, the perceived globalization is not limited by the planetary, physical, social and cognitive spaces, but it captures the inner world of society and man, and that is why it inevitably includes psychological, ideological and cultural components. History is considered to be just a drawing up of material being and means available to the man in order to come nearer to this idea, i.e. up to necessity and possibility to build one’s * 1 activity, proceeding from admitting of the world’s integrity in all its aspects, starting from spiritual up to ecological. It appears to be quite a strictly determined process, upon such an understanding of globalization; though, it develops in a complicated way through the interchange of breakthroughs and backrushes, ups and downs [1, p. 139]. What we call globalization today is an episode of historical process, though qualitatively peculiar, as everything in history is [2, p. 56-57]. Example I.I.Lukashuk: suggests more generalized definition of globalization, noting: «Globalization Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 379 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr M. Tajmulin. Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis presents by itself a worldwide process, which interconnects national social-economical institutions into one common economical and social system» [3, p. 1]. In this respect, globalization process essence reflexion by mean of finding of interrelation peculiarities between two categories of «civilization» and «globalization» is an important branch of the modern globalization research as one more attempt to universalize the world community. L.Karapetjan thinks the attempts to draw parallels between civilization and globalization to be unpersuasive in the aspect of admitted civilization criteria and their variations. M.Jepshtejn is sure, that we should introduce and use a new notion of «globosophy». Thereat, its most important components will be geosophy, biosophy and sociosophy. But, we hardly should rely upon the answer of A.Chumakov  that this is not the task of philosophers to study the problems of globalization, as far as the answer to the question «to be or not to be» is already given by the fact of writing of the books about globalization. While analyzing globalization, many authors proceed from differentiation of two types of modernization – westernization and catching-up modernization. For example, V.M. Mezhuev considers that, «today, on the West, modernization is admitted to be an old-fashioned and useless model of development», «the project of modernization … has given its place to a new global project, wherein the life of people within the economical system is perceived not on a national, but on a world-wide scale» [5, p. 17]. Most often there are singled out several such borders and, correspondingly, several understandings of globalization as a phenomenon in the western and the Russian literature. According to one of them, globalization is an exceptionally modern phenomenon, dating back approximately to the middle of 1980-s, and it is also «international», taking place and developing exceptionally in the international life – communications, economics, and politics. In this respect, globalization is interpreted as especially large-scaled internationalization, having broken forth through all the known frames and being supplemented by informational technologies of the period. Being understood this way, globalization is rather often directly or implicitly connected to the crisis and dissolution of the USSR, which has given the way to USAcentric world determination, and by extreme estimations – to transference of the whole world into American super-colony (with only exception of China). According to A.S.Panarin’s mind, the main meanings of globalization ideology are the following: the position of gradual going away from all the local interests, norms and traditions, the trampling upon the state as a carrier of regionalism; the refusal from most of achievements in economics, politics and other spheres; the singling out of one side of the process – the resources planning availability to the benefit of mighty states and to the prejudice of peripheral ones and so on. Globalism appears to be as an opposition of the minority, having acquired the highest mobility, to the inert majority of people [6, p. 5-26]. And only some of the researchers define globalization, denoting «economical internationalization», «social internationalization», «cultural internationalization» and so on. Thus, according to Ju.Shishkov, globalization is a spatial characteristic of mankind’s economical life internationalization at the present stage, while today’s integration is the highest degree of just the same internationalization . G.H.Shahnazarov considers globalization and internationalization to be equal notions [8, p. 185]. To the mind of A.P.Butenko, though, there are a lot of definitions of the considered phenomena, all the authors, who write about globalization, explain it as «today’s – 380 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr M. Tajmulin. Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis form of economical life internationalization, and it was spoken about in the course of all the ХХ century» [9, p. 3]. We think that the main direction and a certain implication of the definition of globalization through internationalization are hidden in the propaganda of inevitable exit of sovereign states from the historical arena and the loss of the main democratic requirement – powerful sovereignty of the nation. The attempt to systemize different conceptions and quite different definitions of the notion of «globalization» are given in the monograph of V.P.Vawekin, I.A.Muntjan, A.P.Ursul «Globalization: What is it?», where the proper world vision is given through the notion of «globalization»: «… globalization – is… a camouflage form of globalism ideology, which uses world development objective tendencies for substantiation of egoistic national interests priorities of the modern international relation «grands», for justification of hegemonies politics in international affairs» [10, p. 76-77]. The given approach resonates with the fundamental research work of M. Deljagin, who has commented the current situation the following way: «The bitter truth for every analytics lies in the fact, that modern global contest is led by heterogeneous and partially unobservable subjects, existing on different surfaces, striving to irreconcilable targets and acting by heterogeneous methods. They are not able to understand (and sometimes even to notice) each other, because of fundamental distinctions within the system of values and the line of action, and that deprives them very often of the very opportunity to come to not a tactical, concluded for the sake of some local target, but to a long-lasting agreement» [11, p. 330]. That is why globalization research demands special efforts and is hardly possible without a systematic analysis. In the article «Globalization in a New Civilization Strategy» A.D.Ursul and T.A.Ursul pay special attention to a socio-natural vision of globalization, which, according to their point of view, «allows to understand more deeply the essential features of this civilizational and, at the same time, planetary evolutional process» [12, p. 26]. Considering globalization as an objective law, being expressed in a global integrity appropriation by the system of «man-society-nature», the authors disclose the socio-natural contradiction of the process and prove it to be caused by the market-economy centric model of unsustainable development, which lies in the basis of the modern stage of globalization. L.N.Moskvichev singles out two points of view of the modern globalization process vision: 1) globalization as an assemblage of political, economical, organizational, and cultural-ideological measures, taken by the Largest Western Economies (first of all USA) for the purpose of semination of western values, institutions, way of life and way of thinking all over the world; 2) globalization as an assemblage of objective-subjective fundamental processes, significantly changing the basis and the image of civilization and adumbrating a new stage of the mankind development. Comparing the first analysis level with the visible part of the iceberg, the author rightfully thinks globalization in its essential, civilizational key to be the main object of philosophical reflection and dedicates the major part of the work to the second analysis level. Generally, we share the given approach and consider it inevitable to single out the main qualitative distinction of globalization from the former forms of international connections. It consists in the following: being basically a complex of informational, technological and economical processes, it causes qualitative changes in other social spheres, and what is the main thing – in the way of life and thinking of huge masses of people . – 381 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr M. Tajmulin. Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis The complex essence of globalization is revealed in the articles of K.H.Dalokarov and F.D.Demidov « Globalization and the Problems of Nonlinear Civilizational Development» and V.V.Krylov «Global Transformations in the Context of Synergetic Paradigm». The authors of the first article proceed from globalization interpretation as of a becoming reality, being in the process of development and having many forms and ways of manifestation. To understand the modern stage of globalization means, to their mind, to understand the essence of civilizational transformations, taking place in the world under the influence of various factors, especially geopolitical, economical, and scientific-technological. And substantiating the thesis, that multidimensionality, complexity and difficult predictability of globalization process are the result of its openness and nonlinearity, the authors think one of the main reasons of today’s civilizational crisis to be the attempts of industrially developed countries, especially USA, to apply the linear scheme of world development in a variety of ways and to manage this complex, unstable reality from one single centre. The authors affirm inappropriateness of the linear-forceful solution to local and regional conflicts, which has become the leading practice of the last decades, and they also pay attention to the fact that, on one hand, the world is really in need of common targets elaboration for solving global problems and overcoming the crisis of basic civilizational values, but, on the other hand, its growing complexity makes it difficult to manage so complex, open and unstable systems [14, p. 56]. A.G.Volodin and G.K.Shirokov fairly underline that globalization as a many-sided phenomenon is not the result of transient or sudden changes, but a gradual, nonlinear process, with some periods of acceleration and moderation. In the course of their research work, the authors rightfully strive to «correlate economical and political aspects of globalization» [15, p. 14]. Though, other researchers, for example E.Bragina, do not quite agree with such an approach: «shall we nevertheless pay attention to the instability of most organizations and associations of this group of the countries, which have partially ceased their existence or lost their influence, when the opposition between USA and USSR has become impossible» [16, p. 201]. Resume That is why the scientific task within the considered problem is the following: to reveal the main parameters of globalism influence over the main tendencies of social progress on the basis of objective analysis of globalism phenomenon and to work out scientifically substantiated recommendations on the optimal organization of international interrelations in all the spheres of their life activity. The role of science is also to anticipate the subjectivism of the leading countries’ politicians in their ambition to speed up the evolutionary objective laws of globalism and to perform globalization at their sole discretion, and, at the same time, to anticipate the attempts of developing and hindward countries to counteract this objective process [17, p. 47]. It is also important to take into consideration that studies of globalization, as contrasted with philosophy, investigate the most general objective laws of the mankind development in its quantitative form and, what is not at all the sphere of philosophical interests, they construct quantitative models of a viable controlled world order in conditions of the anthropogenously overloaded Earth. Studies of globalization harmoniously combine fundamental and applicative investigations and research works [18, p. 57]. We can come to a conclusion, that the models of globalization, created by western sociologists and philosophers, actually suggest the transition to a structurally homogeneous society by means of structures unification and with minimal external social multiformity. Regionalization can become a real alternative to such a world order. – 382 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr M. Tajmulin. Globalization and Regionalization as Two Forms of World Order: Social-Philosophical Analysis References N.A. Kosolapov. The Role of Geopolitics in the Epoch of Globalization/ N.A. Kosolapov // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №4. E.N.Ustjugova. Globalization and Culture: the Historical Context / E.N.Ustjugova // Filosofskie nauki. – 2005. – №12. I.I.Lukashuk. Globalization, State, and Law. XXI century / I.I.Lukashuk. – Moscow, 2000. p. 1. A.N.Chumakov. Globalization. Contours of the Integral World / A.N.Chumakov. – Moscow: TK Velbi, Prospekt Publishing House, 2005. V.M.Mezhuev. Modernization and Globalization: Two Projects of «the Modern Epoch» / V.M.Mezhuev // Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. Moscow: КМК, 2005. A.S.Panarin. the Temptation by Globalism / A.S.Panarin. – Moscow, 2000. Ju.Shishkov Heterogeneity and Development Stages of Globalization Studies / Ju.Shishkov // MEiMO. – 2001. – №2. G.Shahnazarov. Globalization and Globalization Studies – the Phenomenon and the Theory. Pro et Contra / G.Shahnazarov. – Osen' 2000. Vol. 5. – №4. A.P.Butenko. Globalization: its Essence and Today’s Problems / A.P.Butenko // SocialHumanitarian Knowledge. – 2001. – №3. N.I.Vawekin, M.A.Mutjan, A.D.Ursul. Globalization and Steady Development / N.I.Vawekin, M.A.Mutjan. – Moscow, 2002. M.G.Deljagin. the World Crisis: the General Theory of Globalization / M.G.Deljagin. – 3-d revised and enlarged edition. – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2003. A.D.Ursul, T.A.Ursul. Globalization in a New Civilizational Strategy / A.D.Ursul, T.A.Ursul // Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. – Moscow: КМК, 2005. L.N.Moskvichev. Globalization – Two Analysis Levels / L.N.Moskvichev // Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. – Moscow: КМК, 2005. K.H.Delokarov, F.D.Demidov. Globalization and the Problems of Nonlinear Civilizational Development / K.H.Delokarov, F.D.Demidov // Globalization and Perspectives of the Modern Civilization / Executive Editor K.H.Delokarov. – Moscow: КМК, 2005. A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. Globalization: its Beginning, Tendencies, and Perspectives / A.G.Volodin, G.K.Shirokov. – Moscow: IV RAN, 2002. E.A.Bragina. Is Globalization Global? / E.A.Bragina // Vostok (ORIENS). – 2003. – №5. L.M.Karapetjan. About the Notions of «Globalism» and «Globalization» / L.M.Karapetjan // Filosofskie nauki. – 2003 – №3. V.V.Olen'ev, A.P.Fedotov. Globalization Studies on the Verge of ХХI Century / V.V.Olen'ev, A.P.Fedotov // Voprosy filosofii. – 2003. – №4. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 384-390 ~~~ УДК 008 The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion Tatiana A. Yakovleva* South-Ural State University, 76 Lenin, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Transition states of culture are the most interesting to scientific research. However in a cultural science has no uniform rationally built concept of transitivity. The theories of transitivity developed within the limits of natural sciences not can be complete applied to a cultural reality owing to its specificity. Therefore it is necessary to investigate specificity of culturological understanding of transitivity, to estimate possibilities of cultural science in development of adequate knowledge of a modern reality of transition. Keywords: transition state of culture, transitivity, metasystem transition, Self-reflexion, existential unity, «time-and-place» of culture, «mytho→logy» of culture. The modern culture passes through a condition which modern thinkers define as «crisis», «critical», «interepoch-making», «threshold», «transgressive» or «transitive». Already increase of such quantity of synonyms testifies to the raised research interest to this condition of culture and a society. This situation in culture possesses own difficult, original, inconsistent characteristics, and can be considered as a special transition state of culture (or as the transitive type of culture). In this condition dynamism and the internal logic of development of culture is shown. It makes given similar conditions the most interesting and significant for cultural research. The transitional state of culture is such fragment of cultural-historical process when the cultural reality has already overstepped the bounds of a former qualitatively certain cultural condition (culture type), but has not reached still * 1 the characteristic of integrity of the new type, new system level, definiteness and self-identity of new quality. The culture endures such situation today, and thus, the modern cultural condition can be comprehended only in its logician of transitivity. However it is possible to assert that there is no general theory of transitivity in a modern science. In a theoretical reflexion of a transition state of modern culture there is a situation which can be named «a hermeneutical circle»: on the one hand, initial plurality of concepts of «crisis» of the culture, increasing interest to studying of typologically similar cultural epoch, on the other hand – absence complete, rationally built the concept of transitivity or universal explanatory model, and, as consequence, absence of fundamental proceedings, monographies in this field of a science. Especially, it is possible to assert that the modern science does not own the mechanism of management of transients. Thus necessity of Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 384 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion scientific, rational, objective understanding of the validity of transition for the purpose of mastering by management mechanisms by this process does not cause doubts. But it is difficult, because a science (and especially science of culture), passing together with culture a transition state, gets to an extraordinary situation. This situation is expressed in a «crisis of true». The science is in «interparadigmal» space. Criteria of scientific character and rationality are not established or washed away. The irrational and mystical way of thinking gets into a science. Accents in understanding of the objective and subjective have changed. From the point of view of a classical science, the objective understanding of a transition state of culture is connected with necessity of theoretical abstraction from this condition. For reception of objective knowledge it is necessary to refuse subjective and emotional empathy to culture. However the condition of a finding of the researcher within the limits of a studied cultural condition calls possibility of such abstraction into question. Transitivity of modern culture leaves the mark on scientific thought The science of culture is becoming sphere of knowledge and is the form of a self-reflexion of culture. Thereby it incorporates, reflects and expresses all contradictions of a condition of modern culture. The science of culture should comprehend a reality of a modern transition state and itself in this transition, should realise own possibilities in a rationalistic reflexion of a phenomenon of transitivity and a condition of development of practical knowledge about it. Revealing of a problematics of transitivity in a context of complete vision of cultural-historical process Modern researchers understand the importance of transitive conditions for culture development. But several decades ago the similar point of view was not general. Own problematic of transitivity has appeared only in the XX-th century in which gnoseological space principles «classical», «nonclassical» and becoming «postnonclassical» paradigms are interfaced. To track history of its formation, we will address to corresponding concepts of cultural-historical process. The idea of development or evolution became unconditional achievement of classical European thought. Putting forward the concept of cultural-historical process as developments, the European philosophical thought builds two basic conceptual models: evolutionary model and dialectic model. Both these models inevitably built the vision of movement of history of a society and culture according to concept of «future» and mythologeme of «the end of way». The first model is yet capable to allocate transitive conditions as independent and self-valuable fragments of cultural history, that is why and as significant objects of a philosophical reflexion. From the point of view of evolutionary model all cultural-historical process appears as huge gradual transition from a wild primitive condition through barbarity to civilization tops. The second model allocates transitive conditions as the independent moments of development and defines them as dialectic jumps, however they contact the future condition which should be inevitable better, «more absolutely» previous that is why both «past» and jump lose own importance. «Nonclassical» cultural philosophy does not reject idea of development, tries to clean idea of «ending» and «purpose» from vision of culturalhistorical process. It considerably expands and enriches understanding of cultural-historical process, first, forcing to include in area of cultural and philosophical reflexion spatially-geographical – 385 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion aspect and to consider real variety of cultures, and secondly, helps to realise convention of any schemes created by scientific consciousness. Within the limits of a «nonclassical» paradigm the general principle «seizing» of reality in its «temporality» (V. Diltej), variability, dynamics is formulated. On this way are created the concepts which presented in proceedings of O. Spengler (the concept of cyclic development of local cultures) and A. Bergson (the concept of «a vital impulse» and a stream continuity of «pure duration»). Analyzing their ideas from the point of view of a transitivity problematics, it is possible to notice that the circuitry of cultural-historical process offered by the concept of local cultures, does not provide existence of «transitive forms» as independent, localized in time and space as «transitivity» is perceived only in categories of Evolutionism. Model of «creative evolution», the absolutising continuity of development, also does not recognize objectivity of transitive conditions, considers as their costs of human perception: transition is represented as an empty interval in a tape of «shots» of human perception as a concession of inability of daily and scientific consciousness to perceive pure duration, a life stream is direct. The nonclassical philosophical thought could not realize «transitive states» as independent yet, the moments of cultural-historical process possessing own maintenance owing to the specificity. But this transition state has been given the European consciousness in a first-hand experience of crisis of culture. Experience by culture of a transition state turns around dissociation, a fragmentariness of human consciousness, loss by the person and culture of self-identity, self-identity, selfconcentration. The complete sight at the world is necessary to the person and culture for the selfidentity maintenance. The cultural science is born as one of answers to necessity of understanding of a transition state of culture and restoration of complete vision of a reality. The culturological knowledge gets to action of a force field of a becoming «postnonclassical» paradigm. The modern model of culture is built on the basis of principles of the system approach, cybernetics and synergetrics. She allows to reveal transitive conditions as the necessary moments of cultural-historical process and to present them as the significant objects of research possessing own maintenance. If to be based on this model, it is possible to define a culture transition state as a phenomenon of a cultural reality which existence is caused, on the one hand, specificity of human perception (ability simultaneously to articulate and complete reflexion of the validity), and on the other hand, objective laws of the development of culture, as a phenomenon which visually embodies a remedial associativity previous, the past and the future, projective condition of culture. Such definition of a transition state allows to establish that connection (-distinction) between structural levels, temporal conditions of culture which is necessary for, dynamically-complete vision of cultural-historical process. The basic methodological approaches to research of transitive states of culture Aspects of studying of a phenomenon of transitivity The recognition of a phenomenon of transitivity as significant object of research has caused of its versatile and multidimensional studying. The most considerable results have been reached on positions of the Philosophicalhistorical approach, combined efforts of Phenomenology of culture and Existentialism, and also the Struktural-semiotical approach. The Philosophical-historical approach concentrates on evolutionary aspect of dynamics – 386 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion of culture. This approach applies laws of dialectic philosophy on a reality of cultural-historical process. On the basis of the analysis of concrete historical types of culture, he allows to present a transition state as independent type of culture. As criteria of allocation of actually transitive epoch are offered qualitative transformation semantic kernel of culture (its outlook, language, a myth), loss by culture of self-identity and coexistence forms, styles (that is most brightly traced in aesthetic aspect at studying of specificity of art and art creativity in the conditions of this type of culture), cultural practices, before were on culture periphery. Phenomenological tradition and culturalphilosophy of Existentialism, attaching the greatest significance to anthropological and gnoseological aspects of research of transitivity, have allowed to reveal interface in it of two levels of life: onto- and phylogenetic, personal and cultural. This correlation is seen in awakening in transitivity of own nature of thinking. As the person is considered as the subject of cultural creativity, in refusal of automatism of thinking, orientations on itself and in aspiration to understanding of unfamiliar maintenances, to sense finding the transition state essence comes to light. «Transitive» from the point of view of this approach it is realised as «boundary», than intensity of experience of transitivity and its «humanity» as the image of «threshold» is always interfaced to idea of «prestanding» is underlined: in this sense occurs some kind of absolutization of the moments of transition as moments of «original life», thereby, in understanding of transitivity it is brought valuable categories thinking and an action. The Struktural-semiotical approach, investigating mainly sign-language (semiotics) aspect of transitivity (and incorporating thus achievements hermeneutics and information theories), comprehends a transitivity situation as actualisation in culture hermeneutical situations of plurality of senses and sense interpretation, co-existing among themselves both in dialogue, and in opposition. This approach owing to most intermediary the sign nature expands concept of transitivity to almost any forms of intermediary. Mechanisms of transition are comprehended as inversion and mediation, thus inversion changes can be carried to intersystem changes, mediative changes and are, as a matter of fact, metasystem transition interesting us first of all – a birth of wider and general system level uniting some of similar systems – in semiotics treatment – a metalanguage. Besides, the reference within the limits of this approach directly to structure of human consciousness allows to consider the binarity characteristic as necessary and for the process of thinking as a whole, and for understanding of specificity of thinking in a transition situation. Research of a phenomenon of transitivity from the point of view of various approaches allows not only to prove it as significant and multilevel object of research, but also to reveal necessity of interface of various levels and aspects of understanding of transitivity more convincing. That more clearly designates prospect of necessity of synthesis of versatile knowledge in complete understanding of a phenomenon of transitivity in a context of complete vision of the culture. «Time» and «place» existential characteristics in a cultural reflexion of a phenomenon of transitivity At attempts to synthesize different levels and aspects of knowledge of a phenomenon of transitivity there is a question: what can be a basis for creation within the limits of cultural science complete concept of transitivity? If we allocate a transition state as objectively existing phenomenon of a cultural reality, as independent structure of cultural-historical process, independent type of culture such phenomenon by definition should – 387 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion possess own existential localisation and own representation about a finding in space and time, own reflexion of «place» and «time». These positions unite in concept of the existential unity («time-and-place» unity), allowing to see any condition of culture as whole. Thus, it is necessary to approach to complete studying and interpretation of a phenomenon of transitivity from a position of a recognition of presence at a transition state of own time and space, and, thereby, own semantic maintenance. The reference to phenomenology of modern culture and to modern cultural and to philosophical consciousness allows to trace specificity of a reflexion of time-space of transitivity, and to see in it actualisation of the metaphors directly connected with existential characteristics of transitivity and its semantic filling: such metaphors are: «threshold» (M. Heidegger, V. Bibler), «a crossroads of cultures» (V. Bibler, G. Knabe), «fold» (G. Deleuze), «labyrinth» (U. Eko), «emptiness» or «anything» (M. Heidegger, G.-P. Sartre), «primary chaos» (M. Eliade), «ways» and «crossroads» (F. Girenok), «intermirror-space» (V. Kruglikov), etc. In modern culture and in a modern theoretical reflexion is reproduced the archetypical circuitry of rite of passage (initiation). It allows to tell about present existence of concept of transitivity mainly as mytho-cultural-logical metaphor. The sense of this metaphor, as well as sense of transition, is realized as a meeting (interface) of various cultural forms, traditions, an expert by means of various forms of their interaction (and not just the dialogical form) in transitivity timespace. In this sense turning of culture back, in the past, can be understood as memory actualization, revival of former experience by means of which projective forms of culture arising are deduced from a latent condition. Thus, transitivity realizes the major function of initiation toward culture and the person. However experience of transition marginalizes a current state of culture, reproduces characteristics absence of distinctions (G. Baudrillard), of syncretic unity and immerses a human consciousness in atmosphere of a myth of «ends» and «beginnings». Mystification of a transitive reality it is inevitably reflected in theoretical thought that forces to ask a question on possibility and conditions of actually scientific, rational understanding of transitivity. The cultural science positions itself as essentially new science, called to synthesize knowledge of culture, to realize culture as whole. Thus, the problem of scientific understanding of transitivity puts before it. For revealing of possibilities of such synthesis it is necessary to address to the nature and specificity of culturological knowledge. Consciousness of culture in a transition state: Cultural science between a «myth» and «logos» Cultural science formation as essentially new level of humanitarian knowledge is directly connected with a transition state of a modern society and culture. Transitivity is given modern consciousness in a first-hand experience. The transition state as a reality phenomenon is perceived and endured by the person. It requires the description and an explanation. If we perceive it as a phenomenon of a cultural reality, the problem of its complete, system research is put before cultural science. The cultural science is not simply a science about culture, and it is represented as the form of a self-reflexion of culture (along with mythology, art, religion, philosophy) and as a meta- language of humanitarian knowledge. Its formation in itself is metasystem transition from languages the special humanitarian disciplines (which are studying specific spheres of culture) to formation of the uniform language. Its necessity is proved – 388 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion by requirement of understanding of logic of culture as whole. The culturological thought is capable to come nearer to understanding of a transition state of culture. The cultural science becomes the intermediary-translator, dialogue means in culture and person dialogue. It is not only language by means of which the person speaks «apropos» cultures, but it is language by means of which the person can become copresent to culture that is overcome «estrangement» from culture. At the same time, completeness and integrity (organic interrelation of elements, their strict structural sequence and accurate distribution of functions) culturological knowledge remains more likely wished today, rather than its cash condition. It is expressed in remaining uncertainty of base concepts, in neosyncretic merge of art, scientifically-philosophical, mystical, daily ways of perception of a cultural reality, and in methodological eclecticism. The cultural science as the form of consciousness of culture, certainly, possesses some integrity, but this special type of integrity. The cultural science in this sense represents more likely «mytho→logical» knowledge can be defined as «mytho→logy» of culture (the implication sign is used by us not casually). Such strange definition demands the explanatory. The term «mythology» can be used in two senses: as a science about myths and as a system of myths. To cultural science both definitions are applicable. First, positioning itself as a science about senses, the cultural science inevitably comes to the limiting basis of any sense – to a myth. Secondly, the culture becomes the main object of mystification. The culture is represented as a certain «metasubject». The culture assimilates to the person: it has a body, the soul; it lives certain age, stages of formation of the person, aspires to self-sufficiency and self-determination and possesses ability of a self-reflexion. Probably we observe a birth of a new myth. This is the Myth about culture. It helps to find integrity to culture and cultural science. This myth initiates aspiration to understanding of logic of culture. In a sense, science synthesis about culture is «primitive» and «monstrous» today. The culturological understanding of transitivity is substantially metaphoric that, however, is a necessary gnoseological stage on a way of rational understanding of a transition state. Besides, «the transitive», «intermediary» nature of the cultural science allows to assert that the culturological knowledge is not «ready» or «complete» knowledge. But it is allows the modern person most to make transition from separated, fragmentary «initial intuitions» about the world (about actually human world, that is, about culture) to forming of own outlook, pledge of unity and which integrity is integrity of the culture. Conclusion In general it is possible to tell that the global purpose of our epoch consists in not simply to overcome a transition state, but to live it, to comprehend it, to receive transitivity experience. Thus, the cultural science executes the same function, as transitivity. It is a function of an initiation. Direct experience-myth about culture provokes interest to it, and its variability clears up requirement for a rational reflexion with a view of adequate interaction with a cultural reality, with a reality of cultural transition. References V. Bibler, From the doctrine of science to a logic of culture: two philosophical introductions in the XX-th century (Moscow,1990) – 389 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tatiana A. Yakovleva. The Transition State of Culture: Problems of a Scientific Reflexion D. Carr, Place and time: on the interplay of historical points of view // Agency after postmodernism, (Middletown, Conn., 2001), pp. 153-167. Changing times: Reflections on the development of self and culture: Special issue // Culture & psychology, Vol. 6, № 2. (London, 2000), pp. 99-272. Crisis of a modern civilisation. A choice of way. The collection of reviews, edited by F. Girenok (Moscow, 1991) Culturological researches"03: the Collection of proceedings, edited by G. Schedrina, (St.Petersburg, 2003) M. Kagan, To a problem of transitive type of culture//the System approach and humanitarian knowledge: Selected articles (Leningrad,1991) А. Pelipenko, I. Yakovenko, The system of culture: Structural morphology of culture (Moscow, 1998). J. Stern, Кnowledge by metaphor // Midwest studies in philosophy, 24: Figurative language (Oxford, 2001), pp. 187-226. V. Turchin, The phenomenon of science: the cybernetic approach to evolution (Moscow, 2000) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 391-395 ~~~ УДК 130.1 Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia Michel P. Jacenko* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 In the given article we consider peculiarities of historical cognition under the conditions of globalization, of which one of the most important characteristics is a forceful interpretation of history. Here, we prove that it is performed in the interest of the subjects of globalization, i.e. leading western countries on the account of the countries of «the Second and the Third World», and that is why the ideologists of globalization are not interested in objective study of the historical Past. They use history in its eurocentric variant, in which basis there are mondialistic tendencies, justifying aggressive ambitions of globalization initiators, and the result of it becomes the menace that separate societies can loose their socio-cultural essences. In the given situation, consideration of axiological peculiarities of Russia becomes of special importance and substantiates its place in the globalized world society upon the basis of its own historical traditions. Keywords: axiological setups; «Russian way»; of historical cognition; culture globalization; westernization; internationalization; historical bases of globalization Point In the conditions of modern Russia, axiological content of historical cognition, as a quality being immanent to it, makes actual those national values, which find their social-political expression in national interests and further are concretized in national objectives, and all that defines the involvement of historical cognition in the sphere of national security of Russia. The proofs of historical experience inventory necessity in the conditions of the new world formation under the influence of globalization is also an attempt of creation of united federal European state foundation by means of conclusion of a constitutional agreement, which would take * 1 into account a gradual refusal from national parliaments and institutions. It has exactly demonstrated that it is too early to speak about one common European nation and, correspondingly, there cannot be any speaking about common European state [1, p. 12]. That is why, basing on their history, Russian citizens become more and more convinced, that there is no need to compete with modern Europe in everything. «We did a lot of our own mistake in our own history, especially in ХХ century. Do not fill our ill and recessionary society with «temptations»… May be, there is some advantage in the fact, that our people feel some more ashamed. There is its own benefit in conservatism Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 391 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko. Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia of the modern Russians. Do not transfer the struggle for human rights into the ploughing of the field of grief and emptiness of life. Today, the rights of man are much more important for us in their primeval, humanistic sense». [2, p. 3]. Exactly positive and negative conclusions (lessons) of social development in ХХ century allow peoples and countries, using their will, energy and persistency, focusing on more perfect and optimal ways of self-development . Our native philosopher N. Fedorov understood well the essence of collectivistic society and the necessity of its consolidation. He considered historical process from the point of view of «the common cause», criticizing both capitalism and socialism. Patrofication is supposed to return fathers to life, though in a new body, but in a transfigured way and having a possibility of body’s self-creation from nonorganic materials. In perspective, the humanity must learn how to control not only the movement of the Earth, its atmosphere, but the Sun system, and the Universe as well. For centuries Russia took upon itself the heavy historical duty of placation of the errant East and the agonistic West, of gathering lands and nations together, and uniting them in to one common whole. Russian state has a watch, guarding character. On its way of centuries-old assertion, it has gathered huge powers, concentrated in itself such qualities as solidarity, force, which can be and must be used for the common cause of struggle against blind powers of nature . Example Today, world historical science experiences the change of paradigms, methodological setups, becoming closer to psychology, and moving towards the history of social notions and mentalities [5, p. 149]. Inventively using the ideas of world social studies, our scientists return, but this time having weighted it more carefully and with due respect, to real (but not speculative) demands of Russia and possibilities of their realization, to the problem of alternativeness of the Russian historical process on its different stages. From the point of view of the West, peculiarity of the historical way of Russia has been quite often considered as our country’s falling out from the world-wide context, though, as a matter of fact, the striving to accumulate positive experience of Europe and Asia has meant to be quite perspective for collectivistic society. In this respect, the publishing of the volume, dedicated to Russia, of the voluminous «History of Mankind», issued under the aegis of UNESCO, – is a significant event not only for the Russian historiography, but for the entire country on the whole. For the first time Russia has been thoroughly written in to the context of the world civilization, and the fact is principally important in today’s conditions. More over, the authors have had to face a difficult dilemma, as far as the problems of integration and variability of historical process are treated differently in various theories of social development. Besides, the classical concept of modernization is also based on the version of evolutionary approach, which is not flexible enough for variable changing of history. From the point of view of leading native scientists, history is a fundamental process of human development, of which criteria are the following: betterment of the quality of people’s life, of their way of life, personal development, progress, which means people’s movement «towards welfare, conveniences, comfort, towards precise and reliable creature comforts, towards material wealth, towards cultural and spiritual development, towards personal perfection and betterment of the quality of life on the whole in all its material and spiritual manifestations» [6, p. 2]. Usage of the basic parameters data – 392 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko. Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia allows considering the history of countries and peoples as organic components of global human development. Thereat, the denoted parameters appear to be indicators of the degree of integration of separate historical currents in the panhuman process of civilization, and that principally contradicts the modern stage of globalization, which is fully based on the system of «western values». Necessity to realize a historical chance, on the basis of a collectivistic society, can be also explained by the fact that Western Europe turned out to be incapable to incarnate the Christian ideal of life integrity, as far as it has over-estimated the logical way of cognition and rationality. And up till now Russia has not managed to bring this ideal to life, because the full and all-embracing truth develops slowly by its essence and also because of the fact, that Russian people pay too little attention to development of the logical way of cognition, which, to the opinion of N. Losskij, must go together with the super-logical understanding of reality [7, p. 41]. Considering cycles of the Russian history, А. Zubov writes: «Hell and high water, which fall to the share of the society in a period of political disturbances, as a rule, generate moral reflection, causing the feeling of repentance for father’s deeds, and increasing religious moods. Before the period of disturbances, the society is characteristic of eudaimonist values, orientation for the goods of earthly life, indifference towards eternity and towards saving in God. In predisturbance time religion becomes the server of earthly wealth, its ideological supporter, loosing its self-valuable significance in the eyes of the majority, and clams up into an all-sufficient rite. And visa verse, while coming out of political disturbances religion takes the central place in life orientations… Though, growing stronger, both power, and people begin to pay more and more attention to eudemonistic tasks of political and domestic character. Gathering all the powers for restoring its previous grandeur and even insensibly surpassing it in its new annexations, Russia inevitably pays for its external powers’ growing in the gold of faith and piety, having been gathered in first decades of political disturbance overcoming. People gradually turn from the state activity goal into the means of national grandeur achievement, and the faith transforms form the pledge of Kingdom of Heaven into a consolidatingpeople political ideology» [8, p. 162]. In the conditions of globalization before historians there appear at least two problems, which concern the structure and the elements of historical action, and precisely: 1) the necessity of reconsidering of the problem of historical action subject, who forms modern development processes on the background of national state model crisis. We need define the degree and the meaning of organized elites’ activity, their confrontation and efficiency of their influence over the politics; 2) evaluation of the sovereign state conception survivability under the conditions of globalization and informational technologies development, and also establishing of the connection between the elites’ activity and «the spirit of the nation», esprit genera [9, p. 147-148]. To our mind, such approach is possible only on the basis of the dialectic approach, which realizes collectivistic axiological setups, and that is why it is important to bear in mind that «the understanding of importance of stable social interconnections and interactions as a factor, which determines, stipulates and, at the same time, limits humane activity, has not appeared immediately. It constitutes the content of many legends and myths and is an important element of any culture, especially on its initial development stages» [10, p. 81]. According to P. Boyko, under modern conditions «… the time itself becomes anti-metaphysic and anti-dogmatic, requiring an unflattering forum of dialectic mind in respect of – 393 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko. Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia philosophy of history of ХХ century.» [11, p. 18]. A certain optimism in salvation of the problems, connected to historical choice of the Russian way and the way of the whole world, is observed by most scientists in the fact that «the national historical science experiences a new fruitful period, when one can find not a re-writing, but a re-thinking of the history of Russia in the works of its best representatives» [12, p. 125]. One more important aspect appears in the conditions of globalization. Nation and citizenship in Russian interpretation have not always coincided with Western-European stereotypes. It is known, that precisely Russian pedagogical intelligentsia, basing on firm historical background, has appeared to be the carrier of ideas and traditions of international understanding and mental tolerance. Though, as it is marked by specialists, «as it has been proved by mass educational practice, upperclassmen familiarization with opposite view points of history development without necessary system of methodical operations does not always contribute to students’ integral worldview formation» [13, p. 51]. A modern historian, especially working in regions, being far from the capital, has always been an authority, a Russian nationhood keeper within the ethnic upbringing system. Native historians, especially tutors of historical disciplines, have always had their own view points of the problems, formulated by the following categories: «nation and power», «monarchy, autocracy, democracy, dictatorship in the Russian history», «democratic experience of Russia», ideas of collegiality and so on. In the conditions of values’ re-estimation, Russophobia and nationalism, the task of the historian is in the following: to keep on trying to draw historical parallels at every lesson and that gives the possibility to students to get rid of complexes («the prison of nations», «the sanguinary past» and so on.). The time has come to compile the true history of Russia . Resume We can come to a conclusion, that heuristic worldview essence of historical cognition and, as a consequence, its important moral-upbringing component finds it’s fullest expression in the modern educational-historical literature, which forms moral and social-political position of the new generation, and that defines youth’s life activity in the future. Worldview essence of historical cognition determines the process of educational variants’ creation of states’ national history on the post-soviet territory, and that is a special way of reconsideration of the place and the role of the local ethnic cultures in the past and in the present, it shows the influence of the given literature over domestic and foreign political aspects of Russian national security. Only multipolar world can stop the American globalism, revealing itself as a non-constructive and forceful imposing of its system of values to all the world society, up to the loss of its sociocultural identity, and precisely in such a world Russia has its chance not to lose its sovereignty and identity. National culture preservation and development will also help the process. Thus, general course of thinking is appropriate of all the nations, involved in historical movement; it is constant and continuous, having tendencies to growth, though, in some periods history can slow down and contain as panhuman, so individual features, being typical of every separate ethnos, though, there is one common human nature in the basis of everything. References 1. V. Zajffert. What Will Happen to European Union? / V. Zajffert // Literaturnaja gazeta. – 2006. – 22–28 February. (№ 7–8). – 394 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko. Globalization as a Form of Historical Process and Axiology of History in Russia 2. A. Cipko. The Third Medievalism / A. Cipko // Literaturnaja gazeta. – 2006. – 29 March – 4 April. 3. V. Semenov. Lessons of XX Century and The Way to XXI Century: (social-philosophic analysis and prognosis) / V. Semenov. – Moscow, 2000. 4. M. V. Arhipov. Social-Utopian Cosmism by N. F. Fedorov / M. V. Arhipov // Russia: the past, the present, the future: materials of All-Russia scientific-practical conference, St. Petersburg, 16–19 December 1996 г. – St. Petersburg, 1996. 5. A. M. Dubrovskij. Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zimin: A Difficult Way of Seeking / A. M. Dubrovskij // Otechestvennaja istorija. – 2005. – № 4. 6. The History Of Mankind: 8 volumes. Volume VIII. Russia / general editorship by corresponding member of RAS A. N. Saharov. – Moscow: Publishing House «MAGISTR-PRESS», 2003. 7. N. O. Losskij. The History of Russian Philosophy / N. O. Losskij. – Moscow: Sovetskij pisatel’, 1991. 8. A. B. Zubov. Cycles of Russian History / A. B. Zubov // Philosophical Questions. – 2003. – № 2. 9. S. I. Dudnik. History and Historical Consciousness / S. I. Dudnik // I (A. Slinin) and WE. – St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Philosophical Society, 2002. – Edition X. 10. B. F. Porshnev. Social Psychology and History / B. F. Porshnev. – Moscow, 1991. 11. Bojko P.E. The Idea of Russia in Russian Historical Philosophy. Moscow: Publishing House «Social’no-politicheskaja MYSL’’». 2006. 12. Asian Russia in Geopolitical and Civilization Dynamics. XVI–XX Centuries / V. V. Alekseev, E. V. Alekseeva, K. I. Zubkov, I. V. Poberezhnikov. – Moscow: Nauka, 2004. 13. P. A. Baranov. Tendencies of Modern Development / P. A. Baranov // History Teaching. – 2001. – № 3. 14. V. Poljakov. In Warm Blood Lenin and Tritskiy We’ve Loved. Is it the end of «Ogon’kov’s» Prompt Course of Russian History? / V. Poljakov // Literaturnaja gazeta. – 2007. – 4-10 April. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 396-402 ~~~ УДК 316.32 Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) Michel P. Jacenko* and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Modern condition of historical gnoseology is the result of a complex process of differentiation, which has been going and is going now, differentiation of historical cognition and the birth of historical science. There can be singled out two directions in philosophy of history: one of them generates knowledge, addressed to historical reality, the other is the knowledge, revealing logical structure and methodological bases of historical cognition itself. Historical gnoseology involves all the forms of cognition, all the axiological structures, which are present in common knowledge, in artistic, philosophical, political and scientific cognition. Problems appear, when we start constructing historical knowledge classifications, synthesizing empirical (or descriptive-historiographical) and theoretical levels (philosophy of history, theoretical history, sociology) of investigative activity, as far as here, the historian must possess qualities of philosopher to the full extent, be able to investigate, if not to solve a complicated knot of axiological and ontological problems. History plays a principal role in reproduction of «the collective memory», in the possibility to connect the interests of personality formation and a whole row of basic historical categories (ethnos, world society, and civilization) in history making, what acquires a special meaning in the conditions of globalization. Keywords: historical cognition; historical gnoseology; cognitive structure; dynamics of historical cognition; differentiation of historical cognition; historical bases of globalization. Point The approach, according to which development of humanity is characterized by principal integrity, is rather well-spread in science. This approach has been expressed in the evolutionistic paradigm. We may refer the formational theory to one of its variants with an element of conventionality. Classical conception of modernization is also based on the evolutionistic approach version, which is not sensitive enough to the variable changing of history. That is why the statement of E. Morena sounds rather topical: * 1 «The matter is not in the fact that we are to refuse from cognation of parts in favour of cognation of integrities or to refuse from analysis in favour of synthesis; we need to combine both of them. This is the challenge to complexity, which we are inevitably to face in the period of our planetary era». Understanding of the depth of global problems provokes in the society a challenge to uncertainty, which is first of all revealed in the loss of future: «In XX century, people found out that they had lost their future, as far as they had proved, that their future was unpredictable… Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 396 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil. Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) The future still stays open and unpredictable». Moreover, people have perceived that «history does not at all present by itself a linear evolution … history is a complicated knot of order, disorder and organization» [1, p. 16-19]. Example «Historicity» of knowledge is measured by the time of events and can be understood as its other dynamics, being different from the linear one. Thus, «the picture of history» is defined by the existential condition of conscious (epoch mentality, spirit of time and so on. Cognitive intentions of conscious are also included in the fabric of history. Thereat, social reality conditions become historical to the extent to which the situation contains the act of appearing of something new. Being used in the historical cognition, notions are more often not so strict in their logical sense. The historian more often deals with concepts instead of notions. For example, the notion of «history» itself is transformed into a concept. We may also refer to such concepts as «community», «revolution», and «farmer» and so on. They differ from their notions by their flexibility, poly-semanticity, and polyfunctionality and in this form they are not so strict in the logical scale. Problems appear, when we start constructing historical knowledge classifications, synthesizing empirical (or descriptive-historiographical) and theoretical levels (philosophy of history, theoretical history, sociology) of investigative activity, as far as here, the historian must possess qualities of philosopher to the full extent, be able to investigate, if not to solve a complicated knot of axiological and ontological problems. And as far as «the combination of qualities of a historian and a philosopher in one person is quite a rear case» [2, p. 331], moreover, these qualities in classic rationality have been referred to different types of activity – factual knowledge and theoretical knowledge – so, they are sooner turn out to be differentiated in different disciplines (proper historical disciplines and theoretical disciplines: methodology and philosophy of history), than in synthesized ones. That is why classical rationality cannot manage the dilemma of historical cognition, when it is impossible to admit without significant concessions the scientific character of descriptive historiographical works, where there are no «general compact thinking constructions (actually, theories and conceptions), able to serve for integral conceptualizations, understanding and explanation of piles of various data and facts, growing as a snow ball, there are no any «objective laws of society’s historical development» [3, p. 138] and there is not any corresponding categorialnotional apparatus. Though, a vivid image of the past is revealed in the emotional experience; and human understanding of the past senses appears already in the present. Nevertheless and unfortunately, the attention of historians is not so concentrated on revelation of new possibilities of historical cognition and creative activity conditions, which are forming the history, as on «negative consequences», erasing the border between history and literature, between objective truth (facts being proved by the references to a source) and subjective fiction (free interpretations of the facts, being not substantiated by any sources). Here, the matter is not only in the unwillingness of historians to refuse from the accustomed understanding of their «crafts», but also in their anxiety to lose their professional sovereignty, to lose the power of the historian-ideologist. Nevertheless, a new expanded interpretation of knowledge historicity vice a versa allows raising the status of historical cognition (and scientific cognition on the whole), though it presupposes modernization of the profession of a historian. On the basis of the mentioned, we formulate theses, which are beyond the limits of classical – 397 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil. Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) notions of historical knowledge and methods of its explication in other classifications: the theses about the uniqueness of historical knowledge, which is typical for various epochs upon «peculiar circumstances» and with «individual sense» (Hegel); about the non-linear dynamics of historical knowledge; about the dynamics of social reality, defined by the present time; about people, included in to the situation as agents, forming social reality; about history, self-creating through generation of senses in the present unique situations; about the possibility to act freely in a certain social situation, creating a condition-content of generation of other ideas; about organization of historical knowledge as an open system. Precisely, this is the moment, when historical knowledge becomes the means of search of possible variants of social processes’ further development, and the instrument of this search is thinking in its operation-procedural form. In this case, historical knowledge is organized in projects and forecasts in accordance with possible alternatives of situation development on the basis of chosen priorities. It is especially important, because future global changes will be so deep and so large, that none of the countries and none of the peoples on the Earth are ready and able to admit them. Some branches of industry appear, others – disappear. The most modern technologies will become useless and will be changed by new ones, yet unknown; prospering territories of today will devastate tomorrow, other lands will suffer from over-population; today’s moral virtues will become an object of mockery, and yesterday’s sins – a condition of success. That is why today the whole world is speaking about the necessity «to open oneself anew», «to invent oneself again» or at least «to understand oneself in the new world» [4, p. 28]. For example, in her search of an integral point of view of the world, L.Starodubceva considers three main means of the world cognition – theological, philosophical and scientific. At present time, as it seems to her, development and differentiation of these three spheres of knowledge have reached catastrophic proportions: «… using today the notions of «theology», «philosophy» and «science», we may not forget even for a moment that behind each of them there is a boundless spectrum of schools and trends, which are quite far from each other, but sometimes they fancifully intercrosses» [5, p. 193-194]. Nevertheless, it would be wrong to consider that integrity of humanity can be reduced to the leading constants of human existence and considered as a changeless condition, being out of history. In various epochs, humanity possessed its integrity, which differed by its quantity and quality in the content volume and revelation form. For a long time, spatial-territorial disintegration, displacement and dispersal of tribual-generic communities over the surface of the earth prevailed in the human history. This tendency was only partially controlled by direct communication of separated collectives. Transition from the appropriating economy to the producing one («Neolithic revolution» according to G. Child), from the nomadic to the domiciled way of life, vivification and growth of towns, expansion of constantly functioning communications, territories of towns and later of empires with the world supremacy messianic ideology on the basis of the idea of monotheism – all these brought to a turning point in the course of the world history, to the oncoming of «the axial time» (according to К. Jaspers). The process of divergence, detaching specialization of ethnocultural and ethno-political communities, has been gradually changed by convergence, which makes the communities closer to each other by means of universalization of methods of their reproduction, what goes most actively in the – 398 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil. Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) spiritual sphere as far as world religions are propagated. Objective domination of convergence over divergence has been fixed in the epoch of industrial civilization and capitalistic social stratum becoming. And if on the stage of stratum formation the tendency to national separation, to formation of national-regional economy, markets and states is temporarily increased, then on the ephebic stage of its development the following tendencies finally dominate: the tendency of the world economy formation (international labour specialization and cooperation), of the world market (international circulation of capital and goods) and of the states-empires of a new type, their coalitions, which share the territory of geosphere economically, politically, and ideologically among themselves. Evolutionary paradigm is opposed by multilinear theories, which followers underline the variableness of models and stages of development. The given approach has been vividly revealed in the theory of local civilizations, which pays special attention to the peculiarities of separate civilizations’ or cultures’ dynamics. In the basis of the second approach, there lies the idea of plurality of civilizational laws. Thereat, the tendencies of humanity development disappear, though the idea of historical integrity is factually eliminated. In its today’s bourgeois-liberal variant, the conception of post-industrialism does not present any real alternative to the ecologically destructive industrialism, to the instrumentally using-people attitude to the world. Though, the main danger is in the following: as globalization is now spreading in the horizon of subjective interests meeting, it leads to changing and, in its tendency, even to elimination of national cultures, which up till now have been the basis of civilizational variety of the mankind [6, p. 233-238]. Though, at present time, the content, goals and tasks of the world education are more and more falling behind of the global tendencies of the informational society’s becoming. And firstly, it is expressed in the fact that educational services have got their concrete monetary value in the result of commercialization, and that has defined a pragmatic, utilitarian approach towards education. This approach is expressed in its «being taken down to earth», in its «fixation» on solving of practical tasks. But a person, living in the modern world, is appealed to solve rather complicated and diversified problems, which demand not only professional training, but qualitative fundamental and humanitarian education as well. In this context, history acquires an exceptional position. The status of history is raised sharply in connection with the fact that today the problem of education humanitarian crisis is especially acute in the whole world. The given crisis can be overcome by means of changing of the economical consumptive paradigm for a new, humanistic one, including the sphere of education as well. In the basis of the new humanistic paradigm, there lies a powerful humanitarian component, which is able to alter the person, his world outlook, his system of values, moral and ethic attitudes, his intellect and education. In the conditions of globalization, historians face at least two problems, which concern structures and elements of historical action, they are: 1) the necessity to reconsider the problem of subject of historical action, forming the modern processes of development in the conditions of national state’s model crisis; 2) estimation of the sovereign state conception viability in the conditions of globalization and informational technologies development, and also establishment of elites’ activity connection with «the spirit of people», esprit genera [7, p. 147-168]. Modern condition of historical gnoseology is the result of a complex process of differentiation, which has been going and is going now, differentiation of historical cognition and the – 399 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil. Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) birth of historical science. Here, we can single out two directions in philosophy of history: one of them generates knowledge, addressed to historical reality, the other – knowledge, revealing the logical structure and methodological bases of historical cognition itself. Historical gnoseology embraces all the forms of cognition, all the axiological structures, which are present in common knowledge, in artistic, philosophical, political and scientific cognition. As far as «…logics of history is the first to reveal the deepest essence of the logical on the whole, it cannot be limited only by the sphere of history, but it must involve the whole world, consequently, the whole nature… but common logic of natural sciences can be only the logic, gliding along the surface of thinking, which is reduced to a meditated impression and its separating reflection, the logic, which does not take into account mutual intermediation of a flexible reality in its parts and on the whole. This kind of logic can be an abstract reflexion, which prescinds everything singular from the authentic vital integrity, isolates it in reflexion and then units it outwardly into the known integrity» [8, p. 214]. Historical gnoseology has its own specifics, which is first of all connected with the informational field multi-layerness, which concludes in itself the notion of «history». O. Shpann noticed: «History is a sensible hierarchy of periods, being in the condition of mutual correlation. These periods unfold various structural elements of the humanity, i.e. cultures, which develop various spiritual tendencies and possess different speed of unfolding and that is why they are on different stages of the unfolding process» [9, p. 359]. To the mind of L. P. Karsavin: «In its narrow and precise sense of the word, history presupposes and studies development there, where it is revealed most of all. And it does not reveal itself immediately in the material- spatial being, but with a big difficulty and with a help of certain metaphysical positions, which are presented unconsciously and instinctively by philosophically uneducated natural scientists, and systematically and reasonably by philosophy» [10, p. 81]. As we can see, quite different thinkers notice that the historical past impact on the person and the society has various aspects, especially in the conditions of globalization. All these aspects acquire high significance in the conditions of globalization. One more typical tendency of the modernity is in the following: the correlation between the social and mental history also changes in the world historical science. Poly- disciplinarian approach is becoming more and more popular. They undertake the attempts to achieve a new historical synthesis, which presupposes to refuse from the idea of the global determinism. Professional historians pay special attention to new theoretical approaches: civilizational, culturological and anthropological. Finally, all these lead to refusing from the unitary universal doctrine of historical process. In their turn, the specialists in the sphere of science theory and methodology remark that there can be singled out three levels of scientific knowledge, which differently influence on the cultural self-definition of any nation: paradigmic, methodological, and concrete-scientific. The mechanism of society’s choice of this or that historical way variant inevitably includes in itself the procedure of social-historical experience analysis, not only and not so proper one (acquired by the whole society or by its significant social strata in the course of various historical collisions), but also translated by other social systems (borrowed, acquired by other people in the same way. The second type of influence is connected with the analysis and digestion of other peoples’, states’ and cultures’ experience. The question of «external» experience efficiency, its limitations and usage still stays open. – 400 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil. Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) The presence of other people’s appropriately interpreted historical experience makes much easier for the elite, being responsible for the decision making, to render this decision to the masses. In this case, the necessity of theoretical substantiation of the chosen way is significantly reduced; sometimes, it is quite enough to give just references to the society’s sound sense and some positive examples. From the point of view of the leading native scientists, history is a fundamental process of mankind development, which criteria are: perfection of people’s life quality, their way of life, development of personality, progress, which means the movement of people «to the well-being, conveniences, comfort, to steady and reliable life necessities, to material wealth, to cultural and spiritual development, to perfection of personality and to improvement of the life quality on the whole in all its material and spiritual revelations» [11, p. 2]. The usage of basic parameters data allows considering the history of nations and countries as organic components of the mankind global development. Thereat, the mentioned parameters are used as integration degree indicators of separate historical flows in the panhuman civilizational process. On this background, the notion of «panhuman values» causes much polemics. Resume Some scientists consider, «the principle of panhuman values priority is not simply a wish of good or a phrase-mongering statement, but it is an axiological imperative, … and the mankind will cease its existence without it»[12, p. 96,97]. Though, most of the Russian modern philosophers doubt such a presentation of the problem, as far as it goes against history, first of all. «And what concerns the theory of panhuman values, which exaggerates the meaning of individualistic society’s ideals and life standards, it is internally indefensible in the given exaggeration. Firstly, the valuable is something, always concerning the relation to the subject from the number of many subjects; consequently, the valuable excludes the panhuman. Secondly, axiological, using relation to the world content is one of the possible relations to it, and that is why, being traditional for the West, such relation actually turns out to be inappropriate in other regions of the word, particularly there, where there is traditionally a more far-seeing attitude to the internal and external world of people. Thirdly, axiological relation to the content of the world is veiled by the position of the world unapprehensiveness; it is a cynical contemptuous attitude to the objective laws of nature and society (in particular, to the laws of objective dialectics), to the laws of micro- and macrocosmos. Fourthly, axiological relation to the world content and pragmatism and egoism imposing to the whole world have brought in practice to expansion of the planet tragedy under the name of global problems of the modernity. And it has become obvious, that it is impossible to solve the mentioned global problems from the position of the world content axiological relation» [13, p. 264]. Thus, history plays a principal role in reproduction of «the collective memory», in the possibility to connect the interests of personality formation with a whole row of basic historical categories (ethnos, world society, civilization) in historical making, what acquires a special meaning in the conditions of globalization. References 1. E. Morena. Cognation Principles of the Complex in the Science of XXI Century.// The Challenge to Cognation: Modern World Science Development Strategies /Executive editor: N.K.Udumjan. Moscow, 2004. – 401 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michel P. Jacenko and Ivan А. Pfanenshtil. Globalization as an Object of Study (Historical Aspect) 2. M.A. Kisel. Philosophy of History // The Modern Western Philosophy. Moscow,1991. 3. N.S. Rozov. Theoretical History – Its Place in the Social Cognition, Principals and Problematics / N.S. Rozov // The World of Piece. Almanac. Edition 1: Historical Macro-Sociology of XX Century / under the editorship of N.S. Rozov. Novosibirsk, 2000. 4. A.I. Jur'ev. Political Psychology of Terrorism / A.I. Jur'ev // The Philosophical Sciences. – 2005. – №10. 5. L. Starodubceva. The Opinion of Linnaeus, or the World through the Lenses of Speculations / L. Starodubceva // The Second Navigation: Almanac. – Zaporizhzhia: The Wild Field, 2006. – №6. 6. Ch.S. Kirvel', V.I. Strel'chenko. Globalization of Education and Social Strategies of the Modernity / Ch.S. Kirvel', V.I. Strel'chenko// The Dialogue of Generations and Cultures in the Context of Globalization: Materials of the International Conference «The Conflict of Generations in the Context of Informational Globalization». St. Petersburg, The Polytechnic University Publishing 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. House, 2007. S. I. Dudnik. History and Historical Conscious / S. I. Dudnik // I (A. Slinin) and We. – St. Petersburg: The St. Petersburg Philosophical Society, 2002. – Edition X. Je. Trjol’ch. Historicism and its Problems / Je. Trjol’ch – Moscow: The Attorney, 1992. O. Shpann. Philosophy of History. St. Petersburg: The St. Petersburg University Publishing House, 2005. L. P. Karsavin. Philosophy of History / L. P. Karsavin. – St. Petersburg, 1993. The History of Humanity: 8 volumes. Volume VIII. Russia / Executive Editor: corresponding member of RAS A. N. Saharov. – Moscow: «MAGISTR-PRESS» Publishing House, 2003. L. N. Stolovich. About Panhuman Values / L. N. Stolovich // The Questions Of Philosophy. – 2004. – № 7. N.M. Churinov. Perfection and Freedom. / N.M. Churinov. Krasnoyarsk, 2001. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 403-414 ~~~ УДК 78.01 ( 470 ) About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi – the Beginning XVII Centuries Nikolaj P. Parfentjev* Southern-Ural State University, 76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Historical conditions in Russia of XVI century have prepared growth in a society of interest to creativity of musical – written chanting art’s masters of various regions. Ancient historical writings and documents show, that the special aura of reverence surrounded the name of Moscow master Feodor Krest’ janin. Studying of this composer’s (raspevshik) and teacher’s (didaskal) life and activity history shows, that he was one of the most outstanding representatives of professional – musical art of Russia XVI – the beginnings XVII centuries. The high natural gift, the received knowledge at the best teachers, acquaintance to outstanding masters of that epoch and their products have allowed him to develop own creativity and to deserve a recognition at contemporaries. Not casually, Russian tsars, since Ivan Terrible, trusted training and education of the chanting clerks (diaks) to him. The history of opening chants in Krest’ janin’s singsongs shows indefatigable interest of researchers to them. However only few from the outstanding master’s creations are investigated till now. Keywords: ancient (old) Russian musical – written chanting art, data on activity of masters, author’s creativity Feodor Krest’janin’s (Christianin) name is, perhaps, the most known and today among masters of old Russian musical-written chanting art. For the first time researchers have learned about activity of this master-composer (raspevshik) in 1846, when the well-known writing on history of the Russian music was opened, written at participation of Krest’janin’s pupils – «Foreword, from which and from what time the beginning was of eight-echoes chanting in our Russian ground». Then «the ancient book» in which there was «Foreword» «was delivered» by V.D. Piskarev to M.P. Pogodin, issuing magazine «Moscvitianin» («Muscovite»). It was told in the ancient author’s writing about activity of Russian raspevshiks – * 1 among which Feodor Krest’janin’s (Christian) name was especially allocated. At once the publisher has estimated highly the value of the found narrative source for the old Russian churchchanting art history and has hastily published it in a little bit reduced kind, having undertaken unsuccessful arrangement of punctuation marks and having admitted discrepancies in statement of the text (Pogodin, 1846, 173-174). V.M. Undol’skiy’s work, devoted to the publication of sources on the «history of church chanting in Russia», has appeared in the same year. The scientist has anticipated these sources by «remarks» in which brief, but documentary proved history of old Russian musical-written Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 403 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… chanting art has appeared for the first time. He has anew published «Foreword», except for archival documents, having noted, that it is reproduced by M.P. Pogodin «not absolutely truly». V.M. Undol’skiy has specified, that the list published by him is found out in the manuscriptcollection which was the Goritskiy monastery archimandrite Feodosiy’s private book. In opinion of the scientist, «Foreword» is written «about middle of XVII century», and frequently used expression «we are sinful» testifies, that it has come from clergy environment. (Undol’skiy, 1846, 6-8, 19-23). So the name of the outstanding Russian master-raspevshik Feodor Krest’janin has come in a science together with «Foreword». Since then Krest’janin was mentioned in works about ancient church znamennoe (neumatic) chanting, according to the data available in «Foreword», as the author of singsongs, serving at tsar Ivan Terrible court. Sometimes groundless assumptions, expressed character of his court service, are extended in the subsequent works. Scientists addressed to studying «Foreword» and publishing its new lists too, specified dating its creation. Reference of its occurrence time to 20-30 years of XVII century is the most convincing to us (Smoljakov, 1980, 53-58; Protopopov, 1989, 21-23). The features of Krest’janin’s creativity have interested researchers too. Already I.P. Saharov has noted, that «new epoch of the Moscow church chanting» is connected to his name, and there is the historian’s task to define a circle products of this chanting, to show their independence and influence on Russia (Saharov, 1849, 60-61). D.V. Razumovsky, attentively having studied other outstanding musical-historical resource – «The Notice… for wishing to study in chanting» (see. Parfentjev, Guseynova, 1996), has found out, that Krest’janin and other masters at chanting of some signs of the notation gave them own «local value»; contemporaries knew authors of melodies, specifying in manuscripts their «residence»: «Krest’janin’s chanting (raspev), named differently Moscow» (Razumovsky, 1868, 162, 189). S.V. Smolensky marked, working with ancient chanting manuscript collections, that «Usol’skiy» singsongs (raspevs) were especially ratified in them (Smolensky, 1887, 8). V.M. Metallov mentioned in his works «Krest’janin’s translation» among numerous musical «translations» of the chants, appeared in second half of XVI century, too. (Metallov, 1915, 47-48). Later scientists began to specify an exact site of chants, entering them in a scientific revolution, accompanying with remarks and comments, offering the technique of their analysis (Brazhnikov, 1974; Guseynova, 1980; Frolov, 1981; Parfentjeva, 1997). Let’s note it was not kept almost documentary sources about Krest’janin’s life and activity. Therefore the basic data on him are in written resources of narrative character, musicaltheoretical treatises, marks, accompanying his products in chanting manuscripts. The story about master represents special value among narrative sources in already mentioned «Foreword, from which and from what time the beginning was of eight-echoes chanting in our Russian ground». We learn about events of the early period of Feodor Krest’janin’s life from this source. And informed data have exclusive reliability as find acknowledgement in numerous sources, including documentary. As follows from «Foreword», Feodor Krest’janin «told his pupils, that there were the old masters in Great Novgorod – Sava Rogov and his brother – Vasily, in monasticism Varlam – by origin korelyane [from town Korela]. Also see that then Varlam was metropolitan in Great Rostov. He hold in reverence and was the man of wisdom very much, he was the great chanter, the raspevshik and the creator of znamennoie and three-lines and demestvennoie [styles] of – 404 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… chanting. And his brother Sava had pupils: priest Feodor betrothed the Christian, and Ioann Nos, and Stefan nicknamed Golish» (citing on: Parfentjev, 2003, 47). We do not know, what place Feodor Krest’janin was from, but the initial stage of his chanting activity, connected, as it is seen, to Great Novgorod, to Savva Rogov’s school of church chanting, where the future master comprehended professional subtleties of art. Undoubtedly, Savva Rogov was one of the best teachers in the Russian state of that epoch. In «Foreword» his pupils are listed who could play an outstanding role in development of Russian medieval music and its basic art directions – schools. Skill of the future master was formed, first of all, in creative dialogue with all these people. Feodor Krest’janin’s teacher Savva Rogov and his brother Vasily occurred from Korela – the second-largest city of the Novgorod ground. There were 267 court yards in the beginning of XVI century and Russian population lived basically – the trading quarter’s and war people, nobility, clergy and others (Chechulin, 1889, 35). There is opinion meeting in the scientific literature that brothers were on Karelians nationality, but it is hardly truly. We can not fix exactly, when they have lodged in Novgorod and when Savva’s pedagogical activity began. It is possible to believe, taking into account all data on well-known Savva’s pupils, that they stayed in his school approximately at the end of 30 – first half 40-th years of XVI centuries. Vasily Rogov, comprehending subtleties of chanting art, most likely, also at senior brother Savva, has taken of monastic vows and also new name Varlaam soon after that (but not later the beginning of 50th). Obviously, they were close on age with Feodor Krest’janin. Anyway, hardly Varlaam was more senior than Feodor for 3-5 years. Outstanding Krest’janin’s abilities to mastering not only usual, but also the musical letter, found out in Savva Rogov’s school, have allowed him to begin church career. As against Varlaam he carried out the service in the environment of secular clergy. There were important changes in life of both masters in the beginning of 60th. Varlaam became the Father-Superior (1560-1561, 1563-1564) of one of the largest northern Russian monasteries – Kirillo-Belozerskiy (Nikol’sky, 1910, 162). Approximately then Feodor Krest’janin should receive a dignity of «priest» as under that time legislation the applicant could be accomplished to take up the duties of priest not earlier achievement by him of thirty-year age (see: Stoglav, 1911, 59). Further Varlaam Rogov’s life was filled with various events. With approach in Russia «oprichnina» (Ioann Terrible’s terror) time, he deserted Father-Superior post in 1564 and «has departed on rest», living as simple singer of choir («he was the great singer») first in Zosimo-Savvatieva hermitage, then in Kirillov monastery (Stroev, 1870, 55; Parfentjev, 1991а, 35). However he has called up to become the Father-Superior of Solovetskiy monastery in 1569. Frequently Varlaam went from here to Novgorod, sometimes – to Moscow «to Tsar». He went round and monastic ancestral lands, collecting in treasury «salt» and other monetary incomes. The established sum – 20 altin (0,6 rubles) – was brought by Varlaam in 1578 in monastery treasury for «sorokojusti» – «after his brother, Sava», on reading of prays within 40 days from the date of Savva’s death. Thus, monastic documents inform us the date of Sava’ death who was Feodor Krest’janin’s and other outstanding masters’ teacher of chanting. Some years later, Solovetskiy monastery’s elder Protasiy has received 10 rubles and «was sent to see off up the ex-Father-Superior Varlam to Kirillov monastery» in June, 1581 (see: Parfentjev, 2003, 48). Varlaam Rogov has gone through the senior brother and the teacher for 25 years. For this time – 405 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… he was again, and twice, the Father-Superior of Kirillo-Belozerskiy monastery (1581-1582; 15841587), and also he was appointed as archimandrite of Christmas monastery in Vladimir (1583). This monastery was playing an outstanding role in politics and culture of that time. At last, he was put in archbishop of Rostov in 1587. He participated in this dignity in 1589 in Moscow in election of the first patriarch of Russia, and was erected by the patriarch in the Rostov’s metropolitan in the same year. Varlaam Rogov was presented and on the Moscow synod of 1598, where Boris Godunov was elected as Russian tsar, and has undersigned on the back of the affirmative letter. He has died March, 25, 1603 and was buried in Rostov’s Assumption cathedral (about him see also: Protopopov, 1995, 143-148; Parfentjevа, 1997, 87-124). Varlaam Rogov’s chants, obviously, were sung the first by choruses of headed by him monasteries, and later – by archbishop’s chorus of Rostov. We shall remind, it is marked in «Foreword», that Varlaam was the great church singer, the composer (raspevshik) and the «creator» of the «znamennoie» and three-lines and «demestvennoie» chanting. Hence, the master created chants not only in usual style of Znamenniy singsong («raspev»), but also in Demestvenniy style raspevs as monody as threelines polyphonic. Master’s life was connected more all with Kirillo-Belozerskiy and Solovetskiy monasteries. It is quite possible, that there are also his creations among chants of anonymous Kirillovskiy and Solovetskiy singsongs. Frequently Varlaam was in Moscow, being the chapter of large Russian monasteries, and then one of the most significant dioceses, participating in church synods, in affairs of nation-wide value. Undoubtedly, he met Feodor Krest’janin here who was taking place in those time on court service, and his pupils who showed interest to «Varlaamovskiy» singsongs of chanting. However we shall return to «Foreword» in which it is spoken also, that «Ioann Nos and Ctefan Golish» have passed training to chanting art in Great Novgorod at Savva Rogov together with Feodor Krest’janin. Stefan Golysh, named the last in this number of masters, having left Novgorod, «came through the towns ant taught pupils in the Usol’skaia region. And he lived in Stroganov’s estate and taught Joann Lukoshko, who has taken of monastic vows and also new name Isaya. His teacher Stefan Golish has sung (and explained) a lot of Znamennoie chanting. And his pupil Isaya has extended and filled a lot of Znamennoie chanting too». The becoming a special creative direction in a sacred music of Russia XVI–XVII centuries was connected with names of both outstanding masters, Stefan Golish and Ivan (Isaya) Lukoshkov, about whom it is written down in «Foreword» from Feodor Krest’janin’s words. This creative direction is named as the Usolskaja (Stroganovskaja) school of «masterchanting». Activity and creativity the masters of this school are appreciably investigated (see: Parfentjev, 1985; Parfentjev and Parfentjevа, 1993; Parfentjevа, 1997). Data on Ivan Nos was kept very little. He was one more Feodor Krest'janin's associate on the Novgorod period of life. Probably, he, as well as Stefan Golish, went «through towns», being engaged in training to chanting art or any other work which the competent person could carry out right after training at Savva Rogov. There were to us data on activity certain «young» monastic servant Ivan Nos in documents of one of the most important monasteries of Russia – IosifoVolokolamskiy. It is quite probable, that the known subsequently master-raspevshik and this monastic employee – one person. Iosifo-Volokolamskiy monastery was based in 1479 near to Moscow. It became very quickly one of the centers appreciably influencing political – 406 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… and cultural life of Russia. Monastic scribes – copyists, writers-publicists were especially glorified. The monastery contained a large-scale enterprise, having many villages and crafts, did business following precepts of saint Joseph (Sanin), who was the founder, the ideologist and the defender monastic landed properties. Monastic elders knew various branches of a facilities. The competent people, but not being by monks, were employed for supervision of a separate villages facilities. Usually they were called «monastic servants», less often – «bailiffs», «stewards». They were appointed in this or that village to strictly certain term after which expiration were sent in other village. So, November, 26, 1548 monastic treasurer Lavrentiy «gave keys» to servants, including «in village Otchishevo to Ivan Nos – a key as was for icon painter Vasiliy, term was spring saint Nicolas day». This archival record is Ivan Nos’s first mention in monastic documents. It is interesting, that he has replaced on service of an art trade representative – the master-icon painter. Nos has given out salaries about 40 altins (1,2 rubles) in April, 1549 among «young servants». He was appointed in different villages (Ivanovo, Lukovnikovo, Novoe) in subsequent time. Sometimes he was trusted with reception of the serving staff’s salaries – the yard keeperdvornik’s and woman-dvornik’s, «stokers’». The service at a monastery brought to its servants not bad incomes (for example, monastic servants’ monetary contributions made 90-100 rubles for record in the remembrance of the dead book – «to remember in the daily list how long the monastery stands»). Ivan Nos was mentioned in IosifoVolokolamskiy monastery’s documents the last time in February, 1557, when his ordinary service life has expired and another servant was appointed in village Novoe. We have not found out of data on him in monastic documents of further time (see: Parfentjev, 2003, 50-51). It is only marked in the inventory of monastic library in 1573, that Nos has given chanting book «Heirmologion» as the contribution (Lihachev, 1991, 89). But it was impossible to establish, when the contribution is made. The following data on Ivan Nos concerns already to time of their joint stay with Feodor Krest’janin in Alexandrovskaya large village. According to «Foreword», Feodor Krest’janin, probably, was familiar in the Novgorod period of life and with one more outstanding raspevshik, about whom he has told the pupils the following: «And Psalter was sung in Great Novgorod. Somebody was monk named Markel Bezborodiy, and he has sung it. And he has combined Kanon in honor of Novgorod archbishop Nikita, Kanon is graceful». Markel Bezborodiy, except for Psalter, «has put» on «Krukovaya» (neumatic) notation sticheras and glorifications and divine services from September up to the end of August in honor of «new» Russian saints, who were canonized in XVI century. We have known about it under the certificate of other source (Findeyzen, 1928, 139). Very few data were kept about Markel Bezborodiy. He has created Savva Storozhevskiy’s hagiography, not later 1552, being already the monk, on «command» of All-Russia metropolitan Makariy. Markel accompanied to Moscow with Novgorod archbishop, who participated in Novgorod-Hutinskiy monastery’s Father-Superior introducing into the place of Kazan archbishop in 1555. The master was put as the prior of this monastery after returning. Markel has left «on rest» in Antoniev monastery in October, 1557, having left the post. In this monastery he has stayed 6 months and has written hagiography and Kanon in honor of Nikita Novgorodskiy (which Feodor Krest’janin estimated as «it is very graceful») then has gone to Moscow. It is not known about the Moscow period of master’s life. Probably, he was much more senior than Krest’janin and his associates and has died soon – 407 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… after arrival capital (see also: Stroev, 1870, 50; Bilinin, 1985, 224-226; Parfentjev, 1991а, 33-34). Feodor Krest’janin has noted composition of singing variant Psalter in Markel Bezborodiy’s creativity not casually. It is known, that pupils were trained in the letter under texts Psalter since olden days. Brief, but capacious verses-psalms under the maintenance of cognitive and moral value were quickly remembered together with their spelling. This property of chants, apparently, should promote acceleration of mastering musical notation too. «Psalter chanting» was masters-teachers in training. Feodor Krest’janin has sung in own way some lines of psalms later, drawing of the Moscow chanting clerks («diaks»)’s attention by this. We marked the chanting masters whose creative activity has influenced Feodor Krest’janin already in Great Novgorod. He will meet some of them and further. The circle of masters, certainly, is not full. The following period of Feodor Krest’janin’s life is connected not simply with Tsar’s Court, but with master’s sojourn in Alexandrovskaya large found frequently in manuscripts, since second half of XVI century. It represented the chanting of elected verses from psalms of kathismas 1-8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20. As a rule, all of them were included completely in special section of the daily chanting book «Obikhod». Till now it is not revealed indications that these church chants are set to music by Markel Bezborodiy. But, as notices N.D. Uspensky, «there are not any certificates on other chanting masters’ work above Psalter» (Uspensky, 1973, 154-155). Markel’s creativity has fallen to that time of XVI century, when the authorship of products was not yet accepted for specifying. The analysis of the «kathismas» cycle, undertaken by N.D. Uspensky, shows, that outstanding master worked above this cycle, reached a high degree of intonational expressiveness and owning as various art means. The number of composite principles allows to recognize «Psalter chanting» as the manual too. It is interesting, that the Moscow Synod «Stoglav» (1551) has decided to give children to schools «on the training to the letter and on the training of book writing, and church Psalter chanting and church reading» (Stoglav, 1911, 60). Probably, Markel Bezborodiy has sung the Psalter till 1551, and metropolitan Makariy, preparing decisions of the Synod has had time to get acquainted with it too. Obviously, «Psalter chanting» was used by village. It is marked in «Foreword» especially, that «that Joann Nos and priest Feodor Krest’janin» lived during tsar Ivan Vasil’evich and were «with him in his favorite village, in large village Alexandrov» (see: Parfentjev, 2003, 53). «Tsar Ivan Vasil’evich’s favorite village» – the future Alexandrovskaya large village – has arisen for a way from capital in the TrinitySergiev monastery. Grand-ducal palace and main, Pokrovskiy, cathedral were built up here in 1508-1513. Grand duke Vasily III, father of tsar Terrible, has celebrated house warming «in a court yard came» in December, 1514. Henceforth he frequently was here, making trips on prayer to Pereslavl and the Trinity-Sergiev monastery. The large village called «Alexandrov New Village» up to the middle of XVI century (Stromilov, 1883, 6-26). Ivan Vasil’evich was here also frequently after death of parents in environment court. For example, the heroes of Livonskaya war were celebrated here in 1558. As is known, Ivan Terrible, having left Moscow, has moved finally to the «favorite village», Alexandrovskaya large village, in December, 1564. Oprichnina’s horrors were imminent in Russian and the large Village became its actual capital. There was a well-known chorus of tsar’s chanting diaks in structure of the Court. New «from the common people» tsar’s servants were pulled here. There is nothing surprising, – 408 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… that Feodor Krest’janin whose nickname gives out his «low» social origin has appeared here (the word «Krest’janin» – in Russian as Peasant). Tsar Ivan had his residence in Alexandrovskaya large village, continuing war with Livonia. Frequently he left to Great Novgorod in second half 60 – the beginning of 70th, where «assiduously prayed» in local churches, was engaged «in the order of regiments» and eradication of «treason» (Karamzin, 1845, 69). Chanting diaks chorus accompanied with tsar on such trips also. So, under the certificate of The master took the fourth place in staff of his associates and his monetary salary was the third on the sizes. However he was named with a patronymic, that, undoubtedly, testifies, that by then he had significant authority at court. Probably, Ivan Nos appeared on tsar’s service before Krest’janin and his age was a little bit more senior than Krest’janin’s age. It is known from «Foreword», that he has sung «Triodion», and also «many sticheras and slavniks in honor of saints», «bogorodichni and chrestobogorodichni» from chanting book Menaia in the large Village. annals, «Moscow diaks» sang kanons and many verses being with tsar Ivan in Novgorod, July, 23, 1571 during procession with icons, and then they «sang bogorodichni (in honor of the Virgin) chants» in the Sofia cathedral (see: Parfentjev, 2003, 53). Obviously, tsar has got acquainted with Feodor Krest’janin’s chanting art during such trip, having taken then him in the large Village. Priest Feodor, most likely, was determined on service in tsar’s «domestic» Troitskiy (Trinity) church which was a place of the basic service tsar’s chanting diaks in the large Village (in Moscow they served at tsar’s domestic Blagoveshchenskiy (Annunciation) cathedral). We do not know whether Feodor Krest’janin was accepted on tsar’s service before Ivan Nos. By later documents, Nos was taken at the tsar’s «chrestovie» diaks staff, who were carrying out chanting and other functions in time of tsar’s «domestic pray» in his apartments or in special chamber («Chrestovaya») as against Krest’janin, having a church dignity (about «chrestovie» diaks staff is more detailed, for example, see: Parfentjev, 1991б, 54-55). The only one master was named full name – Ivan Jur’ev Nos – from nine persons in a regular list of «chrestovie» diaks from March, 20, 1573 (Al’shits, 1949, 35). Tsar Ivan «has marked» to him «the salary» as monetary in 10 rubles and «for cloth» in 48 altins (1,44 rubles). However it is not found any this master’s singsongs in chanting manuscripts. Most likely, time of their creation does not leave for frameworks of XVI century, therefore they have filled up anonymous chants circle. Awakening of interest to author’s creativity has fallen to the beginning of XVII century. Its active formation at court choristers is connected to Krest’janin’s name, with his activity in Moscow directly. Under the certificate of «Foreword», Krest’janin, after stay in the large Village, «was famous and great master of Znamennoie chanting here in capital city Moscow and many pupils were taught by him». The basic place of Krest’janin’s service became tsar’s Blagoveshchenskiy (Annunciation) cathedral with crossing the Court to Moscow. The best in Russia masters of «a chanting affair» – tsar’s singing diaks – were looked after Krest’janin. He created the singsongs for their chorus, trained young singers. The authority of melodos and teacher was huge among diaks. They named him «teacher», «master». His from common people nickname Krest’janin (Peasant) was replaced with more general «Christianin» at Court. The kept records of the chants and their fragments were written by one of chanting diaks. Sometimes they were accompanying rather vast notes, which give representation how Feodor Krest’janin’s activity proceeded at tsar’s diaks – 409 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… chorus. The records dated concern to 1598-1607, covering the last decade of the master’s life. Probably, choristers of the main chorus of Russia spent the most part of time on service. There was special «chanting chamber» at the Tsar’s Court Yard where diaks were at o’clock when were not borrowed with performance of the duties. Singers had a rest and worked in this chamber, filling up the repertoire of chants and singsongs, writing out and learning by means of the master vast «explanations by simple signs» (razvods) of complex signs and melodic formulas. They received «food and drink» here quite often, wrote «state chanting translations». Training young choristers to the letter and chanting art was carried out usually in the other room (Parfentjev, 1991б, 103). The alive atmosphere of all event in «chanting chamber» is transferred with the mentioned records also. So, diaks sang some chants in November, 27, 1598 under Feodor Krest’janin’s direction for mastering razvods of complex signs and formulas, and also, most likely, special «master’s marks», specifying a high-altitude parity of neumas-signs and occuring in the court choristers’ environment too. As the first example it was executed the end of slavnik (variety of stichera) by 8-th echos «Dushepoleznuyu sovershivshe» – a line «Prihodya vo imya Gospodne tsar Izrailevo» with vast razvod of the last word (59 signs). «The master has told about this singsong: That is fita [kind of formula] gromoglasnaya [loud voice]». This slavnik was executed on divine service in Lazar’s Saturday, in eve of Palm Sunday, on the sixth week of the Great Post, in the spring. Its singing in November had, obviously, educational character only (see: Parfentjev, 2003, 55). Studying of ancient chanting manuscripts shows, that razvod’s lists of this slavnik appeared not earlier the beginning of XVII century. Chanting practice and especial training of young singers is have demanded from teachers not only «oral» transfers of skills in singing of the complex melodic formulas, but fixation of their razvods directly in records of chants also. Author’s features of these razvods were shown clearly now, appreciated by pupils and the more broad audiences of contemporaries, becoming one of conducting creative principles of chanting masters (raspevshiks). (see: Parfentjevа, 1997). Razvod’s records of the slavnik «Dushepoleznuyu sovershivshe», having various variants of singsongs, have appeared even at Feodor Krest’janin’s life. These records are executed by Christofor – the known theorist of chanting art, the chanter of Kirillo-Belozerskiy monastery’s choir in 1604. Monk Christofor has placed in the collection of his writing two singsongs of the slavnik (without the note and in style of «the Big neumas»), and also separately its «end» executing «on an arbitrariness», at will (Brazhnikov, 1983, 145, 275). We shall note, that the melodic maintenance of all three variants of the slavnik’s final line from Christofor’s collection differs from variant, «sung» by Feodor Krest’janin with chanting diaks. It gives us the basis to assume, that the master showed to court singers an own singsong of the «fita gromoglasnaya (loud voice)». The razvods, which have appeared after Krest’janin, differ from its variant (1598) also, however it is possible to find out in them the melodic sites close or identical to the master’s singsong. It is obvious, then, November, 27, 1598, after slavnik’s line diaks «sang» two evangelical sticheras – 5-th and 10-th (accordingly on 5-th and 6-th echos). Both church chanting are given also in record in the most detailed statement with disclosing the melodic maintenance not only «litso» and «fita» formulas, but also complex signs, and sometimes from above their tracings. Other chanting diak’s records, who carefully collected that Krest’janin performed (including – 410 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… his own products), also specify, under what circumstances and when it was possible to fix church chanting. Undoubtedly, they deserve careful studying in a context of old Russian chant hand-written tradition. There are some of marks accompanying records: «the Master sang, Christianin, summers 7108  March 21», «These additional heirmoses [kind of chants] are taken at Krest’janin, and he wrote them himself, and the znamia [neumas] was imposed on them by him again» (1606); «the Master sang so in 7115 », «This [chanting] was sang by Christianin, and I has put [neumatic] znamia»; «the Master sang all verse in 4-th echos, the end – in 8-th echos»; «August, 7115  in 4 day, Tuesday, Christianin sang so to pupils» (see: Parfentjev, 1991а, 97). Christianin’s sons Feodor and Ivan are mentioned in a number of records as followers of their father’s affair: «This verse is taken at Christianin, znamia [neumatic notation] of his son Feodor, and he made the razvod»; «Young Feodor has given him his hand written Fitnik [Phytnik; «fitas» or «phyts» formulas collection]»; «The son Feodor sang so… the son Ivan sang so… the Master himself sang so… ». Most likely, «young» Feodor was the Master’s senior son. He was registered on deacon of the same Blagoveshchensk (Annunciation) cathedral where Krest’janin served as the priest. In January, 1585 Tsar Feodor has welcome him cloth that he «proclaimed» the Acclamations chants for many tsar’s years in 1584-1585 «on hours» in Christmas and Christening (Additions, 1846, 197). It was kept his singsong in the mentioned records for 1607 – the «stichera» devoted to «Three prelates», – «Pokrovo tvoi Prechistaya» (see: Parfentjev, 1991а, 97). The second Krest’janin’s son – Ivan Feodor son Popov (of Priest), was registered in 6-th, «little», «stanitsa» (part of tsar’s chorus), among chanting diaks teenagers, beginning career, in 1584-1585. He has served in this chorus till 1635, participating in chanting during ceremonies of the state value, for example, on Vasily Shujskiy’s and Michael Romanov’s crownings, on Patriarch Filaret’s «taking holy orders», in time of «tsar’s pleasure» – weddings, christenings of successors etc. The master’s son is mentioned among singers who «learned to chant small chanting diaks» since 1617 (Parfentjev, 1991б, 332-333). Rough events of the beginning XVII century have not bypassed Feodor Krest’janin also. He had to participate in some of them. He becomes archpriest of the Blagoveshchenskiy (Annunciation) cathedral by May, 1606 and, hence, according to ancient tradition – the tsar’s confessor. The throne was occupied by PseudoDmitriy at this time. His wedding was held May, 7. Among others archpriest Feodor invited PseudoTsar in the Uspenskiy (Assumption) cathedral, prepared for ceremony, and, having taken off from himself chasuble, transferred «crown» from a palace there. After the termination of liturgy he has made a ceremony of wedding (Parfentjev, 1991а). Krest’janin’s name is not mentioned in documentary records after 1607. Obviously, it was the last year of his life. Training Tsar’s singers, all more deeply comprehending bases of chanting art, Feodor Krest’janin, as well as others Russian teachers, created own singsongs, and also razvods (interpretation) of complex musical formulas and separate «lines» of chants. All this was recognized at his contemporaries. Products of the master were distributed in lists of the first half of XVII century. Perhaps, there was no such old Russian chanting book on which elite church chants he would not create the own versions of singsongs. Slavniks from chanting book Sticherarion liturgical cycles on great holidays have involved master’s attention. There were, first of all, slavniks: «Honestly your Christmas» («Vsechestnoe tvoe Rojdestvo») to Christmas of the Virgin, «David – 411 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… proclaim» («David provozglasi») to Introduction of the Virgin in the Temple, «In the manger there was settled» («Vo vertepo voselilsja») to Christmas of Jesus, «Troparias Jordanian» («Tropari Iordanskiya») to Epiphany. Krest’janin also has wrote the variant of singsong for Russian hymnography poets’ verse in honour of princes Boris and Gleb «Will come new Russian Christians» («Pridite novochreshchenii Rustii sobori»). Part on the Great Post Sticherarion is submitted in creativity of the master by singsongs to stichera «See you the creature» («Vidyashchi master has composed anew chant-«blazhenna» of 1-st echos «Food for the sake of» («Snedi radi») (Parfentjev, 1991а). One more chanting cycle in Krest’janin’s singsong has reached us in two lists with the indication «There are additional heirmoses […]» from church chanting book Hiermologion. This cycle consists of the following chants: «Foreseeing in the spirit Avvakum» («Providya duhome Avvakumo»), «Fiery mind)» («Ognennyi um»), «By angel adolescents» («Angelomo otroki»), «Tsar’s children pray» («Tsarskih detei Tya tvari»), chant-«zadostoynik» «Light, light, new Jerusalem» («Svetisya, svetisya, Noviy Ierosalime») and chant-«kondak» «Even if in coffin went down» («Asche i vo grobo snide») (on Easter) (see: Parfentjev, 1991а, 2003). Feodor addressed to the chanting book «Obikhod», containing the church chanting, most frequently used («everyday») in divine service. We find his singsongs to chant «Be silent some flesh» («Da molchit vsyaca plot»), it was sung instead of Cherub song, and «Revive My God» (instead of Alleluia) in section of the Liturgy. He has created a singsong to chant-«prokimen» «Praise name God» for special parts of service – Polyeleos. Close studying of carelessly executed or badly kept notes to chants, for example, to a verse «Blessed immaculate» («Blazhenni neporochenii») and to exclamation «Praise name of God. Alleluia», written down by one of chanting diaks, allows to connect their singsongs with the master’s name also (see: Parfentjev, 2003,). Perhaps, top of Krest’janin’s creativity is the cycle «Sticheras evangelical» including 11 chants in style of the Big («Bolshoy») singsong (see: Brazhnikov, 1974; Parfentjeva, 1997). As a rule, this cycle was located as the special unit of chanting book Octoechos. For Octoechos the molitva»), «Thee is more than mind» («Tya pache uma») (echos 5, songs 4, 5, 7-9) and «From a belly of hell» («Iz chreva adova», echos 8, song 6). Preliminary research has shown, that the master has composed this chants, having taken them, apparently, from ancient not chanting books (Parfentjev, 1993а, 2003). So, studying of history of life and activity the composer and chanting teacher Feodor Krest’janin shows, that he was one of the most outstanding representatives of professional-musical art of Russia in XVI – the beginning of XVII centuries. The high natural gift, the received knowledge at the best teachers, acquaintance to outstanding masters of that epoch and their products have allowed him to develop own creativity and to deserve a recognition at contemporaries. Not casually Russian tsars, since Ivan Terrible, trusted training and education of the chanting diaks to him. The history of opening chants in Feodor Krest’janin’s singsongs shows indefatigable researchers’ interest to them. However only few from the listed creations of the outstanding master are investigated. Undoubtedly, available materials allow to devote to his creativity special monographic work. Work is executed at financial support The Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fund, project № 09-04-85401а/У. – 412 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… References M.P.Pogodin, Again found data for a history of church chanting in Russia, Moskvitianin. 1846. № 6. – (in Russian). V.M.Undol’sky, Remarks for a history of church chanting in Russia (Moscow, 1846). – (in Russian). B.G.Smoljakov, Two editions «Forewords…», Monuments of Fatherland, 1980. № 1. – (in Russian). V.V.Protopopov, Russian idea on music in XVII century. (Moscow, 1989). – (in Russian). I.P.Saharov, Researches about Russian church chanting (S.-Petersburg, 1849). – (in Russian). N.P.Parfentjev, Z.M.Gusejnova, Alexander Mezenets and others. «The Notice... for wishing to study in chanting», 1670 (Chelyabinsk, 1996). – (in Russian). D.V.Razumovsky, Church chanting in Russia (Moscow, 1868). V.2. – (in Russian). S.V.Smolensky, The General essay of historical and musical value of Solovetsiy monastery’ library chanting manuscripts (Kazan, 1887). – (in Russian). V.M.Metallov, The Essay of Orthodox church chanting history in Russia (Moscow, 1915). – (in Russian). M.V.Brazhnikov, Feodor Krest’ janin. Sticheras, Monuments of Russian musical art (Moscow, 1974). V.3. – (in Russian). Z.M.Gusejnova, To a question about attribution products of old Russian chanting art, the Source study of the literature of Ancient Russia (Leningrad, 1980). – (in Russian). S.V.Frolov, Feodor Krest’ janin’s “Big” raspev (singsong), Works of the Department of the old Russian literature of Institute of the Russian literature (Pushkinskiy House) АS the USSR (Leningrad, 1981). V.36. – (in Russian). N.V.Parfentjeva, Creativity of old Russian chanting art masters. (Chelyabinsk, 1997). – (in Russian). N.P.Parfentjev, Outstanding Moscow raspevshik (composer) XVI – the beginning XVII centuries. Feodor Krest’ janin and his) products, Culture and art in monuments and researches. (Chelyabinsk, 2003). № 2. – (in Russian). N.D.Chechulin, Cities of the Moscow state in XVI century. (S.-Petersburg, 1889). – (in Russian). N.K.Nikol’sky, Kirillo-Belozerskiy monastery and his device up to the second quarter of XVII century (S.-Petersburg, 1910). V.1. № 2. – (in Russian). Stoglav. (Kazan, 1911). – (in Russian). P.M.Stroev, Lists of hierarchies and priors of the Russian church monasteries (S.-Petersburg, 1870). – (in Russian). N.P.Parfentjev, Old Russian chanting art in spiritual culture of the Russian state: Schools. The centers. Masters. (Sverdlovsk, 1991а). – (in Russian). V.V.Protopopov, Rostov metropolitan Varlaam (Rogov) – «znamennoe chanting composer (“raspevshik”) and creator», The history and culture of Rostov ground: Collection of scientifically works. (Rostov, 1995). – (in Russian). N.P.Parfentjev, Usol’skaya school in old Russian chanting art of XVI-XVII centuries and its masters products in manuscripts. Monuments of the literature and public idea of epoch of feudalism. (Novosibirsk, 1985), 52-69. – (in Russian). – 413 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolaj P. Parfentjev. About Activity of Feodor Krest’janin – the Master of Musical-Written Art of Xvi… N.P.Parfentjev, N.V.Parfentjeva, , Usol’skaya (Ctroganovskaya) school in Russian music of XVIXVII centuries. (Chelyabinsk, 1993). – (in Russian). D.S.Lihachev , The book centers of Ancient Russia: Iosifo-Volokolamskiy monastery as the book center (Leningrad, 1991). – (in Russian). N.F.Findejzen, Essays on a history of music in Russia from most ancient times up to the end of XVIII century. (Moscow, 1928). – (in Russian). V.K.Bylinin, Russian acrostics of the grown-up time (up to XVII century.), Russian versification: Traditions and problems of development. (Moscow, 1985). – (in Russian). N.D.Uspensky, Old Russian chanting art. (Moscow, 1973). – (in Russian). N.S.Stromilov, Alexandrivskaya large village, Readings in the Society of Russian History and antiquities (Moscow, 1883). V.2. – (in Russian). N.M.Karamzin. A history of the state Russian. (S.-Petersburg, 1845). V.9. – (in Russian). N.P.Parfentjev, Professional musicians of Russian state XVI-XVII вв. (Chelyabinsk, 1991б). – (in Russian). D.N.Al’shits, the New document on people and orders of Ivan Terrible Oprichnina’s court yard after 1572, Historical archive. (Moscow– Leningrad, 1949). V.4. – (in Russian). M.V.Brazhnikov, Hristofor. A znamenniy (neumatic) key, 1604, Monuments of Russian musical art (Moscow, 1983). V.9. – (in Russian). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 415-428 ~~~ УДК 338.28(075.8) Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times of the Global Financial Crisis Ekaterina P. Stepanetsa and Alexander A. Khasinb* a Erfurt School of Public Policy University of Erfurt 63 Nordhäuser Strasse, Erfurt, D-99089 Germany b Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology 9 Institutskii, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 This paper develops a model for the evaluation of the financial needs of innovative companies on the «seed» and «start-up» stages of their projects. In the model, the demand for finance is calculated with regard to the target performance of the industry set in «The Concept of Long-Term Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation» (17 November 2008). The study reveals certain problems that have impeeded the process of establishing a venture industry in Russia. These setbacks include a lack of venture entrepreneurship experience, an insufficient amount of private investment in the early stages of innovative projects and the absence of a functioning infrastructure. In order to tackle these problems a new concept of «seed» finance is proposed. The suggested scheme, which involves the OJSC «RVC» and «RUSNANO», seeks to stimulate innovation development in universities, regions and technological clusters and increase the efficiency of budget spending. The key parameters of the scheme are also described in the work. Keywords: innovative companies, «seed» stage, «start-up» stage, venture industry, private investment, stimulate innovation development. Introduction At the moment the government of the Russian Federation undertakes a number of measures designed to encourage innovation in the development of the economy. In times of the global financial crisis and declining growth of the world’s output, the transition to innovative development is especially important as it will increase the competitive capacities of the Russian economy and create a good basis for a technological and economic breakthrough after the crisis is over. The worsening economic conditions limit the government’s capability to interfere and demand * 1 more efficient allocation of public funds. The question of accelerating the process of transformation of the economy into an innovative one cannot be put off, since any delay will give other countries the chance to occupy prospective markets. This paper revises the state of affairs in the innovative industry in Russia and describes possible courses of action for eliminating existing barriers that impede the appearance of innovative Russian products on the market and the creation of new opportunities within it. The first part of the document deals with the current situation, discusses the historical Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 415 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… and socio-econmic factors that have shaped the development of the innovative industry in Russia thus far, identifies and analyzes various stakeholders and their interests, describes the framework of an innovative project and considers typical problems on every stage. The second part focuses on four policy options. Each option is described and assessed on the basis of four criteria, which are outlined at the beginning of the chapter. The final part draws conclusions and recommendations for policy action and contains suggestions for further research. The methods of research used include desk research and interviews with individuals who participate in the market. Analysis Features of the Russian Innovation Sector «The Concept of the Long-Term SocioEconomic Development of the Russian Federation»(CLD)1, worked out by the Ministry for Economic Development and approved by the government, rests upon the innovative scenario of the development. This means an intensive expansion of the share of innovative products in Russian output: it should reach 25 % of the GDP by 2020. In 2007 it was only 5.5 %. The weight of Russian high technology products in the world export is planned to become 2.0 % in 2020, while the forecast figure for 2009 is 0.42 %. In order to achieve these ambitious goals a lot needs to be done. The current state of the innovative industry is far from being satisfactory, as recognized by government officials, such as the Russian President, Dmitry Medvedev. A few months ago, he admitted that in the sphere of innovation «almost nothing has been done»2. 1 2 17 November 2008, later in the text: CLD 11 November 2008, http://www.primetass.ru/news/show. asp?id=836048&ct=news Since the end of the 1980’s until the beginning of the twenty first century, the environment limited the development of innovation in Russia: key macroeconomic figures declined and the political situation was not stable. The rapid reduction of investments into the real sector and the breakdown of old economic ties led to the abolishment of cooperation between industry and science and, hence, the reduction of demand for development. The economic growth of the last eight years was caused by rapidly increasing world prices for natural resources. It did not, however, produce proper incentives to improve the efficiency of corporations. The focus on the extraction industry led to a dramatic reduction of production in the spheres that did not bring immediate high returns and were not competitive on the global market. As a result, the Russian economy is now facing significant imbalances and is hardly diversified. The situation has been further aggravated by non-economic issues such as corruption, criminalization of some industries, and illegal immigration. Nevertheless, the modern Russian reality reflects a number of preconditions which can allow for a relatively fast integration into the world economy. These include: • Good quality of human capital and Russian fundamental science despite many years of remaining underfinanced and neglected by the society; • Financial capital, amassed by both the Russian government and corporations during the previous years of growth; • A sufficient level of industrialization, as evident in the existence of transport, communication and other infrastructure schemes. Stakeholder Analysis In this part each stakeholder is described from the following perspectives: – 416 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… 1. Who constitutes a stakeholder? 2. What is the role of the stakeholder in the industry? 3. What problems does the stakeholder face? 4. Which interests does the stakeholder pursue? State • Organizations of ministries and departments; non-profit organizations financed and controlled by the government. The State creates public value by establishing and maintaining the institutional framework for the realization of a policy, by working out and fulfilling strategies for development in the sphere of innovation and by evaluating results. The questions regarding government policy in the sphere of innovation are being dealt with: On the federal level, through the actions of the president of the Russian Federation and his or her administration, committees and commissions of the upper and lower chambers of the parliament, and also coordinating bodies aimed at ensuring the consistency of a policy. The Council for Science and High Technologies, directly surbordinative to the President, informs him or her about the state of affairs in government innovation policy, maintains cooperation with research organizations and scientists, and works out proposals for priorities. The strategy of the scientific and technological development for the short and medium term is defined by the president on the basis of the special report of the government. At the moment, there are three main ministries that formulate and implement innovative policy: the Ministry for Economic Development, the Ministry for Education and Science, and the Ministry for Communication and Connection. Each contains numerous committes and agencies. On the regional level, through the cooperation of the local government and the federal ministries. Currently, main institutions and other forms of financial and professional support for the improvement of the industry of innovations have already been established. These include venture funds, business-incubators, techno parks, etc. The structure of this system unexpectedly coincides with those of the countries that are leaders in innovative economies - Finland, Israel, and Singapore. However, the actuality of the system reveals its ineffectiveness in accelerating or transformating the economy from traditional to innovative. Government regulations and policies on innovative development in Russia are severely lacking in coordination. As a result, budget funds are used inefficiently. Initially, these funds are allocated, with a similar purpose, but pass through different channels, resulting in a diffusion of responsibility for building up the national innovation system. The state, in its aim to meet the demands of its society, is interested in the development of the innovative sector, as it will diversify the Russian economy and ensure profits and welfare, especially in the long-term. Business • Organizations with the main purpose of producting goods or services for sale; non-commercial organizations rendering services to above-mentioned organizations. Entrepreneurs use governmental and private resources to produce goods and services to meet demand of markets. They receive profits, provide jobs and pay taxes. While considering the business sector from the point of view of the development of the innovative industry, it makes sense to distinguish between: Large industrial corporations, which form the demand for innovative products, obtain – 417 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… funds and can use these funds for research and development (R&D), and Innovative companies, typically small and medium enterprises (SME) that produce innovative products. The most pressing problem with large industrial companies lies in low incentives to invest in innovation due to high incomes, which have been caused by the sharp incline in world prices. As a result, innovative companies suffer from insufficient investment, lack of personnel and other problems, which will be discussed in the next part of the analysis. The business sector will greatly benefit from the development of the innovation sector, as this will diversify the economy, not only creating opportunities within a new growing market, but also improving the competitive power of Russian products on the world market. Higher Vocational Sector • Universities and other institutions of higher education, scientific research, and clinics. The higher vocational sector serves as a supplier of personnel for research and as a producer of research itself. It suffers from the lack of funds and the fact that its performance does not reflect the needs of the business sector. The development of the innovative industry is unambiguously connected to the development of the higher vocational sector. Non-Commercial Sector • Organizations, which do not aim at generating a profit (professional societies, unions and associations, public organizations, funds, etc.). The non-commercial sector promotes development of the innovative sector by attracting attention of the general public and the government to the importance of the industry, by creating professional networks and enhancing communication, and by promoting education and providing funds for research. The primary problem here consists of the overall low level of the civil society’s influence on the political agenda in Russia; especially, in the sectors that do not generate immediate high incomes. This stakeholder’s most important concern is to promote a more educated community and to create scientific potential and business ties, with the goal of creating a more prosperous and developed society. Citizens of the Russian Federation • People holding Russian citizenship. The society of the whole is interested in higher living standards. This can only be reached by sustainable economic development, which is impossible without diversification of the economy. The World • All other countries. The world market will benefit from the products of Russian innovative companies because increased supply intensifies competition, usually leading to improved quality. Innovative Project Framework and Problems Within It Innovative Project Framework The distinctive feature of the innovative business sector is that SME provide the best environment for the development of «breakthrough» ideas and serve as a driving force of the industry. Emergence and global expansion of their products are also possible within big corporations, but the first stage of commercialization, in most cases, can only be successful within SME. That is why among western companies there is a wide-spread practice of spin-offs, i.e. the detachment of specific products into independent companies, as well as takeovers of small and medium – 418 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… innovative enterprises for further product development. Today, the share of innovative enterprises in the small business sector in Russia is 1.3 %, while in Germany it amounts up to 59 %, in Iceland – 52 %, and in Ireland – 47.2 %. With regard to this, support of SME should be one of the main priorities of government policy in order to stimulate innovation development. For a better understanding of the barriers that small businesses encounter, it is important to know an innovative company's stages of development and key actions implemented in each phase. There are three major stages of such a project: 1. «Generation of knowledge», which icludes fundamental and applied scientific research; 2. «Venture phase», which consisits of two sub-stages: a. «Seed phase», during which any additional research is conducted, the product is developed, the team is formed, a business-plan is created, intellectual property rights are registered, and prototypes and experimential samples are produced; b. «Start-up», during which a shortrun production, a certification of products and licensing of production are executed, results of the first sales are received, and serial production is organized; 3. «Late stage», which includes expansion of the business and production, market development, building up a distribution system, and enlargement of key assets and capital. The problems of the late phase are not considered here, since an innovative company functioning in this stage represents a working business, the government regulation of which should be done on a common basis. Generation of Knowledge In order to estimate the state of affairs in the system of knowledge generation, one should look at the volume of money spent on research, consider its amount, quality and commercial use. In comparison to the countries with developed innovative economies, the expenditures on R&D in Russia, in % of GDP, appear to be relatively sufficient (they are lower, but have the same order of magnitude – Fig. 1). As revealed by statistics, the number of researchers per one million inhabitants is also lower in Russia than in western countries, but the difference is not tremendous (Fig. 2). The difference in the number of patents registered is more striking, but not striking (Fig. 3). Alltogether, this data gives a positive impression about the quantity of the scientific activities in Russia. Nonetheless, a consideration of the commercial use of developments is frustrating: as estimated by of the Ministry for Education and Science, in the Russian Federation less than 1 % of the results of scientific work are used for commercial production. In the United States and the United Kingdom this figure amounts up to 70 %. Another observation demonstrating that Russia is far behind other innovative economies, is the extremely low number of patents, as registered by the Russian developers in the European Patent Office (Fig. 4). Considering the sufficient amount of scientific work and its commercial potential, raises the question: What is preventing the current system of academia and industry from effectivily transforming financial resources into the development of goods competitive on the global innovation arena? – 419 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… A primary line of reasoning explains that Russian companies invest significantly less in R&D than their western counterparts. As a necessity then, academia is to a large extent financed by the government. Due to a lack of ties to the market, scientific results cannot be produced for commercial use. Venture Phase The main objectives of this stage include the development of a commercial product, working out a market entry strategy and obtaining the first results of sales. In order to fulfill these 3,41 2,61 1,85 1,08 EU US Japan Russia Fig. 1. Expenditures on R&D in 2006, % GDP1 7,54 6,09 5,51 4,65 3,36 Finland Sweden 3,23 Germany USA Japan Russia Fig. 2. Researchers per one million inhabitants, 20062 2720 741 583 346 Finland 270 Sweden 196 Germany USA Japan Russia Fig. 3. Number of patents, registered by residents of the country, per one million inhabitants, 20063 1 2 3 1 2 3 UNESCO Institute of Statistics Data Centre, http://stats. uis.unesco.org/. UNESCO Institute of Statistics Data Centre, http://stats. uis.unesco.org/, data for the US is for 2005. WIPO Statistics Database, http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ en/statistics/ tasks, a company needs financial resources and a favourable environment. Financing innovative projects, which are characterized by a high level of risk in the early stage, is typically arranged through venture funds. Often, venture investors have experience and business connections, which allows for the reduction of risks and for helping companies to develop faster and with fewer losses. The amount of money invested into Russian companies in the venture phase is much less than that of the countries with advanced innovative economies (Fig. 5). This result is not surprising since the numerous less risky investment opportunities exist in Russia. To increase the flow of money into the industry, the Russian government has already initiated a number of measures: • Foundation of the Russian Venture Company (RVC) with a nominal capital of 30 billion rubles1, under which two venture funds were created and five are in the process of establishment; • The government corporation «RUSNANO» was established with a nominal capital of 130 billion rubles. Its 1 – 420 – 1 US dollar=36 rubles, 1 Euro=46 rubles on the 5th of March 2009. It is important to note, that at the moment Russian Central Bank is pursuing the policy of gradual devaluation of the ruble. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… 169,2 166,5 61,9 173,2 94,5 49,7 10,5 2,8 0,2 Finland Sweden Germany USA Japan Russia, 2007-2010 Russia EU, 2007 USA, 2007 Fig. 4. Number of patents, registered by different countries in European Patent Office, per one million inhabitants, 20061 Fig. 5. Total amount of financing of innovative projects from seed stage to expansion and growth (venture capital, business angels, governmental funds), billion dollars1 goal is to support the development of nanotechnology in Russia; • The venture fund «RIFIKT» was created with a capital of 1,45 billion rubles; • 21 regional venture funds were established with the cooperation of the Ministry of Economic Development and the regional governments, making up a total capitalization of more than 6 billion rubles. These actions coincide with the global practice of stimulating the venture industry. As long as these financial resources are going to be spent during the next five-ten years, they seem to suffice. The effectiveness of the funds’ allocation, however, will depend on the people involved in the sector. Considering the historical lack of entrepreneurs and investors in Russia, it is necessary to attract new specialists. Without them there is a risk that the created funds will turn into financial institutions that provide money for the building of factories rather than invest into the commercialization of prospective technologies. Moreover, the functioning of these funds primarily serves to finance the second sub-stage of the venture phase – start-up, when the product and prototype have already been developed. As for now, the only source of finance for the seed phase is the Fund for Support of the Development of Small Enterprises in the Scientific-Technical Sphere (belonging to the Ministry for Education and Science), which gives out one billion rubles per year in forms of grants. The Association of Business Angels of Russia estimates that private seed investment is about 0.5 billion rubles a year. Thus, the total amount of seed investment is 1.5 billion rubles - an obvious imbalance with the financing of the start-up stage. The necessity of additional seed investment was acknowledged by the Minister of Economic Development, Ms. Nabiullina, but no actions have been taken yet. The global financial crisis and the declining economic growth challenge the government to spend money economically and efficiently. Under such conditions investment into the mechanism of seed investment appears to be worth undertaking: with a relatively low level of use of financial resources one can tackle system problems in the sphere of innovation and lay the foundation of the future prosperity. The main point here is not to increase government 1 1 WIPO Statistics Database, http://www.wipo.int/treaties/ en/statistics/ – 421 – Seventh EBAN Congress, presentation of the company «New Vantage Group»: data PWC Money Tree 2007, data of the National Association of Business Angels (Russia), European Investment Fund (EIF) Annual Report 2007, European Business Angel Network (EBAN). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… spending, but to create an environment which would attract private investment. Coming back to the important conditions for the development of an innovative company in the venture phase, the second component – environment – is to be deliberated. The first aspect that comes to mind in regard to this is physical infrastructure, and the Russian government has already taken a number of steps to cope with this issue: business incubators, technoparks and technology centers have been set up. The latter requires special attention: the creation of centers of collective use has proved its effectiveness in the world practice, and it is necessary to further establish and improve the work of the existing ones on the territory of the Russian Federation. However, even the best infrastructure means little if people do not utilize it. It is wellknown that entrepreneurial culture, especially in the sphere of innovation, has been weaker in Russia than in the western countries. Moreover, if developers are not entrepreneurs by nature then they require professional business support, which is usually delivered by business incubators. Unfortunately, a poll conducted by the Russian Public Opinion Research Centre revealed that the current structure of professional support does not satisfy the needs of the market neither in terms of quantity nor quality. A primary reason for this is the short period that has passed since the measure was put into practice. Nevertheless, it does not lessen the importance of paying attention to the provision of professional support because the key task of it is to attract the most qualified specialists in order to ultimately build the future of the industry. Lastly, taking care of supply does not make much sense without demand on the market. Unfortunately, Russian companies have not shown much interest in Russian innovative products, while western companies have been ready for a dialogue and consideration of the production of Russian innovative SME. Stimulating internal demand, a decisive factor for the existence of SME, should become one of the priorities of government policy. Policy Options In this part, policy options are described and assessed based on the criteria: 1. Compliance of the policy with long-term economic goals: a. Compliance with the goal of promoting an innovative economy in the Russian Federation; b. Volatility of the economy to external factors. 2. Capabilities to achieve short-term economic goals, i.e. to cope with the current crisis: a. Creation of jobs; b. The ratio of potencial increase in GDP with regard to the amount of the required investment. Intensive scenario: seed investment as a driver for the innovative industry Seed investments constitute the money provided for the initial stages of a new venture; for instance, to conduct research, develop the prototype of a product, or test if an idea is workable or economically viable. In order to stimulate these types of investments, the government has to share the burden of high risks on this stage. This can be done in two ways: • Government and private financial capital are accumulated into funds. These funds then invest into projects; • Private investments are attracted for particular projects into which government invests as well. In both cases private investors should be allowed to buy the govenmental part of a project. – 422 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… The first scenario has been realized in the work of the RVC and regional venture funds. In most cases investors in such ventures are institutional and are not interested in the operations of the companies; therefore, the financial resources are directed to the later phases. The use of this method, however, is not sutiable for encouraging seed investment, especially during the financial crisis, when investors are prone to choose lowrisk projects. The second scheme of mixing private and public investment in a particular project to boost seed investment has been successfully realized in Israel1 and Singapore2. A similar structure can be used in Russia to tackle the problem of professional support and financial resources in the seed stage. Such a framework may involve four major types of agents: a governmental agent, service organizations, private investors and innovative developers or SME. A governmental agent forms a seed investment fund, while service organizations discover prospective technologies/ projects, assist companies with finding and hiring specialists, attracting private investment and support a company throughout the venture phase. Within the current structure of the innovation sector, the fund can be based on resources of the RVC and RUSNANO. The suggested framework implies that the seed fund gives up to 75 % of required financial resources, providing that a company already obtains the rest 25 % in private investment. In this way service companies are responsible for forming flow of deals, attraction of the private investment and provision of professional support to the companies, while the fund, or a special commission within it, approves the companies that recieve financial help. 1 2 The Technological incubators program, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, Israel, retrieved on the 28th of Febtuary from: http://www.incubators.org.il/ Irene Tham, NSTB to invest S$50m seed funding in 100 start-ups, retrieved on the 28th of Febtuary from: http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/ hardware/0,39042972,13025877,00.htm The proposed scheme is flexible and allows using different elements of the innovative infrastructure. There are many actors which can become a service company: • Management companies of business incubators and technoparks; • Management companies of venture funds; • Organizations which are hired by industrial corporations; • Organizations which are hired by regional governments. In some regions of Russia there already exist companies that act as service organizations, but their number is insufficient. Further companies can be established with the financial resources of local governments or mutual funds of a municipality and the Ministry for Economic Development. The annual budget of a service company is 20-30 million rubles3. Key cost items are salaries and expertise of projects. As mentioned above, the money can come from the municipal budget, or be combined with those form the Ministry for Economic Development, as is done for the venture funds. It is estimated, that the size of the fund in 2009 should be 4.4 4 billion rubles. If we take for example that an average service company obtains an investment budget of 500 million rubles5, then in 2009 there should be approximately 9 service organizations. Then the maximum expenditures on the establishment of the service organizations will amount up to 270 million rubles. This is a relatively low investment in comparison to the amount needed for innovative infrastructure. 3 4 5 – 423 – Expert estimation Calculation based on the Model 1, Appendix 1: the forecast figure for 2008 is 7.8 bln roubles. 1.5 bln are already in place in forms of grants and private investment, then the additional money needed: (7.3-1.5)*0.75=4.4 (assumption: government provides 75 % of the needed investment, the rest should be private) Expert estimation Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… Stimulating seed investment may have a substantial impact on the development of the innovative industry on the whole as it will tackle system problems. Service organizations will solve the problem of lack of entrepreneurial experience in the industry and will help to create a class of innovative specialists. This may lead to an increased number of professional teams, capable of running innovative projects. Moreover, the work of a service organization in the region may improve the effectiveness of the utilization of the infrastructure and reduce the operational costs necessity to control performance of the service organizations. Delegating the responsibility to the local governments can be a way to overcome such barries. Another question that arises is how to motivate a service organization to search and select prospective projects. Providing the opportunity for a service company to buy a certain share in the business can help in turning it from being a bureaucratic structure into a profit-oriented unit. The control of the seed investment fund should be made similar to the control of the of innovative companies (by allocating portfolio companies in business incubators, use of the centers of collective use, use of the governmental financial support, etc.). The seed investment fund and the flow of deals are likely to encourage small private investors to act more actively, which should lead to an increase in the number of business angels, who are almost absent on the Russian market today. As a comparison, in the countires with advanced innovative economies these actors play one the most important roles on the early stages of innovative projects. This scenario fully coincides with the longterm goal of establishing an innovative economy in Russia and should lead to a remarkable decrease in the dependence on external factors, such as world prices for raw materials. The policy option may serve to create jobs not only for the group of developers and people involved in working for service organizations, but also for potential serial production. It is important to point out that the relatively low level of investment seems to be feasible even during the times of the global financial crisis. It cannot only create new opportunities, but also may improve the return on investment that has been made. The risks of this option are mostly associated with the complication of the system and the existing venture funds. Passive scenario: invest into later stages and infrastructure This option implies further support of the establishment of venture funds, technology centers, business-incubators and techno parks and maintaining the existing ones. At the moment there are 56 centers on the territory of the Russian Federation that possess equipment for 7 billion rubles1. However, most of them are physically and morally old and can hardly be used effectively. Moreover, new centers of collective use should be created. Building techno parks is an expensive activity (for example, for the techno park in Dubna the total investment made up to $470 million, from which governmental part was $88.5 million (or 19 %)), but results are often worth the money spent: techno parks reduce operational and transactional costs, and even let businesses benefit from the interaction of employees in the informal atmosphere out of offices. Without a precise calculation, the total amount of investment into the later phase and infrastructure amounts to billions of rubles, that is noticeably more than seed investment. As with 1 – 424 – Centers of Collective Use, Seventh Framework Programme of the EU, retrieved on the 26th of Febtuary from: http://fp7-infra.ru/infrastr/ Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… any large investment, main risks are associated with relatively long time for the return and the risk that the result of investment will not be used effectively. As well as the first scenario, this one fully reflects the goals of the long-term development, as it contributes to the establishment of the innovative economy in Russia and reduction of its dependence on the world raw material prices. It also obtains a scope for creation of jobs, which may, however, be limited at the moment because of the deteriorating economic climate and, as a During the crisis the government may find it hard to decrease taxes and introduce the requirement for a share of innovative products, that a corporation has to consume. Still, the current situation may unexpectedly create incentives to increase the demand for innovations. Falling prices mean diminishing profitability of businesses, what will stimulate them to implement innovations, pursuing the aim of improving efficiency and finding new ways of organizing the processes. The implementation of this scenario on result, declining amount of investment . its own contains risks of inefficient use of the investments, that have already been made into the innovative industry in order to deal with the problems related to infrastructure, availability of financial resources and professional support to SME. Formation of the internal demand for innovation The goal of stimulating the internal demand for innovations is usually achieved by providing tax remissions for the companies that invest in and/or implement the result of R&D. The problems related to getting access to large corporations, which innovative SME might encounter, can be also solved by service organizations, proposed in the policy option 3.1. Another strategy is to introduce the requirement for companies working on governmental orders to have a certain share of Russian innovative products in their procurement structure. This is a widely applied measure, for example, in the United States, where private companies that participate in tenders for governmental orders have to attract small companies as subcontractors. The high priority of this policy option for the long-term success of switching to innovative economy is indisputable, since without it the results of any or both scenarios discussed above will be almost useless. Talking about creation of jobs, the growing demand for innovation should contribute to the increase in jobs in the innovative sphere and is supposed to expand investments. Inertial scenario: concentrate on export of raw materials Pursuing this scenario means that Russia continues the economic path based on extraction of the resources and orientation on the export of them. Even with regard to the fact that Russia possesses large fossil resources, the high costs of extraction makes the future of this strategy questionable. Compared to the options listed above, this policy option does not eliminate in any way the dependence of the economy on prices on the external markets and does not comply with the long-term economic goal of establishing innovative economy in the Russian Federation. The impact of the sector on the GDP is significant and should not be omitted. However, the investments that are needed for further expansion are high, while profitability has relied on the prices. With the prices at a low rate it is time to improve efficiency in the industry, and here, again, innovations can play an important role. Concentrating solely on this scenario leads to the neglecting of investments into innovative – 425 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… industry that already have been made, what bring the risk of inefficient use or even total loss of them. The role of this sector in jobs creation in Russia is momentous. However, during the crisis, further jobs creation is unlikely to take place. On the contrary, the industry may suffer jobs cuts as it was announced that they would have to decrease output in 2009. Recommendations It may sound astonishing, but the crisis should be perceived as an opportunity for Russian innovative sector to develop significantly with government support. Without understating the importance of stimulating internal demand for innovation and improving infrastructure, launching the mechanism of seed investment appears to be the key factor to allow Russian developers and entrepreneurs to create products competitive on the global market. By the time the crisis loses its severity in 2-3 years and investors become more optimistic about the market, the companies will be able to attract investment for the products, they will have developed due to the seed investment. This can be the time of establishment of venture industry in Russia. If the development of seed investment is postponed, the government money that has been invested so far is likely to be lost. There is a risk that private capital, which came during the previous years, will leave because of the crisis. That means that the created infrastructure will not start functioning, because there will be no real use out of it. In this case, providing that the seed stage is not supported, in a few years’ period the industry will be lacking new ideas and there will be hardly anything to invest in. The estimation of costs for additional seed investment and establishment of service organizations may require further scrutiny. References Christian Gianella, William Tompson, Stimulating innovation in Russia: the role of institutions and policies, OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 539, Retrieved on the 25th of February from: www.oecd.org/eco/working_papers Derzhin, I. G., Saltykov, B.G., Mekhanismy stimulirovaniya kommercializacii issledovaniy i rasrabotok (The Mechanisms to stimulate commercialization of research and development), Insitute of Economics in Transition, Moscow: 2004 Rashkin V.F., Nekotorye aspekty gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya innovacionnoy deatelnosti v Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Some aspects of governmental regulation of innovative activity in the Russian Federation), retrieved on the 6th of December from: http://www.dpr.ru/journal/journal_9_2.htm Koncepciya dolgosrochnogo socialno-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii do 2020 goda (The Concept of Long-term Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation till 2020), Ministry for Economic Development, retrieved on the 10th of February from: http://www.economy.gov. ru/wps/wcm/myconnect/economylib/mert/welcome/pressservice/eventschronicle/doc1217949648141 Russia in figures, Federal State Statistics Service, retrieved on the 10th of Febtuary from: http:// www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/B08_12/Main.htm Gokhberg, L.M., Novaya innovacionnaya sistema dlya «novoy ekonomiki» (New innovative system for «new economy»), Questions in Economics, Moscow, 2003, №3 (pp. 26-44) Gorin, A.A., Mindeli, L.E., Gosudarstvennoe finansirovanie issledovaniy I razrabotok v usloviyah perehodnoy ekonomiki (Public Financing of Research and Development during Economic Transition), Centre for Science Research and Statistics, 1998 – 426 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… Audretsch, David B., Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2006 World Patent Report: A Statistical Review, World Intellectual property Organization (WIPO), retrieve on the 1st of March from: http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/statistics/patents/index.html UNESCO Institute of Statistics Data Centre, data retrieved on the 1st of March from: http://stats. uis.unesco.org/. Between Invention and Innovation. An analysis of Funding for Early-stage Technology Development, National Institute of Standards and Technology, US, retrieved on the 26th of February from: http://www.atp.nist.gov/eao/gcr02-841/exec-sum.htm Centers of Collective Use, Seventh Framework Programme of the EU, retrieved on the 26th of February from: http://fp7-infra.ru/infrastr/ Innovacionnoe maloe I srednee predprinimatelstvo: problemy rasvitiya (Innovative Small and Medium Entrepreneurship: Problems of Development), Russian Public Opinion Research Center, retrieved on the 26th of February from: http://www.opora.ru/analytics/library/2009/01/11/maloe-predprinimatelstvo-v-rossii-2008 The Technological incubators program, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor, Israel, retrieved on the 28th of February from: http://www.incubators.org.il/ Irene Tham, NSTB to invest S$50m seed funding in 100 start-ups, retrieved on the 28th of February from: http://www.zdnetasia.com/news/hardware/0,39042972,13025877,00.htm Appendix 1 Model 1: Dynamics of the need of the Russian innovative industry in financial resources during the period 2008-2020 to meet the goals of CLD1. The assumptions and logic of the model: • Innovative products are produced by large and medium enterprises; • Large enterprises are those that have existed on the market for a relatively long period of time and can produce not only innovative products. Besides working on their own developments they can take over small innovative companies. The share of large enterprises in total production is 80 %; • Medium enterprises grow from innovative start-ups after goning through the whole «venture» phase. A medium enterprise produces only innovative products. In ten years time it either becomes a large enterprises or is taken over by a large enterprise; • The amount of innovation production in each year (specified in the CLD) defines the number of medium enterprises needed to produce this certain volume. On the basis of that the number of companies in the seed and start-up phases during the previous years can be calculated. Then, with regard to the amount of investment needed on the different stages of the life cycle of an innovative company, required investment can be estimated; • The annual income of a medium enterprise is assumed to be 500 million rubles, annual rate of growth – 15 % during the first 10 years. This is an optimistic scenario for income and sales, what allows to minimize the required financing; 1 Author: Alexander Khasin, General Manager «EcoInvest» – 427 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ekaterina P. Stepanets, Alexander A. Khasin. Policy Analysis: Re-thinking Innovation Policy in Times… • The seed and venture phases are taken to last two and three years respectively, the need in financial resources is assumed to be 20 million rubles in the seed stage and 100 million rubles in the venture stage (these figures are taken on the basis of the US statistics, which gives the following intervals (depending on the year): seed investment - $0.5 – 1.5 million, start-up investment - $3.2 – 6.1 million). • It is supposed that 30 % of the companies go through the seed stage, and 20 % - through the venture stage, this means that only 6 % of the initial number of companies survive, the figure that is reflected by empirical data. In accordance to the CLD, the share of innovative production should reach 25-35 % of GDP by 2020. The average rate of growth of GDP is assumed to be 6.5 %. Extrapolation of the macroeconomic parameters for 5 years longer, to 2025, with consideration of the trend during 2008-2020, provides the requirement for financial resources during the period 2008-2020. The results are presented on the char (Fig. 6). Fig. 6. Dynamics of the need of the Russian innovative industry in financial resources during 2008-2020, billion rubles Although the model is rather rough, it gives an idea about the order of magnitude of the spending. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 429-434 ~~~ УДК 792 Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch of the All-Russia Theatrical Society Tamara V. Aref’eva* South-Ural State University, 76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 Professional-creative direction as the main one in the work of Chelyabinsk Branch of All-Russian theatrical society helped the outstanding and the starting actors in their creative work in the aim of propaganda of the theatrical art of the South-Ural region and of the country as a whole. Laboratories, seminars, conferences on questions of theory and practice of the scenic art were organized to help the workers of the theater and theatrical collectives to improve their professional level. Much attention in this work was paid to the creative section such as art – staged section, criticism section etc. Newly formed Department of the creative youth helped to organize professional study in the theatres of the region. The research of the archival documents helps to come to the conclusion that the professional creative activity was carried out with the help of various forms and methods of cooperating with the actors of the theatre and it had the educational aspect. Keywords: All-Russian theatrical society, Chelyabinsk Branch, the basic directions and forms of work, professional-creative activity. The organization of the Chelyabinsk branch of the All-Russian theatrical society has been already formed on the prepared ground. This process was preceded with the creation of professional theatres in the region. Only with their presence the necessity for the establishment which would organize, direct and supervise their work could appear (Aref’eva, 2008). The Soviet state expected from All-Russian theatrical Society not simply centralized management but «the association of all drama, musical and children’s theatres, in one, ideologically connected establishment»1. In the given research the professionalcreative direction is allocated as one of the basic in activity of all-russian theatrical society. It * 1 is understood as a line of work of a branch of all-russian theatrical society in accustoming outstanding actors and only starting actors to the creativity with the aim of propaganda of the theatrical art of the South-Ural region and the country as a whole. The Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical society formed in 1946 became stronger year by year both quantitatively and qualitatively (in 1946 – 50 persons, accordingly further: 1950 – 80, 1960 – 170, 1965 – 200, 1970 – 297, 1980 – 364)2. In different years Garyanov (since 1946), Udzanov (194?-1961), Mazurov (19611963), Ageev (1963-1974), Kuleshov (1975-1978), Gorbunov (1978-1980) and others supervised the branch3. Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 429 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch… With the purpose of giving all-round aid to workers of the theatre and theatrical collectives in their professional perfection, central allrussian theatrical society organized laboratories, seminars, conferences on questions of the theory and practice of scenic art, directs the experts – advisers, critics, lecturers to various regions of the country4. This work becomes more active in 1960th. So in 1965 the candidate of art criticism, critic V. Vanslov (Moscow) was sent to Chelyabinsk. He held a creative seminar for actors of theatres of Chelyabinsk and the region, and participated in seeing the performances of the Chelyabinsk opera house. In the creative report about performances «Eugeny Onegin» and «Carmen» V. Vanslov stated «that the performance «Eugeny Onegin» is bad and old. It goes languidly, without enthusiasm. The conductor conducts the performance poorly. The orchestra rattles and frequently muffles singers. The performance should be removed and staged again. The performance «Carmen» is good, especially on the musical level». N. Shaidarova – «Carmen» gives an interesting meaning of the image, not imitating uncountable other «Carmen». I. Zak conducts the opera with the big skill. The orchestra sounds clearly, expressively with true tempoes. The chorus sounds well»5. Undoubtedly the arrival of the critics had positive effect on work of theatres; however the attitude to the critics was ambiguous. On the one hand the professional estimation of the done work was necessary, on the other hand critics came seldom, they did not see the development of the theatre and actors that is why their estimation was not always objective. There were remarks to Chelyabinsk Branch of all-russian theatrical society that it was necessary to think of fastening two or three critics from the centre to the Ural region: «it is very important for the critics to come each two or three months. (…) Let them come to look at the theatre, actors and let them tell if we grow and do not. (…) If the critic did not come at once but from time to time he would speak about our work and we would not react so painfully»6. The organization of work of professional collectives at theatres became very important7. The big place in the organization of such work was allocated to creative sections both working and newly formed. So in September, 1965, newly created art – staged section had its first classes. The winner of the state premium the artist – Andzhan A.I. (Moscow film studio) was invited to conduct classes. He gave some practical classes working with a make-up, the lecture «The application of new materials in hairdresser’s work». The positive feature in the work of the section was the fact that make-up artists visited each other on workplaces and adopted something for work. Classes were held in Tsvilling’s theatre and make-up artists from all theatres of the region attended them8. In November, 1965, Chelyabinsk branch made a request for the organization of classes on scenic speech. In this connection the adviser of all-russian theatrical society Elistratova A.A. (Moscow) came to Chelyabinsk. She admitted that the speech culture in Chelyabinsk region was very poor, especially in Zlatoust. Elistratova’s arrival served as a good push for the activation of individual work of actors at the speech culture. Lectures «The modern literary pronunciation» and «Speech culture of the theatre» were organized by her. The individual work was a very positive feature in her technique9. To increase the professional skills stage managers of Chelyabinsk and the region trained in creative laboratories in Moscow since October till December, 1965: the main producer of Chelyabinsk drama theatre Sapegin B. V. was trained by Tovstonogov, the main producer of the theatre of a young spectator Scomorovskij B.A. was trained by Pluchek, the main producer of the opera house people’s artist of RSFSR Dautov – 430 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch… N.K. was trained by Pokrovskij10. As we see, the process of vocational training was carried out under a precise management of the central allrussian theatrical society. Since May 1968 till November 1970 all work of all-russian theatrical society was directed to the organization of a worthy celebration of a 100anniversary of V.I. Lenin’s birthday and XXIV congress of the CPSU. The main emphasis in work was made on the actions connected with the increase of ideological and professional level of workers of the theatre: for example, in Tsvilling’s theatre in Chelyabinsk the seminar on aesthetics and the lecture «Lenin in art» were held; in Magnitogorsk in Pushkin drama theatre there was a political education on Marxist – Lenin aesthetics and the lecture «The image of a woman – communist on the Soviet stage», in Zlatoust drama theatre there was a lecture «Theoretical Lenin’s heritage in literature and art» and a political class «The history of the CPSU»11. According to the plans of the centralized actions the expanded session of Presidium of the Council of all-russian theatrical society «The image of the communist on the Soviet stage» was held in Ulyanovsk. The purpose of the given action was the generalization of the theory and the practice of work in staging the performances the basis of which was the image of the communist as an example of a person selflessly devoted to the people, to the party to the ideals of the constructions of a communist society. Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical society had the review of performances at various theatres of the region and invited the best directors, producers and actors to the exit session of the Presidium of all-russian theatrical society12. Comprehensive work of Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical society with the artistic youth was systematically carried out. Review of the young actors, two regional reviews of the creative youth devoted to a 100-anniversary of Lenin’s birthday, regional contest of readers, zone conference «Producer’s work with an actor in the conditions of a city theatre», creative meetings of young actors with each other were held together with the Regional committee of Leninist Young Communist League of the Soviet Union. Branch of all-russian theatrical society insisted on having daily work with the youth at the theatres: «It is necessary to form the outlook of our young actors, – a member of all-russian theatrical society, producer B.A. Skomorovskij said, – for them to understand what they do, what ideas they have»13. In 70-s the party-state leaders of the country strengthened ideological influence on the process of cultural construction. There were more various forms and methods of such influence, the role of a public opinion in questions of culture raised; discussions became the norm of spiritual life of the Soviet society. Discussions and conferences on themes «For close connection of literature and art with life of people», «The role of art in Communist education of Soviet people», were developed on pages of newspapers and magazines («The Soviet culture», «Art», etc.). Many themes were connected with the youth, among them are: «Art is the important means of the education of the youth», «The civic position and the creative growth of a young actor» (Shalunovsky, 1969; Civic position…, 1960). Correspondents marked that the absence of good plays on up-to-date themes limits opportunities of the young actors. In spite of the fact of being busy young actors in Chelyabinsk and Magnitogorsk theatres did not have worthy roles for 2-3 years14. In March, 1969 under the initiative of Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical society the review – competition of theatrical youth was held. 67 persons who played in 36 performances of all genres of classical and modern dramatic art took part in it. The purpose of the competition was the acquaintance with – 431 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch… young creative talents, their civic position and strengthening high communist spiritually moral norms in lively scenic images15. Critics and the press estimated a professional level of young actors positively. Alongside with the positive moments lacks were also marked. In the review the significant work of a young actor or an actress in the creation of the image of a young Soviet positive hero was not noticed. The art authorities of many theatres did not care of giving young actors interesting and art significant roles16. In February, 1971, the Department of the creative youth was formed at Central all-russian theatrical society. The Department was engaged in all-round analysis of work of the theatrical organizations of RSFSR with the creative youth, maintenance of the further improvement of the contents, methods and forms of ideological education and professional work (The status of the Department…, 1971). Chelyabinsk branch of all-russian theatrical society started to cooperate with the newly – created organization. To improve the professional skill of the theatrical youth it tries to organize professional study at the theatres of the region. Together with the main producers, branch of all-russian theatrical society developed the curriculum where the individual work with the actor was emphasized. Teachers of Chelyabinsk institute of culture on scenic speech, voice training and characteristic dance Lukjanova L.N., Dikopolskaya V.A., Bejlin V.I., were invited to conduct classes17. The participant of a seminar on aesthetics in Moscow, the candidate of philosophical sciences G.N. Zatevahina did a big professional – creative work with the youth. Actors said that «the major quality of her lectures was the skill to coordinate the abstract aesthetic categories with daily life of our theatres»18. Organized at Chelyabinsk Branch of all-russian theatrical society art-staged section from the first years of existence (1965) and during all the creative way saved up a certain experience in conducting the classes on the improvement of professional skills of workers of stage shops. Therefore it addressed to the popularization of the section. For this purpose two exhibitions «Stage properties» and «Creativity of young artists of the theatre» were organized. The exhibition drew the attention of the diversified spectator layers. One of the records in the visitor’s book spoke convicingly about its success. «This exhibition is good with the novelty. Works are creatively interesting, there are no hardened dogmas in them, each work is a new discovery»19. Definitely such exhibitions were stimulus to the further creativity. They revealed original, gifted artists. By February, 1975, with the approval of the Region committee of the party the section of criticism was formed which was headed by the chairman Zatevahina G.N. A small stuff of the section was given a task to popularize the work of the theatre in the press as much as possible, to discuss urgency questions of theatrical life, to print creative portraits, to publish pressing articles. For example at one of the sessions of the critics’ section the works published in the collection «Ural theatrical» were discussed: Zatevahina had the review of the performance «Vigorous people», Morgules had the review of the performance «Shveik» and «Til», critic Letyagina had the review of the performance «Ivanov», critic Stul wrote about Magnitigorsk puppet theatre20. On one of the creative critics’ meetings with actors of the theatre it was told that they want to see in critics «first of all people who would be aware of cares, excitements and plans of the theatre». The informal creative approach to the estimation of theatres’ work, genuine interest to the processes, taking place inside theatrical collectives made the section of critics the leading one in the structure of Chelyabinsk Branch of allrussian theatrical society21. It paid a lot of attention to the organization of the creative activity and the proof of the plans – 432 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch… of work can be found in archival sources. The basic items of the plans were: the organization of evenings of art reading of young actors, evenings of the not played roles, review of the best films of the Soviet and Foreign cinema, the organization of leisure and rest of creative workers22. The actor’s club, having become an integral part of life of many actors, organized meetings with workers of the enterprises. It is necessary to admit that because of the absence of the place for the actor’s club, the hall of the theatre and the «red corner» on the territory of an enterprise could be a place holding such meetings. Actors and workers exchanged with greetings, had quizzes. In breaks between the performances of the theatre there were dances and talks with a cup of tea23. Thus, professional-creative activity of the Chelybinsk Section of all-Russian theatrical society in 1960-1970-th was carried out in conditions of strengthening ideological partystate influence. The politics of «cultural construction» was carried out by means of a theatrical art through variety of forms and ways of interaction of the party-state institutes with directors, actors, artists and art critics. This activity carried in itself also the educational aspect shown in education of figures of theatre from positions of soviet-patriotic values. At the same time Chelybinsk Section of all-Russian theatrical society aspired to render to figures of theatre and theatrical collectives all-round aid in their professional-creative perfection. References T.V. Aref’eva, Chelybinsk Section of all-Russian theatrical society, its organizational-structural device, the basic purposes and tasks of activity in 1930-1950-th, Science SUSU: Materials of 60-th anniversary scientific conference (Chelybinsk, 2008) V.1. 56-69.– (in Russian). V. Shalunovsky, The art is the important means of education of the youth, The Soviet culture, 1969, June 17, 3. – (in Russian). Civic position and creative growth of the young actor, Art, 1960, № 2, 78. – (in Russian). The status of the Department of the creative youth and the formation of the theatrical organization of the RSFSR. Moscow, 1971. – (in Russian). Sources Аbbreviations: USCAR – The United State Archival Organization of Chelyabinsk region RSALA – Russian State Archival Organization Literature and Art 1. RSALA. F. 450. In. 21. B. 11. P. 24. 2. RSALA. F. 970. In. 20. B. 762. P. 30. 3. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 8. P. 7. 4. RSALA. F. 970. In. 20. B. 677. P. 20. 5. RSALA. F. 970. In. 14. B. 831. P. 34-35. 6. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 134. P. 31. 7. RSALA. F. 970. In. 14. B. 832. P. 9. 8. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 98. P. 4. 9. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 98. P. 10. 10. USACR. F. P-1655.In. 1. B. 104. P. 3. 11. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 136. P. 2. – 433 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Tamara V. Aref’eva. Professional-Creative Direction in Activity of the Chelyabinsk Branch… 12. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 142. P. 40. 13. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 136. P. 4. 14. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.150. P. 7. 15. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.150. P. 8. 16. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.150. P. 17. 17. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.135. P. 8. 18. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.135. P. 4. 19. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.135. P. 11. 20. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 105. P. 38. 21. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B. 105. P. 45. 22. RSALA. F. 970. In. 20. B. 677. P. 4. 23. USACR. F. P-1655. In. 1. B.105. P. 46-47. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 435-442 ~~~ УДК 282 Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great Alexander N. Andreev* South-Ural State University, 76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 The article opens various aspects of history of Catholic communities in Russia under Peter the Great. Some questions of distribution of Catholicism in Russia, quantities of Catholics, national and social structure of parishes are investigated. For this aim author analyzed many published items and archival sources. To these sources can be related the documents of Most Holy Governing Synod, memoirs of contemporaries, reports of Jesuits in Russia and other materials. In consequence of the investigation author had revealed the geography of the Russians catholic parishes and traced the process of catholic churches founding. Keywords: the epoch of Peter the Great, Catholic Church in Russia, Roman Catholic priesthood and their flock in Russia. Catholic communities did not play significant role in religious life of Russia till the end of 17thbeginning of 18th centuries. With the beginning of Peter’s reign the government started creation of favorable conditions for the unorthodox Christians to enter the country. As a result several Roman Catholic communities were settled in the country. Catholics were inspired with rationalist views of the first Russian Emperor, which led to his abruption with the Russian traditional godliness and gave a hope on Catholic services allowance and Catholic and Orthodox Churches reunion (Andreev, 2007). In the first part of the 18th century the amount of Catholics in the country were filled up mainly by foreigners, moved to Russia. Economically fast-developing country desperately needed specialists; therefore the questions of their confession were not considered. The guarantee * 1 of Catholic services no disturbance for all immigrants entering Russia for business purposes was Proclamation «On invitation of foreigners to Russia with giving them the freedom of conscience» dated April 16th 1702 (Legislation of Peter the First, 1997). As a consequence of Proclamation realization, the amount of Roman Catholics in the first quarter of 18th century increased drastically. There was the following data on the increasing amount of Roman Catholics: there were 40 Catholics in Russia in 1691, 400 in 1698, 600 in 1721 and over 1000 in 1723 (Winter, 1964). Letters and reports of Jesuits prove this statistics. The report of Moscow Jesuit mission in 1709 informs that there were over 450 Catholics in Russia in general (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 191). Some of the authors report that there were 2000 Catholics in Russia by 1725 (History of religions in Russia, 2002). Percentage rate of Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 435 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great Catholics to the Russian population in 20-s, 18th Century, was approximately 0, 013% (Andreev, 2006). Protestantism confidently dominated over Catholicism, because only the amount of Lutherans was over 20 000 in the first quarter of 18th Century. Nevertheless, the existence of such amount of Catholics may be considered as relatively new phenomenon in the Russian history, because Catholic community in late middle ages was represented by only several dozens of people. Bearing in mind traditionally negative attitude to Catholics as to people, distorting governmental and social basis of the country the appearance of 2000 people of Catholic confession in Russia was a significant development in the country religious life (Andreev, 2008). Archival data, contemporaries’ memoirs, letters, reports, complaints, let us identify social and national structure of Russian Catholics in the first part of 18th Century. There was a significant amount of Catholic foreigners doing military service in Russia, foreign officers of the middle and the highest levels. The report of the Military Board in 1722 informs: «there were only five Catholic officers among 10 dragoon regiments»1. However a lot of Catholic officers served at fleet. Reports of Military Board Admiralties prove that there were 43 Catholics serving at fleet2. Demographer A. Hupel also pointed out significant number of officers and foreign officials in Russia in the first part of 18th century: Scottish, English, and mainly German (Hupel, 1786). Besides military Catholics, serving in Russia, there were different European specialists and merchants in Russian Catholic communities. In 1684 Moscow Catholics signed a request to build a Roman Catholic Churches, which proves the existence of merchants in Moscow Catholic community (Tzvetaev, 1886, 4; Tolstoy, 1876, 126). However the amount of foreign merchants among Russian Catholics was relatively small. In total all trading operations were conducted by 28 Austrian merchants, about 10 French and several Italian (Zakharov, 1998). The structure of Catholic community in St. Petersburg testifies that military officers, specialists and other officials were dominant in congregation. A lot of church members are named in official documents as masters of stone carving, journeymen, chemists, «His Majesty architects», artists3. Among famous Catholics of St. Petersburg one should know architect Domenico Trezzini, who was a church monitor in the local Catholic community during a long time, his colleague Jean-Baptiste Leblon (1679-1719), sculptor Carlo Rastrelli, sculptor, master of stone carving Nicolas Pinot (1684-1754), artist Louis Karavak4 (Baklanova, 1966). Catholic community in Astrakhan in 1719 counted 90 households and consisted «partially of Austrian gardeners, partially of Bavarian soldiers, who had been captured along with Swedish people» (Weber, 1738). The most significant factor for the Catholic mission development was congregants-officers, because they essentially supported community in moral and material way. Jesuit Franciscus Emillian (Pater Franciscus Milan or Aemilianus) at the beginning of 18th Century pointed out poor conditions of Catholic Community in Moscow in one of his letters and he associated it with the fact that a lot of Catholic officers were killed or captured and only masters, widows and orphans were left (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 52). Emillian named in details all officers killed at Narva battle, meaning that these people altogether were the basis of Catholic Community: colonels Kragen, Turlavil, Antonij Skhada, Franciscus Kostanka, Lev Gio, Ivan Yust and others (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 55). Later on in 20-s of 18th Century all Catholic priests and congregants had protection of colonel Peter Gordon, son of general Patrick Gordon (Tzvetaev, 1886, 48). The national structure of Catholics in Russia was very divers. French, Polish, German and – 436 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great Italian congregants were the most numerous. In St. Petersburg in the first quarter of 18th Century each of these four groups of congregants was relatively independent, had its own priest what often led to conflicts and confrontation between them5. Catholics in Astrakhan were represented mainly by Austrian and Armenian merchants6. Austrian resident in Moscow Player mentioned German, Italian and Dutch congregants – ship constructors (Player, 1874). The most numerous Catholic parishes were located in Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 17231724 congregants (parishioners) of Catholic Church in St. Petersburg sent a request to the Russian Government to allow Franciscan Yakov Deolegio (Pater Giacomo d’Oleggio) officiate at the service. Swiss Capuchin Apollinaris von Weber (Apollinaire da Suit, former the head of parish) opposed to Deolegio. As one can tell looking at the request, 183 church-members supported Deolegio7. However the Apollinaris party was not less numerous, it had protection of commodore Luka Demyanov and some other foreign officers8. Apparently by the end of Peter the First reign one could count no less than 300 of Catholic congregants in the northern capital city of Russia. Catholic community in Moscow consisted of 200 people and more in 1709 (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 191). Catholicism was getting popular not only in the Capital cities, but also in the regions. At the times of Peter the First the Catholic parish in St. Petersburg covered cities Kronstadt, Riga, Revel. Catholic priests constantly officiated at the services in the named cities9. In 1725 there were about 60 Catholics in Revel10. Catholics lived also in Azov, Tula, Kazan, Astrakhan and other cities (Tolstoy, 1876, 137). According to the data of Jesuit mission in 1709 there were over 200 Catholics in Moscow, over 50 Catholics by the Azov Sea, 70 in St. Petersburg by the Finnish gulf, 8 in Voronezh, 7 in Astrakhan, and 5 in Kazan. Also there were 15 Catholics in Archangelsk, 100 people in tsar troop (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 191). A lot of Catholic communities (in Azov, Taganrog, Kazan) were formed by Jesuits interested in catholic communities’ structure in those cities at the beginning of 18th Century (Tzvetaev, 1886a; Litzenberger, 2001, 47). Catholic cleric also permanently was on duty in Voronezh by shipbuilders from Venice (Tzvetaev, 1886a). At the beginning of his reign Peter the First did not allow Catholics to build catholic churches and invite Catholic priests to officiate at the services. However as soon as Roman priests had moved to Russia they initiated the process of Catholic cathedrals building in German settlement (Nemetskaja Sloboda) with help of honorable foreigner Patrick Gordon and Italian negotiant Franz Guasconi. Catholic Church in Moscow was mentioned in historical documents for the first time in 1688 (David, 1968). It was a wooden Church, which was later illegally made out of stone in 1694-1695. A pleader by the Ambassadorial Department Ivan Yakimov reported on June 3-d that Catholics had partially built a stoned Church (Tzvetaev, 1886, 44). As it appeared to be later on the request of Franciscus Leffler and Paulus Yarosh (Jaros) to build a new stoned Catholic Church the Russian Government in 1695 allowed the construction of only wooden Church. That Church was built in 1695-1696 and was active only for several years. In the beginning of 18th Century it was burnt away in fire (Korb, 1906; Schlafly Jr., 2007). The Church was located on the shore of the river Yauza at the crossroad of German street and Starokirochniy (The Old church’) lane (former Kirochniy lane) and was named after Saint Peter and Paul (Tzvetaev, 1886, 5-6; Litzenberger, 2001, 44). The Order of Peter the First dated December 12, 1705 granted unlimited Catholic Church building out of stone (Tolstoy, 1876, 137). As a result Moscow Jesuits absolutely lawfully in – 437 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great 1706 built Church of Holy Trinity on the place of burnt wooden Church named after Saint Peter and Paul, what made Moscow Jesuit community one of the main Catholic centers in Russia (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 144-159). Kammer-Junker Friedrich-Wilhelm Berkholz in 1722 described stoned Church of Holy Trinity as a prosperous one (Berkholz, 1860). Given Stoned Catholic Church was consecrated in June of 1707 and in 1812 was burnt away in fire (Schlafly Jr., 2007). Catholic Church building gradually became widespread in Russia. The head of the Jesuit Order Mission Elias (Ilya) Brogio reported to Vatican in 1707 about foundation of many Catholic Churches in Moscow (Theiner, 1859). Memoirists Peter Henry Bruce and Friedrich Christian Weber also confirmed the fact of the first Catholic Churches appearance in Petersburg (Bespjatykh, 1991). Evidently, construction of the first unorthodox Churches took place without prior notification of the government, which is proved by the Order dated May 22, 1721 «On informing Synod about unorthodox churches»11. As a result of spontaneous churches construction, several prayer halls, where services took place as well, were founded in St. Petersburg, besides already existed Catholic Church. The house of famous architect Domenico Trezzini became the first public prayer hall in 1705 (Hankovska, 2001). The first Catholic Church appeared in St. Petersburg in 1710, when foreign court gardener Peter van der Gaar presented piece of land purchased by him for 300 rubles to Catholics, living in Greek village (Grecheskaya Sloboda)12. This Church was active until the great fire in 1735 in Greek Street, between river Moyka, Tsaritsin Lug (now Marsovo Pole) and German street (now Millionnaya Street)13. In July of 1735 Petersburg Catholic services were officiated by four preachers, namely Felucca, Stephan Defondo, Peter Klein and Carlo de Luca14. Besides Catholic Church in Greek Street in St. Petersburg in 20-s of 18th century there was one more special place – a small chapel for French church-goers. Franciscan Peter Ceillot served there in 1725 as the French notice shows15. Probably exactly that chapel was mentioned as a Catholic Church in French Street on Vasilyevskiy Island16. More than that one Catholic Church in Kronstadt was also active17. And of course private worships took place at the houses of rear-admiral Matvey Zmaevitch, master of carving Pinot, earl Rastrelli18. Franciscan Condillier (Koldimer) from Paris officiated at service at Rastrelli house, Franciscan Michael Angelus de Vestigné from Turin officiated at service at Zmaevitch house (Uspensky, Shishkin, 1990, 202). Kronstadt also had its own prayer hall in 1714 where captured Sweden officer was in charge of worshipping sacraments (Bespjatykh, 1997). Starting in 1718 Catholic worships took place in Astrakhan on a regular basis. By authorization of the Astrakhan Governor the Catholic Cathedral of the Repose of the Virgin was built in 172219. It was the biggest Catholic Cathedral in Russia after the one in Moscow. In 1734 the Astrakhan Church had deteriorated and was knocked down. A new Catholic Church was built on that place and named after the Repose of the Virgin as well20. At the beginning of the 18th Century all Catholic Priests and missioners in Russia were mainly Jesuits. They worked practically in every Catholic community of the country: in Kazan, Azov, St. Petersburg, Astrakhan, Archangelsk and Voronezh21 (Reiche, 1841). The Jesuit Order was founder of the biggest mission in Moscow, which existed until the Order deportation from Russia in 1719. The most active representatives of that Mission were Austrians Franciscus Emillian (Pater Franciscus Milan) and Johann Birulla, who had been working in Moscow from 1698 till 1719. They left detailed correspondence with their – 438 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great regional managers (Emillian and Birulla were subordinated to Johann Miller, the head of the Jesus community in Bohemian province)22. Jesuits related to Lithuanian province of the Order also founded a missionary location in St. Petersburg in 1713. The head of the Jesuits in St. Petersburg was Daniel Zhirovsky. In 1725 an Austrian Jesuit Johann Bayer arrived at the Northern Capital as an assistant to Zhirovsky23. In September of 1725 Michael Engel came to Petersburg with references from Liefland bishop Schembeck 24 Astrakhan Catholic services were officiated by Italian Capuchins in the first quarter of 18th Century. Generally speaking Italian Capuchins outstood with their academic activity and scholarship. We should especially point out Patricius from Milan (Pater Patricius da Milano). He lived in Astrakhan in 1710-1713 and in 17161718 and after that was appointed Superior over the all Catholic Missioners in Russia and officiated services in St. Petersburg and in Moscow. Bonaventura da Città di Castello and Giovan Battista Primavera da Norcia lived in Astrakhan in 1716-1718, Antonius Maria d’Amelia Lualdi lived there in 1718-1723 (Uspensky, Shishkin, 1990, 105). After the Jesuits exile in 1719 Capuchins, Franciscans and Dominicans were in charge of ministerial work. Right after Jesuits exile from Russia Peter the First issued a special Chart in order to invite Roman Capuchins to serve at Russian ward25. On June 11th in 1720 Swiss Pater Theodosius arrived at St. Petersburg at the head of six capuchins delegation (after having several disputes between Franciscans and Capuchins at St. Petersburg ward Theodosius moved to Moscow and became Superior)26. In July of 1720 catholic priests from Order of Capuchins Pater Udalricus, Pater Ficelis, Pater Casimir and Pater Romanus came to Moscow from Kiev27. On June 27th 1732 three more Capuchins arrived at Moscow headed by Pater Felice28. Some catholic monks and members of secular clergy were not only at Russian catholic churches and communities, but also in private houses. In the first half of eighteenth century a plenty of the Roman priests lived in Smolensk nobility’s (shlyakhta’s) houses29. Catholic priesthood’s possibility to influence upon Russian society and Russian religious life was determined by number of clergy and certainly by its material prosperity. During the 18th century the proceeds of Russian catholic missions and parishes repeatedly varied. Catholic communities and missions existed due to donations of parishioners, among which there were some rich patrons (Gordon, 1852). In the end of 17th century general Patrick Gordon had mentioned about «subscribing» reached up to 47, 5 roubles (Gordon, 1841). Thereto the Moscow Jesuits periodically were supported from Viennese Imperial Court (David, 1968). However the financial help to Russian Catholic communities and missions from the European Catholic States was more likely exception, than a rule. More often many communities had no maintenance from abroad of Russia. The Kammer-Junker Berkholz was writing in 1722: «The church services there (in the Moscow Catholic church) were making by the Jesuits, who received from the Roman Emperor annually the sum of 800 roubles; but now the local Capuchins do not receive anything» (Berkholz, 1860). The payments of the maintenance to the Moscow Jesuits from the Austrian government were not regular. Austrian diplomat Player in 1710 reported that Moscow Jesuit mission is in a pitiful state. The cause of such state was the local donators’ death. Player made to emperor an offer to pay the annual maintenance to the Moscow catholic clerics. Thus, Player testifies that the Austrian payments to Russian Jesuits have stopped (Player, 1874). Russian Jesuits informed to Rome about the extremely miserable – 439 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great state and asked for aid (Letters and reports of Jesuits, 1904, 57, 77, 147). And even the activity of the Moscow catholic school which enjoyed respect among local nobility, did not bring the income perceptible. Jesuits wrote that they are ready to teach children free of charge if only to have a favour from Russian tsar30. Nevertheless, the financial embarrassment had not prevented to build a grand Holy Trinity’s church. After deportation of Jesuits from Russia the financial possibilities of catholic parishes have worsened (Russia and Spain, 1991)31. The given circumstance was making difficult the missionary work and catholic proselytism in Russia (Turgenev, 1842). Only with change of the legal status of Catholic Church in Russia (after the divisions of Poland) the financial possibilities of catholic parishes have been improved. References A.N. Andreev, The Catholicism and society in Russia in the 18-th century (Chelyabinsk, 2007), 140, 220-221. – (in Russian). Legislation of Peter the First (Moscow, 1997), 535-536. – (in Russian). E. Winter, Papacy and tsarism (Moscow, 1964), 146. – (in Russian). Letters and reports of Jesuits on Russia of the end of 17-th and the beginnings of 18-th centuries (St.-Petersburg, 1904). – (in Russian and Latin). History of religions in Russia (Moscow, 2002), 282. – (in Russian). A.N. Andreev, Roman Catholics in Russia in the first half of the 18-th century, Culture and art in monuments and researches (Chelyabinsk, 2006), vol.4, 54-65. – (in Russian). A.N. Andreev, Russian Jesuit A.Ju. Ladyzhensky: the unexplored episode in the history of Russian Catholicism in the 18-th century, Native history (Moscow, 2008), vol.3, 143-154. – (in Russian). A.W. Hupel, The Church statistics of Russia (Riga, 1786), 307. – (in German). D.V. Tzvetaev, From the history of foreign confessions in Russia in the 16-th and the 17-th centuries (Moscow, 1886). – (in Russian). D.A. Tolstoy, The Roman Catholicism in Russia (St.-Petersburg, 1876), vol.1. – (in Russian). V.N. Zakharov, West-European merchants in Russia. The epoch of Peter I (Moscow, 1998), 3642. – (in Russian). N.A. Baklanova, The cultural communications of Russia with France in the first quarter of 18th century, The international communications of Russia in 17-18-th centuries (Economy, policy and culture) (Moscow, 1966), 312-313. – (in Russian). F.Ch. Weber, The changed Russia (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1738), vol.1, 336. – (in German). O.A. Player, About a present condition of the government in Moscovia. Otton Player’s report in 1710 (Moscow, 1874), 11-12. – (in Russian). D.V. Tzvetaev, History of first Catholic Church’s building in Moscow (Moscow, 1886a), 118-119. – (in Russian). O.A. Litzenberger, The Catholic Church in Russia: a history and a legal status (Saratov, 2001). – (in Russian). I. David, Modern condition of Great Russia, or Moscovia, The questions of history (Moscow, 1968), vol.1, 130. – (in Russian). I.G. Korb, A diary of travel to Moscovia (1698 and 1699) (St.-Petersburg, 1906), 55. – (in Russian). – 440 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great Daniel L. Schlafly Jr., Peter the Great and Jesuits, Peter the Great (Moscow, 2007), 146. – (in Russian). Berkholz, The Diary of Kammer-Junker Berkholz (Moscow, 1860), vol.2, 157-158. – (in Russian). A. Theiner, Historical monuments concerning to reigns of Russian tsars Alexey Mikhailovich, Fyodor III and Peter the Great, taken from archives of Vatican and Naples (Rome, 1859), 409. – (in Italian and Latin). Yu.N. Bespjatykh, Petersburg of Peter the First in the foreign descriptions (Leningrad, 1991), 108, 164. – (in Russian). R. Hankovska, St. Catherine’s church in St.-Petersburg (St.-Petersburg, 2001), 21. – (in Russian). B.A. Uspensky, A.B. Shishkin, Trediakovsky and Yansenists, The Symbol (Paris, 1990), vol.23. – (in Russian). Yu.N. Bespjatykh, The Petersburg of Anna Joannovna in the foreign descriptions (St.-Petersburg, 1997), 304. – (in Russian). B.F. Reiche, Peter the Great and its epoch (Leipzig, 1841), 277. – (in German). P. Gordon, The Diary of General Patrick Gordon (St.-Petersburg, 1852), vol.3, 253. – (in German). P. Gordon, The papers of Peter Ivanovich Gordon, The Papers of Russian people (St.-Petersburg, 1841), 114. – (in Russian). Russia and Spain. Documents and materials. 1667-1917 (Moscow, 1991), vol.1, 132. – (in Russian). A.I. Turgenev, The historical Russian monuments taken from ancient foreign archives and libraries (St.-Petersburg, 1842), vol.2, 298-302 – (in Latin). Sources Аbbreviations: CSHA SPb – The Central State Historical Archive of St.-Petersburg; RSAAA – The Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (in Moscow); RSHA – The Russian State Historical Archive (in St.-Petersburg). 1. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 2, file 563, p.2. 2. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 244, p.2-3. 3. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.14-17. 4. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 453, p.11-12. 5. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.4-37. 6. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 37, file 90, p.23. 7. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.15-17. 8. Ibidem, p.47-48. 9. Ibidem, p.25, 37. 10. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 6, file 126, p.6. 11. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 286, p.1-2; schedule 4, file 661, p.2. 12. RSHA, collection 821, schedule 125, file 1032, p.31. 13. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1719 year), file 1, p.1-2. – 441 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander N. Andreev. Catholic Communities in Russia at the Age of Peter the Great 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. CSHA SPb, collection 19, schedule 122, file 298, p.26. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 4, file 540, p.71. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 286, p.12-13. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 128, p.12. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 1, file 286, p.13-14; RSAAA, coll. 152, sch. 1 (1719 year), file 1, p.2-3. 19. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 37, file 90, p.23; schedule 1, file 744, p.9-10. 20. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 37, file 90, p.23. 21. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1716 year), file 2, p.2. 22. Ibidem, p.2-3. 23. Ibidem, p.3-5. 24. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1715 year), file 1, p.1. 25. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1719 year), file 4, p.1. 26. Ibidem, p.1. 27. RSAAA, collection 158, schedule 2 (1717 year), file 11, p.31. 28. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1719 year), file 4, p.1. 29. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 17, file 394, p.2. 30. RSAAA, collection 152, schedule 1 (1718 year), file 1, p.2. 31. RSHA, collection 796, schedule 3, file 1294, p.4; schedule 4, file 540, p.19. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2009 2) 443-451 ~~~ УДК 621:658 + 623(09) Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture Svetlana N. Kulikovskih* South-Ural State University, 76 Lenin’s, Chelyabinsk, 454080 Russia 1 Received 14.08.2009, received in revised form 21.08.2009, accepted 28.08.2009 At the beginning of XIX century with the purpose of increasing amount of made Russian fire-arms and enhancing its quality already working armories in Tula, Sestroretsk and Izhevsk were exempted from manufacture of side arms. At Zlatoust iron factory on the Urals the construction of special factory «affair of the white weapon» began. Its arrangement at Zlatoust factory was promoted by a number of objective reasons. One of which the activity in Zlatoust private factory on manufacturing of «German» products or «a German fabrication». After some time the Armory, strategically important enterprise of Russia, has received the status of the state enterprise. The foreign experts invited from the known weapon centers of the Western Europe, in treaty provisions took «in training» local workers. It promoted not only the development of new manufacture, but has brought to Ural bases of the European culture and art that has influenced formation of bases Zlatoust school of art metal treatment. In the first half of XIX century from small private «a German fabrication» at Zlatoust state factory the powerful weapon manufacture which has brought the world popularity to the Ural Armory and glory to its masters has grown. Keywords: blades manufacture, craftsmen and experts, blade and ornamented side arms, art, school Zlatoust armory, which official opening was held in 1815, became an original point of a support on which strongly there is «building» of modern weapon art of the Urals. The manufacture new to the Urals region – weapon has arisen not on an empty place. To the moment of official opening at Zlatoust Armory a special factory of an affair of white weapon in Russia already there had been a wide experience and traditions. The Urals was not the ancestor of the Russian cold front and decorated weapon, but became the continuer of already stated remarkable traditions (Pavlovskij, 1975, 79). For the first time the theme about Zlatoust manufacture was opened the public in P.P.Svin’in’s * 1 in the first third of XIX century, by the publisher of «Russian notes», the author of a series of articles about Zlatoust armory and its production, the eyewitness and the contemporary, not only has presented the important historical material, but also has supplied the publication with statistical tables of production (Svin’in, 1825, 1826). In Russian historiography of XX century researchers paid the greatest attention to the analysis of questions of technology, engineering and ways of decorating steel blades, creativity of gun makers and artists – engravers of the Ural factory, their works promoted the formation of the image of the universal enterprise and maintenance of attention to a historical heritage of its craftsmen (Denisova, Corresponding author E-mail address: zlat–firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved – 443 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture 1947; Glinkin, 1967; Pavlovskij, 1975; Abolskaya, 1986). The Russian historiography of last decades was enriched with new documentary certificates, diligence of historians – arms researchers lift the big layer of a history of the Urals factory and blades art, new historic facts (Мiller, 2000; Sukhanov, 2000, 2002, 2004; Kulinskij, 1994, 2005). Unknown materials of Zlatoust archive funds are entered into a scientific, archival sources central fund stores and museums, in particular, the Military – historical museum of artillery. Expansion of geography of resettlement of foreigners to Russia has allowed to involve earlier unknown to us sources published abroad. The question is not only the special literature of researching character (Müller, Köllig, 1981; Schöbel, 1983), but also about publications of German historians of 1930th (Wehersberg A., 1930; Busch L., 1939). The revealed materials deepen the data of questions connected to resettlement of the West-European gun makers and experts to Zlatoust, considerably expand time and territorial frameworks of research, inform the actuality of considered problem. The idea of creation of the specialized domestic weapon centre has arisen at the end of XVIII century. In 1807 Alexander I immediately has enjoined the Senate «to start construction of a factory and at the same time to invite private factory owners to prepare and hand over in state treasury fund the weapon» (Burmakin, 1912, 240). By this time at Zlatoust factory steel, a material necessary for manufacturing side arms was already produced (Kulinskij, 1994, 159). It is remarkable, that from 1798 to 1811 last owner of Zlatoust iron and a steel factory became the Moscow merchant of 1-st guild who have accepted the Russian citizenship, Andrey Andreevich Knauf. Then he rented some more factories at G.A.Stroganova’s column and at broken I.P.Osokina. A.Knauf has decided to carry out «technical modernization of the acquired Urals factories and to start his own weapon business» (Nekhlyudov, 2002, 283). As «the official Report of the Moscow first guild merchant» Knauf says, he «had a demand in people knowing tool and other works of art»1. To solve this problem the smart owner invited «from Izhevsk Armory to Zlatoust» foreign craftsmen with their families who had lived in Izhevsk. Basically, there were his compatriots, natives of Germany. From 52 persons arrived to Zlatoust only nineteen could work in «a German fabrication»2. Newcomers were diligent and hardworking. About efficiency of foreign experts at factory of «German» products certifies «The remark on sale of German hand-made articles of present year (1813 – S.К.) in Makarjevo fair» made by the inspector of « a German fabrication» Gavrila Zahk. He gives rather extensive list of the most demanded and well sold goods among which are specified: steel for knifes and steel saws, different types of knives. Foreign toolmakers made the big assortment of scissors: garden, tailors, ladies’, for paper, canvas, wool. Necessary tools for footwear and carpenter works were delivered to the market. Zlatoust Germans surprised buyers with the various tiny tools for «watch and gold craftsmen», also anvils for «silver works»3. To A.Knauf, the third and last owner, belongs a merit of supply Zlatoust factory with experts and skilled craftsmen, representatives of some European states who had to adjust manufacturing of a cold steel on «German of manners». However, in 1811 «eternal rent» of the last owner was finished, Zlatoust factory from private possession was handed to the state with establishing Zlatoust state mountain district. The Armory, being a component of Zlatoust plant and mountain district, submitted to Department of mountain and hydrochloric affairs (since 1863 – mountain Department) of the Ministry of Finance. The new page in a history of the Russian arms manufacture from now on begins. – 444 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture The project about «creating» in Russia the arms enterprise as per the sample of Solingen factory and establishing the specialized factory at Zlatoust state plant is developed and submitted in 1811 for «the Highest approval» by the Minister of Finance to whom factory belonged4. For Russia time has come to get the new enterprise. However the military actions begun by the army of Napoleon against Russia, have stopped the plans. The construction of the factory of white weapon affair at the Urals has started only after victorious end of Patriotic war of 1812 and final victory over the French army in 1814. Bergrat Alexander Eversman has taken the trouble to renew contracts with gun makers of well-known arms centers of Europe and to sign new «conditions» for their resettlement to the Urals. From the point of view of attracting to the Urals factory the West-European immigrants and the organization of the specialized arms centers Zlatoust had advantage because by the moment of the official opening Armory in 1815 here has already developed big German community (Kulikovskih, 2006, 34). Negotiations with craftsmen and artists of Solingen factory have passed successfully, terms signed in Lennepe in 1814 have opened before the West-European gun makers the borders of Russia (Busch, Die Heimat, 1939, 25-26). For the organization of special manufacture the Russian government invites foreign gun makers and experts, «having accepted in respect that advantage which should take place from developing in Russia arts via invited from Solingen craftsmen to make the white arms and different domestic things of steel» which would not be worse than known samples, «made in Solingen as the most famous place in Europe, under the superiority of institutions of this sort <…>»5. Initial plans of the government «by inviting» gun makers from Solingen were limited only «strong landing in Russia of their arts», and the factory «in all continuation of this term was forced to be the school»6 which only would promote development on Russian ground the traditions of the European arms art. In other words, the factory organized at the Urals as it was supposed, first of all, should prepare the workers and teach Russians, distributing experience of the advanced centers. As we see, projecting activity of the new enterprise at the Urals, the Russian government considered Zlatoust armory as specific school, from which activity a certain result and benefit was expected, namely, that «the art of known in Europe arms factory by resettlement of masters to Russia remained in it for ever»7. The «Best» craftsmen in that case could be, certainly, only overseas. It is pertinent to notice, that craftsmen of Solingen even before were differed by greater mobility. So, when in XVI-XVII centuries the demand on Spanish blades has increased, many craftsmen have gone to Spain where adopted the experience and craft in workshops of Toledo (Lents, 1908, 38.). The West-European Renaissance has given to Solingen men inquisitiveness, aspiration to find and occupy more advantage grounds. In 1661 they were moved in the area of Ruhr, then in 1740 Fridrih Great has brought blades craftsmen to Eberswalde near Berlin. Ten years earlier, in 1730 Solingen craftsmen have built up in Alsace, the French city of craftsmen Klingental’ (Grotkamp-Schepers, Joeriβen, 1997, 70). In XVII century of the craftsmen of Solingen have gone on coast of foggy Albion. So, Johan Kindt and Johannes Hoppe, having arrived in 1629 in Hounslow, nowadays London, have involved the English workers in arrangement of a manufactory on production of blades (Grotkamp-Schepers, Joeriβen, 1997, 71). In XIX century, movable by search of the best conditions in life and privileges, despite of difficulties of moving, Solingen craftsmen have left to Russia. Similar historic fact has surprised – 445 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture German researchers of the middle of XX century. Miners of Germany have emigrated during last two centuries, for example, in Northern or South America, and it was natural, but the fact, that sometimes for western Europeans Russia can become «the purpose of their aspirations», was, in their opinion, strange step of their compatriots (Westdeutsche Neue Presse, 1953. 10 January). In the first days of July, 1815 was issued Position of Committee of ministers about the establishing of Armory according to which all projects about management of Zlatoust factories and Armory «in all force and details» are left at the authority of the Committee8. Official opening of Zlatoust Armory was held «by the Highest approval in the 15 day of December, 1815» (Kulikovskih, 2006, 41). Russia has not accidentally paid attention to Solingen. Industrial region of the Western Europe where within centuries manufacture of a cold steel and knifes has been developed, and the great amount of armories, which history coincided in due course crusades, was concentrated, provided almost all Europe with remarkable blades. In XVI – XVIII centuries blades craftsmen, whose surnames we will meet in Zlatoust: Wilhelm Wehersberg, Wilhelm Kirhgof, Peter Gottfried Hoppe and others. (Kulinskij, 2000, 38-39). Favorable conditions of resettlement to Russia were given to foreign experts, for what they were obliged «to teach Russian people without any reserve and diligently» to make them «in this subject modern and best craftsmen» (Kulikovskih , 1996, 184). Almost forty families, having left the native center, came to the Urals for establishing «Solingen factory» of blades and knives. Among them there were blade smiths, polishers, hammerers, specialists on hardening and gilding blades (Solinger Tageblatt, 1938. 9 August. S. 61). In the forwarded list to each worker the estimation of his skill was given. For example, Daniel Oliger, the specialist on sharpening knives, is considered as one of the best workers. The same characteristics was given to the etcher Wilhelm Melchior and Fridrich Wehersberg, whereas about Peter Wehersberg, the blade smith, it is written that «he is jumping from one thing to another» (Zeitschrift des Bergischen Geschichtsvereins, 1939, 68-71). The similar remark was more an exception, as many from arrived in 1814 were really «good workers». Some of them, as for example, the smith on swords Daniel Vol’ferts, worker on swords Johann Sneider, the specialist on hardening Fridrich Kirkhov, the specialist on knives Johann Galbah and others (Solinger Tageblatt, 1938. 9 August. S. 61) for long decades have connected their destiny and lives of the descendants with Russia and Zlatoust. Being in Luebeck «His imperial majesty vice-consul Charles fon – Shletser» has willingly taken up «request to deliver from Germany skilful workers»which, it is necessary to notice, some years was engaged «with delivery to Russian both state, and private factories workers» (Stolpyanskiy, 1925, 91). Without his attention there were also experts of Solingen, his compatriots to whose departure to the Urals he also promoted (Kulikovskih, 2003, 96-97). According to the seventh clause of Contract of January, 1, 1814 on resettlement to Russia foreign masters «have no right, and their children not hired to work to leave factory before each of them will not train even one person in such a manner that he will be capable to take a place of the master» (Busch, Die Heimat, 1939, 25). As the arrived foreigners have got practically in the native environment the specified item, probably, has been forgotten on the occasion of pleasure of finding the roof, permanent and well paid work. Only under pressure of new director of the Armory of Anton Furman in December, 1817 German specialists have started urgently to performance the specified item of «the term». – 446 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture Representing even in the spring 1816 to the office of the Armory «The offers on the necessary constructions and available to be made in the current year»9, the first director Alexander Eversman took into account all given circumstances. But thus he did not forget and about items, before signed by his compatriots, namely about the item concerning training to «the arts» of local workers. Therefore in «The offers …», offering «some smithies for the necessary tools», A.Eversman though and between times, but marks, «as the main goal of this institution – to train Russian craftsmen» in each smithy it is necessary to establish two forges instead of one. In his opinion, the it is more convenient, as all smithies would be in «continuous continuation one next to another» and besides training master can observe the pupil, «without leaving his own work»10. Making the given offer, the director of the Armory believed a problem of training Russian to be solved, and the compatriots from the further performance of «the term» can be free. It is remarkable, that foreign experts accepted for training «crafts» the best pupils among whom, for example, there were representatives of families of hereditary Urals metallurgists and gun makers. Probably, because of this circumstance the training proceeded only one month, namely, from December, 1, to January, 1, 1818. So, at «marks: comprehension – diligence – good, behavior – good», senior master Iogann Germes allowed «to Egor Svertelov to work as the collective master», and Evdokim Shvetsov, having on «comprehension – satisfactory», has remained «to work as an assistant in a forge»11. During period of beginning the production at the Armory the only specialists in ornamentation of the blades only father and son Schaafy were officially admitted. In the homeland, in Solingen, they were known as experts «of ornamentation of blades with inscriptions and pictures with gold and silver» and they arrived to Russia as «the first in the art of gilding» (Glinkin, 1967, 4). According to «Lists of arms masters with the indication which work to be done», made at the beginning of 1816, it is specified sixty names of foreign masters, in particular, it is marked, that son Ljudvig Schaaf is engaged «with blades etching», and father Nikolay Schaaf – the expert of gilding, also specialist in gilding and silvering appears to be Shmits, Peter Kolfgauz, blades forging and hilts – Iakov Berger , in casting of green copper – Peter Vaterkamf 12. The foreign experts who have located in Zlatoust, did not want to open secrets of arms, however the number of Russian specialists «well trained» monthly increasing. So, by January, 1, 1819 there were 125 people, in the next year – 200 specialists, «who are not worse in art than foreigners»13, moreover, «pupils work not worse than the teachers and without their slightest help»14. Representatives of Zlatoust Armory not only have tested influence of foreign experts, but also actively introduced new technologies in the process of manufacturing and ornamentation of cold steel. So, Ivan Bushuev especially «has become famous for his art in blades gilding», he is not only «has adopted it in perfection from Schaaf <...>, but has even improved this» (Svin’in, 1826, 244). Undoubtedly, the innovation shown by leading master, the artist – engraver and gun maker I.N. Bushuev, has influenced the further development of such phenomenon in the Urals and Russian art as Zlatoust school of the author’s cold decorated arms and art of metal treatment as a whole. Application of new to gun makers of Zlatoust, «different» from German masters, drawing with a brush, new ways of etching, forging sources of which came deep into centuries of the European cultural tradition of metal treatment, it is possible to consider as certification of indissolubility of Russian and world art traditions. – 447 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture The manner of ornamenting blades Schaafs brought to Russia. They owned the technique of etching, engraving and gilding. Knowing the basic ways and technology of blade ornamentation Schaafs undoubtedly were good handicraftsmen. Activity of Wilhelm Nikolaus Schaaf and his elder son Ljudvig till 1818 can be determined (but it is only conditional) as the first stage in development of the Ural arms art. The given period is the shortest, but the basis of technique in manufacturing and art blades ornamentation in Zlatoust was incorporated. Then natural process department of decorated arms», made in 1818 by new director of the Armory A.F. Furman17. In factory settlement foreign experts had lived in two big streets which received the appropriate names kept till 1920th : Big German and Small German streets (An der Grenze Asiens stehen bergische Fachwerkhäuser // Westdeutsche Neue Presse, 1953. 14 Januar). It is pertinent to notice, that foreign masters though «were registered» in the Armory, but made all works in the workshops arranged in court yard of their houses. However, according to P.P.Anosov’s true of interference of two global cultures began, and formation of a creative power of local masters of plastic arts (Kulikovskih, 2006, 72-73) began. Arm manufacturing at the Urals factory gathered force. Artistic properties of products and rates of production have increased. From March to June, 1818 «pupils» of foreign experts have decorated 300 sabers and swords, whereas «teachers» within two previous years – a little more than 100 blades (Bokov, 1913, 524). The new enterprise «at duties» to be a school remained those only during 1815 and 181615, that in many respects explains that special position with which foreign masters in Zlatoust armory had. Exclusiveness of their stay at the Urals factory consisted in free visiting factory and an opportunity to work in the workshops located at the house, having thus, according to the staff managing positions, high salaries and certain privileges. Followed in 1817 «change of purpose»of factories which consist in «adding» to the enterprise duty also repair the side arms, has caused transformation «factories from simple school into working institution»16. These transformations demanded from Department of mountain and hydrochloric and administration of Zlatoust armory additional efforts and works on erection of new structures, strict division of works and operations on manufacture of the arms. It became vital introduction of «Rules on remark, such «an image of constructions could not be <...> comprised with the purpose of the institution» (Anosov, 1954, 175). Work of foreigners and volume of the work executed by them was not almost supervised. Exclusiveness of their stay at the Urals factory consisted in free visiting factory as all foreign experts were under protection and trusteeship of director Alexander Eversman. The foreigners who have lived in Zlatoust factory, unfortunately, have not made independent creative community as we can see a little bit later at local representatives of the Armory. Besides, almost all natives of Europe were at the head of shops or sites of the enterprise. So, in shop of etching and gilding which was supervised by Wilhelm Nikolaus Schaaf, a young talented people from local «craftsmen children» who will define shortly a direction of development of the Urals arms art were concentrated, and will be true founders of local school of metal art treatment. Blades of an initial stage of activity of Armory generally already decorated Russian with pupils of Solingens who, unfortunately, still long time had no right to sign the products created by them (Kulikovskih, 2006, vol. 4). The new period begins from 1818 in a history Zlatoust Arms manufacture. By the beginning of 1820th Russia has received the capable factory of side arms production, the demand for which production was great. – 448 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture For a history ten years, as a time interval, is a scanty piece. However in activity of such enterprise as Zlatoust armory ten years are rather important and significant. Private «German fabrication», organized by smart German, has involved his compatriots at which participation the basis of development of metal working at the Urals factory was incorporated. During transformations connected with transfer of Zlatoust factory to a state department, arms manufacture was oriented on output of qualitative blades according to a sample of factory in Solingen. Moving the experts of blades from Europe to the Urals can be considered as international phenomenon. It promoted not only to formation of new manufacture, but has brought the bases of West-European culture that has influenced the development of artistic traditions of Zlatoust school of arms art and art metal treatment and certainly to mutual enrichment of cultural traditions of peoples. The process of transition from handicraft manufactures to industrial began at the factory, in South Ural gathered force new and unique in the sort the state enterprise. References B.V.Pavlovskij, Arts and crafts of industrial Ural (Moskow, 1975). – (in Russian). P.P. Svin’in, Zlatoustovsky a factory, Domestic a note (St.Petersburg, 1825, № 22, 23; 1826, № 26). – (in Russian). M.M.Denisova, Art the weapon of XIX century Zlatoust armory, Works of the State Historical museum (Moskow, 1947), vol. 18, 207-251. – (in Russian). M.D. Glinkin, Zlatoust an engraving on steel (Chelyabinsk, 1967). – (in Russian). T.I. Аbolskaya, Zlatoust the artistic arms (Leningrad, 1986). – (in Russian). Juri A. Miller, Stahl. Glanz. Gold (Münster: Ardey-Verlag, 2000). – (in German). I.P. Sukhanov, Аrtistic arms. Masterpieces of the Navy museum of Russia (St.Petersburg, 2000). – (in Russian). I.P. Sukhanov, Weapon relics of the Russian fleet. From a collection of the Central naval museum Russia (St.Petersburg, 2002). – (in Russian). I.P.Sukhanov, Masterpieces of blades (St.Petersburg, 2004). – (in Russian). A.N. Kulinskij, Russian a cold steel of military, sea and civil grades of 1800-1917 years: the Determinant (St. Petersburg, 1994). – (in Russian). A.N. Kulinskij,Russian cold steel (St.Petersburg, 2005). – (in Russian). H. Müller, H. Köllig, Europäische Hieb- und Stichwaffen aus der Sammlung des Museums für Deutsche Geschichte (Berlin, 1981). – (in German). J.Schöbel, Prunkwaffen. Waffen und Rüstungen aus dem Historischen Museum Dresden (Berlin, 1983). – (in German). A. 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Sources Аbbreviations: АVIMA – Archive of the Military – historical museum of artillery, engineering armies and armies of communication (connection); ZGAO – Archival department of administration of Zlatoust; RGIA – Russian state historical archive. 1. ZGAO. Ф. И19. Оп.1. Д. 4. Materials about foreign experts. 1811. Л. 48 2. ZGAO. Ф. И19. Оп. 1. Д. 4. Л. 28-30 about. 3. ZGAO. Ф. И19. Оп. 1. Д. 4. Л. 342-342 about. 4. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д.1402. Л. 36. About production of the white arms at Zlatoust armory. 1817. – 450 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Svetlana N. Kulikovskih. Zlatoust Armory: From «a German Fabrication» to Manufacture 5. АVIMA. Ф.3. Оп.5/7. Д.1. Л. 139 An extract from Magazine of Committee of ministers. July of 3-rd day 1815. 6. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 37. 7. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп. 5/2. Д. 1402. Л. 37. 8. АVIMA. Ф. 3. Оп.5/7. Д.1. Л. 139 An extract from Magazine of Committee of ministers. July of 3-rd day 1815. 9. ZGAO. Ф. И24. Оп.1. 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